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Sample records for schizophrenic symptoms abnormal

  1. A Cognitive Neuroscience View of Schizophrenic Symptoms: Abnormal Activation of a System for Social Perception and Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wible, Cynthia G.; Preus, Alexander P.; Hashimoto, Ryuichiro

    2009-01-01

    We will review converging evidence that language related symptoms of the schizophrenic syndrome such as auditory verbal hallucinations arise at least in part from processing abnormalities in posterior language regions. These language regions are either adjacent to or overlapping with regions in the (posterior) temporal cortex and temporo-parietal occipital junction that are part of a system for processing social cognition, emotion, and self representation or agency. The inferior parietal and posterior superior temporal regions contain multi-modal representational systems that may also provide rapid feedback and feed-forward activation to unimodal regions such as auditory cortex. We propose that the over-activation of these regions could not only result in erroneous activation of semantic and speech (auditory word) representations, resulting in thought disorder and voice hallucinations, but could also result in many of the other symptoms of schizophrenia. These regions are also part of the so-called “default network”, a network of regions that are normally active; and their activity is also correlated with activity within the hippocampal system. PMID:19809534

  2. Abnormal electroretinography in schizophrenic patients with a history of sun gazing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbaldo, H; Thaker, G; Tittel, P G; Layne-Gedge, J; Moran, M; Demisch, L

    1992-01-01

    Electroretinographic (ERG) measurements were performed in 9 schizophrenic patients and in 13 control subjects. The measurements of schizophrenic patients as a group did not differ from those of normals. However, 6 schizophrenic patients who had a past history of sun gazing showed a decrease in retinal responsiveness under conditions of light adaptation. These results suggest that a subgroup of schizophrenic patients, who show deviant light-related behavior, have abnormal ERG. We postulate that an abnormality in retinal dopaminergic neurons, which are known to reduce light responsiveness of horizontal and ganglion cells, is the underlying pathophysiology of this clinical finding.

  3. Cotard Syndrome without Depressive Symptoms in a Schizophrenic Patient

    OpenAIRE

    Morgado, Pedro; Ribeiro, Ricardo; Cerqueira, João J.

    2015-01-01

    Cotard Syndrome without Depressive Symptoms in a Schizophrenic Patient Introduction . Cotard syndrome is a rare condition characterized by nihilistic delusions concerning body or life that can be found in several neuropsychiatry conditions. It is typically associated with depressive symptoms. Method . We present a case of Cotard syndrome without depressive symptoms in the context of known paranoid schizophrenia. A literature review of Cotard syndrome in schizophrenia was performed. Res...

  4. Neuropsychological deficits in chronic schizophrenics. Relationship with symptoms and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, F B; Ringel, N B; Boronow, J J

    1991-12-01

    Thirty-nine hospitalized chronic schizophrenics were administered the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery (LNNB) and the Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised when they were clinically stable. Test variables were related to Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale ratings and two behavioral measures of ward functioning, points and activities. Spearman correlations of test variables with the symptom and behavioral measures were entered into a series of median polish analyses. There was an overall significant relationship between the two sets of variables. Neuropsychological test variables that were most highly correlated with symptom/behavioral measures were LNNB Left Frontal, Memory, and Intellectual Processes scales. The positive symptoms of thought disorder and hallucinations were most consistently related to neuropsychological variables. In contrast with other findings in the literature, negative symptoms were not significantly correlated with neuropsychological performance.

  5. [Prodromal symptoms in schizophrenic relapse: A descriptive and comparative study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhlel, S; Jones, Y; Khelifa, E; Msolly, M; Melki, W; El-Hechmi, Z

    2012-10-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe, chronic psychiatric disorder. After recovery from a first psychotic episode, 70% of patients have exacerbations. These exacerbations are preceded in 66 to 100% of cases by early signs. Prevention of relapses is the main object of dealing with schizophrenia. In fact, after a psychotic relapse, 17% of patients develop residual symptoms which did not exist before the relapse. Moreover, symptoms resistant to antipsychotics appear in 35% of patients after a relapse. Each relapse increases the risk of future relapses. Finally, the cost of treating patients with relapses is four times higher than in patients without relapses. Prevention of relapses is possible if we detect early signs. In fact, when specific interventions are applied in time, relapses can be avoided. Surprisingly, there is a scarcity of data on prodromal symptoms of schizophrenic relapses in the literature. In this study, we aimed to describe early signs of schizophrenic relapses, which are comparatively more frequent than those in stabilized outpatients. We conducted a retrospective, descriptive and comparative trial. We included 30 patients with schizophrenia who had recently experienced a psychotic relapse and a member of their families. We also included a control group of 30 stabilized outpatients with schizophrenia. All of the patients were diagnosed schizophrenic according to the DSM IV and had no secondary diagnosis. Only patients aged from 18 to 55 years and having an illness with an episodic evolution were included. The relapse group must have had a period off illness of more than one year and duration of the last remission greater than 3 months. We built a structured interview based on the data of the literature on early symptoms of relapses and on our clinical experience. It contained 93 items describing symptoms and feelings relevant to the period of relapse. The interview lasted about 1h. We collected demographic information from both groups. The relapse group was

  6. Dopamine transporter gene polymorphism and psychiatric symptoms seen in schizophrenic patients at their first episode

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    Inada, Toshiya; Sugita, Tetsuyoshi; Dobashi, Izumi [National Institute of Mental Health, Chiba (Japan)] [and others

    1996-07-26

    To investigate the possible role of the dopamine transporter (DAT) gene in determining the phenotype in human subjects, allele frequencies for the 40-bp variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) polymorphism at this site were compared between 117 Japanese normal controls and 118 schizophrenic patients, including six subgroups: early-onset, those with a family history, and those suffering from one of the following psychiatric symptoms at their first episode: delusion and hallucination; disorganization; bizarre behavior; and negative symptoms. No significant differences were observed between the group as a whole or any subgroup of schizophrenic patients and controls. The results indicate that VNTR polymorphism in the DAT gene is unlikely to be a major contributor to any of the psychiatric parameters examined in the present population of schizophrenic subjects. 12 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  7. Cotard Syndrome without Depressive Symptoms in a Schizophrenic Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgado, Pedro; Ribeiro, Ricardo; Cerqueira, João J

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Cotard syndrome is a rare condition characterized by nihilistic delusions concerning body or life that can be found in several neuropsychiatry conditions. It is typically associated with depressive symptoms. Method. We present a case of Cotard syndrome without depressive symptoms in the context of known paranoid schizophrenia. A literature review of Cotard syndrome in schizophrenia was performed. Results. Although there are few descriptions of this syndrome in schizophrenia, patients usually present depressive mood and psychomotor retardation, features not seen in our patient. Loss of the sense of the inner self, present in schizophrenia, could explain patient's symptomatology but neurobiological bases of this syndrome remain unclear. Conclusion. Despite not being considered in actual classifications, Cotard syndrome is still relevant and psychiatric evaluation is critical to diagnosing and treating this condition in psychiatric patients.

  8. Cotard Syndrome without Depressive Symptoms in a Schizophrenic Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Morgado

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cotard syndrome is a rare condition characterized by nihilistic delusions concerning body or life that can be found in several neuropsychiatry conditions. It is typically associated with depressive symptoms. Method. We present a case of Cotard syndrome without depressive symptoms in the context of known paranoid schizophrenia. A literature review of Cotard syndrome in schizophrenia was performed. Results. Although there are few descriptions of this syndrome in schizophrenia, patients usually present depressive mood and psychomotor retardation, features not seen in our patient. Loss of the sense of the inner self, present in schizophrenia, could explain patient’s symptomatology but neurobiological bases of this syndrome remain unclear. Conclusion. Despite not being considered in actual classifications, Cotard syndrome is still relevant and psychiatric evaluation is critical to diagnosing and treating this condition in psychiatric patients.

  9. Abnormal laboratory values during the acute and recovery phases in schizophrenic patients: a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiko Nagamine

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Takahiko NagamineDivision of Psychiatric Internal Medicine, Seiwakai-Kitsunan Hospital, Suzenji, JapanAbstract: During treatment of acute-phase schizophrenia, attention needs to be given to physical as well as psychological symptoms. It is often difficult, however, to obtain information on physical symptoms from patients with psychomotor excitation, and only laboratory examinations can provide objective data. The results of laboratory parameters measured in 68 patients with schizophrenia during psychomotor excitation and approximately 1 month later during the medicated recovery phase have been analyzed retrospectively. Abnormal laboratory values during psychomotor excitation were frequent. The most frequent (≥35% of patients were increased white blood cell count, low serum potassium levels, high levels of fasting blood sugar, lactate dehydrogenase and uric acid. There were fewer abnormal values during the medicated recovery phase. The most frequent (≥25% of patients were high serum levels of triglycerides, amylase, creatinine kinase, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Abnormal triglyceride levels were found significantly more frequently in patients receiving olanzapine than those receiving risperidone. Abnormal values during the acute phase may be the result of excitation such as increased sympathetic tone and dehydration. Abnormal values during the recovery phase appeared to be related to the adverse metabolic effects of antipsychotic drugs. The frequency of these abnormal values was particularly high in patients receiving olanzapine alone or in combination with other medications.Keywords: schizophrenia, laboratory test values, acute phase, recovery phase, risperidone, olanzapine

  10. Significant treatment effect of adjunct music therapy to standard treatment on the positive, negative, and mood symptoms of schizophrenic patients: a meta-analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tseng, Ping-Tao; Chen, Yen-Wen; Lin, Pao-Yen; Tu, Kun-Yu; Wang, Hung-Yu; Cheng, Yu-Shian; Chang, Yi-Chung; Chang, Chih-Hua; Chung, Weilun; Wu, Ching-Kuan

    2016-01-01

    .... However, its role is still inconclusive. A recent meta-analysis demonstrated that MT for schizophrenic patients only significantly benefits negative symptoms and mood symptoms rather than positive symptoms...

  11. Effect of clinical improvement of schizophrenic symptoms on {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO brain SPECT

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    Shin, Chul Jin; Koong, Sung Soo; Chung, In Won [College of Medicine, Chungbuk National Univ., Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    This study investigated regional blood flow changes of frontal, temporal, and basal ganglia in eleven schizophrenic patients on DSM-IV criteria to examine the relationship between rCBF and clinical improvement of symptoms. Single-photon emission computed tomography imaging with {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO was performed in baseline and sixth weeks after the treatment, and concurrently psychopathology was assessed by PANSS. Antipsychotics wash-out period was more than 2 weeks, and three patient were drug naive. All patients were finally divided into two groups, the improved or not improved. We examined the difference of the amount of rCBF changes between two groups. Finally, frontal activity shows no significant difference between two groups but both groups show decreased frontal blood flow after antipsychotic treatment. However, the change of right temporal rCBF had positive correlation with the change of the total PANSS score, and the change of left temporal lobe activity was greater in the improved group than in the not improved group. Our results suggest that the temporal lobe activity has relation to the underlying schizophrenic symptoms.

  12. Hippocampal temporal-parietal junction interaction in the production of psychotic symptoms: a framework for understanding the schizophrenic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wible, Cynthia G

    2012-01-01

    A framework is described for understanding the schizophrenic syndrome at the brain systems level. It is hypothesized that over-activation of dynamic gesture and social perceptual processes in the temporal-parietal occipital junction (TPJ), posterior superior temporal sulcus (PSTS) and surrounding regions produce the syndrome (including positive and negative symptoms, their prevalence, prodromal signs, and cognitive deficits). Hippocampal system hyper-activity and atrophy have been consistently found in schizophrenia. Hippocampal activity is highly correlated with activity in the TPJ and may be a source of over-excitation of the TPJ and surrounding regions. Strong evidence for this comes from in-vivo recordings in humans during psychotic episodes. Many positive symptoms of schizophrenia can be reframed as the erroneous sense of a presence or other who is observing, acting, speaking, or controlling; these qualia are similar to those evoked during abnormal activation of the TPJ. The TPJ and PSTS play a key role in the perception (and production) of dynamic social, emotional, and attentional gestures for the self and others (e.g., body/face/eye gestures, audiovisual speech and prosody, and social attentional gestures such as eye gaze). The single cell representation of dynamic gestures is multimodal (auditory, visual, tactile), matching the predominant hallucinatory categories in schizophrenia. Inherent in the single cell perceptual signal of dynamic gesture representations is a computation of intention, agency, and anticipation or expectancy (for the self and others). Stimulation of the TPJ resulting in activation of the self representation has been shown to result a feeling of a presence or multiple presences (due to heautoscopy) and also bizarre tactile experiences. Neurons in the TPJ are also tuned, or biased to detect threat related emotions. Abnormal over-activation in this system could produce the conscious hallucination of a voice (audiovisual speech), a person

  13. Symptom changes in chronic schizophrenic patients on a token economy: a controlled experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, R; Hall, J N; Hutchinson, K; Bridge, G

    1977-10-01

    An 18-month controlled experiment was conducted into the effects of a token economy programme on the ward behaviour and symptoms of chronic schizophrenic patients. An experimental group received tokens dependent upon appropriate behaviour, while a matched control group on the same ward received every aspect of the ward programme similarly except that tokens were not dependent upon their behaviour. Regular assessment showed that both groups improved substantially in social withdrawal. Over twelve months of treatment the experimental group improved no more than the control group. There were no symptomatic changes. The conclusions were that token economy is a treatment affecting withdrawl and social behaviour rather than symptomatology, and that factors other than reinforcement by tokens were responsible for the main changes.

  14. Hippocampal Temporal-Parietal Junction Interaction in the Production of Psychotic Symptoms: A Framework for Understanding the Schizophrenic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Gayle Wible

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A framework is described for understanding the schizophrenic syndrome at the brain systems level. It is hypothesized that over-activation of dynamic gesture and social perceptual processes in the temporal-parietal occipital junction (TPJ, posterior superior temporal sulcus (PSTS and surrounding regions produce the syndrome (including positive and negative symptoms, their prevalence, prodromal signs and cognitive deficits. Hippocampal system hyper-activity and atrophy have been consistently found in schizophrenia. Hippocampal activity is highly related to activity in the TPJ and may be a source of over-excitation of the TPJ and surrounding regions. Strong evidence for this comes from in-vivo recordings in humans during psychotic episodes. The TPJ and PSTS play a key role in the perception (and production of dynamic social, emotional and attentional gestures for the self and others (e.g., body/face/eye gestures, audiovisual speech, prosody. The single cell representation of dynamic gestures is multimodal (auditory, visual, tactile, matching the predominant hallucinatory categories in schizophrenia. Inherent in the single cell perceptual signal of dynamic gesture representations is a computation of intention, agency, and anticipation or expectancy (for the self and others. The neurons are also tuned or biased to detect threat related emotions. Abnormal over-activation in this system could produce the conscious hallucination of a voice (audiovisual speech, person or a touch. Over-activation could interfere with attentional/emotional gesture perception and production (negative symptoms. It could produce the unconscious feeling of being watched, followed or of a social situation unfolding along with accompanying perception of intent and agency inherent in those representations (delusions. Cognitive disturbances in attention, predictive social processing, agency, working memory, and a bias toward the perception of threat would also be predicted.

  15. Hippocampal temporal-parietal junction interaction in the production of psychotic symptoms: a framework for understanding the schizophrenic syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Cynthia Gayle Wible

    2012-01-01

    A framework is described for understanding the schizophrenic syndrome at the brain systems level. It is hypothesized that over-activation of dynamic gesture and social perceptual processes in the temporal-parietal occipital junction (TPJ), posterior superior temporal sulcus (PSTS) and surrounding regions produce the syndrome (including positive and negative symptoms, their prevalence, prodromal signs, and cognitive deficits). Hippocampal system hyper-activity and atrophy have been consistentl...

  16. Correlation between neuropsychological and social cognition measures and symptom dimensions in schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altamura, A Carlo; Caletti, Elisabetta; Paoli, Riccardo Augusto; Cigliobianco, Michela; Zugno, Elisa; Grillo, Paolo; Prunas, Cecilia; Caldiroli, Alice; Zago, Stefano

    2015-12-15

    Neurocognitive and social cognition deficits have been largely reported in Schizophrenia (SKZ) but their association with psychopathology remains uncertain. Our purpose was to explore the relationship between symptom dimensions and neuropsychological performances. We enrolled 35 stabilized schizophrenic outpatients of the Department of Psychiatry of Policlinico Hospital, University of Milan, who completed psychiatric Rating Scales, the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) and the Executive and Social Cognition Battery (ESCB). Disorganized dimension seems to have the most significant impact on cognition, being associated with performance in several BACS subtests (verbal memory, working memory, motor speed, symbol coding, Tower of London) and ESCB tasks (MET and Hotel task number of tasks attempted, number of broken MET rules, sum of deviations in Hotel Task). Positive dimension correlated with performance in verbal fluency, negative dimension with IOWA Test results, cognitive dimension with MET number of inefficiencies and Eyes test score. Impulsive-aggressive and depressive dimensions weakly correlated only with Faux Pas test. Our study supports the existence of a specific disorganized dimension in SKZ, separated from cognitive dimension evaluated through clinical instruments (e.g. PANSS), but capable of influencing cognitive abilities. Furthermore, it strengthens the validity of ecological tasks in evaluating cognition in SKZ. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Schizophrenic psychoses with affect-dominant symptoms : Contribution to a system-specific approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, F U; Stegmayer, K; Becker, T; Jäger, M

    2016-07-01

    In order to reduce heterogeneity in schizophrenia a system-specific approach consisting of the domains 'language', 'affect' and 'motor behavior' was proposed namely the Bern psychopathology scale (BPS). Using the example of the affective domain we examined this system-specific approach for its applicability to clinical practice using a qualitative-casuistic method. Moreover, we examined the possibility to identify a homogeneous subgroup of patients applying this approach. From a sample of 100 patients with schizophrenia a total of six patients was selected and described following a traditional psychopathological case approach. To expand this qualitative-casuistic method we included the results of standardized psychopathological assessments using the BPS and the positive and negative syndrome scale of schizophrenia (PANSS). Schizophrenic psychoses with affect-dominant symptoms could be characterized better using a system-specific approach than the positive-negative-concept. Ensuing from the cross-sectional psychopathological patterns only limited statements regarding the prospective course were possible. The concept of an affect-dominant subtype of schizophrenia was not entirely convincing with respect of the heterogeneous course of the patients described. Nevertheless, the system-specific approach may hold promise for the future regarding further neurobiological research.

  18. Hippocampal physiology, structure and function and the neuroscience of schizophrenia: a unified account of declarative memory deficits, working memory deficits and schizophrenic symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wible, Cynthia G

    2013-06-01

    Memory impairment is a consistent feature of the schizophrenic syndrome. Hippocampal dysfunction has also been consistently demonstrated. This review will discuss neurophysiological and neuroanatomical aspects of memory formation and how they relate to memory impairment in schizophrenia. An understanding of the cellular physiology and connectivity of the hippocampus with other regions can also aid in understanding the relationship between schizophrenic declarative or relational memory deficits, working memory deficits and the clinical symptoms of the syndrome.

  19. Hippocampal Physiology, Structure and Function and the Neuroscience of Schizophrenia: A Unified Account of Declarative Memory Deficits, Working Memory Deficits and Schizophrenic Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia G. Wible

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Memory impairment is a consistent feature of the schizophrenic syndrome. Hippocampal dysfunction has also been consistently demonstrated. This review will discuss neurophysiological and neuroanatomical aspects of memory formation and how they relate to memory impairment in schizophrenia. An understanding of the cellular physiology and connectivity of the hippocampus with other regions can also aid in understanding the relationship between schizophrenic declarative or relational memory deficits, working memory deficits and the clinical symptoms of the syndrome.

  20. Significant treatment effect of adjunct music therapy to standard treatment on the positive, negative, and mood symptoms of schizophrenic patients: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Ping-Tao; Chen, Yen-Wen; Lin, Pao-Yen; Tu, Kun-Yu; Wang, Hung-Yu; Cheng, Yu-Shian; Chang, Yi-Chung; Chang, Chih-Hua; Chung, Weilun; Wu, Ching-Kuan

    2016-01-26

    Music therapy (MT) has been used as adjunct therapy for schizophrenia for decades. However, its role is still inconclusive. A recent meta-analysis demonstrated that MT for schizophrenic patients only significantly benefits negative symptoms and mood symptoms rather than positive symptoms. In addition, the association between specific characteristics of MT and the treatment effect remains unclear. The aim of this study was to update the published data and to explore the role of music therapy in adjunct treatment in schizophrenia with a thorough meta-analysis. We compared the treatment effect in schizophrenic patients with standard treatment who did and did not receive adjunct MT through a meta-analysis, and investigated the clinical characteristics of MT through meta-regression. The main finding was that the treatment effect was significantly better in the patients who received adjunct MT than in those who did not, in negative symptoms, mood symptoms, and also positive symptoms (all p positively associated with the whole duration of illness, indicating that MT would be beneficial for schizophrenic patients with a chronic course. Our meta-analysis highlights a significantly better treatment effect in schizophrenic patients who received MT than in those who did not, especially in those with a chronic course, regardless of the duration, frequency, or amounts of sessions of MT. These findings provide evidence that clinicians should apply MT for schizophrenic patients to alleviate disease severity.

  1. Correlation of regional cerebral blood flow and positive/negative symptoms in schizophrenic patients: covariate SPM analysis

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    Lim, Ki Chun; Kim, J. S.; Kim, C. Y.; Lee, H. K.; Moon, D. H. [Ulsan University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    We investigated the relations between rCBF and psychopathology in schizophrenic patients using a SPM99. Thirty-two patients(M/F:22/10, 25{+-}5,6yr) with active symptoms of schizophrenia and 15 age matched normal controls underwent Tc-99m ECD brain perfusion SPECT. Psychopathology of all patients were also assessed according to PANSS (positive and negative syndrome scale in schizophrenia). By covariate SPM analysis, specific areas where rCBF correlated with sum scores of positive/negative synptoms were identified. Regional CBF of schizophrenics was different in several cortical regions from normal controls. Sum scores of positive symptoms were positively correlated with rCBF of both rectal and inferior frontal gyri and right transverse temporal gyrus, and negatively correlated with rCBF of left lingual and right middle temporal gyri (p<0.01). Sum scores of negative symptoms were positively correlated with rCBF of both middle temporal gyri and negatively correlated with rCBF of right superior parietal lobule and medial frontal gyrus (p<0.01). Positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia were correlated with rCBF change in different regions of cerebral association cortex.

  2. Frontal dopamine D(2/3) receptor binding in drug-naive first-episode schizophrenic patients correlates with positive psychotic symptoms and gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glenthoj, Birte Y; Mackeprang, Torben; Svarer, Claus

    2006-01-01

    with single-photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) using the D(2/3)-receptor ligand [123I]epidepride. RESULTS: In the hitherto largest study on extrastriatal D(2/3) receptors we detected a significant correlation between frontal D(2/3) BP values and positive schizophrenic symptoms in the larger group...... of male schizophrenic patients, higher frontal BP values in male (n = 17) compared to female (n = 8) patients, and - in accordance with this - significantly fewer positive schizophrenic symptoms in the female patients. No significant differences in BP values were observed between patients and controls......; the patients, however, had significantly higher BP in the right compared to the left thalamus, whereas no significant hemispheric imbalances were observed in the healthy subjects. CONCLUSIONS: The present data are the first to confirm a significant correlation between frontal D(2/3) receptor BP values...

  3. Depressive Symptoms during an Acute Schizophrenic Episode: Frequency and Clinical Correlates

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    Ravi Philip Rajkumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Depressive symptoms are common in schizophrenia and are associated with poorer functioning, lower quality of life, and an elevated risk of suicidal behaviour. There are few studies on the occurrence and correlates of these symptoms in acutely ill patients with schizophrenia. Method. 72 acutely ill patients with schizophrenia were assessed for depression using the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS. A cut-off score of ≥6 on the CDSS was used to identify clinically significant depressive symptoms. The relationship between depression and illness variables, including psychotic symptom dimensions as measured by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale for Schizophrenia (PANSS, was examined. Results. Eleven (15.3% patients had clinically significant depressive symptoms. These patients scored higher on the positive and general psychopathology scales of the PANSS and had higher rates of suicidal behavior and poorer functioning. The severity of depressive symptoms was positively correlated with the PANSS positive subscale and negatively correlated with the PANSS negative subscale. Discussion. These findings confirm previous reports that depressive symptoms in active schizophrenia is related to the severity of positive psychotic symptoms and is a risk factor for suicidal behaviour in these patients.

  4. [Schizophrenic Psychoses with Motor-Dominant Symptoms: Considerations for a System-Specific Approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, F U; Dreyhaupt, J; Walther, S; Becker, T; Jäger, M

    2015-08-01

    In order to reduce heterogeneity in schizophrenia, a system-specific approach consisting of the domains "language", "affect" and "motor behavior" has been proposed. We examined this system-specific approach for its applicability to clinical practice in the motor behavior domain, using the methodological approach of case studies, and discuss here the differences to the positive/negative concept. We analyzed eight cases with stable motor-dominant symptoms, and also quantitatively assessed motor behavior by using the Bern Psychopathology Scale (BPS), a standardized psychopathological assessment instrument, as well as actigraphic data. Characterization of cases using the positive/negative approach was not helpful. We found an overlap of the motor behavior domain with the other two domains. This complicates the application of the system-specific approach in the sense of a typology. Furthermore, we found both relapsing courses with full remission and chronic courses with deterioration within the motor-dominant subtype. Nevertheless, the system-specific approach has heuristic utility for the future. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Signs and symptoms of developmental abnormalities of the genitourinary tract

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    Paulo Cesar Koch Nogueira

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: The abnormalities of the genitourinary tract development are the leading cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD in children. The diagnosis of this disease in Brazil is late and incomplete, which results in increased morbidity and mortality in this age group. Early diagnosis of this condition is the prerogative of generalist pediatricians, and the aim of this study was to review the clinical signs and symptoms associated with developmental abnormalities of the genitourinary tract. Data sources: Based on the description of a symbolic clinical case, the authors conducted a non-systematic review of medical literature. Data synthesis: The results suggest that the following data should be used as a warning for early diagnosis of affected children: (a combined urinary tract abnormalities (chromosomal abnormalities; sequence of malformations [VACTERLand Prune-Belly]; and musculoskeletal, digestive tract, heart, and nervous system malformations; (b previous history (congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract [CAKUT] in the family, low birth weight, and oligoamnios; (c clinical signs (polyuria/nocturia, urinary tract infection, systemic arterial hypertension, failure to thrive, weak urinary stream, difficulty to start urination, distended bladder, non-monosymptomatic enuresis, urinary/urge incontinence, and bowel and bladder dysfunction; and (d pre- and postnatal ultrasonographic alterations (increased anteroposterior diameter of the renal pelvis, mainly in the third trimester of pregnancy; single kidney; hydronephrosis associated with other abnormalities; and hydronephrosis with parenchymal involvement in the post-neonatal assessment. Conclusion: The suggestions shown here can help the pediatrician to establish clinical hypotheses for the early diagnosis of developmental abnormalities of the genitourinary tract without resorting to expensive and invasive procedures.

  6. An fMRI Study of Functional Abnormalities in the Verbal Working Memory System and the Relationship to Clinical Symptoms in Chronic Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, KangUk; Preus, Alexander; McCarley, Robert W.; Wible, Cynthia G.

    2010-01-01

    There has been evidence for functional abnormalities of the verbal working memory system in schizophrenia. Verbal working memory crucially involves the interplay between the anterior and posterior language systems, and previous studies have shown converging evidence for abnormalities in the posterior language system in schizophrenia. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we measured cortical activity in chronic schizophrenic patients and matched healthy controls during auditory and visual verbal working memory tasks. We employed 1) regional analyses specifically targeting the posterior language system and 2) analyses of functional connectivity between anterior and posterior language regions. We performed these analyses separately for each memory stage and modality. In the regional analyses, the left sylvian–parietal–temporal (Spt) area consistently showed reduced activation during encoding and retrieval stages in schizophrenia. Magnitudes of activation in the left posterior superior temporal sulcus were correlated with the severity of delusions at every memory stage. Functional connectivity analyses revealed reduced connectivity between the left Spt and the anterior insula during the encoding of auditory words. In addition, the connectivity strength was correlated with the severity of auditory hallucinations. These findings identify abnormal components in the verbal working memory system and illustrate their possible overlap with the mechanisms of core schizophrenic symptoms. PMID:19395526

  7. Effects of handedness (left vs right) and cannabis abuse on intermanual coordination and negative symptoms in schizophrenic patients of the paranoid type.

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    Gorynia, Inge; Schwaiger, Markus

    2011-09-01

    Intermanual coordination as an index of interhemispheric transfer and negative symptoms were investigated in 50 left- and 42 right-handed schizophrenic inpatients of the paranoid type, also including drug abusers. The primary objective was to show that there were higher values in intermanual coordination and fewer manifestations of negative symptoms in the left-handed compared to the right-handed patients. This assumption was based on previous studies. Most importantly, right- and left-handed patients showed a different behaviour in intermanual coordination, when the duration of illness was taken into consideration. Thus, long-term left-handed paranoid patients performed better in intermanual coordination and showed fewer manifestations of negative symptoms than did long-term right-handed patients. These results were true for the large group of all patients, and among them for the subgroup of patients without drug abuse. Consequently, higher scores in intermanual coordination in left-handed patients may be related to a better interhemispheric crosstalk resulting in less pronounced negative symptoms. Secondary objectives assessed by explorative data analysis included the effects of cannabis abuse. While cannabis abuse may be more prevalent in left-handed patients, its effects may be more pronounced in right-handed patients, scoring higher in intermanual coordination and lower in manifestations of negative symptoms.

  8. Repetition in Schizophrenic Speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manschreck, Theo C.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Describes an investigation into the relationship of schizophrenic thought disorder to measures of repetition that include phrase units, proximity of repetitions, and word frequencies to determine whether such measures distinguish schizophrenics from non-schizophrenics and to what extent they are associated with certain attributes of schizophrenia,…

  9. Symptoms associated with an abnormal echocardiogram in elderly primary care hypertension patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Ringoir (Lianne); J.W. Widdershoven (Jos); S.S. Pedersen (Susanne); J.M. Keyzer (J.); V.J.M. Pop (Victor)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground The prevalence and diagnostic value of heart failure symptoms in elderly primary care patients with hypertension is unknown. Aim To assess the prevalence, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of symptoms in association with an abnormal

  10. Token reinforcement therapeutic approach is more effective than exercise for controlling negative symptoms of schizophrenic patients: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Gholipour

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Both exercise and token-behavior therapies, along with drug treatment, are very effective in reducing the negative symptoms of schizophrenia; but the impact of token therapy issignificantly higher.

  11. Effects of vitamins, fatty acids, minerals, and other dietary supplements on schizophrenic symptoms in people with schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Smedslund, Geir; Berg, Rigmor C.

    2011-01-01

    ENGLISH: There is considerable scientific disagreement about the possible effects of dietary supplements on mental health and illness. Do dietary supplements (possibly in megadoses) have an effect on symptoms and consequences of schizophrenia? We critically appraised randomized controlled trials about supplemental vitamins, fatty acids and other dietary supplements given to people diagnosed with schizophrenia. The primary outcome was symptoms of schizophrenia. We evaluated the evidence to be ...

  12. Psychopathological Symptoms Assessed by a System-Specific Approach Are Related to Global Functioning in Schizophrenic Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Fabian U; Müller-Stierlin, Annabel S; Walther, Sebastian; Schulze, Thomas G; Becker, Thomas; Jäger, Markus

    By mostly using a positive-negative approach, several studies have identified factors that influence day-to-day functioning. We applied a different, system-specific approach to expand the knowledge of this issue. We recruited a sample of 100 inpatients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Psychopathological characteristics were assessed with the Bern Psychopathology Scale (BPS) and functional characteristics with the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scale. Linear regression analyses were performed with the GAF score as the dependent variable and the global values of the BPS subscores as independent variables. The model was controlled for confounding variables. Spearman rank correlation analyses were used to identify associations between the relevant BPS subdomains and global functioning. Higher absolute global values of the BPS domains language (px2009; = x2009;0.038) and motor behavior (px2009; = x2009;0.049) were significantly associated with lower GAF scores. These findings remained stable after adjusting for potential confounding variables. A statistically significant negative correlation was found between both qualitative symptoms (rx2009; = x2009;-0.273, px2009; = x2009;0.006) and indirect signs (rx2009; = x2009;-0.269, px2009; = x2009;0.007) of the language domain and GAF scores. Also, quantitative (rx2009; = x2009;-0.211, px2009; = x2009;0.035) and qualitative symptoms (rx2009; = x2009;-0.214, px2009; = x2009;0.033) in the motor behavior domain were associated with poorer functioning. A system-specific approach can describe subgroups of patients with poor functioning. Identifying such subgroups could help to utilize targeted treatment opinions in a timely manner. Another goal of future research is to clarify the underlying neurobiological deficits. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Disordered semantic representation in schizophrenic temporal cortex revealed by neuromagnetic response patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silberman Yaron

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Loosening of associations and thought disruption are key features of schizophrenic psychopathology. Alterations in neural networks underlying this basic abnormality have not yet been sufficiently identified. Previously, we demonstrated that spatio-temporal clustering of magnetic brain responses to pictorial stimuli map categorical representations in temporal cortex. This result has opened the possibility to quantify associative strength within and across semantic categories in schizophrenic patients. We hypothesized that in contrast to controls, schizophrenic patients exhibit disordered representations of semantic categories. Methods The spatio-temporal clusters of brain magnetic activities elicited by object pictures related to super-ordinate (flowers, animals, furniture, clothes and base-level (e.g. tulip, rose, orchid, sunflower categories were analysed in the source space for the time epochs 170–210 and 210–450 ms following stimulus onset and were compared between 10 schizophrenic patients and 10 control subjects. Results Spatio-temporal correlations of responses elicited by base-level concepts and the difference of within vs. across super-ordinate categories were distinctly lower in patients than in controls. Additionally, in contrast to the well-defined categorical representation in control subjects, unsupervised clustering indicated poorly defined representation of semantic categories in patients. Within the patient group, distinctiveness of categorical representation in the temporal cortex was positively related to negative symptoms and tended to be inversely related to positive symptoms. Conclusion Schizophrenic patients show a less organized representation of semantic categories in clusters of magnetic brain responses than healthy adults. This atypical neural network architecture may be a correlate of loosening of associations, promoting positive symptoms.

  14. Effect of Developmental Binocular Vision Abnormalities on Visual Vertigo Symptoms and Treatment Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlou, Marousa; Acheson, James; Nicolaou, Despina; Fraser, Clare L; Bronstein, Adolfo M; Davies, Rosalyn A

    2015-10-01

    Customized vestibular rehabilitation incorporating optokinetic (OK) stimulation improves visual vertigo (VV) symptoms; however, the degree of improvement varies among individuals. Binocular vision abnormalities (misalignment of ocular axis, ie, strabismus) may be a potential risk factor. This study aimed to investigate the influence of binocular vision abnormalities on VV symptoms and treatment outcome. Sixty subjects with refractory peripheral vestibular symptoms underwent an orthoptic assessment after being recruited for participation in an 8-week customized program incorporating OK training via a full-field visual environment rotator or video display, supervised or unsupervised. Treatment response was assessed at baseline and at 8 weeks with dynamic posturography, Functional Gait Assessment (FGA), and questionnaires for symptoms, symptom triggers, and psychological state. As no significant effect of OK training type was noted for any variables, data were combined and new groups identified on the basis of the absence or presence of a binocular vision abnormality. A total of 34 among 60 subjects consented to the orthoptic assessment, of whom 8 of the 34 had binocular vision abnormalities and 30 of the 34 subjects completed both the binocular function assessment and vestibular rehabilitation program. No significant between-group differences were noted at baseline. The only significant between-group difference was observed for pre-/post-VV symptom change (P = 0.01), with significant improvements noted only for the group without binocular vision abnormalities (P Binocular vision abnormalities may affect VV symptom improvement. These findings may have important implications for the management of subjects with refractory vestibular symptoms.Video Abstract available for insights from the authors regarding clinical implication of the study findings (see Video, Supplemental Digital Content 1, http://links.lww.com/JNPT/A115).

  15. Abnormal duodenal loop demonstrated by X-ray. Correlation to symptoms and prognosis of dyspepsia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thommesen, P.; Funch-Jensen, P.

    1986-01-01

    The occurrence of dyspeptic symptoms has previously been correlated with the shape of the duodenal loop in patients with X-ray-negative dyspepsia. An abnormal duodenal loop was associated with a significantly higher incidence of symtoms provoked by meals, vomiting, regurgitations, heartburn, and the irritable bowel syndrome. 89% of these patients (26 patients with a normal duodenal loop and 39 patients with abnormal duodenal loop) were available for a 5-year follow-up study of symptomatic outcome. The incidence of symptoms provoked by meals was still significantly higher in patients with an abnormal duodenal loop, and there was also a significant difference concerning symptomatic outcome. Approximately 75% of the patients with a normal duodenal loop had improved, and 25% had unchanged clinical conditions. Approximately 50% of the patients with an abnormal duodenal loop had improved, and 50% had an unchanged or even deteriorated clinical condition.

  16. [Neurological soft signs in schizophrenic patients and their nonaffected siblings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechri, A; Slama, H; Bourdel, M-C; Chebel, S; Mandhouj, O; Krebs, M-O; Gaha, L

    2008-10-01

    Neurological soft signs (NSS) are subtle neurological signs indicating non specific cerebral dysfunction. Several studies have found an excess of NSS in schizophrenic patients compared to healthy subjects. Although NSS have been consistently reported in schizophrenic patients, their clinical relevance and their relation to functional impairment and severity of this disease are not well-clarified. In addition, the presence of NSS in schizophrenic patient's relatives suggests that they could be associated with the genetic liability. To determine the prevalence and scores of NSS in schizophrenic patients and their nonaffected siblings and to examine the clinical correlates of NSS in the schizophrenic patients. Sixty-six schizophrenic patients (50 males and 16 females, mean age=31.16+/-7.17 years), were compared to 31 of their nonaffected siblings (22 males and nine females, mean age=32.19+/-5.88 years) and to 60 controls subjects (40 males and 20 females, mean age=30.70+/-6.54 years) without family psychiatric history. NSS were assessed with Krebs et al.'s neurological soft signs scale. It is a comprehensive and standardized scale consisting of 23 items comporting five factors: motor coordination, motor integration, sensory integration, quality of lateralization and involuntary movements or posture. The Simpson and Angus scale for extrapyramidal symptoms was also rated. Clinical assessment of the schizophrenic patients was conducted using the positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS), clinical global impressions (CGI) and global functioning evaluation (GAF). Psychiatric disorders were ruled out among siblings of schizophrenic patients and control subjects by psychiatric review evaluation, according to the DSM-IV check list. When the total NSS score of 11.5 was considered the cut-off point, the prevalence of NSS was 96.9% in the schizophrenic patients versus 35.5% in the nonaffected siblings (ptotal score and subscores than the siblings and control groups. The NSS

  17. Cognitive dysfunction, negative symptoms, and tardive dyskinesia in schizophrenia. Their association in relation to topography of involuntary movements and criterion of their abnormality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddington, J L; Youssef, H A; Dolphin, C; Kinsella, A

    1987-10-01

    Little is known of factors that, on an individual basis, confer vulnerability to the emergence of involuntary movements (tardive dyskinesia) during long-term neuroleptic treatment. In this study of 88 chronic schizophrenic inpatients, 22 variables (four demographic, 14 medication history, and four features of illness) were compared for any association(s) with the presence, by differing topographies and criteria of abnormality, and severity of involuntary movements. Irrespective of the criterion used, the presence of marked cognitive dysfunction-muteness bore a consistent and highly significant primary association with both the presence and the overall severity of orofacial dyskinesia; no such association was found in relation to the presence of limb-truncal dyskinesia. Flattening of affect was the only other variable consistently associated with the presence of orofacial movements. The reliability and prominence of the association between the presence of orofacial, but not of limb-truncal, movements and cognitive dysfunction-negative symptoms suggest that these varying topographies may not constitute a unitary syndrome. This strong association, not with indexes of neuroleptic exposure but rather with features of the illness for which that treatment was prescribed, suggests some neurologic process, more subtle than may previously have been appreciated, as a vulnerability factor of some importance. In schizophrenia it appears to be intimately related to the disease process.

  18. Swallowing abnormalities in multiple sclerosis: correlation between videofluoroscopy and subjective symptoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiesner, W.; Steinbrich, W. [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital of Basel (Switzerland); Wetzel, S.G.; Radue, E.W. [Institute of Neuroradiology, University Hospital Basel (Switzerland); Kappos, L.; Hoshi, M.M. [Department of Neurology, University Hospital of Basel (Switzerland); Witte, U. [Section of Logopedia, University Hospital of Basel (Switzerland)

    2002-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate if subjective symptoms indicating an impaired deglutition correlate with videofluoroscopic findings in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Videofluoroscopic examinations of 18 MS patients were analyzed by a radiologist and a logopedist and compared with the symptoms of these patients. Four patients complained about permanent dysphagia. Six patients reported mild and intermittent difficulties in swallowing, but were asymptomatic at the time of videofluoroscopy. Eight patients had no symptoms regarding their deglutition. All patients (n=4) who complained of permanent dysphagia showed aspiration. All patients (n=6) with mild and intermittent difficulties in swallowing showed undercoating of the epiglottis and/or laryngeal penetration. Of those 8 patients without any swallowing symptoms, only 2 had a normal videofluoroscopy. Swallowing abnormalities seem to be much more frequent in patients with MS than generally believed and they may easily be missed clinically as long as the patients do not aspirate. (orig.)

  19. Symptoms associated with an abnormal echocardiogram in elderly primary care hypertension patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringoir, L.; Widdershoven, J. W.; Pedersen, S. S.

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence and diagnostic value of heart failure symptoms in elderly primary care patients with hypertension is unknown. Aim To assess the prevalence, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of symptoms in association with an abnormal echocardiogram. Design...... and setting Cross-sectional screening study in five general practices in the south-east of the Netherlands. Method Between June 2010 and January 2013, 591 primary care hypertension patients aged between 60 and 85 years were included, without known heart failure and not treated by a cardiologist. All patients...

  20. Cognitive task performance and symptoms contribute to personality abnormalities in first hospitalized schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurrera, Ronald J; McCarley, Robert W; Salisbury, Dean

    2014-08-01

    Chronic schizophrenia patients have personality abnormalities and cognitive deficits that are associated with poor clinical, social, and vocational outcomes. Very few studies have examined relationships between personality and cognitive function, and chronic illness effects may have confounded those studies. In this study personality traits in clinically stable first episode schizophrenia patients (21M, 9F) and psychiatrically healthy controls (38M, 24F) were measured with the NEO-FFI, a self-report measure of neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness. All subjects completed the Information, Digit Span, Vocabulary, and Digit Symbol subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale; and Trails A and B. Standard statistical techniques were used to quantify relationships between personality and symptom levels and/or task performance, and relative contributions of diagnosis and task performance to personality variance. Patients showed elevated mean neuroticism and openness, and reduced mean extraversion, agreeableness and conscientiousness. Task performance and negative symptoms contributed significantly and uniquely to most personality dimensions in patients. Task performance accounted for significant amounts of personality variance even after accounting for diagnosis, and it also contributed to personality variance in controls. These results suggest that cognitive deficits and negative symptoms contribute to consistently observed personality abnormalities in this disorder, and that the contribution of neuropsychological performance to personality variance may be independent of diagnostic classification. Personality abnormalities in schizophrenia may stem from the neurocognitive deficits associated with this disorder, and add to their adverse effects on social and vocational functioning. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. [The schizophrenic disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellomo, L E

    1987-12-01

    The author makes both a historical and up-to-date review of the "schizophrenic defect" concept (S.D.). He comes to the conclusion that this is the "morbid residual" or balance left as "ideo-affective" capital after every productive psychotic outbreak. The S.D. is studied in a "Medium and Long Term" Ward with prevailing statistics amounting to 33% D.E. patients plus 9% active schizophrenic patients over a total average of 100 chronic hospitalized patients. It was found out that 33% of that universe had some scattered family whereas 19% of these patients had no family at all. The latter showed strong tendency towards isolation, slovenliness and "hospitalism". They became "passive-dependent" patients. The situational framework is analyzed. Medical staff relation ships with patients, type of treatment and the illusion created by "fictitious discharge" of E.D. under no favorable psycho-environmental conditions are taken into account. Methods to improve the situation are then outlined and discussed. The following topics are considered: correct therapeutics, family therapy, sectorization, therapeutic community, transition homes (foyers), and current legislation.

  2. Operator support architecture for monitoring abnormal symptoms of nuclear power plant based on knowledge engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuta, Kazuo; Hori, Shin-ichiro; Kondo, Shunsuke (Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1992-03-01

    An architecture to support nuclear power plant operators for monitoring abnormal symptoms has been proposed based on the techniques of knowledge engineering, and the feasibility of a plant monitoring support system was investigated. The purpose of the support system is to present the operators with useful information so that they can make correct judgment at an early and subtle stage of abnormal plant conditions. In the architecture proposed, abductive reasoning is performed to search for causal events and deductive one to predict consequential events using the knowledge representing plant components as frames and those representing causal relations as production rules. A method to deal with uncertainties in each types of reasoning has been adopted, and it is used to rank several hypotheses of causal events and to assess the importance of plant parameters for monitoring. A prototype system was developed, and its usefulness was tested using a case of failure in a recirculation pump of a BWR plant. (author).

  3. Word Associations of Schizophrenic Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Mary Hollis

    1974-01-01

    A study of word associations in normal and disturbed children integrated two methods of word association research: pathological features of adult schizophrenic language and psycholinguistic features of developmental changes in children's associations. (Author/KM)

  4. Psychopharmacological treatment of aggression in schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brieden, T; Ujeyl, M; Naber, D

    2002-05-01

    Aggressive behavior is frequently observed in schizophrenic patients. More than 50 % of all psychiatric patients and 10 % of schizophrenic patients show aggressive symptoms varying from threatening behavior and agitation to assault. The pharmacological treatment of acute, persisting and repetitive aggression is a serious problem for other patients and staff members. Not only is violent behavior from mentally ill patients the most detrimental factor in their stigmatization, aggression is also a considerable direct source of danger for the patients themselves. Based on rather limited evidence, a wide variety of medications for the pharmacological treatment of aggression has been recommended: typical and atypical antipsychotics, benzodiazepines, mood stabilizers, beta-blockers and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Most clinical information on treating aggression has been collected for atypical neuroleptics, particularly for clozapine. Several retrospective and open studies indicate its efficacy. Treatment duration of 6 months is recommended to induce a stable reduction of physical and verbal aggression. Severe side effects have very rarely been seen. At the moment, clozapine seems to be the first choice in aggression treatment. Within the last few years, about 10 articles were published showing that this is the most effective antiaggressive agent in the treatment of aggression and agitation in psychiatric patients, independent of psychiatric diagnosis. However, clozapine, like all the other substances used, does not have an established indication for the treatment of aggressive symptoms. Noncompliance with medication makes it difficult to choose the right preparation for the medication: tablets, liquids, intramuscular injections and readily soluble "FDDFs" are available. Ethical, juridical and methodological problems prevent controlled studies from establishing a reference in the treatment of aggression in mentally ill patients. This review summarizes

  5. [Pro- and antioxidant processes in schizophrenics with tardive dyskinesia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gałecki, Piotr; Pietras, Tadeusz; Florkowki, Antoni

    2005-01-01

    Central nervous system diseases are connected with the production of an increased amount of reactive oxygen species. Decreased antioxidant activity is considered as one of the causes of tardive dyskinesia (TD) in schizophrenic patients in a prolonged neuroleptic treatment course. Evaluation of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase activity as well as lipid peroxidation by TBARS saturation in blood platelets in schizophrenic patients with or without tardive dyskinesia symptoms. 84 paranoid schizophrenic patients took part in the study, 40 of them with TD symptoms. The groups were comparative in clinical and demographic terms. Indication of TBARS in blood platelets was performed by the Placed and coop method. GSH-Px activity was indicated by the Little and O'Brien method. CAT activity was indicated according to the Beers and coop method. CuZnSOD activity in blood platelets was indicated by the Mirsa and Fridovich method. CuZnSOD activity in schizophrenic patients without TD is 820.23 and accordingly 710.75 U/g in TD symptoms patients and it is statistical essential. TBARS for patients with TD is 1.06 and accordingly without TD it is 0.92 micromol/10(9)), the difference is statistically essential. For groups with and without TD CAT activity is accordingly 19.87 and 17.93 Ub/g. For groups with and without TD GSH-Px is accordingly 32.30 and 30.48 U/g. schizophrenic patients with TD symptoms have lower CuZnSOD activity and higher concentration of TBARS in platelets than patients without TD. CAT activity is higher in patients with TD symptoms. CuZnSOD activity and concentration of TBARS are in correlation with age in both studied groups.

  6. Somatotypic characteristic of schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivkov, Stefan; Akabaliev, Valentin; Nikolova, Yulia

    2005-01-01

    Introduction of quantitative metric methods of somatotype assessment in schizophrenic patients to make clinical diagnosis more objective, the diagnosis being otherwise based exclusively on the clinical interview and assessment of the mental status of patients and thus involving certain subjectivity. The study included 67 schizophrenic inpatients (38 men, 29 women) consecutively admitted to the Clinic of Psychiatry in Plovdiv. Their mean age was 31.47 years (SD = 9.43, range 16-56), mean duration of illness 6.86 (SD = 6.09, range 1-27), mean number of hospitalizations 4.22 (SD = 4.08, range 1-19). The patients satisfied DSM-IV criteria for a diagnosis of schizophrenia (American Psychiatric Association, 1994). The control group comprised 69 subjects (36 men, 33 women) with a mean age 39.24 years (SD = 10.18, range 22-68) and socioeconomic background matching that of the patients. The data showed statistically significant differences in the three somatotype component and in almost all somatotypological variables between male schizophrenic patients and control subjects. The somatotype categories were more extensively presented in the schizophrenic patients. There was a tendency to higher frequency of the ectomorphic categories (ectomorphic mesomorph, mesomorphic ectomorph and endomorph-ectomorph). No statistically significant differences were found in the somatotype components and somatotypological variables between the female schizophrenic patients and control subjects. The data of the examination of the somatotype of schizophrenic patients and control subjects evince a definite sexually related body constitution characteristic that differentiates the groups. Schizophrenic patients and control subjects are clearly determined somatotypically only in the group of males.

  7. Refraction and eye anterior segment parameters in schizophrenic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongabay Cumurcu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate the difference in terms of refractive errors and anterior segment parameters between schizophrenic patients and healthy volunteers. Methods: This study compared 70 patients (48 men who were diagnosed with schizophrenia with a control group of 60 (35 men who were similar in terms of age, gender, education, and socioeconomic level. Anterior segment examination was performed using a Scheimflug system. Axial length and lens thickness (LT were measured using optic biometry. The following tests were administered to the psychiatric patient group: Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS, Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS, and Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS. Results: Mild myopia was detected in both the schizophrenic and control groups, with no statistically significant difference (p>0.005. Corneal volume (CV, anterior chamber volume (ACV, anterior chamber depth (ACD, and central corneal thickness (CCT values were lower in the schizophrenic group, and there was a statistically significant between-group difference (p=0.026, p=0.014, p=0.048, and p=0.005, respectively. LT was greater in schizophrenics, and the difference was found to be statistically significant (p=0.006. A statistically significant negative correlation was found between SAPS and cylinder values (p=0.008. The axial eye length, cylinder value, pupil diameter, mean keratometric value, and anterior chamber angle revealed no statistically significant difference between the groups (p>0.05. Conclusion: No statistically significant difference was detected in terms of refraction disorders between schizophrenics and the healthy control group, while some differences in anterior chamber parameters were present. These results demonstrate that schizophrenics may exhibit clinical and structural differences in the eye.

  8. Dynamical quantification of schizophrenic speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Fabrice; Pezard, Laurent; Nandrino, Jean-Louis; Beaune, Daniel

    2005-02-28

    Schizophrenic speech has been studied both at the clinical and linguistic level. Nevertheless, the statistical methods used in these studies do not specifically take into account the dynamical aspects of language. In the present study, we quantify the dynamical properties of linguistic production in schizophrenic and control subjects. Subjects' recall of a short story was encoded according to the succession of macro- and micro-propositions, and symbolic dynamical methods were used to analyze these data. Our results show the presence of a significant temporal organization in subjects' speech. Taking this structure into account, we show that schizophrenics connect micro-propositions significantly more often than controls. This impairment in accessing language at the highest level supports the hypothesis of a deficit in maintaining a discourse plan in schizophrenia.

  9. Risk of Diabetes in Older Adults with Co-Occurring Depressive Symptoms and Cardiometabolic Abnormalities: Prospective Analysis from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Cassandra; Deschênes, Sonya; Au, Bonnie; Smith, Kimberley; Schmitz, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    High depressive symptoms and cardiometabolic abnormalities are independently associated with an increased risk of diabetes. The purpose of this study was to assess the association of co-occurring depressive symptoms and cardiometabolic abnormalities on risk of diabetes in a representative sample of the English population aged 50 years and older. Data were from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. The sample comprised of 4454 participants without diabetes at baseline. High depressive symptoms were based on a score of 4 or more on the 8-item binary Centre for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale. Cardiometabolic abnormalities were defined as 3 or more cardiometabolic risk factors (hypertension, impaired glycemic control, systemic inflammation, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high triglycerides, and central obesity). Cox proportional hazards regressions assessed the association between co-occurring depressive symptoms and cardiometabolic abnormalities with incidence of diabetes. Multiple imputation by chained equations was performed to account for missing data. Covariates included age, sex, education, income, smoking status, physical activity, alcohol consumption, and cardiovascular comorbidity. The follow-up period consisted of 106 months, during which 193 participants reported a diagnosis of diabetes. Diabetes incidence rates were compared across the following four groups: 1) no or low depressive symptoms and no cardiometabolic abnormalities (reference group, n = 2717); 2) high depressive symptoms only (n = 338); 3) cardiometabolic abnormalities only (n = 1180); and 4) high depressive symptoms and cardiometabolic abnormalities (n = 219). Compared to the reference group, the hazard ratio for diabetes was 1.29 (95% CI 0.63, 2.64) for those with high depressive symptoms only, 3.88 (95% CI 2.77, 5.44) for those with cardiometabolic abnormalities only, and 5.56 (95% CI 3.45, 8.94) for those with both high depressive symptoms and cardiometabolic

  10. Sensation seeking behavior among schizophrenics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhady, Yadollah; Fadai, Farbod; Mazinani, Robabeh; Ashtari, Zabih; Alawijeh, Morteza

    2007-01-01

    To compare sensation seeking between schizophrenic patients (and clinical subtypes of schizophrenia) according to criteria of DSM-IV-TR; and a healthy control group. Two hypotheses were assumed: 1. Sensation seeking in the control group is higher than schizophrenic patients. 2. The levels of sensation seeking are different among clinical subtypes of schizophrenia. The sample comprised a study group of 69 schizophrenic inpatients at Raazy Psychiatric Center, Tehran, Iran in 2005 (10 males and 10 females for each of paranoid, undifferentiated and residual subtypes, and 9 males from disorganized subtype), and 50 randomly selected healthy people, the control group. To measure sensation seeking, the Zuckermann Sensation Seeking Scale, a 41-item questionnaire form, was used after evaluating its validity and reliability. After obtaining a weak or negative correlation, we omitted 9 questions, so that finally a 32-item questionnaire with highest reliability (Cronbach`s alpha = 0.64), remained and was utilized. We used descriptive statistical methods and calculation of statistical indices, and Student t-test for independent groups to evaluate the research hypotheses. The first hypothesis was confirmed at a 99% significance level. The second hypothesis was rejected at a 95% significance level. We found a definite correlation between schizophrenia and a low level of sensation seeking. Accordingly, and since sensation seeking (as a part of temperament) has a strong genetic component, a low level of sensation seeking is probably an existing feature of schizophrenia. Assessing sensation seeking in high-risk populations (children or the siblings of schizophrenics) could be a practical attempt at prevention or immediate treatment of schizophrenia.

  11. Reading in schizophrenic subjects and their nonsymptomatic first-degree relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Eryl O; Proudlock, Frank A; Martin, Kate; Reveley, Michael A; Al-Uzri, Mohammed; Gottlob, Irene

    2013-07-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated eye movement abnormalities during smooth pursuit and antisaccadic tasks in schizophrenia. However, eye movements have not been investigated during reading. The purpose of this study was to determine whether schizophrenic subjects and their nonsymptomatic first-degree relatives show eye movement abnormalities during reading. Reading rate, number of saccades per line, amplitudes of saccades, percentage regressions (reverse saccades), and fixation durations were measured using an eye tracker (EyeLink, SensoMotoric Instruments, Germany) in 38 schizophrenic volunteers, 14 nonaffected first-degree relatives, and 57 control volunteers matched for age and National Adult Reading Test scores. Parameters were examined when volunteers read full pages of text and text was limited to progressively smaller viewing areas around the point of fixation using a gaze-contingent window. Schizophrenic volunteers showed significantly slower reading rates (P = .004), increase in total number of saccades (P ≤ .001), and a decrease in saccadic amplitude (P = .025) while reading. Relatives showed a significant increase in total number of saccades (P = .013) and decrease in saccadic amplitude (P = .020). Limitation of parafoveal information by reducing the amount of visible characters did not change the reading rate of schizophrenics but controls showed a significant decrease in reading rate with reduced parafoveal information (P reading of schizophrenic volunteers and their first-degree relatives suggest that visual integration of foveal and parafoveal information may be reduced in schizophrenia. Reading abnormalities in relatives suggest a genetic influence in reading ability in schizophrenia and rule out confounding effects of medication.

  12. Assessment of Living Skills in Schizophrenic Patients by Kohlman Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Kazazi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The living skills of schizophrenic patients are disrupted due to cognitive, perceptual, sensory-motor, psychological, and psychosocial problems. Therefore, the identification of some aspects of living skills that require medical intervention is essential in these patients. Accordingly, in this study, the living skills of schizophrenic patients were investigated with the Kohlman Evaluation of Living Skills.Materials and Methods: This study was conducted by using the cross-sectional descriptive and analytic approach in which 35 hospitalized and 51 outpatient schizophrenic patients and 35 healthy individuals were compared and the areas of living skills that needed help were determined.Results: According to the Kruskal-Wallis test, there was a significant difference between the mean scores of healthy, hospitalized and outpatients subjects, whereas the difference in the means scores was not significant between the two groups of patients (p=0.693. Schizophrenic patients showed more than 50% requirement for help in the following subscales; appearance, awareness of dangerous household situations, appropriate action for sickness and accidents, obtaining and maintaining a source of income, budgeting their monthly income, and leisure activities. Employment had a direct effect on the living skills of the subjects and the test mean scores of employed people (2.409 was better than unemployed persons (7.083.Conclusion: The living skills of schizophrenic patients are damaged in some areas through the course of the disease and its symptoms. Based on the Kohlman Evaluation of Living Skills, these people require most help in self-care, safety health, money management, and leisure activities.

  13. [Characteristic asymmetric abnormal eye movement and dystonic posture as the first symptoms of alternating hemiplegia of childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motoki, Takahiro; Sasaki, Masayuki; Ishii, Atsushi; Hirose, Shinichi

    2016-03-01

    A 3-month-old girl exhibited asymmetric abnormal eye movement and unilateral dystonic posture intermittently after the first few days of life. Unilateral ocular deviation or nystagmus were the main signs of abnormal eye movements. She was suspected to have alternating hemiplegia of childhood (AHC) despite the absence of apparent alternating hemiplegic episodes. Gene analysis revealed a de-novo missense mutation (Asp801Asn) of ATP1A3. AHC is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by recurrent transient attacks of hemiplegia affecting the unilateral or bilateral side of the body; in most cases, these attacks begin in the first 6 months of life. Initial symptoms of AHC are not alternating hemiplegic episodes, but rather asymmetric abnormal eye movement, dystonic posture, or seizures. It is difficult to diagnose AHC early because no specific findings are observed in the diagnostic laboratory or neuroradiological examinations. Early diagnosis is important because flunarizine may have a protective effect on the severe motor deterioration associated with AHC. Asymmetric abnormal eye movement could be an important clinical symptom for the diagnosis of AHC in early infancy.

  14. Opposite effective connectivity in the posterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortex between first-episode schizophrenic patients with suicide risk and healthy controls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiran Zhang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The schizophrenic patients with high suicide risk are characterized by depression, better cognitive function, and prominent positive symptoms. However, the neurobiological basis of suicide attempts in schizophrenia is not clear. The suicide in schizophrenia is implicated in the defects in emotional process and decision-making, which are associated with prefrontal-cingulate circuit. In order to explore the possible neurobiological basis of suicide in schizophrenia, we investigated the correlation of prefrontal-cingulate circuit with suicide risk in schizophrenia via dynamic casual modelling. METHOD: Participants were 33 first-episode schizophrenic patients comprising of a high suicide risk group (N = 14 and a low suicide risk group (N = 19. A comparison group of healthy controls (N = 15 were matched for age, gender and education. N-back tasking functional magnetic resonance imaging data was collected. RESULTS: Compared with healthy controls group, the two patients groups showed decreased task-related suppression during 2-back task state versus baseline state in the left posterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortex; the hyper-connectivity from the left posterior cingulate cortex to the left medial prefrontal cortex existed in both schizophrenic patients groups, but hypo-connectivity in the opposite direction only existed in the schizophrenic patients group with high suicide risk. CONCLUSIONS: The hyper-connectivity from the left posterior cingulate cortex to the left medial prefrontal cortex may suggest that the abnormal effective connectivity was associated with risk for schizophrenia. The hypo-connectivity in the opposite direction may represent a possible correlate of increased vulnerability to suicide attempt.

  15. Trait anxiety determines depressive symptoms and fatigue in women with an abnormality in the breast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Jolanda; van der Steeg, Alida F.; Roukema, Jan A.

