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Sample records for schistosoma japonicum infections

  1. Congenital infection with Schistosoma japonicum but not with Schistosoma bovis in sheep.

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    Johansen, M V; lburg, T; Morad, J; Ornbjerg, N

    2002-04-01

    The present study investigated whether Schistosoma japonicum or Schistosoma bois could establish prenatally in lambs. Three ewes were exposed to S. japonicum by intramuscular injection of cercariae, and 3 ewes were exposed to S. bovis cercariae using the leg-emerging technique approximately 2 mo before delivery, and 1 age-matched pregnant ewe served as an uninfected control. The study lasted 18-20 wk after infection, which was 8-9 wk after delivery. All 6 exposed ewes became infected with either S. bovis or S. japonicum. Eight lambs were borne by the 7 ewes, of which 1 (S. bovis exposed) was dead and 1 (S. japonicum exposed) died at delivery. Of the 3 S. japonicum-exposed lambs, 2 were found infected. Four lambs born of S. bovis-exposed ewes were negative. Despite having no worms, these 4 S. bovis-exposed lambs as well as the 1 negative S. japonicum-exposed lamb had, in contrast to the nonexposed control lamb, few, but distinct, liver granulomas dominated by eosinophils and giant cells with large central necrotic areas but with no remnants of eggs or worms. Hence, congenital infection was demonstrated in S. japonicum-infected lambs, but not in S. bovis-infected ones.

  2. Cross-sectional associations between intensity of animal and human infection with Schistosoma japonicum in Western Samar province, Philippines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGarvey, Stephen T.; Carabin, Hélène; Batalong, Ernesto Jr.

    2006-01-01

    To estimate the association between the intensity of animal infection with Schistosoma japonicum and human infection in Western Samar province, the Philippines......To estimate the association between the intensity of animal infection with Schistosoma japonicum and human infection in Western Samar province, the Philippines...

  3. Salmonella typhimurium Infection Reduces Schistosoma japonicum Worm Burden in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoyang Zhu; Lu Chen; Junfang Wu; Huiru Tang; Yulan Wang

    2017-01-01

    Coinfection of microorganisms is a common phenomenon in humans and animals. In order to further our understanding of the progress of coinfection and the possible interaction between different pathogens, we have built a coinfection mouse model with Schistosoma japonicum and Salmonella typhimurium, and used this model to investigate the systemic metabolic and immune responses using NMR-based metabonomics and immunological techniques. Our results show that Salmonella typhimurium (ATCC14028) infe...

  4. Follicular helper T cells promote liver pathology in mice during Schistosoma japonicum infection.

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    Chen, Xiaojun; Yang, Xiaowei; Li, Yong; Zhu, Jifeng; Zhou, Sha; Xu, Zhipeng; He, Lei; Xue, Xue; Zhang, Weiwei; Dong, Xiaoxiao; Wu, Henry; Li, Carrie J; Hsu, Hsiang-Ting; Kong, Wenjun; Liu, Feng; Tripathi, Prem B; Yu, Michelle S; Chang, Jason; Zhou, Liang; Su, Chuan

    2014-05-01

    Following Schistosoma japonicum (S. japonicum) infection, granulomatous responses are induced by parasite eggs trapped in host organs, particular in the liver, during the acute stage of disease. While excessive liver granulomatous responses can lead to more severe fibrosis and circulatory impairment in chronically infected host. However, the exact mechanism of hepatic granuloma formation has remained obscure. In this study, we for the first time showed that follicular helper T (Tfh) cells are recruited to the liver to upregulate hepatic granuloma formation and liver injury in S. japonicum-infected mice, and identified a novel function of macrophages in Tfh cell induction. In addition, our results showed that the generation of Tfh cells driven by macrophages is dependent on cell-cell contact and the level of inducible costimulator ligand (ICOSL) on macrophages which is regulated by CD40-CD40L signaling. Our findings uncovered a previously unappreciated role for Tfh cells in liver pathology caused by S. japonicum infection in mice.

  5. Taxonomy Icon Data: Schistosoma japonicum [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Schistosoma japonicum Schistosoma japonicum Platyhelminthes Schistosoma_japonicum_L.png Schistosoma_japon...icum_NL.png Schistosoma_japonicum_S.png Schistosoma_japonicum_NS.png http://bioscience...dbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Schistosoma+japonicum&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Schistosoma+japon...icum&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Schistosoma+japon...icum&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Schistosoma+japonicum&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=132 ...

  6. Follicular helper T cells promote liver pathology in mice during Schistosoma japonicum infection.

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    Xiaojun Chen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Following Schistosoma japonicum (S. japonicum infection, granulomatous responses are induced by parasite eggs trapped in host organs, particular in the liver, during the acute stage of disease. While excessive liver granulomatous responses can lead to more severe fibrosis and circulatory impairment in chronically infected host. However, the exact mechanism of hepatic granuloma formation has remained obscure. In this study, we for the first time showed that follicular helper T (Tfh cells are recruited to the liver to upregulate hepatic granuloma formation and liver injury in S. japonicum-infected mice, and identified a novel function of macrophages in Tfh cell induction. In addition, our results showed that the generation of Tfh cells driven by macrophages is dependent on cell-cell contact and the level of inducible costimulator ligand (ICOSL on macrophages which is regulated by CD40-CD40L signaling. Our findings uncovered a previously unappreciated role for Tfh cells in liver pathology caused by S. japonicum infection in mice.

  7. Nested-PCR assay for detection of Schistosoma japonicum infection in domestic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; He, Chuan-Chuan; Liu, Jin-Ming; Li, Hao; Lu, Ke; Fu, Zhi-Qiang; Zhu, Chuan-Gang; Liu, Yi-Ping; Tong, Lai-Bao; Zhou, De-Bao; Zha, Li; Hong, Yang; Jin, Ya-Mei; Lin, Jiao-Jiao

    2017-04-13

    Schistosomiasis japonica is a common zoonosis. Domestic animals are the primary source of infection and play an important role in disease transmission. The prevalence and infectivity of this disease in domestic animals in China have significantly decreased and, for this reason, diagnostics with a higher sensitivity have become increasingly necessary. It was reported that polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods could be used to detect schistosome infection in humans and animals and presented a high sensitivity and specificity. The present study aimed to develop a PCR-based method for detection of Schistosoma japonicum infection in domestic animals. A specific nested-PCR assay was developed to detect S. japonicum infection in domestic animals via amplification of a 231-bp DNA fragment of retrotransposon SjR2. The developed assay was first used in sera and dry blood filter paper (DBFP) from goats and buffaloes at different time points of infection. Then, 78 DBFPs from 39 artificially-infected bovines at 14 and 28 days post-infection and 42 DBFPs from schistosome-negative bovines from the city of Huangshan in the Anhui province were used to evaluate the diagnostic validity. Furthermore, this assay was used to detect S. japonicum infection in domestic animals in Dongzhi and Wangjiang counties. The expected PCR product was detected in eggs and adult worms of S. japonicum and blood samples from S. japonicum-infected goats and water buffaloes, but not from Fasciola and Haemonchus contortus worms. The nested-PCR assay could detect the target S. japonicum DNA in DBFPs from goats and buffaloes after day 3 post-infection. The sensitivity in buffaloes at 14 and 28 days post-infection was 92.30% (36/39) and 100% (39/39), respectively. The specificity was 97.60% (41/42). The positivity rates in Dongzhi and Wangjiang counties were 6.00% and 8.00% in bovines and 22.00% and 16.67% in goats, respectively. The positivity rates in goats in both counties were higher than those

  8. Repeated Schistosoma japonicum infection following treatment in two cohorts: evidence for host susceptibility to helminthiasis?

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    Elizabeth J Carlton

    Full Text Available In light of multinational efforts to reduce helminthiasis, we evaluated whether there exist high-risk subpopulations for helminth infection. Such individuals are not only at risk of morbidity, but may be important parasite reservoirs and appropriate targets for disease control interventions.We followed two longitudinal cohorts in Sichuan, China to determine whether there exist persistent human reservoirs for the water-borne helminth, Schistosoma japonicum, in areas where treatment is ongoing. Participants were tested for S. japonicum infection at enrollment and two follow-up points. All infections were promptly treated with praziquantel. We estimated the ratio of the observed to expected proportion of the population with two consecutive infections at follow-up. The expected proportion was estimated using a prevalence-based model and, as highly exposed individuals may be most likely to be repeatedly infected, a second model that accounted for exposure using a data adaptive, machine learning algorithm. Using the prevalence-based model, there were 1.5 and 5.8 times more individuals with two consecutive infections than expected in cohorts 1 and 2, respectively (p<0.001 in both cohorts. When we accounted for exposure, the ratio was 1.3 (p = 0.013 and 2.1 (p<0.001 in cohorts 1 and 2, respectively.We found clustering of infections within a limited number of hosts that was not fully explained by host exposure. This suggests some hosts may be particularly susceptible to S. japonicum infection, or that uncured infections persist despite treatment. We propose an explanatory model that suggests that as cercarial exposure declines, so too does the size of the vulnerable subpopulation. In low-prevalence settings, interventions targeting individuals with a history of S. japonicum infection may efficiently advance disease control efforts.

  9. Taurine drinking ameliorates hepatic granuloma and fibrosis in mice infected with Schistosoma japonicum

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    Yan-Rong Yu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In schistosomiasis, egg-induced hepatic granuloma formation is a cytokine-mediated, predominantly CD4+ Th2 immune response that can give rise to hepatic fibrosis. Hepatic fibrosis is the main cause of increased morbidity and mortality in humans with schistosome infection. Taurine has various physiological functions and hepatoprotective properties as well as anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activity. However, little is known about the role of taurine in schistosome egg-induced granuloma formation and fibrosis. We aimed to evaluate the therapeutic potential of taurine as preventative treatment for Schistosoma japonicum infection. Mice infected with S. japonicum cercariae were supplied with taurine drinking water (1% w/v for 4 weeks starting at 4 weeks post-infection. Taurine supplementation significantly improved the liver pathologic findings, reduced the serum levels of aminotransferases and area of hepatic granuloma, and prevented fibrosis progression. In addition, taurine decreased the expression of the granulomatous and fibrogenic mediators transforming growth factor β1, tumor necrosis factor α, monocyte chemotactic protein 1α and macrophage inflammatory protein 1α as well as the endoplasmic reticulum stress marker glucose-regulated protein 78. Thus, taurine can significantly attenuate S. japonicum egg-induced hepatic granuloma and fibrosis, which may depend in part on the downregulation of some relevant cytokine/chemokines and reducing the endoplasmic reticulum stress response.

  10. Taurine drinking ameliorates hepatic granuloma and fibrosis in mice infected with Schistosoma japonicum.

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    Yu, Yan-Rong; Ni, Xian-Qiang; Huang, Jie; Zhu, Yong-Hong; Qi, Yong-Fen

    2016-04-01

    In schistosomiasis, egg-induced hepatic granuloma formation is a cytokine-mediated, predominantly CD4(+) Th2 immune response that can give rise to hepatic fibrosis. Hepatic fibrosis is the main cause of increased morbidity and mortality in humans with schistosome infection. Taurine has various physiological functions and hepatoprotective properties as well as anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activity. However, little is known about the role of taurine in schistosome egg-induced granuloma formation and fibrosis. We aimed to evaluate the therapeutic potential of taurine as preventative treatment for Schistosoma japonicum infection. Mice infected with S. japonicum cercariae were supplied with taurine drinking water (1% w/v) for 4 weeks starting at 4 weeks post-infection. Taurine supplementation significantly improved the liver pathologic findings, reduced the serum levels of aminotransferases and area of hepatic granuloma, and prevented fibrosis progression. In addition, taurine decreased the expression of the granulomatous and fibrogenic mediators transforming growth factor β1, tumor necrosis factor α, monocyte chemotactic protein 1α and macrophage inflammatory protein 1α as well as the endoplasmic reticulum stress marker glucose-regulated protein 78. Thus, taurine can significantly attenuate S. japonicum egg-induced hepatic granuloma and fibrosis, which may depend in part on the downregulation of some relevant cytokine/chemokines and reducing the endoplasmic reticulum stress response.

  11. The inhibitory effect against collagen-induced arthritis by Schistosoma japonicum infection is infection stage-dependent

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    Chi FengLi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A long-term existing schistosome infection can aid in maintaining immuno-homeostasis, thus providing protection against various types of autoimmune diseases to the infected host. Such benefits have often been associated with acute or egg stage infection and with the egg-induced Th2 response. However, since schistosome infection undergoes different stages, each associated with a specific induction of Th responses, the requirements for the ability of the different stages of schistosome infection to protect against autoimmune disease has not been elucidated. The present study was designed to study whether different stages of schistosome infection offer unique protection in collagen-induced arthritis and its mechanisms. Results Arthritis susceptible strain DBA/1 male mice were infected with Schistosoma japonicum for either 2 weeks resulting in early stage infection or for 7 weeks resulting in acute or egg stage infection. Following Schistosoma japonicum infection, collagen II was administered to induce collagen-induced arthritis, an animal model for human rheumatoid arthritis. Infection by Schistosoma japonicum significantly reduced the severity and the incidence of experimental autoimmune collagen-induced arthritis. However, this beneficial effect can only be provided by a pre-established acute stage of infection but not by a pre-established early stage of the infection. The protection against collagen-induced arthritis correlated with reduced levels of anti-collagen II IgG, especially the subclass of IgG2a. Moreover, in protected mice increased levels of IL-4 were present at the time of collagen II injection together with sustained higher IL-4 levels during the course of arthritis development. In contrast, in unprotected mice minimal levels of IL-4 were present at the initial stage of collagen II challenge together with lack of IL-4 induction following Schistosoma japonicum infection. Conclusion The protective effect against

  12. Characteristics of IL-17 induction by Schistosoma japonicum infection in C57BL/6 mouse liver

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    Chen, Dianhui; Luo, Xueping; Xie, Hongyan; Gao, Zhiyan; Fang, Huilong; Huang, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Schistosomiasis japonica is a severe tropical disease caused by the parasitic worm Schistosoma japonicum. Among the most serious pathological effects of S. japonicum infection are hepatic lesions (cirrhosis and fibrosis) and portal hypertension. Interleukin-17 (IL-17) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine involved in the pathogenesis of many inflammatory and infectious conditions, including schistosomiasis. We infected C57BL/6 mice with S. japonicum and isolated lymphocytes from the liver to identify cell subsets with high IL-17 expression and release using flow cytometry and ELISA. Expression and release of IL-17 was significantly higher in hepatic lymphocytes from infected mice compared with control mice in response to both non-specific stimulation with anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody plus/anti-CD28 monoclonal antibody and PMA plus ionomycin. We then compared IL-17 expression in three hepatic T-cell subsets, T helper, natural killer T and γδT cells, to determine the major source of IL-17 during infection. Interleukin-17 was induced in all three subsets by PMA + ionomycin, but γδT lymphocytes exhibited the largest increase in expression. We then established a mouse model to further investigate the role of IL-17 in granulomatous and fibrosing inflammation against parasite eggs. Reducing IL-17 activity using anti-IL-17A antibodies decreased infiltration of inflammatory cells and collagen deposition in the livers of infected C57BL/6 mice. The serum levels of soluble egg antigen (IL) -specific IgGs were enhanced by anti-IL-17A monoclonal antibody blockade, suggesting that IL-17 normally serves to suppress this humoral response. These findings suggest that γδT cells are the most IL-17-producing cells and that IL-17 contributes to granulomatous inflammatory and fibrosing reactions in S. japonicum-infected C57BL/6 mouse liver. PMID:23551262

  13. Comparative Study of Transcriptome Profiles of Mouse Livers and Skins Infected by Fork-Tailed or Non-Fork-Tailed Schistosoma japonicum.

