Sample records for schizophrenic psychology

  1. [Impact of a Multimodal Intervention on the Psychological Profile of Schizophrenic and Bipolar I Patients: A Study of PRISMA Program]. (United States)

    Díaz-Zuluaga, Ana María; Vargas, Cristian; Duica, Kelly; Richard, Shanel; Palacio, Juan David; Agudelo Berruecos, Yuli; Ospina, Sigifredo; López-Jaramillo, Carlos

    Bipolar Disorder (BD) and schizophrenia are included in the group of severe mental illness and are main causes of disability and morbidity in the local population due to the bio-psycho-social implications in patients. In the last 20 years or so, adjunctive psychological interventions been studied with the purpose of decreasing recurrences, stabilising the course of the disease, and improving the functionality in these patients. To analyse the psychological effect of a multimodal intervention (MI) vs a traditional intervention (TI) program in BD I and schizophrenic patients. A prospective, longitudinal, therapeutic-comparative study was conducted with 302 patients (104 schizophrenic and 198 bipolar patients) who were randomly assigned to the MI or TI groups of a multimodal intervention program PRISMA. The MI group received care from psychiatry, general medicine, neuropsychology, family therapy, and occupational therapy. The TI group received care from psychiatry and general medicine. The Hamilton and Young scales, and the Scales for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS) and Postive Symptoms (SAPS) were used on bipolar and schizophrenic patients, respectively. The scales AQ-12, TEMPS-A, FAST, Zuckerman sensation seeking scale, BIS-11, SAI-E and EEAG were applied to measure the psychological variables. The scales were performed before and after the interventions. The psychotherapy used in this study was cognitive behavioural therapy. There were statistically significant differences in socio-demographic and clinical variables in the schizophrenia and bipolar disorder group. There were no statistically significant differences in the psychological scales after conducting a multivariate analysis between the intervention groups and for both times (initial and final). This study did not show any changes in variables of psychological functioning variables between bipolar and schizophrenic groups, who were subjected to TI vs MI (who received cognitive behavioural therapy

  2. Repetition in Schizophrenic Speech. (United States)

    Manschreck, Theo C.; And Others


    Describes an investigation into the relationship of schizophrenic thought disorder to measures of repetition that include phrase units, proximity of repetitions, and word frequencies to determine whether such measures distinguish schizophrenics from non-schizophrenics and to what extent they are associated with certain attributes of schizophrenia,…

  3. [The schizophrenic disorder]. (United States)

    Bellomo, L E


    The author makes both a historical and up-to-date review of the "schizophrenic defect" concept (S.D.). He comes to the conclusion that this is the "morbid residual" or balance left as "ideo-affective" capital after every productive psychotic outbreak. The S.D. is studied in a "Medium and Long Term" Ward with prevailing statistics amounting to 33% D.E. patients plus 9% active schizophrenic patients over a total average of 100 chronic hospitalized patients. It was found out that 33% of that universe had some scattered family whereas 19% of these patients had no family at all. The latter showed strong tendency towards isolation, slovenliness and "hospitalism". They became "passive-dependent" patients. The situational framework is analyzed. Medical staff relation ships with patients, type of treatment and the illusion created by "fictitious discharge" of E.D. under no favorable psycho-environmental conditions are taken into account. Methods to improve the situation are then outlined and discussed. The following topics are considered: correct therapeutics, family therapy, sectorization, therapeutic community, transition homes (foyers), and current legislation.

  4. Expressed emotion among schizophrenic patients in Lagos, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MO. Emotional reactions of relatives to schizophrenic patients in Lagos,. Nigeria. African Journal of Medical Sciences 2003; 32(1):7-11. 7. Vaughn CE, Leff JP. The measurement of expressed emotions in the families of psychiatric patients. British Journal of Social and Clinical. Psychology. 1976b; 15:157-165. 8. Jablensky A ...

  5. Word Associations of Schizophrenic Children (United States)

    Johnston, Mary Hollis


    A study of word associations in normal and disturbed children integrated two methods of word association research: pathological features of adult schizophrenic language and psycholinguistic features of developmental changes in children's associations. (Author/KM)

  6. Somatotypic characteristic of schizophrenic patients. (United States)

    Sivkov, Stefan; Akabaliev, Valentin; Nikolova, Yulia


    Introduction of quantitative metric methods of somatotype assessment in schizophrenic patients to make clinical diagnosis more objective, the diagnosis being otherwise based exclusively on the clinical interview and assessment of the mental status of patients and thus involving certain subjectivity. The study included 67 schizophrenic inpatients (38 men, 29 women) consecutively admitted to the Clinic of Psychiatry in Plovdiv. Their mean age was 31.47 years (SD = 9.43, range 16-56), mean duration of illness 6.86 (SD = 6.09, range 1-27), mean number of hospitalizations 4.22 (SD = 4.08, range 1-19). The patients satisfied DSM-IV criteria for a diagnosis of schizophrenia (American Psychiatric Association, 1994). The control group comprised 69 subjects (36 men, 33 women) with a mean age 39.24 years (SD = 10.18, range 22-68) and socioeconomic background matching that of the patients. The data showed statistically significant differences in the three somatotype component and in almost all somatotypological variables between male schizophrenic patients and control subjects. The somatotype categories were more extensively presented in the schizophrenic patients. There was a tendency to higher frequency of the ectomorphic categories (ectomorphic mesomorph, mesomorphic ectomorph and endomorph-ectomorph). No statistically significant differences were found in the somatotype components and somatotypological variables between the female schizophrenic patients and control subjects. The data of the examination of the somatotype of schizophrenic patients and control subjects evince a definite sexually related body constitution characteristic that differentiates the groups. Schizophrenic patients and control subjects are clearly determined somatotypically only in the group of males.

  7. Opisodic memory orientation in schizophrenics, their relatives and normal people

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    Gholamali Nikpour


    Full Text Available Introduction: Memory is what creates perseverance and continuity in human and everyone's idea about himself depends on the memory. Among different psychological ideas, cognitive psychology is only one which investigated and recognized the memory. It seems mental and spiritual statuses have effects on memory and lead to memory orientation toward specific systems. According to research findings, there are spatial distortions in schizophrenics patients which are equal with main signs of schizophrenia i.e. disorders in the thoughts of these patients. Orientation has basic role to create and process the data same as thoughts in schizophrenics and normal people. Assessing such memory orientation in selecting the direction against pleasant, unpleasant and neutral stimulants is the purpose of current research Methods:   Used data in current study is related to patients and normal people reactions against pleasant, unpleasant and neutral materials of William’s test. After gathering the data, mean, variance and standard deviation were firstly, estimated and were analyzed statistically by independent T test. Results: Findings showed that there was a meaningful relationship between two mean of patients and normal people in reaction against pleasant, unpleasant and neutral stimulants of William’s test. It meaned normal people selected more pleasant stimulants than schizophrenics. Indeed, normal people selected neutral stimulants with slightly more different than schizophrenics. There was not any meaningful difference between normal people and schizophrenics only in unpleasant stimulants. Conclusion: Ability and intellectual coherence lead to mental appropriate performance and will result those people remind all memories particularly unpleasant ones with more details. Therefore it seems that memory orientation process leads to psychological status controlled the individual.

  8. Dynamical quantification of schizophrenic speech. (United States)

    Leroy, Fabrice; Pezard, Laurent; Nandrino, Jean-Louis; Beaune, Daniel


    Schizophrenic speech has been studied both at the clinical and linguistic level. Nevertheless, the statistical methods used in these studies do not specifically take into account the dynamical aspects of language. In the present study, we quantify the dynamical properties of linguistic production in schizophrenic and control subjects. Subjects' recall of a short story was encoded according to the succession of macro- and micro-propositions, and symbolic dynamical methods were used to analyze these data. Our results show the presence of a significant temporal organization in subjects' speech. Taking this structure into account, we show that schizophrenics connect micro-propositions significantly more often than controls. This impairment in accessing language at the highest level supports the hypothesis of a deficit in maintaining a discourse plan in schizophrenia.

  9. Assessment of Living Skills in Schizophrenic Patients by Kohlman Evaluation

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    Leila Kazazi


    Full Text Available Background: The living skills of schizophrenic patients are disrupted due to cognitive, perceptual, sensory-motor, psychological, and psychosocial problems. Therefore, the identification of some aspects of living skills that require medical intervention is essential in these patients. Accordingly, in this study, the living skills of schizophrenic patients were investigated with the Kohlman Evaluation of Living Skills.Materials and Methods: This study was conducted by using the cross-sectional descriptive and analytic approach in which 35 hospitalized and 51 outpatient schizophrenic patients and 35 healthy individuals were compared and the areas of living skills that needed help were determined.Results: According to the Kruskal-Wallis test, there was a significant difference between the mean scores of healthy, hospitalized and outpatients subjects, whereas the difference in the means scores was not significant between the two groups of patients (p=0.693. Schizophrenic patients showed more than 50% requirement for help in the following subscales; appearance, awareness of dangerous household situations, appropriate action for sickness and accidents, obtaining and maintaining a source of income, budgeting their monthly income, and leisure activities. Employment had a direct effect on the living skills of the subjects and the test mean scores of employed people (2.409 was better than unemployed persons (7.083.Conclusion: The living skills of schizophrenic patients are damaged in some areas through the course of the disease and its symptoms. Based on the Kohlman Evaluation of Living Skills, these people require most help in self-care, safety health, money management, and leisure activities.

  10. Sensation seeking behavior among schizophrenics. (United States)

    Farhady, Yadollah; Fadai, Farbod; Mazinani, Robabeh; Ashtari, Zabih; Alawijeh, Morteza


    To compare sensation seeking between schizophrenic patients (and clinical subtypes of schizophrenia) according to criteria of DSM-IV-TR; and a healthy control group. Two hypotheses were assumed: 1. Sensation seeking in the control group is higher than schizophrenic patients. 2. The levels of sensation seeking are different among clinical subtypes of schizophrenia. The sample comprised a study group of 69 schizophrenic inpatients at Raazy Psychiatric Center, Tehran, Iran in 2005 (10 males and 10 females for each of paranoid, undifferentiated and residual subtypes, and 9 males from disorganized subtype), and 50 randomly selected healthy people, the control group. To measure sensation seeking, the Zuckermann Sensation Seeking Scale, a 41-item questionnaire form, was used after evaluating its validity and reliability. After obtaining a weak or negative correlation, we omitted 9 questions, so that finally a 32-item questionnaire with highest reliability (Cronbach`s alpha = 0.64), remained and was utilized. We used descriptive statistical methods and calculation of statistical indices, and Student t-test for independent groups to evaluate the research hypotheses. The first hypothesis was confirmed at a 99% significance level. The second hypothesis was rejected at a 95% significance level. We found a definite correlation between schizophrenia and a low level of sensation seeking. Accordingly, and since sensation seeking (as a part of temperament) has a strong genetic component, a low level of sensation seeking is probably an existing feature of schizophrenia. Assessing sensation seeking in high-risk populations (children or the siblings of schizophrenics) could be a practical attempt at prevention or immediate treatment of schizophrenia.

  11. Relational Control Patterns in Families of Schizophrenics. (United States)

    McCarrick, Anne; And Others


    Examined patterning of relational control in families of schizophrenic patients, and relationship between control in the family and the course of the illness. Transcripts of conversations among 17 schizophrenic outpatients and their families were coded into Relational Control Coding System. Found rigid, one-up messages from family members to…

  12. schizophrenics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jul 30, 2006 ... of the use of atypical antipsychotic agents with the development of ... development of diabetes when compared to a general population ..... Diazepam 2mg bid. Sodium Valproate controlled release 500mg bid. 4. Zuclopenthixol depot 200mg IMI 4 weekly. 56. Chlorpromazine 100mg am and 200mg pm. 5.

  13. schizophrenics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jul 30, 2006 ... A risk for diabetes is being overweight and the potential for psychotropic agents to increase weight would therefore impact on this health factor.1 Following the introduction of phenothiazine's in. 1956 the prevalence rates of type 2 diabetes mellitus in patients with schizophrenia showed a marked increase.

  14. Quantitative studies of schizophrenic behavior. (United States)

    Reynolds, T D


    Behavioral data from eight psychiatric patients were collected and formed into 14 time series of 100 weekly rates (percentages of positive entries for frequent behaviors such as pacing, talking, hand-movement, etc.). A variety of methods of time-series analysis were applied to determine optimal predictive schemes in an effort to develop an inductive approach to input-output behavioral modelling. Some attempts at numerical prediction into new data were successful, and the results suggested that the best overall approach is likely to be nonlinear modification of auto-regressive schemes. Nonlinearity and nonstationarity of such time series are prominent features, but deterministic trends appear strong enough to justify extensive work. Application of artificial inputs to some of the models suggests that protracted oscillatory responses to stimulation may be characteristic for some schizophrenic patients. Copyright © 1976. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Schizophrenic and Sibling: A Comparison of Parental Relationships. (United States)

    Summers, Frank; Walsh, Froma


    Schizophrenics were differentiated from their siblings in tendencies to see themselves as symbiotically attached to their mothers and failing to be accommodated to by their fathers. Schizophrenics tend to be aligned with the same sex parent. Findings may help explain the psychosexual identification difficulties of schizophrenics. (Author)

  16. A Validational Study of the WIST as a Group-administered Instrument for Assessment of Schizophrenic Thinking (United States)

    Klingler, Daniel E.; And Others


    The objective assessment of thought disorder in schizophrenia is problematic in clinical psychology. Recently, an individually administered instrument (WIST) was introduced as a brief, objective, and quantitative measure of schizophrenic thought processes. Possible shortcomings of the WIST are noted; experimental findings that concern extension to…

  17. Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in Schizophrenics on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To determine the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among outpatients with schizophrenia. Methods: A cross sectional survey of schizophrenics attending out-patient clinics in a Nigerian hospital was undertaken. Anthropometric measures, clinical variables and lifestyle patterns of respondents were assessed.

  18. A twelve-week randomized controlled study of the cognitive-behavioral Integrated Psychological Therapy program: positive effect on the social functioning of schizophrenic patients Estudo controlado randomizado de 12 semanas do programa cognitivo-comportamental IPT (Terapia Psicológica Integrada com efeito positivo sobre o funcionamento social em pacientes com esquizofrenia

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    Marilene Zimmer


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of twelve weekly sessions of the cognitive-behavioral program originally known as the Integriertes Psychologisches Therapieprogramm für Schizophrene Patienten, designated the Integrated Psychological Therapy (IPT program in English, on cognition, social adjustment and quality of life in schizophrenic outpatients, comparing it to the effect of treating such patients as usual. METHOD: Fifty-six adult outpatients (from 18 to 65 years of age with ICD-10-based diagnoses of schizophrenia were randomly assigned to two different groups: active intervention (IPT group; and treatment as usual (control group. Outcome measures were quality of life (as determined using the WHOQOL-Bref, cognition (Mini-Mental State Examination and Word Recall Test, global functioning (DSM-IV Global Assessment of Functioning Scale, social functioning (Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale and social adjustment (Social Adjustment Scale. RESULTS: The findings suggest that, in comparison with treatment as usual (control group, the twelve-session IPT program had a positive effect on several outcome measures: cognition in the domains of spatiotemporal orientation (p = 0.051 and memory (p = 0.031; overall social adjustment (p = 0.037, leisure/social life (p = 0.051 and family relations (p = 0.008; overall functioning (p = 0.000; social-occupational functioning (p = 0.000; and quality of life in the psychological domain (p = 0.021. CONCLUSIONS: The twelve-session cognitive-behavioral IPT intervention demonstrated superiority over treatment as usual in its effects on cognition, social adjustment and quality of life. Studies involving larger samples, longer follow-up periods and additional outcome measures are needed in order to assess the specific effects on dimensions of social functioning, cognitive functioning and quality of life in patients with schizophrenia.OBJETIVOS: O presente estudo foi

  19. Evaluation and Socio-occupational Intervention in Bipolar and Schizophrenic Patients within a Multimodal Intervention Program- PRISMA. (United States)

    Díaz Zuluaga, Ana M; Duica, Kelly; Ruiz Galeano, Carlos; Vargas, Cristian; Agudelo Berruecos, Yuli; Ospina, Sigifredo; López-Jaramillo, Carlos

    Functional improvement in bipolar and schizophrenic patients is one of the main aims of treatment. Nevertheless, there is no evidence about the effect of socio-occupational intervention within a multimodal intervention (MI) programme. To describe the socio-occupational profile and to evaluate the functional effect of a MI in bipolar I and schizophrenic patients. A prospective, longitudinal, therapeutic-comparative study was performed including 302 subjects (104 schizophrenic and 198 Bipolar Disorder I [BDI] patients), who were randomised into two groups, multimodal (psychiatry, psychology, medicine, occupational therapy, neuropsychology, and family therapy), or traditional intervention (psychiatry and medicine only). Several scales were applied to assess assertiveness, free time management, social abilities, general anxiety, self-care and performance in home, work and community tasks. After performing the longitudinal analysis, it was shown that the multimodal intervention was more effective than traditional intervention in general anxiety scores (P=.026) and development in home tasks (P=.03) in schizophrenic patients. No statistical differences were found in bipolar patients. The other variables showed improvement, however, their effect was similar in both intervention groups. Our study identified functional improvement in home tasks in schizophrenic patients after receiving multimodal intervention. Other variables also showed improvement for both interventions groups. Future studies, applying longer rehabilitation programs and other ecological strategies should be performed to identify the most effective interventions. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  20. Altered balance in the autonomic nervous system in schizophrenic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, B M; Mehlsen, J; Behnke, K


    .05). Heart-rate response to inspiration was greater in non-medicated schizophrenics compared to normal subjects (P less than 0.05), whereas no difference was found between medicated and non-medicated schizophrenics. The results show that the balance in the autonomic nervous system is altered in schizophrenic...... patients with a hyperexcitability in both the sympathetic and the parasympathetic division. Our study has thus indicated a dysfunction in the autonomic nervous system per se and the previous interpretations of attentional orienting responses in schizophrenia is questioned. Medication with neuroleptics......The aim of the present study was to evaluate the autonomic nervous function in schizophrenic patients. Twenty-eight patients (29 +/- 6 years) diagnosed as schizophrenics and in stable medication were included, together with ten schizophrenic patients (25 +/- 5 years) who were unmedicated. Eleven...

  1. [Risk factors for delinquent behavior in schizophrenic patients -- a survey from Krafft-Ebing till today]. (United States)

    Rous, F


    The dangerousness of psychotic, especially schizophrenic patients has always been a matter for controversial discussion. On the one side psychiatrists got under suspicion to show too much understanding for deviant and aggressive acts of their patients and to forget the public need for security. On the other side experts disagreed in their opinion on the risk of aggressive behaviour. The following paper reviews the development in evaluation of risk factors from Krafft-Ebing to the presence. On this way the studies of Böker are a milestone in forensic psychiatry. The doctrine "schizophrenic = irresponsible = dangerous" was not valid any more. He showed that the risk for violence depends on much more than the diagnosis of mental illness. Based on the outcome of his study and his differentiated descriptions of subtypes of schizophrenia and their individual risk of violence modern psychological prognostic instruments were developed.


    Ananthanarayanan, C.V.; Janakiramaiah, N.; Gangadhar, B.N.; Vittal, S.; Andade, C.; Kumaraiah, V.


    SUMMARY Twenty four remitted schizophrenics and twenty four neurotic depressives were studied on three measures of visual information processing, viz., simple reaction time, choice reaction time, and a forced choice span of apprehension test. The groups were matched for age, sex, and educational status. The remitted schizophrenics performed poorly on these measures compared to neurotic depressives. The findings suggest that information processing deficits are present in outpatient schizophrenics even during clinical remission. PMID:21776163

  3. Psychopharmacological treatment of aggression in schizophrenic patients. (United States)

    Brieden, T; Ujeyl, M; Naber, D


    Aggressive behavior is frequently observed in schizophrenic patients. More than 50 % of all psychiatric patients and 10 % of schizophrenic patients show aggressive symptoms varying from threatening behavior and agitation to assault. The pharmacological treatment of acute, persisting and repetitive aggression is a serious problem for other patients and staff members. Not only is violent behavior from mentally ill patients the most detrimental factor in their stigmatization, aggression is also a considerable direct source of danger for the patients themselves. Based on rather limited evidence, a wide variety of medications for the pharmacological treatment of aggression has been recommended: typical and atypical antipsychotics, benzodiazepines, mood stabilizers, beta-blockers and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Most clinical information on treating aggression has been collected for atypical neuroleptics, particularly for clozapine. Several retrospective and open studies indicate its efficacy. Treatment duration of 6 months is recommended to induce a stable reduction of physical and verbal aggression. Severe side effects have very rarely been seen. At the moment, clozapine seems to be the first choice in aggression treatment. Within the last few years, about 10 articles were published showing that this is the most effective antiaggressive agent in the treatment of aggression and agitation in psychiatric patients, independent of psychiatric diagnosis. However, clozapine, like all the other substances used, does not have an established indication for the treatment of aggressive symptoms. Noncompliance with medication makes it difficult to choose the right preparation for the medication: tablets, liquids, intramuscular injections and readily soluble "FDDFs" are available. Ethical, juridical and methodological problems prevent controlled studies from establishing a reference in the treatment of aggression in mentally ill patients. This review summarizes

  4. The Cognitive Orientation of Expressive Communicability in Schizophrenics and Normals. (United States)

    Kreitler, Shulamith; And Others


    The study examined the expressive communicability (i.e., the amount, fluency, elaboration, clarity, and veracity of voluntarily transmitted information about oneself) and belief systems of 30 hospitalized adult schizophrenics and 30 matched normals. Schizophrenics differed from normals on all measures and the different beliefs predicted expressed…

  5. Paralinguistic characteristics of speech in schizophrenics and depressives. (United States)

    Mandal, M K; Srivastava, P; Singh, S K


    Schizophrenics, depressives, patients with anxiety neurosis and normal controls were asked to comment freely for 2 min on photographs depicting seven facial emotional expressions. Schizophrenics commented for the shortest duration of time with characteristic vocalization; depressives' speech was characterized by low initiative time latency, greater duration of utterance but fewer word-counts.

  6. Reported Childhood Trauma and Suicide Attempts in Schizophrenic Patients (United States)

    Roy, Alec


    Childhood traumas are associated with suicidal behavior but this aspect has not been examined in relation to schizophrenia. In this study, 50 chronic schizophrenic patients who had attempted suicide were compared with 50 chronic schizophrenic patients who had never attempted suicide for their scores on the 34-item Childhood Trauma Questionnaire…

  7. [Neurological soft signs in schizophrenic patients and their nonaffected siblings]. (United States)

    Mechri, A; Slama, H; Bourdel, M-C; Chebel, S; Mandhouj, O; Krebs, M-O; Gaha, L


    Neurological soft signs (NSS) are subtle neurological signs indicating non specific cerebral dysfunction. Several studies have found an excess of NSS in schizophrenic patients compared to healthy subjects. Although NSS have been consistently reported in schizophrenic patients, their clinical relevance and their relation to functional impairment and severity of this disease are not well-clarified. In addition, the presence of NSS in schizophrenic patient's relatives suggests that they could be associated with the genetic liability. To determine the prevalence and scores of NSS in schizophrenic patients and their nonaffected siblings and to examine the clinical correlates of NSS in the schizophrenic patients. Sixty-six schizophrenic patients (50 males and 16 females, mean age=31.16+/-7.17 years), were compared to 31 of their nonaffected siblings (22 males and nine females, mean age=32.19+/-5.88 years) and to 60 controls subjects (40 males and 20 females, mean age=30.70+/-6.54 years) without family psychiatric history. NSS were assessed with Krebs et al.'s neurological soft signs scale. It is a comprehensive and standardized scale consisting of 23 items comporting five factors: motor coordination, motor integration, sensory integration, quality of lateralization and involuntary movements or posture. The Simpson and Angus scale for extrapyramidal symptoms was also rated. Clinical assessment of the schizophrenic patients was conducted using the positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS), clinical global impressions (CGI) and global functioning evaluation (GAF). Psychiatric disorders were ruled out among siblings of schizophrenic patients and control subjects by psychiatric review evaluation, according to the DSM-IV check list. When the total NSS score of 11.5 was considered the cut-off point, the prevalence of NSS was 96.9% in the schizophrenic patients versus 35.5% in the nonaffected siblings (ptotal score and subscores than the siblings and control groups. The NSS

  8. [Psychotherapy of a schizophrenic patient in a large psychiatric hospital--therapeutic option or naive idealism]. (United States)

    Branik, E


    The psychotherapy of a schizophrenic points, as it is depicted, at some characteristics of the interactions with these patients. In this context also the weight and the restrictions of the institutional framing conditions are indicated. Despite all still open questions, difficulties and limitations the author pleads for the furthering of psychotherapeutic efforts with psychotic patients, as in a considerable number of cases they mitigate their suffering, lead to a better understanding of the psychological aspects of the illness, which are important to the patient, and finally afford insight to the therapist into a sphere at the limit of human experience and, by this means, add to his fundamentally competence.

  9. Cannabis use and dependence among French schizophrenic inpatients

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    Michel eLejoyeux


    Full Text Available Background: To assess the prevalence of cannabis use and dependence in a population of schizophrenic inpatients and to compare schizophrenics with and without cannabis consumption. Methods: 101 schizophrenic patients were examined during their first week of hospitalization. They answered the PANNS scale of schizophrenia, the CAGE and the Fagerström questionnaire and the DSM-IV-TR criteria for cannabis, alcohol, opiates and nicotine use dependence were checked. We also assessed socio-demographic characteristics, the motive of cannabis consumption and the number of cannabis joints and alcoholic drinks taken.Results: The prevalence of cannabis consumption was 33.6% among schizophrenic inpatients. Schizophrenics consuming cannabis were younger than non-schizophrenics (33.3 vs 44.7 years pConclusion: 33.6 % of the schizophrenic patients hospitalized in psychiatry consume cannabis and most of them are dependent on cannabis and alcohol. Hospitalization in psychiatry may provide an opportunity to systematically identify a dependence disorder and to offer appropriate information and treatment

  10. Schizophrenic performance on form E of Cattell's 16PF test. (United States)

    Serban, G; Katz, G


    Form E of Cattell's 16PF test was administered to 515 hospitalized schizophrenics. This sample was compared to Cattell's standardization population for both raw scores and sten scores. Comparisons were made between males and females, acute patients and chronic patients, and amongst three categories of schizophrenia (paranoid, undifferentiated, schizo-affectives). The results indicate that the "schizophrenic profile," reported in previous research with Form A, did not obtain expected differentiations among schizophrenic categories. The question of the usefulness of Form E in diagnosing schizophrenia was raised.

  11. Validity of Draw-A-Person Test as a measure of Anxiety and Aggression Indices among Schizophrenics of Hospicio de San Juan de Dios

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    Full Text Available The present study sought to determine the validity of Draw-A-Person Test as a measure of Anxiety and Aggression Indices among Schizophrenics of Hospicio de San Juan de Dios in Bocaue, Bulacan. The Draw a Person Test as a psychological tool took an integral part in revealing the anxiety and aggression indices as showed through the details of the parts of the drawing. It showed that most of the Male Schizophrenics have high aggression indices compare to anxiety indices. The researcher also comes up with an Action Plan for an intervention program for patients with Schizophrenia which includes Art Therapy, Interactive Group Activities and Psychotherapy which is very beneficial for them to achieve continuous stability. This study also serves as awareness and provides understanding to situations of schizophrenics which are sometimes, have not been prioritize by the society. It also serves as a guide to the future researchers who will develop a related study.

  12. [The Cotard syndrome in schizophrenic disorders]. (United States)

    Stompe, Thomas; Schanda, Hans


    The Cotard-Syndrome (CS), the belief of being dead, was described for the first time in 1880. Since then it met the interest not only of psychopathologists but also of philosophers. With a few exceptions, the literature is mainly restricted to case reports of anxious-depressive, demented or paranoid patients. It was the aim of our study to investigate the prevalence and the psychopathological context of the CS. We analyzed the Austrian data (N = 346) of the International Study of Psychotic Symptoms in Schizophrenia. A CS could be diagnosed in three cases (0.87%). In all of them, CS developed on the basis of nihilistic-hypochondriac delusions and a progressive loss of energy. Two patients bridged the logical inconsistencies between obviously being alive and the belief of being dead by visual illusions, the third patient, however, by locating himself in an intermediate region between this world and the afterworld. On the one hand the CS can be considered as a special manifestation of the topic of death in schizophrenic delusions, on the other as a nihilistic delusional identity. Without doubt, this uncommon and bizarre psychotic phenomenon will be an object of interest for general psychopathology as well as for the philosophy of mind also in future.

  13. Neurocortical electrical activity tomography in chronic schizophrenics

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    Veiga Heloisa


    Full Text Available Functional imaging of brain electrical activity was performed in 25 chronic medicated schizophrenics and 40 controls, analyzing the classical frequency bands (delta, theta, alpha, and beta of 19-channel EEG during resting state to identify brain regions with deviant activity of different functional significances, using LORETA (Low Resolution Tomography and SPM99 (Statistical Parametric Mapping. Patients differed from controls due to an excess of slow activity comprising delta + theta frequency bands (inhibitory pattern located at the right middle frontal gyrus, right inferior frontal gyrus, and right insula, as well as at the bilateral anterior cingulum with a left preponderance. The high temporal resolution of EEG enables the specification of the deviations not only as an excess or a deficit of brain electrical activity, but also as inhibitory (delta, theta, normal (alpha, and excitatory (beta activities. These deviations point out to an impaired functional brain state consisting of inhibited frontal and prefrontal areas that may result in inadequate treatment of externally or internally generated information.

  14. [Are schizophrenic patients being told their diagnosis today in France? (United States)

    Villani, M; Kovess-Masféty, V


    The progressive shifts in the legal and social contexts, along with major changes in information seeking habits with the development of the Internet, have placed patients' information at the core of medical practice. This has to be applied to the psychiatric fields as well, and to questions about how schizophrenic patients are being told their diagnosis nowadays in France. This paper is a national and international literature review about schizophrenia diagnosis disclosure practices, from 1972 to 2014, using French and English languages and various psychology and medical databases. The used key words were "diagnosis", "disclosure", "communication", "breaking bad news", "information", "schizophrenia" and "psychosis". Proportions of diagnosis announcement: our results show that the proportion of psychiatrists delivering schizophrenia diagnosis to their patients varies between countries. Although we must acknowledge that the questionnaires and samples are diverse, we have found that psychiatrists are in general less prone to deliver diagnosis information in France (from 13,5% to 39% given the studies), Germany (28%), Italy (30%), and Japan (30%), than in Anglo-Saxon countries. Thus, 70% of the psychiatrists in North America and 56% in Australia claim that they disclose their diagnosis to schizophrenic patients. In the United-Kingdom, a study targeting psychotic patients themselves has shown that 47% of them had been told their diagnosis by their doctor. Even in the countries where the proportion of diagnosis disclosure is the highest, there remains a substantial difference with other mental illnesses such as affective or anxiety disorders, which are almost always labeled as such in the information communicated to the patient (90% in North America). Diagnostic information about schizophrenia continues therefore to appear problematic for health professionals, which can seem a paradox given the recent social and legal evolutions, the therapeutic progress, the proved

  15. [Psychopathology of poetry writing of schizophrenic patients while ill]. (United States)

    Miliavskiĭ, V M


    On the basis of a psychopathological analysis of over 300 poems written by 29 schizophrenics in the state of the defect some characteristic features associated with the disturbances in the sphere of thought were revealed. The verses written by the patients showed a strange interpretation of the events being described, an unnecessary accentuation of minor details, a striving for formal novelty, peculiar plays on words, various abbreviations underlinings, as well as an amorphous character, absence of key points, inconsistency of the plot. In a number of cases the poverty of the content was combined with grandiloquent pathetics. Characteristic of the verses written by the schizophrenics was emotional inadequacy. In the author's opinion, verses of schizophrenic patients in the state of the defect can serve as a differential diagnostic criterion of the defective states.

  16. Refraction and eye anterior segment parameters in schizophrenic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongabay Cumurcu


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate the difference in terms of refractive errors and anterior segment parameters between schizophrenic patients and healthy volunteers. Methods: This study compared 70 patients (48 men who were diagnosed with schizophrenia with a control group of 60 (35 men who were similar in terms of age, gender, education, and socioeconomic level. Anterior segment examination was performed using a Scheimflug system. Axial length and lens thickness (LT were measured using optic biometry. The following tests were administered to the psychiatric patient group: Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS, Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS, and Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS. Results: Mild myopia was detected in both the schizophrenic and control groups, with no statistically significant difference (p>0.005. Corneal volume (CV, anterior chamber volume (ACV, anterior chamber depth (ACD, and central corneal thickness (CCT values were lower in the schizophrenic group, and there was a statistically significant between-group difference (p=0.026, p=0.014, p=0.048, and p=0.005, respectively. LT was greater in schizophrenics, and the difference was found to be statistically significant (p=0.006. A statistically significant negative correlation was found between SAPS and cylinder values (p=0.008. The axial eye length, cylinder value, pupil diameter, mean keratometric value, and anterior chamber angle revealed no statistically significant difference between the groups (p>0.05. Conclusion: No statistically significant difference was detected in terms of refraction disorders between schizophrenics and the healthy control group, while some differences in anterior chamber parameters were present. These results demonstrate that schizophrenics may exhibit clinical and structural differences in the eye.

  17. Differing lateralized perceptual-motor patterns in schizophrenic and non-psychotic children. (United States)

    Krynicki, V E; Nahas, A D


    A neuropsychological assessment stressing lateralized perceptual-motor and cognitive abilities was administered to two groups of hospitalized child and adolescent psychiatric patients, 25 schizophrenics and 25 non-psychotics. The findings included an increased incidence of crossed eye-hand dominance in schizophrenics, poorer tactile sensory function in the right hands of schizophrenics than in the left hands, and lower Vocabulary and Similarities WISC subtest scores than Block Design and Object Assembly scores for schizophrenics. Right-left confusion was associated with finger agnosia for schizophrenics. The results supported the hypothesis that there may be left-hemisphere dysfunction in schizophrenia; however, no single pattern of dysfunction was apparent.

  18. [The role of the self-consciousness of schizophrenic patients in the socio-vocational readaptation]. (United States)

    Nosenko, N F


    Using clinical and special medico-psychological methods, the authors studied 154 patients with schizophrenia with different rates of the disease progression and at different stages of the disease. The authors studied the condition of the patients' self-consciousness in relation to the possibilities of their social and occupational readaptation. It has been established that the working ability of patients depends on a number of factors, including their profession and working conditions, the influence of the family, the degree of progression of the schizophrenic process and the severity of negative symptoms. At the same time the level of patients' self-consciousness exerts a considerable influence on their social and occupational readaptation which should be taken into account in developing rehabilitative measures and in the course of expert medical examination of working capacity in such patients.

  19. Higher incidence of hip fracture in newly diagnosed schizophrenic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Higher incidence of hip fracture in newly diagnosed schizophrenic patients in Taiwan. Hip fracture is a major public health concern due to its poor outcome and serious socioeconomic burden in older people (1). Evidence has shown that many factors are related to increased risk of hip fracture, but psychiatric diseases are ...

  20. Sexual self-perception in schizophrenic and depressive patients. (United States)

    Vučić-Peitl, Marija; Peitl, Vjekoslav; Pavlović, Eduard


    Sexual self-perception is just one of the items of the complex system of self, which has rarely been researched in the population of mental health patients. Our goal was to establish whether the differences in sexual self-perception exist between schizophrenic and depressive patients compared with the healthy control group. This research was performed on 100 schizophrenic patients, 100 depressive patients and 100 phenotypically healthy volunteers. In order to diagnose schizophrenia and depression, DSM-IV classification was used. Bezinovic's questionnaire for sexual self-perception was used in order to assess seven aspects of sexual self-perception. Results revealed that schizophrenic and depressive patients, compared with healthy individuals, scored significantly higher on the aspects of negative emotionality and sexual incompetence, and significantly lower on the aspect of sexual satisfaction. No statistically significant differences were established between schizophrenic and depressive patients. We can conclude that patients suffering from schizophrenia or depression differ from healthy individuals in all of the aspects of sexual self-perception.



    T.murali; John, C. J.; Ramakrishnan, N.; Gopinath, P.S.


    SUMMARY Sexual behaviour in forty mile schizophrenics on maintenance medication were studied. Authors observed that thirteen patients reported decrease in frequency of sexual thoughts, fifteen in frequency of intercourse. Eight patients reported decline in enjoyment of intercourse and six avoided sex.

  2. Young Children of Schizophrenic Mothers: Difficulties of Intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grünbaum, Liselotte; Gammeltoft, Marie


    Casework by Danish local social agencies on behalf of 11 children og chronically ill schizophrenic mothers is retrospectively analyzed, along with documentation from psychiatric hospitals, consulting child specialists, and other health professionals. Findings point to a need for earlier and more ...... precise assessment of the mother's parenting abilities as measured against the severity of her illness and the vulnerability of the child...

  3. Towards Understanding and Studying Cohesion in Schizophrenic Speech. (United States)

    Fine, Jonathan


    Cohesion analysis has been used to investigate the language of schizophrenics and that associated with other psychiatric syndromes. Cohesion, one means of creating text, cannot account for all aspects of the pretheoretical notion of coherence. As a research tool, cohesion meets the dual criteria of an analysis of language in context and…

  4. The Comprehension of Idiomatic Expressions in Schizophrenic Patients (United States)

    Schettino, Antonio; Lauro, Leonor Romero; Crippa, Franca; Anselmetti, Simona; Cavallaro, Roberto; Papagno, Costanza


    Recent fMRI and TMS studies on idiom comprehension have shown that the prefrontal cortex is involved in idiom processing. Since schizophrenic patients exhibit prefrontal "structural" changes and dysexecutive "behavioural" deficits, we hypothesised an impairment in idiom comprehension, correlating with performance on executive…

  5. Discourse Analysis of Schizophrenic Speech: A Critique and Proposal. (United States)

    Alverson, H.; Rosenberg, S.


    Attempts to give a clearer picture of discourse analysis and the assumptions behind it, focusing on its use in the domain of schizophrenic speech, to provide a better indication of both the promise and the procedures of a discourse-analytic approach to the speech productions of psychiatric populations. (Author/CB)

  6. Working memory capacity predicts language comprehension in schizophrenic patients. (United States)

    Condray, R; Steinhauer, S R; van Kammen, D P; Kasparek, A


    The association between language comprehension and working memory capacity was evaluated in 25 male DSM-III-R schizophrenic patients (14 inpatients; 11 outpatients), and in 11 male normal controls (no lifetime DSM-III-R disorder). Patients and controls did not differ significantly on age and education. Language comprehension was examined as a function of two types of processing demand: grammatical complexity (complex versus simple sentences) and presentation rate (accelerated versus conversational). Schizophrenic patients showed significantly reduced language comprehension and decreased working memory capacity for language, compared with controls. Patients showed general difficulty in comprehending accurately, rather than exhibiting problems with specific grammatical structures. Subject groups were highly accurate and did not differ in their ability to perceive the individual words in sentences presented at the accelerated rate (intelligibility). Presentation rate and grammatical complexity affected comprehension accuracy in all groups, however, with increases in rate and complexity producing decreases in understanding. Of most importance, theoretically, is the finding that working memory capacity predicted language comprehension accuracy in both schizophrenic patients and normal controls. Results suggest that language comprehension deficits in schizophrenic patients may involve a general dysfunction that is associated with working memory capacity for language.

  7. affective, schizophrenic and mood disorders in patients admitted at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Findings from clinical, genetic, neuropsychological and neurophysiological studies have failed to highlight a clear demarcation between the two main psychotic syndromes i.e.. MD and SCZ12, while evidence from brain imaging,. The relationship between schizo- affective, schizophrenic and mood disorders in patients ...

  8. The Role of Third Person Hallucination in Schizophrenic Suicide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Suicide is among the most common causes of mortality among individuals with schizophrenia. Efforts at determining risk factors have been fruitful as some specific factors for schizophrenic suicide have been reported. However, there are few studies on the role of third person auditory hallucination in such ...

  9. A Rasch analysis between schizophrenic patients and the general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Frederic


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to test the General Oral Health Assessment Index Questionnaire (GOHAI items for differential item functioning (DIF according to demographic characteristics (gender, age and mental health status (schizophrenic disorders versus general population using Rasch analysis.

  10. Treatment, expressed emotion and relapse in recent onset schizophrenic disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linszen, D.; Dingemans, P.; van der Does, J. W.; Nugter, A.; Scholte, P.; Lenior, R.; Goldstein, M. J.


    The effect of in-patient and individual orientated psychosocial intervention (IPI) and in-patient and individual and family orientated intervention (IPFI) across levels of expressed emotion (EE) on relapse was compared in a group of patients with recent onset schizophrenic disorders. Patients were

  11. Young children of schizophrenic mothers: difficulties of intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grünbaum, Liselotte Tang; Gammeltoft, Michele


    Casework by Danish local social agencies on behalf of 11 children of chronically ill schizophrenic mothers is retrospectively analyzed, along with documentation from psychiatric hospitals, consulting child specialists, and other health professionals. Findings point to a need for earlier and more...

  12. [Pro- and antioxidant processes in schizophrenics with tardive dyskinesia]. (United States)

    Gałecki, Piotr; Pietras, Tadeusz; Florkowki, Antoni


    Central nervous system diseases are connected with the production of an increased amount of reactive oxygen species. Decreased antioxidant activity is considered as one of the causes of tardive dyskinesia (TD) in schizophrenic patients in a prolonged neuroleptic treatment course. Evaluation of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase activity as well as lipid peroxidation by TBARS saturation in blood platelets in schizophrenic patients with or without tardive dyskinesia symptoms. 84 paranoid schizophrenic patients took part in the study, 40 of them with TD symptoms. The groups were comparative in clinical and demographic terms. Indication of TBARS in blood platelets was performed by the Placed and coop method. GSH-Px activity was indicated by the Little and O'Brien method. CAT activity was indicated according to the Beers and coop method. CuZnSOD activity in blood platelets was indicated by the Mirsa and Fridovich method. CuZnSOD activity in schizophrenic patients without TD is 820.23 and accordingly 710.75 U/g in TD symptoms patients and it is statistical essential. TBARS for patients with TD is 1.06 and accordingly without TD it is 0.92 micromol/10(9)), the difference is statistically essential. For groups with and without TD CAT activity is accordingly 19.87 and 17.93 Ub/g. For groups with and without TD GSH-Px is accordingly 32.30 and 30.48 U/g. schizophrenic patients with TD symptoms have lower CuZnSOD activity and higher concentration of TBARS in platelets than patients without TD. CAT activity is higher in patients with TD symptoms. CuZnSOD activity and concentration of TBARS are in correlation with age in both studied groups.

  13. [The information of the schizophrenic patient: actuality]. (United States)

    Palazzolo, J; Brousse, G; Favre, P; Llorca, P-M


    schizophrenia can come alive talking about things in the past before they became ill. It's as if their life grinded to halt when they became sick. I'm stuck in the mid seventies, and that's the music I like. Everybody I know with schizophrenia is quite isolated socially and I don't really know why. That is especially true for the older people in my age group. Younger people seem to be doing much better. Many still live with their parents. Most older people live alone. There is also the odd person who recovers well, returns to a career, and marries someone without schizophrenia. In cases where marriage predates the onset of schizophrenia, the outcome is often divorce although women are more likely to stick with their husbands with schizophrenia than vice versa, especially if there are already children. I hope the next generation who appears to be less disabled survives better than people of my age with schizophrenia. The goal of community integration is one that requires: more effective treatments and/or more financial support and/or a compassionate non-discriminating community. The combination of early diagnosis and atypical medications will change the face of schizophrenia. I'm not expecting more financial support from the government, but many more people with schizophrenia will start working again instead. Their social networks will develop but social networks are probably the hardest hit in schizophrenia. It's better that you never lose your friends in the first place". This testimony shows how the information of the schizophrenic patient is necessary, and underlines the importance of the relationships between the patient and his family. Our article insists on this theme, rarely developed in the literature.

  14. Mortality and causes of death in first admitted schizophrenic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, P B; Juel, K


    Although many studies have shown an increased mortality in schizophrenic patients, the literature provides little information about mortality from specific causes in relation to age, gender, and duration of illness. This study examined mortality and causes of death in a total national sample...... of 9156 first admitted schizophrenic patients. Suicide accounted for 50% of deaths in men and 35% of deaths in women. Suicide risk was particularly increased during the first year of follow-up. Death from natural causes, with the exception of cancer and cerebrovascular diseases, was increased. Suicide...... risk during the first year of follow-up increased by 56%, with a 50% reduction on psychiatric in-patient facilities. The study confirms that mortality in schizophrenia is still markedly elevated, and the finding of an increasing suicide risk may be an indicator of some adverse effects...

  15. Schizophrenic, alcoholic, felon and management factor compositions of social status. (United States)

    Pishkin, V; Thorne, F C


    Administered the Social Status Study scale to four different groups: 174 incarcerated felons, 125 alcoholics, 278 management consultants, and 388 chronic undifferentiated schizophrenics. Five factors were derived fro each of the four populations. Major finding is that factorial composition of the groups is dependent upon specific population characteristics, and the overall factors are not sufficient for clinical judgment of individuals from different subgroups. The resulting factors were clearly unique in depicting social adjustment maladjustment styles in each of the clinical groups.

  16. Cotard Syndrome without Depressive Symptoms in a Schizophrenic Patient


    Morgado, Pedro; Ribeiro, Ricardo; Cerqueira, João J.


    Cotard Syndrome without Depressive Symptoms in a Schizophrenic Patient Introduction . Cotard syndrome is a rare condition characterized by nihilistic delusions concerning body or life that can be found in several neuropsychiatry conditions. It is typically associated with depressive symptoms. Method . We present a case of Cotard syndrome without depressive symptoms in the context of known paranoid schizophrenia. A literature review of Cotard syndrome in schizophrenia was performed. Res...

  17. The neurobehavioural evaluation in schizophrenics: a comparative study. (United States)

    Ilamkar, Kamini Ramdas


    The simple reaction time task assesses the ability of the subject to respond to an external cue and to retrieve a reward. The reaction time provides an indirect index of the processing capability of the central nervous system and a simple means to the determined sensory and the motor performances, which is a neurobehavioural evaluation. A general slowness in the latency in the reaction time tasks and a disengagement deficit in the visual and the hearing oriented tasks were seen in schizophrenics. In order to clarify the feature of the attention disorders in schizophrenia, a simple reaction time task was given to schizophrenics. Schizophrenics (34 males and 20 females, n=54) and healthy controls (40 males and 21 females, n=61) with a mean age of 35±7, who were individually matched for gender and age, were included in the study, by using a response analyser to evaluate the reaction time. The performances were expressed in mean ± standard deviation of the reaction time by using the unpaired 't' test. The schizophrenic patients performed poorer than the healthy controls, which indicated a difficulty in sustaining attention and this was statistically very highly significant (pdisturbance in interpersonal situations. The increased reaction time as compared to that in healthy controls, might be due to the impairment of the psychomotor poverty, disorganization and reality distortion which were associated with the deficits in the cortical neurological functions, such as planning, coordination and sequencing of the motor acts, which showed a greater involvement of the frontal lobe and temporal lobe dysfunction.

  18. Unsuccessful Self-Enucleation in a Schizophrenic Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noam Bar-Yaakov


    Full Text Available Self-enucleation is a very unusual form of self-mutilation directly linked to mental illness. In this case we present a 26-year-old schizophrenic patient who attempted to enucleate his eye with a rollerball pen. Antipsychotic therapy and emergency surgery saved the patient eye and emphasize the importance of quick response and good collaboration between psychiatric and ophthalmic teams.

  19. Chronic pain and quality of life in schizophrenic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jouce Gabriela de Almeida


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify the prevalence and characteristics of chronic pain in schizophrenic patients and to compare the quality of life in patients with and without chronic pain. METHODS: Crossover design with a probablistic sample of 205 adult schizophrenic outpatients (80% paranoid schizophrenia. Socio-demographic, psychiatric disorder, pain and quality of life (WHOQOL- brief data were collected between June and September 2008. RESULTS: Mean age was 37 years, 65% were men, and the mean time spent in school was 9 years; 87% were single, 65% lived with parents and 25% had a job. Among patients with chronic pain, 70% did not receive treatment for pain. Regarding quality of life, patients with pain had more physical disabilities compared to those without pain (p < .001. There were no differences in other domains. Comparisons between patients with and without pain did not show any differences in how much they felt their mental health problems disabled them. Conclusion: Chronic pain was common in schizophrenic patients (similar to the general population of a similar age and decreased their quality of life. It is necessary to pay more attention to this co-morbidity.

  20. [Language disorders and cognitive functions in persons with schizophrenic disorders]. (United States)

    Waszkiewicz, Justyna; Wciórka, Jacek; Anczewska, Marta; Chrostek, Anna; Switaj, Piotr


    The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between clinical and neuropsychological measures of language disorders as well as characteristics of the mental condition of patients diagnosed as having schizophrenic disorders. There were 45 persons with schizophrenic disorder (acc. ICD-10) examined with The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), the side effect rating scale (UKU), Wisconsin Cards Storting Test (WCST), verbal fluency task, Ruff's Test, "Similarities" --WAIS-R subtest, 10 graphics of The Thematic Apperception Test (TAT). Patient's speech was evaluated independently by two diagnosticians using Thought, Language and Communication Scale (TLCS). Time since the onset of illness and the number of hospitalisations were associated with total TLCS scores and with most of the WCST indicators. Total amount and most of the particular language disorders correlated positively with total PANSS scores. Total amount of language disorders was connected with the number of trials, which were necessary to complete the first category and also with the global scores obtained in "Similarities". There were also many correlations between particular language phenomenons and results of several neuropsychological tests. Correlation between psychopathological evaluation of language disorders according to TLCS and evaluation of the schizophrenic syndrome score is found to be significant. The psychopathological rating of general and particular language disorders shows significant correlations with some indicators of executive function, verbal and nonverbal fluency and the ability for abstract thinking.

  1. Neurocognitive performance in first-episode and chronic schizophrenic patients. (United States)

    Moritz, Steffen; Andresen, Burghard; Perro, Christian; Schickel, Marc; Krausz, Micheal; Naber, Dieter


    Previous research on neuropsychological disturbances in first-episode and chronic schizophrenic patients has provided mixed results which can be partially attributed to methodological inconsistencies. For the present study, 70 schizophrenic patients (40 with chronic and 30 with first-episode schizophrenia) were compared to 30 healthy controls on a large battery of neuropsychological tests. Special attention was paid to potential confounds such as differences in psychopathology, age and educational level between the schizophrenic sub-samples. Healthy controls performed better than both first-episode and chronic patients in almost all cognitive domains (P < 0.01), while the patient samples did not differ in any of the tasks. Results were confirmed in a second series of analyses in which patient subgroups were equated for sociodemographic background variables. The present results confirm recent data collected in longitudinal studies, thus, lending further support for a neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia. It is suggested that neuropsychological disturbances occur early in schizophrenia and do not worsen in the course beyond age-related decrement. Possible reasons why previous research has produced contradictory findings are discussed.

