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Sample records for schizophrenic symptoms abnormal

  1. Cotard Syndrome without Depressive Symptoms in a Schizophrenic Patient.

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    Morgado, P; Ribeiro, R; Cerqueira, JJ

    2015-01-01

    Cotard Syndrome without Depressive Symptoms in a Schizophrenic Patient Introduction . Cotard syndrome is a rare condition characterized by nihilistic delusions concerning body or life that can be found in several neuropsychiatry conditions. It is typically associated with depressive symptoms. Method . We present a case of Cotard syndrome without depressive symptoms in the context of known paranoid schizophrenia. A literature review of Cotard syndrome in schizophrenia was performed. Res...

  2. [Negative symptoms in patients with non schizophrenic psychiatric disorders].

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    Donnoli, Vicente F; Moroni, María V; Cohen, Diego; Chisari Rocha, Liliana; Marleta, María; Sepich Dalmeida, Tomás; Bonani, Matías; D'Alessio, Luciana

    2011-01-01

    The presence of negative symptoms (NS) in different clinical entities other than schizophrenia, with a dimensional approach of negative symptoms, was considered in this work. Determine the presence and distribution of NS, in a population of patients with non schizophrenic psychiatric disorders attending ambulatory treatment at public hospitals. Patients with define DSM IV diagnosis criteria for different disorders; affective, alimentary, substance abuse, anxiety, personality disorders and patients with ILAE diagnoses criteria for temporal lobe epilepsy were included. All patients underwent the subscale PANNS for negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Student T test was calculated to determine the differences of frequency for NS among psychiatric disorders. 106 patients were included; 60 women, 46 men, 38 years +/- 12.1. The 90% of patients have a low score of NS. Media 11.6, Max/min 9.38 -14.29. Emotional withdrawal and passive social withdrawal were more frequent in alimentary disorders than in affective disorder and than in epilepsy. Emotional withdrawal was more frequent in substance disorders than epilepsy. According this study, negative symptoms are present in a low to moderate intensity in non schizophrenic psychiatry entities and in the temporal lobe epilepsy.

  3. Dopamine transporter gene polymorphism and psychiatric symptoms seen in schizophrenic patients at their first episode

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    Inada, Toshiya; Sugita, Tetsuyoshi; Dobashi, Izumi [National Institute of Mental Health, Chiba (Japan)] [and others

    1996-07-26

    To investigate the possible role of the dopamine transporter (DAT) gene in determining the phenotype in human subjects, allele frequencies for the 40-bp variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) polymorphism at this site were compared between 117 Japanese normal controls and 118 schizophrenic patients, including six subgroups: early-onset, those with a family history, and those suffering from one of the following psychiatric symptoms at their first episode: delusion and hallucination; disorganization; bizarre behavior; and negative symptoms. No significant differences were observed between the group as a whole or any subgroup of schizophrenic patients and controls. The results indicate that VNTR polymorphism in the DAT gene is unlikely to be a major contributor to any of the psychiatric parameters examined in the present population of schizophrenic subjects. 12 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  4. Plasma homovanillic acid levels in schizophrenic patients: correlation with negative symptoms.

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    Dávila, Ricardo; Zumárraga, Mercedes; Basterreche, Nieves; Arrúe, Aurora; Anguiano, Juan B

    2007-05-30

    The relation between changes in the levels of plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) and clinical evolution during neuroleptic treatment of schizophrenic patients has not been satisfactorily characterized, as a number of conflicting findings have been reported. Significant correlations have generally been found using the assessment of positive symptoms as an index of clinical outcome. Nevertheless, attempts to correlate pHVA concentrations with negative symptoms have yielded contradictory results. With a view to evaluating if different responses in negative symptoms are associated with distinct pHVA profiles, we examined the levels of pHVA in 46 neuroleptic-free schizophrenic patients and in these patients after neuroleptic treatment. Negative and positive symptoms were also addressed before and after treatment. Our results reveal that at least two classes of negative symptoms exist; the clinical evolution of the first class of negative symptoms parallels that of positive symptoms, and clinical improvement correlates with reduced dopaminergic activity. In contrast, in the second class, reduced dopaminergic activity is associated with a further deterioration of negative symptoms. These findings corroborate the heterogeneity of negative symptoms and may contribute to a better definition of endophenotypes in the schizophrenic syndrome.

  5. Chronic auditory hallucinations in schizophrenic patients: MR analysis of the coincidence between functional and morphologic abnormalities.

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    Martí-Bonmatí, Luis; Lull, Juan José; García-Martí, Gracián; Aguilar, Eduardo J; Moratal-Pérez, David; Poyatos, Cecilio; Robles, Montserrat; Sanjuán, Julio

    2007-08-01

    To prospectively evaluate if functional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging abnormalities associated with auditory emotional stimuli coexist with focal brain reductions in schizophrenic patients with chronic auditory hallucinations. Institutional review board approval was obtained and all participants gave written informed consent. Twenty-one right-handed male patients with schizophrenia and persistent hallucinations (started to hear hallucinations at a mean age of 23 years +/- 10, with 15 years +/- 8 of mean illness duration) and 10 healthy paired participants (same ethnic group [white], age, and education level [secondary school]) were studied. Functional echo-planar T2*-weighted (after both emotional and neutral auditory stimulation) and morphometric three-dimensional gradient-recalled echo T1-weighted MR images were analyzed using Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM2) software. Brain activation images were extracted by subtracting those with emotional from nonemotional words. Anatomic differences were explored by optimized voxel-based morphometry. The functional and morphometric MR images were overlaid to depict voxels statistically reported by both techniques. A coincidence map was generated by multiplying the emotional subtracted functional MR and volume decrement morphometric maps. Statistical analysis used the general linear model, Student t tests, random effects analyses, and analysis of covariance with a correction for multiple comparisons following the false discovery rate method. Large coinciding brain clusters (P < .005) were found in the left and right middle temporal and superior temporal gyri. Smaller coinciding clusters were found in the left posterior and right anterior cingular gyri, left inferior frontal gyrus, and middle occipital gyrus. The middle and superior temporal and the cingular gyri are closely related to the abnormal neural network involved in the auditory emotional dysfunction seen in schizophrenic patients.

  6. Increments in plasma homovanillic acid concentrations after neuroleptic discontinuation are associated with worsening of schizophrenic symptoms.

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    Khan, R S; Amin, F; Powchik, P; Knott, P; Goldstein, M; Apter, S; Kerman, B; Jaff, S; Davidson, M

    1990-01-01

    1. Thirty-two male schizophrenic patients participated in this study. 2. Plasma concentrations of the dopamine metabolite, homovanillic acid (pHVA) were assessed once on neuroleptic medication and twice a week for a maximum of six weeks after its discontinuation. 3. Psychiatric symptomatology was assessed once on neuroleptic medication and once a week for a maximum of six weeks after its discontinuation, using the brief psychiatric rating scale (BPRS). 4. pHVA and total BPRS score increased significantly after discontinuation of neuroleptic as compared to baseline. 5. The magnitude of pHVA and BPRS increments after discontinuation of neuroleptic correlated significantly. 6. Results of this study suggest that worsening of schizophrenic symptoms after discontinuation of neuroleptic treatment is associated with increased pHVA concentrations.

  7. Cotard Syndrome without Depressive Symptoms in a Schizophrenic Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgado, Pedro; Ribeiro, Ricardo; Cerqueira, João J

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Cotard syndrome is a rare condition characterized by nihilistic delusions concerning body or life that can be found in several neuropsychiatry conditions. It is typically associated with depressive symptoms. Method. We present a case of Cotard syndrome without depressive symptoms in the context of known paranoid schizophrenia. A literature review of Cotard syndrome in schizophrenia was performed. Results. Although there are few descriptions of this syndrome in schizophrenia, patients usually present depressive mood and psychomotor retardation, features not seen in our patient. Loss of the sense of the inner self, present in schizophrenia, could explain patient's symptomatology but neurobiological bases of this syndrome remain unclear. Conclusion. Despite not being considered in actual classifications, Cotard syndrome is still relevant and psychiatric evaluation is critical to diagnosing and treating this condition in psychiatric patients.

  8. Cotard Syndrome without Depressive Symptoms in a Schizophrenic Patient

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    Pedro Morgado

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cotard syndrome is a rare condition characterized by nihilistic delusions concerning body or life that can be found in several neuropsychiatry conditions. It is typically associated with depressive symptoms. Method. We present a case of Cotard syndrome without depressive symptoms in the context of known paranoid schizophrenia. A literature review of Cotard syndrome in schizophrenia was performed. Results. Although there are few descriptions of this syndrome in schizophrenia, patients usually present depressive mood and psychomotor retardation, features not seen in our patient. Loss of the sense of the inner self, present in schizophrenia, could explain patient’s symptomatology but neurobiological bases of this syndrome remain unclear. Conclusion. Despite not being considered in actual classifications, Cotard syndrome is still relevant and psychiatric evaluation is critical to diagnosing and treating this condition in psychiatric patients.

  9. The temporolimbic system theory of positive schizophrenic symptoms.

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    Bogerts, B

    1997-01-01

    This article proposes that subtle structural and functional disturbance of limbic key structures in the medial temporal lobe-especially of the left hippocampal formation and parahippocampal gyrus-can explain the so-called positive symptoms of schizophrenia. After presenting pathophysiological considerations linking limbic dysfunction to schizophrenia, the article reviews evidence from structural, biochemical, and functional studies supporting the theory. Also discussed here are neurodevelopmental and laterality aspects, as well as predictions, questions, and future tasks derived from the theory.

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging DTI-FT study on schizophrenic patients with typical negative first symptoms.

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    Gu, Chengyu; Zhang, Ying; Wei, Fuquan; Cheng, Yougen; Cao, Yulin; Hou, Hongtao

    2016-09-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) together with a white matter fiber tracking (FT) technique was used to assess different brain white matter structures and functionalities in schizophrenic patients with typical first negative symptoms. In total, 30 schizophrenic patients with typical first negative symptoms, comprising an observation group were paired 1:1 according to gender, age, right-handedness, and education, with 30 healthy individuals in a control group. Individuals in each group underwent routine MRI and DTI examination of the brain, and diffusion-tensor tractography (DTT) data were obtained through whole brain analysis based on voxel and tractography. The results were expressed by fractional anisotropy (FA) values. The schizophrenic patients were evaluated using a positive and negative symptom scale (PANSS) as well as a Global Assessment Scale (GAS). The results of the study showed that routine MRIs identified no differences between the two groups. However, compared with the control group, the FA values obtained by DTT from the deep left prefrontal cortex, the right deep temporal lobe, the white matter of the inferior frontal gyrus and part of the corpus callosum were significantly lower in the observation group (Pscale value in the observation group averaged 7.7±1.5, and the negative scale averaged 46.6±5.9, while the general psychopathology scale averaged 65.4±10.3, and GAS averaged 53.8±19.2. The Pearson statistical analysis, the left deep prefrontal cortex, the right deep temporal lobe, the white matter of the inferior frontal gyrus and the FA value of part of the corpus callosum in the observation group was negatively correlated with the negative scale (Pnegative symptoms and the application of MRI DTI-FT can improve diagnostic accuracy.

  11. [Intensity of negative symptoms, working memory and executive functions disturbances in schizophrenic patients in partial remission period].

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    Hintze, Beata; Borkowska, Alina

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the correlation between the level of working memory and executive functions impairment in schizophrenic subjects in their partial remission period and the intensity of psychopathological symptoms measured by PANSS scale. 45 patients with schizophrenia were included in the study (28 male and 17 female), aged 18-46 (mean 27 +/- 7) years during partial remission of psychopathological symptoms (PANSS partial remission period, the significant dysfunctions of working memory and executive functions show association with negative (not positive) schizophrenic symptoms.

  12. Hippocampal Temporal-Parietal Junction Interaction in the Production of Psychotic Symptoms: A Framework for Understanding the Schizophrenic Syndrome

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    Cynthia Gayle Wible

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A framework is described for understanding the schizophrenic syndrome at the brain systems level. It is hypothesized that over-activation of dynamic gesture and social perceptual processes in the temporal-parietal occipital junction (TPJ, posterior superior temporal sulcus (PSTS and surrounding regions produce the syndrome (including positive and negative symptoms, their prevalence, prodromal signs and cognitive deficits. Hippocampal system hyper-activity and atrophy have been consistently found in schizophrenia. Hippocampal activity is highly related to activity in the TPJ and may be a source of over-excitation of the TPJ and surrounding regions. Strong evidence for this comes from in-vivo recordings in humans during psychotic episodes. The TPJ and PSTS play a key role in the perception (and production of dynamic social, emotional and attentional gestures for the self and others (e.g., body/face/eye gestures, audiovisual speech, prosody. The single cell representation of dynamic gestures is multimodal (auditory, visual, tactile, matching the predominant hallucinatory categories in schizophrenia. Inherent in the single cell perceptual signal of dynamic gesture representations is a computation of intention, agency, and anticipation or expectancy (for the self and others. The neurons are also tuned or biased to detect threat related emotions. Abnormal over-activation in this system could produce the conscious hallucination of a voice (audiovisual speech, person or a touch. Over-activation could interfere with attentional/emotional gesture perception and production (negative symptoms. It could produce the unconscious feeling of being watched, followed or of a social situation unfolding along with accompanying perception of intent and agency inherent in those representations (delusions. Cognitive disturbances in attention, predictive social processing, agency, working memory, and a bias toward the perception of threat would also be predicted.

  13. Measurement of plasma homovanillic acid concentrations in schizophrenic patients.

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    Kaminski, R; Powchick, P; Warne, P A; Goldstein, M; McQueeney, R T; Davidson, M

    1990-01-01

    1. Several lines of evidence suggest that abnormalities of central dopaminergic transmission may be involved in the expression of some schizophrenic symptoms. However, elucidation of the role of dopamine (DA) in schizophrenia has eluded investigative efforts partially because no accurate and easily repeatable measure of brain DA activity exists. 2. The development of a technique to measure homovanillic acid in plasma has offered the possibility of performing serial measurements of this major DA metabolite. 3. Assuming that plasma homovanillic acid (PHVA) concentrations is an index of brain DA activity, measurement of PHVA can play a role in elucidating the DA abnormality in schizophrenia. 4. Results to date suggest that plasma homovanillic acid concentrations are lower in chronic schizophrenic patients compared to normal controls, and that PHVA values correlate with schizophrenic symptom severity. 5. In addition, PHVA levels were shown to initially rise and subsequently decline during chronic neuroleptic administration in treatment responsive but not in treatment refractory schizophrenic patients.

  14. Correlation between neuropsychological and social cognition measures and symptom dimensions in schizophrenic patients.

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    Altamura, A Carlo; Caletti, Elisabetta; Paoli, Riccardo Augusto; Cigliobianco, Michela; Zugno, Elisa; Grillo, Paolo; Prunas, Cecilia; Caldiroli, Alice; Zago, Stefano

    2015-12-15

    Neurocognitive and social cognition deficits have been largely reported in Schizophrenia (SKZ) but their association with psychopathology remains uncertain. Our purpose was to explore the relationship between symptom dimensions and neuropsychological performances. We enrolled 35 stabilized schizophrenic outpatients of the Department of Psychiatry of Policlinico Hospital, University of Milan, who completed psychiatric Rating Scales, the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) and the Executive and Social Cognition Battery (ESCB). Disorganized dimension seems to have the most significant impact on cognition, being associated with performance in several BACS subtests (verbal memory, working memory, motor speed, symbol coding, Tower of London) and ESCB tasks (MET and Hotel task number of tasks attempted, number of broken MET rules, sum of deviations in Hotel Task). Positive dimension correlated with performance in verbal fluency, negative dimension with IOWA Test results, cognitive dimension with MET number of inefficiencies and Eyes test score. Impulsive-aggressive and depressive dimensions weakly correlated only with Faux Pas test. Our study supports the existence of a specific disorganized dimension in SKZ, separated from cognitive dimension evaluated through clinical instruments (e.g. PANSS), but capable of influencing cognitive abilities. Furthermore, it strengthens the validity of ecological tasks in evaluating cognition in SKZ. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Correlation of regional cerebral blood flow and positive/negative symptoms in schizophrenic patients: covariate SPM analysis

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    Lim, Ki Chun; Kim, J. S.; Kim, C. Y.; Lee, H. K.; Moon, D. H. [Ulsan University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    We investigated the relations between rCBF and psychopathology in schizophrenic patients using a SPM99. Thirty-two patients(M/F:22/10, 25{+-}5,6yr) with active symptoms of schizophrenia and 15 age matched normal controls underwent Tc-99m ECD brain perfusion SPECT. Psychopathology of all patients were also assessed according to PANSS (positive and negative syndrome scale in schizophrenia). By covariate SPM analysis, specific areas where rCBF correlated with sum scores of positive/negative synptoms were identified. Regional CBF of schizophrenics was different in several cortical regions from normal controls. Sum scores of positive symptoms were positively correlated with rCBF of both rectal and inferior frontal gyri and right transverse temporal gyrus, and negatively correlated with rCBF of left lingual and right middle temporal gyri (p<0.01). Sum scores of negative symptoms were positively correlated with rCBF of both middle temporal gyri and negatively correlated with rCBF of right superior parietal lobule and medial frontal gyrus (p<0.01). Positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia were correlated with rCBF change in different regions of cerebral association cortex.

  16. Correlation of regional cerebral blood flow and positive/negative symptoms in schizophrenic patients: covariate SPM analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Ki Chun; Kim, J. S.; Kim, C. Y.; Lee, H. K.; Moon, D. H.

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the relations between rCBF and psychopathology in schizophrenic patients using a SPM99. Thirty-two patients(M/F:22/10, 25±5,6yr) with active symptoms of schizophrenia and 15 age matched normal controls underwent Tc-99m ECD brain perfusion SPECT. Psychopathology of all patients were also assessed according to PANSS (positive and negative syndrome scale in schizophrenia). By covariate SPM analysis, specific areas where rCBF correlated with sum scores of positive/negative synptoms were identified. Regional CBF of schizophrenics was different in several cortical regions from normal controls. Sum scores of positive symptoms were positively correlated with rCBF of both rectal and inferior frontal gyri and right transverse temporal gyrus, and negatively correlated with rCBF of left lingual and right middle temporal gyri (p<0.01). Sum scores of negative symptoms were positively correlated with rCBF of both middle temporal gyri and negatively correlated with rCBF of right superior parietal lobule and medial frontal gyrus (p<0.01). Positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia were correlated with rCBF change in different regions of cerebral association cortex

  17. The loudness dependence of auditory evoked potentials (LDAEP as an indicator of serotonergic dysfunction in patients with predominant schizophrenic negative symptoms.

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    Christine Wyss

    Full Text Available Besides the influence of dopaminergic neurotransmission on negative symptoms in schizophrenia, there is evidence that alterations of serotonin (5-HT system functioning also play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of these disabling symptoms. From post mortem and genetic studies on patients with negative symptoms a 5-HT dysfunction is documented. In addition atypical neuroleptics and some antidepressants improve negative symptoms via serotonergic action. So far no research has been done to directly clarify the association between the serotonergic functioning and the extent of negative symptoms. Therefore, we examined the status of brain 5-HT level in negative symptoms in schizophrenia by means of the loudness dependence of auditory evoked potentials (LDAEP. The LDAEP provides a well established and non-invasive in vivo marker of the central 5-HT activity. We investigated 13 patients with schizophrenia with predominant negative symptoms treated with atypical neuroleptics and 13 healthy age and gender matched controls with a 32-channel EEG. The LDAEP of the N1/P2 component was evaluated by dipole source analysis and single electrode estimation at Cz. Psychopathological parameters, nicotine use and medication were assessed to control for additional influencing factors. Schizophrenic patients showed significantly higher LDAEP in both hemispheres than controls. Furthermore, the LDAEP in the right hemisphere in patients was related to higher scores in scales assessing negative symptoms. A relationship with positive symptoms was not found. These data might suggest a diminished central serotonergic neurotransmission in patients with predominant negative symptoms.

  18. Dose reduction of risperidone and olanzapine can improve cognitive function and negative symptoms in stable schizophrenic patients: A single-blinded, 52-week, randomized controlled study.

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    Zhou, Yanling; Li, Guannan; Li, Dan; Cui, Hongmei; Ning, Yuping

    2018-05-01

    The long-term effects of dose reduction of atypical antipsychotics on cognitive function and symptomatology in stable patients with schizophrenia remain unclear. We sought to determine the change in cognitive function and symptomatology after reducing risperidone or olanzapine dosage in stable schizophrenic patients. Seventy-five stabilized schizophrenic patients prescribed risperidone (≥4 mg/day) or olanzapine (≥10 mg/day) were randomly divided into a dose-reduction group ( n=37) and a maintenance group ( n=38). For the dose-reduction group, the dose of antipsychotics was reduced by 50%; for the maintenance group, the dose remained unchanged throughout the whole study. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Negative Symptom Assessment-16, Rating Scale for Extrapyramidal Side Effects, and Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (MATRICS) Consensus Cognitive Battery were measured at baseline, 12, 28, and 52 weeks. Linear mixed models were performed to compare the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Negative Symptom Assessment-16, Rating Scale for Extrapyramidal Side Effects and MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery scores between groups. The linear mixed model showed significant time by group interactions on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale negative symptoms, Negative Symptom Assessment-16, Rating Scale for Extrapyramidal Side Effects, speed of processing, attention/vigilance, working memory and total score of MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (all pNegative Syndrome Scale negative subscale, Negative Symptom Assessment-16, Rating Scale for Extrapyramidal Side Effects, speed of processing, working memory and total score of MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery for the dose reduction group compared with those for the maintenance group (all pnegative symptoms in patients with stabilized schizophrenia.

  19. Signs and symptoms of developmental abnormalities of the genitourinary tract

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    Paulo Cesar Koch Nogueira

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: The abnormalities of the genitourinary tract development are the leading cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD in children. The diagnosis of this disease in Brazil is late and incomplete, which results in increased morbidity and mortality in this age group. Early diagnosis of this condition is the prerogative of generalist pediatricians, and the aim of this study was to review the clinical signs and symptoms associated with developmental abnormalities of the genitourinary tract. Data sources: Based on the description of a symbolic clinical case, the authors conducted a non-systematic review of medical literature. Data synthesis: The results suggest that the following data should be used as a warning for early diagnosis of affected children: (a combined urinary tract abnormalities (chromosomal abnormalities; sequence of malformations [VACTERLand Prune-Belly]; and musculoskeletal, digestive tract, heart, and nervous system malformations; (b previous history (congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract [CAKUT] in the family, low birth weight, and oligoamnios; (c clinical signs (polyuria/nocturia, urinary tract infection, systemic arterial hypertension, failure to thrive, weak urinary stream, difficulty to start urination, distended bladder, non-monosymptomatic enuresis, urinary/urge incontinence, and bowel and bladder dysfunction; and (d pre- and postnatal ultrasonographic alterations (increased anteroposterior diameter of the renal pelvis, mainly in the third trimester of pregnancy; single kidney; hydronephrosis associated with other abnormalities; and hydronephrosis with parenchymal involvement in the post-neonatal assessment. Conclusion: The suggestions shown here can help the pediatrician to establish clinical hypotheses for the early diagnosis of developmental abnormalities of the genitourinary tract without resorting to expensive and invasive procedures.

  20. Depression and Suicide in Schizophrenic Patients.

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    Salama, Aziz A.

    1988-01-01

    Identified schizophrenic patients as distinctive subgroup of patients who can suffer from major depressive illness and can commit suicide. Found 22.4 percent of 620 schizophrenics in psychiatric facility showed symptoms of major depressive episode. Seven patients committed suicide during acute phase of illness, 9 attempted suicide while…

  1. Effects of handedness (left vs right) and cannabis abuse on intermanual coordination and negative symptoms in schizophrenic patients of the paranoid type.

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    Gorynia, Inge; Schwaiger, Markus

    2011-09-01

    Intermanual coordination as an index of interhemispheric transfer and negative symptoms were investigated in 50 left- and 42 right-handed schizophrenic inpatients of the paranoid type, also including drug abusers. The primary objective was to show that there were higher values in intermanual coordination and fewer manifestations of negative symptoms in the left-handed compared to the right-handed patients. This assumption was based on previous studies. Most importantly, right- and left-handed patients showed a different behaviour in intermanual coordination, when the duration of illness was taken into consideration. Thus, long-term left-handed paranoid patients performed better in intermanual coordination and showed fewer manifestations of negative symptoms than did long-term right-handed patients. These results were true for the large group of all patients, and among them for the subgroup of patients without drug abuse. Consequently, higher scores in intermanual coordination in left-handed patients may be related to a better interhemispheric crosstalk resulting in less pronounced negative symptoms. Secondary objectives assessed by explorative data analysis included the effects of cannabis abuse. While cannabis abuse may be more prevalent in left-handed patients, its effects may be more pronounced in right-handed patients, scoring higher in intermanual coordination and lower in manifestations of negative symptoms.

  2. Frontal dopamine D(2/3) receptor binding in drug-naive first-episode schizophrenic patients correlates with positive psychotic symptoms and gender

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    Glenthoj, Birte Y; Mackeprang, Torben; Svarer, Claus

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to examine extrastriatal dopamine D(2/3) receptor binding and psychopathology in schizophrenic patients, and to relate binding potential (BP) values to psychopathology. METHODS: Twenty-five drug-naive schizophrenic patients and 20 healthy controls were examined...

  3. Signs and symptoms of developmental abnormalities of the genitourinary tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Cesar Koch Nogueira

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The abnormalities of the genitourinary tract development are the leading cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD in children. The diagnosis of this disease in Brazil is late and incomplete, which results in increased morbidity and mortality in this age group. Early diagnosis of this condition is the prerogative of generalist pediatricians, and the aim of this study was to review the clinical signs and symptoms associated with developmental abnormalities of the genitourinary tract. Data sources: Based on the description of a symbolic clinical case, the authors conducted a non-systematic review of medical literature. Data synthesis: The results suggest that the following data should be used as a warning for early diagnosis of affected children: (a combined urinary tract abnormalities (chromosomal abnormalities; sequence of malformations [VACTERLand Prune-Belly]; and musculoskeletal, digestive tract, heart, and nervous system malformations; (b previous history (congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract [CAKUT] in the family, low birth weight, and oligoamnios; (c clinical signs (polyuria/nocturia, urinary tract infection, systemic arterial hypertension, failure to thrive, weak urinary stream, difficulty to start urination, distended bladder, non-monosymptomatic enuresis, urinary/urge incontinence, and bowel and bladder dysfunction; and (d pre- and postnatal ultrasonographic alterations (increased anteroposterior diameter of the renal pelvis, mainly in the third trimester of pregnancy; single kidney; hydronephrosis associated with other abnormalities; and hydronephrosis with parenchymal involvement in the post-neonatal assessment. Conclusion: The suggestions shown here can help the pediatrician to establish clinical hypotheses for the early diagnosis of developmental abnormalities of the genitourinary tract without resorting to expensive and invasive procedures. Resumo: Objetivo: As anormalidades do desenvolvimento do trato

  4. Effects of vitamins, fatty acids, minerals, and other dietary supplements on schizophrenic symptoms in people with schizophrenia

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    Smedslund, Geir; Berg, Rigmor C.

    2011-01-01

    ENGLISH: There is considerable scientific disagreement about the possible effects of dietary supplements on mental health and illness. Do dietary supplements (possibly in megadoses) have an effect on symptoms and consequences of schizophrenia? We critically appraised randomized controlled trials about supplemental vitamins, fatty acids and other dietary supplements given to people diagnosed with schizophrenia. The primary outcome was symptoms of schizophrenia. We evaluated the evidence to be ...

  5. Signs and symptoms of developmental abnormalities of the genitourinary tract

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    Paulo Cesar Koch Nogueira

    2016-05-01

    Conclusion: The suggestions shown here can help the pediatrician to establish clinical hypotheses for the early diagnosis of developmental abnormalities of the genitourinary tract without resorting to expensive and invasive procedures.

  6. Prediction of short-term changes in symptom severity by baseline plasma homovanillic acid levels in schizophrenic patients receiving clozapine.

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    Sumiyoshi, T; Hasegawa, M; Jayathilake, K; Meltzer, H Y

    1997-03-24

    The relationship between pretreatment levels of plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) and the outcome of clozapine treatment was studied in 18 male patients with schizophrenia who were resistant to treatment with conventional neuroleptics. After 6 months of clozapine treatment, 7 patients demonstrated > or = 20% decrease in the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) (responders), while 11 patients did not (non-responders). Responders and non-responders did not differ with respect to the baseline pHVA level. The BPRS Positive Symptom scores at 6 weeks and 3 months, but not those at baseline and 6 months, following initiation of clozapine treatment negatively correlated with pHVA levels for all patients. The correlations became stronger when only responders were included. No significant correlation between Positive Symptom scores and pHVA levels was observed for non-responders. The BPRS Total and Negative Symptom scores did not correlate with pHVA for all patients, responders or non-responders at any time. The percent decrease in the BPRS Positive Symptom scores from baseline at 6 weeks following clozapine treatment correlated significantly with pHVA levels in responders. These results suggest that pretreatment levels of pHVA can be used to predict relatively short-term changes in the positive symptoms of patients with schizophrenia receiving clozapine treatment, particularly for clozapine responders.

  7. Disordered semantic representation in schizophrenic temporal cortex revealed by neuromagnetic response patterns

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    Silberman Yaron

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Loosening of associations and thought disruption are key features of schizophrenic psychopathology. Alterations in neural networks underlying this basic abnormality have not yet been sufficiently identified. Previously, we demonstrated that spatio-temporal clustering of magnetic brain responses to pictorial stimuli map categorical representations in temporal cortex. This result has opened the possibility to quantify associative strength within and across semantic categories in schizophrenic patients. We hypothesized that in contrast to controls, schizophrenic patients exhibit disordered representations of semantic categories. Methods The spatio-temporal clusters of brain magnetic activities elicited by object pictures related to super-ordinate (flowers, animals, furniture, clothes and base-level (e.g. tulip, rose, orchid, sunflower categories were analysed in the source space for the time epochs 170–210 and 210–450 ms following stimulus onset and were compared between 10 schizophrenic patients and 10 control subjects. Results Spatio-temporal correlations of responses elicited by base-level concepts and the difference of within vs. across super-ordinate categories were distinctly lower in patients than in controls. Additionally, in contrast to the well-defined categorical representation in control subjects, unsupervised clustering indicated poorly defined representation of semantic categories in patients. Within the patient group, distinctiveness of categorical representation in the temporal cortex was positively related to negative symptoms and tended to be inversely related to positive symptoms. Conclusion Schizophrenic patients show a less organized representation of semantic categories in clusters of magnetic brain responses than healthy adults. This atypical neural network architecture may be a correlate of loosening of associations, promoting positive symptoms.

  8. The Sluggishness of Early-Stage Face Processing (N170 is Correlated with Negative and General Psychiatric Symptoms in Schizophrenia

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    Yingjun Zheng

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Patients with schizophrenia exhibit consistent abnormalities in face-evoked N170. However, the relation between face-specific N170 abnormalities in schizophrenic patients and schizophrenia clinical characters, which probably based on common neural mechanisms, is still rarely discovered. Using event-related potentials (ERPs recording in both schizophrenic patients and healthy controls, the amplitude and latency of N170 were recorded when participants were passively watching face and non-face (table pictures. The results showed a face-specific N170 latency sluggishness in schizophrenic patients, i.e., the N170 latencies of schizophrenic patients were significantly longer than those of healthy controls under both upright face and inverted face conditions. Importantly, the face-related N170 latencies of the left temporo-occipital electrodes (P7 and PO7 were positively correlated with negative symptoms and general psychiatric symptoms. Besides the analysis of latencies, the N170 amplitudes became weaker in schizophrenic patients under both inverted face and inverted table conditions, with a left hemisphere dominant. More interestingly, the FIEs (the difference of N170 amplitudes between upright and inverted faces were absent in schizophrenic patients, which suggested the abnormality of holistic face processing. These results above revealed a marked symptom-relevant neural sluggishness of face-specific processing in schizophrenic patients, supporting the demyelinating hypothesis of schizophrenia.

  9. Symptoms associated with an abnormal echocardiogram in elderly primary care hypertension patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringoir, L.; Widdershoven, J. W.; Pedersen, S. S.

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence and diagnostic value of heart failure symptoms in elderly primary care patients with hypertension is unknown. Aim To assess the prevalence, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of symptoms in association with an abnormal echocardiogram. Design...... %, and oedema by 13 %. Oedema was the only symptom significantly associated with an abnormal echocardiogram (positive predictive value was 45 %, sensitivity 20 %, and specificity 90 %, OR 2.12; 95 % CI=1.23-3.64), apart from higher age (OR 1.06; 95 % CI=1.03-1.09), previous myocardial infarction (OR 3.00; 95...

  10. Abnormal duodenal loop demonstrated by X-ray. Correlation to symptoms and prognosis of dyspepsia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thommesen, P.; Funch-Jensen, P.

    1986-01-01

    The occurrence of dyspeptic symptoms has previously been correlated with the shape of the duodenal loop in patients with X-ray-negative dyspepsia. An abnormal duodenal loop was associated with a significantly higher incidence of symtoms provoked by meals, vomiting, regurgitations, heartburn, and the irritable bowel syndrome. 89% of these patients (26 patients with a normal duodenal loop and 39 patients with abnormal duodenal loop) were available for a 5-year follow-up study of symptomatic outcome. The incidence of symptoms provoked by meals was still significantly higher in patients with an abnormal duodenal loop, and there was also a significant difference concerning symptomatic outcome. Approximately 75% of the patients with a normal duodenal loop had improved, and 25% had unchanged clinical conditions. Approximately 50% of the patients with an abnormal duodenal loop had improved, and 50% had an unchanged or even deteriorated clinical condition.

  11. Impaired coupling of local and global functional feedbacks underlies abnormal synchronization and negative symptoms of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Kyungchul; Shin, Kyung Soon; Shin, Dongkwan; Hwang, Jae Yeon; Kim, June Sic; Jang, Joon Hwan; Chung, Chun Kee; Kwon, Jun Soo; Cho, Kwang-Hyun

    2013-04-10

    Abnormal synchronization of brain oscillations is found to be associated with various core symptoms of schizophrenia. However, the underlying mechanism of this association remains yet to be elucidated. In this study, we found that coupled local and global feedback (CLGF) circuits in the cortical functional network are related to the abnormal synchronization and also correlated to the negative symptom of schizophrenia. Analysis of the magnetoencephalography data obtained from patients with chronic schizophrenia during rest revealed an increase in beta band synchronization and a reduction in gamma band power compared to healthy controls. Using a feedback identification method based on non-causal impulse responses, we constructed functional feedback networks and found that CLGF circuits were significantly reduced in schizophrenia. From computational analysis on the basis of the Wilson-Cowan model, we unraveled that the CLGF circuits are critically involved in the abnormal synchronization and the dynamical switching between beta and gamma bands power in schizophrenia. Moreover, we found that the abundance of CLGF circuits was negatively correlated with the development of negative symptoms of schizophrenia, suggesting that the negative symptom is closely related to the impairment of this circuit. Our study implicates that patients with schizophrenia might have the impaired coupling of inter- and intra-regional functional feedbacks and that the CLGF circuit might serve as a critical bridge between abnormal synchronization and the negative symptoms of schizophrenia.

  12. Relationship of symptoms with sleep-stage abnormalities in obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Basunia

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS present with a variety of sleep-related symptoms. In polysomnography, sleep architecture is almost always abnormal, but it is not known which of the sleep-stage abnormalities are related to symptoms. Finding key sleep-stage abnormality that cause symptoms may be of therapeutic importance to alleviate symptoms. So far the mainstay of treatment is continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP/bi-level positive airway pressure (BIPAP therapy, but many patients are non-compliant to it. Correcting the sleep-stage abnormality that cause symptoms by pharmacotherapy may become an important adjunct to CPAP/BIPAP therapy. Methods: A cross-sectional study. Adult subjects who attended a sleep laboratory for diagnostic polysomnography for a period of 1 month were recruited consecutively. OSAHS was diagnosed using American Academy of Sleep Medicine criteria. Subjects filled a questionnaire for symptoms prior to polysomnography. Results: Thirty subjects, of whom 83.3% were obese, met diagnostic criteria, with males constituting 46.7% and females constituting 53%. Mean age was 53.40±11.60 years. Sleep architecture comprised N1 19.50±19.00%, N2 53.93±13.39%, N3 3.90±19.50%, and rapid eye movement 8.92±6.21%. Excessive fatigue or sleepiness, waking up tired, falling asleep during the day, trouble paying attention, snoring and insomnia were significantly related to decreased N3 sleep. Conclusions: Most of the symptoms in OSAHS in adults are related to decreased stage N3 sleep. If confirmed by larger controlled studies, correcting N3 sleep deficiency by pharmacotherapy may become an important adjunct to CPAP/BIPAP therapy to alleviate symptoms.

  13. Are premorbid abnormal personality traits associated with behavioural and psychological symptoms in dementia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Jack; Abraham, Rajesh; Nicholas, Helen; Chan, Tom; Vanvlymen, Jeremy; Lovestone, Simon; Boothby, Harry

    2016-09-01

    The study aims to investigate associations between behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) and abnormal premorbid personality traits. Data were obtained from 217 patients with a diagnosis of probable Alzheimer's disease. Behavioural and psychological symptoms of late-onset dementia were assessed with the Neuropsychiatric Inventory. Premorbid personality traits were assessed using the Standardised Assessment of Personality. Abnormal premorbid personality traits were categorised with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders fourth edition and International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems-10 diagnostic criteria for personality disorders. Abnormal premorbid personality traits were associated with increased behavioural and psychological symptoms in dementia. Cluster A (solitary/paranoid) premorbid personality traits were associated with anxiety, depression and hallucinations. Cluster C (anxious/dependent) traits were associated with a syndrome of depression. The presence of Clusters A (solitary/paranoid) and C (anxious/dependent) abnormal premorbid personality traits seems to affect the expression of certain behavioural and psychological symptoms in dementia, depression in particular. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Dimensions of normal and abnormal personality: Elucidating DSM-IV personality disorder symptoms in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tromp, N.B.; Koot, H.M.

    2010-01-01

    The present study aimed to elucidate dimensions of normal and abnormal personality underlying DSM-IV personality disorder (PD) symptoms in 168 adolescents referred to mental health services. Dimensions derived from the Big Five of normal personality and from Livesley's (2006) conceptualization of

  15. The Association of PTSD Symptom Severity with Localized Hippocampus and Amygdala Abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiki, Teddy J.; Averill, Christopher L.; Wrocklage, Kristen M.; Schweinsburg, Brian; Scott, J. Cobb; Martini, Brenda; Averill, Lynnette A.; Southwick, Steven M.; Krystal, John H.; Abdallah, Chadi G.

    2017-01-01

    Background The hippocampus and amygdala have been repeatedly implicated in the psychopathology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). While numerous structural neuroimaging studies examined these two structures in PTSD, these analyses have largely been limited to volumetric measures. Recent advances in vertex-based neuroimaging methods have made it possible to identify specific locations of subtle morphometric changes within a structure of interest. Methods In this cross-sectional study, we used high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging to examine the relationship between PTSD symptomatology, as measured using the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale for the DSM-IV (CAPS), and structural shape of the hippocampus and amygdala using vertex-wise shape analyses in a group of combat-exposed US Veterans (N = 69). Results Following correction for multiple comparisons and controlling for age and cranial volume, we found that participants with more severe PTSD symptoms showed an indentation in the anterior half of the right hippocampus and an indentation in the dorsal region of the right amygdala (corresponding to the centromedial amygdala). Post hoc analysis using stepwise regression suggest that among PTSD symptom clusters, arousal symptoms explain most of the variance in the hippocampal abnormality, whereas re-experiencing symptoms explain most of the variance in the amygdala abnormality. Conclusion The results provide evidence of localized abnormalities in the anterior hippocampus and centromedial amygdala in combat-exposed US Veterans suffering from PTSD symptoms. This novel finding provides a more fine-grained analysis of structural abnormalities in PTSD and may be informative for understanding the neurobiology of the disorder. PMID:28825050

  16. Swallowing abnormalities in multiple sclerosis: correlation between videofluoroscopy and subjective symptoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiesner, W.; Steinbrich, W. [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital of Basel (Switzerland); Wetzel, S.G.; Radue, E.W. [Institute of Neuroradiology, University Hospital Basel (Switzerland); Kappos, L.; Hoshi, M.M. [Department of Neurology, University Hospital of Basel (Switzerland); Witte, U. [Section of Logopedia, University Hospital of Basel (Switzerland)

    2002-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate if subjective symptoms indicating an impaired deglutition correlate with videofluoroscopic findings in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Videofluoroscopic examinations of 18 MS patients were analyzed by a radiologist and a logopedist and compared with the symptoms of these patients. Four patients complained about permanent dysphagia. Six patients reported mild and intermittent difficulties in swallowing, but were asymptomatic at the time of videofluoroscopy. Eight patients had no symptoms regarding their deglutition. All patients (n=4) who complained of permanent dysphagia showed aspiration. All patients (n=6) with mild and intermittent difficulties in swallowing showed undercoating of the epiglottis and/or laryngeal penetration. Of those 8 patients without any swallowing symptoms, only 2 had a normal videofluoroscopy. Swallowing abnormalities seem to be much more frequent in patients with MS than generally believed and they may easily be missed clinically as long as the patients do not aspirate. (orig.)

  17. Correlations between abnormal iron metabolism and non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wu; Zhi, Yan; Yuan, Yongsheng; Zhang, Bingfeng; Shen, Yuting; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Kezhong; Xu, Yun

    2018-07-01

    Despite a growing body of evidence suggests that abnormal iron metabolism plays an important role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD), few studies explored its role in non-motor symptoms (NMS) of PD. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between abnormal iron metabolism and NMS of PD. Seventy PD patients and 64 healthy controls were consecutively recruited to compare serum iron, ceruloplasmin, ferritin, and transferrin levels. We evaluated five classic NMS, including depression, anxiety, pain, sleep disorder, and autonomic dysfunction in PD patients using the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD), the Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA), the short form of the McGill Pain Questionnaire, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and the Scale for Outcomes in Parkinson's disease for Autonomic Symptoms, respectively. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used to investigate the correlations between abnormal iron metabolism and NMS. No differences in serum ceruloplasmin and ferritin levels were examined between PD patients and healthy controls, but we observed significantly decreased serum iron levels and increased serum transferrin levels in PD patients in comparison with healthy controls. After eliminating confounding factors, HAMD scores and HAMA scores were both negatively correlated with serum iron levels and positively correlated with serum transferrin levels. In summary, abnormal iron metabolism might play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of depression and anxiety in PD. Serums levels of iron and transferrin could be peripheral markers for depression and anxiety in PD.

  18. Gamma band oscillations: a key to understanding schizophrenia symptoms and neural circuit abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, James M; McCarley, Robert W

    2016-05-01

    We review our current understanding of abnormal γ band oscillations in schizophrenia, their association with symptoms and the underlying cortical circuit abnormality, with a particular focus on the role of fast-spiking parvalbumin gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurons in the disease state. Clinical electrophysiological studies of schizophrenia patients and pharmacological models of the disorder show an increase in spontaneous γ band activity (not stimulus-evoked) measures. These findings provide a crucial link between preclinical and clinical work examining the role of γ band activity in schizophrenia. MRI-based experiments measuring cortical GABA provides evidence supporting impaired GABAergic neurotransmission in schizophrenia patients, which is correlated with γ band activity level. Several studies suggest that stimulation of the cortical circuitry, directly or via subcortical structures, has the potential to modulate cortical γ activity, and improve cognitive function. Abnormal γ band activity is observed in patients with schizophrenia and disease models in animals, and is suggested to underlie the psychosis and cognitive/perceptual deficits. Convergent evidence from both clinical and preclinical studies suggest the central factor in γ band abnormalities is impaired GABAergic neurotransmission, particularly in a subclass of neurons which express parvalbumin. Rescue of γ band abnormalities presents an intriguing option for therapeutic intervention.

  19. Pulmonary function abnormalities and airway irritation symptoms of metal fumes exposure on automobile spot welders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jiin-Chyuan John; Hsu, Kuang-Hung; Shen, Wu-Shiun

    2006-06-01

    Spot or resistance welding has been considered less hazardous than other types of welding. Automobile manufacturing is a major industry in Taiwan. Spot and arc welding are common processes in this industry. The respiratory effects on automobile spot welders exposed to metal fumes are investigated. The cohort consisted of 41 male auto-body spot welders, 76 male arc welders, 71 male office workers, and 59 assemblers without welding exposure. Inductivity Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrophotometer (ICP-MS) was applied to detect metals' (zinc, copper, nickel) levels in the post-shift urine samples. Demographic data, work history, smoking status, and respiratory tract irritation symptoms were gathered by a standard self-administered questionnaire. Pulmonary function tests were also performed. There were significantly higher values for average urine metals' (zinc, copper, nickel) levels in spot welders and arc welders than in the non-welding controls. There were 4 out of 23 (17.4%) abnormal forced vital capacity (FVC) among the high-exposed spot welders, 2 out of 18 (11.1%) among the low-exposed spot welders, and 6 out of 130 (4.6%) non-welding-exposed workers. There was a significant linear trend between spot welding exposure and the prevalence of restrictive airway abnormalities (P = 0.036) after adjusting for other factors. There were 9 out of 23 (39.1%) abnormal peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) among high-exposed spot welders, 5 out of 18 (27.8%) among the low-exposed spot welders, and 28 out of 130 (21.5%) non-welding-exposed workers. There was a borderline significant linear trend between spot welding exposure and the prevalence of obstructive lung function abnormalities (P = 0.084) after adjusting for other factors. There was also a significant dose-response relationship of airway irritation symptoms (cough, phlegm, chronic bronchitis) among the spot welders. Arc welders with high exposure status also had a significant risk of obstructive lung abnormalities (PEFR

  20. Computed tomographic study of aged schizophrenic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seno, Haruo; Fujimoto, Akihiko; Ishino, Hiroshi; Shibata, Masahiro; Kuroda, Hiroyuki; Kanno, Hiroshi.

    1997-01-01

    The width of interhemispheric fissure, lateral ventricles and third ventricle were measured using cranial computed tomography (CT; linear method) in 45 elderly inpatients with chronic schizophrenia and in 28 age-matched control subjects. Twenty-three patients were men and 22 were women. In addition, Mini-Mental State Examination, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) and a subclass of BPRS were undertaken in all patients. There is a significant enlargement of the maximum width of the interhemispheric fissure (in both male and female) and a significant enlargement of ventricular system (more severe in men than in women) in aged schizophrenics, as seen with CT, compared with normal controls. These findings are consistent with previous studies of non-aged schizophrenic patients. Based upon the relation between psychiatric symptoms and CT findings, the most striking is a significant negative correlation between the third ventricle enlargement and the positive and depressive symptoms in all patients. This result suggests that the advanced third ventricle enlargement may decrease these symptoms in aged schizophrenics. (author)

  1. Grey matter abnormalities in children and adolescents with functional neurological symptom disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowska, Kasia; Griffiths, Kristi R; Foster, Sheryl L; Linton, James; Williams, Leanne M; Korgaonkar, Mayuresh S

    2017-01-01

    Functional neurological symptom disorder refers to the presence of neurological symptoms not explained by neurological disease. Although this disorder is presumed to reflect abnormal function of the brain, recent studies in adults show neuroanatomical abnormalities in brain structure . These structural brain abnormalities have been presumed to reflect long-term adaptations to the disorder, and it is unknown whether child and adolescent patients, with illness that is typically of shorter duration, show similar deficits or have normal brain structure. High-resolution, three-dimensional T1-weighted magnetic resonance images (MRIs) were acquired in 25 patients (aged 10-18 years) and 24 healthy controls. Structure was quantified in terms of grey matter volume using voxel-based morphometry. Post hoc, we examined whether regions of structural difference related to a measure of motor readiness to emotional signals and to clinical measures of illness duration, illness severity, and anxiety/depression. Patients showed greater volumes in the left supplementary motor area (SMA) and right superior temporal gyrus (STG) and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC) (corrected p disorder.

  2. Abnormal regional cerebral blood flow in systemic lupus erythematosus patients with psychiatric symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Kenji; Matsushima, Eisuke; Okubo, Yoshiro; Ohta, Katsuya; Murata, Yuji; Koike, Ryuji; Miyasaka, Nobuyuki; Kato, Motoichiro

    2005-07-01

    Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies have demonstrated decreased regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. However, no study has done voxel-based analysis using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) that can evaluate rCBF objectively, and the relationship between rCBF and psychiatric symptoms has not been well investigated. Using L,L-ethyl cysteinate dimer (99mTc ECD) SPECT and SPM, we aimed to clarify the association of rCBF changes with psychiatric symptoms in SLE patients whose magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed no morphological abnormalities. Twenty SLE patients and 19 healthy volunteers underwent 99mTc ECD SPECT. Data were collected from August 2000 to March 2003. SLE was diagnosed according to American College of Rheumatology criteria, and psychiatric symptoms were diagnosed according to ICD-10 criteria. On the basis of the modified Carbotte, Denburg, and Denburg method, the patients were classified into 3 groups: a group with major psychiatric symptoms (hallucinosis, delusional disorder, and mood disorder), a group with minor psychiatric symptoms (anxiety disorder, dissociative disorder, and emotionally labile disorder), and a group without psychiatric symptoms. Gross organic lesions were ruled out by brain MRI. Group comparisons of rCBF were performed with analysis using SPM99. SLE patients without MRI lesions showed decreased rCBF in the posterior cingulate gyrus and thalamus. The reduction in rCBF was overt in patients with major psychiatric symptoms. Our study indicated that SLE patients may have dysfunction in the posterior cingulate gyrus and thalamus and that this may be associated with the severity of psychiatric symptoms.

  3. [Hemoglobinopathies--clinical symptoms and diagnosis of thalassemia and abnormal hemoglobins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herklotz, R; Risch, L; Huber, A R

    2006-01-01

    Haemoglobinopathies constitute entities that are generated by either an abnormal haemoglobin or thalassaemias. While abnormal haemoglobins are caused by a qualitative structural abnormality of the haemoglobin molecule, thalassaemias result by diminished synthesis of the globin chain. Due to increased immigration from Asia, Africa and the Mediterranean to Northern Europe, haemoglobin S, haemoglobin C, haemoglobin E are also encountered commonly in Switzerland, while other abnormal haemoglobins are rare, yet can cause clinically relevant symptoms. This include haemolysis, polyglobulia, cyanosis or a combination thereof Thalassaemia-syndroms constitute with two million affected individuals to the most prelevant monogenetic diseases worldwide. Due to migration into Switzerland, they are also found quite commonly among our patients with 10-15 per cent of all hypochromic, microcytic, anemia second only to iron deficiency. Importantly, thalassaemias and haemoglobinopathies can occur concomitantly sometimes even with a normal haemoglobin variant. This results in wide-spread presentations, making diagnosis and clinical judgement difficult. We describe in this article not only physiological mechanisms and clinical presentation but also propose a step-wise diagnostic algorithm including selective use of molecular biology methods.

  4. Adult schizophrenic-like variant of adrenoleukodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szpak, G M; Lewandowska, E; Schmidt-Sidor, B; Popow, J; Kozłowski, P; Lechowicz, W; Kulczycki, J; Zaremba, J; Dymecki, J

    1996-01-01

    A 35-year-old man died after 30 months following the onset of the disease. There was a history of changes in his mental condition, including disturbances of behavior as well as the evidence of progressing dementia. The patient revealed gait disturbances and finally became bed ridden. Bizarre behavior and changes of mood with concurrent growing irritability which predominated during the course of disease, may explain the initial diagnosis of schizophrenia. Then cerebellar and spastic movement disorders leading to paraparesis and sphincters disturbances developed. Clinical symptoms of adrenal failure were not found apart from episodes of arterial pressure fall. After two years a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed an extensive diffuse demyelinative process in white matter of cerebral and cerebellar hemispheres. Activity of lysosomal enzymes was normal. A general autopsy revealed atrophy of adrenal cortex and the presence of ballooned cells with striated cytoplasm in the reticular and fasciculate zones. Neuropathological examination revealed an extensive demyelination of white matter in cerebral and cerebellar hemispheres and of the long paths of the brain stem, corresponding to changes in MRI examination. Within demyelination areas damage of axons and diffuse cellular and fibrous gliosis were found as well as perivascular lymphocytic infiltrations with the presence of strong PAS (+) and Sudan (+) macrophages. Immunocytochemical reactions with HAM-56 and RCA1 in macrophages were positive. Electron microscopy examination revealed lamellar inclusions in cytoplasm of macrophages. Similar structures were present in the lysosomes of astrocytes. Morphological examination of adrenal glands as well as morphological and ultrastructural study of the brain allowed us to diagnose the cerebral form of adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD). Topography and character of the brain changes seems to be in keeping with a rare schizophrenic-like variant of ALD with progressive dementia

  5. Regional cerebral blood flow in schizophrenics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchino, J.; Ohta, Y.; Nakane, Y.; Mori, H.; Hirota, N.; Yonekura, M.

    1987-01-01

    The present study on schizophrenics dealt with the relationship of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) to age, disease duration, and treatment length with chlorpromazine hydrochloride (CPZ). Regional cerebral blood flow in 28 cerebral regions of interest was measured by iv injection of /sup 133/X in 54 schizophrenic patients and 39 healthy volunteers. Neither age nor dosage of CPZ significantly influenced rCBF. All patients, including 11 treated for a short period of time (6 months or less), were characterized by having a decreased rCBF over the whole cerebrum. Thirty-four patients treated for a long period of time (2 years or more) had a varied rCBF distribution in the left hemisphere, with the most predominant feature being the decrease in rCBF in the frontal lobe (i.e., hypofrontality); however, there was no linear correlation between rCBF and disease duration. A decreased rCBE in the right occipital region was seen in patients with paranoid schizophrenia, suggesting that manifestations of symptoms may depend on disturbed regions. These results suggest that cerebral dysfunction in schizophrenic patients may not be restricted to the frontal lobe, but cover the whole cerebrum, and that nonuniform dysfunction in various regions of the cerebrum, including the frontal lobe, may be involved in manifestations of symptoms.

  6. Regional cerebral blood flow in schizophrenics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchino, Jun; Ohta, Yasuyuki; Nakane, Yoshibumi; Mori, Hiroyuki; Hirota, Noriyoshi; Yonekura, Masahiro.

    1987-01-01

    The present study on schizophrenics dealt with the relationship of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) to age, disease duration, and treatment length with chlorpromazine hydrochloride (CPZ). Regional cerebral blood flow in 28 cerebral regions of interest was measured by iv injection of X-133 in 54 schizophrenic patients and 39 healthy volunteers. Neither age nor dosage of CPZ significantly influenced rCBF. All patients, including 11 treated for a short period of time (6 months or less), were characterized by having a decreased rCBF over the whole cerebrum. Thirty-four patients treated for a long period of time (2 years or more) had a varied rCBF distribution in the left hemisphere, with the most predominant feature being the decrease in rCBF in the frontal lobe (i.e., ''hypofrontality''); however, there was no linear correlation between rCBF and disease duration. A decreased rCBE in the right occipital region was seen in patients with paranoid schizophrenia, suggesting that manifestations of symptoms may depend on disturbed regions. These results suggest that cerebral dysfunction in schizophrenic patients may not be restricted to the frontal lobe, but cover the whole cerebrum, and that nonuniform dysfunction in various regions of the cerebrum, including the frontal lobe, may be involved in manifestations of symptoms. (Namekawa, K.)

  7. Prevalence of triangular fibrocartilage complex abnormalities regardless of symptoms rise with age: systematic review and pooled analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jimmy J; Teunis, Teun; Ring, David

    2014-12-01

    Triangular fibrocartilage complex abnormalities seem to be more common with age, but the degree to which this is so, and the degree to which the presence of an abnormality is associated with symptoms, are topics of controversy. We wished to perform a systematic review to determine the prevalence of triangular fibrocartilage complex abnormalities, and to determine if the prevalence of abnormalities are greater with increasing age. In addition, we stratified age groups based on symptoms. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library through August 15, 2013. Studies that reported triangular fibrocartilage complex abnormalities by age were included. Fifteen studies including 977 wrists met our criteria and reported a total of 368 (38%) triangular fibrocartilage complex abnormalities. Eight studies included symptomatic patients; the remainder studied cadavers (six studies) or asymptomatic volunteers (one study). Patients were divided into four age groups (fibrocartilage complex abnormalities increased with age, from 27% (80/301) in patients younger than 30 years to 49% (130/265) in patients 70 years and older (p fibrocartilage complex prevalence abnormality increased from 15% (24/159) to 49% (129/263) in the same age groups (p fibrocartilage complex abnormalities are common in symptomatic and asymptomatic wrists, and they are increasingly common with age. As in all situations where abnormalities are so common that they may be incidental, we need (1) a reliable and accurate method for determining whether these abnormalities are the cause of symptoms; and (2) evidence that treatment of these abnormalities improves symptoms better than placebo. Level III, prognostic study. See the Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  8. Positron CT findings of chronic schizophrenics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyoda, Junzo; Miyazaki, Chihiro; Sugai, Yuichi; Iio, Masaaki.

    1983-01-01

    Positron CT images of 15 chronic schizophrenics (2 females and 13 males) were examined in contrast to 5 male controls. Average age of controls was 36 years and that of schizophrenics was 42 years. Schizophrenic cases were ill over 6 years, averaging 17 years. All were under antipsychotic drug therapy. Tracer compounds were 11 C-CO2 and 11 C-glucose photosynthesised, the former being inhalated once just before and the latter being administered orally 10-15 minutes before examinations. On positron CT images of all normal controls, hyper-radioactivities in frontal regions were observed. Some asymmetries of activities were observed but not remarkable. There wes no difference between the images with 11 C-CO2 and those with 11 C-glucose. In schizophrenic cases, (1) 7 out of 15 cases showed hypo-activities in the frontal regions both with 11 C-CO2 and 11 C-glucose. (2) With 11 C-glucose, relative activities in the brain were lower than those in the soft tissues around the scalp, suggesting the lowered selective uptake of 11 C-glucose by the brain. (3) With 11 C-CO 2, 4 cases showed higher activities in the right temporal regions and their subcortex than the left. By consideration of relationships between these positron CT findings and clinical data such as present age, age of onset of illness, duration of illness, psychiatric symptoms, present drug amount, summed drug amount from administration, EEG and X-ray CT findings, significant correlation was recognized only between low frontal radioactivities and apathy-abulia as main symptom. Limitation on the explanation of the findings with the image alone was discussed. (author)

  9. Analogical reasoning in schizophrenic delusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Jane; Done, D John

    2004-09-01

    Reasoning ability has often been argued to be impaired in people with schizophrenic delusions, although evidence for this is far from convincing. This experiment examined the analogical reasoning abilities of several groups of patients, including non-deluded and deluded schizophrenics, to test the hypothesis that performance by the deluded schizophrenic group would be impaired. Eleven deluded schizophrenics, 10 depressed subjects, seven non-deluded schizophrenics and 16 matched non-psychiatric controls, who were matched on a number of key variables, were asked to solve an analogical reasoning task. Performance by the deluded schizophrenic group was certainly impaired when compared with the depressed and non-psychiatric control groups though less convincingly so when compared with the non-deluded schizophrenic group. The impairment shown by the deluded schizophrenic group seemed to occur at the initial stage of the reasoning task. The particular type of impairment shown by the deluded subjects was assessed in relation to other cognitive problems already researched and the implications of these problems on reasoning tasks and theories of delusions was discussed.

  10. Do thallium myocardial perfusion scan abnormalities predict survival in sarcoid patients without cardiac symptoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinney, E.L.; Caldwell, J.W.

    1990-01-01

    Whereas the total mortality rate for sarcoidosis is 0.2 per 100,000, the prognosis, when the heart is involved, is very much worse. The authors used the difference in mortality rate to infer whether thallium 201 myocardial perfusion scan abnormalities correspond to myocardial sarcoid by making the simplifying assumption that if they do, then patients with abnormal scans will be found to have a death rate similar to patients with sarcoid heart disease. The authors therefore analyzed complete survival data on 52 sarcoid patients without cardiac symptoms an average of eighty-nine months after they had been scanned as part of a protocol. By use of survival analysis (the Cox proportional hazards model), the only variable that was significantly associated with survival was age. The patients' scan pattern, treatment status, gender, and race were not significantly related to survival. The authors conclude that thallium myocardial perfusion scans cannot reliably be used to diagnose sarcoid heart disease in sarcoid patients without cardiac symptoms

  11. Nondirective counseling interventions with schizophrenics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerwood, J B

    1993-12-01

    Counseling interventions with paranoid schizophrenics can be daunting. While chemical, directive, and behavioral controls often are considered important, nondirective counseling techniques used by the therapeutic staff may help schizophrenic patients explore their thoughts and feelings. Several nondirective concepts pioneered by Carl Rogers are examined. These methods, which represent basic concepts of the person-centered approach, are empathy, unconditional positive regard, and congruence. A brief illustration of an interaction with a patient diagnosed as paranoid schizophrenic is presented to suggest the effectiveness of Rogerian counseling.

  12. Correlation between EEG abnormalities and symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuhara, Akihiro

    2010-11-01

    Children with ASD often suffer from epilepsy and paroxysmal EEG abnormality. Purposes of this study are the confirmation of incidence of epileptic seizures and EEG abnormalities in children with autism using a high performance digital EEG, to examine the nature of EEG abnormalities such as locus or modality, and to determine if the development of children with ASD, who have experienced developmental delay, improves when their epilepsy has been treated and maintained under control. A total of 1014 autistic children that have been treated and followed-up for more than 3 years at Yasuhara Children's Clinic in Osaka, Japan, were included in this study. Each participant's EEG had been recorded approximately every 6 months under sleep conditions. Epilepsy was diagnosed in 37% (375/1014) of the study participants. Almost all patients diagnosed with epilepsy presented with symptomatic epilepsy. The data showed that the participants with lower IQ had a higher incidence of epileptic seizures. Epileptic EEG discharges occurred in 85.8% (870/1014) of the patients. There was also a very high incidence of spike discharges in participants whose intellectual quotient was very low or low. Epileptic seizure waves most frequently developed from the frontal lobe (65.6%), including the front pole (Fp1 and Fp2), frontal part (F3, F4, F7 and F8) and central part (C3, Cz and C4). The occurrence rate of spike discharges in other locations, including temporal lobe (T3, T4, T5, T6), parietal lobe (P3, Pz, P4), occipital lobe (O1, O2) and multifocal spikes was less than 10%. These results support the notion that there is a relationship between ASD and dysfunction of the mirror neuron system. The management of seizure waves in children diagnosed with ASD may result in improves function and reduction of autistic symptoms. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Phosphorus-31 and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the medial temporal region in schizophrenic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Koichiro

    1996-01-01

    Phosphorus-31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was performed 22 schizophrenic patients and in 22 healthy volunteers. Psychiatric symptoms were estimated on the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS) and the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS). The spectra were quantified for phosphomonoesters (PME), inorganic orthophosphate (Pi), phosphodiesters (PDE), phosphocreatine (Pcr) and the γ, α and β phosphates of 5'-adenosine triphosphate (ATP) by peak area measurements. Proton MRS was performed in 15 schizophrenic patients and in 15 healthy volunteers. Psychiatric symptoms were estimated on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the SANS. The spectra of N-acetylates (NA), choline-containing compounds (Cho) and creatine-phosphocreatine (Cr) were quantified. The patients showed an increase in the % PDE and a decrease in the % β-ATP in the left temporal region. Positive correlations were found between the % PDE and the subscale of positive symptoms on the BPRS and the total score of SAPS. The % β-ATP correlated negatively with the total score on SAPS. The NA/Cho and NA/Cr ratios were significantly lower in patients than in normal subjects. The Cho/Cr ratio was higher in the patient group. The age at onset of illness correlated positively with the NA/Cho and NA/Cr ratios. No significant correlations were observed between the ratios of metabolites and the scores of PANSS and SANS. There were no significant associations between the mole percentages and the ratios and the daily doses of neuroleptics and anticholinergics. These findings suggest that the disturbed membrane phospholipid and high-energy phosphate metabolism in the left medial temporal region may be one of the pathophysiologies of neuroleptic-resistant positive symptoms in schizophrenia and these abnormalities may be related to neuronal loss and/or neuronal dysfunction in this region. (H.O.)

  14. Prevalence of respiratory symptoms and their correlation to pulmonary function abnormalities in individuals exposed to environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, G.H.; Ali, M.; Ahmed, J.; Abbas, M.N.

    1999-01-01

    To find out the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and their correlation to pulmonary function abnormalities in individuals exposed to polluted air, 438 workers, and their family members were studied at Thermal Power Station (TPS), Sheikhmanda (Quetta). Individuals with a stay of less than three years at TPS and patients with known chronic respiratory infections (tuberculosis and its squelae, bronchiectasis) were excluded from the study. Remaining 175 males (mean age 43.4 years) and 71 females (mean age 34.2 years) were divided into three groups A, B, C on the basis of their exposure time to polluted air per day during the three years. Each groups was further subdivided into smoker and non-smoker members. Prevalence of respiratory symptoms was significantly higher in the individuals exposed to polluted air as compared to non-exposed individuals (P<0.05). A strong positive correlation (r=0.91) exists between respiratory symptoms and respiratory function abnormalities in smoker groups; however, no definite correlation (r=0.06) was found between respiratory symptoms and respiratory function abnormalities in non-smoker groups. Function abnormalities was noted only in smoker groups and non-smokers of even maximally exposed group (group C) had almost no respiratory function abnormalities. (author)

  15. [Cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenic psychoses. Drug and psychological treatment choices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, G; Katschnig, H

    2001-03-01

    Primarily from the perspective of psychopharmacology, schizophrenic symptomatology has recently been dichotomized into "plus" and "minus" symptoms, although the role of cognitive dysfunctions has been regarded as particularly important for the diagnosis since the time of Eugen Bleuler. Many studies show that schizophrenic patients suffer consistently from cognitive dysfunction. Among these, are impairments of attention and memory functions as well as executive functions such as planning and problem solving. These impairments are stable or progressive and often continue into the remission phase of schizophrenia and impair both social integration as well as occupational performance. In this overview, research results on cognitive dysfunction in patients with schizophrenic illnesses and their relation to psychosocial disabilities are described first. The therapeutic value and possible clinical-practice implications of atypical anti-psychotics and various cognitive therapy methods are then presented. Methodological weaknesses and open questions, both pharmacological and with regard to cognitive interventions, are discussed.