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    Yang, Yan; He, Jun-Jun; Hu, Shuang; Chang, Hua; Xiang, Xun; Yang, Jian-Fa; Zou, Feng-Cai

    2017-01-01

    Schistosoma japonicum (S. japonicum) is a worldwide spread pathogen which penetrates host skin and then induces several diseases in infected host, such as fibrosis, formation of granulomas, hepatocirrhosis, and hepatomegaly. In present study, for the first time, transcriptomic profiles of mouse livers and skins infected by fork-tailed S. japonicum cercaria or non-fork-tailed S. japonicum cercaria were analyzed by using RNA-seq. The present findings demonstrated that transcriptomic landscapes of livers and skins infected by fork-tailed S. japonicum cercaria or non-fork-tailed S. japonicum cercaria were different. S. japonicum has great influence on hepatic metabolic processes. Fork-tailed S. japonicum cercaria upregulated hepatic metabolic processes, while non-fork-tailed S. japonicum cercaria downregulated hepatic metabolic processes. For the metabolism process or the metabolism enzyme expressional change, the pharmacokinetics of host could be changed during S. japonicum infection, regardless the biotypes of S. japonicum cercariae. The changes of infected skins focused on upregulation of immune response. During the S. japonicum skin infection period, fork-tailed S. japonicum cercaria infection induced stronger immune response comparing with that immune response triggered by non-fork-tailed S. japonicum cercaria. The transcription factor enrichment analysis showed that Irf7, Stat1 and Stat2 could play important roles in gene regulation during fork-tailed S. japonicum cercaria infection.

  14. Comparative Study of Transcriptome Profiles of Mouse Livers and Skins Infected by Fork-Tailed or Non-Fork-Tailed Schistosoma japonicum

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    Yan Yang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Schistosoma japonicum (S. japonicum is a worldwide spread pathogen which penetrates host skin and then induces several diseases in infected host, such as fibrosis, formation of granulomas, hepatocirrhosis, and hepatomegaly. In present study, for the first time, transcriptomic profiles of mouse livers and skins infected by fork-tailed S. japonicum cercaria or non-fork-tailed S. japonicum cercaria were analyzed by using RNA-seq. The present findings demonstrated that transcriptomic landscapes of livers and skins infected by fork-tailed S. japonicum cercaria or non-fork-tailed S. japonicum cercaria were different. S. japonicum has great influence on hepatic metabolic processes. Fork-tailed S. japonicum cercaria upregulated hepatic metabolic processes, while non-fork-tailed S. japonicum cercaria downregulated hepatic metabolic processes. For the metabolism process or the metabolism enzyme expressional change, the pharmacokinetics of host could be changed during S. japonicum infection, regardless the biotypes of S. japonicum cercariae. The changes of infected skins focused on upregulation of immune response. During the S. japonicum skin infection period, fork-tailed S. japonicum cercaria infection induced stronger immune response comparing with that immune response triggered by non-fork-tailed S. japonicum cercaria. The transcription factor enrichment analysis showed that Irf7, Stat1 and Stat2 could play important roles in gene regulation during fork-tailed S. japonicum cercaria infection.

  15. Spatial distribution of human Schistosoma japonicum infections in the Dongting Lake Region, China.

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    Giovanna Raso

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to spatially model the effect of demographic, reservoir hosts and environmental factors on human Schistosoma japonicum infection prevalence in the Dongting Lake area of Hunan Province, China and to determine the potential of each indicator in targeting schistosomiasis control. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Cross-sectional serological, coprological and demographic data were obtained from the 2004 nationwide periodic epidemiologic survey for Hunan Province. Environmental data were downloaded from the USGS EROS data centre. Bayesian geostatistical models were employed for spatial analysis of the infection prevalence among study participants. A total of 47,139 participants from 47 administrative villages were selected. Age, sex and occupation of residents and the presence of infected buffaloes and environmental factors, i.e. NDVI, distance to the lake and endemic type of setting, were significantly associated with S. japonicum infection prevalence. After taking into account spatial correlation, however, only demographic factors (age, sex and occupation and the presence of infected buffaloes remained significant indicators. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Long established demographic factors, as well presence of host reservoirs rather than environmental factors are driving human transmission. Findings of this work can be used for epidemiologic surveillance and for the future planning of interventions in the Dongting Lake area of Hunan Province.

  16. High prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum infection in Carabao from Samar Province, the Philippines: implications for transmission and control.

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    Catherine A Gordon

    Full Text Available Schistosoma japonicum is endemic in the Philippines, China and Indonesia, and infects more than 40 mammalian host species, all of which can act as reservoirs of infection. In China, water buffaloes have been shown to be major reservoirs of human infection. However, in the Philippines, carabao have not been considered important reservoir hosts for S. japonicum due to the low prevalence and infection intensities reported, the only exception being a qPCR-based study indicating 51% of carabao were S. japonicum-positive. However, the low prevalence found for the same animals when using conventional copro-parasitological techniques means that there is still confusion about the role of carabao in the transmission of schistosomiasis japonicum. To address this inconsistency, and to shed light on the potential role of carabao in the transmission of S. japonicum in the Philippines, we undertook a pilot survey, collecting fecal samples from animals in Western Samar Province and we used a combination of molecular and copro-parasitological techniques to determine the prevalence and intensity of S. japonicum. We found a high prevalence of S. japonicum in the carabao using a validated real-time PCR (qPCR and a copro-parasitological tool, the formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation (FEA-SD technique. A much lower prevalence of S. japonicum was recorded for the same fecal samples using conventional PCR, the Kato-Katz technique and miracidial hatching. These results suggest that, due to their low diagnostic sensitivity, traditional copro-parasitological techniques underestimate infection in carabao. The use of FEA-SD and qPCR provides a more accurate diagnosis. Based on these findings, the role of bovines in the transmission of S. japonicum appears to be more important in the Philippines than previously recognized, and this may have significant implications for the future control of schistosomiasis there, particularly as, in contrast with previous surveys, we found

  17. Immunization of pigs against infection with Schistosoma japonicum using ultraviolet-attenuated cercariae

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    Shi, Y.-E.; Jiang, C.-F.; Han, J.-J.; Li, Y.-L. (Tongji Medical Univ., Wuhan (China). Dept. of Parasitology); Ruppel, A. (Institute for Tropical Hygiene, Heidelberg (Germany))

    1993-06-01

    Since pigs are important in the zoonotic transmission of schistosomiasis japonica in China, a veterinary vaccine might contribute to the control of the disease in humans. Pigs were immunized with three doses each of 10 000 cercariae of Schistosoma japonicum attenuated with ultraviolet light (400 [mu]Watt.min/cm[sup 2]). The experiment was performed with portable irradiation equipment in a rural area of the Hubei Province (P.R. China). A challenge infection of 1000 untreated cercariae was given 2.5 or 6 months after the last immunization, and age-matched naive pigs were challenged as a control. Immunized pigs developed about 90% resistance against the challenge. The liver egg load of these animals was reduced by over 90%. Less than 0.01% of the immunizing cercariae developed to adult parasites and the vaccination had no apparent adverse influence on the pig's health. (Author).

  18. Pararosaniline pamoate (CI-403-A) in the treatment of Schistosoma japonicum infection in the Philippines.

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    Pesigan, T P; Banzon, T C; Santos, A T; Noseñas, J; Zabala, R G

    1967-01-01

    Trials have been carried out, first on a relatively small scale among patients in Manila and later on a larger scale among domiciliary patients in an area of endemic schistosomiasis in Leyte Province, Philippines, with various dosage schedules of pararosaniline pamoate (CI-403-A) to determine that drug's efficacy and optimum dosage against Schistosoma japonicum infection.Given orally in gelatin capsules, the drug was well tolerated even in children, with few side-effects, and was both curative and suppressive when administered in a maximum dosage of 35-40 mg/kg body-weight per day for as many as 52 days spread over a total treatment period of 203 days.The authors recommend its use for mass treatment, especially among schoolchildren, in combination with other established schistosomiasis control measures-health education, environmental sanitation, and snail control.

  19. Chronic Schistosoma japonicum infection reduces immune response to vaccine against hepatitis B in mice.

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    Lin Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B and schistosomiasis are most prevalent in Africa and Asia, and co-infections of both are frequent in these areas. The immunomodulation reported to be induced by schistosome infections might restrict immune control of hepatitis B virus (HBV leading to more severe viral infection. Vaccination is the most effective measure to control and prevent HBV infection, but there is evidence for a reduced immune response to the vaccine in patients with chronic schistosomiasis japonica. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this paper, we demonstrate in a mouse model that a chronic Schistosoma japonicum infection can inhibit the immune response to hepatitis B vaccine (HBV vaccine and lead to lower production of anti-HBs antibodies, interferon-γ (IFN-γ and interleukin-2 (IL-2. After deworming with Praziquantel (PZQ, the level of anti-HBs antibodies gradually increased and the Th2-biased profile slowly tapered. At 16 weeks after deworming, the levels of anti-HBs antibodies and Th1/Th2 cytokines returned to the normal levels. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results suggest that the preexisting Th2-dominated immune profile in the host infected with the parasite may down-regulate levels of anti-HBs antibodies and Th1 cytokines. To improve the efficacy of HBV vaccination in schistosome infected humans it may be valuable to treat them with praziquantel (PZQ some time prior to HBV vaccination.

  20. [Effect of ICOS signaling on CD154/CD40 expressions in mice infected with Schistosoma japonicum].

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    Wang, Yu; Cai, Ru; Xia, Chao-ming

    2015-08-01

    To explore the effect of ICOS signaling on the CD154/CD40 expressions and immunopathology in mice infected with Schistosoma japonicum. ICOS transgenic (ICOS-Tg) mice and wildtype FVB/NJ mice were used as experimental schistosomiasis models. The expressions of CD154 and CD40 on splenocytes and on inflammatory cells around granulomatous infiltration of the liver in the mice infected with S. japonicuin were detected by flow cytometry and im- munohistochemical staining. HE staining was applied to observe the changes on the granulomatous of the mice liver. Compared with the wildtype FVB/NJ mice, the expressions of CD154 on CD4 T splenocytes and of CD40 on CD19' B splenocytes in the ICOS-Tg mice significantly increased in 12 and 16 weeks post-infection (all P CD154 on inflammatory cells around granulomatous infiltration in the liver of the ICOS-Tg mice were significantly higher than those of the wildtype FVB/NJ mice in 7, 12, 16 and 20 weeks post-infection (all P CD154/CD40 expressions, and may play an important role in the hepatic egg granuloma formation of schistosomiasis.

  1. Assessment of the diagnostic efficacy of enolase as an indication of active infection of Schistosoma japonicum.

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    Gao, Hong; Xiao, Di; Song, Lijun; Zhang, Wei; Shen, Shuang; Yin, Xuren; Wang, Jie; Ke, Xuedan; Yu, Chuanxin; Zhang, Jianzhong

    2016-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a common zoonoses affecting humans. The atypical clinical symptoms, low morbidity, and low degree of infection impede diagnosis and assessment of epidemics. Detecting circulating antigens from adult worms in patients' body fluids should be diagnostically superior to examining eggs in feces. Herein, the excretory-secretory proteins of adult worms were analyzed by using 2-D protein electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. The Schistosoma japonicum enolase (Sj enolase) was identified as the most abundant excretory-secretory antigen. Purified recombinant Sj enolase was prepared, and specific monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies were raised against it. A sandwich enzyme-linked immunoassay (sandwich ELISA) was established that used the monoclonal antibody as a capture antibody and the polyclonal antibody as a detection antibody. The linear detection range was 0.7-1000 ng/ml (minimum 700 pg/ml). Sj enolase could be detected in the sera of infected rabbits and disappeared rapidly postpraziquantel treatment. The sensitivity and specificity of this sandwich ELISA to detect field serum samples of schistosomiasis were 84.61 and 95.83 %, respectively. The cross-reaction rates for clonorchiasis and paragonimiasis were 3.33 and 5 %, respectively. This ELISA assay was used to test 45 matching sera of schistosomiasis patients before treatment and at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months posttreatment. Among the sera, 88.89 % were positive before treatment. At 3, 6, 9, and 12 months postpraziquantel treatment, 93.33, 97.78, 100, and 100 % tested negative, respectively. Therefore, Sj enolase can be used to indicate active Schistosoma infection, and detecting serum Sj enolase is important for diagnosis and evaluating treatment effect.

  2. Antischistosomal activity of hederacochiside C against Schistosoma japonicum harbored in experimentally infected animals.

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    Kang, Nai-Xin; Zhu, Yuan-Jian; Zhao, Jian-Ping; Zhu, Wei-Feng; Liu, Yan-Li; Xu, Qiong-Ming; Zhuge, Hong-Xiang; Khan, Ikhlas A; Yang, Shi-Lin

    2017-04-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate whether hederacochiside C (HSC) possesses antischistosomal effects and anti-inflammatory response activities in Schistosoma japonicum-infected mice. Different concentrations of HSC were administrated to the mice infected by schistosomula or adult worm by intravenous injection twice a day for five consecutive days. The total worm burden, female worm burden, and the egg burden in liver of mice treated with 400 mg/kg HSC were fewer than those in non-treated ones. Murine immune responses following HSC treatment were investigated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Our results indicated that 200 mg/kg HSC could reduce the expression of IgG, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-17 in comparison to infected group, exhibiting best immunomodulatory effects. In addition, scanning electron microscopical examination revealed that male worms treated with HSC lost their normal surface architecture since its surface showed extensive swelling, erosion, and peeling in tegumental regions. Remarkable amelioration was noticed in histopathological investigations, and 200 mg/kg HSC treatment could reduce the size of granulomatous inflammatory infiltrations in the liver which was reflected in nearly normalization of liver architecture. These results suggested that HSC had potential antischistosomal activity and provided a basis for subsequent experimental.

  3. Dynamics of Th17 cells and their role in Schistosoma japonicum infection in C57BL/6 mice.

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    Xiaoyun Wen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The current knowledge of immunological responses to schistosomiasis, a major tropical helminthic disease, is insufficient, and a better understanding of these responses would support vaccine development or therapies to control granuloma-associated immunopathology. CD4(+ T cells play critical roles in both host immune responses against parasitic infection and immunopathology in schistosomiasis. The induction of T helper (Th1, Th2 and T regulatory (Treg cells and their roles in schistosome infections are well-illustrated. However, little in vivo data are available on the dynamics of Th17 cells, another important CD4(+ T cell subset, after Schistosoma japonicum infection or whether these cells and their defining IL-17 cytokine mediate host protective responses early in infection. METHODOLOGY: Levels of Th17 and the other three CD4(+ T cell subpopulations and the cytokines related to induction or repression of Th17 cell generation in different stages of S. japonicum infection were observed. Contrary to reported in vitro studies, our results showed that the Th17 cells were induced along with the Th1, Th2, Treg cells and the IFN-γ and IL-4 cytokines in S. japonicum infected mice. The results also suggested that S. japonicum egg antigens but not adult worm antigens preferentially induced Th17 cell generation. Furthermore, decreasing IL-17 with a neutralizing anti-IL-17 monoclonal antibody (mAb increased schistosome-specific antibody levels and partial protection against S. japonicum infection in mice. CONCLUSIONS: Our study is the first to report the dynamics of Th17 cells during S. japonicum infection and indicate that Th17 cell differentiation results from the integrated impact of inducing and suppressive factors promoted by the parasite. Importantly, our findings suggest that lower IL-17 levels may result in favorable host protective responses. This study significantly contributes to the understanding of immunity to schistosomiasis and

  4. Dynamics of Th17 cells and their role in Schistosoma japonicum infection in C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xiaoyun; He, Lei; Chi, Ying; Zhou, Sha; Hoellwarth, Jason; Zhang, Cui; Zhu, Jifeng; Wu, Calvin; Dhesi, Shawn; Wang, Xuefeng; Liu, Feng; Su, Chuan

    2011-11-01

    The current knowledge of immunological responses to schistosomiasis, a major tropical helminthic disease, is insufficient, and a better understanding of these responses would support vaccine development or therapies to control granuloma-associated immunopathology. CD4(+) T cells play critical roles in both host immune responses against parasitic infection and immunopathology in schistosomiasis. The induction of T helper (Th)1, Th2 and T regulatory (Treg) cells and their roles in schistosome infections are well-illustrated. However, little in vivo data are available on the dynamics of Th17 cells, another important CD4(+) T cell subset, after Schistosoma japonicum infection or whether these cells and their defining IL-17 cytokine mediate host protective responses early in infection. Levels of Th17 and the other three CD4(+) T cell subpopulations and the cytokines related to induction or repression of Th17 cell generation in different stages of S. japonicum infection were observed. Contrary to reported in vitro studies, our results showed that the Th17 cells were induced along with the Th1, Th2, Treg cells and the IFN-γ and IL-4 cytokines in S. japonicum infected mice. The results also suggested that S. japonicum egg antigens but not adult worm antigens preferentially induced Th17 cell generation. Furthermore, decreasing IL-17 with a neutralizing anti-IL-17 monoclonal antibody (mAb) increased schistosome-specific antibody levels and partial protection against S. japonicum infection in mice. Our study is the first to report the dynamics of Th17 cells during S. japonicum infection and indicate that Th17 cell differentiation results from the integrated impact of inducing and suppressive factors promoted by the parasite. Importantly, our findings suggest that lower IL-17 levels may result in favorable host protective responses. This study significantly contributes to the understanding of immunity to schistosomiasis and may aid in developing interventions to protect hosts

  5. Single- or mixed-sex Schistosoma japonicum infections of intermediate host snails in hilly areas of Anhui, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hui-Ping; Lu, Da-Bing; Shen, Lei; Shi, Tan; Gu, Jian

    2014-02-01

    Schistosomiasis japonicum is one of the most serious communicable diseases, and the transmission of the parasite is dependent of its complex life cycle on which many factors can have an impact. Multiple infections comprising both male and female schistosome within snail intermediate hosts, for example, would facilitate parasite transmission. However, no research on Schistosoma japonicum communities in field-collected Oncomelania hupensis hupensis in relation to schistosome sex has been reported. Therefore, snail survey was performed in a hilly region of Anhui, China, and single- or mixed-sex schistosome infections of snails were detected with final host mouse infection. A total of 8,563 snails were sampled in the field, and 67 were identified with schistosome infections. Of these infected snails, 46 were selected for final host infection. From this, 21 snails were infected with female schistosome, 23 with males and 2 with both males and females. More worms were recovered for snails with mixed-sex infections than with single-sex infection and for snails with male schistosome infection than with female infection (Psnails was significantly higher than would be expected if randomly distributed (Psnails was nearly equal and up to 95.65 % (44/46) of infected snails were single-sex infection. Schistosome infections in snails collected from the hilly area of Anhui Province were not randomly distributed but over-dispersed.