  2. Stroop interference effect in schizophrenic patients: an electrophysiological approach. (United States)

    Markela-Lerenc, Jaana; Schmidt-Kraepelin, Christian; Roesch-Ely, Daniela; Mundt, Christoph; Weisbrod, Matthias; Kaiser, Stefan


    Schizophrenic patients present deficits in executive control functions. The Stroop test requires executive control functions, in particular response inhibition. So far only one study has employed the high temporal resolution of electrophysiological methods to investigate the neural correlates of the Stroop effect in schizophrenia. This study investigated medicated patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (n=15) and healthy controls (n=15) using event-related potentials. The analyses of the P1 and N1 components revealed no differences between the groups indicating intact sensory processing in schizophrenia during the Stroop test. We found greater negativity in the incongruent as compared to the congruent and neutral conditions between 350 and 450 ms over prefrontal scalp areas in healthy subjects but not in schizophrenic patients. Later on, a sustained positivity was observed over parietal scalp regions in healthy subjects. This later sustained potential was attenuated in patients but only in the first block. This suggests that following practice patients show similar parietal effects as healthy subjects. The total errors in the incongruent condition in patients correlated negatively with the difference in mean activity between incongruent and congruent conditions over the left parietal area (time window 600-1000 ms). In other words the more errors were made by patients, the more attenuated was the Stroop related electrophysiological effect. This suggests that the parietal activity is related to successful resolution of the Stroop conflict in schizophrenic patients. Furthermore, the absence of the frontal deflection in patients reflects dysfunctional neural processes associated with executive control.

  3. Abnormal electroretinography in schizophrenic patients with a history of sun gazing. (United States)

    Gerbaldo, H; Thaker, G; Tittel, P G; Layne-Gedge, J; Moran, M; Demisch, L


    Electroretinographic (ERG) measurements were performed in 9 schizophrenic patients and in 13 control subjects. The measurements of schizophrenic patients as a group did not differ from those of normals. However, 6 schizophrenic patients who had a past history of sun gazing showed a decrease in retinal responsiveness under conditions of light adaptation. These results suggest that a subgroup of schizophrenic patients, who show deviant light-related behavior, have abnormal ERG. We postulate that an abnormality in retinal dopaminergic neurons, which are known to reduce light responsiveness of horizontal and ganglion cells, is the underlying pathophysiology of this clinical finding.

  4. [History of treatment of schizophrenic forensic patients prior to admission: a comparison with schizophrenic general psychiatric patients]. (United States)

    Piontek, K; Kutscher, S-U; König, A; Leygraf, N


    The number of schizophrenic patients admitted to forensic hospitals according to section 63 of the German Criminal Code has increased continuously over the past years. Prior to admission to a forensic ward, two thirds of schizophrenic patients have been admitted to a general psychiatric institution at least once. Among other factors, forensic admission is seen as a consequence of insufficient pretreatment in general psychiatry. This study aims to identify differences regarding the history of treatment of forensic and general psychiatric patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. The matched samples include 72 male patients from forensic wards and 72 male patients from general psychiatry diagnosed with schizophrenia. The history of psychiatric treatment was reconstructed by interviewing the patients as well as the outpatient psychiatrists and by analyzing these patients' medical records. Both groups showed similar risk factors, however, forensic patients had a higher number of previous convictions and were convicted more often for violent offences. Furthermore, the data indicate that forensic patients are less integrated into psychiatric care and showed a lower rate of treatment compliance prior to admission to a forensic ward. The results provide support for the arrangement of an intensive outpatient aftercare, especially for schizophrenic patients with comorbid substance abuse disorders and previous convictions for violent offences.

  5. Revisiting the Association of Aggression and Suicidal Behavior in Schizophrenic Inpatients (United States)

    Neuner, Tanja; Hubner-Liebermann, Bettina; Hausner, Helmut; Hajak, Goran; Wolfersdorf, Manfred; Spiessl, Hermann


    Our study investigated the association of aggression and suicidal behavior in schizophrenic inpatients. Eight thousand nine hundred one admissions for schizophrenia (1998-2007) to a psychiatric university hospital were included. Schizophrenic suicides (n = 7)/suicide attempters (n = 40) were compared to suicides (n = 30)/suicide attempters (n =…

  6. Patterns of Dysfunction in Schizophrenic Patients on an Aphasia Test Battery (United States)

    DiSimoni, Frank G.; And Others


    In a study comparing schizophrenic language performance with the language performance profiles characteristic of aphasia, apraxia of speech, generalized intellectual impairment, and confused language, 27 schizophrenic patients (20 to 67 years old) were tested with an aphasia test battery. (Author/IM)

  7. Pragmatic assessment of schizophrenic bilinguals' L1 and L2 use ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports on a study investigating the pragmatic skills and deficits of schizophrenic bilinguals in their spontaneous first language (L1) and second language (L2) speech. Smit (2009) (see also Smit et al., this volume) argues that the locus of deficits in schizophrenic speech is semantics and suggests that a next step ...

  8. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus in chronic schizophrenic inpatients in relation to long-term neuroleptic treatment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, D.; Dekker, J.J.M.; Peen, J.; de Wied, C.


    Background: Many reports indicate that the incidence and prevalence of diabetes mellitus is increased in schizophrenic patients and related to antipsychotic treatment. In an exploratory cross-sectional study we assessed the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in 266 chronic schizophrenic and

  9. A 12-month follow-up study of treating overweight schizophrenic patients with aripiprazole

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schorr, S. G.; Slooff, C. J.; Postema, R.; Van Oven, W.; Schilthuis, M.; Bruggeman, R.; Taxis, K.

    Objective: To investigate the feasibility of switching overweight schizophrenic patients to aripiprazole and to assess the impact of 12 months of aripiprazole treatment on weight in routine practice. Method: This was a non-controlled cohort study in overweight schizophrenic patients. Data were

  10. [Peculiarities of schizophrenic diseases in prelingually deaf persons]. (United States)

    Engmann, B


    Diagnostic criteria of schizophrenia, according to Kurt Schneider's first and second range symptoms appear in spoken language. This raises the question of how symptoms of schizophrenia are manifested in prelingually deaf people who mainly communicate with sign language. The article shows that acoustic hallucinations of normal hearing schizophrenic people correspond to visual and tactile hallucinations of the prelingually deaf. An additional similarity is found in a disorder of the structure of the language. These similarities show that schizophrenia does not depend on the acoustic part of language or the acquisition of spoken language.

  11. Mortality and causes of death in schizophrenic patients in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, P B; Juel, K


    A cohort consisting of 6178 people that were psychiatric inpatients with a clinical schizophrenia diagnosis in 1957 were followed up from 1957 through 1986, and their cause-specific mortality was determined. Mortality from cardiovascular diseases, lung diseases, gastrointestinal and urogenital...... disorders, accidents and suicide was increased, whereas mortality from cerebrovascular disorders was reduced. In the male patients cancer mortality was reduced whereas cancer mortality in the female patients was increased. Mortality from a number of causes that theoretically could be associated with side...... effects from neuroleptics was increased. Mortality from some causes of death used as a measurement of the quality of medical care was found to be slightly increased. Further studies of the quality of the medical care provided to schizophrenic patients and of the association between neuroleptic medication...

  12. Neuropsychological deficits in chronic schizophrenics. Relationship with symptoms and behavior. (United States)

    Dickerson, F B; Ringel, N B; Boronow, J J


    Thirty-nine hospitalized chronic schizophrenics were administered the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery (LNNB) and the Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised when they were clinically stable. Test variables were related to Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale ratings and two behavioral measures of ward functioning, points and activities. Spearman correlations of test variables with the symptom and behavioral measures were entered into a series of median polish analyses. There was an overall significant relationship between the two sets of variables. Neuropsychological test variables that were most highly correlated with symptom/behavioral measures were LNNB Left Frontal, Memory, and Intellectual Processes scales. The positive symptoms of thought disorder and hallucinations were most consistently related to neuropsychological variables. In contrast with other findings in the literature, negative symptoms were not significantly correlated with neuropsychological performance.

  13. [Prodromal symptoms in schizophrenic relapse: A descriptive and comparative study]. (United States)

    Bouhlel, S; Jones, Y; Khelifa, E; Msolly, M; Melki, W; El-Hechmi, Z


    Schizophrenia is a severe, chronic psychiatric disorder. After recovery from a first psychotic episode, 70% of patients have exacerbations. These exacerbations are preceded in 66 to 100% of cases by early signs. Prevention of relapses is the main object of dealing with schizophrenia. In fact, after a psychotic relapse, 17% of patients develop residual symptoms which did not exist before the relapse. Moreover, symptoms resistant to antipsychotics appear in 35% of patients after a relapse. Each relapse increases the risk of future relapses. Finally, the cost of treating patients with relapses is four times higher than in patients without relapses. Prevention of relapses is possible if we detect early signs. In fact, when specific interventions are applied in time, relapses can be avoided. Surprisingly, there is a scarcity of data on prodromal symptoms of schizophrenic relapses in the literature. In this study, we aimed to describe early signs of schizophrenic relapses, which are comparatively more frequent than those in stabilized outpatients. We conducted a retrospective, descriptive and comparative trial. We included 30 patients with schizophrenia who had recently experienced a psychotic relapse and a member of their families. We also included a control group of 30 stabilized outpatients with schizophrenia. All of the patients were diagnosed schizophrenic according to the DSM IV and had no secondary diagnosis. Only patients aged from 18 to 55 years and having an illness with an episodic evolution were included. The relapse group must have had a period off illness of more than one year and duration of the last remission greater than 3 months. We built a structured interview based on the data of the literature on early symptoms of relapses and on our clinical experience. It contained 93 items describing symptoms and feelings relevant to the period of relapse. The interview lasted about 1h. We collected demographic information from both groups. The relapse group was

  14. (/sup 3/H)muscimol binding sites increased in autopsied brains of chronic schizophrenics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanada, S.; Mita, T.; Nishino, N.; Tanaka, C.


    (/sup 3/H)muscimol binding and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) activity in the prefrontal cortex and caudate nucleus of autopsied brains from 19 chronic schizophrenics and 17 control subjects were investigated. In the schizophrenics, saturation analysis with varying concentrations of (/sup 3/H)muscimol revealed an increase in the number GABA/sub A/ receptors, but there was no significant difference in the affinity. In addition, the enhancement of (/sup 3/H)muscimol binding by diazepam was significantly greater in schizophrenics than in controls. GAD activity did not differ between controls and schizophrenics. The possibility that GABAergic mechanisms might play a role in case of chronic schizophrenia should be given further attention.

  15. Dual hydrophilic and salt responsive schizophrenic block copolymers – synthesis and study of self-assembly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasantha, Vivek Arjunan; Jana, Satyasankar; Lee, Serina Siew Chen; Lim, Chin-Sing; Teo, Serena Lay Ming; Parthiban, Anbanandam; Vancso, Gyula J.


    A new class of dual hydrophilic diblock copolymers (BCPs) possessing poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and zwitterionic polysulfabetaine (PSB) was synthesized by reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. These BCPs formed schizophrenic micelles undergoing core–shell

  16. Development of the caregivers attitude scale on home care of schizophrenics (CASHS)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Balasubramanian, N; Sathyanarayana Rao, T S; D'Sa, Juliana Linnette


    .... This article describes the development of a Likert scale, the Caregivers Attitude Scale on Home Care of Schizophrenics CASHS, which is a 31-item self-reported instrument that quantifies three aspects...

  17. Extent of Burden and coping among family Caregivers living with schizophrenic patients in Nepal


    kali kumari pun; Gouping He; Xiu Hua Wang


    Caring for schizophrenic patient is an enduring affect among family caregivers and gives substantial amount of burden. None any research has carried out to know the extent of burden among family caregivers of schizophrenia in Nepal. The aim of this study was to explore the extent of burden and identify coping strategies adopted by family caregivers living with schizophrenic patient. A descriptive cross sectional study was undertaken to assess the extent of burden and coping, using purposive s...

  18. Risk factors in the development of schizophrenia: contributions from a study of children of schizophrenic mothers. (United States)

    Parnas, J


    The development of and the results from a prospective longitudinal study of children of schizophrenic mothers are presented. The presented studies have been guided by a diathesis-stress model of psychopathology and data analyses relied on the paradigm that schizophrenics and schizotypes share genetic liability to schizophrenia, but that the former, in addition, suffer from environmental insult. This paradigm, hypothetically formulated by Paul Meehl (21) proved especially fruitful in the etiological inferences made in this study. The results indicate that schizophrenia is, to some degree, genetically transmitted and that schizotypes share this genetic vulnerability with schizophrenics. Schizophrenia may be conceptualized as an environmentally complicated schizotypal personality disorder. Deleterious environmental influences identified in this study are obstetric complications probably resulting in central brain atrophy as measured by the CT-scans. In addition, future schizophrenics experienced disrupted childhood conditions as measured here by the amount of institutional rearing during the first five years of life. Fathers of the high risk children were more frequently mentally disturbed than fathers of the low risk children. The presence of a schizophrenia spectrum disorder in the father significantly increased a risk for such disorder in the high risk offspring. Continuity of psychopathological deviance in the form of subtle formal thought disorder and defective emotional contact was demonstrated for the schizophrenics and schizotypes from childhood into adulthood. This suggests that such symptoms are central to schizophrenic psychopathology and that schizophrenia is a development and not a disease which affects people without forewarning.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Altered Adipocytokine Levels and Heart Rate Variability in Schizophrenic Patients with Risk of Metabolic Syndrome. (United States)

    Musa, Zulifeiya; Shabiti, Asikaer; Aizezi, Zainuremu; Yi, Peng


    The aim of this study was to investigate changes in the levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), myocardial fibrosis, and long-term heart rate variability (HRV) in schizophrenic patients at risk of developing metabolic syndrome (MS). 45 subjects without schizophrenia or MS were recruited into the control group (group A), 45 schizophrenic patients not at risk for developing MS constituted group B, and 45 schizophrenic patients at risk of MS constituted group C. Serum levels of TNF-α and Hs-CRP were examined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Ultrasonic acoustic densitometry (AD) analysis was performed to assess myocardial fibrosis, and 24 hours dynamic electrocardiography was conducted to determine HRV time-domain index. Compared with the control group, schizophrenic patients at risk of MS displayed a reduced HRV (p 0.05). Moreover, serum levels of TNF-α and Hs-CRP in the schizophrenic patients with MS risk were elevated compared with the control group (p levels, hypertension and obesity, schizophrenic patients at risk of MS exhibited elevated levels of TNF-α and Hs-CRP, enhanced ventricular myocardial fibrosis, and reduced HRV, which might have resulted from structural changes and autonomic nervous dysfunction in cardiac tissues.

  20. Concentrations in plasma clozapine levels in schizophrenic and schizoaffective patients. (United States)

    Iglesias García, Celso; Iglesias Alonso, Ana; Bobes, Julio

    There is great variability in plasma levels of clozapine. The objective of this study is to know the characteristics of patients treated with clozapine and the relationship between them and the variability of plasma levels. Descriptive, cross-sectional study of all patients currently treated with clozapine in a Psychiatric Service with a diagnosis of schizophrenic psychosis or schizoaffective disorder. The present study assessed physical situation, psychopathology and functionality of the patients and explored the associations and correlations between clinical variables and plasma levels. We studied 39 patients, predominantly men, with negative and depressive symptoms and cardiovascular risk factors (metabolic syndrome and smoking). Significant variability in dose and even greater in clozapine levels were observed. The levels of clozapine at equal doses/kg of body weight were higher in non-smokers, they had positive correlation with BMI and negative correlation with systolic BP, disruptive behaviors and number of cigarettes consumed. Plasma level monitoring clozapine is an important tool to avoid clozapine plasma levels monitoring and minimize undesirable clinical situations (metabolic syndrome, sedation, negative symptoms and functional impairment). It is also important to control the effects of a smoking habit for optimum drug bioavailability. Copyright © 2017 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. [Nursing experience with a schizophrenic breast cancer patient after mastectomy]. (United States)

    Lin, Jia-Rong; Lin, Mei-Ling


    This case study used cognitive therapy to improve the life quality of a 46-year-old woman with chronic schizophrenia who had undergone a mastectomy for breast cancer. This case had suffered from schizophrenia for over 24 years and was hospitalized in the chronic ward of our hospital. Breast cancer was revealed during an annual comprehensive physical checkup. In May 2012, this case received a right mastectomy at a local hospital. After the surgery, she was readmitted to the psychiatric acute ward for further care from May 30th to August 28th, 2012. A holistic nursing assessment was conducted that addressed five major aspects. The major nursing problems found during hospitalization were: acute pain, body image disturbance, and low self-esteem. A decline in pain score from 10 to 4 was achieved by developing rapport with the patient, empathizing with her distress, and providing active care to the wound. Her body image changed because of loosing her breast. Her acceptance of the loss improved through helping her to explore her feelings of change. To improve her self-esteem, we offered cognitive therapy to change her negative thinking process. She became more sanguine and cheerful. Moreover, her dependence in terms of activities of daily living decreased. This individualized intervention contributed to the recovery of a post-mastectomy, schizophrenic patient from low self-esteem.

  2. The meaning of pharmacological treatment for schizophrenic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Graziani Giacchero Vedana


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to understand the meaning of medication therapy for schizophrenic patients and formulate a theoretical model about the study phenomenon.METHOD: a qualitative approach was employed, using Symbolic Interactionism as the theoretical and Grounded Theory as the methodological framework. The research was developed between 2008 and 2010 at three community mental health services in the interior of the State of São Paulo - Brazil. Thirty-six patients and thirty-six family members were selected through theoretical sampling. The data were mainly collected through open interviews and observation and simultaneously analyzed through open, axial and selective coding.RESULTS: the meaning of the pharmacotherapy is centered on the phenomenon "Living with a help that bothers", which expresses the patients' ambivalence towards the medication and determines their decision making. The insight, access, limitations for self-administration of the drugs and interactions with family members and the health team influenced the patient's medication-related behavior.CONCLUSION: the theory presented in this study provides a comprehensive, contextualized, motivational and dynamic understanding of the relation the patient experiences and indicates potentials and barriers to follow the medication treatment.

  3. The meaning of pharmacological treatment for schizophrenic patients1 (United States)

    Vedana, Kelly Graziani Giacchero; Miasso, Adriana Inocenti


    OBJECTIVE: to understand the meaning of medication therapy for schizophrenic patients and formulate a theoretical model about the study phenomenon. METHOD: a qualitative approach was employed, using Symbolic Interactionism as the theoretical and Grounded Theory as the methodological framework. The research was developed between 2008 and 2010 at three community mental health services in the interior of the State of São Paulo - Brazil. Thirty-six patients and thirty-six family members were selected through theoretical sampling. The data were mainly collected through open interviews and observation and simultaneously analyzed through open, axial and selective coding. RESULTS: the meaning of the pharmacotherapy is centered on the phenomenon "Living with a help that bothers", which expresses the patients' ambivalence towards the medication and determines their decision making. The insight, access, limitations for self-administration of the drugs and interactions with family members and the health team influenced the patient's medication-related behavior. CONCLUSION: the theory presented in this study provides a comprehensive, contextualized, motivational and dynamic understanding of the relation the patient experiences and indicates potentials and barriers to follow the medication treatment. PMID:25296152

  4. Driving skills in unmedicated first- and recurrent-episode schizophrenic patients. (United States)

    Segmiller, Felix M; Buschert, Verena; Laux, Gerd; Nedopil, N; Palm, Ulrich; Furjanic, Katharina; Zwanzger, Peter; Brunnauer, Alexander


    The present study was designed to examine driving skills according to regulations of the German guidelines for road and traffic safety in unmedicated schizophrenic inpatients. A total of 13 first-episode (FES) and 13 recurrent-episode (RES) schizophrenic inpatients were included in the analysis and compared with a group of 20 healthy controls (HC). Data were collected with the computerised Wiener Testsystem measuring visual perception, reactivity and stress tolerance, concentration and vigilance. Analysis of data indicates that a great proportion (58 %) of schizophrenic patients were impaired in psychomotor functions related to driving skills. FES and RES significantly differed with respect to driving ability with a greater proportion in the FES (38 %) showing severe impairments when compared with RES (25 %). Differences with respect to HC performance were most pronounced in concentration and for the FES additionally in visual perception. Analysis of our data indicates that a great proportion of schizophrenic patients are impaired in psychomotor functions related to driving skills that cannot be attributed to adverse side effects of psychopharmacological treatment. Besides, we cannot confirm a chronical decline of psychomotor functions related to driving skills at least in the early course of schizophrenic illness.

  5. Reading in schizophrenic subjects and their nonsymptomatic first-degree relatives. (United States)

    Roberts, Eryl O; Proudlock, Frank A; Martin, Kate; Reveley, Michael A; Al-Uzri, Mohammed; Gottlob, Irene


    Previous studies have demonstrated eye movement abnormalities during smooth pursuit and antisaccadic tasks in schizophrenia. However, eye movements have not been investigated during reading. The purpose of this study was to determine whether schizophrenic subjects and their nonsymptomatic first-degree relatives show eye movement abnormalities during reading. Reading rate, number of saccades per line, amplitudes of saccades, percentage regressions (reverse saccades), and fixation durations were measured using an eye tracker (EyeLink, SensoMotoric Instruments, Germany) in 38 schizophrenic volunteers, 14 nonaffected first-degree relatives, and 57 control volunteers matched for age and National Adult Reading Test scores. Parameters were examined when volunteers read full pages of text and text was limited to progressively smaller viewing areas around the point of fixation using a gaze-contingent window. Schizophrenic volunteers showed significantly slower reading rates (P = .004), increase in total number of saccades (P ≤ .001), and a decrease in saccadic amplitude (P = .025) while reading. Relatives showed a significant increase in total number of saccades (P = .013) and decrease in saccadic amplitude (P = .020). Limitation of parafoveal information by reducing the amount of visible characters did not change the reading rate of schizophrenics but controls showed a significant decrease in reading rate with reduced parafoveal information (P reading of schizophrenic volunteers and their first-degree relatives suggest that visual integration of foveal and parafoveal information may be reduced in schizophrenia. Reading abnormalities in relatives suggest a genetic influence in reading ability in schizophrenia and rule out confounding effects of medication.

  6. Are there schizophrenics for whom drugs may be unnecessary or contraindicated? (United States)

    Rappaport, M; Hopkins, H K; Hall, K; Belleza, T; Silverman, J


    This study reports that there are schizophrenics who do relatively well long term without the routine or continuous use of antipsychotic medication. Specially selected young males undergoing an acute schizophrenic episode were followed, after hospitalization, for up to three years. While hospitalized they were assigned randomly to either placebo or chlorpromazine treatment. Many unmedicated-while-in-hospital patients showed greater long-term improvement, less pathology at follow-up, fewer rehospitalizations and better overall function in the community than patients who were given chlorpromazine while in the hospital. Factors related to post-hospital outcome were good premorbid history and short-lived paranoid characteristics. Considerations which may have an effect on the successful management of acute schizophrenic patients not on medication are mentioned. The findings underline the need for further study of how to utilize antipsychotic medication more selectively in the treatment of schizophrenia.

  7. Phenothiazine effects on cerebral-evoked potentials and eye movements in acute schizophrenics. (United States)

    Rappaport, M; Hopkins, H K; Hall, K; Belleza, T


    An investigation was made of the effects of phenothiazine medication on the averaged visual-evoked potentials (AVEP) and on eye movements in hospitalized, young, acute schizophrenic patients. These results were compared with those of normal subjects who were not given medication. AVEP measures included maximum amplitude (Am), frequency of peaks (FOP'S), variability (V) and peak latencies for an early negative peak (N1) and a later positive peak (P6). Eye movement measures included percent of time looking at a stimulus slide, percent of time looking at a figure on the slide, the number of fixations and the percent of cells entered in which fixations occurred. For schizophrenics off and on phenothiazine medication, there were no consistently significant drug effects on any measure except frequency of peaks. Schizophrenics compared to normals had lower amplitudes, greater frequency of peaks, greater variability and lower eye movement scores.

  8. Dopamine transporter gene polymorphism and psychiatric symptoms seen in schizophrenic patients at their first episode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inada, Toshiya; Sugita, Tetsuyoshi; Dobashi, Izumi [National Institute of Mental Health, Chiba (Japan)] [and others


    To investigate the possible role of the dopamine transporter (DAT) gene in determining the phenotype in human subjects, allele frequencies for the 40-bp variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) polymorphism at this site were compared between 117 Japanese normal controls and 118 schizophrenic patients, including six subgroups: early-onset, those with a family history, and those suffering from one of the following psychiatric symptoms at their first episode: delusion and hallucination; disorganization; bizarre behavior; and negative symptoms. No significant differences were observed between the group as a whole or any subgroup of schizophrenic patients and controls. The results indicate that VNTR polymorphism in the DAT gene is unlikely to be a major contributor to any of the psychiatric parameters examined in the present population of schizophrenic subjects. 12 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  9. Written but not oral verbal production is preserved in young schizophrenic patients. (United States)

    Salomé, Franck; Boyer, Patrice; Fayol, Michel


    The aim of this study is to discover whether the language capabilities of young schizophrenic patients are more affected in speaking than in writing or whether the disorders are equivalent in the two modes. To do this, we compared spoken and written descriptions of pictures obtained from 10 schizophrenic patients with those produced by 10 control subjects. These productions were analysed on the basis of objective indices. The syntax and coherence of the productions were evaluated by judges. The comparison of the performances of the controls and schizophrenic patients supports the hypothesis that the latter suffer from a language disorder affecting the oral mode but impacting less frequently and less severely on the written mode. These results are discussed in the light of the cognitive mechanisms which may provide an explanation of these language disorders.

  10. Facial, vocal and musical emotion recognition is altered in paranoid schizophrenic patients. (United States)

    Weisgerber, Anne; Vermeulen, Nicolas; Peretz, Isabelle; Samson, Séverine; Philippot, Pierre; Maurage, Pierre; De Graeuwe D'Aoust, Catherine; De Jaegere, Aline; Delatte, Benoît; Gillain, Benoît; De Longueville, Xavier; Constant, Eric


    Disturbed processing of emotional faces and voices is typically observed in schizophrenia. This deficit leads to impaired social cognition and interactions. In this study, we investigated whether impaired processing of emotions also affects musical stimuli, which are widely present in daily life and known for their emotional impact. Thirty schizophrenic patients and 30 matched healthy controls evaluated the emotional content of musical, vocal and facial stimuli. Schizophrenic patients are less accurate than healthy controls in recognizing emotion in music, voices and faces. Our results confirm impaired recognition of emotion in voice and face stimuli in schizophrenic patients and extend this observation to the recognition of emotion in musical stimuli. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Group art therapy as adjunct therapy for the treatment of schizophrenic patients in day hospital. (United States)

    Gajić, Gordana Mandić


    The schizophrenics are frequently disinterested and resistant to standard care. We presented clinical observations of group art therapy of two schizophrenic patients during integrative therapy in Day Hospital. We modified the original "Synallactic collective image technique" (Vassiliou G, Vassiliou V.). The group is open, heterogeneous, meets once a week and discusses on exhibited drawings, drawn by free associations. The patients' drawings and group protocols showed clinical improvement by lowering depressive themes, more human figures and self-confidence. The obvious severity of markedly impairment on Clinical Global Impression (CGI) and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scales on admission with minimal improvement at discharge was rated. Group art therapy enables visual expression of emotions, perceptions and cognitions, develops creative potentials and support within the group, thus facilitating the integrative therapeutic process of schizophrenics. It may be useful adjunctive therapy for schizoprenic patients.

  12. Group art therapy as adjunct therapy for the treatment of schizophrenic patients in day hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandić-Gajić Gordana


    Full Text Available Introduction. The schizophrenics are frequently disinterested and resistant to standard care. Case report. We presented clinical observations of group art therapy of two schizophrenic patients during integrative therapy in Day Hospital. We modified the original “Synallactic collective image technique” (Vassiliou G, Vassiliou V.. The group is open, heterogeneous, meets once a week and discusses on exhibited drawings, drawn by free associations. The patients' drawings and group protocols showed clinical improvement by lowering depressive themes, more human figures and self-confidence. The obvious severity of markedly impairment on Clinical Global Impression (CGI and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF scales on admission with minimal improvement at discharge was rated. Conclusion. Group art therapy enables visual expression of emotions, perceptions and cognitions, develops creative potentials and support within the group, thus facilitating the integrative therapeutic process of schizophrenics. It may be useful adjunctive therapy for schizoprenic patients.

  13. P2-26: Comparison between Normal People and Schizophrenic Patients on Face Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yl-Woo Lee


    Full Text Available This research was tested to compare face recognition of normal people and schizophrenic patients. Frontal male faces were used as stimuli, which were Northeast Asian and Southeast Asian. Normal people and patients with positive/negative symptom of schizophrenia participated in this research, and all participants were Korean. Participants were instructed to memorize a stimulus (target presented briefly, and recognize it later among another stimuli (fillers. In recognition task, five faces were presented with a target or without as fillers. The results showed that while schizophrenic patients had difficulty recognizing targets, all participants performed best in the condition of other ethnic target-own ethnic fillers. These results suggest that own ethnicity effect could not be observed, and imply that face processing of schizophrenic patients might be disrupted by perception level rather than memory level.

  14. Association of erythrocyte sedimentation rate and fibrinogen concentration with metabolic syndrome in schizophrenic patients. (United States)

    Pavlović, Marko; Babić, Dragan; Rastović, Pejana; Ljevak, Ivona


    Inflammation can be a process significant to the development of schizophrenia and metabolic disorders that are frequently found in patients suffering from schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to determine the values of erythrocyte sedimentation rate and fibrinogen concentration and to establish their possible association with MS and its components in schizophrenic patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 200 subjects who were divided into two groups. The study group consisted of schizophrenic patients from the University Clinical Hospital Mostar (n=100), while the control group consisted of healthy subjects who came for systematic medical examinations at the infirmary of the Health Center Mostar (n=100). The diagnosis of MS was made according to NCEP-ATP III criteria, and on that basis subjects from both groups were divided into two subgroups, one with and one without MS. Inflammatory indicators that were determinated were erythrocyte sedimentation rate and fibrinogen concentration. Statistically, MS was significantly more frequent in schizophrenic subjects (46.0%) compared to the control group (29.0%) (p=0.013). Schizophrenic subjects with MS had statistically higher sedimentation rate and fibrinogen concentration compared to the schizophrenic subjects without MS, as well as compared to the control subgroup without MS. The most significant correlations discovered were for the relation of sedimentation rate with systolic (r=0.41) and diastolic (r=0.34) blood pressures. Routine monitoring of erythrocyte sedimentation rate and fibrinogen concentration might have an important role in forecasting MS development and consequent adverse cardiovascular events which are the leading cause of mortality in schizophrenic patients.

  15. Studies of the correlations between morphological brain changes on MRI and computerized EEG changes in schizophrenics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, Kouzou (Kagoshima Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)


    Twenty eight schizophrenic patients, who ranged in age from 21 to 39 years with a mean of 30.2, and 21 age- and sex-matched normal volunteers were studied by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and electroencephalography (EEG). ALl subjects were given informed consent prior to the present study. They were all right-handed. Schizophrenic patients showed a significantly larger ventricular brain ratio (VBR) on the axial and coronal planes as compared with the control. The bilateral anterior horns, left body, left posterior horn of the lateral ventricle and the third ventricle were significantly larger in schizophrenic patients than the control. The middle half of the corpus callosum was smaller in schizophrenic patients than the control. Schizophrenia was more likely associated not only with delta and theta activities in the centro-parieto-occipital regions but also with beta 1 and beta 2 activities in the front-central regions. In schizophrenic patients, however, alpha 2 activity was markedly decreased in all regions. There were significant positive correlations between the total scores for brief psychiatric rating scale (BPRS) and the areas of the left anterior and posterior horns of the lateral ventricle. The total BPRS scores positively correlated with the area of the third ventricle. In addition, positive correlations were significant between delata activity and the area of the left anterior horn of the lateral ventricle, between delta activity and the area of the third ventricle, and between beta 1 activity and the area of left posteior horn of the lateral ventricle. These results suggest that a dilated third ventricle is associated with electrophysiological brain pathology and psychopathology in schizophrenic patients. (N.K.) 76 refs.

  16. Increased concentration of. cap alpha. - and. gamma. -endorphin in post mortem hypothalamic tissue of schizophrenic patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiegant, V.M.; Verhoef, C.J.; Burbach, J.P.H.; de Wied, D.


    The concentrations of ..cap alpha..-, ..beta..- and ..gamma..-endorphin were determined by radioimmunoassay in HPLC fractionated extracts of post mortem hypothalamic tissue obtained from schizophrenic patients and controls. The hypothalamic concentration of ..cap alpha..- and ..gamma..-endorphin was significantly higher in patients than in controls. No difference was found in the concentration of ..beta..-endorphin, the putative precursor of ..cap alpha..- and ..gamma..-endorphins. These results suggest a deviant metabolism of ..beta..-endorphin in the brain of schizophrenic patients. Whether this phenomenon is related to the psychopathology, or is a consequence of ante mortem farmacotherapy, remains to be established.

  17. Effectiveness of gratitude disposition promotion program on depression and quality of life of chronic schizophrenic patients. (United States)

    Jung, Miran; Han, Kuemsun


    Gratitude intervention is expectedly an effective intervention to reduce depression and improve the quality of life in schizophrenic patients, but there is a lack of literature on it. We attempted to develop and test the effectiveness of the gratitude disposition promotion program for chronic schizophrenic patients in Korea. Nonequivalent control group pre- and post-test design was used in two mental health centers located at Gyeonggi-do in South Korea. This paper was a quasi-experimental study and the participants who took part in the gratitude disposition promotion program were 17 of experimental group and 15 of control group. Gratitude disposition (the short gratitude, resentment, and appreciation test), depression (Beck Depression Inventory), and quality of life (developed by Kook) of chronic schizophrenic patients were measured before and after an intervention, as compared to the control. Chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, and t -test were performed for prehomogeneity testing for variables related to the general characteristics. Testing for the effectiveness of gratitude disposition promotion program and hypothesis testing for its effect on depression and quality of life were by ANCOVA and t -test, as verified to significance level of P gratitude disposition promotion program showed significant improvements in gratitude disposition ( F = 18.740, P gratitude disposition promotion program was an effective clinical intervention program for enhancing gratitude disposition and quality of life of chronic schizophrenic patients in community.

  18. The effect of neuroleptics on prolactinoma growth in a Jordanian schizophrenic girl. (United States)

    Daradkeh, T K; Ajlouni, K M


    We describe a case of a schizophrenic girl who developed prolactinoma while being treated with neuroleptics. The clinical history and special investigations of the pituitary tumor suggest that neuroleptic medications may have enhanced the growth of the tumor in our patient. The author suggests that the relationship between the occurrence of prolactinoma and neuroleptic medications ought to be investigated in a large controlled study.

  19. Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness among Schizophrenic Patients and Their Families (Comparative Study) (United States)

    Mahmoud, Sahar; Zaki, Rania A.


    This study was a comparative study aiming to assess the extent of internalized stigma of mental illness among patients with schizophrenia & identify stigma as perceived by family members caring schizophrenic patients. The study was conducted in two settings 1st clinic was outpatient clinic for psychiatric patient affiliated to Abbasia…

  20. Dream Content of Schizophrenic, Nonschizophrenic Mentally Ill, and Community Control Adolescents. (United States)

    Hadjez, Jack; Stein, Daniel; Gabbay, Uri; Bruckner, Judith; Meged, Sorin; Barak, Yoram; Elizur, Avner; Weizman, Abraham; Rotenberg, Vadim S.


    Study compared dream content of schizophrenic adolescent inpatients, adolescent inpatient s with other mental disorders, and community controls. Results suggest that psychopathology per se, rather than the specific psychiatric disturbance, may be associated with impoverishment of dream content; and that negative, rather than positive,…

  1. Double-Decision Lexical Tasks in Thought-Disordered Schizophrenic Patients: A Path Towards Cognitive Remediation? (United States)

    Besche-Richard, Chrystel; Passerieux, Christine; Hardy-Bayle, Marie-Christine


    It has been shown that schizophrenics have certain difficulties in the processing of semantic context. These difficulties have usually been evaluated using lexical decision tasks with semantic priming. In this study, we chose to examine the idea of an abnormality in the early stages of semantic context processing in thought-disordered…

  2. Niacin skin flushing in schizophrenic and depressed patients and healthy controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosveld-van Haandel, Linda; Knegtering, Rikus; Kluiter, Herman; van den Bosch, Robert J.


    This study compares the skin reactions to the niacin flushing test of 16 schizophrenic patients with those of 17, depressed patients and 16 healthy controls. Methyl nicotinate (niacin) in a concentration of 0.1 M was applied to the forearm for 5 min. Significant differences could be observed between

  3. Selective Attention in Schizophrenic and Manic Psychoses: The Effect of Distraction on Information Processing (United States)

    Oltmanns, Thomas F.


    This study was designed to identify the general level of cognitive processing that is especially vulnerable to distraction in schizophrenia. Attempts to determine at what level auditory distraction interferes with schizophrenics' performance, as opposed to normals, on simple recall tasks. (Editor/RK)

  4. A postmortem study of glycine and its potential precursors in chronic schizophrenics. (United States)

    Kurumaji, A; Watanabe, A; Kumashiro, S; Semba, J; Toru, M


    We have measured the concentrations of glycine and its potential precursors, serine and threonine, in 20 areas of the postmortem brains of chronic schizophrenics and controls using high-performance liquid chromatography by pre-column derivatization with dimethyl-amino-azobenzene sulphonyl chloride. The regional distribution pattern of glycine in the postmortem brains with and without the disease was more similar to that of serine (r = 0.874, P threonine (r = 0.476, P threonine was also observed in the supramarginal cortex and posterior portion of the lateral occipitotemporal cortex of the off-drug group of schizophrenics and in the putamen of all schizophrenics. The highly similar distribution pattern of glycine and serine in the postmortem brains supports the close coupling of synthesis and metabolism between these chemicals in human brains. The increased content of glycine in the orbitofrontal cortex, the reduced level of serine in the putamen and the decrease in threonine in the cerebral cortices, which were prominent in the off-drug schizophrenics, may be involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    The feasibility of day treatment with community care for schizophrenic patients was tested by means of a longitudinal randomized experiment with 34 experimentals and 16 controls: 38 percent could be treated satisfactorily in a day program that included a very active ambulatory service. The new

  6. The recognition of facial affect in autistic and schizophrenic subjects and their first-degree relatives. (United States)

    Bölte, Sven; Poustka, Fritz


    Autism and schizophrenia are considered to be substantially influenced by genetic factors. The endophenotype of both disorders probably also includes deficits in affect perception. The objective of this study was to examine the capacity to detect facially expressed emotion in autistic and schizophrenic subjects, their parents and siblings. Thirty-five subjects with autism and 102 of their relatives, 21 schizophrenic subjects and 46 relatives from simplex (one child affected) and multiplex (more than one child affected) families, as well as an unaffected control sample consisting of 22 probands completed a 50-item computer-based test to assess the ability to recognize basic emotions. The autistic subjects showed a poorer performance on the facial recognition test than did the schizophrenic and the unaffected individuals. In addition, there was a tendency for subjects from multiplex families with autistic loading to score lower on the test than individuals from simplex families with autistic loading. Schizophrenic subjects and their relatives as well as siblings and parents of autistic subjects did not differ from the sample of unaffected subjects in their ability to judge facial affect. Findings corroborate the assumption that emotion detection deficits are part of the endophenotype of autism. In families with autistic children, the extent of facial recognition deficits probably indexes an elevation in familial burden. It seems unlikely that problems in emotion perception form a consistent part of the endophenotype of schizophrenia or the broader phenotype in relatives of patients with psychosis or autism.

  7. Genital Self-Mutilation in Schizophrenic Patients. A Report of Two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    GENITAL SELF-MUTILATION IN SCHIZOPHRENIC PATIENTS both ICD-10 and DSM-IV11,12. The ICD-. 10 diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia require the presence of bizarre delusions, hallucinations and overall behavioral changes lasting up to one month in the absence of general medical conditions that could explain.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    Background. A randomised controlled trial of day treatment with community care for patients with schizophrenic and affective disorders, referred for in-patient psychiatric treatment, was conducted to evaluate patterns of treatment and the course of illness with its psychosocial consequences over a

  9. Genital self-mutilation in schizophrenic patients. a report of two cases

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Schizophrenia is a serious psychiatric disorder that requires long-term treatment. Poor adherence to medication can lead to serious and possibly life-threatening complications. Genital selfmutilation has been reported in some schizophrenic patients in response to delusions or command auditory hallucination. We report two ...

  10. Disordered semantic representation in schizophrenic temporal cortex revealed by neuromagnetic response patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silberman Yaron


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Loosening of associations and thought disruption are key features of schizophrenic psychopathology. Alterations in neural networks underlying this basic abnormality have not yet been sufficiently identified. Previously, we demonstrated that spatio-temporal clustering of magnetic brain responses to pictorial stimuli map categorical representations in temporal cortex. This result has opened the possibility to quantify associative strength within and across semantic categories in schizophrenic patients. We hypothesized that in contrast to controls, schizophrenic patients exhibit disordered representations of semantic categories. Methods The spatio-temporal clusters of brain magnetic activities elicited by object pictures related to super-ordinate (flowers, animals, furniture, clothes and base-level (e.g. tulip, rose, orchid, sunflower categories were analysed in the source space for the time epochs 170–210 and 210–450 ms following stimulus onset and were compared between 10 schizophrenic patients and 10 control subjects. Results Spatio-temporal correlations of responses elicited by base-level concepts and the difference of within vs. across super-ordinate categories were distinctly lower in patients than in controls. Additionally, in contrast to the well-defined categorical representation in control subjects, unsupervised clustering indicated poorly defined representation of semantic categories in patients. Within the patient group, distinctiveness of categorical representation in the temporal cortex was positively related to negative symptoms and tended to be inversely related to positive symptoms. Conclusion Schizophrenic patients show a less organized representation of semantic categories in clusters of magnetic brain responses than healthy adults. This atypical neural network architecture may be a correlate of loosening of associations, promoting positive symptoms.

  11. Oxidative stress and level of antioxidant enzymes in drug-naive schizophrenics. (United States)

    Reyazuddin, Mohammed; Azmi, Suhail A; Islam, Najmul; Rizvi, Abid


    Schizophrenia is a chronic illness having varied etiology which affects cognition, emotion, perception, and other aspects of behavior. There are data which show possible role of oxidative stress and disturbance in antioxidant mechanisms in various neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. Fifty drug-naive schizophrenic patients, who attended psychiatry outpatient department/inpatient department for the 1(st) time, were selected and compared with 50 age-sex matched healthy controls. The erythrocyte level of malondialdehyde (MDA) - a lipid peroxidation product and marker of oxidative stress, antioxidant enzymes - superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) was estimated. We also correlated the sociodemographic parameters and severity of illness (positive and negative syndrome scale score) with oxidative stress (MDA) and level of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GPX). The level of oxidative stress (MDA) was increased, and the levels of antioxidative enzymes (GPX and SOD) were decreased in schizophrenic patients as compared to normal healthy controls and the difference was statistically significant. No significant relationships of age, sex, educational status, marital status, and PANNS score with oxidative stress (MDA) and antioxidative enzymes (GPX and SOD) level in schizophrenic patients was found; but there was significant relationship of locality with oxidative stress (MDA) and antioxidative enzymes (GPX and SOD) level in schizophrenic patients was found. Urban population have a higher level of MDA, GPX, and SOD than the rural population. Our findings put great emphasis on the weak pro/antioxidant defense mechanisms and its role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. We can make recommendations of dietary nutritional supplementation and adjunct antioxidants therapy with antipsychotics to treat schizophrenics.

  12. Metabolic syndrome in Thai schizophrenic patients: a naturalistic one-year follow-up study

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    Charnsilp Chawanun


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Not only the prevalence, but also the progress of metabolic abnormalities in schizophrenic patients is of importance for treatment planning and policy making. However, there have been very few prospective studies of metabolic disturbance in schizophrenic patients. This study aimed to assess the progress of metabolic abnormalities in Thai individuals with schizophrenia by estimating their one-year incidence rate of metabolic syndrome (MetS. Methods We screened all schizophrenic patients who visited our psychiatric clinic. After the exclusion of participants with MetS at baseline, each subject was reassessed at 6 and 12 months to determine the occurrence of MetS. The definition of MetS, as proposed by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF, was applied. Results Fifty-seven participants (24 males and 33 females had a mean of age and duration of antipsychotic treatment of 37.5 years old and 8.4 years, respectively. At baseline, 13 subjects met the MetS definition. Of 44 subjects who had no MetS at baseline, 35 could be followed up. Seven of these 35 subjects (20.0% had developed MetS at the 6- or 12-month visit, after already having 2 MetS components at baseline. The demographic data and characteristics of those developing and not developing MetS were not different in any respect. Conclusion Thai schizophrenic patients are likely to develop MetS. Their metabolic abnormalities may progress rapidly and fulfill the MetS definition within a year of follow-up. These findings support the importance of assessing and monitoring metabolic syndrome in schizophrenic patients.

  13. AVIATION PSYCHOLOGY, (United States)


  14. A comparison between effectiveness of three types of music on memory activity and sustained attention in schizophrenic patients


    Narges bahmany; Karamatollah Zandi ghashghaee; Sadrollah Khosravi


    Background: schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder in which a lot of cognitive functions including memory, attention, motor skills, executive functions and intelligence are compromised. Numerous empirical studies showed that schizophrenic patients have problem in sustain retention and memory activity. The objective of this study was a comparison between effectiveness of three types of music on memory activity and sustain retention in schizophrenic patients. Material and Methods: A total of 6...

  15. Interpretation of ambiguous idiomatic statements in schizophrenic and depressive patients. Evidence for common and differential cognitive patterns. (United States)

    Iakimova, Galina; Passerieux, Christine; Hardy-Baylé, Marie-Christine


    This study is concerned with the comprehension of ambiguous idiomatic statements in schizophrenic and depressive patients. Using a multiple-choice procedure, we simultaneously tested the presence of concrete and literal elements in the understanding of idiomatic statements. Fourteen schizophrenic and 10 patients undergoing a major depressive episode as well as 14 control subjects completed a questionnaire with 10 idiomatic expressions with two possible interpretations (figurative and literal) of equivalent prominence. The participants had to choose one word linked with the different interpretations of these idioms (figurative, literal, concrete or inappropriate meaning). The main results show that, in all the subjects, the contextual characteristics of the task induced a bias in favor of figurative interpretations despite the equivalent prominence of the literal interpretations of the idioms. The selection of responses relating to the concrete meaning of a single word in the idiom constituted a response mode common to both the schizophrenic and depressed patients. Despite the contextual constraints of the task, the schizophrenics opted for the literal responses more often than the other participants. The descriptive analysis argues in favor of a cognitive and clinical heterogeneity of schizophrenic patients. Results support the idea that literality and concreteness in idiomatic interpretation are possibly due to distinct cognitive impairments, though only some are specific to schizophrenic patients. Copyright (c) 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Animal-assisted therapy for elderly schizophrenic patients: a one-year controlled trial. (United States)

    Barak, Y; Savorai, O; Mavashev, S; Beni, A


    Animal-assisted therapy (AAT) has been used as a therapeutic tool in various psychiatric populations, but there have been no published studies with elderly schizophrenic patients. The authors evaluated, in a blinded, controlled manner, the effects of AAT in a closed psychogeriatric ward over 12 months. Subjects were 10 elderly schizophrenic patients and 10 matched patients (mean age: 79.1+/-6.7 years). The outcome measure was the Scale for Social Adaptive Functioning Evaluation (SAFE). AAT was conducted in weekly 4-hour sessions. Treatment encouraged mobility, interpersonal contact, and communication and reinforced activities of daily living (ADLs), including personal hygiene and independent self-care, through the use of cats and dogs as "modeling companions." The SAFE scores at termination showed significant improvement compared with baseline scores and were significantly more positive for the AAT group on both Total SAFE score and on the Social Functions subscale. AAT proved a successful tool for enhancing socialization, ADLs, and general well-being.

  17. The role of cognitive-developmental tests in differential diagnosis of borderline and schizophrenic patients

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    Vulević Gordana


    Full Text Available The aim of our research was to find out whether cognitive-developmental tests such as Nominal Realism Test and Vygotsky Concept Formation Test could contribute to the process of diagnosing borderline and schizophrenic patients. The specific aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic power of subtests (such as Vocabulary, Comprehension, Similarities and Picture Arrangement Test on Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (VITI in the differential diagnosis of the two groups of patients. The study included 90 subjects, 30 of whom were diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD, 30 had the diagnosis of schizophrenic psychosis (SCH, while 30, who had no psychiatric diagnosis, represented the control group. The findings indicate that the patients with BPD, and particularly those diagnosed with SCH, had both quantitative and qualitative cognitive impairment. The findings show that cognitive developmental tests represent valuable tools in the differential diagnosis of borderline personality disorder and schizophrenia.

  18. Functionally aberrant electrophysiological cortical connectivities in first episode medication-naive schizophrenics from three psychiatry centers

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    Dietrich eLehmann‡


    Full Text Available Functional dissociation between brain processes is widely hypothesized to account for aberrations of thought and emotions in schizophrenic patients. The typically small groups of analyzed schizophrenic patients yielded different neurophysiological findings, probably because small patient groups are likely to comprise different schizophrenia subtypes. We analyzed multichannel eyes-closed resting EEG from three small groups of acutely ill, first episode productive schizophrenic patients before start of medication (from three centers: Bern N=9; Osaka N=9; Berlin N=12 and their controls. Low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA was used to compute intracortical source model-based lagged functional connectivity not biased by volume conduction effects between 19 cortical regions of interest (ROIs. The connectivities were compared between controls and patients of each group. Conjunction analysis determined six aberrant cortical functional connectivities that were the same in the three patient groups. Four of these six concerned the facilitating EEG alpha 1 frequency activity; they were decreased in the patients. Another two of these six connectivities concerned the inhibiting EEG delta frequency activity; they were increased in the patients. The principal orientation of the six aberrant cortical functional connectivities was sagittal; five of them involved both hemispheres. In sum, activity in the posterior brain areas of preprocessing functions and the anterior brain areas of evaluation and behavior control functions were compromised by either decreased coupled activation or increased coupled inhibition, common across schizophrenia subtypes in the three patient groups. These results of the analyzed three independent groups of schizophrenics support the concept of functional dissociation.

  19. Long-term 'treatment' of schizophrenics with typical neuroleptics: a crime against humanity? (United States)

    Elomaa, E


    It is well documented that neuroleptics acting on dopamine receptors induce suppression of reward-directed behaviors in animals (1). Since the need for reward and pleasure is evidently also a powerful determinant of human behavior, it is suggested that compulsory treatment of schizophrenics in remission with anhedonic neuroleptics should be regarded as a crime against humanity, comparable with the scientifically approved use of frontal lobotomy in the management of poor psychotics before the advent of neuroleptics.

  20. Smoking in schizophrenic patients: A critique of the self-medication hypothesis


    Manzella, Francesca; Maloney, Susan E; Taylor, George T


    A common remark among laypeople, and notably also among mental health workers, is that individuals with mental illnesses use drugs as self-medication to allay clinical symptoms and the side effects of drug treatments. Roots of the self-medication concept in psychiatry date back at least to the 1980s. Observations that rates of smokers in schizophrenic patients are multiple times the rates for regular smoking in the general population, as well as those with other disorders, proved particularly...

  1. Influencing and moderating factors analyzed in the group art therapy of two schizophrenic inpatients. (United States)

    Hung, Chung-Chieh; Ku, Yung-Wen


    Art therapy has been considered a guideline treatment for schizophrenia. Due to difficulty in the outcome measurement, the research is difficult and controversial. Here, we presented two schizophrenic patients receiving the regular art group therapy. We compared their characteristics and different outcome. Art therapy is difficult to quantify. However, we could qualify the improvement from the individual case. Further study might be focus on how to make appropriate qualification of art therapy and individualized difference instead of enrollment of huge data bank.