    2009-01-01

    The aim was to examine the role of trait anxiety and diagnosis on depressive symptoms and fatigue in women with early stage breast cancer or benign breast problems. A prospective follow-up study was performed in order to find predictors of depressive symptoms and fatigue. From the 169 participating

  16. Relational Control Patterns in Families of Schizophrenics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarrick, Anne; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Examined patterning of relational control in families of schizophrenic patients, and relationship between control in the family and the course of the illness. Transcripts of conversations among 17 schizophrenic outpatients and their families were coded into Relational Control Coding System. Found rigid, one-up messages from family members to…

  17. Cortical brain volume abnormalities associated with few or multiple neuropsychiatric symptoms in Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyssandra Dos Santos Tascone

    Full Text Available New research on assessing neuropsychiatric manifestations of Alzheimer´s Disease (AD involves grouping neuropsychiatric symptoms into syndromes. Yet this approach is limited by high inter-subject variability in neuropsychiatric symptoms and a relatively low degree of concordance across studies attempting to cluster neuropsychiatric symptoms into syndromes. An alternative strategy that involves dichotomizing AD subjects into those with few versus multiple neuropsychiatric symptoms is both consonant with real-world clinical practice and can contribute to understanding neurobiological underpinnings of neuropsychiatric symptoms in AD patients. The aim of this study was to address whether the number of neuropsychiatric symptoms (i.e., presence of few [≤2] versus multiple [≥3] symptoms in AD would be associated with degree of significant gray matter (GM volume loss. Of particular interest was volume loss in brain regions involved in memory, emotional processing and salience brain networks, including the prefrontal, lateral temporal and parietal cortices, anterior cingulate gyrus, temporo-limbic structures and insula. We recruited 19 AD patients and 13 healthy controls, which underwent an MRI and neuropsychiatric assessment. Regional brain volumes were determined using voxel-based morphometry and other advanced imaging processing methods. Our results indicated the presence of different patterns of GM atrophy in the two AD subgroups relative to healthy controls. AD patients with multiple neuropsychiatric manifestations showed more evident GM atrophy in the left superior temporal gyrus and insula as compared with healthy controls. In contrast, AD subjects with few neuropsychiatric symptoms displayed more GM atrophy in prefrontal regions, as well as in the dorsal anterior cingulate ad post-central gyri, as compared with healthy controls. Our findings suggest that the presence of multiple neuropsychiatric symptoms is more related to the degree of

  18. [Peculiarities of schizophrenic diseases in prelingually deaf persons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engmann, B

    2011-03-31

    Diagnostic criteria of schizophrenia, according to Kurt Schneider's first and second range symptoms appear in spoken language. This raises the question of how symptoms of schizophrenia are manifested in prelingually deaf people who mainly communicate with sign language. The article shows that acoustic hallucinations of normal hearing schizophrenic people correspond to visual and tactile hallucinations of the prelingually deaf. An additional similarity is found in a disorder of the structure of the language. These similarities show that schizophrenia does not depend on the acoustic part of language or the acquisition of spoken language.

  19. Risk factors in the development of schizophrenia: contributions from a study of children of schizophrenic mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnas, J

    1986-06-01

    The development of and the results from a prospective longitudinal study of children of schizophrenic mothers are presented. The presented studies have been guided by a diathesis-stress model of psychopathology and data analyses relied on the paradigm that schizophrenics and schizotypes share genetic liability to schizophrenia, but that the former, in addition, suffer from environmental insult. This paradigm, hypothetically formulated by Paul Meehl (21) proved especially fruitful in the etiological inferences made in this study. The results indicate that schizophrenia is, to some degree, genetically transmitted and that schizotypes share this genetic vulnerability with schizophrenics. Schizophrenia may be conceptualized as an environmentally complicated schizotypal personality disorder. Deleterious environmental influences identified in this study are obstetric complications probably resulting in central brain atrophy as measured by the CT-scans. In addition, future schizophrenics experienced disrupted childhood conditions as measured here by the amount of institutional rearing during the first five years of life. Fathers of the high risk children were more frequently mentally disturbed than fathers of the low risk children. The presence of a schizophrenia spectrum disorder in the father significantly increased a risk for such disorder in the high risk offspring. Continuity of psychopathological deviance in the form of subtle formal thought disorder and defective emotional contact was demonstrated for the schizophrenics and schizotypes from childhood into adulthood. This suggests that such symptoms are central to schizophrenic psychopathology and that schizophrenia is a development and not a disease which affects people without forewarning.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Double-Decision Lexical Tasks in Thought-Disordered Schizophrenic Patients: A Path Towards Cognitive Remediation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besche-Richard, Chrystel; Passerieux, Christine; Hardy-Bayle, Marie-Christine

    2005-01-01

    It has been shown that schizophrenics have certain difficulties in the processing of semantic context. These difficulties have usually been evaluated using lexical decision tasks with semantic priming. In this study, we chose to examine the idea of an abnormality in the early stages of semantic context processing in thought-disordered…

  1. Clinical Symptoms of Minor Head Trauma and Abnormal Computed Tomography Scan

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    Maghsoudi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Minor head trauma accounts for 70% to 90% of all head traumas. Previous studies stated that minor head traumas were associated with 7% - 20% significant abnormal findings in brain computed tomography (CT-scans. Objectives The aim of this study was to reevaluate clinical criteria of taking brain CT scan in patients who suffered from minor head trauma. Patients and Methods We enrolled 680 patients presented to an academic trauma hospital with minor head trauma in a prospective manner. All participants underwent brain CT scan if they met the inclusion criteria and the results of scans were compared with clinical examination finding. Results Loss of consciousness (GCS drop or amnesia was markedly associated with abnormal brain CT scan (P < 0.05. Interestingly, we found 7 patients with normal clinical examination but significant abnormal brain CT scan. Conclusions According to the results of our study, we recommend that all patients with minor head trauma underwent brain CT scan in order not to miss any life-threatening head injuries.

  2. schizophrenics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-07-30

    Jul 30, 2006 ... of the use of atypical antipsychotic agents with the development of ... development of diabetes when compared to a general population ..... Diazepam 2mg bid. Sodium Valproate controlled release 500mg bid. 4. Zuclopenthixol depot 200mg IMI 4 weekly. 56. Chlorpromazine 100mg am and 200mg pm. 5.

  3. schizophrenics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-07-30

    Jul 30, 2006 ... A risk for diabetes is being overweight and the potential for psychotropic agents to increase weight would therefore impact on this health factor.1 Following the introduction of phenothiazine's in. 1956 the prevalence rates of type 2 diabetes mellitus in patients with schizophrenia showed a marked increase.

  4. Abnormal Hippocampal Morphology in Dissociative Identity Disorder and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Correlates with Childhood Trauma and Dissociative Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalavi, Sima; Vissia, Eline M.; Giesen, Mechteld E.; Nijenhuis, Ellert R.S.; Draijer, Nel; Cole, James H.; Dazzan, Paola; Pariante, Carmine M.; Madsen, Sarah K.; Rajagopalan, Priya; Thompson, Paul M.; Toga, Arthur W.; Veltman, Dick J.; Reinders, Antje A.T.S.

    2015-01-01

    Smaller hippocampal volume has been reported in individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dissociative identity disorder (DID), but the regional specificity of hippocampal volume reductions and the association with severity of dissociative symptoms and/or childhood traumatization are still unclear. Brain structural MRI scans were analyzed for 33 outpatients (17 with DID and 16 with PTSD only) and 28 healthy controls (HC), all matched for age, sex, and education. DID patients met criteria for PTSD (PTSD-DID). Hippocampal global and subfield volumes and shape measurements were extracted. We found that global hippocampal volume was significantly smaller in all 33 patients (left: 6.75%; right: 8.33%) compared to HC. PTSD-DID (left: 10.19%; right: 11.37%) and PTSD-only with a history of childhood traumatization (left: 7.11%; right: 7.31%) had significantly smaller global hippocampal volume relative to HC. PTSD-DID had abnormal shape and significantly smaller volume in the CA2-3, CA4-DG and (pre)subiculum compared to HC. In the patient groups, smaller global and subfield hippocampal volumes significantly correlated with higher severity of childhood traumatization and dissociative symptoms. These findings support a childhood trauma-related etiology for abnormal hippocampal morphology in both PTSD and DID and can further the understanding of neurobiological mechanisms involved in these disorders. PMID:25545784

  5. Abnormal hippocampal morphology in dissociative identity disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder correlates with childhood trauma and dissociative symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalavi, Sima; Vissia, Eline M; Giesen, Mechteld E; Nijenhuis, Ellert R S; Draijer, Nel; Cole, James H; Dazzan, Paola; Pariante, Carmine M; Madsen, Sarah K; Rajagopalan, Priya; Thompson, Paul M; Toga, Arthur W; Veltman, Dick J; Reinders, Antje A T S

    2015-05-01

    Smaller hippocampal volume has been reported in individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dissociative identity disorder (DID), but the regional specificity of hippocampal volume reductions and the association with severity of dissociative symptoms and/or childhood traumatization are still unclear. Brain structural magnetic resonance imaging scans were analyzed for 33 outpatients (17 with DID and 16 with PTSD only) and 28 healthy controls (HC), all matched for age, sex, and education. DID patients met criteria for PTSD (PTSD-DID). Hippocampal global and subfield volumes and shape measurements were extracted. We found that global hippocampal volume was significantly smaller in all 33 patients (left: 6.75%; right: 8.33%) compared with HC. PTSD-DID (left: 10.19%; right: 11.37%) and PTSD-only with a history of childhood traumatization (left: 7.11%; right: 7.31%) had significantly smaller global hippocampal volume relative to HC. PTSD-DID had abnormal shape and significantly smaller volume in the CA2-3, CA4-DG and (pre)subiculum compared with HC. In the patient groups, smaller global and subfield hippocampal volumes significantly correlated with higher severity of childhood traumatization and dissociative symptoms. These findings support a childhood trauma-related etiology for abnormal hippocampal morphology in both PTSD and DID and can further the understanding of neurobiological mechanisms involved in these disorders. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Risk of Diabetes in Older Adults with Co-Occurring Depressive Symptoms and Cardiometabolic Abnormalities: Prospective Analysis from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandra Freitas

    Full Text Available High depressive symptoms and cardiometabolic abnormalities are independently associated with an increased risk of diabetes. The purpose of this study was to assess the association of co-occurring depressive symptoms and cardiometabolic abnormalities on risk of diabetes in a representative sample of the English population aged 50 years and older. Data were from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. The sample comprised of 4454 participants without diabetes at baseline. High depressive symptoms were based on a score of 4 or more on the 8-item binary Centre for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale. Cardiometabolic abnormalities were defined as 3 or more cardiometabolic risk factors (hypertension, impaired glycemic control, systemic inflammation, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high triglycerides, and central obesity. Cox proportional hazards regressions assessed the association between co-occurring depressive symptoms and cardiometabolic abnormalities with incidence of diabetes. Multiple imputation by chained equations was performed to account for missing data. Covariates included age, sex, education, income, smoking status, physical activity, alcohol consumption, and cardiovascular comorbidity. The follow-up period consisted of 106 months, during which 193 participants reported a diagnosis of diabetes. Diabetes incidence rates were compared across the following four groups: 1 no or low depressive symptoms and no cardiometabolic abnormalities (reference group, n = 2717; 2 high depressive symptoms only (n = 338; 3 cardiometabolic abnormalities only (n = 1180; and 4 high depressive symptoms and cardiometabolic abnormalities (n = 219. Compared to the reference group, the hazard ratio for diabetes was 1.29 (95% CI 0.63, 2.64 for those with high depressive symptoms only, 3.88 (95% CI 2.77, 5.44 for those with cardiometabolic abnormalities only, and 5.56 (95% CI 3.45, 8.94 for those with both high depressive symptoms and cardiometabolic

  7. Quantitative studies of schizophrenic behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, T D

    1976-12-01

    Behavioral data from eight psychiatric patients were collected and formed into 14 time series of 100 weekly rates (percentages of positive entries for frequent behaviors such as pacing, talking, hand-movement, etc.). A variety of methods of time-series analysis were applied to determine optimal predictive schemes in an effort to develop an inductive approach to input-output behavioral modelling. Some attempts at numerical prediction into new data were successful, and the results suggested that the best overall approach is likely to be nonlinear modification of auto-regressive schemes. Nonlinearity and nonstationarity of such time series are prominent features, but deterministic trends appear strong enough to justify extensive work. Application of artificial inputs to some of the models suggests that protracted oscillatory responses to stimulation may be characteristic for some schizophrenic patients. Copyright © 1976. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. [The Cotard syndrome in schizophrenic disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stompe, Thomas; Schanda, Hans

    2013-01-01

    The Cotard-Syndrome (CS), the belief of being dead, was described for the first time in 1880. Since then it met the interest not only of psychopathologists but also of philosophers. With a few exceptions, the literature is mainly restricted to case reports of anxious-depressive, demented or paranoid patients. It was the aim of our study to investigate the prevalence and the psychopathological context of the CS. We analyzed the Austrian data (N = 346) of the International Study of Psychotic Symptoms in Schizophrenia. A CS could be diagnosed in three cases (0.87%). In all of them, CS developed on the basis of nihilistic-hypochondriac delusions and a progressive loss of energy. Two patients bridged the logical inconsistencies between obviously being alive and the belief of being dead by visual illusions, the third patient, however, by locating himself in an intermediate region between this world and the afterworld. On the one hand the CS can be considered as a special manifestation of the topic of death in schizophrenic delusions, on the other as a nihilistic delusional identity. Without doubt, this uncommon and bizarre psychotic phenomenon will be an object of interest for general psychopathology as well as for the philosophy of mind also in future.

  9. The placental problem: Linking abnormal cytotrophoblast differentiation to the maternal symptoms of preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fisher Susan J

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The placenta is a remarkable organ. In normal pregnancy its specialized cells (termed cytotrophoblasts differentiate into various specialized subpopulations that play pivotal roles in governing fetal growth and development. One cytotrophoblast subset acquires tumor-like properties that allow the cells to invade the decidua and myometrium, a process that attaches the placenta to the uterus. The same subset also adopts a vascular phenotype that allows these fetal cells to breach and subsequently line uterine blood vessels, a process that channels maternal blood to the rest of the placenta. In the pregnancy complication preeclampsia, which is characterized by the sudden onset of maternal hypertension, proteinuria and edema, cytotrophoblast invasion is shallow and vascular transformation incomplete. These findings, together with very recent evidence from animal models, suggest that preeclampsia is associated with abnormal placental production of vasculogenic/angiogenic substances that reach the maternal circulation with the potential to produce at least a subset of the clinical signs of this syndrome. The current challenge is to build on this knowledge to design clinically useful tests for predicting, diagnosing and treating this dangerous disorder.

  10. Anxiety and Hysterical Symptoms in Schizophrenia | Scribante ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The existence of both anxiety and hysterical symptoms have been described in schizophrenic populations. Various explanations exist. The issue of whether such symptoms represent discrete clinical entities or are intrinsic to the schizophrenic process, requires further research. Keywords: Schizophrenia, Anxiety, Hysterical

  11. Abnormal features of Macoma balthica (Bivalvia) in the Baltic Sea: alerting symptoms of environmental adversity?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokolowski, Adam; Wolowicz, Maciej; Hummel, Herman; Smolarz-Gorska, Katarzyna; Fichet, Denis; Radenac, Gilles; Thiriot-Quievreux, Catherine; Namiesnik, Jacek

    2004-07-01

    Recent studies of the Baltic clam Macoma balthica (L.) from the southern Baltic (the Gulf of Gdansk) have revealed striking morphological, histological and cytogenetic features. Strong deformation of the shell, including elongation of the posterior end and the appearance of an easily visible flexure in this part, has been recorded. The population contribution of the deformed blunt shelled ('irregular') clams ranged from 0% to 65% and tended to increase with depth. The morphologically 'irregular' clams had higher accumulated tissue concentrations of trace metals (As, Ag, Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn), indicating a different metal handling ability. Adverse conditions in deeper water regions of the Gulf (e.g. hypoxia, hydrogen sulphide, elevated bioavailability of contaminants) have been suggested as inducers of the phenotypical changes (morphological deformation) in part of the population and, in parallel, of the specific physiological adaptations that result in higher metal accumulation in the 'irregular' clams. Cytogenetic and histological analyses showed the presence of tumours in gill cells and digestive system of the affected clams, the prevalence of disseminated neoplasia ranging from 0% to 94% depending on the site. The disease was manifested by a modified karyotype (i.e. an abnormal number and morphology of chromosomes), a higher activity of nucleolar organizer regions (AgNORs), and tissue lesions (enlarged cells, actively proliferative with pleomorphic nuclei). Bottom sediments showed acute toxicity and have been proposed as a source of an initialising carcinogenic factor. However, none of the ecotoxicological studies provided was successful in the clear demonstration of a single (or multifactorial) agent that can account for the disseminated neoplasia.

  12. P2-26: Comparison between Normal People and Schizophrenic Patients on Face Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yl-Woo Lee

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This research was tested to compare face recognition of normal people and schizophrenic patients. Frontal male faces were used as stimuli, which were Northeast Asian and Southeast Asian. Normal people and patients with positive/negative symptom of schizophrenia participated in this research, and all participants were Korean. Participants were instructed to memorize a stimulus (target presented briefly, and recognize it later among another stimuli (fillers. In recognition task, five faces were presented with a target or without as fillers. The results showed that while schizophrenic patients had difficulty recognizing targets, all participants performed best in the condition of other ethnic target-own ethnic fillers. These results suggest that own ethnicity effect could not be observed, and imply that face processing of schizophrenic patients might be disrupted by perception level rather than memory level.

  13. Metabolic syndrome in Thai schizophrenic patients: a naturalistic one-year follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charnsilp Chawanun

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Not only the prevalence, but also the progress of metabolic abnormalities in schizophrenic patients is of importance for treatment planning and policy making. However, there have been very few prospective studies of metabolic disturbance in schizophrenic patients. This study aimed to assess the progress of metabolic abnormalities in Thai individuals with schizophrenia by estimating their one-year incidence rate of metabolic syndrome (MetS. Methods We screened all schizophrenic patients who visited our psychiatric clinic. After the exclusion of participants with MetS at baseline, each subject was reassessed at 6 and 12 months to determine the occurrence of MetS. The definition of MetS, as proposed by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF, was applied. Results Fifty-seven participants (24 males and 33 females had a mean of age and duration of antipsychotic treatment of 37.5 years old and 8.4 years, respectively. At baseline, 13 subjects met the MetS definition. Of 44 subjects who had no MetS at baseline, 35 could be followed up. Seven of these 35 subjects (20.0% had developed MetS at the 6- or 12-month visit, after already having 2 MetS components at baseline. The demographic data and characteristics of those developing and not developing MetS were not different in any respect. Conclusion Thai schizophrenic patients are likely to develop MetS. Their metabolic abnormalities may progress rapidly and fulfill the MetS definition within a year of follow-up. These findings support the importance of assessing and monitoring metabolic syndrome in schizophrenic patients.

  14. Abnormalities in personal space and parietal–frontal function in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daphne J. Holt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is associated with subtle abnormalities in day-to-day social behaviors, including a tendency in some patients to “keep their distance” from others in physical space. The neural basis of this abnormality, and related changes in social functioning, is unknown. Here we examined, in schizophrenic patients and healthy control subjects, the functioning of a parietal–frontal network involved in monitoring the space immediately surrounding the body (“personal space”. Using fMRI, we found that one region of this network, the dorsal intraparietal sulcus (DIPS, was hyper-responsive in schizophrenic patients to face stimuli appearing to move towards the subjects, intruding into personal space. This hyper-responsivity was predicted both by the size of personal space (which was abnormally elevated in the schizophrenia group and the severity of negative symptoms. In contrast, in a second study, the activity of two lower-level visual areas that send information to DIPS (the fusiform face area and middle temporal area was normal in schizophrenia. Together, these findings suggest that changes in parietal–frontal networks that support the sensory-guided initiation of behavior, including actions occurring in the space surrounding the body, contribute to social dysfunction and negative symptoms in schizophrenia.

  15. Schizophrenic and Sibling: A Comparison of Parental Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Frank; Walsh, Froma

    1980-01-01

    Schizophrenics were differentiated from their siblings in tendencies to see themselves as symbiotically attached to their mothers and failing to be accommodated to by their fathers. Schizophrenics tend to be aligned with the same sex parent. Findings may help explain the psychosexual identification difficulties of schizophrenics. (Author)

  16. Abnormal uterine bleeding as a presenting symptom is related to multiple uterine leiomyoma: an ultrasound-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fonseca-Moutinho JA

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available José Alberto Fonseca-Moutinho,1,2 Lígia Silva Barbosa,1 Daniel Gonçalves Torres,1 Sara Morgado Nunes31Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Medicine, Beira Interior University, Covilhã, Portugal; 2Child and Women Department, Cova da Beira Academic Medical Center, Covilhã, Portugal; 3Polytechnic Institute of Castelo Branco, Castelo Branco, PortugalPurpose: To determine the prevalence of uterine leiomyomas, diagnosed by ultrasound, in a private health care setting located in the central eastern region of Portugal, and to explore the demographic and clinical factors related to diagnosis and symptomatology.Patients and methods: The files of 624 patients attending a private clinic in Covilhã, Portugal, from January 2 to December 31, 2010 were retrieved for evaluation. Pelvic ultrasound record, age, weight, height, age at menarche, number of pregnancies and deliveries, marital status, menstrual cycles characteristic, and contraceptive method at consultation were included in the analysis.Results: Uterine leiomyoma (UL was diagnosed by ultrasonography in 161 (25.8% patients. A single UL was diagnosed in 80 (49.7% patients. In 79 (49.1% patients, the largest leiomyoma had a dimension <20 mm. Prevalence of UL was age dependent: at 11.0% for women 20–39 years old; 45.4% for those aged 40–59 years; and 19.5% for women 60 years or older. Metrorrhagia was the most distressing presenting symptom. When menorrhagia was the presenting symptom, the probability of having an ultrasound diagnosis of UL was 73.3%. Metrorrhagia or menorrhagia, as presenting symptom, was significantly related to the ultrasound diagnosis of multiple ULs.Conclusion: UL was especially prevalent in women aged between 40 and 59 years. Patients with multiple ULs had significantly more abnormal uterine bleeding. In patients with menorrhagia or metrorrhagia, special attention should be taken in searching for the presence of multiple ULs during ultrasound.Keywords: fibroid, leiomyoma

  17. The Self Representation in Schizophrenic patients: Considerations on the Draw a Tree Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Settineri

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract   Objective: The tree is the archetypal symbol of the identification in the growing life. The objective of this study is to evaluate the representation of the self in schizophrenic patients through the tree drawing. Methods: Were identified 36 patients, 22 women and 14 (M-age=53, suffering from schizophrenic disorder. Through the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS and the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS positive and negative symptoms, and the reactive tree representation of the self were assessed.   Results: In the group with negative symptoms archetypal figures are more frequent, such as images that are part of the collective unconscious, or thought more archaic. In patients in which emerges the delirium, that is part of the most evolved thinking, near to the secondary process, the reality testing is better preserved. In cases where there are symptoms mixed the tree structure leads to an archetypal image. Conclusions: This study shows that in the draw of the tree trunk-to-crown ratio in schizophrenic patients was significantly higher than that of healthy individuals. The usefulness of the study insert itself in the Jungian analytic thought, for which psychotic thought corresponds to an abbaissement of the self activity.   Keyword: Representation of Self; Schizophrenia; Draw a Tree Test.

  18. Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in Schizophrenics on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To determine the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among outpatients with schizophrenia. Methods: A cross sectional survey of schizophrenics attending out-patient clinics in a Nigerian hospital was undertaken. Anthropometric measures, clinical variables and lifestyle patterns of respondents were assessed.

  19. Microstructural brain abnormalities and symptom dimensions in child and adolescent patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder: a diffusion tensor imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lázaro, Luisa; Calvo, Anna; Ortiz, Ana G; Ortiz, Ana E; Morer, Astrid; Moreno, Elena; Calvo, Rosa; Bargallo, Núria

    2014-12-01

    The aims of this study were to determine white matter (WM) microstructure abnormalities in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) using diffusion tensor imaging, and to investigate whether these abnormalities differ according to OCD symptom dimensions. Sixty-three child and adolescent OCD patients (11-18 years old) and 37 healthy subjects matched for gender, age, and estimated intelligence quotient were assessed by means of psychopathology scales and diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging. Compared with healthy controls OCD patients showed a significant decrease (t = 3.79, P = .049 FDR-corrected) in fractional anisotropy (FA) in the anterior region of the corpus callosum (CC). In addition, mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AD), and radial diffusivity (RD) values were significantly increased in OCD compared with controls in the CC and in several WM regions of the cingulate, frontal and occipital lobes, basal ganglia, cerebellum, and pons. Compared with healthy controls, OCD patients presenting the harm/checking dimension showed decreased FA in the CC and in the left anterior cingulate gyrus and caudate nucleus, whereas patients with a predominant contamination/washing symptom dimension presented significantly decreased FA in the left midbrain, lentiform nucleus, insula, and thalamus, and increased MD, AD, and RD in both the anterior lobes of cerebellum and in the pons. The findings suggest WM abnormalities at the microstructural level in the pathogenesis of OCD. Moreover, WM abnormalities in OCD may vary according to the specific OCD symptom dimensions, thus indicating the clinical heterogeneity of the condition. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Smoking in schizophrenic patients: A critique of the self-medication hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Manzella, Francesca; Maloney, Susan E; Taylor, George T

    2015-01-01

    A common remark among laypeople, and notably also among mental health workers, is that individuals with mental illnesses use drugs as self-medication to allay clinical symptoms and the side effects of drug treatments. Roots of the self-medication concept in psychiatry date back at least to the 1980s. Observations that rates of smokers in schizophrenic patients are multiple times the rates for regular smoking in the general population, as well as those with other disorders, proved particularly...

  1. Taking cognizance of mental illness in schizophrenics and its association with crime and substance-related diagnoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkner, R; Haastrup, S; Jørgensen, T

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse how committed crimes and substance-related diagnoses are associated with the age on the first contact with the psychiatric hospital system and the age at diagnosing of schizophrenia among schizophrenics. METHOD: In a register-based study including all Danes diagnosed with sc...... are aware of possible psychotic symptoms in criminal and abusing individuals to enable earlier detection and treatment....

  2. Altered balance in the autonomic nervous system in schizophrenic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, B M; Mehlsen, J; Behnke, K

    1988-01-01

    .05). Heart-rate response to inspiration was greater in non-medicated schizophrenics compared to normal subjects (P less than 0.05), whereas no difference was found between medicated and non-medicated schizophrenics. The results show that the balance in the autonomic nervous system is altered in schizophrenic...... patients with a hyperexcitability in both the sympathetic and the parasympathetic division. Our study has thus indicated a dysfunction in the autonomic nervous system per se and the previous interpretations of attentional orienting responses in schizophrenia is questioned. Medication with neuroleptics......The aim of the present study was to evaluate the autonomic nervous function in schizophrenic patients. Twenty-eight patients (29 +/- 6 years) diagnosed as schizophrenics and in stable medication were included, together with ten schizophrenic patients (25 +/- 5 years) who were unmedicated. Eleven...

  3. A five-year longitudinal study of the regional cerebral metabolic changes of a schizophrenic patient from the first episode using Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R Y; Chen, E; Ho, W Y

    2000-01-01

    This is a naturalistic study of the relationship between cerebral metabolic activity, clinical symptoms and treatment response in a schizophrenic patient for 5 years from the onset of her illness. Serial technetium-99m-HMPAO brain SPECT was used to measure regional cerebral metabolism. The Cambridge Neurological Inventory and neuropsychological tests (WAIS-R verbal subscales, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, semantic verbal fluency, logical memory in Weschler Memory Scale) were used for neurocognitive assessment. Under-activity of the left temporal area was observed in the course of patient illness despite remission of the psychotic symptoms. Bilateral prefrontal metabolic under-activity was noted at the emergence of negative symptoms, executive neurocognitive dysfunction and the treatment-resistant state. After response to clozapine, the right prefrontal activity returned to a normal level. Our findings suggested that persistent left temporal underactivity detected by SPECT despite clinical remission may indicate a vulnerability for further relapses and development of a treatment-resistant state. Treatment-resistant state, negative symptoms and executive neurocognitive deficit may involve abnormal prefrontal metabolic activity and can be alleviated in clozapine-responsive patients.

  4. VISUAL INFORMATION PROCESSING DEFICITS IN CLINICALLY REMITTED OUTPATIENT SCHIZOPHRENICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananthanarayanan, C.V.; Janakiramaiah, N.; Gangadhar, B.N.; Vittal, S.; Andade, C.; Kumaraiah, V.

    1993-01-01

    SUMMARY Twenty four remitted schizophrenics and twenty four neurotic depressives were studied on three measures of visual information processing, viz., simple reaction time, choice reaction time, and a forced choice span of apprehension test. The groups were matched for age, sex, and educational status. The remitted schizophrenics performed poorly on these measures compared to neurotic depressives. The findings suggest that information processing deficits are present in outpatient schizophrenics even during clinical remission. PMID:21776163

  5. Taking cognizance of mental illness in schizophrenics and its association with crime and substance-related diagnoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkner, R; Haastrup, S; Jørgensen, T

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse how committed crimes and substance-related diagnoses are associated with the age on the first contact with the psychiatric hospital system and the age at diagnosing of schizophrenia among schizophrenics. METHOD: In a register-based study including all Danes diagnosed with sc...... are aware of possible psychotic symptoms in criminal and abusing individuals to enable earlier detection and treatment.......OBJECTIVE: To analyse how committed crimes and substance-related diagnoses are associated with the age on the first contact with the psychiatric hospital system and the age at diagnosing of schizophrenia among schizophrenics. METHOD: In a register-based study including all Danes diagnosed...... with schizophrenia born after November 1, 1963, data on criminality, substance-related diagnoses and contacts with the psychiatric hospital system were analysed. RESULTS: Compared with the non-convicted schizophrenics the convicted were older on first contact with the psychiatric hospital system and older when...

  6. Popliteal cysts and subgastrocnemius bursitis are associated with knee symptoms and structural abnormalities in older adults: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yuelong; Jones, Graeme; Han, Weiyu; Antony, Benny; Wang, Xia; Cicuttini, Flavia; Ding, Changhai

    2014-03-03

    The role of popliteal cysts and subgastrocnemius bursitis in knee joint homeostasis is uncertain. The aim of this study is to describe cross-sectional associations between popliteal cysts, subgastrocnemius bursitis, knee symptoms and structural abnormalities in older adults. A cross-sectional sample of 900 randomly-selected subjects (mean age 63 years, 48% female) were studied. Knee pain, stiffness and dysfunction were assessed by self-administered Western Ontario McMaster Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) questionnaire. Radiographic knee osteophyte and joint space narrowing (JSN) were recorded. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was utilized to assess popliteal cysts, subgastrocnemius bursitis, cartilage defects and bone marrow lesions (BMLs). Popliteal cysts were present in 11.7% and subgastrocnemius bursitis in 12.7% of subjects. Subgastrocnemius bursitis was more common in those with popliteal cyst (36.2% versus 9.7%, P weight-bearing knee pain but these associations became non-significant after adjustment for cartilage defects and BMLs. Popliteal cysts and subgastrocnemius bursitis are associated with increased symptoms as well as radiographic and MRI-detected joint structural abnormalities. Longitudinal data will help resolve if they are a consequence or a cause of knee joint abnormalities.

  7. Popliteal cysts and subgastrocnemius bursitis are associated with knee symptoms and structural abnormalities in older adults: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The role of popliteal cysts and subgastrocnemius bursitis in knee joint homeostasis is uncertain. The aim of this study is to describe cross-sectional associations between popliteal cysts, subgastrocnemius bursitis, knee symptoms and structural abnormalities in older adults. Methods A cross-sectional sample of 900 randomly-selected subjects (mean age 63 years, 48% female) were studied. Knee pain, stiffness and dysfunction were assessed by self-administered Western Ontario McMaster Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) questionnaire. Radiographic knee osteophyte and joint space narrowing (JSN) were recorded. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was utilized to assess popliteal cysts, subgastrocnemius bursitis, cartilage defects and bone marrow lesions (BMLs). Results Popliteal cysts were present in 11.7% and subgastrocnemius bursitis in 12.7% of subjects. Subgastrocnemius bursitis was more common in those with popliteal cyst (36.2% versus 9.7%, P bursitis was associated with increased osteophytes and JSN in the medial tibiofemoral compartment. Both were significantly associated with cartilage defects in all compartments, and with BMLs in the medial tibiofemoral compartment. Furthermore, both popliteal cysts and subgastrocnemius bursitis were significantly associated with increased weight-bearing knee pain but these associations became non-significant after adjustment for cartilage defects and BMLs. Conclusions Popliteal cysts and subgastrocnemius bursitis are associated with increased symptoms as well as radiographic and MRI-detected joint structural abnormalities. Longitudinal data will help resolve if they are a consequence or a cause of knee joint abnormalities. PMID:24581327

  8. Affective reactivity of speech in patients with schizophrenia and their non-schizophrenic relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohagheghi, Arash; Farnam, Alireza; Farhang, Sara; Bakhshipoor, Abbas

    2013-12-01

    Studies about cognitive functioning of patients with schizophrenia (language problems in particular) are very limited in Iran. This study aims at evaluating the affective reactivity of speech in Turkish-speaking schizophrenic patients and their non-schizophrenic relatives. In a cross-sectional setting, 30 outpatients with schizophrenia were compared with 30 first-degree non-schizophrenic family members and 30 non-clinical controls. The audio-taped speech samples (10 min each) were analyzed blindly for frequencies of referential communication failure. Levels of referential communication disturbance in speech samples (Communication Disturbance Index, CDI) during two separate sessions were compared in affectively positive versus affectively negative conditions. All three groups showed significantly higher frequencies of communication disturbances in the affectively negative condition. The affective reactivity of speech was significant in patients with schizophrenia compared with the controls but not the unaffected relatives. The severity of positive or negative symptoms was not correlated with CDI or level of affective reactivity. This study was carried out in a Turkish-speaking sample and supports the idea that referential communication disturbances may be linked to vulnerability to schizophrenia while affective reactivity is associated with manifest illness. Language differences may affect the observed impact of symptom severity on communication failures.

  9. Relations between depressive symptoms, anxiety, and T Wave abnormalities in subjects without clinically-apparent cardiovascular disease (from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis [MESA]).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whang, William; Peacock, James; Soliman, Elsayed Z; Alcantara, Carmela; Nazarian, Saman; Shah, Amit J; Davidson, Karina W; Shea, Steven; Muntner, Paul; Shimbo, Daichi

    2014-12-15

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that depression and anxiety are associated with electrocardiographic (ECG) repolarization abnormalities in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), a cohort free of symptomatic cardiovascular disease. Depressive symptoms were assessed by using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale and trait anxiety symptoms by using the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory; both were categorized according to uppermost quartile. T-wave inversions in ECG leads other than V1 to V3 were obtained from electrocardiograms obtained at rest during the baseline examination. Participants with major intraventricular conduction abnormalities and those taking antiarrhythmics, antidepressants, and/or antipsychotics were excluded. Logistic regression models were estimated with multivariable adjustment for traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors. Among 5,906 participants, elevated depressive symptoms were associated with increased odds of T-wave inversion after multivariable adjustment (odds ratio 2.02, 95% confidence interval 1.33 to 3.06, p = 0.001), whereas greater trait anxiety was associated with reduced odds of T-wave inversion (odds ratio 0.47, 95% confidence interval 0.29 to 0.77, p = 0.003). The divergent associations of depressive symptoms and trait anxiety with ECG T-wave inversions were similar in men and women, and these associations were present across the racial and ethnic subgroups (non-Hispanic white, African-American, Hispanic, and Chinese). In conclusion, symptoms of depression and anxiety were independently yet oppositely associated with ECG T-wave inversions. Negative emotions may have a differential impact on cardiovascular mortality through unique relations with cardiac repolarization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The association between white-matter tract abnormalities, and neuropsychiatric and cognitive symptoms in retired professional football players with multiple concussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multani, Namita; Goswami, Ruma; Khodadadi, Mozhgan; Ebraheem, Ahmed; Davis, Karen D; Tator, Charles H; Wennberg, Richard; Mikulis, David J; Ezerins, Leo; Tartaglia, Maria Carmela

    2016-07-01

    Retired professional athletes, who have suffered repetitive concussions, report symptoms of depression, anxiety, and memory impairment over time. Moreover, recent imaging data suggest chronic white-matter tract deterioration in sport-related concussion. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of repetitive concussions in retired professional football players on white-matter tracts, and relate these changes to neuropsychological function. All subjects (18 retired professional football players and 17 healthy controls) underwent imaging, neuropsychological assessment, and reported on concussion-related symptoms. Whole brain tract-based spatial statistics analysis revealed increased axial diffusivity in the right hemisphere of retired players in the (1) superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), (2) corticospinal tract, and (3) anterior thalamic radiations, suggesting chronic axonal degeneration in these tracts. Moreover, retired players report significantly higher neuropsychiatric and cognitive symptoms than healthy controls, and worsening of these symptoms since their last concussion. Loss of integrity in the right SLF significantly correlated with participants' visual learning ability. In sum, these results suggest that repetitive concussions in retired professional football players are associated with focal white-matter tract abnormalities that could explain some of the neuropsychiatric symptoms and cognitive deficits experienced by these retired athletes.

  11. The Cognitive Orientation of Expressive Communicability in Schizophrenics and Normals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreitler, Shulamith; And Others

    1987-01-01

    The study examined the expressive communicability (i.e., the amount, fluency, elaboration, clarity, and veracity of voluntarily transmitted information about oneself) and belief systems of 30 hospitalized adult schizophrenics and 30 matched normals. Schizophrenics differed from normals on all measures and the different beliefs predicted expressed…

  12. Paralinguistic characteristics of speech in schizophrenics and depressives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, M K; Srivastava, P; Singh, S K

    1990-01-01

    Schizophrenics, depressives, patients with anxiety neurosis and normal controls were asked to comment freely for 2 min on photographs depicting seven facial emotional expressions. Schizophrenics commented for the shortest duration of time with characteristic vocalization; depressives' speech was characterized by low initiative time latency, greater duration of utterance but fewer word-counts.

  13. Reported Childhood Trauma and Suicide Attempts in Schizophrenic Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Alec

    2005-01-01

    Childhood traumas are associated with suicidal behavior but this aspect has not been examined in relation to schizophrenia. In this study, 50 chronic schizophrenic patients who had attempted suicide were compared with 50 chronic schizophrenic patients who had never attempted suicide for their scores on the 34-item Childhood Trauma Questionnaire…

  14. Concentrations in plasma clozapine levels in schizophrenic and schizoaffective patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias García, Celso; Iglesias Alonso, Ana; Bobes, Julio

    There is great variability in plasma levels of clozapine. The objective of this study is to know the characteristics of patients treated with clozapine and the relationship between them and the variability of plasma levels. Descriptive, cross-sectional study of all patients currently treated with clozapine in a Psychiatric Service with a diagnosis of schizophrenic psychosis or schizoaffective disorder. The present study assessed physical situation, psychopathology and functionality of the patients and explored the associations and correlations between clinical variables and plasma levels. We studied 39 patients, predominantly men, with negative and depressive symptoms and cardiovascular risk factors (metabolic syndrome and smoking). Significant variability in dose and even greater in clozapine levels were observed. The levels of clozapine at equal doses/kg of body weight were higher in non-smokers, they had positive correlation with BMI and negative correlation with systolic BP, disruptive behaviors and number of cigarettes consumed. Plasma level monitoring clozapine is an important tool to avoid clozapine plasma levels monitoring and minimize undesirable clinical situations (metabolic syndrome, sedation, negative symptoms and functional impairment). It is also important to control the effects of a smoking habit for optimum drug bioavailability. Copyright © 2017 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Abnormal Hippocampal Morphology in Dissociative Identity Disorder and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Correlates with Childhood Trauma and Dissociative Symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chalavi, Sima; Vissia, Eline M.; Giesen, Mechteld E.; Nijenhuis, Ellert R. S.; Draijer, Nel; Cole, James H.; Dazzan, Paola; Pariante, Carmine M.; Madsen, Sarah K.; Rajagopalan, Priya; Thompson, Paul M.; Toga, Arthur W.; Veltman, Dick J.; Reinders, Antje A. T. S.

    Smaller hippocampal volume has been reported in individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dissociative identity disorder (DID), but the regional specificity of hippocampal volume reductions and the association with severity of dissociative symptoms and/or childhood traumatization

  16. Abnormal Hippocampal Morphology in Dissociative Identity Disorder and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Correlates with Childhood Trauma and Dissociative Symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chalavi, S.; Vissia, E.M.; Giesen, M.E.; Nijenhuis, E.R.S.; Draijer, N.; Cole, J.H.; Dazzan, P.; Pariante, C.M.; Madsen, S.K.; Rajagopalan, P.; Thompson, P.M.; Toga, A.W.; Veltman, D.J.; Reinders, A.A.T.S

    2015-01-01

    Smaller hippocampal volume has been reported in individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dissociative identity disorder (DID), but the regional specificity of hippocampal volume reductions and the association with severity of dissociative symptoms and/or childhood traumatization

  17. Quality of life assessment of patients with schizophrenic spectrum disorders from Psychosocial Care Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Fernandes Carpinteiro da Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Assessing the quality of life and the clinical and social-demographic factors associated in schizophrenic spectrum patients (ICD-10 F20-F29 attending CAPS at the programmatic area 3.0. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in a sample of schizophrenic spectrum patients who have been enrolled in 2008 in CAPS in programmatic area (AP 3 at Rio de Janeiro city, using MINIPLUS to assess schizophrenia spectrum disorder and use of psychoactive substances, Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale (PANSS to assess psychiatric symptoms and Quality of Life Scale (QLS-BR to assess the quality of life. RESULTS: Seventy nine patients were included, of whom 74 (93.7% presented some impairment in quality of life. The most frequently affected area was occupational performance. Variables that showed a significant association with severe impairment of quality of life were: marital status, race, occupation, who patients lived with, homelessness, having children, previous psychiatric hospitalization, negative symptoms and symptoms designated as not applicable (being characterized by a lack of typical positive and negative symptoms. CONCLUSION: The knowledge of these factors should be crucial to implement health policies and psychosocial rehabilitation programs focused on improving the quality of life of these patients.

  18. Neuronal migration abnormalities and its possible implications for schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji eTanigaki

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is a complex mental disorder that displays behavioral deficits such as decreased sensory gating, reduced social interaction and working memory deficits. The neurodevelopmental model is one of the widely accepted hypotheses of the etiology of schizophrenia. Subtle developmental abnormalities of the brain which stated long before the onset of clinical symptoms are thought to lead to the emergence of illness. Schizophrenia has strong genetic components but its underlying molecular pathogenesis is still poorly understood. Genetic linkage and association studies have identified several genes involved in neuronal migrations as candidate susceptibility genes for schizophrenia, although their effect size is small. Recent progress in copy number variation studies also has identified much higher risk loci such as 22q11. Based on these genetic findings, we are now able to utilize genetically-defined animal models. Here we summarize the results of neurodevelopmental and behavioral analysis of genetically-defined animal models. Furthermore, animal model experiments have demonstrated that embryonic and perinatal neurodevelopmental insults in neurogenesis and neuronal migrations cause neuronal functional and behavioral deficits in affected adult animals, which are similar to those of schizophrenic patients. However, these findings do not establish causative relationship. Genetically-defined animal models are a critical approach to explore the relationship between neuronal migration abnormalities and behavioral abnormalities relevant to Schizophrenia.

  19. Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an Allergic Reaction to Food Symptoms of an Allergic Reaction to Food Learn about the mild and severe ... the food to which you are allergic. An allergic reaction to food can affect the skin, the gastrointestinal ...

  20. Cannabis use and dependence among French schizophrenic inpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel eLejoyeux

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: To assess the prevalence of cannabis use and dependence in a population of schizophrenic inpatients and to compare schizophrenics with and without cannabis consumption. Methods: 101 schizophrenic patients were examined during their first week of hospitalization. They answered the PANNS scale of schizophrenia, the CAGE and the Fagerström questionnaire and the DSM-IV-TR criteria for cannabis, alcohol, opiates and nicotine use dependence were checked. We also assessed socio-demographic characteristics, the motive of cannabis consumption and the number of cannabis joints and alcoholic drinks taken.Results: The prevalence of cannabis consumption was 33.6% among schizophrenic inpatients. Schizophrenics consuming cannabis were younger than non-schizophrenics (33.3 vs 44.7 years pConclusion: 33.6 % of the schizophrenic patients hospitalized in psychiatry consume cannabis and most of them are dependent on cannabis and alcohol. Hospitalization in psychiatry may provide an opportunity to systematically identify a dependence disorder and to offer appropriate information and treatment

  1. Schizophrenic performance on form E of Cattell's 16PF test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serban, G; Katz, G

    1975-04-01

    Form E of Cattell's 16PF test was administered to 515 hospitalized schizophrenics. This sample was compared to Cattell's standardization population for both raw scores and sten scores. Comparisons were made between males and females, acute patients and chronic patients, and amongst three categories of schizophrenia (paranoid, undifferentiated, schizo-affectives). The results indicate that the "schizophrenic profile," reported in previous research with Form A, did not obtain expected differentiations among schizophrenic categories. The question of the usefulness of Form E in diagnosing schizophrenia was raised.

  2. First-Step Results of Children Presenting with Bleeding Symptoms or Abnormal Coagulation Tests in an Outpatient Clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Yıldız

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Mild bleeding symptoms are commonly seen in the general population. The aim of this study was to determine the final clinical and laboratory features of children referred for a first evaluation with a suspected bleeding disorder in the pediatric outpatient clinic of İstanbul University. Materials and Methods: The medical records of 26,737 outpatients who were admitted to the Division of Ambulatory Pediatrics between 31 October 2011 and 31 October 2012 were evaluated retrospectively. Ninety-nine patients were initially diagnosed as having probable bleeding disorders and were followed up. The symptoms of bleeding in addition to coagulation tests were analyzed. Results: Of the 99 patients, 52 (52.5% were male and 47 were female, and the mean age of the entire study group was 9.1±4.1 years (minimum-maximum: 2-18 years. Major bleeding symptoms were epistaxis in 36 patients (36.4%, easy bruising in 32 (32.3%, and menorrhagia in 6 (6.1%. After initial tests ordered by the pediatrician, 36 of 99 patients (36.4% were diagnosed as having bleeding disorders that included von Willebrand disease in 12 (12.1%, hemophilia A or B in 9 (9.1%, and other rare factor deficiencies in 9 (9.1%. Six patients (6.1% were found to have combined deficiencies. Seven of 36 patients had a family history of bleeding. Conclusion: Among the patients referred for bleeding disorders, 36.4% were diagnosed with a bleeding disorder with the help of primary screening tests ordered in the outpatient clinic.

  3. Abnormal functional connectivity of the posterior cingulate cortex is associated with depressive symptoms in patients with Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang J

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Jiangtao Zhang,1,2 Zhongwei Guo,2 Xiaozheng Liu,3 Xize Jia,4 Jiapeng Li,2 Yaoyao Li,1,5 Danmei Lv,1,5 Wei Chen1,5 1Department of Psychiatry, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine and the Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China; 2Tongde Hospital of Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China; 3China-USA Neuroimaging Research Institute & Department of Radiology, the Second Affiliated Hospital, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, China; 4Center for Cognitive Brain Disorders & Zhejiang Key Laboratory for Research in Assessment of Cognitive Impairments, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou, China; 5Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology of Chinese Ministry of Health, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China Background: Depressive symptoms are significant and very common psychiatric complications in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD, which can aggravate the decline in social function. However, changes in the functional connectivity (FC of the brain in AD patients with depressive symptoms (D-AD remain unclear.Objective: To investigate whether any differences exist in the FC of the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC between D-AD patients and non-depressed AD patients (nD-AD.Materials and methods: We recruited 15 D-AD patients and 17 age-, sex-, educational level-, and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE-matched nD-AD patients to undergo tests using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and 3.0T resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Bilateral PCC were selected as the regions of interest and between-group differences in the PCC FC network were assessed using Student’s t-test.Results: Compared with the nD-AD group, D-AD patients showed increased PCC FC in the right amygdala, right parahippocampus, right superior temporal pole, right middle temporal lobe, right middle temporal pole, and right hippocampus (AlphaSim correction; P<0.05. In the nD-AD group, MMSE

  4. Peanut witches' broom (PnWB) phytoplasma-mediated leafy flower symptoms and abnormal vascular bundles development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chi-Te; Huang, Hsin-Mei; Hong, Syuan-Fei; Kuo-Huang, Ling-Long; Yang, Chiao-Yin; Lin, Yen-Yu; Lin, Chan-Pin; Lin, Shih-Shun

    2015-01-01

    The peanut witches' broom (PnWB) phytoplasma causes virescence symptoms such as phyllody (leafy flower) in infected peanuts. However, the obligate nature of phytoplasma limits the study of host-pathogen interactions, and the detailed anatomy of PnWB-infected plants has yet to be reported. Here, we demonstrate that 4',6'-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining can be used to track PnWB infection. The DAPI-stained phytoplasma cells were observed in phloem/internal phloem tissues, and changes in vascular bundle morphology, including increasing pith rays and thinner cell walls in the xylem, were found. We also discerned the cell types comprising PnWB in infected sieve tube members. These results suggest that the presence of PnWB in phloem tissue facilitates the transmission of phytoplasma via sap-feeding insect vectors. In addition, PnWB in sieve tube members and changes in vascular bundle morphology might strongly promote the ability of phytoplasmas to assimilate nutrients. These data will help further an understanding of the obligate life cycle and host-pathogen interactions of phytoplasma.

  5. Abnormal functional connectivity of brain network hubs associated with symptom severity in treatment-naive patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder: A resting-state functional MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lin; Meng, Chun; Jiang, Ying; Tang, Qunfeng; Wang, Shuai; Xie, Xiyao; Fu, Xiangshuai; Jin, Chunhui; Zhang, Fuquan; Wang, Jidong

    2016-04-03

    Abnormal brain networks have been observed in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, detailed network hub and connectivity changes remained unclear in treatment-naive patients with OCD. Here, we sought to determine whether patients show hub-related connectivity changes in their whole-brain functional networks. We used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data and voxel-based graph-theoretic analysis to investigate functional connectivity strength and hubs of whole-brain networks in 29 treatment-naive patients with OCD and 29 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Correlation analysis was applied for potential associations with OCD symptom severity. OCD selectively targeted brain regions of higher functional connectivity strength than the average including brain network hubs, mainly distributed in the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) circuits and additionally parietal, occipital, temporal and cerebellar regions. Moreover, affected functional connectivity strength in the cerebellum, the medial orbitofrontal cortex and superior occipital cortex was significantly associated with global OCD symptom severity. Our results provide the evidence about OCD-related brain network hub changes, not only in the CSTC circuits but more distributed in whole brain networks. Data suggest that whole brain network hub analysis is useful for understanding the pathophysiology of OCD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Neural correlates of eye tracking deficits in first-degree relatives of schizophrenic patients: a positron emission tomography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Driscoll, G A; Benkelfat, C; Florencio, P S; Wolff, A L; Joober, R; Lal, S; Evans, A C

    1999-12-01

    Schizophrenia is thought to arise from the interaction of genetically mediated and environmentally triggered abnormalities in brain function. Reduced frontal activation, reported in schizophrenic patients, may be one expression of genetic risk. The present study investigated whether frontal activation in relatives of schizophrenic patients would be related to eye tracking deficits (ETD), which are considered a behavioral marker of risk for schizophrenia. Subjects were first-degree relatives of schizophrenic patients (n = 17) and controls (n = 11). Relatives were divided into those with normal and abnormal pursuit based on qualitative ratings. Subjects were scanned using positron emission tomography and the H(2)15O bolus subtraction technique while performing smooth pursuit and fixation. Brain areas more active in pursuit than fixation were identified in the 3 groups. Correlations were used to investigate the relationship between activation of pursuit regions and pursuit gain in the relatives. Controls significantly activated frontal eye fields (FEFs) and posterior areas, including the motion processing area, V5, and cuneus. The 2 groups of relatives activated the same posterior regions as controls, but differed from each other in activation of FEFs. Relatives with normal tracking activated right dorsal FEFs while relatives with ETD did not. Individual subtractions revealed that 90% of controls and 100% of the relatives with normal tracking activated FEFs during pursuit compared with 42% of relatives with ETD (P = .009). Pursuit gain was significantly and selectively associated with percent activation of right dorsal FEFs (r = 0.74). Subtle frontal dysfunction seems to be a pathophysiological substrate of ETD in relatives of schizophrenic patients, and may be one aspect of genetically mediated differences in brain function relevant to schizophrenia.

  7. [Prodromal symptoms of schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkhazen, C; Chauchot, F; Canceil, O; Krebs, M-O; Baylé, F-J

    2003-01-01

    The concept of prodromal symptoms of schizophrenia has frequently been subject to debate. Authors widely admit the existence of early specific and non-specific signs preceding the first psychotic episode; however, they have yet to clearly demonstrate their ability to predict and specify the outbreak of a psychosis. These prodromal symptoms consist of behavioral abnormalities, pseudo-neurotic signs, subtle cognitive and affective changes. All these symptoms vary from patient to patient. In general, it is widely believed that future patients go through a variety of abnormal, subjective experiences that progressively develop during their pre-puberty and puberty periods. However, the limit of this assessment is that an individual could present the same prodromal symptoms without necessarily developing a psychotic illness, as a result of toxic intake, a situational crisis, etc. Furthermore, while the prodrome is a retrospective concept, its value and specificity can only be prospective, given that patients' descriptions of pre-morbid changes may be corrupted by inefficient memory reconstruction. DSM III-R included prodromal symptoms; individual presenting such symptoms would potentially present psychopathological vulnerability to psychosis regardless of associated genetic risk. Several investigations have shed doubts on their measurement's reliability; therefore, this classification is no longer present in the latest version (DSM IV). Moreover, recent neurodevelopemental hypothesis on schizophrenia have paved the way for possible early intervention, especially because early treatments could well improve illness prognosis. This viewpoint is reinforced by the improved tolerance of new anti-psychotic treatment. In this report, we review the key Articles published over the last 15 Years on this matter. We distinguish two schools of thought: on one hand, the German school referring to the validity of particular neuro-psychological symptoms: attention, perception

  8. CIGARETTE SMOKING IN SCHIZOPHRENIC PATIENTS THAT ARE CURRENTLY TREATED IN A MEXICAN HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Rodríguez-Mayoral

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: tobacco smoking is the most commonly substance abused in psychiatric patients; among them, patients with schizophrenia are the highest abusers. Smoking is related to a decrease in the quality life and life expectancy, as well as interacting with psychotropic drugs. In Mexico, there is not basic descriptive knowledge about the main variables related to cigarette smoking in psychiatric population. The aim of this study was to know the relation among variables (beginning and course of the disease, use of other drugs and times of hospitalization among others and cigarette smoking in a Mexican population of hospitalized schizophrenic patients. Method: The relation between the main variables and smoking were evaluated in a Mexican population of schizophrenic patients while hospitalized. A casuistic sampling was performed in 96 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and they were divided into three groups: 1 non-smokers, 2 ex-smokers and 3 smokers; according to their score on the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence. Results: The results showed that hospitalized schizophrenic patients smoke 2.7 times more than the general population. Most of these patients showed moderate to high dependence of nicotine, as well as a higher risk for other drugs abuse (marihuana mainly. Most patients started smoking before the first positive symptoms of schizophrenia appeared, and their symptoms started at an earlier age than in patients without a smoking background. Conclusions: Similar studies will allow deepening into specific aspects that modify and or improve the prescribed treatments for each psychiatric patient in hospital settings.

  9. Self-mutilation of the nose in a schizophrenic patient with Cotard syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffari-Nejad, Alireza; Kerdegari, Mohammad; Reihani-Kermani, Hamed

    2007-10-01

    Cotard syndrome is a rare condition, which its main symptom is nihilistic delusion. Self-mutilation of the nose is also a rare condition, which has not been seen in schizophrenic patients with Cotard syndrome. A single case is presented here. A 32-year-old woman who was diagnosed as having schizophrenia and believed that she was dead, cut the tip of her nose. She had no guilt feeling and described her act as a cosmetic surgery. We try to explain how various symptoms that seem to be very far from each other could exist side by side. Misinterpretation of her face is suggested to be the starting point in her complex symptoms.

  10. Neurocortical electrical activity tomography in chronic schizophrenics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veiga Heloisa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional imaging of brain electrical activity was performed in 25 chronic medicated schizophrenics and 40 controls, analyzing the classical frequency bands (delta, theta, alpha, and beta of 19-channel EEG during resting state to identify brain regions with deviant activity of different functional significances, using LORETA (Low Resolution Tomography and SPM99 (Statistical Parametric Mapping. Patients differed from controls due to an excess of slow activity comprising delta + theta frequency bands (inhibitory pattern located at the right middle frontal gyrus, right inferior frontal gyrus, and right insula, as well as at the bilateral anterior cingulum with a left preponderance. The high temporal resolution of EEG enables the specification of the deviations not only as an excess or a deficit of brain electrical activity, but also as inhibitory (delta, theta, normal (alpha, and excitatory (beta activities. These deviations point out to an impaired functional brain state consisting of inhibited frontal and prefrontal areas that may result in inadequate treatment of externally or internally generated information.

  11. Regional cerebral blood flow in schizophrenic patients; In relation to the subtypes of the disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagawa, Katsuo; Sibuya, Isoo; Oiji, Arata; Kawakatsu, Sinobu; Morinobu, Shigeru; Totsuka, Shiro (Yamagata Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine); Kinoshita, Osami; Yazaki, Mitsuyasu

    1990-03-01

    Seventy-six schizophrenic patients were examined by a Xe-133 inhalation method to determine regional cerebral blood flow. A decreased blood flow was observed in the frontal lobe, especially in the right inferior part. In a study on the relationship between disease subtypes and regional cerebral blood flow, negative symptoms were found more predominantly associated with dissolution type than delusion type. In the group of dissolution type, a decreased blood flow was observed in both the right inferior frontal lobe and the right upper hemisphere, in comparison to the group of delution type. Patients presenting with auditory hallucination had a significantly higher incidence of both negative and positive symptoms, as compared with those not presenting with it. In such patients, a significantly decreased blood flow was also seen in the left upper frontal lobe and the bilateral parietal lobe. Xe-133 inhalation method should assist in evaluating brain function in schizophrenic patients, thus leading to the likelihood of developing a new treatment modality. (N.K.).

  12. Neural systems for social cognition: gray matter volume abnormalities in boys at high genetic risk of autism symptoms, and a comparison with idiopathic autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, Marcia N; Swaab, Hanna; Rombouts, Serge A R B; van Rijn, Sophie

    2016-09-01

    Klinefelter syndrome (47, XXY) is associated with several physical, cognitive, and behavioral consequences. In terms of social development, there is an increased risk of autism symptomatology. However, it remains unclear how social deficits are related to abnormal brain development and to what degree underlying mechanisms of social dysfunction in 47, XXY are similar to, or different from, those in idiopathic autism (ASD). This study was aimed at investigating the neural architecture of brain structures related to social information processing in boys with 47, XXY, also in comparison with boys with idiopathic ASD. MRI scans of 16 boys with 47, XXY, 16 with ASD, and 16 nonclinical, male controls were analyzed using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). A region of interest mask containing the superior temporal cortex, amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), insular cortex, and medial frontal cortex was used. The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) was used to assess degree of autism spectrum symptoms. The 47, XXY group could not be distinguished from the ASD group on mean SRS scores, and their scores were significantly higher than in controls. VBM showed that boys with 47, XXY have significant gray matter volume reductions in the left and right insula, and the left OFC, compared with controls and boys with ASD. Additionally, boys with 47, XXY had significantly less gray matter in the right superior temporal gyrus than controls. These results imply social challenges associated with 47, XXY may be rooted in neural anatomy, and autism symptoms in boys with 47, XXY and boys with ASD might have, at least partially, different underlying etiologies.

  13. [Impact of a Multimodal Intervention on the Psychological Profile of Schizophrenic and Bipolar I Patients: A Study of PRISMA Program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Zuluaga, Ana María; Vargas, Cristian; Duica, Kelly; Richard, Shanel; Palacio, Juan David; Agudelo Berruecos, Yuli; Ospina, Sigifredo; López-Jaramillo, Carlos

    Bipolar Disorder (BD) and schizophrenia are included in the group of severe mental illness and are main causes of disability and morbidity in the local population due to the bio-psycho-social implications in patients. In the last 20 years or so, adjunctive psychological interventions been studied with the purpose of decreasing recurrences, stabilising the course of the disease, and improving the functionality in these patients. To analyse the psychological effect of a multimodal intervention (MI) vs a traditional intervention (TI) program in BD I and schizophrenic patients. A prospective, longitudinal, therapeutic-comparative study was conducted with 302 patients (104 schizophrenic and 198 bipolar patients) who were randomly assigned to the MI or TI groups of a multimodal intervention program PRISMA. The MI group received care from psychiatry, general medicine, neuropsychology, family therapy, and occupational therapy. The TI group received care from psychiatry and general medicine. The Hamilton and Young scales, and the Scales for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS) and Postive Symptoms (SAPS) were used on bipolar and schizophrenic patients, respectively. The scales AQ-12, TEMPS-A, FAST, Zuckerman sensation seeking scale, BIS-11, SAI-E and EEAG were applied to measure the psychological variables. The scales were performed before and after the interventions. The psychotherapy used in this study was cognitive behavioural therapy. There were statistically significant differences in socio-demographic and clinical variables in the schizophrenia and bipolar disorder group. There were no statistically significant differences in the psychological scales after conducting a multivariate analysis between the intervention groups and for both times (initial and final). This study did not show any changes in variables of psychological functioning variables between bipolar and schizophrenic groups, who were subjected to TI vs MI (who received cognitive behavioural therapy

  14. [Psychopathology of poetry writing of schizophrenic patients while ill].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miliavskiĭ, V M

    1981-01-01

    On the basis of a psychopathological analysis of over 300 poems written by 29 schizophrenics in the state of the defect some characteristic features associated with the disturbances in the sphere of thought were revealed. The verses written by the patients showed a strange interpretation of the events being described, an unnecessary accentuation of minor details, a striving for formal novelty, peculiar plays on words, various abbreviations underlinings, as well as an amorphous character, absence of key points, inconsistency of the plot. In a number of cases the poverty of the content was combined with grandiloquent pathetics. Characteristic of the verses written by the schizophrenics was emotional inadequacy. In the author's opinion, verses of schizophrenic patients in the state of the defect can serve as a differential diagnostic criterion of the defective states.

  15. Laughter in a psychiatric ward. Somatic, emotional, social, and clinical influences on schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelkopf, M; Kreitler, S; Sigal, M

    1993-05-01

    The study was designed to explore the potential therapeutic effects of humor on hospitalized schizophrenics. For this purpose, in the first stage, we conducted a review of findings in regard to physical health, emotions, psychiatric state, and social behavior. In the second stage, we carried out an experiment with 34 resident patients in two chronic schizophrenic wards who were exposed to 70 movies during 3 months. The experimental group was exposed to humorous movies only, and the control group to different kinds of movies. Before and after the exposure to films for 3 months, both groups were tested on different health, emotional, social, and clinical measures using the Cognitive Orientation of Health Questionnaire, the Shalvata Symptom Rating Scale, blood pressure, heart rate, Perceived Verbal and Motor Aggression (rated by nurses), the Multiple Affect Adjective Check List, the Social Support Questionnaire 6, and the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS; rated by psychiatrists). Covariance analyses yielded significant reductions in Perceived Verbal Hostility, BPRS scales (total score, anxiety/depression), and significant increases in BPRS (activation) and degree of staff support experienced by the patients. The results indicate that the effects of exposure to humor may be mediated by the effects on the staff of the incidental exposure to humorous films.