  6. Characteristics of granuloma formation and liver fibrosis in murine schistosomiasis mekongi: a morphological comparison between Schistosoma mekongi and S. japonicum infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, M; Kirinoki, M; Shimizu, K; Kato-Hayashi, N; Chigusa, Y; Kitikoon, V; Pongsasakulchoti, P; Matsuda, H

    2010-10-01

    A histopathological study was performed to clarify the characteristics of granuloma formation and liver fibrosis in Schistosoma mekongi infection in comparison with S. japonicum infection. Mice were exposed to S. mekongi (Laotian strain) and S. japonicum (Japanese strain) cercariae, and were dissected at 6, 8, 12, 16, and 20 weeks post-exposure. In the liver, granulomas in S. mekongi infection were cellular, initially organized with foam cells, and continuously appeared in the intralobular area, while granulomas in S. japonicum infection were fibrous and did not continuously appear in the intralobular area. Portal fibrosis was not seen in S. mekongi infection, but was commonly seen in S. japonicum infection in the later weeks. Granulomas in the small intestine were seen mainly in the submucosa with foam cells in S. mekongi infection and without foam cells in S. japonicum infection. The lung granulomas contained mainly histiocytes in both S. mekongi and S. japonicum infection. The absence of portal fibrosis in S. mekongi infection allows schistosome eggs to infiltrate into the intralobular area continuously, which can be what lies behind the ultrasonographic differences; the echogenic network pattern as was seen in S. japonicum infection, has not been noted in S. mekongi infection.

  7. Upregulated Expression of Cytotoxicity-Related Genes in IFN-γ Knockout Mice with Schistosoma japonicum Infection

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    Xiaotang Du

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well accepted that IFN-γ is important to the development of acquired resistance against murine schistosomiasis. However, the in vivo role of this immunoregulatory cytokine in helminth infection needs to be further investigated. In this study, parasite burden and host immune response were observed in IFN-γ knockout mice (IFNg KO infected with Schistosoma japonicum for 6 weeks. The results suggested that deficiency in IFN-γ led to decreased egg burden in mice, with low schistosome-specific IgG antibody response and enhanced activation of T cells during acute infection. Microarray and qRT-PCR data analyses showed significant upregulation of some cytotoxicity-related genes, including those from the granzyme family, tumor necrosis factor, Fas Ligand, and chemokines, in the spleen cells of IFNg KO mice. Furthermore, CD8+ cells instead of NK cells of IFNg KO mice exhibited increased transcription of cytotoxic genes compared with WT mice. Additionally, Schistosoma japonicum-specific egg antigen immunization also could activate CD8+ T cells to upregulate the expression of cytotoxic genes in IFNg KO mice. Our data suggest that IFN-γ is not always a positive regulator of immune responses. In certain situations, the disruption of IFN-γ signaling may up-regulate the cytotoxic T-cell-mediated immune responses to the parasite.

  8. Low Sensitivity of the Formol-Ethyl Acetate Sedimentation Concentration Technique in Low-Intensity Schistosoma japonicum Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lier, Tore; Simonsen, Gunnar S.; Wang, Tianping; Lu, Dabing; Haukland, Hanne H.; Vennervald, Birgitte J.; Johansen, Maria V.

    2009-01-01

    Background The endemic countries are in a diagnostic dilemma concerning Schistosoma japonicum with increasing difficulties in diagnosing the infected individuals. The formol-ethyl acetate sedimentation concentration technique is preferred by many clinical microbiology laboratories for the detection of parasites in stool samples. It is potentially more sensitive than the diagnostic methods traditionally used. Methodology/Principal Findings We evaluated the technique for detection of low-intensity S. japonicum infections in 106 stool samples from China and used a commercial kit, Parasep Midi Faecal Parasite Concentrator. One stool sample and one serum sample were collected from each person. As reference standard we used persons positive by indirect hemagglutination in serum and positive by Kato-Katz thick smear microscopy (three slides from a single stool), and/or the hatching test. We found the sedimentation technique to have a sensitivity of only 28.6% and specificity of 97.4%. Conclusion/Significance This study indicates that the sedimentation technique has little to offer in the diagnosis of low-intensity S. japonicum infections, at least when only a single stool sample is examined. PMID:19238192

  9. SjTat-TPI facilitates adaptive T-cell responses and reduces hepatic pathology during Schistosoma japonicum infection in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenyue; Luo, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Fan; Zhu, Yuxiao; Yang, Bingya; Hou, Min; Xu, Zhipeng; Yu, Chuanxin; Chen, Yingying; Chen, Lin; Ji, Minjun

    2015-12-30

    Schistosomiasis is a kind of parasitic zoonoses which causes serious damage to public health and social development. China is one of the countries most affected by Schistosoma japonicum and an effective vaccine is still needed. In this study, we adopted Tat-mediated protein transduction technology to investigate the impact of different antigen presented approaches on host's immune response and the potential protection against Schistosoma japonicum infection. We successfully constructed the recombinant S. japonicum triosephosphate isomerase, Tat-TPI, as a vaccine candidate. Whether injected with Tat-TPI in foot pad or vaccinated with Tat-TPI in the back subcutaneously for three times, the draining popliteal lymph nodes and spleen both developed a stronger CD8(+)T response (Tc1) in mice. Not only that, but it also helped CD4(+)T cells to produce more IFN-γ than TPI immunisation. In addition, it could boost IgG production, especially IgG1 subclass. Most importantly, Tat-TPI immunisation led to the significant smaller area of a single egg granuloma in the livers as compared with TPI-vaccinated or control groups. However, the anti-infection efficiency induced by Tat-TPI was still restricted. This study indicated that immunisation with Tat-fused TPI could contribute to enhance CD4(+)T-cell response and decrease hepatic egg granulomatous area after S. japonicum infection though it did not achieve our expected protection against Schistosoma japonicum infection. The optimal vaccine strategy warrants further research.

  10. Variable maturation and oviposition by female Schistosoma japonicum in mice: the effects of irradiation of the host prior to infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheever, A.W.; Duvall, R.H.

    1987-11-01

    The maturation of female Schistosoma japonicum was found to vary greatly within each of two Philippine strains of this parasite and some females did not contain uterine eggs 7 to 15 weeks after infection while others contained numerous eggs before the fifth week of infection. It was found that female worms containing less than 20 uterine eggs contributed little to the accumulation of eggs in the tissues of infected mice. Such worms also generally appeared to be immature. The variable rate of maturation of worms is likely to have profound effects on the immune reactions of mice as well as on the pathologic response to infection. Systematic delay in oviposition was serendipitously found in worms from mice which had been irradiated for other purposes prior to exposure to S. japonicum, and from the fourth to the sixth week after infection egg production by worms in irradiated mice lagged well behind that in intact mice. Seven to 10 weeks after infection these worms were laying normal numbers of eggs, as judged by egg passage per worm pair in the feces and the accumulation of eggs in the tissues. S. mansoni developed normally in irradiated mice.

  11. Non-equilibrium plasma prevention of Schistosoma japonicum transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Xing-Quan Wang; Feng-Peng Wang; Wei Chen; Jun Huang; Kateryna Bazaka; Kostya (Ken) Ostrikov

    2016-01-01

    Schistosoma japonicum is a widespread human and animal parasite that causes intestinal and hepatosplenic schistosomiasis linked to colon, liver and bladder cancers, and anemia. Estimated 230 million people are currently infected with Schistosoma spp, with 779 million people at risk of contracting the parasite. Infection occurs when a host comes into contact with cercariae, a planktonic larval stage of the parasite, and can be prevented by inactivating the larvae, commonly by chemical treatmen...

  12. Multiple vaccinations with UV- attenuated cercariae in pig enhance protective immunity against Schistosoma japonicum infection as compared to single vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Dandan; Tian, Fang; Wu, Haiwei; Gao, Yanan; Wu, Jingjiao; Zhang, Donghui; Ji, Minjun; McManus, Donald P; Driguez, Patrick; Wu, Guanling

    2011-06-10

    Schistosomiasis japonica is a major public health problem in the endemic areas of China, the Philippines, and Indonesia. To date, a vaccine has not been developed against this disease but immunization with UV-attenuated cercariae can induce a high level of protective immunity in Landrace/Yorkshire/Duroc crossbred pigs. To compare the efficacy of a single vaccination and multiple vaccinations with UV-attenuated Schistosoma japonicum cercariae, two groups of pigs received either one or three exposures to 10,000 cercariae attenuated with 400 μw UV. Pigs with a single immunization had a 59.33% reduction in adult worm burden, a 89.87% reduction in hepatic eggs and a 86.27% reduction in fecal eggs at eight weeks post-challenge (P vaccinated groups were higher than in the infection-control group. Triple vaccinations resulted in higher levels of antibodies, especially IgG2, compared with a single vaccination and IFN-γ levels increased with repeated immunization with UV-irradiated cercariae. The high levels of protection against S. japonicum infection can be achieved with a UV-attenuated vaccine in pigs, and that three vaccinations were possibly more effective than a single vaccination. Moreover, triple vaccinations evoked a more vigorous IFN-γ response and a stronger antibody-mediated response, especially an increase in the levels of IgG2 antibodies.

  13. Modeling the Dynamics and Control of Transmission of Schistosoma japonicum and S. mekongi in Southeast Asia

    OpenAIRE

    ISHIKAWA, Hirofumi; Ohmae, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    A mathematical model for transmission of schistosomes is useful to predict effects of various control measures on suppression of these parasites. This review focuses on epidemiological and environmental factors in Schistosoma japonicum and Schistosoma mekongi infections and recent advances in mathematical models of Schistosoma transmission.

  14. Utilization of ELISA using thioredoxin peroxidase-1 and tandem repeat proteins for diagnosis of Schistosoma japonicum infection among water buffaloes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Ma M Angeles

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The presence of animal reservoirs in Schistosoma japonicum infection has been a major obstacle in the control of schistosomiasis. Previous studies have proven that the inclusion of control measures on animal reservoir hosts for schistosomiasis contributed to the decrease of human cases. Animal surveillance should therefore be included to strengthen and improve the capabilities of current serological tests. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Thioredoxin peroxidase-1 (SjTPx-1 and four tandem repeat proteins (Sj1TR, Sj2TR, Sj4TR, Sj7TR were initially evaluated against human sera. The previous test showed high sensitivity and specificity for antibody detection against SjTPx-1 and Sj7TR. In this study, the immunodiagnostic potential of these recombinant proteins was evaluated using enzyme-linked immunoassay on 50 water buffalo serum samples collected in Cagayan, the Philippines as compared with the soluble egg antigen (SEA. For specificity, 3 goat serum samples positive with Fasciola hepatica were used and among the antigens used, only SEA showed cross-reaction. Stool PCR targeting the S. japonicum 82 bp mitochondrial NAD 1 gene was done to confirm the true positives and served as the standard test. Twenty three samples were positive for stool PCR. SjTPx-1 and Sj1TR gave the highest sensitivity among the recombinant proteins tested for water buffalo samples with 82.61% and 78.26% respectively which were higher than that of SEA (69.57%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results prove that SjTPx-1 works both for humans and water buffaloes making it a good candidate antigen for zoonotic diagnosis. Sj1TR showed good results for water buffaloes and therefore can also be used as a possible candidate for detecting animal schistosome infection.

  15. [Identification of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein from Schistosoma japonicum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Qin-Yan; Xue, Yan-Feng; Shen, Li

    2012-10-30

    To identify glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchored protein of Schistosoma japonicum. Based on the gene sequence of Schistosoma mansoni GPI anchored protein Sm200 (GenBank Assess No: XM_002569560.1), bioinformatics analysis was performed to find out its homologous gene sequence in S. japonicum, then a selected partial coding sequence (SjGPIs, about 933 bp) from the homologous gene sequence were amplified, and cloned into PET-28a(+) vector. The recombinant plasmid pET-28a(+)SjGPIs were transformed into E. coli Top10 cells and induced with IPTG for protein expression. The recombinant protein SjGPIs was purified with Ni-NTA resin, and the purified recombinant SjGPIs protein was used as antigen to prepare antiserum in New Zealand rabbit. The antiserum was used to detect S. japonicum GPI-anchored protein. To identify a GPI-anchored protein, the detected protein were identified by phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) digestion. White blood cells from S. japonicum-infected mice was examined whether they endocytosed GPI-anchored proteins by Western blotting. The homologous gene sequence of S. mansoni GPI Sm200 gene was found in S. japonicum genome. A 3 495 bp coding sequence was obtained, containing the complete C-terminal sequence. The selected gene sequence (SjGPIs) were amplified and the recombinant plasmid pET-28a(+)-SjGPIs was established. According to the analysis of C-terminal sequence, Western blotting and enzyme digestion of PI-PLC, a GPI-anchored protein was present in S. japonicum tegument (about 1M(r)200000), named SjGPI200. The protein was detected in white blood cells of infected mice. SjGPI200 protein exists in S. japonicum, and anchored to parasite tegument via GPI.

  16. [Preliminary observation on the effect of mefloquine against egg granuloma formation in the liver of mice infected with Schistosoma japonicum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Shu-Hua; Zhang, Chao-Wei

    2013-04-01

    To explore whether mefloquine possesses the effect on granuloma formation induced by Schistosoma japonicum eggs. Seventeen out of twenty-eight mice infected with 20 S. japonicum cercariae for 35 days were treated orally with mefloquine at a single dose of 200 mg/kg, and groups of 2-3 mice were sacrificed at various intervals post-treatment. The livers removed from each group of mice were fixed in 10% formaldehyde. While the remained 11 untreated mice divided into 6 groups (1-2 mice per group) were sacrificed at the same time periods as groups of mice treated with mefloquine, and their livers served as untreated corresponding controls. The granulomas with single egg in the center were counted and their diameters were measured using an ocular micrometer. The liver tissue sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE), Foot's or Mallory's methods for observation on histopathological alteration of egg granulomas, and on the appearance of reticular and collagen fibers within the granulomas. After infected mice were treated with mefloquine for 3, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 days, i.e., 38, 42, 49, 56, 63, and 70 days post-infection, the mean diameters of granuloma with single egg measured in the liver tissues section were (161 +/- 19), (175 +/- 13), (195 +/- 9), (171 +/- 40), (180 +/- 13), and (145 +/- 25) microm, respectively, and each of them was significantly lower than that of its corresponding control group of (189 +/- 18), (197 +/- 11), (211 +/- 12), (208 +/- 19), (203 +/- 16), and (207 +/- 36) microm (P granuloma were sustained to 14-21 d post treatment (49-56 d post infection), which was significantly different from the corresponding control groups that all the eggs were surrounded by fibroblasts at 42 d post infection. Up to 28-35 d post treatment (63-70 d post infection), the boundary of egg granulomas distributed in the liver tissues of mefloquine treated groups was nearer in comparison to the corresponding control groups. Further observation on the reticular

  17. Specific anti-glycan antibodies are sustained during and after parasite clearance in Schistosoma japonicum-infected rhesus macaques.