  16. Refraction and eye anterior segment parameters in schizophrenic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongabay Cumurcu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate the difference in terms of refractive errors and anterior segment parameters between schizophrenic patients and healthy volunteers. Methods: This study compared 70 patients (48 men who were diagnosed with schizophrenia with a control group of 60 (35 men who were similar in terms of age, gender, education, and socioeconomic level. Anterior segment examination was performed using a Scheimflug system. Axial length and lens thickness (LT were measured using optic biometry. The following tests were administered to the psychiatric patient group: Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS, Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS, and Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS. Results: Mild myopia was detected in both the schizophrenic and control groups, with no statistically significant difference (p>0.005. Corneal volume (CV, anterior chamber volume (ACV, anterior chamber depth (ACD, and central corneal thickness (CCT values were lower in the schizophrenic group, and there was a statistically significant between-group difference (p=0.026, p=0.014, p=0.048, and p=0.005, respectively. LT was greater in schizophrenics, and the difference was found to be statistically significant (p=0.006. A statistically significant negative correlation was found between SAPS and cylinder values (p=0.008. The axial eye length, cylinder value, pupil diameter, mean keratometric value, and anterior chamber angle revealed no statistically significant difference between the groups (p>0.05. Conclusion: No statistically significant difference was detected in terms of refraction disorders between schizophrenics and the healthy control group, while some differences in anterior chamber parameters were present. These results demonstrate that schizophrenics may exhibit clinical and structural differences in the eye.

  17. Regional cerebral blood flow in schizophrenic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagawa, Katsuo; Sibuya, Isoo; Oiji, Arata; Kawakatsu, Sinobu; Morinobu, Shigeru; Totsuka, Shiro; Kinoshita, Osami; Yazaki, Mitsuyasu.

    1990-01-01

    Seventy-six schizophrenic patients were examined by a Xe-133 inhalation method to determine regional cerebral blood flow. A decreased blood flow was observed in the frontal lobe, especially in the right inferior part. In a study on the relationship between disease subtypes and regional cerebral blood flow, negative symptoms were found more predominantly associated with dissolution type than delusion type. In the group of dissolution type, a decreased blood flow was observed in both the right inferior frontal lobe and the right upper hemisphere, in comparison to the group of delution type. Patients presenting with auditory hallucination had a significantly higher incidence of both negative and positive symptoms, as compared with those not presenting with it. In such patients, a significantly decreased blood flow was also seen in the left upper frontal lobe and the bilateral parietal lobe. Xe-133 inhalation method should assist in evaluating brain function in schizophrenic patients, thus leading to the likelihood of developing a new treatment modality. (N.K.)

  18. Effects of needs-assessment-based psycho-education of schizophrenic patients' families on the severity of symptoms and relapse rate of patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheirabadi, Gholam Reza; Rafizadeh, Mahnaz; Omranifard, Victoria; Yari, Azam; Maracy, Mohammad Reza; Mehrabi, Tayebe; Sadri, Sima

    2014-11-01

    Family psycho-education is one of the most effective interventions for preventing relapse in patients with schizophrenia. We evaluated the efficacy of a needs-assessment-based educational program in comparison with a current program (textbook based) in the treatment of schizophrenia. Patients with schizophrenia and their families (N = 60) were allocated to needs-assessment-based education (treatment) and textbook-based (control) programs; both included 10 sessions of education within about 6 months. Symptoms were assessed by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) prior to intervention and every 3 months for a total of 18 months. A 25% decrease or increase in total PANSS score was considered as response or relapse, respectively. Forty-two cases completed the study. The total PANSS score was significantly decreased in both groups with more reduction in the treatment group. Positive and negative scale scores were reduced in the treatment group, but not significantly in the control group. Response rate was higher in the treatment group and relapse rate was lower (15% vs. 27.2%, P = 0.279). In logistic regression analysis, needs-assessment-based psycho-education was associated with more treatment response. Needs-assessment-based psycho-education is more effective than textbook-based education for treating schizophrenia. We recommend psychiatric care centers to conduct needs-assessment and develop their own program for family psycho-education.

  19. The Well Siblings of Schizophrenics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Laurel; Chase, Laura

    1979-01-01

    Explores the impact of having a schizophrenic sibling. Subjects functioned at high levels of adjustment. Separated from their families, there followed a period of reinvolvement, including responsibility for the ill sibling. Younger siblings expressed guilt over being well, whereas older siblings expressed guilt over earlier sibling rivalry.…

  20. Rehabilitation of schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunatilake, S; Ananth, J; Parameswaran, S; Brown, S; Silva, W

    2004-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a maldevelopmental disorder of the brain that manifests in positive, negative, cognitive and affective symptoms. Currently, the mainstay of treatment involves pharmacotherapy. The limitations of antipsychotic treatment are that they can only control symptoms and cannot cure the illness, and 20% of patients do not respond, thus leading to the requirement of maintenance treatment. Patients that do respond continue to have disabling residual symptoms such as amotivation and isolation, maladaptive behavior, and impaired social functioning. These symptoms prevent patients from attaining educational, occupational, and social roles. Psychosocial interventions and models of quality of life in schizophrenia are based on the notion that increases in psychosocial functioning will be related to improvement in subjective experiences, such as self-esteem and satisfaction with life. The comparative effect of specific treatment methods and the additional benefits of multiple treatments need to be explored. Diversified techniques have also been employed, such as shaping, cognitive process therapy, mastery-oriented skill training, motivation and enhancement. Issues in designing psychosocial interventions and the role of various professionals in providing such interventions need to be carefully considered. Predictor variables and the indications for particular therapies in an individual need to be explored. Generalizability of the gains made by rehabilitation/recovery is also an important consideration. Patients in jail, chronic mental hospitals, private facilities, and the Veterans Administration system are all different in their ability to benefit, their motivations, and the severity of their psychopathology. Therefore, it is very difficult to generalize findings from one setting to another.

  1. Visual interaction in recently admitted and chronic long-stay schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutter, D R

    1976-09-01

    Several reports have suggested that schizophrenic patients engage in very little Looking and eye-contact. However, previous work, much of it methodologically unsatisfactory, has been based almost always on the clinical psychiatric interview, with the result that several important questions remain unanswered. In particular, we do not know how schizophrenic patients behave in free conversation, how their behaviour with another patient may differ from their behaviour with a psychiatrically normal partner, nor even whether they show individual consistency across encounters. The first study was designed to examine these questions, by observing recently admitted schizophrenic patients in two free dyadic conversations, one with a schizophrenic partner and one with a psychiatrically normal partner, and comparing them with three control groups: depressive patients; patients suffering from neurotic or personality disorders; and psychiatrically normal chest patients. The second study went on to test whether the early descriptions of gross abnormality may be more appropriate to chronic long-stay patients than to recently admitted patients, and the design consisted of a comparison between the two groups. The first study revealed a quite unexpected pattern of results. Consistently across their two encounters, schizophrenic subjects behaved similarly for the most part to all three control groups, normal and abnormal alike. Moreover, the few differences which did emerge conflicted sharply with previous findings, including the writer's, and were no more marked in patient-patient than patient-normal encounters. The second study revealed no differences between chronic long-stay and recently admitted schizophrenic patients. It is suggested that the differences in findings between the present two studies and previous reports are most likely to be attributable to differences in verbal content: schizophrenic patients show abnormalities of visual interaction when talking about personal

  2. Trait anxiety determines depressive symptoms and fatigue in women with an abnormality in the breast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Jolanda; van der Steeg, Alida F.; Roukema, Jan A.

    2009-01-01

    The aim was to examine the role of trait anxiety and diagnosis on depressive symptoms and fatigue in women with early stage breast cancer or benign breast problems. A prospective follow-up study was performed in order to find predictors of depressive symptoms and fatigue. From the 169 participating

  3. [X-ray computed tomographic abnormalities in schizophrenia. Trial of relationship with clinical data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amato, T; Rochet, T; Dalery, J; Chauchat, J H; Terra, J L; Arteaga, C; Marie-Cardine, M

    1992-01-01

    Computerized tomography (CT-scan) studies in schizophrenia revealed that some patients have neuromorphological abnormalities. The structural changes consist mainly in lateral and third ventricle enlargement, and in cortical atrophy. The present study evaluates these three changes in 42 schizophrenics aged 18 to 50, compared to 24 healthy controls. Diagnosis were established from information gathered by personal interview with the SADS-LA. Clinical sub-types were evaluated according to the DSM III-R criteria. Moreover, detailed symptoms were rated according to the Positive And Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). CT scans were recorded in floppy disks and blindly analyzed. Schizophrenics shown significant higher mean size of lateral and third ventricles, and higher mean anterior cortical atrophy than healthy subjects. Significant differences were also found between subtypes, with more marked abnormalities in the disorganized group. The relationship between brain abnormalities and clinical symptoms recorded with the PANSS, were analysed using Pearson correlates. Positive correlations concerned mainly negative symptoms like blunted affect, emotional withdrawal, difficulties in abstract thinking, passive apathetic social withdrawal and lack of spontaneity of conversation. Positive correlations are also observed with some symptoms classified with the PANSS in the General Psychopathology scale such as mannerism and disorientation. Negative correlation concerned most of PANSS positive symptoms.

  4. Dysfluent Handwriting in Schizophrenic Outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawda, Barbara

    2016-04-01

    Taking into account findings in the literature, the author aimed to test whether specific graphical characteristics of handwriting can distinguish patients diagnosed with schizophrenic disorders from healthy controls. Handwriting samples (one sample from each person) from 60 outpatients (29 women, 31 men; age M = 28.5, SD = 5.4) with paranoid schizophrenia were analyzed by three documents examiners and were compared to samples from 60 controls (30 men, 30 women, age M = 28.0, SD = 3.0) without psychiatric disorders. Document examiners assessed 32 graphical features potentially related to schizophrenia. The comparisons between groups revealed that only 7 out of 32 handwriting properties were significantly different in the handwriting of schizophrenic outpatients from controls: the calligraphic forms of letters, loops in ovals, lacking of dots, tremor, sinusoidal baseline, and irregularities size of lower zone. These findings are discussed in terms of motor disturbances in schizophrenia and in relation to the previous research on handwriting of other mental disorders. Similarities between the graphical patterns of handwriting of schizophrenic patients and those of other mental disorders and/or other mental states have been demonstrated. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Family interaction: parental representation in schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onstad, S; Skre, I; Torgersen, S; Kringlen, E

    1994-01-01

    12 monozygotic (MZ) and 19 same-sexed dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs discordant for DSM-III-R schizophrenia completed the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI). The schizophrenic twins described their parents as less caring and being more overprotective compared to their non-schizophrenic co-twins. These results were independent of age, sex and zygosity. Difference in paternal overprotection was the most important variable discriminating between the schizophrenic probands and their co-twins. Three different hypotheses regarding these findings are discussed.

  6. Opposite effective connectivity in the posterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortex between first-episode schizophrenic patients with suicide risk and healthy controls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiran Zhang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The schizophrenic patients with high suicide risk are characterized by depression, better cognitive function, and prominent positive symptoms. However, the neurobiological basis of suicide attempts in schizophrenia is not clear. The suicide in schizophrenia is implicated in the defects in emotional process and decision-making, which are associated with prefrontal-cingulate circuit. In order to explore the possible neurobiological basis of suicide in schizophrenia, we investigated the correlation of prefrontal-cingulate circuit with suicide risk in schizophrenia via dynamic casual modelling. METHOD: Participants were 33 first-episode schizophrenic patients comprising of a high suicide risk group (N = 14 and a low suicide risk group (N = 19. A comparison group of healthy controls (N = 15 were matched for age, gender and education. N-back tasking functional magnetic resonance imaging data was collected. RESULTS: Compared with healthy controls group, the two patients groups showed decreased task-related suppression during 2-back task state versus baseline state in the left posterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortex; the hyper-connectivity from the left posterior cingulate cortex to the left medial prefrontal cortex existed in both schizophrenic patients groups, but hypo-connectivity in the opposite direction only existed in the schizophrenic patients group with high suicide risk. CONCLUSIONS: The hyper-connectivity from the left posterior cingulate cortex to the left medial prefrontal cortex may suggest that the abnormal effective connectivity was associated with risk for schizophrenia. The hypo-connectivity in the opposite direction may represent a possible correlate of increased vulnerability to suicide attempt.

  7. Abnormal echocardiography in patients with type 2 diabetes and relation to symptoms and clinical characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Godsk; Jensen, Magnus Thorsten; Mogelvang, Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    . Echocardiographic abnormalities were present in 513 (49.8%) patients, mainly driven by a high prevalence of diastolic dysfunction 178 (19.4%), left ventricular hypertrophy 213 (21.0%) and left atrial enlargement, 200 (19.6%). The prevalence increased markedly with age from 31.1% in the youngest group (...) to 73.9% in the oldest group (>75 years) (p creatinine were associated...

  8. Clinical Symptoms of Minor Head Trauma and Abnormal Computed Tomography Scan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maghsoudi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Minor head trauma accounts for 70% to 90% of all head traumas. Previous studies stated that minor head traumas were associated with 7% - 20% significant abnormal findings in brain computed tomography (CT-scans. Objectives The aim of this study was to reevaluate clinical criteria of taking brain CT scan in patients who suffered from minor head trauma. Patients and Methods We enrolled 680 patients presented to an academic trauma hospital with minor head trauma in a prospective manner. All participants underwent brain CT scan if they met the inclusion criteria and the results of scans were compared with clinical examination finding. Results Loss of consciousness (GCS drop or amnesia was markedly associated with abnormal brain CT scan (P < 0.05. Interestingly, we found 7 patients with normal clinical examination but significant abnormal brain CT scan. Conclusions According to the results of our study, we recommend that all patients with minor head trauma underwent brain CT scan in order not to miss any life-threatening head injuries.

  9. Paediatrics brain imaging in epilepsy: common presenting symptoms and spectrum of abnormalities detected on MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, A.; Akram, F.; Khan, G.; Hussain, S.

    2017-01-01

    Epilepsy, a common neurological disorder can present at any age and has a number of aetiologies with underlying brain disease being the most common aetiology. Brain imaging becomes important and mandatory in the work up for epilepsy in localization and lateralization of the seizure focus. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in the department of Radiology Ayub Medical Teaching Institution Abbottabad from 1st March 2015 to 31st March 2016. A total of 209 children aged 28 days to 14 years were included in the study who presented with seizures to clinicians. Information obtained from history, clinical examination and investigations especially MRI brains were recorded in a prescribed pro forma. The data was analysed in SPSS 20. Results: MRI examination was unremarkable in 44.01% (n=92) and mild generalized brain atrophy was noted in 12.91% (n=27). Arachnoid cysts, mild unilateral brain atrophy and hydrocephalous due to aqueduct stenosis were recorded in 3.82% (n=8) of each group. Neoplastic lesions were the second most common abnormal MRI finding and constituted 5.74% (n=12). Leukodystrophy was diagnosed in 4.78% (n=10). MRI examination showed ring enhancing lesions (tuberculomas) and AVM in 1.43% (n=3) of each group. Perinatal ischemia and intracranial infection, (focal or generalized) were recorded in 2.87% (n=6) of each group. A 0.95 % (n=2) of children in each group had agenesis of corpus callosum and cavernoma. The radiological MRI diagnosis of Raussmussen encephalitis was made in 3.34% (n=7). Single case, each of mesial temporal sclerosis, subdural haemorrhage, infarct and craniopharyngioma was recorded making 0.47 % of the total patients in each case. Conclusion: MRI examination was abnormal in significant number of patients (55.86%), so therefore if properly utilized, in a good clinical context, this can identify most of the structural brain abnormalities in paediatric patients presenting with seizures. (author)

  10. Abnormal Hippocampal Morphology in Dissociative Identity Disorder and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Correlates with Childhood Trauma and Dissociative Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalavi, Sima; Vissia, Eline M.; Giesen, Mechteld E.; Nijenhuis, Ellert R.S.; Draijer, Nel; Cole, James H.; Dazzan, Paola; Pariante, Carmine M.; Madsen, Sarah K.; Rajagopalan, Priya; Thompson, Paul M.; Toga, Arthur W.; Veltman, Dick J.; Reinders, Antje A.T.S.

    2015-01-01

    Smaller hippocampal volume has been reported in individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dissociative identity disorder (DID), but the regional specificity of hippocampal volume reductions and the association with severity of dissociative symptoms and/or childhood traumatization are still unclear. Brain structural MRI scans were analyzed for 33 outpatients (17 with DID and 16 with PTSD only) and 28 healthy controls (HC), all matched for age, sex, and education. DID patients met criteria for PTSD (PTSD-DID). Hippocampal global and subfield volumes and shape measurements were extracted. We found that global hippocampal volume was significantly smaller in all 33 patients (left: 6.75%; right: 8.33%) compared to HC. PTSD-DID (left: 10.19%; right: 11.37%) and PTSD-only with a history of childhood traumatization (left: 7.11%; right: 7.31%) had significantly smaller global hippocampal volume relative to HC. PTSD-DID had abnormal shape and significantly smaller volume in the CA2-3, CA4-DG and (pre)subiculum compared to HC. In the patient groups, smaller global and subfield hippocampal volumes significantly correlated with higher severity of childhood traumatization and dissociative symptoms. These findings support a childhood trauma-related etiology for abnormal hippocampal morphology in both PTSD and DID and can further the understanding of neurobiological mechanisms involved in these disorders. PMID:25545784

  11. Abnormal hippocampal morphology in dissociative identity disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder correlates with childhood trauma and dissociative symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalavi, Sima; Vissia, Eline M; Giesen, Mechteld E; Nijenhuis, Ellert R S; Draijer, Nel; Cole, James H; Dazzan, Paola; Pariante, Carmine M; Madsen, Sarah K; Rajagopalan, Priya; Thompson, Paul M; Toga, Arthur W; Veltman, Dick J; Reinders, Antje A T S

    2015-05-01

    Smaller hippocampal volume has been reported in individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dissociative identity disorder (DID), but the regional specificity of hippocampal volume reductions and the association with severity of dissociative symptoms and/or childhood traumatization are still unclear. Brain structural magnetic resonance imaging scans were analyzed for 33 outpatients (17 with DID and 16 with PTSD only) and 28 healthy controls (HC), all matched for age, sex, and education. DID patients met criteria for PTSD (PTSD-DID). Hippocampal global and subfield volumes and shape measurements were extracted. We found that global hippocampal volume was significantly smaller in all 33 patients (left: 6.75%; right: 8.33%) compared with HC. PTSD-DID (left: 10.19%; right: 11.37%) and PTSD-only with a history of childhood traumatization (left: 7.11%; right: 7.31%) had significantly smaller global hippocampal volume relative to HC. PTSD-DID had abnormal shape and significantly smaller volume in the CA2-3, CA4-DG and (pre)subiculum compared with HC. In the patient groups, smaller global and subfield hippocampal volumes significantly correlated with higher severity of childhood traumatization and dissociative symptoms. These findings support a childhood trauma-related etiology for abnormal hippocampal morphology in both PTSD and DID and can further the understanding of neurobiological mechanisms involved in these disorders. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Risk of Diabetes in Older Adults with Co-Occurring Depressive Symptoms and Cardiometabolic Abnormalities: Prospective Analysis from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandra Freitas

    Full Text Available High depressive symptoms and cardiometabolic abnormalities are independently associated with an increased risk of diabetes. The purpose of this study was to assess the association of co-occurring depressive symptoms and cardiometabolic abnormalities on risk of diabetes in a representative sample of the English population aged 50 years and older. Data were from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. The sample comprised of 4454 participants without diabetes at baseline. High depressive symptoms were based on a score of 4 or more on the 8-item binary Centre for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale. Cardiometabolic abnormalities were defined as 3 or more cardiometabolic risk factors (hypertension, impaired glycemic control, systemic inflammation, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high triglycerides, and central obesity. Cox proportional hazards regressions assessed the association between co-occurring depressive symptoms and cardiometabolic abnormalities with incidence of diabetes. Multiple imputation by chained equations was performed to account for missing data. Covariates included age, sex, education, income, smoking status, physical activity, alcohol consumption, and cardiovascular comorbidity. The follow-up period consisted of 106 months, during which 193 participants reported a diagnosis of diabetes. Diabetes incidence rates were compared across the following four groups: 1 no or low depressive symptoms and no cardiometabolic abnormalities (reference group, n = 2717; 2 high depressive symptoms only (n = 338; 3 cardiometabolic abnormalities only (n = 1180; and 4 high depressive symptoms and cardiometabolic abnormalities (n = 219. Compared to the reference group, the hazard ratio for diabetes was 1.29 (95% CI 0.63, 2.64 for those with high depressive symptoms only, 3.88 (95% CI 2.77, 5.44 for those with cardiometabolic abnormalities only, and 5.56 (95% CI 3.45, 8.94 for those with both high depressive symptoms and cardiometabolic

  13. The placental problem: Linking abnormal cytotrophoblast differentiation to the maternal symptoms of preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fisher Susan J

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The placenta is a remarkable organ. In normal pregnancy its specialized cells (termed cytotrophoblasts differentiate into various specialized subpopulations that play pivotal roles in governing fetal growth and development. One cytotrophoblast subset acquires tumor-like properties that allow the cells to invade the decidua and myometrium, a process that attaches the placenta to the uterus. The same subset also adopts a vascular phenotype that allows these fetal cells to breach and subsequently line uterine blood vessels, a process that channels maternal blood to the rest of the placenta. In the pregnancy complication preeclampsia, which is characterized by the sudden onset of maternal hypertension, proteinuria and edema, cytotrophoblast invasion is shallow and vascular transformation incomplete. These findings, together with very recent evidence from animal models, suggest that preeclampsia is associated with abnormal placental production of vasculogenic/angiogenic substances that reach the maternal circulation with the potential to produce at least a subset of the clinical signs of this syndrome. The current challenge is to build on this knowledge to design clinically useful tests for predicting, diagnosing and treating this dangerous disorder.

  14. Anxiety and Hysterical Symptoms in Schizophrenia | Scribante ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The existence of both anxiety and hysterical symptoms have been described in schizophrenic populations. Various explanations exist. The issue of whether such symptoms represent discrete clinical entities or are intrinsic to the schizophrenic process, requires further research. Keywords: Schizophrenia, Anxiety, Hysterical

  15. Comparison of folic acid levels in schizophrenic patients and control groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthy, C. C.; Amin, M. M.; Effendy, E.

    2018-03-01

    Folic acid deficiency is a risk factor for schizophrenia through epidemiology, biochemistry and gene-related studies. Compared with healthy people, schizophrenic patients may have high homocysteine plasma values and homocysteine or low levels of folic acid, which seems to correlate with extrapyramidal motor symptoms caused by neuroleptic therapy and with symptoms of schizophrenia. In this present study, we focus on the difference of folic acid level between schizophrenic patient and control group. The study sample consisted of schizophrenic patients and 14 people in the control group and performed blood sampling to obtain the results of folic acid levels. The folic acid level in both groups was within normal range, but the schizophrenic patient group had lower mean folic acid values of 5.00 ng/ml (sb 1.66), compared with the control group with mean folic acid values of 10.75 ng/ml (sb 4.33). there was the group of the control group had a higher value of folic acid than the schizophrenic group.

  16. Psychopathology of Lived Time: Abnormal Time Experience in Persons With Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanghellini, Giovanni; Ballerini, Massimo; Presenza, Simona; Mancini, Milena; Raballo, Andrea; Blasi, Stefano; Cutting, John

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal time experience (ATE) in schizophrenia is a long-standing theme of phenomenological psychopathology. This is because temporality constitutes the bedrock of any experience and its integrity is fundamental for the sense of coherence and continuity of selfhood and personal identity. To characterize ATE in schizophrenia patients as compared to major depressives we interviewed, in a clinical setting over a period of 15 years, 550 consecutive patients affected by schizophrenic and affective disorders. Clinical files were analyzed by means of Consensual Qualitative Research (CQR), an inductive method suited to research that requires rich descriptions of inner experiences. Of the whole sample, 109 persons affected by schizophrenic (n = 95 acute, n = 14 chronic) and 37 by major depression reported at least 1 ATE. ATE are more represented in acute (N = 109 out of 198; 55%) than in chronic schizophrenic patients (N = 14 out of 103; 13%). The main feature of ATE in people with schizophrenia is the fragmentation of time experience (71 out of 109 patients), an impairment of the automatic and prereflexive synthesis of primal impression-retention-protention. This includes 4 subcategories: disruption of time flowing, déjà vu/vecu, premonitions about oneself and the external world. We contrasted ATE in schizophrenia and in major depression, finding relevant differences: in major depressives there is no disarticulation of time experience, rather timelessness because time lacks duration, not articulation. These core features of the schizophrenic pheno-phenotype may be related to self-disorders and to the manifold of characteristic schizophrenic symptoms, including so called bizarre delusions and verbal-acoustic hallucinations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. [The Cotard syndrome in schizophrenic disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stompe, Thomas; Schanda, Hans

    2013-01-01

    The Cotard-Syndrome (CS), the belief of being dead, was described for the first time in 1880. Since then it met the interest not only of psychopathologists but also of philosophers. With a few exceptions, the literature is mainly restricted to case reports of anxious-depressive, demented or paranoid patients. It was the aim of our study to investigate the prevalence and the psychopathological context of the CS. We analyzed the Austrian data (N = 346) of the International Study of Psychotic Symptoms in Schizophrenia. A CS could be diagnosed in three cases (0.87%). In all of them, CS developed on the basis of nihilistic-hypochondriac delusions and a progressive loss of energy. Two patients bridged the logical inconsistencies between obviously being alive and the belief of being dead by visual illusions, the third patient, however, by locating himself in an intermediate region between this world and the afterworld. On the one hand the CS can be considered as a special manifestation of the topic of death in schizophrenic delusions, on the other as a nihilistic delusional identity. Without doubt, this uncommon and bizarre psychotic phenomenon will be an object of interest for general psychopathology as well as for the philosophy of mind also in future.

  18. Nasal cycle dominance and hallucinations in an adult schizophrenic female.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannahoff-Khalsa, David; Golshan, Shahrokh

    2015-03-30

    Nasal dominance, at the onset of hallucinations, was studied as a marker of both the lateralized ultradian rhythm of the autonomic nervous system and the tightly coupled ultradian rhythm of alternating cerebral hemispheric dominance in a single case study of a schizophrenic female. Over 1086 days, 145 hallucination episodes occurred with left nostril dominance significantly greater than the right nostril dominant phase of the nasal cycle. A right nostril breathing exercise, that primarily stimulates the left hemisphere, reduces symptoms more quickly for hallucinations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Plasma homovanillic acid in schizophrenics: supportive evidence for the two-subtype hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, T Y; Lee, C F; Lung, F W; Lee, T C; Lin, W L; Hu, W H; Yeh, E K; Chang, W H

    1989-06-01

    Plasma levels of homovanillic acid (pHVA), a major metabolite of dopamine (DA), were measured in a group of 51 schizophrenic inpatients before and during 6 weeks of neuroleptic treatment. Steady-state plasma drug concentrations were monitored in parallel with pHVA. Good responders (n = 22) had higher pretreatment pHVA levels as compared to poor responders (n = 22). Differential pHVA changes during neuroleptic treatment were also found between each group. The two groups did not differ significantly in terms of age, duration of illness, severity of presenting symptoms, neuroleptic, dose, or plasma drug concentration. Two hypothetical subtypes in the group of schizophrenics were proposed.

  20. Brain computed tomography findings of aged schizophrenics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oomori, Masao; Koshino, Yoshifumi; Murata, Tetsuhito; Murata, Ichirou; Tani, Kazuhiko; Horie, Tan; Isaki, Kiminori

    1992-01-01

    Brain CT was performed in a total of 30 aged schizophrenic patients, consisting of 20 with no history of psychosurgery (lobotomy) and the other 10 lobotomized patients. The CT findings were compared with those from healthy aged persons. The group of schizophrenic patients had marked atrophy of the frontal lobe and dilatated Sylvian fissure as compared with the control group. There was no significant difference in ventricular factors between the two groups. These findings may have implications for the different mechanisms of the occurrence of atrophied brain surface and enlarged ventricle. The cerebral cortex involved in the occurrence of schizophrenia may be affected by aging-related cerebral atrophy, in addition to the morphological changes due to schizophrenia. Thus, schizophrenic cerebral atrophy was more noticeable than physiological aging-related atrophy. However, enlargement of the ventricle in the schizophrenic group progressed with aging in the same manner as that in the normal group. In comparing schizophrenic patients with or without a history of lobotomy, atrophy of the brain surface and enlargement of the ventricle were more marked in the lobotomized patients than the non-lobotomized patients. This confirmed that lobotomy, as well as surgical scar, is involved in the morphology of schizophrenic brain. (N.K.)

  1. P2-26: Comparison between Normal People and Schizophrenic Patients on Face Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yl-Woo Lee

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This research was tested to compare face recognition of normal people and schizophrenic patients. Frontal male faces were used as stimuli, which were Northeast Asian and Southeast Asian. Normal people and patients with positive/negative symptom of schizophrenia participated in this research, and all participants were Korean. Participants were instructed to memorize a stimulus (target presented briefly, and recognize it later among another stimuli (fillers. In recognition task, five faces were presented with a target or without as fillers. The results showed that while schizophrenic patients had difficulty recognizing targets, all participants performed best in the condition of other ethnic target-own ethnic fillers. These results suggest that own ethnicity effect could not be observed, and imply that face processing of schizophrenic patients might be disrupted by perception level rather than memory level.

  2. Improvement of Brain Reward Abnormalities by Antipsychotic Monotherapy in Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Ødegaard; Rostrup, Egill; Wulff, Sanne

    2012-01-01

    CONTEXT Schizophrenic symptoms are linked to a dysfunction of dopamine neurotransmission and the brain reward system. However, it remains unclear whether antipsychotic treatment, which blocks dopamine transmission, improves, alters, or even worsens the reward-related abnormalities. OBJECTIVE....... Antipsychotic treatment tends to normalize the response of the reward system; this was especially seen in the patients with the most pronounced treatment effect on the positive symptoms. TRIAL REGISTRATION clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01154829....... To investigate changes in reward-related brain activations in schizophrenia before and after antipsychotic monotherapy with a dopamine D2/D3 antagonist. DESIGN Longitudinal cohort study. SETTING Psychiatric inpatients and outpatients in the Capital Region of Denmark. PARTICIPANTS Twenty-three antipsychotic...

  3. Abnormalities in personal space and parietal–frontal function in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daphne J. Holt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is associated with subtle abnormalities in day-to-day social behaviors, including a tendency in some patients to “keep their distance” from others in physical space. The neural basis of this abnormality, and related changes in social functioning, is unknown. Here we examined, in schizophrenic patients and healthy control subjects, the functioning of a parietal–frontal network involved in monitoring the space immediately surrounding the body (“personal space”. Using fMRI, we found that one region of this network, the dorsal intraparietal sulcus (DIPS, was hyper-responsive in schizophrenic patients to face stimuli appearing to move towards the subjects, intruding into personal space. This hyper-responsivity was predicted both by the size of personal space (which was abnormally elevated in the schizophrenia group and the severity of negative symptoms. In contrast, in a second study, the activity of two lower-level visual areas that send information to DIPS (the fusiform face area and middle temporal area was normal in schizophrenia. Together, these findings suggest that changes in parietal–frontal networks that support the sensory-guided initiation of behavior, including actions occurring in the space surrounding the body, contribute to social dysfunction and negative symptoms in schizophrenia.

  4. Computerized tomography studies on schizophrenic diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, G.; Huber, G.; Schuettler, R.

    1982-01-01

    Earlier clinical pneumoencephalographic studies showed a subgroup of schizophrenics that have small and dysplastic cerebral ventricles as well as a subgroup with a 'pure defect', i.e., a slight internal brain atrophy. In echoencephalograms of pure and mixed residual schizophrenic syndrome patients, a significantly higher average transverse diameter of the third ventricle was demonstrated compared to that in patients with complete remissions. Correlations cannot be expected between certain groups of disease, e.g., epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, or schizophrenia on the whole, and pneumoencephalographic (PEG) and CT findings. Only schizophrenics with distinct signs of pure defect that had persisted for at least 3 years revealed deviations from normal by CT and PEG, but those with irreversible fixed deformations of personality structure did not. In patients who were 50 years of age or less with psychic reactive and psychopathic personality disorders, CT showed an average third ventricle diameter of 4.2 mm (range 2-6 mm). Of 117 schizophrenics (average age 35.5 years), only 28% revealed pathological CT changes. However, of 36 schizophrenics with pure residual syndromes 69% showed pathological CT findings that always concerned the third ventricle, rarely the lateral ventricles, and in no case the cortex. The average transverse diameter of the third ventricle in this subgroup with pure defect was 7.6 mm, as compared to 4.6 mm in the subgroup of schizophrenics with complete remission. There was no increase in size with increasing years until the 50th year in schizophrenics, as well as in the control group of variations of psychic being (neuroses and psychopathic personality disorders). (orig./MG)

  5. Computerized tomography studies on schizophrenic diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, G.; Huber, G.; Schuettler, R.

    1982-01-01

    Earlier clinical pneumoencephalographic studies showed a subgroup of schizophrenics that have small and dysplastic cerebral ventricles as well as a subgroup with a 'pure defect', i.e., a slight internal brain atrophy. In echoencephalograms of pure and mixed residual schizophrenic syndrome patients, a significantly higher average transverse diameter of the third ventricle was demonstrated compared to that in patients with complete remissions. Correlations cannot be expected between certain groups of disease, e.g., epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, or schizophrenia on the whole, and pneumoencephalographic (PEG) and CT findings. Only schizophrenics with distinct signs of pure defect that had persisted for at least 3 years revealed deviations from normal by CT and PEG, but those with irreversible fixed deformations of personality structure did not. In patients who were 50 years of age or less with psychic reactive and psychopathic personality disorders, CT showed an average third ventricle diameter of 4.2 mm (range 2-6 mm). Of 117 schizophrenics (average age 35.5 years), only 28% revealed pathological CT changes. However, of 36 schizophrenics with pure residual syndromes 69% showed pathological CT findings that always concerned the third ventricle, rarely the lateral ventricles, and in no case the cortex. The average transverse diameter of the third ventricle in this subgroup with pure defect was 7.6 mm, as compared to 4.6 mm in the subgroup of schizophrenics with complete remission. There was no increase in size with increasing years until the 50th year in schizophrenics, as well as in the control group of variations of psychic being (neuroses and psychopathic personality disorders).

  6. Abnormal uterine bleeding as a presenting symptom is related to multiple uterine leiomyoma: an ultrasound-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fonseca-Moutinho JA

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available José Alberto Fonseca-Moutinho,1,2 Lígia Silva Barbosa,1 Daniel Gonçalves Torres,1 Sara Morgado Nunes31Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Medicine, Beira Interior University, Covilhã, Portugal; 2Child and Women Department, Cova da Beira Academic Medical Center, Covilhã, Portugal; 3Polytechnic Institute of Castelo Branco, Castelo Branco, PortugalPurpose: To determine the prevalence of uterine leiomyomas, diagnosed by ultrasound, in a private health care setting located in the central eastern region of Portugal, and to explore the demographic and clinical factors related to diagnosis and symptomatology.Patients and methods: The files of 624 patients attending a private clinic in Covilhã, Portugal, from January 2 to December 31, 2010 were retrieved for evaluation. Pelvic ultrasound record, age, weight, height, age at menarche, number of pregnancies and deliveries, marital status, menstrual cycles characteristic, and contraceptive method at consultation were included in the analysis.Results: Uterine leiomyoma (UL was diagnosed by ultrasonography in 161 (25.8% patients. A single UL was diagnosed in 80 (49.7% patients. In 79 (49.1% patients, the largest leiomyoma had a dimension <20 mm. Prevalence of UL was age dependent: at 11.0% for women 20–39 years old; 45.4% for those aged 40–59 years; and 19.5% for women 60 years or older. Metrorrhagia was the most distressing presenting symptom. When menorrhagia was the presenting symptom, the probability of having an ultrasound diagnosis of UL was 73.3%. Metrorrhagia or menorrhagia, as presenting symptom, was significantly related to the ultrasound diagnosis of multiple ULs.Conclusion: UL was especially prevalent in women aged between 40 and 59 years. Patients with multiple ULs had significantly more abnormal uterine bleeding. In patients with menorrhagia or metrorrhagia, special attention should be taken in searching for the presence of multiple ULs during ultrasound.Keywords: fibroid, leiomyoma

  7. PRODROMAL PHASE IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF EARLY ONSET SCHIZOPHRENIC PSYCHOSIS - CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Kostić

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia and other mental disorders are often preceded by prodromal changes in behavior that can last from several days to several years, indicating the beginning of psychosis. If the disease starts at an earlier age, especially in adolescence, the prodromal phase is more non-specific and difficult to detect. There is a large number of operational instruments used for clinical assessment and quantification of prodromal symptoms and "at risk mental state", as well as the predictive potential for psychosis. This paper describes the prodromal phase in the development of early onset schizophrenic psychosis, with the emphasis on gradual, several-month psychopathological accumulation and evolution of nonspecific and subclinical, prodromal symptoms to florid schizophrenic symptoms.

  8. The Self Representation in Schizophrenic patients: Considerations on the Draw a Tree Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Settineri

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract   Objective: The tree is the archetypal symbol of the identification in the growing life. The objective of this study is to evaluate the representation of the self in schizophrenic patients through the tree drawing. Methods: Were identified 36 patients, 22 women and 14 (M-age=53, suffering from schizophrenic disorder. Through the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS and the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS positive and negative symptoms, and the reactive tree representation of the self were assessed.   Results: In the group with negative symptoms archetypal figures are more frequent, such as images that are part of the collective unconscious, or thought more archaic. In patients in which emerges the delirium, that is part of the most evolved thinking, near to the secondary process, the reality testing is better preserved. In cases where there are symptoms mixed the tree structure leads to an archetypal image. Conclusions: This study shows that in the draw of the tree trunk-to-crown ratio in schizophrenic patients was significantly higher than that of healthy individuals. The usefulness of the study insert itself in the Jungian analytic thought, for which psychotic thought corresponds to an abbaissement of the self activity.   Keyword: Representation of Self; Schizophrenia; Draw a Tree Test.

  9. Abnormal regional spontaneous neuronal activity associated with symptom severity in treatment-naive patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder revealed by resting-state functional MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Linlin; Fu, Xiangshuai; Wang, Shuai; Tang, Qunfeng; Chen, Xingui; Cheng, Lin; Zhang, Fuquan; Zhou, Zhenhe; Tian, Lin

    2017-02-15

    A large number of neuroimaging studies have revealed the dysfunction of brain activities in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) during various tasks. However, regional spontaneous activity abnormalities in OCD are gradually being revealed. In this current study, we aimed to investigate cerebral regions with abnormal spontaneous activity using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and further explored the relationship between the spontaneous neuronal activity and symptom severity of patients with OCD. Thirty-one patients with OCD and 32 age-and sex-matched normal controls received the fMRI scans and fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (fALFF) approach was applied to identify the abnormal brain activity. We found that patients with OCD showed decreased fALFF not only in the cortical-striato-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) circuits like the thalamus, but also in other cerebral systems like the cerebellum, the parietal cortex and the temporal cortex. Additionally, OCD patients demonstrated significant associations between decreased fALFF and obsessive-compulsive symptom severity in the thalamus, the paracentral lobule and the cerebellum. Our results provide evidence for abnormal spontaneous neuronal activity in distributed cerebral areas and support the notion that brain areas outside the CSTC circuits may also play an important role in the pathophysiology of OCD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Comment on Differentiating Paranoid From Nonparanoid Schizophrenics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, James F.

    1971-01-01

    Three methods of differentiating paranoid from nonparanoid schizophrenics were compared using 97 males from a Veterans Administration hospital. Official hospital diagnosis and behavior ratings were found to be significantly correlated, while self-report correlated with neither of the other two techniques. Implications for research are briefly…

  11. Abnormal Gastroesophageal Flap Valve Is Associated With High Gastresophageal Reflux Disease Questionnaire Score and the Severity of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in Vietnamese Patients With Upper Gastrointestinal Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quach, Duc T; Nguyen, Trang T; Hiyama, Toru

    2018-04-30

    There have been no studies investigating the distribution of abnormal gastroesophageal flap valve (GEFV) among patients with dyspepsia, non-erosive reflux disease (NERD), and reflux esophagitis (RE) in the same set of patients. The aims of this study are to investigate (1) the association between GEFV and gastroesophageal reflux disease questionnaire (GERDQ) score, and (2) the distribution of abnormal GEFV in Vietnamese patients presenting with upper gastrointestinal symptoms. Three hundred and thirty-one patients recruited in this prospective cross-sectional study were classified into 3 groups: reflux esophagitis (RE), non-erosive reflux disease (NERD) (GERDQ score ≥ 8, no endoscopic mucosal injury), and dyspepsia (GERDQ score < 8, no endoscopic mucosal injury). The GEFV was graded endoscopically according to the Hill classification. GEFV grades I and II were regarded as normal, while grades III and IV were regarded as abnormal GEFV. There were 215 (65.0%) patients with dyspepsia, 55 (16.6%) patients with NERD, and 61 (18.4%) patients with RE. Abnormal GEFV was an independent risk factor for GERD (OR, 2.93; CI 95%, 1.76-4.88) and RE (OR, 3.41; CI 95%, 1.78-6.53). The mean GERDQ score of patients with abnormal GEFV was significantly higher than that of patients with normal GEFV (5.7 ± 2.4 vs 4.9 ± 2.7, P = 0.011). The prevalence of abnormal GEFV gradually increased in patients with dyspepsia (27.4%), NERD (43.6%), grade A RE (56.8%), and grades B/C RE (80.0%) ( P < 0.001). Abnormal GEFV was significantly associated with high GERDQ score. Its prevalence gradually increased in patients with dyspepsia, NERD, and RE, respectively.

  12. GABAA receptor subunit gene expression in human prefrontal cortex: comparison of schizophrenics and controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbarian, S.; Huntsman, M. M.; Kim, J. J.; Tafazzoli, A.; Potkin, S. G.; Bunney, W. E. Jr; Jones, E. G.; Bloom, F. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex of schizophrenics is hypoactive and displays changes related to inhibitory, GABAergic neurons, and GABAergic synapses. These changes include decreased levels of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), the enzyme for GABA synthesis, upregulation of muscimol binding, and downregulation of benzodiazepine binding to GABAA receptors. Studies in the visual cortex of nonhuman primates have demonstrated that gene expression for GAD and for several GABAA receptor subunit polypeptides is under control of neuronal activity, raising the possibility that similar mechanisms in the hypoactive prefrontal cortex of schizophrenics may explain the abnormalities in GAD and in GABAA receptor regulation. In the present study, which is the first of its type on human cerebral cortex, levels of mRNAs for six GABAA receptor subunits (alpha 1, alpha 2, alpha 5, beta 1, beta 2, gamma 2) and their laminar expression patterns were analyzed in the prefrontal cortex of schizophrenics and matched controls, using in situ hybridization histochemistry and densitometry. Three types of laminar expression pattern were observed: mRNAs for the alpha 1, beta 2, and gamma 2 subunits, which are the predominant receptor subunits expressed in the mature cortex, were expressed at comparatively high levels by cells of all six cortical layers, but most intensely by cells in lower layer III and layer IV. mRNAs for the alpha 2, alpha 5, and beta 1 subunits were expressed at lower levels; alpha 2 and beta 1 were expressed predominantly by cells in layers II, III, and IV; alpha 5 was expressed predominantly in layers IV, V, and VI. There were no significant changes in overall mRNA levels for any of the receptor subunits in the prefrontal cortex of schizophrenics, and the laminar expression pattern of all six receptor subunit mRNAs did not differ between schizophrenics and controls. Because gene expression for GABAA receptor subunits is not consistently altered in the prefrontal cortex of

  13. Schizotypal personality disorder inside and outside the schizophrenic spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torgersen, Svenn; Edvardsen, J; Øien, P A; Onstad, S; Skre, I; Lygren, S; Kringlen, E

    2002-03-01

    The concept of schizotypal personality disorder has been heavily discussed since its introduction into the official classification of mental disorders in DSM-III. The aim of this study was to investigate the difference between schizotypal personality disorder within and outside the genetic spectrum of schizophrenia. Schizotypals with and without schizophrenic cotwins and first-degree relatives were compared, with individuals with other mental disorders and no mental disorders as controls. It appeared that only inadequate rapport and odd communication were more pronounced among schizotypals within, compared to schizotypals outside the schizophrenic spectrum. Schizotypals outside the schizophrenic spectrum, however, scored higher than schizotypals inside the schizophrenic spectrum on ideas of reference, suspiciousness, paranoia, social anxiety, self-damaging acts, chronic anger, free-floating anxiety and sensitivity to rejection. Interestingly, the four last features are seldom observed among schizotypals inside the schizophrenic spectrum. Monozygotic non-schizophrenic cotwins of schizophrenics score high on inadequate rapport, odd communication, social isolation and delusions/hallucinations. Monozygotic non-schizophrenic cotwins of schizotypals outside the schizophrenic genetic spectrum score high on illusions, depersonalization, derealization and magical thinking. Negative schizotypal features appear to be inside the schizophrenic spectrum, while positive borderline-like features are outside having another genetic endowment.

  14. Taking cognizance of mental illness in schizophrenics and its association with crime and substance-related diagnoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkner, R; Haastrup, S; Jørgensen, T

    2003-01-01

    with schizophrenia born after November 1, 1963, data on criminality, substance-related diagnoses and contacts with the psychiatric hospital system were analysed. RESULTS: Compared with the non-convicted schizophrenics the convicted were older on first contact with the psychiatric hospital system and older when...... are aware of possible psychotic symptoms in criminal and abusing individuals to enable earlier detection and treatment....

  15. Cognitive correlates of neuroimaging abnormalities in the onset of schizophrenia: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Grassi, Silvia; Orsenigo, Giulia; Serati, Marta; Caletti, Elisabetta; Altamura, Alfredo Carlo; Buoli, Massimiliano

    2017-01-01

    Increasing evidence shows that cognitive impairment and brain abnormalities can appear early in the first episodes of schizophrenia, but it is currently debated how brain changes can correlate with clinical presentation of schizophrenic patients. Of note, this report describes the case of a young schizophrenic male presenting parietal magnetic resonance/positron emission tomography abnormalities and cognitive impairment, documented by specific neuropsychological tests. In our knowledge only f...

  16. Popliteal cysts and subgastrocnemius bursitis are associated with knee symptoms and structural abnormalities in older adults: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yuelong; Jones, Graeme; Han, Weiyu; Antony, Benny; Wang, Xia; Cicuttini, Flavia; Ding, Changhai

    2014-03-03

    The role of popliteal cysts and subgastrocnemius bursitis in knee joint homeostasis is uncertain. The aim of this study is to describe cross-sectional associations between popliteal cysts, subgastrocnemius bursitis, knee symptoms and structural abnormalities in older adults. A cross-sectional sample of 900 randomly-selected subjects (mean age 63 years, 48% female) were studied. Knee pain, stiffness and dysfunction were assessed by self-administered Western Ontario McMaster Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) questionnaire. Radiographic knee osteophyte and joint space narrowing (JSN) were recorded. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was utilized to assess popliteal cysts, subgastrocnemius bursitis, cartilage defects and bone marrow lesions (BMLs). Popliteal cysts were present in 11.7% and subgastrocnemius bursitis in 12.7% of subjects. Subgastrocnemius bursitis was more common in those with popliteal cyst (36.2% versus 9.7%, P bursitis was associated with increased osteophytes and JSN in the medial tibiofemoral compartment. Both were significantly associated with cartilage defects in all compartments, and with BMLs in the medial tibiofemoral compartment. Furthermore, both popliteal cysts and subgastrocnemius bursitis were significantly associated with increased weight-bearing knee pain but these associations became non-significant after adjustment for cartilage defects and BMLs. Popliteal cysts and subgastrocnemius bursitis are associated with increased symptoms as well as radiographic and MRI-detected joint structural abnormalities. Longitudinal data will help resolve if they are a consequence or a cause of knee joint abnormalities.

  17. Altered balance in the autonomic nervous system in schizophrenic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, B M; Mehlsen, J; Behnke, K

    1988-01-01

    .05). Heart-rate response to inspiration was greater in non-medicated schizophrenics compared to normal subjects (P less than 0.05), whereas no difference was found between medicated and non-medicated schizophrenics. The results show that the balance in the autonomic nervous system is altered in schizophrenic...... patients with a hyperexcitability in both the sympathetic and the parasympathetic division. Our study has thus indicated a dysfunction in the autonomic nervous system per se and the previous interpretations of attentional orienting responses in schizophrenia is questioned. Medication with neuroleptics......The aim of the present study was to evaluate the autonomic nervous function in schizophrenic patients. Twenty-eight patients (29 +/- 6 years) diagnosed as schizophrenics and in stable medication were included, together with ten schizophrenic patients (25 +/- 5 years) who were unmedicated. Eleven...

  18. The association between white-matter tract abnormalities, and neuropsychiatric and cognitive symptoms in retired professional football players with multiple concussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multani, Namita; Goswami, Ruma; Khodadadi, Mozhgan; Ebraheem, Ahmed; Davis, Karen D; Tator, Charles H; Wennberg, Richard; Mikulis, David J; Ezerins, Leo; Tartaglia, Maria Carmela

    2016-07-01

    Retired professional athletes, who have suffered repetitive concussions, report symptoms of depression, anxiety, and memory impairment over time. Moreover, recent imaging data suggest chronic white-matter tract deterioration in sport-related concussion. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of repetitive concussions in retired professional football players on white-matter tracts, and relate these changes to neuropsychological function. All subjects (18 retired professional football players and 17 healthy controls) underwent imaging, neuropsychological assessment, and reported on concussion-related symptoms. Whole brain tract-based spatial statistics analysis revealed increased axial diffusivity in the right hemisphere of retired players in the (1) superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), (2) corticospinal tract, and (3) anterior thalamic radiations, suggesting chronic axonal degeneration in these tracts. Moreover, retired players report significantly higher neuropsychiatric and cognitive symptoms than healthy controls, and worsening of these symptoms since their last concussion. Loss of integrity in the right SLF significantly correlated with participants' visual learning ability. In sum, these results suggest that repetitive concussions in retired professional football players are associated with focal white-matter tract abnormalities that could explain some of the neuropsychiatric symptoms and cognitive deficits experienced by these retired athletes.

  19. Computer content analysis of schizophrenic speech: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, G J; Rosenberg, S D

    1975-06-01

    Computer analysis significantly differtiated the thermatic content of the free speech of 10 schizophrenic patients from that of 10 nonschizophrenic patients and from the content of transcripts of dream material from 10 normal subjects. Schizophrenic patients used the thematic categories in factor 1 (the "schizophrenic factor") 3 times more frequently than the nonschizophrenics and 10 times more frequently than the normal subjects (p smaller than 01). In general, the language content of the schizophrenic patient mirrored an almost agitated attempt to locate oneself in time and space and to defend against internal discomfort and confusion. The authors discuss the implications of this study for future research.

  20. Abnormal Hippocampal Morphology in Dissociative Identity Disorder and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Correlates with Childhood Trauma and Dissociative Symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chalavi, Sima; Vissia, Eline M.; Giesen, Mechteld E.; Nijenhuis, Ellert R. S.; Draijer, Nel; Cole, James H.; Dazzan, Paola; Pariante, Carmine M.; Madsen, Sarah K.; Rajagopalan, Priya; Thompson, Paul M.; Toga, Arthur W.; Veltman, Dick J.; Reinders, Antje A. T. S.

    Smaller hippocampal volume has been reported in individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dissociative identity disorder (DID), but the regional specificity of hippocampal volume reductions and the association with severity of dissociative symptoms and/or childhood traumatization

  1. Abnormal Hippocampal Morphology in Dissociative Identity Disorder and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Correlates with Childhood Trauma and Dissociative Symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chalavi, S.; Vissia, E.M.; Giesen, M.E.; Nijenhuis, E.R.S.; Draijer, N.; Cole, J.H.; Dazzan, P.; Pariante, C.M.; Madsen, S.K.; Rajagopalan, P.; Thompson, P.M.; Toga, A.W.; Veltman, D.J.; Reinders, A.A.T.S

    2015-01-01

    Smaller hippocampal volume has been reported in individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dissociative identity disorder (DID), but the regional specificity of hippocampal volume reductions and the association with severity of dissociative symptoms and/or childhood traumatization

  2. GABA and homovanillic acid in the plasma of Schizophrenic and bipolar I patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrúe, Aurora; Dávila, Ricardo; Zumárraga, Mercedes; Basterreche, Nieves; González-Torres, Miguel A; Goienetxea, Biotza; Zamalloa, Maria I; Anguiano, Juan B; Guimón, José

    2010-02-01

    We have determined the plasma (p) concentration of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and the dopamine metabolite homovanillic acid (HVA), and the pHVA/pGABA ratio in schizophrenic and bipolar patients. The research was undertaken in a geographic area with an ethnically homogeneous population. The HVA plasma concentrations were significantly elevated in the schizophrenic patients compared to the bipolar patients. The levels of pGABA was significantly lower in the two groups of patients compared to the control group, while the pHVA/pGABA ratio was significantly greater in the both groups of patients compared to the controls. As the levels of pHVA and pGABA are partially under genetic control it is better to compare their concentrations within an homogeneous population. The values of the ratio pHVA/pGABA are compatible with the idea of an abnormal dopamine-GABA interaction in schizophrenic and bipolar patients. The pHVA/pGABA ratio may be a good peripheral marker in psychiatric research.

  3. Reviewing the Dissociative Symptoms in Patients With Schizophreniaand their Association With Positive and Negative Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Ghoreishi, Abolfazl; Shajari, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The present study aimed to clarify dissociative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia and its association with negative and positive symptom of schizophrenia. Methods: Based on the 4th edition of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) criteria, 80 schizophrenic subjects were randomly selected from patients who referred to the clinics of psychiatry hospital in Kerman, Iran. Eighty non-schizophrenic patients were chosen as the control group. Both groups were...

  4. Computerized spectral analyses of EEG in chronic schizophrenic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Haruhiro

    1985-01-01

    This study was aimed at clarifying the EEG difference between chronic schizophrenic patients and normal controls by using the EEG method of spectral analyses. Twelve comparatively homogenous chronic schizophrenic patients and the 10 healthy controls were subjected to EEG investigations. 1) The EEG of schizophrenic patients had a slowing tendency of the frequency in the frontal pole, anterior temporal and central regions of the scalp compared with control subjects. 2) There was a decrease of mutual relation among the five electrodes' peak frequency in the schizophrenic patients. 3) The EEG of schizophrenic patients had more fast waves of β 1 and β 2 band than that of control subjects. 4) A slowing tendency of the frequency in the first half regions of the scalp was not found in 3 chronic schizophrenic patients which showed defective functions in the frontal area by positron emission tomography. 5) When mental arithmetic was given, the schizophrenic patients showed an increase of fast wave in the central, posterior temporal and occipital regions of the scalp. 6) When they opened their eyes, attenuation in the α band was not so marked in the schizophrenic patients. (author)

  5. Biobehavioral Risk Factors in Children of Schizophrenic Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlenmeyer-Kimling, L.; Cornblatt, Barbara

    1984-01-01

    Research on risk factors for schizophrenia is reviewed with emphasis on children of schizophrenic parents. Four areas of biobehavioral functioning that have been examined in high-risk research are discussed. Three of these are considered compatible with hypothesis neurointegrative defect underlying schizophrenic-proneness. (Author/CL)

  6. SOCIOPATHS AND SCHIZOPHRENICS - A COMPARISON OF FAMILY INTERACTIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matched groups of sociopaths and schizophrenics were compared in a military psychiatric hospital. Striking differences in patterns of family...pathological concern. The parents of sociopaths showed conspicuous disinterest, characterized by unconcern or rejection. The parents of...schizophrenics wrote more, visited more, and traveled greater distances than did parents of sociopaths .

  7. Dysregulation of chemo-cytokine production in schizophrenic patients versus healthy controls

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    Di Giannantonio Massimo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The exact cause of schizophrenia is not known, although several aetiological theories have been proposed for the disease, including developmental or neurodegenerative processes, neurotransmitter abnormalities, viral infection and immune dysfunction or autoimmune mechanisms. Growing evidence suggests that specific cytokines and chemokines play a role in signalling the brain to produce neurochemical, neuroendocrine, neuroimmune and behavioural changes. A relationship between inflammation and schizophrenia was supported by abnormal cytokines production, abnormal concentrations of cytokines and cytokine receptors in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid in schizophrenia. Since the neuropathology of schizophrenia has recently been reported to be closely associated with microglial activation we aimed to determined whether spontaneous or LPS-induced peripheral blood mononuclear cell chemokines and cytokines production is dysregulated in schizophrenic patients compared to healthy subjects. We enrolled 51 untreated first-episode schizophrenics (SC and 40 healthy subjects (HC and the levels of MCP-1, MIP-1α, IL-8, IL-18, IFN-γ and RANTES were determined by Elisa method in cell-free supernatants of PBMC cultures. Results In the simultaneous quantification we found significantly higher levels of constitutively and LPS-induced MCP-1, MIP-1α, IL-8 and IL-18, and lower RANTES and IFNγ levels released by PBMC of SC patients compared with HC. In ten SC patients receiving therapy with risperidone, olanzapine or clozapine basal and LPS-induced production of RANTES and IL-18 was increased, while both basal and LPS-induced MCP-1 production was decreased. No statistically significant differences were detected in serum levels after therapy. Conclusion The observation that in schizophrenic patients the PBMC production of selected chemo-cytokines is dysregulated reinforces the hypothesis that the peripheral cyto-chemokine network is involved in the

  8. Diagnostic consistency and interchangeability of schizophrenic disorders and bipolar disorders: A 7-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Yen-Ni; Yang, Shu-Yu; Kuo, Chian-Jue; Lin, Shih-Ku

    2018-03-01

    The change in psychiatric diagnoses in clinical practice is not an unusual phenomenon. The interchange between the diagnoses of schizophrenic disorders and bipolar disorders is a major clinical issue because of the differences in treatment regimens and long-term prognoses. In this study, we used a nationwide population-based sample to compare the diagnostic consistency and interchange rate between schizophrenic disorders and bipolar disorders. In total, 25 711 and 11 261 patients newly diagnosed as having schizophrenic disorder and bipolar disorder, respectively, were retrospectively enrolled from the Psychiatric Inpatient Medical Claims database between 2001 and 2005. We followed these two cohorts for 7 years to determine whether their diagnoses were consistent throughout subsequent hospitalizations. The interchange between the two diagnoses was analyzed. In the schizophrenic disorder cohort, the overall diagnostic consistency rate was 87.3% and the rate of change to bipolar disorder was 3.0% during the 7-year follow-up. Additional analyses of subtypes revealed that the change rate from schizoaffective disorder to bipolar disorder was 12.0%. In the bipolar disorder cohort, the overall diagnostic consistency rate was 71.9% and the rate of change to schizophrenic disorder was 8.3%. Changes in the diagnosis of a major psychosis are not uncommon. The interchange between the diagnoses of schizophrenic disorders and bipolar disorders might be attributed to the evolution of clinical symptoms and the observation of preserved social functions that contradict the original diagnosis. While making a psychotic diagnosis, clinicians should be aware of the possibility of the change in diagnosis in the future. © 2017 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2017 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  9. Concentrations in plasma clozapine levels in schizophrenic and schizoaffective patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias García, Celso; Iglesias Alonso, Ana; Bobes, Julio

    There is great variability in plasma levels of clozapine. The objective of this study is to know the characteristics of patients treated with clozapine and the relationship between them and the variability of plasma levels. Descriptive, cross-sectional study of all patients currently treated with clozapine in a Psychiatric Service with a diagnosis of schizophrenic psychosis or schizoaffective disorder. The present study assessed physical situation, psychopathology and functionality of the patients and explored the associations and correlations between clinical variables and plasma levels. We studied 39 patients, predominantly men, with negative and depressive symptoms and cardiovascular risk factors (metabolic syndrome and smoking). Significant variability in dose and even greater in clozapine levels were observed. The levels of clozapine at equal doses/kg of body weight were higher in non-smokers, they had positive correlation with BMI and negative correlation with systolic BP, disruptive behaviors and number of cigarettes consumed. Plasma level monitoring clozapine is an important tool to avoid clozapine plasma levels monitoring and minimize undesirable clinical situations (metabolic syndrome, sedation, negative symptoms and functional impairment). It is also important to control the effects of a smoking habit for optimum drug bioavailability. Copyright © 2017 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Abnormal functional connectivity of the posterior cingulate cortex is associated with depressive symptoms in patients with Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang J

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Jiangtao Zhang,1,2 Zhongwei Guo,2 Xiaozheng Liu,3 Xize Jia,4 Jiapeng Li,2 Yaoyao Li,1,5 Danmei Lv,1,5 Wei Chen1,5 1Department of Psychiatry, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine and the Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China; 2Tongde Hospital of Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China; 3China-USA Neuroimaging Research Institute & Department of Radiology, the Second Affiliated Hospital, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, China; 4Center for Cognitive Brain Disorders & Zhejiang Key Laboratory for Research in Assessment of Cognitive Impairments, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou, China; 5Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology of Chinese Ministry of Health, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China Background: Depressive symptoms are significant and very common psychiatric complications in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD, which can aggravate the decline in social function. However, changes in the functional connectivity (FC of the brain in AD patients with depressive symptoms (D-AD remain unclear.Objective: To investigate whether any differences exist in the FC of the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC between D-AD patients and non-depressed AD patients (nD-AD.Materials and methods: We recruited 15 D-AD patients and 17 age-, sex-, educational level-, and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE-matched nD-AD patients to undergo tests using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and 3.0T resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Bilateral PCC were selected as the regions of interest and between-group differences in the PCC FC network were assessed using Student’s t-test.Results: Compared with the nD-AD group, D-AD patients showed increased PCC FC in the right amygdala, right parahippocampus, right superior temporal pole, right middle temporal lobe, right middle temporal pole, and right hippocampus (AlphaSim correction; P<0.05. In the nD-AD group, MMSE

  11. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Patients With Chronic Lateral Epicondylitis: Is There a Relationship Between Magnetic Resonance Imaging Abnormalities of the Common Extensor Tendon and the Patient's Clinical Symptom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Liang; Zhang, Yu-Dong; Yu, Rong-Bin; Shi, Hai-Bin

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the inter-reliability and intra-observer reliability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for lateral epicondylitis and investigate whether there is a potential relationship between MRI abnormalities of the common extensor tendon (CET) and its clinical symptom.The study group comprised 96 consecutive patients (46 men and 50 women) with a clinical diagnosis of chronic lateral epicondylitis, which were examined on 3.0 T MR. An MRI scoring system was used to grade the degree of tendinopahty. Three independent musculoskeletal radiologists, who were blinded to the patients' clinical information, scored images separately. Clinical symptoms were assessed using the Patient-Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation (PRTEE).Of all the patients, total 96 elbows had MRI-assessed tendinopathy, including 38 (39.6%) with grade 1, 31 (32.3%) with grade 2, and 27 (28.1%) with grade 3. Inter-observer reliability and intra-observer agreement for MRI interpretation of the grades of tendinopathy was good, and a positive correlation between the grades of tendinopathy and PRTEE was determined.MRI is a reliable tool in determining radiological severity of chronical lateral epicondylitis. The severity of MR signal changes positively correlate with the patient's clinical symptom.

  12. Quality of life assessment of patients with schizophrenic spectrum disorders from Psychosocial Care Centers

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    Tatiana Fernandes Carpinteiro da Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Assessing the quality of life and the clinical and social-demographic factors associated in schizophrenic spectrum patients (ICD-10 F20-F29 attending CAPS at the programmatic area 3.0. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in a sample of schizophrenic spectrum patients who have been enrolled in 2008 in CAPS in programmatic area (AP 3 at Rio de Janeiro city, using MINIPLUS to assess schizophrenia spectrum disorder and use of psychoactive substances, Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale (PANSS to assess psychiatric symptoms and Quality of Life Scale (QLS-BR to assess the quality of life. RESULTS: Seventy nine patients were included, of whom 74 (93.7% presented some impairment in quality of life. The most frequently affected area was occupational performance. Variables that showed a significant association with severe impairment of quality of life were: marital status, race, occupation, who patients lived with, homelessness, having children, previous psychiatric hospitalization, negative symptoms and symptoms designated as not applicable (being characterized by a lack of typical positive and negative symptoms. CONCLUSION: The knowledge of these factors should be crucial to implement health policies and psychosocial rehabilitation programs focused on improving the quality of life of these patients.

  13. Pimozide versus fluphenazine in ambulatory schizophrenics: A 12-month comparison study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donlon, P T; Swaback, D O; Osborne, M L

    1977-02-01

    In this study, chronic schizophrenic outpatients who had been maintained on various neuroleptics for an average of about 4 years had their previous medications (approximately equivalent to 695 mg of chlorpromazine per day) changed abruptly to either pimozide or fluphenazine given in single daily oral doses on a double-blind basis for a period of 52 weeks. Average daily doses were pimozide 9.6 mg and fluphenazine 12.5 mg. Measurements of the therapeutic effects of the two drugs were made immediately prior to starting the study, at the end of the 2nd and 4th weeks, and thereafter every 4th week to the end of the study. Three psychometric scales were used for evaluation: Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS); Evaluation of Social Functioning (ESFR); and Clinical Global Impressions (CGI). In addition, patients participated in a Social Adjustment Inventory (SAI) evaluation. Statistical analysis with the use of several statistical techniques for between- and within-drug group comparisons revealed that pimozide and fluphenazine were equally effective in maintaining control of symptomatology of chronic schizophrenics at a level commensurate with or better than that provided by their previous medication. Side effects were characteristic of marketed neuroleptics, similar in severity and occurrence between study-drug groups, mainly extrapyramidal symptoms, and readily controlled with antiparkinsonian medication. Pimozide, slightly more potent than fluphenazine, proved to be equally effective for the long-term management of chronic schizophrenic patients.