  16. "Hyperfrontality" as seen on FDG PET in unmedicated schizophrenia patients with positive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinto, Ajit S; Kamaleshwaran, K K; Srinivasan, D; Paranthaman, S; Selvaraj, K; Pranesh, M B; Lakshminarayanan, G N; Prakash, B

    2014-08-01

    Decreased frontal activity has been reported widely in unmedicated schizophrenic patients with predominantly negative symptoms. Not many studies have assessed the frontal lobe status in unmedicated patients with positive symptoms. Fifty-one patients with schizophrenia (all unmedicated, 38 never medicated) and 12 healthy age-matched controls were evaluated with FDG PET CT. The patients met ICD-10 and DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia, and all reported psychotic, "positive" symptoms when tested. Schizophrenic patients with positive symptoms had a hypermetabolic frontal metabolic pattern on quantification by region to occipital ratio comparison. Associated statistically significant differences were also found when comparing ratios of occipital to thalamic, striatal and temporal cortex in schizophrenic patients. The finding of a hyperfrontality in unmedicated and never medicated psychotic schizophrenic patients is observed when there is a predominance of positive symptoms. There could be a possible disruption of cortico-striato-thalamic feedback loops causing hyperfrontality as seen in experimentally induced models of psychosis .

  17. Differing lateralized perceptual-motor patterns in schizophrenic and non-psychotic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krynicki, V E; Nahas, A D

    1979-10-01

    A neuropsychological assessment stressing lateralized perceptual-motor and cognitive abilities was administered to two groups of hospitalized child and adolescent psychiatric patients, 25 schizophrenics and 25 non-psychotics. The findings included an increased incidence of crossed eye-hand dominance in schizophrenics, poorer tactile sensory function in the right hands of schizophrenics than in the left hands, and lower Vocabulary and Similarities WISC subtest scores than Block Design and Object Assembly scores for schizophrenics. Right-left confusion was associated with finger agnosia for schizophrenics. The results supported the hypothesis that there may be left-hemisphere dysfunction in schizophrenia; however, no single pattern of dysfunction was apparent.

  18. Increased automatic spreading activation in healthy subjects with elevated scores in a scale assessing schizophrenic language disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, S; Andresen, B; Domin, F; Martin, T; Probsthein, E; Kretschmer, G; Krausz, M; Naber, D; Spitzer, M

    1999-01-01

    Previous studies on semantic priming have suggested that schizophrenic patients with language disturbances demonstrate enhanced semantic and indirect semantic priming effects relative to controls. However, the interpretation of semantic priming studies in schizophrenic patients is obscured by methological problems and several artefacts (such as length of illness). We, therefore, used a psychometric high-risk approach to test whether healthy subjects reporting language disturbances resembling those of schizophrenics (as measured by the Frankfurt Complaint Questionnaire subscale 'language') display increased priming effects. In addition, the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire was used to cover symptoms of schizotypal personality. Enhanced priming was expected to occur under conditions favouring automatic processes. One hundred and sixty healthy subjects performed a lexical decision semantic priming task containing two different stimulus onset asynchronicities (200 ms and 700 ms) with two experimental conditions (semantic priming and indirect semantic priming) each. Analyses of variance revealed that the Frankfurt Complaint Questionnaire-' language' high scorers significantly differed from low scorers in three of the four priming conditions indicating increased automatic spreading activation. No significant results were obtained for the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire total and subscales scores. In line with Maher and Spitzer it is suggested that increased automatic spreading activation underlies schizophrenia-typical language disturbances which in our study cannot be attributed to confounding variables such as different reaction time baselines, medication or length of illness. Finally, results confirm that the psychometric high-risk approach is an important tool for investigating issues relevant to schizophrenia.

  19. Higher incidence of hip fracture in newly diagnosed schizophrenic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Higher incidence of hip fracture in newly diagnosed schizophrenic patients in Taiwan. Hip fracture is a major public health concern due to its poor outcome and serious socioeconomic burden in older people (1). Evidence has shown that many factors are related to increased risk of hip fracture, but psychiatric diseases are ...

  20. Sexual self-perception in schizophrenic and depressive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vučić-Peitl, Marija; Peitl, Vjekoslav; Pavlović, Eduard

    2011-10-01

    Sexual self-perception is just one of the items of the complex system of self, which has rarely been researched in the population of mental health patients. Our goal was to establish whether the differences in sexual self-perception exist between schizophrenic and depressive patients compared with the healthy control group. This research was performed on 100 schizophrenic patients, 100 depressive patients and 100 phenotypically healthy volunteers. In order to diagnose schizophrenia and depression, DSM-IV classification was used. Bezinovic's questionnaire for sexual self-perception was used in order to assess seven aspects of sexual self-perception. Results revealed that schizophrenic and depressive patients, compared with healthy individuals, scored significantly higher on the aspects of negative emotionality and sexual incompetence, and significantly lower on the aspect of sexual satisfaction. No statistically significant differences were established between schizophrenic and depressive patients. We can conclude that patients suffering from schizophrenia or depression differ from healthy individuals in all of the aspects of sexual self-perception.

  1. SEXUAL BEHAVIOUR IN SCHIZOPHRENIC PATIENTS ON NEUROLEPTIC MEDICATION

    OpenAIRE

    T.murali; John, C. J.; Ramakrishnan, N.; Gopinath, P.S.

    1984-01-01

    SUMMARY Sexual behaviour in forty mile schizophrenics on maintenance medication were studied. Authors observed that thirteen patients reported decrease in frequency of sexual thoughts, fifteen in frequency of intercourse. Eight patients reported decline in enjoyment of intercourse and six avoided sex.

  2. Expressed emotion among schizophrenic patients in Lagos, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MO. Emotional reactions of relatives to schizophrenic patients in Lagos,. Nigeria. African Journal of Medical Sciences 2003; 32(1):7-11. 7. Vaughn CE, Leff JP. The measurement of expressed emotions in the families of psychiatric patients. British Journal of Social and Clinical. Psychology. 1976b; 15:157-165. 8. Jablensky A ...

  3. Young Children of Schizophrenic Mothers: Difficulties of Intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grünbaum, Liselotte; Gammeltoft, Marie

    1993-01-01

    Casework by Danish local social agencies on behalf of 11 children og chronically ill schizophrenic mothers is retrospectively analyzed, along with documentation from psychiatric hospitals, consulting child specialists, and other health professionals. Findings point to a need for earlier and more ...... precise assessment of the mother's parenting abilities as measured against the severity of her illness and the vulnerability of the child...

  4. Towards Understanding and Studying Cohesion in Schizophrenic Speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Jonathan

    1995-01-01

    Cohesion analysis has been used to investigate the language of schizophrenics and that associated with other psychiatric syndromes. Cohesion, one means of creating text, cannot account for all aspects of the pretheoretical notion of coherence. As a research tool, cohesion meets the dual criteria of an analysis of language in context and…

  5. The Comprehension of Idiomatic Expressions in Schizophrenic Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schettino, Antonio; Lauro, Leonor Romero; Crippa, Franca; Anselmetti, Simona; Cavallaro, Roberto; Papagno, Costanza

    2010-01-01

    Recent fMRI and TMS studies on idiom comprehension have shown that the prefrontal cortex is involved in idiom processing. Since schizophrenic patients exhibit prefrontal "structural" changes and dysexecutive "behavioural" deficits, we hypothesised an impairment in idiom comprehension, correlating with performance on executive…

  6. Discourse Analysis of Schizophrenic Speech: A Critique and Proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alverson, H.; Rosenberg, S.

    1990-01-01

    Attempts to give a clearer picture of discourse analysis and the assumptions behind it, focusing on its use in the domain of schizophrenic speech, to provide a better indication of both the promise and the procedures of a discourse-analytic approach to the speech productions of psychiatric populations. (Author/CB)

  7. Working memory capacity predicts language comprehension in schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condray, R; Steinhauer, S R; van Kammen, D P; Kasparek, A

    1996-05-01

    The association between language comprehension and working memory capacity was evaluated in 25 male DSM-III-R schizophrenic patients (14 inpatients; 11 outpatients), and in 11 male normal controls (no lifetime DSM-III-R disorder). Patients and controls did not differ significantly on age and education. Language comprehension was examined as a function of two types of processing demand: grammatical complexity (complex versus simple sentences) and presentation rate (accelerated versus conversational). Schizophrenic patients showed significantly reduced language comprehension and decreased working memory capacity for language, compared with controls. Patients showed general difficulty in comprehending accurately, rather than exhibiting problems with specific grammatical structures. Subject groups were highly accurate and did not differ in their ability to perceive the individual words in sentences presented at the accelerated rate (intelligibility). Presentation rate and grammatical complexity affected comprehension accuracy in all groups, however, with increases in rate and complexity producing decreases in understanding. Of most importance, theoretically, is the finding that working memory capacity predicted language comprehension accuracy in both schizophrenic patients and normal controls. Results suggest that language comprehension deficits in schizophrenic patients may involve a general dysfunction that is associated with working memory capacity for language.

  8. affective, schizophrenic and mood disorders in patients admitted at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Findings from clinical, genetic, neuropsychological and neurophysiological studies have failed to highlight a clear demarcation between the two main psychotic syndromes i.e.. MD and SCZ12, while evidence from brain imaging,. The relationship between schizo- affective, schizophrenic and mood disorders in patients ...

  9. The Role of Third Person Hallucination in Schizophrenic Suicide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Suicide is among the most common causes of mortality among individuals with schizophrenia. Efforts at determining risk factors have been fruitful as some specific factors for schizophrenic suicide have been reported. However, there are few studies on the role of third person auditory hallucination in such ...

  10. A Rasch analysis between schizophrenic patients and the general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Frederic

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to test the General Oral Health Assessment Index Questionnaire (GOHAI items for differential item functioning (DIF according to demographic characteristics (gender, age and mental health status (schizophrenic disorders versus general population using Rasch analysis.

  11. Treatment, expressed emotion and relapse in recent onset schizophrenic disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linszen, D.; Dingemans, P.; van der Does, J. W.; Nugter, A.; Scholte, P.; Lenior, R.; Goldstein, M. J.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of in-patient and individual orientated psychosocial intervention (IPI) and in-patient and individual and family orientated intervention (IPFI) across levels of expressed emotion (EE) on relapse was compared in a group of patients with recent onset schizophrenic disorders. Patients were

  12. Young children of schizophrenic mothers: difficulties of intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grünbaum, Liselotte Tang; Gammeltoft, Michele

    1993-01-01

    Casework by Danish local social agencies on behalf of 11 children of chronically ill schizophrenic mothers is retrospectively analyzed, along with documentation from psychiatric hospitals, consulting child specialists, and other health professionals. Findings point to a need for earlier and more...

  13. The linguistics of schizophrenia: thought disturbance as language pathology across positive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinzen, Wolfram; Rosselló, Joana

    2015-01-01

    We hypothesize that linguistic (dis-)organization in the schizophrenic brain plays a more central role in the pathogenesis of this disease than commonly supposed. Against the standard view, that schizophrenia is a disturbance of thought or selfhood, we argue that the origins of the relevant forms of thought and selfhood at least partially depend on language. The view that they do not is premised by a theoretical conception of language that we here identify as 'Cartesian' and contrast with a recent 'un-Cartesian' model. This linguistic model empirically argues for both (i) a one-to-one correlation between human-specific thought or meaning and forms of grammatical organization, and (ii) an integrative and co-dependent view of linguistic cognition and its sensory-motor dimensions. Core dimensions of meaning mediated by grammar on this model specifically concern forms of referential and propositional meaning. A breakdown of these is virtually definitional of core symptoms. Within this model the three main positive symptoms of schizophrenia fall into place as failures in language-mediated forms of meaning, manifest either as a disorder of speech perception (Auditory Verbal Hallucinations), abnormal speech production running without feedback control (Formal Thought Disorder), or production of abnormal linguistic content (Delusions). Our hypothesis makes testable predictions for the language profile of schizophrenia across symptoms; it simplifies the cognitive neuropsychology of schizophrenia while not being inconsistent with a pattern of neurocognitive deficits and their correlations with symptoms; and it predicts persistent findings on disturbances of language-related circuitry in the schizophrenic brain.

  14. The linguistics of schizophrenia: thought disturbance as language pathology across positive symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfram eHinzen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We hypothesize that linguistic (dis- organization in the schizophrenic brain plays a much more central role in the pathogenesis of this disease than commonly supposed. Against the standard view, that schizophrenia is a disturbance of thought or selfhood, we argue that the origins of the relevant forms of thought and selfhood at least partially depend on language. The view that they do not is premised by a theoretical conception of language that we here identify as ‘Cartesian’ and contrast with a recent ‘un-Cartesian’ model. This linguistic model empirically argues for both (i a one-to-one correlation between human-specific thought or meaning and forms of grammatical organization, and (ii an integrative and co-dependent view of linguistic cognition and its sensory-motor dimensions. Core dimensions of meaning mediated by grammar on this model specifically concern forms of referential and propositional meaning. A breakdown of these is virtually definitional of core symptoms. Within this model the three main positive symptoms of schizophrenia fall into place as failures in language-mediated forms of meaning, manifest either as a disorder of speech perception (Auditory Verbal Hallucinations, AVHs, abnormal speech production running without feedback control (Formal Thought Disorder, FTD, or production of abnormal linguistic content (Delusions. Our hypothesis makes testable predictions for the language profile of schizophrenia across symptoms; it simplifies the cognitive neuropsychology of schizophrenia while not being inconsistent with a pattern of neurocognitive deficits and their correlations with symptoms; and it predicts persistent findings on disturbances of language-related circuitry in the schizophrenic brain.

  15. The linguistics of schizophrenia: thought disturbance as language pathology across positive symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinzen, Wolfram; Rosselló, Joana

    2015-01-01

    We hypothesize that linguistic (dis-)organization in the schizophrenic brain plays a more central role in the pathogenesis of this disease than commonly supposed. Against the standard view, that schizophrenia is a disturbance of thought or selfhood, we argue that the origins of the relevant forms of thought and selfhood at least partially depend on language. The view that they do not is premised by a theoretical conception of language that we here identify as ‘Cartesian’ and contrast with a recent ‘un-Cartesian’ model. This linguistic model empirically argues for both (i) a one-to-one correlation between human-specific thought or meaning and forms of grammatical organization, and (ii) an integrative and co-dependent view of linguistic cognition and its sensory-motor dimensions. Core dimensions of meaning mediated by grammar on this model specifically concern forms of referential and propositional meaning. A breakdown of these is virtually definitional of core symptoms. Within this model the three main positive symptoms of schizophrenia fall into place as failures in language-mediated forms of meaning, manifest either as a disorder of speech perception (Auditory Verbal Hallucinations), abnormal speech production running without feedback control (Formal Thought Disorder), or production of abnormal linguistic content (Delusions). Our hypothesis makes testable predictions for the language profile of schizophrenia across symptoms; it simplifies the cognitive neuropsychology of schizophrenia while not being inconsistent with a pattern of neurocognitive deficits and their correlations with symptoms; and it predicts persistent findings on disturbances of language-related circuitry in the schizophrenic brain. PMID:26236257

  16. Opisodic memory orientation in schizophrenics, their relatives and normal people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamali Nikpour

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Memory is what creates perseverance and continuity in human and everyone's idea about himself depends on the memory. Among different psychological ideas, cognitive psychology is only one which investigated and recognized the memory. It seems mental and spiritual statuses have effects on memory and lead to memory orientation toward specific systems. According to research findings, there are spatial distortions in schizophrenics patients which are equal with main signs of schizophrenia i.e. disorders in the thoughts of these patients. Orientation has basic role to create and process the data same as thoughts in schizophrenics and normal people. Assessing such memory orientation in selecting the direction against pleasant, unpleasant and neutral stimulants is the purpose of current research Methods:   Used data in current study is related to patients and normal people reactions against pleasant, unpleasant and neutral materials of William’s test. After gathering the data, mean, variance and standard deviation were firstly, estimated and were analyzed statistically by independent T test. Results: Findings showed that there was a meaningful relationship between two mean of patients and normal people in reaction against pleasant, unpleasant and neutral stimulants of William’s test. It meaned normal people selected more pleasant stimulants than schizophrenics. Indeed, normal people selected neutral stimulants with slightly more different than schizophrenics. There was not any meaningful difference between normal people and schizophrenics only in unpleasant stimulants. Conclusion: Ability and intellectual coherence lead to mental appropriate performance and will result those people remind all memories particularly unpleasant ones with more details. Therefore it seems that memory orientation process leads to psychological status controlled the individual.

  17. Abnormal Time Experiences in Major Depression: An Empirical Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanghellini, Giovanni; Ballerini, Massimo; Presenza, Simona; Mancini, Milena; Northoff, Georg; Cutting, John

    2017-01-01

    Phenomenological psychopathology, through theoretical and idiographic studies, conceptualizes major depressive disorder (MDD) as a disorder of time experience. Investigations on abnormal time experience (ATE) in MDD adopting methodologies requested by the standards of empirical sciences are still lacking. Our study aimed to provide a qualitative analysis, on an empirical ground and on a large scale, of narratives of temporal experiences of persons affected by MDD. We interviewed 550 consecutive patients affected by affective and schizophrenic disorders. Clinical files were analysed by means of consensual qualitative research. Out of 100 MDD patients, 96 reported at least 1 ATE. The principal categories of ATE are vital retardation - the experience of a stagnation of endogenous vital processes (37 patients), the experience of present and future dominated by the past (29 patients), and the experience of the slackening of the flow oftime (25 patients). A comparison with ATE in schizophrenia patients showed that in MDD, unlike in schizophrenia, there is no disarticulation of time experience (disorder of temporal synthesis) but rather a disorder of conation or inhibition of becoming. The interview style was not meant to make a quantitative assessment ("false negatives" cannot be excluded). Our findings confirm the relevance of distinctive features of ATE in MDD, support the hypothesis of an intrinsic disordered temporal structure in depressive symptoms, and may have direct implications in clinical practice, especially in relation to differential diagnosis, setting the boundaries between "true" and milder forms of depression, and neurobiological research. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Urinary tract infection complicated by urine retention presenting as pseudocyesis in a schizophrenic patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Yi-Wei; Kuo, Shin-Chang; Chen, Chun-Yen

    2012-01-01

    Pseudocyesis is a rare condition wherein a nonpregnant woman shows signs and symptoms of pregnancy, such as abdominal enlargement, breast enlargement, pigmentation, cessation of menses, subjective sensation of fetal movement and labor pains at the expected delivery date. In the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision, it is classified as a somatoform disorder, characterized by a false belief of being pregnant that is associated with objective signs of pregnancy. We report the case of a middle-aged female schizophrenic patient who developed pseudocyesis secondary to a urinary tract infection complicated by acute urine retention. The patient accepted that she had pseudocyesis after the causative medical condition resolved. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Ancient schwannoma of thoracic spine in a schizophrenic patient with somatic delusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Ting Wen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ancient schwannoma is a rare variant of schwannoma characterized by histopathologic degenerative changes, which are thought to be the result of long-term tumor growth and aging. However, ancient schwannoma in the spinal canal is particularly rare. We report a case of thoracic spine intradural extramedullary ancient schwannoma in a schizophrenic patient, who kept saying that “something in his back was giving him electric shock” for a long time. Unfortunately, this complaint was misinterpreted as somatic delusion symptoms. A spinal cord tumor was taken into consideration only after paraparesis developed. We have highlighted this case to remind every clinician to remain alert about the possibility of organic disease while treating patients with psychotic disorder history. Thorough neurological examination is required to avoid misdiagnosis. Spinal canal schwannoma can be totally removed successfully with good functional outcome and prognosis.

  20. [The role of the self-consciousness of schizophrenic patients in the socio-vocational readaptation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosenko, N F

    1987-01-01

    Using clinical and special medico-psychological methods, the authors studied 154 patients with schizophrenia with different rates of the disease progression and at different stages of the disease. The authors studied the condition of the patients' self-consciousness in relation to the possibilities of their social and occupational readaptation. It has been established that the working ability of patients depends on a number of factors, including their profession and working conditions, the influence of the family, the degree of progression of the schizophrenic process and the severity of negative symptoms. At the same time the level of patients' self-consciousness exerts a considerable influence on their social and occupational readaptation which should be taken into account in developing rehabilitative measures and in the course of expert medical examination of working capacity in such patients.

  1. [The information of the schizophrenic patient: actuality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazzolo, J; Brousse, G; Favre, P; Llorca, P-M

    2005-01-01

    schizophrenia can come alive talking about things in the past before they became ill. It's as if their life grinded to halt when they became sick. I'm stuck in the mid seventies, and that's the music I like. Everybody I know with schizophrenia is quite isolated socially and I don't really know why. That is especially true for the older people in my age group. Younger people seem to be doing much better. Many still live with their parents. Most older people live alone. There is also the odd person who recovers well, returns to a career, and marries someone without schizophrenia. In cases where marriage predates the onset of schizophrenia, the outcome is often divorce although women are more likely to stick with their husbands with schizophrenia than vice versa, especially if there are already children. I hope the next generation who appears to be less disabled survives better than people of my age with schizophrenia. The goal of community integration is one that requires: more effective treatments and/or more financial support and/or a compassionate non-discriminating community. The combination of early diagnosis and atypical medications will change the face of schizophrenia. I'm not expecting more financial support from the government, but many more people with schizophrenia will start working again instead. Their social networks will develop but social networks are probably the hardest hit in schizophrenia. It's better that you never lose your friends in the first place". This testimony shows how the information of the schizophrenic patient is necessary, and underlines the importance of the relationships between the patient and his family. Our article insists on this theme, rarely developed in the literature.

  2. Mortality and causes of death in first admitted schizophrenic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, P B; Juel, K

    1993-01-01

    Although many studies have shown an increased mortality in schizophrenic patients, the literature provides little information about mortality from specific causes in relation to age, gender, and duration of illness. This study examined mortality and causes of death in a total national sample...... of 9156 first admitted schizophrenic patients. Suicide accounted for 50% of deaths in men and 35% of deaths in women. Suicide risk was particularly increased during the first year of follow-up. Death from natural causes, with the exception of cancer and cerebrovascular diseases, was increased. Suicide...... risk during the first year of follow-up increased by 56%, with a 50% reduction on psychiatric in-patient facilities. The study confirms that mortality in schizophrenia is still markedly elevated, and the finding of an increasing suicide risk may be an indicator of some adverse effects...

  3. Schizophrenic, alcoholic, felon and management factor compositions of social status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pishkin, V; Thorne, F C

    1981-04-01

    Administered the Social Status Study scale to four different groups: 174 incarcerated felons, 125 alcoholics, 278 management consultants, and 388 chronic undifferentiated schizophrenics. Five factors were derived fro each of the four populations. Major finding is that factorial composition of the groups is dependent upon specific population characteristics, and the overall factors are not sufficient for clinical judgment of individuals from different subgroups. The resulting factors were clearly unique in depicting social adjustment maladjustment styles in each of the clinical groups.

  4. The neurobehavioural evaluation in schizophrenics: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilamkar, Kamini Ramdas

    2013-01-01

    The simple reaction time task assesses the ability of the subject to respond to an external cue and to retrieve a reward. The reaction time provides an indirect index of the processing capability of the central nervous system and a simple means to the determined sensory and the motor performances, which is a neurobehavioural evaluation. A general slowness in the latency in the reaction time tasks and a disengagement deficit in the visual and the hearing oriented tasks were seen in schizophrenics. In order to clarify the feature of the attention disorders in schizophrenia, a simple reaction time task was given to schizophrenics. Schizophrenics (34 males and 20 females, n=54) and healthy controls (40 males and 21 females, n=61) with a mean age of 35±7, who were individually matched for gender and age, were included in the study, by using a response analyser to evaluate the reaction time. The performances were expressed in mean ± standard deviation of the reaction time by using the unpaired 't' test. The schizophrenic patients performed poorer than the healthy controls, which indicated a difficulty in sustaining attention and this was statistically very highly significant (pdisturbance in interpersonal situations. The increased reaction time as compared to that in healthy controls, might be due to the impairment of the psychomotor poverty, disorganization and reality distortion which were associated with the deficits in the cortical neurological functions, such as planning, coordination and sequencing of the motor acts, which showed a greater involvement of the frontal lobe and temporal lobe dysfunction.

  5. Unsuccessful Self-Enucleation in a Schizophrenic Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noam Bar-Yaakov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-enucleation is a very unusual form of self-mutilation directly linked to mental illness. In this case we present a 26-year-old schizophrenic patient who attempted to enucleate his eye with a rollerball pen. Antipsychotic therapy and emergency surgery saved the patient eye and emphasize the importance of quick response and good collaboration between psychiatric and ophthalmic teams.

  6. Chronic pain and quality of life in schizophrenic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jouce Gabriela de Almeida

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify the prevalence and characteristics of chronic pain in schizophrenic patients and to compare the quality of life in patients with and without chronic pain. METHODS: Crossover design with a probablistic sample of 205 adult schizophrenic outpatients (80% paranoid schizophrenia. Socio-demographic, psychiatric disorder, pain and quality of life (WHOQOL- brief data were collected between June and September 2008. RESULTS: Mean age was 37 years, 65% were men, and the mean time spent in school was 9 years; 87% were single, 65% lived with parents and 25% had a job. Among patients with chronic pain, 70% did not receive treatment for pain. Regarding quality of life, patients with pain had more physical disabilities compared to those without pain (p < .001. There were no differences in other domains. Comparisons between patients with and without pain did not show any differences in how much they felt their mental health problems disabled them. Conclusion: Chronic pain was common in schizophrenic patients (similar to the general population of a similar age and decreased their quality of life. It is necessary to pay more attention to this co-morbidity.

  7. [Language disorders and cognitive functions in persons with schizophrenic disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waszkiewicz, Justyna; Wciórka, Jacek; Anczewska, Marta; Chrostek, Anna; Switaj, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between clinical and neuropsychological measures of language disorders as well as characteristics of the mental condition of patients diagnosed as having schizophrenic disorders. There were 45 persons with schizophrenic disorder (acc. ICD-10) examined with The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), the side effect rating scale (UKU), Wisconsin Cards Storting Test (WCST), verbal fluency task, Ruff's Test, "Similarities" --WAIS-R subtest, 10 graphics of The Thematic Apperception Test (TAT). Patient's speech was evaluated independently by two diagnosticians using Thought, Language and Communication Scale (TLCS). Time since the onset of illness and the number of hospitalisations were associated with total TLCS scores and with most of the WCST indicators. Total amount and most of the particular language disorders correlated positively with total PANSS scores. Total amount of language disorders was connected with the number of trials, which were necessary to complete the first category and also with the global scores obtained in "Similarities". There were also many correlations between particular language phenomenons and results of several neuropsychological tests. Correlation between psychopathological evaluation of language disorders according to TLCS and evaluation of the schizophrenic syndrome score is found to be significant. The psychopathological rating of general and particular language disorders shows significant correlations with some indicators of executive function, verbal and nonverbal fluency and the ability for abstract thinking.

  8. Neurocognitive performance in first-episode and chronic schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, Steffen; Andresen, Burghard; Perro, Christian; Schickel, Marc; Krausz, Micheal; Naber, Dieter

    2002-02-01

    Previous research on neuropsychological disturbances in first-episode and chronic schizophrenic patients has provided mixed results which can be partially attributed to methodological inconsistencies. For the present study, 70 schizophrenic patients (40 with chronic and 30 with first-episode schizophrenia) were compared to 30 healthy controls on a large battery of neuropsychological tests. Special attention was paid to potential confounds such as differences in psychopathology, age and educational level between the schizophrenic sub-samples. Healthy controls performed better than both first-episode and chronic patients in almost all cognitive domains (P < 0.01), while the patient samples did not differ in any of the tasks. Results were confirmed in a second series of analyses in which patient subgroups were equated for sociodemographic background variables. The present results confirm recent data collected in longitudinal studies, thus, lending further support for a neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia. It is suggested that neuropsychological disturbances occur early in schizophrenia and do not worsen in the course beyond age-related decrement. Possible reasons why previous research has produced contradictory findings are discussed.

  9. Stroop interference effect in schizophrenic patients: an electrophysiological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markela-Lerenc, Jaana; Schmidt-Kraepelin, Christian; Roesch-Ely, Daniela; Mundt, Christoph; Weisbrod, Matthias; Kaiser, Stefan

    2009-03-01

    Schizophrenic patients present deficits in executive control functions. The Stroop test requires executive control functions, in particular response inhibition. So far only one study has employed the high temporal resolution of electrophysiological methods to investigate the neural correlates of the Stroop effect in schizophrenia. This study investigated medicated patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (n=15) and healthy controls (n=15) using event-related potentials. The analyses of the P1 and N1 components revealed no differences between the groups indicating intact sensory processing in schizophrenia during the Stroop test. We found greater negativity in the incongruent as compared to the congruent and neutral conditions between 350 and 450 ms over prefrontal scalp areas in healthy subjects but not in schizophrenic patients. Later on, a sustained positivity was observed over parietal scalp regions in healthy subjects. This later sustained potential was attenuated in patients but only in the first block. This suggests that following practice patients show similar parietal effects as healthy subjects. The total errors in the incongruent condition in patients correlated negatively with the difference in mean activity between incongruent and congruent conditions over the left parietal area (time window 600-1000 ms). In other words the more errors were made by patients, the more attenuated was the Stroop related electrophysiological effect. This suggests that the parietal activity is related to successful resolution of the Stroop conflict in schizophrenic patients. Furthermore, the absence of the frontal deflection in patients reflects dysfunctional neural processes associated with executive control.

  10. Anxiety and Hysterical Symptoms in Schizophrenia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    QuickSilver

    2003-05-07

    May 7, 2003 ... cognitive behaviour therapy were described as useful treat- ment modalities for schizophrenic patients who comorbidly suffer from panic and anxiety.10. Panic symptoms. Panic disorder is an often unrecognized, but common comorbid illness in schizophrenia.19 Arieti attributed the etiology of schizophrenia ...

  11. Adherence to depot versus oral antipsychotic medication in schizophrenic patients during the long-term therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Žana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. There is a high rate of schizophrenic patients who do not adhere to their prescribed therapy, despite the implementation of antipsychotic long-acting injections and the introduction of atypical antipsychotics. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in sociodemographic, clinical and medication adherence variables between the two groups of schizophrenic patients on maintenance therapy with depot antipsychotic fluphenazine decanoate and oral antipsychotics only as well as a correlation between the medication adherence and other examined variables. Methods. A total of 56 patients of both genders, aged < 60 years, with the diagnosis of schizophrenia (F20 (ICD-10, 1992 clinically stable for at least 6 months were introduced in this cross-sectional study. The patients from the depot group (n = 19 were on classical depot antipsychotic fluphenazine decanoate administering intramuscularly every 4 weeks (with or without oral antipsychotic augmentation and the patients from the oral group (n = 37 were on oral therapy alone with classical or atypical antipsychotics, either as monotherapy or combined. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS was used to assess symptom severity. Item G12 of the PANSS was used to assess insight into the illness. The patients completed the Medical Adherence Rating Scale (MARS was used to assess adherence to the therapy. A higher MARS score indicates behavior [Medical Adherence Questionnaire (MAQ subscale] and attitudes toward medication [Drug Attitude Inventory (DAI subscale] that are more consistent with treatment adherence. The exclusion criteria were determined. The Pearson's χ2 test was used to compare categorical variables, Student's t-test to compare continuous variables and Pearson's correlation to test the correlation significance; p = 0.05. Results. Significant betweengroup differences in age, illness duration, chlorpromazine equivalents, PANSS score and DAI subscore were found

  12. Effects of typical antipsychotic, haloperidol on regional cerebral blood flow in drug-naive schizophrenic patients-study with 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamoya, Masatoshi [Kanazawa Medical Univ., Ishikawa (Japan)

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of examining antipsychotic action of haloperidol (HPD), effects of chronic perioral administration of HPD 4.5 mg/day on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) with 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT were investigated in 12 drug-naive schizophrenic patients with acute hallucinatory and delusional state. Further, the SPECT examinations were performed on 20 normal adult volunteers to investigate differences in rCBFs between schizophrenics and the normal subjects. Results are itemized as follows. The rCBF values were significantly increased in the bilateral superior and middle frontal, cingulate, middle temporal, pre-and post-central gyri, the left superior temporal gyrus, the bilateral inferior parietal lobule, and the bilateral hippocampal and thalamic cortices in comparison between normal subjects and before the HPD dose in schizophrenics. However, the rCBF values after the HPD dose showed significant increases only in the bilateral pre-and post-central gyri in comparison with the normal subjects. The rCBF values were significantly decreased in the bilateral superior, middle and inferior frontal, superior and middle temporal gyri, and the left insular gyrus after the HPD dose in comparison with before the HPD dose. The psychiatric assessment with PANSS showed an improvement of positive symptoms consisting of auditory hallucination and delusions after the HPD dose. Statistical analyses on relationships between the rCBF values and PANSS scores before and after the HPD dose showed positive correlations between the right inferior frontal gyrus and auditory hallucination or positive symptoms, between the right superior temporal gyrus, left thalamus and delusions, and between the left thalamus, insular gyrus and negative symptoms. These results suggest that acute drug-naive schizophrenic patients have widespread cortico-subcortical energic hypermetabolism and HPD reduces the hypermetabolism, leading to whole normalized brain metabolism, in particular with the larger region

  13. [History of treatment of schizophrenic forensic patients prior to admission: a comparison with schizophrenic general psychiatric patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piontek, K; Kutscher, S-U; König, A; Leygraf, N

    2013-01-01

    The number of schizophrenic patients admitted to forensic hospitals according to section 63 of the German Criminal Code has increased continuously over the past years. Prior to admission to a forensic ward, two thirds of schizophrenic patients have been admitted to a general psychiatric institution at least once. Among other factors, forensic admission is seen as a consequence of insufficient pretreatment in general psychiatry. This study aims to identify differences regarding the history of treatment of forensic and general psychiatric patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. The matched samples include 72 male patients from forensic wards and 72 male patients from general psychiatry diagnosed with schizophrenia. The history of psychiatric treatment was reconstructed by interviewing the patients as well as the outpatient psychiatrists and by analyzing these patients' medical records. Both groups showed similar risk factors, however, forensic patients had a higher number of previous convictions and were convicted more often for violent offences. Furthermore, the data indicate that forensic patients are less integrated into psychiatric care and showed a lower rate of treatment compliance prior to admission to a forensic ward. The results provide support for the arrangement of an intensive outpatient aftercare, especially for schizophrenic patients with comorbid substance abuse disorders and previous convictions for violent offences.

  14. Neural systems for social cognition : gray matter volume abnormalities in boys at high genetic risk of autism symptoms, and a comparison with idiopathic autism spectrum disorder.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goddard, M.N.; Swaab, H.; Rombouts, S.A.; Van, Rijn S.

    2016-01-01

    Klinefelter syndrome (47, XXY) is associated with several physical, cognitive, and behavioral consequences. In terms of social development, there is an increased risk of autism symptomatology. However, it remains unclear how social deficits are related to abnormal brain development and to what

  15. Catha edulis chewing effects on treatment of paranoid schizophrenic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotb El-Sayed MI

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Mohamed-I Kotb El-Sayed, Hatem-K Amin Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Helwan University, Ain Helwan, Helwan, Cairo, Egypt Background: The current study’s aim is to evaluate the possible interaction effects of khat chewing on treatment of paranoid schizophrenic patients.Patients and methods: In the study group, 42 male subjects suffered from paranoid schizophrenia and were classified according to their khat chewing habits into two subgroups: either khat-chewer subgroup (SKc; n=21; r=11, h=10 or non-khat-chewer subgroup (SNKc; n=21, r=11, h=10. Each subgroup was further subdivided according to type of treatment into r (risperidone and h (haloperidol. Healthy male subjects (37 were subdivided into healthy khat-chewer as positive controls (HKc, n=17 and healthy non-khat-chewer as negative controls (HNKc, n=20. Plasma dopamine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC, homovanillic acid, 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, epinephrine, and norepinephrine were estimated.Results: ANOVA and post hoc analysis showed that dopamine was illustrating significant elevation in all khat chewing groups. DOPAC was illustrating significant decrease in all khat chewing groups with an interesting outcome showing significant increase in DOPAC in SNKcr group due to risperidone effect. Homovanillic acid, serotonin, hydroxyindoleacetic acid, and norepinephrine were illustrating significant elevations in all khat chewing groups. Epinephrine was illustrating significant elevation in all chewers than non-chewers groups. Unexpected significant decrease in epinephrine in the SNKcr group indicated that risperidone drug is decreasing epinephrine through indirect mechanism involving calcium.Conclusion: Khat chewing in schizophrenic patients is contraindicated because it aggravates the disease symptoms, attenuates all used treatment medications, and deteriorates all biochemical markers of the patients. Keywords

  16. Serum cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate levels in schizophrenic patients and their first-degree relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldırım, Osman; Dogan, Orhan; Semiz, Murat; Kilicli, Fatih

    2011-10-01

    Alterations in cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) levels are thought to play a role in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of serum cortisol and DHEA-S in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Sixty schizophrenic patients, 70 healthy first-degree relatives, and 60 healthy volunteers were included. Sociodemographic characteristics, data regarding disease duration and severity, as well as ongoing and previous drug use were recorded. Serum cortisol and DHEA-S levels were measured. Serum cortisol and DHEA-S levels were significantly higher in the schizophrenia group compared with the first-degree relatives and controls (P cortisol levels in the first-degree relatives were significantly higher than in the healthy controls (P DHEA-S levels and between the three groups in terms of serum cortisol/DHEA-S ratios. Elevated serum cortisol levels in schizophrenic patients might be associated with the role of cortisol in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Also, the elevation of serum cortisol levels in first-degree relatives compared to controls suggests that similar pathophysiological processes might have a role in individuals without any disease symptoms, but with a genetic predisposition for schizophrenia. Elevated serum DHEA-S levels might be the result of a compensatory response to elevated cortisol levels. Serum cortisol and DHEA-S levels may be used as a biological marker for the diagnosis of schizophrenia; however, further studies with larger sample sizes are warranted to support this finding. © 2011 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2011 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  17. The Application of Drawing and Painting to Decrease the Anixiety of the Schizophrenic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farbod Fadaei

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: People with schizophrenia continuous type (previously labeled as chronic, constitute the majority of inpatients in rehabilitation wards. These patients, apart from the characteristic signs and symptoms of schizophrenia, suffer from anxiety. This anxiety, not influenced by antipsychotic medications, can be a part of the schizophrenia per se, but it may be due to the unfavorable frame and quality of life in mental hospital wards. Every attempt in decreasing the anxiety of these patients, can be regarded as a step toward a more perfect treatment and rehabilitation plan, and elevating the quality of their lives. In this research the application of drawing and painting as a method to decrease the anxiety of these patients was evaluated. Materials & Methods: 100 schizophrenic patients (according to DSM-IV criteria who were hospitalized in long stay rehabilitation wards of Razi psychiatric center for at least 2 years, entered the research procedure. Their anxiety level was measured by the Cattel anxiety questionnaire. 50 patients, who were selected as experimental group, had 15 one hour sessions of drawing and painting. For the remainder 50 patients who were the control group, various neutral activities (as placebo were performed, during those hours. Medications were unchanged during the research. After the 15th session the anxiety levels of patients were evaluated for the second time. The scores obtained in the first and second evaluations in each group and between two groups were analyzed by appropriate statistical methods. Results: In comparing the mean scores obtained from the first and second measurements in experimental group by applying the t-test (in correlated groups, the difference was statistically significant (t=67.5, P<0.0l. Conclusion: Sessions of drawing and painting with appropriate duration and frequency can significantly diminish the anxiety in long stay schizophrenic patients in rehabilitation wards.

  18. Meiotic abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Sp1 expression is disrupted in schizophrenia; a possible mechanism for the abnormal expression of mitochondrial complex I genes, NDUFV1 and NDUFV2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorit Ben-Shachar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The prevailing hypothesis regards schizophrenia as a polygenic disease, in which multiple genes combine with each other and with environmental stimuli to produce the variance of its clinical symptoms. We investigated whether the ubiquitous transcription factor Sp1 is abnormally expressed in schizophrenia, and consequently can affect the expression of genes implicated in this disorder. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: mRNA of Sp1 and of mitochondrial complex I subunits (NDUFV1, NDUFV2 was analyzed in three postmortem brain regions obtained from the Stanley Foundation Brain Collection, and in lymphocytes of schizophrenic patients and controls. Sp1 role in the transcription of these genes was studied as well. Sp1 was abnormally expressed in schizophrenia in both brain and periphery. Its mRNA alteration pattern paralleled that of NDUFV1 and NDUFV2, decreasing in the prefrontal cortex and the striatum, while increasing in the parieto-occipital cortex and in lymphocytes of schizophrenic patients as compared with controls. Moreover, a high and significant correlation between these genes existed in normal subjects, but was distorted in patients. Sp1 role in the regulation of complex I subunits, was demonstrated by the ability of the Sp1/DNA binding inhibitor, mithramycin, to inhibit the transcription of NDUFV1 and NDUFV2, in neuroblastoma cells. In addition, Sp1 activated NDUFV2 promoter by binding to its three GC-boxes. Both activation and binding were inhibited by mithramycin. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest that abnormality in Sp1, which can be the main activator/repressor or act in combination with additional transcription factors and is subjected to environmental stimuli, can contribute to the polygenic and clinically heterogeneous nature of schizophrenia.

  20. Associations between abnormal ultrasound color Doppler measures and tendon pain symptoms in badminton players during a season: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesen, Anders Ploug; Boesen, Morten Ilum; Torp-Pedersen, Soren; Christensen, Robin; Boesen, Lars; Hölmich, Per; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann; Koenig, Merete Juhl; Hartkopp, Andreas; Ellegaard, Karen; Bliddal, Henning; Langberg, Henning

    2012-03-01

    Color Doppler ultrasound is widely used to examine intratendinous flow in individuals with overuse tendon problems, but the association between color Doppler and pain is still unclear. Intratendinous flow is present and associated with pain in badminton players, and intratendinous flow and pain increase during a badminton season. Cohort study (prognosis); Level of evidence, 2. Ninety-five semiprofessional badminton players were included in the study at a tournament at the start of the badminton season. All players were interviewed regarding pain. The anterior knee tendons and Achilles tendons were studied. Each tendon was scored using a quantitative grading system (grades 0-5) and a qualitative scoring system (color fraction) using color Doppler ultrasound. Eight months later, 86 of the players (91%) were retested by the same investigators during an equivalent badminton tournament (including 1032 tendon regions; 86 players with 4 tendons each with 3 regions), thus forming the study group. At the start of the season, 24 players (28%) experienced pain in 37 tendons (11%), and at the end of the season, 31 players (36%) experienced pain in 51 tendons (15%), which was a statistically significant increase (P = .0002). Abnormal flow was found in 230 tendon regions in 71 players (83%) at the start of the season compared with 78 tendon regions in 41 players (48%) at the follow-up. The decrease in abnormal flow was statistically significant (P < .0001). Of the 37 painful tendons at the start of the season, 25 had abnormal flow (68%). In contrast, 131 tendons (85%) with abnormal flow at the start of the season were pain free. At the end of the season, 18 of the 51 painful tendons (35%) had abnormal flow. Ninety-six of the 131 pain-free tendons (73%) with abnormal flow at the start of the season were normalized (no pain and normal flow) at the end of the season. It was not possible to verify any association between intratendinous flow and pain at the start of the season or at

  1. Revisiting the Association of Aggression and Suicidal Behavior in Schizophrenic Inpatients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuner, Tanja; Hubner-Liebermann, Bettina; Hausner, Helmut; Hajak, Goran; Wolfersdorf, Manfred; Spiessl, Hermann

    2011-01-01

    Our study investigated the association of aggression and suicidal behavior in schizophrenic inpatients. Eight thousand nine hundred one admissions for schizophrenia (1998-2007) to a psychiatric university hospital were included. Schizophrenic suicides (n = 7)/suicide attempters (n = 40) were compared to suicides (n = 30)/suicide attempters (n =…

  2. Patterns of Dysfunction in Schizophrenic Patients on an Aphasia Test Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiSimoni, Frank G.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    In a study comparing schizophrenic language performance with the language performance profiles characteristic of aphasia, apraxia of speech, generalized intellectual impairment, and confused language, 27 schizophrenic patients (20 to 67 years old) were tested with an aphasia test battery. (Author/IM)

  3. Pragmatic assessment of schizophrenic bilinguals' L1 and L2 use ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports on a study investigating the pragmatic skills and deficits of schizophrenic bilinguals in their spontaneous first language (L1) and second language (L2) speech. Smit (2009) (see also Smit et al., this volume) argues that the locus of deficits in schizophrenic speech is semantics and suggests that a next step ...

  4. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus in chronic schizophrenic inpatients in relation to long-term neuroleptic treatment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, D.; Dekker, J.J.M.; Peen, J.; de Wied, C.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Many reports indicate that the incidence and prevalence of diabetes mellitus is increased in schizophrenic patients and related to antipsychotic treatment. In an exploratory cross-sectional study we assessed the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in 266 chronic schizophrenic and

  5. A 12-month follow-up study of treating overweight schizophrenic patients with aripiprazole

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schorr, S. G.; Slooff, C. J.; Postema, R.; Van Oven, W.; Schilthuis, M.; Bruggeman, R.; Taxis, K.

    Objective: To investigate the feasibility of switching overweight schizophrenic patients to aripiprazole and to assess the impact of 12 months of aripiprazole treatment on weight in routine practice. Method: This was a non-controlled cohort study in overweight schizophrenic patients. Data were

  6. Congenital Abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ribbon Commands Skip to main content Turn off Animations Turn on Animations Our Sponsors Log in | Register Menu Log in | ... course of action. Additional Information Your Family Health History & Genetics Detecting Genetic Abnormalities Prenatal Genetic Counseling Children ...

  7. Walking abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with short-term or long-term gait disorders. Therapy will reduce the risk of falls and other injuries. For an abnormal gait that occurs with conversion disorder, counseling and support from family members are ...

  8. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease versus anti-LGI1 limbic encephalitis in a patient with progressive cognitive dysfunction, psychiatric symptoms, involuntary facio-brachio-crural movement, and an abnormal electroencephalogram: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun L

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Li Sun, Jie Cao, Chang Liu, Yudan LvDepartment of Neurology, The First Hospital of JiLin University, ChangChun, People’s Republic of ChinaAbstract: Diagnosis of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD is often challenging in elderly individuals, not only because of its variable clinical features but also because of nonspecific changes on the electroencephalogram (EEG in the early stages of the disease. Here we report on a patient who presented with progressive cognitive dysfunction, psychiatric symptoms, involuntary facio-brachio-crural movement, and an abnormal EEG. We provide a detailed analysis and differential diagnosis between anti-leucine-rich glioma inactivated 1 (LGI1 limbic encephalitis versus CJD, in the hope of providing a new understanding of CJD. A 65-year-old Chinese man presented with slowly progressive cognitive decline with psychiatric symptoms. On admission, he presented with facial grimacing and brief left upper limb dystonic posturing lasting 1–2 seconds, with hyponatremia that was difficult to rectify. Neurological examination showed increased muscle tension in the left limb but without pathological reflexes. His early EEG showed focal periodic wave complexes. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging showed a suspected “lace sign” in the occipital cortex. His cerebrospinal fluid was negative for LGI1 antibodies and positive for 14-3-3 brain protein. Therefore, we made a presumptive diagnosis of CJD. At the following visit, a second EEG showed paroxysmal sharp wave complexes, but the patient had a poor prognosis. Atypical facio-brachio-crural movement and nonspecific EEG changes may occasionally be found in patients with CJD or anti-LGI1 encephalitis. Clinicians should not be dissuaded from a diagnosis of CJD where the EEG does not show paroxysmal sharp wave complexes in the early stages but abnormal facio-brachio-crural movement is present.Keywords: abnormal facio-brachio-crural movement, hyponatremia, Creutzfeldt

  9. Regional cerebral blood flow measurements in schizophrenics by /sup 133/Xe inhalation and intra-venous injection method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Hiroshi; Seki, Hiroyasu; Sumiya, Hisashi; Ishida, Hiroko; Taki, Junichi; Hisada, Kinichi; Kurachi, Masayoshi; Kobayashi, Katsuji; Yamaguchi, Nariyoshi (Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1984-12-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow measurements were performed in 25 schizophrenic patients and 25 healthy volunteers by /sup 133/Xe inhalation and intra-venous injection method. Schizophrenic patients were classified into the following three groups. Group I: 8 patients without auditory hallucination measured by 2-dimensional /sup 133/Xe inhalation method. Group II: 6 patients with auditory hallucination measured by the same method as in Group I. Group III: 11 patients, including 2 patients with auditory hallucination measured by 3-dimensional /sup 133/Xe intra-venous injection method at the level of OM+5 cm. Bilateral regional percent values, which were obtained by dividing regional values by hemispheric mean or sectional mean values, for frontal lobes in Group I and II were significantly lower than those in the controls. In addition, bilateral regional percent values for bilateral temporal lobes in Group II were significantly higher than those in the controls. In Group III, regional percent values for right frontal lobes and those for posterior part of central gray matter showed significant decrease and increase, respectively. These findings would suggest that the negative symptoms of schizophrenia are related to the hypofrontal and positive ones to the hypertemporoparietal activity.

  10. Mortality and causes of death in schizophrenic patients in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, P B; Juel, K

    1990-01-01

    A cohort consisting of 6178 people that were psychiatric inpatients with a clinical schizophrenia diagnosis in 1957 were followed up from 1957 through 1986, and their cause-specific mortality was determined. Mortality from cardiovascular diseases, lung diseases, gastrointestinal and urogenital...... disorders, accidents and suicide was increased, whereas mortality from cerebrovascular disorders was reduced. In the male patients cancer mortality was reduced whereas cancer mortality in the female patients was increased. Mortality from a number of causes that theoretically could be associated with side...... effects from neuroleptics was increased. Mortality from some causes of death used as a measurement of the quality of medical care was found to be slightly increased. Further studies of the quality of the medical care provided to schizophrenic patients and of the association between neuroleptic medication...

  11. A phase II randomized controlled trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of Praneem polyherbal vaginal tablets compared with betadine vaginal pessary in women with symptoms of abnormal vaginal discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salhan, Sudha; Tripathi, Vrijesh; Sehgal, Raman; Kumar, Gaurav; Talwar, Gursaran P; Chatterjee, Arani

    2009-10-01

    Abnormal vaginal discharge (AVD) caused by a variety of reproductive tract infections is a widespread syndrome among women in India and in other developing countries. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a polyherbal formulation, Praneem, can be used for the regression of the syndrome. A phase IotaIota randomized controlled study was carried out with Praneem polyherbal tablets and Betadine vaginal pessary in 99 women with AVD. The authors found that 92% of women using Praneem were relieved of their symptoms of AVD as against 81.6% women using Betadine. Significant reduction was also seen with both treatments in lower abdominal pain, vaginal itching, and dysuria. Thus, the study indicates the efficacy of Praneem for the treatment of AVD and provides a rationale for planning a further Phase III study on a larger sample size for definitive conclusions.

  12. (/sup 3/H)muscimol binding sites increased in autopsied brains of chronic schizophrenics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanada, S.; Mita, T.; Nishino, N.; Tanaka, C.

    1987-01-19

    (/sup 3/H)muscimol binding and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) activity in the prefrontal cortex and caudate nucleus of autopsied brains from 19 chronic schizophrenics and 17 control subjects were investigated. In the schizophrenics, saturation analysis with varying concentrations of (/sup 3/H)muscimol revealed an increase in the number GABA/sub A/ receptors, but there was no significant difference in the affinity. In addition, the enhancement of (/sup 3/H)muscimol binding by diazepam was significantly greater in schizophrenics than in controls. GAD activity did not differ between controls and schizophrenics. The possibility that GABAergic mechanisms might play a role in case of chronic schizophrenia should be given further attention.

  13. Dual hydrophilic and salt responsive schizophrenic block copolymers – synthesis and study of self-assembly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasantha, Vivek Arjunan; Jana, Satyasankar; Lee, Serina Siew Chen; Lim, Chin-Sing; Teo, Serena Lay Ming; Parthiban, Anbanandam; Vancso, Gyula J.

    2015-01-01

    A new class of dual hydrophilic diblock copolymers (BCPs) possessing poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and zwitterionic polysulfabetaine (PSB) was synthesized by reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. These BCPs formed schizophrenic micelles undergoing core–shell

  14. Development of the caregivers attitude scale on home care of schizophrenics (CASHS)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Balasubramanian, N; Sathyanarayana Rao, T S; D'Sa, Juliana Linnette

    2014-01-01

    .... This article describes the development of a Likert scale, the Caregivers Attitude Scale on Home Care of Schizophrenics CASHS, which is a 31-item self-reported instrument that quantifies three aspects...

  15. Eye-tracking Reveals Abnormal Visual Preference for Geometric Images as an Early Biomarker of an ASD Subtype Associated with Increased Symptom Severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Karen; Marinero, Steven; Hazin, Roxana; McKenna, Benjamin; Barnes, Cynthia Carter; Malige, Ajith

    2015-01-01

    Background Clinically and biologically, ASD is heterogeneous. Unusual patterns of visual preference as indexed by eye-tracking are hallmarks, yet whether they can be used to define an early biomarker of ASD as a whole, or leveraged to define a subtype is unclear. To begin to examine this issue, large cohorts are required. Methods A sample of 334 toddlers from 6 distinct groups (115 ASD, 20 ASD-Features, 57 DD, 53 Other, 64 TD, and 25 Typ SIB) participated. Toddlers watched a movie containing both geometric and social images. Fixation duration and number of saccades within each AOI and validation statistics for this independent sample computed. Next, to maximize power, data from our previous study (N=110) was added totaling 444 subjects. A subset of toddlers repeated the eye-tracking procedure. Results As in the original study, a subset of toddlers with ASD fixated on geometric images greater than 69%. Using this cutoff, sensitivity for ASD was 21%, specificity 98%, and PPV 86%. Toddlers with ASD who strongly preferred geometric images had (a) worse cognitive, language, and social skills relative to toddlers with ASD who strongly preferred social images and (b) fewer saccades when viewing geometric images. Unaffected siblings of ASD probands did not show evidence of heightened preference for geometric images. Test-retest reliability was good. Examination of age effects suggest that this test may not be appropriate with children > 4 years. Conclusions Enhanced visual preference for geometric repetition may be an early developmental biomarker of an ASD subtype with more severe symptoms. PMID:25981170

  16. Eye Tracking Reveals Abnormal Visual Preference for Geometric Images as an Early Biomarker of an Autism Spectrum Disorder Subtype Associated With Increased Symptom Severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Karen; Marinero, Steven; Hazin, Roxana; McKenna, Benjamin; Barnes, Cynthia Carter; Malige, Ajith

    2016-04-15

    Clinically and biologically, autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is heterogeneous. Unusual patterns of visual preference as indexed by eye tracking are hallmarks; however, whether they can be used to define an early biomarker of ASD as a whole or leveraged to define a subtype is unclear. To begin to examine this issue, large cohorts are required. A sample of 334 toddlers from six distinct groups (115 toddlers with ASD, 20 toddlers with ASD features, 57 toddlers with developmental delay, 53 toddlers with other conditions [e.g., premature birth, prenatal drug exposure], 64 toddlers with typical development, and 25 unaffected toddlers with siblings with ASD) was studied. Toddlers watched a movie containing geometric and social images. Fixation duration and number of saccades within each area of interest and validation statistics for this independent sample were computed. Next, to maximize power, data from our previous study (n = 110) were added for a total of 444 subjects. A subset of toddlers repeated the eye-tracking procedure. As in the original study, a subset of toddlers with ASD fixated on geometric images >69% of the time. Using this cutoff, sensitivity for ASD was 21%, specificity was 98%, and positive predictive value was 86%. Toddlers with ASD who strongly preferred geometric images had 1) worse cognitive, language, and social skills relative to toddlers with ASD who strongly preferred social images and 2) fewer saccades when viewing geometric images. Unaffected siblings of ASD probands did not show evidence of heightened preference for geometric images. Test-retest reliability was good. Examination of age effects suggested that this test may not be appropriate with children >4 years old. Enhanced visual preference for geometric repetition may be an early developmental biomarker of an ASD subtype with more severe symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Extent of Burden and coping among family Caregivers living with schizophrenic patients in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    kali kumari pun; Gouping He; Xiu Hua Wang

    2014-01-01

    Caring for schizophrenic patient is an enduring affect among family caregivers and gives substantial amount of burden. None any research has carried out to know the extent of burden among family caregivers of schizophrenia in Nepal. The aim of this study was to explore the extent of burden and identify coping strategies adopted by family caregivers living with schizophrenic patient. A descriptive cross sectional study was undertaken to assess the extent of burden and coping, using purposive s...

  18. Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia at the Jos University Teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of negative symptoms among Nigerian schizophrenics with the view to highlighting the critical aspects of the management of the disorder that require psycho-therapeutic intervention for an improved mental health care system. Fifty consecutive attendants of the Jos ...

  19. Altered Adipocytokine Levels and Heart Rate Variability in Schizophrenic Patients with Risk of Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa, Zulifeiya; Shabiti, Asikaer; Aizezi, Zainuremu; Yi, Peng

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate changes in the levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), myocardial fibrosis, and long-term heart rate variability (HRV) in schizophrenic patients at risk of developing metabolic syndrome (MS). 45 subjects without schizophrenia or MS were recruited into the control group (group A), 45 schizophrenic patients not at risk for developing MS constituted group B, and 45 schizophrenic patients at risk of MS constituted group C. Serum levels of TNF-α and Hs-CRP were examined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Ultrasonic acoustic densitometry (AD) analysis was performed to assess myocardial fibrosis, and 24 hours dynamic electrocardiography was conducted to determine HRV time-domain index. Compared with the control group, schizophrenic patients at risk of MS displayed a reduced HRV (p 0.05). Moreover, serum levels of TNF-α and Hs-CRP in the schizophrenic patients with MS risk were elevated compared with the control group (p levels, hypertension and obesity, schizophrenic patients at risk of MS exhibited elevated levels of TNF-α and Hs-CRP, enhanced ventricular myocardial fibrosis, and reduced HRV, which might have resulted from structural changes and autonomic nervous dysfunction in cardiac tissues.

  20. [Nursing experience with a schizophrenic breast cancer patient after mastectomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jia-Rong; Lin, Mei-Ling

    2014-10-01

    This case study used cognitive therapy to improve the life quality of a 46-year-old woman with chronic schizophrenia who had undergone a mastectomy for breast cancer. This case had suffered from schizophrenia for over 24 years and was hospitalized in the chronic ward of our hospital. Breast cancer was revealed during an annual comprehensive physical checkup. In May 2012, this case received a right mastectomy at a local hospital. After the surgery, she was readmitted to the psychiatric acute ward for further care from May 30th to August 28th, 2012. A holistic nursing assessment was conducted that addressed five major aspects. The major nursing problems found during hospitalization were: acute pain, body image disturbance, and low self-esteem. A decline in pain score from 10 to 4 was achieved by developing rapport with the patient, empathizing with her distress, and providing active care to the wound. Her body image changed because of loosing her breast. Her acceptance of the loss improved through helping her to explore her feelings of change. To improve her self-esteem, we offered cognitive therapy to change her negative thinking process. She became more sanguine and cheerful. Moreover, her dependence in terms of activities of daily living decreased. This individualized intervention contributed to the recovery of a post-mastectomy, schizophrenic patient from low self-esteem.

  1. The meaning of pharmacological treatment for schizophrenic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Graziani Giacchero Vedana

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to understand the meaning of medication therapy for schizophrenic patients and formulate a theoretical model about the study phenomenon.METHOD: a qualitative approach was employed, using Symbolic Interactionism as the theoretical and Grounded Theory as the methodological framework. The research was developed between 2008 and 2010 at three community mental health services in the interior of the State of São Paulo - Brazil. Thirty-six patients and thirty-six family members were selected through theoretical sampling. The data were mainly collected through open interviews and observation and simultaneously analyzed through open, axial and selective coding.RESULTS: the meaning of the pharmacotherapy is centered on the phenomenon "Living with a help that bothers", which expresses the patients' ambivalence towards the medication and determines their decision making. The insight, access, limitations for self-administration of the drugs and interactions with family members and the health team influenced the patient's medication-related behavior.CONCLUSION: the theory presented in this study provides a comprehensive, contextualized, motivational and dynamic understanding of the relation the patient experiences and indicates potentials and barriers to follow the medication treatment.

  2. The meaning of pharmacological treatment for schizophrenic patients1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedana, Kelly Graziani Giacchero; Miasso, Adriana Inocenti

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to understand the meaning of medication therapy for schizophrenic patients and formulate a theoretical model about the study phenomenon. METHOD: a qualitative approach was employed, using Symbolic Interactionism as the theoretical and Grounded Theory as the methodological framework. The research was developed between 2008 and 2010 at three community mental health services in the interior of the State of São Paulo - Brazil. Thirty-six patients and thirty-six family members were selected through theoretical sampling. The data were mainly collected through open interviews and observation and simultaneously analyzed through open, axial and selective coding. RESULTS: the meaning of the pharmacotherapy is centered on the phenomenon "Living with a help that bothers", which expresses the patients' ambivalence towards the medication and determines their decision making. The insight, access, limitations for self-administration of the drugs and interactions with family members and the health team influenced the patient's medication-related behavior. CONCLUSION: the theory presented in this study provides a comprehensive, contextualized, motivational and dynamic understanding of the relation the patient experiences and indicates potentials and barriers to follow the medication treatment. PMID:25296152

  3. Serum cortisol and DHEA-S levels in schizophrenic patients with different response to antipsychotic therapy: association with psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babinkostova, Z; Stefanovski, B; Janicevic-Ivanovska, D; Samardziska, V; Stojanovska, L

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies suggested that alterations in serum cortisol and DHEA-S levels may play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Imbalance in serum cortisol and DHEA-S levels may be related to responsivity to antipsychotic treatment. To compare serum cortisol and DHEA-S levels between patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls and to evaluate their association with psychopathology in schizophrenic patients with different response to antipsychotic treatment. This clinical prospective study included 60 patients with schizophrenia and 40 healthy age and sex matched controls. All patients experienced an acute exacerbation of the illness (PANSS: P1 and P3 ≥ 4). Clinical evaluation of patients was performed using the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale. A questionnaire for socio-demographic and clinical data collection was used. For the purposes of the study, the examined group was divided in two subgroups: responders and nonresponders. Serum cortisol and DHEA-S levels were measuredat baseline in all participants and after 3 and 6 weeks of the antipsychotic treatment in patients with schizophrenia. Patients with schizophrenia had significantly higher serum cortisol and DHEA-S levels comparedwith control group. Responders had significantly higher serum cortisol and DHEA-S levels compared with nonresponders. Responders group had significant correlation between serum cortisol and PANSS positive scale score as well as between hostility and serum DHEA-S. Elevated serum cortisol and DHEA-S levels may play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Serum cortisol and DHEA-S are associated with psychopathology in schizophrenic patients with different response to antipsychotic therapy.