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    Y Y Michelle Yang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Human immunity to Schistosoma infection requires many years of exposure, and multiple infections and treatments to develop. Unlike humans, rhesus macaques clear an established schistosome infection naturally at the same time acquiring immunity towards re-infection. In macaques, schistosome egg production decreases after 8 weeks post-infection and by week 22, physiological impairment of the worm caused by unclarified antibody-mediated processes is observed. Since strong antibody responses have been observed against schistosome glycan antigens in human and animal infections, we here investigate if anti-glycan antibodies are associated with immunity against schistosome infections in macaques.We used a microarray containing a large repertoire of glycoprotein- and glycolipid-derived glycans from different schistosome life stages to analyse anti-glycan serum IgG and IgM from S. japonicum-infected macaques during the course of infection and self-cure. We also used an in vitro schistosomula assay to investigate whether macaque sera containing anti-glycan antibodies can kill schistosomula.Antibody responses towards schistosome glycans at week 4 post-infection were dominated by IgM while IgG was high at week 8. The profound increase in IgG was observed mainly for antibodies towards a large subset of glycans that contain (multi-fucosylated terminal GalNAcβ1-4GlcNAc (LDN, and Galβ1-4(Fucα1-3GlcNAc (LeX motifs. In general, glycans with a higher degree of fucosylation gave rise to stronger antibody responses than non-fucosylated glycans. Interestingly, even though many IgG and IgM responses had declined by week 22 post-infection, IgG towards O-glycans with highly fucosylated LDN motifs remained. When incubating macaque serum with schistosomula in vitro, schistosomula death was positively correlated with the duration of infection of macaques; macaque serum taken 22 weeks post-infection caused most schistosomula to die, suggesting the presence of potentially

  18. [Comparison of collagen fiber staining between Van-Gieson staining and Masson trichrome staining of hepatic specimens in mice with Schistosoma japonicum infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Da-Ke; Zhang, Yu-Xia; Man, Su-Qin; Yu, Fa-Zhi; Shen, Ji-Jia

    2012-08-01

    To compare the effects of collagen fiber staining between Van-Gieson staining and Masson trichrome staining of hepatic specimens in mice with Schistosoma japonicum infection. A model of hepatic granuloma and fibrosis was established by infecting mice with S. japonicum cercariae, then the hepatic specimens were taken and Van-Gieson staining and Masson trichrome staining were performed. Eventually, the area of granuloma and fibrosis were measured by imaging analysis software. When the time of staining was 3-7 min, there was no significant difference of the fibrosis areas between the two methods (P > 0.05); when the time of staining was more than 10 min, the staining area showed by Masson's staining was significantly larger than that showed by Van-Gieson staining, and the difference was statistically significant (P Masson trichrome staining, therefore Van-Gieson staining is a better method to display collagen.

  19. Cytokine mRNA profiles in pigs exposed prenatally and postnatally to Schistosoma japonicum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Techau, Michala E.; Johansen, Maria V.; Aasted, Bent

    2007-01-01

    The pig is a natural host for Schistosoma japonicum and a useful animal model of human infection. The aim of the present study was to assess the differences between the cytokine profiles in prenatally or postnatally S. japonicum exposed pigs. Seven prenatally exposed pigs, 7 postnatally exposed...

  20. Non-equilibrium plasma prevention of Schistosoma japonicum transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xing-Quan; Wang, Feng-Peng; Chen, Wei; Huang, Jun; Bazaka, Kateryna; Ostrikov, Kostya (Ken)

    2016-10-01

    Schistosoma japonicum is a widespread human and animal parasite that causes intestinal and hepatosplenic schistosomiasis linked to colon, liver and bladder cancers, and anemia. Estimated 230 million people are currently infected with Schistosoma spp, with 779 million people at risk of contracting the parasite. Infection occurs when a host comes into contact with cercariae, a planktonic larval stage of the parasite, and can be prevented by inactivating the larvae, commonly by chemical treatment. We investigated the use of physical non-equilibrium plasma generated at atmospheric pressure using custom-made dielectric barrier discharge reactor to kill S. japonicum cercariae. Survival rate decreased with treatment time and applied power. Plasmas generated in O2 and air gas discharges were more effective in killing S. japonicum cercariae than that generated in He, which is directly related to the mechanism by which cercariae are inactivated. Reactive oxygen species, such as O atoms, abundant in O2 plasma and NO in air plasma play a major role in killing of S. japonicum cercariae via oxidation mechanisms. Similar level of efficacy is also shown for a gliding arc discharge plasma jet generated in ambient air, a system that may be more appropriate for scale-up and integration into existing water treatment processes.

  1. [Dynamic alteration of CD154/CD40 and its effects on Th1/Th2 polarization in inducible co-stimulator ligand knockout mice infected with Schistosoma japonicum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Xia, Chao-ming

    2015-12-18

    To analyze effect on the CD154-CD40 signaling pathway and Th1/Th2 polarization by deficient inducible co-stimulator (ICOS)-ICOS ligand (ICOSL) signaling in mice infected with Schistosoma japonicum. ICOSL knockout (ICOSL-KO) mice and wild-type C57BL/6J mice were used as experimental Schistosomiasis model infected with Schistosoma japonicum. The expressions of CD154 and CD40 on splenocytes and on inflammatory cells around granulomatous infiltration of liver in mice infected with Schistosoma japonicum were analyzed by flow cytometry,immunohistochemical staining, respectively, on the day before infection (0 week)and at the end of 4, 7, 12, 16 and 20 weeks post-infection. The splenocytes of the mice were stimulated with soluble egg antigen(SEA) for 72 hours, then the concentrations of interferon gamma(IFN-γ) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) in the culture supernatants were measured by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. The levels of SEA-specific antibodies of IgG and IgG1 and IgG2a were measured in the mice sera by ELISA. The granulomatous pathology in the mice liver was dynamically observed by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining. Compared with the wild-type C57BL/6J mice, the expressions of CD154 on CD4+ T splenocytes [(18.62 ± 4.76)% vs.(27.91 ± 3.94)%, (22.44 ± 4.67)% vs.(40.86 ± 5.21)%, (25.50 ± 6.81)% vs.(43.81 ± 8.41)%, (20.22 ± 5.28)% vs.(40.95 ± 7.34)%, (17.87 ± 4.59)% vs.(33.16 ± 6.31)%, all PCD154[(0.319 ± 0.066) vs.(0.488 ± 0.086), (0.389 ± 0.067) vs.(0.596 ± 0.082), (0.378 ± 0.064) vs.(0.543 ± 0.072), (0.348 ± 0.069) vs.(0.523 ± 0.076), all PCD154 and CD40 and impairment of Th2 immune response in the ICOSL-KO mice infected with Schistosoma japonicum, accompanying with notedly reduced hepatic granulomatous pathology. The ICOS-ICOSL signaling has a regulatory effect on CD154-CD40 signaling pathway, and may play an important role in the hepatic egg granuloma formation of Schistosomiasis.

  2. Eco-social determinants of Schistosoma japonicum infection supported by multi-level modelling in Eryuan county, People's Republic of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kun; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Jia, Tie-Wu; Yang, Guo-Jing; Wu, Xiao-Hua; Shi, Xue-Wen; Li, Hong-Jun; Steinmann, Peter; Utzinger, Jürg; Bergquist, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis remains of considerable public health concern in many tropical and subtropical regions of the world, including the People's Republic of China (P.R. China). The effectiveness of schistosomiasis control interventions are, among other factors, governed by the social-ecological context. However, eco-social determinants of schistosomiasis are poorly understood, particularly at the household or village levels. In the current study, residents in 26 villages of Eryuan county, Yunnan province, P.R. China, were screened for Schistosoma japonicum infection with a serological assay that was followed by stool examination for sero-positive individuals. Bayesian multilevel models with spatial random effects were employed to profile the S. japonicum infection risk based on known transmission sites of S. japonicum that are scattered across individual land parcels in this part of the country. The key risk factors identified with this approach were the absence of a sanitary stall house for livestock and presence of living and infected intermediate host snails in close proximity. We conclude that a spatially explicit Bayesian multilevel approach can deepen our understanding of eco-social determinants that govern schistosomiasis transmission at a small geographical scale. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The dynamic changes of CD3e(-)CD11c(+) dendritic cells in spleens and bone marrow of mice infected with Schistosoma japonicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Chen, Qingzhou; Hou, Wei; He, Li

    2017-03-01

    Schistosoma japonicum as a pathogeny requires dendritic cells to activate immune response. So, the research is to study the dynamic changes of CD3e(-)CD11c(+) dendritic cells in mice infected with S. japonicum. Zero, 7, 28, 35, and 63 days were selected to study the variation of dendritic cells, and the proportions of CD3e(-)CD11c(+) dendritic cells and CD86(+) mature dendritic cells in spleens and bone marrow were tested by flow cytometry. As a result, the variation trends of dendritic cells in spleen and bone marrow are similar as follows: the proportions of CD3e(-)CD11c(+) dendritic cells increased first and then decreased from day 35, but the percentages of CD86(+) mature dendritic cells decreased from day 28 and increased in day 63. In vitro, cultured dendritic cells treated with SEA and SAWA were tested by flow cytometry, the variation trends of CD86 on dendritic cells are consistent with the results in days 28 and 63. Besides CD86, the expression of MHC-II also hints immune regulation. In conclusion, it is speculated that dendritic cells play a role of immune regulation through MHC-II and CD86 in S. japonicum infection. Immune regulation of dendritic cells is not only in favor of the survival of host and parasite but also can be used in the therapy for immune diseases.

  4. Optimisation of a droplet digital PCR assay for the diagnosis of Schistosoma japonicum infection: A duplex approach with DNA binding dye chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weerakoon, Kosala G; Gordon, Catherine A; Gobert, Geoffrey N; Cai, Pengfei; McManus, Donald P

    2016-06-01

    Schistosomiasis is a chronically debilitating helminth infection with a significant socio-economic and public health impact. Accurate diagnostics play a pivotal role in achieving current schistosomiasis control and elimination goals. However, many of the current diagnostic procedures, which rely on detection of schistosome eggs, have major limitations including lack of accuracy and the inability to detect pre-patent infections. DNA-based detection methods provide a viable alternative to the current tests commonly used for schistosomiasis diagnosis. Here we describe the optimisation of a novel droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) duplex assay for the diagnosis of Schistosoma japonicum infection which provides improved detection sensitivity and specificity. The assay involves the amplification of two specific and abundant target gene sequences in S. japonicum; a retrotransposon (SjR2) and a portion of a mitochondrial gene (nad1). The assay detected target sequences in different sources of schistosome DNA isolated from adult worms, schistosomules and eggs, and exhibits a high level of specificity, thereby representing an ideal tool for the detection of low levels of parasite DNA in different clinical samples including parasite cell free DNA in the host circulation and other bodily fluids. Moreover, being quantitative, the assay can be used to determine parasite infection intensity and, could provide an important tool for the detection of low intensity infections in low prevalence schistosomiasis-endemic areas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Functional characterisation of Schistosoma japonicum acetylcholinesterase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Hong; Gobert, Geoffrey N; Du, Xiaofeng; Pali, Gabor; Cai, Pengfei; Jones, Malcolm K; McManus, Donald P

    2016-06-10

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is an important metabolic enzyme of schistosomes present in the musculature and on the surface of the blood stage where it has been implicated in the modulation of glucose scavenging from mammalian host blood. As both a target for the antischistosomal drug metrifonate and as a potential vaccine candidate, AChE has been characterised in the schistosome species Schistosoma mansoni, S. haematobium and S. bovis, but not in S. japonicum. Recently, using a schistosome protein microarray, a predicted S. japonicum acetylcholinesterase precursor was significantly targeted by protective IgG1 immune responses in S. haematobium-exposed individuals that had acquired drug-induced resistance to schistosomiasis after praziquantel treatment. We report the full-length cDNA sequence and describe phylogenetic and molecular structural analysis to facilitate understanding of the biological function of AChE (SjAChE) in S. japonicum. The protein has high sequence identity (88 %) with the AChEs in S. mansoni, S. haematobium and S. bovis and has 25 % sequence similarity with human AChE, suggestive of a highly specialised role for the enzyme in both parasite and host. We immunolocalized SjAChE and demonstrated its presence on the surface of adult worms and schistosomula, as well as its lower expression in parenchymal regions. The relatively abundance of AChE activity (90 %) present on the surface of adult S. japonicum when compared with that reported in other schistosomes suggests SjAChE may be a more effective drug or immunological target against this species. We also demonstrate that the classical inhibitor of AChE, BW285c51, inhibited AChE activity in tegumental extracts of paired worms, single males and single females by 59, 22 and 50 %, respectively, after 24 h incubation with 200 μM BW284c51. These results build on previous studies in other schistosome species indicating major differences in the enzyme between parasite and mammalian host, and provide

  6. Oral delivery of the Sj23LHD-GST antigen by Salmonella typhimurium type III secretion system protects against Schistosoma japonicum infection in mice.

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    Guo Chen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis japonica is a zoonotic parasitic disease and oral vaccine delivery system would be benefit for prevention of this disease. Although attenuated salmonella has been used as an antigen expression vector for oral vaccine development, the membrane-bound vacuoles in which bacteria reside hinders the presentation of expressed heterologous antigens to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC molecules. The present work used an attenuated Salmonella typhimurium strain VNP20009 to secretory expression of Sj23LHDGST bivalent antigen from Schistosoma japonicum and tested the protective efficacy against S. japonicum infection in orally immunized mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Promoters (nirB or pagC were used to express the antigen (Sj23LHDGST and the Salmonella type III or α-hemolysin secretion system was employed to secrete it. The immunoblotting analysis and fluorescent microscopy revealed that the antigen was effectively expressed and delivered to the cytosol of macrophages in vitro. Among recombinant vaccine strains, an engineered VNP20009 which expressed the antigen by nirB promoter and secreted it through type III secretion system (nirB-sopE(1-104-Sj23LHD-GST efficiently protected against S. japonicum infection in a mouse model. This strain elicited a predominantly IgG(2a antibody response and a markedly increase in the production of IL-12 and IFN-γ. The flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that this strain caused T cell activation as evidenced by significantly increased expression of CD44 and CD69. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Oral delivery of antigen by nirB-driven Salmonella typhimurium type III secretion system is a novel, safe, inexpensive, efficient and convenient approach for schistosome vaccine development.

  7. [Susceptibilities of Oncomelania hupensis snails to Schistosoma japonicum miracidia from different hosts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yue; Wang, Tian-Ping; Wang, Qi-Zhi; Lv, Da-Bing; Yin, Xiao-Mei; Zhou, Li; Wang, Zhen-Li; Wang, Feng-Feng; Wang, Yue; Zhang, Le-Sheng

    2011-08-01

    To understand the susceptibilities of Oncomelania hupensis snails to Schistosoma japonicum miracidia from different hosts. The Schistosoma japonicum eggs from different hosts, such as rabbits, cattle and mice were collected. These eggs were incubated for miracidia, respectively. Each snail from the same site was exposed to 5 miracidia of Schistosoma japonicum from different hosts. The infected snails were fed in the laboratory for two months. Then all the snails were dissected and observed under the dissecting microscope in order to know the infection rate of snails. In the experiment group, the infection rates of snails infected with miracidia from rabbits, cattle and mice were 1.42%, 8.67% and 19.87%, respectively, the mortality rates were 29.5%, 13.5% and 24.5%, respectively. However, the infection rates of snails in the control group were 2.63%, 2.02% and 11.66%, respectively, and the mortality rates were 24.0%, 49.5% and 18.5%, respectively. The susceptibilities of Oncomelania snails to Schistosoma japonicum miracidia from 3 kinds of hosts are significantly different.