  14. Cannabis use and dependence among French schizophrenic inpatients

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    Michel eLejoyeux

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: To assess the prevalence of cannabis use and dependence in a population of schizophrenic inpatients and to compare schizophrenics with and without cannabis consumption. Methods: 101 schizophrenic patients were examined during their first week of hospitalization. They answered the PANNS scale of schizophrenia, the CAGE and the Fagerström questionnaire and the DSM-IV-TR criteria for cannabis, alcohol, opiates and nicotine use dependence were checked. We also assessed socio-demographic characteristics, the motive of cannabis consumption and the number of cannabis joints and alcoholic drinks taken.Results: The prevalence of cannabis consumption was 33.6% among schizophrenic inpatients. Schizophrenics consuming cannabis were younger than non-schizophrenics (33.3 vs 44.7 years pConclusion: 33.6 % of the schizophrenic patients hospitalized in psychiatry consume cannabis and most of them are dependent on cannabis and alcohol. Hospitalization in psychiatry may provide an opportunity to systematically identify a dependence disorder and to offer appropriate information and treatment

  15. Baseline and cognition activated regional cerebral brain flow of naive paranoid schizophrenics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Huafang; Gu Niufan; Xiu Yan; Chen Shaoliang

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the baseline and cognition activated regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in naive paranoid schizophrenics and the relationships between the symptoms and rCBF. Methods: The scale of positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) was adopted to evaluate the symptoms of schizophrenia. The baseline and cognition activated 99 Tc m -ethylcysteinate dimmer (ECD) SPECT were performed one after the other within two days. Wisconsin card sorting test (WCST) was used as cognitive task. Semi-quantitative analyses were applied. Results: There were no significant differences of WCST results between two groups. Compared with normal controls, the baseline rCBF ratios of left to right interior posterior temporal cortex in patients were significantly higher, while that of left mid-medial frontal cortex was significantly lower in patients. There was no significant difference of rCBF ratios of baseline to cognition activated states in patients. WCST couldn't activate the frontal function in patients. The total score of PANSS, score of positive subscale and general syndrome subscale were correlated with the rCBF ratio of several regions of interest (ROIs) . Some symptoms were correlated with the rCBF ratio of some ROIs. Conclusions: The hyperperfusion of left and right temporal inferior posterior cortex and hypoperfusion of left mid-medial frontal cortex could be seen in naive paranoid schizophrenics. Hypofrontality existed in patients before treatment. Some positive symptoms were correlated with the rCBF of some ROI

  16. Psychotherapy with schizophrenics in team groups: a systems model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeber, A R

    1991-01-01

    This paper focuses on the treatment of patients with schizophrenic disorders employing the Team Group model. The advantages and disadvantages of the Team Group are presented. Systems theory and principles of group development are applied as a basis for understanding the dynamics of the group in the context at the acute psychiatric unit. Particular problems encountered in treating patients with schizophrenic disorders in this setting are presented. These include: (1) issues of therapist style and technique, (2) basic psychopathology of the schizophrenic disorders, and (3) phase-specific problems associated with the dynamics of the group. Recommendations for therapist interventions are made that may better integrate these patients into the Team Group.

  17. Abnormal functional connectivity of brain network hubs associated with symptom severity in treatment-naive patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder: A resting-state functional MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lin; Meng, Chun; Jiang, Ying; Tang, Qunfeng; Wang, Shuai; Xie, Xiyao; Fu, Xiangshuai; Jin, Chunhui; Zhang, Fuquan; Wang, Jidong

    2016-04-03

    Abnormal brain networks have been observed in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, detailed network hub and connectivity changes remained unclear in treatment-naive patients with OCD. Here, we sought to determine whether patients show hub-related connectivity changes in their whole-brain functional networks. We used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data and voxel-based graph-theoretic analysis to investigate functional connectivity strength and hubs of whole-brain networks in 29 treatment-naive patients with OCD and 29 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Correlation analysis was applied for potential associations with OCD symptom severity. OCD selectively targeted brain regions of higher functional connectivity strength than the average including brain network hubs, mainly distributed in the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) circuits and additionally parietal, occipital, temporal and cerebellar regions. Moreover, affected functional connectivity strength in the cerebellum, the medial orbitofrontal cortex and superior occipital cortex was significantly associated with global OCD symptom severity. Our results provide the evidence about OCD-related brain network hub changes, not only in the CSTC circuits but more distributed in whole brain networks. Data suggest that whole brain network hub analysis is useful for understanding the pathophysiology of OCD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Multisensory integration of emotional faces and voices in schizophrenics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelder, B. de; Vroomen, J.H.M.; Jong, S. de; Masthoff, E.D.M.; Trompenaars, F.J.; Hodiamont, P.P.G.

    2005-01-01

    In their natural environment, organisms receive information through multiple sensory channels and these inputs from different sensory systems are routinely combined into integrated percepts. Previously, we reported that in a population of schizophrenics, deficits in audiovisual integration were

  19. Multisensory integration of emotional faces and voices in schizophrenics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelder, B. de; Vroomen, J.H.M.; Jong, S.J. de; Masthoff, E.D.M.; Trompenaars, F.J.; Hodiamont, P.P.G.

    2005-01-01

    their natural environment, organisms receive information through multiple sensory channels and these inputs from different sensory systems are routinely combined into integrated percepts. Previously, we reported that in a population of schizophrenics, deficits in audiovisual integration were

  20. CIGARETTE SMOKING IN SCHIZOPHRENIC PATIENTS THAT ARE CURRENTLY TREATED IN A MEXICAN HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Rodríguez-Mayoral

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: tobacco smoking is the most commonly substance abused in psychiatric patients; among them, patients with schizophrenia are the highest abusers. Smoking is related to a decrease in the quality life and life expectancy, as well as interacting with psychotropic drugs. In Mexico, there is not basic descriptive knowledge about the main variables related to cigarette smoking in psychiatric population. The aim of this study was to know the relation among variables (beginning and course of the disease, use of other drugs and times of hospitalization among others and cigarette smoking in a Mexican population of hospitalized schizophrenic patients. Method: The relation between the main variables and smoking were evaluated in a Mexican population of schizophrenic patients while hospitalized. A casuistic sampling was performed in 96 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and they were divided into three groups: 1 non-smokers, 2 ex-smokers and 3 smokers; according to their score on the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence. Results: The results showed that hospitalized schizophrenic patients smoke 2.7 times more than the general population. Most of these patients showed moderate to high dependence of nicotine, as well as a higher risk for other drugs abuse (marihuana mainly. Most patients started smoking before the first positive symptoms of schizophrenia appeared, and their symptoms started at an earlier age than in patients without a smoking background. Conclusions: Similar studies will allow deepening into specific aspects that modify and or improve the prescribed treatments for each psychiatric patient in hospital settings.

  1. Plasma homovanillic acid differences in clinical subgroups of first episode schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeza, Immaculada; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina; Deulofeu, Ramon; de la Serna, Elena; Goti, Javier; Salvà, Joan; Bernardo, Miquel

    2009-07-30

    This study evaluates the relationship between plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) levels, which have been used to study the role of central dopamine in schizophrenia, and the positive/negative syndrome in first episode schizophrenic patients before and after antipsychotic treatment. Forty neuroleptic-naive first episode schizophrenic patients were monitored at baseline and on days 7, 14 and 28. Clinical status was evaluated with the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS), the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS), and the Brief Psychotic Rating Scale. Plasma HVA levels were also measured. Patients were divided into predominantly positive or negative syndrome groups by subtracting SAPS from SANS scores, at baseline. A healthy control group was also enrolled. Schizophrenic patients as a group had significantly higher pHVA levels than controls at baseline (20.50+/-11.85 vs. 13.04+/-7.22 ng/ml). Moreover, 12 predominantly negative syndrome patients had similar mean baseline pHVA levels (21.30+/-12.36 ng/ml) to those of 28 predominantly positive syndrome patients (19.40+/-11.33 ng/ml). During follow-up, there was a different evolution of pHVA levels in the predominantly positive syndrome group than in the predominantly negative syndrome group, with a significantly greater global reduction of pHVA levels in the former. Although both groups showed clinical improvement following 4 weeks of treatment with risperidone, pHVA levels at endpoint were lower (13.29+/-5.91 ng/ml) than at baseline in patients in the predominantly positive syndrome group, while among those in the predominantly negative syndrome group there was no difference in pHVA levels before and after treatment (21.02+/-13.06 ng/ml). The different pHVA level profiles observed in predominantly positive and negative syndrome first episode patients after 4 weeks of treatment with risperidone suggest that each syndrome may have a different underlying neurobiology.

  2. Neural systems for social cognition: gray matter volume abnormalities in boys at high genetic risk of autism symptoms, and a comparison with idiopathic autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, Marcia N; Swaab, Hanna; Rombouts, Serge A R B; van Rijn, Sophie

    2016-09-01

    Klinefelter syndrome (47, XXY) is associated with several physical, cognitive, and behavioral consequences. In terms of social development, there is an increased risk of autism symptomatology. However, it remains unclear how social deficits are related to abnormal brain development and to what degree underlying mechanisms of social dysfunction in 47, XXY are similar to, or different from, those in idiopathic autism (ASD). This study was aimed at investigating the neural architecture of brain structures related to social information processing in boys with 47, XXY, also in comparison with boys with idiopathic ASD. MRI scans of 16 boys with 47, XXY, 16 with ASD, and 16 nonclinical, male controls were analyzed using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). A region of interest mask containing the superior temporal cortex, amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), insular cortex, and medial frontal cortex was used. The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) was used to assess degree of autism spectrum symptoms. The 47, XXY group could not be distinguished from the ASD group on mean SRS scores, and their scores were significantly higher than in controls. VBM showed that boys with 47, XXY have significant gray matter volume reductions in the left and right insula, and the left OFC, compared with controls and boys with ASD. Additionally, boys with 47, XXY had significantly less gray matter in the right superior temporal gyrus than controls. These results imply social challenges associated with 47, XXY may be rooted in neural anatomy, and autism symptoms in boys with 47, XXY and boys with ASD might have, at least partially, different underlying etiologies.

  3. Self-mutilation of the nose in a schizophrenic patient with Cotard syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffari-Nejad, Alireza; Kerdegari, Mohammad; Reihani-Kermani, Hamed

    2007-10-01

    Cotard syndrome is a rare condition, which its main symptom is nihilistic delusion. Self-mutilation of the nose is also a rare condition, which has not been seen in schizophrenic patients with Cotard syndrome. A single case is presented here. A 32-year-old woman who was diagnosed as having schizophrenia and believed that she was dead, cut the tip of her nose. She had no guilt feeling and described her act as a cosmetic surgery. We try to explain how various symptoms that seem to be very far from each other could exist side by side. Misinterpretation of her face is suggested to be the starting point in her complex symptoms.

  4. Dental Health Status of Schizophrenic Patients in the Chronic Psychiatric Care Center in the Province of Chaharmahal va Bakhtiyary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Nik-Farjam

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Schizophrenia is a chronic disease . Schizophrenic patients are unable in personal fuction and self care such as dental health. Especially, side effects of anti– psych otic drugs cause some dental problems in the patient . Also dental problems may lead to some disease , so it is necessary to play full attention to dental health condition in schizophrenic patients. The aim of study was assessing the dental health status of schizophrenic patients confined in chronic psychiatric care center on Chaharmahal & Bakhtiyari. Materials & Methods: This survey is an analytical descriptive and cross-sectional study, 123 schizophrenic patients are assessed in 2008. The data was collected through interview, (using the Scale for the assessment of positive and negative symptom (SAPS and SANS, Decayed, Missed, Filled Teeth index (DMFT, Gingival index and demographic questionnaire. Quantities analysis of data was undertaken by using X 2, Man vetney test and Pearson r test . Results: The mean of DMFT was 19.43±7.71. There was a significant correlation between age, smoking history and cigarettes per day, oral hygiene condition and other negative symptoms and average DMFT (P&le0.05. Also there was a significant correlation between the severity of periodentitis and sex, history of smoking, number of smoked cigarettes per day, previous hospital admission and average of negative and positive symptoms. No significant correlation between the severity of periodentitis and mean DMFT (P&le0.05 was seen. Conclusion: Results of the study demonstrated that dental health of people with schizophrenia is poor.

  5. Neurocortical electrical activity tomography in chronic schizophrenics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veiga Heloisa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional imaging of brain electrical activity was performed in 25 chronic medicated schizophrenics and 40 controls, analyzing the classical frequency bands (delta, theta, alpha, and beta of 19-channel EEG during resting state to identify brain regions with deviant activity of different functional significances, using LORETA (Low Resolution Tomography and SPM99 (Statistical Parametric Mapping. Patients differed from controls due to an excess of slow activity comprising delta + theta frequency bands (inhibitory pattern located at the right middle frontal gyrus, right inferior frontal gyrus, and right insula, as well as at the bilateral anterior cingulum with a left preponderance. The high temporal resolution of EEG enables the specification of the deviations not only as an excess or a deficit of brain electrical activity, but also as inhibitory (delta, theta, normal (alpha, and excitatory (beta activities. These deviations point out to an impaired functional brain state consisting of inhibited frontal and prefrontal areas that may result in inadequate treatment of externally or internally generated information.

  6. The prognostic value of dopamine receptor occupancy by [123I]IBZM-SPECT in schizophrenic patients treated with quetiapine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavics, L.; Ambrus, E.; Argyelan, M.; Kanyo, B.; Csernay, L.; Szekeres, G.; Kovacs, Z.; Keri, S.; Janka, Z.

    2004-01-01

    In the present study D2 receptor occupancy was investigated in quetiapine treated schizophrenic patients for the detection of a relationship between the scintigraphic pattern and clinical signs and symptoms. In 10 schizophrenic patients [ 123I ]IBZM-SPECTs were performed during the introduction of quetiapine therapy (600 - 800 mg/day) and during a lower maintenance dose (200 - 400 mg/day). The patients clinical follow-up was continued for 1 year. For the evaluation of SPECT images, visual interpretation was performed and striatum/occipital lobe (S/O) activity ratio was calculated. The initial striatum/occipital ratio was significantly higher in patients with relapse compared to the others (1.86 ± 0.17, 1.53 ± 0.15, p nd SPECT was a predictive factor for the relapse. D2 receptor occupancy and its changes during quetiapine therapy were related to the prognosis of the treatment efficacy. (author)

  7. Taking cognizance of mental illness in schizophrenics and its association with crime and substance-related diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munkner, R; Haastrup, S; Jørgensen, T; Andreasen, A H; Kramp, P

    2003-02-01

    To analyse how committed crimes and substance-related diagnoses are associated with the age on the first contact with the psychiatric hospital system and the age at diagnosing of schizophrenia among schizophrenics. In a register-based study including all Danes diagnosed with schizophrenia born after November 1, 1963, data on criminality, substance-related diagnoses and contacts with the psychiatric hospital system were analysed. Compared with the non-convicted schizophrenics the convicted were older on first contact with the psychiatric hospital system and older when the diagnosis of schizophrenia was first given. In contrast, having a substance-related diagnosis was associated with a younger age on first contact but did not influence the age at which the diagnosis of schizophrenia was given. It is important that both psychiatrists and the judicial system are aware of possible psychotic symptoms in criminal and abusing individuals to enable earlier detection and treatment.

  8. Inducing Assertive Behavior in Chronic Schizophrenics: A Comparison of Socioenvironmental Desensitization, and Relaxation Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinman, Bernard; And Others

    1972-01-01

    It is concluded that systematic desensitization or relaxation therapy is not effective in inducing assertive behavior in the male chronic schizophrenic. The treatment of choice for the older chronic male schizophrenic remains socioenvironmental therapy. (Author)

  9. [Impact of a Multimodal Intervention on the Psychological Profile of Schizophrenic and Bipolar I Patients: A Study of PRISMA Program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Zuluaga, Ana María; Vargas, Cristian; Duica, Kelly; Richard, Shanel; Palacio, Juan David; Agudelo Berruecos, Yuli; Ospina, Sigifredo; López-Jaramillo, Carlos

    Bipolar Disorder (BD) and schizophrenia are included in the group of severe mental illness and are main causes of disability and morbidity in the local population due to the bio-psycho-social implications in patients. In the last 20 years or so, adjunctive psychological interventions been studied with the purpose of decreasing recurrences, stabilising the course of the disease, and improving the functionality in these patients. To analyse the psychological effect of a multimodal intervention (MI) vs a traditional intervention (TI) program in BD I and schizophrenic patients. A prospective, longitudinal, therapeutic-comparative study was conducted with 302 patients (104 schizophrenic and 198 bipolar patients) who were randomly assigned to the MI or TI groups of a multimodal intervention program PRISMA. The MI group received care from psychiatry, general medicine, neuropsychology, family therapy, and occupational therapy. The TI group received care from psychiatry and general medicine. The Hamilton and Young scales, and the Scales for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS) and Postive Symptoms (SAPS) were used on bipolar and schizophrenic patients, respectively. The scales AQ-12, TEMPS-A, FAST, Zuckerman sensation seeking scale, BIS-11, SAI-E and EEAG were applied to measure the psychological variables. The scales were performed before and after the interventions. The psychotherapy used in this study was cognitive behavioural therapy. There were statistically significant differences in socio-demographic and clinical variables in the schizophrenia and bipolar disorder group. There were no statistically significant differences in the psychological scales after conducting a multivariate analysis between the intervention groups and for both times (initial and final). This study did not show any changes in variables of psychological functioning variables between bipolar and schizophrenic groups, who were subjected to TI vs MI (who received cognitive behavioural therapy

  10. Lack of parvalbumin in mice leads to behavioral deficits relevant to all human autism core symptoms and related neural morphofunctional abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wöhr, M; Orduz, D; Gregory, P; Moreno, H; Khan, U; Vörckel, K J; Wolfer, D P; Welzl, H; Gall, D; Schiffmann, S N; Schwaller, B

    2015-03-10

    Gene mutations and gene copy number variants are associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Affected gene products are often part of signaling networks implicated in synapse formation and/or function leading to alterations in the excitation/inhibition (E/I) balance. Although the network of parvalbumin (PV)-expressing interneurons has gained particular attention in ASD, little is known on PV's putative role with respect to ASD. Genetic mouse models represent powerful translational tools for studying the role of genetic and neurobiological factors underlying ASD. Here, we report that PV knockout mice (PV(-/-)) display behavioral phenotypes with relevance to all three core symptoms present in human ASD patients: abnormal reciprocal social interactions, impairments in communication and repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior. PV-depleted mice also showed several signs of ASD-associated comorbidities, such as reduced pain sensitivity and startle responses yet increased seizure susceptibility, whereas no evidence for behavioral phenotypes with relevance to anxiety, depression and schizophrenia was obtained. Reduced social interactions and communication were also observed in heterozygous (PV(+/-)) mice characterized by lower PV expression levels, indicating that merely a decrease in PV levels might be sufficient to elicit core ASD-like deficits. Structural magnetic resonance imaging measurements in PV(-/-) and PV(+/-) mice further revealed ASD-associated developmental neuroanatomical changes, including transient cortical hypertrophy and cerebellar hypoplasia. Electrophysiological experiments finally demonstrated that the E/I balance in these mice is altered by modification of both inhibitory and excitatory synaptic transmission. On the basis of the reported changes in PV expression patterns in several, mostly genetic rodent models of ASD, we propose that in these models downregulation of PV might represent one of the points of convergence, thus providing a

  11. Pitting temporal against spatial integration in schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Michael H; Brand, Andreas

    2009-06-30

    Schizophrenic patients show strong impairments in visual backward masking possibly caused by deficits on the early stages of visual processing. The underlying aberrant mechanisms are not clearly understood. Spatial as well as temporal processing deficits have been proposed. Here, by combining a spatial with a temporal integration paradigm, we show further evidence that temporal but not spatial processing is impaired in schizophrenic patients. Eleven schizophrenic patients and ten healthy controls were presented with sequences composed of Vernier stimuli. Patients needed significantly longer presentation times for sequentially presented Vernier stimuli to reach a performance level comparable to that of healthy controls (temporal integration deficit). When we added spatial contextual elements to some of the Vernier stimuli, performance changed in a complex but comparable manner in patients and controls (intact spatial integration). Hence, temporal but not spatial processing seems to be deficient in schizophrenia.

  12. The linguistics of schizophrenia: thought disturbance as language pathology across positive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinzen, Wolfram; Rosselló, Joana

    2015-01-01

    We hypothesize that linguistic (dis-)organization in the schizophrenic brain plays a more central role in the pathogenesis of this disease than commonly supposed. Against the standard view, that schizophrenia is a disturbance of thought or selfhood, we argue that the origins of the relevant forms of thought and selfhood at least partially depend on language. The view that they do not is premised by a theoretical conception of language that we here identify as 'Cartesian' and contrast with a recent 'un-Cartesian' model. This linguistic model empirically argues for both (i) a one-to-one correlation between human-specific thought or meaning and forms of grammatical organization, and (ii) an integrative and co-dependent view of linguistic cognition and its sensory-motor dimensions. Core dimensions of meaning mediated by grammar on this model specifically concern forms of referential and propositional meaning. A breakdown of these is virtually definitional of core symptoms. Within this model the three main positive symptoms of schizophrenia fall into place as failures in language-mediated forms of meaning, manifest either as a disorder of speech perception (Auditory Verbal Hallucinations), abnormal speech production running without feedback control (Formal Thought Disorder), or production of abnormal linguistic content (Delusions). Our hypothesis makes testable predictions for the language profile of schizophrenia across symptoms; it simplifies the cognitive neuropsychology of schizophrenia while not being inconsistent with a pattern of neurocognitive deficits and their correlations with symptoms; and it predicts persistent findings on disturbances of language-related circuitry in the schizophrenic brain.

  13. The linguistics of schizophrenia: thought disturbance as language pathology across positive symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfram eHinzen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We hypothesize that linguistic (dis- organization in the schizophrenic brain plays a much more central role in the pathogenesis of this disease than commonly supposed. Against the standard view, that schizophrenia is a disturbance of thought or selfhood, we argue that the origins of the relevant forms of thought and selfhood at least partially depend on language. The view that they do not is premised by a theoretical conception of language that we here identify as ‘Cartesian’ and contrast with a recent ‘un-Cartesian’ model. This linguistic model empirically argues for both (i a one-to-one correlation between human-specific thought or meaning and forms of grammatical organization, and (ii an integrative and co-dependent view of linguistic cognition and its sensory-motor dimensions. Core dimensions of meaning mediated by grammar on this model specifically concern forms of referential and propositional meaning. A breakdown of these is virtually definitional of core symptoms. Within this model the three main positive symptoms of schizophrenia fall into place as failures in language-mediated forms of meaning, manifest either as a disorder of speech perception (Auditory Verbal Hallucinations, AVHs, abnormal speech production running without feedback control (Formal Thought Disorder, FTD, or production of abnormal linguistic content (Delusions. Our hypothesis makes testable predictions for the language profile of schizophrenia across symptoms; it simplifies the cognitive neuropsychology of schizophrenia while not being inconsistent with a pattern of neurocognitive deficits and their correlations with symptoms; and it predicts persistent findings on disturbances of language-related circuitry in the schizophrenic brain.

  14. Mortality and causes of death in first admitted schizophrenic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, P B; Juel, K

    1993-01-01

    Although many studies have shown an increased mortality in schizophrenic patients, the literature provides little information about mortality from specific causes in relation to age, gender, and duration of illness. This study examined mortality and causes of death in a total national sample...... of 9156 first admitted schizophrenic patients. Suicide accounted for 50% of deaths in men and 35% of deaths in women. Suicide risk was particularly increased during the first year of follow-up. Death from natural causes, with the exception of cancer and cerebrovascular diseases, was increased. Suicide...

  15. The relationship between schizoaffective, schizophrenic and mood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There were significant differences between SCZ, SAD and MD regarding: affective and core symptoms of schizophrenia (with the exception of core symptoms of schizophrenia between SCZ and SAD); presence of past trauma; a past suicide attempt; and comorbidity with alcohol and drug abuse disorders. SAD and MD ...

  16. Correlation among personal, social performance and cognitive impairment in male schizophrenic patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damanik, R.; Effendy, E.; Camellia, V.

    2018-03-01

    Schizophrenia is a dramatic mental illness with tragic manifestation. The consequences of the illness are for the individual, affected his or her family and society. Schizophrenia is one of the twenty illness that causes Years Lost due to Disability. Treating only the symptom is insufficient. The aim of treatment must include the quality of life of aschizophrenic person. This study aims to examine the relationship between cognitive impairment and performance of the person with schizophrenia. Cognitive test is scaled with Indonesian version of Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA-Ina), while personal and social performance isscaled with Personal and Social Performance scale. There are many studies that search the relationship between cognitive impairment and social functioning of schizophrenic patients, but this is the first study that uses PSP and MoCA-Ina. Both PSP and MoCA-Ina are easy to use but still have high sensitivity and specificity, and perhaps can build people’s interest to use it in clinical practice. Twenty-five male schizophrenic patients were assessed in Prof. M. Ildrem Mental Hospital of North Sumatera Province of Indonesia. Positive correlations between MoCA-Ina and PSP score were identified. Clinicians should pay attention to cognitive and might give some early intervention to it.

  17. ALE Meta-Analysis of Schizophrenics Performing the N-Back Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrell, Zachary

    2010-10-01

    MRI/fMRI has already proven itself as a valuable tool in the diagnosis and treatment of many illnesses of the brain, including cognitive problems. By exploiting the differences in magnetic susceptibility between oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin, fMRI can measure blood flow in various regions of interest within the brain. This can determine the level of brain activity in relation to motor or cognitive functions and provide a metric for tissue damage or illness symptoms. Structural imaging techniques have shown lesions or deficiencies in tissue volumes in schizophrenics corresponding to areas primarily in the frontal and temporal lobes. These areas are currently known to be involved in working memory and attention, which many schizophrenics have trouble with. The ALE (Activation Likelihood Estimation) Meta-Analysis is able to statistically determine the significance of brain area activations based on the post-hoc combination of multiple studies. This process is useful for giving a general model of brain function in relation to a particular task designed to engage the affected areas (such as working memory for the n-back task). The advantages of the ALE Meta-Analysis include elimination of single subject anomalies, elimination of false/extremely weak activations, and verification of function/location hypotheses.

  18. Plasma catecholamine metabolites in schizophrenics: evidence for the two-subtype concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, W H; Chen, T Y; Lin, S K; Lung, F W; Lin, W L; Hu, W H; Yeh, E K

    1990-03-01

    Plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) and plasma methoxyhydroxyphenyl glycol (pMHPG), as well as plasma haloperidol, were measured in 33 schizophrenic patients before and during 6 weeks of haloperidol treatment. Good responders had higher baseline pHVA values compared with poor responders (17.4 +/- 8.8 ng/ml, n = 22 versus 11.4 +/- 5.0 ng/ml, n = 11, p less than 0.05). A higher than 15 ng/ml pretreatment pHVA level was associated with a more consistent clinical response to the subsequent treatment. Differential pHVA changes during treatment were also found between good and poor responders. Within the good responder group, a significant decline in pHVA over time was found. By contrast, pHVA showed a transient increase in the poor responder group. Plasma MHPG changes showed a similar pattern during treatment in good responders, although no significant differences in baseline values were found between the good (n = 13) and poor (n = 9) responders, and pMHPG showed no change during treatment in poor responders. Significant correlations between baseline pHVA and pMHPG values were found in 22 patients. Good responders and poor responders did not differ significantly in terms of age, duration of illness, severity of presenting symptoms, haloperidol dose, or plasma drug concentration. Two hypothetical subtypes of schizophrenia and both dopamine and norepinephrine systems involved in schizophrenic psychopathology are proposed.

  19. Effects of emotionally affect adult and baby' photographs in healthy controls and schizophrenic patients evaluating by exploratory eye movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabe, Chizuko; Morita, Kiichiro; Shoji, Yoshihisa; Fujiki, Ryo; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Asaumi, Yasue; Uchimura, Naohisa

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between mother and baby is of fundamental importance in the development of cognitive function and emotion. In this study we investigated the effects of affective photographs of a mother and baby (crying or smiling faces) and other stimuli (neutral mother or baby faces) on visual cognitive function in schizophrenic patents. We recorded exploratory eye movements in 22 healthy controls and 22 age-matched schizophrenic patients. Total number of right and left field gaze points (right TNGP, left TNGP) in the visual fields were determined using an eye-mark recorder as subjects viewed affectively charged or neutral photographs (crying, smiling or neutral faces). Left TNGP for all mother photographs (crying, smiling or neutral) were significantly larger in controls than patients, and right TNGP for neutral mother photographs were significantly larger in controls than in patients. Right TNGP for photographs of smiling babies were significantly larger in controls than patients, and left TNGP for photographs of both smiling and crying babies were significantly larger in controls than patients. Within the patient group, right TNGP were significantly larger than left TNGP for all mother photographs (crying, smiling or neutral). Left TNGP for photographs of mothers and babies correlated negatively with negative symptom scores. These results suggest that exploratory eye movements when viewing emotionally laded twin stimuli such as photographs of a mother and baby are a useful marker of visual cognitive function in both healthy controls and schizophrenic patients.

  20. Avoidant Personality Disorder Symptoms in First-Degree Relatives of Schizophrenia Patients Predict Performance on Neurocognitive Measures: The UCLA Family Study

    OpenAIRE

    Fogelson, D. L.; Asarnow, R. A.; Sugar, C. A.; Subotnik, K. L.; Jacobson, K. C.; Neale, M. C.; Kendler, K. S.; Kuppinger, H.; Nuechterlein, K. H.

    2010-01-01

    Whether avoidant personality disorder symptoms are related to neurocognitive impairments that aggregate in relatives of schizophrenics is unknown. We report the relationship between avoidant personality disorder symptoms and neurocognitive performance in the first-degree relatives of probands with schizophrenia.

  1. Abnormal Time Experiences in Major Depression: An Empirical Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanghellini, Giovanni; Ballerini, Massimo; Presenza, Simona; Mancini, Milena; Northoff, Georg; Cutting, John

    2017-01-01

    Phenomenological psychopathology, through theoretical and idiographic studies, conceptualizes major depressive disorder (MDD) as a disorder of time experience. Investigations on abnormal time experience (ATE) in MDD adopting methodologies requested by the standards of empirical sciences are still lacking. Our study aimed to provide a qualitative analysis, on an empirical ground and on a large scale, of narratives of temporal experiences of persons affected by MDD. We interviewed 550 consecutive patients affected by affective and schizophrenic disorders. Clinical files were analysed by means of consensual qualitative research. Out of 100 MDD patients, 96 reported at least 1 ATE. The principal categories of ATE are vital retardation - the experience of a stagnation of endogenous vital processes (37 patients), the experience of present and future dominated by the past (29 patients), and the experience of the slackening of the flow oftime (25 patients). A comparison with ATE in schizophrenia patients showed that in MDD, unlike in schizophrenia, there is no disarticulation of time experience (disorder of temporal synthesis) but rather a disorder of conation or inhibition of becoming. The interview style was not meant to make a quantitative assessment ("false negatives" cannot be excluded). Our findings confirm the relevance of distinctive features of ATE in MDD, support the hypothesis of an intrinsic disordered temporal structure in depressive symptoms, and may have direct implications in clinical practice, especially in relation to differential diagnosis, setting the boundaries between "true" and milder forms of depression, and neurobiological research. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Effectiveness of Vitamin D Supplement Therapy in Chronic Stable Schizophrenic Male Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikhmoonesi, Fatemeh; Zarghami, Mehran; Mamashli, Shima; Yazdani Charati, Jamshid; Hamzehpour, Romina; Fattahi, Samineh; Azadbakht, Rahil; Kashi, Zahra; Ala, Shahram; Moshayedi, Mona; Alinia, Habibollah; Hendouei, Narjes

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the aim was to determine whether adding vitamin D to the standard therapeutic regimen of schizophrenic male patients with inadequate vitamin D status could improve some aspects of the symptom burden or not. This study was an open parallel label randomized clinical trial. Eighty patients with chronic stable schizophrenia with residual symptoms and Vitamin D deficiency were recruited randomly and then received either 600000 IU Vitamin D injection once along with their antipsychotic regimen or with their antipsychotic regimen only. Serum vitamin D was measured twice: first at the baseline and again on the fourth month. Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) was assessed at the baseline and on the fourth month. During the study, the vitamin D serum changes in vitamin group and control group were 22.1 ± 19.9(95%CI = 15.9-28.8) and 0.2 ± 1.7(95%CI = 0.2-0.8) (ng/mL) (pvitamin D and control group respectively (p=0.5). The changes of PANSS negative subscale score (N) were -0.1 ± 0.7 (95%CI = -0.3-0.05) and -0.1 ± 0.5 (95%CI = -0.2-0.04) in vitamin D and control group respectively (p = 0.7) and there was a negative but not significant correlation between serum vitamin D level changes and PANSS negative subscale score (r = -0.04, p = 0.7). We did not find a relationship between serum vitamin D level changes and the improvement of negative and positive symptoms in schizophrenic patients and more randomized clinical trials are required to confirm our findings.

  3. Higher incidence of hip fracture in newly diagnosed schizophrenic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Higher incidence of hip fracture in newly diagnosed schizophrenic patients in Taiwan. Hip fracture is a major public health concern due to its poor outcome and serious socioeconomic burden in older people (1). Evidence has shown that many factors are related to increased risk of hip fracture, but psychiatric diseases are ...

  4. Young Children of Schizophrenic Mothers: Difficulties of Intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grünbaum, Liselotte; Gammeltoft, Marie

    1993-01-01

    Casework by Danish local social agencies on behalf of 11 children og chronically ill schizophrenic mothers is retrospectively analyzed, along with documentation from psychiatric hospitals, consulting child specialists, and other health professionals. Findings point to a need for earlier and more...... precise assessment of the mother's parenting abilities as measured against the severity of her illness and the vulnerability of the child...

  5. Ancient schwannoma of thoracic spine in a schizophrenic patient with somatic delusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Ting Wen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ancient schwannoma is a rare variant of schwannoma characterized by histopathologic degenerative changes, which are thought to be the result of long-term tumor growth and aging. However, ancient schwannoma in the spinal canal is particularly rare. We report a case of thoracic spine intradural extramedullary ancient schwannoma in a schizophrenic patient, who kept saying that “something in his back was giving him electric shock” for a long time. Unfortunately, this complaint was misinterpreted as somatic delusion symptoms. A spinal cord tumor was taken into consideration only after paraparesis developed. We have highlighted this case to remind every clinician to remain alert about the possibility of organic disease while treating patients with psychotic disorder history. Thorough neurological examination is required to avoid misdiagnosis. Spinal canal schwannoma can be totally removed successfully with good functional outcome and prognosis.

  6. 123I-IBZM SPECT in schizophrenic patients treated with quetiapine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavics, L.; Szekeres, G.; Janka, Z.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Quetiapine is a novel antipsychotic substance with relative short half-life and low affinity for D2 dopamine receptors. PET and SPECT studies demonstrated individually different D2 receptor occupancy during quetiapine monotherapy. In the present study D2 receptor occupancy was investigated in quetiapine treated schizophrenic patients for the detection of the relationship between the scintigraphic pattern and clinical sign and symptoms. In 10 schizophrenic patients (7 woman, 3 man, age ±SD: 34 ±7 PANSS: 72 ±20) IBZM SPECT (185 MBq, acquisition was started 90 min p.i.) were performed during introduction of quetiapine therapy (600-800 mg/day) and during a lower preservation dose (200-400 mg/day). All the patients were under quetiapine monotherapy. Simultaneously to the SPECT investigations visual contrast standardized rating scales determined sensitivity, clinical symptoms and extrapyramidal signs. For the evaluation of SPECT images visual interpretation and striatum/occipital lobe (S/O) activity ratio was calculated. The striatum/occipital lobe ratio at the first investigation was 1.7 ± 0.23 at the second 1.68 ± 0.12. The receptor occupancy was individually different but no significant difference was observed in relation to the quetiapine dose used. There was no significant difference in PANNSS and no patients had extrapyramidal signs. In 5 patients in clinical steady state decreasing the dose of quetiapine the S/O ratio increased by 1-35 % without long term relapse but in 5 with decreasing S/O ratio (9-29 %) clinical relapse of the disease were observed. The IBZM uptake changes correlated with the time interval until the relapse, but not with the PANNS changes. The initial striatum/occipital ratio was also significantly higher in the group of patients with relapse (over 1.8) compared to the other group. There were no relationship between the initial D2 receptor occupancy and the PANNS changes and the interval until the relapse. Endogen dopamin

  7. Neural systems for social cognition : gray matter volume abnormalities in boys at high genetic risk of autism symptoms, and a comparison with idiopathic autism spectrum disorder.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goddard, M.N.; Swaab, H.; Rombouts, S.A.; Van, Rijn S.

    2016-01-01

    Klinefelter syndrome (47, XXY) is associated with several physical, cognitive, and behavioral consequences. In terms of social development, there is an increased risk of autism symptomatology. However, it remains unclear how social deficits are related to abnormal brain development and to what

  8. A computed tomographic prolective trohoc study of chronic schizophrenics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glueck, E.; Radue, E.W.; Mundt, C.; Gerhardt, P.

    1980-01-01

    The maximal width of the third ventricle, the maximal distance between the outer tips of the anterior horns, and the number of enlarged cerebral sulci on the two highest CT slices were measured in 68 chronic schizophrenic patients on cranial computed tomograms in order to detect a possible enlargement of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) filled intracranial spaces. These results were compared with values obtained from a control group which was formed in accordance with definite exclusion criteria and matched-pair parameters (sex, age and maximal inner diameter of the skull). In a prolective trohoc study no difference was found in the size of the CSF spaces of schizophrenics and the controls. The psychopathological condition of the patients, which was classified in a semistandardized dialogue, also showed no correlation with the ventricular size or the number of enlarged cerebral sulci. (orig.)

  9. Associations between abnormal ultrasound color Doppler measures and tendon pain symptoms in badminton players during a season: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesen, Anders Ploug; Boesen, Morten Ilum; Torp-Pedersen, Soren; Christensen, Robin; Boesen, Lars; Hölmich, Per; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann; Koenig, Merete Juhl; Hartkopp, Andreas; Ellegaard, Karen; Bliddal, Henning; Langberg, Henning

    2012-03-01

    Color Doppler ultrasound is widely used to examine intratendinous flow in individuals with overuse tendon problems, but the association between color Doppler and pain is still unclear. Intratendinous flow is present and associated with pain in badminton players, and intratendinous flow and pain increase during a badminton season. Cohort study (prognosis); Level of evidence, 2. Ninety-five semiprofessional badminton players were included in the study at a tournament at the start of the badminton season. All players were interviewed regarding pain. The anterior knee tendons and Achilles tendons were studied. Each tendon was scored using a quantitative grading system (grades 0-5) and a qualitative scoring system (color fraction) using color Doppler ultrasound. Eight months later, 86 of the players (91%) were retested by the same investigators during an equivalent badminton tournament (including 1032 tendon regions; 86 players with 4 tendons each with 3 regions), thus forming the study group. At the start of the season, 24 players (28%) experienced pain in 37 tendons (11%), and at the end of the season, 31 players (36%) experienced pain in 51 tendons (15%), which was a statistically significant increase (P = .0002). Abnormal flow was found in 230 tendon regions in 71 players (83%) at the start of the season compared with 78 tendon regions in 41 players (48%) at the follow-up. The decrease in abnormal flow was statistically significant (P < .0001). Of the 37 painful tendons at the start of the season, 25 had abnormal flow (68%). In contrast, 131 tendons (85%) with abnormal flow at the start of the season were pain free. At the end of the season, 18 of the 51 painful tendons (35%) had abnormal flow. Ninety-six of the 131 pain-free tendons (73%) with abnormal flow at the start of the season were normalized (no pain and normal flow) at the end of the season. It was not possible to verify any association between intratendinous flow and pain at the start of the season or at

  10. Unsuccessful Self-Enucleation in a Schizophrenic Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noam Bar-Yaakov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-enucleation is a very unusual form of self-mutilation directly linked to mental illness. In this case we present a 26-year-old schizophrenic patient who attempted to enucleate his eye with a rollerball pen. Antipsychotic therapy and emergency surgery saved the patient eye and emphasize the importance of quick response and good collaboration between psychiatric and ophthalmic teams.

  11. The relationship between intelligence and cognitive function in schizophrenic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catherine; Amin, M. M.; Effendy, E.

    2018-03-01

    The most common of psychotic disorders is schizophrenia. While evaluating the cognitive function with a standardized test, the intelligence test is by using the IQ test. For schizophrenic patients, intelligence is usually reported to be lower than average. This research is an analytical study that commenced in January and ended in March 2014. Primary criteria are schizophrenics who are in-patients in Prof. dr. M. Ildrem Mental Hospital, aged between 15 to 55 years old, with the highest qualification of secondary high school. The secondary criteria are those patients with other psychotic disorders, head injuries and other neurological disorders, endocrine disorders. The total sample is 100 subjects. From this study, the correlation value is 0.876 shows a very strong correlation. And the p-value 0.001.The results of this study show that there is a direct correlation (p=0.001) and a correlation (r=0.876) between intelligence and cognitive function on schizophrenic. And it is also necessary to do more researches by using other rating scales and examination to measure the relationship between intelligence and cognitive function, and other factors that may affect results.

  12. Chronic pain and quality of life in schizophrenic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jouce Gabriela de Almeida

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify the prevalence and characteristics of chronic pain in schizophrenic patients and to compare the quality of life in patients with and without chronic pain. METHODS: Crossover design with a probablistic sample of 205 adult schizophrenic outpatients (80% paranoid schizophrenia. Socio-demographic, psychiatric disorder, pain and quality of life (WHOQOL- brief data were collected between June and September 2008. RESULTS: Mean age was 37 years, 65% were men, and the mean time spent in school was 9 years; 87% were single, 65% lived with parents and 25% had a job. Among patients with chronic pain, 70% did not receive treatment for pain. Regarding quality of life, patients with pain had more physical disabilities compared to those without pain (p < .001. There were no differences in other domains. Comparisons between patients with and without pain did not show any differences in how much they felt their mental health problems disabled them. Conclusion: Chronic pain was common in schizophrenic patients (similar to the general population of a similar age and decreased their quality of life. It is necessary to pay more attention to this co-morbidity.

  13. Effects of typical antipsychotic, haloperidol on regional cerebral blood flow in drug-naive schizophrenic patients-study with 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamoya, Masatoshi

    2001-01-01

    For the purpose of examining antipsychotic action of haloperidol (HPD), effects of chronic perioral administration of HPD 4.5 mg/day on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) with 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT were investigated in 12 drug-naive schizophrenic patients with acute hallucinatory and delusional state. Further, the SPECT examinations were performed on 20 normal adult volunteers to investigate differences in rCBFs between schizophrenics and the normal subjects. Results are itemized as follows. The rCBF values were significantly increased in the bilateral superior and middle frontal, cingulate, middle temporal, pre-and post-central gyri, the left superior temporal gyrus, the bilateral inferior parietal lobule, and the bilateral hippocampal and thalamic cortices in comparison between normal subjects and before the HPD dose in schizophrenics. However, the rCBF values after the HPD dose showed significant increases only in the bilateral pre-and post-central gyri in comparison with the normal subjects. The rCBF values were significantly decreased in the bilateral superior, middle and inferior frontal, superior and middle temporal gyri, and the left insular gyrus after the HPD dose in comparison with before the HPD dose. The psychiatric assessment with PANSS showed an improvement of positive symptoms consisting of auditory hallucination and delusions after the HPD dose. Statistical analyses on relationships between the rCBF values and PANSS scores before and after the HPD dose showed positive correlations between the right inferior frontal gyrus and auditory hallucination or positive symptoms, between the right superior temporal gyrus, left thalamus and delusions, and between the left thalamus, insular gyrus and negative symptoms. These results suggest that acute drug-naive schizophrenic patients have widespread cortico-subcortical energic hypermetabolism and HPD reduces the hypermetabolism, leading to whole normalized brain metabolism, in particular with the larger region

  14. Effects of typical antipsychotic, haloperidol on regional cerebral blood flow in drug-naive schizophrenic patients-study with 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamoya, Masatoshi [Kanazawa Medical Univ., Ishikawa (Japan)

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of examining antipsychotic action of haloperidol (HPD), effects of chronic perioral administration of HPD 4.5 mg/day on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) with 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT were investigated in 12 drug-naive schizophrenic patients with acute hallucinatory and delusional state. Further, the SPECT examinations were performed on 20 normal adult volunteers to investigate differences in rCBFs between schizophrenics and the normal subjects. Results are itemized as follows. The rCBF values were significantly increased in the bilateral superior and middle frontal, cingulate, middle temporal, pre-and post-central gyri, the left superior temporal gyrus, the bilateral inferior parietal lobule, and the bilateral hippocampal and thalamic cortices in comparison between normal subjects and before the HPD dose in schizophrenics. However, the rCBF values after the HPD dose showed significant increases only in the bilateral pre-and post-central gyri in comparison with the normal subjects. The rCBF values were significantly decreased in the bilateral superior, middle and inferior frontal, superior and middle temporal gyri, and the left insular gyrus after the HPD dose in comparison with before the HPD dose. The psychiatric assessment with PANSS showed an improvement of positive symptoms consisting of auditory hallucination and delusions after the HPD dose. Statistical analyses on relationships between the rCBF values and PANSS scores before and after the HPD dose showed positive correlations between the right inferior frontal gyrus and auditory hallucination or positive symptoms, between the right superior temporal gyrus, left thalamus and delusions, and between the left thalamus, insular gyrus and negative symptoms. These results suggest that acute drug-naive schizophrenic patients have widespread cortico-subcortical energic hypermetabolism and HPD reduces the hypermetabolism, leading to whole normalized brain metabolism, in particular with the larger region

  15. [3H]muscimol binding sites increased in autopsied brains of chronic schizophrenics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanada, S.; Mita, T.; Nishino, N.; Tanaka, C.

    1987-01-01

    [ 3 H]muscimol binding and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) activity in the prefrontal cortex and caudate nucleus of autopsied brains from 19 chronic schizophrenics and 17 control subjects were investigated. In the schizophrenics, saturation analysis with varying concentrations of [ 3 H]muscimol revealed an increase in the number GABA/sub A/ receptors, but there was no significant difference in the affinity. In addition, the enhancement of [ 3 H]muscimol binding by diazepam was significantly greater in schizophrenics than in controls. GAD activity did not differ between controls and schizophrenics. The possibility that GABAergic mechanisms might play a role in case of chronic schizophrenia should be given further attention

  16. [Efficacy and tolerance of PDE-5 in the treatment of erectile dysfunction in schizophrenic patients: A literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacconi, L; Gressier, F

    2017-02-01

    Sexual dysfunction is an important public health problem in men and is associated with reduced quality of life. It is more common in patients with schizophrenia. It is well-established that antipsychotic drugs cause sexual dysfunction with consequences on the quality of life of patients, adherence to treatment, and public health costs. Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5 inhibitors) are indicated for the management of erectile dysfunction. However, there is little information on such treatment in schizophrenic patients. This literature review aimed to summarize the current data on the efficacy and tolerability of PDE-5 inhibitors in the erectile dysfunction in schizophrenic patients. PubMed, PsycInfo and Cochrane databases were searched for studies published until August 2014. Only 6 studies met the inclusion criteria. Three were randomized, double-blind, cross-over, placebo-controlled trials and three were open studies. Various scales were used to measure erectile and orgasmic function, desire, satisfaction during intercourse, overall satisfaction, quality of life and intensity of schizophrenic symptoms. In the 3 randomized studies (one with sildenafil 25-50 mg, one with lodenafil carbonate 80 mg/j and the last one with tadalafil 10 mg), the rate of participants who completed the trial was high (around 95 %). All three included patients with schizophrenia or schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Patients reported significant improvement on sexual dysfunction. However, no statistical difference was reported between lodenafil and placebo, on different scales, suggesting a very important placebo effect in patients with schizophrenia. All three found a good tolerance of PDE-5 inhibitors. Side effects were rare and were mainly nasal congestion, headaches, nausea and dizziness. There were no major side effects or drug interactions. Considering the 3 open studies, 2 involved sildenafil and one tadalafil. All concluded in improved erectile and orgasmic

  17. Nonlinear dynamics of electroencephalography study in schizophrenic patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xing-shi; XU Yi-feng; TANG Yun-xiang; FANG Yi-ru; ZHANG Chen; ZHANG Ming-dao; LOU Fei-ying

    2013-01-01

    Background Few characteristic changes of linear electroencephalograph (EEG) have been reported in schizophrenia.The aim of the present study was to investigate the changes in temporal-spatial dimensional properties of EEG under different cognitive tasks in patients with schizophrenia.Methods EEG was recorded by using EEG-1518K system and mapping system (Nihon Kohden Tomioka Corporation,Japan) in 45 schizophrenic patients and 47 healthy adults (normal control,NC) under five states:eyes closed,eyes open,mental arithmetic test with eyes closed,memory test with eyes open,and number cancellation test.Correlation dimension (D2) and point-wise correlation dimension (PD2) were calculated for all EEG analyses.Results (1) There were no significant differences of D2 and PD2 between NC and schizophrenic patients under states of eyes open and closed.(2) Compared with NC,schizophrenic patients showed decreased performance of D2 in mental arithmetic test with eyes closed and number cancellation test (mental arithmetic test with eyes closed:Nc 5.9±0.6,Sch 3.0±0.8; number cancellation test:Nc 6.0±0.6,Sch 4.4±0.7; P <0.05 or P <0.01).(3) Schizophrenic patients also showed decrease performance of PD2 in mental arithmetic test with eyes closed,memory test with eyes open,and number cancellation test (mental arithmetic test with eyes closed:Nc 6.9±0.7,Sch 4.0±0.8; memory test with eyes open:Nc 6.6±0.8,Sch 5.0±0.9; number cancellation test:Nc 7.1±0.7,Sch 4.8±0.9; P <0.05 or P <0.01).Conclusions Nonlinear dynamic analysis provided a new approach in clinical investigation of EEG signals.It was helpful to further understand the cerebral mechanism in schizophrenic cognitive process.

  18. Catha edulis chewing effects on treatment of paranoid schizophrenic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotb El-Sayed MI

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Mohamed-I Kotb El-Sayed, Hatem-K Amin Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Helwan University, Ain Helwan, Helwan, Cairo, Egypt Background: The current study’s aim is to evaluate the possible interaction effects of khat chewing on treatment of paranoid schizophrenic patients.Patients and methods: In the study group, 42 male subjects suffered from paranoid schizophrenia and were classified according to their khat chewing habits into two subgroups: either khat-chewer subgroup (SKc; n=21; r=11, h=10 or non-khat-chewer subgroup (SNKc; n=21, r=11, h=10. Each subgroup was further subdivided according to type of treatment into r (risperidone and h (haloperidol. Healthy male subjects (37 were subdivided into healthy khat-chewer as positive controls (HKc, n=17 and healthy non-khat-chewer as negative controls (HNKc, n=20. Plasma dopamine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC, homovanillic acid, 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, epinephrine, and norepinephrine were estimated.Results: ANOVA and post hoc analysis showed that dopamine was illustrating significant elevation in all khat chewing groups. DOPAC was illustrating significant decrease in all khat chewing groups with an interesting outcome showing significant increase in DOPAC in SNKcr group due to risperidone effect. Homovanillic acid, serotonin, hydroxyindoleacetic acid, and norepinephrine were illustrating significant elevations in all khat chewing groups. Epinephrine was illustrating significant elevation in all chewers than non-chewers groups. Unexpected significant decrease in epinephrine in the SNKcr group indicated that risperidone drug is decreasing epinephrine through indirect mechanism involving calcium.Conclusion: Khat chewing in schizophrenic patients is contraindicated because it aggravates the disease symptoms, attenuates all used treatment medications, and deteriorates all biochemical markers of the patients. Keywords

  19. The Application of Drawing and Painting to Decrease the Anixiety of the Schizophrenic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farbod Fadaei

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: People with schizophrenia continuous type (previously labeled as chronic, constitute the majority of inpatients in rehabilitation wards. These patients, apart from the characteristic signs and symptoms of schizophrenia, suffer from anxiety. This anxiety, not influenced by antipsychotic medications, can be a part of the schizophrenia per se, but it may be due to the unfavorable frame and quality of life in mental hospital wards. Every attempt in decreasing the anxiety of these patients, can be regarded as a step toward a more perfect treatment and rehabilitation plan, and elevating the quality of their lives. In this research the application of drawing and painting as a method to decrease the anxiety of these patients was evaluated. Materials & Methods: 100 schizophrenic patients (according to DSM-IV criteria who were hospitalized in long stay rehabilitation wards of Razi psychiatric center for at least 2 years, entered the research procedure. Their anxiety level was measured by the Cattel anxiety questionnaire. 50 patients, who were selected as experimental group, had 15 one hour sessions of drawing and painting. For the remainder 50 patients who were the control group, various neutral activities (as placebo were performed, during those hours. Medications were unchanged during the research. After the 15th session the anxiety levels of patients were evaluated for the second time. The scores obtained in the first and second evaluations in each group and between two groups were analyzed by appropriate statistical methods. Results: In comparing the mean scores obtained from the first and second measurements in experimental group by applying the t-test (in correlated groups, the difference was statistically significant (t=67.5, P<0.0l. Conclusion: Sessions of drawing and painting with appropriate duration and frequency can significantly diminish the anxiety in long stay schizophrenic patients in rehabilitation wards.

  20. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease versus anti-LGI1 limbic encephalitis in a patient with progressive cognitive dysfunction, psychiatric symptoms, involuntary facio-brachio-crural movement, and an abnormal electroencephalogram: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun L

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Li Sun, Jie Cao, Chang Liu, Yudan LvDepartment of Neurology, The First Hospital of JiLin University, ChangChun, People’s Republic of ChinaAbstract: Diagnosis of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD is often challenging in elderly individuals, not only because of its variable clinical features but also because of nonspecific changes on the electroencephalogram (EEG in the early stages of the disease. Here we report on a patient who presented with progressive cognitive dysfunction, psychiatric symptoms, involuntary facio-brachio-crural movement, and an abnormal EEG. We provide a detailed analysis and differential diagnosis between anti-leucine-rich glioma inactivated 1 (LGI1 limbic encephalitis versus CJD, in the hope of providing a new understanding of CJD. A 65-year-old Chinese man presented with slowly progressive cognitive decline with psychiatric symptoms. On admission, he presented with facial grimacing and brief left upper limb dystonic posturing lasting 1–2 seconds, with hyponatremia that was difficult to rectify. Neurological examination showed increased muscle tension in the left limb but without pathological reflexes. His early EEG showed focal periodic wave complexes. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging showed a suspected “lace sign” in the occipital cortex. His cerebrospinal fluid was negative for LGI1 antibodies and positive for 14-3-3 brain protein. Therefore, we made a presumptive diagnosis of CJD. At the following visit, a second EEG showed paroxysmal sharp wave complexes, but the patient had a poor prognosis. Atypical facio-brachio-crural movement and nonspecific EEG changes may occasionally be found in patients with CJD or anti-LGI1 encephalitis. Clinicians should not be dissuaded from a diagnosis of CJD where the EEG does not show paroxysmal sharp wave complexes in the early stages but abnormal facio-brachio-crural movement is present.Keywords: abnormal facio-brachio-crural movement, hyponatremia, Creutzfeldt

  1. [Are schizophrenic patients being told their diagnosis today in France?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villani, M; Kovess-Masféty, V

    2017-04-01

    The progressive shifts in the legal and social contexts, along with major changes in information seeking habits with the development of the Internet, have placed patients' information at the core of medical practice. This has to be applied to the psychiatric fields as well, and to questions about how schizophrenic patients are being told their diagnosis nowadays in France. This paper is a national and international literature review about schizophrenia diagnosis disclosure practices, from 1972 to 2014, using French and English languages and various psychology and medical databases. The used key words were "diagnosis", "disclosure", "communication", "breaking bad news", "information", "schizophrenia" and "psychosis". Proportions of diagnosis announcement: our results show that the proportion of psychiatrists delivering schizophrenia diagnosis to their patients varies between countries. Although we must acknowledge that the questionnaires and samples are diverse, we have found that psychiatrists are in general less prone to deliver diagnosis information in France (from 13,5% to 39% given the studies), Germany (28%), Italy (30%), and Japan (30%), than in Anglo-Saxon countries. Thus, 70% of the psychiatrists in North America and 56% in Australia claim that they disclose their diagnosis to schizophrenic patients. In the United-Kingdom, a study targeting psychotic patients themselves has shown that 47% of them had been told their diagnosis by their doctor. Even in the countries where the proportion of diagnosis disclosure is the highest, there remains a substantial difference with other mental illnesses such as affective or anxiety disorders, which are almost always labeled as such in the information communicated to the patient (90% in North America). Diagnostic information about schizophrenia continues therefore to appear problematic for health professionals, which can seem a paradox given the recent social and legal evolutions, the therapeutic progress, the proved

  2. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus in chronic schizophrenic inpatients in relation to long-term neuroleptic treatment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, D.; Dekker, J.J.M.; Peen, J.; de Wied, C.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Many reports indicate that the incidence and prevalence of diabetes mellitus is increased in schizophrenic patients and related to antipsychotic treatment. In an exploratory cross-sectional study we assessed the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in 266 chronic schizophrenic and

  3. A 12-month follow-up study of treating overweight schizophrenic patients with aripiprazole

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schorr, S. G.; Slooff, C. J.; Postema, R.; Van Oven, W.; Schilthuis, M.; Bruggeman, R.; Taxis, K.

    Objective: To investigate the feasibility of switching overweight schizophrenic patients to aripiprazole and to assess the impact of 12 months of aripiprazole treatment on weight in routine practice. Method: This was a non-controlled cohort study in overweight schizophrenic patients. Data were

  4. [Structural correlation of schizophrenic thought and language disorders with delusional perception and variations of intentionality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm-Hadulla, R

    1988-01-01

    This study originated from a phenomenological and speech-act theoretical concept of schizophrenic concretism. An experimental study was performed showing a highly significant lack in the schizophrenic patients' ability to use metaphors correctly. Basing on the interpretation of proverbs, the hypothesis is rejected that false interpretations of schizophrenic patients are due to intermingling of personal conflicts. On the other hand, it could be shown that concretistic interpretations of proverbs represent an avoidance of conflicts. The concepts of "substitution" and "transfer" enabled us to measure pathological concreteness and "deconflictualisation". The differentiation between schizophrenic and nonpsychotic patients was found to be highly significant. In a complementary study it could be shown that the chronic schizophrenics' disability to transfer images of proverbs to an interpersonally relevant context does not differ significantly from that of patients with their first schizophrenic episode. Discussing our empirical findings, we try to show that the concretistic reduction of thought and speech is also a paradigma of delusion. The "incorrigibility" of schizophrenic delusion was seen to be based on reification of verbal signs and metaphors. After trying to show a connection between the concretistic "Lebensform" (Wittgenstein) and the disordered intentionality of schizophrenic patients, pointers towards psychotherapeutic implications are given.

  5. Revisiting the Association of Aggression and Suicidal Behavior in Schizophrenic Inpatients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuner, Tanja; Hubner-Liebermann, Bettina; Hausner, Helmut; Hajak, Goran; Wolfersdorf, Manfred; Spiessl, Hermann

    2011-01-01

    Our study investigated the association of aggression and suicidal behavior in schizophrenic inpatients. Eight thousand nine hundred one admissions for schizophrenia (1998-2007) to a psychiatric university hospital were included. Schizophrenic suicides (n = 7)/suicide attempters (n = 40) were compared to suicides (n = 30)/suicide attempters (n =…

  6. Pragmatic assessment of schizophrenic bilinguals' L1 and L2 use ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports on a study investigating the pragmatic skills and deficits of schizophrenic bilinguals in their spontaneous first language (L1) and second language (L2) speech. Smit (2009) (see also Smit et al., this volume) argues that the locus of deficits in schizophrenic speech is semantics and suggests that a next step ...

  7. Congenital Abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tube defects. However, there is also a genetic influence to this type of congenital anomaly. Unknown Causes The vast majority of congenital abnormalities have no known cause. This is particularly troubling for parents who plan to have more children, because there is no way to predict if ...

  8. [A comparison of characteristics of pathologic hobbies in schizophrenic patients of different age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeev, I I; Deych, R V; Malinochka, S A

    2016-01-01

    To analyze age-related pathologic hobbies in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Forty-three inpatients, aged from 4 to 16 years, and 31 patients, aged from 18 to 65 years, were studied. Clinical/psychopathological analysis, psychological experiment and clinical statistics were used. Pathological hobbies substantially differed depending on the age (3-6, 7-15 and 18-65 years). In preschool age, hobbies were immature and infantile, arose autochthonously, their course was relatively stable and they had limited maladaptive effects. In junior school/teenager age, hobbies were more distinct and were associated with more diverse and mature realization patterns. Their origin was more depended on environmental factors, the course was persistent or attack-like with more pronounced and steady maladaptive effects. In some cases, there was a trend to pathological hobby progression. Abnormal hobbies in patients of mature age were the most diverse in their subjects and forms of realization as well as in their clinical variants and dynamic types. In the group of mature patients with schizophrenic spectrum disorders, there was a significantly higher percentage of psychotic forms of pathological hobbies.

  9. Over-Expression of Dopamine D2 Receptor and Inwardly Rectifying Potassium Channel Genes in Drug-Naive Schizophrenic Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes as Potential Diagnostic Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ágnes Zvara

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is one of the most common neuropsychiatric disorders affecting nearly 1% of the human population. Current diagnosis of schizophrenia is based on complex clinical symptoms. The use of easily detectable peripheral molecular markers could substantially help the diagnosis of psychiatric disorders. Recent studies showed that peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL express subtypes of D1 and D2 subclasses of dopamine receptors. Recently, dopamine receptor D3 (DRD3 was found to be over-expressed in schizophrenic PBL and proposed to be a diagnostic and follow-up marker for schizophrenia. In this study we screened PBL of 13 drug-naive/drug-free schizophrenic patients to identify additional markers of schizophrenia. One of the benefits of our study is the use of blood samples of non-medicated, drug-naive patients. This excludes the possibility that changes detected in gene expression levels might be attributed to the medication rather than to the disorder itself. Among others, genes for dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2 and the inwardly rectifying potassium channel (Kir2.3 were found to be over-expressed in microarray analysis. Increased mRNA levels were confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR (QRT-PCR using the SybrGreen method and dual labeled TaqMan probes. The use of both molecular markers allows a more rapid and precise prediction of schizophrenia and might help find the optimal medication for schizophrenic patients.

  10. A declining CD4 count and diagnosis of HIV-associated Hodgkin lymphoma: do prior clinical symptoms and laboratory abnormalities aid diagnosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ravindra K; Marks, Michael; Edwards, Simon G; Smith, Katie; Fletcher, Katie; Lee, Siow-Ming; Ramsay, Alan; Copas, Andrew J; Miller, Robert F

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) among HIV-infected individuals remains unchanged since the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Recent epidemiological data suggest that CD4 count decline over a year is associated with subsequent diagnosis of HL. In an era of economic austerity monitoring the efficacy of cART by CD4 counts may no longer be required where CD4 count>350 cells/µl and viral load is suppressed (HIV outpatient cohort whether a CD4 count decline prior to diagnosis of HL, whether any decline was greater than in patients without the diagnosis, and also whether other clinical or biochemical indices were reliably associated with the diagnosis. Twenty-nine patients with a diagnosis of HL were identified. Among 15 individuals on cART with viral load symptoms had been present for a median of three months (range one-12) before diagnosis of HL. The CD4 count decline in the 12 months prior to diagnosis of Hodgkin lymphoma among HIV-infected individuals with VLsymptoms and/or new palpable lymphadenopathy, suggesting that CD4 count monitoring if performed less frequently, or not at all, among those virologically suppressed individuals with CD4 counts >350 may not have delayed diagnosis.

  11. Eye Tracking Reveals Abnormal Visual Preference for Geometric Images as an Early Biomarker of an Autism Spectrum Disorder Subtype Associated With Increased Symptom Severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Karen; Marinero, Steven; Hazin, Roxana; McKenna, Benjamin; Barnes, Cynthia Carter; Malige, Ajith

    2016-04-15

    Clinically and biologically, autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is heterogeneous. Unusual patterns of visual preference as indexed by eye tracking are hallmarks; however, whether they can be used to define an early biomarker of ASD as a whole or leveraged to define a subtype is unclear. To begin to examine this issue, large cohorts are required. A sample of 334 toddlers from six distinct groups (115 toddlers with ASD, 20 toddlers with ASD features, 57 toddlers with developmental delay, 53 toddlers with other conditions [e.g., premature birth, prenatal drug exposure], 64 toddlers with typical development, and 25 unaffected toddlers with siblings with ASD) was studied. Toddlers watched a movie containing geometric and social images. Fixation duration and number of saccades within each area of interest and validation statistics for this independent sample were computed. Next, to maximize power, data from our previous study (n = 110) were added for a total of 444 subjects. A subset of toddlers repeated the eye-tracking procedure. As in the original study, a subset of toddlers with ASD fixated on geometric images >69% of the time. Using this cutoff, sensitivity for ASD was 21%, specificity was 98%, and positive predictive value was 86%. Toddlers with ASD who strongly preferred geometric images had 1) worse cognitive, language, and social skills relative to toddlers with ASD who strongly preferred social images and 2) fewer saccades when viewing geometric images. Unaffected siblings of ASD probands did not show evidence of heightened preference for geometric images. Test-retest reliability was good. Examination of age effects suggested that this test may not be appropriate with children >4 years old. Enhanced visual preference for geometric repetition may be an early developmental biomarker of an ASD subtype with more severe symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Eye-tracking Reveals Abnormal Visual Preference for Geometric Images as an Early Biomarker of an ASD Subtype Associated with Increased Symptom Severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Karen; Marinero, Steven; Hazin, Roxana; McKenna, Benjamin; Barnes, Cynthia Carter; Malige, Ajith

    2015-01-01

    Background Clinically and biologically, ASD is heterogeneous. Unusual patterns of visual preference as indexed by eye-tracking are hallmarks, yet whether they can be used to define an early biomarker of ASD as a whole, or leveraged to define a subtype is unclear. To begin to examine this issue, large cohorts are required. Methods A sample of 334 toddlers from 6 distinct groups (115 ASD, 20 ASD-Features, 57 DD, 53 Other, 64 TD, and 25 Typ SIB) participated. Toddlers watched a movie containing both geometric and social images. Fixation duration and number of saccades within each AOI and validation statistics for this independent sample computed. Next, to maximize power, data from our previous study (N=110) was added totaling 444 subjects. A subset of toddlers repeated the eye-tracking procedure. Results As in the original study, a subset of toddlers with ASD fixated on geometric images greater than 69%. Using this cutoff, sensitivity for ASD was 21%, specificity 98%, and PPV 86%. Toddlers with ASD who strongly preferred geometric images had (a) worse cognitive, language, and social skills relative to toddlers with ASD who strongly preferred social images and (b) fewer saccades when viewing geometric images. Unaffected siblings of ASD probands did not show evidence of heightened preference for geometric images. Test-retest reliability was good. Examination of age effects suggest that this test may not be appropriate with children > 4 years. Conclusions Enhanced visual preference for geometric repetition may be an early developmental biomarker of an ASD subtype with more severe symptoms. PMID:25981170

  13. Findings of cranial computerized tomography in chronic schizophrenics with and without tardive dyskinesias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumann, N.U.

    1985-11-25

    Findings of cranial computed tomography in 20 chronic schizophrenics with clinical distinct, long-dated hyperkinesias (tardive dyskinesias) are compared with those of a similar group of schizophrenics without hyperkinesias. Both groups had a long-term neuroleptic treatment. The tomograms of those patients with tardive dyskinesias showed only in two cases mild, pathological alterations. Also the tomograms of the comparative group showed no severe atrophies, defects of substance or pathological calcifications. It is concluded that there is no correlation between tardive dyskinesias in long-term neuroleptic treated schizophrenics and gross morphological alterations of the brain. Furthermore the problem of tardive dyskinesia in a general aspect is discussed. (orig.).