  4. Risperidone versus zuclopenthixol in the treatment of acute schizophrenic episodes: a double-blind parallel-group trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huttunen, M O; Piepponen, T; Rantanen, H; Larmo, I; Nyholm, R; Raitasuo, V

    1995-04-01

    A double-blind, randomized, multi-center, parallel-group study was conducted in Finland to compare the efficacy and safety of risperidone with zuclopenthixol in patients with acute exacerbations of schizophrenia or schizophreniform disorder. Ninety-eight patients were randomly assigned to treatment with risperidone (n = 48) or zuclopenthixol (n = 50), in variable doses, for 6 weeks. The mean daily doses of risperidone and zuclopenthixol at the end of the trial were 8 mg and 38 mg respectively. Efficacy was assessed throughout by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale for schizophrenia and Clinical Global Impression. Safety assessments included the Extrapyramidal Symptom Rating Scale, UKU Side-Effect Rating Scale, vital signs, body weight and laboratory screening. The results indicate that risperidone is at least as effective as zuclopenthixol for the treatment of acute schizophrenic episodes, with a trend towards greater improvement in the overall severity of symptoms. The onset of action was significantly shorter with risperidone than with zuclopenthixol. Although the general tolerability of the two drugs was comparable, fewer patients experienced extrapyramidal symptoms with risperidone, so that significantly fewer risperidone-treated patients required antiparkinsonian medication.

  5. Driving skills in unmedicated first- and recurrent-episode schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segmiller, Felix M; Buschert, Verena; Laux, Gerd; Nedopil, N; Palm, Ulrich; Furjanic, Katharina; Zwanzger, Peter; Brunnauer, Alexander

    2017-02-01

    The present study was designed to examine driving skills according to regulations of the German guidelines for road and traffic safety in unmedicated schizophrenic inpatients. A total of 13 first-episode (FES) and 13 recurrent-episode (RES) schizophrenic inpatients were included in the analysis and compared with a group of 20 healthy controls (HC). Data were collected with the computerised Wiener Testsystem measuring visual perception, reactivity and stress tolerance, concentration and vigilance. Analysis of data indicates that a great proportion (58 %) of schizophrenic patients were impaired in psychomotor functions related to driving skills. FES and RES significantly differed with respect to driving ability with a greater proportion in the FES (38 %) showing severe impairments when compared with RES (25 %). Differences with respect to HC performance were most pronounced in concentration and for the FES additionally in visual perception. Analysis of our data indicates that a great proportion of schizophrenic patients are impaired in psychomotor functions related to driving skills that cannot be attributed to adverse side effects of psychopharmacological treatment. Besides, we cannot confirm a chronical decline of psychomotor functions related to driving skills at least in the early course of schizophrenic illness.

  6. [Are schizophrenic patients being told their diagnosis today in France?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villani, M; Kovess-Masféty, V

    2017-04-01

    The progressive shifts in the legal and social contexts, along with major changes in information seeking habits with the development of the Internet, have placed patients' information at the core of medical practice. This has to be applied to the psychiatric fields as well, and to questions about how schizophrenic patients are being told their diagnosis nowadays in France. This paper is a national and international literature review about schizophrenia diagnosis disclosure practices, from 1972 to 2014, using French and English languages and various psychology and medical databases. The used key words were "diagnosis", "disclosure", "communication", "breaking bad news", "information", "schizophrenia" and "psychosis". Proportions of diagnosis announcement: our results show that the proportion of psychiatrists delivering schizophrenia diagnosis to their patients varies between countries. Although we must acknowledge that the questionnaires and samples are diverse, we have found that psychiatrists are in general less prone to deliver diagnosis information in France (from 13,5% to 39% given the studies), Germany (28%), Italy (30%), and Japan (30%), than in Anglo-Saxon countries. Thus, 70% of the psychiatrists in North America and 56% in Australia claim that they disclose their diagnosis to schizophrenic patients. In the United-Kingdom, a study targeting psychotic patients themselves has shown that 47% of them had been told their diagnosis by their doctor. Even in the countries where the proportion of diagnosis disclosure is the highest, there remains a substantial difference with other mental illnesses such as affective or anxiety disorders, which are almost always labeled as such in the information communicated to the patient (90% in North America). Diagnostic information about schizophrenia continues therefore to appear problematic for health professionals, which can seem a paradox given the recent social and legal evolutions, the therapeutic progress, the proved

  7. Are there schizophrenics for whom drugs may be unnecessary or contraindicated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappaport, M; Hopkins, H K; Hall, K; Belleza, T; Silverman, J

    1978-01-01

    This study reports that there are schizophrenics who do relatively well long term without the routine or continuous use of antipsychotic medication. Specially selected young males undergoing an acute schizophrenic episode were followed, after hospitalization, for up to three years. While hospitalized they were assigned randomly to either placebo or chlorpromazine treatment. Many unmedicated-while-in-hospital patients showed greater long-term improvement, less pathology at follow-up, fewer rehospitalizations and better overall function in the community than patients who were given chlorpromazine while in the hospital. Factors related to post-hospital outcome were good premorbid history and short-lived paranoid characteristics. Considerations which may have an effect on the successful management of acute schizophrenic patients not on medication are mentioned. The findings underline the need for further study of how to utilize antipsychotic medication more selectively in the treatment of schizophrenia.

  8. Phenothiazine effects on cerebral-evoked potentials and eye movements in acute schizophrenics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappaport, M; Hopkins, H K; Hall, K; Belleza, T

    1975-01-01

    An investigation was made of the effects of phenothiazine medication on the averaged visual-evoked potentials (AVEP) and on eye movements in hospitalized, young, acute schizophrenic patients. These results were compared with those of normal subjects who were not given medication. AVEP measures included maximum amplitude (Am), frequency of peaks (FOP'S), variability (V) and peak latencies for an early negative peak (N1) and a later positive peak (P6). Eye movement measures included percent of time looking at a stimulus slide, percent of time looking at a figure on the slide, the number of fixations and the percent of cells entered in which fixations occurred. For schizophrenics off and on phenothiazine medication, there were no consistently significant drug effects on any measure except frequency of peaks. Schizophrenics compared to normals had lower amplitudes, greater frequency of peaks, greater variability and lower eye movement scores.

  9. Written but not oral verbal production is preserved in young schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomé, Franck; Boyer, Patrice; Fayol, Michel

    2002-08-30

    The aim of this study is to discover whether the language capabilities of young schizophrenic patients are more affected in speaking than in writing or whether the disorders are equivalent in the two modes. To do this, we compared spoken and written descriptions of pictures obtained from 10 schizophrenic patients with those produced by 10 control subjects. These productions were analysed on the basis of objective indices. The syntax and coherence of the productions were evaluated by judges. The comparison of the performances of the controls and schizophrenic patients supports the hypothesis that the latter suffer from a language disorder affecting the oral mode but impacting less frequently and less severely on the written mode. These results are discussed in the light of the cognitive mechanisms which may provide an explanation of these language disorders.

  10. Facial, vocal and musical emotion recognition is altered in paranoid schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisgerber, Anne; Vermeulen, Nicolas; Peretz, Isabelle; Samson, Séverine; Philippot, Pierre; Maurage, Pierre; De Graeuwe D'Aoust, Catherine; De Jaegere, Aline; Delatte, Benoît; Gillain, Benoît; De Longueville, Xavier; Constant, Eric

    2015-09-30

    Disturbed processing of emotional faces and voices is typically observed in schizophrenia. This deficit leads to impaired social cognition and interactions. In this study, we investigated whether impaired processing of emotions also affects musical stimuli, which are widely present in daily life and known for their emotional impact. Thirty schizophrenic patients and 30 matched healthy controls evaluated the emotional content of musical, vocal and facial stimuli. Schizophrenic patients are less accurate than healthy controls in recognizing emotion in music, voices and faces. Our results confirm impaired recognition of emotion in voice and face stimuli in schizophrenic patients and extend this observation to the recognition of emotion in musical stimuli. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Group art therapy as adjunct therapy for the treatment of schizophrenic patients in day hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajić, Gordana Mandić

    2013-11-01

    The schizophrenics are frequently disinterested and resistant to standard care. We presented clinical observations of group art therapy of two schizophrenic patients during integrative therapy in Day Hospital. We modified the original "Synallactic collective image technique" (Vassiliou G, Vassiliou V.). The group is open, heterogeneous, meets once a week and discusses on exhibited drawings, drawn by free associations. The patients' drawings and group protocols showed clinical improvement by lowering depressive themes, more human figures and self-confidence. The obvious severity of markedly impairment on Clinical Global Impression (CGI) and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scales on admission with minimal improvement at discharge was rated. Group art therapy enables visual expression of emotions, perceptions and cognitions, develops creative potentials and support within the group, thus facilitating the integrative therapeutic process of schizophrenics. It may be useful adjunctive therapy for schizoprenic patients.

  12. Group art therapy as adjunct therapy for the treatment of schizophrenic patients in day hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandić-Gajić Gordana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The schizophrenics are frequently disinterested and resistant to standard care. Case report. We presented clinical observations of group art therapy of two schizophrenic patients during integrative therapy in Day Hospital. We modified the original “Synallactic collective image technique” (Vassiliou G, Vassiliou V.. The group is open, heterogeneous, meets once a week and discusses on exhibited drawings, drawn by free associations. The patients' drawings and group protocols showed clinical improvement by lowering depressive themes, more human figures and self-confidence. The obvious severity of markedly impairment on Clinical Global Impression (CGI and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF scales on admission with minimal improvement at discharge was rated. Conclusion. Group art therapy enables visual expression of emotions, perceptions and cognitions, develops creative potentials and support within the group, thus facilitating the integrative therapeutic process of schizophrenics. It may be useful adjunctive therapy for schizoprenic patients.

  13. Association of erythrocyte sedimentation rate and fibrinogen concentration with metabolic syndrome in schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlović, Marko; Babić, Dragan; Rastović, Pejana; Ljevak, Ivona

    2013-06-01

    Inflammation can be a process significant to the development of schizophrenia and metabolic disorders that are frequently found in patients suffering from schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to determine the values of erythrocyte sedimentation rate and fibrinogen concentration and to establish their possible association with MS and its components in schizophrenic patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 200 subjects who were divided into two groups. The study group consisted of schizophrenic patients from the University Clinical Hospital Mostar (n=100), while the control group consisted of healthy subjects who came for systematic medical examinations at the infirmary of the Health Center Mostar (n=100). The diagnosis of MS was made according to NCEP-ATP III criteria, and on that basis subjects from both groups were divided into two subgroups, one with and one without MS. Inflammatory indicators that were determinated were erythrocyte sedimentation rate and fibrinogen concentration. Statistically, MS was significantly more frequent in schizophrenic subjects (46.0%) compared to the control group (29.0%) (p=0.013). Schizophrenic subjects with MS had statistically higher sedimentation rate and fibrinogen concentration compared to the schizophrenic subjects without MS, as well as compared to the control subgroup without MS. The most significant correlations discovered were for the relation of sedimentation rate with systolic (r=0.41) and diastolic (r=0.34) blood pressures. Routine monitoring of erythrocyte sedimentation rate and fibrinogen concentration might have an important role in forecasting MS development and consequent adverse cardiovascular events which are the leading cause of mortality in schizophrenic patients.

  14. Studies of the correlations between morphological brain changes on MRI and computerized EEG changes in schizophrenics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, Kouzou (Kagoshima Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1992-06-01

    Twenty eight schizophrenic patients, who ranged in age from 21 to 39 years with a mean of 30.2, and 21 age- and sex-matched normal volunteers were studied by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and electroencephalography (EEG). ALl subjects were given informed consent prior to the present study. They were all right-handed. Schizophrenic patients showed a significantly larger ventricular brain ratio (VBR) on the axial and coronal planes as compared with the control. The bilateral anterior horns, left body, left posterior horn of the lateral ventricle and the third ventricle were significantly larger in schizophrenic patients than the control. The middle half of the corpus callosum was smaller in schizophrenic patients than the control. Schizophrenia was more likely associated not only with delta and theta activities in the centro-parieto-occipital regions but also with beta 1 and beta 2 activities in the front-central regions. In schizophrenic patients, however, alpha 2 activity was markedly decreased in all regions. There were significant positive correlations between the total scores for brief psychiatric rating scale (BPRS) and the areas of the left anterior and posterior horns of the lateral ventricle. The total BPRS scores positively correlated with the area of the third ventricle. In addition, positive correlations were significant between delata activity and the area of the left anterior horn of the lateral ventricle, between delta activity and the area of the third ventricle, and between beta 1 activity and the area of left posteior horn of the lateral ventricle. These results suggest that a dilated third ventricle is associated with electrophysiological brain pathology and psychopathology in schizophrenic patients. (N.K.) 76 refs.

  15. Increased concentration of. cap alpha. - and. gamma. -endorphin in post mortem hypothalamic tissue of schizophrenic patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiegant, V.M.; Verhoef, C.J.; Burbach, J.P.H.; de Wied, D.

    1988-01-01

    The concentrations of ..cap alpha..-, ..beta..- and ..gamma..-endorphin were determined by radioimmunoassay in HPLC fractionated extracts of post mortem hypothalamic tissue obtained from schizophrenic patients and controls. The hypothalamic concentration of ..cap alpha..- and ..gamma..-endorphin was significantly higher in patients than in controls. No difference was found in the concentration of ..beta..-endorphin, the putative precursor of ..cap alpha..- and ..gamma..-endorphins. These results suggest a deviant metabolism of ..beta..-endorphin in the brain of schizophrenic patients. Whether this phenomenon is related to the psychopathology, or is a consequence of ante mortem farmacotherapy, remains to be established.

  16. affective, schizophrenic and mood disorders in patients admitted at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SCZ, SAD and MD regarding: affective and core symptoms of schizophrenia (with the exception of core symptoms of schizophrenia between SCZ and SAD); presence of past trauma; a past suicide attempt; and comorbidity with alcohol and drug abuse disorders. SAD and MD patients took significantly more mood stabilizers ...

  17. Abnormalities of brain function during a nonverbal theory of mind task in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunet, Eric; Sarfati, Yves; Hardy-Baylé, Marie-Christine; Decety, Jean

    2003-01-01

    Theory of mind (ToM), the specific ability to attribute thoughts and feelings to oneself and others is generally impaired in schizophrenia. Previous studies demonstrated a deficit of the attribution of intentions to others among patients having formal thought disorder. During nonverbal tasks, such a function requires both the visual perception of human figures and the understanding of their intentions. These processes are considered to involve the superior temporal sulcus and the medial prefrontal cortex, respectively. Are the functional patterns of activation associated with those processes abnormal in schizophrenia? Seven schizophrenic patients on medication performed a nonverbal attribution of intentions task as well as two matched physical logic tasks, with and without human figures, while H2O15 PET-scanning was performed. Data from the patients were compared to those of eight healthy controls matched for verbal IQ and sex. The experimental design allowed dissociating the effect of the perception of human figures from that of the attribution of intentions. During attribution of intentions, significant activations in the right prefrontal cortex were detected in the control subjects. Those activations were not found in the schizophrenic group. However, in both groups, the perception of human figure elicited bilateral activation of the occipitotemporal regions and of the posterior part of the superior temporal sulcus. Schizophrenic patients performing a nonverbal attribution of intentions task have an abnormal cerebral activity.

  18. The antisaccade task performance deficit and specific CNV abnormalities in patients with stereotyped paraphilia and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirenskaya, Anna V; Kamenskov, Maxim Y; Myamlin, Vadim V; Novototsky-Vlasov, Vladimir Y; Tkachenko, Andrey A

    2013-09-01

    Antisaccade task performance and mean amplitudes of slow cortical potentials (contingent negative variation--CNV) were investigated in 19 healthy volunteers, 16 schizophrenic patients (SP), and 12 patients with stereotyped form of paraphilia (PP). Compared with healthy subjects, schizophrenic and paraphilic patients committed significantly more erroneous saccades. The clear between-group CNV differences were observed during the early CNV stage that is associated with cognitive aspects of preparatory set. In SP, as compared to controls, the significant decline of CNV amplitude was found at frontal-central area. PP have demonstrated the lack of CNV over central and parietal regions, but their CNV amplitudes in frontal area did not differ from values of control group. Thus, two distinct types of CNV abnormalities have been found. The SP results have been interpreted as support for frontal dysfunction in schizophrenia. The disconnection between prefrontal cortex, sensorimotor cortex, and related subcortical structures is hypothesized in paraphilia group. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  19. Effectiveness of gratitude disposition promotion program on depression and quality of life of chronic schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Miran; Han, Kuemsun

    2017-01-01

    Gratitude intervention is expectedly an effective intervention to reduce depression and improve the quality of life in schizophrenic patients, but there is a lack of literature on it. We attempted to develop and test the effectiveness of the gratitude disposition promotion program for chronic schizophrenic patients in Korea. Nonequivalent control group pre- and post-test design was used in two mental health centers located at Gyeonggi-do in South Korea. This paper was a quasi-experimental study and the participants who took part in the gratitude disposition promotion program were 17 of experimental group and 15 of control group. Gratitude disposition (the short gratitude, resentment, and appreciation test), depression (Beck Depression Inventory), and quality of life (developed by Kook) of chronic schizophrenic patients were measured before and after an intervention, as compared to the control. Chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, and t -test were performed for prehomogeneity testing for variables related to the general characteristics. Testing for the effectiveness of gratitude disposition promotion program and hypothesis testing for its effect on depression and quality of life were by ANCOVA and t -test, as verified to significance level of P gratitude disposition promotion program showed significant improvements in gratitude disposition ( F = 18.740, P gratitude disposition promotion program was an effective clinical intervention program for enhancing gratitude disposition and quality of life of chronic schizophrenic patients in community.

  20. The effect of neuroleptics on prolactinoma growth in a Jordanian schizophrenic girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daradkeh, T K; Ajlouni, K M

    1988-02-01

    We describe a case of a schizophrenic girl who developed prolactinoma while being treated with neuroleptics. The clinical history and special investigations of the pituitary tumor suggest that neuroleptic medications may have enhanced the growth of the tumor in our patient. The author suggests that the relationship between the occurrence of prolactinoma and neuroleptic medications ought to be investigated in a large controlled study.

  1. Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness among Schizophrenic Patients and Their Families (Comparative Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Sahar; Zaki, Rania A.

    2015-01-01

    This study was a comparative study aiming to assess the extent of internalized stigma of mental illness among patients with schizophrenia & identify stigma as perceived by family members caring schizophrenic patients. The study was conducted in two settings 1st clinic was outpatient clinic for psychiatric patient affiliated to Abbasia…

  2. Dream Content of Schizophrenic, Nonschizophrenic Mentally Ill, and Community Control Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjez, Jack; Stein, Daniel; Gabbay, Uri; Bruckner, Judith; Meged, Sorin; Barak, Yoram; Elizur, Avner; Weizman, Abraham; Rotenberg, Vadim S.

    2003-01-01

    Study compared dream content of schizophrenic adolescent inpatients, adolescent inpatient s with other mental disorders, and community controls. Results suggest that psychopathology per se, rather than the specific psychiatric disturbance, may be associated with impoverishment of dream content; and that negative, rather than positive,…

  3. Niacin skin flushing in schizophrenic and depressed patients and healthy controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosveld-van Haandel, Linda; Knegtering, Rikus; Kluiter, Herman; van den Bosch, Robert J.

    2006-01-01

    This study compares the skin reactions to the niacin flushing test of 16 schizophrenic patients with those of 17, depressed patients and 16 healthy controls. Methyl nicotinate (niacin) in a concentration of 0.1 M was applied to the forearm for 5 min. Significant differences could be observed between

  4. Selective Attention in Schizophrenic and Manic Psychoses: The Effect of Distraction on Information Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltmanns, Thomas F.

    1978-01-01

    This study was designed to identify the general level of cognitive processing that is especially vulnerable to distraction in schizophrenia. Attempts to determine at what level auditory distraction interferes with schizophrenics' performance, as opposed to normals, on simple recall tasks. (Editor/RK)

  5. A postmortem study of glycine and its potential precursors in chronic schizophrenics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurumaji, A; Watanabe, A; Kumashiro, S; Semba, J; Toru, M

    1996-09-01

    We have measured the concentrations of glycine and its potential precursors, serine and threonine, in 20 areas of the postmortem brains of chronic schizophrenics and controls using high-performance liquid chromatography by pre-column derivatization with dimethyl-amino-azobenzene sulphonyl chloride. The regional distribution pattern of glycine in the postmortem brains with and without the disease was more similar to that of serine (r = 0.874, P threonine (r = 0.476, P threonine was also observed in the supramarginal cortex and posterior portion of the lateral occipitotemporal cortex of the off-drug group of schizophrenics and in the putamen of all schizophrenics. The highly similar distribution pattern of glycine and serine in the postmortem brains supports the close coupling of synthesis and metabolism between these chemicals in human brains. The increased content of glycine in the orbitofrontal cortex, the reduced level of serine in the putamen and the decrease in threonine in the cerebral cortices, which were prominent in the off-drug schizophrenics, may be involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia.

  6. COSTS AND BENEFITS OF DAY TREATMENT WITH COMMUNITY CARE FOR SCHIZOPHRENIC-PATIENTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WIERSMA, D; KLUITER, H; NIENHUIS, FJ; RUPHAN, M; GIEL, R

    1991-01-01

    The feasibility of day treatment with community care for schizophrenic patients was tested by means of a longitudinal randomized experiment with 34 experimentals and 16 controls: 38 percent could be treated satisfactorily in a day program that included a very active ambulatory service. The new

  7. The recognition of facial affect in autistic and schizophrenic subjects and their first-degree relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bölte, Sven; Poustka, Fritz

    2003-07-01

    Autism and schizophrenia are considered to be substantially influenced by genetic factors. The endophenotype of both disorders probably also includes deficits in affect perception. The objective of this study was to examine the capacity to detect facially expressed emotion in autistic and schizophrenic subjects, their parents and siblings. Thirty-five subjects with autism and 102 of their relatives, 21 schizophrenic subjects and 46 relatives from simplex (one child affected) and multiplex (more than one child affected) families, as well as an unaffected control sample consisting of 22 probands completed a 50-item computer-based test to assess the ability to recognize basic emotions. The autistic subjects showed a poorer performance on the facial recognition test than did the schizophrenic and the unaffected individuals. In addition, there was a tendency for subjects from multiplex families with autistic loading to score lower on the test than individuals from simplex families with autistic loading. Schizophrenic subjects and their relatives as well as siblings and parents of autistic subjects did not differ from the sample of unaffected subjects in their ability to judge facial affect. Findings corroborate the assumption that emotion detection deficits are part of the endophenotype of autism. In families with autistic children, the extent of facial recognition deficits probably indexes an elevation in familial burden. It seems unlikely that problems in emotion perception form a consistent part of the endophenotype of schizophrenia or the broader phenotype in relatives of patients with psychosis or autism.

  8. Genital Self-Mutilation in Schizophrenic Patients. A Report of Two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mn

    GENITAL SELF-MUTILATION IN SCHIZOPHRENIC PATIENTS both ICD-10 and DSM-IV11,12. The ICD-. 10 diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia require the presence of bizarre delusions, hallucinations and overall behavioral changes lasting up to one month in the absence of general medical conditions that could explain.

  9. COSTS AND BENEFITS OF HOSPITAL AND DAY TREATMENT WITH COMMUNITY CARE OF AFFECTIVE AND SCHIZOPHRENIC DISORDERS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WIERSMA, D; KLUITER, H; NIENHUIS, FJ; RUPHAN, M; GIEL, R

    Background. A randomised controlled trial of day treatment with community care for patients with schizophrenic and affective disorders, referred for in-patient psychiatric treatment, was conducted to evaluate patterns of treatment and the course of illness with its psychosocial consequences over a

  10. Genital self-mutilation in schizophrenic patients. a report of two cases

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Schizophrenia is a serious psychiatric disorder that requires long-term treatment. Poor adherence to medication can lead to serious and possibly life-threatening complications. Genital selfmutilation has been reported in some schizophrenic patients in response to delusions or command auditory hallucination. We report two ...

  11. Oxidative stress and level of antioxidant enzymes in drug-naive schizophrenics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyazuddin, Mohammed; Azmi, Suhail A; Islam, Najmul; Rizvi, Abid

    2014-10-01

    Schizophrenia is a chronic illness having varied etiology which affects cognition, emotion, perception, and other aspects of behavior. There are data which show possible role of oxidative stress and disturbance in antioxidant mechanisms in various neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. Fifty drug-naive schizophrenic patients, who attended psychiatry outpatient department/inpatient department for the 1(st) time, were selected and compared with 50 age-sex matched healthy controls. The erythrocyte level of malondialdehyde (MDA) - a lipid peroxidation product and marker of oxidative stress, antioxidant enzymes - superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) was estimated. We also correlated the sociodemographic parameters and severity of illness (positive and negative syndrome scale score) with oxidative stress (MDA) and level of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GPX). The level of oxidative stress (MDA) was increased, and the levels of antioxidative enzymes (GPX and SOD) were decreased in schizophrenic patients as compared to normal healthy controls and the difference was statistically significant. No significant relationships of age, sex, educational status, marital status, and PANNS score with oxidative stress (MDA) and antioxidative enzymes (GPX and SOD) level in schizophrenic patients was found; but there was significant relationship of locality with oxidative stress (MDA) and antioxidative enzymes (GPX and SOD) level in schizophrenic patients was found. Urban population have a higher level of MDA, GPX, and SOD than the rural population. Our findings put great emphasis on the weak pro/antioxidant defense mechanisms and its role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. We can make recommendations of dietary nutritional supplementation and adjunct antioxidants therapy with antipsychotics to treat schizophrenics.

  12. Failing to self-ascribe thought and motion: towards a three-factor account of passivity symptoms in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, David Miguel

    2014-01-01

    There has recently been emphasis put on providing two-factor accounts of monothematic delusions. Such accounts would explain (1) whether a delusional hypothesis (e.g. someone else is inserting thoughts into my mind) can be understood as a prima facie reasonable response to an experience and (2) why such a delusional hypothesis is believed and maintained given its implausibility and evidence against it. I argue that if we are to avoid obfuscating the cognitive mechanisms involved in monothematic delusion formation we should split the first factor (1 above) into two factors: how abnormal experience can give rise to a delusional 'proto-hypothesis' and how a 'proto-hypothesis' in consort with normal experiences and background information, can be developed into a delusional hypothesis. In particular I will argue that a schizophrenic is faced with the unusual requirement of having to identify an introspectively accessible thought as one's own, and that this requirement of identification is the central experiential abnormality of thought insertion, auditory verbal hallucination, and alien control (i.e. passivity symptoms). Additionally, I will consider non-experiential factors which are required for the formation of a delusional hypothesis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Concurrent Medical and Psychiatric Disorders among Schizophrenic and Neurotic Outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Bruno R.; Pai, Shaila

    Although the occurrence of medical illnesses in psychiatric patients is quite high, medical illnesses manifested by psychiatric symptoms are often overlooked. The higher mortality rates among psychiatric patients when compared to the general population may be a reflection of neglect or inadequate treatment of the psychiatric patients' medical…

  14. Treatment of Social Phobia in Rezidual Schizophrenic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif SIMSEK KAYGUSUZ

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Having negative symptoms is the basic feature of residual-type schizophrenia and there is a direct proportion between the neurocognitive impairments associated with negative symptoms. Among the approaches used for the treatment of patients with schizophrenia, cognitive behaviour therapy is the one with the most evidence of efficacy. Cognitive behaviour therapy is considered to be beneficial for the residual symptoms after drug treatment. The social phobia leads among the anxiety disorders accompanying schizophrenia. According to the cognitive model, the impairment of social performance increases the severity of social phobia. The leading factor of this vicious circle is that the patients pay attention selectively to such cases in order to find evidence for their thoughts and beliefs that they are going to be evaluated negatively. In this paper, the cognitive behavioural therapy and formulation carried out with a patient, who has been followed for a long time with the diagnosis of residual-type schizophrenia and social phobia is reported. The purpose of the treatment is to interfere with the impaired functionality of the patient through cognitive and behavioural techniques by dealing with the medical treatment-resistant symptoms. To this end, firstly coping mechanisms are examined through the identification of avoidance and security providers, and then, the patient’s automatic thoughts and false beliefs are discussed depending on the cognitive perspective. The main part of the treatment has been completed by carrying out various investigations in order to increase the patients’ social performance via applying behavioural techniques. As a result, false beliefs are the indicators of the relationship between cognitive inability and negative symptoms and related to social functioning. By addressing these beliefs through cognitive behavioural therapy, the necessity of increasing the patient’s social activities and the relationship between social

  15. A comparison between effectiveness of three types of music on memory activity and sustained attention in schizophrenic patients

    OpenAIRE

    Narges bahmany; Karamatollah Zandi ghashghaee; Sadrollah Khosravi

    2014-01-01

    Background: schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder in which a lot of cognitive functions including memory, attention, motor skills, executive functions and intelligence are compromised. Numerous empirical studies showed that schizophrenic patients have problem in sustain retention and memory activity. The objective of this study was a comparison between effectiveness of three types of music on memory activity and sustain retention in schizophrenic patients. Material and Methods: A total of 6...

  16. Interpretation of ambiguous idiomatic statements in schizophrenic and depressive patients. Evidence for common and differential cognitive patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakimova, Galina; Passerieux, Christine; Hardy-Baylé, Marie-Christine

    2006-01-01

    This study is concerned with the comprehension of ambiguous idiomatic statements in schizophrenic and depressive patients. Using a multiple-choice procedure, we simultaneously tested the presence of concrete and literal elements in the understanding of idiomatic statements. Fourteen schizophrenic and 10 patients undergoing a major depressive episode as well as 14 control subjects completed a questionnaire with 10 idiomatic expressions with two possible interpretations (figurative and literal) of equivalent prominence. The participants had to choose one word linked with the different interpretations of these idioms (figurative, literal, concrete or inappropriate meaning). The main results show that, in all the subjects, the contextual characteristics of the task induced a bias in favor of figurative interpretations despite the equivalent prominence of the literal interpretations of the idioms. The selection of responses relating to the concrete meaning of a single word in the idiom constituted a response mode common to both the schizophrenic and depressed patients. Despite the contextual constraints of the task, the schizophrenics opted for the literal responses more often than the other participants. The descriptive analysis argues in favor of a cognitive and clinical heterogeneity of schizophrenic patients. Results support the idea that literality and concreteness in idiomatic interpretation are possibly due to distinct cognitive impairments, though only some are specific to schizophrenic patients. Copyright (c) 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Reporting a Case of Injecting Methylphenidate (Ritalin) Tablets, Intensified Symptoms of Schizoph-renia or Induce Separate Mental Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffarinejad, Alireza; Kheradmand, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Methylphenidate is one of the classic amphetamines which can cause or exacerbate psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia patients. In this paper, a young man is presented with injection of methylphenidate tablets with acute cellulitis due to this injection and the related symptoms. In the first hospitalization and after recovery from psychotic disorder due to tablet injections, he was under treatment with anti-psychotics because of other symptoms related to schizophrenia. Although the patient was regularly under schizophrenic medication after discharge, he was hospitalized twice more due to psychotic symptoms that appeared after injecting methylphenidate. This report shows psychotic symptoms in schizophrenic patients after injecting methylphenidate. These symptoms cannot be prevented even by anti-psychotic medication of background disease. This case shows the existence of two kinds of psychoses, functional (due to schizophrenia) and organic psychoses (due to methylphenidate use) in the same patient.

  18. A schizophrenic patient with cerebral infarctions after hemorrhagic shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youichi Yanagawa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We herein report the fourth case of cerebral infarction, concomitant with hemorrhagic shock, in English literature. A 33-year-old male, who had been diagnosed with schizophrenia and given a prescription for Olanzapine, was discovered with multiple self-inflicted bleeding cuts on his wrist. On arrival, he was in hemorrhagic shock without verbal responsiveness, but his vital signs were normalized following infusion of Lactate Ringer′s solution. The neuroradiological studies revealed multiple cerebral ischemic lesions without any vascular abnormality. He was diagnosed with speech apraxia, motor aphasia, and dysgraphia, due to multiple cerebral infarctions. As there was no obvious causative factor with regard to the occurrence of cerebral infarction in the patient, the hypoperfusion due to hemorrhagic shock, and the thromboembolic tendency due to Olanzapine, might have acted together to lead to the patient′s cerebral ischemia.

  19. Animal-assisted therapy for elderly schizophrenic patients: a one-year controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, Y; Savorai, O; Mavashev, S; Beni, A

    2001-01-01

    Animal-assisted therapy (AAT) has been used as a therapeutic tool in various psychiatric populations, but there have been no published studies with elderly schizophrenic patients. The authors evaluated, in a blinded, controlled manner, the effects of AAT in a closed psychogeriatric ward over 12 months. Subjects were 10 elderly schizophrenic patients and 10 matched patients (mean age: 79.1+/-6.7 years). The outcome measure was the Scale for Social Adaptive Functioning Evaluation (SAFE). AAT was conducted in weekly 4-hour sessions. Treatment encouraged mobility, interpersonal contact, and communication and reinforced activities of daily living (ADLs), including personal hygiene and independent self-care, through the use of cats and dogs as "modeling companions." The SAFE scores at termination showed significant improvement compared with baseline scores and were significantly more positive for the AAT group on both Total SAFE score and on the Social Functions subscale. AAT proved a successful tool for enhancing socialization, ADLs, and general well-being.

  20. The role of cognitive-developmental tests in differential diagnosis of borderline and schizophrenic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vulević Gordana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our research was to find out whether cognitive-developmental tests such as Nominal Realism Test and Vygotsky Concept Formation Test could contribute to the process of diagnosing borderline and schizophrenic patients. The specific aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic power of subtests (such as Vocabulary, Comprehension, Similarities and Picture Arrangement Test on Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (VITI in the differential diagnosis of the two groups of patients. The study included 90 subjects, 30 of whom were diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD, 30 had the diagnosis of schizophrenic psychosis (SCH, while 30, who had no psychiatric diagnosis, represented the control group. The findings indicate that the patients with BPD, and particularly those diagnosed with SCH, had both quantitative and qualitative cognitive impairment. The findings show that cognitive developmental tests represent valuable tools in the differential diagnosis of borderline personality disorder and schizophrenia.

  1. [Risk factors for delinquent behavior in schizophrenic patients -- a survey from Krafft-Ebing till today].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rous, F

    2005-11-01

    The dangerousness of psychotic, especially schizophrenic patients has always been a matter for controversial discussion. On the one side psychiatrists got under suspicion to show too much understanding for deviant and aggressive acts of their patients and to forget the public need for security. On the other side experts disagreed in their opinion on the risk of aggressive behaviour. The following paper reviews the development in evaluation of risk factors from Krafft-Ebing to the presence. On this way the studies of Böker are a milestone in forensic psychiatry. The doctrine "schizophrenic = irresponsible = dangerous" was not valid any more. He showed that the risk for violence depends on much more than the diagnosis of mental illness. Based on the outcome of his study and his differentiated descriptions of subtypes of schizophrenia and their individual risk of violence modern psychological prognostic instruments were developed.

  2. Common variants in MAGI2 gene are associated with increased risk for cognitive impairment in schizophrenic patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayoshi Koide

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is a complex psychiatric disorder characterized by positive symptoms, negative symptoms, and cognitive impairment. MAGI2, a relatively large gene (∼1.5 Mbps that maps to chromosome 7q21, is involved in recruitment of neurotransmitter receptors such as AMPA- and NMDA-type glutamate receptors. A genetic association study designed to evaluate the association between MAGI2 and cognitive performance or schizophrenia has not been conducted. In this case-control study, we examined the relationship of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP variations in MAGI2 and risk for schizophrenia in a large Japanese sample and explored the potential relationships between variations in MAGI2 and aspects of human cognitive function related to glutamate activity. Based on the result of first schizophrenia genome-wide association study in a Japanese population (JGWAS, we selected four independent SNPs and performed an association study using a large independent Japanese sample set (cases 1624, controls 1621. Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST was used to evaluate executive function in 114 cases and 91 controls. We found suggestive evidence for genetic association of common SNPs within MAGI2 locus and schizophrenia in Japanese population. Furthermore in terms of association between MAGI2 and cognitive performance, we observed that genotype effect of rs2190665 on WCST score was significant (p = 0.034 and rs4729938 trended toward significance (p = 0.08. In conclusion, although we could not detect strong genetic evidence for association of common variants in MAGI2 and increased schizophrenia risk in a Japanese population, these SNPs may increase risk of cognitive impairment in schizophrenic patients.

  3. Diagnosis and treatment of abnormal dental pain

    OpenAIRE

    Fukuda, Ken-ichi

    2016-01-01

    Most dental pain is caused by an organic problem such as dental caries, periodontitis, pulpitis, or trauma. Diagnosis and treatment of these symptoms are relatively straightforward. However, patients often also complain of abnormal dental pain that has a non-dental origin, whose diagnosis is challenging. Such abnormal dental pain can be categorized on the basis of its cause as referred pain, neuromodulatory pain, and neuropathic pain. When it is difficult to diagnose a patient's dental pain, ...

  4. Functionally aberrant electrophysiological cortical connectivities in first episode medication-naive schizophrenics from three psychiatry centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietrich eLehmann‡

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Functional dissociation between brain processes is widely hypothesized to account for aberrations of thought and emotions in schizophrenic patients. The typically small groups of analyzed schizophrenic patients yielded different neurophysiological findings, probably because small patient groups are likely to comprise different schizophrenia subtypes. We analyzed multichannel eyes-closed resting EEG from three small groups of acutely ill, first episode productive schizophrenic patients before start of medication (from three centers: Bern N=9; Osaka N=9; Berlin N=12 and their controls. Low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA was used to compute intracortical source model-based lagged functional connectivity not biased by volume conduction effects between 19 cortical regions of interest (ROIs. The connectivities were compared between controls and patients of each group. Conjunction analysis determined six aberrant cortical functional connectivities that were the same in the three patient groups. Four of these six concerned the facilitating EEG alpha 1 frequency activity; they were decreased in the patients. Another two of these six connectivities concerned the inhibiting EEG delta frequency activity; they were increased in the patients. The principal orientation of the six aberrant cortical functional connectivities was sagittal; five of them involved both hemispheres. In sum, activity in the posterior brain areas of preprocessing functions and the anterior brain areas of evaluation and behavior control functions were compromised by either decreased coupled activation or increased coupled inhibition, common across schizophrenia subtypes in the three patient groups. These results of the analyzed three independent groups of schizophrenics support the concept of functional dissociation.

  5. Long-term 'treatment' of schizophrenics with typical neuroleptics: a crime against humanity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elomaa, E

    1993-11-01

    It is well documented that neuroleptics acting on dopamine receptors induce suppression of reward-directed behaviors in animals (1). Since the need for reward and pleasure is evidently also a powerful determinant of human behavior, it is suggested that compulsory treatment of schizophrenics in remission with anhedonic neuroleptics should be regarded as a crime against humanity, comparable with the scientifically approved use of frontal lobotomy in the management of poor psychotics before the advent of neuroleptics.

  6. Influencing and moderating factors analyzed in the group art therapy of two schizophrenic inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Chung-Chieh; Ku, Yung-Wen

    2015-12-01

    Art therapy has been considered a guideline treatment for schizophrenia. Due to difficulty in the outcome measurement, the research is difficult and controversial. Here, we presented two schizophrenic patients receiving the regular art group therapy. We compared their characteristics and different outcome. Art therapy is difficult to quantify. However, we could qualify the improvement from the individual case. Further study might be focus on how to make appropriate qualification of art therapy and individualized difference instead of enrollment of huge data bank.

  7. Subverting Space: An Exploration of a Dance Therapy Workshop Apparatus for Schizophrenics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Silvia; Petit, Laetitia

    2017-04-01

    The authors created a dance workshop for schizophrenic patients designed to address their singular experience of space, in which the categories of interior and exterior do not function as limits. The space of the workshop, which, paradoxically, is thought in terms of the psychic space of schizophrenic patients by playing on its borderless quality, creates a continuity between the psychiatric hospital and the external world, and thus helps to prevent the segregation and isolation of such patients. This continuity is established on the basis of both the physical architecture of the workshop setting and the practice of dancing itself. The authors explore the hypothesis that, inside the particular space made possible by the apparatus of the workshop, schizophrenic patients benefit from the experience of movement, beginning with the pulse of rhythm, which establishes a consistency in time. By means of its repetitive character, the beat of music, like movement, accompanies and promotes the experience of continuity, which is the condition for any possible form of symbolizing. Two brief clinical illustrations show how this approach to dance therapy allows a moribund jouissance to be overturned and transformed into the aesthetic jouissance that characterizes the experience of dance.

  8. COGNITIVE AND NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL FUNCTIONS IN SCHIZOPHRENIC PATIENTS, WHILE THE FIRST EPISODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A EBRAHIMI

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is assumed that the process of schizophrenia effect on patient"s cognitive functions. The aim of this study was to examine and to compare cognitive profile of patients with that of control group. Methods: 40 patients with schizophrenia were selected from Isfahan Noor Hospital. 40 non-patients as control group were selected and matched on the base of age, sex, education, economic status. Cognitive functions of two groups were assessed by WAlS-R. Results: Results show that schizophrenic patients appear at a lower level of IQ than control group. Nonverbal IQ was more impaired than the other kind of IQ in patients. Cognitive profile analysis reveals that patients had low scores on all of the WAlS-R subscles except information and word subscales. Discussion: These findings show that schizophrenic patients in the first episode of theire illness reveal a remarkable impairment on inteligence performance. Cognitive profile analysis indicates that schizophrenic patients performer significatly at a lower level in comparison with control group, in: abstraction, visual - special perception, verbal and non-verbal conceptualization, social judgment, attention, motor-visual organization and mental flexibility.

  9. Auditory hallucinations in schizophrenic and affective disorder Nigerian patients: phenomenological comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okulate, G T; Jones, O B E

    2003-12-01

    Although auditory hallucinations are universal phenomena, they show cultural and ethnic variation. We set out to study some differences between auditory hallucinations in Nigerian patients and their foreign counterparts. We also investigated the usefulness of auditory hallucinations in distinguishing between schizophrenia and affective disorders. A semi-structured interview was used to obtain information from 89 patients with auditory hallucinations who met ICD-10 criteria for either schizophrenia or affective psychoses and 10 others with organic mental disorders. Responses were compared with respect to the frequency, form and content of the hallucinatory voices as well as the languages spoken. In this sample, voices speaking exclusively in a foreign language were uncommon. Voices commanding and those discussing patients in the third person were the commonest in schizophrenic patients but not as frequent as in a similar group of patients in the UK studied by other authors. In patients with schizophrenia, voices were more likely to discuss the patient, whereas in affective disorders, voices were more likely to evoke fear, and patients were more likely to carry out commands. In conclusion, only three features of auditory hallucinations distinguished between schizophrenic and affective psychoses patients. Auditory hallucinations may be less harassing in Nigerian schizophrenic patients than in their UK counterparts. These hallucinations are most often perceived in the individual's mother tongue, with or without additional use of English, even when the patients have been 'westernized' through education and religion.

  10. Development and validation of a skin fibroblast biomarker profile for schizophrenic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianthi Logotheti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Gene expression profiles of non-neural tissues through microarray technology could be used in schizophrenia studies, adding more information to the results from similar studies on postmortem brain tissue. The ultimate goal of such studies is to develop accessible biomarkers. Supervised machine learning methodologies were used, in order to examine if the gene expression from skin fibroblast cells could be exploited for the classification of schizophrenic subjects. A dataset of skin fibroblasts gene expression of schizophrenia patients was obtained from Gene Expression Omnibus database. After applying statistical criteria, we concluded to genes that present a differential expression between the schizophrenic patients and the healthy controls. Based on those genes, functional profiling was performed with the BioInfoMiner web tool. After the statistical analysis, 63 genes were identified as differentially expressed. The functional profiling revealed interesting terms and pathways, such as mitogen activated protein kinase and cyclic adenosine monophosphate signaling pathways, as well as immune-related mechanisms. A subset of 16 differentially expressed genes from fibroblast gene expression profiling that occurred after Support Vector Machines Recursive Feature Elimination could efficiently separate schizophrenic from healthy controls subjects. These findings suggest that through the analysis of fibroblast based gene expression signature and with the application of machine learning methodologies we might conclude to a diagnostic classification model in schizophrenia.

  11. Early information processing deficit in schizophrenia. New findings using schizophrenic subgroups and manic control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccuzzo, D P; Braff, D L

    1981-02-01

    In recent years, the idea that schizophrenia involves a primary disturbance of the higher cognitive (ie, cortical) thinking processes has been challenged by investigators who have shown that there may be a primary disturbance in schizophrenia in the early stages of information processing that occurs during the first few hundred milliseconds after the stimulus reaches the sense organs. Among the hypothesized early information processing deficits are deficiencies in iconic storage (a brief peripheral memory store) and slowness of processing from iconic storage to a more permanent memory system. Three experiments were conducted using tachistoscopically presented stimuli in order to evaluate these two stages of information processing (iconic storage and speed of processing) in schizophrenic and control subjects. Results converged in supporting the hypothesis, that independent of iconic storage and sensory registration, slow information processing is a relatively stable deficit of schizophrenic patients with a poor prognosis. The schizophrenic patients with a good prognosis had a similar deficit, which was reversible. Results are discussed as they relate to the early information processing deficit theories of schizophrenia.

  12. Neuropsychology, Social Cognition and Global Functioning Among Bipolar, Schizophrenic Patients and Healthy Controls: Preliminary Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta eCaletti

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the extent of impairment in social and non-social cognitive domains in an ecological context comparing bipolar (BD, schizophrenic patients (SKZ and healthy controls (HC. The sample was enrolled at the Department of Psychiatry of Policlinico Hospital, University of Milan, it includes stabilized schizophrenic patients (n = 30, euthymic bipolar patients (n = 18 and healthy controls (n = 18. Patients and controls completed psychiatric assessment rating scales, the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS and the Executive and Social Cognition Battery (ESCB that contains both ecological tests of executive function and social cognition, in order to better detect cognitive deficits in patients with normal results in standard executive batteries. The three groups differed significantly for gender and substance abuse, however the differences did not influence the results. Bipolar patients showed less impairment on cognitive performance compared to schizophrenic patients, even in ecological tests that mimic real life scenarios. In particular, BD performed better than SKZ in verbal memory (p

  13. Abnormal uterine bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Lucy; Critchley, Hilary O D

    2016-07-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is a common and debilitating condition with high direct and indirect costs. AUB frequently co-exists with fibroids, but the relationship between the two remains incompletely understood and in many women the identification of fibroids may be incidental to a menstrual bleeding complaint. A structured approach for establishing the cause using the Fédération International de Gynécologie et d'Obstétrique (FIGO) PALM-COEIN (Polyp, Adenomyosis, Leiomyoma, Malignancy (and hyperplasia), Coagulopathy, Ovulatory disorders, Endometrial, Iatrogenic and Not otherwise classified) classification system will facilitate accurate diagnosis and inform treatment options. Office hysteroscopy and increasing sophisticated imaging will assist provision of robust evidence for the underlying cause. Increased availability of medical options has expanded the choice for women and many will no longer need to recourse to potentially complicated surgery. Treatment must remain individualised and encompass the impact of pressure symptoms, desire for retention of fertility and contraceptive needs, as well as address the management of AUB in order to achieve improved quality of life. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Communication and abnormal behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crown, S

    1979-01-01

    In this paper the similarities between normal and abnormal behaviour are emphasized and selected aspects of communication, normal and aberrant, between persons are explored. Communication in a social system may be verbal or non-verbal: one person's actions cause a response in another person. This response may be cognitive, behavioural or physiological. Communication may be approached through the individual, the social situation or social interaction. Psychoanalysis approaches the individual in terms of the coded communications of psychoneurotic symptoms or psychotic behaviour; the humanist-existential approach is concerned more with emotional expression. Both approaches emphasize the development of individual identity. The interaction between persons and their social background is stressed. Relevant are sociological concepts such as illness behaviour, stigma, labelling, institutionalization and compliance. Two approaches to social interactions are considered: the gamesplaying metaphor, e.g. back pain as a psychosocial manipulation--the 'pain game'; and the 'spiral of reciprocal perspectives' which emphasizes the interactional complexities of social perceptions. Communicatory aspects of psychological treatments are noted: learning a particular metaphor such as 'resolution' of the problem (psychotherapy), learning more 'rewarding' behaviour (learning theory) or learning authenticity or self-actualization (humanist-existential).

  15. Sex and Laterality Differences in Parkinsonian Impairment and Transcranial Ultrasound in Never-Treated Schizophrenics and Their First Degree Relatives in an Andean population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamis, Danielle; Stratton, Lee; Calvó, María; Padilla, Eduardo; Florenzano, Néstor; Guerrero, Gonzalo; Rangeon, Beatriz Molina; Molina, Juan; de Erausquin, Gabriel A.

    2015-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that loss of substantia nigra neurons in subjects at risk of schizophrenia (1), as reflected by midbrain hyperechogenicity (2) and parkinsonian motor impairment (3), is asymmetric and influenced by sex. We evaluated 62 subjects with never-treated chronic schizophrenia, 80 of their adult, unaffected first degree relatives and 62 healthy controls (matched by sex and age to the cases), part of an Andean population of Northern Argentina. Parkinsonism was scored blindly using UPDRS-3 (Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale) on videotaped exams by 2 independent raters. Trancranial ultrasound was performed by an expert sonographist blind to subject condition with a 2.5 MHz transducer through a temporal bone window. Quantification of echogenic area was carried out on saved images by a different evaluator. We found a significant difference in parkinsonian motor impairment between patients, their relatives as well as controls. All three groups showed worse parkinsonism on the left side than the right, corresponding with increased echogenicity on the right substantia nigra compared with the left. Females had significantly more right echogenicity than males, and patients and unaffected relatives were significantly more echogenic than controls on that side. On the left, only female patients had significant echogenicity. Our data supports the notion that unaffected relatives of schizophrenic subjects have increased parkinsonism and concomitant brainstem abnormalities which may represent a vulnerability to the disease. Both motor and brainstem abnormalities are asymmetric and influenced by sex. PMID:25735637

  16. Exploring learning potential in schizophrenic inpatients in different psychopathological conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David González Pando

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to explore empirically the learning potential of people with schizophrenia in opposite conditions of psychopathological stability. For this purpose, a general procedure of conditional discrimination learning was introduced by conducting a study on the formation of equivalence classes. The sample consisted of 8 inpatient adults included in the program of Severe Mental Disorders, aged between 20 and 53 years. Because of dropouts, the initial procedure was modified in order to reduce the duration and attentional effort of the task. The results showed that people with schizophrenia can acquire stimulus equivalence with standard procedure both in terms of stability and psychopathological decompensation, in the presence of strong positive symptoms. This finding is relevant both for therapy, conceived in terms of learning, and for designing programs in the context of rehabilitation and recovery in schizophrenia.

  17. DSM-III-R SCHIZOTYPAL PERSONALITY TRAITS IN OFFSPRING OF SCHIZOPHRENIC DISORDER, AFFECTIVE DISORDER, AND NORMAL CONTROL PARENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires-Wheeler, Elizabeth; Skodol, Andrew E.; Bassett, Anne; Erlenmeyer-Kimling, L.

    2011-01-01

    Summary The aggregation of disorder in families identified by a schizophrenic disorder proband (index case) has provided indirect clues to the question of diagnostic boundaries of schizophrenic spectrum categories. The Danish Adoption Studies provided quasi-experimental evidence for the range of expression of a putative schizophrenic spectrum disorder which was subsequently denoted schizotypal personality disorder (STPD) in DSM-III-R. It has been hypothesized that such schizophrenic spectrum categories bear a genetic relationship to schizophrenic disorder and thus are continuous with schizophrenia in terms of etiology and pathogenesis. For meaningful use of such spectrum categories in genetic analyses, e.g., linkage analysis, it is important that rates of spectrum traits and disorder in normal control and in psychiatric control populations are known. The rate of DSM-III-R schizotypal traits and disorder was assessed in three offspring groups (ages 18–29) defined by parental diagnoses, including schizophrenic disorder (N = 90), affective disorder (N = 79), and no parental disorder (N = 161). The assessment was conducted by trained social workers and psychologists by means of a direct interview (Personality Disorder Examination). The interviewers were blind to the parental status and to previous psychiatric assessments of these offspring. The rates of three, four and five schizotypal features were elevated in the offspring with parental psychiatric disorder in contrast to the offspring with no parental psychiatric disorder. However, the rates between the offspring of the schizophrenic disorder parental group and the offspring of the affective disorder parental group did not differ significantly, thus failing to support the assumption of diagnostic specificity. PMID:2635220

  18. [A psychopathological study on three-dimensional computer graphics (3DCGs): special reference to pictures made by a schizophrenic patient before and after the onset].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashizawa, Yuko; Tachikawa, Hirokazu; Hori, Masashi; Hori, Takafumi; Mizukami, Katsuyoshi; Asada, Takashi

    2004-01-01

    A patient with catatonic type schizophrenia drawing 3-dimensional computer graphics (3DCGs) before and after the onset is reported. His 3DCGs are discussed from the view of psychopathology. A 21-year-old male was admitted to our hospital. He was an art student. For three months before admission, he had been absorbed in drawing 3DCGs. When he was asked to draw handmade pictures by his teacher, he experienced a bizarre mood and took an overdose of aspirin. At the time of admission, he was in a stupor state, and was diagnosed with catatonic type schizophrenia. After admission, he exhibited excitement and disorganized speech. These symptoms disappeared after administration of neuroleptics, and he was discharged. The 3DCGs he drew before and after the onset revealed several special characteristics. First, the compositions of his pictures were too geometric and too precise. Secondly, the themes of his pictures changed from romantic before the onset to symbolic after it, and the styles changed from realistic to abstractive after the onset. Finally, histograms of the 3DCGs revealed many colors before onset, which converged to simple colors after. Therefore, it was suggested that the latent pathological process at the beginning of schizophrenia might be reflected in his 3DCGs. 3DCGs are a new type of fine art. They can express beautiful and cool images more simply than handmade pictures. Due to these features, artists can create images of their innerworld, with less effort and talent than picture drawings, by computer assistance. This case suggests that the geometric working space, change-free viewpoints, and computer assistance, which are characteristics of the methods in making 3DCGs may be suitable for schizophrenic artists to create images of their innerworld. However, being absorbed in making 3DCGs could also promote the latent schizophrenic process to the onset.

  19. Use of the terms "schizophrenia" and "schizophrenic" in the South Korean news media: a content analysis of newspapers and news programs in the last 10 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jun-Hyun; Choi, Young-Min; Kim, Bongseog; Lee, Dong-Woo; Gim, Min-Sook

    2012-03-01

    In this study, we explored the meaning attributed to the words "jungshinbunyeolbyung" (schizophrenia) and "jungshinbunyeol" (schizophrenic) in South Korean newspapers and news programs in the last 10 years. We screened the websites of three national newspapers and the broadcasts of three nationwide television news programs from January 1, 2001, to December 31, 2010. We classified a total of 490 articles and 257 news segments by category and quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed them. The articles and news segments were assigned to one of the following categories based on their use of the term "schizophrenia": 1) negative, 2) neutral or positive, 3) incidental, and 4) metaphorical. The negative viewpoint accounted for 349 incidences (46.7%), while the neutral and positive viewpoints included 225 incidences (30.1%). Incidental uses accounted for 95 incidences (12.7%), and metaphorical uses accounted for 78 incidences (10.4%). The majority of the negative uses focused on violence or dangers posed by patients (137 mentions, 37.8%), while the metaphorical uses mainly focused on the idea of splitting (51 mentions, or 65%). This study showed that the South Korean news media do not provide balanced information about schizophrenia to the public. This study also showed that no significant move has been made toward a more positive use of the term since a previous study was conducted on the subject. Although the term schizophrenia has given way to "attunement disorder," it will be difficult to establish the new term as the standard if the South Korean media continue to use the term "schizophrenic symptom." Even though the term has been changed, guidelines are necessary to encourage the mass media to provide balanced articles and reduce prejudice.

  20. Reduced NGF serum levels and abnormal P300 event-related potential in first episode schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Peng; Zeng, Yong; Zhu, Zuxin; Tan, Deyong; Xu, Fei; Lu, Jin; Wan, Jing; Ma, Mingxing

    2010-06-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) plays a crucial role in central nervous system neuron plasticity. Low levels of serum NGF in schizophrenic patients suggest that the neurotrophin contributes to the pathogenesis of the disease. NGF is also thought to alter characteristics of event-related brain potential (ERP) components. The auditory-evoked P300 ERP component, considered an index of brain activity, has reduced amplitude in acute and chronic schizophrenia. This study evaluated the relationship among serum NGF levels, P300 characteristics, and Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS) scores in first episode, neuroleptic naive schizophrenic patients (N=30) and healthy controls (N=28). Serum NGF was measured by ELISA and P300 elicited using auditory oddball paradigm. Compared to control subjects, schizophrenic patients had significantly reduced serum NGF (pP300 amplitudes at Fz (p=0.003). Additionally, there was a positive correlation between serum NGF serum and P300 amplitude at Fz. No correlation was found between serum NGF or P300 characteristics and PANSS scores. These results suggest that the effects of NGF in schizophrenia are related not only to regulation of neurodevelopment, but also to the electrophysiological characteristics of nerve growth factor. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Functional analysis of the deficit in semantic context processes in schizophrenic patients: an event-related potentials study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostova, M; Passerieux, C; Laurent, J P; Saint-Georges, C; Hardy-Baylé, M C

    2003-02-01

    Schizophrenic patients exhibit a deficit in the semantic context processing strategies which might be responsible for the language and communication disorders that are characteristic of this condition. The aim of our study was to identify the nature of the contextualization processes which are lacking in schizophrenic patients, by distinguishing between processes for the generation of expectations and processes of semantic integration. Thirteen schizophrenic patients and 12 healthy controls performed two tasks: (a) a lexical decision task (LDT) with a highly structured sentence context and whose experimental characteristics made it possible to call strongly on predictive strategies, and (b) a LDT with classic semantic priming (the context being reduced to a single word). In this latter task, the small number of related words did not prompt the generation of expectations but instead called on the postlexical integration process. The event-related potentials (ERP) were recorded during the administration of the task. In the sentence task, we observed a modulation in the N400 amplitude due to the presence of expectations both in the schizophrenic and control participants: predictable words evoked a small N400 amplitude compared to the non-predictable words. In contrast, in the simple (priming) task, the semantic link evoked an N400 amplitude modulation in the control group exclusively. Our results indicate that schizophrenics could be able to use context to activate expectations for the most highly predictable item, and that their deficit appears when the processing strategy is based on the integration of the context stored in working memory.

  2. Evaluation and Socio-occupational Intervention in Bipolar and Schizophrenic Patients within a Multimodal Intervention Program- PRISMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Zuluaga, Ana M; Duica, Kelly; Ruiz Galeano, Carlos; Vargas, Cristian; Agudelo Berruecos, Yuli; Ospina, Sigifredo; López-Jaramillo, Carlos

    Functional improvement in bipolar and schizophrenic patients is one of the main aims of treatment. Nevertheless, there is no evidence about the effect of socio-occupational intervention within a multimodal intervention (MI) programme. To describe the socio-occupational profile and to evaluate the functional effect of a MI in bipolar I and schizophrenic patients. A prospective, longitudinal, therapeutic-comparative study was performed including 302 subjects (104 schizophrenic and 198 Bipolar Disorder I [BDI] patients), who were randomised into two groups, multimodal (psychiatry, psychology, medicine, occupational therapy, neuropsychology, and family therapy), or traditional intervention (psychiatry and medicine only). Several scales were applied to assess assertiveness, free time management, social abilities, general anxiety, self-care and performance in home, work and community tasks. After performing the longitudinal analysis, it was shown that the multimodal intervention was more effective than traditional intervention in general anxiety scores (P=.026) and development in home tasks (P=.03) in schizophrenic patients. No statistical differences were found in bipolar patients. The other variables showed improvement, however, their effect was similar in both intervention groups. Our study identified functional improvement in home tasks in schizophrenic patients after receiving multimodal intervention. Other variables also showed improvement for both interventions groups. Future studies, applying longer rehabilitation programs and other ecological strategies should be performed to identify the most effective interventions. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  3. Ensaio com sulpiride em esquizofrênicos hospitalizados Clinical trial with sulpiride on schizophrenic in-patients

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    Clóvis Martins

    1974-09-01

    Full Text Available Um ensaio terapêutico é feito com sulpiride, substância psicotrópica dada como muito ativa e cujas propriedades permitem enquadrá-la entre os neurolépticos e os timoanalépticos. Foram tratados 24 pacientes internados, com idades que variavam entre 17 e 48 anos, de ambos os sexos (17 masculinos e 7 femininos, todos com o diagnóstico clínico de esquizofrenia e internados em hospital psiquiátrico. O tempo de doença variava de 30 dias a 18 anos. O sulpiride foi aplicado em doses diárias em torno de 1200 mg, predominantemente por via oral. O tratamento durou em média 6 semanas permanecendo a maioria dos casos em observação por alguns meses, sob tratamento de manutenção. Os resultados foram em geral favoráveis, principalmente no que tange aos fenômenos psicóticos sensoperceptivos e delirantes. Não foram assinalados efeitos colaterais ou manifestações colaterais molestas.A therapeutic trial with sulpiride was made, submiting to treatment 24 in-patients of a mental hospital, diagnosed as schizophrenics. The ages are from 17 to 48 years old, 17 males and 7 females. The time of disease was from 30 dayes to 18 years. The drug was given mainly orally on about 1200 mg/die, in a treament of 6 weeks followed in some cases, by several months of observation. The best results were obtained in the sensoperceptive and delusional symptoms. No side effects of importance were detected.

  4. Prevalence of obsessive compulsive symptoms among patients with schizophrenia

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    Smita Hemrom

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obsessive compulsive symptoms in schizophrenia are well recognized but are a less-researched entity. These symptoms have important implications for management and prognosis. Aim: To find out the prevalence of obsessive compulsive symptoms among patients with schizophrenia. Materials and Methods: A total of 90 hospitalized patients with schizophrenia diagnosed according to DCR of ICD-10 criteria were selected for the study. Padua inventory and Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale were applied to find out the prevalence and nature of obsessive compulsive symptoms . Results: It was found that 10% of schizophrenic patients had obsessive compulsive symptoms. Conclusion: Obsessive compulsive symptoms are prevalent in patients with schizophrenia. The presence of comorbidity should be explored for adequate management.