  2. Subverting Space: An Exploration of a Dance Therapy Workshop Apparatus for Schizophrenics. (United States)

    Lippi, Silvia; Petit, Laetitia


    The authors created a dance workshop for schizophrenic patients designed to address their singular experience of space, in which the categories of interior and exterior do not function as limits. The space of the workshop, which, paradoxically, is thought in terms of the psychic space of schizophrenic patients by playing on its borderless quality, creates a continuity between the psychiatric hospital and the external world, and thus helps to prevent the segregation and isolation of such patients. This continuity is established on the basis of both the physical architecture of the workshop setting and the practice of dancing itself. The authors explore the hypothesis that, inside the particular space made possible by the apparatus of the workshop, schizophrenic patients benefit from the experience of movement, beginning with the pulse of rhythm, which establishes a consistency in time. By means of its repetitive character, the beat of music, like movement, accompanies and promotes the experience of continuity, which is the condition for any possible form of symbolizing. Two brief clinical illustrations show how this approach to dance therapy allows a moribund jouissance to be overturned and transformed into the aesthetic jouissance that characterizes the experience of dance.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Introduction: It is assumed that the process of schizophrenia effect on patient"s cognitive functions. The aim of this study was to examine and to compare cognitive profile of patients with that of control group. Methods: 40 patients with schizophrenia were selected from Isfahan Noor Hospital. 40 non-patients as control group were selected and matched on the base of age, sex, education, economic status. Cognitive functions of two groups were assessed by WAlS-R. Results: Results show that schizophrenic patients appear at a lower level of IQ than control group. Nonverbal IQ was more impaired than the other kind of IQ in patients. Cognitive profile analysis reveals that patients had low scores on all of the WAlS-R subscles except information and word subscales. Discussion: These findings show that schizophrenic patients in the first episode of theire illness reveal a remarkable impairment on inteligence performance. Cognitive profile analysis indicates that schizophrenic patients performer significatly at a lower level in comparison with control group, in: abstraction, visual - special perception, verbal and non-verbal conceptualization, social judgment, attention, motor-visual organization and mental flexibility.

  4. The Self Representation in Schizophrenic patients: Considerations on the Draw a Tree Test

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    Salvatore Settineri


    Full Text Available Abstract   Objective: The tree is the archetypal symbol of the identification in the growing life. The objective of this study is to evaluate the representation of the self in schizophrenic patients through the tree drawing. Methods: Were identified 36 patients, 22 women and 14 (M-age=53, suffering from schizophrenic disorder. Through the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS and the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS positive and negative symptoms, and the reactive tree representation of the self were assessed.   Results: In the group with negative symptoms archetypal figures are more frequent, such as images that are part of the collective unconscious, or thought more archaic. In patients in which emerges the delirium, that is part of the most evolved thinking, near to the secondary process, the reality testing is better preserved. In cases where there are symptoms mixed the tree structure leads to an archetypal image. Conclusions: This study shows that in the draw of the tree trunk-to-crown ratio in schizophrenic patients was significantly higher than that of healthy individuals. The usefulness of the study insert itself in the Jungian analytic thought, for which psychotic thought corresponds to an abbaissement of the self activity.   Keyword: Representation of Self; Schizophrenia; Draw a Tree Test.

  5. Affective reactivity of speech in patients with schizophrenia and their non-schizophrenic relatives. (United States)

    Mohagheghi, Arash; Farnam, Alireza; Farhang, Sara; Bakhshipoor, Abbas


    Studies about cognitive functioning of patients with schizophrenia (language problems in particular) are very limited in Iran. This study aims at evaluating the affective reactivity of speech in Turkish-speaking schizophrenic patients and their non-schizophrenic relatives. In a cross-sectional setting, 30 outpatients with schizophrenia were compared with 30 first-degree non-schizophrenic family members and 30 non-clinical controls. The audio-taped speech samples (10 min each) were analyzed blindly for frequencies of referential communication failure. Levels of referential communication disturbance in speech samples (Communication Disturbance Index, CDI) during two separate sessions were compared in affectively positive versus affectively negative conditions. All three groups showed significantly higher frequencies of communication disturbances in the affectively negative condition. The affective reactivity of speech was significant in patients with schizophrenia compared with the controls but not the unaffected relatives. The severity of positive or negative symptoms was not correlated with CDI or level of affective reactivity. This study was carried out in a Turkish-speaking sample and supports the idea that referential communication disturbances may be linked to vulnerability to schizophrenia while affective reactivity is associated with manifest illness. Language differences may affect the observed impact of symptom severity on communication failures.

  6. Auditory hallucinations in schizophrenic and affective disorder Nigerian patients: phenomenological comparison. (United States)

    Okulate, G T; Jones, O B E


    Although auditory hallucinations are universal phenomena, they show cultural and ethnic variation. We set out to study some differences between auditory hallucinations in Nigerian patients and their foreign counterparts. We also investigated the usefulness of auditory hallucinations in distinguishing between schizophrenia and affective disorders. A semi-structured interview was used to obtain information from 89 patients with auditory hallucinations who met ICD-10 criteria for either schizophrenia or affective psychoses and 10 others with organic mental disorders. Responses were compared with respect to the frequency, form and content of the hallucinatory voices as well as the languages spoken. In this sample, voices speaking exclusively in a foreign language were uncommon. Voices commanding and those discussing patients in the third person were the commonest in schizophrenic patients but not as frequent as in a similar group of patients in the UK studied by other authors. In patients with schizophrenia, voices were more likely to discuss the patient, whereas in affective disorders, voices were more likely to evoke fear, and patients were more likely to carry out commands. In conclusion, only three features of auditory hallucinations distinguished between schizophrenic and affective psychoses patients. Auditory hallucinations may be less harassing in Nigerian schizophrenic patients than in their UK counterparts. These hallucinations are most often perceived in the individual's mother tongue, with or without additional use of English, even when the patients have been 'westernized' through education and religion.

  7. Development and validation of a skin fibroblast biomarker profile for schizophrenic patients

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    Marianthi Logotheti


    Full Text Available Gene expression profiles of non-neural tissues through microarray technology could be used in schizophrenia studies, adding more information to the results from similar studies on postmortem brain tissue. The ultimate goal of such studies is to develop accessible biomarkers. Supervised machine learning methodologies were used, in order to examine if the gene expression from skin fibroblast cells could be exploited for the classification of schizophrenic subjects. A dataset of skin fibroblasts gene expression of schizophrenia patients was obtained from Gene Expression Omnibus database. After applying statistical criteria, we concluded to genes that present a differential expression between the schizophrenic patients and the healthy controls. Based on those genes, functional profiling was performed with the BioInfoMiner web tool. After the statistical analysis, 63 genes were identified as differentially expressed. The functional profiling revealed interesting terms and pathways, such as mitogen activated protein kinase and cyclic adenosine monophosphate signaling pathways, as well as immune-related mechanisms. A subset of 16 differentially expressed genes from fibroblast gene expression profiling that occurred after Support Vector Machines Recursive Feature Elimination could efficiently separate schizophrenic from healthy controls subjects. These findings suggest that through the analysis of fibroblast based gene expression signature and with the application of machine learning methodologies we might conclude to a diagnostic classification model in schizophrenia.

  8. Early information processing deficit in schizophrenia. New findings using schizophrenic subgroups and manic control subjects. (United States)

    Saccuzzo, D P; Braff, D L


    In recent years, the idea that schizophrenia involves a primary disturbance of the higher cognitive (ie, cortical) thinking processes has been challenged by investigators who have shown that there may be a primary disturbance in schizophrenia in the early stages of information processing that occurs during the first few hundred milliseconds after the stimulus reaches the sense organs. Among the hypothesized early information processing deficits are deficiencies in iconic storage (a brief peripheral memory store) and slowness of processing from iconic storage to a more permanent memory system. Three experiments were conducted using tachistoscopically presented stimuli in order to evaluate these two stages of information processing (iconic storage and speed of processing) in schizophrenic and control subjects. Results converged in supporting the hypothesis, that independent of iconic storage and sensory registration, slow information processing is a relatively stable deficit of schizophrenic patients with a poor prognosis. The schizophrenic patients with a good prognosis had a similar deficit, which was reversible. Results are discussed as they relate to the early information processing deficit theories of schizophrenia.

  9. Neuropsychology, Social Cognition and Global Functioning Among Bipolar, Schizophrenic Patients and Healthy Controls: Preliminary Data

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    Elisabetta eCaletti


    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the extent of impairment in social and non-social cognitive domains in an ecological context comparing bipolar (BD, schizophrenic patients (SKZ and healthy controls (HC. The sample was enrolled at the Department of Psychiatry of Policlinico Hospital, University of Milan, it includes stabilized schizophrenic patients (n = 30, euthymic bipolar patients (n = 18 and healthy controls (n = 18. Patients and controls completed psychiatric assessment rating scales, the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS and the Executive and Social Cognition Battery (ESCB that contains both ecological tests of executive function and social cognition, in order to better detect cognitive deficits in patients with normal results in standard executive batteries. The three groups differed significantly for gender and substance abuse, however the differences did not influence the results. Bipolar patients showed less impairment on cognitive performance compared to schizophrenic patients, even in ecological tests that mimic real life scenarios. In particular, BD performed better than SKZ in verbal memory (p


    Squires-Wheeler, Elizabeth; Skodol, Andrew E.; Bassett, Anne; Erlenmeyer-Kimling, L.


    Summary The aggregation of disorder in families identified by a schizophrenic disorder proband (index case) has provided indirect clues to the question of diagnostic boundaries of schizophrenic spectrum categories. The Danish Adoption Studies provided quasi-experimental evidence for the range of expression of a putative schizophrenic spectrum disorder which was subsequently denoted schizotypal personality disorder (STPD) in DSM-III-R. It has been hypothesized that such schizophrenic spectrum categories bear a genetic relationship to schizophrenic disorder and thus are continuous with schizophrenia in terms of etiology and pathogenesis. For meaningful use of such spectrum categories in genetic analyses, e.g., linkage analysis, it is important that rates of spectrum traits and disorder in normal control and in psychiatric control populations are known. The rate of DSM-III-R schizotypal traits and disorder was assessed in three offspring groups (ages 18–29) defined by parental diagnoses, including schizophrenic disorder (N = 90), affective disorder (N = 79), and no parental disorder (N = 161). The assessment was conducted by trained social workers and psychologists by means of a direct interview (Personality Disorder Examination). The interviewers were blind to the parental status and to previous psychiatric assessments of these offspring. The rates of three, four and five schizotypal features were elevated in the offspring with parental psychiatric disorder in contrast to the offspring with no parental psychiatric disorder. However, the rates between the offspring of the schizophrenic disorder parental group and the offspring of the affective disorder parental group did not differ significantly, thus failing to support the assumption of diagnostic specificity. PMID:2635220

  11. Functional analysis of the deficit in semantic context processes in schizophrenic patients: an event-related potentials study. (United States)

    Kostova, M; Passerieux, C; Laurent, J P; Saint-Georges, C; Hardy-Baylé, M C


    Schizophrenic patients exhibit a deficit in the semantic context processing strategies which might be responsible for the language and communication disorders that are characteristic of this condition. The aim of our study was to identify the nature of the contextualization processes which are lacking in schizophrenic patients, by distinguishing between processes for the generation of expectations and processes of semantic integration. Thirteen schizophrenic patients and 12 healthy controls performed two tasks: (a) a lexical decision task (LDT) with a highly structured sentence context and whose experimental characteristics made it possible to call strongly on predictive strategies, and (b) a LDT with classic semantic priming (the context being reduced to a single word). In this latter task, the small number of related words did not prompt the generation of expectations but instead called on the postlexical integration process. The event-related potentials (ERP) were recorded during the administration of the task. In the sentence task, we observed a modulation in the N400 amplitude due to the presence of expectations both in the schizophrenic and control participants: predictable words evoked a small N400 amplitude compared to the non-predictable words. In contrast, in the simple (priming) task, the semantic link evoked an N400 amplitude modulation in the control group exclusively. Our results indicate that schizophrenics could be able to use context to activate expectations for the most highly predictable item, and that their deficit appears when the processing strategy is based on the integration of the context stored in working memory.



  13. Military Psychology. (United States)


  14. [Visuospatial context processing in untreated schizophrenic patients and relation to disorganization syndrome]. (United States)

    Longevialle-Hénin, R; Bourdel, M-C; Willard, D; Lôo, H; Olié, J-P; Poirier, M-F; Krebs, M-O; Amado, I


    Previous studies on schizophrenia have suggested that context-processing disturbances were one of the core cognitive deficits present in schizophrenia. Schizophrenic patients have a failure either of inhibition strategy and maintenance of visuospatial information (25) in condition of contextual interference. In the present study, we explored the performances of untreated schizophrenic patients with 2 tasks exploring detection and long term retention of complex visual features and field dependence-independence tasks were selected. These abilities involve temporary maintenance of visuospatial information and executive functioning of visual working memory system. Several studies have shown that cognitive deficit may depend on schizophrenic symptomatology. However results remain controversial in determining the specific influence of negative and positive symptomatologies as well as clinical disorganization. Our goal was to explore the processing of spatial context and its relation to disorganized syndrome. This study was approved by the local ethic committee. Thirty-six schizophrenic patients were included according to DSM IV criteria (19 neuroleptic naïve, 17 unmedicated patients during more than 3 months). Thirty-six healthy controls were matched to patients for age, gender and level of education. Absence of axis 1 pathology was attested for controls with SCID-NP. Current symptomatology was evaluated by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) (14). Clinical disorganisation was evaluated with the disorganisation score established upon a factorial analysis of PANSS by Lepine and Lançon. Items selected to distinguish the disorganised group were abstraction, disorganization, orientation, and attention. Two tasks of embedded figures were administered individually to patients and controls. The Faverge task (Research of Figures-RF) (10) evaluates the ability to recognize the target from spatial complex geometrical figures. The Group Embedded Figure Task (GEFT

  15. An investigation of factors increasing the risk of aggressive behaviour among schizophrenic inpatients

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    Michel eLejoyeux


    Full Text Available Aim of the studyThis study tried to identify risk factors of aggressive behavior in a population of schizophrenic inpatients. We tested the association between aggressive behavior and socio-demographic characteristics, addictive disorders, history of suicide attempt and sexual violence, impulsivity and sensation seeking.MethodsAll consecutive schizophrenic inpatients (100 were assessed during six months. Aggressive behavior was quantified with a standardized scale, the Overt Aggression Scale (OAS. We studied socio-demographic characteristics and the history of suicide attempt and sexual violence with a specific standardized questionnaire. Addictive disorders were identified with the Fagerström and CAGE questionnaires and with the DSM-IV-R diagnostic criteria for nicotine, alcohol, cannabis opiates, and cocaine abuse and dependence disorders. Lastly, we studied sensation-seeking with the Zuckerman scale and impulsivity with the Barratt scale. ResultsLinear regression identified four factors associated with aggressive behaviour: male gender (odd ratio =12.8, history of sexual violence (odd ratio = 3.6, Fagerström score (odd ratio= 1.3, number of cigarettes smoked each day (odd ratio=1.16. Patients with nicotine use or dependence had significantly higher levels of OAS scores. This difference was not observed between patients with or without alcohol dependence. OAS scores were correlated to the number of cigarettes smoked each day and to Fagerström scores. Patients with a higher level of sensation seeking and impulsivity also had higher OAS scores. ConclusionA Typical schizophrenic patient at risk of showing aggressive behavior is a man, who smokes and presents a history of sexual violence.


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    Oscar Rodríguez-Mayoral


    Full Text Available Objective: tobacco smoking is the most commonly substance abused in psychiatric patients; among them, patients with schizophrenia are the highest abusers. Smoking is related to a decrease in the quality life and life expectancy, as well as interacting with psychotropic drugs. In Mexico, there is not basic descriptive knowledge about the main variables related to cigarette smoking in psychiatric population. The aim of this study was to know the relation among variables (beginning and course of the disease, use of other drugs and times of hospitalization among others and cigarette smoking in a Mexican population of hospitalized schizophrenic patients. Method: The relation between the main variables and smoking were evaluated in a Mexican population of schizophrenic patients while hospitalized. A casuistic sampling was performed in 96 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and they were divided into three groups: 1 non-smokers, 2 ex-smokers and 3 smokers; according to their score on the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence. Results: The results showed that hospitalized schizophrenic patients smoke 2.7 times more than the general population. Most of these patients showed moderate to high dependence of nicotine, as well as a higher risk for other drugs abuse (marihuana mainly. Most patients started smoking before the first positive symptoms of schizophrenia appeared, and their symptoms started at an earlier age than in patients without a smoking background. Conclusions: Similar studies will allow deepening into specific aspects that modify and or improve the prescribed treatments for each psychiatric patient in hospital settings.

  17. Taking cognizance of mental illness in schizophrenics and its association with crime and substance-related diagnoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkner, R; Haastrup, S; Jørgensen, T


    OBJECTIVE: To analyse how committed crimes and substance-related diagnoses are associated with the age on the first contact with the psychiatric hospital system and the age at diagnosing of schizophrenia among schizophrenics. METHOD: In a register-based study including all Danes diagnosed with sc...... are aware of possible psychotic symptoms in criminal and abusing individuals to enable earlier detection and treatment.......OBJECTIVE: To analyse how committed crimes and substance-related diagnoses are associated with the age on the first contact with the psychiatric hospital system and the age at diagnosing of schizophrenia among schizophrenics. METHOD: In a register-based study including all Danes diagnosed...... with schizophrenia born after November 1, 1963, data on criminality, substance-related diagnoses and contacts with the psychiatric hospital system were analysed. RESULTS: Compared with the non-convicted schizophrenics the convicted were older on first contact with the psychiatric hospital system and older when...

  18. A massive neglected giant basal cell carcinoma in a schizophrenic patient treated successfully with vismodegib

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rosa Marie; Lei, Ulrikke


    The small molecule vismodegib is a great treatment alternative to patients challenged, e.g. psychiatric disorders, suffering from severe basal cell carcinoma of the skin in which surgery or other treatment modalities is not possible because of patient's wish or condition. We present a case of a 73......-year-old schizophrenic patient with a 15-year history of a neglected tumour located at the forehead and scalp, admitted to hospital in a state of inanition because of tumour expansion to the meninges and severe anaemia caused by bleeding, treated successfully with vismodegib....

  19. Effects of hormones on cognition in schizophrenic male patients--preliminary results. (United States)

    Bratek, Agnieszka; Koźmin-Burzyńska, Agnieszka; Krysta, Krzysztof; Cierpka-Wiszniewska, Katarzyna; Krupka-Matuszczyk, Irena


    Schizophrenia is a prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder of an unknown etiology and a variable phenotypic expression. In the recent years, the impact of hormones on the course of schizophrenia has been investigated. This study is aimed at assessing the level of correlating serum levels of hormones in schizophrenic male patients with their cognitive functioning measured with neuropsychological tests. In the index group there were 15 medicated male schizophrenic patients. In the control group there were 15 age and education matched healthy men. All subjects underwent analysis of serum hormones level (TSH, testosterone, estradiol, FSH, LH, progesterone and prolactin) and a battery of tests (Trail Making Test A and B, Stroop Test, Verbal and Semantic Fluency Test). The mean serum levels of the following hormones were higher in the index group than in the control group: TSH (1.76 mIU/L vs 1.58 mIU/L; p=0.66), progesterone (0.85 ng/ml vs 0.69 ng/ml; p=0.22) and prolactin (558.71 uIU/ml vs 181 uIU/ml; p=0.025). The mean levels of estradiol (24.36 pg/ml vs 25.40 ng/ml; p=0.64), FSH (3.17 mIU/ml vs 5.72 mIU/ml; p=0.019), LH (3.85 mIU/ml vs 5.77 mIU/ml; p=0.056) and testosterone (2.90 ng/ml vs 5.38 ng/ml; p=0.003) were higher in the control group. In the index group there were significant negative correlations between FSH and semantic fluency (ρ=-0.678606), progesterone and: TMT B (ρ=-0.586763), Stroop 1 (ρ=-0.701880) and Stroop 2 (ρ=-0.601074) and prolactin and TMT A (ρ=-0.579607). The preliminary results of our study show that serum levels of FSH and testosterone are significantly lower, whereas the level of prolactin is markedly higher, in schizophrenic male patients than in healthy men. There is an inverse correlation between serum levels of progesterone, FSH and prolactin and the results of certain cognitive functioning tests in schizophrenic men.

  20. Clinical correlates of decreased anteroposterior metabolic gradients in positron emission tomography (PET) of schizophrenic patients

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    DeLisi, L.E.; Buchsbaum, M.S.; Holcomb, H.H.; Dowling-Zimmerman, S.; Pickar, D.; Boronow, J.; Morihisa, J.M.; van Kammen, D.P.; Carpenter, W.; Kessler, R.


    The finding in schizophrenic patients of a reversal of the normal frontal to posterior pattern of brain metabolic activity with positron emission tomography (PET) is of interest, but its relevance to psychopathology is unknown. Using PET, the authors studied 21 patients with chronic schizophrenia and 21 age- and sex-matched control subjects. Although eight of the 21 patients and only one of the control subjects showed a relatively lower anteroposterior metabolic gradient, no clinical correlates of this finding were noted. In addition, cerebral atrophy, as determined by CAT scan, was not associated with this aberrant metabolic pattern.

  1. [Subjective quality of life in severely disabled long-stay schizophrenic patients]. (United States)

    Franz, Michael; Meyer, Thorsten; Gallhofer, Bernd


    In the controversy about severely chronic mental patients, who still reside in the psychiatric hospital after decades of deinstitutionalization, their quality of life (QoL) has become a main topic. On the basis of a critique of the dominant, mere standardized approach to QoL this method is compared with a qualitative approach in such a schizophrenic "residual" patient group (n = 144). While in the standardized approach a high level of subjective QoL could be found that correlated positively with the duration of hospitalisation, the open interviews yielded specific experiences of deficiencies. The appraisal of the quality of life especially of chronic or hospitalized patients is reconsidered.

  2. Quality of life assessment of patients with schizophrenic spectrum disorders from Psychosocial Care Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Fernandes Carpinteiro da Silva


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Assessing the quality of life and the clinical and social-demographic factors associated in schizophrenic spectrum patients (ICD-10 F20-F29 attending CAPS at the programmatic area 3.0. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in a sample of schizophrenic spectrum patients who have been enrolled in 2008 in CAPS in programmatic area (AP 3 at Rio de Janeiro city, using MINIPLUS to assess schizophrenia spectrum disorder and use of psychoactive substances, Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale (PANSS to assess psychiatric symptoms and Quality of Life Scale (QLS-BR to assess the quality of life. RESULTS: Seventy nine patients were included, of whom 74 (93.7% presented some impairment in quality of life. The most frequently affected area was occupational performance. Variables that showed a significant association with severe impairment of quality of life were: marital status, race, occupation, who patients lived with, homelessness, having children, previous psychiatric hospitalization, negative symptoms and symptoms designated as not applicable (being characterized by a lack of typical positive and negative symptoms. CONCLUSION: The knowledge of these factors should be crucial to implement health policies and psychosocial rehabilitation programs focused on improving the quality of life of these patients.

  3. Regional cerebral blood flow in schizophrenic patients; In relation to the subtypes of the disease

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    Sagawa, Katsuo; Sibuya, Isoo; Oiji, Arata; Kawakatsu, Sinobu; Morinobu, Shigeru; Totsuka, Shiro (Yamagata Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine); Kinoshita, Osami; Yazaki, Mitsuyasu


    Seventy-six schizophrenic patients were examined by a Xe-133 inhalation method to determine regional cerebral blood flow. A decreased blood flow was observed in the frontal lobe, especially in the right inferior part. In a study on the relationship between disease subtypes and regional cerebral blood flow, negative symptoms were found more predominantly associated with dissolution type than delusion type. In the group of dissolution type, a decreased blood flow was observed in both the right inferior frontal lobe and the right upper hemisphere, in comparison to the group of delution type. Patients presenting with auditory hallucination had a significantly higher incidence of both negative and positive symptoms, as compared with those not presenting with it. In such patients, a significantly decreased blood flow was also seen in the left upper frontal lobe and the bilateral parietal lobe. Xe-133 inhalation method should assist in evaluating brain function in schizophrenic patients, thus leading to the likelihood of developing a new treatment modality. (N.K.).

  4. [The effect of family nursing on the lived experience of children living with schizophrenic fathers]. (United States)

    Chang, Hsiu-Ju; Chang, Chun-Ju; Lin, Ching-Rong; Chan, Tan-Hsuan; Shiau, Shu-Jen


    The purpose of this study was to explore by means of the phenomenological method the effect of family nursing on the experience of six adolescent offspring living with schizophrenic fathers. Data were collected by family intervention with low structured interview. Three themes of the lived experience of adolescents were identified: stalemate, coping and transcendence. The sub-dimensions of stalemate included encounter with "sick father" and unstable emotion, which resulted from the negative impacts of the father's illness. The sub-dimensions of coping included "sick father" or "my father", being with "sick father", trying to take care of "sick father", identification and differentiation, and the reformulation of "my father". These sub-dimensions emerged after family intervention and included coping in cognition, emotion, and behaviors. The sub-dimensions of transcendence included positive attitude toward psychiatric patients, caring for father's disease and medications, and family life restructuring. The findings from this study could help psychiatric mental health nurses to apply family interventions in order to gain a better understanding of the lived experience of children living with schizophrenic fathers and to enable them to cope positively with the father's disease.

  5. A comparison of new and revised Rorschach measures of schizophrenic functioning in a Serbian clinical sample. (United States)

    Dzamonja-Ignjatovic, Tamara; Smith, Bruce L; Djuric Jocic, Dragana; Milanovic, Marko


    We empirically evaluated indexes derived from the Rorschach Comprehensive System (CS) and the Rorschach Performance Assessment System (R-PAS) that are used for the assessment of psychotic functioning in schizophrenia. We compared the Perceptual Thinking Index (PTI) and the Ego Impairment Index (EII-2) with their revised versions: Thought and Perception Composite (TP-Comp) and EII-3. We evaluated their predictive validity for differentiating schizophrenic from nonschizophrenic patients in a Serbian sample. The sample consisted of 211 (109 men and 102 women, 18-50 years old) inpatients in Serbia who were divided into 2 groups: schizophrenic (100) and nonschizophrenic (111). Test administration, coding, and form quality classification followed CS guidelines. Logistic regression analysis indicated that the new indexes TP-Comp and EII-3 have slightly better predictive power than their counterparts, PTI and EII-2, in identification of schizophrenia, and that TP-Comp performed better than other indexes, although all 4 indexes were successful in differentiating these groups. The results supported the use of TP-Comp in diagnosis of schizophrenia and generally provided evidence for the utility of the Rorschach in evaluating psychosis and for its use in a cross-national context.

  6. Effect of clinical improvement of schizophrenic symptoms on {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO brain SPECT

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    Shin, Chul Jin; Koong, Sung Soo; Chung, In Won [College of Medicine, Chungbuk National Univ., Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)


    This study investigated regional blood flow changes of frontal, temporal, and basal ganglia in eleven schizophrenic patients on DSM-IV criteria to examine the relationship between rCBF and clinical improvement of symptoms. Single-photon emission computed tomography imaging with {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO was performed in baseline and sixth weeks after the treatment, and concurrently psychopathology was assessed by PANSS. Antipsychotics wash-out period was more than 2 weeks, and three patient were drug naive. All patients were finally divided into two groups, the improved or not improved. We examined the difference of the amount of rCBF changes between two groups. Finally, frontal activity shows no significant difference between two groups but both groups show decreased frontal blood flow after antipsychotic treatment. However, the change of right temporal rCBF had positive correlation with the change of the total PANSS score, and the change of left temporal lobe activity was greater in the improved group than in the not improved group. Our results suggest that the temporal lobe activity has relation to the underlying schizophrenic symptoms.

  7. Laughter in a psychiatric ward. Somatic, emotional, social, and clinical influences on schizophrenic patients. (United States)

    Gelkopf, M; Kreitler, S; Sigal, M


    The study was designed to explore the potential therapeutic effects of humor on hospitalized schizophrenics. For this purpose, in the first stage, we conducted a review of findings in regard to physical health, emotions, psychiatric state, and social behavior. In the second stage, we carried out an experiment with 34 resident patients in two chronic schizophrenic wards who were exposed to 70 movies during 3 months. The experimental group was exposed to humorous movies only, and the control group to different kinds of movies. Before and after the exposure to films for 3 months, both groups were tested on different health, emotional, social, and clinical measures using the Cognitive Orientation of Health Questionnaire, the Shalvata Symptom Rating Scale, blood pressure, heart rate, Perceived Verbal and Motor Aggression (rated by nurses), the Multiple Affect Adjective Check List, the Social Support Questionnaire 6, and the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS; rated by psychiatrists). Covariance analyses yielded significant reductions in Perceived Verbal Hostility, BPRS scales (total score, anxiety/depression), and significant increases in BPRS (activation) and degree of staff support experienced by the patients. The results indicate that the effects of exposure to humor may be mediated by the effects on the staff of the incidental exposure to humorous films.

  8. Taking cognizance of mental illness in schizophrenics and its association with crime and substance-related diagnoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkner, R; Haastrup, S; Jørgensen, T


    OBJECTIVE: To analyse how committed crimes and substance-related diagnoses are associated with the age on the first contact with the psychiatric hospital system and the age at diagnosing of schizophrenia among schizophrenics. METHOD: In a register-based study including all Danes diagnosed with sc...

  9. Association between the blood concentrations of ammonia and carnitine/amino acid of schizophrenic patients treated with valproic acid. (United States)

    Ando, Masazumi; Amayasu, Hideaki; Itai, Takahiro; Yoshida, Hisahiro


    Administration of valproic acid (VPA) is complicated with approximately 0.9% of patients developing hyperammonemia, but the pathogenesis of this adverse effect remains to be clarified. The aim of the present study was to search for mechanisms associated with VPA-induced hyperammonemia in the light of changes in serum amino acids concentrations associated with the urea cycle of schizophrenic patients. Blood samples (10 mL) were obtained from 37 schizophrenic patients receiving VPA for the prevention of violent behaviors in the morning after overnight fast. Blood concentrations of ammonia, VPA, free carnitine, acyl-carnitine, and 40 amino acids including glutamate and citrulline were measured for each patient. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed to identify amino acids or concomitantly administered drugs that were associated with variability in the blood concentrations of ammonia. The blood ammonia level was positively correlated with the serum glutamate concentration ( r  = 0.44, p  blonanserin ( p  < 0.01) was positively associated with the elevation of the blood ammonia level. We hypothisized that VPA would elevate the blood ammonia level of schizophrenic patients. The observed changes in serum amino acids are compatible with urea cycle dysfunction, possibly due to reduced carbamoyl-phosphate synthase 1 (CPS1) activity. We conclude that VPA should be prudently prescribed to schizophrenic patients, particularly those receiving mood stabilizers or certain antipsychotics.

  10. Taking cognizance of mental illness in schizophrenics and its association with crime and substance-related diagnoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkner, R; Haastrup, S; Jørgensen, T


    OBJECTIVE: To analyse how committed crimes and substance-related diagnoses are associated with the age on the first contact with the psychiatric hospital system and the age at diagnosing of schizophrenia among schizophrenics. METHOD: In a register-based study including all Danes diagnosed with sc...... are aware of possible psychotic symptoms in criminal and abusing individuals to enable earlier detection and treatment....

  11. Psychological Treatment (United States)

    ... Low FODMAP Diet Complementary or Alternative Treatments Medications Psychological Treatments Online Studies News You Can Use Living ... Low FODMAP Diet Complementary or Alternative Treatments Medications Psychological Treatments Online Studies News You Can Use Living ...

  12. Decreased serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in schizophrenic patients with deficit syndrome

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    Akyol ES


    Full Text Available Esra Soydas Akyol,1 Yakup Albayrak,2 Murat Beyazyüz,3 Nurkan Aksoy,4 Murat Kuloglu,5 Kenji Hashimoto6 1Deparment of Psychiatry, Yenimahalle Education and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey; 2Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Namik Kemal University, Tekirdag, Turkey; 3Department of Psychiatry, Biga State Hospital, Çanakkale, Turkey; 4Department of Biochemistry, Yenimahalle Education and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey; 5Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Akdeniz University, Antalya, Turkey; 6Division of Clinical Neuroscience, Chiba University Center for Forensic Mental Health, Chiba, Japan Background: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF is a well-established neurotrophin that plays a role in the pathophysiology of numerous psychiatric disorders. Many studies have investigated the serum BDNF levels in patients with schizophrenia. However, there are restricted data in the literature that compare the serum BDNF levels in patients with deficit and nondeficit syndromes. In this study, we aimed to compare the serum BDNF levels between schizophrenic patients with deficit or nondeficit syndrome and healthy controls.Methods: After fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 58 patients with schizophrenia and 36 healthy controls were included in the study. The patients were grouped as deficit syndrome (N=23 and nondeficit syndrome (N=35 according to the Schedule for the Deficit Syndrome. Three groups were compared in terms of the sociodemographic and clinical variants and serum BDNF levels.Results: The groups were similar in terms of age, sex, body mass index, and smoking status. The serum BDNF levels in patients with deficit syndrome were significantly lower than those in healthy controls. In contrast, the serum BDNF levels in patients with nondeficit syndrome were similar to those in healthy controls.Conclusion: This study suggests that decreased BDNF levels may play a role in the pathophysio­logy of schizophrenic

  13. Adherence to depot versus oral antipsychotic medication in schizophrenic patients during the long-term therapy

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    Stanković Žana


    Full Text Available Background/Aim. There is a high rate of schizophrenic patients who do not adhere to their prescribed therapy, despite the implementation of antipsychotic long-acting injections and the introduction of atypical antipsychotics. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in sociodemographic, clinical and medication adherence variables between the two groups of schizophrenic patients on maintenance therapy with depot antipsychotic fluphenazine decanoate and oral antipsychotics only as well as a correlation between the medication adherence and other examined variables. Methods. A total of 56 patients of both genders, aged < 60 years, with the diagnosis of schizophrenia (F20 (ICD-10, 1992 clinically stable for at least 6 months were introduced in this cross-sectional study. The patients from the depot group (n = 19 were on classical depot antipsychotic fluphenazine decanoate administering intramuscularly every 4 weeks (with or without oral antipsychotic augmentation and the patients from the oral group (n = 37 were on oral therapy alone with classical or atypical antipsychotics, either as monotherapy or combined. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS was used to assess symptom severity. Item G12 of the PANSS was used to assess insight into the illness. The patients completed the Medical Adherence Rating Scale (MARS was used to assess adherence to the therapy. A higher MARS score indicates behavior [Medical Adherence Questionnaire (MAQ subscale] and attitudes toward medication [Drug Attitude Inventory (DAI subscale] that are more consistent with treatment adherence. The exclusion criteria were determined. The Pearson's χ2 test was used to compare categorical variables, Student's t-test to compare continuous variables and Pearson's correlation to test the correlation significance; p = 0.05. Results. Significant betweengroup differences in age, illness duration, chlorpromazine equivalents, PANSS score and DAI subscore were found

  14. A comparison between effectiveness of three types of music on memory activity and sustained attention in schizophrenic patients

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    Narges bahmany


    Full Text Available Background: schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder in which a lot of cognitive functions including memory, attention, motor skills, executive functions and intelligence are compromised. Numerous empirical studies showed that schizophrenic patients have problem in sustain retention and memory activity. The objective of this study was a comparison between effectiveness of three types of music on memory activity and sustain retention in schizophrenic patients. Material and Methods: A total of 60 schizophrenic patients (30 males , 30 females 18-48 years old were selected from available sampling frame. Participants were otherwise healthy except for schizophrenia. Wechsler Memory Scale and cognitive diagnostic battery Kay test were taken from all subjects. Then patients were randomly divided into three experimental groups (Iranian classic, western classic and pop music and three control groups. There were 10 participants (5 male, 5 female in each group. After taking these tests, music therapy course was performed on experimental groups. After music therapy sessions were completed, tests were taken again from groups. Results: Covariance analysis results indicated that music therapy is overall effective on memory activity. But type of music had no effect in improving memory activity. There wasn’t significant difference between groups considering type of music. Furthermore, covariance analysis showed that music therapy is totally effective on sustain retention and type of music is effective in this intervention. Pop music had the most effectiveness on schizophrenic patients in improving sustain retention. Conclusion: Performing music therapy improves memory and retention. More over, using pop music particularly has the most effect in improving sustain retention in schizophrenic patients.

  15. Investigative psychology


    Canter, David V.


    The domain of Investigative Psychology covers all aspects of psychology that are relevant to the conduct of criminal or civil investigations. Its focus is on the ways in which criminal activities may be examined and understood in order for the detection of crime to be effective and legal proceedings to be appropriate. As such Investigative Psychology is concerned with psychological input to the full range of issues that relate to the management, investigation and prosecution of crime

  16. Positive Psychology (United States)

    Peterson, Christopher


    Positive psychology is a deliberate correction to the focus of psychology on problems. Positive psychology does not deny the difficulties that people may experience but does suggest that sole attention to disorder leads to an incomplete view of the human condition. Positive psychologists concern themselves with four major topics: (1) positive…

  17. Successful microsurgical penile replantation following self amputation in a schizophrenic patient

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    Saurabh Gyan


    Full Text Available Amputation of the penis is a rare condition reported from various parts of the world as isolated cases or small series of patients; the common etiology is self-mutilating sharp amputation or an avulsion or crush injury in an industrial accident. A complete reconstruction of all penile structures should be attempted in one stage which provides the best chance for full rehabilitation of the patient. We report here a single case of total amputation of the penis in an acute paranoid schizophrenic patient .The penis was successfully reattached using a microsurgical technique. After surgery, near-normal appearance and function including a good urine flow and absence of urethral stricture, capabilities of erection and near normal sensitivity were observed.

  18. Urinary tract infection complicated by urine retention presenting as pseudocyesis in a schizophrenic patient. (United States)

    Yeh, Yi-Wei; Kuo, Shin-Chang; Chen, Chun-Yen


    Pseudocyesis is a rare condition wherein a nonpregnant woman shows signs and symptoms of pregnancy, such as abdominal enlargement, breast enlargement, pigmentation, cessation of menses, subjective sensation of fetal movement and labor pains at the expected delivery date. In the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision, it is classified as a somatoform disorder, characterized by a false belief of being pregnant that is associated with objective signs of pregnancy. We report the case of a middle-aged female schizophrenic patient who developed pseudocyesis secondary to a urinary tract infection complicated by acute urine retention. The patient accepted that she had pseudocyesis after the causative medical condition resolved. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. [Clinical features of the Kandinsky-Clerambault syndrome in schizophrenic patients and prognosis]. (United States)

    Tsirkin, S Iu


    The paper deals with the typology of conditions with a delusional variant of the Kandinsky-Clerambault syndrome in schizophrenia. At the basis of the differentiation there lie different types of delusional disturbances in the structure of which the syndrome is formed. Accordingly, 4 types of conditions have been distinguished: 1. developing in combination with interpretative systematized delusions; 2. interpretative non-systematized delusions; 3. acute fantastic paraphrenic delusions; 4. acute sensual delusions. Certain correlations were demonstrated between these types of delusional disturbances and the indices of the gravity of the schizophrenic process (the form of disease development, quality of negative disturbances, the depths of process intensification, following each of the types of conditions, index of working capacity, duration of attacks). The typology presented is discussed in the light of prognosis of the severity of the development of schizophrenias and its treatment.

  20. Self-mutilation of the nose in a schizophrenic patient with Cotard syndrome. (United States)

    Ghaffari-Nejad, Alireza; Kerdegari, Mohammad; Reihani-Kermani, Hamed


    Cotard syndrome is a rare condition, which its main symptom is nihilistic delusion. Self-mutilation of the nose is also a rare condition, which has not been seen in schizophrenic patients with Cotard syndrome. A single case is presented here. A 32-year-old woman who was diagnosed as having schizophrenia and believed that she was dead, cut the tip of her nose. She had no guilt feeling and described her act as a cosmetic surgery. We try to explain how various symptoms that seem to be very far from each other could exist side by side. Misinterpretation of her face is suggested to be the starting point in her complex symptoms.

  1. Symptom changes in chronic schizophrenic patients on a token economy: a controlled experiment. (United States)

    Baker, R; Hall, J N; Hutchinson, K; Bridge, G


    An 18-month controlled experiment was conducted into the effects of a token economy programme on the ward behaviour and symptoms of chronic schizophrenic patients. An experimental group received tokens dependent upon appropriate behaviour, while a matched control group on the same ward received every aspect of the ward programme similarly except that tokens were not dependent upon their behaviour. Regular assessment showed that both groups improved substantially in social withdrawal. Over twelve months of treatment the experimental group improved no more than the control group. There were no symptomatic changes. The conclusions were that token economy is a treatment affecting withdrawl and social behaviour rather than symptomatology, and that factors other than reinforcement by tokens were responsible for the main changes.

  2. Ancient schwannoma of thoracic spine in a schizophrenic patient with somatic delusion

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    Ya-Ting Wen


    Full Text Available Ancient schwannoma is a rare variant of schwannoma characterized by histopathologic degenerative changes, which are thought to be the result of long-term tumor growth and aging. However, ancient schwannoma in the spinal canal is particularly rare. We report a case of thoracic spine intradural extramedullary ancient schwannoma in a schizophrenic patient, who kept saying that “something in his back was giving him electric shock” for a long time. Unfortunately, this complaint was misinterpreted as somatic delusion symptoms. A spinal cord tumor was taken into consideration only after paraparesis developed. We have highlighted this case to remind every clinician to remain alert about the possibility of organic disease while treating patients with psychotic disorder history. Thorough neurological examination is required to avoid misdiagnosis. Spinal canal schwannoma can be totally removed successfully with good functional outcome and prognosis.

  3. Cognitive dysfunction at baseline predicts symptomatic 1-year outcome in first-episode schizophrenics. (United States)

    Moritz, S; Krausz, M; Gottwalz, E; Lambert, M; Perro, C; Ganzer, S; Naber, D


    The present study addresses the consequences of cognitive disturbances on symptomatic outcome. Fifty-three first-episode schizophrenics were reassessed (n = 32) 1 year after admission. Simple regression analyses revealed that several self-perceived cognitive deficits at baseline as measured with the Frankfurt Complaint Questionnaire significantly predicted increased Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale global scores at follow-up (p = 0.05 to p = 0.005). A stepwise regression analysis proved memory dysfunction to be the strongest predictor of symptomatic worsening (p = 0.005). It is suggested that the exploration and treatment of neuropsychological deficits in schizophrenia is of great clinical importance with regard to its impact on both functional and symptomatic outcome in schizophrenia. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

  4. The effect of diagnostic labelling on the lay theory regarding schizophrenic disorders. (United States)

    Angermeyer, M C; Matschinger, H


    On the basis of a representative survey carried out in Germany in the Autumn of 1990, hypotheses about the effect of diagnostic labelling on lay beliefs regarding schizophrenic disorders were tested. As expected, labelling the disorder as schizophrenia increased the likelihood that biological factors were considered to be aetiologically relevant, while psychosocial stress, which most often was held responsible without labelling was cited less frequently as a cause. Thus, labelling the disorder as schizophrenia can be assumed to cause lay-aetiological beliefs to more closely approximate theories predominant among psychiatric experts. In addition, both the sufferers themselves as well as their parents were less frequently held responsible for the onset of the disorder. However, with diagnostic labelling the treatment prognosis was assessed less favourably. In sum, our results do not furnish a definite argument either for or against the explicit diagnosing of schizophrenia.

  5. Identification of a missense mutation and several polymorphisms in the proenkephalin A gene of schizophrenic patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikesell, M.J.; Sommer, S.S.; McMurray, C.T. [Mayo Foundation and Mayo Graduate School, Rochester, MN (United States)] [and others


    Schizophrenia is a complex and severe disorder of unknown cause and pathophysiology. In this study, we examined the opioid hypothesis for schizophrenia at the molecular level, focusing on the dopamine-regulated proenkephalin A gene (chromosome 8q11.23-q12). We have screened 150 schizophrenic patients for sequence variations within the promoter region, entire coding sequence, and 3{prime}-untranslated region. We find one sequence change in a conserved amino acid that may be of functional significance. This mutation was found in a single schizophrenia patient but not in controls. Although several new, race-specific polymorphisms were identified, all other sequence changes appeared to be common polymorphisms, unlikely to contribute to the etiology of schizophrenia. 38 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Origins of a Jungian-oriented therapeutic community for schizophrenic patients. (United States)

    Wilmer, H A


    The author believes that rapid hospital turnover of psychiatric patients and heavy reliance on psychotropic drugs often interfere with recovery, especially for many psychotic patients who need a retreat where they might be helped to heal themselves. He describes the origins and operation of a Jungian-oriented therapeutic community for schizophrenic patients in a Veterans Administration hospital, the community is based parly on his earlier work with therapeutic communities and his belief that clear lines of authority must be maintained as well as his experiences with videotherapy and art therapy. The community relies heavily on art therapy in which patients are encouraged to make abstract paintings of their delusions, visions, hallucinations, dreams, and fantasies and to interpret the paintings themselves.

  7. Measurement of methionine level with the LC-ESI-MS/MS method in schizophrenic patients

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    S. Kulaksizoglu


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate plasma methionine levels by using liquid chromatography electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectroscopy (LC-ESI-MS/MS in schizophrenic patients. A twelve-point standard graph was drawn, and the recovery rate, the intra-day and inter-day coefficients of variation (CV, the limit of detection (LOD, and the limit of quantification (LOQ were evaluated. The y and R2 values of the standard graph equation were determined as 0.011x + 0.0179 and 0.9989, respectively, and the graph remained linear until the 200 µmol/l level. The intra-day coefficients of variation of the samples (n = 10 containing 8, 28, and 58 µmol/l methionine were determined as 2.68, 3.10, and 3.79%, respectively; while their inter-day coefficients of variation were determined as 2.98, 3.19, and 3.84%. The LOD and LOQ values were determined as 0.04 and 0.1 µmol/l, respectively, while the mean recovery rates were determined as 101.7 and 99.3%. Plasma methionine values were measured as 21.5 (19.5-24,6 µmol/l for the patient group, 17.8 (16.3-20.1 µmol/l for the control group, and the difference between the two groups was statistically significant (p = 0.03. LC-ESI-MS/MS method represents a fairly sensitive, economic, and rapid analysis that requires very little sample and is suitable for measuring methionine levels in schizophrenic patients.

  8. Virtual reality testing of multi-modal integration in schizophrenic patients. (United States)

    Sorkin, Anna; Peled, Avi; Weinshall, Daphna


    Our goal is to develop a new family of automatic tools for the diagnosis of schizophrenia, using Virtual Reality Technology (VRT). VRT is specifically suitable for this purpose, because it allows for multi-modal stimulation in a complex setup, and the simultaneous measurement of multiple parameters. In this work we studied sensory integration within working memory, in a navigation task through a VR maze. Along the way subjects pass through multiple rooms that include three doors each, only one of which can be used to legally exit the room. Specifically, each door is characterized by three features (color, shape and sound), and only one combination of features -- as determined by a transient opening rule -- is legal. The opening rule changes over time. Subjects must learn the rule and use it for successful navigation throughout the maze. 39 schizophrenic patients and 21 healthy controls participated in this study. Upon completion, each subject was assigned a performance profile, including various error scores, response time, navigation ability and strategy. We developed a classification procedure based on the subjects' performance profile, which correctly predicted 85% of the schizophrenic patients (and all the controls). We observed that a number of parameters showed significant correlation with standard diagnosis scores (PANSS), suggesting the potential use of our measurements for future diagnosis of schizophrenia. On the other hand, our patients did not show unusual repetition of response despite stimulus cessation (called perseveration in classical studies of schizophrenia), which is usually considered a robust marker of the disease. Interestingly, this deficit only appeared in our study when subjects did not receive proper explanation of the task.

  9. Catha edulis chewing effects on treatment of paranoid schizophrenic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotb El-Sayed MI


    Full Text Available Mohamed-I Kotb El-Sayed, Hatem-K Amin Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Helwan University, Ain Helwan, Helwan, Cairo, Egypt Background: The current study’s aim is to evaluate the possible interaction effects of khat chewing on treatment of paranoid schizophrenic patients.Patients and methods: In the study group, 42 male subjects suffered from paranoid schizophrenia and were classified according to their khat chewing habits into two subgroups: either khat-chewer subgroup (SKc; n=21; r=11, h=10 or non-khat-chewer subgroup (SNKc; n=21, r=11, h=10. Each subgroup was further subdivided according to type of treatment into r (risperidone and h (haloperidol. Healthy male subjects (37 were subdivided into healthy khat-chewer as positive controls (HKc, n=17 and healthy non-khat-chewer as negative controls (HNKc, n=20. Plasma dopamine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC, homovanillic acid, 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, epinephrine, and norepinephrine were estimated.Results: ANOVA and post hoc analysis showed that dopamine was illustrating significant elevation in all khat chewing groups. DOPAC was illustrating significant decrease in all khat chewing groups with an interesting outcome showing significant increase in DOPAC in SNKcr group due to risperidone effect. Homovanillic acid, serotonin, hydroxyindoleacetic acid, and norepinephrine were illustrating significant elevations in all khat chewing groups. Epinephrine was illustrating significant elevation in all chewers than non-chewers groups. Unexpected significant decrease in epinephrine in the SNKcr group indicated that risperidone drug is decreasing epinephrine through indirect mechanism involving calcium.Conclusion: Khat chewing in schizophrenic patients is contraindicated because it aggravates the disease symptoms, attenuates all used treatment medications, and deteriorates all biochemical markers of the patients. Keywords

  10. Serum cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate levels in schizophrenic patients and their first-degree relatives. (United States)

    Yıldırım, Osman; Dogan, Orhan; Semiz, Murat; Kilicli, Fatih


    Alterations in cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) levels are thought to play a role in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of serum cortisol and DHEA-S in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Sixty schizophrenic patients, 70 healthy first-degree relatives, and 60 healthy volunteers were included. Sociodemographic characteristics, data regarding disease duration and severity, as well as ongoing and previous drug use were recorded. Serum cortisol and DHEA-S levels were measured. Serum cortisol and DHEA-S levels were significantly higher in the schizophrenia group compared with the first-degree relatives and controls (P cortisol levels in the first-degree relatives were significantly higher than in the healthy controls (P DHEA-S levels and between the three groups in terms of serum cortisol/DHEA-S ratios. Elevated serum cortisol levels in schizophrenic patients might be associated with the role of cortisol in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Also, the elevation of serum cortisol levels in first-degree relatives compared to controls suggests that similar pathophysiological processes might have a role in individuals without any disease symptoms, but with a genetic predisposition for schizophrenia. Elevated serum DHEA-S levels might be the result of a compensatory response to elevated cortisol levels. Serum cortisol and DHEA-S levels may be used as a biological marker for the diagnosis of schizophrenia; however, further studies with larger sample sizes are warranted to support this finding. © 2011 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2011 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  11. The Application of Drawing and Painting to Decrease the Anixiety of the Schizophrenic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farbod Fadaei


    Full Text Available Objective: People with schizophrenia continuous type (previously labeled as chronic, constitute the majority of inpatients in rehabilitation wards. These patients, apart from the characteristic signs and symptoms of schizophrenia, suffer from anxiety. This anxiety, not influenced by antipsychotic medications, can be a part of the schizophrenia per se, but it may be due to the unfavorable frame and quality of life in mental hospital wards. Every attempt in decreasing the anxiety of these patients, can be regarded as a step toward a more perfect treatment and rehabilitation plan, and elevating the quality of their lives. In this research the application of drawing and painting as a method to decrease the anxiety of these patients was evaluated. Materials & Methods: 100 schizophrenic patients (according to DSM-IV criteria who were hospitalized in long stay rehabilitation wards of Razi psychiatric center for at least 2 years, entered the research procedure. Their anxiety level was measured by the Cattel anxiety questionnaire. 50 patients, who were selected as experimental group, had 15 one hour sessions of drawing and painting. For the remainder 50 patients who were the control group, various neutral activities (as placebo were performed, during those hours. Medications were unchanged during the research. After the 15th session the anxiety levels of patients were evaluated for the second time. The scores obtained in the first and second evaluations in each group and between two groups were analyzed by appropriate statistical methods. Results: In comparing the mean scores obtained from the first and second measurements in experimental group by applying the t-test (in correlated groups, the difference was statistically significant (t=67.5, P<0.0l. Conclusion: Sessions of drawing and painting with appropriate duration and frequency can significantly diminish the anxiety in long stay schizophrenic patients in rehabilitation wards.