  14. Neurologic abnormalities in murderers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, P Y; Pincus, J H; Buckner, C

    1995-09-01

    Thirty-one individuals awaiting trial or sentencing for murder or undergoing an appeal process requested a neurologic examination through legal counsel. We attempted in each instance to obtain EEG, MRI or CT, and neuropsychological testing. Neurologic examination revealed evidence of "frontal" dysfunction in 20 (64.5%). There were symptoms or some other evidence of temporal lobe abnormality in nine (29%). We made a specific neurologic diagnosis in 20 individuals (64.5%), including borderline or full mental retardation (9) and cerebral palsy (2), among others. Neuropsychological testing revealed abnormalities in all subjects tested. There were EEG abnormalities in eight of the 20 subjects tested, consisting mainly of bilateral sharp waves with slowing. There were MRI or CT abnormalities in nine of the 19 subjects tested, consisting primarily of atrophy and white matter changes. Psychiatric diagnoses included paranoid schizophrenia (8), dissociative disorder (4), and depression (9). Virtually all subjects had paranoid ideas and misunderstood social situations. There was a documented history of profound, protracted physical abuse in 26 (83.8%) and of sexual abuse in 10 (32.3%). It is likely that prolonged, severe physical abuse, paranoia, and neurologic brain dysfunction interact to form the matrix of violent behavior.

  15. NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL PERFORMANCE IN A SAMPLE OF INSTITUTIONALIZED CHRONIC SCHIZOPHRENIC PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Maia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We study the results of a descriptive and exploratory study, with the intent to understand the results of a 21 male schizophrenic patients interned in a Portuguese Mental Health Care Centre, evaluated with neuropsychological test. We tried also to link these tests with variables such as schooling, family contact or lengh of internment. The assessment instruments were: Digits Series and Vocabulary Task, both from WAIS, Raven Progressive Matrices, Rey’s Complex Figures, Luria’s Series Neuropsychological Screening, Clock Task - Neuropsychological Screening and Visual Search and Attention Test. Results show that there is not an attention deficit clinically significant, even that data suggests light attention affection; also variables like family contact and schooling appear as protective factors of memory and also seems to be important for the planning / organization functions.

  16. Mortality and causes of death in schizophrenic patients in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, P B; Juel, K

    1990-01-01

    effects from neuroleptics was increased. Mortality from some causes of death used as a measurement of the quality of medical care was found to be slightly increased. Further studies of the quality of the medical care provided to schizophrenic patients and of the association between neuroleptic medication......A cohort consisting of 6178 people that were psychiatric inpatients with a clinical schizophrenia diagnosis in 1957 were followed up from 1957 through 1986, and their cause-specific mortality was determined. Mortality from cardiovascular diseases, lung diseases, gastrointestinal and urogenital...... disorders, accidents and suicide was increased, whereas mortality from cerebrovascular disorders was reduced. In the male patients cancer mortality was reduced whereas cancer mortality in the female patients was increased. Mortality from a number of causes that theoretically could be associated with side...

  17. Computerized EEG and brain imaging studies in untreated schizophrenic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyauchi, Toshiro; Kishimoto, Hideji; Hagimoto, Hiroshi; Fujita, Haruhiro; Tanaka, Kenkichi

    1993-01-01

    We undertook routine EEG, Z-map, CT and PET scans in seven acute untreated schizophrenics. Routine EEGs showed slower activity in only one case. However, the Z-map showed slower activity in all the cases. CT demonstrated brain atrophy in three of the cases, and PET revealed hypofrontality in two, right hypoparietality in four, and both conditions in one case. There was no relation between CT and PET or the Z-map. However, a significant increase in alpha 1 activity was demonstrated on the Z-map in cases who were found to be the parietal type on PET; this was not conspicuous in the frontal type on PET. Moreover, in three of the patients, the Z-map findings were similar to the lesion indicated on PET. (author)

  18. Do ictal EEG characteristics predict treatment outcomes in schizophrenic patients undergoing electroconvulsive therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsek, Gulnihal Gokce; Zincir, Selma; Gulec, Huseyin; Eksioglu, Sevgin; Semiz, Umit Basar; Kurtulmus, Yasemin Sipka

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between features of electroencephalography (EEG), including seizure time, energy threshold level and post-ictal suppression time, and clinical variables, including treatment outcomes and side-effects, among schizophrenia inpatients undergoing electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). This is a naturalistic follow-up study on schizophrenia patients, diagnosed using DSM-IV-TR criteria, treated by a psychosis inpatient service. All participants completed the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scale, the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) and a Data Collection Form. Assessments were made before treatment, during ECT and after treatment. Statistically significant improvements in both clinical and cognitive outcome were noted after ECT in all patients. Predictors of improvement were sought by evaluating electrophysiological variables measured at three time points (after the third, fifth and seventh ECT sessions). Logistic regression analysis showed that clinical outcome/improvement did not differ by seizure duration, threshold energy level or post-ictal suppression time. We found that ictal EEG parameters measured at several ECT sessions did not predict clinical recovery/outcomes. This may be because our centre defensively engages in "very specific patient selection" when ECT is contemplated. ECT does not cause short-term cognitive functional impairment and indeed improves cognition, because symptoms of the schizophrenic episode are alleviated.

  19. [Recovery of intersubjectivity and empathy in schizophrenics: through a characteristic type of friendship "frolicking"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Yoshiko

    2003-01-01

    development of their intersubjectivity, the latter improving the person's empathy, spontaneity and self-esteem. This type of friendship appears in patients in their teens or twenties once a certain period has passed after the disappearance of positive symptoms. Its typical course is seen in teen-agers who show a premorbid personality deviation such as difficulty in establishing social relationships. No particular tendency as to gender or family type was found. Therapists should provide the opportunity and setting for this type of friendship to develop. Adolescent schizophrenics can gather together and are open-mindedly accepted in such a setting, which has an informal component where therapeutic staff may not interfere in this playful atmosphere. Therapists should act as third persons, once friendly play begins, after the introductory period during which the therapists' protection and limits on social stimulation are needed. It is desirable to appreciate patients' friendships and self-help, offering a rehabilitation program and adequate support, as they step forward to the future.

  20. Dual hydrophilic and salt responsive schizophrenic block copolymers – synthesis and study of self-assembly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasantha, Vivek Arjunan; Jana, Satyasankar; Lee, Serina Siew Chen; Lim, Chin-Sing; Teo, Serena Lay Ming; Parthiban, Anbanandam; Vancso, Gyula J.

    2015-01-01

    A new class of dual hydrophilic diblock copolymers (BCPs) possessing poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and zwitterionic polysulfabetaine (PSB) was synthesized by reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. These BCPs formed schizophrenic micelles undergoing core–shell

  1. affective, schizophrenic and mood disorders in patients admitted at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Schizoaffective Disorder; Schizophrenia; Mood disorders; Epidemiology; Africa. Received: 17-05-2011 .... performance, depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, ...... mixed mania with mood-incongruent psychotic features. Eur.

  2. When does subliminal affective image priming influence the ability of schizophrenic patients to perceive face emotions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaina, Lucia Maria; Rana, Kunjan D; Cotos, Ionela; Li-Yang, Chen; Huang, Melissa A; Podea, Delia

    2014-12-24

    Deficits in face emotion perception are among the most pervasive aspects of schizophrenia impairments which strongly affects interpersonal communication and social skills. Schizophrenic patients (PSZ) and healthy control subjects (HCS) performed 2 psychophysical tasks. One, the SAFFIMAP test, was designed to determine the impact of subliminally presented affective or neutral images on the accuracy of face-expression (angry or neutral) perception. In the second test, FEP, subjects saw pictures of face-expression and were asked to rate them as angry, happy, or neutral. The following clinical scales were used to determine the acute symptoms in PSZ: Positive and Negative Syndrome (PANSS), Young Mania Rating (YMRS), Hamilton Depression (HAM-D), and Hamilton Anxiety (HAM-A). On the SAFFIMAP test, different from the HCS group, the PSZ group tended to categorize the neutral expression of test faces as angry and their response to the test-face expression was not influenced by the affective content of the primes. In PSZ, the PANSS-positive score was significantly correlated with correct perception of angry faces for aggressive or pleasant primes. YMRS scores were strongly correlated with PSZ's tendency to recognize angry face expressions when the prime was a pleasant or a neutral image. The HAM-D score was positively correlated with categorizing the test-faces as neutral, regardless of the affective content of the prime or of the test-face expression (angry or neutral). Despite its exploratory nature, this study provides the first evidence that conscious perception and categorization of facial emotions (neutral or angry) in PSZ is directly affected by their positive or negative symptoms of the disease as defined by their individual scores on the clinical diagnostic scales.

  3. Depressive symptoms in schizophrenia and dopamine and serotonin gene polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peitl, Vjekoslav; Štefanović, Mario; Karlović, Dalibor

    2017-07-03

    Although depressive symptoms seem to be frequent in schizophrenia they have received significantly less attention than other symptom domains. As impaired serotonergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission is implicated in the pathogenesis of depression and schizophrenia this study sought to investigate the putative association between several functional gene polymorphisms (SERT 5-HTTLPR, MAO-A VNTR, COMT Val158Met and DAT VNTR) and schizophrenia. Other objectives of this study were to closely examine schizophrenia symptom domains by performing factor analysis of the two most used instruments in this setting (Positive and negative syndrome scale - PANSS and Calgary depression rating scale - CDSS) and to examine the influence of investigated gene polymorphisms on the schizophrenia symptom domains, focusing on depressive scores. A total of 591 participants were included in the study (300 schizophrenic patients and 291 healthy volunteers). 192 (64%) of schizophrenic patients had significant depressive symptoms. Genotype distribution revealed no significant differences regarding all investigated polymorphisms except the separate gender analysis for MAO-A gene polymorphism which revealed significantly more allele 3 carriers in schizophrenic males. Factor analysis of the PANSS scale revealed the existence of five separate factors (symptom domains), while the CDSS scale revealed two distinct factors. Several investigated gene polymorphisms (mostly SERT and MAO-A, but also COMT) significantly influenced two factors from the PANSS (aggressive/impulsive and negative symptoms) and one from the CDSS scale (suicidality), respectively. Depressive symptoms in schizophrenic patients may be influenced by functional gene polymorphisms, especially those implicated in serotonergic neurotransmission. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Plasma homovanillic acid levels and therapeutic outcome in schizophrenics: comparisons of neuroleptic-naive first-episode patients and patients with disease exacerbation due to neuroleptic discontinuance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, K; Tsuchida, K; Kanzaki, A; Ujike, H; Hamamura, T; Kondo, K; Mutoh, S; Miyanagi, K; Kuroda, S; Otsuki, S

    1995-11-15

    Plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) levels were measured and the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) scores were evaluated in 26 schizophrenic patients who had either never been medicated (neuroleptic-naive, first-episode subjects) or whose condition had become exacerbated following neuroleptic discontinuance (exacerbated subjects). All the subjects received medication with a fixed dose of a neuroleptic (haloperidol or fluphenazine, both 9 mg/day) for the first week and variable doses for the subsequent 4 weeks. In the neuroleptic-naive subjects, pHVA levels increased significantly 1 week after starting the protocol; this increase correlated significantly with clinical improvement of the BPRS positive symptom scores at week 5. In the neuroleptic-naive subjects, pHVA levels had declined to the baseline level by week 5. In the exacerbated subjects, there were no significant correlations between pHVA level changes at week 1 and later improvements of the BPRS positive symptom scores. These results suggest that the rise in pHVA levels occurring within 1 week after starting a fixed neuroleptic dose may predict a favorable clinical response in neuroleptic-naive schizophrenic patients.

  5. The meaning of pharmacological treatment for schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedana, Kelly Graziani Giacchero; Miasso, Adriana Inocenti

    2014-01-01

    to understand the meaning of medication therapy for schizophrenic patients and formulate a theoretical model about the study phenomenon. a qualitative approach was employed, using Symbolic Interactionism as the theoretical and Grounded Theory as the methodological framework. The research was developed between 2008 and 2010 at three community mental health services in the interior of the State of São Paulo - Brazil. Thirty-six patients and thirty-six family members were selected through theoretical sampling. The data were mainly collected through open interviews and observation and simultaneously analyzed through open, axial and selective coding. the meaning of the pharmacotherapy is centered on the phenomenon "Living with a help that bothers", which expresses the patients' ambivalence towards the medication and determines their decision making. The insight, access, limitations for self-administration of the drugs and interactions with family members and the health team influenced the patient's medication-related behavior. the theory presented in this study provides a comprehensive, contextualized, motivational and dynamic understanding of the relation the patient experiences and indicates potentials and barriers to follow the medication treatment.

  6. Management of violent behaviour in acutely relapsed schizophrenics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Koen

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The management of aggressive behaviour has always been a criticai issue in psychiatry. Finding measures that can be used to accurately predict the likelihood of assaultative behaviour and thus ensure timeous appropriate pharmacological management remains a dilemma. The study objective was to investigate the naturalistic, pharmacological management of inpatient aggressive behaviour in a group of 50 schizophrenic subjects with a view to determine: (1 whether a presenting history of recent violence lead to altered pharmacological management and (2 whether the NOSIE could be regarded as a useful assessment tool with regards to inpatient behaviour management. No significant difference could be demonstrated between the 2 subsets of subjects (history of violence vs none with respect to total doses of medication administered. No statistical correlation could be found between the total NOSIE score and the dose of psychotropic medication used. The relationship between a subset of NOSIE-items and the total dose of medication was more complex and a clear linear relationship could be demonstrated for a total score of 0 to 5. In this particular ward setting a presenting history of recent violent behaviour did not influence the administration of medication and neither could the clinical judgement employed by the nursing staff to manage inpatient behaviour be captured by the NOSIE. However, a five-item subset of the NOSIE with questions relating to aggression and irritability warrants further scrutiny in this regard.

  7. The meaning of pharmacological treatment for schizophrenic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Graziani Giacchero Vedana

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to understand the meaning of medication therapy for schizophrenic patients and formulate a theoretical model about the study phenomenon.METHOD: a qualitative approach was employed, using Symbolic Interactionism as the theoretical and Grounded Theory as the methodological framework. The research was developed between 2008 and 2010 at three community mental health services in the interior of the State of São Paulo - Brazil. Thirty-six patients and thirty-six family members were selected through theoretical sampling. The data were mainly collected through open interviews and observation and simultaneously analyzed through open, axial and selective coding.RESULTS: the meaning of the pharmacotherapy is centered on the phenomenon "Living with a help that bothers", which expresses the patients' ambivalence towards the medication and determines their decision making. The insight, access, limitations for self-administration of the drugs and interactions with family members and the health team influenced the patient's medication-related behavior.CONCLUSION: the theory presented in this study provides a comprehensive, contextualized, motivational and dynamic understanding of the relation the patient experiences and indicates potentials and barriers to follow the medication treatment.

  8. The meaning of pharmacological treatment for schizophrenic patients1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedana, Kelly Graziani Giacchero; Miasso, Adriana Inocenti

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to understand the meaning of medication therapy for schizophrenic patients and formulate a theoretical model about the study phenomenon. METHOD: a qualitative approach was employed, using Symbolic Interactionism as the theoretical and Grounded Theory as the methodological framework. The research was developed between 2008 and 2010 at three community mental health services in the interior of the State of São Paulo - Brazil. Thirty-six patients and thirty-six family members were selected through theoretical sampling. The data were mainly collected through open interviews and observation and simultaneously analyzed through open, axial and selective coding. RESULTS: the meaning of the pharmacotherapy is centered on the phenomenon "Living with a help that bothers", which expresses the patients' ambivalence towards the medication and determines their decision making. The insight, access, limitations for self-administration of the drugs and interactions with family members and the health team influenced the patient's medication-related behavior. CONCLUSION: the theory presented in this study provides a comprehensive, contextualized, motivational and dynamic understanding of the relation the patient experiences and indicates potentials and barriers to follow the medication treatment. PMID:25296152

  9. FAMILY EDUCATION IN MANAGEMENT OF SCHIZOPHRENIC AND MOOD DISORDER PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GH GHASEMI

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The role of family as a preventive, promotive, and curative agent is well documented in mental health studies. However, few attempts have been made to engineer the positive family mechanisms in enhancing psychiatric patients' role performance. Methods. This study is an endeavor to demarcate the effect of family education on social functioning of 170 schizophrenics and 174 patients with mood disorders. Solomon's four group design allowed patients from each category to be assigned into four groups. Key family members from experimental groups participated in a one day monthly programmer over a period of six months. Attitude towards mental illness, family environment and skills in management of patient's verbal and non-verbal behaviors as well as patient's adjustment ability within the family, community and work place constituted the focus of this study. While applying batteries of test, data pertaining to the aforementioned characteristics were obtained from the subjects 6 and 18 months after intervention which were subsequently compared with the baseline data. Findings. Comparing the baseline data with the data pertaining to other phases of intervention, one could observe a regressively progressive change in the families' attitudinal, cognitive and behavioral aspects, allowed by the patients' desirable social adjustment. Conclusion. These observations are congruent with earlier findings in the west, reinforcing the promising role of education in bringing about desirable changes in the family dynamic which can ensure better outcome for the psychiatric patients' illness.

  10. [Changes in the EEG spectral power during perception of neutral and emotionally salient words in schizophrenic patients, their relatives and healthy individuals from the general population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfimova, M V; Uvarova, L G

    2007-01-01

    To search for EEG-correlates of emotional processing that might be indicators of genetic predisposition to schizophrenia, changes in EEG spectral power during perception of neutral and emotionally salient words were examined in 36 schizophrenic patients, 50 of their unaffected first-degree relatives, and 47 healthy individuals without any family history of psychoses. In healthy persons, passive listening to neutral words induced minimum changes in cortical rhythmical activity, predominantly in the form of synchronization of slow and fast waves, whereas perception of emotional words was followed by a generalized depression of the alpha and beta1 activity and a locally specific decrease in the power of theta and beta2 frequency bands. The patients and their relatives showed a decrease in the alpha and beta1 activity simultaneously with an increase in the power of delta activity in response to both groups of words. Thus, in the patients and their relatives, reactions to neutral and emotional words were ulterior as a result of augmented reactions to the neutral words. These findings suggest that the EEG changes reflect familial and possibly hereditable abnormal involuntary attention. No prominent decrease in reactivity to emotional stimuli was revealed in schizophrenic families.

  11. Short-term cognitive improvement in schizophrenics treated with typical and atypical neuroleptics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollnik, Jens D; Borsutzky, Marthias; Huber, Thomas J; Mogk, Hannu; Seifert, Jürgen; Emrich, Hinderk M; Schneider, Udo

    2002-01-01

    Atypical neuroleptics seem to be more beneficial than typical ones with respect to long-term neuropsychological functioning. Thus, most studies focus on the long-term effects of neuroleptics. We were interested in whether atypical neuroleptic treatment is also superior to typical drugs over relatively short periods of time. We studied 20 schizophrenic patients [10 males, mean age 35.5 years, mean Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) score at entry 58.9] admitted to our hospital with acute psychotic exacerbation. Nine of them were treated with typical and 11 with atypical neuroleptics. In addition, 14 healthy drug-free subjects (6 males, mean age 31.2 years) were enrolled in the study and compared to the patients. As neuropsychological tools, a divided attention test, the Vienna reaction time test, the Benton visual retention test, digit span and a Multiple Choice Word Fluency Test (MWT-B) were used during the first week after admission, within the third week and before discharge (approximately 3 months). Patients scored significantly worse than healthy controls on nearly all tests (except Vienna reaction time). Clinical ratings [BPRS and Positive and Negative Symptom Scale for Schizophrenia (PANSS)] improved markedly (p divided attention task (r = 0.705, p = 0.034). Neuropsychological functioning (explicit memory, p divided attention, p < 0.05) moderately improved for both groups under treatment but without a significant difference between atypical and typical antipsychotic drugs. Over short periods of time (3 months), neuropsychological disturbances in schizophrenia seem to be moderately responsive to both typical and atypical neuroleptics. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  12. 20 CFR 404.1528 - Symptoms, signs, and laboratory findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Medical Considerations § 404.1528 Symptoms... abnormalities, e.g., abnormalities of behavior, mood, thought, memory, orientation, development, or perception...

  13. Patterns of brain activity in normals and schizophrenics with positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkow, N.D.; Wolf, A.P.; Gomez-Mont, F.; Brodie, J.D.; Canero, R.; Van Gelder, P.; Russell, J.A.G.

    1985-01-01

    The authors investigated the functional interaction among brain areas under baseline and upon activation by a visual task to compare the response of normal subjects from the ones of chronic schizophrenics. Cerebral metabolic images were obtained on twelve healthy volunteers an eighteen schizophrenics with positron emission tomography and 11-C-Deoxyglucose. Correlation coefficients among the relative metabolic values (region of interest divided by the average of whole brain gray matter) of 11 brain regions; frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital left and right lobes, left and right basal ganglia and thalamus were computed for the baseline and for the task. Under baseline, normals showed more functional correlations than schizophrenics. Both groups showed a thalamo-occipital (positive) and thalamo-frontal (negative) interaction. The highest correlations among homologous brain areas were the frontal, occipital and basal ganglia

  14. Written but not oral verbal production is preserved in young schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomé, Franck; Boyer, Patrice; Fayol, Michel

    2002-08-30

    The aim of this study is to discover whether the language capabilities of young schizophrenic patients are more affected in speaking than in writing or whether the disorders are equivalent in the two modes. To do this, we compared spoken and written descriptions of pictures obtained from 10 schizophrenic patients with those produced by 10 control subjects. These productions were analysed on the basis of objective indices. The syntax and coherence of the productions were evaluated by judges. The comparison of the performances of the controls and schizophrenic patients supports the hypothesis that the latter suffer from a language disorder affecting the oral mode but impacting less frequently and less severely on the written mode. These results are discussed in the light of the cognitive mechanisms which may provide an explanation of these language disorders.

  15. Studies of the correlations between morphological brain changes on MRI and computerized EEG changes in schizophrenics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Kouzou

    1992-01-01

    Twenty eight schizophrenic patients, who ranged in age from 21 to 39 years with a mean of 30.2, and 21 age- and sex-matched normal volunteers were studied by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and electroencephalography (EEG). ALl subjects were given informed consent prior to the present study. They were all right-handed. Schizophrenic patients showed a significantly larger ventricular brain ratio (VBR) on the axial and coronal planes as compared with the control. The bilateral anterior horns, left body, left posterior horn of the lateral ventricle and the third ventricle were significantly larger in schizophrenic patients than the control. The middle half of the corpus callosum was smaller in schizophrenic patients than the control. Schizophrenia was more likely associated not only with delta and theta activities in the centro-parieto-occipital regions but also with beta 1 and beta 2 activities in the front-central regions. In schizophrenic patients, however, alpha 2 activity was markedly decreased in all regions. There were significant positive correlations between the total scores for brief psychiatric rating scale (BPRS) and the areas of the left anterior and posterior horns of the lateral ventricle. The total BPRS scores positively correlated with the area of the third ventricle. In addition, positive correlations were significant between delata activity and the area of the left anterior horn of the lateral ventricle, between delta activity and the area of the third ventricle, and between beta 1 activity and the area of left posteior horn of the lateral ventricle. These results suggest that a dilated third ventricle is associated with electrophysiological brain pathology and psychopathology in schizophrenic patients. (N.K.) 76 refs

  16. Persistence of cerebral metabolic abnormalities in chronic schizophrenia as determined by positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolkin, A.; Jaeger, J.; Brodie, J.D.; Wolf, A.P.; Fowler, J.; Rotrosen, J.; Gomez-Mont, F.; Cancro, R.

    1985-01-01

    Local cerebral metabolic rates were determined by positron emission tomography and the deoxyglucose method in a group of 10 chronic schizophrenic subjects before and after somatic treatment and in eight normal subjects. Before treatment, schizophrenic subjects had markedly lower absolute metabolic activity than did normal controls in both frontal and temporal regions and a trend toward relative hyperactivity in the basal ganglia area. After treatment, their metabolic rates approached those seen in normal subjects in nearly all regions except frontal. Persistence of diminished frontal metabolism was manifested as significant relative hypofrontality. These findings suggest specific loci of aberrant cerebral functioning in chronic schizophrenia and the utility of positron emission tomography in characterizing these abnormalities

  17. Performance of brain-damaged, schizophrenic, and normal subjects on a visual searching task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, G; Kyc, F

    1978-06-01

    Goldstein, Rennick, Welch, and Shelly (1973) reported on a visual searching task that generated 94.1% correct classifications when comparing brain-damaged and normal subjects, and 79.4% correct classifications when comparing brain-damaged and psychiatric patients. In the present study, representing a partial cross-validation with some modification of the test procedure, comparisons were made between brain-damaged and schizophrenic, and brain-damaged and normal subjects. There were 92.5% correct classifications for the brain-damaged vs normal comparison, and 82.5% correct classifications for the brain-damaged vs schizophrenic comparison.

  18. Increased concentration of. cap alpha. - and. gamma. -endorphin in post mortem hypothalamic tissue of schizophrenic patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiegant, V.M.; Verhoef, C.J.; Burbach, J.P.H.; de Wied, D.

    1988-01-01

    The concentrations of ..cap alpha..-, ..beta..- and ..gamma..-endorphin were determined by radioimmunoassay in HPLC fractionated extracts of post mortem hypothalamic tissue obtained from schizophrenic patients and controls. The hypothalamic concentration of ..cap alpha..- and ..gamma..-endorphin was significantly higher in patients than in controls. No difference was found in the concentration of ..beta..-endorphin, the putative precursor of ..cap alpha..- and ..gamma..-endorphins. These results suggest a deviant metabolism of ..beta..-endorphin in the brain of schizophrenic patients. Whether this phenomenon is related to the psychopathology, or is a consequence of ante mortem farmacotherapy, remains to be established.

  19. [Development of a proverb test for assessment of concrete thinking problems in schizophrenic patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, A; Küfferle, B

    2001-11-01

    Concretism is considered an important aspect of schizophrenic thought disorder. Traditionally it is measured using the method of proverb interpretation, in which metaphoric proverbs are presented with the request that the subject tell its meaning. Interpretations are recorded and scored on concretistic tendencies. However, this method has two problems: its reliability is doubtful and it is rather complicated to perform. In this paper, a new version of a multiple choice proverb test is presented which can solve these problems in a reliable and economic manner. Using the new test, it is has been shown that schizophrenic patients have greater deficits in proverb interpretation than depressive patients.

  20. Working memory in volunteers and schizophrenics using BOLD fMRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giesel, F.L.; Hohmann, N.; Seidl, U.; Kress, K.R.; Schoenknecht, P.; Schroeder, J.; Kauczor, H.-U.; Essig, M.

    2005-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging uses the blood oxygen level-dependent effect (BOLD MRI) for noninvasive display of cerebral correlatives of cognitive function. The importance for the understanding of physiological and pathological processes is demonstrated by investigations of working memory in schizophrenics and healthy controls. Working memory is involved in processing rather than storage of information and therefore is linked to complex processes such as learning and problem solving. In schizophrenic psychosis, these functions are clearly restricted. Training effects in the working memory task follow an inverse U-shape function, suggesting that cerebral activation reaches a peak before economics of the brain find a more efficient method and activation decreases. (orig.) [de

  1. Ethnopsychiatric interpretations of schizophrenic illness: the problem of nervios within Mexican-American families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, J H

    1988-09-01

    Among Mexican-American families, the concept of nervios (nerves) serves as a culturally meaningful illness category for a wide range of conditions, including schizophrenic disorders diagnosed according to psychiatric criteria. This article examines the nature and the meaning of nervios as a notion used by Mexican-American families to understand the schizophrenic illness of a relative. Family descriptions of the condition are presented and the emotional and symbolic meanings of the concept are discussed. The complex and somewhat ambiguous nature of folk conceptions is evidenced not only by variations in the description of nervios but also by the finding that nervios is but one way to view schizophrenic illness. It is suggested that a cultural preference for the term nervios is linked to the efforts of family members to reduce the stigma associated with a mental illness while also reinforcing the strength of family bonds and solidarity by fostering tolerant inclusion of the family member within the home. It is argued that the concept of nervios, and the family emotions that surround this folk label, may mediate the course and outcome of schizophrenic disorder.

  2. Causal mechanisms of subjective cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenic and depressed patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bosch, RJ; Rombouts, RP

    We examined causal mechanisms of subjective cognitive (dis)abilities in schizophrenic and depressed patients, and in patient and normal control groups. This exploratory study included objective cognitive performance (Continuous Performance Task) as well as mood and mental effort ratings. Self-report

  3. Effectiveness of gratitude disposition promotion program on depression and quality of life of chronic schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Miran; Han, Kuemsun

    2017-01-01

    Gratitude intervention is expectedly an effective intervention to reduce depression and improve the quality of life in schizophrenic patients, but there is a lack of literature on it. We attempted to develop and test the effectiveness of the gratitude disposition promotion program for chronic schizophrenic patients in Korea. Nonequivalent control group pre- and post-test design was used in two mental health centers located at Gyeonggi-do in South Korea. This paper was a quasi-experimental study and the participants who took part in the gratitude disposition promotion program were 17 of experimental group and 15 of control group. Gratitude disposition (the short gratitude, resentment, and appreciation test), depression (Beck Depression Inventory), and quality of life (developed by Kook) of chronic schizophrenic patients were measured before and after an intervention, as compared to the control. Chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, and t -test were performed for prehomogeneity testing for variables related to the general characteristics. Testing for the effectiveness of gratitude disposition promotion program and hypothesis testing for its effect on depression and quality of life were by ANCOVA and t -test, as verified to significance level of P gratitude disposition promotion program showed significant improvements in gratitude disposition ( F = 18.740, P gratitude disposition promotion program was an effective clinical intervention program for enhancing gratitude disposition and quality of life of chronic schizophrenic patients in community.

  4. Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness among Schizophrenic Patients and Their Families (Comparative Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Sahar; Zaki, Rania A.

    2015-01-01

    This study was a comparative study aiming to assess the extent of internalized stigma of mental illness among patients with schizophrenia & identify stigma as perceived by family members caring schizophrenic patients. The study was conducted in two settings 1st clinic was outpatient clinic for psychiatric patient affiliated to Abbasia…

  5. Elevated glutamine/glutamate ratio in cerebrospinal fluid of first episode and drug naive schizophrenic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindström Leif H

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS studies report that glutamine is altered in the brains of schizophrenic patients. There were also conflicting findings on glutamate in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of schizophrenic patients, and absent for glutamine. This study aims to clarify the question of glutamine and glutamate in CSF of first episode and drug naive schizophrenic patients. Method Levels of glutamine and glutamate in CSF of 25 first episode and drug-naive male schizophrenic patients and 17 age-matched male healthy controls were measured by a high performance liquid chromatography. Results The ratio (126.1 (median, 117.7 ± 27.4 (mean ± S.D. of glutamine to glutamate in the CSF of patients was significantly (z = -3.29, p = 0.001 higher than that (81.01 (median, 89.1 ± 22.5 (mean ± S.D. of normal controls although each level of glutamine and glutamate in patients was not different from that of normal controls. Conclusion Our data suggests that a disfunction in glutamate-glutamine cycle in the brain may play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia.

  6. Altered relationships between rCBF in different brain regions of never-treated schizophrenics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabri, O.; Schreckenberger, M.; Cremerius, U.; Dickmann, C.; Schulz, G.; Zimny, M.; Buell, U.; Erkwoh, R.; Owega, A.; Sass, H.

    1997-01-01

    Aim of this study was to investigate the relations between regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) of different brain regions in acute schizophrenia and following neuroleptic treatment. Methods: Twenty-two never-treated, acute schizophrenic patients were examined with HMPAO brain SPECT and assessed psychopathologically, and reexamined following neuroleptic treatment (over 96.8 days) and psychopathological remission. rCBF was determined by region/cerebellar count quotients obtained from 98 irregular regions of interest (ROIs), summed up to 11 ROIs on each hemisphere. In acute schizophrenics, interregional rCBF correlations of each ROI to every other ROI were compared to the interregional correlations following neuroleptic treatment and to those of controls. Results: All significant correlations of rCBF ratios of different brain regions were exclusively positive in controls and patients. In controls, all ROIs of one hemisphere except the mesial temporal ROI correlated significantly to its contralateral ROI. Each hemisphere showed significant frontal-temporal correlations, as well as cortical-subcortical and some cortico-limbic. In contrast, in acute schizophrenics nearly every ROI correlated significantly with every other ROI, without a grouping or relation of the rCBF of certain ROIs as in controls. After neuroleptic treatment and clinical improvement, this diffuse pattern of correlations remained. Conclusions: These results indicate differences in the neuronal interplay between regions in schizophrenic and healthy subjects. In nevertreated schizophrenics, diffuse interregional rCBF correlations can be seen as a sign of change and dysfunction of the systems regulating specificity and diversity of the neuronal functions. Neuroleptic therapy and psychopathologic remission showed no normalizing effect on interregional correlations. (orig.) [de

  7. Models of treatment with antipsychotics of the schizophrenic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svjetlana Loga-Zec

    2005-11-01

    well as nitrazepam and diazepam. The importance of this study is following: data are useful for the current mental health care reform in FBiH, results will point out place and position of FBiH in contemporary world trends in the treatment of schizophrenia, they will contribute to rational use of antipsychotic therapy, they will point out possible ways in reduction of side effects, often dangerous adverse effects of antipsychotics, and they will give contribution to faster rehabilitation of schizophrenics with the reduction of financial means for the treatment of patients with schizophrenia.

  8. Diagnosis and treatment of abnormal dental pain

    OpenAIRE

    Fukuda, Ken-ichi

    2016-01-01

    Most dental pain is caused by an organic problem such as dental caries, periodontitis, pulpitis, or trauma. Diagnosis and treatment of these symptoms are relatively straightforward. However, patients often also complain of abnormal dental pain that has a non-dental origin, whose diagnosis is challenging. Such abnormal dental pain can be categorized on the basis of its cause as referred pain, neuromodulatory pain, and neuropathic pain. When it is difficult to diagnose a patient's dental pain, ...

  9. Visual field abnormalities in multiple sclerosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Patterson, V H; Heron, J R

    1980-01-01

    Visual fields were examined with a tangent screen in 54 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) or optic neuritis (ON). Visual fields were abnormal in all patients with definite MS, 94% with probable MS and 81% with possible MS. Three-quarters of the MS patients with no history of visual symptoms had abnormal fields. The commonest defect found was an arcuate scotoma. As a diagnostic test of visual pathway involvement in MS, tangent screen examination compares favourably with more sophisticated ...

  10. Sex-Specific Brain Deficits in Auditory Processing in an Animal Model of Cocaine-Related Schizophrenic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia A. Broderick

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Cocaine is a psychostimulant in the pharmacological class of drugs called Local Anesthetics. Interestingly, cocaine is the only drug in this class that has a chemical formula comprised of a tropane ring and is, moreover, addictive. The correlation between tropane and addiction is well-studied. Another well-studied correlation is that between psychosis induced by cocaine and that psychosis endogenously present in the schizophrenic patient. Indeed, both of these psychoses exhibit much the same behavioral as well as neurochemical properties across species. Therefore, in order to study the link between schizophrenia and cocaine addiction, we used a behavioral paradigm called Acoustic Startle. We used this acoustic startle paradigm in female versus male Sprague-Dawley animals to discriminate possible sex differences in responses to startle. The startle method operates through auditory pathways in brain via a network of sensorimotor gating processes within auditory cortex, cochlear nuclei, inferior and superior colliculi, pontine reticular nuclei, in addition to mesocorticolimbic brain reward and nigrostriatal motor circuitries. This paper is the first to report sex differences to acoustic stimuli in Sprague-Dawley animals (Rattus norvegicus although such gender responses to acoustic startle have been reported in humans (Swerdlow et al. 1997 [1]. The startle method monitors pre-pulse inhibition (PPI as a measure of the loss of sensorimotor gating in the brain's neuronal auditory network; auditory deficiencies can lead to sensory overload and subsequently cognitive dysfunction. Cocaine addicts and schizophrenic patients as well as cocaine treated animals are reported to exhibit symptoms of defective PPI (Geyer et al., 2001 [2]. Key findings are: (a Cocaine significantly reduced PPI in both sexes. (b Females were significantly more sensitive than males; reduced PPI was greater in females than in males. (c Physiological saline had no effect on startle in

  11. Diffusion Tensor MR Imaging Evaluation of Callosal Abnormalities in Schizophrenia: A Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanjun Zhuo

    Full Text Available Widespread white matter (WM abnormalities have been found in patients with schizophrenia. Corpus callosum (CC is the key area that connects the left and right brain hemispheres. However, the results of studies considering different subregions of the CC as regions of interest in patients with schizophrenia have been inconsistent. To obtain a more consistent evaluation of the diffusion characteristics change of the corpus callosum (CC related to schizophrenia. A meta-analysis involving fractional anisotropy (FA values in the CC of 729 schizophrenic subjects and 682 healthy controls from 22 studies was conducted. Overall FA values in the CC of the schizophrenic group were less than that of the healthy control group [weighted mean difference (WMD = -0.021,P< 0.001]. So were the FA values in the genus region (WMD = -0.019, P< 0.001 and the splenium region (WMD = -0.020, P< 0.001 of the CC respectively. The FA reduction was also significant in subjects with chronic schizophrenia (WMD = -0.032, P< 0.001 and first-episode schizophrenia (WMD = -0.014, P = 0.001. In present study, we demonstrated an overall FA decrease in the CC of schizophrenic patients. In the two subgroup analyses of the genu vs splenium region and chronic vs first-episode schizophrenia, the decrease of all groups was significant. Further studies with more homogenous populations and standardized DTI protocols are needed to confirm and extend these findings.

  12. Urine - abnormal color

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003139.htm Urine - abnormal color To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine ...

  13. Tooth - abnormal colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003065.htm Tooth - abnormal colors To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Abnormal tooth color is any color other than white to yellowish- ...

  14. Abnormal uterine bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anovulatory bleeding; Abnormal uterine bleeding - hormonal; Polymenorrhea - dysfunctional uterine bleeding ... ACOG committee opinion no. 557: Management of acute abnormal uterine bleeding in nonpregnant reproductive-aged women. Reaffirmed 2015. www. ...

  15. Communication and abnormal behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crown, S

    1979-01-01

    In this paper the similarities between normal and abnormal behaviour are emphasized and selected aspects of communication, normal and aberrant, between persons are explored. Communication in a social system may be verbal or non-verbal: one person's actions cause a response in another person. This response may be cognitive, behavioural or physiological. Communication may be approached through the individual, the social situation or social interaction. Psychoanalysis approaches the individual in terms of the coded communications of psychoneurotic symptoms or psychotic behaviour; the humanist-existential approach is concerned more with emotional expression. Both approaches emphasize the development of individual identity. The interaction between persons and their social background is stressed. Relevant are sociological concepts such as illness behaviour, stigma, labelling, institutionalization and compliance. Two approaches to social interactions are considered: the gamesplaying metaphor, e.g. back pain as a psychosocial manipulation--the 'pain game'; and the 'spiral of reciprocal perspectives' which emphasizes the interactional complexities of social perceptions. Communicatory aspects of psychological treatments are noted: learning a particular metaphor such as 'resolution' of the problem (psychotherapy), learning more 'rewarding' behaviour (learning theory) or learning authenticity or self-actualization (humanist-existential).

  16. Concurrent Medical and Psychiatric Disorders among Schizophrenic and Neurotic Outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Bruno R.; Pai, Shaila

    Although the occurrence of medical illnesses in psychiatric patients is quite high, medical illnesses manifested by psychiatric symptoms are often overlooked. The higher mortality rates among psychiatric patients when compared to the general population may be a reflection of neglect or inadequate treatment of the psychiatric patients' medical…

  17. Reduced frontal and occipital lobe asymmetry on the CT-scans of schizophrenic patients. Its specificity and clinical significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falkai, P.; Schneider, T.; Greve, B.; Klieser, E.; Bogerts, B.

    1995-01-01

    Frontal and occipital lobe widths were determined in the computed tomographic (CT) scans of 135 schizophrenic patients, 158 neuro psychiatrically healthy and 102 psychiatric control subjects, including patients with affective psychosis, neurosis and schizoaffective psychosis. Most healthy right-handed subjects demonstrate a relative enlargement of the right frontal as well as left occipital lobe compared to the opposite hemisphere. These normal frontal and occipital lobe asymmetries were selectively reduced in schizophrenics (f.: 5%, p < .0005; o.: 3%, p < .05), irrespective of the pathophysiological subgroup. Schizophrenic neuroleptic non-responders revealed a significant reduction of frontal lobe asymmetry (3%, p < .05), while no correlation between BPRS-sub scores and disturbed cerebral laterality could be detected. In sum the present study demonstrates the disturbed cerebral lateralisation in schizophrenic patients supporting the hypothesis of interrupted early brain development in schizophrenia. (author)

  18. Prediction of heart abnormality using MLP network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Fakroul Ridzuan; Januar, Yulni; Mat, Muhammad Hadzren; Rizman, Zairi Ismael; Awang, Mat Kamil

    2018-02-01

    Heart abnormality does not choose gender, age and races when it strikes. With no warning signs or symptoms, it can result to a sudden death of the patient. Generally, heart's irregular electrical activity is defined as heart abnormality. Via implementation of Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) network, this paper tries to develop a program that allows the detection of heart abnormality activity. Utilizing several training algorithms with Purelin activation function, an amount of heartbeat signals received through the electrocardiogram (ECG) will be employed to condition the MLP network.

  19. A comparison between effectiveness of three types of music on memory activity and sustained attention in schizophrenic patients

    OpenAIRE

    Narges bahmany; Karamatollah Zandi ghashghaee; Sadrollah Khosravi

    2014-01-01

    Background: schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder in which a lot of cognitive functions including memory, attention, motor skills, executive functions and intelligence are compromised. Numerous empirical studies showed that schizophrenic patients have problem in sustain retention and memory activity. The objective of this study was a comparison between effectiveness of three types of music on memory activity and sustain retention in schizophrenic patients. Material and Methods: A total of 6...

  20. Manic Symptoms during a Switch from Paliperidone ER to Paliperidone Palmitate in a Patient with Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir Demirci

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Some antipsychotic drugs have treatment efficacy for mania and bipolar disorder. However, these drugs may rarely cause manic symptoms in some schizophrenic patients. We hereby report a 22-year-old female patient with schizophrenia who experienced a manic episode during a switch from paliperidone ER to paliperidone palmitate. This case is an important reminder that an abrupt switch from oral paliperidone to paliperidone palmitate may predispose certain patients to hypomanic or manic symptoms.

  1. Effect of Aerobic Exercise on Improving Symptoms of Individuals With Schizophrenia: A Single Blinded Randomized Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng-Wei Wang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Antipsychotic treatment can improve the symptoms of schizophrenia; however, residual symptoms after antipsychotic treatment are frequent. The effects of exercise on the symptoms of schizophrenic patients under antipsychotic treatment are inconclusive. The aim of this randomized case-control study was to examine the effects of aerobic exercise (AE on the symptoms of schizophrenic patients receiving antipsychotic treatment.Methods: In total, 33 and 29 participants being treated with antipsychotics for schizophrenia were randomly assigned into the aerobic exercise (AE group and the control group, respectively. The severities of schizophrenic symptoms were measured using the Chinese version of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS before, immediately after, and 3 months after the intervention in both groups.Results: In total, 24 participants (72.7% in the AE group and 22 (75.9% in the control group completed the study. The results indicated that the severities of positive symptoms and general psychopathology in the AE group significantly decreased during the 12 weeks of intervention but did not further significantly change during the 3-month follow-up period. The severities of negative symptoms in the AE group decreased significantly after 12 weeks of intervention and continued decreasing during the 3-month follow-up period. Interaction effects between time and group on the severities of symptoms on the negative and general psychopathology scales were observed.Conclusion: AE can improve the severities of symptoms on the negative and general psychopathology scales in individuals with schizophrenia being treated with antipsychotics.

  2. IDENTIFICATION OF THE INFLUENCE OF IQ ON THEORY OF MIND SKILLS IN A GROUP OF SCHIZOPHRENICS

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    Paz López Herrero

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia sufferers may have Theory of Mind (ToM deficits. These deficits are not as severe as those shown by people with other disorders such as autism, because schizophrenic patients can solve simple ToM tests using their Intelligence Quotient (IQ and general problemsolving skills. Our aim was to study ToM by asking a group of schizophrenics to perform a mental verbs task. We then identified the categories into which the mental verbs were grouped and their use profile, and assessed the influence of intelligence quotient. We observed that those with a higher IQ had lower ToM deficits. Subjects with average IQs grouped the mental activities quite well and those with low IQ performed the task poorly as a result of the combined effects of schizophrenia processes and low IQ.

  3. Enkephalin, dynorphin and substance P in postmortem substantia nigra from normals and schizophrenic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iadarola, M.J.; Ofri, D.; Kleinman, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    Three peptide neuromodulators that are found in high concentration in the subtantia nigra: dynorphin A 1,8-met5-enkephalin-arg6-gly7-leu8 and substance P, were measured by specific radioimmunoassays in nigral tissue from normals and schizophrenics postmortem. Substance P and dynorphin were unchanged between the two groups. However, the proenkephalin-derived peptide was significantly elevated in the schizophrenic group. The immunoreactivity was identified as authentic met5-enkephalin-arg6-gly7-leu8 by high pressure liquid chromatography. The data suggest that a different set of regulatory controls exists for nigral enkephalin peptides as compared to dynorphin and substance P, and that the former system may be disordered in schizophrenia

  4. Enkephalin, dynorphin and substance P in postmortem substantia nigra from normals and schizophrenic patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iadarola, M.J.; Ofri, D.; Kleinman, J.E. (National Institute of Dental Research, Bethesda, MD (USA) National Institute of Mental Health, Washington, DC (USA))

    1991-01-01

    Three peptide neuromodulators that are found in high concentration in the subtantia nigra: dynorphin A 1,8-met5-enkephalin-arg6-gly7-leu8 and substance P, were measured by specific radioimmunoassays in nigral tissue from normals and schizophrenics postmortem. Substance P and dynorphin were unchanged between the two groups. However, the proenkephalin-derived peptide was significantly elevated in the schizophrenic group. The immunoreactivity was identified as authentic met5-enkephalin-arg6-gly7-leu8 by high pressure liquid chromatography. The data suggest that a different set of regulatory controls exists for nigral enkephalin peptides as compared to dynorphin and substance P, and that the former system may be disordered in schizophrenia.

  5. Regional cerebral blood flow in schizophrenics. Tests using the xenon Xe 133 inhalation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ariel, R.N.; Golden, C.J.; Berg, R.A.; Quaife, M.A.; Dirksen, J.W.; Forsell, T.; Wilson, J.; Graber, B.

    1983-01-01

    Measurements of intrahemispheric and bilateral regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) for gray and white matter were compared in 29 schizophrenic patients and 22 normal controls, using the xenon Xe 133 inhalation method. Results showed significantly lower CBF values for all brain regions in the schizophrenic group, and post hoc comparisons showed relatively greater reduced gray-matter CBF values in the anterior areas of the brain. There was also a left-hemisphere frontal loss similar to that reported previously, although it was in the context of a generalized loss in anterior functioning. Interhemispheric comparison within both groups showed no differences between homologous regions for gray matter, and greater white-matter CBF values in the right hemisphere than in the left hemisphere. The findings support a hypothesis of a bilateral anterior deficit in schizophrenia

  6. Regional gray matter abnormalities in patients with schizophrenia determined with optimized voxel-based morphometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, XiaoJuan; Yao, Li; Jin, Zhen; Chen, Kewei

    2006-03-01

    This study examined regional gray matter abnormalities across the whole brain in 19 patients with schizophrenia (12 males and 7 females), comparing with 11 normal volunteers (7 males and 4 females). The customized brain templates were created in order to improve spatial normalization and segmentation. Then automated preprocessing of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data was conducted using optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM). The statistical voxel based analysis was implemented in terms of two-sample t-test model. Compared with normal controls, regional gray matter concentration in patients with schizophrenia was significantly reduced in the bilateral superior temporal gyrus, bilateral middle frontal and inferior frontal gyrus, right insula, precentral and parahippocampal areas, left thalamus and hypothalamus as well as, however, significant increases in gray matter concentration were not observed across the whole brain in the patients. This study confirms and extends some earlier findings on gray matter abnormalities in schizophrenic patients. Previous behavior and fMRI researches on schizophrenia have suggested that cognitive capacity decreased and self-conscious weakened in schizophrenic patients. These regional gray matter abnormalities determined through structural MRI with optimized VBM may be potential anatomic underpinnings of schizophrenia.

  7. A schizophrenic patient with cerebral infarctions after hemorrhagic shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youichi Yanagawa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We herein report the fourth case of cerebral infarction, concomitant with hemorrhagic shock, in English literature. A 33-year-old male, who had been diagnosed with schizophrenia and given a prescription for Olanzapine, was discovered with multiple self-inflicted bleeding cuts on his wrist. On arrival, he was in hemorrhagic shock without verbal responsiveness, but his vital signs were normalized following infusion of Lactate Ringer′s solution. The neuroradiological studies revealed multiple cerebral ischemic lesions without any vascular abnormality. He was diagnosed with speech apraxia, motor aphasia, and dysgraphia, due to multiple cerebral infarctions. As there was no obvious causative factor with regard to the occurrence of cerebral infarction in the patient, the hypoperfusion due to hemorrhagic shock, and the thromboembolic tendency due to Olanzapine, might have acted together to lead to the patient′s cerebral ischemia.

  8. Prevalence of Cigarette Smoking in Schizophrenic Patients Compared to Other Hospital Admitted Psychiatric Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Ziaaddini, Hassan; Kheradmand, Ali; Vahabi, Mostafa

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of cigarette smoking and some of the related factors among schizophrenic and other hospitalized psychiatric patients. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study on 120 patients hospitalized in Shahid Beheshti hospital in Kerman in 2005. Patients were equally devided in two groups of schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders. Sampling was based on statistical census and data were collected using a questionnaire including 27 questions o...

  9. Evolution of plasma homovanillic acid (HVA) in chronic schizophrenic patients treated with haloperidol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galinowski, A; Poirier, M F; Aymard, N; Leyris, A; Beauverie, P; Bourdel, M C; Loo, H

    1998-06-01

    In a 4-week study of 14 drug-free schizophrenic patients (according to DSM-III-R), free and conjugated fractions of plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) were repeatedly measured. Free HVA levels decreased during the first 2 h of haloperidol intake (P pHVA may be a better reflection of the action of haloperidol than free pHVA levels and it may be of prognostic value in terms of drug response.

  10. Neuropsychology, Social Cognition and Global Functioning Among Bipolar, Schizophrenic Patients and Healthy Controls: Preliminary Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta eCaletti

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the extent of impairment in social and non-social cognitive domains in an ecological context comparing bipolar (BD, schizophrenic patients (SKZ and healthy controls (HC. The sample was enrolled at the Department of Psychiatry of Policlinico Hospital, University of Milan, it includes stabilized schizophrenic patients (n = 30, euthymic bipolar patients (n = 18 and healthy controls (n = 18. Patients and controls completed psychiatric assessment rating scales, the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS and the Executive and Social Cognition Battery (ESCB that contains both ecological tests of executive function and social cognition, in order to better detect cognitive deficits in patients with normal results in standard executive batteries. The three groups differed significantly for gender and substance abuse, however the differences did not influence the results. Bipolar patients showed less impairment on cognitive performance compared to schizophrenic patients, even in ecological tests that mimic real life scenarios. In particular, BD performed better than SKZ in verbal memory (p

  11. Attentional network task in schizophrenic patients and theirs unaffected first degree relatives: a potential endofenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, S Guerra; Fuster, J Iglesias; Reyes, M Martín; Collazo, T M Bravo; Quiñones, R Mendoza; Berazain, A Reyes; Rodríguez, M A Pedroso; Días de Villarvilla, T; Bobés, M Antonieta; Valdés-Sosa, M

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, reports of attentional deficits in schizophrenic patients and in their biological relatives have rapidly increased, including an important effort to search for the endophenotypes in order to link specific genes to this illness. Posner et al. developed a test, the Attention Network Test (ANT), to study the neural networks. This test provides a separate measure for each one of the three anatomically-defined attention networks (alerting, orienting and executive control). In this paper, we investigate the attentional performance in 32 schizophrenic patients, 29 unaffected first degree relatives and 29 healthy controls using the ANT through a study of family association. We have studied the efficiency of the segregated executive control, alerting and orienting networks by measuring how response latencies (reaction time) were modified by the cue position and the flanking stimuli. We also studied the familial association of these attentional alterations. The ANOVA revealed main effects of flanker and cue condition and a significant interaction effect between flanker and groups studied. The schizophrenic patients and their relatives had a longer median reaction time than the control group. The probands and their relatives significantly differed from the healthy controls in terms of their conflict resolution; however, the alerting network appeared to be conserved. Our results support the thesis of a specific attentional deficit in schizophrenia and show the segregation of the three attentional networks. The family association of these reported alterations supports the idea of a potential endophenotype in schizophrenia.

  12. BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor) serum levels in schizophrenic patients with cognitive deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utami, N.; Effendy, E.; Amin, M. M.

    2018-03-01

    Schizophrenia is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder with cognitive impairment as the main part. BDNF regulates aspects of developmental plasticity in the brain and is involved in cognitive function. Cognitive functions include capabilities such as attention, executive functioning, assessing, monitoring and evaluating. The aim of the study was to know the BDNF levels in schizophrenic patients with cognitive deficits. The study was held in October 2016 - March 2017, and was the first in Indonesia, especially in North Sumatra. The study was approved by the medical ethics committee of the University of North Sumatera. The study is descriptive based on a retrospective method with cross-sectional approach. The subject is 40 male schizophrenia. Cognitive deficits were assessed by MoCA-Ina. BDNF serum levels were analyzed using the quantitative sandwich enzyme immunoassay. The average MoCA-Ina score is 21.03±5.21. This suggests that there is a cognitive function deficit in schizophrenic patients. The mean serum BDNF level was 26629±6762. MoCA-Ina scores in schizophrenic patients <26 who experienced a deficit of 77.5% and serum BDNF levels with normal values ranging from 6.186 to 42.580pg/ml.

  13. Development and validation of a skin fibroblast biomarker profile for schizophrenic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianthi Logotheti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Gene expression profiles of non-neural tissues through microarray technology could be used in schizophrenia studies, adding more information to the results from similar studies on postmortem brain tissue. The ultimate goal of such studies is to develop accessible biomarkers. Supervised machine learning methodologies were used, in order to examine if the gene expression from skin fibroblast cells could be exploited for the classification of schizophrenic subjects. A dataset of skin fibroblasts gene expression of schizophrenia patients was obtained from Gene Expression Omnibus database. After applying statistical criteria, we concluded to genes that present a differential expression between the schizophrenic patients and the healthy controls. Based on those genes, functional profiling was performed with the BioInfoMiner web tool. After the statistical analysis, 63 genes were identified as differentially expressed. The functional profiling revealed interesting terms and pathways, such as mitogen activated protein kinase and cyclic adenosine monophosphate signaling pathways, as well as immune-related mechanisms. A subset of 16 differentially expressed genes from fibroblast gene expression profiling that occurred after Support Vector Machines Recursive Feature Elimination could efficiently separate schizophrenic from healthy controls subjects. These findings suggest that through the analysis of fibroblast based gene expression signature and with the application of machine learning methodologies we might conclude to a diagnostic classification model in schizophrenia.

  14. Radioimmunoassay measurement of creatine kinase BB in the serum of schizophrenic patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lerner, M H; Friedhoff, A J [New York Univ., NY (USA). Medical Center

    1980-10-23

    Brain type creatine kinase (BB) isoenzyme was measured using a highly sensitive and specific radioimmunoassay procedure (limit of detection, 1 ..mu..g/l of sample) in two schizophrenic populations, an acute non-medicated group consisting of 35 subjects and a chronic group of 15 subjects. Since the assay can also measure the B subunit of MB isoenzyme, patients were selected so as to exclude subjects with possible heart, kidney or other ailments which might result in an increased serum creatine kinase B subunit. Both the acute schizophrenics (3.0 +- 0.23) x S.E.M. and the chronic schizophrenics (2.9 +- 0.33) had serum levels of creatine kinase BB similar to those of controls (2.8 +- 0.21) and non-cardiac patients (3.5 +- 0.58). Patients having myocardial infarction or neurovascular surgery had elevated creatine kinase B subunit. Similar but much less sensitive quantitative results were obtained using agarose multizonal electrophoresis.

  15. Therapeutic Effect of Comedy Films on Decreasing of Depression in the Schizophrenic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farbod Fadaei

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This research is an evaluation of the theraputic efficacy of comedy films in improving the mood of the long – stay schizophrenic inpatients. Materials & Methods: 50 schizophrenic patients in 2 rehabilitation wards of Razi Psychiatric – Center were selected on the basis of available sampling. They were divided into 2 groups (Experimental and Control, each group consisted of 25 patients. Before any therapeutic procedure, the magnitudes of their depression were measured by Beck Depressive Inventory. Afterwards, the experimental group was exposed to silent comedies of Charles Chaplin and Mr. Bean (Roan Atkinson for 30 minutes every other day for two weeks. Meanwhile, the control group were shown a documentary film about the formation of planet Earth. At the end of the second week, the magnitude of depression of all cases were again measured by B.D.I. Furthermore, in order to investigate the statistical significance of differences between depression magnitude among both groups before and after the experiment, Mann Withney – U test, was utilized. Also for defining and explaining the data and drawing the scales, SPSS and Excel softwares were employed as well. Results: According to the findings of this research, the difference between depression magnitude in both groups before and after the exposure to comedy films was significant at P=0.05. Conclusion:  This result shows that comedy films can improve the depressed mood in the long–stay schizophrenic people.

  16. Depressive syndromes among female caregivers of schizophrenic patients in prof. dr. m. ildrem mental hospital medan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handi, A.; Husada, M. S.; Gultom, D. P.

    2018-03-01

    Caring for schizophrenic patients can lead to emotional distress. It remains unclear about the level of depressive syndromes among female caregivers of schizophrenic patients. To determine the level of depression among female caregivers of schizophrenic patients. This is a descriptive study with a cross-sectional approach to describe the level of depression of female caregivers in Prof. dr. M. Ildrem Mental Hospital Medan, using HADS instruments. Most age group of caregivers is from age 51-60 years that is 48.15%, caregiver’s work status mostly not works (62.96%), marital status of caregiver mostly is married (59.26%), kinship with most patients are a biological mother (57.41%). Most patient age group is from age below 30 years (50%), work status of most patients is not working (81.48%), marital status of most caregiver is married (83.33%). Mostly of the depressive syndrome is mild depression (42.59%). Mostly of the depressive syndrome is from mild depression.

  17. Elevation of D4 dopamine receptor mRNA in postmortem schizophrenic brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanis, N C; Bresnick, J N; Kerwin, R W; Schofield, W N; McAllister, G

    1998-01-01

    The D4 dopamine (DA) receptor has been proposed to be a target for the development of a novel antipsychotic drug based on its pharmacological and distribution profile. There is much interest in whether D4 DA receptor levels are altered in schizophrenia, but the lack of an available receptor subtype-specific radioligand made this difficult to quantitate. In this study, we examined whether D4 mRNA levels are altered in different brain regions of schizophrenics compared to controls. Ribonuclease protection assays were carried out on total RNA samples isolated postmortem from frontal cortex and caudate brain regions of schizophrenics and matched controls. 32P-labelled RNA probes to the D4 DA receptor and to the housekeeping gene, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH), were hybridised with the RNA samples, digested with ribonucleases to remove unhybridised probe, and separated on 6% sequencing gels. Densitometer analysis on the subsequent autoradiogams was used to calculate the relative optical density of D4 mRNA compared to G3PDH mRNA. Statistical analysis of the data revealed a 3-fold higher level (P<0.011) of D4 mRNA in the frontal cortex of schizophrenics compared to controls. No increase was seen in caudate. D4 receptors could play a role in mediating dopaminergic activity in frontal cortex, an activity which may be malfunctioning in schizophrenia.

  18. Radioimmunoassay measurement of creatine kinase BB in the serum of schizophrenic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerner, M.H.; Friedhoff, A.J.

    1980-01-01

    Brain type creatine kinase (BB) isoenzyme was measured using a highly sensitive and specific radioimmunoassay procedure (limit of detection, 1 μg/l of sample) in two schizophrenic populations, an acute non-medicated group consisting of 35 subjects and a chronic group of 15 subjects. Since the assay can also measure the B subunit of MB isoenzyme, patients were selected so as to exclude subjects with possible heart, kidney or other ailments which might result in an increased serum creatine kinase B subunit. Both the acute schizophrenics (3.0 +- 0.23) x S.E.M. and the chronic schizophrenics (2.9 +- 0.33) had serum levels of creatine kinase BB similar to those of controls (2.8 +- 0.21) and non-cardiac patients (3.5 +- 0.58). Patients having myocardial infarction or neurovascular surgery had elevated creatine kinase B subunit. Similar but much less sensitive quantitative results were obtained using agarose multizonal electrophoresis. (Auth.)

  19. PSYCHIATRIC MORBIDITY PATTERN OF THE FIRST-DEGREE RELATIVES OF SCHIZOPHRENICS: CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Gnana Durai

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available : CONTEXT: Family, Twin and Adoption studies show the inheritance patterns of schizophrenia. The findings from these studies provide support to the claim that familial clustering of schizophrenia is a combined expression of genetic and environmental factors. AIMS: Following the line of previous research, this study attempts to find out any difference in the psychiatric morbidity pattern among the first-degree relatives of familial and sporadic schizophrenics. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: We conducted a cross-sectional survey among a convenience sample of 100 first-degree relatives (age between 18 to 55 years of familial (n=22 and sporadic (n=29 schizophrenics from psychiatric outpatient clinic, of a Government Hospital, India. The schizophrenics satisfied the DSM-IV criteria and all the first degree relatives interviewed never had any psychiatric consultation before or were abusing alcohol or other substances or having any organic pathology. METHODS AND MATERIAL: Informed consent from the patients and relatives was obtained. Survey questionnaires were administered and no personal identifying information was collected. Middle Sex Hospital Questionnaire (MHQ, Eysenck's Personality Questionnaire (EPQ, Multi-Phasic Personality Questionnaire (MPQ and Screening Test for Co-Morbid Personality Disorders (STCPD were administered to the participants.

  20. Sex and laterality differences in parkinsonian impairment and transcranial ultrasound in never-treated schizophrenics and their first degree relatives in an Andean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamis, Danielle; Stratton, Lee; Calvó, María; Padilla, Eduardo; Florenzano, Néstor; Guerrero, Gonzalo; Molina Rangeon, Beatriz; Molina, Juan; de Erausquin, Gabriel A

    2015-05-01

    We tested the hypothesis that loss of substantia nigra neurons in subjects at risk of schizophrenia (1), as reflected by midbrain hyperechogenicity (2) and parkinsonian motor impairment (3), is asymmetric and influenced by sex. We evaluated 62 subjects with never-treated chronic schizophrenia, 80 of their adult, unaffected first degree relatives and 62 healthy controls (matched by sex and age to the cases), part of an Andean population of Northern Argentina. Parkinsonism was scored blindly using UPDRS-3 (Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale) on videotaped exams by 2 independent raters. Transcranial ultrasound was performed by an expert sonographist blind to subject condition with a 2.5 MHz transducer through a temporal bone window. Quantification of echogenic area was carried out on saved images by a different evaluator. We found a significant difference in parkinsonian motor impairment between patients, their relatives as well as controls. All three groups showed worse parkinsonism on the left side than the right, corresponding with increased echogenicity on the right substantia nigra compared with the left. Females had significantly more right echogenicity than males, and patients and unaffected relatives were significantly more echogenic than controls on that side. On the left, only female patients had significant echogenicity. Our data supports the notion that unaffected relatives of schizophrenic subjects have increased parkinsonism and concomitant brainstem abnormalities which may represent a vulnerability to the disease. Both motor and brainstem abnormalities are asymmetric and influenced by sex. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Plant abnormality inspection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takenaka, Toshio.

    1990-01-01

    The present invention concerns a plant abnormality inspection device for conducting remote or automatic patrolling inspection in a plant and, more particularly, relates to such a device as capable of detecting abnormal odors. That is, the device comprises a moving device for moving to a predetermined position in the plant, a plurality of gas sensors for different kind of gases to be inspected mounted thereon, a comparator for comparing the concentration of a gas detected by the gas sensor with the normal gas concentration at the predetermined position and a judging means for judging the absence or presence of abnormality depending on the combination of the result of the comparison and deliverying a signal if the state is abnormal. As a result, a slight amount of gas responsible to odors released upon abnormality of the plant can be detected by a plurality of gas sensors for different kinds gases to rapidly and easily find abnormal portions in the plant. (I.S.)

  2. Substance use in young adults with schizophrenic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Test, M A; Wallisch, L S; Allness, D J; Ripp, K

    1989-01-01

    Use of nonprescribed mood altering substances is pervasive and problematic in young adults with serious mental illnesses in community care. Fifty-eight percent of young adult clients with clearly defined schizophrenia or schizophrenia-related disorders participating in a long-term community treatment study were rated by staff or themselves as using alcohol, cannabis, or other street drugs several times a week or more. We interviewed in depth a random sample of these "significant users" to obtain their perspective on their frequencies, patterns, histories, contributing factors to, and effects of substance use and their related treatment experiences. Results revealed these clients' substance use to be of long duration and deeply entrenched, with current use often involving multiple substances including both street drugs and substances of "everyday life" (e.g., caffeine, nicotine). Clients reported compelling reasons for use including anxiety reduction, relief of boredom, and a means for social contact. Staff and clients clearly view substance use quite differently, with the latter focusing at least as much on consequences of symptom relief as symptom exacerbation. Treatment implications are discussed.

  3. Common echocardiographic abnormalities in Nigerians of different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-09-17

    Sep 17, 2012 ... artery disease, cardiac murmurs, atrial fibrillation, stroke, and transient ischaemic attack.[4,5] In some circumstances, the examination is an appropriate screening test even in the absence of cardiovascular symptoms, especially. Common echocardiographic abnormalities in. Nigerians of different age groups.

  4. Prevalence of obsessive compulsive symptoms among patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita Hemrom

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obsessive compulsive symptoms in schizophrenia are well recognized but are a less-researched entity. These symptoms have important implications for management and prognosis. Aim: To find out the prevalence of obsessive compulsive symptoms among patients with schizophrenia. Materials and Methods: A total of 90 hospitalized patients with schizophrenia diagnosed according to DCR of ICD-10 criteria were selected for the study. Padua inventory and Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale were applied to find out the prevalence and nature of obsessive compulsive symptoms . Results: It was found that 10% of schizophrenic patients had obsessive compulsive symptoms. Conclusion: Obsessive compulsive symptoms are prevalent in patients with schizophrenia. The presence of comorbidity should be explored for adequate management.