  5. Syndrome of transient headache and neurological deficits with cerebrospinal fluid lymphocytosis (HaNDL) in a patient with confusional symptoms, diffuse EEG abnormalities, and bilateral vasospasm in transcranial Doppler ultrasound: A case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo de la Cruz, M; Domínguez Rubio, R; Luque Buzo, E; Díaz Otero, F; Vázquez Alén, P; Orcajo Rincón, J; Prieto Montalvo, J; Contreras Chicote, A; Grandas Pérez, F

    2017-04-17

    HaNDL syndrome (transient headache and neurological deficits with cerebrospinal fluid lymphocytosis) is characterised by one or more episodes of headache and transient neurological deficits associated with cerebrospinal fluid lymphocytosis. To date, few cases of HaNDL manifesting with confusional symptoms have been described. Likewise, very few patients with HaNDL and confusional symptoms have been evaluated with transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD). TCD data from patients with focal involvement reveal changes consistent with vasomotor alterations. We present the case of a 42-year-old man who experienced headache and confusional symptoms and displayed pleocytosis, diffuse slow activity on EEG, increased blood flow velocity in both middle cerebral arteries on TCD, and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) findings suggestive of diffuse involvement, especially in the left hemisphere. To our knowledge, this is the first description of a patient with HaNDL, confusional symptoms, diffuse slow activity on EEG, and increased blood flow velocity in TCD. Our findings suggest a relationship between cerebral vasomotor changes and the pathophysiology of HaNDL. TCD may be a useful tool for early diagnosis of HaNDL. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. [Visuospatial context processing in untreated schizophrenic patients and relation to disorganization syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longevialle-Hénin, R; Bourdel, M-C; Willard, D; Lôo, H; Olié, J-P; Poirier, M-F; Krebs, M-O; Amado, I

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies on schizophrenia have suggested that context-processing disturbances were one of the core cognitive deficits present in schizophrenia. Schizophrenic patients have a failure either of inhibition strategy and maintenance of visuospatial information (25) in condition of contextual interference. In the present study, we explored the performances of untreated schizophrenic patients with 2 tasks exploring detection and long term retention of complex visual features and field dependence-independence tasks were selected. These abilities involve temporary maintenance of visuospatial information and executive functioning of visual working memory system. Several studies have shown that cognitive deficit may depend on schizophrenic symptomatology. However results remain controversial in determining the specific influence of negative and positive symptomatologies as well as clinical disorganization. Our goal was to explore the processing of spatial context and its relation to disorganized syndrome. This study was approved by the local ethic committee. Thirty-six schizophrenic patients were included according to DSM IV criteria (19 neuroleptic naïve, 17 unmedicated patients during more than 3 months). Thirty-six healthy controls were matched to patients for age, gender and level of education. Absence of axis 1 pathology was attested for controls with SCID-NP. Current symptomatology was evaluated by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) (14). Clinical disorganisation was evaluated with the disorganisation score established upon a factorial analysis of PANSS by Lepine and Lançon. Items selected to distinguish the disorganised group were abstraction, disorganization, orientation, and attention. Two tasks of embedded figures were administered individually to patients and controls. The Faverge task (Research of Figures-RF) (10) evaluates the ability to recognize the target from spatial complex geometrical figures. The Group Embedded Figure Task (GEFT

  7. An investigation of factors increasing the risk of aggressive behaviour among schizophrenic inpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel eLejoyeux

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the studyThis study tried to identify risk factors of aggressive behavior in a population of schizophrenic inpatients. We tested the association between aggressive behavior and socio-demographic characteristics, addictive disorders, history of suicide attempt and sexual violence, impulsivity and sensation seeking.MethodsAll consecutive schizophrenic inpatients (100 were assessed during six months. Aggressive behavior was quantified with a standardized scale, the Overt Aggression Scale (OAS. We studied socio-demographic characteristics and the history of suicide attempt and sexual violence with a specific standardized questionnaire. Addictive disorders were identified with the Fagerström and CAGE questionnaires and with the DSM-IV-R diagnostic criteria for nicotine, alcohol, cannabis opiates, and cocaine abuse and dependence disorders. Lastly, we studied sensation-seeking with the Zuckerman scale and impulsivity with the Barratt scale. ResultsLinear regression identified four factors associated with aggressive behaviour: male gender (odd ratio =12.8, history of sexual violence (odd ratio = 3.6, Fagerström score (odd ratio= 1.3, number of cigarettes smoked each day (odd ratio=1.16. Patients with nicotine use or dependence had significantly higher levels of OAS scores. This difference was not observed between patients with or without alcohol dependence. OAS scores were correlated to the number of cigarettes smoked each day and to Fagerström scores. Patients with a higher level of sensation seeking and impulsivity also had higher OAS scores. ConclusionA Typical schizophrenic patient at risk of showing aggressive behavior is a man, who smokes and presents a history of sexual violence.

  8. A massive neglected giant basal cell carcinoma in a schizophrenic patient treated successfully with vismodegib

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rosa Marie; Lei, Ulrikke

    2015-01-01

    The small molecule vismodegib is a great treatment alternative to patients challenged, e.g. psychiatric disorders, suffering from severe basal cell carcinoma of the skin in which surgery or other treatment modalities is not possible because of patient's wish or condition. We present a case of a 73......-year-old schizophrenic patient with a 15-year history of a neglected tumour located at the forehead and scalp, admitted to hospital in a state of inanition because of tumour expansion to the meninges and severe anaemia caused by bleeding, treated successfully with vismodegib....

  9. Effects of hormones on cognition in schizophrenic male patients--preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratek, Agnieszka; Koźmin-Burzyńska, Agnieszka; Krysta, Krzysztof; Cierpka-Wiszniewska, Katarzyna; Krupka-Matuszczyk, Irena

    2015-09-01

    Schizophrenia is a prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder of an unknown etiology and a variable phenotypic expression. In the recent years, the impact of hormones on the course of schizophrenia has been investigated. This study is aimed at assessing the level of correlating serum levels of hormones in schizophrenic male patients with their cognitive functioning measured with neuropsychological tests. In the index group there were 15 medicated male schizophrenic patients. In the control group there were 15 age and education matched healthy men. All subjects underwent analysis of serum hormones level (TSH, testosterone, estradiol, FSH, LH, progesterone and prolactin) and a battery of tests (Trail Making Test A and B, Stroop Test, Verbal and Semantic Fluency Test). The mean serum levels of the following hormones were higher in the index group than in the control group: TSH (1.76 mIU/L vs 1.58 mIU/L; p=0.66), progesterone (0.85 ng/ml vs 0.69 ng/ml; p=0.22) and prolactin (558.71 uIU/ml vs 181 uIU/ml; p=0.025). The mean levels of estradiol (24.36 pg/ml vs 25.40 ng/ml; p=0.64), FSH (3.17 mIU/ml vs 5.72 mIU/ml; p=0.019), LH (3.85 mIU/ml vs 5.77 mIU/ml; p=0.056) and testosterone (2.90 ng/ml vs 5.38 ng/ml; p=0.003) were higher in the control group. In the index group there were significant negative correlations between FSH and semantic fluency (ρ=-0.678606), progesterone and: TMT B (ρ=-0.586763), Stroop 1 (ρ=-0.701880) and Stroop 2 (ρ=-0.601074) and prolactin and TMT A (ρ=-0.579607). The preliminary results of our study show that serum levels of FSH and testosterone are significantly lower, whereas the level of prolactin is markedly higher, in schizophrenic male patients than in healthy men. There is an inverse correlation between serum levels of progesterone, FSH and prolactin and the results of certain cognitive functioning tests in schizophrenic men.

  10. [Psychotherapy of a schizophrenic patient in a large psychiatric hospital--therapeutic option or naive idealism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branik, E

    1994-12-01

    The psychotherapy of a schizophrenic points, as it is depicted, at some characteristics of the interactions with these patients. In this context also the weight and the restrictions of the institutional framing conditions are indicated. Despite all still open questions, difficulties and limitations the author pleads for the furthering of psychotherapeutic efforts with psychotic patients, as in a considerable number of cases they mitigate their suffering, lead to a better understanding of the psychological aspects of the illness, which are important to the patient, and finally afford insight to the therapist into a sphere at the limit of human experience and, by this means, add to his fundamentally competence.

  11. Clinical correlates of decreased anteroposterior metabolic gradients in positron emission tomography (PET) of schizophrenic patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeLisi, L.E.; Buchsbaum, M.S.; Holcomb, H.H.; Dowling-Zimmerman, S.; Pickar, D.; Boronow, J.; Morihisa, J.M.; van Kammen, D.P.; Carpenter, W.; Kessler, R.

    1985-01-01

    The finding in schizophrenic patients of a reversal of the normal frontal to posterior pattern of brain metabolic activity with positron emission tomography (PET) is of interest, but its relevance to psychopathology is unknown. Using PET, the authors studied 21 patients with chronic schizophrenia and 21 age- and sex-matched control subjects. Although eight of the 21 patients and only one of the control subjects showed a relatively lower anteroposterior metabolic gradient, no clinical correlates of this finding were noted. In addition, cerebral atrophy, as determined by CAT scan, was not associated with this aberrant metabolic pattern.

  12. [Subjective quality of life in severely disabled long-stay schizophrenic patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Michael; Meyer, Thorsten; Gallhofer, Bernd

    2002-09-01

    In the controversy about severely chronic mental patients, who still reside in the psychiatric hospital after decades of deinstitutionalization, their quality of life (QoL) has become a main topic. On the basis of a critique of the dominant, mere standardized approach to QoL this method is compared with a qualitative approach in such a schizophrenic "residual" patient group (n = 144). While in the standardized approach a high level of subjective QoL could be found that correlated positively with the duration of hospitalisation, the open interviews yielded specific experiences of deficiencies. The appraisal of the quality of life especially of chronic or hospitalized patients is reconsidered.

  13. Structurally abnormal human autosomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 25, discusses structurally abnormal human autosomes. This discussion includes: structurally abnormal chromosomes, chromosomal polymorphisms, pericentric inversions, paracentric inversions, deletions or partial monosomies, cri du chat (cat cry) syndrome, ring chromosomes, insertions, duplication or pure partial trisomy and mosaicism. 71 refs., 8 figs.

  14. Treatments for Biomedical Abnormalities Associated with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Eugene Frye; Daniel eRossignol

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies point to the effectiveness of novel treatments that address physiological abnormalities associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This is significant because safe and effective treatments for ASD remain limited. These physiological abnormalities as well as studies addressing treatments of these abnormalities are reviewed in this article. Treatments commonly used to treat mitochondrial disease have been found to improve both core and associated ASD symptoms. Double-blind, ...

  15. [The effect of family nursing on the lived experience of children living with schizophrenic fathers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsiu-Ju; Chang, Chun-Ju; Lin, Ching-Rong; Chan, Tan-Hsuan; Shiau, Shu-Jen

    2008-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore by means of the phenomenological method the effect of family nursing on the experience of six adolescent offspring living with schizophrenic fathers. Data were collected by family intervention with low structured interview. Three themes of the lived experience of adolescents were identified: stalemate, coping and transcendence. The sub-dimensions of stalemate included encounter with "sick father" and unstable emotion, which resulted from the negative impacts of the father's illness. The sub-dimensions of coping included "sick father" or "my father", being with "sick father", trying to take care of "sick father", identification and differentiation, and the reformulation of "my father". These sub-dimensions emerged after family intervention and included coping in cognition, emotion, and behaviors. The sub-dimensions of transcendence included positive attitude toward psychiatric patients, caring for father's disease and medications, and family life restructuring. The findings from this study could help psychiatric mental health nurses to apply family interventions in order to gain a better understanding of the lived experience of children living with schizophrenic fathers and to enable them to cope positively with the father's disease.

  16. A comparison of new and revised Rorschach measures of schizophrenic functioning in a Serbian clinical sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzamonja-Ignjatovic, Tamara; Smith, Bruce L; Djuric Jocic, Dragana; Milanovic, Marko

    2013-01-01

    We empirically evaluated indexes derived from the Rorschach Comprehensive System (CS) and the Rorschach Performance Assessment System (R-PAS) that are used for the assessment of psychotic functioning in schizophrenia. We compared the Perceptual Thinking Index (PTI) and the Ego Impairment Index (EII-2) with their revised versions: Thought and Perception Composite (TP-Comp) and EII-3. We evaluated their predictive validity for differentiating schizophrenic from nonschizophrenic patients in a Serbian sample. The sample consisted of 211 (109 men and 102 women, 18-50 years old) inpatients in Serbia who were divided into 2 groups: schizophrenic (100) and nonschizophrenic (111). Test administration, coding, and form quality classification followed CS guidelines. Logistic regression analysis indicated that the new indexes TP-Comp and EII-3 have slightly better predictive power than their counterparts, PTI and EII-2, in identification of schizophrenia, and that TP-Comp performed better than other indexes, although all 4 indexes were successful in differentiating these groups. The results supported the use of TP-Comp in diagnosis of schizophrenia and generally provided evidence for the utility of the Rorschach in evaluating psychosis and for its use in a cross-national context.

  17. Chromosomal Abnormalities in ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of fragile X syndrome, velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS, and other cytogenetic abnormalities among 100 children (64 boys with combined type ADHD and normal intelligence was assessed at the NIMH and Georgetown University Medical Center.

  18. Chromosomal abnormalities and autism

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    Farida El-Baz

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Chromosomal abnormalities were not detected in the studied autistic children, and so the relation between the genetics and autism still needs further work up with different study methods and techniques.

  19. Impact of an Electronic Cigarette on Smoking Reduction and Cessation in Schizophrenic Smokers: A Prospective 12-Month Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Caponnetto

    2013-01-01

    schizophrenia levels were measured at each visit. Smoking reduction and abstinence rates were calculated. Adverse events were also reviewed. Results: Sustained 50% reduction in the number of cig/day at week-52 was shown in 7/14 (50% participants; their median of 30 cig/day decreasing significantly to 15 cig/day (p = 0.018. Sustained smoking abstinence at week-52 was observed in 2/14 (14.3% participants. Combined sustained 50% reduction and smoking abstinence was shown in 9/14 (64.3% participants. Nausea was observed in 2/14 (14.4% of participants, throat irritation in 2/14 (14.4% of participants, headache in 2/14 (14.4% of participants , and dry cough in 4/14 (28.6% of participants. However, these adverse events diminished substantially by week-24. Overall, one to two cartridges/day were used throughout the study. Positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia are not increased after smoking reduction/cessation in patients using e-cigarettes. Conclusions: We have shown for the first time that the use of e-cigarette substantially decreased cigarette consumption without causing significant side effects in chronic schizophrenic patients who smoke not intending to quit. This was achieved without negative impacts on the symptoms of schizophrenia as assessed by SAPS and SANS symptoms scales.

  20. A Validational Study of the WIST as a Group-administered Instrument for Assessment of Schizophrenic Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingler, Daniel E.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The objective assessment of thought disorder in schizophrenia is problematic in clinical psychology. Recently, an individually administered instrument (WIST) was introduced as a brief, objective, and quantitative measure of schizophrenic thought processes. Possible shortcomings of the WIST are noted; experimental findings that concern extension to…

  1. Taking cognizance of mental illness in schizophrenics and its association with crime and substance-related diagnoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkner, R; Haastrup, S; Jørgensen, T

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse how committed crimes and substance-related diagnoses are associated with the age on the first contact with the psychiatric hospital system and the age at diagnosing of schizophrenia among schizophrenics. METHOD: In a register-based study including all Danes diagnosed with sc...

  2. Association between the blood concentrations of ammonia and carnitine/amino acid of schizophrenic patients treated with valproic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Masazumi; Amayasu, Hideaki; Itai, Takahiro; Yoshida, Hisahiro

    2017-01-01

    Administration of valproic acid (VPA) is complicated with approximately 0.9% of patients developing hyperammonemia, but the pathogenesis of this adverse effect remains to be clarified. The aim of the present study was to search for mechanisms associated with VPA-induced hyperammonemia in the light of changes in serum amino acids concentrations associated with the urea cycle of schizophrenic patients. Blood samples (10 mL) were obtained from 37 schizophrenic patients receiving VPA for the prevention of violent behaviors in the morning after overnight fast. Blood concentrations of ammonia, VPA, free carnitine, acyl-carnitine, and 40 amino acids including glutamate and citrulline were measured for each patient. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed to identify amino acids or concomitantly administered drugs that were associated with variability in the blood concentrations of ammonia. The blood ammonia level was positively correlated with the serum glutamate concentration ( r  = 0.44, p  blonanserin ( p  < 0.01) was positively associated with the elevation of the blood ammonia level. We hypothisized that VPA would elevate the blood ammonia level of schizophrenic patients. The observed changes in serum amino acids are compatible with urea cycle dysfunction, possibly due to reduced carbamoyl-phosphate synthase 1 (CPS1) activity. We conclude that VPA should be prudently prescribed to schizophrenic patients, particularly those receiving mood stabilizers or certain antipsychotics.

  3. Intranasal desmopressin as an adjunct to risperidone for negative symptoms of schizophrenia: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyed Mohammad Reza; Farokhnia, Mehdi; Rezaei, Farzin; Gougol, Amirhossein; Yekehtaz, Habibeh; Iranpour, Negar; Salehi, Bahman; Tabrizi, Mina; Tajdini, Masih; Ghaleiha, Ali; Akhondzadeh, Shahin

    2014-06-01

    Considering the role of neurohypophyseal peptides in normal development and function of higher cortical processes along with their proven abnormalities in schizophrenic patients, these pathways have recently attracted greater attention as treatment targets for schizophrenia. Desmopressin (DDAVP) is a synthetic analog of vasopressin. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of DDAVP nasal spray as an adjunct to risperidone in improving negative symptoms of schizophrenia. In this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial, forty patients aged 18-50 years with a DSM IV-TR diagnosis of chronic schizophrenia and a minimum score of 60 on positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) were equally randomized to receive DDAVP nasal spray (20mcg/day) or placebo in addition to risperidone for 8 weeks. Patients were partially stabilized and treated with a stable dose of risperidone (5 or 6mg/day) for at least four weeks prior to entry. Participants were rated by PANSS every two weeks and decrease in the PANSS negative subscale score was considered as our primary outcome. By the study endpoint, DDAVP-treated patients showed significantly greater improvement in the negative symptoms (P=0.001) as well as the PANSS total and general psychopathology subscale scores (P=0.005 and P=0.003; respectively) compared to the placebo group. Treatment group was the strongest predictor of changes in negative symptoms (β=-0.48, t=-3.67, P=001). No serious adverse event or fluid/electrolyte imbalance was reported in this trial. In conclusion, DDAVP nasal spray showed to be an effective and safe medication for improving negative symptoms in patients with chronic schizophrenia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  4. Decreased serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in schizophrenic patients with deficit syndrome

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    Akyol ES

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Esra Soydas Akyol,1 Yakup Albayrak,2 Murat Beyazyüz,3 Nurkan Aksoy,4 Murat Kuloglu,5 Kenji Hashimoto6 1Deparment of Psychiatry, Yenimahalle Education and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey; 2Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Namik Kemal University, Tekirdag, Turkey; 3Department of Psychiatry, Biga State Hospital, Çanakkale, Turkey; 4Department of Biochemistry, Yenimahalle Education and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey; 5Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Akdeniz University, Antalya, Turkey; 6Division of Clinical Neuroscience, Chiba University Center for Forensic Mental Health, Chiba, Japan Background: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF is a well-established neurotrophin that plays a role in the pathophysiology of numerous psychiatric disorders. Many studies have investigated the serum BDNF levels in patients with schizophrenia. However, there are restricted data in the literature that compare the serum BDNF levels in patients with deficit and nondeficit syndromes. In this study, we aimed to compare the serum BDNF levels between schizophrenic patients with deficit or nondeficit syndrome and healthy controls.Methods: After fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 58 patients with schizophrenia and 36 healthy controls were included in the study. The patients were grouped as deficit syndrome (N=23 and nondeficit syndrome (N=35 according to the Schedule for the Deficit Syndrome. Three groups were compared in terms of the sociodemographic and clinical variants and serum BDNF levels.Results: The groups were similar in terms of age, sex, body mass index, and smoking status. The serum BDNF levels in patients with deficit syndrome were significantly lower than those in healthy controls. In contrast, the serum BDNF levels in patients with nondeficit syndrome were similar to those in healthy controls.Conclusion: This study suggests that decreased BDNF levels may play a role in the pathophysio­logy of schizophrenic

  5. A comparison between effectiveness of three types of music on memory activity and sustained attention in schizophrenic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges bahmany

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder in which a lot of cognitive functions including memory, attention, motor skills, executive functions and intelligence are compromised. Numerous empirical studies showed that schizophrenic patients have problem in sustain retention and memory activity. The objective of this study was a comparison between effectiveness of three types of music on memory activity and sustain retention in schizophrenic patients. Material and Methods: A total of 60 schizophrenic patients (30 males , 30 females 18-48 years old were selected from available sampling frame. Participants were otherwise healthy except for schizophrenia. Wechsler Memory Scale and cognitive diagnostic battery Kay test were taken from all subjects. Then patients were randomly divided into three experimental groups (Iranian classic, western classic and pop music and three control groups. There were 10 participants (5 male, 5 female in each group. After taking these tests, music therapy course was performed on experimental groups. After music therapy sessions were completed, tests were taken again from groups. Results: Covariance analysis results indicated that music therapy is overall effective on memory activity. But type of music had no effect in improving memory activity. There wasn’t significant difference between groups considering type of music. Furthermore, covariance analysis showed that music therapy is totally effective on sustain retention and type of music is effective in this intervention. Pop music had the most effectiveness on schizophrenic patients in improving sustain retention. Conclusion: Performing music therapy improves memory and retention. More over, using pop music particularly has the most effect in improving sustain retention in schizophrenic patients.

  6. Somatic Symptom Disorders in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beena Johnson

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Physical symptoms without any identifiable structural or biochemical abnormalities on detailed clinical examination and investigations, are common in children. Some children may have persistent physical discomfort which can lead to debilitating impact on their academic and social functioning. These children seek repeated medical consultations and are usually subjected to unnecessary invasive diagnostic procedures. It is extremely important to understand that emotional factors can contribute to the development as well as maintenance of impairing physical symptoms. There is scientific evidence for the association of anxiety and functional somatic symptoms in children. The diagnostic category which was previously called somatoform disorders is now included in somatic symptom disorders. The main feature of the somatic symptom disorders is the excessive concern with somatic symptoms. Detailed clinical examination and investigations will not reveal any abnormalities to explain the symptoms. The somatic symptom disorders are common in childhood. Cognitive behavioural therapy by experts in child guidance, will relieve the somatic symptoms related to anxiety and stress. If not intervened at the earliest, the persistent physical symptoms associated with emotional stress will cause significant functional disability in childhood. Unnecessary invasive medical interventions cause more agony to the child. These children also have high risk for developing anxiety disorders and depressive disorders in young adulthood. Hence, early intervention using cognitive behavioural techniques should be provided to all children with somatic symptom disorders, which will definitely improve their quality of life.

  7. The Reality Monitoring Deficit as a Common Neuropsychological Correlate of Schizophrenic and Affective Psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Smeraldi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available For many decades, Neuropsychological functioning has been a key point in the study of psychotic disorders. The main aim of these studies is to give a description of the neurocognitive “profile” of schizophrenia, with only little attention being paid to the common and discriminating features of different psychotic disorders. Recent studies support the hypothesis that patients affected by psychiatric disorders with psychotic symptoms have specific abnormalities of reality testing of ongoing perception, which become evident with source monitoring task. Ninety-eight patients and 50 controls were studied. Patients were divided by diagnosis and previous history of psychotic features and were administered Source Monitoring Task to test reality testing of ongoing perception. Frequencies of correct and false attributions were recorded. To obtain measures of observer sensitivity and response biases, a signal detection analysis was performed. Aims: Studying neuropsychological correlate of psychosis in euthymic mood disordered patients and patients with schizophrenia with or without delusions. Results: Patients with psychotic features use more lax criteria in evaluating self-generated, but not perceived stimuli compared to patients without psychotic features. Conclusions: Our findings support the hypothesis of selective biases in reality monitoring as neuropsychological correlates of psychosis.

  8. Successful microsurgical penile replantation following self amputation in a schizophrenic patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Gyan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Amputation of the penis is a rare condition reported from various parts of the world as isolated cases or small series of patients; the common etiology is self-mutilating sharp amputation or an avulsion or crush injury in an industrial accident. A complete reconstruction of all penile structures should be attempted in one stage which provides the best chance for full rehabilitation of the patient. We report here a single case of total amputation of the penis in an acute paranoid schizophrenic patient .The penis was successfully reattached using a microsurgical technique. After surgery, near-normal appearance and function including a good urine flow and absence of urethral stricture, capabilities of erection and near normal sensitivity were observed.

  9. [Clinical features of the Kandinsky-Clerambault syndrome in schizophrenic patients and prognosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirkin, S Iu

    1980-01-01

    The paper deals with the typology of conditions with a delusional variant of the Kandinsky-Clerambault syndrome in schizophrenia. At the basis of the differentiation there lie different types of delusional disturbances in the structure of which the syndrome is formed. Accordingly, 4 types of conditions have been distinguished: 1. developing in combination with interpretative systematized delusions; 2. interpretative non-systematized delusions; 3. acute fantastic paraphrenic delusions; 4. acute sensual delusions. Certain correlations were demonstrated between these types of delusional disturbances and the indices of the gravity of the schizophrenic process (the form of disease development, quality of negative disturbances, the depths of process intensification, following each of the types of conditions, index of working capacity, duration of attacks). The typology presented is discussed in the light of prognosis of the severity of the development of schizophrenias and its treatment.

  10. Cognitive dysfunction at baseline predicts symptomatic 1-year outcome in first-episode schizophrenics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, S; Krausz, M; Gottwalz, E; Lambert, M; Perro, C; Ganzer, S; Naber, D

    2000-01-01

    The present study addresses the consequences of cognitive disturbances on symptomatic outcome. Fifty-three first-episode schizophrenics were reassessed (n = 32) 1 year after admission. Simple regression analyses revealed that several self-perceived cognitive deficits at baseline as measured with the Frankfurt Complaint Questionnaire significantly predicted increased Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale global scores at follow-up (p = 0.05 to p = 0.005). A stepwise regression analysis proved memory dysfunction to be the strongest predictor of symptomatic worsening (p = 0.005). It is suggested that the exploration and treatment of neuropsychological deficits in schizophrenia is of great clinical importance with regard to its impact on both functional and symptomatic outcome in schizophrenia. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

  11. The effect of diagnostic labelling on the lay theory regarding schizophrenic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angermeyer, M C; Matschinger, H

    1996-11-01

    On the basis of a representative survey carried out in Germany in the Autumn of 1990, hypotheses about the effect of diagnostic labelling on lay beliefs regarding schizophrenic disorders were tested. As expected, labelling the disorder as schizophrenia increased the likelihood that biological factors were considered to be aetiologically relevant, while psychosocial stress, which most often was held responsible without labelling was cited less frequently as a cause. Thus, labelling the disorder as schizophrenia can be assumed to cause lay-aetiological beliefs to more closely approximate theories predominant among psychiatric experts. In addition, both the sufferers themselves as well as their parents were less frequently held responsible for the onset of the disorder. However, with diagnostic labelling the treatment prognosis was assessed less favourably. In sum, our results do not furnish a definite argument either for or against the explicit diagnosing of schizophrenia.

  12. Identification of a missense mutation and several polymorphisms in the proenkephalin A gene of schizophrenic patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikesell, M.J.; Sommer, S.S.; McMurray, C.T. [Mayo Foundation and Mayo Graduate School, Rochester, MN (United States)] [and others

    1996-09-20

    Schizophrenia is a complex and severe disorder of unknown cause and pathophysiology. In this study, we examined the opioid hypothesis for schizophrenia at the molecular level, focusing on the dopamine-regulated proenkephalin A gene (chromosome 8q11.23-q12). We have screened 150 schizophrenic patients for sequence variations within the promoter region, entire coding sequence, and 3{prime}-untranslated region. We find one sequence change in a conserved amino acid that may be of functional significance. This mutation was found in a single schizophrenia patient but not in controls. Although several new, race-specific polymorphisms were identified, all other sequence changes appeared to be common polymorphisms, unlikely to contribute to the etiology of schizophrenia. 38 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Origins of a Jungian-oriented therapeutic community for schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmer, H A

    1976-05-01

    The author believes that rapid hospital turnover of psychiatric patients and heavy reliance on psychotropic drugs often interfere with recovery, especially for many psychotic patients who need a retreat where they might be helped to heal themselves. He describes the origins and operation of a Jungian-oriented therapeutic community for schizophrenic patients in a Veterans Administration hospital, the community is based parly on his earlier work with therapeutic communities and his belief that clear lines of authority must be maintained as well as his experiences with videotherapy and art therapy. The community relies heavily on art therapy in which patients are encouraged to make abstract paintings of their delusions, visions, hallucinations, dreams, and fantasies and to interpret the paintings themselves.

  14. Glaucoma Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... up You can help find a cure for glaucoma Give now Signs & Symptoms The most common types ... have completely different symptoms. Symptoms of Open-Angle Glaucoma Most people who develop open-angle glaucoma don’ ...

  15. Measurement of methionine level with the LC-ESI-MS/MS method in schizophrenic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kulaksizoglu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate plasma methionine levels by using liquid chromatography electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectroscopy (LC-ESI-MS/MS in schizophrenic patients. A twelve-point standard graph was drawn, and the recovery rate, the intra-day and inter-day coefficients of variation (CV, the limit of detection (LOD, and the limit of quantification (LOQ were evaluated. The y and R2 values of the standard graph equation were determined as 0.011x + 0.0179 and 0.9989, respectively, and the graph remained linear until the 200 µmol/l level. The intra-day coefficients of variation of the samples (n = 10 containing 8, 28, and 58 µmol/l methionine were determined as 2.68, 3.10, and 3.79%, respectively; while their inter-day coefficients of variation were determined as 2.98, 3.19, and 3.84%. The LOD and LOQ values were determined as 0.04 and 0.1 µmol/l, respectively, while the mean recovery rates were determined as 101.7 and 99.3%. Plasma methionine values were measured as 21.5 (19.5-24,6 µmol/l for the patient group, 17.8 (16.3-20.1 µmol/l for the control group, and the difference between the two groups was statistically significant (p = 0.03. LC-ESI-MS/MS method represents a fairly sensitive, economic, and rapid analysis that requires very little sample and is suitable for measuring methionine levels in schizophrenic patients.

  16. Virtual reality testing of multi-modal integration in schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorkin, Anna; Peled, Avi; Weinshall, Daphna

    2005-01-01

    Our goal is to develop a new family of automatic tools for the diagnosis of schizophrenia, using Virtual Reality Technology (VRT). VRT is specifically suitable for this purpose, because it allows for multi-modal stimulation in a complex setup, and the simultaneous measurement of multiple parameters. In this work we studied sensory integration within working memory, in a navigation task through a VR maze. Along the way subjects pass through multiple rooms that include three doors each, only one of which can be used to legally exit the room. Specifically, each door is characterized by three features (color, shape and sound), and only one combination of features -- as determined by a transient opening rule -- is legal. The opening rule changes over time. Subjects must learn the rule and use it for successful navigation throughout the maze. 39 schizophrenic patients and 21 healthy controls participated in this study. Upon completion, each subject was assigned a performance profile, including various error scores, response time, navigation ability and strategy. We developed a classification procedure based on the subjects' performance profile, which correctly predicted 85% of the schizophrenic patients (and all the controls). We observed that a number of parameters showed significant correlation with standard diagnosis scores (PANSS), suggesting the potential use of our measurements for future diagnosis of schizophrenia. On the other hand, our patients did not show unusual repetition of response despite stimulus cessation (called perseveration in classical studies of schizophrenia), which is usually considered a robust marker of the disease. Interestingly, this deficit only appeared in our study when subjects did not receive proper explanation of the task.

  17. Analysis of neural sources of p300 event-related potential in normal and schizophrenic participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabeti, Malihe; Moradi, Ehsan; Katebi, Serajeddin

    2011-01-01

    The P300 event-related potential (ERP) is associated with attention and memory operations of the brain. P300 is changed in many cognitive disorders such as dementia, Alzheimer, schizophrenia, and major depression disorder. Therefore, investigation on basis of this component can help to improve our understanding of pathophysiology of such disorders and fundamentals of memory and attention mechanism. In this study, electroencephalography (EEG) signals of 20 schizophrenic patients and 20 age-matched normal subjects are analyzed. The oddball paradigm has been used to record the P300, where two stimuli including target and standard are presented with different probabilities in a random order. Data analysis is carried out using conventional averaging techniques as well as P300 source localization with low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA). The results show that the P300 components stem from a wide cerebral cortex network and defining a small definite cortical zone as its generator is impossible. In normal group, cingulate gyrus, one of the essential components of working memory circuit that was reported by Papez, is found to be the most activated area and it can be in line with the hypothesis that at least a part of the P300 is elicited by working-memory circuit. In schizophrenic group, frontal lobe is the most activated area that was responsible for P300 sources. Our results show that the cingulate gyrus is not activated in comparison with normal group, which is in line with previous results that dysfunction of the anterior cingulate cortex plays a prominent role in the schizophrenia disorder.

  18. Pharmacotherapy of schizophrenic patients: preponderance of off-label drug use.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Pickar

    Full Text Available Multiple drug class combinations are often prescribed for the treatment of schizophrenia, although antipsychotic monotherapy reflects FDA labeling and scientific justification for combinations is highly variable. This study was performed to gain current data regarding drug treatment of schizophrenia as practiced in the community and to assess the frequencies of off-label drug class combinations. 200 DSM IV-diagnosed schizophrenic patients recruited from community treatment sources participated in this cross-sectional study of community based schizophrenic patients. Drug class categories include First and Second Generation Antipsychotic drugs (FGA and SGA, respectively, mood stabilizers, antidepressants and anti-anxiety drugs. 25.5% of patients received antipsychotic monotherapy; 70% of patients received an antipsychotic and another drug class. A total of 42.5% of patients received more than one antipsychotic drug. The most common drug class combination was antipsychotic and a mood stabilizer. Stepwise linear discriminant function analysis identified the diagnosis of schizoaffective schizophrenia, history of having physically hurt someone and high scores on the General Portion of the PANSS rating scale predicted the combined use of an antipsychotic drug and a mood stabilizer. "Real world" pharmacotherapy of schizophrenia has developed its own established practice that is predominantly off-label and may have outstripped current data support. The economic implications for public sector payers are substantial as well as for the revenue of the pharmaceutical industry, whose promotion of off-label drug use is an increasingly problematic. These data are consistent with the recognition of the therapeutic limitations of both first and second generation antipsychotic drugs.

  19. [Cost-effectiveness analysis of schizophrenic patient care settings: impact of an atypical antipsychotic under long-acting injection formulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorca, P M; Miadi-Fargier, H; Lançon, C; Jasso Mosqueda, G; Casadebaig, F; Philippe, A; Guillon, P; Mehnert, A; Omnès, L F; Chicoye, A; Durand-Zaleski, I

    2005-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a disease affecting the young adults and amounts to approximately 300,000 people in France. The French public psychiatric sector takes care of approximately 150,000 adults schizophrenics: 50% benefit from ambulatory care, 50% are in partial or full-time hospitalization care. Schizophrenia represents the first diagnosis that psychiatric sectors take in charge. The costs associated with schizophrenia, mainly hospital costs, are important and were estimated at 2% of the total medical costs in France. In the French social welfare system, the social costs (pensions, allowances, managements of custody or guardianship by social workers) are also to be taken into account: it amounts to a third of the global direct cost. Schizophrenia also generates indirect costs (losses of productivity and premature deaths) which would be at least equal, or even more important, than direct medical costs. The non-compliance to the antipsychotic treatment is a major problem with people suffering from schizophrenia. Indeed the lack of compliance to the treatment, estimated at 20 to 40%, is a major handicap for schizophrenic patient stabilization. The poor level of compliance is due to many various causes: adverse effects that are considered unbearable, medicine viewed as persecutory, negation of the disease, nostalgia for the productive phases of the disease, lack of social support, complexity of the prescription, relapse itself. Compliance is thus influenced by the patient's clinical features, local provision of health care and the specific nature of the drug (adverse effects, pharmaceutical formulation). The atypical antipsychotics present fewer extrapyramidal side effects and reduce the cognitive deficits associated with the disease, which results in improved compliance. Long-acting injectable antipsychotics allow a better therapeutic compliance and thus better efficacy of the treatment. Several studies have shown a significant improvement in compliance related to the

  20. Somatic Symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eliasen, Marie; Kreiner, Svend; Ebstrup, Jeanette F

    2016-01-01

    A high number of somatic symptoms have been associated with poor health status and increased health care use. Previous studies focused on number of symptoms without considering the specific symptoms. The aim of the study was to investigate 1) the prevalence of 19 somatic symptoms, 2......) the associations between the symptoms, and 3) the associations between the somatic symptoms, self-perceived health and limitations due to physical health accounting for the co-occurrence of symptoms. Information on 19 somatic symptoms, self-perceived health and limitations due to physical health was achieved from.......9% of the respondents were bothered by one or more of the 19 somatic symptoms. The symptoms were associated in a complex structure. Still, recognisable patterns were identified within organ systems/body parts. When accounting for symptom co-occurrence; dizziness, pain in legs, respiratory distress and tiredness were...

  1. Abnormal Head Position

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... non-ocular causes of an abnormal head position? Congenital shortening of the neck muscles (sternocleidomastoid) can cause a head tilt. This is ... amblyopia) are other treatment alternatives. Physical therapy helps congenital torticollis from tight neck muscles. Updated ... Terms & Conditions Most Common ...

  2. Neurobiology Underlying Fibromyalgia Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Ceko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fibromyalgia is characterized by chronic widespread pain, clinical symptoms that include cognitive and sleep disturbances, and other abnormalities such as increased sensitivity to painful stimuli, increased sensitivity to multiple sensory modalities, and altered pain modulatory mechanisms. Here we relate experimental findings of fibromyalgia symptoms to anatomical and functional brain changes. Neuroimaging studies show augmented sensory processing in pain-related areas, which, together with gray matter decreases and neurochemical abnormalities in areas related to pain modulation, supports the psychophysical evidence of altered pain perception and inhibition. Gray matter decreases in areas related to emotional decision making and working memory suggest that cognitive disturbances could be related to brain alterations. Altered levels of neurotransmitters involved in sleep regulation link disordered sleep to neurochemical abnormalities. Thus, current evidence supports the view that at least some fibromyalgia symptoms are associated with brain dysfunctions or alterations, giving the long-held “it is all in your head” view of the disorder a new meaning.

  3. Factors associated with abnormal spirometry among HIV-infected individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, M Bradley; Huang, Laurence; Diaz, Philip T; Kirk, Gregory D; Kleerup, Eric C; Morris, Alison; Rom, William; Weiden, Michael D; Zhao, Enxu; Thompson, Bruce; Crothers, Kristina

    2015-08-24

    HIV-infected individuals are susceptible to development of chronic lung diseases, but little is known regarding the prevalence and risk factors associated with different spirometric abnormalities in this population. We sought to determine the prevalence, risk factors and performance characteristics of risk factors for spirometric abnormalities among HIV-infected individuals. Cross-sectional cohort study. We analyzed cross-sectional US data from the NHLBI-funded Lung-HIV consortium - a multicenter observational study of heterogeneous groups of HIV-infected participants in diverse geographic sites. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine factors statistically significantly associated with spirometry patterns. A total of 908 HIV-infected individuals were included. The median age of the cohort was 50 years, 78% were men and 68% current smokers. An abnormal spirometry pattern was present in 37% of the cohort: 27% had obstructed and 10% had restricted spirometry patterns. Overall, age, smoking status and intensity, history of Pneumocystis infection, asthma diagnosis and presence of respiratory symptoms were independently associated with an abnormal spirometry pattern. Regardless of the presence of respiratory symptoms, five HIV-infected participants would need to be screened with spirometry to diagnose two individuals with any abnormal spirometry pattern. Nearly 40% of a diverse US cohort of HIV-infected individuals had an abnormal spirometry pattern. Specific characteristics including age, smoking status, respiratory infection history and respiratory symptoms can identify those at risk for abnormal spirometry. The high prevalence of abnormal spirometry and the poor predictive capability of respiratory symptoms to identify abnormal spirometry should prompt clinicians to consider screening spirometry in HIV-infected populations.

  4. [Negative symptoms of schizophrenia: historical aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringuey, D; Paquin, N; Cherikh, F; Giordana, B; Belzeaux, R; Cermolacce, M; Adida, M; Azorin, J-M

    2015-12-01

    The history of negative symptoms of schizophrenia rises early days of medicine in clinical and pathophysiological differences between positive and negative and their complex joint. Forming a set of typical core of symptoms, and some feature of a syndrome belonging to a specific pathophysiological mechanism, negative symptoms of schizophrenia emerge from old descriptions of clinical pictures, related to the overall look of madness, the heart of alienation, a central sign of early dementia, gradually more precisely describing the strange nature of the autistic withdrawal and schizophrenic apragmatism. At therapeutic era, negative symptoms have taken over the positive symptoms to establish an operational criteria whose importance lies in the progressive severity of this clinical type and in their contribution to therapeutic resistance. Despite the efforts of modern typological classifications, this work rehabilitates the old concept of "unitary psychosis" by defining a common symptomatic core to multiple clinical forms of psychosis, combining deficit of emotional expression and avolition, meaning a native psychopathology and a pathophysiology possibly in a common final way, and calling the arrival of new treatment strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Functional MRI in schizophrenia. Diagnostics and therapy monitoring of cognitive deficits of schizophrenic patients by functional MRI; Funktionelle MRT bei Schizophreniepatienten. Diagnostik und Therapiemonitoring kognitiver Defizite schizophrener Patienten mittels funktioneller MRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furtner, J.; Prayer, D. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Univ.-Klinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, Wien (Austria); Sachs, G. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Univ.-Klinik fuer Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie, Wien (Austria)

    2010-02-15

    Cognitive impairments are core psychopathological components of the symptomatic of schizophrenic patients. These dysfunctions are generally related to attention, executive functions and memory. This report provides information on the importance of using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) for the diagnostics and therapy monitoring of the different subtypes of cognitive dysfunctions. Furthermore, it describes the typical differences in the activation of individual brain regions between schizophrenic patients and healthy control persons. This information should be helpful in identifying the deficit profile of each patient and create an individual therapy plan. (orig.) [German] Kognitive Defizite sind ein zentraler Bestandteil der Symptomatik schizophrener Patienten. Diese Defizite betreffen v. a. die Aufmerksamkeit, exekutive Funktionen sowie das Gedaechtnis. Der vorliegende Beitrag zeigt den Stellenwert der funktionellen Magnetresonanztomographie (fMRT) in Hinblick auf Diagnostik und Therapiemonitoring der unterschiedlichen kognitiven Teilbereiche auf. Darueber hinaus werden die Unterschiede in Bezug auf die Aktivierung der einzelnen Gehirnareale zwischen schizophrenen Patienten und gesunden Kontrollpersonen dargestellt. Diese Informationen sollen helfen, in der Praxis ein Profil der kognitiven Leistungsreduktionen sowie ein darauf angepasstes Therapiekonzept zu erstellen. (orig.)

  6. SOME ASPECTS OF THE AGGRESSIVE ACTS, COMMITTED BY SCHIZOPHRENIC PATIENTS, TRIGGERED BY SOME PSYCHO-TRAUMATIC FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Todorov

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The achievements of the contemporary psychopharmacology enable the out-patient treatment of schizophrenic patients, thus let them living in their usual social environment- family, relatives, neighbors, friends.In this connection, the real conditions of patients’ micro-social environment play an important role- either stimulating their compensatory mechanisms, or exercising negative impact on their adaptation and behavior.We examined 30 schizophrenic patients (22 males, 8 females, who have committed aggressive acts, triggered by psycho-traumatic situations with different sensible content, originating from their micro-social environment.Dominant were family conflicts, followed by conflicts with the neighbors. The aggressive acts were directed to concrete persons, from the close neighborhood, involved into the psycho-traumatic situations.Studying and evaluation of the aggressive acts, triggered by psycho-traumatic factors play an important role for their prevention.

  7. Taking cognizance of mental illness in schizophrenics and its association with crime and substance-related diagnoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkner, R; Haastrup, S; Jørgensen, T

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse how committed crimes and substance-related diagnoses are associated with the age on the first contact with the psychiatric hospital system and the age at diagnosing of schizophrenia among schizophrenics. METHOD: In a register-based study including all Danes diagnosed...... with schizophrenia born after November 1, 1963, data on criminality, substance-related diagnoses and contacts with the psychiatric hospital system were analysed. RESULTS: Compared with the non-convicted schizophrenics the convicted were older on first contact with the psychiatric hospital system and older when...... the diagnosis of schizophrenia was first given. In contrast, having a substance-related diagnosis was associated with a younger age on first contact but did not influence the age at which the diagnosis of schizophrenia was given. CONCLUSION: It is important that both psychiatrists and the judicial system...

  8. A combined cICA-EEMD analysis of EEG recordings from depressed or schizophrenic patients during olfactory stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götz, Th; Stadler, L.; Fraunhofer, G.; Tomé, A. M.; Hausner, H.; Lang, E. W.

    2017-02-01

    Objective. We propose a combination of a constrained independent component analysis (cICA) with an ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) to analyze electroencephalographic recordings from depressed or schizophrenic subjects during olfactory stimulation. Approach. EEMD serves to extract intrinsic modes (IMFs) underlying the recorded EEG time. The latter then serve as reference signals to extract the most similar underlying independent component within a constrained ICA. The extracted modes are further analyzed considering their power spectra. Main results. The analysis of the extracted modes reveals clear differences in the related power spectra between the disease characteristics of depressed and schizophrenic patients. Such differences appear in the high frequency γ-band in the intrinsic modes, but also in much more detail in the low frequency range in the α-, θ- and δ-bands. Significance. The proposed method provides various means to discriminate both disease pictures in a clinical environment.

  9. Neurological abnormalities predict disability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poggesi, Anna; Gouw, Alida; van der Flier, Wiesje

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the role of neurological abnormalities and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) lesions in predicting global functional decline in a cohort of initially independent-living elderly subjects. The Leukoaraiosis And DISability (LADIS) Study, involving 11 European centres, was primarily aimed...... at evaluating age-related white matter changes (ARWMC) as an independent predictor of the transition to disability (according to Instrumental Activities of Daily Living scale) or death in independent elderly subjects that were followed up for 3 years. At baseline, a standardized neurological examination.......0 years, 45 % males), 327 (51.7 %) presented at the initial visit with ≥1 neurological abnormality and 242 (38 %) reached the main study outcome. Cox regression analyses, adjusting for MRI features and other determinants of functional decline, showed that the baseline presence of any neurological...

  10. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

    OpenAIRE

    Benetti-Pinto, Cristina Laguna; Rosa-e-Silva, Ana Carolina Japur de Sá; Yela, Daniela Angerame; Soares Júnior,José Maria

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Abnormal uterine bleeding is a frequent condition in Gynecology. It may impact physical, emotional sexual and professional aspects of the lives of women, impairing their quality of life. In cases of acute and severe bleeding, women may need urgent treatment with volumetric replacement and prescription of hemostatic substances. In some specific cases with more intense and prolonged bleeding, surgical treatment may be necessary. The objective of this chapter is to describe the main evi...

  11. [Expressed Emotions, Burden and Family Functioning in Schizophrenic and Bipolar I Patients of a Multimodal Intervention Program: PRISMA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Alexandra; Palacio, Juan David; Vargas, Cristian; Díaz-Zuluaga, Ana María; Duica, Kelly; Agudelo Berruecos, Yuli; Ospina, Sigifredo; López-Jaramillo, Carlos

    Bipolar disorder and schizophrenia are causes of major suffering in patients. Nevertheless, they also affect family and caregiver functioning. This is important because the participation and involvement of families and caregivers is essential to achieve an optimal treatment. To describe the level of expressed emotions, burden, and family functioning of bipolar and schizophrenic patients and, to evaluate the efficacy of the multimodal intervention (MI) versus traditional intervention (TI) in family functioning and its perception by patients and caregivers. A prospective, longitudinal, therapeutic-comparative study was conducted with 302 patients (104 schizophrenic and 198 bipolar patients) who were randomly assigned to a MI or TI groups of a multimodal intervention program PRISMA. MI group received care from psychiatry, general medicine, neuropsychology, family therapy, and occupational therapy. TI group received care from psychiatry and general medicine. Hamilton, Young and SANS, SAPS scales were applied to bipolar and schizophrenic patients, respectively. The EEAG, FEICS, FACES III and ECF were also applied at the initial and final time. There were statistically significant differences in socio- demographic and clinical variables in schizophrenia vs bipolar group: 83% vs 32.2% were male, 37 vs 43 mean age, 96% vs 59% were single, 50% vs 20% unemployed, and 20% vs 40% had college studies. In addition, 2 vs 2.5 numbers of hospitalisations, 18 vs 16 mean age of substance abuse onset and, 55 vs 80 points in EEAG. There were no statistically significant differences in family scales after conducting a multivariate analysis on thr initial and final time in both groups. This study did not show changes in variables of burden and family functioning between bipolar and schizophrenic groups that were under TI vs MI. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  12. Serum cortisol and DHEA-S levels in schizophrenic patients with different response to antipsychotic therapy: association with psychopathology

    OpenAIRE

    Babinkostova, Zoja; Stefanovski, Branko; Janikevik Ivanovska, Danijela; Samardziska, Valentina; Stojanovska, Lila

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous studies suggested that alterations in serum cortisol and DHEA-S levels may play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Imbalance in serum cortisol and DHEA-S levels may be related to responsivity to antipsychotic treatment. Aim: To compare serum cortisol and DHEA-S levels between patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls and to evaluate their association with psychopathology in schizophrenic patients with different response to antipsychotic treatment. ...

  13. A literature critique using outcomes model and substruction in nursing science - Psychoeducational therapy for schizophrenic patients -

    OpenAIRE

    松田, 光信

    2005-01-01

    The purposes of this article are (1) to introduce the outline of the outcomes model and substruction, and (2) to introduce the example of synthesis and critique of literature about psychoeducational therapy for schizophrenic patients. Recently, psychiatrists or psychologists are providing patients with education for medication using cognitive therapy, social skills training and psychoeducational therapy in Japan. Psychiatrists and psychologists are doing evaluation research of these structure...

  14. The effects of psychoactive drugs and neuroleptics on language in normal subjects and schizophrenic patients: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomé, F; Boyer, P; Fayol, M

    2000-12-01

    The aim of this survey is to present an overview of research into psychopharmacology as regards the effects of different psychoactive drugs and neuroleptics (NL) on language in normal subjects and schizophrenic patients. Eighteen studies that have investigated the effects of different drugs (alcohol, amphetamines, secobarbital, L-dopa, psilocybin, ketamine, fenfluramine) and neuroleptics (conventional and atypical) on language are reviewed. There are no studies concerning the effects of neuroleptics on language in healthy subjects. The results of the effects of other molecules indicate that language production can be increased (alcohol, amphetamine, secobarbital), rendered more complex (d-amphetamine), more focused (L-dopa) or more unfocused (psilocybin) and clearly impaired (ketamine). For schizophrenic patients, most studies show that conventional neuroleptic treatments, at a therapeutic dosage and in acute or chronic mode, reduce language disorders at all levels (clinic, linguistic, psycholinguistic). In conjunction with other molecules, the classical NL, when administered at a moderate dosage and in chronic mode, modify language in schizophrenia, either by improving the verbal flow and reducing pauses and positive thought disorder (NL + amphetamine) or by inducing an impairment in the language measurements (NL + fenfluramine). Clinical, methodological and theoretical considerations of results are debated in the framework of schizophrenic language disorders.

  15. Motor Control Abnormalities in Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoni, Pietro; Shabbott, Britne; Cortés, Juan Camilo

    2012-01-01

    The primary manifestations of Parkinson’s disease are abnormalities of movement, including movement slowness, difficulties with gait and balance, and tremor. We know a considerable amount about the abnormalities of neuronal and muscle activity that correlate with these symptoms. Motor symptoms can also be described in terms of motor control, a level of description that explains how movement variables, such as a limb’s position and speed, are controlled and coordinated. Understanding motor symptoms as motor control abnormalities means to identify how the disease disrupts normal control processes. In the case of Parkinson’s disease, movement slowness, for example, would be explained by a disruption of the control processes that determine normal movement speed. Two long-term benefits of understanding the motor control basis of motor symptoms include the future design of neural prostheses to replace the function of damaged basal ganglia circuits, and the rational design of rehabilitation strategies. This type of understanding, however, remains limited, partly because of limitations in our knowledge of normal motor control. In this article, we review the concept of motor control and describe a few motor symptoms that illustrate the challenges in understanding such symptoms as motor control abnormalities. PMID:22675667

  16. [Guideline compliance in the treatment of schizophrenic patients. Introduction of a computer-assisted treatment pathway].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godemann, F; Blittersdorf, K; Poschenrieder, M; Klimitz, H; Hauth, I; Gutzmann, H

    2010-05-01

    The goal of S3 Guidelines for the Treatment of Schizophrenia was to improve the care of patients with schizophrenic psychoses. However, the publication of guidelines alone does not ensure their consistent implementation. The use of treatment pathways represents one possible approach to help implement the complex treatment recommendations contained in the S3 Guidelines. The first computer-assisted treatment pathway for patients with schizophrenic psychoses was successfully incorporated into the everyday routine of psychiatric hospitals. The aim of the present study was to systematically analyse the impact of this measure on guideline compliance. Based on the S3 Guidelines for the Treatment of Schizophrenia developed by the German Association of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Neurology (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Psychiatrie, Psychotherapie und Nervenheilkunde; DGPPN), diagnostic and treatment procedures were defined by a multiprofessional working group with members from five different hospitals and subsequently incorporated into an existing hospital information system. In one of the five hospitals, the impact of this measure was analysed in a pilot study in a systematic manner. In the year 2007, approximately 100 patients in each of two wards in the hospital received in a parallel group design either standard care or care based on a computer-assisted treatment pathway. Based on their place of residence, patients were assigned to the two units consecutively. Both groups were analysed to determine the extent to which the care they received conformed to treatment guidelines. Data available from the years 2004 and 2005 served as a historical comparison to the present results. The differences in guideline compliance between the two wards were heterogeneous and, in certain respects, counterintuitive. As expected, the treatment pathway group showed an increased number of laboratory tests, more frequent drug screening at hospital admission and more appropriate dosing of

  17. Schizophrenic outpatient perceptions of psychiatric treatment and psychotic symptomatology: an investigation using structural equation modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, N; Yamashina, M; Taguchi, H; Ishige, N; Igarashi, Y

    2001-12-01

    Schizophrenic patient perceptions of treatment have clinical value and deserve detailed psychiatric investigation. The present study sought a model indicating statistically estimated cause-effect relationships of perceptions and psychotic symptomatology of outpatients with schizophrenia by applying a method of structural equation modeling. The perceptions included in this model were patient satisfaction with treatment, perceptions of their treating psychiatrists, and patient-role perception. Scores of Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and poor insight measures were added to the model as possible influential factors. The constructed model revealed that the poor insight exerted a major influence on the patient-role perception that had small effects on the reliable therapist perception and the satisfaction. It was also shown that satisfaction was chiefly determined by the reliable therapist perception that was formed in the treatment relationship, rather independently of the other construct. These findings were valuable in terms of their implications for understanding the makeup of the perceptions and the strategy for interventions to improve them.

  18. Neuropsychology, social cognition and global functioning among bipolar, schizophrenic patients and healthy controls: preliminary data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caletti, Elisabetta; Paoli, Riccardo A; Fiorentini, Alessio; Cigliobianco, Michela; Zugno, Elisa; Serati, Marta; Orsenigo, Giulia; Grillo, Paolo; Zago, Stefano; Caldiroli, Alice; Prunas, Cecilia; Giusti, Francesca; Consonni, Dario; Altamura, A Carlo

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the extent of impairment in social and non-social cognitive domains in an ecological context comparing bipolar (BD), schizophrenic (SKZ) patients and healthy controls (HC). The sample was enrolled at the Department of Psychiatry of Policlinico Hospital, University of Milan; it includes stabilized SKZ patients (n = 30), euthymic bipolar patients (n = 18) and HC (n = 18). Patients and controls completed psychiatric assessment rating scales, the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) and the Executive and Social Cognition Battery (ESCB) that contains both ecological tests of executive function and social cognition, in order to better detect cognitive deficits in patients with normal results in standard executive batteries. The three groups differed significantly for gender and substance abuse, however, the differences did not influence the results. BD patients showed less impairment on cognitive performance compared to SKZ patients, even in "ecological" tests that mimic real life scenarios. In particular, BD performed better than SKZ in verbal memory (p Hotel task SKZ patients completed significantly less tasks (p differences were found between the two groups in GAF scores, being greater among BD subjects (p < 0.001). GAF was correlated with BACS and ESCB scores showing the crucial role of cognitive and ecological performances in patients' global functioning.

  19. A virtual environment for investigating schizophrenic patients' characteristics: assessment of cognitive and navigation ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Jeonghun; Cho, Wongeun; Kim, Jae-Jin; Peled, Avi; Wiederhold, Brenda K; Wiederhold, Mark D; Kim, In Y; Lee, Jang Han; Kim, Sun I

    2003-08-01

    Patients with schizophrenia have thinking disorders such as delusions or hallucinations because they have a deficit in the ability to systematize and integrate information. Therefore, they cannot integrate or systematize visual, auditory, and tactile stimuli. The multimodal integration model of the brain can provide a theoretical background from which one can approach multimodal stimulus integration. In this study, we suggest a virtual reality system for the multi-modal assessment of cognitive ability of schizophrenia patients. The virtual reality system can provide multimodal stimuli, such as visual and auditory stimuli, to the patient and can evaluate the patient's multimodal integration and working memory integration abilities by making the patient interpret and react to multimodal stimuli, which must be remembered for a given period of time. The clinical study showed that the virtual reality program developed is comparable to those of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) and the Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM), and it provides some information related to the schizophrenic patients' behavior in 3D virtual environment.

  20. Communication of suicide intent by schizophrenic subjects: data from the Queensland Suicide Register

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Leo Diego

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suicide in mentally ill subjects, like schizophrenics, remains unbearably frequent in Australia and elsewhere. Since these patients are known to constitute a high-risk group, suicide in them should be amongst the most preventable ones. The objective of this study is to investigate the frequency of suicide communication in subjects with reported history of schizophrenia who completed suicide. Method The Queensland Suicide Register (QSR was utilised to identify suicide cases. Frequency of suicide communication was examined in subjects with schizophrenia, and compared with persons with other psychiatric conditions and with subjects with no reported diagnosis. Socio-demographic variables, history of suicidal behaviour, pharmacological treatment and mental health service utilisation were also compared among the three groups. Results and discussion Subjects with a reported diagnosis of schizophrenia comprised 7.2% (n = 135 of the 1,863 suicides included in this study. Subjects with schizophrenia and those with other psychiatric disorders communicated their suicide intent more frequently than those with no psychiatric diagnosis, and persons with schizophrenia communicated their intent more than those with other psychiatric diagnoses. Seventy one per cent of schizophrenia subjects had contact with a mental health professional within the three months prior to suicide. Conclusion The fact that subjects with schizophrenia had the highest prevalence of suicide intent communication could offer concrete opportunities for suicide prevention.

  1. Seasonal variations of schizophrenic patients in emergency departments in Sofia, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zornitsa Spasova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to reveal the seasonal distribution of emergency department visits of schizophrenic patients in Sofia, Bulgaria. Methods: We collected daily data for visits of patients with schizophrenia, schizotypal and delusional disorders in the emergency center of the regional dispenser for mental disorders in the city of Sofia for the period 1998-2003. The total number of emergency visits was 5723 (mean daily visits: 5.04±2.4. T-test was used to compare the monthly and seasonal distribution of visits. Results: The season with the highest levels of emergency visits was summer, and the lowest levels were observed in winter (P<0.0001. Spring and autumn had intermediate values close to the mean value, and significantly differentiated from winter values. The month with the highest admission rates was September, followed by May and the three summer’s months. The lowest levels were observed in December, October and January, with statistically significant differences observed between the values of all the three months. Differences between July values compared with December and October values were significant, but not with January values. Conclusion: The study showed significant seasonal and monthly differences in emergency schizophrenics’ visits. The data confirm the outcome of similar studies conducted in countries with temperate climate in the Northern Hemisphere. These results could prove useful for psychiatrists, public health specialists, and governmental authorities dealing with team planning and prevention programs in the field of psychiatry.

  2. The discontinuance of maintenance neuroleptic therapy in chronic schizophrenic patients: drug and social consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D A; Pasterski, G; Ludlow, J M; Street, K; Taylor, R D

    1983-05-01

    In a prospective follow-up the outcome of 60 chronic schizophrenic patients who discontinued neuroleptic therapy after remaining stable 12-48 months was compared with controls continuing medication. Not only did the drug-discontinued patients have more relapses (P less than 0.001), but the form of relapse was both more severe and acute, resulting in differences of self-injury (P less than 0.05), anti-social behaviour (P less than 0.01), inpatient admissions (P less than 0.001), and the use of compulsory powers (P less than 0.01). In patients who relapsed, both social and work function was affected adversely for some months. Patients who remained relapse-free without drugs (20%) had a level of work and social function similar to medicated patients. At the end of 18 months the patients who discontinued depot maintenance therapy were found to have been prescribed one-third more neuroleptic drugs than controls, with a possible increase in the risk of long-term tardive dyskinesia.

  3. Recognition of visual stimuli and memory for spatial context in schizophrenic patients and healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brébion, Gildas; David, Anthony S; Pilowsky, Lyn S; Jones, Hugh

    2004-11-01

    Verbal and visual recognition tasks were administered to 40 patients with schizophrenia and 40 healthy comparison subjects. The verbal recognition task consisted of discriminating between 16 target words and 16 new words. The visual recognition task consisted of discriminating between 16 target pictures (8 black-and-white and 8 color) and 16 new pictures (8 black-and-white and 8 color). Visual recognition was followed by a spatial context discrimination task in which subjects were required to remember the spatial location of the target pictures at encoding. Results showed that recognition deficit in patients was similar for verbal and visual material. In both schizophrenic and healthy groups, men, but not women, obtained better recognition scores for the colored than for the black-and-white pictures. However, men and women similarly benefited from color to reduce spatial context discrimination errors. Patients showed a significant deficit in remembering the spatial location of the pictures, independently of accuracy in remembering the pictures themselves. These data suggest that patients are impaired in the amount of visual information that they can encode. With regards to the perceptual attributes of the stimuli, memory for spatial information appears to be affected, but not processing of color information.