  12. Analysis of neural sources of p300 event-related potential in normal and schizophrenic participants. (United States)

    Sabeti, Malihe; Moradi, Ehsan; Katebi, Serajeddin


    The P300 event-related potential (ERP) is associated with attention and memory operations of the brain. P300 is changed in many cognitive disorders such as dementia, Alzheimer, schizophrenia, and major depression disorder. Therefore, investigation on basis of this component can help to improve our understanding of pathophysiology of such disorders and fundamentals of memory and attention mechanism. In this study, electroencephalography (EEG) signals of 20 schizophrenic patients and 20 age-matched normal subjects are analyzed. The oddball paradigm has been used to record the P300, where two stimuli including target and standard are presented with different probabilities in a random order. Data analysis is carried out using conventional averaging techniques as well as P300 source localization with low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA). The results show that the P300 components stem from a wide cerebral cortex network and defining a small definite cortical zone as its generator is impossible. In normal group, cingulate gyrus, one of the essential components of working memory circuit that was reported by Papez, is found to be the most activated area and it can be in line with the hypothesis that at least a part of the P300 is elicited by working-memory circuit. In schizophrenic group, frontal lobe is the most activated area that was responsible for P300 sources. Our results show that the cingulate gyrus is not activated in comparison with normal group, which is in line with previous results that dysfunction of the anterior cingulate cortex plays a prominent role in the schizophrenia disorder.

  13. Pharmacotherapy of schizophrenic patients: preponderance of off-label drug use.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Pickar

    Full Text Available Multiple drug class combinations are often prescribed for the treatment of schizophrenia, although antipsychotic monotherapy reflects FDA labeling and scientific justification for combinations is highly variable. This study was performed to gain current data regarding drug treatment of schizophrenia as practiced in the community and to assess the frequencies of off-label drug class combinations. 200 DSM IV-diagnosed schizophrenic patients recruited from community treatment sources participated in this cross-sectional study of community based schizophrenic patients. Drug class categories include First and Second Generation Antipsychotic drugs (FGA and SGA, respectively, mood stabilizers, antidepressants and anti-anxiety drugs. 25.5% of patients received antipsychotic monotherapy; 70% of patients received an antipsychotic and another drug class. A total of 42.5% of patients received more than one antipsychotic drug. The most common drug class combination was antipsychotic and a mood stabilizer. Stepwise linear discriminant function analysis identified the diagnosis of schizoaffective schizophrenia, history of having physically hurt someone and high scores on the General Portion of the PANSS rating scale predicted the combined use of an antipsychotic drug and a mood stabilizer. "Real world" pharmacotherapy of schizophrenia has developed its own established practice that is predominantly off-label and may have outstripped current data support. The economic implications for public sector payers are substantial as well as for the revenue of the pharmaceutical industry, whose promotion of off-label drug use is an increasingly problematic. These data are consistent with the recognition of the therapeutic limitations of both first and second generation antipsychotic drugs.

  14. Significant treatment effect of adjunct music therapy to standard treatment on the positive, negative, and mood symptoms of schizophrenic patients: a meta-analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tseng, Ping-Tao; Chen, Yen-Wen; Lin, Pao-Yen; Tu, Kun-Yu; Wang, Hung-Yu; Cheng, Yu-Shian; Chang, Yi-Chung; Chang, Chih-Hua; Chung, Weilun; Wu, Ching-Kuan


    .... However, its role is still inconclusive. A recent meta-analysis demonstrated that MT for schizophrenic patients only significantly benefits negative symptoms and mood symptoms rather than positive symptoms...

  15. Hippocampal physiology, structure and function and the neuroscience of schizophrenia: a unified account of declarative memory deficits, working memory deficits and schizophrenic symptoms. (United States)

    Wible, Cynthia G


    Memory impairment is a consistent feature of the schizophrenic syndrome. Hippocampal dysfunction has also been consistently demonstrated. This review will discuss neurophysiological and neuroanatomical aspects of memory formation and how they relate to memory impairment in schizophrenia. An understanding of the cellular physiology and connectivity of the hippocampus with other regions can also aid in understanding the relationship between schizophrenic declarative or relational memory deficits, working memory deficits and the clinical symptoms of the syndrome.

  16. Hippocampal Physiology, Structure and Function and the Neuroscience of Schizophrenia: A Unified Account of Declarative Memory Deficits, Working Memory Deficits and Schizophrenic Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia G. Wible


    Full Text Available Memory impairment is a consistent feature of the schizophrenic syndrome. Hippocampal dysfunction has also been consistently demonstrated. This review will discuss neurophysiological and neuroanatomical aspects of memory formation and how they relate to memory impairment in schizophrenia. An understanding of the cellular physiology and connectivity of the hippocampus with other regions can also aid in understanding the relationship between schizophrenic declarative or relational memory deficits, working memory deficits and the clinical symptoms of the syndrome.

  17. [Political psychology]. (United States)

    Resch, Mária; Bella, Tamás


    In Hungary one can mostly find references to the psychological processes of politics in the writings of publicists, public opinion pollsters, philosophers, social psychologists, and political analysts. It would be still important if not only legal scientists focusing on political institutions or sociologist-politologists concentrating on social structures could analyse the psychological aspects of political processes; but one could also do so through the application of the methods of political psychology. The authors review the history of political psychology, its position vis-à-vis other fields of science and the essential interfaces through which this field of science, which is still to be discovered in Hungary, connects to other social sciences. As far as its methodology comprising psycho-biographical analyses, questionnaire-based queries, cognitive mapping of interviews and statements are concerned, it is identical with the psychiatric tools of medical sciences. In the next part of this paper, the focus is shifted to the essence and contents of political psychology. Group dynamics properties, voters' attitudes, leaders' personalities and the behavioural patterns demonstrated by them in different political situations, authoritativeness, games, and charisma are all essential components of political psychology, which mostly analyses psychological-psychiatric processes and also involves medical sciences by relying on cognitive and behavioural sciences. This paper describes political psychology, which is basically part of social sciences, still, being an interdisciplinary science, has several ties to medical sciences through psychological and psychiatric aspects.

  18. Functional MRI in schizophrenia. Diagnostics and therapy monitoring of cognitive deficits of schizophrenic patients by functional MRI; Funktionelle MRT bei Schizophreniepatienten. Diagnostik und Therapiemonitoring kognitiver Defizite schizophrener Patienten mittels funktioneller MRT

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    Furtner, J.; Prayer, D. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Univ.-Klinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, Wien (Austria); Sachs, G. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Univ.-Klinik fuer Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie, Wien (Austria)


    Cognitive impairments are core psychopathological components of the symptomatic of schizophrenic patients. These dysfunctions are generally related to attention, executive functions and memory. This report provides information on the importance of using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) for the diagnostics and therapy monitoring of the different subtypes of cognitive dysfunctions. Furthermore, it describes the typical differences in the activation of individual brain regions between schizophrenic patients and healthy control persons. This information should be helpful in identifying the deficit profile of each patient and create an individual therapy plan. (orig.) [German] Kognitive Defizite sind ein zentraler Bestandteil der Symptomatik schizophrener Patienten. Diese Defizite betreffen v. a. die Aufmerksamkeit, exekutive Funktionen sowie das Gedaechtnis. Der vorliegende Beitrag zeigt den Stellenwert der funktionellen Magnetresonanztomographie (fMRT) in Hinblick auf Diagnostik und Therapiemonitoring der unterschiedlichen kognitiven Teilbereiche auf. Darueber hinaus werden die Unterschiede in Bezug auf die Aktivierung der einzelnen Gehirnareale zwischen schizophrenen Patienten und gesunden Kontrollpersonen dargestellt. Diese Informationen sollen helfen, in der Praxis ein Profil der kognitiven Leistungsreduktionen sowie ein darauf angepasstes Therapiekonzept zu erstellen. (orig.)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Todorov


    Full Text Available The achievements of the contemporary psychopharmacology enable the out-patient treatment of schizophrenic patients, thus let them living in their usual social environment- family, relatives, neighbors, friends.In this connection, the real conditions of patients’ micro-social environment play an important role- either stimulating their compensatory mechanisms, or exercising negative impact on their adaptation and behavior.We examined 30 schizophrenic patients (22 males, 8 females, who have committed aggressive acts, triggered by psycho-traumatic situations with different sensible content, originating from their micro-social environment.Dominant were family conflicts, followed by conflicts with the neighbors. The aggressive acts were directed to concrete persons, from the close neighborhood, involved into the psycho-traumatic situations.Studying and evaluation of the aggressive acts, triggered by psycho-traumatic factors play an important role for their prevention.

  20. Taking cognizance of mental illness in schizophrenics and its association with crime and substance-related diagnoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkner, R; Haastrup, S; Jørgensen, T


    OBJECTIVE: To analyse how committed crimes and substance-related diagnoses are associated with the age on the first contact with the psychiatric hospital system and the age at diagnosing of schizophrenia among schizophrenics. METHOD: In a register-based study including all Danes diagnosed...... with schizophrenia born after November 1, 1963, data on criminality, substance-related diagnoses and contacts with the psychiatric hospital system were analysed. RESULTS: Compared with the non-convicted schizophrenics the convicted were older on first contact with the psychiatric hospital system and older when...... the diagnosis of schizophrenia was first given. In contrast, having a substance-related diagnosis was associated with a younger age on first contact but did not influence the age at which the diagnosis of schizophrenia was given. CONCLUSION: It is important that both psychiatrists and the judicial system...

  1. A combined cICA-EEMD analysis of EEG recordings from depressed or schizophrenic patients during olfactory stimulation (United States)

    Götz, Th; Stadler, L.; Fraunhofer, G.; Tomé, A. M.; Hausner, H.; Lang, E. W.


    Objective. We propose a combination of a constrained independent component analysis (cICA) with an ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) to analyze electroencephalographic recordings from depressed or schizophrenic subjects during olfactory stimulation. Approach. EEMD serves to extract intrinsic modes (IMFs) underlying the recorded EEG time. The latter then serve as reference signals to extract the most similar underlying independent component within a constrained ICA. The extracted modes are further analyzed considering their power spectra. Main results. The analysis of the extracted modes reveals clear differences in the related power spectra between the disease characteristics of depressed and schizophrenic patients. Such differences appear in the high frequency γ-band in the intrinsic modes, but also in much more detail in the low frequency range in the α-, θ- and δ-bands. Significance. The proposed method provides various means to discriminate both disease pictures in a clinical environment.

  2. Hippocampal temporal-parietal junction interaction in the production of psychotic symptoms: a framework for understanding the schizophrenic syndrome


    Cynthia Gayle Wible


    A framework is described for understanding the schizophrenic syndrome at the brain systems level. It is hypothesized that over-activation of dynamic gesture and social perceptual processes in the temporal-parietal occipital junction (TPJ), posterior superior temporal sulcus (PSTS) and surrounding regions produce the syndrome (including positive and negative symptoms, their prevalence, prodromal signs, and cognitive deficits). Hippocampal system hyper-activity and atrophy have been consistentl...

  3. [Expressed Emotions, Burden and Family Functioning in Schizophrenic and Bipolar I Patients of a Multimodal Intervention Program: PRISMA]. (United States)

    Ramírez, Alexandra; Palacio, Juan David; Vargas, Cristian; Díaz-Zuluaga, Ana María; Duica, Kelly; Agudelo Berruecos, Yuli; Ospina, Sigifredo; López-Jaramillo, Carlos

    Bipolar disorder and schizophrenia are causes of major suffering in patients. Nevertheless, they also affect family and caregiver functioning. This is important because the participation and involvement of families and caregivers is essential to achieve an optimal treatment. To describe the level of expressed emotions, burden, and family functioning of bipolar and schizophrenic patients and, to evaluate the efficacy of the multimodal intervention (MI) versus traditional intervention (TI) in family functioning and its perception by patients and caregivers. A prospective, longitudinal, therapeutic-comparative study was conducted with 302 patients (104 schizophrenic and 198 bipolar patients) who were randomly assigned to a MI or TI groups of a multimodal intervention program PRISMA. MI group received care from psychiatry, general medicine, neuropsychology, family therapy, and occupational therapy. TI group received care from psychiatry and general medicine. Hamilton, Young and SANS, SAPS scales were applied to bipolar and schizophrenic patients, respectively. The EEAG, FEICS, FACES III and ECF were also applied at the initial and final time. There were statistically significant differences in socio- demographic and clinical variables in schizophrenia vs bipolar group: 83% vs 32.2% were male, 37 vs 43 mean age, 96% vs 59% were single, 50% vs 20% unemployed, and 20% vs 40% had college studies. In addition, 2 vs 2.5 numbers of hospitalisations, 18 vs 16 mean age of substance abuse onset and, 55 vs 80 points in EEAG. There were no statistically significant differences in family scales after conducting a multivariate analysis on thr initial and final time in both groups. This study did not show changes in variables of burden and family functioning between bipolar and schizophrenic groups that were under TI vs MI. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  4. Neural correlates of eye tracking deficits in first-degree relatives of schizophrenic patients: a positron emission tomography study. (United States)

    O'Driscoll, G A; Benkelfat, C; Florencio, P S; Wolff, A L; Joober, R; Lal, S; Evans, A C


    Schizophrenia is thought to arise from the interaction of genetically mediated and environmentally triggered abnormalities in brain function. Reduced frontal activation, reported in schizophrenic patients, may be one expression of genetic risk. The present study investigated whether frontal activation in relatives of schizophrenic patients would be related to eye tracking deficits (ETD), which are considered a behavioral marker of risk for schizophrenia. Subjects were first-degree relatives of schizophrenic patients (n = 17) and controls (n = 11). Relatives were divided into those with normal and abnormal pursuit based on qualitative ratings. Subjects were scanned using positron emission tomography and the H(2)15O bolus subtraction technique while performing smooth pursuit and fixation. Brain areas more active in pursuit than fixation were identified in the 3 groups. Correlations were used to investigate the relationship between activation of pursuit regions and pursuit gain in the relatives. Controls significantly activated frontal eye fields (FEFs) and posterior areas, including the motion processing area, V5, and cuneus. The 2 groups of relatives activated the same posterior regions as controls, but differed from each other in activation of FEFs. Relatives with normal tracking activated right dorsal FEFs while relatives with ETD did not. Individual subtractions revealed that 90% of controls and 100% of the relatives with normal tracking activated FEFs during pursuit compared with 42% of relatives with ETD (P = .009). Pursuit gain was significantly and selectively associated with percent activation of right dorsal FEFs (r = 0.74). Subtle frontal dysfunction seems to be a pathophysiological substrate of ETD in relatives of schizophrenic patients, and may be one aspect of genetically mediated differences in brain function relevant to schizophrenia.

  5. Serum cortisol and DHEA-S levels in schizophrenic patients with different response to antipsychotic therapy: association with psychopathology


    Babinkostova, Zoja; Stefanovski, Branko; Janikevik Ivanovska, Danijela; Samardziska, Valentina; Stojanovska, Lila


    Background: Previous studies suggested that alterations in serum cortisol and DHEA-S levels may play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Imbalance in serum cortisol and DHEA-S levels may be related to responsivity to antipsychotic treatment. Aim: To compare serum cortisol and DHEA-S levels between patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls and to evaluate their association with psychopathology in schizophrenic patients with different response to antipsychotic treatment. ...

  6. A literature critique using outcomes model and substruction in nursing science - Psychoeducational therapy for schizophrenic patients -


    松田, 光信


    The purposes of this article are (1) to introduce the outline of the outcomes model and substruction, and (2) to introduce the example of synthesis and critique of literature about psychoeducational therapy for schizophrenic patients. Recently, psychiatrists or psychologists are providing patients with education for medication using cognitive therapy, social skills training and psychoeducational therapy in Japan. Psychiatrists and psychologists are doing evaluation research of these structure...

  7. The effects of psychoactive drugs and neuroleptics on language in normal subjects and schizophrenic patients: a review. (United States)

    Salomé, F; Boyer, P; Fayol, M


    The aim of this survey is to present an overview of research into psychopharmacology as regards the effects of different psychoactive drugs and neuroleptics (NL) on language in normal subjects and schizophrenic patients. Eighteen studies that have investigated the effects of different drugs (alcohol, amphetamines, secobarbital, L-dopa, psilocybin, ketamine, fenfluramine) and neuroleptics (conventional and atypical) on language are reviewed. There are no studies concerning the effects of neuroleptics on language in healthy subjects. The results of the effects of other molecules indicate that language production can be increased (alcohol, amphetamine, secobarbital), rendered more complex (d-amphetamine), more focused (L-dopa) or more unfocused (psilocybin) and clearly impaired (ketamine). For schizophrenic patients, most studies show that conventional neuroleptic treatments, at a therapeutic dosage and in acute or chronic mode, reduce language disorders at all levels (clinic, linguistic, psycholinguistic). In conjunction with other molecules, the classical NL, when administered at a moderate dosage and in chronic mode, modify language in schizophrenia, either by improving the verbal flow and reducing pauses and positive thought disorder (NL + amphetamine) or by inducing an impairment in the language measurements (NL + fenfluramine). Clinical, methodological and theoretical considerations of results are debated in the framework of schizophrenic language disorders.

  8. Increased automatic spreading activation in healthy subjects with elevated scores in a scale assessing schizophrenic language disturbances. (United States)

    Moritz, S; Andresen, B; Domin, F; Martin, T; Probsthein, E; Kretschmer, G; Krausz, M; Naber, D; Spitzer, M


    Previous studies on semantic priming have suggested that schizophrenic patients with language disturbances demonstrate enhanced semantic and indirect semantic priming effects relative to controls. However, the interpretation of semantic priming studies in schizophrenic patients is obscured by methological problems and several artefacts (such as length of illness). We, therefore, used a psychometric high-risk approach to test whether healthy subjects reporting language disturbances resembling those of schizophrenics (as measured by the Frankfurt Complaint Questionnaire subscale 'language') display increased priming effects. In addition, the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire was used to cover symptoms of schizotypal personality. Enhanced priming was expected to occur under conditions favouring automatic processes. One hundred and sixty healthy subjects performed a lexical decision semantic priming task containing two different stimulus onset asynchronicities (200 ms and 700 ms) with two experimental conditions (semantic priming and indirect semantic priming) each. Analyses of variance revealed that the Frankfurt Complaint Questionnaire-' language' high scorers significantly differed from low scorers in three of the four priming conditions indicating increased automatic spreading activation. No significant results were obtained for the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire total and subscales scores. In line with Maher and Spitzer it is suggested that increased automatic spreading activation underlies schizophrenia-typical language disturbances which in our study cannot be attributed to confounding variables such as different reaction time baselines, medication or length of illness. Finally, results confirm that the psychometric high-risk approach is an important tool for investigating issues relevant to schizophrenia.

  9. Psychological behaviorism and behaviorizing psychology (United States)

    Staats, Arthur W.


    Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism. PMID:22478175

  10. Psychological behaviorism and behaviorizing psychology. (United States)

    Staats, A W


    Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism.

  11. German Military Psychology 1973. (United States)


  12. [Guideline compliance in the treatment of schizophrenic patients. Introduction of a computer-assisted treatment pathway]. (United States)

    Godemann, F; Blittersdorf, K; Poschenrieder, M; Klimitz, H; Hauth, I; Gutzmann, H


    The goal of S3 Guidelines for the Treatment of Schizophrenia was to improve the care of patients with schizophrenic psychoses. However, the publication of guidelines alone does not ensure their consistent implementation. The use of treatment pathways represents one possible approach to help implement the complex treatment recommendations contained in the S3 Guidelines. The first computer-assisted treatment pathway for patients with schizophrenic psychoses was successfully incorporated into the everyday routine of psychiatric hospitals. The aim of the present study was to systematically analyse the impact of this measure on guideline compliance. Based on the S3 Guidelines for the Treatment of Schizophrenia developed by the German Association of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Neurology (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Psychiatrie, Psychotherapie und Nervenheilkunde; DGPPN), diagnostic and treatment procedures were defined by a multiprofessional working group with members from five different hospitals and subsequently incorporated into an existing hospital information system. In one of the five hospitals, the impact of this measure was analysed in a pilot study in a systematic manner. In the year 2007, approximately 100 patients in each of two wards in the hospital received in a parallel group design either standard care or care based on a computer-assisted treatment pathway. Based on their place of residence, patients were assigned to the two units consecutively. Both groups were analysed to determine the extent to which the care they received conformed to treatment guidelines. Data available from the years 2004 and 2005 served as a historical comparison to the present results. The differences in guideline compliance between the two wards were heterogeneous and, in certain respects, counterintuitive. As expected, the treatment pathway group showed an increased number of laboratory tests, more frequent drug screening at hospital admission and more appropriate dosing of

  13. Schizophrenic outpatient perceptions of psychiatric treatment and psychotic symptomatology: an investigation using structural equation modeling. (United States)

    Hayashi, N; Yamashina, M; Taguchi, H; Ishige, N; Igarashi, Y


    Schizophrenic patient perceptions of treatment have clinical value and deserve detailed psychiatric investigation. The present study sought a model indicating statistically estimated cause-effect relationships of perceptions and psychotic symptomatology of outpatients with schizophrenia by applying a method of structural equation modeling. The perceptions included in this model were patient satisfaction with treatment, perceptions of their treating psychiatrists, and patient-role perception. Scores of Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and poor insight measures were added to the model as possible influential factors. The constructed model revealed that the poor insight exerted a major influence on the patient-role perception that had small effects on the reliable therapist perception and the satisfaction. It was also shown that satisfaction was chiefly determined by the reliable therapist perception that was formed in the treatment relationship, rather independently of the other construct. These findings were valuable in terms of their implications for understanding the makeup of the perceptions and the strategy for interventions to improve them.

  14. Correlation between neuropsychological and social cognition measures and symptom dimensions in schizophrenic patients. (United States)

    Altamura, A Carlo; Caletti, Elisabetta; Paoli, Riccardo Augusto; Cigliobianco, Michela; Zugno, Elisa; Grillo, Paolo; Prunas, Cecilia; Caldiroli, Alice; Zago, Stefano


    Neurocognitive and social cognition deficits have been largely reported in Schizophrenia (SKZ) but their association with psychopathology remains uncertain. Our purpose was to explore the relationship between symptom dimensions and neuropsychological performances. We enrolled 35 stabilized schizophrenic outpatients of the Department of Psychiatry of Policlinico Hospital, University of Milan, who completed psychiatric Rating Scales, the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) and the Executive and Social Cognition Battery (ESCB). Disorganized dimension seems to have the most significant impact on cognition, being associated with performance in several BACS subtests (verbal memory, working memory, motor speed, symbol coding, Tower of London) and ESCB tasks (MET and Hotel task number of tasks attempted, number of broken MET rules, sum of deviations in Hotel Task). Positive dimension correlated with performance in verbal fluency, negative dimension with IOWA Test results, cognitive dimension with MET number of inefficiencies and Eyes test score. Impulsive-aggressive and depressive dimensions weakly correlated only with Faux Pas test. Our study supports the existence of a specific disorganized dimension in SKZ, separated from cognitive dimension evaluated through clinical instruments (e.g. PANSS), but capable of influencing cognitive abilities. Furthermore, it strengthens the validity of ecological tasks in evaluating cognition in SKZ. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [Schizophrenic psychoses with affect-dominant symptoms : Contribution to a system-specific approach]. (United States)

    Lang, F U; Stegmayer, K; Becker, T; Jäger, M


    In order to reduce heterogeneity in schizophrenia a system-specific approach consisting of the domains 'language', 'affect' and 'motor behavior' was proposed namely the Bern psychopathology scale (BPS). Using the example of the affective domain we examined this system-specific approach for its applicability to clinical practice using a qualitative-casuistic method. Moreover, we examined the possibility to identify a homogeneous subgroup of patients applying this approach. From a sample of 100 patients with schizophrenia a total of six patients was selected and described following a traditional psychopathological case approach. To expand this qualitative-casuistic method we included the results of standardized psychopathological assessments using the BPS and the positive and negative syndrome scale of schizophrenia (PANSS). Schizophrenic psychoses with affect-dominant symptoms could be characterized better using a system-specific approach than the positive-negative-concept. Ensuing from the cross-sectional psychopathological patterns only limited statements regarding the prospective course were possible. The concept of an affect-dominant subtype of schizophrenia was not entirely convincing with respect of the heterogeneous course of the patients described. Nevertheless, the system-specific approach may hold promise for the future regarding further neurobiological research.

  16. Neuropsychology, social cognition and global functioning among bipolar, schizophrenic patients and healthy controls: preliminary data. (United States)

    Caletti, Elisabetta; Paoli, Riccardo A; Fiorentini, Alessio; Cigliobianco, Michela; Zugno, Elisa; Serati, Marta; Orsenigo, Giulia; Grillo, Paolo; Zago, Stefano; Caldiroli, Alice; Prunas, Cecilia; Giusti, Francesca; Consonni, Dario; Altamura, A Carlo


    This study aimed to determine the extent of impairment in social and non-social cognitive domains in an ecological context comparing bipolar (BD), schizophrenic (SKZ) patients and healthy controls (HC). The sample was enrolled at the Department of Psychiatry of Policlinico Hospital, University of Milan; it includes stabilized SKZ patients (n = 30), euthymic bipolar patients (n = 18) and HC (n = 18). Patients and controls completed psychiatric assessment rating scales, the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) and the Executive and Social Cognition Battery (ESCB) that contains both ecological tests of executive function and social cognition, in order to better detect cognitive deficits in patients with normal results in standard executive batteries. The three groups differed significantly for gender and substance abuse, however, the differences did not influence the results. BD patients showed less impairment on cognitive performance compared to SKZ patients, even in "ecological" tests that mimic real life scenarios. In particular, BD performed better than SKZ in verbal memory (p Hotel task SKZ patients completed significantly less tasks (p differences were found between the two groups in GAF scores, being greater among BD subjects (p < 0.001). GAF was correlated with BACS and ESCB scores showing the crucial role of cognitive and ecological performances in patients' global functioning.

  17. A virtual environment for investigating schizophrenic patients' characteristics: assessment of cognitive and navigation ability. (United States)

    Ku, Jeonghun; Cho, Wongeun; Kim, Jae-Jin; Peled, Avi; Wiederhold, Brenda K; Wiederhold, Mark D; Kim, In Y; Lee, Jang Han; Kim, Sun I


    Patients with schizophrenia have thinking disorders such as delusions or hallucinations because they have a deficit in the ability to systematize and integrate information. Therefore, they cannot integrate or systematize visual, auditory, and tactile stimuli. The multimodal integration model of the brain can provide a theoretical background from which one can approach multimodal stimulus integration. In this study, we suggest a virtual reality system for the multi-modal assessment of cognitive ability of schizophrenia patients. The virtual reality system can provide multimodal stimuli, such as visual and auditory stimuli, to the patient and can evaluate the patient's multimodal integration and working memory integration abilities by making the patient interpret and react to multimodal stimuli, which must be remembered for a given period of time. The clinical study showed that the virtual reality program developed is comparable to those of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) and the Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM), and it provides some information related to the schizophrenic patients' behavior in 3D virtual environment.

  18. Communication of suicide intent by schizophrenic subjects: data from the Queensland Suicide Register

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Leo Diego


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suicide in mentally ill subjects, like schizophrenics, remains unbearably frequent in Australia and elsewhere. Since these patients are known to constitute a high-risk group, suicide in them should be amongst the most preventable ones. The objective of this study is to investigate the frequency of suicide communication in subjects with reported history of schizophrenia who completed suicide. Method The Queensland Suicide Register (QSR was utilised to identify suicide cases. Frequency of suicide communication was examined in subjects with schizophrenia, and compared with persons with other psychiatric conditions and with subjects with no reported diagnosis. Socio-demographic variables, history of suicidal behaviour, pharmacological treatment and mental health service utilisation were also compared among the three groups. Results and discussion Subjects with a reported diagnosis of schizophrenia comprised 7.2% (n = 135 of the 1,863 suicides included in this study. Subjects with schizophrenia and those with other psychiatric disorders communicated their suicide intent more frequently than those with no psychiatric diagnosis, and persons with schizophrenia communicated their intent more than those with other psychiatric diagnoses. Seventy one per cent of schizophrenia subjects had contact with a mental health professional within the three months prior to suicide. Conclusion The fact that subjects with schizophrenia had the highest prevalence of suicide intent communication could offer concrete opportunities for suicide prevention.

  19. Seasonal variations of schizophrenic patients in emergency departments in Sofia, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zornitsa Spasova


    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to reveal the seasonal distribution of emergency department visits of schizophrenic patients in Sofia, Bulgaria. Methods: We collected daily data for visits of patients with schizophrenia, schizotypal and delusional disorders in the emergency center of the regional dispenser for mental disorders in the city of Sofia for the period 1998-2003. The total number of emergency visits was 5723 (mean daily visits: 5.04±2.4. T-test was used to compare the monthly and seasonal distribution of visits. Results: The season with the highest levels of emergency visits was summer, and the lowest levels were observed in winter (P<0.0001. Spring and autumn had intermediate values close to the mean value, and significantly differentiated from winter values. The month with the highest admission rates was September, followed by May and the three summer’s months. The lowest levels were observed in December, October and January, with statistically significant differences observed between the values of all the three months. Differences between July values compared with December and October values were significant, but not with January values. Conclusion: The study showed significant seasonal and monthly differences in emergency schizophrenics’ visits. The data confirm the outcome of similar studies conducted in countries with temperate climate in the Northern Hemisphere. These results could prove useful for psychiatrists, public health specialists, and governmental authorities dealing with team planning and prevention programs in the field of psychiatry.

  20. The discontinuance of maintenance neuroleptic therapy in chronic schizophrenic patients: drug and social consequences. (United States)

    Johnson, D A; Pasterski, G; Ludlow, J M; Street, K; Taylor, R D


    In a prospective follow-up the outcome of 60 chronic schizophrenic patients who discontinued neuroleptic therapy after remaining stable 12-48 months was compared with controls continuing medication. Not only did the drug-discontinued patients have more relapses (P less than 0.001), but the form of relapse was both more severe and acute, resulting in differences of self-injury (P less than 0.05), anti-social behaviour (P less than 0.01), inpatient admissions (P less than 0.001), and the use of compulsory powers (P less than 0.01). In patients who relapsed, both social and work function was affected adversely for some months. Patients who remained relapse-free without drugs (20%) had a level of work and social function similar to medicated patients. At the end of 18 months the patients who discontinued depot maintenance therapy were found to have been prescribed one-third more neuroleptic drugs than controls, with a possible increase in the risk of long-term tardive dyskinesia.

  1. Recognition of visual stimuli and memory for spatial context in schizophrenic patients and healthy volunteers. (United States)

    Brébion, Gildas; David, Anthony S; Pilowsky, Lyn S; Jones, Hugh


    Verbal and visual recognition tasks were administered to 40 patients with schizophrenia and 40 healthy comparison subjects. The verbal recognition task consisted of discriminating between 16 target words and 16 new words. The visual recognition task consisted of discriminating between 16 target pictures (8 black-and-white and 8 color) and 16 new pictures (8 black-and-white and 8 color). Visual recognition was followed by a spatial context discrimination task in which subjects were required to remember the spatial location of the target pictures at encoding. Results showed that recognition deficit in patients was similar for verbal and visual material. In both schizophrenic and healthy groups, men, but not women, obtained better recognition scores for the colored than for the black-and-white pictures. However, men and women similarly benefited from color to reduce spatial context discrimination errors. Patients showed a significant deficit in remembering the spatial location of the pictures, independently of accuracy in remembering the pictures themselves. These data suggest that patients are impaired in the amount of visual information that they can encode. With regards to the perceptual attributes of the stimuli, memory for spatial information appears to be affected, but not processing of color information.

  2. Sport Psychology. (United States)

    Krotee, March L.


    Sport psychology is defined in terms of human behavior in athletic situations. The psychosocial cross-cultural setting provides a model for studying trait and state psychosocial attributes and suggests issues and concerns for further study. (JMF)

  3. Whither Psychology. (United States)

    Halpern, Diane F


    Contemporary psychology is experiencing tremendous growth in neuroscience, and there is every indication that it will continue to gain in popularity notwithstanding the scarcity of academic positions for newly minted Ph.Ds. Despite the general perception that brain correlates "explain" or "cause" the mind and behavior, these correlates have not yet proven useful in understanding psychological processes, although they offer the possibility of early identification of some disorders. Other recent developments in psychology include increased emphasis on applications and more global representation among researchers and participants. In thinking about the way we want psychology to evolve, psychologists need to pay more than lip service to the idea that complex questions in psychology require multiple levels of analysis with contributions from biological (brain, hormones, and genetics), individual differences and social and cultural perspectives. Early career psychologists who can attain a breadth of knowledge will be well-positioned for a team approach to psychological inquiry. Finally, I offer the belief that an emphasis on enhancing critical thinking skills at all levels of education offers the best hope for the future.

  4. Significant treatment effect of adjunct music therapy to standard treatment on the positive, negative, and mood symptoms of schizophrenic patients: a meta-analysis. (United States)

    Tseng, Ping-Tao; Chen, Yen-Wen; Lin, Pao-Yen; Tu, Kun-Yu; Wang, Hung-Yu; Cheng, Yu-Shian; Chang, Yi-Chung; Chang, Chih-Hua; Chung, Weilun; Wu, Ching-Kuan


    Music therapy (MT) has been used as adjunct therapy for schizophrenia for decades. However, its role is still inconclusive. A recent meta-analysis demonstrated that MT for schizophrenic patients only significantly benefits negative symptoms and mood symptoms rather than positive symptoms. In addition, the association between specific characteristics of MT and the treatment effect remains unclear. The aim of this study was to update the published data and to explore the role of music therapy in adjunct treatment in schizophrenia with a thorough meta-analysis. We compared the treatment effect in schizophrenic patients with standard treatment who did and did not receive adjunct MT through a meta-analysis, and investigated the clinical characteristics of MT through meta-regression. The main finding was that the treatment effect was significantly better in the patients who received adjunct MT than in those who did not, in negative symptoms, mood symptoms, and also positive symptoms (all p positively associated with the whole duration of illness, indicating that MT would be beneficial for schizophrenic patients with a chronic course. Our meta-analysis highlights a significantly better treatment effect in schizophrenic patients who received MT than in those who did not, especially in those with a chronic course, regardless of the duration, frequency, or amounts of sessions of MT. These findings provide evidence that clinicians should apply MT for schizophrenic patients to alleviate disease severity.

  5. Schizophrenia and the paranormal: more psi belief and superstition, and less déjà vu in medicated schizophrenic patients. (United States)

    Shiah, Yung-Jong; Wu, Yi-Zhen; Chen, Yueh-Hua; Chiang, Shih-Kuang


    The present study examined the relation between déjà vu experiences and paranormal beliefs in schizophrenic patients. A total of 522 participants (54.5% female; mean age=33.3, SD=16.02) were recruited, including 422 healthy adults (60.9% female; mean age=29.48, SD=15.07) and 100 medicated adult schizophrenic patients (27.3% female; mean age=48.98, SD=8.57). The Chinese version of the Inventory of Déjà-vu Experiences Assessment was created via back translation. Chinese versions of the Revised Paranormal Belief Scale (CRPB), Beck Anxiety Inventory (CBAI), and Perceived Stress Scale (CPSS) were also used. After controlling for age, gender, education, and anxiety, the results supported the following three hypotheses. Schizophrenic persons have fewer déjà vu experiences than normal persons. These experiences are positively related to paranormal beliefs in healthy adults but not in schizophrenic patients. Schizophrenic patients have higher scores than healthy adults on the psi and superstitious subscales of the CRPB. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A sobrecarga de cuidadores de pacientes com esquizofrenia The burden in caregivers of schizophrenic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Machado de Almeida


    receive treatment within the community, shedding light on a new type of care provider involved in this treatment modality, namely the caregiver. OBJECTIVE: To assess factors associated with burden in caregivers of schizophrenic patients. METHOD: Burden factors were assessed using a qualitative method appropriate to the analysis of meanings, motivations, beliefs, aspirations, values, and attitudes. The study was conducted at a Psychosocial Attention Center located in the countryside of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. A total of 15 caregivers were interviewed, selected based on the criteria of saturation and singularity of speeches. The phenomenological method was used to analyze the interviews. RESULTS: The speeches of caregivers revealed the following factors as significantly associated with burden: daily care activities, changes in the routine, decrease in leisure, health problems, preoccupations, fear of becoming sick, obligation of providing care, treatment costs, financial aspects, and expectations for the future. Four factors associated with the reduction of burden were identified: social and family support, availability of places/opportunities for caregivers to relieve tensions, physical distance from the patient, and appreciation of the pharmacological treatment. CONCLUSION: There is a need to implement programs designed specifically for caregivers, once their speeches have suggested that the care of schizophrenic patients may have a negative and permanent impact on the lives of these care providers.

  7. Psychological Spacetime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Gideon Conway


    Full Text Available It has been an accepted scientific fact in physics for almost 100 years that time speeds up and slows down for an observer based on factors—such as motion and gravity—that affect space. Yet this fact, drawn from the theory of relativity, has not been widely integrated into the study of the psychology of time. The present article helps to fill in this gap between physics and psychology by reviewing evidence concerning what a psychological spacetime processor—one that accounted for the theory of relativity’s empirically validated predictions of the compensatory relationship between time and space—would look like. This model of the spacetime processor suggests that humans should have a psychological mechanism for slowing time down as motion speeds up, a prediction that already has widespread research support. We also discuss several novel hypotheses directly suggested by the spacetime model and a set of related speculations that emerge when considering spacetime (some of which have already received empirical support. Finally, we compare and contrast three very different potential reasons why we might have developed a spacetime processor in the first place. We conclude that the spacetime model shows promise for organizing existing data on time perception and generating novel hypotheses for researchers to pursue. Considering how humans might process spacetime helps reduce the existing gap between our understanding of physics and our understanding of human psychology.

  8. Political psychology. (United States)

    Stone, Susanna; Johnson, Kate M; Beall, Erica; Meindl, Peter; Smith, Benjamin; Graham, Jesse


    Political psychology is a dynamic field of research that offers a unique blend of approaches and methods in the social and cognitive sciences. Political psychologists explore the interactions between macrolevel political structures and microlevel factors such as decision-making processes, motivations, and perceptions. In this article, we provide a broad overview of the field, beginning with a brief history of political psychology research and a summary of the primary methodological approaches in the field. We then give a more detailed account of research on ideology and social justice, two topics experiencing a resurgence of interest in current political psychology. Finally, we cover research on political persuasion and voting behavior. By summarizing these major areas of political psychology research, we hope to highlight the wide variety of theoretical and methodological approaches of cognitive scientists working at the intersection of psychology and political science. WIREs Cogn Sci 2014, 5:373-385. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1293 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. The authors have declared no conflicts of interest for this article. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Validation of the French version of the BACS (the brief assessment of cognition in schizophrenia) among 50 French schizophrenic patients. (United States)

    Bralet, Marie-Cécile; Falissard, Bruno; Neveu, Xavier; Lucas-Ross, Margaret; Eskenazi, Anne-Marie; Keefe, Richard S E


    Schizophrenic patients demonstrate impairments in several key dimensions of cognition. These impairments are correlated with important aspects of functional outcome. While assessment of these cognition disorders is increasingly becoming a part of clinical and research practice in schizophrenia, there is no standard and easily administered test battery. The BACS (Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia) has been validated in English language [Keefe RSE, Golberg TE, Harvey PD, Gold JM, Poe MP, Coughenour L. The Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia: reliability, sensibility, and comparison with a standard neurocognitive battery. Schizophr. Res 2004;68:283-97], and was found to be as sensitive to cognitive dysfunction as a standard battery of tests, with the advantage of requiring less than 35 min to complete. We developed a French adaptation of the BACS and this study tested its ease of administration and concurrent validity. Correlation analyses between the BACS (version A) and a standard battery were performed. A sample of 50 stable schizophrenic patients received the French Version A of the BACS in a first session, and in a second session a standard battery. All the patients completed each of the subtests of the French BACS . The mean duration of completion for the BACS French version was 36 min (S.D.=5.56). A correlation analysis between the BACS (version A) global score and the standard battery global score showed a significant result (r=0.81, pschizophrenic patients compared to a standard battery (administration shorter and completion rate better) and its good psychometric properties suggest that the French Version of the BACS may be a useful tool for assessing cognition in schizophrenic patients with French as their primary language.

  10. The relation of serotonin-related gene and COMT gene polymorphisms with criminal behavior in schizophrenic disorder. (United States)

    Koh, Kyung Bong; Choi, Eun Hee; Lee, Young-joon; Han, Mooyoung; Choi, Sang-Sup; Kim, So Won; Lee, Min Goo


    It has been suggested that patients with schizophrenia might be involved in criminal behavior, such as homicidal and violent behavior. However, the relationship between criminal behavior and genes in patients with schizophrenia has not been clearly elucidated. The objective of this study was to examine the relation between criminal behavior and serotonin-related gene or catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene polymorphisms in patients with schizophrenia. Serotonin-related and COMT polymorphic markers were assessed by using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping. Ninety-nine crime-related inpatients with schizophrenia (57 homicidal and 42 nonhomicidal violent) and 133 healthy subjects were enrolled between October 2005 and May 2008. Diagnoses were made according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) criteria. The genotype frequencies of tryptophan hydroxylase-1 (TPH1) A218C and COMT V158M were compared between groups. The TPH1 CC genotype had 2.7-fold higher odds of crime-related schizophrenia compared with A-carrier genotype after the analysis was controlled for sex and age (OR, 2.69; 95% CI, 1.22 - 5.91; P = .01). In addition, the TPH1 CC genotype had 3.4-fold higher odds of homicidal schizophrenia compared with A-carrier genotype after the analysis was controlled for sex and age (OR, 3.38; 95% CI, 1.40 - 8.18; P = .007). However, no significant differences were found in the frequencies of genotype of COMT polymorphism between criminal schizophrenics and healthy subjects, nor were any significant differences found between nonhomicidal schizophrenics and healthy subjects. These results indicate that the TPH1 CC recessive genotype is likely to be a genetic risk factor for criminal behavior, especially homicidal behavior in patients with schizophrenia. However, COMT gene polymorphisms were not associated with criminal behavior in schizophrenic patients. © Copyright 2012 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  11. Psychological IVF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adrian, Stine Willum


    During ethnographic fieldwork at a fertility clinic in Denmark, I became intrigued by emotions. In particular, I found an incidence labelled ‘psychological IVF’ theoretically provocative as it challenged my views on materializations, which I was preparing to study. This paper centres on the story...... of psychological IVF, and I use this narrative to consider emotions and materialization methodologically. I also ask how emotions at fertility clinics can be conceptualized to enable analysis of their materialization, change, and effects. In order to do so, I develop the term ‘emotional choreography......’. This theoretical work has three aims. First, it seeks to illustrate how the story of psychological IVF offers a rich range of materializations of emotions. Secondly, this work proposes a feminist materialist conceptualization of emotions that is both non-representational and posthuman. This conceptualization draws...

  12. Frontal dopamine D(2/3) receptor binding in drug-naive first-episode schizophrenic patients correlates with positive psychotic symptoms and gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glenthoj, Birte Y; Mackeprang, Torben; Svarer, Claus


    with single-photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) using the D(2/3)-receptor ligand [123I]epidepride. RESULTS: In the hitherto largest study on extrastriatal D(2/3) receptors we detected a significant correlation between frontal D(2/3) BP values and positive schizophrenic symptoms in the larger group...... of male schizophrenic patients, higher frontal BP values in male (n = 17) compared to female (n = 8) patients, and - in accordance with this - significantly fewer positive schizophrenic symptoms in the female patients. No significant differences in BP values were observed between patients and controls......; the patients, however, had significantly higher BP in the right compared to the left thalamus, whereas no significant hemispheric imbalances were observed in the healthy subjects. CONCLUSIONS: The present data are the first to confirm a significant correlation between frontal D(2/3) receptor BP values...

  13. Space psychology (United States)

    Parin, V. V.; Gorbov, F. D.; Kosmolinskiy, F. P.


    Psychological selection of astronauts considers mental responses and adaptation to the following space flight stress factors: (1) confinement in a small space; (2) changes in three dimensional orientation; (3) effects of altered gravity and weightlessness; (4) decrease in afferent nerve pulses; (5) a sensation of novelty and danger; and (6) a sense of separation from earth.

  14. Deployment psychology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    breaking fashion, brings into a single compendium the growing body of literatures, since Yerkes's work, which point to the ... [they] reflect on how they have changed”.3 From the outset of this text, there is a very real and palpable sense .... embedded and enmeshed. At times, Deployment psychology appears to ignore the.

  15. Regional cerebral blood flow measurements in schizophrenics by /sup 133/Xe inhalation and intra-venous injection method

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    Matsuda, Hiroshi; Seki, Hiroyasu; Sumiya, Hisashi; Ishida, Hiroko; Taki, Junichi; Hisada, Kinichi; Kurachi, Masayoshi; Kobayashi, Katsuji; Yamaguchi, Nariyoshi (Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)


    Regional cerebral blood flow measurements were performed in 25 schizophrenic patients and 25 healthy volunteers by /sup 133/Xe inhalation and intra-venous injection method. Schizophrenic patients were classified into the following three groups. Group I: 8 patients without auditory hallucination measured by 2-dimensional /sup 133/Xe inhalation method. Group II: 6 patients with auditory hallucination measured by the same method as in Group I. Group III: 11 patients, including 2 patients with auditory hallucination measured by 3-dimensional /sup 133/Xe intra-venous injection method at the level of OM+5 cm. Bilateral regional percent values, which were obtained by dividing regional values by hemispheric mean or sectional mean values, for frontal lobes in Group I and II were significantly lower than those in the controls. In addition, bilateral regional percent values for bilateral temporal lobes in Group II were significantly higher than those in the controls. In Group III, regional percent values for right frontal lobes and those for posterior part of central gray matter showed significant decrease and increase, respectively. These findings would suggest that the negative symptoms of schizophrenia are related to the hypofrontal and positive ones to the hypertemporoparietal activity.

  16. Bizarreness in dream reports and waking fantasies of psychotic schizophrenic and manic patients: empirical evidences and theoretical consequences. (United States)

    Limosani, Ivan; D'Agostino, Armando; Manzone, Maria Laura; Scarone, Silvio


    Several overlapping features have frequently been described between psychosis and the subjective experience of dreaming from the neurobiological to the phenomenological level, but whether this similarity reflects the cognitive organization of schizophrenic thought or rather that of psychotic mentation independent of diagnostic categories is still unclear. In this study, 40 actively psychotic inpatients were equally divided in two age- and education-matched groups according to their diagnosis (Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder). Participants were asked to report their dreams upon awakening and the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) was administered to elicit waking fantasies; the same procedure was used in a control group of 20 non-psychiatric subjects. Two highly trained judges scored the collected material according to a Dream Bizarreness scale. The same level of cognitive bizarreness was found in TAT and dream reports of schizophrenic and manic subjects but was almost completely absent in the TAT stories of the control group. Two-way analysis of variance for repeated measures assessed the effect of diagnosis and experimental conditions (TAT stories and dream reports) on bizarreness yielding a significant interaction. Cognitive bizarreness seems to be a shared feature of dreaming and psychotic mentation, beyond diagnostic categorizations. Although these findings must be considered preliminary, this experimental measure of the cognitive architecture of thought processes seems to support the view that dreaming could be a useful model for the psychoses. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The effect of verbalization strategy on wisconsin card sorting test performance in schizophrenic patients receiving classical or atypical antipsychotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavallaro Roberto


    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of reports showed en encouraging remediation in some patients' executive deficits thanks to the use of 'information processing strategies'. Moreover the impact of antipsychotics on cognitive functions of the schizophrenics is an important issue, especially if an integrated psychosocial treatment is needed. The aim of this paper is to evaluate different executive performance and response to verbalization, a strategy of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST remediation, in subjects on classical vs atypical antipsychotic (AP treatment. Methods Sixty-three schizophrenic subjects undertook the WCST under standard and modified (verbalization administration. Subjects were stratified by the kind of WCST response (i.e. good, poor and remediable and AP treatment (i.e. atypical vs. classical. Results Subjects on atypical APs showed a better performance than those on classical ones. More poor performers who did not remediate were seen in the sample with classical Aps while subjects who remediated the performance were seen in the subgroup with atypical APs only. An increase of perseverative and total errors was seen in poor performers subjects on classical APs. Conclusion Subjects on atypicals showed a better cognitive pattern in terms of WCST performance. Since the naturalistic assignment of medication we cannot draw conclusions about its effect on cognitive performance and its interaction with cognitive remediation potential. However the data lead us to hypothesize that subjects with potential room for remediation did so with the atypical APs.

  18. Correlation of regional cerebral blood flow and positive/negative symptoms in schizophrenic patients: covariate SPM analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Ki Chun; Kim, J. S.; Kim, C. Y.; Lee, H. K.; Moon, D. H. [Ulsan University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    We investigated the relations between rCBF and psychopathology in schizophrenic patients using a SPM99. Thirty-two patients(M/F:22/10, 25{+-}5,6yr) with active symptoms of schizophrenia and 15 age matched normal controls underwent Tc-99m ECD brain perfusion SPECT. Psychopathology of all patients were also assessed according to PANSS (positive and negative syndrome scale in schizophrenia). By covariate SPM analysis, specific areas where rCBF correlated with sum scores of positive/negative synptoms were identified. Regional CBF of schizophrenics was different in several cortical regions from normal controls. Sum scores of positive symptoms were positively correlated with rCBF of both rectal and inferior frontal gyri and right transverse temporal gyrus, and negatively correlated with rCBF of left lingual and right middle temporal gyri (p<0.01). Sum scores of negative symptoms were positively correlated with rCBF of both middle temporal gyri and negatively correlated with rCBF of right superior parietal lobule and medial frontal gyrus (p<0.01). Positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia were correlated with rCBF change in different regions of cerebral association cortex.