  5. Syndrome of transient headache and neurological deficits with cerebrospinal fluid lymphocytosis (HaNDL) in a patient with confusional symptoms, diffuse EEG abnormalities, and bilateral vasospasm in transcranial Doppler ultrasound: A case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo de la Cruz, M; Domínguez Rubio, R; Luque Buzo, E; Díaz Otero, F; Vázquez Alén, P; Orcajo Rincón, J; Prieto Montalvo, J; Contreras Chicote, A; Grandas Pérez, F

    2017-04-17

    HaNDL syndrome (transient headache and neurological deficits with cerebrospinal fluid lymphocytosis) is characterised by one or more episodes of headache and transient neurological deficits associated with cerebrospinal fluid lymphocytosis. To date, few cases of HaNDL manifesting with confusional symptoms have been described. Likewise, very few patients with HaNDL and confusional symptoms have been evaluated with transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD). TCD data from patients with focal involvement reveal changes consistent with vasomotor alterations. We present the case of a 42-year-old man who experienced headache and confusional symptoms and displayed pleocytosis, diffuse slow activity on EEG, increased blood flow velocity in both middle cerebral arteries on TCD, and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) findings suggestive of diffuse involvement, especially in the left hemisphere. To our knowledge, this is the first description of a patient with HaNDL, confusional symptoms, diffuse slow activity on EEG, and increased blood flow velocity in TCD. Our findings suggest a relationship between cerebral vasomotor changes and the pathophysiology of HaNDL. TCD may be a useful tool for early diagnosis of HaNDL. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Use of the terms "schizophrenia" and "schizophrenic" in the South Korean news media: a content analysis of newspapers and news programs in the last 10 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jun-Hyun; Choi, Young-Min; Kim, Bongseog; Lee, Dong-Woo; Gim, Min-Sook

    2012-03-01

    In this study, we explored the meaning attributed to the words "jungshinbunyeolbyung" (schizophrenia) and "jungshinbunyeol" (schizophrenic) in South Korean newspapers and news programs in the last 10 years. We screened the websites of three national newspapers and the broadcasts of three nationwide television news programs from January 1, 2001, to December 31, 2010. We classified a total of 490 articles and 257 news segments by category and quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed them. The articles and news segments were assigned to one of the following categories based on their use of the term "schizophrenia": 1) negative, 2) neutral or positive, 3) incidental, and 4) metaphorical. The negative viewpoint accounted for 349 incidences (46.7%), while the neutral and positive viewpoints included 225 incidences (30.1%). Incidental uses accounted for 95 incidences (12.7%), and metaphorical uses accounted for 78 incidences (10.4%). The majority of the negative uses focused on violence or dangers posed by patients (137 mentions, 37.8%), while the metaphorical uses mainly focused on the idea of splitting (51 mentions, or 65%). This study showed that the South Korean news media do not provide balanced information about schizophrenia to the public. This study also showed that no significant move has been made toward a more positive use of the term since a previous study was conducted on the subject. Although the term schizophrenia has given way to "attunement disorder," it will be difficult to establish the new term as the standard if the South Korean media continue to use the term "schizophrenic symptom." Even though the term has been changed, guidelines are necessary to encourage the mass media to provide balanced articles and reduce prejudice.

  7. [A psychopathological study on three-dimensional computer graphics (3DCGs): special reference to pictures made by a schizophrenic patient before and after the onset].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashizawa, Yuko; Tachikawa, Hirokazu; Hori, Masashi; Hori, Takafumi; Mizukami, Katsuyoshi; Asada, Takashi

    2004-01-01

    A patient with catatonic type schizophrenia drawing 3-dimensional computer graphics (3DCGs) before and after the onset is reported. His 3DCGs are discussed from the view of psychopathology. A 21-year-old male was admitted to our hospital. He was an art student. For three months before admission, he had been absorbed in drawing 3DCGs. When he was asked to draw handmade pictures by his teacher, he experienced a bizarre mood and took an overdose of aspirin. At the time of admission, he was in a stupor state, and was diagnosed with catatonic type schizophrenia. After admission, he exhibited excitement and disorganized speech. These symptoms disappeared after administration of neuroleptics, and he was discharged. The 3DCGs he drew before and after the onset revealed several special characteristics. First, the compositions of his pictures were too geometric and too precise. Secondly, the themes of his pictures changed from romantic before the onset to symbolic after it, and the styles changed from realistic to abstractive after the onset. Finally, histograms of the 3DCGs revealed many colors before onset, which converged to simple colors after. Therefore, it was suggested that the latent pathological process at the beginning of schizophrenia might be reflected in his 3DCGs. 3DCGs are a new type of fine art. They can express beautiful and cool images more simply than handmade pictures. Due to these features, artists can create images of their innerworld, with less effort and talent than picture drawings, by computer assistance. This case suggests that the geometric working space, change-free viewpoints, and computer assistance, which are characteristics of the methods in making 3DCGs may be suitable for schizophrenic artists to create images of their innerworld. However, being absorbed in making 3DCGs could also promote the latent schizophrenic process to the onset.

  8. Defining Abnormally Low Tenders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ølykke, Grith Skovgaard; Nyström, Johan

    2017-01-01

    The concept of an abnormally low tender is not defined in EU public procurement law. This article takes an interdisciplinary law and economics approach to examine a dataset consisting of Swedish and Danish judgments and verdicts concerning the concept of an abnormally low tender. The purpose...

  9. Abnormal infant neurodevelopment predicts schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, Barbara; Kendler, Kenneth S

    2005-06-01

    The aim of this study was to detect infants who carry a schizophrenic genotype and study the development of schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SZSD) from birth. In the 1940s, Bender described uneven maturation in childhood schizophrenics and in 1952 found this in the infant histories of 6 schizophrenic children. We tested a possible index for defective neural integration in infants termed "pandysmaturation" (PDM). This required retarded cranial growth plus retarded and erratic gross motor development on a single exam. Twelve offspring of hospitalized schizophrenic mothers and 12 infants in a "Well Baby Clinic," were examined 10 times between birth and 2 years of age. Psychiatric interviews and psychological testing were done at 10, 15, and 22 years of age, plus follow-up at 27-35 years of age. Six infants had PDM at 2, 6, or 13 months of age. Five individuals have been blindly diagnosed (by KSK) as having lifetime SZSD; all 5 had PDM before 8 months. Chi-square one-tailed tests confirmed the predictions: (1) PDM was related to subsequent SZSD (chi(2) = 11.43; p < 0.0005); (2) schizophrenic mothers had more infants with PDM than nonschizophrenic mothers (chi(2) = 3.28; p < 0.05); and (3) schizophrenic mothers had more SZSD offspring than nonschizophrenic mothers (chi(2) = 6.39; p < 0.0125). These first behavioral observations of aberrant neurodevelopment in pre- SZSD infants support the evidence of early neurodevelopmental disorder seen in studies of brain pathology in SZSD adults.

  10. Schizophrenia and smoking: impact on negative symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Saliba

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: it has been hypothesized that individuals with schizophrenia use nicotine to reduce negative symptoms and improve cognitive function. There is an inconsistency in the literature suggesting that nicotine could help decrease negative symptoms in schizophrenic patients. Objective: to investigate the effects of nicotine on the expression of the negative symptoms in smokers and non-smokers with schizophrenia. Methods: a cross sectional study, conducted between April and August 2016, 100 inpatients with schizophrenia (54 smokers and 46 non-smokers diagnosed according to DSM-V, at Psychiatric Hospital of the Cross Lebanon, were compared to changes in clinical parameters using CDSS, PANSS, and nicotine dependence using FTND. The Student’s t-test was used to compare between 2 groups, while the ANOVA test was used to compare between 3 or more groups. For categorical variables, the chi-2 test was used. Results: the mean age was 47.16 years (SD = 7.14 for smokers compared to 47.02 years (SD = 7.92 for non-smokers. 64.8% of smokers were males versus 45.7% of non-smokers. Smoking (high nicotine dependence significantly decreases the PANSS negative symptoms score between the 2 groups (p .05 for both variables. Discussion and conclusion: this study is the first to investigate the relationship between the expression of negative symptoms in individuals with schizophrenia and smoking in Lebanon. Cigarette smoking rates remain remarkably high in patients with schizophrenia. Smoking is a complex process which involves psychopathological, biochemical and neuropharmacological aspects among schizophrenic patients. Further studies are needed to acknowledge these findings and the reasons behind it.

  11. Evaluation and Socio-occupational Intervention in Bipolar and Schizophrenic Patients within a Multimodal Intervention Program- PRISMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Zuluaga, Ana M; Duica, Kelly; Ruiz Galeano, Carlos; Vargas, Cristian; Agudelo Berruecos, Yuli; Ospina, Sigifredo; López-Jaramillo, Carlos

    Functional improvement in bipolar and schizophrenic patients is one of the main aims of treatment. Nevertheless, there is no evidence about the effect of socio-occupational intervention within a multimodal intervention (MI) programme. To describe the socio-occupational profile and to evaluate the functional effect of a MI in bipolar I and schizophrenic patients. A prospective, longitudinal, therapeutic-comparative study was performed including 302 subjects (104 schizophrenic and 198 Bipolar Disorder I [BDI] patients), who were randomised into two groups, multimodal (psychiatry, psychology, medicine, occupational therapy, neuropsychology, and family therapy), or traditional intervention (psychiatry and medicine only). Several scales were applied to assess assertiveness, free time management, social abilities, general anxiety, self-care and performance in home, work and community tasks. After performing the longitudinal analysis, it was shown that the multimodal intervention was more effective than traditional intervention in general anxiety scores (P=.026) and development in home tasks (P=.03) in schizophrenic patients. No statistical differences were found in bipolar patients. The other variables showed improvement, however, their effect was similar in both intervention groups. Our study identified functional improvement in home tasks in schizophrenic patients after receiving multimodal intervention. Other variables also showed improvement for both interventions groups. Future studies, applying longer rehabilitation programs and other ecological strategies should be performed to identify the most effective interventions. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  12. Ensaio com sulpiride em esquizofrênicos hospitalizados Clinical trial with sulpiride on schizophrenic in-patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clóvis Martins

    1974-09-01

    Full Text Available Um ensaio terapêutico é feito com sulpiride, substância psicotrópica dada como muito ativa e cujas propriedades permitem enquadrá-la entre os neurolépticos e os timoanalépticos. Foram tratados 24 pacientes internados, com idades que variavam entre 17 e 48 anos, de ambos os sexos (17 masculinos e 7 femininos, todos com o diagnóstico clínico de esquizofrenia e internados em hospital psiquiátrico. O tempo de doença variava de 30 dias a 18 anos. O sulpiride foi aplicado em doses diárias em torno de 1200 mg, predominantemente por via oral. O tratamento durou em média 6 semanas permanecendo a maioria dos casos em observação por alguns meses, sob tratamento de manutenção. Os resultados foram em geral favoráveis, principalmente no que tange aos fenômenos psicóticos sensoperceptivos e delirantes. Não foram assinalados efeitos colaterais ou manifestações colaterais molestas.A therapeutic trial with sulpiride was made, submiting to treatment 24 in-patients of a mental hospital, diagnosed as schizophrenics. The ages are from 17 to 48 years old, 17 males and 7 females. The time of disease was from 30 dayes to 18 years. The drug was given mainly orally on about 1200 mg/die, in a treament of 6 weeks followed in some cases, by several months of observation. The best results were obtained in the sensoperceptive and delusional symptoms. No side effects of importance were detected.

  13. Association between monoamine oxidase A gene promoter 30 bp repeat polymorphism and tardive dyskinesia in Chinese schizophrenics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Changhe Fan; Lihua Li; Yan Fu; Hehuang Deng; Xiangjiao Liao; Youcai Zhou

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The pathophysiology of tardive dyskinesia (TD) is not yet fully understood. With the hypothesis of altered dopaminergic neurotransmission, altered activities of dopamine degrading enzymes such as monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) and their coding genes are supposed to be related to the pathophysiology of TD.OBJECTIVE: To investigate possible association between 30 bp variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism in the promoter of MAOA gene and susceptibility, severity of neuroleptic induced TD in Chinese Han people in Guandong Province.DESIGN: Non-randomization-synchronization controlled study. SETTING: Guangdong Mental Health Institute, Guangdong Provincial People's Hospital; Guangzhou Psychiatric Hospital; Affiliated Psychiatric Hospital of Guangzhou Municipal Bureau of Civil Administration. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 179 subjects were enrolled in the study. All subjects were sporadic and genetically unrelated Chinese schizophrenic patients who were hospitalizing in Guangzhou Psychiatric Hospital or Affiliated Psychiatric Hospital of Guangzhou Municipal Bureau of Civil Administration during January to April 2005. The diagnosis of schizophrenia was made according to the criteria of Diagnostic and Statistic Manual of Mental Disorder-the third edition-revised (DSM-Ⅲ-R). Among all patients, 88 were diagnosed as with TD and 91 without TD according to the research diagnostic criteria described by Schooler-Kane. Informed consent was obtained from all subjects or their relatives.METHODS: ① TD severity was assessed with the AIMS which was a 5-degree rating scale from 0 to 4 (corresponding to none, minimal, mild, moderate and severe, respectively). The study was approved by the Ethics Committees of the two hospitals and informed consent was obtained from all subjects or their relatives. ② The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) techniques were used to detect MAOA gene 30 bp VNTR polymorphism in schizophrenic patients

  14. A Case-controlled Study on Personality Characteristics of Suicidal and Homicidal Schizophrenics%有自杀和凶杀行为的精神分裂症患者人格特征比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小平; 蔡伟雄; 刘铁桥

    2001-01-01

    Objective:To examine differences in personality characteristics between suicidal and homicidal schizophrenic patients.Methods:A case-control study was conducted with 27 suicidal schizophrenic patients and 22 homicidal schizophrenic patients. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) was employed to assess these patients. Results: The results showed no reliable differences on all of the MMPI scale scores. Conclusion: It was concluded that schizophrenic patients with suicidal and homicidal tendencies have similar personality characteristics.

  15. An investigation of factors increasing the risk of aggressive behaviour among schizophrenic inpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel eLejoyeux

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the studyThis study tried to identify risk factors of aggressive behavior in a population of schizophrenic inpatients. We tested the association between aggressive behavior and socio-demographic characteristics, addictive disorders, history of suicide attempt and sexual violence, impulsivity and sensation seeking.MethodsAll consecutive schizophrenic inpatients (100 were assessed during six months. Aggressive behavior was quantified with a standardized scale, the Overt Aggression Scale (OAS. We studied socio-demographic characteristics and the history of suicide attempt and sexual violence with a specific standardized questionnaire. Addictive disorders were identified with the Fagerström and CAGE questionnaires and with the DSM-IV-R diagnostic criteria for nicotine, alcohol, cannabis opiates, and cocaine abuse and dependence disorders. Lastly, we studied sensation-seeking with the Zuckerman scale and impulsivity with the Barratt scale. ResultsLinear regression identified four factors associated with aggressive behaviour: male gender (odd ratio =12.8, history of sexual violence (odd ratio = 3.6, Fagerström score (odd ratio= 1.3, number of cigarettes smoked each day (odd ratio=1.16. Patients with nicotine use or dependence had significantly higher levels of OAS scores. This difference was not observed between patients with or without alcohol dependence. OAS scores were correlated to the number of cigarettes smoked each day and to Fagerström scores. Patients with a higher level of sensation seeking and impulsivity also had higher OAS scores. ConclusionA Typical schizophrenic patient at risk of showing aggressive behavior is a man, who smokes and presents a history of sexual violence.

  16. Functional and structural abnormalities associated with empathy in patients with schizophrenia: An fMRI and VBM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sadhana; Modi, Shilpi; Goyal, Satnam; Kaur, Prabhjot; Singh, Namita; Bhatia, Triptish; Deshpande, Smita N; Khushu, Subash

    2015-06-01

    Empathy deficit is a core feature of schizophrenia which may lead to social dysfunction. The present study was carried out to investigate functional and structural abnormalities associated with empathy in patients with schizophrenia using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM). A sample of 14 schizophrenia patients and 14 healthy control subjects matched for age, sex and education were examined with structural highresolution T1-weighted MRI; fMRI images were obtained during empathy task in the same session. The analysis was carried out using SPM8 software. On behavioural assessment, schizophrenic patients (83.00+-29.04) showed less scores for sadness compared to healthy controls (128.70+-22.26) (p less than 0.001). fMRI results also showed reduced clusters of activation in the bilateral fusiform gyrus, left lingual gyrus, left middle and inferior occipital gyrus in schizophrenic subjects as compared to controls during empathy task. In the same brain areas, VBM results also showed reduced grey and white matter volumes. The present study provides an evidence for an association between structural alterations and disturbed functional brain activation during empathy task in persons affected with schizophrenia. These findings suggest a biological basis for social cognition deficits in schizophrenics.

  17. Effects of hormones on cognition in schizophrenic male patients--preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratek, Agnieszka; Koźmin-Burzyńska, Agnieszka; Krysta, Krzysztof; Cierpka-Wiszniewska, Katarzyna; Krupka-Matuszczyk, Irena

    2015-09-01

    Schizophrenia is a prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder of an unknown etiology and a variable phenotypic expression. In the recent years, the impact of hormones on the course of schizophrenia has been investigated. This study is aimed at assessing the level of correlating serum levels of hormones in schizophrenic male patients with their cognitive functioning measured with neuropsychological tests. In the index group there were 15 medicated male schizophrenic patients. In the control group there were 15 age and education matched healthy men. All subjects underwent analysis of serum hormones level (TSH, testosterone, estradiol, FSH, LH, progesterone and prolactin) and a battery of tests (Trail Making Test A and B, Stroop Test, Verbal and Semantic Fluency Test). The mean serum levels of the following hormones were higher in the index group than in the control group: TSH (1.76 mIU/L vs 1.58 mIU/L; p=0.66), progesterone (0.85 ng/ml vs 0.69 ng/ml; p=0.22) and prolactin (558.71 uIU/ml vs 181 uIU/ml; p=0.025). The mean levels of estradiol (24.36 pg/ml vs 25.40 ng/ml; p=0.64), FSH (3.17 mIU/ml vs 5.72 mIU/ml; p=0.019), LH (3.85 mIU/ml vs 5.77 mIU/ml; p=0.056) and testosterone (2.90 ng/ml vs 5.38 ng/ml; p=0.003) were higher in the control group. In the index group there were significant negative correlations between FSH and semantic fluency (ρ=-0.678606), progesterone and: TMT B (ρ=-0.586763), Stroop 1 (ρ=-0.701880) and Stroop 2 (ρ=-0.601074) and prolactin and TMT A (ρ=-0.579607). The preliminary results of our study show that serum levels of FSH and testosterone are significantly lower, whereas the level of prolactin is markedly higher, in schizophrenic male patients than in healthy men. There is an inverse correlation between serum levels of progesterone, FSH and prolactin and the results of certain cognitive functioning tests in schizophrenic men.

  18. Effects of weight loss diet therapy on anthropometric measurements and biochemical variables in schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urhan, Murat; Ergün, Can; Aksoy, Meral; Ayer, Ahmet

    2015-07-01

    Prevalence of obesity in schizophrenic patients is two to three times higher than in the general population and unhealthy dietary patterns, a sedentary lifestyle and antipsychotic medication use may contribute to the higher levels of obesity among schizophrenic patients. We evaluated the effects of diet therapy on weight loss, anthropometric and biochemical variables in overweight or obese (body mass index, BMI ≥ 27 kg/m(2)) female schizophrenic patients who use antipsychotic medications and in healthy volunteers. Primary demographic variables were collected via questionnaire; blood samples and anthropometric measurements were obtained. Personalized diet recipes were prepared and nutritional education was shared. We logged the physical activity of the patients and maintained food consumption records at 3-day intervals. Participants were weighed every week; anthropometric measurements and blood samples were collected at the end of the first and second months. At the end of the study, reductions in body weight and other anthropometric measurements were statistically significant (P < 0.05). Reductions in body weight and BMI values for patient group were - 4.05 ± 1.73 kg and - 1.62 ± 0.73 kg/m(2) and for the control group were - 6.79 ± 1.80 kg and - 2.55 ± 0.64 kg/m(2), respectively. When compared with the patient group, reductions in the anthropometric variables of the control group were statistically significant (P < 0.05). Fasting glucose, blood lipids, albumin and leptin levels were decreased; insulin and homeostatic model assessment-measured insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) levels were increased insignificantly. Increases in the blood ghrelin levels for both groups were statistically significant (P < 0.05). Improvements to the diets of schizophrenic patient led to improvements in anthropometric measurements and biochemical variables and reduced the health risks caused by antipsychotic medications. Furthermore, we hypothesize that antipsychotic medications do not

  19. Clinical correlates of decreased anteroposterior metabolic gradients in positron emission tomography (PET) of schizophrenic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeLisi, L.E.; Buchsbaum, M.S.; Holcomb, H.H.

    1985-01-01

    The finding in schizophrenic patients of a reversal of the normal frontal to posterior pattern of brain metabolic activity with positron emission tomography (PET) is of interest, but its relevance to psychopathology is unknown. Using PET, the authors studied 21 patients with chronic schizophrenia and 21 age- and sex-matched control subjects. Although eight of the 21 patients and only one of the control subjects showed a relatively lower anteroposterior metabolic gradient, no clinical correlates of this finding were noted. In addition, cerebral atrophy, as determined by CAT scan, was not associated with this aberrant metabolic pattern

  20. A unified explanation for the diverse structural deviations reported for adult schizophrenics with disrupted speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaika, E

    1982-06-01

    This paper attempts a unified explanation for the diverse manifestations of deviant speech considered pathognomic for schizophrenia. Examination of the structure of such speech shows that what appear to be diverse errors are really manifestations of two problems: apparently random or erroneous triggering of sounds and words coupled with inappropriate perseverations. These are shown to be different manifestations of the same problem, possibly a schizophrenic dysfunction in neurotransmitters in the brain.. Studies of hemispheric asymetry in schizophrenia, involuntary eyetracking, and the probable action of antipsychotic medication confirm the linguistic data.

  1. Self psychology conceptualization of postpsychotic depression and recovery among paranoid schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potik, David

    2014-01-01

    Many psychoanalysts have offered innovative ideas on the treatment of schizophrenic patients, but none on postpsychotic depression. The author presents a psychoanalytic conceptualization of postpsychotic depression based on Kohut's ideas regarding the development of normal and pathological grandiosity. The main premise is that postpsychotic depression stems from the loss of psychotic grandiosity, and that it is the psychological reaction to the loss of omnipotent identity whose role it is to provide an alternative reality. Through near-experience connectedness, clinicians and practitioners in the psychiatric rehabilitation field can facilitate an empathic milieu in which new mental constructs can be established and new behavioral skills can be learned.

  2. [Evaluation of mimetic expression of schizophrenic and depressed patients by the psychiatrist].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, F; Mattes, R; Adam, B; Heimann, H

    1992-01-01

    Facial videos of schizophrenic and depressive patients and of healthy controls when watching both funny and horror films and during emotionally positive or negative interviews were rated by psychiatrists (experts) and students (novices). The observers' task was to rate joy, fear, sadness, and expressivity on a 7-point unipolar intensity scale. The soundless facial videos were presented to each observer for exactly 2.5 min. The observer groups did not differ significantly in their ratings except for sadness. Psychiatrists consistently rated expressed sadness as less intense than students. Facial expressivity and joy were rated as less intense in both patient groups in comparison with healthy controls. Depressives expressed significantly more sadness.

  3. Computer-aided tomography (CT) in diagnosis of organic brain lesions in schizophrenics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavilov, S.B.; Belova, O.G.; Nikiforchuk, N.M.; Savvateeva, N.Yu.; Atyasova, E.V.; Baev, A.A.

    1993-01-01

    The authors retrospectively analyse CT data obtained in examinations of 1745 patients divided into three groups. Group 1 consisted of 721 patients with schizophrenia, group consisted of 855 mentally normal subjects directed to computer tomographic examination with suspected organic involvement of the brain, and group 3 consisted of 169 mentally and neurologically normal subjects. Vascular diseases of the nervous system predominated in group 2 as against group 1, being 3.5 times more incident. No intracranial tumors were detected in controls; in schizophrenics computer tomographic signs of volumic brain lesions were detected in 1.5% of cases

  4. Effects of debrisoquin and haloperidol on plasma homovanillic acid concentration in schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, M; Losonczy, M F; Mohs, R C; Lesser, J C; Powchik, P; Freed, L B; Davis, B M; Mykytyn, V V; Davis, K L

    1987-12-01

    Plasma levels of the dopamine metabolite homovanillic acid (pHVA) may potentially reflect upon central dopamine activity. This study examines the effects of debrisoquin, haloperidol, and the two drugs combined on pHVA concentrations of schizophrenic patients. Debrisoquin is a drug that suppresses the peripheral formation of homovanillic acid without affecting the central formation. Acute haloperidol administration consistently increased pHVA concentrations in patients pretreated or not pretreated with debrisoquin, suggesting that this increment reflects haloperidol's central and not peripheral effects.

  5. Chromosomal abnormalities and autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida El-Baz

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Chromosomal abnormalities were not detected in the studied autistic children, and so the relation between the genetics and autism still needs further work up with different study methods and techniques.

  6. Chromosomal Abnormalities in ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of fragile X syndrome, velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS, and other cytogenetic abnormalities among 100 children (64 boys with combined type ADHD and normal intelligence was assessed at the NIMH and Georgetown University Medical Center.

  7. "Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keutzer, Carolin S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

  8. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... especially the progestin-only pill (also called the “mini-pill”) can actually cause abnormal bleeding for some ... Basics Sports Safety Injury Rehabilitation Emotional Well-Being Mental Health Sex and Birth Control Sex and Sexuality ...

  9. Abnormal sound detection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Izumi; Matsui, Yuji.

    1995-01-01

    Only components synchronized with rotation of pumps are sampled from detected acoustic sounds, to judge the presence or absence of abnormality based on the magnitude of the synchronized components. A synchronized component sampling means can remove resonance sounds and other acoustic sounds generated at a synchronously with the rotation based on the knowledge that generated acoustic components in a normal state are a sort of resonance sounds and are not precisely synchronized with the number of rotation. On the other hand, abnormal sounds of a rotating body are often caused by compulsory force accompanying the rotation as a generation source, and the abnormal sounds can be detected by extracting only the rotation-synchronized components. Since components of normal acoustic sounds generated at present are discriminated from the detected sounds, reduction of the abnormal sounds due to a signal processing can be avoided and, as a result, abnormal sound detection sensitivity can be improved. Further, since it is adapted to discriminate the occurrence of the abnormal sound from the actually detected sounds, the other frequency components which are forecast but not generated actually are not removed, so that it is further effective for the improvement of detection sensitivity. (N.H.)

  10. Distinct pattern of cerebral blood flow alterations specific to schizophrenics experiencing auditory verbal hallucinations with and without insight: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Rixing; Huang, Jiangjie; Jiang, Deguo; Lin, Xiaodong; Ma, Xiaolei; Tian, Hongjun; Li, Jie; Zhuo, Chuanjun

    2018-01-23

    Schizophrenia is associated with widespread and complex cerebral blood flow (CBF) disturbance. Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) and insight are the core symptoms of schizophrenia. However, to the best of our knowledge, very few studies have assessed the CBF characteristics of the AVH suffered by schizophrenic patients with and without insight. Based on our previous findings, Using a 3D pseudo-continuous ASL (pcASL) technique, we investigated the differences in AVH-related CBF alterations in schizophrenia patients with and without insight. We used statistical parametric mapping (SPM8) and statistical non-parametric mapping (SnPM13) to perform the fMRI analysis. We found that AVH-schizophrenia patients without insight showed an increased CBF in the left temporal pole and a decreased CBF in the right middle frontal gyrus when compared to AVH-schizophrenia patients with insight. Our novel findings suggest that AVH-schizophrenia patients without insight possess a more complex CBF disturbance. Simultaneously, our findings also incline to support the idea that the CBF aberrant in some specific brain regions may be the common neural basis of insight and AVH. Our findings support the mostly current hypotheses regarding AVH to some extent. Although our findings come from a small sample, it provide the evidence that indicate us to conduct a larger study to thoroughly explore the mechanisms of schizophrenia, especially the core symptoms of AVHs and insight.

  11. Functional MRI in schizophrenia. Diagnostics and therapy monitoring of cognitive deficits of schizophrenic patients by functional MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furtner, J.; Prayer, D.; Sachs, G.

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive impairments are core psychopathological components of the symptomatic of schizophrenic patients. These dysfunctions are generally related to attention, executive functions and memory. This report provides information on the importance of using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) for the diagnostics and therapy monitoring of the different subtypes of cognitive dysfunctions. Furthermore, it describes the typical differences in the activation of individual brain regions between schizophrenic patients and healthy control persons. This information should be helpful in identifying the deficit profile of each patient and create an individual therapy plan. (orig.) [de

  12. [Hysteroscopic polypectomy, treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Los Rios, P José F; López, R Claudia; Cifuentes, P Carolina; Angulo, C Mónica; Palacios-Barahona, Arlex U

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of the hysteroscopic polypectomy in terms of the decrease of the abnormal uterine bleeding. A cross-sectional and analytical study was done with patients to whom a hysteroscopic polypectomy was done for treating the abnormal uterine bleeding, between January 2009 and December 2013. The response to the treatment was evaluated via a survey given to the patients about the behavior of the abnormal uterine bleeding after the procedure and about overall satisfaction. The results were obtained after a hysteroscopic polypectomy done to 128 patients and were as follows. The average time from the polypectomy applied until the survey was 30.5 months, with a standard deviation of 18 months. 67.2% of the patients reported decreased abnormal uterine bleeding and the 32.8% reported a persistence of symptoms. On average 82.8% of the. patients were satisfied with the treatment. Bivariate and multivariate analysis showed no association between the variables studied and no improvement of abnormal uterine bleeding after surgery (polypectomy). There were no complications. Hysteroscopic polypectomy is a safe surgical treatment, which decreases on two of three patients the abnormal uterine bleeding in the presence of endometrial polyps, with an acceptable level of satisfaction.

  13. Operator training for the abnormal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marzec, R.J.

    1977-01-01

    Training of nuclear power plant control room operators, on actions to be taken for an abnormal event, has classically been limited to discussion, on-shift and/or during requalification training classes, of symptoms, logical thought processes, systems analysis, and operator experience. The prerequisites for these discussions are a common technical vocabulary, and a minimum basic comprehension of nuclear power plant fundamentals, plant component theory of operation, system configuration, system control philosophy and operating procedures. Nuclear power plant control room operators are not the only personnel who are or should be involved in these discussions. The shift supervisors, operations management, and auxiliary equipment operators require continuing training in abnormal operations, as well. More in-depth training is necessary for shift supervisors and control room operators. The availability of vendor simulators has improved the effectiveness of training efforts for these individuals to some extent by displaying typical situations and plant performance characteristics and by providing a degree of ''hands on'' experience. The evolution of in-depth training with these simulators is reviewed

  14. Functional and anatomical connectivity abnormalities in left inferior frontal gyrus in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Bumseok; Wible, Cynthia G; Hashimoto, Ryu-ichiro; Kubicki, Marek

    2009-12-01

    Functional studies in schizophrenia demonstrate prominent abnormalities within the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and also suggest the functional connectivity abnormalities in language network including left IFG and superior temporal gyrus during semantic processing. White matter connections between regions involved in the semantic network have also been indicated in schizophrenia. However, an association between functional and anatomical connectivity disruptions within the semantic network in schizophrenia has not been established. Functional (using levels of processing paradigm) as well as diffusion tensor imaging data from 10 controls and 10 chronic schizophrenics were acquired and analyzed. First, semantic encoding specific activation was estimated, showing decreased activation within the left IFG in schizophrenia. Second, functional time series were extracted from this area, and left IFG specific functional connectivity maps were produced for each subject. In an independent analysis, tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) was used to compare fractional anisotropy (FA) values between groups, and to correlate these values with functional connectivity maps. Schizophrenia patients showed weaker functional connectivity within the language network that includes left IFG and left superior temporal sulcus/middle temporal gyrus. FA was reduced in several white matter regions including left inferior frontal and left internal capsule. Finally, left inferior frontal white matter FA was positively correlated with connectivity measures of the semantic network in schizophrenics, but not in controls. Our results indicate an association between anatomical and functional connectivity abnormalities within the semantic network in schizophrenia, suggesting further that the functional abnormalities observed in this disorder might be directly related to white matter disruptions. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Discourse Analysis in Schizophrenic Patients on the Basis of Grice\\'s Cooperative Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma'soumeh Salmani

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The ultimate goal of this study is one of the discourse fields analysis, i.e. Grice's cooperative principles. Materials & Methods: In this comparative and case - control study, two groups of normal individuals and schizophrenic patients were selected by simple method from sample of convenience and interviewed based on the spontaneous part of Persian Aphasia Test. All the answers were analyzed with respect to the percent rate of errors in the 4 "cooperative maxims", and the errors were collected. Data were analyzed by Independent T Test, ANOVA, Kruskal Wallis and Mann Whitney. Results: There were significant differences between two groups in respect to all the Grice’s cooperative principles (P<0.001, maxim of quantity (P<0.001, maxim of relevance (P<0.001 and maxim of manner (P=0.02, but in maxim of quality there was no significant differeance (P=0.07. The mean percent of errors in the course of illness, education and age varieties were not significant. Conclusion: Schizophrenic patients have incoherence speech and this problem exists in the discourse field and social interactions, thus the patients frequently fail in observing the Gricean cooperative principles.

  16. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection among patients with non-schizophrenic neurodevelopmental disorders in Alexandria, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehata, Amany I; Hassanein, Faika I; Abdul-Ghani, Rashad

    2016-02-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an opportunistic parasite with neurotropic characteristics that can mediate neurodevelopmental disorders, including mental, behavioral and personality aspects of their hosts. Therefore, the seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma antibodies has been studied in patients with different neurological disorders from different localities. On searching online databases, however, we could not find published studies on the seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma antibodies among patients with neurodevelopmental disorders in Egypt. Therefore, the present preliminary study was conducted to determine the serological profile of T. gondii infection among patients with non-schizophrenic neurodevelopmental disorders in Alexandria, Egypt. Data and blood samples were collected from 188 patients recruited for the study from four mental rehabilitation centers in the period from July 2014 to March 2015. The overall seropositivity rates of IgM and IgG among patients were 16.5% (31/188) and 50.0% (94/188), respectively. Of the studied patients' characteristics, only age was significantly associated with anti-Toxoplasma IgG seropositivity, with older patients being about twice more likely exposed to infection. However, no statistically significant association was found with IgM. In addition, seropositivity of anti-Toxoplasma IgG, but not IgM, was significantly associated with non-schizophrenic neurodevelopmental disorders; however, neither IgG nor IgM showed a significant association with cognitive impairment as indicated by the intelligence quotient scores. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of risperidone versus haloperidol on emotional responding in schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakra, E; Khalfa, S; Da Fonseca, D; Besnier, N; Delaveau, P; Azorin, J M; Blin, O

    2008-10-01

    Studies on emotional processing report that schizophrenic patients present a specific pattern of emotional responding that usually includes deficits in emotional expressiveness, increased feelings of unpleasant emotion but decreased feelings of pleasant emotion, and increased physiological reactivity. However, studies have rarely controlled the nature of antipsychotic medication. Yet, the influence of these drugs on emotional response is uncertain and could vary depending on their pharmacological profile. This prospective and randomized study aimed to compare the effects of an atypical antipsychotic, risperidone, to a typical one, haloperidol, on patients' emotional responding during an emotional induction task. Twenty-five schizophrenic patients underwent two emotional and clinical evaluations: one before treatment initiation and a second 4 weeks after. Emotional states of fear, sadness, anger, joy, and disgust were induced, as well as a neutral baseline state. Video recordings of patients during the induction task allowed for assessment of emotional expressiveness. Self-reports and measures of skin conductance and heart rate were performed to determine both subjective and physiological reactions to emotional experience. Compared to haloperidol, risperidone did not reduce patients' facial expressiveness, decreased physiological reactivity, and decreased experience of unpleasant emotion but maintained experience of pleasant emotion. Emotional expressiveness was negatively correlated to parkisonism. Our preliminary results suggest that atypical antipsychotics allow for better-adapted patterns of emotional responding than typical ones do. We suggest that this effect is due to reduced striatal D2 blockade, therefore, attenuating akinesia, coupled with increased 5HT and DA levels in prefrontal cortex, which improves emotional regulation.

  18. Drama therapy as a means of rehabilitation for schizophrenic patients: our impressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielańska, A; Cechnicki, A; Budzyna-Dawidowski, P

    1991-10-01

    The authors describe the development of drama therapy and its place in the system of psychosocial treatment of schizophrenic patients. Organizational and therapeutic elements are illustrated with the help of work done by a group of 12 patients on an adaptation of Shakespeare's Hamlet. The aim of this form of outpatient treatment is to use the acting technique in order to make it easier for patients to improve their understanding of themselves--their feelings, motivations and behaviors--and also of other people. The participation of a professional director and the general attractiveness of this type of therapy are considered to play an important role in motivating those patients who would not benefit from traditional psychotherapy. In this form of group psychotherapy verbalization of feelings and problems are structured by the role; thus creating a safe atmosphere and greater motivation to participate. The purpose of our work is to make the roles and the play a constructive aspect of the patient's functioning. This is only possible by uniting what for a schizophrenic patient is characteristically separate, namely, internal experience with external expression. Clinical effects are documented by two case vignettes.

  19. Computed tomography (CT) findings of schizophrenic patients after long time from psychosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Naoto; Akashi, Toshio; Toyoda, Junzou; Murakami, Hiroshi; Ogashiwa, Motohide

    1991-01-01

    The CT findings on 20 chronic schizophrenic inpatients who had undergone psychosurgery 37 years ago (operated group) were compared to 20 chronic schizophrenic inpatients without psychosurgery (non-operated group). The subjects of non-operated group were selected by matched age, sex and duration of the illness. Operated group showed significant decrease in frontal lobe size (p<0.001), enlargement of frontal horns of the lateral ventricle (p<0.01), widening of interhemispheric fissure (p<0.05), and brain atrophy (p<0.001) in comparison with non-operated group. Size of surgical injury showed significant rank correlation to frontal lobe size (p<0.01) and brain atrophy (p<0.001). Regarding the horizontal level of injury, in comparison with non-operated group, the patients with deficit in higher frontal areas showed enlargement of lateral ventricles (p<0.01) and those with deficit in lower frontal areas showed widening of interhemispheric fissure (p<0.05). Regarding the laterality of injury, the patients with deficit in left hemisphere showed significantly widened sylvian fissure in comparison with non-operated group (p<0.05). (author)

  20. Behavioral phenotypes in schizophrenic animal models with multiple combinations of genetic and environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hida, Hirotake; Mouri, Akihiro; Noda, Yukihiro

    2013-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a multifactorial psychiatric disorder in which both genetic and environmental factors play a role. Genetic [e.g., Disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1 (DISC1), Neuregulin-1 (NRG1)] and environmental factors (e.g., maternal viral infection, obstetric complications, social stress) may act during the developmental period to increase the incidence of schizophrenia. In animal models, interactions between susceptibility genes and the environment can be controlled in ways not possible in humans; therefore, such models are useful for investigating interactions between or within factors in the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of schizophrenia. We provide an overview of schizophrenic animal models investigating interactions between or within factors. First, we reviewed gene-environment interaction animal models, in which schizophrenic candidate gene mutant mice were subjected to perinatal immune activation or adolescent stress. Next, environment-environment interaction animal models, in which mice were subjected to a combination of perinatal immune activation and adolescent administration of drugs, were described. These animal models showed interaction between or within factors; behavioral changes, which were obscured by each factor, were marked by interaction of factors and vice versa. Appropriate behavioral approaches with such models will be invaluable for translational research on novel compounds, and also for providing insight into the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of schizophrenia.

  1. Inter- and intra-individual variability in the levels of plasma homovanillic acid in schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumárraga, Mercedes; Dávila, Ricardo; González-Torres, Miguel Angel; Anguiano, Juan B; Zabalo, María José; Basterreche, Nieves; Arrúe, Aurora; Zamalloa, María Isabel; Guimón, José

    2007-04-13

    Changes in the levels of homovanillic acid in blood plasma (pHVA) may reflect changes which occur in the brain. In healthy individuals, this concentration of pHVA is stable over time. Over the course of one month, we studied 98 acute schizophrenic patients who had not been taking any medication but were administered neuroleptics upon hospital admission, together with 23 chronic schizophrenic patients on long-term treatment from whom medication was withdrawn. Blood samples were taken at regular intervals from each individual and the concentration of plasma homovanillic acid was measured. We found relative stable values of pHVA with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.363 in acute patients and 0.638 (ppHVA and the presence of pharmacological stimuli, we found a certain reproducibility in the levels of this dopamine metabolite. These findings are consistent with the idea that the dopaminergic activity is characterized by a constitutive value which would be under genetic control. The higher stability observed in chronic patients may reflect a weaker, age-related dopaminergic plasticity; conversely, it may indicate that a lack of plasticity in response to a pharmacological stimulus may be an indicator of poorer prognosis.

  2. Pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of haloperidol and reduced haloperidol in schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, W H; Lin, S K; Jann, M W; Lam, Y W; Chen, T Y; Chen, C T; Hu, W H; Yeh, E K

    1989-07-01

    Twelve male chronic schizophrenic inpatients, neuroleptic-free for at least 4 weeks, were given an oral test dose of 10 mg haloperidol (HAL) and reduced HAL (RHAL) in a random order, with a 2-week interval. Two weeks after the last test dose, the patients were given HAL, 5 mg orally twice daily for 7 days. Blood samples were drawn at baseline and between 0.5 and 24 hr after the test doses, and during HAL treatment as well. Plasma drug concentrations and homovanillic acid (HVA) levels were measured with high-performance liquid chromatography using electrochemical detection. HAL, but not RHAL, produced increments in plasma HVA (pHVA) levels at 24 hr after a test dose. pHVA levels remained higher than baseline during HAL treatment. Detectable interconversion between HAL and RHAL was observed in eight patients. The capacity of the reductive drug-metabolizing enzyme system, however, was greater than that of the oxidative processes. The plasma RHAL:HAL ratios on days 6 and 7 were higher than and positively correlated with those at Tmax after a single dose of HAL and were negatively correlated with the HAL:RHAL ratios at Tmax after a single dose of RHAL. Thus, both reductive and oxidative drug-metabolizing systems probably contribute to individual differences in plasma RHAL:HAL ratios in HAL-treated schizophrenic patients.

  3. Efficacy of piracetam in the treatment of tardive dyskinesia in schizophrenic patients: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libov, Igor; Miodownik, Chanoch; Bersudsky, Yuly; Dwolatzky, Tzvi; Lerner, Vladimir

    2007-07-01

    Piracetam is a potent antioxidant, a cerebral neuroprotector, a neuronal metabolic enhancer, and a brain integrative agent. More than 20 years ago, an intravenous preparation of piracetam demonstrated an improvement in the symptoms of tardive dyskinesia. The aim of our study was to reexamine the efficacy of piracetam in the treatment of tardive dyskinesia using an oral preparation. The study was conducted at the Be'er Sheva Mental Health Center from May 2003 to December 2004 and involved a 9-week, double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled trial assessing 40 DSM-IV schizophrenic and schizo-affective patients with DSM-IV-TR tardive dyskinesia. All study subjects received their usual antipsychotic treatment. Initially, subjects were randomly assigned to receive 4 weeks of treatment with either piracetam (4800 mg/day) or placebo. Thereafter, following a washout period of 1 week, they entered the crossover phase of the study for a further 4 weeks. The change in score of the Extrapyramidal Symptom Rating Scale from baseline to the study endpoint was the primary outcome measure. The mean decrease in score from baseline to endpoint in the clinical global impression subscale in patients treated with piracetam was 1.1 points compared to 0.1 points in the placebo group (p = .004). The mean decrease in the tardive parkinsonism subscale was 8.7 points in patients treated with piracetam and 0.6 points in those on placebo (p = .001). The mean decrease in the tardive dyskinesia subscale was 3.0 points in the piracetam group in contrast to deterioration of condition in the placebo group by -0.2 points (p = .003). Piracetam appears to be effective in reducing symptoms of tardive dyskinesia. The specific mechanism by which piracetam may attenuate symptoms of tardive dyskinesia needs to be further evaluated. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT00190008.

  4. Glaucoma Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... up You can help find a cure for glaucoma Give now Signs & Symptoms The most common types ... have completely different symptoms. Symptoms of Open-Angle Glaucoma Most people who develop open-angle glaucoma don’ ...

  5. Cardiac abnormality prediction using HMLP network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnan, Ja'afar; Ahmad, K. A.; Mat, Muhamad Hadzren; Rizman, Zairi Ismael; Ahmad, Shahril

    2018-02-01

    Cardiac abnormality often occurs regardless of gender, age and races but depends on the lifestyle. This problem sometimes does not show any symptoms and usually detected once it already critical which lead to a sudden death to the patient. Basically, cardiac abnormality is the irregular electrical signal that generate by the pacemaker of the heart. This paper attempts to develop a program that can detect cardiac abnormality activity through implementation of Hybrid Multilayer Perceptron (HMLP) network. A certain amount of data of the heartbeat signals from the electrocardiogram (ECG) will be used in this project to train the MLP and HMLP network by using Modified Recursive Prediction Error (MRPE) algorithm and to test the network performance.

  6. Impact of an Electronic Cigarette on Smoking Reduction and Cessation in Schizophrenic Smokers: A Prospective 12-Month Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Caponnetto

    2013-01-01

    schizophrenia levels were measured at each visit. Smoking reduction and abstinence rates were calculated. Adverse events were also reviewed. Results: Sustained 50% reduction in the number of cig/day at week-52 was shown in 7/14 (50% participants; their median of 30 cig/day decreasing significantly to 15 cig/day (p = 0.018. Sustained smoking abstinence at week-52 was observed in 2/14 (14.3% participants. Combined sustained 50% reduction and smoking abstinence was shown in 9/14 (64.3% participants. Nausea was observed in 2/14 (14.4% of participants, throat irritation in 2/14 (14.4% of participants, headache in 2/14 (14.4% of participants , and dry cough in 4/14 (28.6% of participants. However, these adverse events diminished substantially by week-24. Overall, one to two cartridges/day were used throughout the study. Positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia are not increased after smoking reduction/cessation in patients using e-cigarettes. Conclusions: We have shown for the first time that the use of e-cigarette substantially decreased cigarette consumption without causing significant side effects in chronic schizophrenic patients who smoke not intending to quit. This was achieved without negative impacts on the symptoms of schizophrenia as assessed by SAPS and SANS symptoms scales.

  7. Impact of an electronic cigarette on smoking reduction and cessation in schizophrenic smokers: a prospective 12-month pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caponnetto, Pasquale; Auditore, Roberta; Russo, Cristina; Cappello, Giorgio Carlo; Polosa, Riccardo

    2013-01-28

    visit. Smoking reduction and abstinence rates were calculated. Adverse events were also reviewed. Sustained 50% reduction in the number of cig/day at week-52 was shown in 7/14 (50%) participants; their median of 30 cig/day decreasing significantly to 15 cig/day (p = 0.018). Sustained smoking abstinence at week-52 was observed in 2/14 (14.3%) participants. Combined sustained 50% reduction and smoking abstinence was shown in 9/14 (64.3%) participants. Nausea was observed in 2/14 (14.4%) of participants, throat irritation in 2/14 (14.4%) of participants, headache in 2/14 (14.4%) of participants , and dry cough in 4/14 (28.6%) of participants. However, these adverse events diminished substantially by week-24. Overall, one to two cartridges/day were used throughout the study. Positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia are not increased after smoking reduction/cessation in patients using e-cigarettes. We have shown for the first time that the use of e-cigarette substantially decreased cigarette consumption without causing significant side effects in chronic schizophrenic patients who smoke not intending to quit. This was achieved without negative impacts on the symptoms of schizophrenia as assessed by SAPS and SANS symptoms scales.

  8. Taking cognizance of mental illness in schizophrenics and its association with crime and substance-related diagnoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkner, R; Haastrup, S; Jørgensen, T

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse how committed crimes and substance-related diagnoses are associated with the age on the first contact with the psychiatric hospital system and the age at diagnosing of schizophrenia among schizophrenics. METHOD: In a register-based study including all Danes diagnosed with sc...

  9. Neurobiology Underlying Fibromyalgia Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Ceko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fibromyalgia is characterized by chronic widespread pain, clinical symptoms that include cognitive and sleep disturbances, and other abnormalities such as increased sensitivity to painful stimuli, increased sensitivity to multiple sensory modalities, and altered pain modulatory mechanisms. Here we relate experimental findings of fibromyalgia symptoms to anatomical and functional brain changes. Neuroimaging studies show augmented sensory processing in pain-related areas, which, together with gray matter decreases and neurochemical abnormalities in areas related to pain modulation, supports the psychophysical evidence of altered pain perception and inhibition. Gray matter decreases in areas related to emotional decision making and working memory suggest that cognitive disturbances could be related to brain alterations. Altered levels of neurotransmitters involved in sleep regulation link disordered sleep to neurochemical abnormalities. Thus, current evidence supports the view that at least some fibromyalgia symptoms are associated with brain dysfunctions or alterations, giving the long-held “it is all in your head” view of the disorder a new meaning.

  10. CT of pleural abnormalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, W.R.

    1995-01-01

    Briefly discussed were CT diagnosis of pleural thickening, CT technique for examining the pleura or pleuro-pulmonary disease, diagnosis of pleural collections, diagnosis of pleural fluid abnormalities in patients with pneumonia, pleural neoplasms, malignant (diffuse) mesothelioma, metastases, local fibrous tumor of the pleura (benign mesothelioma) (21 refs.)

  11. CT of pleural abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, W R [California Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States). Dept. of Radiology

    1996-12-31

    Briefly discussed were CT diagnosis of pleural thickening, CT technique for examining the pleura or pleuro-pulmonary disease, diagnosis of pleural collections, diagnosis of pleural fluid abnormalities in patients with pneumonia, pleural neoplasms, malignant (diffuse) mesothelioma, metastases, local fibrous tumor of the pleura (benign mesothelioma) (21 refs.).

  12. A comparison between effectiveness of three types of music on memory activity and sustained attention in schizophrenic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges bahmany

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder in which a lot of cognitive functions including memory, attention, motor skills, executive functions and intelligence are compromised. Numerous empirical studies showed that schizophrenic patients have problem in sustain retention and memory activity. The objective of this study was a comparison between effectiveness of three types of music on memory activity and sustain retention in schizophrenic patients. Material and Methods: A total of 60 schizophrenic patients (30 males , 30 females 18-48 years old were selected from available sampling frame. Participants were otherwise healthy except for schizophrenia. Wechsler Memory Scale and cognitive diagnostic battery Kay test were taken from all subjects. Then patients were randomly divided into three experimental groups (Iranian classic, western classic and pop music and three control groups. There were 10 participants (5 male, 5 female in each group. After taking these tests, music therapy course was performed on experimental groups. After music therapy sessions were completed, tests were taken again from groups. Results: Covariance analysis results indicated that music therapy is overall effective on memory activity. But type of music had no effect in improving memory activity. There wasn’t significant difference between groups considering type of music. Furthermore, covariance analysis showed that music therapy is totally effective on sustain retention and type of music is effective in this intervention. Pop music had the most effectiveness on schizophrenic patients in improving sustain retention. Conclusion: Performing music therapy improves memory and retention. More over, using pop music particularly has the most effect in improving sustain retention in schizophrenic patients.

  13. Chromosomal abnormality in patients with secondary amenorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safai, Akbar; Vasei, Mohammad; Attaranzadeh, Armin; Azad, Fariborz; Tabibi, Narjes

    2012-04-01

    Secondary amenorrhea is a condition in which there is cessation of menses after at least one menstruation. It is a symptom of different diseases, such as hormonal disturbances which range from pituitary to ovarian origin, as well as chromosomal abnormalities. Knowledge of the distinct cause of secondary amenorrhea is of tremendous benefit for the management and monitoring of patients. In this study, we determine the chromosomal abnormalities in patients with secondary amenorrhea in Southwest Iran. We selected 94 patients with secondary amenorrhea who referred to our Cytogenetic Ward from 2004 until 2009. For karyotyping, peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures were set up by conventional technique. In this study, 5.3% (n=5) of patients with secondary amenorrhea presented with chromosomal abnormalities, of which all contained an X element. The chromosomal abnormalities were: i) 45, X (n=1); ii) 47, XXX (n=1); iii) 45, X [13]/ 45, Xi(X)q[17] (n=1);  iv) 45, X[12]/46,X,+mar[12] (n=1); and v) 46,X,del(Xq)(q23q28) (n=1). Our study revealed that some causes of secondary amenorrhea could be due to chromosomal abnormalities. Therefore, cytogenetic studies should be important tests in the evaluation of patients with secondary amenorrhea.

  14. Decreased serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in schizophrenic patients with deficit syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akyol ES

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Esra Soydas Akyol,1 Yakup Albayrak,2 Murat Beyazyüz,3 Nurkan Aksoy,4 Murat Kuloglu,5 Kenji Hashimoto6 1Deparment of Psychiatry, Yenimahalle Education and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey; 2Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Namik Kemal University, Tekirdag, Turkey; 3Department of Psychiatry, Biga State Hospital, Çanakkale, Turkey; 4Department of Biochemistry, Yenimahalle Education and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey; 5Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Akdeniz University, Antalya, Turkey; 6Division of Clinical Neuroscience, Chiba University Center for Forensic Mental Health, Chiba, Japan Background: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF is a well-established neurotrophin that plays a role in the pathophysiology of numerous psychiatric disorders. Many studies have investigated the serum BDNF levels in patients with schizophrenia. However, there are restricted data in the literature that compare the serum BDNF levels in patients with deficit and nondeficit syndromes. In this study, we aimed to compare the serum BDNF levels between schizophrenic patients with deficit or nondeficit syndrome and healthy controls.Methods: After fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 58 patients with schizophrenia and 36 healthy controls were included in the study. The patients were grouped as deficit syndrome (N=23 and nondeficit syndrome (N=35 according to the Schedule for the Deficit Syndrome. Three groups were compared in terms of the sociodemographic and clinical variants and serum BDNF levels.Results: The groups were similar in terms of age, sex, body mass index, and smoking status. The serum BDNF levels in patients with deficit syndrome were significantly lower than those in healthy controls. In contrast, the serum BDNF levels in patients with nondeficit syndrome were similar to those in healthy controls.Conclusion: This study suggests that decreased BDNF levels may play a role in the pathophysio­logy of schizophrenic

  15. Factors associated with abnormal spirometry among HIV-infected individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, M Bradley; Huang, Laurence; Diaz, Philip T; Kirk, Gregory D; Kleerup, Eric C; Morris, Alison; Rom, William; Weiden, Michael D; Zhao, Enxu; Thompson, Bruce; Crothers, Kristina

    2015-08-24

    HIV-infected individuals are susceptible to development of chronic lung diseases, but little is known regarding the prevalence and risk factors associated with different spirometric abnormalities in this population. We sought to determine the prevalence, risk factors and performance characteristics of risk factors for spirometric abnormalities among HIV-infected individuals. Cross-sectional cohort study. We analyzed cross-sectional US data from the NHLBI-funded Lung-HIV consortium - a multicenter observational study of heterogeneous groups of HIV-infected participants in diverse geographic sites. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine factors statistically significantly associated with spirometry patterns. A total of 908 HIV-infected individuals were included. The median age of the cohort was 50 years, 78% were men and 68% current smokers. An abnormal spirometry pattern was present in 37% of the cohort: 27% had obstructed and 10% had restricted spirometry patterns. Overall, age, smoking status and intensity, history of Pneumocystis infection, asthma diagnosis and presence of respiratory symptoms were independently associated with an abnormal spirometry pattern. Regardless of the presence of respiratory symptoms, five HIV-infected participants would need to be screened with spirometry to diagnose two individuals with any abnormal spirometry pattern. Nearly 40% of a diverse US cohort of HIV-infected individuals had an abnormal spirometry pattern. Specific characteristics including age, smoking status, respiratory infection history and respiratory symptoms can identify those at risk for abnormal spirometry. The high prevalence of abnormal spirometry and the poor predictive capability of respiratory symptoms to identify abnormal spirometry should prompt clinicians to consider screening spirometry in HIV-infected populations.

  16. The Reality Monitoring Deficit as a Common Neuropsychological Correlate of Schizophrenic and Affective Psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Smeraldi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available For many decades, Neuropsychological functioning has been a key point in the study of psychotic disorders. The main aim of these studies is to give a description of the neurocognitive “profile” of schizophrenia, with only little attention being paid to the common and discriminating features of different psychotic disorders. Recent studies support the hypothesis that patients affected by psychiatric disorders with psychotic symptoms have specific abnormalities of reality testing of ongoing perception, which become evident with source monitoring task. Ninety-eight patients and 50 controls were studied. Patients were divided by diagnosis and previous history of psychotic features and were administered Source Monitoring Task to test reality testing of ongoing perception. Frequencies of correct and false attributions were recorded. To obtain measures of observer sensitivity and response biases, a signal detection analysis was performed. Aims: Studying neuropsychological correlate of psychosis in euthymic mood disordered patients and patients with schizophrenia with or without delusions. Results: Patients with psychotic features use more lax criteria in evaluating self-generated, but not perceived stimuli compared to patients without psychotic features. Conclusions: Our findings support the hypothesis of selective biases in reality monitoring as neuropsychological correlates of psychosis.

  17. [Negative symptoms of schizophrenia: historical aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringuey, D; Paquin, N; Cherikh, F; Giordana, B; Belzeaux, R; Cermolacce, M; Adida, M; Azorin, J-M

    2015-12-01

    The history of negative symptoms of schizophrenia rises early days of medicine in clinical and pathophysiological differences between positive and negative and their complex joint. Forming a set of typical core of symptoms, and some feature of a syndrome belonging to a specific pathophysiological mechanism, negative symptoms of schizophrenia emerge from old descriptions of clinical pictures, related to the overall look of madness, the heart of alienation, a central sign of early dementia, gradually more precisely describing the strange nature of the autistic withdrawal and schizophrenic apragmatism. At therapeutic era, negative symptoms have taken over the positive symptoms to establish an operational criteria whose importance lies in the progressive severity of this clinical type and in their contribution to therapeutic resistance. Despite the efforts of modern typological classifications, this work rehabilitates the old concept of "unitary psychosis" by defining a common symptomatic core to multiple clinical forms of psychosis, combining deficit of emotional expression and avolition, meaning a native psychopathology and a pathophysiology possibly in a common final way, and calling the arrival of new treatment strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Abnormal Brain Activation During Theory of Mind Tasks in Schizophrenia: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronbichler, Lisa; Tschernegg, Melanie; Martin, Anna Isabel; Schurz, Matthias; Kronbichler, Martin

    2017-10-21

    Social cognition abilities are severely impaired in schizophrenia (SZ). The current meta-analysis used foci of 21 individual studies on functional abnormalities in the schizophrenic brain in order to identify regions that reveal convergent under- or over-activation during theory of mind (TOM) tasks. Studies were included in the analyses when contrasting tasks that require the processing of mental states with tasks which did not. Only studies that investigated patients with an ICD or DSM diagnosis were included. Quantitative voxel-based meta-analyses were done using Seed-based d Mapping software. Common TOM regions like medial-prefrontal cortex and temporo-parietal junction revealed abnormal activation in schizophrenic patients: Under-activation was identified in the medial prefrontal cortex, left orbito-frontal cortex, and in a small section of the left posterior temporo-parietal junction. Remarkably, robust over-activation was identified in a more dorsal, bilateral section of the temporo-parietal junction. Further abnormal activation was identified in medial occipito-parietal cortex, right premotor areas, left cingulate gyrus, and lingual gyrus. The findings of this study suggest that SZ patients simultaneously show over- and under-activation in TOM-related regions. Especially interesting, temporo-parietal junction reveals diverging activation patterns with an under-activating left posterior and an over-activating bilateral dorsal section. In conclusion, SZ patients show less specialized brain activation in regions linked to TOM and increased activation in attention-related networks suggesting compensatory effects. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center.

  19. Abnormal lung function at preschool age asthma in adolescence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajunen, Katariina; Kalliola, Satu; Kotaniemi-Syrjänen, Anne; Sarna, Seppo; Malmberg, L Pekka; Pelkonen, Anna S; Mäkelä, Mika J

    2018-05-01

    Asthma often begins early in childhood. However, the risk for persistence is challenging to evaluate. This longitudinal study relates lung function assessed with impulse oscillometry (IOS) in preschool children to asthma in adolescence. Lung function was measured with IOS in 255 children with asthma-like symptoms aged 4-7 years. Baseline measurements were followed by exercise challenge and bronchodilation tests. At age 12-16 years, 121 children participated in the follow-up visit, when lung function was assessed with spirometry, followed by a bronchodilation test. Asthma symptoms and medication were recorded by a questionnaire and atopy defined by skin prick tests. Abnormal baseline values in preschool IOS were significantly associated with low lung function, the need for asthma medication, and asthma symptoms in adolescence. Preschool abnormal R5 at baseline (z-score ≥1.645 SD) showed 9.2 odds ratio (95%CI 2.7;31.7) for abnormal FEV1/FVC, use of asthma medication in adolescence, and 9.9 odds ratio (95%CI 2.9;34.4) for asthma symptoms. Positive exercise challenge and modified asthma-predictive index at preschool age predicted asthma symptoms and the need for asthma medication, but not abnormal lung function at teenage. Abnormal preschool IOS is associated with asthma and poor lung function in adolescence and might be utilised for identification of asthma persistence. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Prediction of the period of psychotic episode in individual schizophrenics by simulation-data construction approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun-Jung; Wang, Hsiao-Fan; Chiu, Hsien-Jane; Lan, Tsuo-Hung; Hu, Tsung-Ming; Loh, El-Wui

    2010-10-01

    Although schizophrenia can be treated, most patients still experience inevitable psychotic episodes from time to time. Precautious actions can be taken if the next onset can be predicted. However, sufficient information is always lacking in the clinical scenario. A possible solution is to use the virtual data generated from limited of original data. Data construction method (DCM) has been shown to generate the virtual felt earthquake data effectively and used in the prediction of further events. Here we investigated the performance of DCM in deriving the membership functions and discrete-event simulations (DES) in predicting the period embracing the initiation and termination time-points of the next psychotic episode of 35 individual schizophrenic patients. The results showed that 21 subjects had a success of simulations (RSS) ≥70%. Further analysis demonstrated that the co-morbidity of coronary heart diseases (CHD), risks of CHD, and the frequency of previous psychotic episodes increased the RSS.

  1. [Clinical prognosis of schizophrenic patients with cannabis addiction. Between nihilism and hope].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, T

    2014-09-01

    Comorbid substance use disorders in schizophrenia are mostly associated with an unfavorable course of the disease and with difficulties in clinical management. Therefore, some therapists tend to react to these patients in a resigned manner. However, there is growing evidence for higher cognitive functioning and less severe deficits in brain morphology of these patients compared to patients without cannabis use. A common interpretation refers to relatively low vulnerability for psychosis in some of these patients, who mainly became schizophrenic because of the pro-psychotic properties of cannabis. Low vulnerability is reflected by a higher cognitive functioning; therefore, the pessimistic view of therapists seems unjustified for at least a subgroup of young patients. Provided that patients are treated in adequate therapeutic settings and that they stop using cannabis, a lower vulnerability may be associated with overall better socio-rehabilitative outcome parameters.

  2. Successful microsurgical penile replantation following self amputation in a schizophrenic patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Gyan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Amputation of the penis is a rare condition reported from various parts of the world as isolated cases or small series of patients; the common etiology is self-mutilating sharp amputation or an avulsion or crush injury in an industrial accident. A complete reconstruction of all penile structures should be attempted in one stage which provides the best chance for full rehabilitation of the patient. We report here a single case of total amputation of the penis in an acute paranoid schizophrenic patient .The penis was successfully reattached using a microsurgical technique. After surgery, near-normal appearance and function including a good urine flow and absence of urethral stricture, capabilities of erection and near normal sensitivity were observed.

  3. The cortisol awakening response in caregivers of schizophrenic offspring shows sensitivity to patient status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Bono, Esperanza; De Andres-Garcia, Sara; Moya-Albiol, Luis

    2011-01-01

    Taking care of offspring during a prolonged period of time is probably one of the most stressful life experiences for parents. The present study compares the cortisol awakening response (CAR) in 38 long-term caregivers (mothers and fathers of schizophrenic relatives) with a control group of 32 non-caregivers. Factors such as general stress, caregiver burden, patient severity, and institutionalization were studied. Although a blunted CAR was observed in caregivers in comparison with controls, this difference was not significant. Among caregivers, the absence of institutionalization for the patient is associated with a lack of CAR in caregivers in comparison with caregivers of institutionally supported patients. General stress, caregiver burden, and patient severity themselves did not favor significant changes in CAR. CAR shows greater sensitivity to institutional support than patient severity and perceived stress. Further research is needed to explain the impact of these factors on health and the psychological factors involved.

  4. Plasma homovanillic acid and treatment response in a large group of schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, W H; Hwu, H G; Chen, T Y; Lin, S K; Lung, F W; Chen, H; Lin, W L; Hu, W H; Lin, H N; Chien, C P

    1993-10-01

    Plasma levels of homovanillic acid (pHVA), a metabolite of dopamine, were measured in ninety-five Chinese schizophrenic patients free of neuroleptics for at least four weeks. These patients were treated with classical antipsychotics for six weeks. Pretreatment pHVA was positively correlated with the subsequent clinical response (r = 0.408, p or = 50%, n = 47) had higher pretreatment pHVA levels than poor responders (BPRS improvement pHVA level was associated with a more consistent clinical response to the subsequent treatment. Using a pHVA level of 12 ng/ml as a demarcation point, 72% of patients (34 of 47) who had pHVA > or = 12 responded whereas 65% (31 of 48) who had pHVA levels may predict a better clinical response to antipsychotics. Based upon the pHVA findings, two hypothetical subtypes of schizophrenia are proposed.

  5. Expression changes of serotonin receptor gene subtype 5HT3a in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from schizophrenic patients treated with haloperidol and Olanzapin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariati, Gholam Reza; Ahangari, Ghasem; Hossein-nezhad, Arash; Asadi, Seyed Mohammad; Pooyafard, Farzaneh; Ahmadkhaniha, Hamid Reza

    2009-09-01

    Serotonin receptors are involved in pathophysiology of schizophrenia and may mediate other neurotransmitter effects. We investigated serotonin receptors gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of naïve schizophrenic patients, before and after treatment. Also serotonin receptor gene expression was compared in two treatment groups including Haloperidol and Olanzapine. The PBMC was separated from whole blood by Ficoll-hypaque. The total cellular RNA was extracted and the cDNA was synthesized. This process was followed by real-time PCR using primer pairs specific for 5HT(3a) serotonin receptor mRNA and beta-actin as internal control. The results showed the presence of subtype of serotonin receptor in lymphocytes. Serotonin gene expression showed significant changes in Olanzapine treatment group which correlated with Clinical Global Impression (CGI) score improvement. In conclusion, the present study has shown that human PBMC express serotonin receptors 5HT(3a). Moreover, clinical symptom improvement of Olanzapin may be demonstrated by a change in serotonin receptor gene expression.