  4. Schizophrenia and the paranormal: more psi belief and superstition, and less déjà vu in medicated schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiah, Yung-Jong; Wu, Yi-Zhen; Chen, Yueh-Hua; Chiang, Shih-Kuang

    2014-04-01

    The present study examined the relation between déjà vu experiences and paranormal beliefs in schizophrenic patients. A total of 522 participants (54.5% female; mean age=33.3, SD=16.02) were recruited, including 422 healthy adults (60.9% female; mean age=29.48, SD=15.07) and 100 medicated adult schizophrenic patients (27.3% female; mean age=48.98, SD=8.57). The Chinese version of the Inventory of Déjà-vu Experiences Assessment was created via back translation. Chinese versions of the Revised Paranormal Belief Scale (CRPB), Beck Anxiety Inventory (CBAI), and Perceived Stress Scale (CPSS) were also used. After controlling for age, gender, education, and anxiety, the results supported the following three hypotheses. Schizophrenic persons have fewer déjà vu experiences than normal persons. These experiences are positively related to paranormal beliefs in healthy adults but not in schizophrenic patients. Schizophrenic patients have higher scores than healthy adults on the psi and superstitious subscales of the CRPB. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Treatments for Biomedical Abnormalities Associated with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Eugene Frye

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies point to the effectiveness of novel treatments that address physiological abnormalities associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD. This is significant because safe and effective treatments for ASD remain limited. These physiological abnormalities as well as studies addressing treatments of these abnormalities are reviewed in this article. Treatments commonly used to treat mitochondrial disease have been found to improve both core and associated ASD symptoms. Double-blind, placebo-controlled studies have investigated L-carnitine and a multivitamin containing B vitamins, antioxidants, vitamin E, and coenzyme Q10 while non-blinded studies have investigated ubiquinol. Controlled and uncontrolled studies using folinic acid, a reduced form of folate, have reported marked improvements in core and associated ASD symptoms in some children with ASD and folate related pathways abnormities. Treatments that could address redox metabolism abnormalities include methylcobalamin with and without folinic acid in open-label studies and vitamin C and N-acetyl-L-cysteine in double-blind, placebo-controlled studies. These studies have reported improved core and associated symptoms with these treatments. Lastly, both open-label and double-blind, placebo-controlled studies have reported improvement in core and associated ASD symptoms with tetrahydrobiopterin. Overall, these treatments were generally well tolerated without significant adverse effects for most children, although we review the reported adverse effects in detail. This review provides evidence for potential safe and effective treatments for core and associated symptoms of ASD that target underlying known physiological abnormalities associated with ASD. Further research is needed to define subgroups of children with ASD in which these treatments may be most effective as well as confirm their efficacy in double-blind, placebo-controlled, large-scale multicenter studies.

  6. Treatments for biomedical abnormalities associated with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Richard Eugene; Rossignol, Daniel A

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies point to the effectiveness of novel treatments that address physiological abnormalities associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This is significant because safe and effective treatments for ASD remain limited. These physiological abnormalities as well as studies addressing treatments of these abnormalities are reviewed in this article. Treatments commonly used to treat mitochondrial disease have been found to improve both core and associated ASD symptoms. Double-blind, placebo-controlled (DBPC) studies have investigated l-carnitine and a multivitamin containing B vitamins, antioxidants, vitamin E, and co-enzyme Q10 while non-blinded studies have investigated ubiquinol. Controlled and uncontrolled studies using folinic acid, a reduced form of folate, have reported marked improvements in core and associated ASD symptoms in some children with ASD and folate related pathway abnormities. Treatments that could address redox metabolism abnormalities include methylcobalamin with and without folinic acid in open-label studies and vitamin C and N-acetyl-l-cysteine in DBPC studies. These studies have reported improved core and associated ASD symptoms with these treatments. Lastly, both open-label and DBPC studies have reported improvements in core and associated ASD symptoms with tetrahydrobiopterin. Overall, these treatments were generally well-tolerated without significant adverse effects for most children, although we review the reported adverse effects in detail. This review provides evidence for potentially safe and effective treatments for core and associated symptoms of ASD that target underlying known physiological abnormalities associated with ASD. Further research is needed to define subgroups of children with ASD in which these treatments may be most effective as well as confirm their efficacy in DBPC, large-scale multicenter studies.

  7. Automutilação de dedos e lábio em paciente esquizofrênico Self-mutilation of fingers and lips in a schizophrenic patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breno Satler de Oliveira Diniz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: Episódios de automutilação grave são raramente observados na prática psiquiá­trica. Ocorrem principalmente em pacientes psicóticos, sendo o principal diagnóstico a esquizofrenia. As regiões mais comumente automutiladas são o pênis e os olhos. RELATO DE CASO: Relatamos o caso de um paciente portador de esquizofrenia paranóide que desenvolveu quadro de auto-amputação de lábios e falanges secundário a alucinações auditivas de comando e delírios místico-religiosos. CONCLUSÃO: Episódios de automutilação são eventos raros em pacientes esquizofrênicos. Deve-se nestes casos identificar pródromos ou fatores desencadeantes destes episódios para se instituir rapidamente abordagens para prevenir ou diminuir o risco de sua ocorrência nestes pacientes.CONTEXT: Severe self-mutilation episodes are rare in psychiatric practice. Most patients are psychotic during such acts and the main diagnosis is schizophrenia. The regions most commonly self-mutilated are the penis and the eyes. CASE REPORT: A patient previously diagnosed with schizophrenia started self-mutilating his lip and phalanxes secondary to command auditory hallucinations and influenced by mystic-religious delusions. CONCLUSION: Self-mutilation episodes are rare in schizophrenic patients. In such case, it should be identified prodrome symptoms or provoking situations in order to promptly institute strategies to prevent or lessen the risk of new episodes.

  8. A sobrecarga de cuidadores de pacientes com esquizofrenia The burden in caregivers of schizophrenic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Machado de Almeida

    2010-01-01

    receive treatment within the community, shedding light on a new type of care provider involved in this treatment modality, namely the caregiver. OBJECTIVE: To assess factors associated with burden in caregivers of schizophrenic patients. METHOD: Burden factors were assessed using a qualitative method appropriate to the analysis of meanings, motivations, beliefs, aspirations, values, and attitudes. The study was conducted at a Psychosocial Attention Center located in the countryside of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. A total of 15 caregivers were interviewed, selected based on the criteria of saturation and singularity of speeches. The phenomenological method was used to analyze the interviews. RESULTS: The speeches of caregivers revealed the following factors as significantly associated with burden: daily care activities, changes in the routine, decrease in leisure, health problems, preoccupations, fear of becoming sick, obligation of providing care, treatment costs, financial aspects, and expectations for the future. Four factors associated with the reduction of burden were identified: social and family support, availability of places/opportunities for caregivers to relieve tensions, physical distance from the patient, and appreciation of the pharmacological treatment. CONCLUSION: There is a need to implement programs designed specifically for caregivers, once their speeches have suggested that the care of schizophrenic patients may have a negative and permanent impact on the lives of these care providers.

  9. Validation of the French version of the BACS (the brief assessment of cognition in schizophrenia) among 50 French schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bralet, Marie-Cécile; Falissard, Bruno; Neveu, Xavier; Lucas-Ross, Margaret; Eskenazi, Anne-Marie; Keefe, Richard S E

    2007-09-01

    Schizophrenic patients demonstrate impairments in several key dimensions of cognition. These impairments are correlated with important aspects of functional outcome. While assessment of these cognition disorders is increasingly becoming a part of clinical and research practice in schizophrenia, there is no standard and easily administered test battery. The BACS (Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia) has been validated in English language [Keefe RSE, Golberg TE, Harvey PD, Gold JM, Poe MP, Coughenour L. The Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia: reliability, sensibility, and comparison with a standard neurocognitive battery. Schizophr. Res 2004;68:283-97], and was found to be as sensitive to cognitive dysfunction as a standard battery of tests, with the advantage of requiring less than 35 min to complete. We developed a French adaptation of the BACS and this study tested its ease of administration and concurrent validity. Correlation analyses between the BACS (version A) and a standard battery were performed. A sample of 50 stable schizophrenic patients received the French Version A of the BACS in a first session, and in a second session a standard battery. All the patients completed each of the subtests of the French BACS . The mean duration of completion for the BACS French version was 36 min (S.D.=5.56). A correlation analysis between the BACS (version A) global score and the standard battery global score showed a significant result (r=0.81, pschizophrenic patients compared to a standard battery (administration shorter and completion rate better) and its good psychometric properties suggest that the French Version of the BACS may be a useful tool for assessing cognition in schizophrenic patients with French as their primary language.

  10. The relation of serotonin-related gene and COMT gene polymorphisms with criminal behavior in schizophrenic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Kyung Bong; Choi, Eun Hee; Lee, Young-joon; Han, Mooyoung; Choi, Sang-Sup; Kim, So Won; Lee, Min Goo

    2012-02-01

    It has been suggested that patients with schizophrenia might be involved in criminal behavior, such as homicidal and violent behavior. However, the relationship between criminal behavior and genes in patients with schizophrenia has not been clearly elucidated. The objective of this study was to examine the relation between criminal behavior and serotonin-related gene or catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene polymorphisms in patients with schizophrenia. Serotonin-related and COMT polymorphic markers were assessed by using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping. Ninety-nine crime-related inpatients with schizophrenia (57 homicidal and 42 nonhomicidal violent) and 133 healthy subjects were enrolled between October 2005 and May 2008. Diagnoses were made according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) criteria. The genotype frequencies of tryptophan hydroxylase-1 (TPH1) A218C and COMT V158M were compared between groups. The TPH1 CC genotype had 2.7-fold higher odds of crime-related schizophrenia compared with A-carrier genotype after the analysis was controlled for sex and age (OR, 2.69; 95% CI, 1.22 - 5.91; P = .01). In addition, the TPH1 CC genotype had 3.4-fold higher odds of homicidal schizophrenia compared with A-carrier genotype after the analysis was controlled for sex and age (OR, 3.38; 95% CI, 1.40 - 8.18; P = .007). However, no significant differences were found in the frequencies of genotype of COMT polymorphism between criminal schizophrenics and healthy subjects, nor were any significant differences found between nonhomicidal schizophrenics and healthy subjects. These results indicate that the TPH1 CC recessive genotype is likely to be a genetic risk factor for criminal behavior, especially homicidal behavior in patients with schizophrenia. However, COMT gene polymorphisms were not associated with criminal behavior in schizophrenic patients. © Copyright 2012 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  11. Intraocular pressure in schizophrenic patients treated with psychiatric medications Pressão intra-ocular em pacientes esquizofrênicos tratados com medicações psiquiátricas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Barreto Novais e Souza

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: In order to assess the occurrence of adverse ocular effects of antipsychotic drugs, we sought to evaluate intraocular pressure of schizophrenic patients treated with psychiatric medications. METHODS: Twenty-eight outpatients with DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia who met both the inclusion and exclusion criteria were submitted to an ophthalmic evaluation for ocular abnormalities which included intraocular pressure measurement with Goldmann applanation tonometry. RESULTS: Raised intraocular pressure was found in three patients (11%. Abnormality in cup-disc ratio was seen in only one patient with cup-disc ratio asymmetry of 0.4. All these four patients were taking only ziprasidone. CONCLUSIONS: Patients using ziprasidone were found to have abnormalities in both intraocular pressure and cup-disc ratio.OBJETIVO: Para avaliar a ocorrência de efeitos adversos oculares dos antipsicóticos, buscamos avaliar a pressão intra-ocular em pacientes esquizofrênicos tratados com medicações psiquiátricas. MÉTODOS: Vinte e oito pacientes tratados ambulatorialmente com diagnóstico de esquizofrenia segundo o DSM-IV que preencheram os critérios de inclusão e exclusão foram submetidos a uma avaliação oftalmológica para pesquisa de alterações oculares que incluiu a medida da pressão intra-ocular com tonometria de aplanação de Goldmann. RESULTADOS: Pressão intra-ocular aumentada foi encontrada em 3 pacientes (11%. Anormalidade na escavação do disco óptico foi observada em apenas um paciente com assimetria de escavação de 0,4. Todos esses quatro pacientes estavam usando apenas ziprasidona. CONCLUSÕES: Pacientes em uso de ziprasidona apresentaram anormalidades na pressão intra-ocular e na escavação do disco óptico.

  12. Validity of Draw-A-Person Test as a measure of Anxiety and Aggression Indices among Schizophrenics of Hospicio de San Juan de Dios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LOVELY LUCKY A. EVARRETTA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study sought to determine the validity of Draw-A-Person Test as a measure of Anxiety and Aggression Indices among Schizophrenics of Hospicio de San Juan de Dios in Bocaue, Bulacan. The Draw a Person Test as a psychological tool took an integral part in revealing the anxiety and aggression indices as showed through the details of the parts of the drawing. It showed that most of the Male Schizophrenics have high aggression indices compare to anxiety indices. The researcher also comes up with an Action Plan for an intervention program for patients with Schizophrenia which includes Art Therapy, Interactive Group Activities and Psychotherapy which is very beneficial for them to achieve continuous stability. This study also serves as awareness and provides understanding to situations of schizophrenics which are sometimes, have not been prioritize by the society. It also serves as a guide to the future researchers who will develop a related study.

  13. Evaluation of nail abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, Amber S; Trayes, Kathryn P; Studdiford, James S

    2012-04-15

    Knowledge of the anatomy and function of the nail apparatus is essential when performing the physical examination. Inspection may reveal localized nail abnormalities that should be treated, or may provide clues to an underlying systemic disease that requires further workup. Excessive keratinaceous material under the nail bed in a distal and lateral distribution should prompt an evaluation for onychomycosis. Onychomycosis may be diagnosed through potassium hydroxide examination of scrapings. If potassium hydroxide testing is negative for the condition, a nail culture or nail plate biopsy should be performed. A proliferating, erythematous, disruptive mass in the nail bed should be carefully evaluated for underlying squamous cell carcinoma. Longitudinal melanonychia (vertical nail bands) must be differentiated from subungual melanomas, which account for 50 percent of melanomas in persons with dark skin. Dystrophic longitudinal ridges and subungual hematomas are local conditions caused by trauma. Edema and erythema of the proximal and lateral nail folds are hallmark features of acute and chronic paronychia. Clubbing may suggest an underlying disease such as cirrhosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or celiac sprue. Koilonychia (spoon nail) is commonly associated with iron deficiency anemia. Splinter hemorrhages may herald endocarditis, although other causes should be considered. Beau lines can mark the onset of a severe underlying illness, whereas Muehrcke lines are associated with hypoalbuminemia. A pincer nail deformity is inherited or acquired and can be associated with beta-blocker use, psoriasis, onychomycosis, tumors of the nail apparatus, systemic lupus erythematosus, Kawasaki disease, and malignancy.

  14. Gastrointestinal and renal abnormalities in cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, Thomas E.; McAlister, William H. [Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis Children' s Hospital, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2005-02-01

    Cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome (CFC) is an uncommon autosomal recessive condition recently distinguished from Noonan syndrome but with more marked growth failure and ectodermal dysplasia. Abdominal symptoms are frequently described but anatomic lesions in CFC have rarely been described. We have found significant anatomic abnormalities in CFC patients including antral foveolar hyperplasia, severe constipation with fecal impaction, nephrocalcinosis and renal cysts. (orig.)

  15. MRI reveals brain abnormalities in drug-naive Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planetta, Peggy J; McFarland, Nikolaus R; Okun, Michael S; Vaillancourt, David E

    2014-01-01

    Most brain studies of Parkinson's disease (PD) focus on patients who are already taking antiparkinsonian medication. This makes it difficult to isolate the effects of disease from those of treatment. We review magnetic resonance imaging evidence supporting the hypothesis that early-stage untreated PD patients have structural and functional abnormalities in the brain, some of which are related to motor symptoms.

  16. Bizarreness in dream reports and waking fantasies of psychotic schizophrenic and manic patients: empirical evidences and theoretical consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limosani, Ivan; D'Agostino, Armando; Manzone, Maria Laura; Scarone, Silvio

    2011-09-30

    Several overlapping features have frequently been described between psychosis and the subjective experience of dreaming from the neurobiological to the phenomenological level, but whether this similarity reflects the cognitive organization of schizophrenic thought or rather that of psychotic mentation independent of diagnostic categories is still unclear. In this study, 40 actively psychotic inpatients were equally divided in two age- and education-matched groups according to their diagnosis (Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder). Participants were asked to report their dreams upon awakening and the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) was administered to elicit waking fantasies; the same procedure was used in a control group of 20 non-psychiatric subjects. Two highly trained judges scored the collected material according to a Dream Bizarreness scale. The same level of cognitive bizarreness was found in TAT and dream reports of schizophrenic and manic subjects but was almost completely absent in the TAT stories of the control group. Two-way analysis of variance for repeated measures assessed the effect of diagnosis and experimental conditions (TAT stories and dream reports) on bizarreness yielding a significant interaction. Cognitive bizarreness seems to be a shared feature of dreaming and psychotic mentation, beyond diagnostic categorizations. Although these findings must be considered preliminary, this experimental measure of the cognitive architecture of thought processes seems to support the view that dreaming could be a useful model for the psychoses. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The effect of verbalization strategy on wisconsin card sorting test performance in schizophrenic patients receiving classical or atypical antipsychotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavallaro Roberto

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of reports showed en encouraging remediation in some patients' executive deficits thanks to the use of 'information processing strategies'. Moreover the impact of antipsychotics on cognitive functions of the schizophrenics is an important issue, especially if an integrated psychosocial treatment is needed. The aim of this paper is to evaluate different executive performance and response to verbalization, a strategy of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST remediation, in subjects on classical vs atypical antipsychotic (AP treatment. Methods Sixty-three schizophrenic subjects undertook the WCST under standard and modified (verbalization administration. Subjects were stratified by the kind of WCST response (i.e. good, poor and remediable and AP treatment (i.e. atypical vs. classical. Results Subjects on atypical APs showed a better performance than those on classical ones. More poor performers who did not remediate were seen in the sample with classical Aps while subjects who remediated the performance were seen in the subgroup with atypical APs only. An increase of perseverative and total errors was seen in poor performers subjects on classical APs. Conclusion Subjects on atypicals showed a better cognitive pattern in terms of WCST performance. Since the naturalistic assignment of medication we cannot draw conclusions about its effect on cognitive performance and its interaction with cognitive remediation potential. However the data lead us to hypothesize that subjects with potential room for remediation did so with the atypical APs.

  18. An association study of the Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome type 4 gene in schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Atsushi; Kuratomi, Go; Ito, Chihiro; Matsuoka, Hiroo; Suzuki, Tamio; Ozeki, Yuji; Watanabe, Takashi; Fujii, Kumiko; Shimoda, Kazutaka; Fukushima, Yasutsugu; Inukai, Toshihiko; Ohmori, Kenichi; Akiyama, Kazufumi

    2013-08-01

    We encountered two Japanese siblings who had Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) and major mental disorders (schizophrenia and major depression) as well. As it is known that HPS is caused by a local mutation in one of the human genes, named HPS1 to HPS8 and PLDN (HPS9), encoding subunit proteins involved in endosomal trafficking pathways, here, we report the mutation causing the siblings disease and a case-control association study of schizophrenia using polymorphisms of a gene to be screened in the mutation analysis. We analyzed three HPS-causing genes, HPS1, HPS4, and HPS7, to identify a genetic mutation involved in the siblings. A case-control association study of nine tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms of the entire genetic region of the HPS4 gene resulting from the screening in the siblings was carried out for schizophrenic patients (n=422) and controls (n=578). The two patients with HPS were homozygous for nonsense mutation (T/T) for the c.541C>T (rs119471022) in the HPS4 gene, which is mapped to human chromosome 22q12.1. The same nonsense mutation existed in the heterozygous state (C/T) in their mother and in two other siblings. The genotypic distribution of rs9608491 (C/T) in intron 4 showed a trend toward an association with schizophrenia as indicated by a corrected P-value of 0.053 controlling for multiple testing. Haplotype analyses showed that two of two-locus haplotypes, and all of three-locus, four-locus, and five-locus haplotypes, as they share rs9608491, yielded significant evidence for association with schizophrenia as shown by the following omnibus P-values. When rs4822724, rs61276843, rs9608491, rs713998, and rs2014410, five haplotype tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms, are assigned serial numerals (1, 2, 3, 4, and 5), the omnibus P-values for the resulting haplotypes were P=0.0039 for 2-3, P=0.0142 for 3-4, P=0.0083 for 1-2-3, P=0.0187 for 2-3-4, P=0.0191 for 3-4-5, P=0.0270 for 1-2-3-4, P=0.0246 for 2-3-4-5, and 0.0261 for 1

  19. Plague Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Plague Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Plague Home Ecology & Transmission Symptoms Diagnosis & Treatment Maps & Statistics ...

  20. Diphtheria Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC Diphtheria Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Diphtheria Home About Diphtheria Causes and Transmission Symptoms Complications ...

  1. Rotavirus Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Organization PATH's Rotavirus Vaccine Program American Academy of Pediatrics ... symptoms to appear. Children who get infected may have severe watery diarrhea, often with vomiting, fever, and abdominal pain. Vomiting ...

  2. Rehabilitation of Schizophrenia: Adjunctive Therapy of Negative Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Shoja Shafti

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Negative symptoms in schizophrenia are among the important barriers against psychosocial rehabilitation of such patients. Adjunctive drugs can be used for reducing the severity of these symptoms. In this research we studied the efficacy of Clomipramine, Alprazolam, Citalopram, Bromocriptine, Fluoxetine, Nortriptyline, Maprotiline and Fluvoxamine, in this regard. After a primary prevalence survey regarding Negative symptoms, 170 schizophrenic patients were divided into three different groups, and then the aforesaid adjuvant drugs were examined in three double-blind clinical controlled trials. Estimation of negative symptoms by "SANS" were done at the beginning of each trial for the first time and then three weeks later, after prescription of drugs in lower dosage and finally at the end of sixth week, means three weeks after doubling the dosages. The data were analyzed by z and chi-square (X2test formula. Clomipramine, Alprazolam, Citalopram, Nortriptyline and Maprotiline could reduce the severity of negative symptoms. Their effectiveness in comparing with placebo was statistically remarkable. No important side effect or worsening of positive symptoms was seen in our samples during aforesaid trials. Conservative usage of adjuvant drugs can be an advantageous means for making rehabilitative programs more efficacious than before.

  3. Synthetic delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (dronabinol) can improve the symptoms of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarcz, Glenn; Karajgi, Basawaraj; McCarthy, Richard

    2009-06-01

    We are reporting improvement of symptoms of schizophrenia in a small group of patients who received the cannabinoid agonist dronabinol (synthetic Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol). Before this report, cannabinoids had usually been associated with worsening of psychotic symptoms. In a heuristic, compassionate use study, we found that 4 of 6 treatment-refractory patients with severe chronic schizophrenia but who had a self-reported history of improving with marijuana abuse improved with dronabinol. This improvement seems to have been a reduction of core psychotic symptoms in 3 of the 4 responders and not just nonspecific calming. There were no clinically significant adverse effects. These results complement the recent finding that the cannabinoid blocker rimonabant does not improve schizophrenic symptoms and suggest that the role of cannabinoids in psychosis may be more complex than previously thought. They open a possible new role for cannabinoids in the treatment of schizophrenia.

  4. Delusional misidentification secondary to perceptual abnormality: An unusual case of Capgras syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, P J

    2000-01-01

    Capgras syndrome is the commonest of the delusional misidentification syndromes, occurring in 1 - 5% of psychotic patients. This case of a Capgras syndrome was secondary to an abnormal percept (auditory hallucination). Capgras syndrome is not a symptom specific to abnormalities of face recognition. ( Int J Psych Clin Pract 2000; 4: ).

  5. Recurrent paroxysmal episodes characterized by perceptual alteration in three schizophrenic patients on neuroleptic medication

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Higuchi, H; Shimizu, T; Hishikawa, Y

    1997-01-01

    .... Perceptual alteration showed some distinct features that were different from acute symptoms of schizophrenia, and was accompanied by mood changes such as severe anxiety and agitation and, in one...

  6. Estimation of localization and dipole moment of alpha- and theta-rhythm sources by cluster analysis in healthy subjects and schizophrenics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkhlyutov, VM; Shchuchkin, YV; Ushakov, VL; Strelets, VB; Pirogov, YA

    2006-01-01

    In 12 healthy subjects and 9 schizophrenic patients in the background conditions (with eyes closed) EEG was recorded from 16 standard derivations (10-20 system) during 3 min. The record underwent the spectral analysis detecting alpha- and theta-frequency bands. After the preliminary narrow band

  7. Simultaneous determination of amino acids and neurotransmitters in plasma samples from schizophrenic patients by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Diego Soares; Crevelin, Eduardo José; de Moraes, Luiz Alberto Beraldo; Cecilio Hallak, Jaime Eduardo; de Souza Crippa, José Alexandre; Costa Queiroz, Maria Eugênia

    2015-03-01

    A sensitive, reproducible, and rapid method was developed for the simultaneous determination of underivatized amino acids (aspartate, serine, glycine, alanine, methionine, leucine, tyrosine, and tryptophan) and neurotransmitters (glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid) in plasma samples using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry. The plasma concentrations of amino acids and neurotransmitters obtained from 35 schizophrenic patients in treatment with clozapine (27 patients) and olanzapine (eight patients) were compared with those obtained from 38 healthy volunteers to monitor the effectiveness of treatment. The chromatographic conditions separated ten target compounds within 3 min. This method presented linear ranges that varied from (lower limit of quantification: 9.7-13.3 nmol/mL) to (upper limit of quantification: 19.4-800 nmol/mL), intra- and interassay precision with coefficients of variation lower than 10%, and relative standard error values of the accuracy ranged from -2.1 to 9.9%. The proposed method appropriately determines amino acids and neurotransmitters in plasma from schizophrenic patients. Compared with the control group (healthy volunteers), the plasma levels of methionine in schizophrenic patients treated with olanzapine are statistically significantly higher. Moreover, schizophrenic patients treated with clozapine tend to have increased plasma levels of glutamate. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Chlamydiae, cervicitis, and abnormal Papanicolaou smears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, M C; Hanna, L; Jawetz, E

    1979-01-01

    Cervical abnormalities accompanied by Papanicolaou Class II or Class III cytologic results are commonly encountered in gynecologic office practice. Chlamydiae are a common cause of genital tract infection, with or without manifest symptoms or signs. An immunofluorescence method was used to determine the presence of antichlamydial antibodies in cervical secretions. Eleven of 15 patients in whom such antibodies were found (73.3%) had Papanicolaou Class II or Class III smears, in contrast to only 3 of 18 patients (16.7%) without antichlamydial antibodies. The determination of antichlamydial antibodies in cervical mucus was highly reproducible, and specimens were readily collected in the office, without the need of prompt laboratory procedures. In selected patients, tetracycline treatment of early chlamydial infection resulted both in the disappearance of the antibody from cervical secretions and in the reversion of the Papanicolaou smear from Class II or Class III to Class I.

  9. Abnormal auditory forward masking pattern in the brainstem response of individuals with Asperger syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Källstrand, Johan; Olsson, Olle; Nehlstedt, Sara Fristedt; Sköld, Mia Ling; Nielzén, Sören

    2010-01-01

    Abnormal auditory information processing has been reported in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In the present study auditory processing was investigated by recording auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) elicited by forward masking in adults diagnosed with Asperger syndrome (AS). Sixteen AS subjects were included in the forward masking experiment and compared to three control groups consisting of healthy individuals (n = 16), schizophrenic patients (n = 16) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder patients (n = 16), respectively, of matching age and gender. The results showed that the AS subjects exhibited abnormally low activity in the early part of their ABRs that distinctly separated them from the three control groups. Specifically, wave III amplitudes were significantly lower in the AS group than for all the control groups in the forward masking condition (P < 0.005), which was not the case in the baseline condition. Thus, electrophysiological measurements of ABRs to complex sound stimuli (eg, forward masking) may lead to a better understanding of the underlying neurophysiology of AS. Future studies may further point to specific ABR characteristics in AS individuals that separate them from individuals diagnosed with other neurodevelopmental diseases. PMID:20628629

  10. Abnormal auditory forward masking pattern in the brainstem response of individuals with Asperger syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Källstrand

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Johan Källstrand1, Olle Olsson2, Sara Fristedt Nehlstedt1, Mia Ling Sköld1, Sören Nielzén21SensoDetect AB, Lund, Sweden; 2Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Section of Psychiatry, Lund University, Lund, SwedenAbstract: Abnormal auditory information processing has been reported in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD. In the present study auditory processing was investigated by recording auditory brainstem responses (ABRs elicited by forward masking in adults diagnosed with Asperger syndrome (AS. Sixteen AS subjects were included in the forward masking experiment and compared to three control groups consisting of healthy individuals (n = 16, schizophrenic patients (n = 16 and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder patients (n = 16, respectively, of matching age and gender. The results showed that the AS subjects exhibited abnormally low activity in the early part of their ABRs that distinctly separated them from the three control groups. Specifically, wave III amplitudes were significantly lower in the AS group than for all the control groups in the forward masking condition (P < 0.005, which was not the case in the baseline condition. Thus, electrophysiological measurements of ABRs to complex sound stimuli (eg, forward masking may lead to a better understanding of the underlying neurophysiology of AS. Future studies may further point to specific ABR characteristics in AS individuals that separate them from individuals diagnosed with other neurodevelopmental diseases.Keywords: asperger syndrome, auditory brainstem response, forward masking, psychoacoustics

  11. Language-Related Symptoms in Persons with Schizophrenia and How Deaf Persons May Manifest These Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumbetta, Susan L.; Bonvillian, John D.; Siedlecki, Theodore, Jr.; Haskins, Barbara G.

    2001-01-01

    Reviews core features of the disorganized speech seen in schizophrenia and to illustrate how Deaf persons with schizophrenia may display such language anomalies. Discusses the difficulties involved in studying schizophrenic language in general and of schizophrenic signing in particular. (Author/VWL)

  12. Association of catechol-O-methyltransferase Val(108/158) Met genetic polymorphism with schizophrenia, P50 sensory gating, and negative symptoms in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Qiao; Tan, Yun-Long; Luo, Xing-Guang; Tian, Li; Wang, Zhi-Ren; Tan, Shu-Ping; Chen, Song; Yang, Gui-Gang; An, Hui-Mei; Yang, Fu-De; Zhang, Xiang-Yang

    2016-08-30

    Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), an enzyme involved in the degradation and inactivation of the neurotransmitter dopamine, is associated with the sensory gating phenomenon, protecting the cerebral cortex from information overload. The COMT Val(108/158)Met polymorphism is essential for prefrontal cortex processing capacity and efficiency. The current study was designed to investigate the role of COMT Val(108/158)Met polymorphism in development, sensory gating deficit, and symptoms of schizophrenia in Han Chinese population. P50 gating was determined in 139 schizophrenic patients and 165 healthy controls. Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) was used to assess the clinical symptomatology in 370 schizophrenic subjects. COMT Val(108/158)Met polymorphism was genotyped by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). No significant differences in COMT allele and genotype distributions were observed between schizophrenic patients and control groups. Although P50 deficits were present in patients, there was no evidence for an association between COMT Val(108/158)Met polymorphism and the P50 biomarker. Moreover, PANSS negative subscore was significantly higher in Val allele carriers than in Met/Met individuals. The present findings suggest that COMT Val(108/158)Met polymorphism may not contribute to the risk of schizophrenia and to the P50 deficits, but may contribute to the negative symptoms of schizophrenia among Han Chinese. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Abnormal vaginal bleeding in women with gynaecological malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Tracey; Denny, Lynette

    2017-04-01

    Abnormal vaginal bleeding is a common gynaecological symptom, and most causes are benign. International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics proposed a PALM-COEIN classification in 2011 to decrease heterogeneity in studies. The gynaecological malignancies that present with abnormal bleeding vary according to the age of the patient and the origin (upper versus lower genital tract). It is important that a thorough history and examination is performed to make this distinction. The common malignancies presenting symptoms and treatment are discussed in this article according to the age of the patient. There is a considerable overlap between the reproductive age and menopause. This article focuses on children, adolescents and women in the reproductive age group. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. NEUROTRANSMITTER ABNORMALITIES AND RESPONSE TO SUPPLEMENTATION IN SPG11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderver, Adeline; Tonduti, Davide; Auerbach, Sarah; Schmidt, Johanna L.; Parikh, Sumit; Gowans, Gordon C.; Jackson, Kelly E.; Brock, Pamela L.; Patterson, Marc; Nehrebecky, Michelle; Godfrey, Rena; Zein, Wadih M.; Gahl, William; Toro, Camilo

    2012-01-01

    Objective To report the detection of secondary neurotransmitter abnormalities in a group of SPG11 patients and describe treatment with L-dopa/carbidopa and sapropterin. Design Case reports Setting National Institutes of Health in the context of the Undiagnosed Disease Program; Children’s National Medical Center in the context of Myelin Disorders Bioregistry Program Patients Four SPG11 patients with a clinical picture of progressive spastic paraparesis complicated by extrapyramidal symptoms and maculopathy Interventions L-dopa/carbidopa and sapropterin Results 3/4 patients presented secondary neurotransmitter abnormalities; 4/4 partially responded to L-dopa as well as sapropterin Conclusions In the SPG11 patient with extrapyramidal symptoms, a trial of L-dopa/carbidopa and sapropterin and/or evaluation of cerebrospinal fluid neurotransmitters should be considered. PMID:22749184

  15. Premenstrual symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-03-24

    Data is reviewed on premenstrual symptoms which have been related to high suicide and accident rates, employment absentee rates, poor academic performance and acute psychiatric problems. A recent study of healthy young women indicated that 39% had troublesome premenstrual symptoms, 54% passed clots in their menses, 70% had cyclical localized acneiform eruptions and only 17% failed to experience menstrual pain. Common menstrual disorders are classified as either dysmenorrhea or the premenstrual syndrome. Symptoms for the latter usually begin 2-12 days prior to menstruation and include nervous tension, irritability, anxiety, depression, bloated breasts and abdomen, swollen fingers and legs, headaches, dizziness, occasional hypersomia, excessive thirst and appetite. Some women may display an increased susceptibility to migraine, vasomotor rhinitis, asthma, urticaria and epilepsy. Symptoms are usually relieved with the onset of menses. While a definitive etiological theory remains to be substantiated, symptomatic relief has been reported with salt and water restriction and simple diuretics used 7 to 10 days premenstrually. Diazapam or chlordiazepoxide treatment is recommended before oral contraceptive therapy. The premenstrual syndrome may persist after menopause, is unaffected by parity, and sufferers score highly on neuroticism tests. Primary or spasmodic dysmenorrhea occurs in young women, tends to decline with age and parity and has no correlation with premenstrual symptoms or neuroticism. Spasmodic or colicky pain begins and is most severe on the first day of menstruation and may continue for 2-3 days. Treatment of dysmenorrhea with psychotropic drugs or narcotics is discouraged due to the risk of dependence and abuse. Temporary relief for disabling pain may be obtained with oral contraceptives containing synthetic estrogen and progestogen but the inherent risks should be acknowledged. Both disorders have been correlated to menstrual irregularity. Amenorrhea in

  16. Abnormal glucose tolerance and lipid abnormalities in Indian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    quency of abnormal glucose tolerance (impaired glucose tole- rance and diabetes mellitus) in Indian patients with CAD is similar to that in White patients.9 However, with respect to the lipid profile there have been conflicting reports; hypercholeste- rolaemia was present in 37% ofthe series described by McKech- nie' and ...

  17. Abnormal parietal function in conversion paresis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marije van Beilen

    Full Text Available The etiology of medically unexplained symptoms such as conversion disorder is poorly understood. This is partly because the interpretation of neuroimaging results in conversion paresis has been complicated by the use of different control groups, tasks and statistical comparisons. The present study includes these different aspects in a single data set. In our study we included both normal controls and feigners to control for conversion paresis. We studied both movement execution and imagery, and we contrasted both within-group and between-group activation. Moreover, to reveal hemisphere-specific effects that have not been reported before, we performed these analyses using both flipped and unflipped data. This approach resulted in the identification of abnormal parietal activation which was specific for conversion paresis patients. Patients also showed reduced activity in the prefrontal cortex, supramarginal gyrus and precuneus, including hemisphere-specific activation that is lateralized in the same hemisphere, regardless of right- or left-sided paresis. We propose that these regions are candidates for an interface between psychological mechanisms and disturbed higher-order motor control. Our study presents an integrative neurophysiological view of the mechanisms that contribute to the etiology of this puzzling psychological disorder, which can be further investigated with other types of conversion symptoms.

  18. Attentional Load Effects on Beta Oscillations in Healthy and Schizophrenic Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahab eGhorashi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Attentional deficits are prominent among the cognitive disturbances found in schizophrenia. Given that schizophrenia is also characterized by abnormalities in high-frequency oscillations, we investigated whether attentional function in schizophrenia is related to abnormalities in high-frequency oscillations in a visual discrimination task in which attentional load was manipulated. Sixteen healthy control subjects (HC and 23 chronic schizophrenia patients (SZ discriminated between target discs (P = 0.2 and standard discs (P = 0.8. Attentional load was manipulated by varying the size difference between the target and standard discs across blocks: large (Easy condition, medium (Medium, and small (Difficult. The electroencephalogram was recorded and the oscillations evoked by the standard stimuli were analyzed using the Morlet wavelet transform. Subjects’ performance decreased as attentional load increased, but HC and SZ did not differ. Attentional load increased β phase-locking factor at frontal, parietal, and occipital electrode sites in HC but not SZ. In SZ, however, there was a correlation between the β attentional load effect and overall d', indicating that high-performing SZ had relatively normal β attentional load effects. These results show that variations in attentional load are associated with β oscillations and provide a link between attentional dysfunction and β-generating neural circuitry in schizophrenia.

  19. Functional dyspepsia, upper gastrointestinal symptoms, and transit in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chitkara, Denesh K.; Delgado-Aros, Silvia; Bredenoord, Albert J.; Cremonini, Filippo; El-Youssef, Mounif; Freese, Deborah; Camilleri, Michael

    2003-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of abnormal gastric emptying and small bowel transit in children with functional dyspepsia at a tertiary care center, and the relationship between abnormal gastric and small bowel transit and symptoms in pediatric patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders. Patients

  20. Epileptiform electroencephalogram abnormality in children with congenital sensorineural hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Badry, Mohamed Mohamed; Hamdy, Nermin Aly; Sobhy, Sayed; Gamal, Reham

    2014-04-01

    This work was designed to study electroencephalogram findings in children with congenital sensorineural hearing loss and correlate these findings with the SNHL parameters as duration, etiology, severity, and type. Ninety children with bilateral congenital sensorineural hearing loss served as the study group. They were free from any neurological disorders or symptoms that are commonly associated with abnormal electroencephalogram as convulsions or loss of consciousness. Twenty children having normal hearing with no history of otological or neurological disorders served as the control group. All children participating in the study were subjected to full medical and audiological history, otological examination, neurological examination, audiological evaluation and electroencephalogram recording. Mean age of the children in the control group was 3.56 ± 2.1 years and mean age of the children in the study group was 3.8 ± 2.2 years. While none of the control children had abnormal electroencephalogram, 38 (42.2%) of children with congenital SNHL had epileptiform electroencephalogram abnormality. The epileptiform abnormality was generalized in 14 children (36.8%), focal temporal in 17 children (44.7%) and focal other than temporal in 7 children (18.4%). According to the hemispheric side affected, the abnormality was right in 14 children (36.8%), left in 10 children (26.3%) and bilateral in 14 children (36.8%). No statistically significant predominance of specific site or side of the epileptiform abnormality was found. Similarly, no statistical significant prevalent of the epileptiform abnormality was found in relation to the age or sex of children, duration of hearing loss or etiology of hearing loss (i.e., genetic vs. neonatal insults). On the other hand, the epileptiform abnormality was statistically prevalent in children with moderate degree of hearing loss, and in children with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder. The epileptiform electroencephalogram abnormality is

  1. Lentiginosis, Deafness and Cardiac Abnormalities*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1973-01-06

    Jan 6, 1973 ... The familia:l form is milder. The cardiac lesion commonly consists of hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy of either ventricle or abnor- malities of the ECG.' The obstructive lesion may be pro- gressive and cause cardiac failure. The ECG features include conduction abnormalities, such as left hemiblock,.

  2. Chromosomal Abnormalities Associated With Omphalocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ping Chen

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Fetuses with omphalocele have an increased risk for chromosomal abnormalities. The risk varies with maternal age, gestational age at diagnosis, association with umbilical cord cysts, complexity of associated anomalies, and the contents of omphalocele. There is considerable evidence that genetics contributes to the etiology of omphalocele. This article provides an overview of chromosomal abnormalities associated with omphalocele and a comprehensive review of associated full aneuploidy such as trisomy 18, trisomy 13, triploidy, trisomy 21, 45,X, 47,XXY, and 47,XXX, partial aneuploidy such as dup(3q, dup(11p, inv(11, dup(1q, del(1q, dup(4q, dup(5p, dup(6q, del(9p, dup(15q, dup(17q, Pallister-Killian syndrome with mosaic tetrasomy 12p and Miller-Dieker lissencephaly syndrome with deletion of 17p13.3, and uniparental disomy (UPD such as UPD 11 and UPD 14. Omphalocele is a prominent marker for chromosomal abnormalities. Perinatal identification of omphalocele should alert chromosomal abnormalities and familial unbalanced translocations, and prompt thorough cytogenetic investigations and genetic counseling.

  3. Interpreting chromosomal abnormalities using Prolog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, G; Friedman, J M

    1990-04-01

    This paper describes an expert system for interpreting the standard notation used to represent human chromosomal abnormalities, namely, the International System for Human Cytogenetic Nomenclature. Written in Prolog, this program is very powerful, easy to maintain, and portable. The system can be used as a front end to any database that employs cytogenetic notation, such as a patient registry.

  4. Admission haematological abnormalities and postoperative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admission haematological abnormalities and postoperative outcomes in neonates with acute surgical conditions in Alexandria, Egypt. HL Wella, SMM Farahat. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals ...

  5. Lifetime DSM-III-R diagnostic outcomes in the offspring of schizophrenic mothers. Results from the Copenhagen High-Risk Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parnas, Josef; Cannon, T D; Jacobsen, B

    1993-01-01

    .2%) and other nonaffective, nonorganic psychosis (4.6%), and Cluster A personality disorders (21.3%) occurred among the offspring of schizophrenic mothers compared with the controls (1.9%, 0.9%, and 5%, respectively). No evidence of increased aggregation of (psychotic and nonpsychotic) affective disorders......OBJECTIVES: To perform a long-term prospective follow-up of children at high risk for schizophrenia to identify risk factors for the development of this disorder. DESIGN: Prospective follow-up population study of children of schizophrenic mothers and their matched controls from age 15 years to age...... to the index group on age, sex, paternal socioeconomic status, urban/rural residence, and the amount of time spent during childhood in institutional rearing. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The prevalence of the DSM-III-R disorders during the subjects lifetime. RESULTS: A significant aggregation of schizophrenia (16...

  6. [Developmental conditions and subjective experiences of children with a schizophrenic parent--qualitative and quantitative studies from the Mannheim Study of Children at Risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Könnecke, Regina; Wening, Ursula; Ropeter, Daniel; Heiden, Wolfram an der; Maurer, Kurt; Häfner, Heinz

    2006-09-01

    35 children 12-42 years of age of patients with schizophrenia (ABC-Cohort-12-year-follow-up) were interviewed for studying objective and subjective effects of growing up with a schizophrenic parent. Social development and childhood experiences were assessed and quantitatively and qualitatively evaluated. The majority of probands had to take on early responsibilities in their family. Experienced deficits in parental care and problems with poor communication within the family were also mentioned. Compared with controls they showed only light disadvantages in the level of education and vocational training. Even if early independence could be a positive resource for children with a schizophrenic parent the restrictions in the child's life and development should not be overlooked. Information on the illness and support in dealing with stressful situations are frequently needed.

  7. Testosterone levels and clinical features of schizophrenia with emphasis on negative symptoms and aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisek-Šprem, Mirna; Križaj, Aida; Jukić, Vlado; Milošević, Milan; Petrović, Zrinka; Herceg, Miroslav

    2015-02-01

    Aggressive behavior and negative symptoms are two features of schizophrenia that may have a hormonal basis. The aim of this study was to compare testosterone level with clinical features of schizophrenia, focusing on negative symptoms and aggressive behavior. The study population consisted of 120 male schizophrenic patients (ages 18-40) classified into non-aggressive (n = 60) and aggressive (n = 60) groups. Depending on the type of aggression that was manifested prior to admission, the aggressive group was divided into violent (n = 32) and suicidal (n = 28) subgroups. Psychopathological severity, violence and suicidality were assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Overt Aggression Scale and Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale, respectively. Total serum testosterone level was determined on the same morning that symptoms were assessed. In the non-aggressive group, testosterone level was negatively correlated with the score on the negative subscale of PANSS (P = 0.04) and depression (P = 0.013), and positively correlated with excitement (P = 0.027), hostility (P = 0.02) and impulsive behavior (P = 0.008). In the aggressive group, testosterone level had non-significant correlation with these parameters, and with violent or suicidal behavior. The results confirmed that non-aggressive male schizophrenic patients with lower levels of testosterone had a greater severity of negative symptoms. In aggressive patients, there was no correlation between testosterone and clinical features of the disorder or the degree or type of aggression. These findings indicate that therapeutic strategies targeting testosterone could be useful in the treatment of negative symptoms of schizophrenia.

  8. Mastoid abnormalities in Down syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glass, R.B.J.; Yousefzadeh, D.K.; Roizen, N.J.

    1989-06-01

    Hearing loss and otitis media are commonly associated with Down syndrome. Hypoplasia of the mastoids is seen in many affected children and sclerosis of mastoid bones is not uncommon in Down syndrome. Awareness and early recognition of mastoid abnormality may lead to appropriate and timely therapy, thereby preserving the child's hearing or compensating for hearing loss; factors which are important for learning and maximum development.

  9. Normal and abnormal skin color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortonne, J P

    2012-12-01

    The varieties of normal skin color in humans range from people of "no color" (pale white) to "people of color" (light brown, dark brown, and black). Skin color is a blend resulting from the skin chromophores red (oxyhaemoglobin), blue (deoxygenated haemoglobin), yellow-orange (carotene, an exogenous pigment), and brown (melanin). Melanin, however, is the major component of skin color ; it is the presence or absence of melanin in the melanosomes in melanocytes and melanin in keratinocytes that is responsible for epidermal pigmentation, and the presence of melanin in macrophages or melanocytes in the dermis that is responsible for dermal pigmentation. Two groups of pigmentary disorders are commonly distinguished: the disorders of the quantitative and qualitative distribution of normal pigment and the abnormal presence of exogenous or endogenous pigments in the skin. The first group includes hyperpigmentations, which clinically manifest by darkening of the skin color, and leukodermia, which is characterized by lightening of the skin. Hypermelanosis corresponds to an overload of melanin or an abnormal distribution of melanin in the skin. Depending on the color, melanodermia (brown/black) and ceruloderma (blue/grey) are distinguished. Melanodermia correspond to epidermal hypermelanocytosis (an increased number of melanocytes) or epidermal hypermelanosis (an increase in the quantity of melanin in the epidermis with no modification of the number of melanocytes). Ceruloderma corresponds to dermal hypermelanocytosis (abnormal presence in the dermis of cells synthesizing melanins) ; leakage in the dermis of epidermal melanin also exists, a form of dermal hypermelanosis called pigmentary incontinence. Finally, dyschromia can be related to the abnormal presence in the skin of a pigment of exogenous or endogenous origin. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. [Normal and abnormal skin color].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortonne, J-P

    2012-11-01

    The varieties of normal skin color in humans range from people of "no color" (pale white) to "people of color" (light brown, dark brown, and black). Skin color is a blend resulting from the skin chromophores red (oxyhaemoglobin), blue (deoxygenated haemoglobin), yellow-orange (carotene, an exogenous pigment), and brown (melanin). Melanin, however, is the major component of skin color ; it is the presence or absence of melanin in the melanosomes in melanocytes and melanin in keratinocytes that is responsible for epidermal pigmentation, and the presence of melanin in macrophages or melanocytes in the dermis that is responsible for dermal pigmentation. Two groups of pigmentary disorders are commonly distinguished: the disorders of the quantitative and qualitative distribution of normal pigment and the abnormal presence of exogenous or endogenous pigments in the skin. The first group includes hyperpigmentations, which clinically manifest by darkening of the skin color, and leukodermia, which is characterized by lightening of the skin. Hypermelanosis corresponds to an overload of melanin or an abnormal distribution of melanin in the skin. Depending on the color, melanodermia (brown/black) and ceruloderma (blue/grey) are distinguished. Melanodermia correspond to epidermal hypermelanocytosis (an increased number of melanocytes) or epidermal hypermelanosis (an increase in the quantity of melanin in the epidermis with no modification of the number of melanocytes). Ceruloderma correspond to dermal hypermelanocytosis (abnormal presence in the dermis of cells synthesizing melanins) ; leakage in the dermis of epidermal melanin also exists, a form of dermal hypermelanosis called pigmentary incontinence. Finally, dyschromia can be related to the abnormal presence in the skin of a pigment of exogenous or endogenous origin. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Goldenhar syndrome and urogenital abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Marulaiah

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The Goldenhar syndrome (oculo-auriculo-vertebral syn-drome or 1st and 2nd branchial arch syndrome is a com-plex of craniofacial anomalies. It has been associated with anomalies in other systems and with abnormalities of the urogenital system. We present a case of Goldenhar syn-drome with multiple renal anomalies and a urogenital si-nus, which has not been reported before.

  12. Movement disorder symptoms associated with Unified ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objectives: The UPDRS is a commonly used neurological measurement to assess the presence and severity of parkinsonian symptoms. It has also been used to assess symptoms associated with Mn exposure. Objectives: to determine 1) if movement disorder symptoms were associated with UPDRS: Activities of Daily Living (ADL) and Motor abnormalities; and 2) which symptoms were most related to increased abnormalities on these UPDRS subscales. Participants & Methods: Correlations between self-reported movement disorder symptoms from a health questionnaire and scores obtained on UPDRS: ADL and Motor subscales, and the Bradykinesia domain of the Motor subscale, were assessed during a medical examination among 185 Mn-exposed participants from two Ohio towns. Partial correlations were used for statistical analyses, controlling for age, sex, education and a history of musculoskeletal disease.Results: The presence of movement disorder symptoms was positively associated with ADL (pr =0.647, p = disorder symptoms most strongly associated with increased ADL and Motor scores included having difficulty getting out of chairs (pr =0.458, p = <0.001), writing (pr =0.481, p = <0.001), skilled movements (pr =0.478, p = <0.001), loss of coordination/balance (pr =0.457, p = <0.001), changes in walking (pr =0.412, p = <0.001) and slowness of movement (pr =0.539, p = <0.0

  13. Thought disorder measured as random speech structure classifies negative symptoms and schizophrenia diagnosis 6 months in advance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Natália B Mota; Mauro Copelli; Sidarta Ribeiro

    2017-01-01

    Diagnosis: Early signs of speech problems indicative of thought disorder Abnormal speech in someone showing early signs of psychosis can help doctors diagnose schizophrenia and its 'negative' symptoms...

  14. Clozapine Use Presenting with Pseudopheochromocytoma in a Schizophrenic Patient: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaskanwal Sara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. There have been six previous cases that reported pseudopheochromocytoma in patients taking clozapine. Our case showed the direct link of clozapine to serum levels of certain markers. Case. This is a case of a 49-year-old obese Caucasian female who was referred to endocrinology for investigation of Cushing’s syndrome, based on raised blood pressure and Cushingoid facies. The patient had underlying schizophrenia and was stable on clozapine. Her blood pressure was 150/99 mmHg on bendroflumethiazide and candesartan. We measured her 24-hour urinary-free cortisol, which was normal but 24-hour urinary-free noradrenaline was elevated at 835 nmol (76–561 with normal adrenaline 36 nmol (7–82 and dopamine 2679 nmol (366–2879, as the patient had history of palpitations and sweating. Two sets of 24-hour urinary-free cortisol measurements were normal and serum cortisol suppressed to <50 nmol/l after a 1 mg overnight dexamethasone. Two further 24-hour urinary-free catecholamines showed a raised level of noradrenaline. MRI demonstrated normal adrenals and MIBG scan did not show any abnormal uptake at adrenal glands. Conclusion. Pseudopheochromocytoma has been reported in patients taking clozapine. A number of different mechanisms for raised plasma noradrenaline levels with clozapine have been postulated. The above case highlights an unusual but known side effect of clozapine.

  15. Medically unexplained symptoms (MUS) in primary care | Nwajei ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medically unexplained symptoms (MUS) are very common in most primary care consultations all over the world with pseudoneurological and bodily aches symptoms commoner in the Western world while subjective abnormal bodily sensations predominate in Nigeria. The illness can be very frustrating for the patient and it ...

  16. Association of catechol-O-methyltransferase gene polymorphisms with schizophrenia and negative symptoms in a Chinese population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen Jun; Kou, Chang Gui; Yu, Yaqin; Sun, Shilong; Zhang, Xuan; Kosten, Thomas R; Zhang, Xiang Yang

    2014-01-01

    The gene encoding Catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT), a dopamine catabolic enzyme, has been associated inconsistently with schizophrenia in spite of consistent evidence for dopaminergic dysfunction in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of schizophrenia. Since one contribution to this inconsistency might be genetic heterogeneity, this study investigated whether the COMT gene was associated with the development and symptoms of schizophrenia in relatively genetically homogeneous Chinese schizophrenic patients. We analyzed two polymorphisms (rs740603 and rs4818) of the COMT gene in a case–control study of 604 Han Chinese (284 patients and 320 controls). The patients’ psychopathology was assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). We found no significant differences in the rs740603 and rs4818 genotype and allele distributions between the patient and control groups. Quantitative trait analysis by the UNPHASED program showed that the rs740603 and rs740603(G)-rs4818(G) haplotypes were associated with negative symptoms in the schizophrenic patients, particularly among female patients. Thus, the COMT gene polymorphisms may not contribute to the susceptibility to schizophrenia, but may contribute to the negative symptoms of schizophrenia among Han Chinese. PMID:22354729

  17. Concomitant Use of Topiramate Inducing Neutropenia in a Schizophrenic Male Stabilized on Clozapine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravesh Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a case of a 23-year-old African American male with a history of paranoid schizophrenia that developed neutropenia on a clozapine-topiramate therapy. Clozapine had well addressed the patient’s psychotic symptoms, while topiramate was used as a weight-lowering agent. The patient had fairly stable leukocyte counts for eight months on clozapine 300 mg and topiramate 100 mg daily. Doubling the dosage of topiramate led to severe neutropenia after two months. Reviewing the patient’s laboratory reports showed a gradual decline of neutrophils occurring at a lower dosage, followed by a rapid decline after an increased dosage. In this case, we report that not only did topiramate act as the neutropenic agent, but also it might have done so in a dose-dependent manner.

  18. Switch from neuroleptics to clozapine does not influence pituitary-gonadal axis hormone levels in male schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markianos, M; Hatzimanolis, J; Lykouras, L

    1999-12-01

    Hypothalamic dopaminergic and serotonergic inputs participate in the regulation of pituitary hormones, and drugs that block central dopamine and serotonin receptors are expected to influence the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) and -adrenal (HPA) axes. In schizophrenic patients, the switch from neuroleptics to clozapine influences prolactin and cortisol secretion, but there is no information on possible changes on HPG-axis hormones. We measured the plasma levels of testosterone (TST), LH, FSH, as well as of prolactin (PRL) and cortisol (CORT), in a group of male patients with schizophrenia during treatment with classical neuroleptics with no satisfactory therapeutic response (31 pts, age 30.3+/-8.5, range 18-50), and 6 weeks later, after switch to treatment with clozapine (CLZ) in doses from 100 to 600 mg daily (mean 328 mg). Psychopathology was assessed using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. The hormone levels were also compared to those of a control group of 38 healthy males. Treatment with CLZ resulted in a reduction in the BPRS score by 30% in the mean. Plasma PRL was reduced from 39.9+/-26.1 to 8.3+/-5.0 ng/ml (PHPG-axis hormone plasma levels, although it reduces substantially the levels of prolactin and cortisol.

  19. The interactions between religion, religiosity, religious delusion/hallucination, and treatment-seeking behavior among schizophrenic patients in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Charles Lung-Cheng; Shang, Chi-Yung; Shieh, Ming-Shien; Lin, Hsin-Nan; Su, Jin Chung-Jen

    2011-05-30

    Religion could influence the psychopathology, treatment-seeking behavior, and treatment outcome in schizophrenia, but the associations between these factors have never been explored thoroughly, and the data in Han-Chinese society are scarcer still. The current study recruited 55 schizophrenic patients to explore the relationship between religion, psychopathology with religious content, treatment-seeking behavior, and outcome. Subjects with religious delusions/hallucinations had lower scores on functioning and higher scores on religiosity. The higher religiosity scores were correlated with older age, longer duration of illness, religious affiliation, lower preference of psychiatric treatment, lower functioning score, and delusion/hallucination. As to treatment-seeking behavior, patients with religious affiliation showed less preference toward psychiatric treatment. Individuals with religious delusion/hallucination were more likely to receive magico-religious healing and not to be satisfied with psychiatric treatment. A more positive view of psychiatric treatment was predicted by lower religiosity score, higher satisfaction with psychiatric treatment, and lower years of education. The religiosity level seems not directly related to clinical severity, but it seems to be a better predictor of religious delusions/hallucinations than religious affiliation status. Patients with religious delusions/hallucinations did not necessarily have more severe psychopathology. There are different profiles associated with religious affiliation/religiosity and religious delusions/hallucinations in relation to treatment-seeking behavior among schizophrenia patients in Han-Chinese society. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Semantic activation and verbal working memory maintenance in schizophrenic thought disorder: insights from electrophysiology and lexical ambiguity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, Dean F

    2008-04-01

    We have examined language processing using ambiguous words (homographs like panel or toast) and rapid or slow presentation rates while recording event-related brain potentials (ERPs). Homographs allow for tracking the train of thought at points of lexical ambiguity and detecting modulation of associative threads by previous context. Rapid presentation rates stress automatic semantic activation, and slow rates stress controlled verbal working memory contextual modulation. In conjunction with reaction times and performance, ERPs allow for objective measurement of activity related to language processing from word presentation through overt behavioral response. Smaller N400 to related and unrelated items at short stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs), the presence of a semantic bias, and large N400 to related and unrelated items at long SOAs are present in schizophrenia. We describe a model of initial semantic memory hyper-priming and subsequent decay of information in verbal working memory stores, the activation-maintenance model of schizophrenic thought disorder hypothesized to underlie the thought disorder in schizophrenia.

  1. Semantic Activation and Verbal Working Memory Maintenance in Schizophrenic Thought Disorder: Insights from Electrophysiology and Lexical Amibiguity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    We have examined language processing using ambiguous words (homographs like panel or toast) and rapid or slow presentation rates while recording event-related brain potentials (ERPs). Homographs allow for tracking the train of thought at points of lexical ambiguity and detecting modulation of associative threads by previous context. Rapid presentation rates stress automatic semantic activation, and slow rates stress controlled verbal working memory contextual modulation. In conjunction with reaction times and performance, ERPs allow for objective measurement of activity related to language processing from word presentation through overt behavioral response. Smaller N400 to related and unrelated items at short stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs), the presence of a semantic bias, and large N400 to related and unrelated items at long SOAs are present in schizophrenia. We describe a model of initial semantic memory hyper-priming and subsequent decay of information in verbal working memory stores, the activation-maintenance model of schizophrenic thought disorder hypothesized to underlie the thought disorder in schizophrenia. PMID:18450179

  2. Neurodevelopmental origins of abnormal cortical morphology in dissociative identity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinders, A A T S; Chalavi, S; Schlumpf, Y R; Vissia, E M; Nijenhuis, E R S; Jäncke, L; Veltman, D J; Ecker, C

    2018-02-01

    To examine the two constitutes of cortical volume (CV), that is, cortical thickness (CT) and surface area (SA), in individuals with dissociative identity disorder (DID) with the view of gaining important novel insights into the underlying neurobiological mechanisms mediating DID. This study included 32 female patients with DID and 43 matched healthy controls. Between-group differences in CV, thickness, and SA, the degree of spatial overlap between differences in CT and SA, and their relative contribution to differences in regional CV were assessed using a novel spatially unbiased vertex-wise approach. Whole-brain correlation analyses were performed between measures of cortical anatomy and dissociative symptoms and traumatization. Individuals with DID differed from controls in CV, CT, and SA, with significantly decreased CT in the insula, anterior cingulate, and parietal regions and reduced cortical SA in temporal and orbitofrontal cortices. Abnormalities in CT and SA shared only about 3% of all significantly different cerebral surface locations and involved distinct contributions to the abnormality of CV in DID. Significant negative associations between abnormal brain morphology (SA and CV) and dissociative symptoms and early childhood traumatization (0 and 3 years of age) were found. In DID, neuroanatomical areas with decreased CT and SA are in different locations in the brain. As CT and SA have distinct genetic and developmental origins, our findings may indicate that different neurobiological mechanisms and environmental factors impact on cortical morphology in DID, such as early childhood traumatization. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Differences in ME and CFS Symptomology in Patients with Normal and Abnormal Exercise Test Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManimen, Stephanie L; Jason, Leonard A

    2017-01-01

    Post-exertional malaise (PEM) is a cardinal symptom of myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), which often distinguishes patients with this illness from healthy controls or individuals with exclusionary illnesses such as depression. However, occurrence rates for PEM fluctuate from subject to how the symptom is operationalized. One commonly utilized method is exercise testing, maximal or submaximal. Many patients with ME and CFS experience PEM after participating in these tests, and often show abnormal results. However, some patients still exhibit normal results after participating in the exercise testing. This study examined the differences between two patient groups with ME and CFS, those with normal results and those with abnormal results, on several PEM-related symptoms and illness characteristics. The results suggest those that displayed abnormal results following testing have more frequent and severe PEM, worse overall functioning, and are more likely to be bedbound than those that displayed normal results.

  4. Improvement of Brain Reward Abnormalities by Antipsychotic Monotherapy in Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Ødegaard; Rostrup, Egill; Wulff, Sanne

    2012-01-01

    . CONCLUSIONS To our knowledge, this is the first controlled, longitudinal study of reward disturbances in schizophrenic patients before and after their first antipsychotic treatment. Our results demonstrate that alterations in reward processing are fundamental to the illness and are seen prior to any treatment...

  5. Three-dimensional textural analysis of brain images reveals distributed grey-matter abnormalities in schizophrenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganeshan, Balaji [University of Sussex, Falmer, Clinical Imaging Sciences Centre, Brighton and Sussex Medical School, Brighton (United Kingdom); University of Sussex, Falmer, Department of Engineering and Design, Brighton (United Kingdom); Miles, Kenneth A.; Critchley, Hugo D. [University of Sussex, Falmer, Clinical Imaging Sciences Centre, Brighton and Sussex Medical School, Brighton (United Kingdom); Young, Rupert C.D.; Chatwin, Christopher R. [University of Sussex, Falmer, Department of Engineering and Design, Brighton (United Kingdom); Gurling, Hugh M.D. [University College London, Department of Mental Health Sciences, London (United Kingdom)

    2010-04-15

    Three-dimensional (3-D) selective- and relative-scale texture analysis (TA) was applied to structural magnetic resonance (MR) brain images to quantify the presence of grey-matter (GM) and white-matter (WM) textural abnormalities associated with schizophrenia. Brain TA comprised volume filtration using the Laplacian of Gaussian filter to highlight fine, medium and coarse textures within GM and WM, followed by texture quantification. Relative TA (e.g. ratio of fine to medium) was also computed. T1-weighted MR whole-brain images from 32 participants with diagnosis of schizophrenia (n = 10) and healthy controls (n = 22) were examined. Five patients possessed marker alleles (SZ8) associated with schizophrenia on chromosome 8 in the pericentriolar material 1 gene while the remaining five had not inherited any of the alleles (SZ0). Filtered fine GM texture (mean grey-level intensity; MGI) most significantly differentiated schizophrenic patients from controls (P = 0.0058; area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve = 0.809, sensitivity = 90%, specificity = 70%). WM measurements did not distinguish the two groups. Filtered GM and WM textures (MGI) correlated with total GM and WM volume respectively. Medium-to-coarse GM entropy distinguished SZ0 from controls (P = 0.0069) while measures from SZ8 were intermediate between the two. 3-D TA of brain MR enables detection of subtle distributed morphological features associated with schizophrenia, determined partly by susceptibility genes. (orig.)