  8. Schistosoma japonicum: immunological characterization and detection of circulating polysaccharide antigens from adult worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Z L; Deelder, A M

    1983-04-01

    The antigenic constituents of a trichloroacetic acid (TCA)-soluble fraction of adult Schistosoma japonicum were studied with immunoelectrophoresis, and compared with those of Schistosoma mansoni. Eight TCA-soluble antigens of S. japonicum were demonstrated, five of which showed immunological identity with S. mansoni antigens. Of the eight antigens, five antigens with anodic motility were found as circulating antigens in S. japonicum-infected hamster and rabbit sera; the major circulating antigen was the circulating anodic antigen (CAA). Two other antigens, with cathodic motility, including the circulating cathodic antigen (CCA), were demonstrable as circulating antigens in S. mansoni infections, but not in S. japonicum infections. Most of the circulating antigens were shown to be gut-associated. Only one antigen, line 2, which was not demonstrable as circulating antigen and which was present in the parenchyma of the worms, was found to be specific for S. japonicum. Using an ELISA for the detection of CAA in the sera of S. japonicum-infected rabbits, a lower detection level of 100 ng CAA/ml serum was achieved. Moreover, at 7-8 weeks after infection, a direct relationship between worm burden and CAA level was demonstrated.

  9. [Surveillance and forecast system of schistosomiasis in Jiangsu Province. VI. Detection technology of water infectivity based on enrichment of Schistosoma japonicum cercariae on water surface].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Guo-li; Dai, Jian-rong; Xing, Yuan-tian; Wang, Wei; Yang, Zhen-kun; Zhao, Zheng-yang; Guo, Na; Sun, Le-ping; Liang, You-Sheng

    2014-10-01

    To explore the enrichment technique of Schistosoma japonicum cercariae on the water surface, so as to establish a new method combined with the existing technology to detect the cercarial infested water body quickly and sensitively. Soybean oil, gasoline, kerosene and isophorone were screened as expanding agents. The cercariae were enriched by the thrust of the expanding agents when diffusing on the water surface, and PE adsorption film and C-6 film were applied to seize them so as to determine the infectivity of the water quickly. The relationship between the dose of expanding agents and diffusion radius were explored. Gasoline, kerosene and isophorone were suitable expanding agents, and the diffusion effect of isophorone was the best. After the enrichment by the expanding agents, the detection rate of cercariae of the method seizing cercariae with the film significantly improved in the water. This new method could effectively improve the detection rate of the cercarial infested water and is suitable for the low-degree infested water.

  10. Thioredoxin glutathione reductase as a novel drug target: evidence from Schistosoma japonicum.

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    LiJun Song

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis remains a major public health concern affecting billions of people around the world. Currently, praziquantel is the only drug of choice for treatment of human schistosomiasis. The emergence of drug resistance to praziquantel in schistosomes makes the development of novel drugs an urgent task. Thioredoxin glutathione reductase (TGR enzymes in Schistosoma mansoni and some other platyhelminths have been identified as alternative targets. The present study was designed to confirm the existense and the potential value of TGR as a target for development of novel antischistosomal agents in Schistosoma japonicum, a platyhelminth endemic in Asia. METHODS AND FINDINGS: After cloning the S. japonicum TGR (SjTGR gene, the recombinant SjTGR selenoprotein was purified and characterized in enzymatic assays as a multifunctional enzyme with thioredoxin reductase (TrxR, glutathione reductase (GR and glutaredoxin (Grx activities. Immunological and bioinformatic analyses confirmed that instead of having separate TrxR and GR proteins in mammalian, S. japonicum only encodes TGR, which performs the functions of both enzymes and plays a critical role in maintaining the redox balance in this parasite. These results were in good agreement with previous findings in Schistosoma mansoni and some other platyhelminths. Auranofin, a known inhibitor against TGR, caused fatal toxicity in S. japonicum adult worms in vitro and reduced worm and egg burdens in S. japonicum infected mice. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, our study confirms that a multifunctional enzyme SjTGR selenoprotein, instead of separate TrxR and GR enzymes, exists in S. japonicum. Furthermore, TGR may be a potential target for development of novel agents against schistosomes. This assumption is strengthened by our demonstration that the SjTGR is an essential enzyme for maintaining the thiol-disulfide redox homeostasis of S. japonicum.

  11. Novel real-time PCr for detection of Schistosoma japonicum in stool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lier, T; Simonsen, G S; Haaheim, H; Hjelmevoll, S O; Vennervald, B J; Johansen, M V

    2006-03-01

    Chemotherapy has been used on a large scale in countries where the blood fluke Schistosoma japonicum is endemic. This has led to a lower intensity of infections and consequently lower diagnostic values of commonly used diagnostic tests like serology and Kato-Katz stool smear. We designed a novel real-time PCR method for detection of S. japonicum in stool samples. Further, we evaluated different versions of an inexpensive, non-commercial extraction method, ROSE, as well as the commercial QIAamp DNA Stool Mini Kit. PCR primer sequences were designed targeting the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase I gene. Bovine serum albumin was added to the DNA extracts and SYBR Green was used for detection. The PCR method was evaluated with non-infected stool samples spiked with S. japonicum eggs. It demonstrated high sensitivity, even in samples containing a single egg. The two extraction methods were equally effective. The PCR was specific for S. japonicum when tested against other Schistosoma species, Trichuris trichiura, hookworm and Taenia sp. We conclude that this novel real-time PCR, in combination with either ROSE or QIAamp DNA Stool Mini Kit extraction, is a sensitive and specific tool for diagnosing S. japonicum in human stool samples.

  12. A specific indel marker for the Philippines Schistosoma japonicum revealed by analysis of mitochondrial genome sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Chen, Fen; Sugiyama, Hiromu; Blair, David; Lin, Rui-Qing; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2015-07-01

    In the present study, near-complete mitochondrial (mt) genome sequences for Schistosoma japonicum from different regions in the Philippines and Japan were amplified and sequenced. Comparisons among S. japonicum from the Philippines, Japan, and China revealed a geographically based length difference in mt genomes, but the mt genomic organization and gene arrangement were the same. Sequence differences among samples from the Philippines and all samples from the three endemic areas were 0.57-2.12 and 0.76-3.85 %, respectively. The most variable part of the mt genome was the non-coding region. In the coding portion of the genome, protein-coding genes varied more than rRNA genes and tRNAs. The near-complete mt genome sequences for Philippine specimens were identical in length (14,091 bp) which was 4 bp longer than those of S. japonicum samples from Japan and China. This indel provides a unique genetic marker for S. japonicum samples from the Philippines. Phylogenetic analyses based on the concatenated amino acids of 12 protein-coding genes showed that samples of S. japonicum clustered according to their geographical origins. The identified mitochondrial indel marker will be useful for tracing the source of S. japonicum infection in humans and animals in Southeast Asia.

  13. In vivo and in vitro activity of oil extract of garlic (Allium sativum Linnaeus) against Schistosoma japonicum cercariae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Kang; Wang, Peng; Zhang, Leibo

    2017-01-01

    The activity of garlic oil extract against Schistosoma japonicum cercariae was evaluated. The in vitro and in vivo cercaricidal activities against S. japonicum larvae were determined. Exposure to ≥ 10-6 (v/v) garlic emulsions for 30 min led to 100% cercariae mortality; pre-exposure treatment with ≥ 10-4 (v/v) garlic emulsions showed 100% preventive efficacy against S. japonicum infection, while pre-treatment with 10-5 and 10-6 (v/v) emulsions achieved 20%-40% preventive efficacy and 35.2%-63.6% worm burden reduction. Garlic oil extract has activity against S. japonicum larvae and a promising preventive efficacy against S. japonicum infection.

  14. Exploring molecular variation in Schistosoma japonicum in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Neil D.; Chan, Kok-Gan; Korhonen, Pasi K.; Min Chong, Teik; Ee, Robson; Mohandas, Namitha; Koehler, Anson V.; Lim, Yan-Lue; Hofmann, Andreas; Jex, Aaron R.; Qian, Baozhen; Chilton, Neil B.; Gobert, Geoffrey N.; McManus, Donald P.; Tan, Patrick; Webster, Bonnie L.; Rollinson, David; Gasser, Robin B.

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease that affects more than 200 million people worldwide. The main disease-causing agents, Schistosoma japonicum, S. mansoni and S. haematobium, are blood flukes that have complex life cycles involving a snail intermediate host. In Asia, S. japonicum causes hepatointestinal disease (schistosomiasis japonica) and is challenging to control due to a broad distribution of its snail hosts and range of animal reservoir hosts. In China, extensive efforts have been underway to control this parasite, but genetic variability in S. japonicum populations could represent an obstacle to eliminating schistosomiasis japonica. Although a draft genome sequence is available for S. japonicum, there has been no previous study of molecular variation in this parasite on a genome-wide scale. In this study, we conducted the first deep genomic exploration of seven S. japonicum populations from mainland China, constructed phylogenies using mitochondrial and nuclear genomic data sets, and established considerable variation between some of the populations in genes inferred to be linked to key cellular processes and/or pathogen-host interactions. Based on the findings from this study, we propose that verifying intraspecific conservation in vaccine or drug target candidates is an important first step toward developing effective vaccines and chemotherapies against schistosomiasis. PMID:26621075

  15. A Review of Schistosomiasis in Indonesia with Reference to Schistosoma Japonicum

    OpenAIRE

    Liat, Lim Boo; M. Sudomo

    1987-01-01

    Tinjauan tentang Schistosoma di Indonesia ini mencakup Schistosoma japonicum, S. incognitum, S. spindale dan Trichohilharzia brevis. Tinjauan dibuat atas dasar laporan-laporan penelitian yang telah diterbitkan. Di dalamnya dapat dijumpai uraian singkat tentang S. spinale dan T. brevis. Dari banyak publikasi tentang S. japonicum dan S. incoganitum dapat disajikan uraian tentang peranan kedua parasit tersebut sebagai penyebab penyakit baik manusia maupun hewan.

  16. A REVIEW OF SCHISTOSOMIASIS IN INDONESIA WITH REFERENCE TO SCHISTOSOMA JAPONICUM

    OpenAIRE

    Lim Boo Liat; M. Sudomo

    2012-01-01

    Tinjauan tentang Schistosoma di Indonesia ini mencakup Schistosoma japonicum, S. incognitum, S. spindale dan Trichohilharzia brevis. Tinjauan dibuat atas dasar laporan-laporan penelitian yang telah diterbitkan. Di dalamnya dapat dijumpai uraian singkat tentang S. spinale dan T. brevis. Dari banyak publikasi tentang S. japonicum dan S. incoganitum dapat disajikan uraian tentang peranan kedua parasit tersebut sebagai penyebab penyakit baik manusia maupun hewan.

  17. A piezoelectric immunosensor using hybrid self-assembled monolayers for detection of Schistosoma japonicum.

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    Shiping Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The parasite Schistosoma japonicum causes schistosomiasis disease, which threatens human life and hampers economic and social development in some Asian countries. An important lesson learned from efforts to reduce the occurrence of schistosomiasis is that the diagnostic approach must be altered as further progress is made towards the control and ultimate elimination of the disease. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using mixed self-assembled monolayer membrane (mixed SAM technology, a mixture of mercaptopropionic acid (MPA and mercaptoethanol (ME was self-assembled on the surface of quartz crystals by gold-sulphur-bonds. Soluble egg antigens (SEA of S. japonicum were then cross-linked to the quartz crystal using a special coupling agent. As compared with the traditional single self-assembled monolayer immobilization method, S. japonicum antigen (SjAg immobilization using mixed self-assembled monolayers exhibits much greater immunoreactivity. Under optimal experimental conditions, the detection range is 1:1500 to 1:60 (infected rabbit serum dilution ratios. We measured several infected rabbit serum samples with varying S. japonicum antibody (SjAb concentrations using both immunosensor and ELISA techniques and then produced a correlation analysis. The correlation coefficients reached 0.973. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We have developed a new, simple, sensitive, and reusable piezoelectric immunosensor that directly detects SjAb in the serum. This method may represent an alternative to the current diagnostic methods for S. japonicum infection in the clinical laboratory or for analysis outside the laboratory.

  18. In vitro cultivation of Schistosoma japonicum-parasites and cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Qing; Dong, Hui-Fen; Grevelding, Christoph G; Hu, Min

    2013-12-01

    Schistosomiasis is a serious parasitic zoonosis caused by blood-dwelling flukes of the genus Schistosoma. Understanding functions of genes and proteins of this parasite is important for uncovering this pathogen's complex biology, which will provide valuable information to design new strategies for schistosomiasis control. Effective applications of molecular tools reported to investigate schistosome gene function, such as inhibitor studies and transgenesis, rely on the developments of in vitro cultivation system of this parasite and cells. Besides the in vitro culture studies dealing with Schistosoma mansoni, there are also numerous excellent studies about the in vitro cultivation of Schistosoma japonicum, which were performed by Chinese researchers and published in Chinese journals. Nearly every stage of the life-cycle of S. japonicum, including miracidia, mother sporocysts, cercariae, schistosomula, and egg-laying adult worms, was employed for developing in vitro cultivation methods, being accompanied by the introduction of several media and supplements that helped to improve culture conditions. It was not only possible to generate mother sporocysts from miracidia in vitro, but also to obtain adult worms from cercariae through in vitro cultivation. The main obstacles to complete the life cycle of S. japonicum in the lab are the transition from mother sporocysts to cercariae, and the production of fertilized and completely developed eggs by adult worms generated in vitro. With regard to cells from S. japonicum, besides established isolation protocols and morphological observations, media optimizations were conducted by using different chemical reagents, biological supplements and physical treatment. Among these, mutagens like N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine and the addition of extracellular matrix were found to be able to induce mitogenic activities. Although enzyme activities or the level of silver-stained nucleolar region associated protein in cultured cells

  19. Transmission dynamics of Schistosoma japonicum in the lakes and marshlands of China.

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    Darren J Gray

    Full Text Available Schistosoma japonicum is a major public health concern in China, with over one million people infected and another 40 million living in areas at risk of infection. Unlike the disease caused by S. mansoni and S. haematobium, schistosomiasis japonica is a zoonosis, involving a number of different mammalian species as reservoir hosts. As a result of a number of published reports from China, it has long been considered that bovines, particularly water buffaloes, play a major role in human S. japonicum transmission there, and a drug-based intervention study (1998-2003 around the Poyang Lake in Jiangxi Province provided proof of concept that water buffaloes are, indeed, major reservoirs of human infection in this setting.In this study we incorporated recently obtained epidemiological information to model the steady-state S. japonicum transmission as well as the impact of the removal of S. japonicum transmission attributable to water buffaloes on human infection rates across six different endemic scenarios within three villages in the Dongting (Hunan and Poyang (Jiangxi lakes of southern China. Similar results were obtained for all scenarios. Steady-state S. japonicum infection rates remained constant and human prevalence and incidence were predicted to fall considerably over time. The model showed that the contribution of S. japonicum water buffalo transmission to human infection ranged from 39.1% to 99.1% and predicted that the removal of water buffalo transmission would reduce parasite reproductive rates below 1. This indicates that without the contribution of water buffaloes, S. japonicum transmission is interrupted and unsustainable. These scenarios are generalizable to other endemic villages in the lake and marshland areas of China where a similar cycle of snail infection and infection/reinfection of humans and bovines occurs.Along with previous epidemiological data, our findings strongly support water buffaloes as an important component of the

  20. Immunoblot analysis of membrane antigens of Schistosoma mansoni, Schistosoma intercalatum, and Schistosoma haematobium against Schistosoma-infected patient sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesari, Italo M; Ballen, Diana E; Mendoza, L; Ferrer, Alain; Pointier, Jean-Pierre; Kombila, Maryvonne; Richard-Lenoble, Dominique; Théron, Andre

    2010-04-01

    Antigens present in aqueous n-butanolic extracts (BE) of Schistosoma mansoni (Venezuelan JL strain), Schistosoma intercalatum (Cameroon EDEA strain), and Schistosoma haematobium (Yemen strain) adult worm membranes were compared in immunoblot against sera of patients infected with S. mansoni, S. intercalatum, S. haematobium, Schistosoma japonicum, or Schistosoma mekongi looking for similarities (common antigens) and differences (species-specific antigens). About 17 S. mansoni BE polypeptides (M (r) approximately 8 to >80 kDa) were commonly recognized by S. mansoni-infected patient sera from Venezuela, Senegal, and Ethiopia. S. intercalatum-, S. haematobium-, or S. japonicum-infected sera were almost unreactive with S. mansoni BE. Nonetheless, S. mekongi-infected sera weakly cross-reacted with a approximately 10-15-kDa subset of S. mansoni BE. About 72.7% of S. intercalatum-infected patient sera reacted with a approximately 19-21-kDa complex in S. intercalatum BE and cross-reacted with a similar complex in S. haematobium BE. Conversely, all S. haematobium-infected patient sera reacted with a approximately 19-21-kDa complex in S. haematobium BE and cross-reacted with the approximately 19-21-kDa complex in S. intercalatum BE; S. mansoni- and S. japonicum-infected patient sera did not react with S. intercalatum or S. haematobium BE. Results showed the presence of a common membrane antigen between African schistosome species and species-specific antigens in S. mansoni BE that could be useful to discriminate between species and/or to detect Schistosoma infections.