  19. An association study of the Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome type 4 gene in schizophrenic patients. (United States)

    Saito, Atsushi; Kuratomi, Go; Ito, Chihiro; Matsuoka, Hiroo; Suzuki, Tamio; Ozeki, Yuji; Watanabe, Takashi; Fujii, Kumiko; Shimoda, Kazutaka; Fukushima, Yasutsugu; Inukai, Toshihiko; Ohmori, Kenichi; Akiyama, Kazufumi


    We encountered two Japanese siblings who had Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) and major mental disorders (schizophrenia and major depression) as well. As it is known that HPS is caused by a local mutation in one of the human genes, named HPS1 to HPS8 and PLDN (HPS9), encoding subunit proteins involved in endosomal trafficking pathways, here, we report the mutation causing the siblings disease and a case-control association study of schizophrenia using polymorphisms of a gene to be screened in the mutation analysis. We analyzed three HPS-causing genes, HPS1, HPS4, and HPS7, to identify a genetic mutation involved in the siblings. A case-control association study of nine tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms of the entire genetic region of the HPS4 gene resulting from the screening in the siblings was carried out for schizophrenic patients (n=422) and controls (n=578). The two patients with HPS were homozygous for nonsense mutation (T/T) for the c.541C>T (rs119471022) in the HPS4 gene, which is mapped to human chromosome 22q12.1. The same nonsense mutation existed in the heterozygous state (C/T) in their mother and in two other siblings. The genotypic distribution of rs9608491 (C/T) in intron 4 showed a trend toward an association with schizophrenia as indicated by a corrected P-value of 0.053 controlling for multiple testing. Haplotype analyses showed that two of two-locus haplotypes, and all of three-locus, four-locus, and five-locus haplotypes, as they share rs9608491, yielded significant evidence for association with schizophrenia as shown by the following omnibus P-values. When rs4822724, rs61276843, rs9608491, rs713998, and rs2014410, five haplotype tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms, are assigned serial numerals (1, 2, 3, 4, and 5), the omnibus P-values for the resulting haplotypes were P=0.0039 for 2-3, P=0.0142 for 3-4, P=0.0083 for 1-2-3, P=0.0187 for 2-3-4, P=0.0191 for 3-4-5, P=0.0270 for 1-2-3-4, P=0.0246 for 2-3-4-5, and 0.0261 for 1



  1. Psychological barriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skinner, T. C.


    of lifestyle changes and pharmacological therapy in preventing future complications. Negative emotions and preconceptions about treatment can also discourage adherence to treatment plans. 'Psychological Insulin resistance' caused by fear and concerns about insulin and daily insulin injections can discourage...... many patients from starting insulin therapy, even if oral agents have failed. Depression, stress and anxiety represent further obstacles to optimum self-care and the attainment of glucose goals. Healthcare professionals should endeavour to understand and accommodate these issues when setting personal...

  2. Psychological Theories of Acculturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ozer, Simon


    of acculturation also include cognate disciplines such as cultural psychology, social psychology, sociology, and anthropology.The expansion of psychological theories of acculturation has led to advancements in the field of research as well as the bifurcation of epistemological and methodological approaches...... advancements, together with greater mobility. Acculturation psychology aims to comprehend the dynamic psychological processes and outcomes emanating from intercultural contact. Acculturation psychology has been a growing field of research within cross-cultural psychology. Today, psychological theories...

  3. Estimation of localization and dipole moment of alpha- and theta-rhythm sources by cluster analysis in healthy subjects and schizophrenics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkhlyutov, VM; Shchuchkin, YV; Ushakov, VL; Strelets, VB; Pirogov, YA


    In 12 healthy subjects and 9 schizophrenic patients in the background conditions (with eyes closed) EEG was recorded from 16 standard derivations (10-20 system) during 3 min. The record underwent the spectral analysis detecting alpha- and theta-frequency bands. After the preliminary narrow band

  4. Simultaneous determination of amino acids and neurotransmitters in plasma samples from schizophrenic patients by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Domingues, Diego Soares; Crevelin, Eduardo José; de Moraes, Luiz Alberto Beraldo; Cecilio Hallak, Jaime Eduardo; de Souza Crippa, José Alexandre; Costa Queiroz, Maria Eugênia


    A sensitive, reproducible, and rapid method was developed for the simultaneous determination of underivatized amino acids (aspartate, serine, glycine, alanine, methionine, leucine, tyrosine, and tryptophan) and neurotransmitters (glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid) in plasma samples using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry. The plasma concentrations of amino acids and neurotransmitters obtained from 35 schizophrenic patients in treatment with clozapine (27 patients) and olanzapine (eight patients) were compared with those obtained from 38 healthy volunteers to monitor the effectiveness of treatment. The chromatographic conditions separated ten target compounds within 3 min. This method presented linear ranges that varied from (lower limit of quantification: 9.7-13.3 nmol/mL) to (upper limit of quantification: 19.4-800 nmol/mL), intra- and interassay precision with coefficients of variation lower than 10%, and relative standard error values of the accuracy ranged from -2.1 to 9.9%. The proposed method appropriately determines amino acids and neurotransmitters in plasma from schizophrenic patients. Compared with the control group (healthy volunteers), the plasma levels of methionine in schizophrenic patients treated with olanzapine are statistically significantly higher. Moreover, schizophrenic patients treated with clozapine tend to have increased plasma levels of glutamate. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Psychology Faculty Perceptions of Abnormal Psychology Textbooks (United States)

    Rapport, Zachary


    The problem. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the perceptions and opinions of psychology professors regarding the accuracy and inclusiveness of abnormal psychology textbooks. It sought answers from psychology professors to the following questions: (1) What are the expectations of the psychology faculty at a private university of…

  6. Psychology of religion: perspectives from cultural psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belzen, J.A.


    After a brief introduction, this paper tries to establish what type of psychology the psychology of religion is. Having introduced cultural psychology in general, some theories applicable in research on religion are presented, and some examples of cultural psychological research of religious

  7. [Adolescent psychology]. (United States)

    Lemerle, Sophie


    Adolescence is a transitional period dominated by puberty modifications. These modifications must come with a psychological work leading towards increased self containing from parents and also towards the choice of an own life orientation. In order to do so, adolescent must satisfy his needs to be able to change. This process will not run smoothly. The troubled adolescent will express himself with groans or acting out more than with words. This modus operandi is typical of that age. The general practitioner will be in the front line in being attentive to the adolescent and his parents needs.

  8. Serum cortisol and DHEA-S levels in schizophrenic patients with different response to antipsychotic therapy: association with psychopathology. (United States)

    Babinkostova, Z; Stefanovski, B; Janicevic-Ivanovska, D; Samardziska, V; Stojanovska, L


    Previous studies suggested that alterations in serum cortisol and DHEA-S levels may play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Imbalance in serum cortisol and DHEA-S levels may be related to responsivity to antipsychotic treatment. To compare serum cortisol and DHEA-S levels between patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls and to evaluate their association with psychopathology in schizophrenic patients with different response to antipsychotic treatment. This clinical prospective study included 60 patients with schizophrenia and 40 healthy age and sex matched controls. All patients experienced an acute exacerbation of the illness (PANSS: P1 and P3 ≥ 4). Clinical evaluation of patients was performed using the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale. A questionnaire for socio-demographic and clinical data collection was used. For the purposes of the study, the examined group was divided in two subgroups: responders and nonresponders. Serum cortisol and DHEA-S levels were measuredat baseline in all participants and after 3 and 6 weeks of the antipsychotic treatment in patients with schizophrenia. Patients with schizophrenia had significantly higher serum cortisol and DHEA-S levels comparedwith control group. Responders had significantly higher serum cortisol and DHEA-S levels compared with nonresponders. Responders group had significant correlation between serum cortisol and PANSS positive scale score as well as between hostility and serum DHEA-S. Elevated serum cortisol and DHEA-S levels may play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Serum cortisol and DHEA-S are associated with psychopathology in schizophrenic patients with different response to antipsychotic therapy.

  9. Polycultural psychology. (United States)

    Morris, Michael W; Chiu, Chi-yue; Liu, Zhi


    We review limitations of the traditional paradigm for cultural research and propose an alternative framework, polyculturalism. Polyculturalism assumes that individuals' relationships to cultures are not categorical but rather are partial and plural; it also assumes that cultural traditions are not independent, sui generis lineages but rather are interacting systems. Individuals take influences from multiple cultures and thereby become conduits through which cultures can affect each other. Past literatures on the influence of multiple cultural identities and cultural knowledge legacies can be better understood within a polyculturalist rubric. Likewise, the concept elucidates how cultures are changed by contact with other cultures, enabling richer psychological theories of intercultural influence. Different scientific paradigms about culture imply different ideologies and policies; polyculturalism's implied policy of interculturalism provides a valuable complement to the traditional policy frames of multiculturalism and colorblindness.



  11. The Dialectic Psychology perspectives


    Oliveros M., Ricardo; Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú


    The present paper exposes the dialectic psychology perspectives in the twentieth first century Peru. We ponder about the dialectics psychology denomination, connecting them to other denominations used in the materialist psychology trend. We analyze the relations between dialectics psychology and social neuroscience, delimiting both the psychological sciences field and the neuroscience field. We develop issues from the emancipator project of dialectics psychology, precising personal developmen...

  12. Psychology Ethics in Introductory Psychology Textbooks (United States)

    Zucchero, Renee' A.


    Previous research revealed that introductory psychology textbooks included limited information about psychology ethics. This study reviewed 48 current introductory psychology textbooks for research and other APA ethics content. These textbooks included slightly more total ethics content and were more thorough in their review of research ethics…

  13. Psychology's Renaissance. (United States)

    Nelson, Leif D; Simmons, Joseph; Simonsohn, Uri


    In 2010-2012, a few largely coincidental events led experimental psychologists to realize that their approach to collecting, analyzing, and reporting data made it too easy to publish false-positive findings. This sparked a period of methodological reflection that we review here and call Psychology's Renaissance. We begin by describing how psychologists' concerns with publication bias shifted from worrying about file-drawered studies to worrying about p-hacked analyses. We then review the methodological changes that psychologists have proposed and, in some cases, embraced. In describing how the renaissance has unfolded, we attempt to describe different points of view fairly but not neutrally, so as to identify the most promising paths forward. In so doing, we champion disclosure and preregistration, express skepticism about most statistical solutions to publication bias, take positions on the analysis and interpretation of replication failures, and contend that meta-analytical thinking increases the prevalence of false positives. Our general thesis is that the scientific practices of experimental psychologists have improved dramatically.

  14. Evolutionary developmental psychology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    King, Ashley C; Bjorklund, David F


    The field of evolutionary developmental psychology can potentially broaden the horizons of mainstream evolutionary psychology by combining the principles of Darwinian evolution by natural selection...

  15. Lifetime DSM-III-R diagnostic outcomes in the offspring of schizophrenic mothers. Results from the Copenhagen High-Risk Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parnas, Josef; Cannon, T D; Jacobsen, B


    .2%) and other nonaffective, nonorganic psychosis (4.6%), and Cluster A personality disorders (21.3%) occurred among the offspring of schizophrenic mothers compared with the controls (1.9%, 0.9%, and 5%, respectively). No evidence of increased aggregation of (psychotic and nonpsychotic) affective disorders......OBJECTIVES: To perform a long-term prospective follow-up of children at high risk for schizophrenia to identify risk factors for the development of this disorder. DESIGN: Prospective follow-up population study of children of schizophrenic mothers and their matched controls from age 15 years to age...... to the index group on age, sex, paternal socioeconomic status, urban/rural residence, and the amount of time spent during childhood in institutional rearing. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The prevalence of the DSM-III-R disorders during the subjects lifetime. RESULTS: A significant aggregation of schizophrenia (16...

  16. [Developmental conditions and subjective experiences of children with a schizophrenic parent--qualitative and quantitative studies from the Mannheim Study of Children at Risk]. (United States)

    Könnecke, Regina; Wening, Ursula; Ropeter, Daniel; Heiden, Wolfram an der; Maurer, Kurt; Häfner, Heinz


    35 children 12-42 years of age of patients with schizophrenia (ABC-Cohort-12-year-follow-up) were interviewed for studying objective and subjective effects of growing up with a schizophrenic parent. Social development and childhood experiences were assessed and quantitatively and qualitatively evaluated. The majority of probands had to take on early responsibilities in their family. Experienced deficits in parental care and problems with poor communication within the family were also mentioned. Compared with controls they showed only light disadvantages in the level of education and vocational training. Even if early independence could be a positive resource for children with a schizophrenic parent the restrictions in the child's life and development should not be overlooked. Information on the illness and support in dealing with stressful situations are frequently needed.

  17. Effects of typical antipsychotic, haloperidol on regional cerebral blood flow in drug-naive schizophrenic patients-study with 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamoya, Masatoshi [Kanazawa Medical Univ., Ishikawa (Japan)


    For the purpose of examining antipsychotic action of haloperidol (HPD), effects of chronic perioral administration of HPD 4.5 mg/day on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) with 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT were investigated in 12 drug-naive schizophrenic patients with acute hallucinatory and delusional state. Further, the SPECT examinations were performed on 20 normal adult volunteers to investigate differences in rCBFs between schizophrenics and the normal subjects. Results are itemized as follows. The rCBF values were significantly increased in the bilateral superior and middle frontal, cingulate, middle temporal, pre-and post-central gyri, the left superior temporal gyrus, the bilateral inferior parietal lobule, and the bilateral hippocampal and thalamic cortices in comparison between normal subjects and before the HPD dose in schizophrenics. However, the rCBF values after the HPD dose showed significant increases only in the bilateral pre-and post-central gyri in comparison with the normal subjects. The rCBF values were significantly decreased in the bilateral superior, middle and inferior frontal, superior and middle temporal gyri, and the left insular gyrus after the HPD dose in comparison with before the HPD dose. The psychiatric assessment with PANSS showed an improvement of positive symptoms consisting of auditory hallucination and delusions after the HPD dose. Statistical analyses on relationships between the rCBF values and PANSS scores before and after the HPD dose showed positive correlations between the right inferior frontal gyrus and auditory hallucination or positive symptoms, between the right superior temporal gyrus, left thalamus and delusions, and between the left thalamus, insular gyrus and negative symptoms. These results suggest that acute drug-naive schizophrenic patients have widespread cortico-subcortical energic hypermetabolism and HPD reduces the hypermetabolism, leading to whole normalized brain metabolism, in particular with the larger region

  18. Opposite effective connectivity in the posterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortex between first-episode schizophrenic patients with suicide risk and healthy controls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiran Zhang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The schizophrenic patients with high suicide risk are characterized by depression, better cognitive function, and prominent positive symptoms. However, the neurobiological basis of suicide attempts in schizophrenia is not clear. The suicide in schizophrenia is implicated in the defects in emotional process and decision-making, which are associated with prefrontal-cingulate circuit. In order to explore the possible neurobiological basis of suicide in schizophrenia, we investigated the correlation of prefrontal-cingulate circuit with suicide risk in schizophrenia via dynamic casual modelling. METHOD: Participants were 33 first-episode schizophrenic patients comprising of a high suicide risk group (N = 14 and a low suicide risk group (N = 19. A comparison group of healthy controls (N = 15 were matched for age, gender and education. N-back tasking functional magnetic resonance imaging data was collected. RESULTS: Compared with healthy controls group, the two patients groups showed decreased task-related suppression during 2-back task state versus baseline state in the left posterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortex; the hyper-connectivity from the left posterior cingulate cortex to the left medial prefrontal cortex existed in both schizophrenic patients groups, but hypo-connectivity in the opposite direction only existed in the schizophrenic patients group with high suicide risk. CONCLUSIONS: The hyper-connectivity from the left posterior cingulate cortex to the left medial prefrontal cortex may suggest that the abnormal effective connectivity was associated with risk for schizophrenia. The hypo-connectivity in the opposite direction may represent a possible correlate of increased vulnerability to suicide attempt.

  19. Psychology of psychology? A theoretization of psychological science through historical and socio-anthropological analysis of Psychology as institution


    Martin Žužek-Kres


    The article presents a "new" history of psychology, which is also termed as "psychology of psychology". In some academic communities this unconventional history of psychology represents today an accepted approach to epistemological questions about psychological concepts and it enables an insight into social contextualization of Psychology as an institution. The conclusion presents a referential and institutional context where this psychology of psychology is realized.

  20. Introduction to Psychology. (United States)

    Edwards, Lesley

    Designed for community students interested in learning about psychology as a field of study, this module offers group and individual activities to involve the beginning student in research, experimentation and discussion. Unit 1, "What Is Psychology?," includes the use of animals in psychology, ethics, the history of psychology, an…

  1. Mainstreaming Culture in Psychology (United States)

    Cheung, Fanny M.


    Despite the "awakening" to the importance of culture in psychology in America, international psychology has remained on the sidelines of psychological science. The author recounts her personal and professional experience in tandem with the stages of development in international/cross-cultural psychology. Based on her research in cross-cultural…

  2. Switch from neuroleptics to clozapine does not influence pituitary-gonadal axis hormone levels in male schizophrenic patients. (United States)

    Markianos, M; Hatzimanolis, J; Lykouras, L


    Hypothalamic dopaminergic and serotonergic inputs participate in the regulation of pituitary hormones, and drugs that block central dopamine and serotonin receptors are expected to influence the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) and -adrenal (HPA) axes. In schizophrenic patients, the switch from neuroleptics to clozapine influences prolactin and cortisol secretion, but there is no information on possible changes on HPG-axis hormones. We measured the plasma levels of testosterone (TST), LH, FSH, as well as of prolactin (PRL) and cortisol (CORT), in a group of male patients with schizophrenia during treatment with classical neuroleptics with no satisfactory therapeutic response (31 pts, age 30.3+/-8.5, range 18-50), and 6 weeks later, after switch to treatment with clozapine (CLZ) in doses from 100 to 600 mg daily (mean 328 mg). Psychopathology was assessed using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. The hormone levels were also compared to those of a control group of 38 healthy males. Treatment with CLZ resulted in a reduction in the BPRS score by 30% in the mean. Plasma PRL was reduced from 39.9+/-26.1 to 8.3+/-5.0 ng/ml (PHPG-axis hormone plasma levels, although it reduces substantially the levels of prolactin and cortisol.

  3. Risperidone versus zuclopenthixol in the treatment of acute schizophrenic episodes: a double-blind parallel-group trial. (United States)

    Huttunen, M O; Piepponen, T; Rantanen, H; Larmo, I; Nyholm, R; Raitasuo, V


    A double-blind, randomized, multi-center, parallel-group study was conducted in Finland to compare the efficacy and safety of risperidone with zuclopenthixol in patients with acute exacerbations of schizophrenia or schizophreniform disorder. Ninety-eight patients were randomly assigned to treatment with risperidone (n = 48) or zuclopenthixol (n = 50), in variable doses, for 6 weeks. The mean daily doses of risperidone and zuclopenthixol at the end of the trial were 8 mg and 38 mg respectively. Efficacy was assessed throughout by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale for schizophrenia and Clinical Global Impression. Safety assessments included the Extrapyramidal Symptom Rating Scale, UKU Side-Effect Rating Scale, vital signs, body weight and laboratory screening. The results indicate that risperidone is at least as effective as zuclopenthixol for the treatment of acute schizophrenic episodes, with a trend towards greater improvement in the overall severity of symptoms. The onset of action was significantly shorter with risperidone than with zuclopenthixol. Although the general tolerability of the two drugs was comparable, fewer patients experienced extrapyramidal symptoms with risperidone, so that significantly fewer risperidone-treated patients required antiparkinsonian medication.

  4. The interactions between religion, religiosity, religious delusion/hallucination, and treatment-seeking behavior among schizophrenic patients in Taiwan. (United States)

    Huang, Charles Lung-Cheng; Shang, Chi-Yung; Shieh, Ming-Shien; Lin, Hsin-Nan; Su, Jin Chung-Jen


    Religion could influence the psychopathology, treatment-seeking behavior, and treatment outcome in schizophrenia, but the associations between these factors have never been explored thoroughly, and the data in Han-Chinese society are scarcer still. The current study recruited 55 schizophrenic patients to explore the relationship between religion, psychopathology with religious content, treatment-seeking behavior, and outcome. Subjects with religious delusions/hallucinations had lower scores on functioning and higher scores on religiosity. The higher religiosity scores were correlated with older age, longer duration of illness, religious affiliation, lower preference of psychiatric treatment, lower functioning score, and delusion/hallucination. As to treatment-seeking behavior, patients with religious affiliation showed less preference toward psychiatric treatment. Individuals with religious delusion/hallucination were more likely to receive magico-religious healing and not to be satisfied with psychiatric treatment. A more positive view of psychiatric treatment was predicted by lower religiosity score, higher satisfaction with psychiatric treatment, and lower years of education. The religiosity level seems not directly related to clinical severity, but it seems to be a better predictor of religious delusions/hallucinations than religious affiliation status. Patients with religious delusions/hallucinations did not necessarily have more severe psychopathology. There are different profiles associated with religious affiliation/religiosity and religious delusions/hallucinations in relation to treatment-seeking behavior among schizophrenia patients in Han-Chinese society. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Semantic activation and verbal working memory maintenance in schizophrenic thought disorder: insights from electrophysiology and lexical ambiguity. (United States)

    Salisbury, Dean F


    We have examined language processing using ambiguous words (homographs like panel or toast) and rapid or slow presentation rates while recording event-related brain potentials (ERPs). Homographs allow for tracking the train of thought at points of lexical ambiguity and detecting modulation of associative threads by previous context. Rapid presentation rates stress automatic semantic activation, and slow rates stress controlled verbal working memory contextual modulation. In conjunction with reaction times and performance, ERPs allow for objective measurement of activity related to language processing from word presentation through overt behavioral response. Smaller N400 to related and unrelated items at short stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs), the presence of a semantic bias, and large N400 to related and unrelated items at long SOAs are present in schizophrenia. We describe a model of initial semantic memory hyper-priming and subsequent decay of information in verbal working memory stores, the activation-maintenance model of schizophrenic thought disorder hypothesized to underlie the thought disorder in schizophrenia.

  6. A Cognitive Neuroscience View of Schizophrenic Symptoms: Abnormal Activation of a System for Social Perception and Communication (United States)

    Wible, Cynthia G.; Preus, Alexander P.; Hashimoto, Ryuichiro


    We will review converging evidence that language related symptoms of the schizophrenic syndrome such as auditory verbal hallucinations arise at least in part from processing abnormalities in posterior language regions. These language regions are either adjacent to or overlapping with regions in the (posterior) temporal cortex and temporo-parietal occipital junction that are part of a system for processing social cognition, emotion, and self representation or agency. The inferior parietal and posterior superior temporal regions contain multi-modal representational systems that may also provide rapid feedback and feed-forward activation to unimodal regions such as auditory cortex. We propose that the over-activation of these regions could not only result in erroneous activation of semantic and speech (auditory word) representations, resulting in thought disorder and voice hallucinations, but could also result in many of the other symptoms of schizophrenia. These regions are also part of the so-called “default network”, a network of regions that are normally active; and their activity is also correlated with activity within the hippocampal system. PMID:19809534

  7. Semantic Activation and Verbal Working Memory Maintenance in Schizophrenic Thought Disorder: Insights from Electrophysiology and Lexical Amibiguity (United States)


    We have examined language processing using ambiguous words (homographs like panel or toast) and rapid or slow presentation rates while recording event-related brain potentials (ERPs). Homographs allow for tracking the train of thought at points of lexical ambiguity and detecting modulation of associative threads by previous context. Rapid presentation rates stress automatic semantic activation, and slow rates stress controlled verbal working memory contextual modulation. In conjunction with reaction times and performance, ERPs allow for objective measurement of activity related to language processing from word presentation through overt behavioral response. Smaller N400 to related and unrelated items at short stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs), the presence of a semantic bias, and large N400 to related and unrelated items at long SOAs are present in schizophrenia. We describe a model of initial semantic memory hyper-priming and subsequent decay of information in verbal working memory stores, the activation-maintenance model of schizophrenic thought disorder hypothesized to underlie the thought disorder in schizophrenia. PMID:18450179

  8. Abnormal laboratory values during the acute and recovery phases in schizophrenic patients: a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiko Nagamine


    Full Text Available Takahiko NagamineDivision of Psychiatric Internal Medicine, Seiwakai-Kitsunan Hospital, Suzenji, JapanAbstract: During treatment of acute-phase schizophrenia, attention needs to be given to physical as well as psychological symptoms. It is often difficult, however, to obtain information on physical symptoms from patients with psychomotor excitation, and only laboratory examinations can provide objective data. The results of laboratory parameters measured in 68 patients with schizophrenia during psychomotor excitation and approximately 1 month later during the medicated recovery phase have been analyzed retrospectively. Abnormal laboratory values during psychomotor excitation were frequent. The most frequent (≥35% of patients were increased white blood cell count, low serum potassium levels, high levels of fasting blood sugar, lactate dehydrogenase and uric acid. There were fewer abnormal values during the medicated recovery phase. The most frequent (≥25% of patients were high serum levels of triglycerides, amylase, creatinine kinase, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Abnormal triglyceride levels were found significantly more frequently in patients receiving olanzapine than those receiving risperidone. Abnormal values during the acute phase may be the result of excitation such as increased sympathetic tone and dehydration. Abnormal values during the recovery phase appeared to be related to the adverse metabolic effects of antipsychotic drugs. The frequency of these abnormal values was particularly high in patients receiving olanzapine alone or in combination with other medications.Keywords: schizophrenia, laboratory test values, acute phase, recovery phase, risperidone, olanzapine

  9. A Web-based Game for Teaching Facial Expressions to Schizophrenic Patients. (United States)

    Gülkesen, Kemal Hakan; Isleyen, Filiz; Cinemre, Buket; Samur, Mehmet Kemal; Sen Kaya, Semiha; Zayim, Nese


    Recognizing facial expressions is an important social skill. In some psychological disorders such as schizophrenia, loss of this skill may complicate the patient's daily life. Prior research has shown that information technology may help to develop facial expression recognition skills through educational software and games. To examine if a computer game designed for teaching facial expressions would improve facial expression recognition skills of patients with schizophrenia. We developed a website composed of eight serious games. Thirty-two patients were given a pre-test composed of 21 facial expression photographs. Eighteen patients were in the study group while 14 were in the control group. Patients in the study group were asked to play the games on the website. After a period of one month, we performed a post-test for all patients. The median score of the correct answers was 17.5 in the control group whereas it was 16.5 in the study group (of 21) in pretest. The median post-test score was 18 in the control group (p=0.052) whereas it was 20 in the study group (pgames may be used for the purpose of educating people who have difficulty in recognizing facial expressions.

  10. Cultural Psychology and Deconstructing Developmental Psychology


    Crafter, Sarah


    This paper looks at points of convergence and divergence between the different branches of cultural psychology and Burman's ideas in Deconstructing Developmental Psychology (DDP). The paper discusses the relationship between the developing ideas in cultural psychology over time and some of the shared theoretical and conceptual criticisms put forward in DDP. This takes into account some of the differences between symbolic approach, activity theory and an individualistic approach to cultural ps...

  11. Sport psychology: psychologic issues and applications. (United States)

    Carr, Christopher M


    This article has briefly highlighted the area of sport psychology as it relates to performance psychology skills (mental training), including a historical overview and current topics overview. The use of mental training skills may be of interest to the practicing physical medicine and rehabilitation professional in the treatment of his or her patients. It is important that the physical medicine professional recognize what sport or performance psychology represents within the paradigm of psychologic interventions. Referring to an individual based on his or her training (licensed psychologist versus mental training consultant) is essential for the appropriate management of psychologic issues related to performance. The issues related to the psychologic rehabilitation of the injured athlete are of importance to the medical staff; the overview of affective responses can assist in understanding the normal and adaptive responses of the injured athlete. Finally, a brief description of a psychologist's role within a sports medicine and rehabilitation practice is presented. The psychologic issues that are present in the world of sport and elite performance are numerous, and not all are mentioned in this article. Issues of eating disorders, substance abuse, and psychologic health with athletes should be further explored within the physical medicine and rehabilitation discipline as well as in the sports medicine discipline. The ever-evolving psychologic dynamics of individuals involved in sport and elite performance are intriguing and unique. A specialized knowledge base, training, and experience in providing psychologic services are required to treat this unique population. Counseling and clinical issues of the athlete and elite performer require further attention in the realm of psychologic interventions, including further exploration of the efficacy of interventions for performance enhancement. The field of applied sport psychology may offer the physical medicine

  12. Identity of psychology, identity and psychology


    Mirjana Nastran Ule


    The article deals with epistemic issues of modern psychology with the starting hypothesis being that scientific psychology must satisfy three main interests: scientific, practical and emancipatory interest. Particularly important is the emancipatory interest, which is based on the social reflection of scientific work and conclusions. Psychological knowledge involves not only neutral descriptions of facts, but also implicit rules, expectations regarding values or norms, and criticism of undesi...

  13. Historizing epistemology in psychology. (United States)

    Jovanović, Gordana


    The conflict between the psychometric methodological framework and the particularities of human experiences reported in psychotherapeutic context led Michael Schwarz to raise the question whether psychology is based on a methodological error. I take this conflict as a heuristic tool for the reconstruction of the early history of psychology, which bears witness to similar epistemological conflicts, though the dominant historiography of psychology has largely forgotten alternative conceptions and their valuable insights into complexities of psychic phenomena. In order to work against the historical amnesia in psychology I suggest to look at cultural-historical contexts which decisively shaped epistemological choices in psychology. Instead of keeping epistemology and history of psychology separate, which nurtures individualism and naturalism in psychology, I argue for historizing epistemology and for historical psychology. From such a historically reflected perspective psychology in contemporary world can be approached more critically.

  14. Psychology of family business


    Taylyakova, Feruzahon


    This article analyzes the basic psychological characteristics of family businesses. The author describes the psychological properties that contribute to improve individual and family businesses. The article also discusses mental properties adversely affect the development of a family business.

  15. Professional psychology in Portugal. (United States)

    Fagulha, T; Dana, R H


    This paper describes the history and current status of professional psychology in Portugal where a unique perspective combines training, research, and practical contributions from Europe and the Americas with their own history of psychological tradition and expertise. Training in professional psychology includes Social Psychology and Educational and Vocational Guidance specializations in addition to Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy and Counseling for the professional degree, Licenciatura. Advanced degrees are offered in Environmental Psychology, Career Development, Social Cognition, and other areas, primarily for academic positions. Research in all of these areas is expected to have applied outcomes that contribute to individual well being and an improved quality of life for the entire population. The result has been a rapid development of an indigenous professional psychology to address mental health, social, and environmental concerns that compel psychological attention and resources worldwide as well as those problems of local and national origins.

  16. Psychological Stress and Cancer (United States)

    ... learn to cope with psychological stress? Emotional and social support can help patients learn to cope with psychological stress. Such support can reduce levels of depression, anxiety, and disease- and treatment-related symptoms among patients. Approaches can include the ...

  17. Common variants in MAGI2 gene are associated with increased risk for cognitive impairment in schizophrenic patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayoshi Koide

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is a complex psychiatric disorder characterized by positive symptoms, negative symptoms, and cognitive impairment. MAGI2, a relatively large gene (∼1.5 Mbps that maps to chromosome 7q21, is involved in recruitment of neurotransmitter receptors such as AMPA- and NMDA-type glutamate receptors. A genetic association study designed to evaluate the association between MAGI2 and cognitive performance or schizophrenia has not been conducted. In this case-control study, we examined the relationship of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP variations in MAGI2 and risk for schizophrenia in a large Japanese sample and explored the potential relationships between variations in MAGI2 and aspects of human cognitive function related to glutamate activity. Based on the result of first schizophrenia genome-wide association study in a Japanese population (JGWAS, we selected four independent SNPs and performed an association study using a large independent Japanese sample set (cases 1624, controls 1621. Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST was used to evaluate executive function in 114 cases and 91 controls. We found suggestive evidence for genetic association of common SNPs within MAGI2 locus and schizophrenia in Japanese population. Furthermore in terms of association between MAGI2 and cognitive performance, we observed that genotype effect of rs2190665 on WCST score was significant (p = 0.034 and rs4729938 trended toward significance (p = 0.08. In conclusion, although we could not detect strong genetic evidence for association of common variants in MAGI2 and increased schizophrenia risk in a Japanese population, these SNPs may increase risk of cognitive impairment in schizophrenic patients.

  18. An epidemiological study of concomitant use of Chinese medicine and antipsychotics in schizophrenic patients: implication for herb-drug interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang-Jin Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Herb-drug interactions are an important issue in drug safety and clinical practice. The aim of this epidemiological study was to characterize associations of clinical outcomes with concomitant herbal and antipsychotic use in patients with schizophrenia. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In this retrospective, cross-sectional study, 1795 patients with schizophrenia who were randomly selected from 17 psychiatric hospitals in China were interviewed face-to-face using a structured questionnaire. Association analyses were conducted to examine correlates between Chinese medicine (CM use and demographic, clinical variables, antipsychotic medication mode, and clinical outcomes. The prevalence of concomitant CM and antipsychotic treatment was 36.4% [95% confidence interval (95% CI 34.2%-38.6%]. Patients using concomitant CM had a significantly greater chance of improved outcomes than non-CM use (61.1% vs. 34.3%, OR = 3.44, 95% CI 2.80-4.24. However, a small but significant number of patients treated concomitantly with CM had a greater risk of developing worse outcomes (7.2% vs. 4.4%, OR = 2.06, 95% CI 2.06-4.83. Significant predictors for concomitant CM treatment-associated outcomes were residence in urban areas, paranoid psychosis, and exceeding 3 months of CM use. Herbal medicine regimens containing Radix Bupleuri, Fructus Gardenia, Fructus Schisandrae, Radix Rehmanniae, Akebia Caulis, and Semen Plantaginis in concomitant use with quetiapine, clozapine, and olanzepine were associated with nearly 60% of the risk of adverse outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Concomitant herbal and antipsychotic treatment could produce either beneficial or adverse clinical effects in schizophrenic population. Potential herb-drug pharmacokinetic interactions need to be further evaluated.

  19. Ensaio com sulpiride em esquizofrênicos hospitalizados Clinical trial with sulpiride on schizophrenic in-patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clóvis Martins


    Full Text Available Um ensaio terapêutico é feito com sulpiride, substância psicotrópica dada como muito ativa e cujas propriedades permitem enquadrá-la entre os neurolépticos e os timoanalépticos. Foram tratados 24 pacientes internados, com idades que variavam entre 17 e 48 anos, de ambos os sexos (17 masculinos e 7 femininos, todos com o diagnóstico clínico de esquizofrenia e internados em hospital psiquiátrico. O tempo de doença variava de 30 dias a 18 anos. O sulpiride foi aplicado em doses diárias em torno de 1200 mg, predominantemente por via oral. O tratamento durou em média 6 semanas permanecendo a maioria dos casos em observação por alguns meses, sob tratamento de manutenção. Os resultados foram em geral favoráveis, principalmente no que tange aos fenômenos psicóticos sensoperceptivos e delirantes. Não foram assinalados efeitos colaterais ou manifestações colaterais molestas.A therapeutic trial with sulpiride was made, submiting to treatment 24 in-patients of a mental hospital, diagnosed as schizophrenics. The ages are from 17 to 48 years old, 17 males and 7 females. The time of disease was from 30 dayes to 18 years. The drug was given mainly orally on about 1200 mg/die, in a treament of 6 weeks followed in some cases, by several months of observation. The best results were obtained in the sensoperceptive and delusional symptoms. No side effects of importance were detected.

  20. Hippocampal Temporal-Parietal Junction Interaction in the Production of Psychotic Symptoms: A Framework for Understanding the Schizophrenic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Gayle Wible


    Full Text Available A framework is described for understanding the schizophrenic syndrome at the brain systems level. It is hypothesized that over-activation of dynamic gesture and social perceptual processes in the temporal-parietal occipital junction (TPJ, posterior superior temporal sulcus (PSTS and surrounding regions produce the syndrome (including positive and negative symptoms, their prevalence, prodromal signs and cognitive deficits. Hippocampal system hyper-activity and atrophy have been consistently found in schizophrenia. Hippocampal activity is highly related to activity in the TPJ and may be a source of over-excitation of the TPJ and surrounding regions. Strong evidence for this comes from in-vivo recordings in humans during psychotic episodes. The TPJ and PSTS play a key role in the perception (and production of dynamic social, emotional and attentional gestures for the self and others (e.g., body/face/eye gestures, audiovisual speech, prosody. The single cell representation of dynamic gestures is multimodal (auditory, visual, tactile, matching the predominant hallucinatory categories in schizophrenia. Inherent in the single cell perceptual signal of dynamic gesture representations is a computation of intention, agency, and anticipation or expectancy (for the self and others. The neurons are also tuned or biased to detect threat related emotions. Abnormal over-activation in this system could produce the conscious hallucination of a voice (audiovisual speech, person or a touch. Over-activation could interfere with attentional/emotional gesture perception and production (negative symptoms. It could produce the unconscious feeling of being watched, followed or of a social situation unfolding along with accompanying perception of intent and agency inherent in those representations (delusions. Cognitive disturbances in attention, predictive social processing, agency, working memory, and a bias toward the perception of threat would also be predicted.

  1. Psychology in its Place


    Radford, John


    In 1996 Graham Richards published Putting Psychology in its Place: An introduction from a critical historical perspective. Here, I seek to consider what is or should be the ‘place’ of Psychology in education, more particularly Higher Education, and not just from a historical perspective. This raises issues about several contexts in which Psychology finds itself. In the Higher Education context itself, Psychology continues to be in demand. But what is offered in first degrees is largely dictat...

  2. Avaliação de aspectos cognitivos em homens portadores de esquizofrenia em tratamento com haloperidol ou clozapina Cognitive aspects evaluation of schizophrenic men under haloperidol or clozapine treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejane Veiga Oliveira Johann


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar, sob o ponto de vista psicológico, aspectos cognitivos de pacientes portadores de esquizofrenia associados ao tipo de medicamento antipsicótico em uso. MÉTODOS: Participaram dois grupos: no grupo 1 os pacientes em tratamento com haloperidol (n = 14 e no 2 aqueles em tratamento com clozapina (n = 16. Ambos os grupos eram formados por indivíduos com esquizofrenia em tratamento psiquiátrico ambulatorial no Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre (HCPA, cuja faixa etária variou entre 18 e 59 anos. Foram usados como instrumentos o Operational Checklist for Psychotic Illness (OPCRIT para definição do diagnóstico de esquizofrenia e a técnica de Rorschach. Também se realizou a análise de variância (ANOVA seguida do teste de Bonferroni, com nível de significância de p 80%; FK = KF + K; FC > CF + C. Ambos os grupos apresentaram escore de forma (sigmaF na faixa clínica considerada normal. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados do Rorschach permitem inferir que os pacientes medicados com clozapina apresentam indicativos de capacidade de produção e adaptação à tarefa, controle pelo uso da inteligência sobre impulsos e instintos, capacidade para suportar frustração e funcionamento do raciocínio lógico em melhores condições do que os pacientes medicados com haloperidol.OBJECTIVE: Evaluate from a psychological point of view cognitive aspects of schizophrenic patients, associated with the antipsychotic medicine type taken. METHODS: The study analyzed three groups: group 1 patients medicated with haloperidol (n = 14; group 2 - patients medicated with clozapine (n =16. Groups 1 and 2 were schizophrenic men under psychiatric treatment at Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre (HCPA. The age of all subjects ranged from 18 to 59 years. The following tools were used in the study: the Operational Checklist for Psychotic Illness (OPCRIT to diagnose schizophrenia, and the Rorschach technique. The Rorschach data was subject to a variance


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    PSYCHOLOGICAL EMPOWERMENT AND. DEVELOPMENT. Oladipo, S.E. PhD. Dept. of Counselling Psychology, Tai Solarin University of Education,. Ijagun, Ogun State. Abstract. Using the archival method of investigation, this paper explores the subject of psychological empowerment (particularly in relation to youths) ...

  4. What is Political Psychology? (United States)

    Deutsch, Morton


    Political psychology is the study of the bidirectional interaction of political and psychological processes. This academic discipline was founded after the First World War by Harold D. Lasswell. The content of political psychology is discussed and illustrative studies of the field are briefly summarized. (CS)

  5. School Psychology in Denmark. (United States)

    Poulsen, Anders


    Describes education system of Denmark and reviews background and development of school psychology in that country. Discusses organization of school psychology work and practice. Explains qualifications and training of school psychologists and describes professional organizations, wages, and problems in school psychology. (NB)

  6. Intro through Internet Psychology. (United States)

    Webster, Sandra K.; Kelliher, Thomas P.

    Psychology and computer science were clustered into a course in "Internet Psychology" with the goal of enabling students to use electronic networks responsibly and creatively and to understand the principles of psychology as they operate in the electronic context. Fourteen students from a variety of majors registered for the class.…

  7. Psychology in India (United States)

    Sushma, B.; Padmaja, G.


    Psychology forms the basis of every human activity. The scope of psychology is increasingly widening in various economic, political, social, cultural and technological aspects. Though the application of psychology is extending to various aspects of life, it needs to be indigenised to address the dynamic needs in the various socio-economic contexts…

  8. Psychology in Mexico (United States)

    Ruiz, Eleonora Rubio


    The first formal psychology course taught in Mexico was in 1896 at Mexico's National University; today, National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM in Spanish). The modern psychology from Europe and the US in the late 19th century were the primary influences of Mexican psychology, as well as psychoanalysis and both clinical and experimental…

  9. [Cost-effectiveness analysis of schizophrenic patient care settings: impact of an atypical antipsychotic under long-acting injection formulation]. (United States)

    Llorca, P M; Miadi-Fargier, H; Lançon, C; Jasso Mosqueda, G; Casadebaig, F; Philippe, A; Guillon, P; Mehnert, A; Omnès, L F; Chicoye, A; Durand-Zaleski, I


    Schizophrenia is a disease affecting the young adults and amounts to approximately 300,000 people in France. The French public psychiatric sector takes care of approximately 150,000 adults schizophrenics: 50% benefit from ambulatory care, 50% are in partial or full-time hospitalization care. Schizophrenia represents the first diagnosis that psychiatric sectors take in charge. The costs associated with schizophrenia, mainly hospital costs, are important and were estimated at 2% of the total medical costs in France. In the French social welfare system, the social costs (pensions, allowances, managements of custody or guardianship by social workers) are also to be taken into account: it amounts to a third of the global direct cost. Schizophrenia also generates indirect costs (losses of productivity and premature deaths) which would be at least equal, or even more important, than direct medical costs. The non-compliance to the antipsychotic treatment is a major problem with people suffering from schizophrenia. Indeed the lack of compliance to the treatment, estimated at 20 to 40%, is a major handicap for schizophrenic patient stabilization. The poor level of compliance is due to many various causes: adverse effects that are considered unbearable, medicine viewed as persecutory, negation of the disease, nostalgia for the productive phases of the disease, lack of social support, complexity of the prescription, relapse itself. Compliance is thus influenced by the patient's clinical features, local provision of health care and the specific nature of the drug (adverse effects, pharmaceutical formulation). The atypical antipsychotics present fewer extrapyramidal side effects and reduce the cognitive deficits associated with the disease, which results in improved compliance. Long-acting injectable antipsychotics allow a better therapeutic compliance and thus better efficacy of the treatment. Several studies have shown a significant improvement in compliance related to the

  10. Mainstreaming culture in psychology. (United States)

    Cheung, Fanny M


    Despite the "awakening" to the importance of culture in psychology in America, international psychology has remained on the sidelines of psychological science. The author recounts her personal and professional experience in tandem with the stages of development in international/cross-cultural psychology. Based on her research in cross-cultural personality assessment, the author discusses the inadequacies of sole reliance on either the etic or the emic approach and points out the advantages of a combined emic-etic approach in bridging global and local human experiences in psychological science and practice. With the blurring of the boundaries between North American-European psychologies and psychology in the rest of the world, there is a need to mainstream culture in psychology's epistemological paradigm. Borrowing from the concept of gender mainstreaming that embraces both similarities and differences in promoting equal opportunities, the author discusses the parallel needs of acknowledging universals and specifics when mainstreaming culture in psychology. She calls for building a culturally informed universal knowledge base that should be incorporated in the psychology curriculum and textbooks. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. The association of CLOCK gene T3111C polymorphism and hPER3 gene 54-nucleotide repeat polymorphism with Chinese Han people schizophrenics. (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Liao, Ga; Liu, Chang; Sun, Lei; Liu, Yanyou; Wang, Yuhui; Jiang, Zhou; Wang, Zhengrong


    Many reports have shown that the biologic rhythm could be altered due to mutations of circadian gene hClock or hPeriod, and the mutations of circadian genes have some relationship with psychosis according to recent studies. A preliminary study has been conducted to examine wether the T3111C single nucleotide polymorphism of the hClock gene or the length polymorphism of the hPer3 gene is associated with the development of schizophrenia. The samples from schizophrenics (n=148, male: 57.4%, female: 42.6%) and normal controls (n=199, male: 59.3%, female: 40.7%) were examined. Allele frequencies of T3111C SNP of hClock were significantly different between schizophrenics and controls (χ2=19.738, P0.05). Our results suggest that the T3111C (RS1801260) polymorphism of hClock gene is associated with schizophrenia, but it seems that the length polymorphism of 18 exon of hPer3 may not be associated with schizophrenia. It is important to address of the relationship between circadian gene polymorphisms and dopamine functions in further study.

  12. Traditional Chinese version of the Mayer Salovey Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT-TC): Its validation and application to schizophrenic individuals. (United States)

    Mao, Wei-Chung; Chen, Li-Fen; Chi, Chia-Hsing; Lin, Ching-Hung; Kao, Yu-Chen; Hsu, Wen-Yau; Lane, Hsien-Yuan; Hsieh, Jen-Chuen


    Schizophrenia is an illness that impairs a person's social cognition. The Mayer Salovey Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) is the most well-known test used to measure emotional intelligence (EI), which is a major component of social cognition. Given the absence of EI ability-based scales adapted to Chinese speakers, we translated the MSCEIT into a Traditional Chinese version (MSCEIT-TC) and validated this scale for use in schizophrenia studies. The specific aims were to validate the MSCEIT-TC, to develop a norm for the MSCEIT-TC, and use this norm to explore the EI performance of schizophrenic individuals. We included in our study seven hundred twenty-eight healthy controls and seventy-six individuals with schizophrenia. The results suggest that the MSCEIT-TC is reliable and valid when assessing EI. The results showed good discrimination and validity when comparing the two study groups. Impairment was the greatest for two branches Understanding and Managing Emotions, which implies that the deficits of schizophrenia individuals involve ToM (theory of mind) tasks. Deficits involving the negative scale of schizophrenia was related to impaired performance when the MSCEIT-TC was used (in branch 2, 3, 4, and the area Strategic). Our findings suggest that the MSCEIT-TC can be used for emotional studies in healthy Chinese and in clinical setting for investigating schizophrenic individuals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The SSQ model of schizophrenic prodromal unfolding revised: an analysis of its causal chains based on the language of directed graphs. (United States)

    van Kampen, D


    Except in broad outline, little is known about the most likely symptomatic trajectories in prodromal schizophrenia. The aim of this study is to delineate these pathways. Taking into account existing clinical knowledge, the causal relationships between the 12 prodrome scales of the Schizotypic Syndrome Questionnaire (SSQ) were examined in a general-population sample by applying the mathematical theory of directed graphs. Use was made of two discovery algorithms implemented in the Tetrad-4 program, as well as of the graphical DAGitty program to test whether a particular model holds. A promising model was selected that may describe the causal pathways in schizophrenic prodromal unfolding. Testing this model by means of DAGitty, it was shown that the minimal testable implications, listed as conditional independences, and the direct and total effects in the model, identified after correction for bias, were as hypothesized. For practical reasons, a simpler version of the resulting SSQ model, containing only its principal pathways, was provided. Although resembling an earlier model that was based on a series of LISREL analyses, the present model was believed to provide a more dependable description of schizophrenic prodromal unfolding, as it relies on methods that are less subject to the limitations involved in SEM. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Hippocampal temporal-parietal junction interaction in the production of psychotic symptoms: a framework for understanding the schizophrenic syndrome. (United States)

    Wible, Cynthia G


    A framework is described for understanding the schizophrenic syndrome at the brain systems level. It is hypothesized that over-activation of dynamic gesture and social perceptual processes in the temporal-parietal occipital junction (TPJ), posterior superior temporal sulcus (PSTS) and surrounding regions produce the syndrome (including positive and negative symptoms, their prevalence, prodromal signs, and cognitive deficits). Hippocampal system hyper-activity and atrophy have been consistently found in schizophrenia. Hippocampal activity is highly correlated with activity in the TPJ and may be a source of over-excitation of the TPJ and surrounding regions. Strong evidence for this comes from in-vivo recordings in humans during psychotic episodes. Many positive symptoms of schizophrenia can be reframed as the erroneous sense of a presence or other who is observing, acting, speaking, or controlling; these qualia are similar to those evoked during abnormal activation of the TPJ. The TPJ and PSTS play a key role in the perception (and production) of dynamic social, emotional, and attentional gestures for the self and others (e.g., body/face/eye gestures, audiovisual speech and prosody, and social attentional gestures such as eye gaze). The single cell representation of dynamic gestures is multimodal (auditory, visual, tactile), matching the predominant hallucinatory categories in schizophrenia. Inherent in the single cell perceptual signal of dynamic gesture representations is a computation of intention, agency, and anticipation or expectancy (for the self and others). Stimulation of the TPJ resulting in activation of the self representation has been shown to result a feeling of a presence or multiple presences (due to heautoscopy) and also bizarre tactile experiences. Neurons in the TPJ are also tuned, or biased to detect threat related emotions. Abnormal over-activation in this system could produce the conscious hallucination of a voice (audiovisual speech), a person

  15. The relationship between Counseling Psychology and Positive Psychology


    Vossler, Andreas; Steffen , Edith; Joseph, Stephen


    The aim of this chapter is to explore the relation between the professional specialty of counseling psychology and positive psychology. Following a brief historical overview of counseling psychology, we explore its theoretical convergence with positive psychology and examine how the ideas from positive psychology have been received by counseling psychologists. We argue that although counseling psychology has its roots in ideas that are consistent with positive psychology, the profession has d...

  16. Identity of psychology, identity and psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Nastran Ule


    Full Text Available The article deals with epistemic issues of modern psychology with the starting hypothesis being that scientific psychology must satisfy three main interests: scientific, practical and emancipatory interest. Particularly important is the emancipatory interest, which is based on the social reflection of scientific work and conclusions. Psychological knowledge involves not only neutral descriptions of facts, but also implicit rules, expectations regarding values or norms, and criticism of undesirable behavior. The traditional psychological model attempts to satisfy the scientific interest and partly practical interest, while avoiding emancipatory interest. But I believe modern socio-historical models of psychology to be significant precisely owing to the inclusion of emancipatory interest. The difference between these two models of psychology is most obvious in their perception of identity i.e. individuality. Conventional perceptions follow the logic of "possessive individualism" in which the individual is seen as an autonomous bearer and owner of his/her psychological states and processes. The conventional model of identity supports the modernist concept of the individual as being focused on his/her self or personal identity. Socio-historical models, on the other hand, see the individual as a being embedded in social relations and social interactions, and one who builds and expresses his/her individuality through the reflection on social interactions, discursive practices, and response to the hierarchy of power and social mechanisms of control. According to this model, identity evolves through a series of social constructions which are embodied in the individual and represent him/her in society. Identity thus becomes a notion that combines individuality and social context, subjectivation and objectivation of the individual, and historical and biographical time.



    Andy Lane


    DESCRIPTION The book introduces the undergraduate psychology student to both academic and professional aspects of Sport and Exercise Psychology. It uses up to date research evidence, established theory and a variety of activities that help the student consider and understand academic and professional aspects of this particular academic discipline. PURPOSE The book aims to provide the undergraduate psychology student with a structured introduction to the subject area and an insight into the th...