  6. Self-Disturbance and the Bizarre: On Incomprehensibility in Schizophrenic Delusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sass, Louis A; Byrom, Greg

    2015-01-01

    The notion of 'bizarre delusion' has come into question in contemporary anglophone psychopathology. In DSM-5, it no longer serves as a special criterion for diagnosing schizophrenia nor as an exclusion criterion for delusional disorder. Empirical studies influencing this development have, however, been relatively sparse and subject to methodological criticism. Major reviews have concluded that current conceptualizations of bizarre delusions may require rethinking and refinement. Defining bizarreness entails a return to Jaspers, whose influential views on the supposed incomprehensibility of bizarre delusions and schizophrenic experience are more nuanced than is generally recognized. Jaspers insisted we must 'get behind' three 'external characteristics' (extraordinary conviction, imperviousness, impossible content) in order to acknowledge a 'primary experience traceable to the illness' in the 'delusions proper' of schizophrenia. He also denied that one could empathize with or otherwise 'understand' this basis. Here, we focus on three features of bizarre delusions that Jaspers foregrounded as illustrating schizophrenic incomprehensibility: disturbance of the cogito, certitude combined with inconsequentiality, delusional mood. We link these with the contemporary ipseity disturbance model of schizophrenia, arguing that Jaspers' examples of incomprehensibility can be understood as manifestations of the three complementary aspects of ipseity-disturbance: diminished self-presence, hyperreflexivity and disturbed grip/hold. We follow Jaspers' lead in acknowledging a distinctive strangeness that defies ready comprehension, but we challenge the absolutism of Jaspers' skepticism by offering a phenomenological account that comprehends bizarreness in two ways: rendering it psychologically understandable, and fitting the various instances of bizarreness into a comprehensive explanatory framework. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Measurement of methionine level with the LC-ESI-MS/MS method in schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulaksizoglu, S; Kulaksizoglu, B; Ellidag, H Y; Eren, E; Yilmaz, N; Baykal, A

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate plasma methionine levels by using liquid chromatography electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectroscopy (LC-ESI-MS/MS) in schizophrenic patients. A twelve-point standard graph was drawn, and the recovery rate, the intra-day and inter-day coefficients of variation (CV), the limit of detection (LOD), and the limit of quantification (LOQ) were evaluated. The y and R2 values of the standard graph equation were determined as 0.011x + 0.0179 and 0.9989, respectively, and the graph remained linear until the 200 µmol/l level. The intra-day coefficients of variation of the samples (n = 10) containing 8, 28, and 58 µmol/l methionine were determined as 2.68, 3.10, and 3.79%, respectively; while their inter-day coefficients of variation were determined as 2.98, 3.19, and 3.84%. The LOD and LOQ values were determined as 0.04 and 0.1 µmol/l, respectively, while the mean recovery rates were determined as 101.7 and 99.3%. Plasma methionine values were measured as 21.5 (19.5-24,6) µmol/l for the patient group, 17.8 (16.3-20.1) µmol/l for the control group, and the difference between the two groups was statistically significant (p = 0.03). LC-ESI-MS/MS method represents a fairly sensitive, economic, and rapid analysis that requires very little sample and is suitable for measuring methionine levels in schizophrenic patients.

  8. Pharmacotherapy of schizophrenic patients: preponderance of off-label drug use.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Pickar

    Full Text Available Multiple drug class combinations are often prescribed for the treatment of schizophrenia, although antipsychotic monotherapy reflects FDA labeling and scientific justification for combinations is highly variable. This study was performed to gain current data regarding drug treatment of schizophrenia as practiced in the community and to assess the frequencies of off-label drug class combinations. 200 DSM IV-diagnosed schizophrenic patients recruited from community treatment sources participated in this cross-sectional study of community based schizophrenic patients. Drug class categories include First and Second Generation Antipsychotic drugs (FGA and SGA, respectively, mood stabilizers, antidepressants and anti-anxiety drugs. 25.5% of patients received antipsychotic monotherapy; 70% of patients received an antipsychotic and another drug class. A total of 42.5% of patients received more than one antipsychotic drug. The most common drug class combination was antipsychotic and a mood stabilizer. Stepwise linear discriminant function analysis identified the diagnosis of schizoaffective schizophrenia, history of having physically hurt someone and high scores on the General Portion of the PANSS rating scale predicted the combined use of an antipsychotic drug and a mood stabilizer. "Real world" pharmacotherapy of schizophrenia has developed its own established practice that is predominantly off-label and may have outstripped current data support. The economic implications for public sector payers are substantial as well as for the revenue of the pharmaceutical industry, whose promotion of off-label drug use is an increasingly problematic. These data are consistent with the recognition of the therapeutic limitations of both first and second generation antipsychotic drugs.

  9. Nitrofurantoin and congenital abnormalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeizel, A.E.; Rockenbauer, M.; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    2001-01-01

    or fetuses with Down’s syndrome (patient controls), 23 (2.8%) pregnant women were treated with nitrofurantoin. The above differences between population controls and cases may be connected with recall bias, because the case-control pair analysis did not indicate a teratogenic potential of nitrofurantoin use......Objective: To study human teratogenic potential of oral nitrofurantoin treatment during pregnancy. Materials and Methods: Pair analysis of cases with congenital abnormalities and matched population controls in the population-based dataset of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital...... during the second and the third months of gestation, i.e. in the critical period for major congenital abnormalities. Conclusion: Treatment with nitrofurantoin during pregnancy does not present detectable teratogenic risk to the fetus....

  10. Neurological abnormalities predict disability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poggesi, Anna; Gouw, Alida; van der Flier, Wiesje

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the role of neurological abnormalities and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) lesions in predicting global functional decline in a cohort of initially independent-living elderly subjects. The Leukoaraiosis And DISability (LADIS) Study, involving 11 European centres, was primarily aimed...... at evaluating age-related white matter changes (ARWMC) as an independent predictor of the transition to disability (according to Instrumental Activities of Daily Living scale) or death in independent elderly subjects that were followed up for 3 years. At baseline, a standardized neurological examination.......0 years, 45 % males), 327 (51.7 %) presented at the initial visit with ≥1 neurological abnormality and 242 (38 %) reached the main study outcome. Cox regression analyses, adjusting for MRI features and other determinants of functional decline, showed that the baseline presence of any neurological...

  11. [Cost-effectiveness analysis of schizophrenic patient care settings: impact of an atypical antipsychotic under long-acting injection formulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorca, P M; Miadi-Fargier, H; Lançon, C; Jasso Mosqueda, G; Casadebaig, F; Philippe, A; Guillon, P; Mehnert, A; Omnès, L F; Chicoye, A; Durand-Zaleski, I

    2005-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a disease affecting the young adults and amounts to approximately 300,000 people in France. The French public psychiatric sector takes care of approximately 150,000 adults schizophrenics: 50% benefit from ambulatory care, 50% are in partial or full-time hospitalization care. Schizophrenia represents the first diagnosis that psychiatric sectors take in charge. The costs associated with schizophrenia, mainly hospital costs, are important and were estimated at 2% of the total medical costs in France. In the French social welfare system, the social costs (pensions, allowances, managements of custody or guardianship by social workers) are also to be taken into account: it amounts to a third of the global direct cost. Schizophrenia also generates indirect costs (losses of productivity and premature deaths) which would be at least equal, or even more important, than direct medical costs. The non-compliance to the antipsychotic treatment is a major problem with people suffering from schizophrenia. Indeed the lack of compliance to the treatment, estimated at 20 to 40%, is a major handicap for schizophrenic patient stabilization. The poor level of compliance is due to many various causes: adverse effects that are considered unbearable, medicine viewed as persecutory, negation of the disease, nostalgia for the productive phases of the disease, lack of social support, complexity of the prescription, relapse itself. Compliance is thus influenced by the patient's clinical features, local provision of health care and the specific nature of the drug (adverse effects, pharmaceutical formulation). The atypical antipsychotics present fewer extrapyramidal side effects and reduce the cognitive deficits associated with the disease, which results in improved compliance. Long-acting injectable antipsychotics allow a better therapeutic compliance and thus better efficacy of the treatment. Several studies have shown a significant improvement in compliance related to the

  12. Equipment abnormality monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Yasumasa

    1991-01-01

    When an operator hears sounds in a plantsite, the operator compares normal sounds of equipment which he previously heard and remembered with sounds he actually hears, to judge if they are normal or abnormal. According to the method, there is a worry that abnormal conditions can not be appropriately judged in a case where the number of objective equipments is increased and in a case that the sounds are changed gradually slightly. Then, the device of the present invention comprises a plurality of monitors for monitoring the operation sound of equipments, a recording/reproducing device for recording and reproducing the signals, a selection device for selecting the reproducing signals among the recorded signals, an acoustic device for converting the signals to sounds, a switching device for switching the signals to be transmitted to the acoustic device between to signals of the monitor and the recording/reproducing signals. The abnormality of the equipments can be determined easily by comparing the sounds representing the operation conditions of equipments for controlling the plant operation and the sounds recorded in their normal conditions. (N.H.)

  13. Motor Control Abnormalities in Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoni, Pietro; Shabbott, Britne; Cortés, Juan Camilo

    2012-01-01

    The primary manifestations of Parkinson’s disease are abnormalities of movement, including movement slowness, difficulties with gait and balance, and tremor. We know a considerable amount about the abnormalities of neuronal and muscle activity that correlate with these symptoms. Motor symptoms can also be described in terms of motor control, a level of description that explains how movement variables, such as a limb’s position and speed, are controlled and coordinated. Understanding motor symptoms as motor control abnormalities means to identify how the disease disrupts normal control processes. In the case of Parkinson’s disease, movement slowness, for example, would be explained by a disruption of the control processes that determine normal movement speed. Two long-term benefits of understanding the motor control basis of motor symptoms include the future design of neural prostheses to replace the function of damaged basal ganglia circuits, and the rational design of rehabilitation strategies. This type of understanding, however, remains limited, partly because of limitations in our knowledge of normal motor control. In this article, we review the concept of motor control and describe a few motor symptoms that illustrate the challenges in understanding such symptoms as motor control abnormalities. PMID:22675667

  14. Study on effects of an atypical antipsychotic agent, quetiapine, on regional cerebral blood flow with 99mTc-ECD SPECT in drug-naive or unmedicated schizophrenic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monkawa, Akikazu

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the underlying mechanisms of intracerebral actions or clinical efficacies of quetiapine, an atypical antipsychotic agent and a multi-action receptor targeting agent (MARTA), and the influences of quetiapine on absolute regional cerebral blood flows (rCBFs) of schizophrenic patients. Correlations between rCBFs and psychotic symptoms were also examined. Subjects comprised 12 patients who met the ICD-10 criteria for schizophrenia. All patients were drug-naive or unmedicated. Using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with 99m Tc-ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD), rCBFs were measured. Psychotic symptoms were evaluated with positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS). The evaluations of SPECT and PANSS were repeated before and after oral 2-week administration of quetiapine 300 mg/day in all patients and after subsequent 2-week administration of quetiapine 600 mg/day in 6 patients. Administration of quetiapine yielded no significant changes in rCBFs at any dose. And there were no significant correlations between the scores of PANSS and the values of rCBFs in any region, though the scores of PANSS decreased after qutiapine administration. It has been reported that, a typical antipsychotic agent, haloperidol, and an atypical antipsychotic agent, risperidone, decrease rCBFs in the cerebral cortex in dose-dependently in drug-naive or unmedicated schizophrenic patients. This phenomenon is considered to be attributable to a secondary inactivation of the cerebral cortex due to D2 receptor blockade of haloperidol or risperidone in the striatum through the cortico-striatal-thalamic pathway. In the frame of this hypothesis, results of this study may relate to the lower degree of D2 blockade induced by quetiapine than that produced by haloperidol and risperidone. (author)

  15. Lifetime DSM-III-R diagnostic outcomes in the offspring of schizophrenic mothers. Results from the Copenhagen High-Risk Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parnas, Josef; Cannon, T D; Jacobsen, B

    1993-01-01

    .2%) and other nonaffective, nonorganic psychosis (4.6%), and Cluster A personality disorders (21.3%) occurred among the offspring of schizophrenic mothers compared with the controls (1.9%, 0.9%, and 5%, respectively). No evidence of increased aggregation of (psychotic and nonpsychotic) affective disorders......OBJECTIVES: To perform a long-term prospective follow-up of children at high risk for schizophrenia to identify risk factors for the development of this disorder. DESIGN: Prospective follow-up population study of children of schizophrenic mothers and their matched controls from age 15 years to age...... 42 years, with multiple diagnostic assessments performed by senior clinicians using structured interviews blindly with respect to the group membership of the subject. PARTICIPANTS: Two hundred seven offspring of schizophrenic mothers and 104 control children without schizophrenic parents matched...

  16. Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuzil, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author

  17. Abnormal duodenal loop demonstrated by X-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thommesen, P.; Funch-Jensen, P.

    1986-01-01

    The occurrence of dyspeptic symptoms has previously been correlated with the shape of the duodenal loop in patients with X-ray-negative dyspepsia. An abnormal duodenal loop was associated with a significantly higher incidence of symtoms provoked by meals, vomiting, regurgitations, heartburn, and the irritable bowel syndrome. 89% of these patients (26 patients with a normal duodenal loop and 39 patients with abnormal duodenal loop) were available for a 5-year follow-up study of symptomatic outcome. The incidence of symptoms provoked by meals was still significantly higher in patients with an abnormal duodenal loop, and there was also a significant difference concerning symptomatic outcome. Approximately 75% of the patients with a normal duodenal loop had improved, and 25% had unchanged clinical conditions. Approximately 50% of the patients with an abnormal duodenal loop had improved, and 50% had an unchanged or even deteriorated clinical condition

  18. Feeling Abnormal: Simulation of Deviancy in Abnormal and Exceptionality Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernald, Charles D.

    1980-01-01

    Describes activity in which student in abnormal psychology and psychology of exceptional children classes personally experience being judged abnormal. The experience allows the students to remember relevant research, become sensitized to the feelings of individuals classified as deviant, and use caution in classifying individuals as abnormal.…

  19. Premorbid Personality Disorders in Male Schizophrenic Patients with or without Comorbid Substance Use Disorder: Is Dual Diagnosis Mediated by Personality Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altunsoy, Neslihan; Şahiner, Şafak Yalçın; Cingi Külük, Merve; Okay, Tuncer; Ulusoy Kaymak, Semra; Aydemir, Çiğdem; Göka, Erol

    2015-09-01

    Although substance abuse is an important clinical problem in schizophrenic patients, very little evidence explains why these patients use drugs and alcohol. This study therefore aimed to examine whether premorbid personality disorders affect substance abuse. The sample included 40 male schizophrenic patients with and 40 male schizophrenic patients without substance use disorder comorbidity who had applied to Ankara Numune Research and Training Hospital. Each participant and a family member were interviewed in a structured clinical interview that addressed premorbid personality disorders. Altogether, 32 patients (80%) in the group with comorbidity and 28 (70%) in the group without comorbidity had a premorbid personality disorder. Antisocial (35% vs. 0%; ppersonality disorders were more often detected in the group with comorbidity, while avoidant (10% vs. 35%; p=.014) and obsessive-compulsive (0% vs. 15%; p=.026) personality disorders were less frequently found in this group. Comparing the group with comorbidity with premorbid personality types, schizophrenic patients with premorbid antisocial personality disorder were more frequently unemployed and hospitalized as well as had an earlier onset age of schizophrenia (p=.034, p=.038 and p=.035, respectively). Schizophrenic patients with premorbid borderline personality disorder had a significantly earlier onset age of substance use (19±5; p=.028). Schizophrenic patients with substance use comorbidity variously differ from those without comorbidity and some of these differences may be associated with premorbid personality disorders.

  20. Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Articles Directories Videos Resources Contact Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Home » Article Categories » Exercise and Fitness Font Size: A A A A Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Next Page The manner of how a ...

  1. Pregnancy Complications: Umbilical Cord Abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Umbilical cord abnormalities Umbilical cord abnormalities Now playing: E-mail to a friend Please fill in all fields. ... blood supply) to the baby. The two arteries transport waste from the baby to the placenta (where ...

  2. Abnormality diagnosis device for PWR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurosawa, Masahiko.

    1993-01-01

    The device of the present invention rapidly detects a small amount of primary coolants leaked from a heat transfer pipes in a steam generator to estimate the scale of the rupture and forecast the transition of the amount of the leakage. That is, a gamma-ray spectrum and dose rate measuring system having a bypass line capable of decaying short half-time nuclides disposed to each of second main steam pipelines and primary coolant pipelines. Data obtained from the measuring systems are compared, to judge the presence of abnormal symptom due to leakage and further, radioactivity concentration in main steams is calculated based on the dose rate at each of the measuring points. Further, radioactivity concentration of the leakage from the secondary main steam pipelines is calculated by change with passage of time. With such procedures, when primary coolants are leaked to the secondary main steam pipelines, the dose rate of the measured system is changed, thereby enabling to recognize the state at the abnormal point. The transition of abnormalities can be forecast with reference to the dose rate by change with passage of time. Further, state of the abnormal point can be recognized based on the gamma-ray spectrum, which is inherent upon occurrence of fuel rupture. (T.S.)

  3. S248. RELATION BETWEEN CHILDHOOD TRAUMA AND PSYCHOTIC SYMPTOMS IN SCHIZOPHRENIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larnaout, Amine; Nefzi, Rahma; Aissa, Amina; Trabelsi, Rouaa; Hechmi, Zouhaier El

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background There is renewed interest in the relationship between early childhood trauma and risk of psychosis in adulthood. Trauma and stressful events in childhood and adolescence are known to be more prevalent among individuals with schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders than in the general population. Furthermore, other findings support the role of childhood trauma as a socio-environmental risk factor for psychotic symptoms, and research on the potential etiological relationship between trauma/stressful events in childhood/adolescence and psychotic disorders is evolving. The aim of the current study was to examine relations among all items and domains of childhood trauma and schizophrenic symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. The relationship between types of trauma and their association with psychotic symptoms was analysed. Methods In this study, we collected data from 50 schizophrenic patients (39 males and 11 females). All patients met the DSM 5 criteria for schizophrenia. Psychotic symptoms were measured by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Trauma and stressful events in childhood and adolescence were assessed using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Results We found significant correlations between emotional and sexual abuse, emotional neglect and denial scale in CTQ with positive symptoms of the PANSS (pagressive behaviours was also described in litterature. These results went along with the stress sensitization model where the HPA axis is over-active and excessively reactive to the subsequent environemental stressors causing positive symptoms of the disease.

  4. Functional MRI in schizophrenia. Diagnostics and therapy monitoring of cognitive deficits of schizophrenic patients by functional MRI; Funktionelle MRT bei Schizophreniepatienten. Diagnostik und Therapiemonitoring kognitiver Defizite schizophrener Patienten mittels funktioneller MRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furtner, J.; Prayer, D. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Univ.-Klinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, Wien (Austria); Sachs, G. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Univ.-Klinik fuer Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie, Wien (Austria)

    2010-02-15

    Cognitive impairments are core psychopathological components of the symptomatic of schizophrenic patients. These dysfunctions are generally related to attention, executive functions and memory. This report provides information on the importance of using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) for the diagnostics and therapy monitoring of the different subtypes of cognitive dysfunctions. Furthermore, it describes the typical differences in the activation of individual brain regions between schizophrenic patients and healthy control persons. This information should be helpful in identifying the deficit profile of each patient and create an individual therapy plan. (orig.) [German] Kognitive Defizite sind ein zentraler Bestandteil der Symptomatik schizophrener Patienten. Diese Defizite betreffen v. a. die Aufmerksamkeit, exekutive Funktionen sowie das Gedaechtnis. Der vorliegende Beitrag zeigt den Stellenwert der funktionellen Magnetresonanztomographie (fMRT) in Hinblick auf Diagnostik und Therapiemonitoring der unterschiedlichen kognitiven Teilbereiche auf. Darueber hinaus werden die Unterschiede in Bezug auf die Aktivierung der einzelnen Gehirnareale zwischen schizophrenen Patienten und gesunden Kontrollpersonen dargestellt. Diese Informationen sollen helfen, in der Praxis ein Profil der kognitiven Leistungsreduktionen sowie ein darauf angepasstes Therapiekonzept zu erstellen. (orig.)

  5. Normal and abnormal growth plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, R.; Madewell, J.E.; Swischuk, L.E.

    1987-01-01

    Skeletal growth is a dynamic process. A knowledge of the structure and function of the normal growth plate is essential in order to understand the pathophysiology of abnormal skeletal growth in various diseases. In this well-illustrated article, the authors provide a radiographic classification of abnormal growth plates and discuss mechanisms that lead to growth plate abnormalities

  6. Brain Abnormalities in Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woojun Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuromyelitis optica (NMO is an idiopathic inflammatory syndrome of the central nervous system that is characterized by severe attacks of optic neuritis (ON and myelitis. Until recently, NMO was considered a disease without brain involvement. However, since the discovery of NMO-IgG/antiaqaporin-4 antibody, the concept of NMO was broadened to NMO spectrum disorder (NMOSD, and brain lesions are commonly recognized. Furthermore, some patients present with brain symptoms as their first manifestation and develop recurrent brain symptoms without ON or myelitis. Brain lesions with characteristic locations and configurations can be helpful in the diagnosis of NMOSD. Due to the growing recognition of brain abnormalities in NMOSD, these have been included in the NMO and NMOSD diagnostic criteria or guidelines. Recent technical developments such as diffusion tensor imaging, MR spectroscopy, and voxel-based morphometry reveal new findings related to brain abnormalities in NMOSD that were not identified using conventional MRI. This paper focuses on the incidence and characteristics of the brain lesions found in NMOSD and the symptoms that they cause. Recent studies using advanced imaging techniques are also introduced.

  7. Tansig activation function (of MLP network) for cardiac abnormality detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnan, Ja'afar; Daud, Nik Ghazali Nik; Ishak, Mohd Taufiq; Rizman, Zairi Ismael; Rahman, Muhammad Izzuddin Abd

    2018-02-01

    Heart abnormality often occurs regardless of gender, age and races. This problem sometimes does not show any symptoms and it can cause a sudden death to the patient. In general, heart abnormality is the irregular electrical activity of the heart. This paper attempts to develop a program that can detect heart abnormality activity through implementation of Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) network. A certain amount of data of the heartbeat signals from the electrocardiogram (ECG) will be used in this project to train the MLP network by using several training algorithms with Tansig activation function.

  8. [Penile congenital abnormalities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boillot, B; Teklali, Y; Moog, R; Droupy, S

    2013-07-01

    Congenital abnormalities of the penis are usually diagnosed at birth and pose aesthetic and functional problems sometimes requiring surgical management. A literature review was conducted on Medline considering the articles listed until January 2012. Hypospadias is the most common malformation (1 in 250 boys. Familial forms: 7%). The causes remain hypothetical but the doubling of the incidence in 30 years could be linked to fetal exposure to endocrine disruptors "estrogen-like" used in the food industry in particular. Surgical treatment is usually intended to improve the aesthetic appearance but sometimes, in case of significant curvature or posterior meatus, necessary for normal sexual life and fertility. Other malformations (epispades, buried penis, transpositions, twists and preputial abnormalities) as well as management for functional or aesthetic consequences of these malformations in adulthood require complex surgical care in a specialized environment. The improvement of surgical techniques and pediatric anesthesia allows an early and effective specialized surgical approach of penile malformations. Management of sequelae in adulthood must be discussed and requires experience of surgical techniques on pediatric and adult penis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. [Otoneurologic abnormalities in insulin-dependent diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jáuregui-Renaud, K; Domínguez-Rubio, B; Ibarra-Olmos, A; González-Bárcena, D

    1998-01-01

    To assess the auditory and vestibular function in patients with diabetes. We studied and followed for three years, 10 patients (6 females) of 20.6 years of age (SD 5.5 years), with insulindependent diabetes mellitus of 9.5 years (SD 3.7 years). The patients were selected for having peripheral neuropathy without prolipherative retinopathy and otologic disease or individual factors which could cause neurootologic symptoms. Their glomerular filtration rate and renal plasma flow were 150 mL/min (SD 50) and 543 mL/min (SD 113). Initially all patients had normal audiologic responses, including auditory brainstem responses, but had abnormally and simetrically diminished horizontal vestibulo-ocular responses. A year later one patient had vertigo and asymmetric vestibulo-ocular responses. In the third year, another patient showed similar abnormalities and a third one showed sensorineural hearing loss. Our results suggest that patients with insulindependent diabetes mellitus may suffer neuro-otological deterioration.

  10. Selective mutism and abnormal electroencephalography (EEG) tracings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politi, Keren; Kivity, Sara; Goldberg-Stern, Hadassa; Halevi, Ayelet; Shuper, Avinoam

    2011-11-01

    Epileptic discharges are not considered a part of the clinical picture of selective mutism, and electroencephalography is generally not recommended in its work-up. This report describes 6 children with selective mutism who were found to have a history of epilepsy and abnormal interictal or subclinical electroencephalography recordings. Two of them had benign epilepsy of childhood with centro-temporal spikes. The mutism was not related in time to the presence of active seizures. While seizures could be controlled in all children by medications, the mutism resolved only in 1. Although the discharges could be coincidental, they might represent a co-morbidity of selective mutism or even play a role in its pathogenesis. Selective mutism should be listed among the psychiatric disorders that may be associated with electroencephalographic abnormalities. It can probably be regarded as a symptom of a more complicated organic brain disorder.

  11. Association between the blood concentrations of ammonia and carnitine/amino acid of schizophrenic patients treated with valproic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Masazumi; Amayasu, Hideaki; Itai, Takahiro; Yoshida, Hisahiro

    2017-01-01

    Administration of valproic acid (VPA) is complicated with approximately 0.9% of patients developing hyperammonemia, but the pathogenesis of this adverse effect remains to be clarified. The aim of the present study was to search for mechanisms associated with VPA-induced hyperammonemia in the light of changes in serum amino acids concentrations associated with the urea cycle of schizophrenic patients. Blood samples (10 mL) were obtained from 37 schizophrenic patients receiving VPA for the prevention of violent behaviors in the morning after overnight fast. Blood concentrations of ammonia, VPA, free carnitine, acyl-carnitine, and 40 amino acids including glutamate and citrulline were measured for each patient. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed to identify amino acids or concomitantly administered drugs that were associated with variability in the blood concentrations of ammonia. The blood ammonia level was positively correlated with the serum glutamate concentration ( r  = 0.44, p  < 0.01) but negatively correlated with glutamine ( r  = -0.41, p  = 0.01), citrulline ( r  = -0.42, p  = 0.01), and glycine concentrations ( r  = -0.54, p  < 0.01). It was also revealed that the concomitant administration of the mood stabilizers ( p  = 0.04) risperidone ( p  = 0.03) and blonanserin ( p  < 0.01) was positively associated with the elevation of the blood ammonia level. We hypothisized that VPA would elevate the blood ammonia level of schizophrenic patients. The observed changes in serum amino acids are compatible with urea cycle dysfunction, possibly due to reduced carbamoyl-phosphate synthase 1 (CPS1) activity. We conclude that VPA should be prudently prescribed to schizophrenic patients, particularly those receiving mood stabilizers or certain antipsychotics.

  12. Family (dis)functionality and mental health: Review of atmosphere, emotional relationships and communicational schemes in schizophrenic patients’ families

    OpenAIRE

    Ljubičić Milana

    2005-01-01

    This review summarizes research findings on socio-pathological aspects of life of schizophrenic patients’ families. Instigated on a system theory, and socio-dynamic notion that links the commencement of the schizophrenia to economical circumstance of individual hence: inadequate function of this component is a product of personal pathology of individual. System therapy perceives family as a system as its members play particular roles and form multiple relations. Therapy observes family as a s...

  13. [Expressed Emotions, Burden and Family Functioning in Schizophrenic and Bipolar I Patients of a Multimodal Intervention Program: PRISMA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Alexandra; Palacio, Juan David; Vargas, Cristian; Díaz-Zuluaga, Ana María; Duica, Kelly; Agudelo Berruecos, Yuli; Ospina, Sigifredo; López-Jaramillo, Carlos

    Bipolar disorder and schizophrenia are causes of major suffering in patients. Nevertheless, they also affect family and caregiver functioning. This is important because the participation and involvement of families and caregivers is essential to achieve an optimal treatment. To describe the level of expressed emotions, burden, and family functioning of bipolar and schizophrenic patients and, to evaluate the efficacy of the multimodal intervention (MI) versus traditional intervention (TI) in family functioning and its perception by patients and caregivers. A prospective, longitudinal, therapeutic-comparative study was conducted with 302 patients (104 schizophrenic and 198 bipolar patients) who were randomly assigned to a MI or TI groups of a multimodal intervention program PRISMA. MI group received care from psychiatry, general medicine, neuropsychology, family therapy, and occupational therapy. TI group received care from psychiatry and general medicine. Hamilton, Young and SANS, SAPS scales were applied to bipolar and schizophrenic patients, respectively. The EEAG, FEICS, FACES III and ECF were also applied at the initial and final time. There were statistically significant differences in socio- demographic and clinical variables in schizophrenia vs bipolar group: 83% vs 32.2% were male, 37 vs 43 mean age, 96% vs 59% were single, 50% vs 20% unemployed, and 20% vs 40% had college studies. In addition, 2 vs 2.5 numbers of hospitalisations, 18 vs 16 mean age of substance abuse onset and, 55 vs 80 points in EEAG. There were no statistically significant differences in family scales after conducting a multivariate analysis on thr initial and final time in both groups. This study did not show changes in variables of burden and family functioning between bipolar and schizophrenic groups that were under TI vs MI. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  14. [Incidence of broken homes in schizophrenic patients. A study of 239 patients treated at a social psychiatric department].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmür, M; Tschopp, A

    1987-01-01

    259 schizophrenics, 102 women and 157 men, of whom 80 were enlisted from a night clinic, 46 from the Psychiatric University Hospital and 113 from an out-patient clinic, were examined with regard to the frequency of broken home situations during their childhood. 20% had, before they were 18 yrs. old, lost a parent by death and 20% by a traumatic separation. 58% had, before they were 18 yrs. old, lost a parent or had lived together with a parent who was seriously ill or badly disturbed. No relation between the age of first illness and a broken home could, according to these research results, be established. The hypothesis that there is a higher rate of broken home situations by schizophrenics with an early outbreak of the illness, could therefore not be confirmed. Neither could a difference in the occurrence of broken home situations between males and females be observed, with the exception of the frequency of loss of parents by death, which was higher by females. The frequency of the factor 'broken home' in our examines is quite similar to the values round by Bleulers' research, 1940-1945 on male schizophrenics.

  15. Performance of a neuro-fuzzy model in predicting weight changes of chronic schizophrenic patients exposed to antipsychotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, T H; Loh, E W; Wu, M S; Hu, T M; Chou, P; Lan, T Y; Chiu, H-J

    2008-12-01

    Artificial intelligence has become a possible solution to resolve the problem of loss of information when complexity of a disease increases. Obesity phenotypes are observable clinical features of drug-naive schizophrenic patients. In addition, atypical antipsychotic medications may cause these unwanted effects. Here we examined the performance of neuro-fuzzy modeling (NFM) in predicting weight changes in chronic schizophrenic patients exposed to antipsychotics. Two hundred and twenty inpatients meeting DSMIV diagnosis of schizophrenia, treated with antipsychotics, either typical or atypical, for more than 2 years, were recruited. All subjects were assessed in the same study period between mid-November 2003 and mid-April 2004. The baseline and first visit's physical data including weight, height and circumference were used in this study. Clinical information (Clinical Global Impression and Life Style Survey) and genotype data of five single nucleotide polymorphisms were also included as predictors. The subjects were randomly assigned into the first group (105 subjects) and second group (115 subjects), and NFM was performed by using the FuzzyTECH 5.54 software package, with a network-type structure constructed in the rule block. A complete learned model trained from merged data of the first and second groups demonstrates that, at a prediction error of 5, 93% subjects with weight gain were identified. Our study suggests that NFM is a feasible prediction tool for obesity in schizophrenic patients exposed to antipsychotics, with further improvements required.

  16. The effects of psychoactive drugs and neuroleptics on language in normal subjects and schizophrenic patients: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomé, F; Boyer, P; Fayol, M

    2000-12-01

    The aim of this survey is to present an overview of research into psychopharmacology as regards the effects of different psychoactive drugs and neuroleptics (NL) on language in normal subjects and schizophrenic patients. Eighteen studies that have investigated the effects of different drugs (alcohol, amphetamines, secobarbital, L-dopa, psilocybin, ketamine, fenfluramine) and neuroleptics (conventional and atypical) on language are reviewed. There are no studies concerning the effects of neuroleptics on language in healthy subjects. The results of the effects of other molecules indicate that language production can be increased (alcohol, amphetamine, secobarbital), rendered more complex (d-amphetamine), more focused (L-dopa) or more unfocused (psilocybin) and clearly impaired (ketamine). For schizophrenic patients, most studies show that conventional neuroleptic treatments, at a therapeutic dosage and in acute or chronic mode, reduce language disorders at all levels (clinic, linguistic, psycholinguistic). In conjunction with other molecules, the classical NL, when administered at a moderate dosage and in chronic mode, modify language in schizophrenia, either by improving the verbal flow and reducing pauses and positive thought disorder (NL + amphetamine) or by inducing an impairment in the language measurements (NL + fenfluramine). Clinical, methodological and theoretical considerations of results are debated in the framework of schizophrenic language disorders.

  17. Roentgenologic abnormalities in Down's syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higuchi, Takehiko; Russell, W J; Komatsuda, Michio; Neriishi, Shotaro

    1968-07-25

    Roentgenograms of 28 patients with Down's syndrome were reviewed with emphasis on all previously reported abnormalities and any possible additional ones. Most of the abnormalities occurred with the same frequency as previously reported, but some less frequently reported findings were also seen. One abnormal vertebral measurement found in this series may be an additional stigma of Down's syndrome. All of the 27 cases studied cytogenetically had chromosomal abnormalities consistent with this disease. This study emphasizes the need for roentgenologic norms for the Japanese, and the desirability of combining chromosome studies with roentgenological abnormalities and clinical observations in diagnosing Down's syndrome. 19 references, 2 figures, 5 tables.

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging study of corpus callosum abnormalities in patients with different subtypes of schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Unlu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. Reductions in the size of the corpus callosum (CC have been described for schizophrenia patients, but little is known about the possible regional differences in schizophrenia subtypes (paranoid, disorganised, undifferentiated, residual.  Methods. We recruited 58 chronically schizophrenic patients with different subtypes, and 31 age-and-gender matched healthy controls. The callosum was extracted from a midsagittal slice from T1 weighted magnetic resonance images, and areas of the total CC, its five subregions, CC length and total brain volume were compared between schizophrenia subtypes and controls. Five subregions were approximately matched to fibre pathways from cortical regions.  Results. Schizophrenia patients had reduced CC total area and length when compared with controls. Disorganised and undifferentiated schizophrenics had a smaller prefrontal area, while there was no significant difference for the paranoid and residual groups. The premotor/supplementary motor area was smaller in all schizophrenia subtypes. The motor area was smaller only in the disorganised group. A smaller sensory area was found in all subtypes except the residual group. Parietal, temporal and occipital areas were smaller in the paranoid and undifferentiated groups. Total brain volume was smaller in all schizophrenia subtypes compared with controls, but did not reach statistical significance.  Conclusion. These findings suggest that the heterogeneity of symptoms may lead to the different CC morphological characteristics in schizophrenia subtypes.

  19. Remnants of occipital vertebrae: proatlas segmentation abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Arnold H; Fenoy, Kathleen A

    2009-05-01

    Developmental remnants around the foramen magnum, or proatlas segmentation abnormalities, have been recorded in postmortem studies but very rarely in a clinical setting. Because of their rarity, the pathological anatomy has been misunderstood, and treatment has been fraught with failures. The objectives of this prospective study were to understand the correlative anatomy, pathology, and embryology and to recognize the clinical presentation and gain insights on the treatment and management. Our craniovertebral junction (CVJ) database started in 1977 and comprises 5200 cases. This prospective study has retrieval capabilities. Neurodiagnostic studies changed with the evolution of imaging. Seventy-two patients were recognized as having symptomatic proatlas segmentation abnormalities. Ventral bony masses from the clivus or medial occipital condyle occurred in 66% (44/72), lateral or anterolateral compressive masses in 37% (27 of 72 patients), and dorsal bony compression in 17% (12 of 72 patients). Hindbrain herniation was associated in 33%. The age at presentation was 3 to 23 years. Motor symptoms occurred in 72% (52 of 72 patients); palsies in Cranial Nerves IX, X, and XII in 33% (24 of 72 patients); and vertebrobasilar symptoms in 25% (18 of 72 patients). Trauma precipitated symptoms in 55% (40 of 72 patients). The best definition of the abnormality was demonstrated by 3-dimensional computed tomography combined with magnetic resonance imaging. Treatment was aimed at decompression of the pathology and stabilization. Remnants of the occipital vertebrae around the foramen magnum were recognized in 72 of 5200 CVJ cases (7.2%). Magnetic resonance imaging with 3-dimensional computed tomography of the CVJ provides the best definition and understanding of the lesions. Brainstem myelopathy and lower cranial nerve deficits are common clinical presentations in the first and second decades of life. Treatment is aimed at decompression of the pathology and CVJ stabilization.

  20. Investigation of the speed of reaction on external stimulus in schizophrenic psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampera, E

    1997-06-01

    In 30 schizophrenic examinees, the latention time was measured. This time is referred to as an interval between the start of the stimulus and the response to the stimulus in the skin-galvanic reflex. Elementary stimulation has been applied, using device's timer tone and clapping of hands, which should simulate and associate the thunderclap. The intensity of psychosis was measured according to the Metric scale of psychotic behavior by Rogina, while the intensity of anxiety was measured by psychological tests: Rorschach's psycho-diagnostic test and Spillberger's questionnaire for anxiety. The reaction to the stimulus and latention time were registered using polygraph unit in order to record skin-galvanic reflex. The research was performed at two separate time points: prior to the therapy with derivatives of the phenothiazine group (the experimental examination group), and 25 days after the therapy (control group). The research has shown that the latention time in schizophrenic examinees does not significantly differ from the corresponding time in healthy controls, and it averages 2.30 seconds. Furthermore, no statistically significant difference in latention time before and after the therapy was observed. However, before the therapy started, i.e. in experimental group," the examinees who were psychotic to a greater extent have shown longer latention than those less psychotic. Additional finding was that the examinees from experimental group who were more anxious according to psychological tests have also shown longer latention time. After the therapy, the reaction to the external stimulus was stronger, which was expressed in increased reaction amplitude in skin-galvanic reflex. The latention time was prolonged, especially in case of examinees that were psychotic to a smaller extent before the therapy. We can conclude that so-called transformed psychotic anxiety was replaced after the therapy with a "new" anxiety-existential fear, i.e. the stronger anxious expectation

  1. Ictal Cardiac Ryhthym Abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Rushna

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac rhythm abnormalities in the context of epilepsy are a well-known phenomenon. However, they are under-recognized and often missed. The pathophysiology of these events is unclear. Bradycardia and asystole are preceded by seizure onset suggesting ictal propagation into the cortex impacting cardiac autonomic function, and the insula and amygdala being possible culprits. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) refers to the unanticipated death of a patient with epilepsy not related to status epilepticus, trauma, drowning, or suicide. Frequent refractory generalized tonic-clonic seizures, anti-epileptic polytherapy, and prolonged duration of epilepsy are some of the commonly identified risk factors for SUDEP. However, the most consistent risk factor out of these is an increased frequency of generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTC). Prevention of SUDEP is extremely important in patients with chronic, generalized epilepsy. Since increased frequency of GTCS is the most consistently reported risk factor for SUDEP, effective seizure control is the most important preventive strategy.

  2. A Rare Stapes Abnormality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala Kanona

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to increase awareness of rare presentations, diagnostic difficulties alongside management of conductive hearing loss and ossicular abnormalities. We report the case of a 13-year-old female reporting progressive left-sided hearing loss and high resolution computed tomography was initially reported as normal. Exploratory tympanotomy revealed an absent stapedius tendon and lack of connection between the stapes superstructure and footplate. The footplate was fixed. Stapedotomy and stapes prosthesis insertion resulted in closure of the air-bone gap by 50 dB. A review of world literature was performed using MedLine. Middle ear ossicular discontinuity can result in significant conductive hearing loss. This can be managed effectively with surgery to help restore hearing. However, some patients may not be suitable or decline surgical intervention and can be managed safely conservatively.

  3. Treatments for Biomedical Abnormalities Associated with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Eugene Frye

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies point to the effectiveness of novel treatments that address physiological abnormalities associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD. This is significant because safe and effective treatments for ASD remain limited. These physiological abnormalities as well as studies addressing treatments of these abnormalities are reviewed in this article. Treatments commonly used to treat mitochondrial disease have been found to improve both core and associated ASD symptoms. Double-blind, placebo-controlled studies have investigated L-carnitine and a multivitamin containing B vitamins, antioxidants, vitamin E, and coenzyme Q10 while non-blinded studies have investigated ubiquinol. Controlled and uncontrolled studies using folinic acid, a reduced form of folate, have reported marked improvements in core and associated ASD symptoms in some children with ASD and folate related pathways abnormities. Treatments that could address redox metabolism abnormalities include methylcobalamin with and without folinic acid in open-label studies and vitamin C and N-acetyl-L-cysteine in double-blind, placebo-controlled studies. These studies have reported improved core and associated symptoms with these treatments. Lastly, both open-label and double-blind, placebo-controlled studies have reported improvement in core and associated ASD symptoms with tetrahydrobiopterin. Overall, these treatments were generally well tolerated without significant adverse effects for most children, although we review the reported adverse effects in detail. This review provides evidence for potential safe and effective treatments for core and associated symptoms of ASD that target underlying known physiological abnormalities associated with ASD. Further research is needed to define subgroups of children with ASD in which these treatments may be most effective as well as confirm their efficacy in double-blind, placebo-controlled, large-scale multicenter studies.

  4. Workplace violence on workers caring for long-term institutionalized schizophrenic patients in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Ching; Wang, Jung-Der; Lew-Ting, Chih-Yin; Chiu, Hsien-Jane; Lin, Yi-Ping

    2007-07-01

    It has been noted that workplace violence most frequently occurs in psychiatric settings. The purpose of this study was to explore the workplace violence, including violence situation, victims' feeling, and the prevention strategies, on workers caring for long-term institutionalized schizophrenic patients in Taiwan. We conducted a face-to-face, in-depth, and semi-structured interview with 13 health care workers suffering from physical violence and/or sexual harassment by patients in 2002. First, the interviews were taped and/or paper-notes recorded, then transcribed, organized, and analyzed. Results found that all of the victims alleged they did not receive enough post-incident support, and more than a half of the victims could not call others for help during the violence. To avoid further attack, most victims offered prevention strategies which were considered valuable for establishing guidelines. However, some victims regarded workplace violence as inevitable and part of the job. The most common situations of workplace violence were during routine ward inspections, especially when the victims were alone. The most serious psychological harm was post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In conclusion, we recommended a re-engineering of the organization to a supportive and safe working environment for prevention of workplace violence in the study hospital.

  5. The Correlation Between Schizophrenic Patients' Level of Internalized Stigma and Their Level of Hope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olçun, Zeynep; Şahin Altun, Özlem

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the correlation between schizophrenic patients' level of internalized stigma and their level of hope. The population of the study consisted of patients who had been diagnosed with schizophrenia and also met the study inclusion criteria. The study sample selection from the population was not further divided; the study was conducted with 76 patients. The data of the study were collected using a personal information form, the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI) Scale, and Herth Hope Scale. The patients' mean score on the Internalized Stigma Scale was 72.78±16.05. Their score on the Hope Scale is 50.36±11.91. A significant negative correlation was found between the total mean scores of ISMI and the Herth Hope Scale (r=-0.360, pHope Scale (r=0.510, phope levels were found to be moderate. A significant negative correlation was found between internalized stigma and hope. This study also found a significant positive correlation between the stigma resistance of patients and their hope levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Recognition of visual stimuli and memory for spatial context in schizophrenic patients and healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brébion, Gildas; David, Anthony S; Pilowsky, Lyn S; Jones, Hugh

    2004-11-01

    Verbal and visual recognition tasks were administered to 40 patients with schizophrenia and 40 healthy comparison subjects. The verbal recognition task consisted of discriminating between 16 target words and 16 new words. The visual recognition task consisted of discriminating between 16 target pictures (8 black-and-white and 8 color) and 16 new pictures (8 black-and-white and 8 color). Visual recognition was followed by a spatial context discrimination task in which subjects were required to remember the spatial location of the target pictures at encoding. Results showed that recognition deficit in patients was similar for verbal and visual material. In both schizophrenic and healthy groups, men, but not women, obtained better recognition scores for the colored than for the black-and-white pictures. However, men and women similarly benefited from color to reduce spatial context discrimination errors. Patients showed a significant deficit in remembering the spatial location of the pictures, independently of accuracy in remembering the pictures themselves. These data suggest that patients are impaired in the amount of visual information that they can encode. With regards to the perceptual attributes of the stimuli, memory for spatial information appears to be affected, but not processing of color information.

  7. Central D2-dopamine receptor occupancy in schizophrenic patients treated with antipsychotic drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farde, L.; Wiesel, F.A.; Halldin, C.; Sedvall, G.

    1988-01-01

    Using positron emission tomography and the carbon 11-labeled ligand raclopride, central D2-dopamine receptor occupancy in the putamen was determined in psychiatric patients treated with clinical doses of psychoactive drugs. Receptor occupancy in drug-treated patients was defined as the percent reduction of specific carbon 11-raclopride binding in relation to the expected binding in the absence of drug treatment. Clinical treatment of schizophrenic patients with 11 chemically distinct antipsychotic drugs (including both classic and atypical neuroleptics such as clozapine) resulted in a 65% to 85% occupancy of D2-dopamine receptors. In a depressed patient treated with the tricyclic antidepressant nortriptyline, no occupancy was found. The time course for receptor occupancy and drug levels was followed after withdrawal of sulpiride or haloperidol. D2-dopamine receptor occupancy remained above 65% for many hours despite a substantial reduction of serum drug concentrations. In a sulpiride-treated patient, the dosage was reduced in four steps over a nine-week period and a curvilinear relationship was demonstrated between central D2-dopamine receptor occupancy and serum drug concentrations. The results demonstrate that clinical doses of all the currently used classes of antipsychotic drugs cause a substantial blockade of central D2-dopamine receptors in humans. This effect appears to be selective for the antipsychotics, since it was not induced by the antidepressant nortriptyline

  8. Autoshaping of abnormal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckner, C W; Wilcox, L M; Maisto, S A; Blanton, R L

    1980-09-01

    Three experimentally naive abnormal children were exposed to a terminal operant contingency, i.e., reinforcement was delivered only if the children pressed a panel during intervals when it was lighted. Despite the absence of both successive approximation and manual shaping, it was found that each child began to respond discriminatively within a small number of trials. These data replicated previous animal studies concerned with the phenomena of autoshaping and signal-controlled responding. It was also found, however, that one type of autoshaping, the classical conditioning procedure, had a powerful suppressive effect on the discriminative responding. An experimental analysis that consisted procedure, had a powerful suppressive effect on discriminative responding. An experimental analysis that consisted of intrasubject reversal an multiple baseline designs established the internal validity of the findings. The finding of rapid acquisition of signal-controlled responding obtained with the initial procedure is suggessted to have practical significance. The disruptive effects of the classical form of autoshaping are discussed in terms of negative behavioral contrast.

  9. Gastrointestinal and renal abnormalities in cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome

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    Herman, Thomas E.; McAlister, William H. [Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis Children' s Hospital, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2005-02-01

    Cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome (CFC) is an uncommon autosomal recessive condition recently distinguished from Noonan syndrome but with more marked growth failure and ectodermal dysplasia. Abdominal symptoms are frequently described but anatomic lesions in CFC have rarely been described. We have found significant anatomic abnormalities in CFC patients including antral foveolar hyperplasia, severe constipation with fecal impaction, nephrocalcinosis and renal cysts. (orig.)

  10. Gastrointestinal and renal abnormalities in cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, Thomas E.; McAlister, William H.

    2005-01-01

    Cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome (CFC) is an uncommon autosomal recessive condition recently distinguished from Noonan syndrome but with more marked growth failure and ectodermal dysplasia. Abdominal symptoms are frequently described but anatomic lesions in CFC have rarely been described. We have found significant anatomic abnormalities in CFC patients including antral foveolar hyperplasia, severe constipation with fecal impaction, nephrocalcinosis and renal cysts. (orig.)

  11. Abnormally dark or light skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperpigmentation; Hypopigmentation; Skin - abnormally light or dark ... Normal skin contains cells called melanocytes. These cells produce melanin , the substance that gives skin its color. Skin with ...

  12. Diagnosis and treatment of abnormal dental pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Ken-Ichi

    2016-03-01

    Most dental pain is caused by an organic problem such as dental caries, periodontitis, pulpitis, or trauma. Diagnosis and treatment of these symptoms are relatively straightforward. However, patients often also complain of abnormal dental pain that has a non-dental origin, whose diagnosis is challenging. Such abnormal dental pain can be categorized on the basis of its cause as referred pain, neuromodulatory pain, and neuropathic pain. When it is difficult to diagnose a patient's dental pain, these potential alternate causes should be considered. In this clinical review, we have presented a case of referred pain from the digastric muscle (Patient 1), of pulpectomized (Patient 2), and of pulpectomized pain (Patient 3) to illustrate referred, neuromodulatory, and neuropathic pain, respectively. The Patient 1 was advised muscle stretching and gentle massage of the trigger points, as well as pain relief using a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory and the tricyclic antidepressant amitriptyline. The pain in Patient 2 was relieved completely by the tricyclic antidepressant amitriptyline. In Patient 3, the pain was controlled using either a continuous drip infusion of adenosine triphosphate or intravenous Mg2+ and lidocaine administered every 2 weeks. In each case of abnormal dental pain, the patient's diagnostic chart was used (Fig.2 and 3). Pain was satisfactorily relieved in all cases.

  13. Structural brain abnormalities in Cushing's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauduin, Stephanie E E C; van der Wee, Nic J A; van der Werff, Steven J A

    2018-05-08

    Alongside various physical symptoms, patients with Cushing's disease and Cushing's syndrome display a wide variety of neuropsychiatric and cognitive symptoms, which are indicative of involvement of the central nervous system. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the structural brain abnormalities that are associated with Cushing's disease and Cushing's syndrome and their relation to behavioral and cognitive symptomatology. In this review, we discuss the gray matter structural abnormalities found in patients with active Cushing's disease and Cushing's syndrome, the reversibility and persistence of these changes and the white matter structural changes related to Cushing's syndrome. Recent findings are of particular interest because they provide more detailed information on localization of the structural changes as well as possible insights into the underlying biological processes. Active Cushing's disease and Cushing's syndrome is related to volume reductions of the hippocampus and in a prefrontal region involving the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and medial frontal gyrus (MFG). Whilst there are indications that the reductions in hippocampal volume are partially reversible, the changes in the ACC and MFG appear to be more persistent. In contrast to the volumetric findings, changes in white matter connectivity are typically widespread involving multiple tracts.

  14. Schizophrenia and the paranormal: more psi belief and superstition, and less déjà vu in medicated schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiah, Yung-Jong; Wu, Yi-Zhen; Chen, Yueh-Hua; Chiang, Shih-Kuang

    2014-04-01

    The present study examined the relation between déjà vu experiences and paranormal beliefs in schizophrenic patients. A total of 522 participants (54.5% female; mean age=33.3, SD=16.02) were recruited, including 422 healthy adults (60.9% female; mean age=29.48, SD=15.07) and 100 medicated adult schizophrenic patients (27.3% female; mean age=48.98, SD=8.57). The Chinese version of the Inventory of Déjà-vu Experiences Assessment was created via back translation. Chinese versions of the Revised Paranormal Belief Scale (CRPB), Beck Anxiety Inventory (CBAI), and Perceived Stress Scale (CPSS) were also used. After controlling for age, gender, education, and anxiety, the results supported the following three hypotheses. Schizophrenic persons have fewer déjà vu experiences than normal persons. These experiences are positively related to paranormal beliefs in healthy adults but not in schizophrenic patients. Schizophrenic patients have higher scores than healthy adults on the psi and superstitious subscales of the CRPB. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Automutilação de dedos e lábio em paciente esquizofrênico Self-mutilation of fingers and lips in a schizophrenic patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breno Satler de Oliveira Diniz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: Episódios de automutilação grave são raramente observados na prática psiquiá­trica. Ocorrem principalmente em pacientes psicóticos, sendo o principal diagnóstico a esquizofrenia. As regiões mais comumente automutiladas são o pênis e os olhos. RELATO DE CASO: Relatamos o caso de um paciente portador de esquizofrenia paranóide que desenvolveu quadro de auto-amputação de lábios e falanges secundário a alucinações auditivas de comando e delírios místico-religiosos. CONCLUSÃO: Episódios de automutilação são eventos raros em pacientes esquizofrênicos. Deve-se nestes casos identificar pródromos ou fatores desencadeantes destes episódios para se instituir rapidamente abordagens para prevenir ou diminuir o risco de sua ocorrência nestes pacientes.CONTEXT: Severe self-mutilation episodes are rare in psychiatric practice. Most patients are psychotic during such acts and the main diagnosis is schizophrenia. The regions most commonly self-mutilated are the penis and the eyes. CASE REPORT: A patient previously diagnosed with schizophrenia started self-mutilating his lip and phalanxes secondary to command auditory hallucinations and influenced by mystic-religious delusions. CONCLUSION: Self-mutilation episodes are rare in schizophrenic patients. In such case, it should be identified prodrome symptoms or provoking situations in order to promptly institute strategies to prevent or lessen the risk of new episodes.

  16. Esophagogastric junction outflow obstruction is often associated with coexistent abnormal esophageal body motility and abnormal bolus transit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, E; Gideon, R M; Sloan, J; Katz, P O

    2017-10-01

    Currently, the diagnosis of esophageal motility disorders is in part based upon a hierarchical algorithm in which abnormalities of the esophagogastric junction (EGJ) is prioritized. An important metric in evaluating the EGJ is the integrated relaxation pressure (IRP). Patients who do not have achalasia but are found to have an elevated IRP are diagnosed with EGJ outflow obstruction. It has been our observation that a subset of these patients also has a second named motility disorder and may also have abnormal bolus transit. The aim of this study is to determine the frequency of abnormal body motility and or abnormal bolus movement in patients with EGJ outflow obstruction. Further, in an effort to evaluate the potential clinical value in measuring bolus transit as a complement to esophageal manometry, specifically in patients with EGJ outflow obstruction, we analyzed the presenting symptoms of these patients. A total of 807 patients with a mean age of 53 years completed esophageal function testing with impedance monitoring and high-resolution manometry between January 2012 and October 2016. There were 74 patients with achalasia who were excluded from the study. Of the remaining 733 patients, 138 (19%) had an elevated IRP and were given a diagnosis of EGJ outflow obstruction. Among these patients, 56 (40%) were diagnosed with an abnormal motility pattern to liquids (ineffective esophageal motility = 28, distal esophageal spasm = 19, Jackhammer = 6), of which 44 (76%) had abnormal bolus transit to liquids, viscous, or both. In contrast, there were 82 patients with EGJ outflow obstruction and normal esophageal motility, of which 33 (40%) had abnormal bolus transit. Patients with preserved esophageal motility and EGJ outflow obstruction were then evaluated. Of the 733 patients, 299 (40%) had intact esophageal motility. Of the 299 patients with normal esophageal motility, 56 patients had an elevated IRP, of which 16 (28%) had abnormal bolus transit. There were 243 (33

  17. Plague Symptoms

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    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Plague Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Plague Home Ecology & Transmission Symptoms Diagnosis & Treatment Maps & Statistics ...

  18. Recognizing Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... helpful, please consider supporting IFFGD with a small tax- deductible donation. Make Donation Signs and Symptoms Overview ... arises requiring an expert’s care. © Copyright 1998-2018 International Foundation for Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders, Inc. (IFFGD). All ...

  19. Rotavirus Symptoms

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    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC Rotavirus Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Rotavirus Home About Rotavirus Symptoms Transmission Treatment Photos Vaccination ...

  20. Receptor imaging of schizophrenic patients under treatment with typical and atypical neuroleptics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresel, S.; Tatsch, K.; Meisenzahl, E.; Scherer, J.

    2002-01-01

    Schizophrenic psychosis is typically treated by typical and atypical neuroleptics. Both groups of drugs differ with regard to induction of extrapyramidal side effects. The occupancy of postsynaptic dopaminergic D2 receptors is considered to be an essential aspect of their antipsychotic properties. The dopamine D2 receptor status can be assessed by means of [I-123]IBZM SPECT. Studies on the typical neuroleptic haloperidol revealed an exponential dose response relationship measured by IBZM. Extrapyramidal side effects were presented by all patients below a threshold of the specific binding of IBZM below 0.4 (with one exception, norm value: >0.95). Also under treatment with the atypical neuroleptic clozapine an exponential dose response relationship was found. However, none of these patients showed extrapyramidal side effects. Recently introduced, new atypical neuroleptics such as risperidone and olanzapine again presented with an exponential relationship between daily dose and IBZM binding. The curves of the latter were in between the curves of haloperidol and clozapine. Extrapyramidal side effects were documented in a less number of patients treated with risperidone as compared to haloperidol, for olanzapine only one patient revealed these findings in our own patient group. The pharmacological profile of atypical neuroleptics shows - in addition to their binding to dopamine receptors - also high affinities to the receptors of other neurotransmitter systems, particularly the serotonergic system. Therefore, the lower incidence of extrapyramidal side effects seen by atypical in comparison to typical neuroleptics is at least in part most likely due to a complex interaction on a variety of neurotransmitter systems. (orig.) [de

  1. Detecting potential adverse reactions of sulpiride in schizophrenic patients by prescription sequence symmetry analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Chia-Cheng Lai

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Previous studies have demonstrated sulpiride to be significantly more effective than haloperidol, risperidone and olanzapine in schizophrenic treatment; however, only limited information is available on the potential risks associated with sulpiride treatment. This study attempts to provide information on the potential risks of sulpiride treatment of schizophrenia, especially with regard to unexpected adverse effects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with schizophrenia aged 18 and older, newly prescribed with a single antipsychotic medication from the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan in the period from 2003 to 2010 were included. A within-subject comparison method, prescription sequence symmetry analysis (PSSA was employed to efficiently identify potential causal relationships while controlling for potential selection bias. RESULTS: A total of 5,750 patients, with a mean age of 39, approximately half of whom were male, constituted the study cohort. The PSSA found that sulpiride was associated with EPS (adjusted SR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.46-2.06 and hyperprolactinemia (12.04; 1.59-91.2. In comparison, EPS caused by haloperidol has a magnitude of 1.99 when analyzed with PSSA, and hyperprolactinemia caused by amisulpride has a magnitude of 8.05, respectively. Another finding was the unexpected increase in the use of stomatological corticosteroids, emollient laxatives, dermatological preparations of corticosteroids, quinolone antibacterials, and topical products for joint and muscular pain, after initiation of sulpiride treatment. CONCLUSIONS: We found sulpiride to be associated with an increased risk of EPS and hyperprolactinemia, and the potential risk could be as high as that induced by haloperidol and amisulpride, respectively. Additionally, our study provides grounds for future investigations into the associations between sulpiride and the increased use of additional drugs for managing adverse effects, including

  2. Social integration and the quality of life of schizophrenic patients in different types of complementary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisse, M; Kallert, T W

    2000-12-01

    Following reunification in Germany in 1990 the new states in the Federal Republic faced the task of restructuring and rebuilding the structures of complementary care for the chronically mentally ill. First and foremost, residential facilities had to be established that would correspond to and meet the currently high need for de-hospitalization by making different types of care and care concepts available. Five groups of patients with chronic schizophrenic psychoses (N = 245 patients) who live in different types of psychiatric care facilities (psychiatric nursing home, social therapeutic hostel, sheltered community residence) or at home, either with or without a family network, were studied. In addition to the sociodemographic data, the psychopathology and the extent of social disabilities were also surveyed, as well as data on the living situation and the subjective quality of life with an emphasis on 'social relationships', 'recreation/leisure activities', and 'general independence'. The five groups differed with regard to various sociodemographic and disorder-related variables, particularly with regard to the extent of social disabilities. Especially relevant, however, are the differences among the patient groups in the extent of daily social life and recreational/leisure activities that are partially reflected in their statements on the subjective quality of life. Primarily for the two groups of home residents, but also in part for the patients living in sheltered community care, social contacts are more or less limited to the residential situation and patients are more or less otherwise socially isolated. This is due among other things to the fact that patients who have been hospitalized for long periods do not as a rule return to their prior area of residence; thus, the available compensatory mediation of relationships with the social environment does not suffice. Demands for the further development of complementary systems of psychiatric care derive from

  3. GABAA receptors, but not dopamine, serotonin or NMDA receptors, are increased in the frontal cortex from schizophrenic subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daen, B.; Hussain, T.; Scarr, E.; Tomaskovic, E.; Kitsoulis, S.; Pavey, G.; Hill, C.; Keks, N.; Opeskin, K.; Copolov, D.L.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Having shown changed 5HT 2A receptor density in the frontal cortex (FC) from schizophrenic subjects (1) we now report on further studies of the molecular neuroanatomy of the FC in schizophrenia. We used in situ radioligand binding and autoradiography to measure the density of [ 3 H]8OH-DPAT (1 nM) binding (5HT 1A receptors) and [ 3 H]GR113808 (2.4nM) binding (5HT 4 receptors) in Brodmann's areas (BA) 8, 9 and 10 from 10 schizophrenic and 10 controls subjects. In addition, [ 3 H]muscimol (100 nM) binding (GABA A receptors), [ 3 H]TCP (20nM) binding (NMDA receptors), [ 3 H]SCH 23390 (3nM) binding (DA D 1 like receptors) and [ 3 H]YM-09151-2 (4nM) binding (DA D 2 -like receptors) was measured in BA 9 from 17 schizophrenic and 17 control subjects. Subjects were matched for age and sex and the post-mortem interval for tissue collection did not differ. There was a significant increase (18%) in the density of GABA A receptors in BA 9 from subjects with schizophrenia (p<0.05) with no change in NMDA, dopamine or serotonin receptors. These data support the hypothesis that there are selective changes in neurotransmitter receptors in the FC of subjects with schizophrenia. It is not yet clear if such changes contribute to the pathology of the illness. Copyright (1998) Australian Neuroscience Society

  4. The relation of serotonin-related gene and COMT gene polymorphisms with criminal behavior in schizophrenic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Kyung Bong; Choi, Eun Hee; Lee, Young-joon; Han, Mooyoung; Choi, Sang-Sup; Kim, So Won; Lee, Min Goo

    2012-02-01

    It has been suggested that patients with schizophrenia might be involved in criminal behavior, such as homicidal and violent behavior. However, the relationship between criminal behavior and genes in patients with schizophrenia has not been clearly elucidated. The objective of this study was to examine the relation between criminal behavior and serotonin-related gene or catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene polymorphisms in patients with schizophrenia. Serotonin-related and COMT polymorphic markers were assessed by using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping. Ninety-nine crime-related inpatients with schizophrenia (57 homicidal and 42 nonhomicidal violent) and 133 healthy subjects were enrolled between October 2005 and May 2008. Diagnoses were made according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) criteria. The genotype frequencies of tryptophan hydroxylase-1 (TPH1) A218C and COMT V158M were compared between groups. The TPH1 CC genotype had 2.7-fold higher odds of crime-related schizophrenia compared with A-carrier genotype after the analysis was controlled for sex and age (OR, 2.69; 95% CI, 1.22 - 5.91; P = .01). In addition, the TPH1 CC genotype had 3.4-fold higher odds of homicidal schizophrenia compared with A-carrier genotype after the analysis was controlled for sex and age (OR, 3.38; 95% CI, 1.40 - 8.18; P = .007). However, no significant differences were found in the frequencies of genotype of COMT polymorphism between criminal schizophrenics and healthy subjects, nor were any significant differences found between nonhomicidal schizophrenics and healthy subjects. These results indicate that the TPH1 CC recessive genotype is likely to be a genetic risk factor for criminal behavior, especially homicidal behavior in patients with schizophrenia. However, COMT gene polymorphisms were not associated with criminal behavior in schizophrenic patients. © Copyright 2012 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  5. Validation of the French version of the BACS (the brief assessment of cognition in schizophrenia) among 50 French schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bralet, Marie-Cécile; Falissard, Bruno; Neveu, Xavier; Lucas-Ross, Margaret; Eskenazi, Anne-Marie; Keefe, Richard S E

    2007-09-01

    Schizophrenic patients demonstrate impairments in several key dimensions of cognition. These impairments are correlated with important aspects of functional outcome. While assessment of these cognition disorders is increasingly becoming a part of clinical and research practice in schizophrenia, there is no standard and easily administered test battery. The BACS (Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia) has been validated in English language [Keefe RSE, Golberg TE, Harvey PD, Gold JM, Poe MP, Coughenour L. The Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia: reliability, sensibility, and comparison with a standard neurocognitive battery. Schizophr. Res 2004;68:283-97], and was found to be as sensitive to cognitive dysfunction as a standard battery of tests, with the advantage of requiring less than 35 min to complete. We developed a French adaptation of the BACS and this study tested its ease of administration and concurrent validity. Correlation analyses between the BACS (version A) and a standard battery were performed. A sample of 50 stable schizophrenic patients received the French Version A of the BACS in a first session, and in a second session a standard battery. All the patients completed each of the subtests of the French BACS . The mean duration of completion for the BACS French version was 36 min (S.D.=5.56). A correlation analysis between the BACS (version A) global score and the standard battery global score showed a significant result (r=0.81, p<0.0001). The correlation analysis between the BACS (version A) sub-scores and the standard battery sub-scores showed significant results for verbal memory, working memory, verbal fluency, attention and speed of information processing and executive functions (p<0.001) and for motor speed (p<0.05). The French Version of the BACS is easier to use in French schizophrenic patients compared to a standard battery (administration shorter and completion rate better) and its good psychometric properties suggest

  6. Rehabilitation of Schizophrenia: Adjunctive Therapy of Negative Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Shoja Shafti

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Negative symptoms in schizophrenia are among the important barriers against psychosocial rehabilitation of such patients. Adjunctive drugs can be used for reducing the severity of these symptoms. In this research we studied the efficacy of Clomipramine, Alprazolam, Citalopram, Bromocriptine, Fluoxetine, Nortriptyline, Maprotiline and Fluvoxamine, in this regard. After a primary prevalence survey regarding Negative symptoms, 170 schizophrenic patients were divided into three different groups, and then the aforesaid adjuvant drugs were examined in three double-blind clinical controlled trials. Estimation of negative symptoms by "SANS" were done at the beginning of each trial for the first time and then three weeks later, after prescription of drugs in lower dosage and finally at the end of sixth week, means three weeks after doubling the dosages. The data were analyzed by z and chi-square (X2test formula. Clomipramine, Alprazolam, Citalopram, Nortriptyline and Maprotiline could reduce the severity of negative symptoms. Their effectiveness in comparing with placebo was statistically remarkable. No important side effect or worsening of positive symptoms was seen in our samples during aforesaid trials. Conservative usage of adjuvant drugs can be an advantageous means for making rehabilitative programs more efficacious than before.