  1. Pyrosequencing for rapid molecular identification of Schistosoma japonicum and S. mekongi eggs and cercariae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Tantrawatpan, Chairat; Intapan, Pewpan M; Sri-Aroon, Pusadee; Limpanont, Yanin; Lulitanond, Viraphong; Janwan, Penchom; Sanpool, Oranuch; Tourtip, Somjintana; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2013-09-01

    Schistosomiasis, which is caused by Schistosoma japonicum and S. mekongi, is a chronic and dangerous widespread disease affecting several countries in Asia. Differentiation between S. japonicum and S. mekongi eggs and/or cercariae via microscopic examination is difficult due to morphological similarities. It is important to identify these etiological agents isolated from animals and humans at the species or genotype level. In this study, a pyrosequencing assay designed to detect S. japonicum and S. mekongi DNA in fecal samples and infected snails was developed and evaluated as an alternative tool to diagnose schistosomiasis. New primers targeting the 18S ribosomal RNA gene were designated for specific amplification. S. japonicum and S. mekongi were identified using a 43-nucleotide pattern of the 18S ribosomal RNA gene and were differentiated using 7 nucleotides within this region. S. japonicum and S. mekongi-infected snails and fecal samples derived from infected mice and rats were differentially detected within a short period of time. The analytical sensitivity of the method enabled the identification of as little as a single cercaria artificially introduced into a pool of 10 non-infected snails and 2 eggs inoculated in 100mg of non-infected fecal sample. To evaluate the comparative efficacy of the assay, identical samples were also analyzed via microscopy and Sanger sequencing. The pyrosequencing technique was found to be superior to the microscopy method and more rapid than the Sanger sequencing method. These results suggest that the pyrosequencing assay is rapid, simple, sensitive and accurate in identifying S. japonicum and S. mekongi in intermediate hosts and fecal samples of the final host. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of recombinant fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase ELISA test for the diagnosis of Schistosoma japonicum in water buffaloes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Shih-Yi; Lee, Kin-Mu; Tsaihong, John Chin; Cheng, Po-Ching; Fan, Ping-Chin

    2008-12-01

    Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (FBPA) is an ubiquitous enzyme essential for glycolysis, gluconeogenesis and the Calvin cycle. It has been demonstrated to induce immune responses and to be useful in the immunodiagnosis of malaria. In this study, FBPA was cloned from the adult worms of Schistosoma japonicum and tested as an antigen for the diagnosis of S. japonicum infection in water buffaloes. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was performed on the sera from 32 infected water buffaloes and 20 negative controls using the recombinant FBPA protein or soluble worm antigen preparation (SWAP) as an antigen. The OD cut-off values were determined to be 0.57 with 100% specificity and 100% sensitivity for the FBPA ELISA and 1.13 with 93.8% specificity and 95.0% sensitivity for the SWAP ELISA. These findings indicate that the recombinant FBPA of S. japonicum should be an useful diagnostic tool for the detection of antibodies against S. japonicum.

  3. Schistosoma japonicum: An ultraviolet-attenuated cercarial vaccine applicable in the field for water buffaloes

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    Shi, Y.E.; Jiang, C.F.; Han, J.J.; Li, Y.L.; Ruppel, A. (Tongii Medical Univ., Wuhan, Hubei Province (China))

    1990-07-01

    Water buffaloes were vaccinated three times with 10,000 Schistosoma japonicum cercariae irradiated with ultraviolet (uv) light at a dose of 400 microW x min/cm2. The irradiation was performed with cheap, simple, and portable equipment in a rural area of Hubei Province (People's Republic of China). A challenge infection of 1000 untreated cercariae was given to six vaccinated and six naive control buffaloes, while two vaccinated animals were not challenged. The experiment was terminated 6 weeks after the challenge. Control animals had lost body weight and harbored a mean of 110 worms and 37 eggs per gram of liver. The vaccinated animals gained weight after the challenge and developed 89% resistance to infection with S. japonicum. Since schistosomiasis japonica is nowadays transmitted in China predominantly by domestic livestock, a uv-attenuated cercarial vaccine for bovines may contribute to the control of this disease.

  4. New Perspectives on Host-Parasite Interplay by Comparative Transcriptomic and Proteomic Analyses of Schistosoma japonicum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis remains a serious public health problem with an estimated 200 million people infected in 76 countries. Here we isolated ~ 8,400 potential protein-encoding cDNA contigs from Schistosoma japonicum after sequencing circa 84,000 expressed sequence tags. In tandem, we undertook a high-throughput proteomics approach to characterize the protein expression profiles of a number of developmental stages (cercariae, hepatic schistosomula, female and male adults, eggs, and miracidia and tissues at the host-parasite interface (eggshell and tegument by interrogating the protein database deduced from the contigs. Comparative analysis of these transcriptomic and proteomic data, the latter including 3,260 proteins with putative identities, revealed differential expression of genes among the various developmental stages and sexes of S. japonicum and localization of putative secretory and membrane antigens, enzymes, and other gene products on the adult tegument and eggshell, many of which displayed genetic polymorphisms. Numerous S. japonicum genes exhibited high levels of identity with those of their mammalian hosts, whereas many others appeared to be conserved only across the genus Schistosoma or Phylum Platyhelminthes. These findings are expected to provide new insights into the pathophysiology of schistosomiasis and for the development of improved interventions for disease control and will facilitate a more fundamental understanding of schistosome biology, evolution, and the host-parasite interplay.

  5. New perspectives on host-parasite interplay by comparative transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of Schistosoma japonicum.

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    Feng Liu

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis remains a serious public health problem with an estimated 200 million people infected in 76 countries. Here we isolated ~ 8,400 potential protein-encoding cDNA contigs from Schistosoma japonicum after sequencing circa 84,000 expressed sequence tags. In tandem, we undertook a high-throughput proteomics approach to characterize the protein expression profiles of a number of developmental stages (cercariae, hepatic schistosomula, female and male adults, eggs, and miracidia and tissues at the host-parasite interface (eggshell and tegument by interrogating the protein database deduced from the contigs. Comparative analysis of these transcriptomic and proteomic data, the latter including 3,260 proteins with putative identities, revealed differential expression of genes among the various developmental stages and sexes of S. japonicum and localization of putative secretory and membrane antigens, enzymes, and other gene products on the adult tegument and eggshell, many of which displayed genetic polymorphisms. Numerous S. japonicum genes exhibited high levels of identity with those of their mammalian hosts, whereas many others appeared to be conserved only across the genus Schistosoma or Phylum Platyhelminthes. These findings are expected to provide new insights into the pathophysiology of schistosomiasis and for the development of improved interventions for disease control and will facilitate a more fundamental understanding of schistosome biology, evolution, and the host-parasite interplay.

  6. SjTPdb: integrated transcriptome and proteome database and analysis platform for Schistosoma japonicum

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    Wang Zhi-Qin

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schistosoma japonicum is one of the three major blood fluke species, the etiological agents of schistosomiasis which remains a serious public health problem with an estimated 200 million people infected in 76 countries. In recent years, enormous amounts of both transcriptomic and proteomic data of schistosomes have become available, providing information on gene expression profiles for developmental stages and tissues of S. japonicum. Here, we establish a public searchable database, termed SjTPdb, with integrated transcriptomic and proteomic data of S. japonicum, to enable more efficient access and utility of these data and to facilitate the study of schistosome biology, physiology and evolution. Description All the available ESTs, EST clusters, and the proteomic dataset of S. japonicum are deposited in SjTPdb. The core of the database is the 8,420 S. japonicum proteins translated from the EST clusters, which are well annotated for sequence similarity, structural features, functional ontology, genomic variations and expression patterns across developmental stages and tissues including the tegument and eggshell of this flatworm. The data can be queried by simple text search, BLAST search, search based on developmental stage of the life cycle, and an integrated search for more specific information. A PHP-based web interface allows users to browse and query SjTPdb, and moreover to switch to external databases by the following embedded links. Conclusion SjTPdb is the first schistosome database with detailed annotations for schistosome proteins. It is also the first integrated database of both transcriptome and proteome of S. japonicum, providing a comprehensive data resource and research platform to facilitate functional genomics of schistosome. SjTPdb is available from URL: http://function.chgc.sh.cn/sj-proteome/index.htm.

  7. Characterization of a novel vaccine candidate and serine proteinase inhibitor from Schistosoma japonicum (Sj serpin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yutao; Liu, Shuxian; Song, Guangcheng; Xu, Yixin; Dissous, Colette

    2005-07-15

    Serine proteinase inhibitors (serpins) represent an important superfamily of endogenous inhibitors that regulate proteolytic events active in a variety of physiological functions. Immunological screening of a Schistosoma japonicum adult worm cDNA expression library with sera of Microtus fortis, a naturally resistant vertebrate host, has identified one clone that encoded for a sequence homologous to those of the serpin superfamily. The full-length sequence encoding S. japonicum serpin (Sj serpin) was amplified from adult worm cDNA by using 5'-RACE-PCR and subsequently cloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pET28c. The full-length Sj serpin fusion-protein with his-tag was expressed in E. coli, purified by affinity chromatography and used to immunize New Zealand white rabbits. Sj serpin is located on the tegument in S. japonicum adult worms. C57BL/6 mice immunized with Sj serpin induced the production of high levels of specific IgE and IgG1 subclass antibodies as well as a marked IL-4 response. Lymphocyte surface marker analysis revealed proliferation of CD19 expressing B cells, indicating a predominant Th2-type response to Sj serpin. Immunized mice developed moderate protection against infection of S. japonicum as demonstrated by a 36 and 39% reduction in the recovery of adult worms and eggs, respectively. These data suggested a role for Sj serpin as a vaccine candidate or as a novel target for anti-schistosome drugs.

  8. A REVIEW OF SCHISTOSOMIASIS IN INDONESIA WITH REFERENCE TO SCHISTOSOMA JAPONICUM

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    Lim Boo Liat

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Tinjauan tentang Schistosoma di Indonesia ini mencakup Schistosoma japonicum, S. incognitum, S. spindale dan Trichohilharzia brevis. Tinjauan dibuat atas dasar laporan-laporan penelitian yang telah diterbitkan. Di dalamnya dapat dijumpai uraian singkat tentang S. spinale dan T. brevis. Dari banyak publikasi tentang S. japonicum dan S. incoganitum dapat disajikan uraian tentang peranan kedua parasit tersebut sebagai penyebab penyakit baik manusia maupun hewan.

  9. Functions of the Vasa gene in Schistosoma japonicum as assessed by RNA interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Siyu; Zhu, Lulu; Liu, Fengchun; Liu, Quan; Shao, Yanjing; Hua, Mengqing; Ding, Han; Shao, Wei; Du, Yinan; Hou, Xin; Ren, Cuiping; Liu, Miao; Shen, Jijia

    2018-01-05

    Vasa, an enzyme belonging to the helicase family, contributes to the regulation of reproductive system development in many species. Thus, we hypothesized that the Vasa3 gene may function in the reproductive system of the parasite Schistosoma japonicum (S. japonicum), which is a major causative agent of schistosomiasis. It is a severe disease globally affecting humans and animals. To test this hypothesis, we firstly conducted whole mount in situ hybridization analyses and found that the S. japonicum Vasa3 (SjVasa3) gene was expressed mainly in the reproductive organs. We then explored the reproductive functions of Vasa3 in S. japonicum using RNA interference (RNAi) techniques. Coupled schistosomes collected from mice 28days post infection (dpi) were transfected three times with SjVasa3-specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) and cultured in vitro for up to 10days. As measured by quantitative PCR (qPCR) and Western blot analysis, levels of SjVasa3 mRNA and protein in Vasa siRNA treated worms were significantly reduced compared with untreated and scrambled siRNA treated worms. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) images showed markedly siRNA induced changes in the morphology of the reproductive organs, especially in the female ovary, vitellarium and the male testes. SjVasa3 gene silencing also significantly reduced egg production. These data demonstrate that SjVasa3 is essential in reproductive organ development and egg production in S. japonicum, and could be a potential target for developing novel compounds to treat schistosomiasis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. The effect of colostrum on pigs pre-natally or post-natally exposed to Schistosoma japonicum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Techau, M.E.; Johansen, M.V.; Lind, Peter

    2004-01-01

    A responses, in groups of pigs pre-natally, pre-natally + post-natally or post-natally exposed to S. japonicum. Results suggest that pre-natal exposure and immune colostrum did not affect the establishment of a post-natal challenge infection. However, immune colostrum seemed to increase the levels of septal......Pre-natal infection of Schistosoma japonicum in pigs may prove to be a useful model in shedding light on human pre-natal schistosomiasis. This study describes the effects of immune colostrum on worm burdens, tissue egg counts, liver pathology and crude worm or egg antigen-specific IgG and Ig...... fibrosis in pre-natally exposed pigs. These findings indicate that further investigations will prove valuable, elucidating the influence of the parasitological and immunological status of the sow, on pre-natally exposed pigs, and on the ability of these pigs to develop resistance against S. japonicum later...

  11. Cysteine protease inhibitor of Schistosoma japonicum - A parasite-derived negative immunoregulatory factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; He, Baohua; Hou, Wei; He, Li

    2017-03-01

    Studies have shown that cysteine protease inhibitors from some parasites have immunosuppressive effects on the host. We previously have cloned a novel cysteine protease inhibitor from Schistosoma japonicum and purified its recombinant version (protein named rSj-C). Its possible inhibitory effect on the host immune response has not been described.This study shows that rSj-C inhibits lysosomal cysteine protease of murine dendritic cells (DCs). After DCs were incubated with rSj-C and then with soluble adult worm antigen (AWA) of S. japonicum, the mean fluorescence intensity of MHC class II antigens on the surface of DCs decreased significantly by flow cytometry. These results indirectly proved that rSj-C can suppress exogenous-antigen presentation by DCs. The flow cytometric assay revealed that in comparison with control groups, the proportion of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) T cells among CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells of Schistosom-infected mice increased significantly 8 weeks after the infected mice were injected with rSj-C (p ˂ 0.05). Additionally, the expression levels of cytokines IL-4 and TGF-β produced by T cells increased significantly as compared with these levels in the normal group (p ˂ 0.05). These results clearly show that the cysteine protease inhibitor from S. japonicum is a new parasite-derived immunosuppressive factor.

  12. High prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum and Fasciola gigantica in bovines from Northern Samar, the Philippines.

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    Catherine A Gordon

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The cause of zoonotic schistosomiasis in the Philippines is Schistosoma japonicum, which infects up to 46 mammalian hosts, including humans and bovines. In China, water buffaloes have been identified as major reservoir hosts for schistosomiasis japonica, contributing up to 75% of human transmission. In the Philippines, water buffaloes (carabao; Bubalus bubalis carabanesis have, historically, been considered unimportant reservoirs. We therefore revisited the possible role of bovines in schistosome transmission in the Philippines, using the recently described formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation (FEA-SD technique and a qPCR assay to examine fecal samples from 153 bovines (both carabao and cattle from six barangays in Northern Samar. A high prevalence of S. japonicum was found using qPCR and FEA-SD in both cattle (87.50% and 77.08%, respectively and carabao (80.00% and 55.24%, respectively. The average daily egg output for each bovine was calculated at 195,000. High prevalence and infection intensity of F. gigantica was also found in the bovines by qPCR and FEA-SD (95.33% and 96.00%, respectively. The identification of bovines as major reservoir hosts for S. japonicum transmission suggests that bovine treatment and/or vaccination, as one becomes available, should be included in any future control program that aims to reduce the disease burden due to schistosomiasis in the Philippines.