  18. Ethnographic Fieldwork in psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanggaard, Lene


    It is argued in the present article that ethnographic fieldwork can serve useful methodological ends within psychology and open the discipline to the cultural landscape of psychological phenomena in everyday life in social practices. Furthermore, a positive case is made for the soundness...... of ethnographic fieldwork. That is, rather than disputing the claim that qualitative methods can serve scientific ends, it is argued that ethnographic fieldwork is suitable for studying the constitution of psychological phenomena in social practices across time....

  19. Psychological Intervention of Murophobia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yihun, A; Anand, P; Abebe, F


    .... Especially in a country like Ethiopia, where awareness, orientation to mental health and its psychological treatment is undergoing its infancy on account of several reasons, the neurotic disorders...

  20. Center for Deployment Psychology (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Center for Deployment Psychology was developed to promote the education of psychologists and other behavioral health specialists about issues pertaining to the...

  1. Psychology in Japan. (United States)

    Imada, Hiroshi; Tanaka-Matsumi, Junko


    The purpose of this article is to provide information about Japan and its psychology in advance of the 31st International Congress of Psychology (ICP), to be held in Yokohama, Japan, in 2016. The article begins with the introduction of the Japanese Psychological Association (JPA), the hosting organization of the ICP 2016, and the Japanese Union of Psychological Associations consisting of 51 associations/societies, of which the JPA is a member. This is followed by a brief description of a history of psychology of Japan, with emphasis on the variation in our approach to psychology in three different periods, that is, the pre- and post-Pacific War periods, and the post-1960 period. Next, the international contributions of Japanese psychology/psychologists are discussed from the point of view of their visibility. Education and training in psychology in Japanese universities is discussed with a final positive remark about the long-awaited enactment of the Accredited Psychologist Law in September, 2015. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  2. Nonlinear dynamics in psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J. Guastello


    Full Text Available This article provides a survey of the applications of nonlinear dynamical systems theory to substantive problems encountered in the full scope of psychological science. Applications are organized into three topical areas – cognitive science, social and organizational psychology, and personality and clinical psychology. Both theoretical and empirical studies are considered with an emphasis on works that capture the broadest scope of issues that are of substantive interest to psychological theory. A budding literature on the implications of NDS principles in professional practice is reported also.

  3. Public Image of Counseling Psychology: What Introductory Psychology Textbooks Say. (United States)

    Dixon, David N.; Vrochopoulos, Sam; Burton, Jennifer


    Examines the adequacy of descriptions of counseling psychology and its professionals in introductory psychology textbooks compared to the descriptions of other applied areas of psychology. Results indicate that counseling psychology is less represented than industrial or organizational and clinical psychology and more represented than school…

  4. Positive Psychology: Considerations and Implications for Counseling Psychology (United States)

    Mollen, Debra; Ethington, Lanaya L.; Ridley, Charles R.


    Why has the specialty of counseling psychology been overlooked in the larger conversation about positive psychology? Is it reasonable that counseling psychology claims positive psychology as its own? What are some of the problems in defining "positive psychology," and how does the lack of consensus around operationalization thwart discourse on…

  5. Schizophrenic Energy Users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Maria Wael; Halgaard, Anne-Marie Rud; Rasmussen, Tove Arendt


      On the basis of qualitative interviews on 'Energibyen Frederikshavn' (Energy City Frederikshavn), the article reveals various rationales underlying modern consumers' often contradictory opinions and attitudes to climate change and energy consumption. It may seem hard to decide whether...... the interest in sustainable, alternative sources of energy is conditioned by the soaring price of oil or present threats of climate change. And does it really matter what the motivations are as long as behaviour is changed? The article will discuss the energy discourses produced by the people...

  6. The Schizophrenic Teacher. (United States)

    Medgyes, Peter


    To offset uncertainty about using the language they have to teach, nonnative teachers of English adopt either a deeply pessimistic or an aggressive attitude toward their work. The latter type is more common. These teachers would gain confidence by admitting that they are also students of the language. (Author/MSE)

  7. Religious Experience from a Neuro-Psychological View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Vakili


    Full Text Available The search for the basis of religious experience among neurological processes in the brain has resulted in a widespread debate within, as well as outside the academic world. The aim of this paper is to analyze to what extent a neuro-psychological theory could explain the phenomenon of  religious experience. To clarify what the neuro-psychological studies of  the present paper mean by the concept of  religious experience, the concept has been divided into three different types: The Erlebnis or RErl type, the Erfahrung or RErf type and the ideological type of religious experience or RIT type. Furthermore, the present paper is focused on the work of neuro-psychologist M. A. Persinger [1997, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1987, 1985, and 1984]. In his studies, Persinger indicates that mystical experience (RErl has its seat in the right hemisphere of the human brain, whereas (religious ideology (RIT is related to the left hemisphere. Consequently, the hemisphere in which the (religious experience is taking place seems to label the type of experience. Persinger, interested in the powerful effects of religious experience (of the RErf type on human beings, asserts that if we could understand the neuro-cognitive processes involved in experiencing religiously, such processes might be copied for clinical use in order to improve psychiatric therapy for curing depression. Thus, Persinger studied and compared people practicing religious meditation with people who did not, and also studied the results of PET scanning on the experiences of schizophrenic and epileptic patients. PET scanning measures the metabolic activity in the hemispheres, ranging it on a scale from under normal to over normal activity. This paper will account for the relevance of comparing these two apparently different studies and for the problem arising the experience of pain because, neurologically, pain, like religious experience,is said to be caused by processes in the human brain.

  8. Discursive social psychology now. (United States)

    Parker, Ian


    This paper reviews the progress of discourse-analytic approaches in social psychology from the late 1980s to the present day, with a particular focus on the way conceptual and methodological contributions from within the Discourse and Rhetoric Group at Loughborough University have negotiated a positive role for innovative studies of language in the discipline of psychology. Social psychology has become a key site for the accumulation of a series of empirical studies that have seen the flourishing of a distinctive form of 'discursive social psychology' that has succeeded in moving from the margins of the discipline to a more accepted position. The paper traces this trajectory of discourse analysis from the limits to the centre of social psychology attending to five features that now characterise its contribution to psychology; an emphasis on everyday conversation, a concern with interpersonal interaction, explication of formal sequences; an insistence on empirical claims; and fidelity to the ethos of its host discipline. The paper concludes with some comments on the wider context of this new approach inside psychology today. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  9. Psychologism and Instructional Technology (United States)

    Gur, Bekir S.; Wiley, David A.


    Little of the work in critical and hermeneutical psychology has been linked to instructional technology (IT). This article provides a discussion in order to fill the gap in this direction. The article presents a brief genealogy of American IT in relation to the influence of psychology. It also provides a critical and hermeneutical framework for…

  10. Simulation and psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dieckmann, Peter; Krage, Ralf


    Psychology is relevant for improving the use of simulation in anesthesiology, as it allows us to describe, explain and optimize the interactions of learners and instructors as well as the design of simulation scenarios and debriefings. Much psychological expertise is not used for simulation...

  11. European Psychology Map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The Institute for Psychology Information (ZPID compiled an extensive list of European psycho-logical organizations, comprised of university departments, research institutions, professional associa-tions and publishing houses. The list is available on the ZPID website, together with a web mapping applet that indicates the exact geographical location of the organizations.

  12. Alchemical crossings in Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helton Marculino de Souza


    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to discuss the contributions of Alchemy to the field of Psychology, especially for Analytical Psychology as a proposal of an Alchemical Psychology, whose representatives highlighted here are Carl Gustav Jung and James Hillman. It is understood that the knowledge of Alchemy have been applied in various areas such as metallurgy, chemistry, philosophy, and it has a possible application in the field of Psychology. In this sense, it is observed that if to Jung the concepts of Alchemy interlace connections with the knowledge proposed by Analytical Psychology, on the other hand Hillman adopts this knowledge to develop a strategy for use in the field of psychotherapy, proposing to think alchemically. Thus, for this second author in the exercise of Psychology, the meetings with the patient go beyond the application of theories, constituting as a “do-soul” in the office. This is, more than translating symbols, it is proposed to “stay with the image”, with an attention from both the patient and the psychologist for that the words expressed in this dialogue does not become “wordthings” or be reduced to a unique meaning that tends to discard the image. It is hoped, through this work, to promote knowledge of the professionals about the Analytical Psychology and Alchemy Psychology in their connections with Alchemy and its reverberations in the field of psychotherapy in these approaches.

  13. Industrial Psychology in France (United States)

    de Montmollin, Maurice


    The current status of French industrial psychology is evaluated. Within the social and economic context of contemporary France, varying ideologies and scarce resources have created a gap between applied and academic industrial psychology. Personnel practices and systems and organizational research are noted. (Editor)

  14. Virtual Reality in Psychology (United States)

    Foreman, Nigel


    The benefits of using virtual environments (VEs) in psychology arise from the fact that movements in virtual space, and accompanying perceptual changes, are treated by the brain in much the same way as those in equivalent real space. The research benefits of using VEs, in areas of psychology such as spatial learning and cognition, include…

  15. Editorial overview: Evolutionary psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gangestad, S.W.; Tybur, J.M.


    Functional approaches in psychology - which ask what behavior is good for - are almost as old as scientific psychology itself. Yet sophisticated, generative functional theories were not possible until developments in evolutionary biology in the mid-20th century. Arising in the last three decades,

  16. Genetics and Developmental Psychology (United States)

    Plomin, Robert


    One of the major changes in developmental psychology during the past 50 years has been the acceptance of the important role of nature (genetics) as well as nurture (environment). Past research consisting of twin and adoption studies has shown that genetic influence is substantial for most domains of developmental psychology. Present research…

  17. Discursive and scientific psychology. (United States)

    Edwards, Derek


    I begin with the origins of Loughborough University's Discourse and Rhetoric Group (DARG), and in particular discursive psychology (DP). Rather than attempting to summarize DP, versions of which are plentiful, the article attempts to clarify various relationships and tensions between DP and other kinds of social psychology, particularly experimental. Common sense psychology is defined as DP's topic rather than rival; the aim is to study how people deploy everyday psychological notions and manage psychological business within talk and text, and what they accomplish by such deployments, rather than trying, as experimental psychology is often characterized as doing, to replace it all with something purportedly better. Claims for DP being particularly interpretative rather than scientific are rejected, by appeal to an 'interpretative gap' between phenomena, data, analysis, and conclusions that all research must manage, that gap being often much larger in quantitative and experimental work. The importance of pursuing causal explanations of psychological phenomena is questioned, and the importance asserted, of discovering, through rigorous empirical and conceptual analysis, the normative bases of human conduct and accountability. ©2012 The British Psychological Society.

  18. [Structuralistic and meta-psychological approaches to ambivalence in schizophrenia]. (United States)

    Sumida, Kyoko; Tsuda, Hitoshi


    of a daily behavior as its own praxis, such indecisiveness thus entails existential conflict. The alternatives of choice appear before them as a tollgate to the world. Wishing admission to the world, they choose the thing that they think "good", but which later turns out to be "bad". These consequences sometimes occur in their inner conflicts and sometimes in their paranoidhallucinatory experiences. We have observed that in these processes, there is an inversion between "good and bad", and "bad" predominates, driving patients to despair. Rethinking E. Bleuler's conception of the ambivalence of schizophrenia, we have found that it is accessible to structuralistic and meta-psychological interpretations. From the viewpoint of linguistic semiology, ambivalence can be considered as a disorder of exclusive differentiation in the associative system resulting from the appearance of antithetical meanings, a phenomenon that is also common in primal words and children's thinking. In the context of psycho-analysis, it is suggested that the dominance of the negative side in ambivalence may be caused by death instinct. These interpretations are consistent with both the philosophical considerations and the clinical observations introduced above, but the problem of schizophrenic specificity is still opened beside the affinity between philosophical conflict and schizophrenic ambivalence. References to ethical and philosophical thinking shed light on the sources of the dichotomous existential conflict and the characteristic inversion between "good and bad" that schizophrenic patients experience. Descriptions of the root of ambivalence can be traced back to ancient times. In the Ecclesiastes of the Apocrypha, Jesus, son of Sirach, elucidates the fundamental ambivalence of will, teaching that the subject has the power of its own choice: at its most extreme, the choice between life and death. In the modern age, L. Wittgenstein offers a strict description of this ambivalence in his

  19. Altered Expression Profile of IgLON Family of Neural Cell Adhesion Molecules in the Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex of Schizophrenic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Karis


    Full Text Available Neural adhesion proteins are crucial in the development and maintenance of functional neural connectivity. Growing evidence suggests that the IgLON family of neural adhesion molecules LSAMP, NTM, NEGR1, and OPCML are important candidates in forming the susceptibility to schizophrenia (SCZ. IgLON proteins have been shown to be involved in neurite outgrowth, synaptic plasticity and neuronal connectivity, all of which have been shown to be altered in the brains of patients with the diagnosis of schizophrenia. Here we optimized custom 5′-isoform-specific TaqMan gene-expression analysis for the transcripts of human IgLON genes to study the expression of IgLONs in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC of schizophrenic patients (n = 36 and control subjects (n = 36. Uniform 5′-region and a single promoter was confirmed for the human NEGR1 gene by in silico analysis. IgLON5, a recently described family member, was also included in the study. We detected significantly elevated levels of the NEGR1 transcript (1.33-fold increase and the NTM 1b isoform transcript (1.47-fold increase in the DLPFC of schizophrenia patients compared to healthy controls. Consequent protein analysis performed in male subjects confirmed the increase in NEGR1 protein content both in patients with the paranoid subtype and in patients with other subtypes. In-group analysis of patients revealed that lower expression of certain IgLON transcripts, mostly LSAMP 1a and 1b, could be related with concurrent depressive endophenotype in schizophrenic patients. Additionally, our study cohort provides further evidence that cannabis use may be a relevant risk factor associated with suicidal behaviors in psychotic patients. In conclusion, we provide clinical evidence of increased expression levels of particular IgLON family members in the DLPFC of schizophrenic patients. We propose that alterations in the expression profile of IgLON neural adhesion molecules are associated with brain

  20. Theorising context in psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre


    This article aims to address the issue of what context is and how it can be incorporated in psychological theory by using the case study of creativity research. It starts from a basic definition of context as the spatiotemporal continuum that, together with psychological phenomena, constitutes...... a totality and should be considered a single, integrated whole. As such, contexts are neither subjective, existing only in perception, nor are they a set of variables external to the person, but participate directly in the processes under study in psychology. We can therefore distinguish between “flat......” theorising, one-dimensional and overconcerned with intra-psychological factors, and “3-D” models trying to articulate the psychological, the spatial (sociomaterial), and the temporal. These categories are illustrated by different theoretical approaches to creativity. It is argued here that a cultural...

  1. PSYCHOLOGY. Estimating the reproducibility of psychological science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krause, Robert Wilhelm; Scholz, Sabine; van Rijn, Hedderik; Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan


    Reproducibility is a defining feature of science, but the extent to which it characterizes current research is unknown. We conducted replications of 100 experimental and correlational studies published in three psychology journals using high-powered designs and original materials when available.

  2. Four Social Psychological Lenses for Developmental Psychology (United States)

    Zittoun, Tania; Perret-Clermont, Anne-Nelly


    How can the advances of social and developmental psychology be integrated? This conceptual paper proposes to examine four basic theoretical models of social situations through which learning and development have been observed in the post-piagetian tradition: the psychosocial triangle, the frame, models of transfer and transitions, and models…

  3. Impact of an Electronic Cigarette on Smoking Reduction and Cessation in Schizophrenic Smokers: A Prospective 12-Month Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Caponnetto


    schizophrenia levels were measured at each visit. Smoking reduction and abstinence rates were calculated. Adverse events were also reviewed. Results: Sustained 50% reduction in the number of cig/day at week-52 was shown in 7/14 (50% participants; their median of 30 cig/day decreasing significantly to 15 cig/day (p = 0.018. Sustained smoking abstinence at week-52 was observed in 2/14 (14.3% participants. Combined sustained 50% reduction and smoking abstinence was shown in 9/14 (64.3% participants. Nausea was observed in 2/14 (14.4% of participants, throat irritation in 2/14 (14.4% of participants, headache in 2/14 (14.4% of participants , and dry cough in 4/14 (28.6% of participants. However, these adverse events diminished substantially by week-24. Overall, one to two cartridges/day were used throughout the study. Positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia are not increased after smoking reduction/cessation in patients using e-cigarettes. Conclusions: We have shown for the first time that the use of e-cigarette substantially decreased cigarette consumption without causing significant side effects in chronic schizophrenic patients who smoke not intending to quit. This was achieved without negative impacts on the symptoms of schizophrenia as assessed by SAPS and SANS symptoms scales.

  4. Psychological distress: concept analysis. (United States)

    Ridner, Sheila H


    The term 'distress' is frequently used in nursing literature to describe patient discomfort related to signs and symptoms of acute or chronic illness, pre- or post-treatment anxiety or compromised status of fetuses or the respiratory system. 'Psychological distress' may more accurately describe the patient condition to which nurses respond than does the term 'distress'. Psychological distress is seldom defined as a distinct concept and is often embedded in the context of strain, stress and distress. This creates confusion for nurses attempting to manage the care of people experiencing psychological distress. This paper is a concept analysis of psychological distress based on Walker and Avant's (1995) criteria that identifies the attributes, antecedents, and consequences of psychological distress based upon the findings of the literature review. In addition, empirical references are identified and constructed cases presented. A literature search was conducted using MEDLINE, CINAHL, Ovid, PsychINFO, and Cancer Lit databases over the last 50 years. The purposes of this concept analysis were: (1) to establish the concept of psychological distress as a clear and distinct concept, separate from strain, stress and distress, and (2) to provide nurses with a base of knowledge from which to plan effective clinical interventions. Content analysis of the literature revealed that, although used frequently in health care literature, the origin of the concept of psychological distress has not been clearly articulated and is ill-defined. Psychological distress is a serious problem faced by many of the people whom nurses encounter on a daily basis. An understanding of the concept of psychological distress will help nurses ameliorate this problem in patients. Nursing research related to the exploration of psychological distress is also needed.

  5. [Specifics of cognitive behavioral therapy in schizophrenia. Integrated program of psychological therapy]. (United States)

    Konen, A; Neis, L; Hodel, B; Brenner, H D


    According to the authors, information processing disorders contribute essentially to the vulnerability of the schizophrenic patient. Attentional/perceptual and cognitive disorders exert a pervasive influence on more complex levels of overt behavior in schizophrenia. Conversely, behavioral deficits influence cognitive functioning as well. Psychosocial rehabilitation of patients with schizophrenia must therefore address the impact of disordered attentional/perceptual and conceptual processes and their integrating organization on behavior as well as the effects of behavioral dysfunctions on cognition. The Integrated Psychological Treatment Program (IPT) for schizophrenic patients provides means of addressing these interactions. The designation "integrated" implies that the treatment is directed at cognitive disorders as well as behavioral/social deficits by using highly structured interventions, and is carried out with "reality-oriented" material. This treatment approach has been developed by Brenner and al., since 1976. The original IPT includes five subprograms: Cognitive Differentiation, Social Perception, Verbal Communication, Social Skills and Interpersonal Problem Solving. Patients first work on improving disordered basic cognitive functions in the Cognitive Differentiation subprogram. Exercises are directed at impairments in attentional/perceptual and conceptual processes. Mastery of this subprogram leads to the Social Perception subprogram, which aims at disturbances in processes of stimulus discrimination and interpretation on perceiving and assessing social interactions. The Verbal Communication subprogram follows successful completion of the previous subprograms and trains associative-semantic processes as well as basic skills necessary for conversation. In the Social Skills subprogram, interpersonal behaviors and self-instructions required for gaining instrumental and emotional aims are taught.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. [Clinical-chemical studies in schizophrenic out-patients under neuroleptic long-term treatment with particular consideration of the hepatic metabolism (author's transl)]. (United States)

    Gonçalves, N; Grüneberg, F


    A series of clinical-chemical tests was conducted in 68 schizophrenic out-patients under long-term neuroleptic medication, with particular consideration of the hepatic metabolism, i.e.: Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, alpha 1-glycoprotein, ceruloplasmin, fibrinogen, GPT, GOT, gamma-GT, total protein and serum-protein-electrophoresis. Furthermore, the glucose tolerance tests was carried out. In 44% of the patients an increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate and positive correlations with increased fibrinogen values were found. Increased gamma-GT-values were proven in 33% of the patients; they correlated positively with the increased GPT-and/or GOT-values as well as with pathological glucose tolerance values. Overweight of more than 10 kilos was found in 46% of the patients. A significant correlation between overweight and pathological glucose tolerance values existed. The results were interpreted as consequence of a light fatty liver.

  7. [A psychopathological study on three-dimensional computer graphics (3DCGs): special reference to pictures made by a schizophrenic patient before and after the onset]. (United States)

    Ashizawa, Yuko; Tachikawa, Hirokazu; Hori, Masashi; Hori, Takafumi; Mizukami, Katsuyoshi; Asada, Takashi


    A patient with catatonic type schizophrenia drawing 3-dimensional computer graphics (3DCGs) before and after the onset is reported. His 3DCGs are discussed from the view of psychopathology. A 21-year-old male was admitted to our hospital. He was an art student. For three months before admission, he had been absorbed in drawing 3DCGs. When he was asked to draw handmade pictures by his teacher, he experienced a bizarre mood and took an overdose of aspirin. At the time of admission, he was in a stupor state, and was diagnosed with catatonic type schizophrenia. After admission, he exhibited excitement and disorganized speech. These symptoms disappeared after administration of neuroleptics, and he was discharged. The 3DCGs he drew before and after the onset revealed several special characteristics. First, the compositions of his pictures were too geometric and too precise. Secondly, the themes of his pictures changed from romantic before the onset to symbolic after it, and the styles changed from realistic to abstractive after the onset. Finally, histograms of the 3DCGs revealed many colors before onset, which converged to simple colors after. Therefore, it was suggested that the latent pathological process at the beginning of schizophrenia might be reflected in his 3DCGs. 3DCGs are a new type of fine art. They can express beautiful and cool images more simply than handmade pictures. Due to these features, artists can create images of their innerworld, with less effort and talent than picture drawings, by computer assistance. This case suggests that the geometric working space, change-free viewpoints, and computer assistance, which are characteristics of the methods in making 3DCGs may be suitable for schizophrenic artists to create images of their innerworld. However, being absorbed in making 3DCGs could also promote the latent schizophrenic process to the onset.

  8. Use of the terms "schizophrenia" and "schizophrenic" in the South Korean news media: a content analysis of newspapers and news programs in the last 10 years. (United States)

    Park, Jun-Hyun; Choi, Young-Min; Kim, Bongseog; Lee, Dong-Woo; Gim, Min-Sook


    In this study, we explored the meaning attributed to the words "jungshinbunyeolbyung" (schizophrenia) and "jungshinbunyeol" (schizophrenic) in South Korean newspapers and news programs in the last 10 years. We screened the websites of three national newspapers and the broadcasts of three nationwide television news programs from January 1, 2001, to December 31, 2010. We classified a total of 490 articles and 257 news segments by category and quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed them. The articles and news segments were assigned to one of the following categories based on their use of the term "schizophrenia": 1) negative, 2) neutral or positive, 3) incidental, and 4) metaphorical. The negative viewpoint accounted for 349 incidences (46.7%), while the neutral and positive viewpoints included 225 incidences (30.1%). Incidental uses accounted for 95 incidences (12.7%), and metaphorical uses accounted for 78 incidences (10.4%). The majority of the negative uses focused on violence or dangers posed by patients (137 mentions, 37.8%), while the metaphorical uses mainly focused on the idea of splitting (51 mentions, or 65%). This study showed that the South Korean news media do not provide balanced information about schizophrenia to the public. This study also showed that no significant move has been made toward a more positive use of the term since a previous study was conducted on the subject. Although the term schizophrenia has given way to "attunement disorder," it will be difficult to establish the new term as the standard if the South Korean media continue to use the term "schizophrenic symptom." Even though the term has been changed, guidelines are necessary to encourage the mass media to provide balanced articles and reduce prejudice.

  9. The psychological imagination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Tateo

    Full Text Available Abstract: The commentary presents an epistemological reflection about Dialogical Self theory. First, the theoretical issues of DS about the relationship between individuality, alterity and society are discussed, elaborating on the articles of this special issue. Then, it is presented the argument of psychologist's ontological fallacy, that is the attitude to moving from the study of processes to the study of psychological entities. Finally a development toward new research directions is proposed, focusing on the study of higher psychological functions and processes, taking into account complex symbolic products of human activity and developing psychological imagination.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Lane


    Full Text Available DESCRIPTION The book introduces the undergraduate psychology student to both academic and professional aspects of Sport and Exercise Psychology. It uses up to date research evidence, established theory and a variety of activities that help the student consider and understand academic and professional aspects of this particular academic discipline. PURPOSE The book aims to provide the undergraduate psychology student with a structured introduction to the subject area and an insight into the theoretical evidence and practical suggestions that underpin what a Sport and Exercise psychologist does. The book also aims to support one term or one semester courses in Sport and Exercise Psychology. It is also appropriate for Masters level courses. FEATURES The book begins with a chapter on applied sports psychology to give the reader an insight into the domain of sport psychology, providing an overview of the techniques that could be used. The next three chapters focus on mood, anxiety and self confidence, which influence performance. This leads on to four chapters that focus on managing psychological states. There is also a chapter on leadership which interestingly includes leadership development in coaches and in athletes. Two chapters focus on the effects of exercise on psychological states, providing a balance between the benefits and potential drawbacks. The final chapter examines the issue of placebo effects. Throughout each chapter there are useful activities than can help the reader's understanding of practical and theoretical issues. These also have practical implications for the work of a Sport and Exercise Psychologist. Key ethical issues are raised on a regular basis throughout the text. The book offers an excellent blend of theory and practical suggestions which are critically discussed thus giving valuable insights regarding the research process and applied practice which is often lacking in the more well known standard textbooks for Sport

  11. Ecological psychology and social psychology: continuing discussion. (United States)

    Charles, Eric P


    What form would an ideal merger of ecological and social psychology take? Is that ideal attainable? Many researchers and theorists are working to answer these questions. Charles (2009, 2011a) offered insights from E. B. Holt, one of James J. Gibson's mentors, who argued that minds-mental kinds, processes, states, etc.-are observable aspects of the environment. Phrasing that in Ecological terms, the minds of other organisms are specified in the structure of ambient energy extended over time and space; they are directly perceivable by a properly attuned organism. Ecological Psychology enhances Holt's story, by brining to the table a sophisticated theory of direct perception; Holt enhances the Ecological story by brining to the table a sophisticated theory about the nature of minds. The two combine to form the long-sought ideal merger. Thus, I claimed, Ecological Psychology will either rediscover its roots, or go through the trouble of re-creating them. This paper further develops those ideas, by presenting a simpler version of the argument, suggesting easy ways of dismissing that argument, and addressing the concerns expressed by Castro and Lafuente (2011).

  12. PTSD and Psychological Debriefing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mahmoud Mirzamani


    Full Text Available Following a personal, community or national crisis or disaster there is a need to provide some form of early intervention and crisis support. The essential components of successful early interventions include planning, education, training and support for those affected. The goal of all early interventions should be to maximize the likelihood of a positive mental health outcome using the person’s own adaptive coping mechanisms and support structures. Psychological debriefing (PD has been described as an intervention conducted by trained professionals shortly after a catastrophe, allowing victims to talk about their experience and receive information on “normal” types of reactions to such an event. Psychological debriefing has been developed and has been at the centre of significant levels of controversy during the past 15 years. Talking through traumatic or stressful events may help the psychological recovery of those who have suffered psychological insults.

  13. Operational Psychology Perspective (United States)

    Holland, Al


    This slide presentation reviews the history of long duration spaceflight, and the changes in the International Space Station crew and the effect that this has had on the psychology of astronaut selection and training.

  14. Democracy and Cultural Psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steffen Moltrup Ernø


    This paper discusses a theme touched upon in Robert Innis’s article on cultural psych- ology and philosophy, namely how we, within cultural psychology, seem to be undecided about how best to provide value on a societal level. It is discussed how psychology has provided us with several valuable...... tools for examining and understanding our own exist- ence, despite the fact that it is also a field that has seemed to be in one crisis after another since its inception. It is argued that cultural psychology is an intellectual tech- nology that allows us to peek under the hood of society, which...... is of utmost importance in today’s society, where democratic ideals are under severe pressure. Corporations, industries, and privileged individuals exercise increased control over political processes, having created obscure systems by which they operate. It is concluded that cultural psychology needs to find...

  15. Goals and Psychological Accounting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander Karl; Nafziger, Julia

    We model how people formulate and evaluate goals to overcome self-control problems. People often attempt to regulate their behavior by evaluating goal-related outcomes separately (in narrow psychological accounts) rather than jointly (in a broad account). To explain this evidence, our theory...... of endogenous narrow or broad psychological accounts combines insights from the literatures on goals and mental accounting with models of expectations-based reference-dependent preferences. By formulating goals the individual creates expectations that induce reference points for task outcomes. These goal......-induced reference points make substandard performance psychologically painful and motivate the individual to stick to his goals. How strong the commitment to goals is depends on the type of psychological account. We provide conditions when it is optimal to evaluate goals in narrow accounts. The key intuition...

  16. Discursive psychology and feminism. (United States)

    Weatherall, Ann


    This appraisal highlights the productive engagement between feminism and discursive psychology (DP). It discusses some of the confluence and tensions between DP and feminism. The two share critical perspectives on science and psychology, a concern with prejudice, and have ideas in common about the constructed nature of social categories, such as gender. One difficulty arises from the relativism associated with the post-structural theoretical underpinnings of DP, which can be understood as politically paralyzing. Another problem comes from an endorsement of a conversation analytic mentality, where identity categories such as gender can only be legitimately used in an analysis when participants' orient to their relevance. The high-profile debates and literature in DP shows it has made a notable contribution to social psychology and its influence can also be found in other areas. A particular influence of DP highlighted in the present appraisal is on gender and language research. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  17. Globalization, culture and psychology. (United States)

    Melluish, Steve


    This article outlines the cultural and psychological effects of globalization. It looks at the impact of globalization on identity; ideas of privacy and intimacy; the way we understand and perceive psychological distress; and the development of the profession of psychology around the world. The article takes a critical perspective on globalization, seeing it as aligned with the spread of neoliberal capitalism, a tendency towards cultural homogenization, the imposition of dominant 'global north' ideas and the resultant growing inequalities in health and well-being. However, it also argues that the increased interconnectedness created by globalization allows for greater acknowledgement of our common humanity and for collective efforts to be developed to tackle what are increasingly global problems. This requires the development of more nuanced understandings of cultural differences and of indigenous psychologies.

  18. Diet and psychological health. (United States)

    Miller, M


    This article reviews research that suggests a relationship between diet and psychological symptoms. Mind-body dualism (as it relates to clinical practice) and the limited role of nutrition in mainstream biomedical training and treatment are discussed as background issues. Two areas of inquiry that have generated relevant research findings in this area are reviewed: (1) orthomolecular theory and vitamin deficiencies, and (2) clinical ecology/environmental medicine theory and the impact of "food allergies." Although clinical case reports and promising research findings have been reported, the impact of diet on psychological health is neither widely accepted nor integrated into mental health treatment methods. Ongoing research findings in brain biochemistry and psychoneuroimmunology point to communication pathways that can provide a clearer understanding of the links between nutritional intake, central nervous system and immune function, and psychological health status. These findings may lead to greater acceptance of dietary treatment approaches among health practitioners addressing psychological disorders.

  19. Psychological reactance theory (3)


    Fukada, Hiromi


    The purpose of this paper was to describe psychological reactance theory in detail and discuss and refine the theory. The paper consists of following two parts. 9. Effects of reactance 10. Attitudinal freedoms


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Giorgiana GRAMA


    Full Text Available The psychological contract became known as a research paradigm within corporate research, providing a broad framework which explains the employee-company relations. Despite all this, there are still many debates on the concept and a series of criticism were expressed that led to the necessity of some more rigorous theoretical and empirical analysis. The psychological contract refers to the unwritten, implicit expectations that employees have from the company and vice versa; it is that which defines the things the employee expects from the employer. Consequently, each of the parties involved in the contract may have different perceptions on these commitments and obligations. Thus the psychological contract may be regarded as an exchange relation between the employer and the employee. Breaking the psychological contract affects the performance, the morale, and the motivation of the staff in a negative manner. The information presented in this paper is intended to contribute to the theoretical and methodological development of the concept.

  1. Internet research in psychology. (United States)

    Gosling, Samuel D; Mason, Winter


    Today the Internet plays a role in the lives of nearly 40% of the world's population, and it is becoming increasingly entwined in daily life. This growing presence is transforming psychological science in terms of the topics studied and the methods used. We provide an overview of the literature, considering three broad domains of research: translational (implementing traditional methods online; e.g., surveys), phenomenological (topics spawned or mediated by the Internet; e.g., cyberbullying), and novel (new ways to study existing topics; e.g., rumors). We discuss issues (e.g., sampling, ethics) that arise when doing research online and point to emerging opportunities (e.g., smartphone sensing). Psychological research on the Internet comes with new challenges, but the opportunities far outweigh the costs. By integrating the Internet, psychological research has the ability to reach large, diverse samples and collect data on actual behaviors, which will ultimately increase the impact of psychological research on society.

  2. Psychological constraints on egalitarianism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasperbauer, Tyler Joshua


    Debates over egalitarianism for the most part are not concerned with constraints on achieving an egalitarian society, beyond discussions of the deficiencies of egalitarian theory itself. This paper looks beyond objections to egalitarianism as such and investigates the relevant psychological...... philosophy, which aim to construct moral goals with current social and political constraints in mind, to argue that human psychology must be part of a non-ideal theory of egalitarianism. The descriptive thesis holds that the most fundamental psychological challenge to egalitarian ideals comes from what...... processes motivating people to resist various aspects of egalitarianism. I argue for two theses, one normative and one descriptive. The normative thesis holds that egalitarians must take psychological constraints into account when constructing egalitarian ideals. I draw from non-ideal theories in political...

  3. Poverty and psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poluektova, Olga V.; Efremova, Maria V.; Breugelmans, S.M.


    This paper presents a study on the association between dimensions of poverty (income, subjective socioeconomic status, deprivation, and socioeconomic status in childhood) and individual psychological characteristics. In this study, our goal was to determine: 1) the differences in individual

  4. The Developing Transpersonnel Psychology


    Prabowo, Hendro


    The progress of transpersonal psychology is related to the other science. The most higher potention in understanding transpersonal psychology is in consciousness level. In Islam, it has been called as qolbu and fitrah, in Christian it has been called as spirit, and in Hindu it has been called as atman. There is no differences in the terminology of transpersonal and spiritual. The connection condition that makes us related one to another can be explained also in quantum phsysics. This paper wa...





    An historical analysis about the evolution of health psychology in Colombia is made, taking as starting point someinvestigations carried out in the field of the behavioral medicine in the decade of the 70’s, and concluding with thedescription of 25 investigation groups that right now exist in many universities of the country, which carry out researchactivities in psychology and health. It is underlined that the development of this investigation field and practice inpsychology have been bound ...

  6. Integrative Psychology: the Return to the Subject of Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir V. Kozlov


    Full Text Available The article analyzes the basic paradigms of psychology and put forward the thesis of the expansion of the subject area of psychology in the course of historical development, and describes the main features of integrative psychology. Highlighted in the article the new paradigm of psychology (transpersonal, communicative, integrative, make it possible to trace a vector of development of modern psychology as a multidimensional communicative environment that has intention to make a perusal of psychic reality.

  7. Integrative psychology: the return to the subject of psychology


    Kozlov, Vladimir


    The article analyzes the basic paradigms of psychology and put forward the thesis of the expansion of the subject area of psychology in the course of historical development, and describes the main features of integrative psychology. Highlighted in the article the new paradigm of psychology (transpersonal, communicative, integrative), make it possible to trace a vector of development of modern psychology as a multidimensional communicative environment that has intention to make a perusal of ps...

  8. Psychological Literacy: A Multifaceted Perspective (United States)

    Hulme, Julie A.; Skinner, Rebecca; Worsnop, Francesca; Collins, Elizabeth; Banyard, Philip; Kitching, Helen J.; Watt, Roger; Goodson, Simon


    The concept of psychological literacy has grown in importance within psychology education at all levels, in the UK and globally, in recent years. Increasingly, psychology educators and policy makers are seeking to emphasise the relevance and usefulness of psychology within everyday life, within the workplace, and as an element of global…

  9. Introducing Positive Psychology to SLA (United States)

    MacIntyre, Peter D.; Mercer, Sarah


    Positive psychology is a rapidly expanding subfield in psychology that has important implications for the field of second language acquisition (SLA). This paper introduces positive psychology to the study of language by describing its key tenets. The potential contributions of positive psychology are contextualized with reference to prior work,…

  10. Perspectives on Computerized Psychological Assessment. (United States)

    Butcher, James N.


    Psychological assessment, a subspecialty of psychology has served as one of the earliest proving grounds of automated technology. This Special Series highlights some of the advances in computerized psychological assessment methods and discusses some of the lingering issues and contemporary problems with automated psychological assessment…

  11. The professionalization of psychology within the apartheid state 1948-1978. (United States)

    Laurenson, Helen; Swartz, Sally


    When the National Party came to power in South Africa in 1948 it inherited an ageing colonial psychiatric system underpinned by British-based mental health legislation promulgated in 1916. This situation remained substantially unchanged until the late 1960s, despite the apartheid government's far-reaching attempts to restructure other aspects of the social landscape. The 1966 assassination of South Africa's prime minister by a schizophrenic parliamentary messenger led directly to a series of commissions of enquiry into the management of mental health services, followed by new mental health legislation in 1973 and the compulsory registration of clinical psychologists. The increasing professionalization of psychology, and the apartheid state's policy in relation to the profession, are considered in the light of local and international influences. Unlike the Nazi and Soviet governments, the apartheid state did not seek to create a new psychology and psychiatry in its own image but was instead motivated by a desire to emulate Western models and to identify and control the dangerous individual.

  12. [Ibn Sina--psychology and psychological disorders]. (United States)

    Cerić, I; Mehić-Basara, N


    Ebu Ali Husein Ibn Ali Ibn Sina (or Avicenna) was primarily a philosopher with amusing knowledge, who dealt in all aspects of art of medicine, astronomer, poet, musician and psychologist. This giant with an encyclopedic knowledge has dealt in almost all scientific branches or praxis with the great success. Numerous statements of his have been cornerstone of many sciences for centuries; and some of them are (in the era of computers and Internet) still current. The best known treatise on medicine of his is El-Kanun, consisting of five volumes, wherein all medical achievements (including psychology, psychiatry and neurology) of that period were described clearly. In his psychology, Ibn Sina (Avicenna) analyses the essence of human soul, mind, psychical streams, intellectum, dreams and prophecy, man's desires etc. in details. It is unnecessary to point out how much these items are actual in the contemporary psychology. Ibn al-Nefis has described systematically the symptoms and recovery of "head sick" (including headaches, cerebral sick like cranitis, letargy, coma, demency, melancholy, insomnia, nightmares, epilepsy, appoplexy, paralysis, spasm and many others) in his Mujez al-Kanun, that is synopsis of Ibn Sina Kanun. We need much time to see magnificance of this philosopher, that is best known as the great one among the physicians. His writings could be found in whole Bosnia, but there were many few that would study him and his works. It is out task to enable the future generations not only to know those works exist, but, also, to realize the essence of this marvelous genius; because there are very few people that can be compared to him.

  13. The Lack of Representation of Educational Psychology and School Psychology in Introductory Psychology Textbooks (United States)

    Lucas, Jennifer L.; Blazek, Melissa A.; Raley, Amber B.; Washington, Christi


    The first goal of this study was to look at the representation of educational and school psychology in introductory psychology textbooks. Research into the representation of other sub-fields of psychology has been conducted but no research has looked specifically at educational or school psychology. The second goal was to compare the…

  14. Soviet psychology and psychophysiology. (United States)



    Pavlov's experiments, begun long before the revolution, have always been generously supported by the Soviet state. However, their far-reaching ontological and methodological implication gained an official and commanding position to Soviet biomedical and psychosocial (as distinct from socioeconomic) sciences only in 1950 with the Resolution of the 28 June-4 July Joint Pavlovian Session of the Soviet Academy of Sciences and Academy of Medical Sciences. In the biomedical sciences, present-day Soviet Pavlovianism may best be conceived of as (i) a doctrine of nervism (a Russian term)-the ubiquity of neural control of bodily reactions (neural, neurosomatic, neurovisceral, and neurohumoral) and (ii) a doctrine of what might be called concomitantism (my term )-the ready and radical modification of these reactions by concomitant reactions; or, viewed more generally and somewhat differently, as (iii) a far-reaching physicalistic psychosomaticism or, rather, a neuroviscerosomaticism. Psychophysiology-or higher nervous activity-is the key discipline here. With scores of research institutes, it is indeed a very well-established, wide-scoped, and faradvanced faradvanced science that, in both present achievements and future capabilities, is a challenge to American and Western equivalents. On the other hand, in the psychosocial sciences and the key discipline of psychology proper, unmitigated Pavlovian physicalism and objectivism is met head on by (i) the unbending postulate of dialectical materialism of "the specific emergent efficacy of consciousness and subjective conscious categories" as well as by (ii) the simple consideration that a consistent Pavlovianism is a fully autarchic psychology and needs no other science of psychology on top of it. A large portion of current Soviet psychological theory in psychology proper is thus primarily a textual and exegetic collation and conciliation of the views of Pavlov with those of Marx, Engels, and Lenin (until recently and, to some

  15. Resilience and Psychological Distress in Psychology and Medical Students. (United States)

    Bacchi, Stephen; Licinio, Julio


    The authors investigated levels of resilience and psychological distress in medical and psychology students, factors that may affect these levels, the relationship between resilience and psychological distress, and student opinion on causes of stress and possible interventions. A voluntary anonymous online survey was distributed to University of Adelaide medical and psychology students. Medical and psychology students (n = 560; response rate = 24.7%) had similar mean resilience and psychological distress scores, and 47.9% of medical students and 55.1% of psychology students were psychologically distressed. Higher levels of resilience were associated with lower levels of distress (p psychological distress. Further studies are required to determine the efficacy of resilience-based interventions in these groups.

  16. The psychological present. (United States)

    Hayes, L J


    The present paper compares behavior-analytic and cognitive treatments of the concept of psychological history with regard to its role in current action. Both treatments take the position that the past bears some responsibility for the present, and are thereby obligated to find a means of actualizing the past in the present. Both do so by arguing that the past is brought to bear in the present via the organism. Although the arguments of the two positions differ on this issue, neither provides a complete account. An unconventional treatment of psychological history is proposed, the logic of which is exemplified in anthropological, biological, and psychological perspectives. The unconventional treatment in psychological perspective holds that (a) the organism's interaction with its environment, not the organism itself, changes with experience; and (b) the past interactions of an organism exist as, and only as, the present interactions of that organism. This solution to the problem of psychological history provides obligations and opportunities for analysis that are not available when the more conventional positions of cognitivism and behavior analysis are adopted.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available As emergent product of the replication of the research project entitled “Results from the intervention of psychoanalysis in the problem of psychosis and social inclusion” Baez (2009 presented this document which outlines an intervention and research experience in psychoanalysis within a Program Mental Health in Bogotá, with reference to the subject specifically the so-called schizophrenic psychotic, who since his speech unveiling a way to bond socially. This will rescue elements of meeting the psychotic subject, is based analytical device use as well as questions about the research method and present some thoughts of schizophrenic psychosis in connection with demonstrations dreamlike addressed as these offer a possibility of intervention from psychoanalysis to the problem of psychosis

  18. International psychology and scientific psychology: at the crossroads for the future of psychology


    Robert, J.


    The discipline of psychology as a science and the newly emerging field of international psychology are at a crossroads in terms of a conflict that has developed in their views. By means of comparative analysis, this article examines how the proponents of international psychology describe their area, how that description conflicts with the concept of psychology as a science, and what that conflict means for the development of psychology as an overall discipline. The analysis reveals weaknesses...





    As emergent product of the replication of the research project entitled “Results from the intervention of psychoanalysis in the problem of psychosis and social inclusion” Baez (2009) presented this document which outlines an intervention and research experience in psychoanalysis within a Program Mental Health in Bogotá, with reference to the subject specifically the so-called schizophrenic psychotic, who since his speech unveiling a way to bond socially. This will rescue elements of meeting t...

  20. Lest we forget that industrial and organisational psychology is psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DJW Strümpfer


    Full Text Available The tie between industrial/organisational psychology (IOP and general psychology should be taken seriously. The origin of the split into separate academic departments is discussed. Four IOP topics are presented which are rooted in psychology or where the psychological quality is strong, making the tie-in clear: motivation, leadership, assessment, and appreciative inquiry; by way of illustration, proponents are referred to. Specialisation and professionalisation often bring undue emphasis on technology. IOP cannot be human resource management. Suggestions are made about bringing IOP and psychology closer within teaching programmes and internships. Appreciative images of what IOP, hand-in-hand with psychology, could be like, are put forward.

  1. Embodiment in social psychology. (United States)

    Meier, Brian P; Schnall, Simone; Schwarz, Norbert; Bargh, John A


    Psychologists are increasingly interested in embodiment based on the assumption that thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are grounded in bodily interaction with the environment. We examine how embodiment is used in social psychology, and we explore the ways in which embodied approaches enrich traditional theories. Although research in this area is burgeoning, much of it has been more descriptive than explanatory. We provide a critical discussion of the trajectory of embodiment research in social psychology. We contend that future researchers should engage in a phenomenon-based approach, highlight the theoretical boundary conditions and mediators involved, explore novel action-relevant outcome measures, and address the role of individual differences broadly defined. Such research will likely provide a more explanatory account of the role of embodiment in general terms as well as how it expands the knowledge base in social psychology. Copyright © 2012 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  2. Qualitative experiments in psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagoner, Brady


    In this article, I explore the meaning of experiments in early twentieth century psychology, focusing on the qualitative experimental methodology of psychologist Frederic BARTLETT. I begin by contextualizing BARTLETT's experiments within the continental research tradition of his time, which...... was in a state of transition from a focus on elements (the concern of psychophysics) to a focus on wholes (the concern of Gestalt psychology). The defining feature of BARTLETT's early experiments is his holistic treatment of human responses, in which the basic unit of analysis is the active person relating...... to some material within the constraints of a social and material context. This manifests itself in a number of methodological principles that contrast with contemporary understandings of experimentation in psychology. The contrast is further explored by reviewing the history of "replications...

  3. [Clinical psychology in medicine]. (United States)

    Bagdy, E


    What is health- and clinical psychology? How do they fit into the healthcare system as disciplines and branches of professional practice? This overviews presents the theoretical sources of the profession, its components and interdisciplinary relations. Outlined are the criteria of being a profession, within the framework of the developmental history of clinical psychology in Hungary and abroad. Also discussed are specific aspects of practical care, both within and beyond healthcare as primary prevention (mental hygiene). In addition, we deal with the current problems of clinical psychology, international and specifically Hungarian, as well as its potential for development. Our main message is that the answer to present day challenges is activity based upon on integrated care model. This uses the framework of primary care and is capable of bringing about the reconciliation and integration of biological and psycho-social interventions. A crucial aspect of this is the role of team-work and, above all, that of the clinical psychologist.

  4. Sociogenomic Personality Psychology (United States)

    Roberts, Brent W.; Jackson, Joshua J.


    In this article, we address a number of issues surrounding biological models of personality traits. Most traditional and many contemporary biological models of personality traits assume that biological systems underlying personality traits are causal and immutable. In contrast, sociogenomic biology, which we introduce to readers in this article, directly contradicts the widely held assumption that something that is biological, heritable, or temperamental, is unchangeable. We provide examples of how seemingly unchanging biological systems, such as DNA, are both dependent on environments for elicitation and can be modified by environmental changes. Finally, we synthesize sociogenomic biology with personality psychology in a model of personality traits that integrates this more modern perspective on biology, physiology, and environment that we term sociogenomic personality psychology. We end the article with a discussion of the future directions of sociogenomic personality psychology. PMID:19012657

  5. Psychology, replication & beyond. (United States)

    Laws, Keith R


    Modern psychology is apparently in crisis and the prevailing view is that this partly reflects an inability to replicate past findings. If a crisis does exists, then it is some kind of 'chronic' crisis, as psychologists have been censuring themselves over replicability for decades. While the debate in psychology is not new, the lack of progress across the decades is disappointing. Recently though, we have seen a veritable surfeit of debate alongside multiple orchestrated and well-publicised replication initiatives. The spotlight is being shone on certain areas and although not everyone agrees on how we should interpret the outcomes, the debate is happening and impassioned. The issue of reproducibility occupies a central place in our whig history of psychology.

  6. Advancing family psychology. (United States)

    Fiese, Barbara H


    To realize the broad and complex nature of the field of family psychology, I have slightly revised the mission statement of the Journal of Family Psychology (JFP) to capture contemporary scholarship in family psychology and to advance systems perspectives in this top-tier scientific journal. Over the next 6 years, I hope that authors will consider JFP as an outlet for their best work in the following areas: (1) JFP addresses societal challenges faced by families today; (2) JFP publishes important studies on what makes couple and family relationships work; (3) JFP is a leader in publishing reports that use cutting-edge sophisticated approaches to research design and data analysis; and (4) JFP imparts knowledge about effective therapy and prevention programs relevant to couples and families. The journal is also expanding its publication rate to eight issues per year. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. [Psychological theories of motivation]. (United States)

    Quoniam, Nolwenn; Bungener, Catherine


    The comprehension of the principles guiding the human actions has always been an important aspect of philosophy. The development of experimental psychology first completely rejected all mental explanations such as will, intentions or motives. Behavior should then only be understood as determined by conditioning and learning. However, different theories denied that human behavior could be considered as purely reactive to the environment and stressed the active role of the organism on the environment. Theories from the humanist psychology and the social psychology described two kinds of motivation. The extrinsic motivation results from external stimuli and the intrinsic motivation from the organism himself. Our behavior is therefore determined by an interaction between our beliefs, expectations, needs and the environment. Actually, the concept of motivation is not well specified. It refers either to a global dynamic structure responsible for action either to a specific tendency toward some specific actions. Anyway, motivation is a concept infered from behavior. Therefore, its evaluation could only be secondary.

  8. A Social Psychological Perspective:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi; Westerling, Allan


    institutionalised individualism and interconnectedness. The focus is on the vertical and horizontal relationships within the socio-cultural psychological framework combining positioning theory with the  life course perspectives. Moreover there is focus on the diaspora processes for the South Asian young adults....... The paper analyses the discourses of intergenerational care as they intersect with everyday life practices and psychological realities of persons. The results indicate changes in the care pattern and deals with the dilemmas of solidarity, which are in contrast to dominant discourses of generations...... of agency with the changing societal structures and the diaspora context is confirmed. Key words: intergenerational care, individualisation, social network analysis, socio-cultural psychology, modernisation...