  7. Decreased striatal dopamine transporter binding assessed with [123I] FP-CIT in first-episode schizophrenic patients with and without short-term antipsychotic-induced parkinsonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos, Jose J; Lomeña, Francisco; Parellada, Eduardo; Font, Mireia; Fernandez, Emili; Pavia, Javier; Prats, Alberto; Pons, Francisca; Bernardo, Miquel

    2005-09-01

    Drug-induced parkinsonism (DIP) is one of the main causes of treatment drop-out in schizophrenic patients causing a high incidence of relapse that leads patients to a bad clinical prognosis. The dopaminergic nigrostriatal pathway is involved in the movement control, so the study of the dopamine transporter (DAT) could be of great value to determine its implication in the appearance of DIP. The goal of the study is to determine the striatal DAT binding assessed with [(123)I] FP-CIT SPECT in first-episode neuroleptic-naive schizophrenic in-patients with DIP after short-term antipsychotic treatment. The [(123)I] FP-CIT binding ratios of ten schizophrenic in-patients who developed DIP during the first 4-week period of risperidone treatment (6+/-2 mg/day) were compared with ten schizophrenic in-patients treated with the same doses of risperidone and who do not developed DIP and with ten age-matched healthy subjects. Quantitative analyses of SPECTs were performed using regions of interest located in caudate, putamen and occipital cortex. Parkinsonism was assessed by the Simpson-Angus Scale and the psychopathological status by the Clinical General Impression and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scales. Whole striatal [(123)I] FP-CIT binding ratios were significantly lower in patients with and without DIP than in healthy subjects (p<0.001). This was also observed in whole putamen (p<0.001) and caudate nucleus (p<0.001). Females showed higher whole striatal [(123)I] FP-CIT binding ratios than males (p<0.05). No differences in psychopathological scales were observed between patients with and without DIP. Our first-episode schizophrenic patients with and without DIP after short-term risperidone treatment have a decreased striatal DAT binding assessed with [(123)I] FP-CIT. This alteration could be related to the schizophrenic disease or may be secondary to the antipsychotic treatment.

  8. Electrocardiographic abnormalities in opiate addicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallner, Christina; Stöllberger, Claudia; Hlavin, Anton; Finsterer, Josef; Hager, Isabella; Hermann, Peter

    2008-12-01

    To determine in a cross-sectional study the prevalence of electrocardiographic (ECG) abnormalities in opiate addicts who were therapy-seeking and its association with demographic, clinical and drug-specific parameters. In consecutive therapy-seeking opiate addicts, a 12-lead ECG was registered within 24 hours after admission and evaluated according to a pre-set protocol between October 2004 and August 2006. Additionally, demographic, clinical and drug-specific parameters were recorded. Included were 511 opiate-addicts, 25% female, with a mean age of 29 years (range 17-59 years). One or more ECG abnormalities were found in 314 patients (61%). In the 511 patients we found most commonly ST abnormalities (19%), QTc prolongation (13%), tall R- and/or S-waves (11%) and missing R progression (10%). ECG abnormalities were more common in males than in females (64 versus 54%, P seizures less often (16 versus 27%, P opiate addicts. The most frequent ECG abnormalities are ST abnormalities, QTc prolongation and tall R- and/or S-waves. ST abnormalities are associated with cannabis, and QTc prolongation with methadone and benzodiazepines.

  9. Imaging findings of sternal abnormalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franquet, T.; Gimenez, A.; Alegret, X.; Sanchis, E.; Rivas, A.

    1997-01-01

    Radiographic findings in the sternal abnormalities are often nonspecific, showing appearances from a localized benign lesion to an aggressive lesion as seen with infections and malignant neoplasms. A specific diagnosis of sternal abnormalities can be suggested on the basis of CT and MR characteristics. Familiarity with the presentation and variable appearance of sternal abnormalities may aid the radiologist is suggesting a specific diagnosis. We present among others characteristic radiographic findings of hemangioma, chondrosarcoma, hydatid disease, and SAPHO syndrome. In those cases in which findings are not specific, cross-sectional imaging modalities may help the clinician in their management. (orig.)

  10. Study on effects of an atypical antipsychotic, risperidone on regional cerebral blood flow with 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT in drug-naive and unmedicated schizophrenic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koiwa, Daisuke

    2003-01-01

    To examine the underlying mechanisms of intracerebral or clinical actions of the atypical antipsychotic, risperidone (RIS), the effects of RIS on absolute regional cerebral blood flows (rCBFs) measured with 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT and correlations between the rCBFs and psychotic symptoms assessed with positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) were investigated in 10 drug-naive and unmedicated schizophrenic patients with acute hallucinatory and delusional state. Both the SPECT and PANSS were repeated before and after oral 2-week administration of RIS 3 mg/day in all of the 10 patients and after subsequent 2-week administration of RIS 4-6 mg/day in half of the patients. The rCBF values were significantly decreased in the left precentral gyrus alone after the low dose of RIS 3 mg/day in comparison with before the RIS dose. The rCBF values were significantly decreased in the right cingulate, postcentral, inferior parietal gyri and the left inferior temporal gyrus after the high dose of RIS 4-6 mg/day in comparison with before the low dose of RIS 3 mg/day. The psychiatric assessment with PANSS showed an improvement of positive and negative symptoms after the low RIS dose and still more after the high RIS dose. Statistical analyses on relationships between the rCBF values and PANSS scores before and after the low RIS dose showed a positive correlation between the rCBF values in the right middle temporal gyrus and hallucinations (mainly auditory hallucination). These results suggest that chronic RIS administration dose-dependently produces a decrease of rCBF in the cerebral cortex in the manner that the low dose decreases rCBF in a few restricted cortical regions, while the high dose induces the rCBF reduction in more widespread cortical regions. The RIS-induced rCBF decrease in the cerebral cortex is considered to be attributable to a secondary inactivation in the cerebral cortex due to D 2 dopamine receptor blockade of RIS in the striatum through the cortico

  11. Comparison between Camberwell Family Interview and Expressed Emotion Scale in Determining Emotions of Caregivers of Schizophrenic Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    ÇETİNKAYA DUMAN, Zekiye; KUŞCU, M. Kemal; ÖZGÜN, Serkan

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the study was to compare the Camberwell Family Interview (CFI) and the Expressed Emotion Scale (EES) in determining the level of expressed emotion in caregivers of patients with schizophrenia. Method The study sample included caregivers of 22 schizophrenic patients followed in two psychiatric clinics. The level of expressed emotion in the caregivers was assessed by the CFI and the EES. CFI was applied to caregivers of the inpatients and the procedure was audio recorded. These records were later used for the ratings. EES was completed by the caregivers. Total EES scores were used to determine the level of expressed emotion in the caregivers. Results Forty point nine percent and 50% of the caregivers had high level of expressed emotion based on the analysis of the data obtained from the CFI and EES. Fifty-nine percent and 50% of the caregivers had low level of expressed emotion based on the data obtained from the CFI and EES. The proportion of the caregivers with high level of expressed emotion as measured by the CFI and the EES were not statistically significantly different within the sample (χ2= 0.727). Conclusion The CFI and the EES were similar in determining the level of expressed emotion in caregivers of schizophrenic patients. It can be suggested that the EES, a user friendly tool, may be preferred to determine the level of expressed emotion in caregivers of patients with schizophrenia. However, further studies with larger samples are needed to obtain more reliable results. PMID:28360561

  12. The effect of a brief family intervention on primary carer's functioning and their schizophrenic relatives levels of psychopathology in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devaramane, Virupaksha; Pai, Nagesh B; Vella, Shae-Leigh

    2011-09-01

    This study examined the short term effects of a brief familial intervention on schizophrenic the patient's levels of psychopathology and their primary caregiver's functioning in India. Caregiver functioning was measured by the caregiver's levels of burden and coping along with the patient's perceived level of expressed emotion (EE). The participants were 18 schizophrenic patients and their related primary carer from a medical facility in India. The patients' levels of psychopathology and EE were assessed at baseline and at completion of the study with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS; Kay et al., 1987) and the Family Emotional Involvement And Criticism Scale (FEICS; Shields et al., 1992), respectively. The primary caregiver's levels of burden and coping were also measured at baseline and upon completion of the study by the Burden Assessment Scale (BAS; Thara et al., 1998) and the Family Crisis Oriented Personal Evaluation Scale (F-COPES; McCubbin et al., 1981), respectively. The brief intervention was comprised of 3 one hour sessions aimed at educating the primary caregiver and patient about schizophrenia; along with improving their communication, problem solving skills and expression of emotions. A significant improvement was found between baseline and the final 3-month follow-up on measures of psychopathology for the patients, as well as family functioning for both the caregivers and patients. The implications of the findings are discussed, along with future research directions. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. [Aggressive behaviour and substance abuse among schizophrenic adolescents compared to antisocial adolescents--a follow-up study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevecke, Kathrin; Dreher, Jan; Walger, Petra; Junglas, Jürgen; Lehmkuhl, Gerd

    2005-04-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze aggressive behaviour towards others by schizophrenic as opposed to antisocial adolescents, and the influence of substance abuse before, during and after their hospitalization. We analyzed 21 schizophrenic adolescents and compared their aggressive behaviour and their substance abuse to that of 21 antisocial juveniles before and during their hospitalization and again at the time of a follow-up interview. The two samples were matched for age, sex and intelligence. In a first step, data were gathered from the hospital records, in a second step, for follow-up data we conducted standardized telephone interview with the patient and his or her parent or caregiver. Within the analysis we focused on aggressive behaviour towards other people and objects, as well as on criminal acts and regular substance abuse. We found less aggressive behaviour among psychotic patients during and post-hospitalization than among their antisocial counterparts. As inpatients, the acutely psychotic juveniles were at higher risk for aggressive acts, but adequate treatment subdued their offensive behaviour. In the long term, there were fewer criminal arrests among psychotic patients. Only in connection with their substance abuse, their aggressive misconduct towards others increased. Our results suggest that drug treatment during adolescence might help to lessen the risk of aggressive behaviour towards others.

  14. A Comparative Genomic Study in Schizophrenic and in Bipolar Disorder Patients, Based on Microarray Expression Profiling Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianthi Logotheti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia affecting almost 1% and bipolar disorder affecting almost 3%–5% of the global population constitute two severe mental disorders. The catecholaminergic and the serotonergic pathways have been proved to play an important role in the development of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and other related psychiatric disorders. The aim of the study was to perform and interpret the results of a comparative genomic profiling study in schizophrenic patients as well as in healthy controls and in patients with bipolar disorder and try to relate and integrate our results with an aberrant amino acid transport through cell membranes. In particular we have focused on genes and mechanisms involved in amino acid transport through cell membranes from whole genome expression profiling data. We performed bioinformatic analysis on raw data derived from four different published studies. In two studies postmortem samples from prefrontal cortices, derived from patients with bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and control subjects, have been used. In another study we used samples from postmortem orbitofrontal cortex of bipolar subjects while the final study was performed based on raw data from a gene expression profiling dataset in the postmortem superior temporal cortex of schizophrenics. The data were downloaded from NCBI's GEO datasets.

  15. The effect of verbalization strategy on wisconsin card sorting test performance in schizophrenic patients receiving classical or atypical antipsychotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavallaro Roberto

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of reports showed en encouraging remediation in some patients' executive deficits thanks to the use of 'information processing strategies'. Moreover the impact of antipsychotics on cognitive functions of the schizophrenics is an important issue, especially if an integrated psychosocial treatment is needed. The aim of this paper is to evaluate different executive performance and response to verbalization, a strategy of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST remediation, in subjects on classical vs atypical antipsychotic (AP treatment. Methods Sixty-three schizophrenic subjects undertook the WCST under standard and modified (verbalization administration. Subjects were stratified by the kind of WCST response (i.e. good, poor and remediable and AP treatment (i.e. atypical vs. classical. Results Subjects on atypical APs showed a better performance than those on classical ones. More poor performers who did not remediate were seen in the sample with classical Aps while subjects who remediated the performance were seen in the subgroup with atypical APs only. An increase of perseverative and total errors was seen in poor performers subjects on classical APs. Conclusion Subjects on atypicals showed a better cognitive pattern in terms of WCST performance. Since the naturalistic assignment of medication we cannot draw conclusions about its effect on cognitive performance and its interaction with cognitive remediation potential. However the data lead us to hypothesize that subjects with potential room for remediation did so with the atypical APs.

  16. Norovirus Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... many times a day. This can lead to dehydration, especially in young children, older adults, and people with other illnesses. Symptoms of dehydration— decrease in urination dry mouth and throat feeling dizzy when standing up Children who are dehydrated may cry with few or ...

  17. Somatosensory abnormalities in knee OA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylde, Vikki; Palmer, Shea; Learmonth, Ian D; Dieppe, Paul

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to use quantitative sensory testing (QST) to explore the range and prevalence of somatosensory abnormalities demonstrated by patients with advanced knee OA. One hundred and seven knee OA patients and 50 age- and sex-matched healthy participants attended a 1-h QST session. Testing was performed on the medial side of the knee and the pain-free forearm. Light-touch thresholds were assessed using von Frey filaments, pressure pain thresholds using a digital pressure algometer, and thermal sensation and pain thresholds using a Thermotest MSA. Significant differences in median threshold values from knee OA patients and healthy participants were identified using Mann-Whitney U-tests. The z-score transformations were used to determine the prevalence of the different somatosensory abnormalities in knee OA patients. Testing identified 70% of knee OA patients as having at least one somatosensory abnormality. Comparison of median threshold values between knee OA patients and healthy participants revealed that patients had localized thermal and tactile hypoaesthesia and pressure hyperalgesia at the osteoarthritic knee. Tactile hypoaesthesia and pressure hyperalgesia were also present at the pain-free forearm. The most prevalent somatosensory abnormalities were tactile hypoaesthesia and pressure hyperalgesia, evident in between 20 and 34% of patients. This study found that OA patients demonstrate an array of somatosensory abnormalities, of which the most prevalent were tactile hypoaesthesia and pressure hyperalgesia. Further research is now needed to establish the clinical implications of these somatosensory abnormalities.

  18. MR diffusion tensor analysis of schizophrenic brain using statistical parametric mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Haruyasu; Abe, Osamu; Kasai, Kiyoto

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate diffusion anisotropy in the schizophrenic brain by voxel-based analysis of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), using statistical parametric mapping (SPM). We studied 33 patients with schizophrenia diagnosed by diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM)-IV criteria and 42 matched controls. The data was obtained with a 1.5 T MRI system. We used single-shot spin-echo planar sequences (repetition time/echo time (TR/TE)=5000/102 ms, 5 mm slice thickness and 1.5 mm gap, field of view (FOV)=21 x 21 cm 2 , number of excitation (NEX)=4, 128 x 128 pixel matrix) for diffusion tensor acquisition. Diffusion gradients (b-value of 500 or 1000 s/mm 2 ) were applied on two axes simultaneously. Diffusion properties were measured along 6 non-linear directions. The structural distortion induced by the large diffusion gradients was corrected, based on each T 2 -weighted echo-planar image (b=0 s/mm 2 ). The fractional anisotropy (FA) maps were generated on a voxel-by-voxel basis. T 2 -weighted echo-planar images were then segmented into gray matter, white matter, and cerebrospinal fluid, using SPM (Wellcome Department of Imaging, University College London, UK). All apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and FA maps in native space were transformed to the stereotactic space by registering each of the images to the same template image. The normalized data was smoothed and analyzed using SPM. The significant FA decrease in the patient group was found in the uncinate fasciculus, parahippocampal white matter, anterior cingulum and other areas (corrected p<0.05). No significant increased region was noted. Our results may reflect reduced diffusion anisotropy of the white matter pathway of the limbic system as shown by the decreased FA. Manual region-of-interest analysis is usually more sensitive than voxel-based analysis, but it is subjective and difficult to set with anatomical reproducibility. Voxel-based analysis of the diffusion tensor

  19. Retinal Layer Abnormalities as Biomarkers of Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samani, Niraj N; Proudlock, Frank A; Siram, Vasantha; Suraweera, Chathurie; Hutchinson, Claire; Nelson, Christopher P; Al-Uzri, Mohammed; Gottlob, Irene

    2018-06-06

    Schizophrenia is associated with several brain deficits, as well as visual processing deficits, but clinically useful biomarkers are elusive. We hypothesized that retinal layer changes, noninvasively visualized using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), may represent a possible "window" to these abnormalities. A Leica EnvisuTM SD-OCT device was used to obtain high-resolution central foveal B-scans in both eyes of 35 patients with schizophrenia and 50 demographically matched controls. Manual retinal layer segmentation was performed to acquire individual and combined layer thickness measurements in 3 macular regions. Contrast sensitivity was measured at 3 spatial frequencies in a subgroup of each cohort. Differences were compared using adjusted linear models and significantly different layer measures in patients underwent Spearman Rank correlations with contrast sensitivity, quantified symptoms severity, disease duration, and antipsychotic medication dose. Total retinal and photoreceptor complex thickness was reduced in all regions in patients (P layer (P layer (P layer thickness (R = -.47, P = .005). Our novel findings demonstrate considerable retinal layer abnormalities in schizophrenia that are related to clinical features and visual function. With time, SD-OCT could provide easily-measurable biomarkers to facilitate clinical assessment and further our understanding of the disease.

  20. Abnormal auditory forward masking pattern in the brainstem response of individuals with Asperger syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Källstrand

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Johan Källstrand1, Olle Olsson2, Sara Fristedt Nehlstedt1, Mia Ling Sköld1, Sören Nielzén21SensoDetect AB, Lund, Sweden; 2Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Section of Psychiatry, Lund University, Lund, SwedenAbstract: Abnormal auditory information processing has been reported in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD. In the present study auditory processing was investigated by recording auditory brainstem responses (ABRs elicited by forward masking in adults diagnosed with Asperger syndrome (AS. Sixteen AS subjects were included in the forward masking experiment and compared to three control groups consisting of healthy individuals (n = 16, schizophrenic patients (n = 16 and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder patients (n = 16, respectively, of matching age and gender. The results showed that the AS subjects exhibited abnormally low activity in the early part of their ABRs that distinctly separated them from the three control groups. Specifically, wave III amplitudes were significantly lower in the AS group than for all the control groups in the forward masking condition (P < 0.005, which was not the case in the baseline condition. Thus, electrophysiological measurements of ABRs to complex sound stimuli (eg, forward masking may lead to a better understanding of the underlying neurophysiology of AS. Future studies may further point to specific ABR characteristics in AS individuals that separate them from individuals diagnosed with other neurodevelopmental diseases.Keywords: asperger syndrome, auditory brainstem response, forward masking, psychoacoustics

  1. Memetics clarification of abnormal behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: Biological medicine is hard to fully and scientifically explain the etiological factor and pathogenesis of abnormal behaviors; while, researches on philosophy and psychology (including memetics) are beneficial to better understand and explain etiological factor and pathogenesis of abnormal behaviors. At present, the theory of philosophy and psychology is to investigate the entity of abnormal behavior based on the views of memetics.METHODS: Abnormal behavior was researched in this study based on three aspects, including instinctive behavior disorder, poorly social-adapted behavior disorder and mental or body disease associated behavior disorder. Most main viewpoints of memetics were derived from "The Meme Machine", which was written by Susan Blackmore. When questions about abnormal behaviors induced by mental and psychological diseases and conduct disorder of teenagers were discussed, some researching achievements which were summarized by authors previously were added in this study, such as aggressive behaviors, pathologically aggressive behaviors, etc.RESULTS: The abnormal behaviors mainly referred to a part of people's substandard behaviors which were not according with the realistic social environment, culture background and the pathologic behaviors resulted from people's various psychological diseases. According to the theory of "meme", it demonstrated that the relevant behavioral obstacles of various psychological diseases, for example, the unusual behavior of schizophrenia, were caused, because the old meme was destroyed thoroughly but the new meme was unable to establish; psychoneurosis and personality disorder were resulted in hard establishment of meme; the behavioral obstacles which were ill-adapted to society, for example, various additional and homosexual behaviors, were because of the selfish replications and imitations of "additional meme" and "homosexual meme"; various instinct behavioral and congenital intelligent obstacles were not significance

  2. Knee osteoarthritis in traumatic knee symptoms in general practice: 6-year cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Kastelein (Marlous); P.A.J. Luijsterburg (Pim); I.M. Koster (Ingrid); J.A.N. Verhaar (Jan); D. Vroegindeweij (Dammis); S.M. Bierma-Zeinstra (Sita); E.H.G. Oei (Edwin)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractAim: To identify degenerative knee abnormalities using MRI and radiography 6 years after knee trauma, their relation with persistent knee symptoms and baseline prognostic factors. Methods: Adults (18–65 years) with incident traumatic knee symptoms visiting their

  3. Simultaneous determination of amino acids and neurotransmitters in plasma samples from schizophrenic patients by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Diego Soares; Crevelin, Eduardo José; de Moraes, Luiz Alberto Beraldo; Cecilio Hallak, Jaime Eduardo; de Souza Crippa, José Alexandre; Costa Queiroz, Maria Eugênia

    2015-03-01

    A sensitive, reproducible, and rapid method was developed for the simultaneous determination of underivatized amino acids (aspartate, serine, glycine, alanine, methionine, leucine, tyrosine, and tryptophan) and neurotransmitters (glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid) in plasma samples using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry. The plasma concentrations of amino acids and neurotransmitters obtained from 35 schizophrenic patients in treatment with clozapine (27 patients) and olanzapine (eight patients) were compared with those obtained from 38 healthy volunteers to monitor the effectiveness of treatment. The chromatographic conditions separated ten target compounds within 3 min. This method presented linear ranges that varied from (lower limit of quantification: 9.7-13.3 nmol/mL) to (upper limit of quantification: 19.4-800 nmol/mL), intra- and interassay precision with coefficients of variation lower than 10%, and relative standard error values of the accuracy ranged from -2.1 to 9.9%. The proposed method appropriately determines amino acids and neurotransmitters in plasma from schizophrenic patients. Compared with the control group (healthy volunteers), the plasma levels of methionine in schizophrenic patients treated with olanzapine are statistically significantly higher. Moreover, schizophrenic patients treated with clozapine tend to have increased plasma levels of glutamate. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Estimation of localization and dipole moment of alpha- and theta-rhythm sources by cluster analysis in healthy subjects and schizophrenics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkhlyutov, VM; Shchuchkin, YV; Ushakov, VL; Strelets, VB; Pirogov, YA

    2006-01-01

    In 12 healthy subjects and 9 schizophrenic patients in the background conditions (with eyes closed) EEG was recorded from 16 standard derivations (10-20 system) during 3 min. The record underwent the spectral analysis detecting alpha- and theta-frequency bands. After the preliminary narrow band

  5. The diagnostic value of clinical EEG in detecting abnormal synchronicity in panic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamaszek, Michael; Olbrich, Sebastian; Gallinat, Jürgen

    2011-07-01

    Electroencephalographic (EEG) findings repeatedly reported abnormal synchronous or even epileptiform discharges in panic disorder. Although less frequently occurring in patients with panic disorder, these deviant EEG features during panic attacks were also observed in intracranial EEG. For this purpose, our article reviews the consideration of abnormal synchronous neuronal activity in different neurocircuits, particularly limbic, as a suggested condition of panic attacks. Therapeutic approaches of anticonvulsants have shown reductions of symptoms and frequency of attacks in numerous patients suffering from panic disorder, supporting the presumption of underlying abnormal synchronous neuronal activity. Thus, scalp EEG recordings are still recommended for discovering indications of abnormal synchronous neuronal activity in panic patients.

  6. Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ187 GYNECOLOGIC PROBLEMS Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results • What is cervical cancer screening? • What causes abnormal cervical cancer screening test ...

  7. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Rabies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the site of bite, progressing within days to symptoms of cerebral dysfunction, anxiety, confusion, agitation. As the disease progresses, the person may experience delirium, abnormal behavior, hallucinations, and insomnia. The acute period ...

  8. Neural mechanisms of oculomotor abnormalities in the infantile strabismus syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Mark M G; Pallus, Adam; Fleuriet, Jérome; Mustari, Michael J; Tarczy-Hornoch, Kristina

    2017-07-01

    Infantile strabismus is characterized by numerous visual and oculomotor abnormalities. Recently nonhuman primate models of infantile strabismus have been established, with characteristics that closely match those observed in human patients. This has made it possible to study the neural basis for visual and oculomotor symptoms in infantile strabismus. In this review, we consider the available evidence for neural abnormalities in structures related to oculomotor pathways ranging from visual cortex to oculomotor nuclei. These studies provide compelling evidence that a disturbance of binocular vision during a sensitive period early in life, whatever the cause, results in a cascade of abnormalities through numerous brain areas involved in visual functions and eye movements. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  9. NEUROTRANSMITTER ABNORMALITIES AND RESPONSE TO SUPPLEMENTATION IN SPG11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderver, Adeline; Tonduti, Davide; Auerbach, Sarah; Schmidt, Johanna L.; Parikh, Sumit; Gowans, Gordon C.; Jackson, Kelly E.; Brock, Pamela L.; Patterson, Marc; Nehrebecky, Michelle; Godfrey, Rena; Zein, Wadih M.; Gahl, William; Toro, Camilo

    2012-01-01

    Objective To report the detection of secondary neurotransmitter abnormalities in a group of SPG11 patients and describe treatment with L-dopa/carbidopa and sapropterin. Design Case reports Setting National Institutes of Health in the context of the Undiagnosed Disease Program; Children’s National Medical Center in the context of Myelin Disorders Bioregistry Program Patients Four SPG11 patients with a clinical picture of progressive spastic paraparesis complicated by extrapyramidal symptoms and maculopathy Interventions L-dopa/carbidopa and sapropterin Results 3/4 patients presented secondary neurotransmitter abnormalities; 4/4 partially responded to L-dopa as well as sapropterin Conclusions In the SPG11 patient with extrapyramidal symptoms, a trial of L-dopa/carbidopa and sapropterin and/or evaluation of cerebrospinal fluid neurotransmitters should be considered. PMID:22749184

  10. Abnormal parietal function in conversion paresis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marije van Beilen

    Full Text Available The etiology of medically unexplained symptoms such as conversion disorder is poorly understood. This is partly because the interpretation of neuroimaging results in conversion paresis has been complicated by the use of different control groups, tasks and statistical comparisons. The present study includes these different aspects in a single data set. In our study we included both normal controls and feigners to control for conversion paresis. We studied both movement execution and imagery, and we contrasted both within-group and between-group activation. Moreover, to reveal hemisphere-specific effects that have not been reported before, we performed these analyses using both flipped and unflipped data. This approach resulted in the identification of abnormal parietal activation which was specific for conversion paresis patients. Patients also showed reduced activity in the prefrontal cortex, supramarginal gyrus and precuneus, including hemisphere-specific activation that is lateralized in the same hemisphere, regardless of right- or left-sided paresis. We propose that these regions are candidates for an interface between psychological mechanisms and disturbed higher-order motor control. Our study presents an integrative neurophysiological view of the mechanisms that contribute to the etiology of this puzzling psychological disorder, which can be further investigated with other types of conversion symptoms.

  11. Functional dyspepsia, upper gastrointestinal symptoms, and transit in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chitkara, Denesh K.; Delgado-Aros, Silvia; Bredenoord, Albert J.; Cremonini, Filippo; El-Youssef, Mounif; Freese, Deborah; Camilleri, Michael

    2003-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of abnormal gastric emptying and small bowel transit in children with functional dyspepsia at a tertiary care center, and the relationship between abnormal gastric and small bowel transit and symptoms in pediatric patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders. Patients

  12. Epileptiform electroencephalogram abnormality in children with congenital sensorineural hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Badry, Mohamed Mohamed; Hamdy, Nermin Aly; Sobhy, Sayed; Gamal, Reham

    2014-04-01

    This work was designed to study electroencephalogram findings in children with congenital sensorineural hearing loss and correlate these findings with the SNHL parameters as duration, etiology, severity, and type. Ninety children with bilateral congenital sensorineural hearing loss served as the study group. They were free from any neurological disorders or symptoms that are commonly associated with abnormal electroencephalogram as convulsions or loss of consciousness. Twenty children having normal hearing with no history of otological or neurological disorders served as the control group. All children participating in the study were subjected to full medical and audiological history, otological examination, neurological examination, audiological evaluation and electroencephalogram recording. Mean age of the children in the control group was 3.56 ± 2.1 years and mean age of the children in the study group was 3.8 ± 2.2 years. While none of the control children had abnormal electroencephalogram, 38 (42.2%) of children with congenital SNHL had epileptiform electroencephalogram abnormality. The epileptiform abnormality was generalized in 14 children (36.8%), focal temporal in 17 children (44.7%) and focal other than temporal in 7 children (18.4%). According to the hemispheric side affected, the abnormality was right in 14 children (36.8%), left in 10 children (26.3%) and bilateral in 14 children (36.8%). No statistically significant predominance of specific site or side of the epileptiform abnormality was found. Similarly, no statistical significant prevalent of the epileptiform abnormality was found in relation to the age or sex of children, duration of hearing loss or etiology of hearing loss (i.e., genetic vs. neonatal insults). On the other hand, the epileptiform abnormality was statistically prevalent in children with moderate degree of hearing loss, and in children with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder. The epileptiform electroencephalogram abnormality is

  13. Neural correlates of working memory deficits in schizophrenic patients. Ways to establish neurocognitive endophenotypes of psychiatric disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, O.; Gruber, E.; Falkai, P.

    2005-01-01

    This article briefly reviews some methodological limitations of functional neuroimaging studies in psychiatric patients. We argue that the investigation of the neural substrates of cognitive deficits in psychiatric disorders requires a combination of functional neuroimaging studies in healthy subjects with corresponding behavioral experiments in patients. In order to exemplify this methodological approach we review recent findings regarding the functional neuroanatomy of distinct components of human working memory and provide evidence for selective dysfunctions of cortical networks that underlie specific working memory deficits in schizophrenia. This identification of subgroups of schizophrenic patients according to neurocognitive parameters may facilitate the establishment of behavioral and neurophysiological endophenotypes and the development of a neurobiological classification of psychiatric disorders. (orig.) [de

  14. Lentiginosis, Deafness and Cardiac Abnormalities*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1973-01-06

    Jan 6, 1973 ... His height. mass. intelligence and genitalia were normal. The aSSOCiatIOn between deafness and disturbance of cardiac conduction and between pigmented skin lesions and cardiac abnormalities, has been well described. Should. ~I patient present with multiple lentigines and/or familial sensineural ...

  15. Cardiac abnormalities after subarachnoid hemorrhage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bilt, I.A.C. van der

    2016-01-01

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage(aSAH) is a devastating neurological disease. During the course of the aSAH several neurological and medical complications may occur. Cardiac abnormalities after aSAH are observed often and resemble stress cardiomyopathy or Tako-tsubo cardiomyopathy(Broken Heart

  16. Chromosomal Abnormalities Associated With Omphalocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ping Chen

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Fetuses with omphalocele have an increased risk for chromosomal abnormalities. The risk varies with maternal age, gestational age at diagnosis, association with umbilical cord cysts, complexity of associated anomalies, and the contents of omphalocele. There is considerable evidence that genetics contributes to the etiology of omphalocele. This article provides an overview of chromosomal abnormalities associated with omphalocele and a comprehensive review of associated full aneuploidy such as trisomy 18, trisomy 13, triploidy, trisomy 21, 45,X, 47,XXY, and 47,XXX, partial aneuploidy such as dup(3q, dup(11p, inv(11, dup(1q, del(1q, dup(4q, dup(5p, dup(6q, del(9p, dup(15q, dup(17q, Pallister-Killian syndrome with mosaic tetrasomy 12p and Miller-Dieker lissencephaly syndrome with deletion of 17p13.3, and uniparental disomy (UPD such as UPD 11 and UPD 14. Omphalocele is a prominent marker for chromosomal abnormalities. Perinatal identification of omphalocele should alert chromosomal abnormalities and familial unbalanced translocations, and prompt thorough cytogenetic investigations and genetic counseling.

  17. Admission haematological abnormalities and postoperative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admission haematological abnormalities and postoperative outcomes in neonates with acute surgical conditions in Alexandria, Egypt. HL Wella, SMM Farahat. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals ...

  18. Abnormalities on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in patients with transient ischemic attack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Tomomi; Shibagaki, Yasuro; Uchiyama, Shinichiro; Iwata, Makoto

    2003-01-01

    We studied abnormalities on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) in patients with transient ischemic attack (TIA). Out of 18 consecutive TIA patients, 9 patients had relevant focal abnormalities on DWI. Among TIA patients, six patients were associated with atrial fibrillation (Af), and all of these patients had focal abnormalities on DWI as well. TIA patients with Af had significantly more frequent focal abnormalities on DWI than those without Af (p=0.009; Fisher's exact probability test). In addition, the duration of TIA symptoms was not related to the presence of focal abnormalities on DWI. These results indicate that embolic mechanism may cause focal abnormalities on DWI. DWI was more sensitive to detect responsible ischemic lesions in these patients than T2-weighted image or fluid-attenuated inversion recovery image. (author)

  19. Abnormalities on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in patients with transient ischemic attack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Tomomi; Shibagaki, Yasuro [Ushiku Aiwa General Hospital, Ibaraki (Japan); Uchiyama, Shinichiro; Iwata, Makoto [Tokyo Women' s Medical Coll. (Japan)

    2003-03-01

    We studied abnormalities on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) in patients with transient ischemic attack (TIA). Out of 18 consecutive TIA patients, 9 patients had relevant focal abnormalities on DWI. Among TIA patients, six patients were associated with atrial fibrillation (Af), and all of these patients had focal abnormalities on DWI as well. TIA patients with Af had significantly more frequent focal abnormalities on DWI than those without Af (p=0.009; Fisher's exact probability test). In addition, the duration of TIA symptoms was not related to the presence of focal abnormalities on DWI. These results indicate that embolic mechanism may cause focal abnormalities on DWI. DWI was more sensitive to detect responsible ischemic lesions in these patients than T2-weighted image or fluid-attenuated inversion recovery image. (author)

  20. Predictive validity of proposed remission criteria in first-episode schizophrenic patients responding to antipsychotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wunderink, Lex; Nienhuis, Fokko J.; Sytema, Sjoerd; Wiersma, Durk

    The objective of this study was to examine the predictive validity of the remission criteria proposed by Andreasen et all in first-episode patients responding to antipsychotics. Antipsychotic responsive patients with first-episode schizophrenia showing symptom remission (n = 60) were compared with

  1. BDNF serum levels in schizophrenic patients during treatment augmentation with sarcosine (results of the PULSAR study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strzelecki, Dominik; Kałużyńska, Olga; Wysokiński, Adam

    2016-08-30

    Finding a relationship between schizophrenia symptoms severity and initial level of BDNF and its changes during augmentation of antipsychotic treatment with sarcosine. 57 individuals with schizophrenia with predominantly negative symptoms completed a 6-month RCT prospective study. The patients received 2g of sarcosine (n=27) or placebo (n=30) daily. At the beginning, after 6 weeks and 6 months BDNF levels were measured. Severity of symptoms was assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS). BDNF serum levels were stable after 6 weeks and 6 months in both groups. We noted improvement in negative symptoms, general psychopathology and total PANSS score in sarcosine group comparing to placebo, however there was no correlations between serum BDNF concentrations and PANSS scores in all assessments. Initial serum BDNF concentrations cannot be used as a predictor of the improvement resulting from adding sarcosine. Our results indicate that either BDNF is not involved in the NMDA-dependent mechanism of sarcosine action or global changes in BDNF concentrations induced by amino-acid cannot be detected in blood assessments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Echocardiographic abnormalities in hypertensive patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodulfo Garcia, Maikel; Tornes Perez, Victor Manuel; Castellanos Tardo, Juan Ramon

    2012-01-01

    A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in 120 hypertensive patients with a course of 5 or more years, who went to the emergency room of 'Saturnino Lora' Provincial Teaching Hospital from November 2010 to November 2011 in order to determine the presence or absence of echocardiographic abnormalities typical of hypertension. Of these, 78,3 % was affected, most of whom reported not to continue with regular previous medical treatment, and 21,7 % had not these abnormalities. Age group of 50-60 years, males and blacks prevailed in the case material. The most significant echocardiographic findings were left ventricular hypertrophy and heart failure with ejection fraction of left ventricle preserved

  3. Goldenhar syndrome and urogenital abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Marulaiah

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The Goldenhar syndrome (oculo-auriculo-vertebral syn-drome or 1st and 2nd branchial arch syndrome is a com-plex of craniofacial anomalies. It has been associated with anomalies in other systems and with abnormalities of the urogenital system. We present a case of Goldenhar syn-drome with multiple renal anomalies and a urogenital si-nus, which has not been reported before.

  4. Mastoid abnormalities in Down syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glass, R.B.J.; Yousefzadeh, D.K.; Roizen, N.J.

    1989-06-01

    Hearing loss and otitis media are commonly associated with Down syndrome. Hypoplasia of the mastoids is seen in many affected children and sclerosis of mastoid bones is not uncommon in Down syndrome. Awareness and early recognition of mastoid abnormality may lead to appropriate and timely therapy, thereby preserving the child's hearing or compensating for hearing loss; factors which are important for learning and maximum development.

  5. Computed tomography of thymic abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnyder, P.; Candardjis, G.

    1987-05-01

    Computed tomographic examinations of 38 patients with surgically and histologically proven diagnosis were reviewed. Twenty subjects (52%) had an invasive thymoma and 16% an hyperplastic thymus. Myasthenia gravis was present in 6 cases (16%) of thymic abnormalities, four (10,5%) with invasive thymoma and two (5%) with thymic hyperplasia. Graves' disease was also present in one case of thymic hyperplasia. We emphasize the contribution of CT to the diagnosis and the prognosis.

  6. Computed tomography of thymic abnormalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnyder, P.; Candardjis, G.

    1987-01-01

    Computed tomographic examinations of 38 patients with surgically and histologically proven diagnosis were reviewed. Twenty subjects (52%) had an invasive thymoma and 16% an hyperplastic thymus. Myasthenia gravis was present in 6 cases (16%) of thymic abnormalities, four (10,5%) with invasive thymoma and two (5%) with thymic hyperplasia. Graves' disease was also present in one case of thymic hyperplasia. We emphasize the contribution of CT to the diagnosis and the prognosis. (orig.)

  7. Mastoid abnormalities in Down syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, R.B.J.; Yousefzadeh, D.K.; Roizen, N.J.

    1989-01-01

    Hearing loss and otitis media are commonly associated with Down syndrome. Hypoplasia of the mastoids is seen in many affected children and sclerosis of mastoid bones is not uncommon in Down syndrome. Awareness and early recognition of mastoid abnormality may lead to appropriate and timely therapy, thereby preserving the child's hearing or compensating for hearing loss; factors which are important for learning and maximum development. (orig.)

  8. Abnormal uterine bleeding in perimenopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, S R; Lumsden, M A

    2017-10-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding is one of the commonest presenting complaints encountered in a gynecologist's office or primary-care setting. The wider availability of diagnostic tools has allowed prompt diagnosis and treatment of an increasing number of menstrual disorders in an office setting. This White Paper reviews the advantages and disadvantages of transvaginal ultrasound, blind endometrial sampling and diagnostic hysteroscopy. Once a proper diagnosis has been established, appropriate therapy may be embarked upon. Fortunately, only a minority of such patients will have premalignant or malignant disease. When bleeding is sufficient to cause severe anemia or even hypovolemia, prompt intervention is called for. In most of the cases, however, the abnormal uterine bleeding will be disquieting to the patient and significantly affect her 'quality of life'. Sometimes, reassurance and expectant management will be sufficient in such patients. Overall, however, in cases of benign disease, some intervention will be required. The use of oral contraceptive pills especially those with a short hormone-free interval, the insertion of the levonorgestrel intrauterine system, the incorporation of newer medical therapies including antifibrinolytic drugs and selective progesterone receptor modulators and minimally invasive treatments have made outpatient therapy increasingly effective. For others, operative hysteroscopy and endometrial ablation are proven therapeutic tools to provide both long- and short-term relief of abnormal uterine bleeding, thus avoiding, or deferring, hysterectomy.

  9. Hemostatic abnormalities in Noonan syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artoni, Andrea; Selicorni, Angelo; Passamonti, Serena M; Lecchi, Anna; Bucciarelli, Paolo; Cerutti, Marta; Cianci, Paola; Gianniello, Francesca; Martinelli, Ida

    2014-05-01

    A bleeding diathesis is a common feature of Noonan syndrome, and various coagulation abnormalities have been reported. Platelet function has never been carefully investigated. The degree of bleeding diathesis in a cohort of patients with Noonan syndrome was evaluated by a validated bleeding score and investigated with coagulation and platelet function tests. If ratios of prothrombin time and/or activated partial thromboplastin time were prolonged, the activity of clotting factors was measured. Individuals with no history of bleeding formed the control group. The study population included 39 patients and 28 controls. Bleeding score was ≥2 (ie, suggestive of a moderate bleeding diathesis) in 15 patients (38.5%) and ≥4 (ie, suggestive of a severe bleeding diathesis) in 7 (17.9%). Abnormal coagulation and/or platelet function tests were found in 14 patients with bleeding score ≥2 (93.3%) but also in 21 (87.5%) of those with bleeding score Noonan syndrome had a bleeding diathesis and >90% of them had platelet function and/or coagulation abnormalities. Results of these tests should be taken into account in the management of bleeding or invasive procedures in these patients. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  10. Special report on abnormal climate in 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-12-01

    This reports on abnormal climate in 2010 with impact on the each field. It is comprised of four chapters, which deal with Introduction with purpose of publish and background, current situation and cause of abnormal climate in 2010 on abnormal climate around the world and Korea, Action and impact against abnormal climate in 2010 to agriculture, industry and energy, prevention of disasters, forest, fishery products, environment and health, Evaluation and policy proposal. It also has an appendix about occurrence and damage on abnormal climate of the world in 2010 and media reports on abnormal climate in Korea in 2010.

  11. Evaluation of striatal dopamine transporter density using ({sup 123}I)-{beta}-CIT SPECT in schizophrenic patients treated with olanzapine: pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chul Eung; Moon, Hey Won; Choe, Won Sick; Kim, Chang Ho; Chi, Dae Yoon [Inha Univ., Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-08-01

    This pilot study was performed to understand the pharmacological effect of olanzapine, an atypical antipsychotic agent, on dopamine transporter in schizophrenic patients. Six patients (3 male, 3 female) with schizophrenia, who had not taken any psychotropic drugs for at least four weeks, were studied. Nuclear imaging using ({sup 123}I)-{beta}-CIT SPECT was obtained before and after 4-week treatment with olanzapine. Analysis of ROI on the striatum, caudate nucleus, and putamen was performed. Post-treatment uptake was significantly increased in all the ROIs compared with pre-treatment uptake. This preliminary study with the small number of schizophrenic patients suggested an increase in uptake of dopamine transporter in the striatum, caudate nucleus, and putamen after 4-week treatment with olanzapine, which warrants a large-scaled controlled study to confirm the current findings.

  12. Neurodevelopmental origins of abnormal cortical morphology in dissociative identity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinders, A A T S; Chalavi, S; Schlumpf, Y R; Vissia, E M; Nijenhuis, E R S; Jäncke, L; Veltman, D J; Ecker, C

    2018-02-01

    To examine the two constitutes of cortical volume (CV), that is, cortical thickness (CT) and surface area (SA), in individuals with dissociative identity disorder (DID) with the view of gaining important novel insights into the underlying neurobiological mechanisms mediating DID. This study included 32 female patients with DID and 43 matched healthy controls. Between-group differences in CV, thickness, and SA, the degree of spatial overlap between differences in CT and SA, and their relative contribution to differences in regional CV were assessed using a novel spatially unbiased vertex-wise approach. Whole-brain correlation analyses were performed between measures of cortical anatomy and dissociative symptoms and traumatization. Individuals with DID differed from controls in CV, CT, and SA, with significantly decreased CT in the insula, anterior cingulate, and parietal regions and reduced cortical SA in temporal and orbitofrontal cortices. Abnormalities in CT and SA shared only about 3% of all significantly different cerebral surface locations and involved distinct contributions to the abnormality of CV in DID. Significant negative associations between abnormal brain morphology (SA and CV) and dissociative symptoms and early childhood traumatization (0 and 3 years of age) were found. In DID, neuroanatomical areas with decreased CT and SA are in different locations in the brain. As CT and SA have distinct genetic and developmental origins, our findings may indicate that different neurobiological mechanisms and environmental factors impact on cortical morphology in DID, such as early childhood traumatization. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Abnormal Structure–Function Relationship in Spasmodic Dysphonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludlow, Christy L.

    2012-01-01

    Spasmodic dysphonia (SD) is a primary focal dystonia characterized by involuntary spasms in the laryngeal muscles during speech production. Although recent studies have found abnormal brain function and white matter organization in SD, the extent of gray matter alterations, their structure–function relationships, and correlations with symptoms remain unknown. We compared gray matter volume (GMV) and cortical thickness (CT) in 40 SD patients and 40 controls using voxel-based morphometry and cortical distance estimates. These measures were examined for relationships with blood oxygen level–dependent signal change during symptomatic syllable production in 15 of the same patients. SD patients had increased GMV, CT, and brain activation in key structures of the speech control system, including the laryngeal sensorimotor cortex, inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), superior/middle temporal and supramarginal gyri, and in a structure commonly abnormal in other primary dystonias, the cerebellum. Among these regions, GMV, CT and activation of the IFG and cerebellum showed positive relationships with SD severity, while CT of the IFG correlated with SD duration. The left anterior insula was the only region with decreased CT, which also correlated with SD symptom severity. These findings provide evidence for coupling between structural and functional abnormalities at different levels within the speech production system in SD. PMID:21666131

  14. Working memory in volunteers and schizophrenics using BOLD fMRI; Das Arbeitsgedaechtnis bei Gesunden und bei Schizophrenen: Untersuchungen mit BOLD-fMRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giesel, F.L. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ) Heidelberg, Abteilung Radiologie (Germany); Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ), Abteilung Radiologie, Heidelberg (Germany); Hohmann, N. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ) Heidelberg, Abteilung Radiologie (Germany); Psychiatrische Universitaetsklinik Heidelberg, Sektion Gerontopsychiatrie (Germany); Seidl, U.; Kress, K.R.; Schoenknecht, P.; Schroeder, J. [Psychiatrische Universitaetsklinik Heidelberg, Sektion Gerontopsychiatrie (Germany); Kauczor, H.-U.; Essig, M. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ) Heidelberg, Abteilung Radiologie (Germany)

    2005-02-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging uses the blood oxygen level-dependent effect (BOLD MRI) for noninvasive display of cerebral correlatives of cognitive function. The importance for the understanding of physiological and pathological processes is demonstrated by investigations of working memory in schizophrenics and healthy controls. Working memory is involved in processing rather than storage of information and therefore is linked to complex processes such as learning and problem solving. In schizophrenic psychosis, these functions are clearly restricted. Training effects in the working memory task follow an inverse U-shape function, suggesting that cerebral activation reaches a peak before economics of the brain find a more efficient method and activation decreases. (orig.) [German] Die funktionelle Magnetresonanztomographie (fMRT) nutzt den ''blood oxygen level dependent effect'' (BOLD-Effekt) zur nichtinvasiven Darstellung zerebraler Korrelate kognitiver Funktionen. Die Bedeutung dieses Verfahrens fuer das Verstaendnis physiologischer und pathologischer Prozesse wird anhand von Untersuchungen zum Arbeitsgedaechtnis bei Schizophrenen und gesunden Kontrollpersonen verdeutlicht. Das Arbeitsgedaechtnis dient weniger der Speicherung, sondern vielmehr der Verarbeitung von Informationen und ist deshalb in komplexe Prozesse wie Lernen und Problemloesen eingebunden. Im Rahmen schizophrener Psychosen kommt es zu einer deutlichen Einschraenkung dieser Funktionen. Erwartungsgemaess zeigen sich unter Durchfuehrung eines Arbeitsgedaechtnisparadigmas Unterschiede in der zerebralen Aktivitaet, die jedoch bei den Erkrankten unter Therapie prinzipiell reversibel sind. Von Interesse sind auch Trainingseffekte bei Gesunden, wobei eine verminderte Aktivierung nach Training auf eine ''Oekonomisierung'' schliessen laesst. (orig.)

  15. Functional and structural abnormalities associated with empathy in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-04-20

    Apr 20, 2015 ... On behavioural assessment, schizophrenic patients (83.00±29.04) showed less scores for .... matched for age, sex and socio-economic status, underwent. MRI scans. .... voxel-level threshold, the required minimum cluster size for ... regional changes in the grey or white matter volumes respec- tively.

  16. Low-set ears and pinna abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low-set ears; Microtia; "Lop" ear; Pinna abnormalities; Genetic defect - pinna; Congenital defect - pinna ... conditions: Abnormal folds or location of the pinna Low-set ears No opening to the ear canal ...

  17. Enhanced monitoring of abnormal emergency department demands

    KAUST Repository

    Harrou, Fouzi; Sun, Ying; Kadri, Farid

    2016-01-01

    of abnormal situations caused by abnormal patient arrivals to the ED. More specifically, This work proposed the application of autoregressive moving average (ARMA) models combined with the generalized likelihood ratio (GLR) test for anomaly-detection. ARMA

  18. Imaging findings of the brain abnormalities in acute lymphoblastic leukemia of children during and after treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyung Joo; Lee, Seung Rho; Park, Dong Woo; Joo, Kyung Bin; Kim, Jang Wook; Hahm, Chang Kok; Kim, Ki Joong; Lee, Hahng

    2001-01-01

    We evaluated the imaging abnormalities of the brain observed during and after treatment of acute childhood lymphoblastic leukemia. The study group consisted of 30 patients (male : female=19 : 11 ; mean age, 64 months) with acute childhood lymphoblastic leukemia during the previous ten-year period who had undergone prophylaxis of the central nervous system. Irrespective of the CNS symptoms, base-line study of the brain involving CT and follow-up CT or MRI was undertaken more than once. We retrospectively evaluated the imaging findings, methods of treatment, associated CNS symptoms, and the interval between diagnosis and the time at which brain abnormalities were revealed by imaging studies. In 15 (50% ; male : female=9 : 6 ; mean age, 77 months) of 30 patients, brain abnormalities that included brain atrophy (n=9), cerebral infarctions (n=4), intracranial hemorrhage (n=1), mineralizing microangiopathy (n=2), and periventricular leukomalacia (n=3) were seen on follow-up CT or MR images. In four of nine patients with brain atrophy, imaging abnormalities such as periventricular leukomalacia (n=2), infarction (n=1) and microangiopathy (n=1) were demonstrated. Fourteen of the 15 patients underwent similar treatment ; the one excluded had leukemic cells in the CSF. Six patients had CNS symptoms. In the 15 patients with abnormal brain imaging findings, the interval between diagnosis and the demonstration of brain abnormalities was between one month and four years. After the cessation of treatment, imaging abnormalities remained in all patients except one with brain atrophy. Various imaging abnormalities of the brain may be seen during and after the treatment of acute childhood lymphoblastic leukemia and persist for a long time. In children with this condition, the assessment of brain abnormalities requires follow-up study of the brain

  19. Imaging findings of the brain abnormalities in acute lymphoblastic leukemia of children during and after treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyung Joo; Lee, Seung Rho; Park, Dong Woo; Joo, Kyung Bin; Kim, Jang Wook; Hahm, Chang Kok; Kim, Ki Joong; Lee, Hahng [College of Medicine, Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-09-01

    We evaluated the imaging abnormalities of the brain observed during and after treatment of acute childhood lymphoblastic leukemia. The study group consisted of 30 patients (male : female=19 : 11 ; mean age, 64 months) with acute childhood lymphoblastic leukemia during the previous ten-year period who had undergone prophylaxis of the central nervous system. Irrespective of the CNS symptoms, base-line study of the brain involving CT and follow-up CT or MRI was undertaken more than once. We retrospectively evaluated the imaging findings, methods of treatment, associated CNS symptoms, and the interval between diagnosis and the time at which brain abnormalities were revealed by imaging studies. In 15 (50% ; male : female=9 : 6 ; mean age, 77 months) of 30 patients, brain abnormalities that included brain atrophy (n=9), cerebral infarctions (n=4), intracranial hemorrhage (n=1), mineralizing microangiopathy (n=2), and periventricular leukomalacia (n=3) were seen on follow-up CT or MR images. In four of nine patients with brain atrophy, imaging abnormalities such as periventricular leukomalacia (n=2), infarction (n=1) and microangiopathy (n=1) were demonstrated. Fourteen of the 15 patients underwent similar treatment ; the one excluded had leukemic cells in the CSF. Six patients had CNS symptoms. In the 15 patients with abnormal brain imaging findings, the interval between diagnosis and the demonstration of brain abnormalities was between one month and four years. After the cessation of treatment, imaging abnormalities remained in all patients except one with brain atrophy. Various imaging abnormalities of the brain may be seen during and after the treatment of acute childhood lymphoblastic leukemia and persist for a long time. In children with this condition, the assessment of brain abnormalities requires follow-up study of the brain.

  20. Three-dimensional textural analysis of brain images reveals distributed grey-matter abnormalities in schizophrenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganeshan, Balaji [University of Sussex, Falmer, Clinical Imaging Sciences Centre, Brighton and Sussex Medical School, Brighton (United Kingdom); University of Sussex, Falmer, Department of Engineering and Design, Brighton (United Kingdom); Miles, Kenneth A.; Critchley, Hugo D. [University of Sussex, Falmer, Clinical Imaging Sciences Centre, Brighton and Sussex Medical School, Brighton (United Kingdom); Young, Rupert C.D.; Chatwin, Christopher R. [University of Sussex, Falmer, Department of Engineering and Design, Brighton (United Kingdom); Gurling, Hugh M.D. [University College London, Department of Mental Health Sciences, London (United Kingdom)

    2010-04-15

    Three-dimensional (3-D) selective- and relative-scale texture analysis (TA) was applied to structural magnetic resonance (MR) brain images to quantify the presence of grey-matter (GM) and white-matter (WM) textural abnormalities associated with schizophrenia. Brain TA comprised volume filtration using the Laplacian of Gaussian filter to highlight fine, medium and coarse textures within GM and WM, followed by texture quantification. Relative TA (e.g. ratio of fine to medium) was also computed. T1-weighted MR whole-brain images from 32 participants with diagnosis of schizophrenia (n = 10) and healthy controls (n = 22) were examined. Five patients possessed marker alleles (SZ8) associated with schizophrenia on chromosome 8 in the pericentriolar material 1 gene while the remaining five had not inherited any of the alleles (SZ0). Filtered fine GM texture (mean grey-level intensity; MGI) most significantly differentiated schizophrenic patients from controls (P = 0.0058; area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve = 0.809, sensitivity = 90%, specificity = 70%). WM measurements did not distinguish the two groups. Filtered GM and WM textures (MGI) correlated with total GM and WM volume respectively. Medium-to-coarse GM entropy distinguished SZ0 from controls (P = 0.0069) while measures from SZ8 were intermediate between the two. 3-D TA of brain MR enables detection of subtle distributed morphological features associated with schizophrenia, determined partly by susceptibility genes. (orig.)

  1. Three-dimensional textural analysis of brain images reveals distributed grey-matter abnormalities in schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganeshan, Balaji; Miles, Kenneth A.; Critchley, Hugo D.; Young, Rupert C.D.; Chatwin, Christopher R.; Gurling, Hugh M.D.

    2010-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) selective- and relative-scale texture analysis (TA) was applied to structural magnetic resonance (MR) brain images to quantify the presence of grey-matter (GM) and white-matter (WM) textural abnormalities associated with schizophrenia. Brain TA comprised volume filtration using the Laplacian of Gaussian filter to highlight fine, medium and coarse textures within GM and WM, followed by texture quantification. Relative TA (e.g. ratio of fine to medium) was also computed. T1-weighted MR whole-brain images from 32 participants with diagnosis of schizophrenia (n = 10) and healthy controls (n = 22) were examined. Five patients possessed marker alleles (SZ8) associated with schizophrenia on chromosome 8 in the pericentriolar material 1 gene while the remaining five had not inherited any of the alleles (SZ0). Filtered fine GM texture (mean grey-level intensity; MGI) most significantly differentiated schizophrenic patients from controls (P = 0.0058; area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve = 0.809, sensitivity = 90%, specificity = 70%). WM measurements did not distinguish the two groups. Filtered GM and WM textures (MGI) correlated with total GM and WM volume respectively. Medium-to-coarse GM entropy distinguished SZ0 from controls (P = 0.0069) while measures from SZ8 were intermediate between the two. 3-D TA of brain MR enables detection of subtle distributed morphological features associated with schizophrenia, determined partly by susceptibility genes. (orig.)

  2. [A new patient focused scale for measuring quality of life in schizophrenic patients: the Schizophrenia Quality of Life Scale (SOL)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, P; Caci, H; Azorin, J M; Daléry, J; Hardy-Baylé, M C; Etienne, D; Gérard, D; Peretti, C S

    2005-01-01

    RATIONALE/OBJECTIVE: Quality of Life (QOL) has been recognized as an important measure of the outcome of patients by clinicians and policy makers in Mental Health. The emerging consensus in the health field that personal values and the patient's preferences are important in monitoring the quality of medical care outcomes makes it even more important to assess the patient's perspectives. Unfortunately, there is little consensus about what constitutes QOL or how to measure it, particularly in psychotic patients. The objective of this study is to report the stages of development and validation of a QOL questionnaire based on issues pertinent to patients with schizophrenia. During a first phase, identical pattern were identified among interviews (conducted by psychologists) of schizophrenic patients (DSM IV, n = 100), mental health staff (n = 20) and families (n = 20). The data gathered in the first phase were discussed and organized, by 25 experts, into a structure that made up the skeleton of the scale (133 items, 17 factors). Based on a prospective epidemiological study conducted with 337 French psychiatrists, a validation analysis of structural and psychometric proprieties was performed. Finally reliability of the scale was assessed by a second test/retest (D0, D7) study (n = 100). A total of 686 schizophrenic, schizophreniform or schizoaffective patients (DSM IV) were included. Internal consistency analysis identified 14 factors (74 items), all with a Cronbach's alpha of at least 0.75: professional life (0.95), affective and sexual life (0.92), illness knowledge (0.90), relationship (0.92), life satisfaction, (0.87), coping with drugs (0.79), drugs impact on the body (0.87), daily life (0.83), family relationship (0.81), future (0.88), security feeling (0.84), leisure (0.87), money management (0.76) and autonomy (0.75). Construct validity was confirmed (Pearson test) using established clinical (Brief Psychiatry Rating Scale and Clinical Global Improvement), social

  3. [A nationwide investigation needs for rehabilitation of schizophrenic outpatients--the patients' attribute and actual conditions of living].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, T; Kuroda, K; Hirano, W; Ueno, M; Yoshizumi, A; Inomata, Y; Komine, K

    1996-01-01

    In Japan we are very short of community resources for persons with mental disability. The authors, a board of resettlement, thought patients' actual conditions of living and needs for rehabilitation to let them live in the community had to be evaluated. Then in March 1993 the actual conditions of living and needs for rehabilitation of schizophrenic outpatients were investigated nationally. This article is the report on the patients' actual conditions of living. Investigation papers were sent to 358 institutions (286 hospitals and 72 clinics) which agreed to cooperate with the investigation. The 5186 investigation papers were received from 313 institutions. All of the papers except 18, which were lack of their ages, were analyzed. All of the schizophrenic outpatients, who consulted psychiatrists on one day during investigation, were considered objects of this research. Those who consented were included the research and psychiatrists filled in investigation papers. These institutions had a policy of intensive social resettlement activities and so on. Male patients were 55% and females were 45%. There were patients in the forties and females were older than males. Thirty-nine percent of them had been hospitalized once or twice. Thirty-four percent of them had been hospitalized for less than one year. Eighteen percent of them had not been hospitalized. Fifty percent of patients answered there was no friend and acquaintance, and had a tendency to stand alone. Fifty-three percent of patients lived with their parents, 21% with their spouses, and 17% alone. But 32% of females lived with their husbands. Sixteen percent worked for full-time jobs, 8% worked part-time jobs, 12% attended day care center 4% went to sheltered-workshops and only 1% went to rehabilitation-workshops for outpatients. While 13% didn't have a right to receive disability pension, the sources of income were job (30%), disability pension (30%), and welfare benefits (12%). Regarding the ability for living

  4. MR imaging of abnormal synovial processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, S.F.; Sanchez, R.; Murray, W.T.; Silbiger, M.L.; Ogden, J.; Cochran, C.

    1987-01-01

    MR imaging can directly image abnormal synovium. The authors reviewed over 50 cases with abnormal synovial processes. The abnormalities include Baker cysts, semimembranous bursitis, chronic shoulder bursitis, peroneal tendon ganglion cyst, periarticular abscesses, thickened synovium from rheumatoid and septic arthritis, and synovial hypertrophy secondary to Legg-Calve-Perthes disease. MR imaging has proved invaluable in identifying abnormal synovium, defining the extent and, to a limited degree, characterizing its makeup

  5. Abnormal ventilation scans in middle-aged smokers. Comparison with tests of overall lung function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barter, S.J.; Cunningham, D.A.; Lavender, J.P.; Gibellino, F.; Connellan, S.J.; Pride, N.B.

    1985-01-01

    The uniformity of regional ventilation during tidal breathing has been assessed using continuous inhalation of krypton-81m in 43 male, lifelong nonsmokers and 46 male, current cigarette smokers (mean daily consumption 24.1 cigarettes/day) between 44 and 61 yr of age and with mild or no respiratory symptoms. All subjects had normal chest radiographs. The results of the ventilation scans were compared with tests of overall lung function (spirometry, maximal expiratory flow-volume curves, and single-breath N2 test). Diffuse abnormalities of the ventilation scan were found in 19 (41%) of the 46 smokers but in none of the nonsmokers. Focal abnormalities were found in 7 smokers and 3 nonsmokers. Smokers showed the expected abnormalities in overall lung function (reduced FEV1 and VC, increased single-breath N2 slope, and closing volume), but in individual smokers there was only a weak relation between the severity of abnormality of overall lung function and an abnormal ventilation scan. Abnormal scans could be found when overall lung function was normal and were not invariably found when significant abnormalities in FEV1/VC or N2 slope were present. There was no relation between the presence of chronic expectoration and an abnormal scan. The prognostic significance of an abnormal ventilation scan in such smokers remains to be established

  6. Where schizophrenic patients commit suicide: a review of suicide among inpatients and former inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompili, Maurizio; Mancinelli, Iginia; Ruberto, Amedeo; Kotzalidis, Giorgio D; Girardi, Paolo; Tatarelli, Roberto

    2005-01-01

    To review the literature on suicide of inpatients with schizophrenia, to identify suicide risk factors as well as typical patterns of behavior and to suggest a rationale and strategies for future interventions. A computerized MedLine, Excerpta Medica and PsycLit search supplemented by an examination of cross-references and reviews. Up to half the suicides among patients with schizophrenia occur during inpatient admission. Inpatient suicides were found among those of a young age group who were predominantly single, childless and socially isolated. The vast majority experienced an illness characterized by long duration and prolonged psychiatric hospitalizations or multiple admissions and discharges. Up to 50% of the suicides occurred in the first few weeks and months following discharge from the hospital. The paranoid subtype of schizophrenia, where positive symptoms prevail and negative symptoms are few, is associated with a suicide risk that is three times greater than that associated with nonparanoid subtypes and eight times greater than the risk associated with the deficit subtype. Treatment of suicide is a major problem among inpatients with schizophrenia. Evidence suggests that suicide is generally carried-out by patients who have been recently discharged or by those who manage to get away from the hospital. Strategies aimed at preventing this phenomenon have been introduced to the medical personnel, but suicide in these patients does not seem to have been reduced. We emphasize the need to establish guidelines for the prevention of suicide in hospitalized patients with schizophrenia.

  7. Abnormal Liver Function Tests in an Anorexia Nervosa Patient and an Atypical Manifestation of Refeeding Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vamshidhar R. Vootla

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Refeeding syndrome is defined as electrolyte and fluid abnormalities that occur in significantly malnourished patients when they are refed orally, enterally, or parenterally. The principal manifestations include hypophosphatemia, hypokalemia, vitamin deficiencies, volume overload and edema. This can affect multiple organ systems, such as the cardiovascular, pulmonary, or neurological systems, secondary to the above-mentioned abnormalities. Rarely, patients may develop gastrointestinal symptoms and show abnormal liver function test results. We report the case of a 52-year-old woman with anorexia nervosa who developed refeeding syndrome and simultaneous elevations of liver function test results, which normalized upon the resolution of the refeeding syndrome.

  8. Abnormal Liver Function Tests in an Anorexia Nervosa Patient and an Atypical Manifestation of Refeeding Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vootla, Vamshidhar R; Daniel, Myrta

    2015-01-01

    Refeeding syndrome is defined as electrolyte and fluid abnormalities that occur in significantly malnourished patients when they are refed orally, enterally, or parenterally. The principal manifestations include hypophosphatemia, hypokalemia, vitamin deficiencies, volume overload and edema. This can affect multiple organ systems, such as the cardiovascular, pulmonary, or neurological systems, secondary to the above-mentioned abnormalities. Rarely, patients may develop gastrointestinal symptoms and show abnormal liver function test results. We report the case of a 52-year-old woman with anorexia nervosa who developed refeeding syndrome and simultaneous elevations of liver function test results, which normalized upon the resolution of the refeeding syndrome.

  9. Ran domized controlled clinical tria l on the efficacy of team play football on schizophrenic patients: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo Vinci

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The physical activity is an important aspect of good health for everyone; it is even more important for psychiatric patients who usually live an unhealthy lifestyle. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of football practice on the self-reported health quality of life (SRHQL and Wellbeing in schizophrenic subjects. A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted to assess the effectiveness of the Psychosocial Rehabilitation Program performed by Daily Center Mazzacurati, Department of Mental Health Roma/D , for psychotic subjects that included weekly football activities for a period of 9 months. The results show that the model proved effective in the experimental group (SG as regards the psychopathological dimensions, which are significantly improved (Median(IQR: 31(16 versus 53(18; p=0.001; in particular the negative symptomatology has been reduced, and this result is hardly achieved with the drug therapy (17(7 versus 25(15; p=0.003. This study increases the awareness of following this ap proach and improving the extension and the confirmation of the results achieved.

  10. D2 dopamine receptors in neuroleptic-naive schizophrenic patients. A positron emission tomography study with [11C]raclopride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farde, L.; Wiesel, F.A.; Stone-Elander, S.; Halldin, C.; Nordstroem, A.L.H.; Hall, H.; Sedvall, G.