  13. Cloning and characterisation of Schistosoma japonicum insulin receptors.

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    Hong You

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomes depend for growth and development on host hormonal signals, which may include the insulin signalling pathway. We cloned and assessed the function of two insulin receptors from Schistosoma japonicum in order to shed light on their role in schistosome biology.We isolated, from S. japonicum, insulin receptors 1 (SjIR-1 and 2 (SjIR-2 sharing close sequence identity to their S. mansoni homologues (SmIR-1 and SmIR-2. SjIR-1 is located on the tegument basal membrane and the internal epithelium of adult worms, whereas SjIR-2 is located in the parenchyma of males and the vitelline tissue of females. Phylogenetic analysis showed that SjIR-2 and SmIR-2 are close to Echinococcus multilocularis insulin receptor (EmIR, suggesting that SjIR-2, SmIR-2 and EmIR share similar roles in growth and development in the three taxa. Structure homology modelling recovered the conserved structure between the SjIRs and Homo sapiens IR (HIR implying a common predicted binding mechanism in the ligand domain and the same downstream signal transduction processing in the tyrosine kinase domain as in HIR. Two-hybrid analysis was used to confirm that the ligand domains of SjIR-1 and SjIR-2 contain the insulin binding site. Incubation of adult worms in vitro, both with a specific insulin receptor inhibitor and anti-SjIRs antibodies, resulted in a significant decrease in worm glucose levels, suggesting again the same function for SjIRs in regulating glucose uptake as described for mammalian cells.Adult worms of S. japonicum possess insulin receptors that can specifically bind to insulin, indicating that the parasite can utilize host insulin for development and growth by sharing the same pathway as mammalian cells in regulating glucose uptake. A complete understanding of the role of SjIRs in the biology of S. japonicum may result in their use as new targets for drug and vaccine development against schistosomiasis.

  14. Development of chiral praziquantel analogues as potential drug candidates with activity to juvenile Schistosoma japonicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yang; Dong, LanLan; Hu, Changyan; Zhao, Bo; Yang, Chunhua; Xia, Chaoming; Sun, Dequn

    2014-09-01

    A series of chiral praziquantel analogues were synthesized and evaluated against Schistosoma japonicum both in vitro and in vivo. All compounds exhibited low to considerable good activity in vivo. Remarkably, worm reduction rate of R-3 was 60.0% at a single oral dose of 200mg/kg against juvenile stage of Schistosoma japonicum. The target compounds displayed in vivo antischistosomal activity against both Schistosoma japonicum and Schistosoma mansoni. Furthermore, all R-isomers displayed stronger antischistosomal activity than S-isomers in vivo, indicating R-isomers were the active enantiomers, while S-isomers were less active ones. This structure activity relationship (SAR) could have important implications in further drug development for schistosomiasis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [Killing effect of sodium abietate on adult worms of Schistosoma japonicum in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-Bo; Liu, Hong-Jun; Wang, Ben-Jing; Zhou, Xia; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Chen-Chen; Gong, Wei; Zhu-Ge, Hong-Xiang

    2011-06-01

    To observe the killing effect of sodium abietate on adult male and female worms of Schistosoma japonicum in vitro. The mice infected with cercariae of S. japonicum were sacrificed and perfused five weeks later, the adult worms obtained by the portal perfusion method, were cultivated in DMEM medium containing different concentrations of sodium abietate for 3 days, except the controls, then the worms were observed for the death and motility reducing. The worms were stained by hydrochloric acid carmine for the detection of the changes, and the protein of the worms was detected by using the ultraviolet ray-absorption and Bradford method. After the treatment of sodium abietate, the mortality and motility reducing rate of adult worms were higher significantly than the controls; the effect of sodium abietate on male worms was more obvious than on female worms. The male worms' intestinal canal enlarged and appeared black or brown bands or spots after the treatment. The contents of the intestine of female worms were distributed asymmetrically, and the shape of some worms' ovaries was anomalism and the coloring was asymmetrical. Compared with the control group, the protein of adult male and female worms were reduced (P worms of S. japonicum in vitro. It may affect the protein metabolism of the worms.

  16. Comparative Analysis of Proteome-Wide Lysine Acetylation in Juvenile and Adult Schistosoma japonicum

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    Qing Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is a devastating parasitic disease caused by tremotodes of the genus Schistosoma. Eggs produced by sexually mature schistosomes are the causative agents of for pathogenesis and transmission. Elucidating the molecular mechanism of schistosome development and sexual maturation would facilitate the prevention and control of schistosomiasis. Acetylation of lysine is a dynamic and reversible post-translational modification playing keys role in many biological processes including development in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. To investigate the impacts of lysine acetylation on Schistosoma japonicum (S. japonicum development and sexual maturation, we used immunoaffinity-based acetyllysine peptide enrichment combined with mass spectrometry (MS, to perform the first comparative analysis of proteome-wide lysine acetylation in both female and male, juvenile (18 days post infection, 18 dpi and adult (28 dpi schistosome samples. In total, we identified 874 unique acetylated sites in 494 acetylated proteins. The four samples shared 47 acetylated sites and 46 proteins. More acetylated sites and proteins shared by both females and males were identified in 28 dpi adults (189 and 143, respectively than in 18 dpi schistosomula (76 and 59, respectively. More stage-unique acetylated sites and proteins were also identified in 28 dpi adults (494 and 210, respectively than in 18 dpi schistosomula (73 and 44, respectively. Functional annotation showed that in different developmental stages and genders, a number of proteins involving in muscle movement, glycometabolism, lipid metabolism, energy metabolism, environmental stress resistance, antioxidation, etc., displayed distinct acetylation profiles, which was in accordance with the changes of their biological functions during schistosome development, suggesting that lysine acetylation modification exerted important regulatory roles in schistosome development. Taken together, our data provided the first

  17. Molecular differentiation of Schistosoma japonicum and Schistosoma mekongi by real-time PCR with high resolution melting analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongklieng, Amornmas; Kaewkong, Worasak; Intapan, Pewpan M; Sanpool, Oranuch; Janwan, Penchom; Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Lulitanond, Viraphong; Sri-Aroon, Pusadee; Limpanont, Yanin; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2013-12-01

    Human schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma japonicum and Schistosoma mekongi is a chronic and debilitating helminthic disease still prevalent in several countries of Asia. Due to morphological similarities of cercariae and eggs of these 2 species, microscopic differentiation is difficult. High resolution melting (HRM) real-time PCR is developed as an alternative tool for the detection and differentiation of these 2 species. A primer pair was designed for targeting the 18S ribosomal RNA gene to generate PCR products of 156 base pairs for both species. The melting points of S. japonicum and S. mekongi PCR products were 84.5±0.07℃ and 85.7±0.07℃, respectively. The method permits amplification from a single cercaria or an egg. The HRM real-time PCR is a rapid and simple tool for differentiation of S. japonicum and S. mekongi in the intermediate and final hosts.

  18. Biology and Control of Snail Intermediate Host of Schistosoma japonicum in The People's Republic of China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Z.J.; Ge, J; Dai, J.R.

    2016-01-01

    Schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma japonicum is a severe parasitic disease in The People's Republic of China and imposed considerable burden on human and domestic animal health and socioeconomic development. The significant achievement in schistosomiasis control has been made in last 60years. ....... Oncomelania hupensis as the only intermediate host of S. japonicum plays a key role in disease transmission. The habitat complexity of the snails challenges to effective control. In this review we share the experiences in control and research of O. hupensis....

  19. Spatial risk profiling of Schistosoma japonicum in Eryuan county, Yunnan province, China

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    Peter Steinmann

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Bayesian spatial risk profiling holds promise to enhance our understanding of the epidemiology of parasitic diseases, and to target interventions in a cost-effective manner. Here, we present findings from a study using Bayesian variogram models to map and predict the seroprevalence of Schistosoma japonicum in Eryuan county, Yunnan province, China, including risk factor analysis. Questionnaire and serological data were obtained through a cross-sectional survey carried out in 35 randomly selected villages with 3,220 people enrolled. Remotely-sensed environmental data were derived from publicly available databases. Bivariate and non-spatial Bayesian multiple logistic regression models were used to identify associations between the local seroprevalence and demographic (i.e. age and sex, environmental (i.e. location of village, altitude, slope, land surface temperature and normalized difference vegetation index and socio-economic factors. In the spatially-explicit Bayesian model, S. japonicum seroprevalence was significantly associated with sex, age and the location of the village. Males, those aged below 10 years and inhabitants of villages situated on steep slopes (inclination ≥20° or on less precipitous slopes of >5° above 2,150 m were at lower risk of seroconversion than their respective counterparts. Our final prediction model revealed an elevated risk for seroconversion in the plains of the eastern parts of Eryuan county. In conclusion, the prediction map can be utilized for spatial targeting of schistosomiasis control interventions in Eryuan county. Moreover, S. japonicum seroprevalence studies might offer a convenient means to assess the infection pressure experienced by local communities, and to improve risk profiling in areas where the prevalence and infection intensities have come down following repeated rounds of praziquantel administration.

  20. Pharmacokinetics and risk evaluation of DNA vaccine against Schistosoma japonicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hai-Feng; Li, Wei; Lu, Ming-Bo; Yu, Long-Jiang

    2013-01-01

    DNA plasmid immunization is a novel approach of preventive and therapeutic vaccine. More than 100 DNA vaccines have been on preclinical or clinical phase trials, and four kinds of DNA vaccines for livestock have been approved by USDA, CFIA, and APVMA. Schistosomiasis is a worldwide parasitic disease, and vaccine immunization is supposed to be a promising approach to control the health crisis. On the basis of former preclinical studies, we further focused on the pharmacokinetics and risk evaluation of DNA vaccine in vivo. In the present study, enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) report gene was fused with Schistosoma japonicum 23 kDa transmembrane protein antigen gene (Sj23) and constructed into DNA vaccine pVIVO2-Sj23.EGFP. After intramuscularly injecting 100 μg of purified DNA vaccine plasmid to immunizate BALB/c mice, we studied the tissue distribution of DNA plasmid and expressed Sj23.EGFP antigen, the persistence time of elicited antibodies, and the risk of DNA vaccine transferred into intestinal microorganisms. The results showed that DNA vaccine plasmid could be distributed into all tissues of the body after injection; however, only few organs including the injected muscle were detected DNA vaccine at postimmunization until the 100 days by PCR technology; the detection of green fluorescence protein displayed that DNA vaccine could be expressed in almost every tissue and organs; the ELISA assay indicated the immune antibody against Sj23 could persist over 70 days; and the DNA vaccine transferring intestinal flora results was negative. The results indicated that the DNA vaccine has systemic protection and long-lasting effectivity and is safe to intestinal flora.

  1. Induction of specific immunity against Schistosoma japonicum by exposure of mice to ultraviolet attenuated cercariae

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    Moloney, N.A.; Bickle, Q.D.; Webbe, G. (London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, St. Albans (UK). Winches Farm Field Station)

    1985-01-01

    Mice can be partially protected against Schistosoma japonicum by prior exposure to ultraviolet (UV)-attenuated infections which fail to survive to the adult stage and produce no overt pathology in the host. Optimum resistance was induced by parasites exposed to 40 seconds of UV, significantly lower levels of resistance being stimulated by both shorter and longer exposures. No consistent relationship between the degree of resistance induced and the number of irradiated cercariae given could be demonstrated and equivocal results were obtained when comparing the efficacy of single and multiple vaccinations. Vaccinations with UV-attenuated cercariae given intraperitoneally (i.p.) were as efficacious as those given percutaneously but mice were as or more resistant to challenges given by the i.p. route, the possible reasons are discussed. There was no observed delay in the migration of the challenge, vaccinated mice being as resistant when perfused 6 or 3.5 weeks after challenge. Vaccination was species specific since mice exposed to either UV-attenuated S. japonicum cercariae or gamma-attenuated S. mansoni cercariae were resistant to homologous but not heterologous challenge.

  2. Intake of Erythrocytes Required for Reproductive Development of Female Schistosoma japonicum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jipeng; Wang, Shuqi; Liu, Xiufeng; Xu, Bin; Chai, Riyi; Zhou, Pan; Ju, Chuan; Sun, Jun; Brindley, Paul J.; Hu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The reproductive development and maturation of female schistosomes are crucial since their released eggs are responsible for the host immunopathology and transmission of schistosomiasis. However, little is known about the nutrients required by female Schistosoma japonicum during its sexual maturation. We evaluated the promoting effect of several nutrients (calf serum, red blood cells (RBCs), ATP and hypoxanthine) on the reproductive development of pre-adult females at 18 days post infection (dpi) from mixed infections and at 50 dpi from unisexual infections of laboratory mice in basic medium RPMI-1640. We found RBCs, rather than other nutrients, promoted the female sexual maturation and egg production with significant morphological changes. In 27% of females (18 dpi) from mixed infections that paired with males in vitro on day 14, vitelline glands could be positively stained by Fast Blue B; and in 35% of females (50 dpi) from unisexual infections on day 21, mature vitelline cells were observed. Infertile eggs were detected among both groups. To analyze which component of mouse RBCs possesses the stimulating effect, RBCs were fractionated and included in media. However, the RBC fractions failed to stimulate development of the female reproductive organs. In addition, bovine hemoglobin hydrolysate, digested by neutral protease, was found to exhibit the promoting activity instead of untreated bovine hemoglobin. The other protein hydrolysate, lactalbumin hydrolysate, exhibited a similar effect with bovine hemoglobin hydrolysate. Using quantitative RT-PCR, we found the expression levels of four reproduction-related genes were significantly stimulated by RBCs. These data indicate that RBCs provide essential nutrients for the sexual maturation of female S. japonicum and that the protein component of RBCs appeared to constitute the key nutrient. These findings would improve laboratory culture of pre-adult schistosomes to adult worms in medium with well-defined components

  3. Intake of Erythrocytes Required for Reproductive Development of Female Schistosoma japonicum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jipeng Wang

    Full Text Available The reproductive development and maturation of female schistosomes are crucial since their released eggs are responsible for the host immunopathology and transmission of schistosomiasis. However, little is known about the nutrients required by female Schistosoma japonicum during its sexual maturation. We evaluated the promoting effect of several nutrients (calf serum, red blood cells (RBCs, ATP and hypoxanthine on the reproductive development of pre-adult females at 18 days post infection (dpi from mixed infections and at 50 dpi from unisexual infections of laboratory mice in basic medium RPMI-1640. We found RBCs, rather than other nutrients, promoted the female sexual maturation and egg production with significant morphological changes. In 27% of females (18 dpi from mixed infections that paired with males in vitro on day 14, vitelline glands could be positively stained by Fast Blue B; and in 35% of females (50 dpi from unisexual infections on day 21, mature vitelline cells were observed. Infertile eggs were detected among both groups. To analyze which component of mouse RBCs possesses the stimulating effect, RBCs were fractionated and included in media. However, the RBC fractions failed to stimulate development of the female reproductive organs. In addition, bovine hemoglobin hydrolysate, digested by neutral protease, was found to exhibit the promoting activity instead of untreated bovine hemoglobin. The other protein hydrolysate, lactalbumin hydrolysate, exhibited a similar effect with bovine hemoglobin hydrolysate. Using quantitative RT-PCR, we found the expression levels of four reproduction-related genes were significantly stimulated by RBCs. These data indicate that RBCs provide essential nutrients for the sexual maturation of female S. japonicum and that the protein component of RBCs appeared to constitute the key nutrient. These findings would improve laboratory culture of pre-adult schistosomes to adult worms in medium with well

  4. Treatment for Schistosoma japonicum, reduction of intestinal parasite load, and cognitive test score improvements in school-aged children.

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    Ezeamama, Amara E; McGarvey, Stephen T; Hogan, Joseph; Lapane, Kate L; Bellinger, David C; Acosta, Luz P; Leenstra, Tjalling; Olveda, Remigio M; Kurtis, Jonathan D; Friedman, Jennifer F

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether treatment of intestinal parasitic infections improves cognitive function in school-aged children, we examined changes in cognitive testscores over 18 months in relation to: (i) treatment-related Schistosoma japonicum intensity decline, (ii) spontaneous reduction of single soil-transmitted helminth (STH) species, and (iii) ≥2 STH infections among 253 S. japonicum-infected children. Helminth infections were assessed at baseline and quarterly by the Kato-Katz method. S. japonicum infection was treated at baseline using praziquantel. An intensity-based indicator of lower vs. no change/higher infection was defined separately for each helminth species and joint intensity declines of ≥2 STH species. In addition, S. japonicum infection-free duration was defined in four categories based on time of schistosome re-infection: >18 (i.e. cured), >12 to ≤18, 6 to ≤12 and ≤6 (persistently infected) months. There was no baseline treatment for STHs but their intensity varied possibly due to spontaneous infection clearance/acquisition. Four cognitive tests were administered at baseline, 6, 12, and 18 months following S. japonicum treatment: learning and memory domains of Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning (WRAML), verbal fluency (VF), and Philippine nonverbal intelligence test (PNIT). Linear regression models were used to relate changes in respective infections to test performance with adjustment for sociodemographic confounders and coincident helminth infections. Children cured (β = 5.8; P = 0.02) and those schistosome-free for >12 months (β = 1.5; P = 0.03) scored higher in WRAML memory and VF tests compared to persistently infected children independent of STH infections. A decline vs. no change/increase of any individual STH species (β:11.5-14.5; all Ptest independent of schistosome infection. Hookworm and Trichuris trichiura declines were independently associated with improvements in WRAML memory scores as was the joint

  5. Genetic diversity and structure of Schistosoma japonicum within two marshland villages of Anhui, China, prior to schistosome transmission control and elimination.