  9. Genetics and educational psychology. (United States)

    Plomin, Robert; Walker, Sheila O


    Molecular genetics, one of the most energetic and exciting areas of science, is slowly but surely coming to educational psychology. We review recent molecular genetic research on learning disabilities as a sign of things to come in educational psychology. We also consider some misconceptions about genetics that have slowed the acceptance of genetics in educational psychology. Diverse samples of children with learning disabilities have been studied, primarily in the UK and the USA. Linkage analysis can detect genes that have large effects on learning disabilities. Association analysis can detect genes of much smaller effect size, which is important because common disorders such as learning disabilities are likely to be influenced by many genes as well as by many environmental factors. For reading disability, replicated linkages have been identified on chromosomes 6, 15 and 18. A gene responsible for a rare type of language impairment has recently been identified. For common language impairment, linkages on chromosomes 16 and 19 have recently been reported. More than 200 genetic disorders, most extremely rare, include mental retardation among their symptoms, and chromosomal abnormalities are a major cause of mental retardation. Although finding specific genes associated with learning disabilities is unlikely to have much of a direct application for teachers in the classroom, such findings will have far-reaching implications for diagnosis, treatment and prevention of learning disabilities and for research in educational psychology. Educational psychology has been slower to accept evidence for the importance of genetics than other areas of psychology in part because of misconceptions about what it means to say that genetics is important for common complex disorders such as learning disabilities.

  10. The psychology of creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre


    The psychology of creativity is nowadays a thriving field of investigation, but also a discipline in crisis. This is the premise for the critical reading of past and present work within this area proposed here. The presentation follows the typical headings of a research article, beginning...... in order to help us develop a stronger psychology of creativity in the decades to come. In the end, six main points are placed on a hypothetical agenda for future (creative) creativity re-search. In this sense, a critical reading is actually the first step in the process of being constructive and calling...

  11. Psychological Aspects of Disaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Mohammadi


    Full Text Available "nHuman beings have always experienced disasters. A disaster may be brief,but its psychological effects may last for many years. These psychological effects are increasingly well documented."nDisasters affect not only those immediately involved, but also those whoknow the victims. This is perhaps particularly so when the victims arechildren. Commonly when adults hear news of disasters they ask first: What about the children? Of course, typically it is worse for the parents."nIn this article the definition and classification of disaster and the effects ofdisaster on survivors and their relatives will be discussed.

  12. Psychology of programming

    CERN Document Server

    Hoc, J-M


    Psychology provides a backdrop for most of the study of human*b1computer interaction. In this volume the psychological issues that pertain to programming, rather than systems design, are examined in four sections: Theoretical and Methodological Issues; Language Design and Skill Acquisition; Expert Programming; and the Future.****The book was inspired by working groups in France and the United Kingdom but also includes work by major North American figures (such as Curtis and Soloway). It is the first comprehensive work on this topic since the early 1980s.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This essay invites to rethink the place of psychology as a science looking to clarify its reaches and itslimits thorough the light of complexity of human being. Starting from biological, psychological andsocial interactive constitution of people, some questions are drawn related to the Western scientificparadigm and its determination of the possibilities of complex thought. From there, some suggestivealternatives are the presented and the five reflexion nuclei are the formulated from which the discipline´sdevelopment can be foreseen, all of them concerning unity and diversity coexisting in human complexity.

  14. Psychological models of suicide. (United States)

    Barzilay, Shira; Apter, Alan


    Suicidal behavior is highly complex and multifaceted. Consequent to the pioneering work of Durkheim and Freud, theoreticians have attempted to explain the biological, social, and psychological nature of suicide. The present work presents an overview and critical discussion of the most influential theoretical models of the psychological mechanisms underlying the development of suicidal behavior. All have been tested to varying degrees and have important implications for the development of therapeutic and preventive interventions. Broader and more in-depth approaches are still needed to further our understanding of suicidal phenomena.

  15. Dor crônica em pacientes esquizofrênicos: prevalência e características Chronic pain in schizophrenic patients: prevalence and characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jouce Gabriela de Almeida


    Full Text Available A prevalência de dor crônica entre pacientes com transtornos psiquiátricos é, possivelmente, no mínimo igual à encontrada entre a população geral. Para estimar a prevalência de dor crônica em pacientes com esquizofrenia, comparar os grupos com e sem dor crônica e caracterizar a dor foi realizado um estudo transversal, com uma amostra probabilística de 205 pacientes adultos, com diagnóstico de esquizofrenia (idade média 37 anos; 65% homens; média de escolaridade de nove anos; 87% sem companheiro(a; 65% residentes com os pais, atendidos em hospital público do Município de São Paulo, Brasil. A prevalência de dor foi de 36,6%; a dor foi mais presente no abdômen (30,7%, seguida da dor de cabeça, face e boca (24% e região lombar, sacra e cóccix (14,7%. Com relação à freqüência, 24% dos entrevistados referiram ter dor todos os dias. O tempo médio de dor foi de 41 meses, com intensidade moderada. A prevalência de dor crônica em pacientes esquizofrênicos foi semelhante à encontrada para a população geral, e o quadro álgico foi significativo em termos de duração, intensidade e freqüência dos episódios dolorosos.Chronic pain may be at least as prevalent in psychiatric patients as in the general population. To estimate the prevalence of chronic pain in schizophrenic patients, compare the groups with and without chronic pain, and characterize the pain, a cross-sectional study was performed on a probabilistic sample of 205 adult patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia (mean age 37 years; 65% men; mean schooling nine years; 87% single; 65% living with parents, treated at a public hospital in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Prevalence of pain was 36.6%, and the most frequent sites were abdomen (30.7%, head, face, and mouth (24%, and lower back (14.7%. Twenty-four percent of patients reported feeling pain every day. Mean duration of pain was 41 months, with moderate intensity. Prevalence of chronic pain in

  16. PSYCHOLOGY. Estimating the reproducibility of psychological science. (United States)


    Reproducibility is a defining feature of science, but the extent to which it characterizes current research is unknown. We conducted replications of 100 experimental and correlational studies published in three psychology journals using high-powered designs and original materials when available. Replication effects were half the magnitude of original effects, representing a substantial decline. Ninety-seven percent of original studies had statistically significant results. Thirty-six percent of replications had statistically significant results; 47% of original effect sizes were in the 95% confidence interval of the replication effect size; 39% of effects were subjectively rated to have replicated the original result; and if no bias in original results is assumed, combining original and replication results left 68% with statistically significant effects. Correlational tests suggest that replication success was better predicted by the strength of original evidence than by characteristics of the original and replication teams. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  17. Advances in Adolescent Psychology. (United States)

    Violato, Claudio; Travis, Leroy

    Adolescence is a multiplicity of events, experiences, behavior, people, and cultural meanings. This book attempts to provide detailed and in-depth analysis of the central issues related to adolescent psychology, while taking this multiplicity into account. A comprehensive representation of the topic is provided through integration of historical,…

  18. Logotherapy and positive psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar R. Oro


    Full Text Available Psychology omitted to approach, during almost a century, the positive aspects from persons, like creativity, humor, optimism, hope, forgiveness, life meaning, and happiness. These themes are approached by Positive Psychology, with Seligman like the principal exponent. Psychology was dedicated to explore the negative aspects from human beings improving human health. Nevertheless, this pathogenic model could not prevent mental disease. Concepts of Positive Psychology have a solid antecedent in Víktor Frankl ́s studies, which is the Logotherapy founder. This allows incorporating another perspective to approach positive aspects, from a philosophical and anthropological focus. Although the ways adopted by Frank and Seligman are different, both considered main aspects of human existence. Nevertheless, they investigated in different countries (from Europe and EE.UU.; in different circumstances (concentration camps, deaths, tortures; vs. academic context; in different historical periods and different social contexts (a country that lost the war and other that gave freedom to Europeans. In this work is used the concept life sense as the focus in professional formation and psychotherapy approach. 



    Nyagudi, Nyagudi Musandu


    Forensic Criminology – Fugitive Psychology, 2010 Security Summit (Regional Security Exhibition & Conference ) a forum hosted by Kenya Security Industry Association, Securi Fast Trainers & Consultants, Fidelity Security Limited at Desmond Tutu Conference Centre, Nairobi Kenya from 4th-5th March, 2010  

  20. Is Psychology a Science?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 11. Is Psychology a Science ? Kamala V Mukunda. General Article Volume 2 Issue 11 November 1997 pp 59-66. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: Author Affiliations.

  1. Space Psychology and Psychiatry (United States)

    Kanas, N.; Manzey, D.


    This book deals with psychological, psychiatric, and psychosocial issues that affect people who live and work in space. Unlike other books that focus on anecdotal reports and ground-based simulation studies, this book emphasizes the findings from psychological research conducted during actual space missions. Both authors have been active in such research. What is presented in this readable text has previously been found only in scientific journal articles. Topics that are discussed include: behavioral adaptation to space; human performance and cognitive effects; crewmember interactions; psychiatric responses; psychological counter-measures related to habitability factors, work-design, selection, training, and in-flight monitoring and support; and the impact of expeditionary missions to Mars and beyond. People finding this book of interest will include: psychology and social science students and professors in universities; medical students and residents in psychiatry and aerospace medicine; human factors workers in space and aviation professions; individuals involved with isolated environments on Earth (e.g., the Antarctic, submarines); aerospace workers in businesses and space agencies such as NASA and ESA; and anyone who is interested in learning the facts about the human side of long-duration space missions. Link:

  2. Mindfulness in social psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karremans, J.C.T.M.; Papies, E.K.


    Scientific interest in mindfulness has grown exponentially in the past decade but, until now, it has typically been approached from a clinical perspective. This volume is the first to take a social-psychological approach to mindfulness research. It provides theoretical and methodological guidance

  3. APA Educational Psychology Handbook (United States)

    Harris, Karen R., Ed.; Graham, Steve, Ed.; Urdan, Tim, Ed.


    The "APA Educational Psychology Handbook" reflects the broad nature of the field today, with state-of-the-science reviews of the diverse critical theories driving research and practice; in-depth investigation of the range of individual differences and cultural/contextual factors that affect student achievement, motivation, and beliefs;…

  4. Democracy and Cultural Psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steffen Moltrup Ernø


    tools for examining and understanding our own exist- ence, despite the fact that it is also a field that has seemed to be in one crisis after another since its inception. It is argued that cultural psychology is an intellectual tech- nology that allows us to peek under the hood of society, which...

  5. A Psychology of Teaching. (United States)

    Pedrini, D. T.; Pedrini, B. C.

    William James, the turn of the century psychologist, philospher, and educator, was avidly interested in the relationship between psychology and teaching. This paper considers operant conditioning, timing of reinforcers, and programmed instruction--touchstones of B.F. Skinner in the teaching/learning milieu. Of course, materials not just methods…

  6. Rediscovering Differential Psychology? (United States)

    Takooshian, Harold


    Comments on the original article, "Many forms of culture," by A. B. Cohen. Cohen offered an eye-opening review of how culture means much more than ethnicity within a nation or differences between nations. After developing a much-expanded definition of culture, he concluded, "I have lamented the fact that psychology has focused on some important…

  7. IFE PsychologIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is not intended for psychologists alone but for anyone with an interest in the current state of psychology in Africa and what has been accomplished to date in this ... Home environment and social media as correlates of academic underachievement of high ability secondary schools students in Oyo metropolis · EMAIL FULL ...

  8. Narrating psychological distress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zinken, Jörg; Blakemore, Caroline; Zinken, Katarzyna


    Psychological research has emphasized the importance of narrative for a person's sense of self. Building a coherent narrative of past events is one objective of psychotherapy. However, in guided self-help therapy the patient has to develop this narrative autonomously. Identifying patients...

  9. Neuroeconomics and business psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben


    To determine parameters of the frontal power of executive integration for application in business, this paper reviewed neuroeconomic neuroimaging research and discussion in relation to business psychology. The results are that limbic system (L) is a centre of primary consciousness based on a meso...... programming (NLP)...

  10. Evolutionary Developmental Psychology. (United States)

    Geary, David C.; Bjorklund, David F.


    Describes evolutionary developmental psychology as the study of the genetic and ecological mechanisms that govern the development of social and cognitive competencies common to all human beings and the epigenetic (gene-environment interactions) processes that adapt these competencies to local conditions. Outlines basic assumptions and domains of…

  11. Psychological functioning after hysterectomy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijma, Klaas


    During the past lew years a number of publications regarding the negative effects of hysterectomy have been published in the professional literature as well as in the lay press. This dissertation is a report of a study on the psychological functioning of women after hysterectomy, performed because

  12. Beyond Positive Psychology? (United States)

    McNulty, James K.; Fincham, Frank D.


    The field of positive psychology rests on the assumption that certain psychological traits and processes are inherently beneficial for well-being. We review evidence that challenges this assumption. First, we review data from 4 independent longitudinal studies of marriage revealing that 4 ostensibly positive processes—forgiveness, optimistic expectations, positive thoughts, and kindness—can either benefit or harm well-being depending on the context in which they operate. Although all 4 processes predicted better relationship well-being among spouses in healthy marriages, they predicted worse relationship well-being in more troubled marriages. Then, we review evidence from other research that reveals that whether ostensibly positive psychological traits and processes benefit or harm well-being depends on the context of various noninterpersonal domains as well. Finally, we conclude by arguing that any movement to promote well-being may be most successful to the extent that it (a) examines the conditions under which the same traits and processes may promote versus threaten well-being, (b) examines both healthy and unhealthy people, (c) examines well-being over substantial periods of time, and (d) avoids labeling psychological traits and processes as positive or negative. PMID:21787036

  13. Advances in Environmental Psychology


    Nasar, Jack L.


    When Plenum stopped publishing its edited series—Human Behavior and Environment and Advances in Environment, Behavior and Design—the field of environmental psychology suffered a loss. Scholars could go to one of the edited Plenum books to find state-of-the-art reviews on existing and emerging areas of research. [...

  14. Core References in Introductory Social Psychology and Developmental Psychology Textbooks (United States)

    Whitehead, George I., III; Smith, Stephanie H.; Losonczy-Marshall, Marta


    The purpose of the present study was to identify the core references in introductory textbooks in two sub-disciplines of psychology: social psychology and developmental psychology. One research question was the extent to which the common references in these textbooks present the trends in contemporary research in each sub-discipline. An analysis…

  15. Methodological Foundations of Military Psychology and Psychological Security


    Sergey V. Leonov; Veraksa, Aleksander N.; Yuri P. Zinchenko


    The article is devoted to the history of development of military psychology from psychological and philosophical positions. The transition stage in development of military psychology from classical to postclassical type of rationality is focused. Analysis of combat activity as self-regulation system is presented. The latest technologies in solving key problems of military science are discussed.

  16. Methodological Foundations of Military Psychology and Psychological Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Leonov


    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the history of development of military psychology from psychological and philosophical positions. The transition stage in development of military psychology from classical to postclassical type of rationality is focused. Analysis of combat activity as self-regulation system is presented. The latest technologies in solving key problems of military science are discussed.

  17. Sport Psychology: An Emerging Domain in the Counseling Psychology Profession? (United States)

    Petrie, Trent A.; And Others


    Surveyed counseling psychologists on their involvement in sport psychology research, training, and practice; their affiliation with sport psychology professional organizations; and their attitudes toward current professional sport psychology issues. Found that counseling psychologists were minimally involved, and had received little formal…

  18. Ethnic Minority Psychological Associations: Connections to Counseling Psychology (United States)

    Delgado-Romero, Edward A.; Forrest, Linda; Lau, Michael Y.


    This article provides the introduction, background and rationale for the Major Contribution focused on five national ethnic minority psychological associations: the Asian American Psychological Association, The Association of Black Psychologists, the National Latina/o Psychological Association, the Society of Indian Psychologists, and the Society…

  19. Infertility as a psychological problem

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Podolska, Magdalena Z; Bidzan, Mariola


    .... The objective of the following paper is to discuss the dilemmas of couples undergoing infertility treatment, related psychological problems, and to determine the need for psychological and therapeutic support...

  20. Behavior Analysis and Developmental Psychology. (United States)

    Morris, Edward K.; And Others


    Examines relationships between the fields of behavior analysis and developmental psychology, surveying the influence of behavior-analytic research within developmental psychology and investigating the integration of the two approaches with respect to metatheory and methodology. (Author/MP)

  1. The psychology behind the crisis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library



    .... The paperis grounded on the premise that the psychology of the crisis is an important componentof the present international context and psychological factors play an important part inthe alteration of consumer’s behavior...

  2. Political Psychology of European Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James


    The chapter engages in a survey of what political psychology and European integration have to say to each other in the understanding of the European Union. The chapter draws on five strands of political psychology as part of this engagement – conventional psychology, social psychology, social...... construction, psychoanalysis, and critical political psychology. Within each strand a number of examples of scholarship at the interface of political psychology and European integration are examined. The chapter argues that the study of the EU has much to benefit from political psychology in terms of theories...... and methods of European identity and integration, but it also argues that political psychology can benefit from the insights of European integration by rethinking the processes that drive the marking of inside and outside, interior and exterior, belonging and otherness....

  3. Qualitative methodology in developmental psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demuth, Carolin; Mey, Günter


    Qualitative methodology presently is gaining increasing recognition in developmental psychology. Although the founders of developmental psychology to a large extent already used qualitative procedures, the field was long dominated by a (post) positivistic quantitative paradigm. The increasing...

  4. The history of psychological categories. (United States)

    Smith, Roger


    Psychological terms, such as 'mind', 'memory', 'emotion' and indeed 'psychology' itself, have a history. This history, I argue, supports the view that basic psychological categories refer to historical and social entities, and not to 'natural kinds'. The case is argued through a wide ranging review of the historiography of western psychology, first, in connection with the field's extreme modern diversity; second, in relation to the possible antecedents of the field in the early modern period; and lastly, through a brief introduction to usage of the words 'soul', 'mind', 'memory' and 'emotion'. The discussion situates the history of psychology within a large historical context, questions assumptions about the continuity of meaning, and draws out implications for the philosophical and social constitution of 'psychology' and 'the psychological' from the existing literature. The historical evidence, this paper concludes, does not support the conventional presumption that modern psychological terms describe 'natural kinds'.

  5. Effects of handedness (left vs right) and cannabis abuse on intermanual coordination and negative symptoms in schizophrenic patients of the paranoid type. (United States)

    Gorynia, Inge; Schwaiger, Markus


    Intermanual coordination as an index of interhemispheric transfer and negative symptoms were investigated in 50 left- and 42 right-handed schizophrenic inpatients of the paranoid type, also including drug abusers. The primary objective was to show that there were higher values in intermanual coordination and fewer manifestations of negative symptoms in the left-handed compared to the right-handed patients. This assumption was based on previous studies. Most importantly, right- and left-handed patients showed a different behaviour in intermanual coordination, when the duration of illness was taken into consideration. Thus, long-term left-handed paranoid patients performed better in intermanual coordination and showed fewer manifestations of negative symptoms than did long-term right-handed patients. These results were true for the large group of all patients, and among them for the subgroup of patients without drug abuse. Consequently, higher scores in intermanual coordination in left-handed patients may be related to a better interhemispheric crosstalk resulting in less pronounced negative symptoms. Secondary objectives assessed by explorative data analysis included the effects of cannabis abuse. While cannabis abuse may be more prevalent in left-handed patients, its effects may be more pronounced in right-handed patients, scoring higher in intermanual coordination and lower in manifestations of negative symptoms.

  6. BDNF serum concentrations in first psychotic episode drug-naïve schizophrenic patients: associations with personality and BDNF Val66Met polymorphism. (United States)

    Sotiropoulou, Marianthi; Mantas, Christos; Bozidis, Petros; Marselos, Marios; Mavreas, Venetsanos; Hyphantis, Thomas; Antoniou, Katerina


    To investigate the relationship among brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) serum concentrations, BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and personality profile in drug-naïve schizophrenic patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP) and healthy participants. This cross-sectional study included fifty FEP patients and fifty healthy participants who served as controls. To study their personality profile the standardized Greek version of the Alternative Five-Factor Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire (ZKPQ) was administered. Serum BDNF levels were measured and genotyping of BDNF Val66Met polymorphism was performed in patients and healthy subjects. FEP patients presented lower BDNF serum concentrations (P=0.002) and higher scores in ZKPQ Neuroticism (P=0.001) and Aggression-Hostility (P=0.002) scales while lower scores in the ZKPQ Sociability scale (Ppersonality traits, BDNF Val66Met polymorphism, and psychotic symptomatology has been arisen but further investigation is needed to better clarify the observed associations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparative dynamics of self-consciousness of schizophrenic patients and patients with acute and transient psychotic disorders in the process of compulsory treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yur’yeva L.N.


    Full Text Available Article presents the materials of empirical research of life sense orientations, self-relation and level of claims of schizophrenic patients and patients with acute and transient psychotic disorders, who have committed socially hazardous actions and to whom forced measures of medical character are temporarily applied. Changes in the self- consciousness of patients with schizophrenia in dynamics were examined: in comparing the results obtained at first and fourth stages of patients' stay in mental hospital with strict supervision (the first stage – adaptation and diagnostics, the fourth stage – the consolidation of treatment results and preparation of patient to be discharged. Research was done by D. Leontiev’s test of life sense orientations (LSO, by S. Pantileyev – V. Stolin’s techniques and by Shwarzlander’s “Motor test”. Statistical processing of the obtained results of differences by indices of life sense orientations, of selfattitude and level of claims between the group under study with Student's t-criterion was used.

  8. A five-year longitudinal study of the regional cerebral metabolic changes of a schizophrenic patient from the first episode using Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT. (United States)

    Chen, R Y; Chen, E; Ho, W Y


    This is a naturalistic study of the relationship between cerebral metabolic activity, clinical symptoms and treatment response in a schizophrenic patient for 5 years from the onset of her illness. Serial technetium-99m-HMPAO brain SPECT was used to measure regional cerebral metabolism. The Cambridge Neurological Inventory and neuropsychological tests (WAIS-R verbal subscales, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, semantic verbal fluency, logical memory in Weschler Memory Scale) were used for neurocognitive assessment. Under-activity of the left temporal area was observed in the course of patient illness despite remission of the psychotic symptoms. Bilateral prefrontal metabolic under-activity was noted at the emergence of negative symptoms, executive neurocognitive dysfunction and the treatment-resistant state. After response to clozapine, the right prefrontal activity returned to a normal level. Our findings suggested that persistent left temporal underactivity detected by SPECT despite clinical remission may indicate a vulnerability for further relapses and development of a treatment-resistant state. Treatment-resistant state, negative symptoms and executive neurocognitive deficit may involve abnormal prefrontal metabolic activity and can be alleviated in clozapine-responsive patients.

  9. Sex and Laterality Differences in Parkinsonian Impairment and Transcranial Ultrasound in Never-Treated Schizophrenics and Their First Degree Relatives in an Andean population (United States)

    Kamis, Danielle; Stratton, Lee; Calvó, María; Padilla, Eduardo; Florenzano, Néstor; Guerrero, Gonzalo; Rangeon, Beatriz Molina; Molina, Juan; de Erausquin, Gabriel A.


    We tested the hypothesis that loss of substantia nigra neurons in subjects at risk of schizophrenia (1), as reflected by midbrain hyperechogenicity (2) and parkinsonian motor impairment (3), is asymmetric and influenced by sex. We evaluated 62 subjects with never-treated chronic schizophrenia, 80 of their adult, unaffected first degree relatives and 62 healthy controls (matched by sex and age to the cases), part of an Andean population of Northern Argentina. Parkinsonism was scored blindly using UPDRS-3 (Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale) on videotaped exams by 2 independent raters. Trancranial ultrasound was performed by an expert sonographist blind to subject condition with a 2.5 MHz transducer through a temporal bone window. Quantification of echogenic area was carried out on saved images by a different evaluator. We found a significant difference in parkinsonian motor impairment between patients, their relatives as well as controls. All three groups showed worse parkinsonism on the left side than the right, corresponding with increased echogenicity on the right substantia nigra compared with the left. Females had significantly more right echogenicity than males, and patients and unaffected relatives were significantly more echogenic than controls on that side. On the left, only female patients had significant echogenicity. Our data supports the notion that unaffected relatives of schizophrenic subjects have increased parkinsonism and concomitant brainstem abnormalities which may represent a vulnerability to the disease. Both motor and brainstem abnormalities are asymmetric and influenced by sex. PMID:25735637

  10. American Psychological Association annual report. (United States)


    Presents the 2009 American Psychological Association annual report. It highlights a very important year for APA and psychology by summarizing activities within each directorate. It describes strides made toward the goal of infusing psychology into the health care marketplace and of bringing psychology-and the unique skills of psychologists-to the attention of the public. This report aims to give insight into the contributions psychologists make to our communities and our country. 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Social Justice and School Psychology (United States)

    Nastasi, Bonnie K.


    Despite attention in other social sciences and within other areas of psychology, social justice has received minimal attention in school psychology literature. The two studies by Shriberg et al. (2008) and McCabe and Rubinson (2008) represent significant developments in exploring school psychology's commitment to social justice. In this…

  12. Tucson Early Education Psychological Services. (United States)

    Bergan, John R.; And Others

    This report describes the Tucson Early Education Psychological Services (TEEPS) program during its third year of operation. TEEPS is based on the position that the quality of psychological services in the public schools can be increased by establishing educational systems in which the functions of psychology in education are embodied in system…

  13. Manitoba's School Psychology, Circa 2016 (United States)

    Mallin, Barry; Bednarczyk, George; Hanson, Dawn


    While the geographic landscape of Manitoba has changed very little since the last review of school psychology in Manitoba was published 15 years ago, the school psychology landscape here has changed considerably, and we continue to be alive, well, and flourishing. Two previous articles in the "Canadian Journal of School Psychology"…

  14. Educational Psychology: The Distinctive Contribution (United States)

    Cameron, R. J.


    This paper, written in the twenty-first anniversary year of the journal "Educational Psychology in Practice", attempts to uncover those distinctive aspects of the discipline and the practice of applied psychology in general and educational psychology in particular. After considering some of the reasons for attempting this task at this point in…

  15. Indigenisation of Psychology in India (United States)

    Dalal, Ajit K.


    Academic psychology which made a new beginning in India in the early part of 20th century was modelled on the Western scientific tradition. The teaching of psychology was very much on the British pattern since the colonial rule, whereas the research was mostly an extension of the Western work in India. Psychology went through massive expansion…

  16. Realism, Relativism, and Evolutionary Psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derksen, M.

    Against recent attempts to forge a reconciliation between constructionism and realism, I contend that, in psychology at least, stirring up conflict is a more fruitful strategy. To illustrate this thesis, I confront a school of psychology with strong realist leanings, evolutionary psychology, with

  17. Evolutionary Psychology and Intelligence Research (United States)

    Kanazawa, Satoshi


    This article seeks to unify two subfields of psychology that have hitherto stood separately: evolutionary psychology and intelligence research/differential psychology. I suggest that general intelligence may simultaneously be an evolved adaptation and an individual-difference variable. Tooby and Cosmides's (1990a) notion of random quantitative…

  18. Positive Psychology and Outdoor Education (United States)

    Berman, Dene S.; Davis-Berman, Jennifer


    A relatively new movement in psychology, positive psychology, has many implications for the field of outdoor education. Positive psychology has the goal of fostering excellence through the understanding and enhancement of factors that lead to growth. It embraces the view that growth occurs when positive factors are present, as opposed to the…

  19. A Positive Psychology That Matters (United States)

    Lopez, Shane L.; Magyar-Moe, Jeana L.


    The Major Contribution intended to situate positive psychology in counseling psychology's past and future and in the complex world we live and work in today. The four reactions (Frazier, Lee,& Steger; Gerstein; Linley; Mollen, Ethington,& Ridley) provide new insights into how counseling psychology has and will contribute to the study of human…

  20. Signature Strengths in Positive Psychology (United States)

    Molony, Terry; Henwood, Maureen


    Positive psychology can be thought of as the scientific study of what is "right about people" as opposed to the traditional focus on the healing of psychological pain or trauma. The philosophical roots of positive psychology can be traced back to Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism, Hinduism, Judaism, Christianity, as well as Islamic and Athenian…

  1. Loneliness and psychological distress. (United States)

    Jackson, J; Cochran, S D


    Research on relationships between loneliness and psychological symptoms has generally shown significant positive associations across a wide spectrum of psychopathologies. However, such results may be artificial, to some extent, given the high intercorrelations of typical psychopathology measures. In the current study, we examined associations between psychological symptoms, assessed by the Symptom Check List-90 (SCL-90; Derogatis, Lipman, & Covi, 1973) and loneliness, as measured by the UCLA-R Loneliness Scale (Russell, Peplau, & Cutrona, 1980), in college students. Using partial correlations to control for the confounding influence of generalized distress, relationships between loneliness and individual dimensions of distress were examined. Results indicate a significant association between loneliness and interpersonal sensitivity (low self-esteem) and depression. Other dimensions of distress were not significantly related to loneliness. In addition, no sex differences in patterns of association were observed. Results support the notion that self-blame and self-devaluation are strong correlates of loneliness.

  2. Psychological aspects of literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livija Knaflič


    Full Text Available Literacy is a complex cultural and social phenomenon with multiple effects on both, the individual and social levels. This article presents multidimensional model of literacy with linguistic, cognitive, socio-cultural, developmental and educational dimensions. A use of literacy is a literacy event and it means the use and/or presence of all dimensions of literacy. The use of new technologies and the emergence of digital literacy brought about a new meaning of literacy. There are two main processes to stress: (a the writing (text is more and more dominated by images and (b the book is going to be replaced by the screen. These facts raise at least two questions: what is the future of literacy and what are psychological, social and cultural effects of these changes? The aim of this article is to present a psychological view of literacy skills with a very modest aspiration to offer a better understanding of library users and non users.

  3. Gestalt psychology in Italy. (United States)

    Verstegen, I


    Graz gestalt psychology was introduced into Italy after World War I with Vittorio Benussi's emigration to Padua. His earliest adherent, Cesare Musatti, defended Graz theory, but after Benussi's premature death became an adherent of the Berlin gestalt psychology of Wertheimer-Köhler-Koffka. He trained his two most important students, Fabio Metelli and Gaetano Kanizsa, in orthodox Berlin theory. They established rigid "schools" in Padua and Trieste. The structure of Italian academics allowed for such strict orthodoxy, quite unlike the situation in America, where scientific objectivity mitigated against schools. In the 1960s, some of the students of Metelli and Kanizsa (above all Bozzi) initiated a realist movement-felt in Kanizsa's late work-that was quite independent of that of J. J. Gibson. Finally, more recently, Benussi and Graz theorizing have been embraced again, sentimentally, as a predecedent to Kanizsa-Bozzi. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  4. Psychology, economics and incentives.


    Biel, P. R.


    This PhD. Thesis deals with the effects that psychological phenomena may have on the incentives of agents participating in economic interaction. In particular, I focus on how individuals' preference for certain distributions of welfare among others may affect their effort and other strategic decisions in a variety of contexts. The thesis consists of five chapters. The first one introduces the study. The next two chapters are theoretical and study the effects that aversion to inequity may have...

  5. Psychologically Motivated Text Mining


    Shutova, Ekaterina; Lichtenstein, Patricia


    Natural language processing techniques are increasingly applied to identify social trends and predict behavior based on large text collections. Existing methods typically rely on surface lexical and syntactic information. Yet, research in psychology shows that patterns of human conceptualisation, such as metaphorical framing, are reliable predictors of human expectations and decisions. In this paper, we present a method to learn patterns of metaphorical framing from large text collections, us...

  6. [Psychiatric and psychological aspects of premenstrual syndrome]. (United States)

    Limosin, F; Ades, J


    Numerous, but heterogeneous studies have been performed about premenstrual syndrome, with finally a lack of credibility and interest among practitioners. More recently with the diagnosis criteria generalization, psychiatrists were more concerned about this syndrome, because of anxiety and mood symptoms involved in social impairment and need of medical care. In 1983 in the United States, the National Institute of Mental Health conference devoted to this topic proposed the first diagnosis criteria, requiring a prospective and daily assessment of the symptoms. In 1987, the American Psychiatric Association, in the DSM III-R, introduced the Late Luteal Phase Dysphoric Disorder diagnosis that became in 1994 in the DSM IV the Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder, with the same diagnosis criteria. In the literature, prevalence rates are very heterogeneous according to the diagnosis criteria used and to the populations studied. One of the most relevant criteria is the induced impairment, such as avoidance of social activities, or search for medical care. Lifetime prevalence is thus estimated between 75 and 85% if considering the report of one or several symptoms, between 10 and 15% in case of medical care request, and between 2 and 5% in case of social activities interruption. To distinguish isolated complaints from a disabling disorder, self-questionnaires are the best way of assessment in a so complex and changing disease. Most of the epidemiological studies found a positive correlation between the premenstrual dysphoric symptoms and the lifetime major depressive disorder diagnosis. However, recent prospective studies failed to find an association between premenstrual syndrome and an increased risk of major depression. On the other hand, some studies showed that the premenstrual period is a risk period for associated psychiatric disorders exacerbations, as the obsessive-compulsive disorder, more severe alcohol intakes in case of alcoholism, symptoms increase in schizophrenics

  7. Psychological strain between nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Obročníková


    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study was to identify differences in perception of work (mental workload among nurses providing acute and chronic nursing care. Design: Study design is cross-sectional and descriptive. Methods: The sample of respondents consisted of 97 nurses working in departments Neurology, Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Unit of the hospital St. James in Bardejov, University Hospital of L. Pasteur in Košice and University Hospital J. A. Reiman in Prešov. To measure psychological strain, Meister's questionnaire for neuropsychological strain was used. Results: Increased psychological strain was observed in nurses providing acute care versus nurses providing chronic care, particularly in job satisfaction, long-term tolerance, time constraints, high responsibility, nervousness, fatigue and satiety. In comparison with the population norm, nurses in acute care achieved significantly higher indicators of factor I (strain and gross score as nurses in neurological care. A statistically significant relationship between psychological stress and age of nurses working in anesthesiology and intensive care departments was confirmed. Nurses with long term practical experience are exposed to intense mental stress (especially in the areas of strain and monotony. Conclusion: The results of our study suggest the reality that variable qualities of work related strain among nurses can lead to physical and emotional exhaustion.

  8. The Smartphone Psychology Manifesto. (United States)

    Miller, Geoffrey


    By 2025, when most of today's psychology undergraduates will be in their mid-30s, more than 5 billion people on our planet will be using ultra-broadband, sensor-rich smartphones far beyond the abilities of today's iPhones, Androids, and Blackberries. Although smartphones were not designed for psychological research, they can collect vast amounts of ecologically valid data, easily and quickly, from large global samples. If participants download the right "psych apps," smartphones can record where they are, what they are doing, and what they can see and hear and can run interactive surveys, tests, and experiments through touch screens and wireless connections to nearby screens, headsets, biosensors, and other peripherals. This article reviews previous behavioral research using mobile electronic devices, outlines what smartphones can do now and will be able to do in the near future, explains how a smartphone study could work practically given current technology (e.g., in studying ovulatory cycle effects on women's sexuality), discusses some limitations and challenges of smartphone research, and compares smartphones to other research methods. Smartphone research will require new skills in app development and data analysis and will raise tough new ethical issues, but smartphones could transform psychology even more profoundly than PCs and brain imaging did. © The Author(s) 2012.

  9. Evolutionary developmental psychology. (United States)

    King, Ashley C; Bjorklund, David F


    The field of evolutionary developmental psychology can potentially broaden the horizons of mainstream evolutionary psychology by combining the principles of Darwinian evolution by natural selection with the study of human development, focusing on the epigenetic effects that occur between humans and their environment in a way that attempts to explain how evolved psychological mechanisms become expressed in the phenotypes of adults. An evolutionary developmental perspective includes an appreciation of comparative research and we, among others, argue that contrasting the cognition of humans with that of nonhuman primates can provide a framework with which to understand how human cognitive abilities and intelligence evolved. Furthermore, we argue that several aspects of childhood (e.g., play and immature cognition) serve both as deferred adaptations as well as imparting immediate benefits. Intense selection pressure was surely exerted on childhood over human evolutionary history and, as a result, neglecting to consider the early developmental period of children when studying their later adulthood produces an incomplete picture of the evolved adaptations expressed through human behavior and cognition.

  10. Psychological work characteristics, psychological workload and associated psychological and cognitive requirements of train drivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoer, Ilona; Sluiter, Judith K.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.


    This study aimed to assess the psychological work characteristics and psychological workload of train drivers and to define the psychological and cognitive requirements of their work. A systematic literature search was performed, and expert interviews were conducted. The following work demands were

  11. Cultural Psychology and Its Future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cultural Psychology is a radical new look in psychology that studies how persons and social-cultural worlds mutually constitute one another. With the increase of globalization and multicultural exchanges, cultural psychology becomes the psychological science for the 21st century. Encounters...... Psychology series aims to highlight and develop new ideas that advance our understanding of these issues. This first volume in the series features an address by Prof. Jaan Valsiner, which is followed by ten commentary chapters and his response to them. In his lecture, Valsiner explores what Niels Bohr......’s revolutionary principle of ‘complementarity’ can contribute to the development of a cultural psychology that takes time, semiotics, and human feeling seriously. Commentators further discuss how complementarity can act as an epistemology for psychology; a number of new methodological strategies for incorporating...

  12. [MODen: Psychoeducationnal therapeutic group program for schizophrenic patients, based on nutritional balance and pleasure, using cognitive functions: A pilot study]. (United States)

    Farhat, S L; Hochard, C; Orens, S; Gautier, C; Lambert, T; Geret, L; Bralet, M C


    Schizophrenia causes psychological difficulties (with positive and/or negative symptoms) as well as cognitive disabilities (attention, memory, executive functions and social cognition). Moreover, 40 to 60% of patients suffer from an excess of weight or obesity (due to bad eating habits, eating disorders or medication). All these difficulties impair their autonomy and their insertion into the society. In this context, setting-up a therapeutic tool, which may have cognitive benefits seems relevant. Thus, MODen is a therapeutic educational tool whose aim is to improve cognitive functions and the symptoms by using "nutritional balance" as an aid. In this treatment program, two therapists lead a group of 5 to 8 patients which group meets once a week during two to four hours for 16 weeks, divided in 4 cycles. The first three weeks of each cycle consists of theoretical instruction: patients talk about their eating habits, information is given about nutritional balance and preparation of meals. In the different cycles, flexibility, planning, memory and attention are trained. For instance, the work on categorisation of foods and nutritional balance allow enhancing flexibility abilities. Writing down the lists of different ingredients needed for one week's meals and preparation of meals train planning abilities. MODen also takes into account ecological issues such as the limited budget of patients to do their shopping (this budget is around 4 euros per meal in France). The budget is also linked to planning abilities and reasoning. Finally, during the last session of each cycle the group prepares a meal (from the shopping to cooking). This last session is all about sharing and social cognition abilities. By the end of the program, patients will have prepared four meals together. Also "homework" has to be done each week in order to facilitate memorisation of what has been learned during the last session and to prepare the beginning of the next session. In a pilot study with 8

  13. [Discrimination perceived by people with a diagnosis of schizophrenic disorders. INternational study of DIscrimination and stiGma Outcomes (INDIGO): French results]. (United States)

    Daumerie, N; Vasseur Bacle, S; Giordana, J-Y; Bourdais Mannone, C; Caria, A; Roelandt, J-L


    The INDIGO study (INternational study of DIscrimination and stiGma Outcomes) aims at assessing the impact of schizophrenic disorders diagnosis on privacy, social and professional life, in terms of discrimination. In the general population, and even among health and social professionals, erroneous negative stereotypes (double personality, dangerosity) lead to high social distance. And this has an impact on various parts of daily life: employment, housing, compliance, self-esteem… About a tenth of the adult population suffers from mental disorders at any one time. These disorders now account for about 12% of the global impact of disability, and this will rise to 15% by the year 2020. People living with schizophrenia, for example, experience reduced social participation, whilst public images of mental illness and social reactions add a dimension of suffering, which has been described as a "second illness". Stigmatizing attitudes and discriminatory behavior among the general population against people with severe mental illness are common in all countries. Globally, little is known of effective interventions against stigma. It is clear that the negative effects of stigma can act as formidable barriers to active recovery. The INDIGO study intends to establish detailed international data on how stigma and discrimination affect the lives of people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. The first aim of the INDIGO study is to conduct qualitative and quantitative interviews with 25 people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia in each participating site, to elicit information on how the condition affects their everyday lives, with a focus upon sites in Europe. The second is to gather data for all participating countries on the laws, policies and regulations which set a clear distinction between people with a diagnosis of mental illness and others, to establish an international profile of such discrimination. A new scale (Discrimination and Stigma Scale [DISC]), used in a face

  14. Credentialing high school psychology teachers. (United States)

    Weaver, Kenneth A


    The National Standards for High School Psychology Curricula (American Psychological Association, 2013b) require a teacher with considerable psychology content knowledge to teach high school psychology courses effectively. In this study, I examined the initial teaching credential requirements for high school psychology teachers in the 50 states plus the District of Columbia. Thirty-four states (the District of Columbia is included as a state) require the social studies credential to teach high school psychology. An analysis of the items on standardized tests used by states to validate the content knowledge required to teach social studies indicates little or no presence of psychology, a reflection of psychology's meager presence in the social studies teacher preparation curricula. Thus, new teachers with the social studies teaching credential are not prepared to teach high school psychology according to the National Standards. Approval of The College, Career, and Civic Life (C3) Framework for Social Studies State Standards: Guidance for Enhancing the Rigor of K-12 Civics, Economics, Geography, and History (National Council for the Social Studies, 2013) presents an opportunity to advocate for establishing a psychology credential in the 34 states. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Automutilação de dedos e lábio em paciente esquizofrênico Self-mutilation of fingers and lips in a schizophrenic patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breno Satler de Oliveira Diniz


    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: Episódios de automutilação grave são raramente observados na prática psiquiá­trica. Ocorrem principalmente em pacientes psicóticos, sendo o principal diagnóstico a esquizofrenia. As regiões mais comumente automutiladas são o pênis e os olhos. RELATO DE CASO: Relatamos o caso de um paciente portador de esquizofrenia paranóide que desenvolveu quadro de auto-amputação de lábios e falanges secundário a alucinações auditivas de comando e delírios místico-religiosos. CONCLUSÃO: Episódios de automutilação são eventos raros em pacientes esquizofrênicos. Deve-se nestes casos identificar pródromos ou fatores desencadeantes destes episódios para se instituir rapidamente abordagens para prevenir ou diminuir o risco de sua ocorrência nestes pacientes.CONTEXT: Severe self-mutilation episodes are rare in psychiatric practice. Most patients are psychotic during such acts and the main diagnosis is schizophrenia. The regions most commonly self-mutilated are the penis and the eyes. CASE REPORT: A patient previously diagnosed with schizophrenia started self-mutilating his lip and phalanxes secondary to command auditory hallucinations and influenced by mystic-religious delusions. CONCLUSION: Self-mutilation episodes are rare in schizophrenic patients. In such case, it should be identified prodrome symptoms or provoking situations in order to promptly institute strategies to prevent or lessen the risk of new episodes.

  16. [Foucault's relevance for psychology]. (United States)

    Pastor, Juan


    In this article, we will attempt to address one of the most outstanding and influential thinkers of the past century: Michel Foucault, Philosopher, Psychologist, and above all (university) Professor. Michel Foucault is certainly versatile: Historian (of madness, clinical practice, imprisonment and sexuality), Archaeologist (of knowledge), Analyst (of discourse and power relations), Psychologist (genealogy of subjectivity) and Philosopher (of power and the subject). With this article, we eventually expect to offer some clues to be able to use the work of Michel Foucault for the problematization of Psychology.

  17. Qualitative Research in Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fattah Hanurawan


    Full Text Available Abstract:Qualitative  research  is  a  research  method    studying  subjective meaning of participant’s world about  an object researched. Steps of qualitative research  in  psychology  are:  researchers  select  research  topic,  researchers formulate  research  questions,  researchers  design  the  study,  researchers  collect data, researchers analyses  data,  researchers  generate  findings,  researchers validate findings, and researchers write research report. Some of the qualitative research  designs  are  grounded  research,  phenomenology  research,  case  study research,  and  ethnography  research.  In  some  situations,  researchers  often  meet questions  that  reach  beyond  the  prescription  of  the  APA  ethical  guidelines concerning  human  participants.  Researchers  of  qualitative  research  in psychology  can  generalize  their  research  findings  to  other  people,  times,  or treatments  to  the  degree  to  which  they  are  similar to  other  people,  times,  or treatments in the original research (naturalistic generalization. There are some strategies  for  expanding  qualitative  research  as  a research  approach  so  the methodology  can  be  accepted  as  one  significant  method  in  understanding psychological phenomena. Keywords:qualitative research, psychology.

  18. Psychology as a Moral Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinkmann, Svend

    What does morality have to do with psychology in a value-neutral, postmodern world? According to a provocative new book, everything. Taking exception with current ideas in the mainstream (including cultural, evolutionary, and neuropsychology) as straying from the discipline’s ethical foundations......, Psychology as a Moral Science argues that psychological phenomena are inherently moral, and that psychology, as prescriptive and interventive practice, reflects specific moral principles. The book cites normative moral standards, as far back as Aristotle, that give human thoughts, feelings, and actions...... meaning, and posits psychology as one of the critical methods of organizing normative values in society; at the same time it carefully notes the discipline’s history of being sidetracked by overemphasis on theoretical constructs and physical causes—what the author terms “the psychologizing of morality...

  19. Evolutionary psychology and intelligence research. (United States)

    Kanazawa, Satoshi


    This article seeks to unify two subfields of psychology that have hitherto stood separately: evolutionary psychology and intelligence research/differential psychology. I suggest that general intelligence may simultaneously be an evolved adaptation and an individual-difference variable. Tooby and Cosmides's (1990a) notion of random quantitative variation on a monomorphic design allows us to incorporate heritable individual differences in evolved adaptations. The Savanna-IQ Interaction Hypothesis, which is one consequence of the integration of evolutionary psychology and intelligence research, can potentially explain why less intelligent individuals enjoy TV more, why liberals are more intelligent than conservatives, and why night owls are more intelligent than morning larks, among many other findings. The general approach proposed here will allow us to integrate evolutionary psychology with any other aspect of differential psychology. Copyright 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Introducing positive psychology to SLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Mercer


    Full Text Available Positive psychology is a rapidly expanding subfield in psychology that has important implications for the field of second language acquisition (SLA. This paper introduces positive psychology to the study of language by describing its key tenets. The potential contributions of positive psychology are contextualized with reference to prior work, including the humanistic movement in language teaching, models of motivation, the concept of an affective filter, studies of the good language learner, and the concepts related to the self. There are reasons for both encouragement and caution as studies inspired by positive psychology are undertaken. Papers in this special issue of SSLLT cover a range of quantitative and qualitative methods with implications for theory, research, and teaching practice. The special issue serves as a springboard for future research in SLA under the umbrella of positive psychology.

  1. Forensic psychology and correctional psychology: Distinct but related subfields of psychological science and practice. (United States)

    Neal, Tess M S


    This article delineates 2 separate but related subfields of psychological science and practice applicable across all major areas of the field (e.g., clinical, counseling, developmental, social, cognitive, community). Forensic and correctional psychology are related by their historical roots, involvement in the justice system, and the shared population of people they study and serve. The practical and ethical contexts of these subfields is distinct from other areas of psychology-and from one another-with important implications for ecologically valid research and ethically sound practice. Forensic psychology is a subfield of psychology in which basic and applied psychological science or scientifically oriented professional practice is applied to the law to help resolve legal, contractual, or administrative matters. Correctional psychology is a subfield of psychology in which basic and applied psychological science or scientifically oriented professional practice is applied to the justice system to inform the classification, treatment, and management of offenders to reduce risk and improve public safety. There has been and continues to be great interest in both subfields-especially the potential for forensic and correctional psychological science to help resolve practical issues and questions in legal and justice settings. This article traces the shared and separate developmental histories of these subfields, outlines their important distinctions and implications, and provides a common understanding and shared language for psychologists interested in applying their knowledge in forensic or correctional contexts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. [Psychological aspects of abortion]. (United States)

    Attali, L


    To propose recommendations for women's counseling in abortion request and the psychological experience of orthogenic teams. Bibliographic search in the Medline database, PubMed, Cochrane Database Library, EM Premium bases, ENT Unistra and Cairn from 1990 to 2016. During the pre-abortion consultations, it is recommended to respect the choice of the woman on to see or not the ultrasound images (gradeC) and determine with her the time it needs to perform abortion (professional agreement). Women's satisfaction seems greater when they have the possibility to choose the abortion method (grade B). It is therefore important that both methods are available to all gestational ages (professional agreement). There is no relationship between an increase in psychiatric disorders and induced abortion (NP2). Meetings for professionals are useful and should, to the extent possible, be established (professional agreement). Improving psychological support for women involve listening them and respect their choice. This also involves thinking as a team. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Psychology of anomie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narciso Benbenaste


    Full Text Available Anomie is a phenomenon which not only affects daily life but also the quality of institutions and therefore, as studied by economic neo-institutionalism, the possibilities of economic development. So far the treatment of this phenomenon comes predominantly from the sociological theory. In the fi rst part of this paper we recognize some of Emile Durkheim´s contributions, adding Nino´s perspicacious comments as regards “anomia boba” (“dull anomie”.Then we describe, what makes the main purpose of this article, what we believe to be the basic psychological confi guration of a population in which anomie is not perceived as a negative value. That basic confi guration, which takes as a reference observations and data from our own research, consists of the following four characteristics-defi ned psychologically as regressive features: a The individual development represented as opposite to social interest; b tendency to represent the hierarchy as authoritarianism, where there is no difference between authority and authoritarianism; c the primarization of secondary links; d male chauvinism.

  4. Psychological Perspectives on Interrogation. (United States)

    Vrij, Aldert; Meissner, Christian A; Fisher, Ronald P; Kassin, Saul M; Morgan, Charles A; Kleinman, Steven M


    Proponents of "enhanced interrogation techniques" in the United States have claimed that such methods are necessary for obtaining information from uncooperative terrorism subjects. In the present article, we offer an informed, academic perspective on such claims. Psychological theory and research shows that harsh interrogation methods are ineffective. First, they are likely to increase resistance by the subject rather than facilitate cooperation. Second, the threatening and adversarial nature of harsh interrogation is often inimical to the goal of facilitating the retrieval of information from memory and therefore reduces the likelihood that a subject will provide reports that are extensive, detailed, and accurate. Third, harsh interrogation methods make lie detection difficult. Analyzing speech content and eliciting verifiable details are the most reliable cues to assessing credibility; however, to elicit such cues subjects must be encouraged to provide extensive narratives, something that does not occur in harsh interrogations. Evidence is accumulating for the effectiveness of rapport-based information-gathering approaches as an alternative to harsh interrogations. Such approaches promote cooperation, enhance recall of relevant and reliable information, and facilitate assessments of credibility. Given the available evidence that torture is ineffective, why might some laypersons, policymakers, and interrogation personnel support the use of torture? We conclude our review by offering a psychological perspective on this important question.

  5. Normality in Analytical Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Myers


    Full Text Available Although C.G. Jung’s interest in normality wavered throughout his career, it was one of the areas he identified in later life as worthy of further research. He began his career using a definition of normality which would have been the target of Foucault’s criticism, had Foucault chosen to review Jung’s work. However, Jung then evolved his thinking to a standpoint that was more aligned to Foucault’s own. Thereafter, the post Jungian concept of normality has remained relatively undeveloped by comparison with psychoanalysis and mainstream psychology. Jung’s disjecta membra on the subject suggest that, in contemporary analytical psychology, too much focus is placed on the process of individuation to the neglect of applications that consider collective processes. Also, there is potential for useful research and development into the nature of conflict between individuals and societies, and how normal people typically develop in relation to the spectrum between individuation and collectivity.