  6. Abnormal thermography in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonio-Rubio, I; Madrid-Navarro, C J; Salazar-López, E; Pérez-Navarro, M J; Sáez-Zea, C; Gómez-Milán, E; Mínguez-Castellanos, A; Escamilla-Sevilla, F

    2015-08-01

    An autonomic denervation and abnormal vasomotor reflex in the skin have been described in Parkinson's disease (PD) and might be evaluable using thermography with cold stress test. A cross-sectional pilot study was undertaken in 35 adults: 15 patients with PD and abnormal [(123)I]-metaiodobenzylguanidine cardiac scintigraphy and 20 healthy controls. Baseline thermography of both hands was obtained before immersing one in cold water (3 ± 1 °C) for 2 min. Continuous thermography was performed in: non-immersed hand (right or with lesser motor involvement) during immersion of the contralateral hand and for 6 min afterward; and contralateral immersed hand for 6 min post-immersion. The region of interest was the dorsal skin of the third finger, distal phalanx. PD patients showed a lower mean baseline hand temperature (p = 0.037) and greater thermal difference between dorsum of wrist and third finger (p = 0.036) and between hands (p = 0.0001) versus controls, regardless of the motor laterality. Both tests evidenced an adequate capacity to differentiate between groups: in the non-immersed hand, the PD patients did not show the normal cooling pattern or final thermal overshoot observed in controls (F = 5.29; p = 0.001), and there was an AUC of 0.897 (95%CI 0.796-0.998) for this cooling; in the immersed hand, thermal recovery at 6 min post-immersion was lesser in patients (29 ± 17% vs. 55 ± 28%, p = 0.002), with an AUC of 0.810 (95%CI 0.662-0.958). PD patients reveal abnormal skin thermal responses in thermography with cold stress test, suggesting cutaneous autonomic dysfunction. This simple technique may be useful to evaluate autonomic dysfunction in PD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Imaging findings of the brain abnormalities in acute lymphoblastic leukemia of children during and after treatment

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    Lee, Kyung Joo; Lee, Seung Rho; Park, Dong Woo; Joo, Kyung Bin; Kim, Jang Wook; Hahm, Chang Kok; Kim, Ki Joong; Lee, Hahng [College of Medicine, Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-09-01

    We evaluated the imaging abnormalities of the brain observed during and after treatment of acute childhood lymphoblastic leukemia. The study group consisted of 30 patients (male : female=19 : 11 ; mean age, 64 months) with acute childhood lymphoblastic leukemia during the previous ten-year period who had undergone prophylaxis of the central nervous system. Irrespective of the CNS symptoms, base-line study of the brain involving CT and follow-up CT or MRI was undertaken more than once. We retrospectively evaluated the imaging findings, methods of treatment, associated CNS symptoms, and the interval between diagnosis and the time at which brain abnormalities were revealed by imaging studies. In 15 (50% ; male : female=9 : 6 ; mean age, 77 months) of 30 patients, brain abnormalities that included brain atrophy (n=9), cerebral infarctions (n=4), intracranial hemorrhage (n=1), mineralizing microangiopathy (n=2), and periventricular leukomalacia (n=3) were seen on follow-up CT or MR images. In four of nine patients with brain atrophy, imaging abnormalities such as periventricular leukomalacia (n=2), infarction (n=1) and microangiopathy (n=1) were demonstrated. Fourteen of the 15 patients underwent similar treatment ; the one excluded had leukemic cells in the CSF. Six patients had CNS symptoms. In the 15 patients with abnormal brain imaging findings, the interval between diagnosis and the demonstration of brain abnormalities was between one month and four years. After the cessation of treatment, imaging abnormalities remained in all patients except one with brain atrophy. Various imaging abnormalities of the brain may be seen during and after the treatment of acute childhood lymphoblastic leukemia and persist for a long time. In children with this condition, the assessment of brain abnormalities requires follow-up study of the brain.

  8. [Gastrointestinal abnormalities in children with autism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasilewska, Jolanta; Jarocka-Cyrta, Elzbieta; Kaczmarski, Maciej

    2009-07-01

    The autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by socially aloof behavior and impairment of language and social interaction. This paper is a review of literature on gastrointestinal problems in children with ASD. Gastrointestinal symptoms are described in 9-54% of autistic children, among which most common are: constipation, diarrhea and abdominal distension. The gastro-intestinal abnormalities reported in autism include: inflammation (esophagitis, gastritis, duodenitis, enterocolitis) with or without autoimmunity, lymphoid nodular hyperplasia, increased intestinal permeability, low activities of disaccharidase enzymes, impairment of detoxification (e.g. defective sulfation of ingested phenolic amines), dysbiosis with bacterial overgrowth, food intolerance or exorphin intoxication (by opioid derived from casein and gluten). A beneficial effect of dietary intervention on behavior and cognition of some autistic children indicates a functional relationship between the alimentary tract and the central nervous system. There are no epidemiologic data concerning the incidence or prevalence of gastrointestinal problems within the population of children with ASD in comparison to the population of non-ASD children.

  9. [Heart rhythm abnormalities in middle-aged veteran elite athletes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharashdze, N S; Pagava, Z T; Saatashvili, G A; Agladze, R A

    2008-06-01

    Disrrhythmia is frequent finding in high competitive athletes. Majority of heart rhythm abnormalities in athletes, suggested being benign, however, prognostic value of it is not yet well established. Purpose of the present study was to investigate heart rhythm and relationship of heart rhythm abnormalities with LV mass in veteran elite athletes. 30 veteran elite athletes (16 soccer players and 14 water-polo players) aged 30-50 were studied. They formed main group. >10 years of active sports activity and >5 years after competitive sports cessation. All athletes were symptom free. Control group consists of 30 age - matched sedentary healthy individuals. In all study subjects ambulatory 24 hour ECG was recorded and, LV mass, dimensions and function by ultrasound-Doppler technique was evaluated. LV mass by Devereux formula was calculated and indexed to body surface area. Student's t-test for continuous variables, Descriptive statistics and Fisher's exact test for categorical variables were used. A P-value of conductivity abnormalities as well as complex arrhythmias were more frequent findings in athletes as compared with healthy sedentary subjects. Heart Rhythm abnormalities were associated with enhanced LV mass in Veteran athletes. Hence, veteran elite athletes may be at increased risk of life threatening arrhythmias. However, prognostic value of heart rhythm disturbances in veteran athletes has to be studied.

  10. Presenting a Spatial-Geometric EEG Feature to Classify BMD and Schizophrenic Patients

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    Fatemeh AliMardani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia (SZ and bipolar mood disorder (BMD patients demonstrate some similar signs and symptoms; therefore, distinguishing those using qualitative criteria is not an easy task especially when these patients experience manic or hallucination phases. This study is aimed at classifying these patients by spatial analysis of their electroencephalogram (EEG signals. In this way, 22-channels EEG signals were recorded from 52 patients (26 patients with SZ and 26 patients with BMD. No stimulus has been used during the signal recording in order to investigate whether background EEGs of these patients in the idle state contain discriminative information or not. The EEG signals of all channels were segmented into stationary intervals called “frame” and the covariance matrix of each frame is separately represented in manifold space. Exploiting Riemannian metrics in the manifold space, the classification of sample covariance matrices is carried out by a simple nearest neighbor classifier. To evaluate our method, leave one patient out cross validation approach has been used. The achieved results imply that the difference in the spatial information between the patients along with control subjects is meaningful. Nevertheless, to enhance the diagnosis rate, a new algorithm is introduced in the manifold space to select those frames which are less deviated around the mean as the most probable noise free frames. The classification accuracy is highly improved up to 98.95% compared to the conventional methods. The achieved result is promising and the computational complexity is also suitable for real time processing.

  11. Symptoms Relevant to Surveillance for Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ore, Robert M.; Baldwin, Lauren; Woolum, Dylan; Elliott, Erika; Wijers, Christiaan; Chen, Chieh-Yu; Miller, Rachel W.; DeSimone, Christopher P.; Ueland, Frederick R.; Kryscio, Richard J.; van Nagell, John R.; Pavlik, Edward J.

    2017-01-01

    To examine how frequently and confidently healthy women report symptoms during surveillance for ovarian cancer. A symptoms questionnaire was administered to 24,526 women over multiple visits accounting for 70,734 reports. A query of reported confidence was included as a confidence score (CS). Chi square, McNemars test, ANOVA and multivariate analyses were performed. 17,623 women completed the symptoms questionnaire more than one time and >9500 women completed it more than one four times for >43,000 serially completed questionnaires. Reporting ovarian cancer symptoms was ~245 higher than ovarian cancer incidence. The positive predictive value (0.073%) for identifying ovarian cancer based on symptoms alone would predict one malignancy for 1368 cases taken to surgery due to reported symptoms. Confidence on the first questionnaire (83.3%) decreased to 74% when more than five questionnaires were completed. Age-related decreases in confidence were significant (p Women reporting at least one symptom expressed more confidence (41,984/52,379 = 80.2%) than women reporting no symptoms (11,882/18,355 = 64.7%), p Confidence was unrelated to history of hormone replacement therapy or abnormal ultrasound findings (p = 0.30 and 0.89). The frequency of symptoms relevant to ovarian cancer was much higher than the occurrence of ovarian cancer. Approximately 80.1% of women expressed confidence in what they reported. PMID:28335512

  12. Symptoms Relevant to Surveillance for Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert M. Ore

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available To examine how frequently and confidently healthy women report symptoms during surveillance for ovarian cancer. A symptoms questionnaire was administered to 24,526 women over multiple visits accounting for 70,734 reports. A query of reported confidence was included as a confidence score (CS. Chi square, McNemars test, ANOVA and multivariate analyses were performed. 17,623 women completed the symptoms questionnaire more than one time and >9500 women completed it more than one four times for >43,000 serially completed questionnaires. Reporting ovarian cancer symptoms was ~245 higher than ovarian cancer incidence. The positive predictive value (0.073% for identifying ovarian cancer based on symptoms alone would predict one malignancy for 1368 cases taken to surgery due to reported symptoms. Confidence on the first questionnaire (83.3% decreased to 74% when more than five questionnaires were completed. Age-related decreases in confidence were significant (p < 0.0001. Women reporting at least one symptom expressed more confidence (41,984/52,379 = 80.2% than women reporting no symptoms (11,882/18,355 = 64.7%, p < 0.0001. Confidence was unrelated to history of hormone replacement therapy or abnormal ultrasound findings (p = 0.30 and 0.89. The frequency of symptoms relevant to ovarian cancer was much higher than the occurrence of ovarian cancer. Approximately 80.1% of women expressed confidence in what they reported.

  13. Abnormal Liver Function Tests in an Anorexia Nervosa Patient and an Atypical Manifestation of Refeeding Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vamshidhar R. Vootla

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Refeeding syndrome is defined as electrolyte and fluid abnormalities that occur in significantly malnourished patients when they are refed orally, enterally, or parenterally. The principal manifestations include hypophosphatemia, hypokalemia, vitamin deficiencies, volume overload and edema. This can affect multiple organ systems, such as the cardiovascular, pulmonary, or neurological systems, secondary to the above-mentioned abnormalities. Rarely, patients may develop gastrointestinal symptoms and show abnormal liver function test results. We report the case of a 52-year-old woman with anorexia nervosa who developed refeeding syndrome and simultaneous elevations of liver function test results, which normalized upon the resolution of the refeeding syndrome.

  14. Abnormal visuomotor processing in schizophrenia

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    Siân E. Robson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Subtle disturbances of visual and motor function are known features of schizophrenia and can greatly impact quality of life; however, few studies investigate these abnormalities using simple visuomotor stimuli. In healthy people, electrophysiological data show that beta band oscillations in sensorimotor cortex decrease during movement execution (event-related beta desynchronisation (ERBD, then increase above baseline for a short time after the movement (post-movement beta rebound (PMBR; whilst in visual cortex, gamma oscillations are increased throughout stimulus presentation. In this study, we used a self-paced visuomotor paradigm and magnetoencephalography (MEG to contrast these responses in patients with schizophrenia and control volunteers. We found significant reductions in the peak-to-peak change in amplitude from ERBD to PMBR in schizophrenia compared with controls. This effect was strongest in patients who made fewer movements, whereas beta was not modulated by movement in controls. There was no significant difference in the amplitude of visual gamma between patients and controls. These data demonstrate that clear abnormalities in basic sensorimotor processing in schizophrenia can be observed using a very simple MEG paradigm.

  15. Lower Extremity Abnormalities in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rerucha, Caitlyn M; Dickison, Caleb; Baird, Drew C

    2017-08-15

    Leg and foot problems in childhood are common causes of parental concern. Rotational problems include intoeing and out-toeing. Intoeing is most common in infants and young children. Intoeing is caused by metatarsus adductus, internal tibial torsion, and femoral anteversion. Out-toeing is less common than intoeing and occurs more often in older children. Out-toeing is caused by external tibial torsion and femoral retroversion. Angular problems include genu varum (bowleg) and genu valgum (knock knee). With pes planus (flatfoot), the arch of the foot is usually flexible rather than rigid. A history and physical examination that include torsional profile tests and angular measurements are usually sufficient to evaluate patients with lower extremity abnormalities. Most children who present with lower extremity problems have normal rotational and angular findings (i.e., within two standard deviations of the mean). Lower extremity abnormalities that are within normal measurements resolve spontaneously as the child grows. Radiologic studies are not routinely required, except to exclude pathologic conditions. Orthotics are not beneficial. Orthopedic referral is often not necessary. Rarely, surgery is required in patients older than eight years who have severe deformities that cause dysfunction.

  16. Neurodynamics of abnormalities in cerebral metabolism and structure in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddington, J L

    1993-01-01

    Much evidence points to the importance of intrauterine events in the etiology of schizophrenia and suggests a complex interplay between dysfunctional and intact neurons in the pathophysiology of the disorder. This article contrasts what is known of the topographies of metabolic and structural brain abnormalities in schizophrenia at differing stages of the illness. From these contrasts, a schema is elaborated by which subtle neurodevelopmental perturbation in early to middle gestation might give rise to functional and structural abnormalities that ultimately release the diagnostic symptoms of schizophrenia. An interaction between those mechanisms mediating the expression of psychosis and the initially subtle stages of normal aging is posited to act on the substrate of a brain that is already developmentally compromised. Such a process might masquerade as "progression" in the absence of any active disease directly attributable to the original etiological event.

  17. Transverse testicular ectopia with abnormal karyotype - a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harasymczuk, Jerzy; Kaminiarczyk-Pyzalka, Dominika; Krawczynski, Maciej; Niedziela, Marek; Wasko, Ryszard; Czarnywojtek, Agata; Jankowski, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    Growth disturbances and developmental malformations of external genitalia, such as hypospadias, bifid scrotum and micropenis, coexisting with non-palpable testes, may develop as a result of primary endocrinological dysfunctions as well as an effect secondary to chromosomal aberrations. Therefore, patients with these symptoms require specific diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. We present an example of TTE as a presentation of karyotype abnormalities. Clinical presentation - 9.5 year old boy presented with hypospadias, bilateral cryptorchidism and right inguinal hernia and short stature. Endocrine test showed low testosterone levels with adequate gonadal response. Laparoscopy was performed and revealed the presence of TTE. The presence of mosaic karyotype with abnormal Y chromosome does not exclude a possibility of testis migration disorders, including TTE, caused by other (possibly genetic) factors. Laparoscopy is a technique of choice for diagnosis and treatment in cases of cryptorchidism.

  18. Abnormalities of Object Visual Processing in Body Dysmorphic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feusner, Jamie D.; Hembacher, Emily; Moller, Hayley; Moody, Teena D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Individuals with body dysmorphic disorder may have perceptual distortions for their appearance. Previous studies suggest imbalances in detailed relative to configural/holistic visual processing when viewing faces. No study has investigated the neural correlates of processing non-symptom-related stimuli. The objective of this study was to determine whether individuals with body dysmorphic disorder have abnormal patterns of brain activation when viewing non-face/non-body object stimuli. Methods Fourteen medication-free participants with DSM-IV body dysmorphic disorder and 14 healthy controls participated. We performed functional magnetic resonance imaging while participants matched photographs of houses that were unaltered, contained only high spatial frequency (high detail) information, or only low spatial frequency (low detail) information. The primary outcome was group differences in blood oxygen level-dependent signal changes. Results The body dysmorphic disorder group showed lesser activity in the parahippocampal gyrus, lingual gyrus, and precuneus for low spatial frequency images. There were greater activations in medial prefrontal regions for high spatial frequency images, although no significant differences when compared to a low-level baseline. Greater symptom severity was associated with lesser activity in dorsal occipital cortex and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex for normal and high spatial frequency images. Conclusions Individuals with body dysmorphic disorder have abnormal brain activation patterns when viewing objects. Hypoactivity in visual association areas for configural and holistic (low detail) elements and abnormal allocation of prefrontal systems for details is consistent with a model of imbalances in global vs. local processing. This may occur not only for appearance but also for general stimuli unrelated to their symptoms. PMID:21557897

  19. CHROMOSOMAL ABNORMALITIES IN PATIENTS WITH RECURRENT MISCARRIAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Mierla

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Chromosomal abnormalities are involved in the etiology of recurrent spontaneous pregnancy loss and sub-fertility. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency and contribution of chromosomal abnormalities in recurrent miscarriages. The results obtained and literature review are helpful in understanding the importance of cytogenetics analysis of female infertility. To investigate the distribution of chromosomal abnormalities in the Romanian population with recurrent miscarriage, karyotype analysis by G-banding was performed from peripheral blood in 967 women infertility. Results: Chromosomal abnormalities were found to 79 women (8,17%. The percentage of chromosomal abnormalities in the studied population correlates with the data in the literature. Chromosomal abnormalities could play the important role in etiology of infertility and are more frequently detected in this group of patients compared to general population. In the infertile couples balanced chromosomal abnormalities are the main cause of spontaneous abortions.

  20. An epidemiological study of concomitant use of Chinese medicine and antipsychotics in schizophrenic patients: implication for herb-drug interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang-Jin Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Herb-drug interactions are an important issue in drug safety and clinical practice. The aim of this epidemiological study was to characterize associations of clinical outcomes with concomitant herbal and antipsychotic use in patients with schizophrenia. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In this retrospective, cross-sectional study, 1795 patients with schizophrenia who were randomly selected from 17 psychiatric hospitals in China were interviewed face-to-face using a structured questionnaire. Association analyses were conducted to examine correlates between Chinese medicine (CM use and demographic, clinical variables, antipsychotic medication mode, and clinical outcomes. The prevalence of concomitant CM and antipsychotic treatment was 36.4% [95% confidence interval (95% CI 34.2%-38.6%]. Patients using concomitant CM had a significantly greater chance of improved outcomes than non-CM use (61.1% vs. 34.3%, OR = 3.44, 95% CI 2.80-4.24. However, a small but significant number of patients treated concomitantly with CM had a greater risk of developing worse outcomes (7.2% vs. 4.4%, OR = 2.06, 95% CI 2.06-4.83. Significant predictors for concomitant CM treatment-associated outcomes were residence in urban areas, paranoid psychosis, and exceeding 3 months of CM use. Herbal medicine regimens containing Radix Bupleuri, Fructus Gardenia, Fructus Schisandrae, Radix Rehmanniae, Akebia Caulis, and Semen Plantaginis in concomitant use with quetiapine, clozapine, and olanzepine were associated with nearly 60% of the risk of adverse outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Concomitant herbal and antipsychotic treatment could produce either beneficial or adverse clinical effects in schizophrenic population. Potential herb-drug pharmacokinetic interactions need to be further evaluated.

  1. Symptoms of stroke-related visual impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Fiona

    2013-06-01

    Investigate the frequency and type of visual symptoms following stroke. Prospective multicenter cohort study (Vision in Stroke [VIS]) in accordance with Declaration of Helsinki. Standardized referral/investigation protocol with detailed assessment of visual acuity, ocular alignment/motility, visual field and visual perception, plus quality of life score. A total of 915 patients were recruited with a mean age of 69.18 years (standard deviation 14.19). Reported symptoms included diplopia, blurred vision, reading difficulty, field loss, perceptual difficulty, and oscillopsia. Sixteen percent (149) had no visual symptoms: 22 patients had normal eye examinations by orthoptic assessment and 127 had diagnoses of central/peripheral visual loss, ocular motility or perceptual abnormalities. Eighty-four percent had visual symptoms, but 50 patients had normal eye examinations. There was no significant difference in type of symptom and quality of life score. Treatment included refraction, prisms, occlusion, orthoptic exercises, low vision aids, and advice. Of those with no visual symptoms, 85% had objectively measured visual impairment. Conversely, 6.5% of those with visual symptoms had normal orthoptic examinations. Thus the presence or absence of visual symptoms does not infer absence or presence of visual impairment and may relate to recovery of visual impairment, cognitive, or communication impairment.

  2. Possible associations between antioxidant enzyme polymorphisms and metabolic abnormalities in patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saruwatari J

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Junji Saruwatari,1,* Norio Yasui-Furukori,2,* Ryoko Kamihashi,1 Yuki Yoshimori,1 Kentaro Oniki,1 Shoko Tsuchimine,2 Madoka Noai,1 Yasushi Sato,3 Taku Nakagami,4 Norio Sugawara,2 Manabu Saito,2 Akira Fujii,2 Ayami Kajiwara,1 Shuichi Mihara,5 Yasuhiro Ogata,6 Sunao Kaneko,2 Kazuko Nakagawa1,71Division of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, 2Department of Neuropsychiatry, Hirosaki University School of Medicine, Hirosaki, 3Department of Psychiatry, Hirosaki Aiseikai Hospital, Hirosaki, 4Department of Psychiatry, Odate Municipal General Hospital, Odate, 5Mihara Life Care Clinic, Kumamoto, 6Japanese Red Cross Kumamoto Health Care Center, Kumamoto, 7Center for Clinical Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Japan*These authors contributed equally to this paperBackground: This study investigated the possible association between common and potentially functional polymorphisms of antioxidant enzymes and metabolic abnormalities in patients with schizophrenia.Methods: The possible associations of the glutathione S-transferase (GST M1 null and GSTT1 null genotypes, and the superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2 Val16Ala polymorphism with the risks of being overweight and having metabolic syndrome were examined using a logistic regression analysis in 154 schizophrenic Japanese patients and 203 controls.Results: Among smokers with schizophrenia, the risks of being overweight and having decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were significantly higher in those with the GSTM1 null genotype than in those with the present genotype (odds ratio 3.20 and 3.15, P=0.03 and P=0.04, respectively, while among nonsmokers with schizophrenia, the risk of an abnormal waist circumference was lower in those with the GSTM1 null genotype (odds ratio 0.34, P=0.04. The risk of a decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level was significantly higher in patients with the combined GSTM1 null and

  3. Prodromal psychotic symptoms and psychological distress among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    More than half (55.3%) reported having had a lifetime experience of major life event (20.9% in the preceding 6 months) while 13.9% had experienced bullying or abuse (5.1% in the preceding 6 months). The prevalence of prodromal symptoms was 20.9% (95% CI 0.174–0.244). Abnormal scores in emotional and conduct ...

  4. Chromosomal abnormalities in child psychiatric patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, K. E.; Kim, J. H.; Moon, S. Y.; Oh, S. K.

    1999-01-01

    To determine the frequency of chromosomal abnormalities in a child psychiatric population, and to evaluate possible associations between types of abnormalities and patient's clinical characteristics, cytogenetic examination was performed on 604 patients. Demographic data, reasons for karyotyping, clinical signs, and other patient characteristics were assessed and correlated with the results from karyotyping. Chromosomal abnormalities were found in 69 patients (11.3%); these were structural in...

  5. Semen abnormalities with SSRI antidepressants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Despite decades of widespread use, the adverse effect profile of "selective" serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants has still not been fully elucidated. Studies in male animals have shown delayed sexual development and reduced fertility. Three prospective cohort studies conducted in over one hundred patients exposed to an SSRI for periods ranging from 5 weeks to 24 months found altered semen param-eters after as little as 3 months of exposure: reduced sperm concentration, reduced sperm motility, a higher percentage of abnormal spermatozoa, and increased levels of sperm DNA fragmentation. One clinical trial showed growth retardation in children considered depressed who were exposed to SSRls. SSRls may have endocrine disrupting properties. Dapoxetine is a short-acting serotonin reuptake inhibitor that is chemically related to fluoxetine and marketed in the European Union for men complaining of premature ejaculation. But the corresponding European summary of product characteristics does not mention any effects on fertility. In practice, based on the data available as of mid-2014, the effects of SSRI exposure on male fertility are unclear. However, it is a risk that should be taken into account and pointed out to male patients who would like to father a child or who are experiencing fertility problems.

  6. [Cognitive abnormalities and cannabis use].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solowij, Nadia; Pesa, Nicole

    2010-05-01

    Evidence that cannabis use impairs cognitive function in humans has been accumulating in recent decades. The purpose of this overview is to update knowledge in this area with new findings from the most recent literature. Literature searches were conducted using the Web of Science database up to February 2010. The terms searched were: "cannabi*" or "marijuana", and "cogniti*" or "memory" or "attention" or "executive function", and human studies were reviewed preferentially over the animal literature. Cannabis use impairs memory, attention, inhibitory control, executive functions and decision making, both during the period of acute intoxication and beyond, persisting for hours, days, weeks or more after the last use of cannabis. Pharmacological challenge studies in humans are elucidating the nature and neural substrates of cognitive changes associated with various cannabinoids. Long-term or heavy cannabis use appears to result in longer-lasting cognitive abnormalities and possibly structural brain alterations. Greater adverse cognitive effects are associated with cannabis use commencing in early adolescence. The endogenous cannabinoid system is involved in regulatory neural mechanisms that modulate processes underlying a range of cognitive functions that are impaired by cannabis. Deficits in human users most likely therefore reflect neuroadaptations and altered functioning of the endogenous cannabinoid system.

  7. Red cell membrane transport abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Lesley J

    2008-05-01

    The present review describes the red cell transport abnormalities of proteins of the band 3 macrocomplex. The macrocomplex is involved in red cell gas exchange and recent findings have furthered our understanding of this process. Study of a novel band 3 hereditary spherocytosis variant suggests that expression of mutant band 3 protein can be rescued by wild-type band 3. Other studies show that some mutant band 3 protein can mediate a cation conductance. Recent work suggests both Rh-associated glycoprotein and aquaporin act as gas channels confirming the integrated function of the macrocomplex and the importance of its role in red cell gas transport. The most recent studies on band 3-induced hereditary spherocytosis are reviewed and an explanation for the mild phenotype of heterozygous hereditary spherocytosis is discussed. A number of red cell conditions (hereditary stomatocytosis, south-east Asian ovalocytosis, distal renal tubular acidosis, Rhnull), associated with both stomatocytosis and a cation leak, are described. The evidence that Rh-associated glycoprotein forms a gas channel that transports CO2 and/or NH3 is reviewed and discussed, together with recent studies that show that aquaporin 1 transports both CO2 and O2.

  8. Abnormalities of the single-rooted anterior teeth: an index for early ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-07-31

    Jul 31, 2013 ... gumboil, cariers of the teeth, discoloration, gingivitis, periodontal disease, cavities, tooth mobility, decay, and tooth loss (Dorland, 1998; Tsai et al., 2002). However, dental abnormalities can be detected as early as six (6) years of age long before any sign and symptom of diabetes mellitus are observable ...

  9. MRI reveals brain abnormalities in drug-naïve Parkinson’s disease

    OpenAIRE

    Planetta, Peggy J.; McFarland, Nikolaus R.; Okun, Michael S.; Vaillancourt, David E.

    2014-01-01

    Most brain studies of Parkinson’s disease (PD) focus on patients who are already taking anti-parkinsonian medication. This makes it difficult to isolate the effects of disease from those of treatment. We review MRI evidence supporting the hypothesis that early-stage, untreated PD patients have structural and functional abnormalities in the brain, some of which are related to motor symptoms.

  10. Anorectal functional abnormalities in Egyptian children with chronic functional constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathy, Abeer; Megahed, Ahmed; Barakat, Tarik; Abdalla, Ahmed F

    2013-03-01

    Chronic functional constipation represents 95% of the cases of paediatric constipation. Epidemiologic data, pathophysiology and anorectal functional abnormalities vary greatly among different reports across different populations. The aim of this study was to evaluate these data in Egyptian children with chronic functional constipation. This study included 150 children with chronic functional constipation (101 males, 49 females; mean age 6 ± 3.1 years); a control group of 50 age- and sex-matched healthy children were enrolled for standardisation of the manometry technique. A structured symptom questionnaire and clinical examination including digital rectal examination in addition to anorectal manometry were done for all included children. Defaecation dynamics were assessed in all children 5 years or older using anorectal manometry with integrated electromyogram of the external anal sphincter and the puborectalis muscle. The maximal tolerable volume was significantly higher in the constipated children than in the control group (p=0.03). No significant differences existed between constipated and control children regarding other anorectal manometric parameters. Abnormal defaecation dynamics were detected in 35 out of 95 tested patients (36.8%). Increased maximal tolerable volume is the most striking manometric feature in Egyptian children with chronic functional constipation. Abnormal defaecation dynamics were detected in about one-third of the tested patients. Standardisation of the measurement techniques and obtaining normal ranges for anorectal manometric parameters for each laboratory are recommended. Copyright © 2013 Arab Journal of Gastroenterology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Eye Movement Abnormalities in Multiple Sclerosis: Pathogenesis, Modeling, and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Serra

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS commonly causes eye movement abnormalities that may have a significant impact on patients’ disability. Inflammatory demyelinating lesions, especially occurring in the posterior fossa, result in a wide range of disorders, spanning from acquired pendular nystagmus (APN to internuclear ophthalmoplegia (INO, among the most common. As the control of eye movements is well understood in terms of anatomical substrate and underlying physiological network, studying ocular motor abnormalities in MS provides a unique opportunity to gain insights into mechanisms of disease. Quantitative measurement and modeling of eye movement disorders, such as INO, may lead to a better understanding of common symptoms encountered in MS, such as Uhthoff’s phenomenon and fatigue. In turn, the pathophysiology of a range of eye movement abnormalities, such as APN, has been clarified based on correlation of experimental model with lesion localization by neuroimaging in MS. Eye movement disorders have the potential of being utilized as structural and functional biomarkers of early cognitive deficit, and possibly help in assessing disease status and progression, and to serve as platform and functional outcome to test novel therapeutic agents for MS. Knowledge of neuropharmacology applied to eye movement dysfunction has guided testing and use of a number of pharmacological agents to treat some eye movement disorders found in MS, such as APN and other forms of central nystagmus.

  12. Does abnormal sleep impair memory consolidation in schizophrenia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dara S Manoach

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Although disturbed sleep is a prominent feature of schizophrenia, its relation to the pathophysiology, signs, and symptoms of schizophrenia remains poorly understood. Sleep disturbances are well known to impair cognition in healthy individuals. Yet, in spite of its ubiquity in schizophrenia, abnormal sleep has generally been overlooked as a potential contributor to cognitive deficits. Amelioration of cognitive deficits is a current priority of the schizophrenia research community, but most efforts to define, characterize, and quantify cognitive deficits focus on cross-sectional measures. While this approach provides a valid snapshot of function, there is now overwhelming evidence that critical aspects of learning and memory consolidation happen offline, both over time and with sleep. Initial memory encoding is followed by a prolonged period of consolidation, integration, and reorganization, that continues over days or even years. Much of this evolution of memories is mediated by sleep. This article briefly reviews (i abnormal sleep in schizophrenia, (ii sleep-dependent memory consolidation in healthy individuals, (iii recent findings of impaired sleep-dependent memory consolidation in schizophrenia, and (iv implications of impaired sleep-dependent memory consolidation in schizophrenia. This literature suggests that abnormal sleep in schizophrenia disrupts attention and impairs sleep-dependent memory consolidation and task automation. We conclude that these sleep-dependent impairments may contribute substantially to generalized cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Understanding this contribution may open new avenues to ameliorating cognitive dysfunction and thereby improve outcome in schizophrenia.

  13. The association of CLOCK gene T3111C polymorphism and hPER3 gene 54-nucleotide repeat polymorphism with Chinese Han people schizophrenics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Liao, Ga; Liu, Chang; Sun, Lei; Liu, Yanyou; Wang, Yuhui; Jiang, Zhou; Wang, Zhengrong

    2011-01-01

    Many reports have shown that the biologic rhythm could be altered due to mutations of circadian gene hClock or hPeriod, and the mutations of circadian genes have some relationship with psychosis according to recent studies. A preliminary study has been conducted to examine wether the T3111C single nucleotide polymorphism of the hClock gene or the length polymorphism of the hPer3 gene is associated with the development of schizophrenia. The samples from schizophrenics (n=148, male: 57.4%, female: 42.6%) and normal controls (n=199, male: 59.3%, female: 40.7%) were examined. Allele frequencies of T3111C SNP of hClock were significantly different between schizophrenics and controls (χ2=19.738, P0.05). Our results suggest that the T3111C (RS1801260) polymorphism of hClock gene is associated with schizophrenia, but it seems that the length polymorphism of 18 exon of hPer3 may not be associated with schizophrenia. It is important to address of the relationship between circadian gene polymorphisms and dopamine functions in further study.

  14. Traditional Chinese version of the Mayer Salovey Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT-TC): Its validation and application to schizophrenic individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Wei-Chung; Chen, Li-Fen; Chi, Chia-Hsing; Lin, Ching-Hung; Kao, Yu-Chen; Hsu, Wen-Yau; Lane, Hsien-Yuan; Hsieh, Jen-Chuen

    2016-09-30

    Schizophrenia is an illness that impairs a person's social cognition. The Mayer Salovey Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) is the most well-known test used to measure emotional intelligence (EI), which is a major component of social cognition. Given the absence of EI ability-based scales adapted to Chinese speakers, we translated the MSCEIT into a Traditional Chinese version (MSCEIT-TC) and validated this scale for use in schizophrenia studies. The specific aims were to validate the MSCEIT-TC, to develop a norm for the MSCEIT-TC, and use this norm to explore the EI performance of schizophrenic individuals. We included in our study seven hundred twenty-eight healthy controls and seventy-six individuals with schizophrenia. The results suggest that the MSCEIT-TC is reliable and valid when assessing EI. The results showed good discrimination and validity when comparing the two study groups. Impairment was the greatest for two branches Understanding and Managing Emotions, which implies that the deficits of schizophrenia individuals involve ToM (theory of mind) tasks. Deficits involving the negative scale of schizophrenia was related to impaired performance when the MSCEIT-TC was used (in branch 2, 3, 4, and the area Strategic). Our findings suggest that the MSCEIT-TC can be used for emotional studies in healthy Chinese and in clinical setting for investigating schizophrenic individuals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The SSQ model of schizophrenic prodromal unfolding revised: an analysis of its causal chains based on the language of directed graphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kampen, D

    2014-09-01

    Except in broad outline, little is known about the most likely symptomatic trajectories in prodromal schizophrenia. The aim of this study is to delineate these pathways. Taking into account existing clinical knowledge, the causal relationships between the 12 prodrome scales of the Schizotypic Syndrome Questionnaire (SSQ) were examined in a general-population sample by applying the mathematical theory of directed graphs. Use was made of two discovery algorithms implemented in the Tetrad-4 program, as well as of the graphical DAGitty program to test whether a particular model holds. A promising model was selected that may describe the causal pathways in schizophrenic prodromal unfolding. Testing this model by means of DAGitty, it was shown that the minimal testable implications, listed as conditional independences, and the direct and total effects in the model, identified after correction for bias, were as hypothesized. For practical reasons, a simpler version of the resulting SSQ model, containing only its principal pathways, was provided. Although resembling an earlier model that was based on a series of LISREL analyses, the present model was believed to provide a more dependable description of schizophrenic prodromal unfolding, as it relies on methods that are less subject to the limitations involved in SEM. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Altered fetal growth, placental abnormalities, and stillbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowski, Radek; Hansen, Nellie I; Pinar, Halit; Willinger, Marian; Reddy, Uma M; Parker, Corette B; Silver, Robert M; Dudley, Donald J; Stoll, Barbara J; Saade, George R; Koch, Matthew A; Hogue, Carol; Varner, Michael W; Conway, Deborah L; Coustan, Donald; Goldenberg, Robert L

    2017-01-01

    Worldwide, stillbirth is one of the leading causes of death. Altered fetal growth and placental abnormalities are the strongest and most prevalent known risk factors for stillbirth. The aim of this study was to identify patterns of association between placental abnormalities, fetal growth, and stillbirth. Population-based case-control study of all stillbirths and a representative sample of live births in 59 hospitals in 5 geographic areas in the U.S. Fetal growth abnormalities were categorized as small (90th percentile) for gestational age at death (stillbirth) or delivery (live birth) using a published algorithm. Placental examination by perinatal pathologists was performed using a standardized protocol. Data were weighted to account for the sampling design. Among 319 singleton stillbirths and 1119 singleton live births at ≥24 weeks at death or delivery respectively, 25 placental findings were investigated. Fifteen findings were significantly associated with stillbirth. Ten of the 15 were also associated with fetal growth abnormalities (single umbilical artery; velamentous insertion; terminal villous immaturity; retroplacental hematoma; parenchymal infarction; intraparenchymal thrombus; avascular villi; placental edema; placental weight; ratio birth weight/placental weight) while 5 of the 15 associated with stillbirth were not associated with fetal growth abnormalities (acute chorioamnionitis of placental membranes; acute chorioamionitis of chorionic plate; chorionic plate vascular degenerative changes; perivillous, intervillous fibrin, fibrinoid deposition; fetal vascular thrombi in the chorionic plate). Five patterns were observed: placental findings associated with (1) stillbirth but not fetal growth abnormalities; (2) fetal growth abnormalities in stillbirths only; (3) fetal growth abnormalities in live births only; (4) fetal growth abnormalities in stillbirths and live births in a similar manner; (5) a different pattern of fetal growth abnormalities in

  17. Altered fetal growth, placental abnormalities, and stillbirth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radek Bukowski

    Full Text Available Worldwide, stillbirth is one of the leading causes of death. Altered fetal growth and placental abnormalities are the strongest and most prevalent known risk factors for stillbirth. The aim of this study was to identify patterns of association between placental abnormalities, fetal growth, and stillbirth.Population-based case-control study of all stillbirths and a representative sample of live births in 59 hospitals in 5 geographic areas in the U.S. Fetal growth abnormalities were categorized as small (90th percentile for gestational age at death (stillbirth or delivery (live birth using a published algorithm. Placental examination by perinatal pathologists was performed using a standardized protocol. Data were weighted to account for the sampling design. Among 319 singleton stillbirths and 1119 singleton live births at ≥24 weeks at death or delivery respectively, 25 placental findings were investigated. Fifteen findings were significantly associated with stillbirth. Ten of the 15 were also associated with fetal growth abnormalities (single umbilical artery; velamentous insertion; terminal villous immaturity; retroplacental hematoma; parenchymal infarction; intraparenchymal thrombus; avascular villi; placental edema; placental weight; ratio birth weight/placental weight while 5 of the 15 associated with stillbirth were not associated with fetal growth abnormalities (acute chorioamnionitis of placental membranes; acute chorioamionitis of chorionic plate; chorionic plate vascular degenerative changes; perivillous, intervillous fibrin, fibrinoid deposition; fetal vascular thrombi in the chorionic plate. Five patterns were observed: placental findings associated with (1 stillbirth but not fetal growth abnormalities; (2 fetal growth abnormalities in stillbirths only; (3 fetal growth abnormalities in live births only; (4 fetal growth abnormalities in stillbirths and live births in a similar manner; (5 a different pattern of fetal growth

  18. [Renal abnormalities in ankylosing spondylitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samia, Barbouch; Hazgui, Faiçal; Abdelghani, Khaoula Ben; Hamida, Fethi Ben; Goucha, Rym; Hedri, Hafedh; Taarit, Chokri Ben; Maiz, Hedi Ben; Kheder, Adel

    2012-07-01

    We will study the epidemiologic, clinical, biological, therapeutic, prognostic characteristics and predictive factors of development of nephropathy in ankylosing spondylitis patients. We retrospectively reviewed the medical record of 32 cases with renal involvement among 212 cases of ankylosing spondylitis followed in our service during the period spread out between 1978 and 2006. The renal involvement occurred in all patients a mean of 12 years after the clinical onset of the rheumatic disease. Thirty-two patients presented one or more signs of renal involvement: microscopic hematuria in 22 patients, proteinuria in 23 patients, nephrotic syndrome in 11 patients and decreased renal function in 24 patients (75%). Secondary renal amyloidosis (13 patients), which corresponds to a prevalence of 6,1% and tubulointerstitial nephropathy (7 patients) were the most common cause of renal involvement in ankylosing spondylitis followed by IgA nephropathy (4 patients). Seventeen patients evolved to the end stage renal disease after an average time of 29.8 ± 46 months. The average follow-up of the patients was 4,4 years. By comparing the 32 patients presenting a SPA and renal disease to 88 with SPA and without nephropathy, we detected the predictive factors of occurred of nephropathy: tobacco, intense inflammatory syndrome, sacroileite stage 3 or 4 and presence of column bamboo. The finding of 75% of the patients presented a renal failure at the time of the diagnosis of renal involvement suggests that evidence of renal abnormality involvement should be actively sought in this disease. Copyright © 2011 Association Société de néphrologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Suicidality in clozapine-treated patients with schizophrenia: role of obsessive-compulsive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szmulewicz, Alejandro G; Smith, José M; Valerio, Marina P

    2015-11-30

    Patients with schizophrenia have an increased lifetime risk of comorbid obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Up to 30% of these patients experience such symptoms and 12% may be diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder. The presence of these symptoms in schizophrenia seems to be associated with poor outcomes including a greater suicidal risk. A subgroup of patients develops this symptomatology after the initiation with Second Generation Antipsychotics (SGA). Also, there is evidence of a causal relationship for this association, particularly for clozapine. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the association of this comorbidity with suicidality in a population of clozapine-medicated schizophrenic and schizoaffective patients (N=65). The prevalence of obsessive-compulsive symptoms in our sample was 29.2% (N=19) and the prevalence of obsessive-compulsive disorder was 13.8% (N=9). Significant positive correlations between suicidality and total Y-BOCS score and between Y- BOCS score and depressive symptoms were found. Further analysis indicated that a Y-BOCS score greater or equal than 8 was an independent predictor of suicide attempt during clozapine treatment. Routine screening for this adverse event should be warranted for this population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Prevalence of biochemical and immunological abnormalities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tile prevalence of biochemical and immunological abnormalities was studied in a group of 256 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (104 coloureds, 100 whites and 52 blacks). The most common biochemical abnormalities detected were a reduction in the serum creatinine value (43,4%), raised globulins (39,7%), raised serum ...

  1. The prevalence of electroencephalographic abnormalities and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    2004-05-20

    May 20, 2004 ... premorbid organic insult. Both would likely have increased the probability of an abnormal EEG. The high prevalence of abnormal EEGs, particularly of EEGs supporting a diagnosis of epilepsy may reflect a high prevalence in the study popula- tion, but more likely reflects the careful selection of patients.

  2. Relationship among sera lipoprotein abnormalities in healthy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As the prevalence of lipoprotein abnormalities in adolescents is increasing dramatically, the identification of relevant risk factors is a major public health challenge. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a family history of diabetes could be a risk factor for lipid abnormalities in healthy individuals. This study is a ...

  3. Sex chromosomes and sex chromosome abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xu

    2011-12-01

    This article focuses on constitutional sex chromosome abnormalities detected by conventional cytogenetics and fluorescence in situ hybridization. The author discusses the two general classifications of abnormalities: numerical and structural. Also included are descriptions of unique aspects of X and Y chromosomes, technological advances in detection, and future perspectives.

  4. [CHROMOSOMAL ABNORMALITIES IN PATIENTS WITH INFERTILITY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pylyp, L Y; Spinenko, L O; Verhoglyad, N V; Kashevarova, O O; Zukin, V D

    2015-01-01

    To assess the frequency and structure of chromosomal abnormalities in patients with infertility, a retrospective analysis of cytogenetic studies of 3414 patients (1741 females and 1673 males), referred to the Clinic of reproductive medicine "Nadiya" from 2007 to 2012, was performed. Chromosomal abnormalities were detected in 2.37% patients: 2.79% in males and 1.95% in females. Balanced structural chromosomal abnormalities prevailed over numerical abnormalities and corresponded to 80.2% of all chromosomal abnormalities detected in the studied group. Sex chromosome abnormalities made up 23.5% of chromosomal pathology (19/81) and included gonosomal aneuploidies in 84% of cases (16/19) and structural abnormalities of chromosome Y in 16% of cases (3/19). The low level sex chromosome mosaicism was detected with the frequency of 0.55%. Our results highlight the importance of cytogenetic studies in patients seeking infertility treatment by assisted reproductive technologies, since an abnormal finding not only provide a firm diagnosis to couples with infertility, but also influences significantly the approach to infertility treatment in such patients.

  5. Multiparametric tissue abnormality characterization using manifold regularization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batmanghelich, Kayhan; Wu, Xiaoying; Zacharaki, Evangelia; Markowitz, Clyde E.; Davatzikos, Christos; Verma, Ragini

    2008-03-01

    Tissue abnormality characterization is a generalized segmentation problem which aims at determining a continuous score that can be assigned to the tissue which characterizes the extent of tissue deterioration, with completely healthy tissue being one end of the spectrum and fully abnormal tissue such as lesions, being on the other end. Our method is based on the assumptions that there is some tissue that is neither fully healthy or nor completely abnormal but lies in between the two in terms of abnormality; and that the voxel-wise score of tissue abnormality lies on a spatially and temporally smooth manifold of abnormality. Unlike in a pure classification problem which associates an independent label with each voxel without considering correlation with neighbors, or an absolute clustering problem which does not consider a priori knowledge of tissue type, we assume that diseased and healthy tissue lie on a manifold that encompasses the healthy tissue and diseased tissue, stretching from one to the other. We propose a semi-supervised method for determining such as abnormality manifold, using multi-parametric features incorporated into a support vector machine framework in combination with manifold regularization. We apply the framework towards the characterization of tissue abnormality to brains of multiple sclerosis patients.

  6. Effects of theophylline administration and intracranial abnormalities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine effects of theophylline therapy for recurrent apnoea of prematurity and abnormal early (within the first 24 hours) cranial ultrasound abnormalities on protective neck turning response in preterm infants. Design: A cross sectional descriptive study. Setting: The Neonatal Unit of Hammersmith Hospital, ...

  7. Relationship among sera lipoprotein abnormalities in healthy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-29

    Aug 29, 2011 ... As the prevalence of lipoprotein abnormalities in adolescents is increasing dramatically, the identification of relevant ... investigate whether a family history of diabetes could be a risk factor for lipid abnormalities in healthy individuals. This study is a ..... thickness in children with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes, 51: ...

  8. Common echocardiographic abnormalities in Nigerians of different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: This study has reaffirmed rheumatic heart disease (predominantly mitral valve regurgitation) as the commonest cardiac abnormality in adolescents and young adults. Degenerative valvular diseases, left ventricular diastolic dysfunction, and atrial septal defects were the commonest abnormalities in the elderly, ...

  9. Common echocardiographic abnormalities in Nigerians of different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-09-17

    Sep 17, 2012 ... Degenerative valvular diseases, left ventricular diastolic dysfunction, and atrial septal defects were the commonest abnormalities in the elderly, middle-aged population and children, respectively. Key words: Different age groups, echocardiographic abnormalities, Nigerians. Date of Acceptance: 17-Sep- ...

  10. First Trimester Ultrasound Screening for Congenital Abnormalities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    approach used, especially with the introduction of first trimester ultrasound as a reliable screening method. Objective: To give a comprehensive review of the basis for first trimester ultrasound screening for congenital abnormalities, it's utilization in the prenatal screening for chromosomal, structural and genetic abnormalities ...

  11. Abnormal fat distribution in PMM2-CDG

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolthuis, D.F.; Asbeck, E.V. van; Kozicz, T.L.; Morava, E.

    2013-01-01

    We hypothesize that abnormal fat distribution, a common feature of PMM2-CDG, is associated with abnormal perinatal hormone regulation. We assessed 32 cases with PMM2-CDG, for the comorbidity of hypoglycemia/hyperinsulinism and fat pads. Ninety percent of patients with hypoketotic hypoglycemia and/or

  12. Abnormal Brain Network Organization in Body Dysmorphic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arienzo, Donatello; Leow, Alex; Brown, Jesse A; Zhan, Liang; GadElkarim, Johnson; Hovav, Sarit; Feusner, Jamie D

    2013-01-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is characterized by preoccupation with misperceived defects of appearance, causing significant distress and disability. Previous studies suggest abnormalities in information processing characterized by greater local relative to global processing. The purpose of this study was to probe whole-brain and regional white matter network organization in BDD, and to relate this to specific metrics of symptomatology. We acquired diffusion-weighted 34-direction MR images from 14 unmedicated participants with DSM-IV BDD and 16 healthy controls, from which we conducted whole-brain deterministic diffusion tensor imaging tractography. We then constructed white matter structural connectivity matrices to derive whole-brain and regional graph theory metrics, which we compared between groups. Within the BDD group, we additionally correlated these metrics with scores on psychometric measures of BDD symptom severity as well as poor insight/delusionality. The BDD group showed higher whole-brain mean clustering coefficient than controls. Global efficiency negatively correlated with BDD symptom severity. The BDD group demonstrated greater edge betweenness centrality for connections between the anterior temporal lobe and the occipital cortex, and between bilateral occipital poles. This represents the first brain network analysis in BDD. Results suggest disturbances in whole brain structural topological organization in BDD, in addition to correlations between clinical symptoms and network organization. There is also evidence of abnormal connectivity between regions involved in lower-order visual processing and higher-order visual and emotional processing, as well as interhemispheric visual information transfer. These findings may relate to disturbances in information processing found in previous studies. PMID:23322186

  13. Chromosomal abnormalities in patients with sperm disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Y. Pylyp

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Chromosomal abnormalities are among the most common genetic causes of spermatogenic disruptions. Carriers of chromosomal abnormalities are at increased risk of infertility, miscarriage or birth of a child with unbalanced karyotype due to the production of unbalanced gametes. The natural selection against chromosomally abnormal sperm usually prevents fertilization with sperm barring in cases of serious chromosomal abnormalities. However, assisted reproductive technologies in general and intracytoplasmic sperm injection in particular, enable the transmission of chromosomal abnormalities to the progeny. Therefore, cytogenetic studies are important in patients with male factor infertility before assisted reproduction treatment. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the types and frequencies of chromosomal abnormalities in 724 patients with infertility and to estimate the risk of chromosomal abnormalities detection in subgroups of patients depending on the severity of spermatogenic disruption, aiming at identifying groups of patients in need of cytogenetic studies. Karyotype analysis was performed in 724 blood samples of men attending infertility clinic. Chromosomal preparation was performed by standard techniques. At least 20 GTG-banded metaphase plates with the resolution from 450 to 750 bands per haploid set were analysed in each case. When chromosomal mosaicism was suspected, this number was increased to 50. Abnormal karyotypes were observed in 48 (6.6% patients, including 67% of autosomal abnormalities and 33% of gonosomal abnormalities. Autosomal abnormalities were represented by structural rearrangements. Reciprocal translocations were the most common type of structural chromosomal abnormalities in the studied group, detected with the frequency of 2.6% (n = 19, followed by Robertsonian translocation, observed with the frequency of 1.2% (n = 9. The frequency of inversions was 0.6% (n = 4. Gonosomal abnormalities included 14 cases

  14. Schizophrenic Energy Users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Maria Wael; Halgaard, Anne-Marie Rud; Rasmussen, Tove Arendt

    2009-01-01

      On the basis of qualitative interviews on 'Energibyen Frederikshavn' (Energy City Frederikshavn), the article reveals various rationales underlying modern consumers' often contradictory opinions and attitudes to climate change and energy consumption. It may seem hard to decide whether...... the interest in sustainable, alternative sources of energy is conditioned by the soaring price of oil or present threats of climate change. And does it really matter what the motivations are as long as behaviour is changed? The article will discuss the energy discourses produced by the people...

  15. The Schizophrenic Teacher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medgyes, Peter

    1983-01-01

    To offset uncertainty about using the language they have to teach, nonnative teachers of English adopt either a deeply pessimistic or an aggressive attitude toward their work. The latter type is more common. These teachers would gain confidence by admitting that they are also students of the language. (Author/MSE)

  16. White matter integrity and its association with affective and interpersonal symptoms in borderline personality disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather C. Whalley, PhD

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: We report deficits within fronto-limbic connections in individuals with BPD. Abnormalities within the fornix and cingulum were related to severity of symptoms and highlight the importance of these tracts in the pathogenesis of the disorder.

  17. Treatment of benzodiazepine withdrawal symptoms with carbamazepine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Borreguero, D; Bronisch, T; Apelt, S; Yassouridis, A; Emrich, H M

    1991-01-01

    In 18 patients with a benzodiazepine (BZD) dependency the drug was withdrawn. The dose of BZD was gradually reduced in nine of the patients, while the others were additionally treated with carbamazepine (CBZ) for a further 15 days after BZD discontinuation. Withdrawal symptoms were assessed every third day during the study period. When comparing results in both groups, a clear trend towards less severe withdrawal symptoms could be observed in the group treated with CBZ. Some of the differences were statistically significant on days 9-12 after BZD withdrawal. Fundamental withdrawal symptoms (like hypersensitivity to sensory stimuli, abnormal perception of movement, depersonalisation or derealisation) were also less severe in the group treated with CBZ compared with the group not receiving that treatment. These findings support the results of previous reports indicating a therapeutical effect of CBZ in BZD withdrawal.

  18. Rare cytogenetic abnormalities in myelodysplastic syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacher, Ulrike; Schanz, Julie; Braulke, Friederike; Haase, Detlef

    2015-01-01

    The karyotype represents one of the main cornerstones for the International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) and the revised IPSS-R (IPSS-R) that are most widely used for prognostication in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). The most frequent cytogenetic abnormalities in MDS, i.e. del(5q), -7/del(7q), +8, complex karyotypes, or -Y have been extensively explored for their prognostic impact. The IPSS-R also considers some less frequent abnormalities such as del(11q), isochromosome 17, +19, or 3q abnormalities. However, more than 600 different cytogenetic categories had been identified in a previous MDS study. This review aims to focus interest on selected rare cytogenetic abnormalities in patients with MDS. Examples are numerical gains of the chromosomes 11 (indicating rapid progression), of chromosome 14 or 14q (prognostically intermediate to favorable), -X (in females, with an intermediate prognosis), or numerical abnormalities of chromosome 21. Structural abnormalities are also considered, e.g. del(13q) that is associated with bone marrow failure syndromes and favorable response to immunosuppressive therapy. These and other rare cytogenetic abnormalities should be integrated into existing prognostication systems such as the IPSS-R. However, due to the very low number of cases, this is clearly dependent on international collaboration. Hopefully, this article will help to inaugurate this process.

  19. RARE CYTOGENETIC ABNORMALITIES IN MYELODYSPLASTIC SYNDROMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Schanz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The karyotype represents one of the main cornerstones for the International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS and the revised IPSS-R (IPSS-R that are most widely used for prognostication in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS. The most frequent cytogenetic abnormalities in MDS, i.e. del(5q, -7/del(7q, +8, complex karyotypes, or –Y have been extensively explored for their prognostic impact. The IPSS-R considers also some less frequent abnormalities such as del(11q, isochromosome 17, +19, or 3q abnormalities. However, more than 600 different cytogenetic categories had been identified in a previous MDS study. This review aims to focus interest on selected rare cytogenetic abnormalities in patients with MDS. Examples are numerical gains of the chromosomes 11 (indicating rapid progression, of chromosome 14 or 14q (prognostically intermediate to favorable, -X (in females, with an intermediate prognosis, or numerical abnormalities of chromosome 21. Structural abnormalities are also considered, e.g. del(13q that is associated with bone marrow failure syndromes and favorable response to immunosuppressive therapy. These and other rare cytogenetic abnormalities should be integrated into existing prognostication systems such as the IPSS-R. However, due to the very low number of cases, this is clearly dependent on international collaboration. Hopefully, this article will help to inaugurate this process.

  20. Nail abnormalities in patients with vitiligo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topal, Ilteris Oguz; Gungor, Sule; Kocaturk, Ozgur Emek; Duman, Hatice; Durmuscan, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Vitiligo is an acquired pigmentary skin disorder affecting 0.1-4% of the general population. The nails may be affected in patients with an autoimmune disease such as psoriasis, and in those with alopecia areata. It has been suggested that nail abnormalities should be apparent in vitiligo patients. We sought to document the frequency and clinical presentation of nail abnormalities in vitiligo patients compared to healthy volunteers. We also examined the correlations between nail abnormalities and various clinical parameters. This study included 100 vitiligo patients and 100 healthy subjects. Full medical histories were collected from the subjects, who underwent thorough general and nail examinations. All nail changes were noted. In the event of clinical suspicion of a fungal infection, additional mycological investigations were performed. Nail abnormalities were more prevalent in the patients (78%) than in the controls (55%) (p=0.001). Longitudinal ridging was the most common finding (42%), followed by (in descending order): leukonychia, an absent lunula, onycholysis, nail bed pallor, onychomycosis, splinter hemorrhage and nail plate thinning. The frequency of longitudinal ridging was significantly higher in patients than in controls (pvitiligo patients than in controls. Systematic examination of the nails in such patients is useful because nail abnormalities are frequent. However, the causes of such abnormalities require further study. Longitudinal ridging and leukonychia were the most common abnormalities observed in this study.

  1. Altered Expression Profile of IgLON Family of Neural Cell Adhesion Molecules in the Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex of Schizophrenic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Karis

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Neural adhesion proteins are crucial in the development and maintenance of functional neural connectivity. Growing evidence suggests that the IgLON family of neural adhesion molecules LSAMP, NTM, NEGR1, and OPCML are important candidates in forming the susceptibility to schizophrenia (SCZ. IgLON proteins have been shown to be involved in neurite outgrowth, synaptic plasticity and neuronal connectivity, all of which have been shown to be altered in the brains of patients with the diagnosis of schizophrenia. Here we optimized custom 5′-isoform-specific TaqMan gene-expression analysis for the transcripts of human IgLON genes to study the expression of IgLONs in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC of schizophrenic patients (n = 36 and control subjects (n = 36. Uniform 5′-region and a single promoter was confirmed for the human NEGR1 gene by in silico analysis. IgLON5, a recently described family member, was also included in the study. We detected significantly elevated levels of the NEGR1 transcript (1.33-fold increase and the NTM 1b isoform transcript (1.47-fold increase in the DLPFC of schizophrenia patients compared to healthy controls. Consequent protein analysis performed in male subjects confirmed the increase in NEGR1 protein content both in patients with the paranoid subtype and in patients with other subtypes. In-group analysis of patients revealed that lower expression of certain IgLON transcripts, mostly LSAMP 1a and 1b, could be related with concurrent depressive endophenotype in schizophrenic patients. Additionally, our study cohort provides further evidence that cannabis use may be a relevant risk factor associated with suicidal behaviors in psychotic patients. In conclusion, we provide clinical evidence of increased expression levels of particular IgLON family members in the DLPFC of schizophrenic patients. We propose that alterations in the expression profile of IgLON neural adhesion molecules are associated with brain

  2. [Fetal abnormalities and prognosis associated with increased nuchal translucency and abnormal karyotype].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldanha, Fátima Aparecida Targino; Brizot, Maria de Lourdes; Lopes, Lilian M; Liao, Adolfo Wenjaw; Zugaib, Marcelo

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the incidence of chromosomal abnormalities in fetuses with increased nuchal translucency (NT) measurement. Incidence of structural abnormalities and pregnancy outcome was also described in fetuses with increased NT and abnormal karyotype. This was a retrospective study involving 246 fetuses with increased NT and known karyotype followed at the Fetal Medicine Unit, Hospital das Clínicas, São Paulo University Medical School. Fetal karyotype was abnormal in 14.2% of the cases. Ultrasound anomaly scan and specialized echocardiographic studies in these cases showed fetal structural abnormalities in 80.8% and cardiac defects were found in 61.5% of the fetuses. Pregnancy outcome was abnormal in 76.5% of these women. Increased NT measurement at 11 to 13 weeks and 6 days is an important marker for fetal chromosomal and structural abnormalities, mainly fetal cardiac defects. This finding also indicates increased risk of spontaneous fetal and neonatal death.

  3. Hematologic Abnormalities in Cyanotic Congenital Heart Disease Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheila Chamanian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Patients with cyanotic heart disease may have an acceptable quality of life. However, they are invariably prone to several complications. The aim of this study is search about hematologic abnormalities in cyanotic congenital heart disease patients. Materials and Methods:  In this cross sectional study every cyanotic congenital heart disease patients who was referred to the adult congenital heart disease clinic was selected and asked of any possible hyperviscosity symptoms, gingival bleeding, Epistaxis, hemoptysis, hypermenorrhagia and gouty arthritis irrespective of their age, gender and primary diagnosis in a six-month period. In this regard, 02 saturation was obtained via pulse oximetry, an abdominal ultrasound was done in order to discover any gallstones and lab tests including CBC, coagulation parameters (bleeding time(BT,clotting time(CT, prothrombin time(PT,international ratio( INR, Ferritin, blood urea nitrogen (BUN and creatinine (Cr were provided as well. Results:  A total of 69 patients were enrolled in the present study. The mean age of the patients was 22.44±5.72 with a minimum of 15 and the maximum of 46 years old. Twenty two (34.4% of them were female and 45(65.6% were male. Conclusion: Our patients had less hyperuricemia, there is no correlation between hyperviscosity symptoms and haematocrit level and an inverse correlation between the Ferritin level and hyperviscosity symptoms were seen.  