    1990-01-01

    Several groups have reported increased densities of D2 dopamine receptors in the basal ganglia of schizophrenic brains postmortem. The significance of this finding has been questioned, since an upregulation of receptor number may be a neuronal response to neuroleptic drug treatment. We have used positron emission tomography and [ 11 C]raclopride to examine central D2 dopamine receptor binding in 20 healthy subjects and 18 newly admitted, young, neuroleptic-naive patients with schizophrenia. An in vivo saturation procedure was applied for quantitative determination of D2 dopamine receptor density (Bmax) and affinity (Kd). When the two groups were compared, no significant difference in Bmax or Kd values was found in the putamen or the caudate nucleus. The hypothesis of generally elevated central D2 dopamine receptor densities in schizophrenia was thus not supported by the present findings. In the patients but not in the healthy controls, significantly higher densities were found in the left than in the right putamen but not in the caudate nucleus

  11. Predictors of subjective quality of life in schizophrenic patients living in the community. A Nordic multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, L; Middelboe, T; Merinder, L; Bjarnason, O; Bengtsson-Tops, A; Nilsson, L; Sandlund, M; Sourander, A; Sørgaard, K W; Vinding, H

    1999-01-01

    As part of a Nordic multi-centre study investigating the life and care situation of community samples of schizophrenic patients the aim of the present part of the study was to examine the relationship between global subjective quality of life and objective life conditions, clinical characteristics including psychopathology and number of needs for care, subjective factors such as satisfaction with different life domains, social network, and self-esteem. A sample of 418 persons with schizophrenia from 10 sites was used. The results of a final multiple regression analysis, explaining 52.3% of the variance, showed that five subjective factors were significantly associated with global subjective quality of life, together with one objective indicator, to have a close friend. No clinical characteristics were associated with global subjective quality of life. The largest part of the variance was explained by satisfaction with health, 36.3% of the variance, and self-esteem, 7.3% of the variance. It is concluded that the actual relationship between objective life conditions and subjectively experienced quality of life still remains unclear. Furthermore, it seems obvious that personality related factors such as self-esteem, mastery and sense of autonomy also play a role in the appraisal of subjective quality of life, which implies that factors like these are important to consider in clinical and social interventions for patients with schizophrenia in order to improve quality of life for these persons.

  12. Decreased hippocampal 5-HT2A receptors in post mortem tissue from schizophrenic but not bipolar subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarr, E.; Pavey, G.; Bradbury, R.; Copolov, D.L.; Dean, B.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The hippocampus is important in cognition and sensory gating,both of which are thought to be impaired in schizophrenia. Since 5HT has also been implicated in cognition we investigated the hippocampal serotonergic system in subjects with either schizophrenia or bipolar mood disorder. Using autoradiography,we found significant (p 3 H] ketanserin binding in the CA3 (Mean ±SEM:29.6 ± 4.0 vs.46.6 ± 4.2 fmol/mgETE), the stratum radiatum (27.3 ± 2.7 vs.38.7 ± 3.9 fmol/mgETE) and pyramidal cell layer (35.6 ± 3.4 vs.51.4 ± 2.7 fmol/ mgETE) of CA1 as well as the outer (8.3 ± 1.5 vs.12.2 ± 1.4 fmol/mgETE) and pyramidal cell layer (16.4 ± 2.5 vs.32.1 ± 3.2 fmol/mgETE) of the subiculum in hippocampal tissue from schizophrenic subjects. No such differences were found in the dentate gyrus or CA2 region from schizophrenia subjects or in any hippocampal region from bipolar subjects. The lack of change in the bipolar cohort suggests that the decreased density of hippocampal 5-HT 2A receptors is disease specific and not a result of neuroleptic treatment, which both cohorts received. Copyright (2001) Australian Neuroscience Society

  13. Concomitant Use of Topiramate Inducing Neutropenia in a Schizophrenic Male Stabilized on Clozapine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravesh Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a case of a 23-year-old African American male with a history of paranoid schizophrenia that developed neutropenia on a clozapine-topiramate therapy. Clozapine had well addressed the patient’s psychotic symptoms, while topiramate was used as a weight-lowering agent. The patient had fairly stable leukocyte counts for eight months on clozapine 300 mg and topiramate 100 mg daily. Doubling the dosage of topiramate led to severe neutropenia after two months. Reviewing the patient’s laboratory reports showed a gradual decline of neutrophils occurring at a lower dosage, followed by a rapid decline after an increased dosage. In this case, we report that not only did topiramate act as the neutropenic agent, but also it might have done so in a dose-dependent manner.

  14. Abnormalities of Object Visual Processing in Body Dysmorphic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feusner, Jamie D.; Hembacher, Emily; Moller, Hayley; Moody, Teena D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Individuals with body dysmorphic disorder may have perceptual distortions for their appearance. Previous studies suggest imbalances in detailed relative to configural/holistic visual processing when viewing faces. No study has investigated the neural correlates of processing non-symptom-related stimuli. The objective of this study was to determine whether individuals with body dysmorphic disorder have abnormal patterns of brain activation when viewing non-face/non-body object stimuli. Methods Fourteen medication-free participants with DSM-IV body dysmorphic disorder and 14 healthy controls participated. We performed functional magnetic resonance imaging while participants matched photographs of houses that were unaltered, contained only high spatial frequency (high detail) information, or only low spatial frequency (low detail) information. The primary outcome was group differences in blood oxygen level-dependent signal changes. Results The body dysmorphic disorder group showed lesser activity in the parahippocampal gyrus, lingual gyrus, and precuneus for low spatial frequency images. There were greater activations in medial prefrontal regions for high spatial frequency images, although no significant differences when compared to a low-level baseline. Greater symptom severity was associated with lesser activity in dorsal occipital cortex and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex for normal and high spatial frequency images. Conclusions Individuals with body dysmorphic disorder have abnormal brain activation patterns when viewing objects. Hypoactivity in visual association areas for configural and holistic (low detail) elements and abnormal allocation of prefrontal systems for details is consistent with a model of imbalances in global vs. local processing. This may occur not only for appearance but also for general stimuli unrelated to their symptoms. PMID:21557897

  15. Abnormality diagnosis device for nuclear reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utsunomiya, Kazuhiro; Oyama, Shinmi; Sakaba, Hideo

    1989-02-21

    According to the present invention, abnormality such as abnormal increase of temperature in a nuclear reactor is detected to send a signal to control rod drives, etc. thereby stopping the operation of the nuclear reactor. Receiving/transmission device transmits a signal for conducting normal operation of an abnormality information section, as well as receives an echo signal from the abnormality information section to transmit an abnormal signal to a reactor protection system. The abnormality information section is disposed to fuel assemblies, receives a signal from the receiving/transmission device for conducting the normal operation to transmit a normal echo signal, as well as changes the echo signal when detecting the nuclear reactor abnormality. By the foregoing method, since the abnormality information section is disposed to the fuel assemblies, various effects can be attained such as: (1) there is no response delay from the occurrence of abnormality to emergency counter measure after detection, (2) high burnup degree for fuels can thus be possible to improve the economical property, (3) the abnormality information section can be taken out from the reactor container together with fuel assemablies by an existent take-out mechanism and (4) since wireless transmission and reception are established between the receiving/transmission device and the abnormality information section, cables are not required in the container. (K.M.).

  16. Gastroesophageal reflux and upper gastrointestinal tract disorders in children with persistent or recurrent respiratory symptoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urioste, A.; Orellana, P.; Harris, P.; Sanchez, I.; Holgren, N.

    2002-01-01

    Gastroesophageal Reflux (GER) and gastrointestinal (GI) dismotility disorders, can coexist in children with persistent and/or recurrent bronchopulmonary symptoms(RBPS) condition that eventually improve or disappear after the treatment of these GI disorders The goal of this study was to evaluated the presence of GER, abnormal esophageal transit, swallowing disorders and lung aspiration in children with RBPS. We performed standard scintigraphic gastrointestinal procedures in 67 children.; 36 boys, with a mean age of 1.75 yrs. (10 days-15 yrs),all of them presented with RBPS, 21 of them associated with GI symptoms and 20 with neurological symptoms. Thirty four out of 67 children (50.74%) had an abnormal scintigraphic finding; single or combined. Swallowing abnormalities was observed in 11 (16.4%), esophageal transit abnormalities was observed in 16 (23.9%), GER in 9 (13.4%) and lung aspiration in 6 (8.95%). 10 children had more than one abnormalities (14.9%). Among the 20 children with neurological symptoms, 75% had an abnormal scintigraphic study versus the 40.4% of children without neurological symptoms. In children with RBPS, abnormalities of gastrointestinal tract is not uncommon; 50.74% in our group, specially in children with neurological symptoms (75%). Scintigraphic procedure is a safe, sensible and non invasive technique that allows the simultaneous evaluation of different parameters of the gastrointestinal motility, in order to detect abnormalities that could explain the clinical features in children with RBPS

  17. [Monilethrix--rare syndrome of structural hair abnormalities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzezińska-Wcisło, L; Bogdanowski, T; Szeremeta-Bazylewicz, G; Pierzchała, E

    1999-11-01

    Monilethrix is a rare structural disorder of hair. Characteristic abnormalities in the form of alternating thinning and fusiform thickening are observed in most of hair shafts that we call beaded hair. Macroscopic estimation shows lustreless, dry, rough, fragile hair. Trichological examination usually reveals a considerable percentage of anagenic hair. According to our own experiences and literature data systemic therapy (vitamins) and topical treatment (desquamative ointments) are not effective sufficiently. Spontaneous regression of symptoms often appears with time. Five cases of familial occurrence of monilethrix have been presented.

  18. Abnormal Returns and Contrarian Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Dall'Agnol

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available We test the hypothesis that strategies which are long on portfolios of looser stocks and short on portfolios of winner stocks generate abnormal returns in Brazil. This type of evidence for the US stock market was interpreted by The Bondt and Thaler (1985 as reflecting systematic evaluation mistakes caused by investors overreaction to news related to the firm performance. We found evidence of contrarian strategies profitability for horizons from 3 months to 3 years in a sample of stock returns from BOVESPA and SOMA from 1986 to 2000. The strategies are more profitable for shorter horizons. Therefore, there was no trace of the momentum effect found by Jagadeesh and Titman (1993 for the same horizons with US data. There are remaing unexplained positive returns for contrarian strategies after accounting for risk, size, and liquidity. We also found that the strategy profitability is reduced after the Real Plan, which suggests that the Brazilian stock market became more efficient after inflation stabilization.

  19. Bone and heart abnormalities of subclinical hyperthyroidism in women below the age of 65 years

    OpenAIRE

    Rosario, Pedro Weslley

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate bone and cardiac abnormalities and symptoms and signs of thyroid hormone excess in women with subclinical hyperthyroidism (SCH) aged < 65 years. Forty-eight women with SCH were evaluated. The control group consisted of 48 euthyroid volunteers. The mean symptom rating scale score was significantly higher in patients. Cardiac involvement, both morphological and affecting systolic and diastolic functions, was also observed in patients. Women wit...

  20. Functional capacity and muscular abnormalities in subclinical hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuters, Vaneska S; Teixeira, Patrícia de Fátima S; Vigário, Patrícia S; Almeida, Cloyra P; Buescu, Alexandre; Ferreira, Márcia M; de Castro, Carmen L N; Gold, Jaime; Vaisman, Mario

    2009-10-01

    Neuromuscular abnormalities and low exercise tolerance are frequently observed in overt hypothyroidism, but it remains controversial if they can also occur in subclinical hypothyroidism (sHT). The aim of this study is to evaluate neuromuscular symptoms, muscle strength, and exercise capacity in sHT, compared with healthy euthyroid individuals. A cross-sectional study was performed with 44 sHT and 24 euthyroid outpatients from a university hospital. Neuromuscular symptoms were questioned. Muscle strength was tested for neck, shoulder, arm, and hip muscle groups, using manual muscle testing (MMT). Quadriceps muscle strength was tested with a chair dynamometer and inspiratory muscle strength (IS) by a manuvacuometer. Functional capacity was estimated based on the peak of oxygen uptake (mL/kg/min), using the Bruce treadmill protocol. Cramps (54.8% versus 25.0%; P muscle strength by MMT and the coexistence of neuromuscular complaints in patients with sHT may indicate neuromuscular dysfunction.

  1. Different patterns of sexual dysfunctions associated with psychiatric disorders and psychopharmacological treatment. Results of an investigation by semistructured interview of schizophrenic and neurotic patients and methadone-substituted opiate addicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teusch, L; Scherbaum, N; Böhme, H; Bender, S; Eschmann-Mehl, G; Gastpar, M

    1995-05-01

    Little is known about sexual dysfunctions associated with psychiatric disorders and psychopharmacological treatment. In the present study schizophrenic patients (n = 45, mostly under neuroleptic treatment), neurotic patients (n = 50, mostly treated without medication), methadone-substituted opiate addicts (n = 37), and normal controls (n = 41) were included. They were interviewed with the aid of a sex-differentiated semistructured questionnaire on sexual function. All the methadone-substituted opiate addicts and nearly all the schizophrenic patients suffered from dysfunctions in at least one criterion. The three clinical groups differed significantly from the controls in sexual interest, emotional arousal, physiological arousal (erectile function/vaginal lubrication), performance (ejaculatory function/vaginism, dyspareunia), and orgasm satisfaction. Characteristic patterns of dysfunction were found in the male patients. The schizophrenic patients had significantly more dysfunctions of interest, physiological arousal, performance, and orgasm than the controls. Emotional arousal, erectile and ejaculatory functions, and orgasm satisfaction were impaired more frequently in the male schizophrenics than in the neurotic patients. Reduced sexual interest, emotional arousal, and orgasm satisfaction were reported more frequently by the methadone-substituted opiate addicts than by the neurotic men. Emotional arousal was even more frequently reduced than in the schizophrenic men. There was no correlation between sexual dysfunction and particular neuroleptics or neuroleptic or methadone dosage. The results are compared with the literature and suggestions made for further investigations.

  2. A case of neuroleptic malignant syndrome induced by risperidone in a schizophrenic woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallelli, Luca; Spagnuolo, Vincenzo; Palleria, Caterina; De Sarro, Giovambattista; Ferraro, Maria

    2009-05-01

    We report a case of neuroleptic malignant syndrome in a woman who assumed risperidone for schizoaffective disorders. A 45-year-old woman affected by schizoaffective disorders was admitted to Infectious Disease unit of Crotone Hospital because of a diagnosis of a fever of unknown origin. Clinical evaluation documented confusion and dysphoria, whereas chemical blood evaluation revealed acidosis and liver dysfunction. After few days she was transferred to the Operative Unit of Internal Medicine of San Giovanni in Fiore Hospital because of an increase in liver transaminases. Clinical evaluation showed the persistence of fever (38.8 degrees Celsius), with an increase in CPK, and liver enzymes. Pharmacological evaluation indicated a probable relationship between risperidone and NMS and led to a diagnosis of neuroleptic malignant syndrome associated with risperidone in a woman with schizophrenia. About seven days later, we recorded a complete resolution of her psychiatric symptoms. We postulate a possible interaction between risperidone and neuroleptic malignant syndrome and we suggest to use risperidone with caution in both young and middle aged people.

  3. Cortisol in schizophrenia: No association with tobacco smoking, clinical symptoms or antipsychotic medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedic Erjavec, Gordana; Uzun, Suzana; Nikolac Perkovic, Matea; Kozumplik, Oliver; Svob Strac, Dubravka; Mimica, Ninoslav; Hirasawa-Fujita, Mika; Domino, Edward F; Pivac, Nela

    2017-07-03

    Cigarette smoking is associated with higher cortisol levels in healthy subjects. In schizophrenia this relationship is not clear. There are divergent results on the association between cortisol with smoking, clinical symptoms and medication in schizophrenia. This study evaluated this association in 196 Caucasian inpatients with schizophrenia (51.30±26.68years old), subdivided into 123 smokers and 73 non-smokers. Basal salivary cortisol levels were measured twice, at 08.00 and 09.00AM, 90-120min after awakening. The effect of smoking on cortisol was evaluated according to current smoking status, the number of cigarettes/day and the nicotine addiction intensity. The influence of clinical symptoms and/or antipsychotic medication on cortisol was determined using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), and chlorpromazine equivalent doses. Non-smokers were older, received lower doses of antipsychotics, had higher PANSS scores, and had longer duration of illness than smokers. Salivary cortisol was similar in schizophrenic patients subdivided according to the smoking status, the number of cigarettes/day and nicotine addiction intensity. No significant correlation was found between salivary cortisol and PANSS scores, chlorpromazine equivalent doses, age of onset or the duration of illness. The findings revealed no association between salivary cortisol and smoking, nicotine addiction intensity, or clinical symptoms. Our preliminary data showed no correlation between salivary cortisol and chlorpromazine equivalent doses and/or antipsychotic medication. Our findings suggest that smoking does not affect the cortisol response in schizophrenic patients as it has been shown in healthy individuals. Future studies should investigate a possible desensitization of the stress system to smoking. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Prodromal psychotic symptoms and psychological distress among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    More than half (55.3%) reported having had a lifetime experience of major life event (20.9% in the preceding 6 months) while 13.9% had experienced bullying or abuse (5.1% in the preceding 6 months). The prevalence of prodromal symptoms was 20.9% (95% CI 0.174–0.244). Abnormal scores in emotional and conduct ...

  5. French Validation of the “reading the Mind in the Eyes Test” : Relation with Subclinical Psychotic Positive Symptoms in General Population

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, R.F.; Tubiana-Potiez, A.; Deprun, Samuel; Kahn, J.P.

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Very few tests are available to assess the " Theory of Mind " (ToM) in adults in French. The aim of our study was to validate a French version of a ToM task: the " Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test " (RMET ; Baron-Cohen et al. 2001 1). The ToM takes part in the social cognition processes which have impacts on the everyday functioning of schizophrenic patients 2 but also in bipolar disorder patients 3. According to some authors, some psychotic symptoms are present even ...

  6. Association of bone scintigraphic abnormalities with knee malalignment and pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, V B; McDaniel, G; Worrell, T W; Feng, S; Vail, T P; Varju, G; Coleman, R E

    2009-11-01

    The information content of knee bone scintigraphy was evaluated, including pattern, localisation and intensity of retention relative to radiographic features of knee osteoarthritis, knee alignment and knee symptoms. A total of 308 knees (159 subjects) with symptomatic and radiographic knee osteoarthritis of at least one knee was assessed by late-phase (99m)Technetium methylene disphosphonate bone scintigraph, fixed-flexion knee radiograph, full limb radiograph for knee alignment and for self-reported knee symptom severity. Generalised linear models were used to control for within-subject correlation of knee data. The compartmental localisation (medial vs lateral) and intensity of knee bone scan retention were associated with the pattern (varus vs valgus) (p<0.001) and severity (p<0.001) of knee malalignment and localisation and severity of radiographic osteoarthritis (p<0.001). Bone scan agent retention in the tibiofemoral, but not patellofemoral, compartment was associated with severity of knee symptoms (p<0.001) and persisted after adjusting for radiographic osteoarthritis (p<0.001). To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study describing a relationship between knee malalignment, joint symptom severity and compartment-specific abnormalities by bone scintigraphy. This work demonstrates that bone scintigraphy is a sensitive and quantitative indicator of symptomatic knee osteoarthritis. Used selectively, bone scintigraphy is a dynamic imaging modality that holds great promise as a clinical trial screening tool and outcome measure.

  7. Hemostatic abnormalities in liver cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendal YALÇIN

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 44 patients with liver cirrhosis were investigated for hemostatic parameters. Patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, hepatocellular carcinoma, hepatorenal syndrome and cholestatic liver diseases were excluded. Patients were classified by Child-Pugh criterion and according to this 4 patients were in Class A, 20 in Class B and 20 in C. Regarding to these results, it was aimed to investigate the haematological disturbances in liver cirrhotic patients.In the result there was a correlation between activated partial thromboplastin time, serum iron, ferritin, transferrin, haptoglobin and Child-Pugh classification. Besides there was no correlation between prothrombin time, factor 8 and 9, protein C and S, anti-thrombin 3, fibrinogen, fibrin degradation products, serum iron binding capacity, hemoglobin, leukocyte, mean corpuscular volume and Child-Pugh classification.There were significant difference, in terms of AST, ferritin, haptoglobulin, sex and presence of ascites between groups (p0.05. In the summary, we have found correlation between hemostatic abnormalities and disease activity and clinical prognosis in patients with liver cirrhosis which is important in the management of these patients. This is also important for identification of liver transplant candidiates earlier.

  8. [Cognitive abnormalities and cannabis use].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solowij, Nadia; Pesa, Nicole

    2010-05-01

    Evidence that cannabis use impairs cognitive function in humans has been accumulating in recent decades. The purpose of this overview is to update knowledge in this area with new findings from the most recent literature. Literature searches were conducted using the Web of Science database up to February 2010. The terms searched were: "cannabi*" or "marijuana", and "cogniti*" or "memory" or "attention" or "executive function", and human studies were reviewed preferentially over the animal literature. Cannabis use impairs memory, attention, inhibitory control, executive functions and decision making, both during the period of acute intoxication and beyond, persisting for hours, days, weeks or more after the last use of cannabis. Pharmacological challenge studies in humans are elucidating the nature and neural substrates of cognitive changes associated with various cannabinoids. Long-term or heavy cannabis use appears to result in longer-lasting cognitive abnormalities and possibly structural brain alterations. Greater adverse cognitive effects are associated with cannabis use commencing in early adolescence. The endogenous cannabinoid system is involved in regulatory neural mechanisms that modulate processes underlying a range of cognitive functions that are impaired by cannabis. Deficits in human users most likely therefore reflect neuroadaptations and altered functioning of the endogenous cannabinoid system.

  9. Report on abnormal climate in 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-12-01

    This paper reports of impact on abnormal climate in 2011. It has Introduction with purpose and background of publish and summary of this report. The cause and current state on abnormal climate of the world and Korea in 2011, Measurement and impact against abnormal climate in 2011 to agriculture, land and maritime, industry and energy, prevention of disasters, environment and health, assessment and advice on the policy. It lists the appendix about occurrence and damage on abnormal climate of the world and Korea in 2011 and media report data.

  10. Evaluation of Chromosomal Abnormalities and Common ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of Chromosomal Abnormalities and Common Trombophilic Mutations in Cases with Recurrent Miscarriage. Ahmet Karatas, Recep Eroz, Mustafa Albayrak, Tulay Ozlu, Bulent Cakmak, Fatih Keskin ...

  11. Aumento da dislogia do discurso em narrativa emocionalmente carregada na esquizofrenia Emotionally-loaded narrative increases dyslogia in schizophrenics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCELO CAIXETA

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Testamos o grau de desagregação dislógica do discurso de dez pacientes esquizofrênicos não medicados que narravam fatos carregados emocionalmente ou neutros. As "narrativas emocionais" mostraram-se bem mais dislógicas do que as "narrativas neutras" e, para explicar estes fatos, evocamos: 1Uma disjunção das conexões fronto-têmporo-límbicas que impediria um tratamento cognitivo adequado das emoções que seriam, desta forma, altamente disruptivas sobre os processos lógicos. 2Uma disfunção da memória de trabalho/sistema supervisor atencional que induziria tanto a uma perda das conexões normais entre os fragmentos do discurso como a uma ausência de planificação estratégica das linhas globais do enunciado.We tested the degree of dyslogia in the narrative of ten schizophrenic non-medicated outpatients while they narrated emotionally-loaded or neutral facts. The "emotional narratives" were much more dyslogic than the "neutral narratives". In order to explain these facts we evoke: 1. A fronto-temporo-limbic connection dysfunction would disturb an adequate cognitive treatement of emotions that would be, in this way, highly disruptive over logical processes. 2. A working memory/supervisory attentional system dysfunction that would produce both a loss of the normal conections among the fragments of speech and a lack of global strategical planning of the thought.

  12. An epidemiological study of concomitant use of Chinese medicine and antipsychotics in schizophrenic patients: implication for herb-drug interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang-Jin Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Herb-drug interactions are an important issue in drug safety and clinical practice. The aim of this epidemiological study was to characterize associations of clinical outcomes with concomitant herbal and antipsychotic use in patients with schizophrenia. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In this retrospective, cross-sectional study, 1795 patients with schizophrenia who were randomly selected from 17 psychiatric hospitals in China were interviewed face-to-face using a structured questionnaire. Association analyses were conducted to examine correlates between Chinese medicine (CM use and demographic, clinical variables, antipsychotic medication mode, and clinical outcomes. The prevalence of concomitant CM and antipsychotic treatment was 36.4% [95% confidence interval (95% CI 34.2%-38.6%]. Patients using concomitant CM had a significantly greater chance of improved outcomes than non-CM use (61.1% vs. 34.3%, OR = 3.44, 95% CI 2.80-4.24. However, a small but significant number of patients treated concomitantly with CM had a greater risk of developing worse outcomes (7.2% vs. 4.4%, OR = 2.06, 95% CI 2.06-4.83. Significant predictors for concomitant CM treatment-associated outcomes were residence in urban areas, paranoid psychosis, and exceeding 3 months of CM use. Herbal medicine regimens containing Radix Bupleuri, Fructus Gardenia, Fructus Schisandrae, Radix Rehmanniae, Akebia Caulis, and Semen Plantaginis in concomitant use with quetiapine, clozapine, and olanzepine were associated with nearly 60% of the risk of adverse outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Concomitant herbal and antipsychotic treatment could produce either beneficial or adverse clinical effects in schizophrenic population. Potential herb-drug pharmacokinetic interactions need to be further evaluated.

  13. Elevated risks for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and blood disorders in Ashkenazi schizophrenic pedigrees suggest new candidate genes in schizophrenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodman, A.B. [Columbia Univ. School of Public Health, New York, NY (United States)

    1994-09-15

    Among relatives of Ashkenazi schizophrenic probands the rate of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis was 3/1,000, compared to expected population rates of approximately 2/100,000. Relative risk of bleeding disorders, including hematologic cancers, was increased more than three-fold compared to controls. Co-occurrence of motor neuron disease and blood dyscrasias, accompanied by psychosis, has long been recognized. A virally-mediated autoimmune pathogenesis has been proposed. However, the familial co-occurrence of these three disease entities raises the possibility that the disease constellation be considered as a manifestation of a common underlying genetic defect. Such expansion of the spectrum of affectation might enhance the power of both candidate gene and linkage studies. Based on these findings, the loci suggested as candidate regions in schizophrenia include a potential hot spot on chromosome 21q21-q22, involving the superoxide dismutase and amyloid precursor protein genes. Alternatively, genes on other chromosomes involved in the expression, transcription, or regulation of these genes, or associated with the illnesses of high frequency in these pedigrees are suggested. Candidates include the choroid plexus transport protein, transthyretin at 18q11.2-q12.1; the t(14;18)(q22;21) characterizing B-cell lymphoma-2, the most common form of hematologic cancer; and the 14q24 locus of early onset Alzheimer`s disease, c-Fos, transforming growth factor beta 3, and heat shock protein A2. Expression of hematologic cancers and the suggested candidate genes are known to involve retinoid pathways, and retinoid disregulation has been proposed as a cause of schizophrenia. 67 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Eye Movement Abnormalities in Multiple Sclerosis: Pathogenesis, Modeling, and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Serra

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS commonly causes eye movement abnormalities that may have a significant impact on patients’ disability. Inflammatory demyelinating lesions, especially occurring in the posterior fossa, result in a wide range of disorders, spanning from acquired pendular nystagmus (APN to internuclear ophthalmoplegia (INO, among the most common. As the control of eye movements is well understood in terms of anatomical substrate and underlying physiological network, studying ocular motor abnormalities in MS provides a unique opportunity to gain insights into mechanisms of disease. Quantitative measurement and modeling of eye movement disorders, such as INO, may lead to a better understanding of common symptoms encountered in MS, such as Uhthoff’s phenomenon and fatigue. In turn, the pathophysiology of a range of eye movement abnormalities, such as APN, has been clarified based on correlation of experimental model with lesion localization by neuroimaging in MS. Eye movement disorders have the potential of being utilized as structural and functional biomarkers of early cognitive deficit, and possibly help in assessing disease status and progression, and to serve as platform and functional outcome to test novel therapeutic agents for MS. Knowledge of neuropharmacology applied to eye movement dysfunction has guided testing and use of a number of pharmacological agents to treat some eye movement disorders found in MS, such as APN and other forms of central nystagmus.

  15. Does abnormal sleep impair memory consolidation in schizophrenia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dara S Manoach

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Although disturbed sleep is a prominent feature of schizophrenia, its relation to the pathophysiology, signs, and symptoms of schizophrenia remains poorly understood. Sleep disturbances are well known to impair cognition in healthy individuals. Yet, in spite of its ubiquity in schizophrenia, abnormal sleep has generally been overlooked as a potential contributor to cognitive deficits. Amelioration of cognitive deficits is a current priority of the schizophrenia research community, but most efforts to define, characterize, and quantify cognitive deficits focus on cross-sectional measures. While this approach provides a valid snapshot of function, there is now overwhelming evidence that critical aspects of learning and memory consolidation happen offline, both over time and with sleep. Initial memory encoding is followed by a prolonged period of consolidation, integration, and reorganization, that continues over days or even years. Much of this evolution of memories is mediated by sleep. This article briefly reviews (i abnormal sleep in schizophrenia, (ii sleep-dependent memory consolidation in healthy individuals, (iii recent findings of impaired sleep-dependent memory consolidation in schizophrenia, and (iv implications of impaired sleep-dependent memory consolidation in schizophrenia. This literature suggests that abnormal sleep in schizophrenia disrupts attention and impairs sleep-dependent memory consolidation and task automation. We conclude that these sleep-dependent impairments may contribute substantially to generalized cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Understanding this contribution may open new avenues to ameliorating cognitive dysfunction and thereby improve outcome in schizophrenia.

  16. A case study of occipital outgrowth: a rare suboccipital abnormality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushkin, A Y; Gubin, A V; Ulrich, E V; Snischuk, V P

    2016-05-01

    To describe the clinical and radiological characteristics of uncommon upper cervical spine abnormality in children. Clinical and diagnostic characteristics of three patients aged 6-12 years with a similar uncommon type of occipital anomaly are described. The patients were admitted in 2007, 2009, and 2014, respectively. All patients were clinically and radiologically examined. In each case the massive, additional unilateral outgrowth of the occipital bone (os occipitale) was visualized. The signs and symptoms included torticollis, acute brain ischemia, and limited head motion. Two of the three patients underwent surgical treatment: an occipital-cervical fusion was performed in the first patient, and the outgrowth was removed in the second patient. After 1 year of follow-up the results were estimated as good for both patients, with better functional outcome for the second patient. The parents of the third patient did not consent for the surgical treatment. The unique features of this abnormality distinguish it from previous descriptions of the manifestation of pro-atlas, atlas, or atlanto-occipital synostosis. The presented abnormality had different manifestation of various severity in each case, from torticollis to acute vascular disorder. Clinical case series. IV.

  17. Venous anomalies and abnormalities of the posterior fossa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goulao, A.; Alvarez, H.; Garcia Monaco, R.; Pruvost, P.; Lasjaunias, P.

    1990-01-01

    The authors report a series of 16 patients with venous anomalies or abnormalities of the posterior fossa studied by angiography, CT and/or MRI. We believe that so-called 'venous angioma' are extreme anatomic variants that drain normal territories, and we prefer to call them developmental venous anomalies (DVA). Posterior fossa DVA, like the supra-tentorial ones are classified according to their drainage into deep and superficial type. They are exclusively located in the cerebellum or tectum. In 4 cases DVA was an incidental finding, in 3 an associated cerebral venous malformation (CVM) was found and felt to be the cause of the symptoms and only in one (Trigeminal pain) was a link between both suspected. Cavernous venous malformation (CVM) were found in frequent association with DVA (27%). 4 cases were single and 2 multiple. 5 CVM were located in the brain stem and 3 in the cerebellum. The clinical and radiological files were reviewed and a direct relationship between symptoms and localization was found in all patients with CVM. In 2 cases venous dysplasia was found: 1 Sturge-Weber and 1 First branchial arch syndrome. Both posterior fossa venous abnormalities were incidental findings. (orig.)

  18. Neurological Signs and Symptoms in Fibromyalgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Nathaniel F.; Buchwald, Dedra; Goldberg, Jack; Noonan, Carolyn; Ellenbogen, Richard G.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine the type and frequency of neurological signs and symptoms in individuals with fibromyalgia (FM). Methods Persons with FM (n=166) and pain-free controls (n=66) underwent systematic neurological examination by a neurologist blinded to disease status. Neurological symptoms present over the preceding 3 months were assessed with a standard questionnaire. We used logistic regression to evaluate the association of neurological symptoms and examination findings with FM status. Within the FM group we examined the correlation between self-reported symptoms and physical examination findings. Results Compared to the control group, age and gender adjusted estimates revealed the FM group had significantly more neurological abnormalities in multiple categories including: cranial nerves IX and X (42% vs. 8%), sensory (65% vs. 25%), motor (33% vs. 3%), and gait (28% vs. 7%). Similarly, the FM group endorsed significantly more neurological symptoms than the control group in 27 of 29 categories with the biggest differences observed for photophobia (70% vs. 6%), poor balance (63% vs. 4%), and weakness (58% vs. 2%) and tingling (54% vs. 4%) in the arms and legs. Poor balance, coordination, tingling, weakness in the arms and legs, and numbness in any part of body correlated with appropriate neurological exam findings in the FM group. Conclusions This blinded, controlled study demonstrated neurological physical examination findings in persons with FM. The FM group had more neurological symptoms than controls, with moderate correlation between symptoms and signs. These findings have implications for the medical work-up of patients with FM. PMID:19714636

  19. Neurologic signs and symptoms in fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Nathaniel F; Buchwald, Dedra; Goldberg, Jack; Noonan, Carolyn; Ellenbogen, Richard G

    2009-09-01

    To determine the type and frequency of neurologic signs and symptoms in individuals with fibromyalgia (FM). Persons with FM (n = 166) and pain-free controls (n = 66) underwent systematic neurologic examination by a neurologist blinded to disease status. Neurologic symptoms lasting at least 3 months were assessed with a standard questionnaire. We used logistic regression to evaluate the association of neurologic symptoms and examination findings with FM status. Within the FM group we examined the correlation between self-reported symptoms and physical examination findings. Age- and sex-adjusted estimates revealed that compared with the control group, the FM group had significantly more neurologic abnormalities in multiple categories, including greater dysfunction in cranial nerves IX and X (42% versus 8%) and more sensory (65% versus 25%), motor (33% versus 3%), and gait (28% versus 7%) abnormalities. Similarly, the FM group had significantly more neurologic symptoms than the control group in 27 of 29 categories, with the greatest differences observed for photophobia (70% versus 6%), poor balance (63% versus 4%), and weakness (58% versus 2%) and tingling (54% versus 4%) in the arms or legs. Poor balance or coordination, tingling or weakness in the arms or legs, and numbness in any part of the body correlated with appropriate neurologic examination findings in the FM group. This blinded, controlled study demonstrated neurologic physical examination findings in persons with FM. The FM group had more neurologic symptoms than did the controls, with moderate correlation between symptoms and signs. These findings have implications for the medical evaluation of patients with FM.

  20. Application of neutron activation analysis and spectrophotometry for the determination of copper level in sera and cerebrospinal fluids of schizophrenic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipcsey, A.; Fekete, J.; Oerdoegh, M.; Szabo, E.

    1985-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis and spectrophotometry were used for the determination of copper content in sera and cerebrospinal fluids of schizophrenic patients against control persons. Comparison of the results of copper determination by both methods is tabulated. From the data the following conclusions can be drawn: for copper determinations in sera the results of the two methods agree excellently. At small copper concentrations in the cerebrospinal fluids the deviations are rather high. It can also be seen that the copper contents determined from cerebrospinal fluids taken at different times are nearly equal. (author)

  1. Does Pharmacogenetic Testing for CYP450 2D6 and 2C19 among Patients with Diagnoses within the Schizophrenic Spectrum Reduce Treatment Costs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbild, Louise; Andersen, Stig Ejdrup; Werge, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The effect of pharmacogenetic testing for CYP450 2D6 and 2C19 on treatment costs have not yet been documented. This study used Danish patient registers to calculate health care costs of treating patients with diagnoses within the schizophrenic spectrum for one year with or without pharmacogenetic...... testing for polymorphisms in the genes for the CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 enzymes. In a randomized, controlled trial, stratified with respect to metabolizer genotype, 104 patients were assigned to treatment based on pharmacogenetic testing and 103 patients to treatment as usual. Random exclusion of extensive...

  2. The usefulness of esophagogram with marchmallow bolus in patients with esophageal related symptoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Sang Wook; Kim, Ki Whang; Park, Hyo Jin; Kim, Eun Kyung; Yu, Jeong Sik; Seo, Jung Kun; Kwon, Ryang; Shin, Hyung Cheol

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of the esophagogram using marshmallow bolus in the evaluation of the causes of variable esophageal-related symptoms. Esophagograms using marshmallow bolus were performed on 44 patients with esophageal-related symptoms and on ten normal volunteers. Videofluoroscopic studies were also made. Patients were classified into three groups according to their esophageal-related symptoms ; those with dysphagia, those with globus symptom, and those with chest pain. Abnormal findings on an esophagogram with marshmallow were graded in to three categories ; mild, moderate, and severe. Provocation of the same symptom was also evaluated. Esophageal monometric studies were performed on 16 patients and those results were compared with the results obtained from the esophagogram using marshmallow bolus. The provocation rate of the some symptom was 33% in the first group, 47% in the second, and 24% in the third. The provocation rate was highest in the second group. The provocation rate was also higher in patients with a severe degree of abnormality on an esophagogram using marshmallow bolus. Where there were abnormal findings, an esophagogram using marshmallow bolus showed a higher abnormality rate than did a conventional esophagogram. In cases showing abnormal finding son the esophageal monometric study, an esophagogram using marshmallow bolus showed a higher provocation rate and more severe abnormality than in cases showing normal findings on manometric study. An esophagogram using marshmallow bolus will a useful radiologic screening modality for the evaluation of patients with esophageal-related symptoms

  3. The usefulness of esophagogram with marchmallow bolus in patients with esophageal related symptoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Sang Wook; Kim, Ki Whang; Park, Hyo Jin; Kim, Eun Kyung; Yu, Jeong Sik; Seo, Jung Kun; Kwon, Ryang; Shin, Hyung Cheol [Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-03-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of the esophagogram using marshmallow bolus in the evaluation of the causes of variable esophageal-related symptoms. Esophagograms using marshmallow bolus were performed on 44 patients with esophageal-related symptoms and on ten normal volunteers. Videofluoroscopic studies were also made. Patients were classified into three groups according to their esophageal-related symptoms ; those with dysphagia, those with globus symptom, and those with chest pain. Abnormal findings on an esophagogram with marshmallow were graded in to three categories ; mild, moderate, and severe. Provocation of the same symptom was also evaluated. Esophageal monometric studies were performed on 16 patients and those results were compared with the results obtained from the esophagogram using marshmallow bolus. The provocation rate of the some symptom was 33% in the first group, 47% in the second, and 24% in the third. The provocation rate was highest in the second group. The provocation rate was also higher in patients with a severe degree of abnormality on an esophagogram using marshmallow bolus. Where there were abnormal findings, an esophagogram using marshmallow bolus showed a higher abnormality rate than did a conventional esophagogram. In cases showing abnormal finding son the esophageal monometric study, an esophagogram using marshmallow bolus showed a higher provocation rate and more severe abnormality than in cases showing normal findings on manometric study. An esophagogram using marshmallow bolus will a useful radiologic screening modality for the evaluation of patients with esophageal-related symptoms.

  4. Effects of theophylline administration and intracranial abnormalities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine effects of theophylline therapy for recurrent apnoea of prematurity and abnormal early (within the first 24 hours) cranial ultrasound abnormalities on protective neck turning response in preterm infants. Design: A cross sectional descriptive study. Setting: The Neonatal Unit of Hammersmith Hospital, ...

  5. An Abnormal Psychology Community Based Interview Assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Geoffry D.

    1977-01-01

    A course option in abnormal psychology involves students in interviewing and observing the activities of individuals in the off-campus community who are concerned with some aspect of abnormal psychology. The technique generates student interest in the field when they interview people about topics such as drug abuse, transsexualism, and abuse of…

  6. Prevalence of biochemical and immunological abnormalities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tile prevalence of biochemical and immunological abnormalities was studied in a group of 256 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (104 coloureds, 100 whites and 52 blacks). The most common biochemical abnormalities detected were a reduction in the serum creatinine value (43,4%), raised globulins (39,7%), raised serum ...

  7. Contrast sensitivity abnormalities in deaf individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Khorrami-Nejad

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: Hearing impaired boys are at a greater risk for contrast sensitivity abnormalities than boys with normal hearing. The larger frequency of contrast sensitivity abnormalities in high spatial frequencies than in other frequencies may demonstrate greater defects in the central visual system compared with the periphery in individuals with hearing loss.

  8. Relationship among sera lipoprotein abnormalities in healthy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As the prevalence of lipoprotein abnormalities in adolescents is increasing dramatically, the identification of relevant risk factors is a major public health challenge. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a family history of diabetes could be a risk factor for lipid abnormalities in healthy individuals. This study is a ...

  9. Abnormalities of cortical structures in adolescent-onset conduct disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Y; Guo, X; Zhang, J; Gao, J; Wang, X; Situ, W; Yi, J; Zhang, X; Zhu, X; Yao, S; Huang, B

    2015-12-01

    Converging evidence has revealed both functional and structural abnormalities in adolescents with early-onset conduct disorder (EO-CD). The neurological abnormalities underlying EO-CD may be different from that of adolescent-onset conduct disorder (AO-CD) patients. However, the cortical structure in AO-CD patients remains largely unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the cortical alterations in AO-CD patients. We investigated T1-weighted brain images from AO-CD patients and age-, gender- and intelligence quotient-matched controls. Cortical structures including thickness, folding and surface area were measured using the surface-based morphometric method. Furthermore, we assessed impulsivity and antisocial symptoms using the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS) and the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD). Compared with the controls, we found significant cortical thinning in the paralimbic system in AO-CD patients. For the first time, we observed cortical thinning in the precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) in AO-CD patients which has not been reported in EO-CD patients. Prominent folding abnormalities were found in the paralimbic structures and frontal cortex while diminished surface areas were shown in the precentral and inferior temporal cortex. Furthermore, cortical thickness of the paralimbic structures was found to be negatively correlated with impulsivity and antisocial behaviors measured by the BIS and APSD, respectively. The present study indicates that AO-CD is characterized by cortical structural abnormalities in the paralimbic system, and, in particular, we highlight the potential role of deficient structures including the precuneus and PCC in the etiology of AO-CD.

  10. Report to Congress on abnormal occurrences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    Section 208 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identifies an abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health and safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to Congress. This report covers the period January through March 1993. There is one abnormal occurrence at a nuclear power plant disposed in this report that involved a steam generator tube rupture at Palo Verde Unit 2, and none for fuel cycle facilities. Three abnormal occurrences involving medical misadminstrations (two therapeutic and one diagnostic) at NRC-licensed facilities are also discussed in this report. No abnormal occurrences were reported by NRC's Agreement States. The report also contains information updating previously reported abnormal occurrences

  11. [Advocacy for the establishment of a comprehensive strategy to reduce the "burden" of schizophrenic disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leguay, D

    2016-10-01

    This article attempts to identify and put into perspective the different approaches that could globally prevent the suffering induced by schizophrenia, from the detection of early psychosis to the impact on individual and family functioning and emotional health. Schizophrenia causes, at the community level, a number of difficult consequences and associated costs, which likely could be reduced if specific strategies, already known and documented internationally, were applied. Two areas not explored in this article: the role of medication and the issue of suicide prevention. In the scope of screening and early treatment, genetic risk, as well as the predictive ability of the clinical criteria for individuals at "ultra-high risk" of developing schizophrenia justify an increased vigilance for the detection of symptoms in order for treatment to begin earlier and to be more effective. These risk factors should not be neglected as the benefits of early management impact the course of illness and functional outcome. At this stage of the emergence of the disorder, it is difficult to systematize a therapeutic protocol. Two options are open to the clinician: "wait and watch" given the lack of a conclusive diagnosis and a more pro-active intervention, focused on the therapeutic alliance and enhancing insight and awareness. The second approach seems more productive but requires transparency with the patient and family regarding the uncertainty of the clinical situation, and an attitude that favors sharing information, along the lines of early psych education. Once a pathological stage is reached, early and accurate clinical care is fundamental. They depend heavily on access to care, proximity and availability to clinics or out-reach teams, capable of a thorough diagnostic work-up. Yet conversely, the availability for early and accurate clinical care faces obstacles which are closely related to the pejorative view of psychiatry held by the general public, health care

  12. Serum levels of interleukin 6 in schizophrenic patients during treatment augmentation with sarcosine (results of the PULSAR study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strzelecki, Dominik; Urban-Kowalczyk, Małgorzata; Wysokiński, Adam

    2018-03-01

    Augmentation of sarcosine, a natural inhibitor of the glycine transporter type I, normalizes glutamatergic neurotransmission, having beneficial impact on primary negative symptoms in schizophrenia and may also influence immune system and interleukin 6 (IL-6) levels. Finding a relationship between initial IL-6 serum concentrations or its changes and severity of symptoms as a result of sarcosine addition to stable antipsychotic treatment. Fifity-eight individuals with schizophrenia with predominantly negative symptoms completed a 6-month randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled prospective study. Patients received 2 g of sarcosine (n = 29) or placebo (n = 30) daily per os. We measured IL-6 levels and severity of symptoms at the beginning, after 6 weeks and 6 months. As main clinical tools, we used Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and Calgary depression scale for schizophrenia (CDSS). Augmentation with sarcosine had no effect on IL-6 serum levels in all time points. We noted significant improvements in negative symptoms, general psychopathology, and total PANSS score in the sarcosine group. We found correlation of initial serum IL-6 with severity of positive symptoms and negative association between IL-6 levels reduction and positive symptoms reduction. Sarcosine does not significantly affect IL-6 concentrations but IL-6 may be involved in mechanisms related to the presence of positive symptoms. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Traditional Chinese version of the Mayer Salovey Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT-TC): Its validation and application to schizophrenic individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Wei-Chung; Chen, Li-Fen; Chi, Chia-Hsing; Lin, Ching-Hung; Kao, Yu-Chen; Hsu, Wen-Yau; Lane, Hsien-Yuan; Hsieh, Jen-Chuen

    2016-09-30

    Schizophrenia is an illness that impairs a person's social cognition. The Mayer Salovey Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) is the most well-known test used to measure emotional intelligence (EI), which is a major component of social cognition. Given the absence of EI ability-based scales adapted to Chinese speakers, we translated the MSCEIT into a Traditional Chinese version (MSCEIT-TC) and validated this scale for use in schizophrenia studies. The specific aims were to validate the MSCEIT-TC, to develop a norm for the MSCEIT-TC, and use this norm to explore the EI performance of schizophrenic individuals. We included in our study seven hundred twenty-eight healthy controls and seventy-six individuals with schizophrenia. The results suggest that the MSCEIT-TC is reliable and valid when assessing EI. The results showed good discrimination and validity when comparing the two study groups. Impairment was the greatest for two branches Understanding and Managing Emotions, which implies that the deficits of schizophrenia individuals involve ToM (theory of mind) tasks. Deficits involving the negative scale of schizophrenia was related to impaired performance when the MSCEIT-TC was used (in branch 2, 3, 4, and the area Strategic). Our findings suggest that the MSCEIT-TC can be used for emotional studies in healthy Chinese and in clinical setting for investigating schizophrenic individuals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Brain functional connectivity during the experience of thought blocks in schizophrenic patients with persistent auditory verbal hallucinations: an EEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelopoulos, Elias; Koutsoukos, Elias; Maillis, Antonis; Papadimitriou, George N; Stefanis, Costas

    2014-03-01

    Thought blocks (TBs) are characterized by regular interruptions in the stream of thought. Outward signs are abrupt and repeated interruptions in the flow of conversation or actions while subjective experience is that of a total and uncontrollable emptying of the mind. In the very limited bibliography regarding TB, the phenomenon is thought to be conceptualized as a disturbance of consciousness that can be attributed to stoppages of continuous information processing due to an increase in the volume of information to be processed. In an attempt to investigate potential expression of the phenomenon on the functional properties of electroencephalographic (EEG) activity, an EEG study was contacted in schizophrenic patients with persisting auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) who additionally exhibited TBs. In this case, we hypothesized that the persistent and dense AVHs could serve the role of an increased information flow that the brain is unable to process, a condition that is perceived by the person as TB. Phase synchronization analyses performed on EEG segments during the experience of TBs showed that synchrony values exhibited a long-range common mode of coupling (grouped behavior) among the left temporal area and the remaining central and frontal brain areas. These common synchrony-fluctuation schemes were observed for 0.5 to 2s and were detected in a 4-s window following the estimated initiation of the phenomenon. The observation was frequency specific and detected in the broad alpha band region (6-12Hz). The introduction of synchrony entropy (SE) analysis applied on the cumulative synchrony distribution showed that TB states were characterized by an explicit preference of the system to be functioned at low values of synchrony, while the synchrony values are broadly distributed during the recovery state. Our results indicate that during TB states, the phase locking of several brain areas were converged uniformly in a narrow band of low synchrony values and in a

  15. Glaucoma: Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Glaucoma Symptoms, Treatment and Research Past Issues / Spring 2015 ... vision, without any pain. Photo courtesy of NEI Glaucoma Symptoms At first, open-angle glaucoma has no ...

  16. Hematologic Abnormalities in Cyanotic Congenital Heart Disease Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheila Chamanian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Patients with cyanotic heart disease may have an acceptable quality of life. However, they are invariably prone to several complications. The aim of this study is search about hematologic abnormalities in cyanotic congenital heart disease patients. Materials and Methods:  In this cross sectional study every cyanotic congenital heart disease patients who was referred to the adult congenital heart disease clinic was selected and asked of any possible hyperviscosity symptoms, gingival bleeding, Epistaxis, hemoptysis, hypermenorrhagia and gouty arthritis irrespective of their age, gender and primary diagnosis in a six-month period. In this regard, 02 saturation was obtained via pulse oximetry, an abdominal ultrasound was done in order to discover any gallstones and lab tests including CBC, coagulation parameters (bleeding time(BT,clotting time(CT, prothrombin time(PT,international ratio( INR, Ferritin, blood urea nitrogen (BUN and creatinine (Cr were provided as well. Results:  A total of 69 patients were enrolled in the present study. The mean age of the patients was 22.44±5.72 with a minimum of 15 and the maximum of 46 years old. Twenty two (34.4% of them were female and 45(65.6% were male. Conclusion: Our patients had less hyperuricemia, there is no correlation between hyperviscosity symptoms and haematocrit level and an inverse correlation between the Ferritin level and hyperviscosity symptoms were seen.  

  17. Hysterosalpingography: analysis of 473 abnormal examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petta, C.A.; Costa-Paiva, L.H.S. da; Pinto-Neto, A.M.; Martins, R.; Souza, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    The authors reviewed the reports of 4/3 abnormal hysterosalpingographies from 1,200 medical records of patients at the sterility and infertility out-patient clinic of the School of Medical Sciences of the State University of Campinas (Unicamp), from July, 1974 to December, 1981. The objective was to evaluate the incidence and main alterations diagnosed by hysterosalpingography. The most frequent findings were tuboperitoneal factors in 91% of the examinations, uterine cavity abnormalities in 17.4% and cervical factor in 6.3% of the cases. The examinations showed a great incident of tuboperitoneal abnormalities as cause of sterility from lower social classes. (author) [pt

  18. Numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 24, discusses numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans. This involves abnormalities of human chromosome number, including polyploidy (when the number of sets of chromosomes increases) and aneuploidy (when the number of individual normal chromosomes changes). Chapter sections discuss the following chromosomal abnormalities: human triploids, imprinting and uniparental disomy, human tetraploids, hydatidiform moles, anomalies caused by chromosomal imbalance, 13 trisomy (D{sub 1} trisomy, Patau syndrome), 21 trisomy (Down syndrome), 18 trisomy syndrome (Edwards syndrome), other autosomal aneuploidy syndromes, and spontaneous abortions. The chapter concludes with remarks on the nonrandom participation of chromosomes in trisomy. 69 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Brain and bone abnormalities of thanatophoric dwarfism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Elka; Blaser, Susan; Shannon, Patrick; Widjaja, Elysa

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present the imaging findings of skeletal and brain abnormalities in thanatophoric dwarfism, a lethal form of dysplastic dwarfism. The bony abnormalities associated with thanatophoric dwarfism include marked shortening of the tubular bones and ribs. Abnormal temporal lobe development is a common associated feature and can be visualized as early as the second trimester. It is important to assess the brains of fetuses with suspected thanatophoric dwarfism because the presence of associated brain malformations can assist in the antenatal diagnosis of thanatophoric dwarfism.

  20. Abnormal Event Detection Using Local Sparse Representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Huamin; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2014-01-01

    We propose to detect abnormal events via a sparse subspace clustering algorithm. Unlike most existing approaches, which search for optimized normal bases and detect abnormality based on least square error or reconstruction error from the learned normal patterns, we propose an abnormality measurem...... is found that satisfies: the distance between its local space and the normal space is large. We evaluate our method on two public benchmark datasets: UCSD and Subway Entrance datasets. The comparison to the state-of-the-art methods validate our method's effectiveness....

  1. Management of somatic symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Andreas; Dimsdale, Joel

    2014-01-01

    on the recognition and effective management of patients with excessive and disabling somatic symptoms. The clinical presentation of somatic symptoms is categorized into three groups of patients: those with multiple somatic symptoms, those with health anxiety, and those with conversion disorder. The chapter provides...

  2. Measuring bothersome menopausal symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Kamma Sundgaard; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Christensen, Karl Bang

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The experience of menopausal symptoms is common and an adequate patient-reported outcome measure is crucial in studies where women are treated for these symptoms. The aims of this study were to identify a patient-reported outcome measure for bothersome menopausal symptoms and, in the ...

  3. Intentionality as a link between the neuropsychology and the symptoms of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Stefan; Weisbrod, Matthias

    2007-01-01

    Cognitive deficits are an important feature of schizophrenia, particularly in the areas of working memory and executive function. However, their relationship to other clinical dimensions of the illness has remained elusive. We suggest that a phenomenological exploration of disordered intentionality in schizophrenia symptoms might provide us with a framework for understanding the role of cognitive deficits. We propose an understanding of intentionality as having a layered structure, which facilitates a mapping onto neuropsychological concepts. A disturbance of basic intentional processes can explain some of the 'positive' symptoms of schizophrenia. We focus on the temporal aspect of intentionality, which will be related to recent conceptions of prefrontal cortical function as the temporal organization of thought and behavior. A compensation of these basic disturbances leads to a 'minimization of change', which can explain some of the 'negative' symptoms. The compensatory strategies are thought to rely on the higher-order executive functions of the prefrontal cortex. These are also disturbed in schizophrenia, which often renders the process of compensation ineffective, leading to a fragmentation of thought and behavior. Thus the concept of intentionality might help us relate different aspects of prefrontal dysfunction to specific schizophrenic symptom clusters. (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. ORIGINAL ARTICLE EEG changes and neuroimaging abnormalities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    salah

    Clinical Genetics Department, Human Genetics & Genome Research Division, ... neuroimaging changes of the brain and EEG abnormalities in correlation to the ... level and by developmental changes2. .... for IQ as a confounding factor.30.

  5. Report to Congress on abnormal occurrences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-10-01

    Section 208 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identifies an abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health or safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to Congress. This report covers the period from April 1 through June 30, 1990. The report discusses six abnormal occurrences, none involving a nuclear power plant. There were five abnormal occurrences at NRC licensees: (1) deficiencies in brachytherapy program; (2) a radiation overexposure of a radiographer; (3) a medical diagnostic misadministration; (4) administration of iodine-131 to a lactating female with subsequent uptake by her infant; and (5) a medical therapy misadministration. An Agreement State (Arizona) reported an abnormal occurrence involving a medical diagnostic misadministration. The report also contains information that updates a previously reported occurrence

  6. Evaluation of chromosomal abnormalities and common trombophilic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-03-01

    Mar 1, 2014 ... Infections, genetic, endocrine, anatomic and immunologic problems have been suggested as causes for RM. ... Metaphase chromosome preparations from the .... The rate of karyotypically abnormal abortion specimens.

  7. On two abnormal sharks from Gujarat

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gopalan, U.K.

    The description of the two abnormal sharks, Carchariaswalbeehmi and Eulamia dussumieri collected from Gujarat, India, is given Of these C walbeehmi was double-headed The other shark E dussumieri had thumb snouted albino...

  8. Abnormal Position and Presentation of the Fetus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Delivery Introduction to Complications of Labor and Delivery Abnormal Position and Presentation of the Fetus Amniotic Fluid Embolism Excessive Uterine Bleeding at Delivery Fetal Distress Inverted Uterus Labor That ...

  9. Morphological Abnormalities of Thalamic Subnuclei in Migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magon, Stefano; May, Arne; Stankewitz, Anne

    2015-01-01

    UNLABELLED: The thalamus contains third-order relay neurons of the trigeminal system, and animal models as well as preliminary imaging studies in small cohorts of migraine patients have suggested a role of the thalamus in headache pathophysiology. However, larger studies using advanced imaging te...... is a disorder of the CNS in which not only is brain function abnormal, but also brain structure is undergoing significant remodeling....... a fully automated multiatlas approach. Deformation-based shape analysis was performed to localize surface abnormalities. Differences between patients with migraine and healthy subjects were assessed using an ANCOVA model. After correction for multiple comparisons, performed using the false discovery rate.......9) was observed in patients. This large-scale study indicates structural thalamic abnormalities in patients with migraine. The thalamic nuclei with abnormal volumes are densely connected to the limbic system. The data hence lend support to the view that higher-order integration systems are altered in migraine...

  10. Ophthalmologic abnormalities among deaf students in Kaduna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Annals of African Medicine. Vol. ... Medicine, Harvard University, U.S.A. ... abnormalities such as corneal opacities (0.5%) and allergic conjunctivitis (3.4%) while others had posterior .... were administered to those with treatable eye disease.

  11. Errata :Chromosomal Abnormalities in Couples with Recurrent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chromosomal Abnormalities in Couples with Recurrent Abortions in Lagos, Nigeria. Akinde OR, Daramola A O, Taiwo I A, Afolayan M O and Akinsola Af. Sonographic Mammary Gland Density Pattern in Women in Selected ommunities of Southern Nigeria.

  12. Is a history of cesarean section a risk factor for abnormal uterine bleeding in patients with uterine leiomyoma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinay, Tugba; Basarir, Zehra O; Tuncer, Serap F; Akpinar, Funda; Kayikcioglu, Fulya; Koc, Sevgi; Karakaya, Jale

    2016-08-01

    To determine whether a history of cesarean section was a risk factor for abnormal uterine bleeding in patients with uterine leiomyomas, and to identify other risk factors for this symptom. We analyzed retrospectively, the medical records of patients who underwent hysterectomies due to the presence of uterine leiomyomas during a 6-year period (2009 and 2014) at Etlik Zubeyde Hanim Women's Health Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey. Uterine leiomyoma was diagnosed based on histopathological examination of hysterectomy specimens. Demographic characteristics, and laboratory and histopathological findings were compared between patients with uterine leiomyoma with and without abnormal uterine bleeding. In total, 501 (57.9%) patients had abnormal uterine bleeding and 364 (42.1%) patients had other symptoms. A history of cesarean section was more common in patients with abnormal uterine bleeding than in those with other symptoms (17.6% versus 9.3%, p=0.001; odds ratio [OR]: 2.1; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.4-3.3). The presence of a submucosal leiomyoma (OR: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.5-3.1) and coexistent adenomyosis (OR: 1.6; 95% CI: 1.1-2.4) were also associated with abnormal uterine bleeding. A history of cesarean section was an independent risk factor for abnormal uterine bleeding in patients with uterine leiomyomas; submucosal leiomyoma and coexisting adenomyosis were also independent risk factors.

  13. Understanding medical symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malterud, Kirsti; Guassora, Ann Dorrit Kristiane; Graungaard, Anette Hauskov

    2015-01-01

    is a social and relational phenomenon of containment, and regulating the situation where the symptoms originate implies adjusting containment. Discourse analysis, as presented by Jonathan Potter and Margaret Wetherell, provides a tool to notice the subtle ways in which language orders perceptions and how...... to the bodily messages. Symptom management is then determined by the meaning of a symptom. Dorte E. Gannik’s concept “situational disease” explains how situations can be reviewed not just in terms of their potential to produce signs or symptoms, but also in terms of their capacity to contain symptoms. Disease...

  14. Abnormal fear conditioning and amygdala processing in an animal model of autism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markram, Kamila; Rinaldi, Tania; La Mendola, Deborah

    2008-01-01

    A core feature of autism spectrum disorders is the impairment in social interactions. Among other brain regions, a deficit in amygdala processing has been suggested to underlie this impairment, but whether the amygdala is processing fear abnormally in autism, is yet not clear. We used the valproic......-treated animals displayed several symptoms common to autism, among them impaired social interactions and increased repetitive behaviors. Furthermore, VPA-treated rats were more anxious and exhibited abnormally high and longer lasting fear memories, which were overgeneralized and harder to extinguish...

  15. Current concepts of metabolic abnormalities in HIV patients: focus on lipodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolter, Donald P

    2003-12-01

    HIV infection is associated with a number of metabolic abnormalities, including lipodystrophy, a difficult-to-define disorder whose characteristics include hyperlipidemia, insulin resistance, and fat redistribution. Current data suggest that lipodystrophy is caused by multiple factors. Dual-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor therapy combined with protease inhibitor therapy has been shown to increase the risk of metabolic abnormalities, but susceptibility independent of drug effects has also been shown. While many of the treatments for the broad range of signs and symptoms of lipodystrophy bring about improvements in patient status, none have been demonstrated to bring about a return to baseline levels.

  16. Expression of human PQBP-1 in Drosophila impairs long-term memory and induces abnormal courtship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Natsue; Horiuchi, Daisuke; Shibata, Masao; Saitoe, Minoru; Qi, Mei-Ling; Okazawa, Hitoshi

    2006-04-17

    Frame shift mutations of the polyglutamine binding protein-1 (PQBP1) gene lead to total or partial truncation of the C-terminal domain (CTD) and cause mental retardation in human patients. Interestingly, normal Drosophila homologue of PQBP-1 lacks CTD. As a model to analyze the molecular network of PQBP-1 affecting intelligence, we generated transgenic flies expressing human PQBP-1 with CTD. Pavlovian olfactory conditioning revealed that the transgenic flies showed disturbance of long-term memory. In addition, they showed abnormal courtship that male flies follow male flies. Abnormal functions of PQBP-1 or its binding partner might be linked to these symptoms.

  17. Sex differences in abnormal white matter development associated with conduct disorder in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decety, Jean; Yoder, Keith J; Lahey, Benjamin B

    2015-08-30

    Associations between white matter pathway abnormalities and antisocial personality disorder in adults are well replicated, and there is some evidence for an association of white matter abnormalities with conduct disorder (CD) in adolescents. In this study, white matter maturation using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was examined in 110 children aged 10.0 ± 0.8 years selected to vary widely in their numbers of CD symptoms. The results replicated age-related increases in fractional anisotropy (FA) found in previous studies. There was not a significant association between the number of CD symptoms and FA, but CD symptoms were found to be significantly associated with greater axial and radial diffusivity in a broad range of white matter tracts, particularly in girls. In complementary analyses, there were similar significant differences in axial and radial diffusivity between children who met diagnostic criteria for CD and healthy children with no symptoms of CD, particularly in girls. Brain structural abnormalities may contribute to the emergence of CD in childhood, perhaps playing a greater role in girls. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Normal and Abnormal Behavior in Early Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Spinner, Miriam R.

    1981-01-01

    Evaluation of normal and abnormal behavior in the period to three years of age involves many variables. Parental attitudes, determined by many factors such as previous childrearing experience, the bonding process, parental psychological status and parental temperament, often influence the labeling of behavior as normal or abnormal. This article describes the forms of crying, sleep and wakefulness, and affective responses from infancy to three years of age.

  19. Syringomyelia and Craniocervical Junction Abnormalities in Chihuahuas

    OpenAIRE

    Kiviranta, A.‐M.; Rusbridge, C.; Laitinen‐Vapaavuori, O.; Hielm‐Björkman, A.; Lappalainen, A.K.; Knowler, S.P.; Jokinen, T.S.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Chiari-like malformation (CM) and syringomyelia (SM) are widely reported in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels and Griffon Bruxellois dogs. Increasing evidence indicates that CM and SM also occur in other small and toy breed dogs, such as Chihuahuas. Objectives: To describe the presence of SM and craniocervical junction (CCJ) abnormalities in Chihuahuas and to evaluate the possible association of CCJ abnormalities with SM. To describe CM/SM-related clinical signs and neuro...

  20. Heterotaxy syndromes and abnormal bowel rotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, Beverley [Stanford University, Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States); Koppolu, Raji; Sylvester, Karl [Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital at Stanford, Department of Surgery, Stanford, CA (United States); Murphy, Daniel [Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital at Stanford, Department of Cardiology, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2014-05-15

    Bowel rotation abnormalities in heterotaxy are common. As more children survive cardiac surgery, the management of gastrointestinal abnormalities has become controversial. To evaluate imaging of malrotation in heterotaxy with surgical correlation and provide an algorithm for management. Imaging reports of heterotaxic children with upper gastrointestinal (UGI) and/or small bowel follow-through (SBFT) were reviewed. Subsequently, fluoroscopic images were re-reviewed in conjunction with CT/MR studies. The original reports and re-reviewed images were compared and correlated with surgical findings. Nineteen of 34 children with heterotaxy underwent UGI, 13/19 also had SBFT. In 15/19 reports, bowel rotation was called abnormal: 11 malrotation, 4 non-rotation, no cases of volvulus. Re-review, including CT (10/19) and MR (2/19), designated 17/19 (90%) as abnormal, 10 malrotation (abnormal bowel arrangement, narrow or uncertain length of mesentery) and 7 non-rotation (small bowel and colon on opposite sides plus low cecum with probable broad mesentery). The most useful CT/MR findings were absence of retroperitoneal duodenum in most abnormal cases and location of bowel, especially cecum. Abnormal orientation of mesenteric vessels suggested malrotation but was not universal. Nine children had elective bowel surgery; non-rotation was found in 4/9 and malrotation was found in 5/9, with discrepancies (non-rotation at surgery, malrotation on imaging) with 4 original interpretations and 1 re-review. We recommend routine, early UGI and SBFT studies once other, urgent clinical concerns have been stabilized, with elective laparoscopic surgery in abnormal or equivocal cases. Cross-sectional imaging, usually obtained for other reasons, can contribute diagnostically. Attempting to assess mesenteric width is important in differentiating non-rotation from malrotation and more accurately identifies appropriate surgical candidates. (orig.)