  6. Psychological dimensions of Energy Conservation


    Tonello, Graciela; Jakovcevic, Adriana


    One of the most serious current environmental problems is the depletion of non renewable natural resources. The vast majority of our daily actions involve the consumption of energy and they increase the problem. Environmental psychology studies the psychological motivations that determine pro-ecological behaviour. In this context the aim of this review was to determine which psychological models and variables are better descriptors of residential energy conservation, comparing the predictive ...

  7. German cross-cultural psychology


    Trommsdorff, Gisela


    The present study deals with German-language cross-cultural research in different fields of psychology which attempts to achieve one Or more goals of cross-cultural psychology. First, methodological problems are discussed, followed by a selective presentation of cross-cultural research in personality, clinical, ethological, developmental, and social psychology. The theoretical and methodological advancement of these studies is investigated with respect to four approaches - universals in cross...

  8. Transpersonal Psychology: Mapping Spiritual Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwight Judy


    Full Text Available The first Journal of Transpersonal Psychology was published in 1969. Since this signal event, transpersonal psychology has emerged as a field of theory and application. A way has been made in Western psychology for the appreciation and study of interior subjective awareness, the domain of spiritual experience. One of the most recent contributions, the Wilber-Combs Lattice, offers a typology to account for both developmental processes throughout the human life span, as well as different qualities of spiritual experience.

  9. Psychological Impact of Severe Obesity. (United States)

    Collins, Jennifer; Meng, Chelsea; Eng, Anna


    The causes of severe obesity are multifactorial and include metabolic, dietary, physical, and psychological aspects. Additionally, the impact of severe obesity affects more than one's physical health. This article attempts to explore the psychological impact of severe obesity specifically in the areas of mood, eating disorders, sleep disturbance, chronic pain, and quality of life. Additionally, obesity treatment options of lifestyle modification and bariatric surgery that include psychological assessment and/or cognitive behavioral intervention are discussed.

  10. Teaching psychology to computing students


    Taylor, Jacqui


    The aim of this paper is twofold. The first aim is to discuss some observations gained from teaching Psychology to Computing students, highlighting both the wide range of areas where Psychology is relevant to Computing education and the topics that are relevant at different stages of students’ education. The second aim is to consider findings from research investigating the characteristics of Computing and Psychology students. It is proposed that this information could be considered in the de...

  11. Sports Psychology: Maximizing Team Potential


    Fransen, Katrien; Vande Broek, Gert


    The application of sport psychology is often overlooked in favor of the more familiar training of physical abilities and technical volleyball skills. Sport psychology interventions are too often perceived as the last call for help if all else has failed to generate success. However, sport psychology is much more than picking up the pieces after a defeat and instead should be regarded as a very useful tool in all stages of the training and coaching process. The present chapter will outline the...

  12. Psychological preparation in sport shooting


    Ledecká, Kateřina


    Title: Psychological preparation in sport shooting Objectives: The objective of this thesis is usage of psychological preparation by sport shooting representation team in Czech Republic. How they are informed about psychological preparation. What it means to them. Which types of regulation they use and how they behave before and after a competition. Methods: A Questionnaire was used as a method for data obtaining. The questionnaire was compiled for the purposes of this Thesis. The researched ...

  13. Psychology is a Developmental Science


    Greenberg, Gary; Partridge, Ty; Mosack, Victoria; Lambdin, Charles


    In this paper we argue that psychology should be understood as a developmental science, and we place the discipline squarely in the realm of the natural sciences. The case is made that scientific progress in psychology has been (and still is) impeded by prolonged misadventures down conceptual dead ends such as biological reductionism, the nature/nurture debate, evolutionary psychology, and the persistent insistence on emphasizing dependent variables that defy observation and measurement, such...

  14. Cognitive procedures in sports psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janez Rojšek


    Full Text Available Sport with its emphasised efficiency component clearly reflects cognitive contents and the way they are linked to experience and behaviour. Beliefs, subjective judgements, attitudes, etc. define the attitude to sport, training, competition and results. Their contents can be defined by a psychological examination. We assess their meaning, appropriateness or inappropriateness. They can also be changed by using diverse cognitive-behavioural or reeducative procedures. Psychological work is carried out through systematic psychological preparation, crisis interventions and special psychological preparation within the framework of a training process. Cognitive forms of work represent a significant part of ideomotor, verbal, intellectual and situational training.

  15. Psychology Students' Interest in Graduate Training: A Need for Partnership among Undergraduate Psychology and Graduate School Psychology Programs (United States)

    Stinnett, Terry A.; Solomon, Benjamin G.


    An initial point of contact for recruitment of qualified persons into school psychology is undergraduate psychology degree programs. Unfortunately, the discipline of school psychology appears to receive at best only cursory coverage in undergraduate psychology texts, curriculum, and discussion by psychology department faculty even though school…

  16. From psychology of adaptation to psychology of social change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awad, Sarah H.

    Introducing psychology to first year students comes with its own challenges of presenting it in a clear introductory manner, yet also triggering students to think critically about the theories they are presented with. If we were to think of social psychology as a discipline that mutually influences...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.O. Petrenko


    Full Text Available The article reflects the results of influence the conditions of work upon psychological and psychophysiologic status of stomatological staff. The results revealed that labor activity of stomatological staff influences on their functional condition and capacity for work. Changes of psychological, psychophysiologic indices and motoric characteristics proved it.

  18. Counseling Psychology Doctoral Students' Training Experiences in Primary Care Psychology (United States)

    Cox, Jared


    This qualitative study focused on counseling psychology doctoral students' perspectives regarding their practicum training experience in primary care psychology. The four participants included three females and one male. Semi-structured individual and focus group interviews were used to explore participants' experiences. The participants described…

  19. Parental Physical and Psychological Aggression: Psychological Symptoms in Young Adults (United States)

    Miller-Perrin, Cindy L.; Perrin, Robin D.; Kocur, Jodie L.


    Objective: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between various levels of parent-child physical violence and psychological symptoms reported by college students, while controlling for demographic variables, severity and frequency of violence, and co-occurrence of parental psychological aggression. Method: Participants…

  20. The Window on Psychology's Literature: A History of Psychological Abstracts (United States)

    Benjamin, Ludy T., Jr.; VandenBos, Gary R.


    With the rapid expansion of scientific information at the end of the 19th century, disciplines sought ways to keep their members abreast of the relevant research. Those pressures were felt in the science of psychology in the United States, where psychologists developed a bibliographic aid, The Psychological Index, in 1895 only a little more than a…

  1. Academic psychology or the lost meaning of psychology as praxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todorović Milorad V.


    Full Text Available Academic psychology has interpreted the development of neuro-biological sciences, especially neurobiological psychology, as the death of the soul and the disappearance of its hermeneutic dimension. One could ask maliciously why the need to look so deeply for the meaning sought by the Soul and "speech-being", at a time when the secrets of neurons are successfully decoded, as well as their chemical and electrical activity. It would be a huge mistake to think, by following the achievements of the so-called empirical research in psychology and works that can be published only in Serbian journal Psihologija, that the same cognitive schemes can equally well explaine the behavior of individual cells and individual behavior. Fortunately, the subject’s soul, which is believed to have been banished from the "real", "true" science, and biological theories, returns even under the banner of cognitivism. Academic psychology would still have to ask what has always been its primary objective: what constitutes the soul; what types of ideas, what kind of logical diversity constitutes the soul. Psychology does not have to know the answer, but it must be noted that only dynamic psychology seeks one. So, for the sake of psychology as praxis, dynamic psychology should be a syllabus in the education of future psychologists, who would not imitate otorhinolaryngologists or ophthalmologists.

  2. Military Psychology | Ijide | African Journal for the Psychological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    According to Jean Piaget (1970), psychology is applicable to all human activities and situations, education and psychotherapy, work and leisure in nearly all sectors of employment particularly in the military (emphasis mine). There are however some individuals who believe that psychology might only be applicable to the ...

  3. Psychological parameters of psoriasis. (United States)

    Kouris, A; Platsidaki, E; Kouskoukis, C; Christodoulou, C


    Psoriasis is a chronic, inflammatory scaling dermatosis. The marked visible appearance of the lesions have a negative impact on body image that leads to decreased self-esteem, hence seriously compromising the patient's quality of life. The clinical picture critically affects the social well-being of the patient since the disease is commonly misunderstood and feared by the social environment as being contagious. The patient feels stigmatized and this further intensifies their lack of self-confidence and self-esteem. Feelings of shame and guilt increase the tendency toward suicidal ideation. The poor quality of life of psoriatic patients has been associated with excessive alcohol consumption, increased smoking and greater use of tranquilizers, sedatives and antidepressants. As far as mental impairment is concerned, a correlation has been found between psychological stress and the clinical severity of symptoms: the more mentally affected the patient, the more severe the dermatologic lesions. Similarly, stressful life events constitute a major risk for the occurrence and recurrence, exacerbating the severity and duration of the symptoms. Depression and anxiety can worsen the disease or cause resistance to treatment or patient's indifference, which in turn can lead to expensive and prolonged treatment. Not least, the disease itself contributes to anxiety, depression and psychological stress, thus creating a "vicious circle" that is difficult to manage. Given that women seem to invest more in their personal appearance than men, it is hardly surprising that female psoriatic patients report higher levels of depression. Similarly, the risk of mental disorders is also higher in younger patients for whom body image plays an equally significant role. The severity of the disease, side effects of therapy and mental disorders are among the causes that have been attributed to sexual dysfunction reported by some psoriatic patients. At the social level, stigma, social rejection

  4. Making Psychology a Science: A Discourse Analysis upon the history of psychology within introductory psychology textbooks


    Mowat, Emma


    Abstract The history of psychology within introductory psychology textbooks is the focus of a discourse analysis (DA), to explore how it constructs the scientific status of the discipline that it is chronicling. Given the importance of Psychology’s scientific status to retain its cultural authority, and the lack of a clear demarcation between science and other forms of knowledge producing activities, there is a need to understand better how psychological knowledge came to be seen as scie...

  5. Psychological aspects of pain. (United States)

    Gorczyca, Rafał; Filip, Rafał; Walczak, Ewa


    Pain is defined "an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage". Pain is a sensation of the body, and is always an unpleasant emotional experience. The role of psychology is auxiliary and supplemental to medicine. This is an aid addressed to the patient, physician and patient's caregivers: professional caregivers, family members and significant others. At each stage of the diagnostic and therapeutic process, psychology offers help, both from the cognitive and practical aspects. The objective of the article is to present important psychological aspects of studies concerning pain, and the psychological methods and techniques of pain treatment. Pain is the leading reason for patients seeking medical care and is one of the most disabling, burdensome, and costly conditions. Pain accompanies many diseases, each one of which generates unique/separate diagnostic, therapeutic and research problems. DEPRESSION AND RELATED PSYCHICAL DISORDERS: There is a significant relationship between depression and pain symptoms, as well as between pain and suicidal thoughts. Patients with a long history of pain disorders also have increased depression and anxiety symptoms, as well as suicidal thoughts. Patients with more severe depression and anxiety symptoms also have an increase in pain problems. The intensity of pain correlates with the intensity of psychopathological symptoms - both with mood lowering and with anxiety symptoms and worry. Active pain coping strategies strive to function in spite of pain, or to distract oneself from pain, are associated with adaptive functioning. Passive strategies involve withdrawal or relinquishing control to an external force or agent and are related to greater pain and depression. Pain catastrophizing is a negatively distorted perception of pain as awful, horrible and unbearable. Catastrophizing is strongly associated with depression and pain. Studies in which

  6. Psychological diagnosis in sexology. (United States)

    Giommi, R


    The author presents a model based on verbal and non-verbal instruments in order to elaborate a psychological diagnosis in troubles of sexual behavior. The instruments usually employed are the following: the map aimed at verifying harmony or conflict with significant people; family drawing, another means to check harmony or conflict in the nuclear family; genogram, in order to reconstruct family myths; body drawing aimed at discovering the body parts that give pleasure, uneasiness, annoyance-tickle and the problems connected with genitals; questionnaire on the couple aimed at finding out areas of mutual dissatisfaction; the drawing of the shared space in the couple, represented by the WE area, in order to identify the relational/emotional deficiencies. Using this model we can simplify the anamnesis, focus on the problematic areas, quickly check the unconscious contents and define a diagnosis with the subsequent hypothesis of intervention.

  7. A Contemporary Story of School Psychology (United States)

    Annan, Jean; Priestley, Anna


    A review of recent school psychology publications was conducted to discover the espoused theory of contemporary school psychology, as distinct from school psychology practice. We considered that identification of the espoused theory of school psychology, the story of school psychology, would support professional reflection and the identification…

  8. Psychology: Is it applied enough?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drenth, P.J.D.


    The question "Is psychology applied enough?" can be regarded in two ways. In the first place, it could refer to the distinction "pure versus applied science", and the reproach that modern scientific experimental psychology has little to offer to the practitioner. It is argued that this distinction

  9. Psychology and Education, Together Again (United States)

    Rosenfield, Sylvia


    The relationship between psychology and education has waxed and waned over the past century. In addition, a core issue for psychologists is how to bridge the gap between theory and practice in applied settings such as schools. While acknowledging the work that has been done, it is apparent that the effective dissemination of psychology to…

  10. Open source in Experimental Psychology


    Dalmaijer, Edwin


    Talk on using open-source software in experimental psychology. Presented on 3 March 2015, at the Attention, Brain and Cognitive Development group ( at the University of Oxford's Department of Experimental Psychology.

  11. Entrepreneurship Psychological Characteristics of Nurses


    Mohammad Reza Dehghanzadeh; Golrasteh Kholasehzadeh; Masoumeh Birjandi; Ensieh Antikchi; Mohamad Reza Sobhan; Hossein Neamatzadeh


    Nurses are full partners with other health care professionals. Until fairly recently the scope of nurses potential in entrepreneurship has not been widely recognized. The present study tries to evaluate entrepreneurship psychological characteristics among nurses. The survey instrument included scales measuring entrepreneurship psychological characteristics including locus of control, need for achievement, risk taking propensity, ambiguity tolerance, and innovation, among nurses in the Shahid ...

  12. Research methods for economic psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ranyard, Rob; Antonides, Gerrit


    This chapter provides an overview of possible avenues for research in relation to various key economic-psychological problems. Theoretical research mainly comprises (mathematical) modelling of economic psychological processes. The starting point for theoretical research often is literature search

  13. Ethical issues in exercise psychology. (United States)

    Pauline, Jeffrey S; Pauline, Gina A; Johnson, Scott R; Gamble, Kelly M


    Exercise psychology encompasses the disciplines of psychiatry, clinical and counseling psychology, health promotion, and the movement sciences. This emerging field involves diverse mental health issues, theories, and general information related to physical activity and exercise. Numerous research investigations across the past 20 years have shown both physical and psychological benefits from physical activity and exercise. Exercise psychology offers many opportunities for growth while positively influencing the mental and physical health of individuals, communities, and society. However, the exercise psychology literature has not addressed ethical issues or dilemmas faced by mental health professionals providing exercise psychology services. This initial discussion of ethical issues in exercise psychology is an important step in continuing to move the field forward. Specifically, this article will address the emergence of exercise psychology and current health behaviors and offer an overview of ethics and ethical issues, education/training and professional competency, cultural and ethnic diversity, multiple-role relationships and conflicts of interest, dependency issues, confidentiality and recording keeping, and advertisement and self-promotion.

  14. Educational Psychology: A Future Retrospective (United States)

    Harris, Karen R.


    In my response to Alexander's (2018) paper marking the 125th anniversary of the American Psychological Association and the field of educational psychology, I have taken the perspective of a member of our discipline from some time in the future who is contributing to a larger work looking back at the history and development of our field (thus, a…

  15. Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychology (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2013


    In the past 50 years forensic psychological practice has expanded dramatically. Because the practice of forensic psychology differs in important ways from more traditional practice areas (Monahan, 1980) the "Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychologists" were developed and published in 1991 (Committee on Ethical Guidelines for Forensic…

  16. Interdisciplinarity and Undergraduate Psychology Education (United States)

    Goodwin-Smith, Ian; Pearson, Elissa; Ranzijn, Rob; Campbell, Alan; Lushington, Kurt


    This work identifies the human service sector as an important and growing destination for psychology graduates. It further identifies a number of key themes which flow from that observation and which are important to configuring psychology education in a way which takes account of emerging trends. The major theme identified in the research is the…

  17. Teaching Psychology to Computing Students (United States)

    Taylor, Jacqui


    The aim of this paper is two-fold. The first aim is to discuss some observations gained from teaching psychology to computing students, highlighting both the wide range of areas where psychology is relevant to computing education and the topics that are relevant at different stages of students' education. The second aim is to consider findings…

  18. Gestalt Psychology and Bilingual Education. (United States)

    Blomstedt, Bob; And Others

    Several concepts detailed in Gestalt psychology/therapy appear to have a close relationship with many concepts being applied in bilingual education. The primary contribution of Gestalt psychology to learning theory in the U.S. is an emphasis on perception and reintegration of relationships within an organized whole. To the teacher this means that…

  19. Psychological correlates of childhood obesity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Puder, J J; Munsch, S


    ... and sex of the children and the degree of overweight, data on different psychological or biological factors are often controversial. In addition, the causal relationship between obesity and psychological factors, such as impulsivity, depression, anxiety, familial influences (3) and poor social functioning, (3,4) is not clearly defined. T...

  20. "Project Psychology": A Classroom Competition (United States)

    Fleck, Bethany K. B.; Hussey, Heather D.


    The authors describe an original and unique series of classroom group-work activities organized as a competitive game called "Project Psychology," which was implemented in an Introduction to Psychology course. The project goals included increasing student participation, interest, content comprehension, and motivation. Fostering…

  1. Sports Psychology and the Coach. (United States)

    Cohen, Greta L., Ed.

    This monograph documents the speeches presented at the 1988 Symposium on Sports Psychology and the Coach. Presentations ranged from empirical research studies to anecdotal methodologies for coping with problems of anxiety. The following presentations are included: (1) "The Coach as Psychologist: When and How" (Robert Rotella); (2) "Psychology for…

  2. Clinically speaking, psychological abuse matters. (United States)

    Começanha, Rita; Basto-Pereira, Miguel; Maia, Ângela


    The adverse effects of intimate partner violence (IPV) on mental health are well-established, except in the cases of psychological abuse and men's victimization. This research study examines the prevalence and the independent contribution of psychological IPV on mental health for both genders. The initial sample comprises 661 college students from a Portuguese public university, who completed an e-survey. Statistical analysis focused on a subsample (n=364), 23% of which were men, after removing cases of physical and/or sexual abuse. A total of 75% of men and 72% of women reported lifetime psychological victimization and no differences were found for sociodemographic factors, including gender. However, women reported significantly more instigations of psychological abusive acts (OR =5.41, 95% CI=1.88-15.55). Multivariate linear regression models revealed that post-traumatic stress symptoms-PTSS (β=.51; p<.001), depression (β=.34; p<.001) and anxiety (β=.22; p<.001)-were predicted by psychological IPV. The strongest relationship was established between psychological IPV and PTSS, and the final model accounts for 28.6% of the variance (F(6357)=23.86, p<.001). This article provides an empirical basis to recognize the unique and serious impact of psychological IPV on mental health, and recommends screening psychological IPV as part of the clinical routine, developing a gender-inclusive approach, and implementing evidence-based protocols tailored to the needs of these victims. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Positive Psychology and Career Development (United States)

    Aulthouse, Michelle; Kolbert, Jered B.; Bundick, Matthew J.; Crothers, Laura M.


    The article details how school counselors can use principles of positive psychology to promote students' career development by facilitating students' pursuit of purpose and meaning. Specifically, the publication identifies how school counselors can actively employ with their students five constructs of positive psychology--namely strengths,…

  4. Reestablishing Clinical Psychology's Subjective Core (United States)

    Hunsberger, Peter Hume


    Comments on the report by the APA Presidential Task Force on Evidence-Based Practice (see record 2006-05893-001) entitled Evidence-based practice in psychology. The Task Force is to be commended for their report valuing evidence from "clinical expertise" on a par with "research data" (p. 272) in guiding psychological practices. The current author…

  5. Psychology Practice: Design for Tomorrow (United States)

    Goodheart, Carol D.


    This article offers a blueprint for modernizing the delivery of high-quality behavioral health care and for improving access to care by a public sorely in need of psychological services. The blueprint brings together disparate elements of psychology practice into a more unified structure, an updated house, based upon advances in the essential…

  6. Psychology between science and profession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todorović Milorad


    Full Text Available Psychology is powerful science, with great knowledge deposited for understanding the individual (his development and pathological outcomes, behavior and predicting behavior in different situations, groups, historical flows and historical characters, cultural and civilisation changes, artistic and other creations. Psychology, as it becomes to the science of soul, has covered all areas of human spirit. Discreprancy between potential and power of psychology and her use (in the work of psychologists author connects for positioning and realisation of psychology in university teachings. Whit the help of psychology we can, not just successes in life but we can also understand life itself. But, how many psychologists can contribute to that? Why is that so?.

  7. Psychological workload and body weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Dorthe; Gyntelberg, F; Heitmann, B L


    BACKGROUND: According to Karasek's Demand/Control Model, workload can be conceptualized as job strain, a combination of psychological job demands and control in the job. High job strain may result from high job demands combined with low job control. Aim To give an overview of the literature...... on the association between obesity and psychological workload. METHOD: We carried out a review of the associations between psychological workload and body weight in men and women. In total, 10 cross-sectional studies were identified. RESULTS: The review showed little evidence of a general association between...... psychological workload and body mass index. Only weak positive associations were found, and only between elements of psychological workload and overall body weight. For body fat distribution, two out of three studies showed a positive association in men, but the associations became insignificant after...

  8. Premenstrual syndrome: a psychological overview. (United States)

    Riven, L


    This paper reviews the premenstrual syndrome (PMS) from a historical and psychological perspective. The physician must recognize that the premenstruum-the four days before the onset of the menses-is a `high risk' phase for women. They may demonstrate somatic and psychological complaints such as irritability, aggression, tension, anxiety, depression, lethargy, insomnia, poor coordination and concentration. Psychological disturbances can range from self-deprecation and the feeling that `everything is too much' to pronounced feelings of oppression and depression. Psychiatric patients may become even more disturbed at this time. Recent reviews on PMS have studied its etiology and its possible connection to hormone imbalance, but to date there is no complete explanation for the syndrome's psychological symptoms. The most promising treatments for the psychological symptoms of PMS are pyridoxine (although there are conflicting reports about it), antidepressants, benzodiazepines if anxiety and tension dominate, and ongoing psychotherapy for severe cases.

  9. The psychological science of addiction. (United States)

    Gifford, Elizabeth; Humphreys, Keith


    To discuss the contributions and future course of the psychological science of addiction. The psychology of addiction includes a tremendous range of scientific activity, from the basic experimental laboratory through increasingly broad relational contexts, including patient-practitioner interactions, families, social networks, institutional settings, economics and culture. Some of the contributions discussed here include applications of behavioral principles, cognitive and behavioral neuroscience and the development and evaluation of addiction treatment. Psychology has at times been guilty of proliferating theories with relatively little pruning, and of overemphasizing intrapersonal explanations for human behavior. However, at its best, defined as the science of the individual in context, psychology is an integrated discipline using diverse methods well-suited to capture the multi-dimensional nature of addictive behavior. Psychology has a unique ability to integrate basic experimental and applied clinical science and to apply the knowledge gained from multiple levels of analysis to the pragmatic goal of reducing the prevalence of addiction.

  10. Time Breath of Psychological Theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tateo, Luca; Valsiner, Jaan


    Psychology as a self-aspiring, ambitious, developmental science faces the crucial limit of time—both theoretically and practically. The issue of time in constructing psychology’s theories is a major unresolved metatheoretical task. This raises several questions about generalization of knowledge......: which is the time length of breath of psychological theories? Which is the temporal dimension of psychological processes? In this article we discuss the role of different axiomatic assumptions about time in the construction of psychological theories. How could different theories include a concept...... of time—or fail to do that? How can they generalize with respect to time? The different conceptions of time often remain implicit, while shaping the concepts used in understanding psychological processes. Any preconception about time in human development will foster the generalizability of theory, as well...

  11. What are Higher Psychological Functions? (United States)

    Toomela, Aaro


    The concept of Higher Psychological Functions (HPFs) may seem to be well know in psychology today. Yet closer analysis reveals that HPFs are either not defined at all or if defined, then by a set of characteristics not justified theoretically. It is not possible to determine whether HPFs exist or not, unless they are defined. Most commonly the idea of HPFs is related to Vygotsky's theory. According to him, HPFs are: (1) psychological systems, (2) developing from natural processes, (3) mediated by symbols, (4) forms of psychological cooperation, which are (5) internalized in the course of development, (6) products of historical development, (7) conscious and (8) voluntary (9) active forms of adaptation to the environment, (10) dynamically changing in development, and (11) ontogeny of HPFs recapitulates cultural history. In this article these characteristics are discussed together with the relations among them. It is concluded that HPFs are real psychological phenomena.

  12. What is it like to be a person with schizophrenia in the social world? A first-person perspective study on Schizophrenic dissociality--part 1: state of the art. (United States)

    Stanghellini, Giovanni; Ballerini, Massimo


    This is a critical review of research on the subjective experience of social dysfunction in persons with schizophrenia. Studies from the phenomenological and cognitive paradigms are examined, and significant outcomes and shortcomings are pointed out. Clinical phenomenologists have mainly interpreted schizophrenic dissociality as an anomaly of prereflexive attunement. The main shortcoming of phenomenological research is that it lacks adequate methodology to collect reliable data since most studies are based on the analysis of a few typical cases. Cognitivism has reliably documented disorders of social functioning in large-scale experimental studies. The main shortcoming of most cognitive paradigms is that they do not properly investigate the personal level of experience in real-world functioning. We conclude that there is a need to reliably collect data through quantitative as well as qualitative methodology as established and accepted by the scientific community in the area of schizophrenic dissociality, reflecting the subjective experiences of people with schizophrenia in the real world. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Neural correlates of working memory deficits in schizophrenic patients. Ways to establish neurocognitive endophenotypes of psychiatric disorders; Neuronale Korrelate gestoerter Arbeitsgedaechtnisfunktionen bei schizophrenen Patienten. Ansaetze zur Etablierung neurokognitiver Endophaenotypen psychiatrischer Erkrankungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruber, O. [Universitaet des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie, Homburg (Saar) (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kognitions- und Neurowissenschaften, Leipzig (Germany); Gruber, E.; Falkai, P. [Universitaet des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie, Homburg (Saar) (Germany)


    This article briefly reviews some methodological limitations of functional neuroimaging studies in psychiatric patients. We argue that the investigation of the neural substrates of cognitive deficits in psychiatric disorders requires a combination of functional neuroimaging studies in healthy subjects with corresponding behavioral experiments in patients. In order to exemplify this methodological approach we review recent findings regarding the functional neuroanatomy of distinct components of human working memory and provide evidence for selective dysfunctions of cortical networks that underlie specific working memory deficits in schizophrenia. This identification of subgroups of schizophrenic patients according to neurocognitive parameters may facilitate the establishment of behavioral and neurophysiological endophenotypes and the development of a neurobiological classification of psychiatric disorders. (orig.) [German] Dieser Beitrag befasst sich mit einigen methodischen Problemen funktionell-bildgebender Studien mit psychiatrischen Patienten, aufgrund derer die Untersuchung der neuronalen Korrelate kognitiver Defizite bei psychiatrischen Erkrankungen einer Kombination funktionell-bildgebender Studien bei gesunden Normalprobanden mit Verhaltensuntersuchungen bei Patienten bedarf. Dieser methodische Ansatz wird am Beispiel von Arbeitsgedaechtnisfunktionen erlaeutert, wobei zunaechst neuere Erkenntnisse zur funktionellen Neuroanatomie verschiedener Komponenten des menschlichen Arbeitsgedaechtnisses referiert werden. Anschliessend werden bei schizophrenen Patienten erhobene Befunde vorgestellt, die auf spezifische Stoerungen der funktionellen Integritaet neuronaler Netzwerke mit Arbeitsgedaechtnisfunktionen hinweisen. Die damit verbundene Identifikation von Subgruppen schizophrener Patienten koennte zur Etablierung verhaltensneurophysiologisch definierter Endophaenotypen psychiatrischer Stoerungsbilder fuehren und die Entwicklung einer neurowissenschaftlich

  14. Two Spectrophotometric Assays for Dopamine Derivatives in Pharmaceutical Products and in Biological Samples of Schizophrenic Patients Using Copper Tetramine Complex and Tri-iodide Reagent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. Nour El-Dien


    Full Text Available Two simple, rapid, and sensitive spectrophotometric methods are proposed for the determination of levodopa (LD. The first method is based on coupling of 4-aminoantipyrine (4-AAP with one of the dopamine derivatives (LD, CD to give a new ligand that reacts with copper tetramine complex to give intensely colored chelates. The colored products are quantified spectrophotometrically at 525 and 520 nm for LD and CD, respectively. The optimization of the experimental conditions is described. The method has been used for the determination of 19.7–69.0 and 18.1–54.3μg mL−1 of LD and CD, respectively. The accuracy of the method is achieved by the values of recovery (100±0.2% and the precision is supported by the low standard deviation (SD =0.17–0.59 and relative standard deviation (CV =0.4%–1.54% values. The second method is based on the formation of ion-pair iodinated inner sphere or outer sphere colored complexes between the LD and triiodide ions at pH 5 and room temperature (23±3°C. This method has been used for the determination of LD within the concentration range 39.44–78.88μg mL−1 with SD =0.22–0.24 and recovery percent =100±0.3%. The sensitivity of the two methods is indicated by Sandell's sensitivity of 0.014–0.019 g cm−2. The results of the two methods are compared with those of the official method. The interference of common drug additives, degradation products, and excipients was also studied. The proposed methods were applied successfully to the determination of the LD-CD synthetic mixture and Levocare drug. The determination of LD in urine of some schizophrenic patients was applied with good precision and accuracy. The reliability of the methods was established by parallel determinations against the official British pharmacopoeia method.

  15. Two Spectrophotometric Assays for Dopamine Derivatives in Pharmaceutical Products and in Biological Samples of Schizophrenic Patients Using Copper Tetramine Complex and Triiodide Reagent (United States)


    Two simple, rapid, and sensitive spectrophotometric methods are proposed for the determination of levodopa (LD). The first method is based on coupling of 4-aminoantipyrine (4-AAP) with one of the dopamine derivatives (LD, CD) to give a new ligand that reacts with copper tetramine complex to give intensely colored chelates. The colored products are quantified spectrophotometrically at 525 and 520 nm for LD and CD, respectively. The optimization of the experimental conditions is described. The method has been used for the determination of 19.7–69.0 and 18.1–54.3 μg mL−1 of LD and CD, respectively. The accuracy of the method is achieved by the values of recovery (100 ± 0.2%) and the precision is supported by the low standard deviation (SD = 0.17–0.59) and relative standard deviation (CV = 0.4%–1.54%) values. The second method is based on the formation of ion-pair iodinated inner sphere or outer sphere colored complexes between the LD and triiodide ions at pH 5 and room temperature (23 ± 3°C). This method has been used for the determination of LD within the concentration range 39.44–78.88 μg mL−1 with SD = 0.22–0.24 and recovery percent = 100 ± 0.3%. The sensitivity of the two methods is indicated by Sandell's sensitivity of 0.014–0.019 g cm−2. The results of the two methods are compared with those of the official method. The interference of common drug additives, degradation products, and excipients was also studied. The proposed methods were applied successfully to the determination of the LD-CD synthetic mixture and Levocare drug. The determination of LD in urine of some schizophrenic patients was applied with good precision and accuracy. The reliability of the methods was established by parallel determinations against the official British pharmacopoeia method. PMID:15689633

  16. Sobrepeso e obesidade em pacientes esquizofrênicos em uso de clozapina comparado com o uso de outros antipsicóticos Overweight and obesity in schizophrenic patients taking clozapine compared to the use of other antipsychotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Lúcia Leitão-Azevedo


    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O uso de antipsicóticos tem sido fundamental no tratamento de portadores de esquizofrenia. Entretanto, tanto a clozapina quanto a maior parte dos antipsicóticos atípicos podem induzir um maior ganho de peso corporal e alterações metabólicas. OBJETIVO: Comparar a freqüência de sobrepeso e obesidade em pacientes esquizofrênicos expostos à clozapina com a dos expostos a demais antipsicóticos. MÉTODO: Foram estudados 121 pacientes esquizofrênicos, com idade de 18 anos ou mais, de ambos os sexos, atendidos no Ambulatório de Esquizofrenia e Demências do Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, encaminhados de forma consecutiva. Foram avaliadas medidas antropométricas de 53 pacientes em uso de clozapina e de 68 usando outros antipsicóticos, e todos preencheram os critérios diagnósticos de esquizofrenia do DSM-IV e CID-10. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferença significativa na freqüência do IMC entre os esquizofrênicos em uso de clozapina, quando comparado com o dos que usam os demais antipsicóticos. As análises mostraram uma elevada prevalência de pacientes (72,7% com excesso de peso (sobrepeso + obesidade. DISCUSSÃO: Devido à maior freqüência de excesso de peso na população esquizofrênica, pode-se evidenciar na amostra um indicativo de maior risco para transtornos vasculares e metabólicos. A ausência de diferença significativa em relação ao uso de clozapina, comparada com os demais antipsicóticos, demonstra a necessidade da montagem de estudos prospectivos determinando a magnitude de ganho de peso e o aumento de risco relativo à exposição específica de cada antipsicótico.BACKGROUND: The use of antipsychotics has been crucial in the treatment of schizophrenic patients. However, clozapine, as well as most atypical antipsychotics, may lead to higher weight gain and metabolic changes. OBJECTIVE: To compare the frequency of overweight and obesity between schizophrenic patients exposed to clozapine to the

  17. Traveling Psychology Fair: Learner-Centered Outreach Activities to Stimulate Interest in Psychology (United States)

    Johnson, Andrew T.; Mandernach, B. Jean


    The Traveling Psychology Fair is designed to bridge the gap between secondary and college psychology education, encourage enthusiasm for the study of psychology, enhance teaching resources for high school psychology instructors, and promote a deeper understanding of psychological principles for psychology majors. Consisting of 24 outreach…

  18. Counseling Health Psychology: Assessing Health Psychology Training within Counseling Psychology Doctoral Programs (United States)

    Raque-Bogdan, Trisha L.; Torrey, Carrie L.; Lewis, Brian L.; Borges, Nicole J.


    Training directors of American Psychological Association-approved counseling psychology doctoral programs completed a questionnaire assessing (a) student and faculty involvement in health-related research, practice, and teaching; (b) health-related research conducted by students and faculty; and (c) programs' expectations and ability to…

  19. Predicting Commitment Forms From Psychological Contract Breach ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Measures to be taken by management at equilibrating employees' psychological contract breach, reducing labour turnover and increasing commitment are suggested. Keywords: Mergers, acquisition, Commitment, psychological contract breach, and psychological contract violation, human resource management.

  20. Psychological compatibility of women's handball team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalar O.G.


    Full Text Available The results of study of psychological compatibility of womanish handball commands are presented. The psychological climate of command is investigational. Certain and adapted methods of estimation of psychological compatibility in the command playing types of sport. Psychological tests allow to expose the strong and weak sides of psychology of sportsmen. These information can be used for more effective program of psychological preparation of sportsmen development. It is necessary to improve determination of separate individual qualities of personality of sportsmen.

  1. Historical understanding and teaching in professional psychology. (United States)

    Baker, David B


    The teaching of the history of psychology in professional psychology training programs presents to students and teachers any number of opportunities and challenges. The increasing number of professional psychologists teaching the history of psychology coupled with advances in historical scholarship point to an ongoing evolution in the teaching of the history of psychology. In this introduction to the articles that follow, issues of content and context in teaching the history of psychology in professional psychology are discussed and affirmations offered.

  2. The Psychology of Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori Marino


    Full Text Available Domestic cows (Bos taurus are consumed worldwide as beef and veal, kept as dairy product producers, employed as draft animals in labor, and are used for a long list of other products, including leather and manure. But despite global reliance on cows for thousands of years, most people’s perception of them is as plodding herd animals with little individual personality and very simple social relationships or preferences. Yet, a review of the scientific literature on cow behavior points to more complex cognitive, emotional and social characteristics. Moreover, when cow behavior is addressed, it is almost entirely done within the framework of and applied to their use as food commodities. Therefore, there is relatively little attention to the study of cow intelligence, personality and sociality at a basic comparative level. In this review, we examine the current state of scientific knowledge about cows within an objective comparative framework, describing their cognitive, emotional, and social characteristics. Our aim is to provide a more veridical and objective current summary of cow psychology on its own terms and in ways which will facilitate better-informed comparisons with other animals. Moreover, an understanding of the capabilities and characteristics of domestic cows will, it is hoped, advance our understanding of who they are as individuals.

  3. Improving Departments of Psychology. (United States)

    Diener, Ed


    Our procedures for creating excellent departments of psychology are based largely on selection-hiring and promoting the best people. I argue that these procedures have been successful, but I suggest the implementation of policies that I believe will further improve departments in the behavioral and brain sciences. I recommend that we institute more faculty development programs attached to incentives to guarantee continuing education and scholarly activities after the Ph.D. degree. I also argue that we would do a much better job if we more strongly stream our faculty into research, education, or service and not expect all faculty members to carry equal responsibility for each of these. Finally, I argue that more hiring should occur at advanced levels, where scholars have a proven track record of independent scholarship. Although these practices will be a challenge to implement, institutions do ossify over time and thus searching for ways to improve our departments should be a key element of faculty governance. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. Positive psychology. An introduction. (United States)

    Seligman, M E; Csikszentmihalyi, M


    A science of positive subjective experience, positive individual traits, and positive institutions promises to improve quality of life and prevent the pathologies that arise when life is barren and meaningless. The exclusive focus on pathology that has dominated so much of our discipline results in a model of the human being lacking the positive features that make life worth living. Hope, wisdom, creativity, future mindedness, courage, spirituality, responsibility, and perseverance are ignored or explained as transformations of more authentic negative impulses. The 15 articles in this millennial issue of the American Psychologist discuss such issues as what enables happiness, the effects of autonomy and self-regulation, how optimism and hope affect health, what constitutes wisdom, and how talent and creativity come to fruition. The authors outline a framework for a science of positive psychology, point to gaps in our knowledge, and predict that the next century will see a science and profession that will come to understand and build the factors that allow individuals, communities, and societies to flourish.

  5. Emotions in robot psychology. (United States)

    Nitsch, V; Popp, M


    In his famous thought experiments on synthetic vehicles, Valentino Braitenberg stipulated that simple stimulus-response reactions in an organism could evoke the appearance of complex behavior, which, to the unsuspecting human observer, may even appear to be driven by emotions such as fear, aggression, and even love (Braitenberg, Vehikel. Experimente mit künstlichen Wesen, Lit Verlag, 2004). In fact, humans appear to have a strong propensity to anthropomorphize, driven by our inherent desire for predictability that will quickly lead us to discern patterns, cause-and-effect relationships, and yes, emotions, in animated entities, be they natural or artificial. But might there be reasons, that we should intentionally "implement" emotions into artificial entities, such as robots? How would we proceed in creating robot emotions? And what, if any, are the ethical implications of creating "emotional" robots? The following article aims to shed some light on these questions with a multi-disciplinary review of recent empirical investigations into the various facets of emotions in robot psychology.

  6. Climate Change and the Ecological Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamil R. Khisambeyev


    Full Text Available Psychological effects of climate change constitute one of the subjects of study of ecological psychology. Ecological psychology is formed and developed at the junction of ecology, different directions of psychology, psychotherapy, pedagogy, philosophy and other disciplines. The article is devoted to review those areas of psychological research, which consider the human psyche in the logic of interac¬tion with the environment. As a result, we hope to answer the fundamental ques¬tion of whether ecological psychology may be regarded as an independent area of psychological research, which has its object and methods that distinguish it from other areas of psychological theory and practice.

  7. Ethical decision-making in forensic psychology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Swanepoel, M


    ..., this article offers material on some important issues - in the context of forensic psychology - such as ethical decision-making and principles, professional ethics, the regulation of psychology...

  8. The evolutionary psychology of hunger. (United States)

    Al-Shawaf, Laith


    An evolutionary psychological perspective suggests that emotions can be understood as coordinating mechanisms whose job is to regulate various psychological and physiological programs in the service of solving an adaptive problem. This paper suggests that it may also be fruitful to approach hunger from this coordinating mechanism perspective. To this end, I put forward an evolutionary task analysis of hunger, generating novel a priori hypotheses about the coordinating effects of hunger on psychological processes such as perception, attention, categorization, and memory. This approach appears empirically fruitful in that it yields a bounty of testable new hypotheses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The influence of behavioural psychology on consumer psychology and marketing


    Wells, V.K.


    Psychology, along with a wide range of other academic disciplines, has influenced research in both consumer behaviour and marketing. However, the influence of one area of psychology – namely, behaviourism – on research on consumers and marketing has been less prominent. Behaviourism has influenced consumer and marketing research through the application of classical and operant conditioning, matching and foraging theories, amongst other frameworks, during the past 50 years. This article provid...

  10. When development matters: From evolutionary psychology to evolutionary developmental psychology


    Hernández Blasi, Carlos; Gardiner, Amy K.; Bjorklund, David F.


    This article presents evolutionary developmental psychology (EDP) as an emerging field of evolutionary psychology (EP). In describing the core tenets of both approaches and the differences between them, we emphasize the important roles that evolution and development have in understanding human behaviour. We suggest that developmental psychologists should pay more attention to evolutionary issues and, conversely, evolutionary psychologists should take development seriously. Key words: evol...

  11. Communicating with the schizophrenic superego. (United States)

    Levin, R


    The procedure reported here, which I have called "conversations with superegos," raises a number of important questions, both about ordinary versus psychopathological psychic structure, and about technique. There is no space to enter into a lengthy discussion, but a few brief points may be in order. First, let us consider the issue of psychic structure. I have argued that the superego is a hostile agency within the mind whose operations are essentially inimical to the patient's growth and well-being. (As an element of psychic structure, the superego can be distinguished from the ego ideal on the basis of the associated affect, that is, guilt rather than shame. Similarly, it is possible that the superego may be constructed on the basis of identifications that are different than those that may form the basis of the ego ideal). Further, I have argued that the superego is neither a force for true moral development nor a platform for the voice of the patient's "better" nature, (although it purports to be until challenged). A structure that lies, manipulates, threatens, and appears to be motivated in the end solely by its own continued existence, must certainly be considered suspect as an authority on morality. On the contrary, I see true morality originating in the patient's ego, because in that structure lies the ability to identify with others. One could object, however, that this way of viewing the matter is an artifact of working with a particular patient population. That is to say, it might be the case that in psychotic and borderline psychotic conditions, the superego does function this way, whereas in healthy or neurotic conditions it does not. In a similar vein, it could be argued that a pattern of development that was sufficiently skewed so as to result in psychosis would be more than likely to have been peopled by hostile, punitive, and essentially destructive identification figures, such as could form the basis for a pathological superego, whereas in normal or neurotic development this might not be the case. I would disagree on the following basis: I believe that the course of development is laid out by nature; that is, events like the separation-individuation phase, the oral, anal, phallic, and oedipal phases occur in all of us. It is what happens in the course of that development that will lead either to normalcy or various degrees of pathology. For example, we all project. But it is whether we project an expectation that the next person we meet is a decent, civilized human being or a monster out to destroy us that causes us happiness or pain. That said, my own view of the matter is that the general principal holds for conditions other than the patients reported here, with the difference being one of degree. Where identification figures are essentially benign and foster the development of the self, then their strictures, whether moral or merely practical, would be likely to become assimilated into the ego, without the telltale restriction of reflection and autonomy together with the accompanying guilt that characterize the superego's activity, in which case, we are not talking about superegos at all. What distinguishes psychotic and neurotic development, in my view, is not the issue of whether superego operations are benign or not, but the degree to which the ego is compromised with the resulting formation of fantasy-introjects. I have found, as if it were a principal of physics, that the stronger the ego, the weaker the superego and vice versa. And when some energy of the superego is released, it appears to go directly into the ego without my intervention, though I sometimes ask the "brain's" opinion. The second issue concerns technique. In psychosis, the voice of the superego is very loud, so much so that there are times when I have had to shout to be heard. On the other hand, my patients report that the voice of the ego may be so quiet that the patient hasn't heard it at all, or hears it as a whisper. (ABSTRACT TRUN

  12. Conditional Reasoning in Schizophrenic Patients. (United States)

    Kornreich, Charles; Delle-Vigne, Dyna; Brevers, Damien; Tecco, Juan; Campanella, Salvatore; Noël, Xavier; Verbanck, Paul; Ermer, Elsa


    Conditional reasoning (if p then q) is used very frequently in everyday situations. Conditional reasoning is impaired in brain-lesion patients, psychopathy, alcoholism, and polydrug dependence. Many neurocognitive deficits have also been described in schizophrenia. We assessed conditional reasoning in 25 patients with schizophrenia, 25 depressive patients, and 25 controls, using the Wason selection task in three different domains: social contracts, precautionary rules, and descriptive rules. Control measures included depression, anxiety, and severity of schizophrenia measures as a Verbal Intelligence Scale. Patients with schizophrenia were significantly impaired on all conditional reasoning tasks compared to depressives and controls. However, the social contract and precautions tasks yielded better results than the descriptive tasks. Differences between groups disappeared for social contract but remained for precautions and descriptive tasks when verbal intelligence was used as a covariate. These results suggest that domain-specific reasoning mechanisms, proposed by evolutionary psychologists, are relatively resilient in the face of brain network disruptions that impair more general reasoning abilities. Nevertheless, patients with schizophrenia could encounter difficulties understanding precaution rules and social contracts in real-life situations resulting in unwise risk-taking and misunderstandings in the social world.

  13. [Mediation model in adolescent psychology]. (United States)

    Deguitre, Marie; Pascal-Verdelhan, Chantal; Saez, Catherine; Calmels, Marie-Jeanne; Nesensohn, Jessica; Legras, Stéphanie; Paradis, Martine


    Body mediation is today used as a tool for establishing a relationship with a young person experiencing psychological suffering. It is particularly useful in adolescence, a period marked by the destabilisation of emotional and relational fields.

  14. Responsive Social Psychologies to Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores Galindo


    Full Text Available In this essay we approach some clues of research that move at the interface between Social Psychology and Ethology, discussing responsive relationships with animals from the contributions of Vinciane Despret. We argue that to be apart of the emerging social psychology of aspects critical in Latin America after the 1970s crisis, ethology has become not to evolutionary social psychologists interested in the study of the agency not restricted to human. What practices can bring the Ethology for Social Psychologies? Which derive stories (reencounter between the animal studies in this field translated and placed under other questions by the Social Psychologies? From a body in movement, employed as psychosocial research method, we have testimony of production which is beyond survival through pairing elements and paired opposites that lead the body to resistance limits, the limits of the human borders.

  15. Between history and cultural psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brescó, Ignacio


    Innis’ and Brinkmann’s papers (this issue) tackle two key aspects in cultural psychology: the mediating role played by the different systems of meanings throughout history in making sense of the world, and the normative role of those systems, including psychology itself. This paper offers...... a reflection on these two issues. It begins by highlighting the contribution of psychology and history, as emerging disciplines in the 19th Century, to the creation of a normative framework for the subject of modernity according to the needs of modern nation states. It also alludes to both disciplines’ common...... accounts. Drawing on this assumption, it is discussed how past events are constructed, thus bringing mediation and meaning-making to the fore. Special attention is paid to narratives as symbolic meaning-making tools. We will conclude by discussing usage of the past and the role that cultural psychology can...

  16. Varieties of Fame in Psychology. (United States)

    Roediger, Henry L


    Fame in psychology, as in all arenas, is a local phenomenon. Psychologists (and probably academics in all fields) often first become well known for studying a subfield of an area (say, the study of attention in cognitive psychology, or even certain tasks used to study attention). Later, the researcher may become famous within cognitive psychology. In a few cases, researchers break out of a discipline to become famous across psychology and (more rarely still) even outside the confines of academe. The progression is slow and uneven. Fame is also temporally constricted. The most famous psychologists today will be forgotten in less than a century, just as the greats from the era of World War I are rarely read or remembered today. Freud and a few others represent exceptions to the rule, but generally fame is fleeting and each generation seems to dispense with the lessons learned by previous ones to claim their place in the sun. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Psychology students from Leiden University

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi


    We are glad to share with our department that a group of 41 Psychology students from Leiden university, Holland were on a three hours visit to RUC Psychology department on Friday , 10.3.2017. The department is a valuable partner for students’ exchange , almost every semester there are RUC students...... travelling to Leiden. The trip was planned by Study Association Labyrint Leiden, and consisted of students at all levels from the bachelor as well as masters programs. A group of RUC psychology students Wiebke Sandermann; Emma Stinne Engstrøm; Mikkel Brilner Lund were in the organising group along...... with the study director Hans Sønderstrup Hansen and Rashmi Singla. It was an enriching experience for the RUC organizing group. International coordinator for Psychology Dieuwerke de Groot in Leiden reciprocated by writing: “A very enthusiastic mail from our students telling me they had such a wonderful time...

  18. Toward a cogenetic cultural psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tateo, Luca


    The dialogue between cultural psychology and phenomenological and semiotic philosophy seems to be extremely promising. I have tried to present some relevant aspects of this dialogue and to use them as cornerstones to elaborate a metatheoretical and epistemological discourse about the way of build......The dialogue between cultural psychology and phenomenological and semiotic philosophy seems to be extremely promising. I have tried to present some relevant aspects of this dialogue and to use them as cornerstones to elaborate a metatheoretical and epistemological discourse about the way...... to account for developmental processes must emerge from a triadic system, rather than following the procedures of a binary logic, in order to have any correspondence between concept building and phenomenological world in psychology. Then, I sketch an epistemological approach called method of complementary...... negation that could help cultural psychology to build more developmental abstract models of very concrete human phenomena....

  19. Psychology in the public service. (United States)

    Zimbardo, Philip G


    Philip G. Zimbardo outlines the challenges and opportunities he faces as the American Psychological Association's (APA's) 110th president. This article expands on remarks made in his introduction to Patrick H. DeLeon's presidential address at the APA's 2001 annual convention in San Francisco, California. Appearing now, mid-term in his presidency, that vision is a working blueprint of his activities and what he hopes to accomplish in his remaining tenure: enhancing psychologists' pride in psychology; developing more productive relationships with all media as gatekeepers to the public; publishing the standard high school psychology textbook; developing a compendium of all psychological research that illustrates how psychologists have made a significant difference in improving various aspects of the quality of life of individuals, groups, communities, and the United States; and encouraging greater unity of purpose and respect among psychologists across their many diverse domains and specialties.

  20. Psychology students from Leiden University

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi


    with the study director Hans Sønderstrup Hansen and Rashmi Singla. It was an enriching experience for the RUC organizing group. International coordinator for Psychology Dieuwerke de Groot in Leiden reciprocated by writing: “A very enthusiastic mail from our students telling me they had such a wonderful time......We are glad to share with our department that a group of 41 Psychology students from Leiden university, Holland were on a three hours visit to RUC Psychology department on Friday , 10.3.2017. The department is a valuable partner for students’ exchange , almost every semester there are RUC students...... travelling to Leiden. The trip was planned by Study Association Labyrint Leiden, and consisted of students at all levels from the bachelor as well as masters programs. A group of RUC psychology students Wiebke Sandermann; Emma Stinne Engstrøm; Mikkel Brilner Lund were in the organising group along...