  4. Evolution of MRI abnormalities in paediatric acute disseminated encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yu Yi M; van Pelt, E Daniëlle; Ketelslegers, Immy A; Catsman-Berrevoets, Coriene E; Hintzen, Rogier Q; Neuteboom, Rinze F

    2017-03-01

    Acute disseminating encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease affecting the central nervous system and mainly occurs in young children. Children who initially presented with ADEM can be diagnosed with multiple sclerosis (MS) in case new non-encephalopathic clinical symptoms occur with new lesions on MRI at least three months after onset of ADEM. We aim to study the timing of MRI abnormalities related to the evolution of clinical symptoms in our Dutch paediatric ADEM cohort. The Dutch database for acquired demyelinating syndromes (ADS) was screened for children under age eighteen fulfilling the international consensus diagnostic criteria for ADEM. Children were eligible when the first MRI was performed within the first three months after onset of clinical symptoms and at least one brain follow-up MRI was available for evaluation. Forty-two children with ADEM were included (median age four years two months). All available MRIs and medical records were assessed and categorised as 'improved', 'deteriorated' and 'unchanged'. We found that during clinical recovery, new lesions and enlargement of existing MRI lesions occurred in the first three months in about 50% of the performed MRIs. In contrast, this was rarely seen more than three months after first onset of ADEM. We recommend to perform a brain MRI as a reference scan three months after onset. Follow-up imaging should be compared with this scan in order to prevent an incorrect diagnosis of MS after ADEM. Copyright © 2016 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 24, discusses numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans. This involves abnormalities of human chromosome number, including polyploidy (when the number of sets of chromosomes increases) and aneuploidy (when the number of individual normal chromosomes changes). Chapter sections discuss the following chromosomal abnormalities: human triploids, imprinting and uniparental disomy, human tetraploids, hydatidiform moles, anomalies caused by chromosomal imbalance, 13 trisomy (D{sub 1} trisomy, Patau syndrome), 21 trisomy (Down syndrome), 18 trisomy syndrome (Edwards syndrome), other autosomal aneuploidy syndromes, and spontaneous abortions. The chapter concludes with remarks on the nonrandom participation of chromosomes in trisomy. 69 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Fifty probands with extra structurally abnormal chromosomes characterized by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blennow, E.; Telenius, H.; Nordenskjoeld, M. [Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)] [and others

    1995-01-02

    Extra structurally abnormal chromosomes (ESACs) are small supernumerary chromosomes often associated with developmental abnormalities and malformations. We present 50 probands with ESACs characterized by fluorescence in situ hybridization using centromere-specific probes and chromosome-specific libraries. ESAC-specific libraries were constructed by flow sorting and subsequent amplification by DOP-PCR. Using such ESAC-specific libraries we were able to outline the chromosome regions involved. Twenty-three of the 50 ESACs were inverted duplications of chromosome 15 (inv dup(15)), including patients with normal phenotypes and others with similar clinical symptoms. These 2 groups differed in size and shape of the inv dup(15). Patients with a large inv dup(15), which included the Prader-Willi region, had a high risk of abnormality, whereas patients with a small inv dup(15), not including the Prader-Willi region, were normal. ESACs derived from chromosomes 13 or 21 appeared to have a low risk of abnormality, while one out of 3 patients with an ESAC derived from chromosome 14 had discrete symptoms. One out of 3 patients with an ESAC derived from chromosome 22 had severe anomalies, corresponding to some of the manifestations of the cat eye syndrome. Small extra ring chromosomes of autosomal origin and ESACs identified as i(12p) or i(18p) were all associated with a high risk of abnormality. 42 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Symptoms of Blood Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... In This Article Generic Name Select Brand Names aspirin No US brand name Symptoms and Diagnosis of Blood Disorders Overview of Blood Disorders Symptoms of Blood Disorders Medical History and Physical Examination for Blood Disorders Laboratory Tests ...

  8. Symptoms of Acoustic Neuroma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Values Leadership & Staff Annual Reports Shop ANA Home Learn Symptoms English English Arabic Catalan Chinese (Simplified) Chinese (Traditional) Danish French German Greek Haitian Creole Hebrew Hindi Italian Japanese Korean Portuguese Romanian Spanish Symptoms Each heading slides to reveal ...

  9. Symptoms of Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Informed Cancer Home What Are the Symptoms of Ovarian Cancer? Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Gynecologic cancer symptoms diaries Ovarian cancer may cause the following signs and symptoms— Vaginal ...

  10. Flu Symptoms & Complications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Virus Testing Clinical Signs & Symptoms of Influenza Symptoms & Laboratory Diagnosis Information for Clinicians on Rapid Diagnostic Testing for ... Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF ...

  11. Glaucoma: Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Glaucoma Symptoms, Treatment and Research Past Issues / Spring 2015 ... vision, without any pain. Photo courtesy of NEI Glaucoma Symptoms At first, open-angle glaucoma has no ...

  12. Abnormally Increased Secretion in Olfactory Neuronal Precursors from a Case of Schizophrenia Is Modulated by Melatonin: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cercós, Montserrat G; Galván-Arrieta, Tania; Valdés-Tovar, Marcela; Solís-Chagoyán, Héctor; Argueta, Jesús; Benítez-King, Gloria; Trueta, Citlali

    2017-07-13

    The alterations that underlie the pathophysiology of schizophrenia (SCZ) include the dysregulation of structural and functional properties of neurons. Among these, the secretion of neurotransmitters and hormones, which plays a key role for neuronal communication and development, is altered. Neuronal precursors from the human olfactory epithelium have been recently characterized as a reliable model for studying the etiopathogenesis of neuropsychiatric diseases. Our previous work has shown that melatonin enhances the development of morphological and functional features of cloned olfactory neuronal precursors (ONPs) from a healthy subject. In this work we found that primary cultures of ONPs obtained from a schizophrenic patient display an increased potassium-evoked secretion, when compared with ONPs from an age- and gender-matched healthy control subject (HCS). Secretion was evaluated by FM1-43 fluorescence cumulative changes in response to depolarization. Interestingly, a 12 h-melatonin treatment modulated the abnormally increased secretion in SCZ ONPs and brought it to levels similar to those found in the HCS ONPs. Our results suggest that the actin cytoskeleton might be a target for melatonin effects, since it induces the thickening of actin microfilament bundles. Further research will address the mechanisms by which melatonin modulates neurochemical secretion from ONPs.

  13. Understanding medical symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malterud, Kirsti; Guassora, Ann Dorrit Kristiane; Graungaard, Anette Hauskov

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to present a conceptual review and analysis of symptom understanding. Subjective bodily sensations occur abundantly in the normal population and dialogues about symptoms take place in a broad range of contexts, not only in the doctor’s office. Our review of symptom...

  14. Increased Intrinsic Brain Activity in the Striatum Reflects Symptom Dimensions in Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorg, Christian; Manoliu, Andrei; Neufang, Susanne; Myers, Nicholas; Peters, Henning; Schwerthöffer, Dirk; Scherr, Martin; Mühlau, Mark; Zimmer, Claus; Drzezga, Alexander; Förstl, Hans; Bäuml, Josef; Eichele, Tom; Wohlschläger, Afra M.; Riedl, Valentin

    2013-01-01

    Striatal dysfunction is thought to be a fundamental element in schizophrenia. Striatal dopamine dysfunction impacts on reward processing and learning and is present even at rest. Here, we addressed the question whether and how spontaneous neuronal activity in the striatum is altered in schizophrenia. We therefore assessed intrinsic striatal activity and its relation with disorder states and symptom dimensions in patients with schizophrenia. We performed resting-state functional (rs-fMRI) and structural magnetic resonance imaging as well as psychometric assessment in 21 schizophrenic patients during psychosis. On average 9 months later, we acquired follow-up data during psychotic remission and with comparable levels of antipsychotic medication. Twenty-one age- and sex-matched healthy controls were included in the study. Independent component analysis of fMRI data yielded spatial maps and time-courses of coherent ongoing blood-oxygen-level-dependent signal fluctuations, which were used for group comparisons and correlation analyses with scores of the positive and negative syndrome scale. During psychosis, coherent intrinsic activity of the striatum was increased in the dorsal part and correlated with positive symptoms such as delusion and hallucination. In psychotic remission of the same patients, activity of the ventral striatum was increased and correlated with negative symptoms such as emotional withdrawal and blunted affect. Results were controlled for volumetric and medication effects. These data provide first evidence that in schizophrenia intrinsic activity is changed in the striatum and corresponds to disorder states and symptom dimensions. PMID:22241165

  15. [Clinical-chemical studies in schizophrenic out-patients under neuroleptic long-term treatment with particular consideration of the hepatic metabolism (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, N; Grüneberg, F

    1977-01-01

    A series of clinical-chemical tests was conducted in 68 schizophrenic out-patients under long-term neuroleptic medication, with particular consideration of the hepatic metabolism, i.e.: Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, alpha 1-glycoprotein, ceruloplasmin, fibrinogen, GPT, GOT, gamma-GT, total protein and serum-protein-electrophoresis. Furthermore, the glucose tolerance tests was carried out. In 44% of the patients an increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate and positive correlations with increased fibrinogen values were found. Increased gamma-GT-values were proven in 33% of the patients; they correlated positively with the increased GPT-and/or GOT-values as well as with pathological glucose tolerance values. Overweight of more than 10 kilos was found in 46% of the patients. A significant correlation between overweight and pathological glucose tolerance values existed. The results were interpreted as consequence of a light fatty liver.

  16. On two abnormal sharks from Gujarat

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gopalan, U.K.

    The description of the two abnormal sharks, Carchariaswalbeehmi and Eulamia dussumieri collected from Gujarat, India, is given Of these C walbeehmi was double-headed The other shark E dussumieri had thumb snouted albino...

  17. Low-set ears and pinna abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... because they do not affect hearing. However, sometimes cosmetic surgery is recommended. Skin tags may be tied off, ... 5 years old. More severe abnormalities may require surgery for cosmetic reasons as well as for function. Surgery to ...

  18. Morphological abnormality among regenerated shoots of banana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-11-02

    AAA), 'Rastali',. 'Nangka' (AAB) and 'Baka Baling' (ABB) were chosen to compare the effect of benzylaminopurine (BAP) and thidiazuron (TDZ) on multiplication efficiency in relation with frequency of abnormal shoot.

  19. Analysis of Risk Factors for Abnormal Pulmonary Function in Pediatric Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Record, Elizabeth; Williamson, Rebecca; Wasilewski-Masker, Karen; Mertens, Ann C; Meacham, Lillian R; Popler, Jonathan

    2016-07-01

    Childhood cancer survivors are at increased risk for pulmonary-related morbidity and mortality. The Children's Oncology Group Long-Term Follow-Up (COG-LTFU) guidelines recommend pulmonary function testing after treatment with bleomycin, busulfan, carmustine, lomustine, thoracic radiation, bone marrow transplant, or pulmonary surgery. The aim of this analysis was to determine the prevalence of pulmonary function abnormalities in a pediatric survivor cohort. Patients ≥5 years old seen in our survivor clinic with at least one exposure outlined by COG-LFTU Guidelines were included. Original pulmonary function test (PFT) results were obtained and blindly reinterpreted by a single reviewer. Demographic, diagnosis, treatment factors, and clinical and/or patient-reported symptoms of cough, wheeze, and/or dyspnea were abstracted from their medical record. Overall, 143 (63.3%) survivors had PFT results available; 55.2% were male, 49.7% were white, and the mean age was 14.1 ± 4.8 years. Abnormal PFTs were found in 65.0% (n = 93) with 21.0% having multiple abnormalities. Specifically, 41.3% had hyperinflation, 25.9% had obstructive, and 13.3% had restrictive disease. Patients diagnosed at pulmonary abnormality (P = 0.04); a majority of those diagnosed pulmonary surgery or thoracic radiation. Regardless of the presence of a PFT abnormality, more than 80% of survivors were asymptomatic (82.9% vs.81.5%; P-value = 0.54). Almost two-thirds of survivors screened per the COG-LTFU Guidelines had an abnormal PFT but a majority reported no clinical symptoms. Hyperinflation was the most prevalent abnormality. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities among adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Fouad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities in adolescents, first morning clean mid-stream urine specimens were obtained from 2500 individuals and examined by dipstick and light microscopy. Adolescents with abnormal screening results were reexamined after two weeks and those who had abnormal results twice were subjected to systemic clinical examination and further clinical and laboratory investigations. Eight hundred and three (32.1% individuals had urinary abnormalities at the first screening, which significantly decreased to 345 (13.8% at the second screening, (P <0.001. Hematuria was the most common urinary abnormalities detected in 245 (9.8% adolescents who had persistent urine abnormalities; 228 (9.1% individuals had non glomerular hematuria. The hematuria was isolated in 150 (6% individuals, combined with leukocyturia in 83 (3.3% individuals, and combined with proteinuria in 12 (0.5% individuals. Leukocyturia was detected in 150 (6% of all studied adolescents; it was isolated in 39 (1.6% individuals and combined with proteinuria in 28 (1.1% of them. Asymp- tomatic bacteriuria was detected in 23 (0.9% of all studied adolescents; all the cases were females. Proteinuria was detected in 65 (2.6% of all the studied adolescents; 45 (1.8% indivi- duals had <0.5 g/day and twenty (0.8% individuals had 0.5-3 g/day. Asymptomatic urinary abnormalities were more common in males than females and adolescents from rural than urban areas (P <0.01 and (P <0.001, respectively. The present study found a high prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities among adolescents in our population.

  1. Heterotaxy syndromes and abnormal bowel rotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, Beverley [Stanford University, Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States); Koppolu, Raji; Sylvester, Karl [Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital at Stanford, Department of Surgery, Stanford, CA (United States); Murphy, Daniel [Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital at Stanford, Department of Cardiology, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2014-05-15

    Bowel rotation abnormalities in heterotaxy are common. As more children survive cardiac surgery, the management of gastrointestinal abnormalities has become controversial. To evaluate imaging of malrotation in heterotaxy with surgical correlation and provide an algorithm for management. Imaging reports of heterotaxic children with upper gastrointestinal (UGI) and/or small bowel follow-through (SBFT) were reviewed. Subsequently, fluoroscopic images were re-reviewed in conjunction with CT/MR studies. The original reports and re-reviewed images were compared and correlated with surgical findings. Nineteen of 34 children with heterotaxy underwent UGI, 13/19 also had SBFT. In 15/19 reports, bowel rotation was called abnormal: 11 malrotation, 4 non-rotation, no cases of volvulus. Re-review, including CT (10/19) and MR (2/19), designated 17/19 (90%) as abnormal, 10 malrotation (abnormal bowel arrangement, narrow or uncertain length of mesentery) and 7 non-rotation (small bowel and colon on opposite sides plus low cecum with probable broad mesentery). The most useful CT/MR findings were absence of retroperitoneal duodenum in most abnormal cases and location of bowel, especially cecum. Abnormal orientation of mesenteric vessels suggested malrotation but was not universal. Nine children had elective bowel surgery; non-rotation was found in 4/9 and malrotation was found in 5/9, with discrepancies (non-rotation at surgery, malrotation on imaging) with 4 original interpretations and 1 re-review. We recommend routine, early UGI and SBFT studies once other, urgent clinical concerns have been stabilized, with elective laparoscopic surgery in abnormal or equivocal cases. Cross-sectional imaging, usually obtained for other reasons, can contribute diagnostically. Attempting to assess mesenteric width is important in differentiating non-rotation from malrotation and more accurately identifies appropriate surgical candidates. (orig.)

  2. Familial eccrine syringofibroadenomatosis with associated ophthalmologic abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S; Palay, D; Templeton, S F

    1998-08-01

    Eccrine syringofibroadenoma (ESFA) is a rare benign adnexal tumor, generally with sporadic occurrence and not linked to other diseases. Only one familial occurrence of ESFA has been reported. We describe the familial occurrence of multiple ESFAs in a father and his two sons, all of whom also had similar eyelid abnormalities and progressive corneal scarring. This description of hereditary ESFA is the first to link ESFA with periocular and ocular abnormalities.

  3. The influence of host and pathogen genotypes on symptom severity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    Key words: Banana streak disease, symptom severity, banana streak virus (BSV) isolate, rolling circle amplification. INTRODUCTION. Banana ... pseudostem splitting, abnormal bunch development, and death of the meristematic tissue ..... shown that environmental and nutritional factors can influence banana streak disease ...

  4. Cigarette smoking and cognitive function in Chinese male schizophrenia: a case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Yang Zhang

    Full Text Available Schizophrenic patients have higher smoking rates than the general population. Studies show that smoking may be a form of self-medication in an attempt to alleviate cognitive deficits in schizophrenic patients of European background. This study examined the relationships between smoking and cognitive deficits in Chinese schizophrenic patients, which have previously received little systemic study. We recruited 580 male chronic patients meeting DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia and 175 male control subjects who were matched on age and education. The subjects completed a detailed cigarette smoking questionnaire, the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND, and the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS. Patients also were rated on the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS, the Simpson and Angus Extrapyramidal Symptom Rating Scale (SAES, and the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS. All five RBANS subscales except for the Visuospatial/Constructional index showed significantly lower cognitive performance for schizophrenics than normal controls. The schizophrenic smokers scored lower than the schizophrenic non-smokers on the RBANS total score and the Visuospatial/Constructional and Immediate Memory indices. Similarly, the control smokers scored lower than the control non-smokers on the RBANS total score and the Immediate Memory index . Also, the schizophrenic smokers consistently performed the poorest on the cognitive domains of the RBANS. Among the schizophrenic patients, smokers displayed significantly fewer negative symptoms than non-smokers. Using multivariate regression analysis the following variables were independently associated with the RBANS total score: years of education, PANSS negative symptom score, age at schizophrenia onset, and number of hospitalizations. Our results show that smoking is associated with significant cognitive impairment in both schizophrenic patients and normal controls

  5. Amnesia and vegetative abnormalities after irradiation treatment. A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christianson, S.Aa. (Departments of Psychology, University of Stockholm (Sweden)); Neppe, V. (Department of Psychology, University of Washington, Seattle (United States)); Hoffman, H. (Department of Psychology, Pacific Neuropsychiatric Institute, University of Washington, Settle (United States))

    1994-11-01

    This paper describes a case of a patient (GX) with a brain tumour in the third ventricle who developed a syndrome of amnestic disorder and vegetative abnormalities (hyperphagia, oligodipsia) after irradiation treatment that followed brain surgery. The patient shows an extremely poor long-term memory on both visually and verbally presented material, and of autobiographical events occurring after the onset of the illness, but some preserved memory functions on short-term memory tasks, semantic memory tasks, and implicit memory tasks. Given the onset of symptoms only after irradiation (a memory deficit in particular), and the non-invasive nature of the surgery, the probable etiology is post-irradiation syndrome. (au) (27 refs.).

  6. Evaluation of Factors Affecting Continuous Performance Test Identical Pairs Version Score of Schizophrenic Patients in a Japanese Clinical Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayoshi Koide

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Cognitive impairment in schizophrenia strongly relates to social outcome and is a good candidate for endophenotypes. When we accurately measure drug efficacy or effects of genes or variants relevant to schizophrenia on cognitive impairment, clinical factors that can affect scores on cognitive tests, such as age and severity of symptoms, should be considered. To elucidate the effect of clinical factors, we conducted multiple regression analysis using scores of the Continuous Performance Test Identical Pairs Version (CPT-IP, which is often used to measure attention/vigilance in schizophrenia. Methods. We conducted the CPT-IP (4-4 digit and examined clinical information (sex, age, education years, onset age, duration of illness, chlorpromazine-equivalent dose, and Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS scores in 126 schizophrenia patients in Japanese population. Multiple regression analysis was used to evaluate the effect of clinical factors. Results. Age, chlorpromazine-equivalent dose, and PANSS-negative symptom score were associated with mean d′ score in patients. These three clinical factors explained about 28% of the variance in mean d′ score. Conclusions. As conclusion, CPT-IP score in schizophrenia patients is influenced by age, chlorpromazine-equivalent dose and PANSS negative symptom score.

  7. Influence of history of brain disease or brain trauma on psychopathological abnormality in young male in Korea : analysis of multiphasic personal inventory test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paik, Ho Kyu; Oh, Chang-Hyun; Choi, Kang; Kim, Chul-Eung; Yoon, Seung Hwan; Chung, Joonho

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to confirm whether brain disease or brain trauma actually affect psychopathology in young male group in Korea. The authors manually reviewed the result of Korean military multiphasic personal inventory (KMPI) in the examination of conscription in Korea from January 2008 to May 2010. There were total 237 young males in this review. Normal volunteers group (n=150) was composed of those who do not have history of brain disease or brain trauma. Brain disease group (n=33) was consisted of those with history of brain disease. Brain trauma group (n=54) was consisted of those with history of brain trauma. The results of KMPI in each group were compared. Abnormal results of KMPI were found in both brain disease and trauma groups. In the brain disease group, higher tendencies of faking bad response, anxiety, depression, somatization, personality disorder, schizophrenic and paranoid psychopathy was observed and compared to the normal volunteers group. In the brain trauma group, higher tendencies of faking-good, depression, somatization and personality disorder was observed and compared to the normal volunteers group. Young male with history of brain disease or brain trauma may have higher tendencies to have abnormal results of multiphasic personal inventory test compared to young male without history of brain disease or brain trauma, suggesting that damaged brain may cause psychopathology in young male group in Korea.

  8. Regional cerebral blood flow abnormalities in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cermik, Tevfik F. [Hospital of the University of Trakya, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Edirne (Turkey); Trakya Universitesi Hastanesi, Nukleer Tip Anabilim Dali, Gullapoglu Yerleskesi, Edirne (Turkey); Kaya, Meryem; Bedel, Deniz; Berkarda, Sakir; Yigitbasi, Oemer N. [Hospital of the University of Trakya, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Edirne (Turkey); Ugur-Altun, Betuel [Hospital of the University of Trakya, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Edirne (Turkey)

    2007-04-15

    We assessed the alterations in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHP) before parathyroidectomy by semiquantitative analysis of brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images. Included in this prospective study were 14 patients (mean age 47.6 {+-} 10.4 years; 3 male, 11 female) and 10 control subjects (mean age 36.0 {+-} 8.5 years, 6 male, 4 female) were SPECT imaging was performed using a dual-headed gamma camera 60-90 min after intravenous administration of 925 MBq Tc-99m HMPAO. The corticocerebellar rCBF ratios were calculated from 52 brain areas and reference lower values (RLVs) were calculated from the rCBF ratios of control subjects. The regional ratios that were below the corresponding RLV were considered abnormal (hypoperfused). Hypoperfusion was shown in 171 out of 728 regions (23%) and there was a significant correlation between serum calcium, PTH levels and the sum of hypoperfused regions in the patient group (R = 0.75 and P = 0.001, and R = 0.75, P = 0.001, respectively). Significantly reduced rCBF were found in the following cortical regions: bilateral cingulate cortex, superior and inferior frontal cortex, anterior temporal cortex, precentral gyrus, postcentral gyrus and parietal cortex, and right posterior temporal cortex. Our results indicate that alterations in rCBF in patients with PHP can be demonstrated with brain SPECT. The correlation between serum calcium, PTH levels and the sum of hypoperfused regions indicates that there may be a strong relationship between rCBF abnormalities and increased levels of serum calcium and PTH. In addition, the degree of rCBF abnormalities could be determined by brain SPECT in PHP patients with or without psychiatric symptoms. (orig.)

  9. Achondroplasia-hypochondroplasia complex and abnormal pulmonary anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bober, Michael B; Taylor, Megan; Heinle, Robert; Mackenzie, William

    2012-09-01

    Achondroplasia and hypochondroplasia are two of the most common forms of skeletal dysplasia. They are both caused by activating mutations in FGFR3 and are inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. Our patient was born to parents with presumed achondroplasia, and found on prenatal testing to have p.G380R and p.N540K FGFR3 mutations. In addition to having typical problems associated with both achondroplasia and hypochondroplasia, our patient had several atypical findings including: abnormal lobulation of the lungs with respiratory insufficiency, C1 stenosis, and hypoglycemia following a Nissen fundoplication. After his reflux and aspiration were treated, the persistence of the tachypnea and increased respiratory effort indicated this was not the primary source of the respiratory distress. Our subsequent hypothesis was that primary restrictive lung disease was the cause of his respiratory distress. A closer examination of his chest circumference did not support this conclusion either. Following his death, an autopsy found the right lung had 2 lobes while the left lung had 3 lobes. A literature review demonstrates that other children with achondroplasia-hypochondroplasia complex have been described with abnormal pulmonary function and infants with thanatophoric dysplasia have similar abnormal pulmonary anatomy. We hypothesize that there may be a primary pulmonary phenotype associated with FGFR3-opathies, unrelated to chest size which leads to the consistent finding of increased respiratory signs and symptoms in these children. Further observation of respiratory status, combined with the macroscopic and microscopic analysis of pulmonary branching anatomy and alveolar structure in this patient population will be important to explore this hypothesis. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Abnormality of taste and smell in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Mussadiq; Deeb, Jacquie; Fernando, Marina; Noyce, Alastair; Visentin, Elisa; Findley, Leslie J; Hawkes, Christopher H

    2009-03-01

    Smell sense is impaired in classic Parkinson's disease (PD). An initial study found no change in taste threshold in non-demented PD subjects and pathological studies suggest that the first relay for taste, the nucleus of the solitary tract, is spared. We wished to determine if taste is abnormal in PD and whether it is associated with smell dysfunction. Taste threshold was estimated using the Rion electrogustometer and olfaction by the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) in 75 non-demented PD patients and 74 controls. There was a significant impairment of taste threshold and severe disorder of smell identification in the PD group. Age, duration of symptoms, disability, and smoking had no important effect on threshold measurement and there was no correlation between taste and smell dysfunction. Sensitivity analysis suggested that a provisional diagnosis of PD would be confirmed if smell or taste were abnormal; conversely, the diagnosis would merit review if both modalities were normal. Impaired taste appreciation was found in about 27% of patients with clinically defined PD. There were no important effects from age, disease severity or smell sense. Given the sparing of the first and second order taste neurones in PD, disorder of taste in PD most likely signifies involvement of the frontal operculum or orbitofrontal cortex, in keeping with advanced disease, although confounding by drug effects and changes in salivary constitution could not be excluded completely.

  11. Ocular abnormalities in healthy Standardbred foals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsotti, Giovanni; Sgorbini, Micaela; Marmorini, Paola; Corazza, Michele

    2013-07-01

    To determine the prevalence and describe ocular abnormalities in healthy Standardbred foals within 48 h of birth. One hundred and two neonatal foals. All foals had an unassisted delivery. On the basis of physical examination and the results of hematological and biochemical parameters, all foals were unaffected by systemic diseases. A complete ophthalmic examination was performed within 48 h of birth. Foals with ocular hemorrhages were re-examined weekly until the abnormalities were resolved. 65/102 (63.7%) foals did not show ocular abnormalities, while in 37/102 (36.3%) cases, ocular abnormalities were present. Retinal and subconjunctival hemorrhages were recorded in 19/102 (18.6%), and in 13/102 (12.7%), respectively. In 4/102 (3.9%) animals, an entropion of the lower eyelid was present. Only one foal (1%) showed a congenital nuclear unilateral cataract. No other ocular abnormalities were detected. However, all foals showed various degrees of remnants of hyaloid system. One week after the first ocular examination, retinal hemorrhages had resolved in 100% of the eyes, whereas subconjunctival hemorrhages had disappeared in all eyes by the second week following the first examination. The acquired ocular lesions observed with relatively high frequency in the examined healthy Standardbred foals were ocular hemorrhages, which always showed a good outcome. Although these abnormalities were present at birth, they were not considered strictly congenital but likely acquired during parturition. Instead, congenital ocular abnormalities were rarely diagnosed, and the entropion of the lower eyelid was the most common disease in the breed. © 2012 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  12. Abnormal body perception and neural activity in the insula in depression: an fMRI study of the depressed "material me".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebking, Christine; Bauer, André; de Greck, Moritz; Duncan, Niall W; Tempelmann, Claus; Northoff, Georg

    2010-04-01

    In addition to affective-cognitive symptoms, patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) suffer from somato-vegetative symptoms, suggesting abnormal interoceptive awareness of their "material me". While recent imaging studies have extensively investigated affective-cognitive symptoms in MDD, the neural correlates of somato-vegetative symptoms and abnormal interoception remain unclear. Since the "material me" has been especially associated with the anterior insula in healthy subjects, we hypothesized abnormalities in this region during interoceptive awareness in MDD. We therefore investigated behavioural and neural correlates of interoception in healthy and depressed subjects using the Body Perception Questionnaire (BPQ) and a well established heartbeat perception task in fMRI. MDD patients showed significantly higher scores in the BPQ and reduced neural activity during rest periods, particularly in the bilateral anterior insula. In contrast to healthy subjects, BPQ scores no longer correlated with activity during rest periods in the anterior insula. Both BPQ scores and left anterior insula signal changes correlated with depression severity. We demonstrate for the first time abnormal body perception and altered activity in the insula during rest in MDD. Our results suggest that these behavioural and neural abnormalities are closely related to these patients' somato-vegetative abnormalities and their abnormal "material me".

  13. Natural course of asymptomatic abnormal prostate findings incidentally detected by CT after intravesical BCG therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushima, Masashi; Kikuchi, Eiji; Akita, Hirotaka; Miyajima, Akira; Oya, Mototsugu; Jinzaki, Masahiro

    2017-06-01

    Detailed information is not currently available on the incidence, natural course, and management of asymptomatic abnormal prostate findings incidentally detected by radiologic evaluations after BCG therapy for non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer patients. We identified 38 patients who were evaluated by contrast-enhanced CT scans before TUR-BT and after BCG therapy between 2006 and 2012. We evaluated the clinical courses of patients with abnormal radiologic findings of the prostate gland after BCG therapy. Abnormal findings on CT scans were found in the prostate glands of 11 of the 38 patients examined (28.9%), none of whom exhibited any sign or symptom associated with prostatitis. Abnormal findings included a low attenuation area (n = 6, 15.8%), contrast enhancement (n = 3, 7.9%), and a low attenuation area and contrast enhancement in the prostate gland (n = 2, 5.3%). During the follow-up, abnormal prostate findings disappeared spontaneously in most cases without any anti-bacterial or anti-tuberculous drug treatments. No significant differences were observed in patient clinical backgrounds, with the exception of post-BCG prostate volumes, between patients with and without abnormal CT findings. Furthermore, no significant differences were noted in the incidence of the adverse effects of BCG therapy, tumor recurrence rates, or progression rates between patients with and without abnormal CT findings of the prostate gland after BCG therapy. Asymptomatic abnormal prostate findings incidentally detected by CT after BCG therapy are not rare, and these disappear over time during the follow-up period without any treatment.

  14. Abnormal Magnetic Field Effects on Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Haiping; Shen, Yan; Wang, Hongfeng; He, Lei; Hu, Bin

    2015-03-01

    We report abnormal magnetic field effects on electrogenerated chemiluminescence (MFEECL) based on triplet emission from the Ru(bpy)3Cl2-TPrA electrochemical system: the appearance of MFEECL after magnetic field ceases. In early studies the normal MFEECL have been observed from electrochemical systems during the application of magnetic field. Here, the abnormal MFEECL suggest that the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)33+ … TPrA•] complexes may become magnetized in magnetic field and experience a long magnetic relaxation after removing magnetic field. Our analysis indicates that the magnetic relaxation can gradually increase the density of charge-transfer complexes within reaction region due to decayed magnetic interactions, leading to a positive component in the abnormal MFEECL. On the other hand, the magnetic relaxation facilitates an inverse conversion from triplets to singlets within charge-transfer complexes. The inverse triplet --> singlet conversion reduces the density of triplet light-emitting states through charge-transfer complexes and gives rise to a negative component in the abnormal MFEECL. The combination of positive and negative components can essentially lead to a non-monotonic profile in the abnormal MFEECL after ceasing magnetic field. Nevertheless, our experimental studies may reveal un-usual magnetic behaviors with long magnetic relaxation from the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)33+ … TPrA•] complexes in solution at room temperature.

  15. [Liver enzyme abnormalities among oil refinery workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Fernando Martins; Silvany Neto, Annibal Muniz; Mendes, João Luiz Barberino; Cotrim, Helma Pinchemel; Nascimento, Ana Lísia Cunha; Lima Júnior, Alberto Soares; Cunha, Tatiana Oliveira Bernardo da

    2006-02-01

    Occupational exposure typical of an oil refinery may alter liver function among the workers. Thus, the objective of the study was to identify risk factors for liver enzyme abnormalities among oil refinery workers. The workers at an oil refinery in Northeastern Brazil underwent routine annual medical examination from 1982 to 1998. This case-control study investigated all the 150 cases of individuals with simultaneous gamma-glutamyltransferase and alanine aminotransferase abnormalities of at least 10% above reference levels. As controls, 150 workers without any liver enzyme or bilirubin abnormalities since starting to work there were selected. Odds ratios and the respective 95% confidence intervals were calculated from logistic regression models. In all the production sectors, the risk of liver enzyme abnormalities was significantly higher than in the administrative sector (OR=5.7; 95% CI: 1.7-18.4), even when the effects of alcohol, obesity and medical history of hepatitis were controlled for. During the period from 1992 to 1994, 88 out of the 89 cases occurred among workers from the various production sectors. Occupational exposure plays an important role in causing liver enzyme abnormalities among oil refinery workers. This is in addition to the specifically biological and/or behavioral risk factors such as obesity and alcohol consumption.

  16. Management of Menopausal Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Kaunitz, Andrew M.; Manson, JoAnn E.

    2015-01-01

    Most menopausal women experience vasomotor symptoms, with bothersome symptoms often lasting longer than one decade. Hormone therapy (HT) represents the most effective treatment for these symptoms, with oral and transdermal estrogen formulations having comparable efficacy. Findings from the Women’s Health Initiative and other recent randomized clinical trials have helped to clarify the benefits and risks of combination estrogen-progestin and estrogen-alone therapy. Absolute risks observed with...

  17. Mental and Behavioral Symptoms of Person's with Asperger's Syndrome: Relationships with Social Isolation and Handicaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Masayuki; Kanai, Chieko; Ota, Haruhisa; Yamada, Takashi; Watanabe, Hiromi; Yokoi, Hideki; Takayama, Yuko; Ono, Taisei; Hashimoto, Ryuichiro; Kato, Nobumasa; Iwanami, Akira

    2012-01-01

    People with Asperger's syndrome (AS) experience mental comorbidities, and behavioral symptoms that can deepen social isolation and handicaps. We compared the frequency of mental and behavioral symptoms, motor abnormality, and life history between adults with AS and those with no mental disorders but with disturbance of social functions and…

  18. Abnormal Grief: Should We Consider a More Patient-Centered Approach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moayedoddin, Babak; Markowitz, John C

    2015-01-01

    Grief, the psychological reaction to the loss of a significant other, varies complexly in its cause, experience, evolution, and prognosis. Although most bereaved individuals experience a normal grieving process, some develop complicated grief (CG) or major depressive disorder (MDD). The DSM-5, which controversially altered the nosology, recognizes grief-related major depression (GRMD) as a diagnostic subtype if a patient meets MDD criteria two weeks post bereavement. The (DSM-5) tries to distinguish between grief and MDD, but remains a symptom-based, centered approach to grief that is not patient centered. This article reviews grief in its normal and abnormal dimensions. Using an illustrative clinical case in which interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) was employed, we discuss the need for a more patient-centered approach to treating abnormal grief, considering the patient's personal history, perceptions, experiences of bereavement, and interpersonal environment. Clinical studies need to better identify subgroups of individuals susceptible to abnormal grief and to evaluate their response to early interventions.

  19. Abnormal vaginal discharge: what does and does not work in treating underlying causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Linda; Horton, Jennifer; Matousek, Michelle

    2004-11-01

    Antifungal medications for intravaginal use have been available in the United States for more than a decade. Women may be inclined to self-diagnose yeast infections with any vaginal discharge or other vulvovaginal symptoms that they deem abnormal. As we saw in the first part of this article, "Abnormal vaginal discharge: Using office diagnostic testing more effectively" (J Fam Pract 2004; 53[10]:805-814), abnormal discharge is more likely to be bacterial vaginosis or no pathogen at all. Potential delay in diagnosis and treatment of a sexually transmitted disease is also a concern. Increasing resistance of Candida sp. to imidazoles is associated with indiscriminate use of over-the-counter products.

  20. Model-based parametric study of frontostriatal abnormalities in schizophrenia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanaka Shoji

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have suggested that the activity of the prefrontal cortex (PFC and the dopamine (DA release in the striatum has an inverse relationship. One would attribute this relationship primarily to the circuitry comprised of the glutamatergic projection from the PFC to the striatum and the GABAergic projection from the striatum to the midbrain DA nucleus. However, this circuitry has not characterized satisfactorily yet, so that no quantitative analysis has ever been made on the activities of the PFC and the striatum and also the DA release in the striatum. Methods In this study, a system dynamics model of the corticostriatal system with dopaminergic innervations is constructed to describe the relationships between the activities of the PFC and the striatum and the DA release in the striatum. By taking published receptor imaging data from schizophrenia patients and healthy subjects into this model, this article analyzes the effects of striatal D2 receptor activation on the balance of the activity and neurotransmission in the frontostriatal system of schizophrenic patients in comparison with healthy controls. Results The model predicts that the suppressive effect by D2 receptors at the terminals of the glutamatergic afferents to the striatum from the PFC enhances the hypofrontality-induced elevation of striatal DA release by at most 83%. The occupancy-based estimation of the 'optimum' D2 receptor occupancy by antipsychotic drugs is 52%. This study further predicts that patients with lower PFC activity tend to have greater improvement of positive symptoms following antipsychotic medication. Conclusion This model-based parametric study would be useful for system-level analysis of the brains with psychiatric diseases. It will be able to make reliable prediction of clinical outcome when sufficient data will be available.

  1. Abnormal Grain Growth Suppression in Aluminum Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, Stephen J. (Inventor); Claytor, Harold Dale (Inventor); Alexa, Joel A. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention provides a process for suppressing abnormal grain growth in friction stir welded aluminum alloys by inserting an intermediate annealing treatment ("IAT") after the welding step on the article. The IAT may be followed by a solution heat treatment (SHT) on the article under effectively high solution heat treatment conditions. In at least some embodiments, a deformation step is conducted on the article under effective spin-forming deformation conditions or under effective superplastic deformation conditions. The invention further provides a welded article having suppressed abnormal grain growth, prepared by the process above. Preferably the article is characterized with greater than about 90% reduction in area fraction abnormal grain growth in any friction-stir-welded nugget.

  2. Neurological abnormalities associated with CDMA exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, B; Westerman, R

    2001-09-01

    Dysaesthesiae of the scalp and neurological abnormality after mobile phone use have been reported previously, but the roles of the phone per se or the radiations in causing these findings have been questioned. We report finding a neurological abnormality in a patient after accidental exposure of the left side of the face to mobile phone radiation [code division multiple access (CDMA)] from a down-powered mobile phone base station antenna. He had headaches, unilateral left blurred vision and pupil constriction, unilateral altered sensation on the forehead, and abnormalities of current perception thresholds on testing the left trigeminal ophthalmic nerve. His nerve function recovered during 6 months follow-up. His exposure was 0.015-0.06 mW/cm(2) over 1-2 h. The implications regarding health effects of radiofrequency radiation are discussed.

  3. Enhanced monitoring of abnormal emergency department demands

    KAUST Repository

    Harrou, Fouzi

    2016-06-13

    This paper presents a statistical technique for detecting signs of abnormal situation generated by the influx of patients at emergency department (ED). The monitoring strategy developed was able to provide early alert mechanisms in the event of abnormal situations caused by abnormal patient arrivals to the ED. More specifically, This work proposed the application of autoregressive moving average (ARMA) models combined with the generalized likelihood ratio (GLR) test for anomaly-detection. ARMA was used as the modelling framework of the ARMA-based GLR anomaly-detection methodology. The GLR test was applied to the uncorrelated residuals obtained from the ARMA model to detect anomalies when the data did not fit the reference ARMA model. The ARMA-based GLR hypothesis testing scheme was successfully applied to the practical data collected from the database of the pediatric emergency department (PED) at Lille regional hospital center, France. © 2015 IEEE.

  4. Advances in understanding paternally transmitted Chromosomal Abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchetti, F; Sloter, E; Wyrobek, A J

    2001-03-01

    Multicolor FISH has been adapted for detecting the major types of chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm including aneuploidies for clinically-relevant chromosomes, chromosomal aberrations including breaks and rearrangements, and other numerical abnormalities. The various sperm FISH assays have been used to evaluate healthy men, men of advanced age, and men who have received mutagenic cancer therapy. The mouse has also been used as a model to investigate the mechanism of paternally transmitted genetic damage. Sperm FISH for the mouse has been used to detect chromosomally abnormal mouse sperm, while the PAINT/DAPI analysis of mouse zygotes has been used to evaluate the types of chromosomal defects that can be paternally transmitted to the embryo and their effects on embryonic development.

  5. Conduction abnormalities during dipyridamole stress testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massalha, Samia; Reizberg, Ilya; Israel, Ora; Kapeliovich, Michael; Sholy, Haitham; Koskosi, Amjad; Keidar, Zohar; Marai, Ibrahim

    2017-04-01

    Pharmacological stress tests using dipyridamole are considered to be safe. However, cases of atrioventricular (AV) block have been reported. We retrospectively analyzed ECG at baseline and during dipyridamole stress tests of 2010 consecutive patients (patients with second or third degree AV block were excluded). At baseline, 350 (17.4%) patients had conduction abnormalities. Following dipyridamole infusion 16 patients (0.8%) developed a transient change in AV conduction (15 patients) and or sinus arrest (1 patient). Compared to patients without baseline conduction abnormalities, patients with any conduction abnormalities at baseline were at a higher risk for the development of AV block after dipyridamole infusion [0.3% vs 3.14%, respectively; P < .0001].

  6. Abnormal sperm count and motility on semen analysis are not sufficiently predictive of abnormal Kruger morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Sara S; Seungdamrong, Aimee; McCulloh, David H; McGovern, Peter G

    2010-12-01

    Abnormal morphology by Kruger's strict criteria cannot be predicted reliably by the presence of other abnormal parameters on semen analysis. Assessment of Kruger morphology therefore remains a necessary component of a complete semen analysis in the workup of the infertile couple. Copyright © 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Abnormal vibration induced illusion of movement in essential tremor: evidence for abnormal muscle spindle afferent function

    OpenAIRE

    Frima, N; Grunewald, R

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: Vibration induced illusion of movement (VIIM) is abnormal in patients with idiopathic focal dystonia, an abnormality which corrects with fatigue of the vibrated muscle. Since dystonia and essential tremor sometimes coexist in families, we investigated the perception of VIIM and the effect of fatigue on VIIM in patients with essential tremor.

  8. Abnormalities in the effective connectivity of visuothalamic circuitry in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwabuchi, S J; Palaniyappan, L

    2017-05-01

    Sensory-processing deficits appear crucial to the clinical expression of symptoms of schizophrenia. The visual cortex displays both dysconnectivity and aberrant spontaneous activity in patients with persistent symptoms and cognitive deficits. In this paper, we examine visual cortex in the context of the remerging notion of thalamic dysfunction in schizophrenia. We examined specific regional and longer-range abnormalities in sensory and thalamic circuits in schizophrenia, and whether these patterns are strong enough to discriminate symptomatic patients from controls. Using publicly available resting fMRI data of 71 controls and 62 schizophrenia patients, we derived conjunction maps of regional homogeneity (ReHo) and fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (fALFF) to inform further seed-based Granger causality analysis (GCA) to study effective connectivity patterns. ReHo, fALFF and GCA maps were entered into a multiple kernel learning classifier, to determine whether patterns of local and effective connectivity can differentiate controls from patients. Visual cortex shows both ReHo and fALFF reductions in patients. Visuothalamic effective connectivity in patients was significantly reduced. Local connectivity (ReHo) patterns discriminated patients from controls with the highest level of accuracy of 80.32%. Both the inflow and outflow of Granger causal information between visual cortex and thalamus is affected in schizophrenia; this occurs in conjunction with highly discriminatory but localized dysconnectivity and reduced neural activity within the visual cortex. This may explain the visual-processing deficits that are present despite symptomatic remission in schizophrenia.

  9. Abnormal neural responses to social exclusion in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradin, Victoria B; Waiter, Gordon; Kumar, Poornima; Stickle, Catriona; Milders, Maarten; Matthews, Keith; Reid, Ian; Hall, Jeremy; Steele, J Douglas

    2012-01-01

    Social exclusion is an influential concept in politics, mental health and social psychology. Studies on healthy subjects have implicated the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), a region involved in emotional and social information processing, in neural responses to social exclusion. Impairments in social interactions are common in schizophrenia and are associated with reduced quality of life. Core symptoms such as delusions usually have a social content. However little is known about the neural underpinnings of social abnormalities. The aim of this study was to investigate the neural substrates of social exclusion in schizophrenia. Patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls underwent fMRI while participating in a popular social exclusion paradigm. This task involves passing a 'ball' between the participant and two cartoon representations of other subjects. The extent of social exclusion (ball not being passed to the participant) was parametrically varied throughout the task. Replicating previous findings, increasing social exclusion activated the mPFC in controls. In contrast, patients with schizophrenia failed to modulate mPFC responses with increasing exclusion. Furthermore, the blunted response to exclusion correlated with increased severity of positive symptoms. These data support the hypothesis that the neural response to social exclusion differs in schizophrenia, highlighting the mPFC as a potential substrate of impaired social interactions.

  10. Ibuprofen Rescues Abnormalities in Periodontal Tissues in Conditional Presenilin 1 and Presenilin 2 Double Knockout Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Jiansheng; Gu, Jiamei; Dong, Zhuo; Mei, Bing

    2013-01-01

    We used forebrain-specific conditional presenilin 1 (PS1) and presenilin 2 (PS2) double knockout mice (dKO mice) that exhibit symptoms of neurodegenerative diseases, especially Alzheimer’s disease, to investigate whether ibuprofen can rescue brain and periodontal tissue abnormalities by attenuating the inflammatory response. Mandibles were dissected for alveolar bone-height analysis. Maxillae were fixed and decalcified for histological observation and osteoclast detection. ELISA measurements ...

  11. Abnormal Event Detection Using Local Sparse Representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Huamin; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2014-01-01

    measurement based on the difference between the normal space and local space. Specifically, we provide a reasonable normal bases through repeated K spectral clustering. Then for each testing feature we first use temporal neighbors to form a local space. An abnormal event is found if any abnormal feature...... is found that satisfies: the distance between its local space and the normal space is large. We evaluate our method on two public benchmark datasets: UCSD and Subway Entrance datasets. The comparison to the state-of-the-art methods validate our method's effectiveness....

  12. RARE CYTOGENETIC ABNORMALITIES IN MYELODYSPLASTIC SYNDROMES

    OpenAIRE

    Julie Schanz; Friederike Braulke; Detlef Haase

    2015-01-01

    The karyotype represents one of the main cornerstones for the International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) and the revised IPSS-R (IPSS-R) that are most widely used for prognostication in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). The most frequent cytogenetic abnormalities in MDS, i.e. del(5q), -7/del(7q), +8, complex karyotypes, or -Y have been extensively explored for their prognostic impact. The IPSS-R also considers some less frequent abnormalities such as del(11q), isochromosome 1...

  13. Regional Articular Cartilage Abnormalities of the Hip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Thomas M; Schwaiger, Benedikt J; Zhang, Alan L

    2015-09-01

    Imaging of hip cartilage is challenging because of its limited thickness and complex geometry and therefore requires advanced MRI techniques. However, cartilage abnormalities are found in a number of disease entities, and their diagnosis may impact patient management. This article will provide pertinent information about the motivation to image hip cartilage, which imaging techniques to use, and how to analyze cartilage; finally, we will discuss disease entities with regional cartilage lesions, including the typical MRI findings. Because the detection and quantification of regional cartilage abnormalities are critical for guidance of operative and nonoperative management of hip disorders, radiologists should be familiar with imaging and analysis techniques for assessing hip cartilage.

  14. Abnormal Taenia saginata tapeworms in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maipanich, Wanna; Sato, Megumi; Pubampen, Somchit; Sanguankiat, Surapol; Kusolsuk, Teera; Thaenkham, Urusa; Waikagul, Jitra

    2011-09-01

    Sixty-eight residents of Ban Luang and Ban Pang Kae villages, in Nan Province, northern Thailand, visited our mobile field station in September 2006 and March 2007, seeking treatment for taeniasis. After treatment, 22 cases discharged tapeworm strobila in their fecal samples and 17 scolices were recovered. Among these, 3 were morphologically abnormal, with six suckers on the scolex. To confirm the species of these tapeworms, the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene was used as a molecular marker. The partial COI sequences (800 bp) of the abnormal tapeworms were identical to the sequences of Taenia saginata deposited in Genbank.

  15. Hemorheological abnormalities in human arterial hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Presti, Rosalia; Hopps, Eugenia; Caimi, Gregorio

    2014-05-01

    Blood rheology is impaired in hypertensive patients. The alteration involves blood and plasma viscosity, and the erythrocyte behaviour is often abnormal. The hemorheological pattern appears to be related to some pathophysiological mechanisms of hypertension and to organ damage, in particular left ventricular hypertrophy and myocardial ischemia. Abnormalities have been observed in erythrocyte membrane fluidity, explored by fluorescence spectroscopy and electron spin resonance. This may be relevant for red cell flow in microvessels and oxygen delivery to tissues. Although blood viscosity is not a direct target of antihypertensive therapy, the rheological properties of blood play a role in the pathophysiology of arterial hypertension and its vascular complications.

  16. Temporal abnormalities in children with developmental dyscalculia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicario, Carmelo Mario; Rappo, Gaetano; Pepi, Annamaria; Pavan, Andrea; Martino, Davide

    2012-01-01

    Recent imaging studies have associated Developmental dyscalculia (DD) to structural and functional alterations corresponding Parietal and the Prefrontal cortex (PFC). Since these areas were shown also to be involved in timing abilities, we hypothesized that time processing is abnormal in DD. We compared time processing abilities between 10 children with pure DD (8 years old) and 11 age-matched healthy children. Results show that the DD group underestimated duration of a sub-second scale when asked to perform a time comparison task. The timing abnormality observed in our DD participants is consistent with evidence of a shared fronto-parietal neural network for representing time and quantity.

  17. DESCRIPCIÓN DE UNA EXPERIENCIA DE INVESTIGACIÓN EN PSICOANÁLISIS CON LA PSICOSIS ESQUIZOFRENICA - DESCRIPTION OF A RESEARCH EXPERIENCE WITHIN PSYCHOANALYSIS TOGETHER WITH THE SCHIZOPHRENIC PSYCHOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAIRO BÁEZ

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available As emergent product of the replication of the research project entitled “Results from the intervention of psychoanalysis in the problem of psychosis and social inclusion” Baez (2009 presented this document which outlines an intervention and research experience in psychoanalysis within a Program Mental Health in Bogotá, with reference to the subject specifically the so-called schizophrenic psychotic, who since his speech unveiling a way to bond socially. This will rescue elements of meeting the psychotic subject, is based analytical device use as well as questions about the research method and present some thoughts of schizophrenic psychosis in connection with demonstrations dreamlike addressed as these offer a possibility of intervention from psychoanalysis to the problem of psychosis

  18. Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis in a Patient with Previous Psychosis and Neurological Abnormalities: A Diagnostic Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. David Heekin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor encephalitis is an autoimmune disorder characterized by IgG autoantibodies directed against the NR1 subunit of the NMDA glutamate receptor. Psychiatric symptoms are common and include psychosis, mania, depressed mood, aggression, and speech abnormalities. Neurological symptoms such as seizures, decreased responsiveness, dyskinesias, and other movement abnormalities and/or autonomic instability are frequently seen as well. We present the case of a woman who was followed up at our facility for over 14 years for the treatment of multiple neuropsychiatric symptoms. Initially, she presented with paresthesias, memory loss, and manic symptoms. Nine years later, she presented to our facility again, this time with left sided numbness, left eyelid droop, and word finding difficulties. Finally, five years later, she presented with manic symptoms, hallucinations, and memory impairment. During her hospitalization, she subsequently developed catatonic symptoms and seizures. During her stay, it was discovered that she was positive for anti-NMDA receptor antibodies and her symptoms responded well to appropriate therapy. This case demonstrates that it may be useful for clinicians to consider screening for anti-NMDA receptor antibodies in long-term patients with neuropsychiatric symptoms that have not adequately responded to therapy.

  19. Abnormal gastrointestinal endocrine cells in patients with diabetes type 1: relationship to gastric emptying and myoelectrical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Salhy, M; Sitohy, B

    2001-11-01

    Gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with diabetes are believed to be caused by gastrointestinal dysmotility and secretion/absorption disturbances, and the gut endocrine cells play an important part in regulating these two functions. Studies on animal models of human diabetes type I revealed abnormality in these cells, but it is unknown whether abnormality also occurs in patients with diabetes. Eleven patients with long duration of diabetes type I and organ complications, as well as gastrointestinal symptoms, were studied. Endocrine cells in different segments of the gastrointestinal tract were detected by immunocytochemistry and quantified by computerized image analysis. Gastric emptying was measured by scintigraphy and gastric myoelectric activity was determined by electrogastrography. An abnormal density of gastrointestinal endocrine cells was found in patients with diabetes. This abnormality occurred in all segments of the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract investigated, and included most of the endocrine cell types. The patients showed delayed gastric emptying, which correlated closely with the acute glucose level, but did not correlate with HbA1c. Gastric emptying also correlated closely with the density of duodenal serotonin and secretin cells. The patients exhibited bradygastrias and tachygastrias. These dysrhythmias, however, did not differ significantly from controls. The endocrine cells are the anatomical units responsible for the production of gut hormones, and the change in their density would reflect a change in the capacity of producing these hormones. The abnormality in density of the gastrointestinal endocrine cells may contribute to the development of gastrointestinal dysmotility and the symptoms encountered in patients with diabetes.

  20. DESCRIPCIÓN DE UNA EXPERIENCIA DE INVESTIGACIÓN EN PSICOANÁLISIS CON LA PSICOSIS ESQUIZOFRENICA - DESCRIPTION OF A RESEARCH EXPERIENCE WITHIN PSYCHOANALYSIS TOGETHER WITH THE SCHIZOPHRENIC PSYCHOSIS

    OpenAIRE

    JAIRO BÁEZ; ANGéLICA MARÍA GONZÁLEZ JIMENEZ

    2010-01-01

    As emergent product of the replication of the research project entitled “Results from the intervention of psychoanalysis in the problem of psychosis and social inclusion” Baez (2009) presented this document which outlines an intervention and research experience in psychoanalysis within a Program Mental Health in Bogotá, with reference to the subject specifically the so-called schizophrenic psychotic, who since his speech unveiling a way to bond socially. This will rescue elements of meeting t...

  1. The right amygdalar tumor presenting with symptoms of separation anxiety disorder (SAD): a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huang-Chen; Lin, Chun-Fu; Lee, Ying-Chiao

    2015-01-01

    A patient with an astrocytoma of the right-sided amygdala developed symptoms of separation anxiety disorders (SADs). These symptoms significantly subsided after tumor resection. The temporal relationship suggested that the amygdalar tumor could result in the specific symptoms. To our knowledge, this is the first report of SAD as one manifestation of the amygdalar tumor. The tumorigenesis of amygdala resulted in impaired regulation and abnormal activity associated with anticipating anxiety and conditioning. It deserves clinical attention to early detection and intervention.

  2. Developmental abnormalities of mid and hindbrain

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Complete clinical evaluation, cytogenetic analysis and neuroradiological study were done for each patient. Patients' .... measurements (weight, height and head circumference) were assessed. Magnetic resonance imaging ..... developed abnormal kidneys or liver functions; however, regular monitor- ing of these functions is ...

  3. Schizophrenogenic Parenting in Abnormal Psychology Textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Otto F.

    1989-01-01

    Considers the treatment of family causation of schizophrenia in undergraduate abnormal psychology textbooks. Reviews texts published only after 1986. Points out a number of implications for psychologists which arise from the inclusion in these texts of the idea that parents cause schizophrenia, not the least of which is the potential for…

  4. Psychology Faculty Perceptions of Abnormal Psychology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapport, Zachary

    2011-01-01

    The problem. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the perceptions and opinions of psychology professors regarding the accuracy and inclusiveness of abnormal psychology textbooks. It sought answers from psychology professors to the following questions: (1) What are the expectations of the psychology faculty at a private university of…

  5. Prevalence Of Dental Abnormalities Among Handicapped Children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Efforts to improve the quality of life of handicapped people are on the increase world wide, their oral health inclusive. Relevant data is required for adequate planning for this purpose. A survey of 579 handicapped children was carried out in Lagos to assess the various dental abnormalities among them. Over 34% of them ...

  6. Specificity of haemostasis abnormalities for vascular phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, G D; Haverkate, F

    1998-01-01

    Atherothrombosis is a systemic disease, hence it is difficult to prove the specificity of haemostasis abnormality for any single vascular phenotype. Associations between haemostatic variables and any given phenotype, e.g. (vascular) dementia, should be interpreted with caution, given the overlaps of vascular disease phenotypes, risk factors, and haemostatic variables.

  7. Pattern Analysis: The Question of Abnormality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, A. B.

    1984-01-01

    Addresses the question of abnormality when comparing a subject's score on each subtest with that subject's average subtest score on one of Weschler's scales. Suggests comparing each subtest score with the Verbal or Performance average rather than with the overall average. Provides tables estimating differences of standardization samples. (BH)

  8. A Universally Abnormality-Adaptive Logic

    OpenAIRE

    BATENS D.

    2001-01-01

    The present paper presents a logic that allows for the abnormal behaviour of any logical constant and for the ambiguous behaviour of any non-logical constant, but nevertheless offers an interpretation of the premises that is as normal as possible.

  9. immunological arthritis Prevalence of biochemical and abnormalities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-02-02

    Feb 2, 1991 ... Tile prevalence of biochemical and immunological abnormali- ties was studied in a group of 256 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (104 coloureds, 100 whites and 52 blacks). The most common biochemical abnormalities detected were a reduction in the serum creatinine value (43,4%), raised globulins (39 ...

  10. [A young man with extensive skin abnormalities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Weijden, C P; Joore, I K

    2018-01-01

    A 26-year-old man who has sex with men visited the STI clinic because of increasing skin abnormalities since four months. The patient had macular skin lesions on his penis and scrotum, condylomata lata in the anal region, cutaneous lesions on the feet, and a widespread papular rash. A secondary stage of syphilis was diagnosed.

  11. [Renal abnormalities in Down syndrome: A review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niamien-Attai, C; Bacchetta, J; Ranchin, B; Sanlaville, D; Cochat, P

    2017-10-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is often associated with cardiac malformations, so that kidney damage is little known. The objective of this study was to present the diversity of renal abnormalities and their potential progression to chronic renal failure. Among congenital abnormalities of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) abnormalities appear to be frequent: pyelectasis, megaureters, posterior urethra valves, as well as renal malformations such as renal hypoplasia, horseshoe kidney, or renal ectopia. Contributing factors to acute kidney failure have been described in patients with DS: bilateral lesions and minor renal injury, such as glomerular microcysts, tubular dilation, and immature glomeruli. Histological lesions can be found, albeit nonspecific; they occur earlier than in the general population. Two metabolic specificities have also been described: decreased clearance of uric acid and a hypercalciuria by passive hyperabsorption. End-stage renal disease can occur, thus raising the problem of the best choice of management. In conclusion, renal abnormalities in patients in DS should be known so as to preserve a good renal functional prognosis: systematic screening with renal ultrasound can be proposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. ORIGINAL ARTICLE EEG changes and neuroimaging abnormalities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    salah

    Background:Autism is currently viewed as a genetically determined neurode- velopmental disorder although its definite underlying etiology remains to be established. Aim of the Study: Our purpose was to assess autism related morphological neuroimaging changes of the brain and EEG abnormalities in correlation to the.

  13. Correcting abnormal speaking through communication partners ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The listed characteristics are called speech disorders. Abnormal speaking attracts some penalties to the speaker. The penalties are usually very disturbing to the speaker that undertaking some therapeutic measures becomes inevitable. Communication partners strategy is a speech correction approach which makes use of ...

  14. [Y chromosome structural abnormalities and Turner's syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravel, C; Siffroi, J-P

    2009-06-01

    Although specifically male, the human Y chromosome may be observed in female karyotypes, mostly in women with Turner syndrome stigmata. In women with isolated gonadal dysgenesis but otherwise normal stature, the testis determining factor or SRY gene may have been removed from the Y chromosome or may be mutated. In other women with Turner syndrome, the karyotype is usually abnormal and shows a frequent 45,X/46,XY mosaicism. In these cases, the phenotype depends on the ratio between Y positive and 45,X cell lines in the body. When in mosaicism, Y chromosomes are likely to carry structural abnormalities which explain mitotic instability, such as the existence of two centromeres. Dicentric Y isochromosomes for the short arm (idic[Yp]) or ring Y chromosomes (r[Y]) are the most frequent abnormal Y chromosomes found in infertile patients and in Turner syndrome in mosaic with 45,X cells. Although monocentric, deleted Y chromosomes for the long arm and those carrying microdeletions in the AZF region are also instable and are frequently associated with a 45,X cell line. Management of infertile patients carrying such abnormal Y chromosomes must take into account the risk and the consequences of a mosaicism in the offspring.

  15. Evaluation of Chromosomal Abnormalities and Common ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Its' pathophysiology is poorly understood. Infections, genetic, endocrine, anatomic and immunologic problems have been suggested as causes for RM. Objective: To evaluate the frequency of chromosomal abnormalities and 3 common thrombophilic mutations in couples with RM. Methods: A retrospective data collection ...

  16. Craniocervical junction abnormalities with atlantoaxial subluxation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Craniocervical junction abnormalities with atlantoaxial subluxation caused by ventral subluxation of C2 were diagnosed in a 6-month-old female Pomeranian with tetraplegia as a clinical sign. Lateral survey radiography of the neck with flexion revealed atlantoaxial subluxation with ventral subluxation of C2. Computed ...

  17. Fetal chromosome abnormalities and congenital malformations: an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Our objective were to determine and evaluate the role of genetic counseling and amniocentesis in early detection of chromosomal abnormalities or congenital malformations among women at risk. Patients and Methods: The study was performed on 784 pregnant women. Results: The cause for seeking genetic ...

  18. Prevelence and Pattern of Electrocardiographic Abnormalities Seen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: There is paucity of published data on the prevalence and pattern of electrocardiographic abnormalities (ECGA) seen in adult Nigerians referred for this investigation. This study determined the prevalence and pattern of some ECGA in Nigerian adults. Methods: This is a hospital based audit to determine the ...

  19. Ophthalmological abnormalities in wild European hedgehogs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The predominant finding was bilateral nuclear cataract seen particularly in young poorly growing animals. Investigation into the potential causation of cataracts by poor nutrition or poor feeding ability by lens opacification requires further study. Keywords: Cataract, Conservation, Eye abnormality, Hedgehog, Rehabilitation ...

  20. Systemic abnormalities in migraine: what comes first?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmura, Michael J

    2009-03-01

    Recent research suggests that migraine results from the interplay of multiple factors, and many studies have considered the relationship of migraine to systemic abnormalities. This editorial comments on recent findings relating to migraine and metabolic syndrome, and suggests some possible causes.