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    Ding, Huan; Lu, Da-Bing; Gao, Yu-Meng; Deng, Yao; Li, Ying

    2017-02-01

    Schistosomiasis is caused by the genus Schistosoma and affected more than 250 million people worldwide. Schistosoma japonicum was once seriously endemic in China and nearly 60 years of efforts has seen great success in disease control. However, due to its zoonotic nature and complex life cycle, the schistosomiasis transmission control and final elimination would require, besides an intersectoral approach, deep understanding of population genetics of the parasite. We therefore performed a snail survey in two marshland villages of Anhui province of China and collected S. japonicum cercariae from infected snails. By using the recent developed microsatellite panel comprising seven loci, we genotyped the sampled parasites and analyzed the population genetic diversity and structure. The results showed much lower infection prevalence of S. japonicum in snails and low infected snail density in either marshland village. Through population genetic analyses, a considerable genetic diversity of parasites was revealed, whereas a small number of clusters were inferred and the sign of bottleneck effect was detected in each village. For the first time in S. japonicum in two villages, we provided estimates of effective population sizes with two different approaches. The results indicated that the parasite in two villages could eventually be eradicated with the ongoing integral control measures, but with potential risk of reinvasion of immigrant parasites through the Yangtze River. Such would be of great importance in assessment of the effects of ongoing control measures and prediction of the transmission capability for S. japonicum, thus guiding decisions on the choice of further control work.

  6. Comparison of worm development and host immune responses in natural hosts of schistosoma japonicum, yellow cattle and water buffalo

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    Yang Jianmei

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Yellow cattle and water buffalo are two of the most important natural hosts for Schistosoma japonicum in China. Previous observation has revealed that yellow cattle are more suited to the development of S. japonicum than water buffalo. Understanding more about the molecular mechanisms involved in worm development, as well as the pathological and immunological differences between yellow cattle and water buffalo post infection with S japonicum will provide useful information for the vaccine design and its delivery procedure. Results The worm length (p p p + T cells was higher in yellow cattle, while the percentage of CD8+ T cells was higher in water buffalo from pre-infection to 7 w post infection. The CD4/CD8 ratios were decreased in both species after challenge with schistosomes. Comparing with water buffalo, the IFN-γ level was higher and decreased significantly, while the IL-4 level was lower and increased gradually in yellow cattle from pre-infection to 7 w post infection. Conclusions In this study, we confirmed that yellow cattle were more suited to the development of S. japonicum than water buffalo, and more serious pathological damage was observed in infected yellow cattle. Immunological analysis suggested that CD4+ T cells might be an integral component of the immune response and might associate with worm development in yellow cattle. A shift from Th1 to Th2 type polarized immunity was only shown clearly in schistosome-infected yellow cattle, but no shift in water buffalo. The results provide valuable information for increased understanding of host-schistosome interactions, and for control of schistosomiasis.

  7. Bayesian spatio-temporal modeling of Schistosoma japonicum prevalence data in the absence of a diagnostic 'gold' standard.

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    Xian-Hong Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Spatial modeling is increasingly utilized to elucidate relationships between demographic, environmental, and socioeconomic factors, and infectious disease prevalence data. However, there is a paucity of studies focusing on spatio-temporal modeling that take into account the uncertainty of diagnostic techniques. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We obtained Schistosoma japonicum prevalence data, based on a standardized indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA, from annual reports from 114 schistosome-endemic villages in Dangtu County, southeastern part of the People's Republic of China, for the period 1995 to 2004. Environmental data were extracted from satellite images. Socioeconomic data were available from village registries. We used Bayesian spatio-temporal models, accounting for the sensitivity and specificity of the IHA test via an equation derived from the law of total probability, to relate the observed with the 'true' prevalence. The risk of S. japonicum was positively associated with the mean land surface temperature, and negatively correlated with the mean normalized difference vegetation index and distance to the nearest water body. There was no significant association between S. japonicum and socioeconomic status of the villages surveyed. The spatial correlation structures of the observed S. japonicum seroprevalence and the estimated infection prevalence differed from one year to another. Variance estimates based on a model adjusted for the diagnostic error were larger than unadjusted models. The generated prediction map for 2005 showed that most of the former and current infections occur in close proximity to the Yangtze River. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Bayesian spatial-temporal modeling incorporating diagnostic uncertainty is a suitable approach for risk mapping S. japonicum prevalence data. The Yangtze River and its tributaries govern schistosomiasis transmission in Dangtu County, but spatial correlation needs to be taken

  8. Bayesian spatio-temporal modeling of Schistosoma japonicum prevalence data in the absence of a diagnostic 'gold' standard.

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    Wang, Xian-Hong; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Vounatsou, Penelope; Chen, Zhao; Utzinger, Jürg; Yang, Kun; Steinmann, Peter; Wu, Xiao-Hua

    2008-06-11

    Spatial modeling is increasingly utilized to elucidate relationships between demographic, environmental, and socioeconomic factors, and infectious disease prevalence data. However, there is a paucity of studies focusing on spatio-temporal modeling that take into account the uncertainty of diagnostic techniques. We obtained Schistosoma japonicum prevalence data, based on a standardized indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA), from annual reports from 114 schistosome-endemic villages in Dangtu County, southeastern part of the People's Republic of China, for the period 1995 to 2004. Environmental data were extracted from satellite images. Socioeconomic data were available from village registries. We used Bayesian spatio-temporal models, accounting for the sensitivity and specificity of the IHA test via an equation derived from the law of total probability, to relate the observed with the 'true' prevalence. The risk of S. japonicum was positively associated with the mean land surface temperature, and negatively correlated with the mean normalized difference vegetation index and distance to the nearest water body. There was no significant association between S. japonicum and socioeconomic status of the villages surveyed. The spatial correlation structures of the observed S. japonicum seroprevalence and the estimated infection prevalence differed from one year to another. Variance estimates based on a model adjusted for the diagnostic error were larger than unadjusted models. The generated prediction map for 2005 showed that most of the former and current infections occur in close proximity to the Yangtze River. Bayesian spatial-temporal modeling incorporating diagnostic uncertainty is a suitable approach for risk mapping S. japonicum prevalence data. The Yangtze River and its tributaries govern schistosomiasis transmission in Dangtu County, but spatial correlation needs to be taken into consideration when making risk prediction at small scales.

  9. Schistosoma mansoni antigen detects Schistosoma mekongi infection.

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    Nickel, Beatrice; Sayasone, Somphou; Vonghachack, Youthanavanh; Odermatt, Peter; Marti, Hanspeter

    2015-01-01

    Northern Cambodia and Southern Laos are highly endemic for Schistosoma mekongi. However, there is currently no immunological assay available that is specific for this form of schistosomiasis. We have validated Schistosoma mansoni antigens to detect S. mekongi-directed antibodies in human sera collected from a highly S. mekongi endemic region in Laos. On two consecutive days stool samples of 234 individuals were analyzed by Kato-Katz for presence of S. mekongi eggs and the results were correlated with serology. A sensitivity of 94.5% was calculated for a combination of ELISA and indirect fluorescence assay (IFA) as compared to the detection of S. mekongi eggs in stool samples as gold standard. The results demonstrate that S. mansoni antigens can be used for the diagnosis of S. mekongi infections. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Evolutionary and biomedical implications of a Schistosoma japonicum complementary DNA resource.

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    Hu, Wei; Yan, Qing; Shen, Da-Kang; Liu, Feng; Zhu, Zhi-Dong; Song, Huai-Dong; Xu, Xiang-Ru; Wang, Zhao-Jun; Rong, Yi-Ping; Zeng, Ling-Chun; Wu, Jian; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Ju-Jun; Xu, Xue-Nian; Wang, Sheng-Yue; Fu, Gang; Zhang, Xiang-Lin; Wang, Zhi-Qin; Brindley, Paul J; McManus, Donald P; Xue, Chun-Liang; Feng, Zheng; Chen, Zhu; Han, Ze-Guang

    2003-10-01

    Schistosoma japonicum causes schistosomiasis in humans and livestock in the Asia-Pacific region. Knowledge of the genome of this parasite should improve understanding of schistosome-host interactions, biomedical aspects of schistosomiasis and invertebrate evolution. We assigned 43,707 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) derived from adult S. japonicum and their eggs to 13,131 gene clusters. Of these, 35% shared no similarity with known genes and 75% had not been reported previously in schistosomes. Notably, S. japonicum encoded mammalian-like receptors for insulin, progesterone, cytokines and neuropeptides, suggesting that host hormones, or endogenous parasite homologs, could orchestrate schistosome development and maturation and that schistosomes modulate anti-parasite immune responses through inhibitors, molecular mimicry and other evasion strategies.

  11. Inconsistent protective efficacy and marked polymorphism limits the value of Schistosoma japonicum tetraspanin-2 as a vaccine target.

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    Wenbao Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schistosoma mansoni tetraspanin 2 (Sm-TSP-2 has been shown to be strongly recognized by IgG1 and IgG3 antibodies from individuals putatively resistant to schistosome infection, but not chronically infected people, and to induce high levels of protection against challenge infection in the murine model of schistosomiasis. Amplification by PCR of homologous sequences from male and female S. japonicum worms showed the presence of 7 different clusters or subclasses of S. japonicum TSP-2. We determined the protective efficacy of one subclass - Sj-TSP-2e. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Following the alignment of 211 cDNAs, we identified 7 clusters encoding S. japonicum TSP-2 (Sj-TSP-2 based on sequence variation in the large extracellular loop (LEL region with differing frequency of transcription in male and female worms. Quantitative PCR analysis revealed elevated expression of Sj-TSP-2 in adult worms compared with other life cycle stages. We expressed in E. coli the LEL region of one of the clusters which exhibited a high frequency of transcription in female worms, and showed the purified recombinant protein (Sj-TSP-2e was recognised by 43.1% of sera obtained from confirmed schistosomiasis japonica patients. Vaccination of mice with the recombinant protein induced high levels of IgG1 and IgG2 antibodies, but no consistent protective efficacy against challenge infection was elicited in three independent trials. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The highly polymorphic nature of the Sj-TSP-2 gene at the transcriptional level may limit the value of Sj-TSP-2 as a target for future S. japonicum vaccine development.

  12. Genetic diversity and selection of three nuclear genes in Schistosoma japonicum populations.

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    Li, Yaqi; Yin, Mingbo; Wu, Qunfeng; McManus, Donald P; Blair, David; Li, Hongyan; Xu, Bin; Mo, Xiaojin; Feng, Zheng; Hu, Wei

    2017-02-17

    The blood fluke, Schistosoma japonicum still causes severe disease in China, the Philippines and Indonesia. Although there have been some studies the molecular epidemiology of this persistent and harmful parasite, few have explored the possibility and implications of selection in S. japonicum populations. We analyzed diversity and looked for evidence of selection at three nuclear genes (SjIpp2, SjFabp and SjT22.6) in 13 S. japonicum populations. SjT22.6 was found to exhibit high nucleotide diversity and was under positive selection in the mountainous region of mainland China. As a tegumental protein, its secondary and tertiary structure differed between S. japonicum strains from the mountainous and lakes regions. In contrast, SjIpp2 and SjFabp had relatively low levels of nucleotide diversity and did not show significant departure from neutrality. As a tegument-associated antigen-encoding gene of S. japonicum, SjT22.6 has high nucleotide diversity and appears to be under positive selection in the mountainous region of mainland China.

  13. An insight into the genetic variation of Schistosoma japonicum in mainland China using DNA microsatellite markers.

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    Shrivastava, Jaya; Qian, Bao Zhen; Mcvean, Gilean; Webster, Joanne P

    2005-03-01

    This study presents the first microsatellite investigation into the level of genetic variation among Schistosoma japonicum from different geographical origins. S. japonicum isolates were obtained from seven endemic provinces across mainland China: Zhejiang (Jiashan County), Anhui (Guichi County), Jiangxi (Yongxiu County), Hubei (Wuhan County), Hunan (Yueyang area), Sichuan 1 (Maoshan County), Sichuan 2 (Tianquan County), Yunnan (Dali County), and also one province in the Philippines (Sorsogon). DNA from 20 individuals from each origin were screened against 11 recently isolated and characterized S. japonicum microsatellites, and a set of nine loci were selected based on their polymorphic information content. High levels of polymorphism were obtained between and within population samples, with Chinese and Philippine strains appearing to follow different lineages, and with distinct branching between provinces. Moreover, across mainland China, genotype clustering appeared to be related to habitat type and/or intermediate host morph. These results highlight the suitability of microsatellites for population genetic studies of S. japonicum and suggest that there may be different strains of S. japonicum circulating in mainland China.

  14. Identification and characterization of microRNAs and endogenous siRNAs in Schistosoma japonicum

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    Wang Heng

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Small endogenous non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs such as small interfering RNA (siRNA, microRNA and other small RNA transcripts are derived from distinct loci in the genome and play critical roles in RNA-mediated gene silencing mechanisms in plants and metazoa. They are approximately 22 nucleotides long; regulate mRNA stability through perfect or imperfect match to the targets. The biological activities of sncRNAs have been related to many biological events, from resistance to microbe infections to cellular differentiation. The development of the zoonotic parasite Schistosoma japonicum parasite includes multiple steps of morphological alterations and biological differentiations, which provide a unique model for studies on the functions of small RNAs. Characterization of the genome-wide transcription of the sncRNAs will be a major step in understanding of the parasite biology. The objective of this study is to investigate the transcriptional profile and potential function of the small non-coding RNAs in the development of S. japanicum. Results The endogenous siRNAs were found mainly derived from transposable elements (TE or transposons and the natural antisense transcripts (NAT. In contrast to other organisms, the TE-derived siRNAs in S. japonicum were more predominant than other sncRNAs including microRNAs (miRNAs. Further, there were distinct length and 3'end variations in the sncRNAs, which were associated with the developmental differentiation of the parasite. Among the identified miRNA transcripts, there were 38 unique to S. japonicum and 16 that belonged to 13 miRNA families are common to other metazoan lineages. These miRNAs were either ubiquitously expressed, or they exhibited specific expression patterns related to the developmental stages or sex. Genes that encoded miRNAs are mainly located in clusters within the genome of S. japonicum. However, genes within one cluster could be differentially transcribed, which suggested

  15. Kerentanan Schistosoma japonicum terhadap Praziquantel di Napu dan Lindu, Sulawesi Tengah Indonesia

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    Anis Nurwidayati

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis in Indonesia are found in Napu, Lindu and Bada highland, Central Sulawesi. This disease was caused by Trematode worm, Schistosoma japonicum. Schistosomiasis still a public health problem which its prevalence increase every year. The large scale treatment by mass chemotherapy using praziquantel was done to reduce the prevalence of schistosomiasis since 1980’s. The objective of this research was to identify the development of resistance in Schistosoma japonicum to praziquantel in endemic areas. Field study was conducted in endemic areas Napu and Lindu in April –November 2011. All of the 80 stool-positive subjects in Napu and 60 stool-positive subjects in Lindu, were treated with a single dose of 60 mg/kg of praziquantel. On three, six, nine, and 12 weeks after treatment, all of the subjects were examined again using the same stool examination. The results showed that on three weeks examination after treatment, stool-negative results were found in all subjects which represents a 100% parasitological cure rate. All stool samples were re-examined six, nine, and 12 weeks after the first treatment and no stool-positive subjects were found. The results indicate that there was no evidence for reduced susceptibility of S.japonicum to praziquantel despite its extensive use in the endemic areas of Napu and Lindu for more than 20 years.

  16. Estimating the intensity of infection with Schistosoma japonicum in villagers of leyte, Philippines. Part I: a Bayesian cumulative logit model. The schistosomiasis transmission and ecology project (STEP).

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    Carabin, Hélène; Marshall, Clare M; Joseph, Lawrence; Riley, Steven; Olveda, Remigio; McGarvey, Stephen T

    2005-06-01

    Intensity profiles for helminths are used to describe population infection status, monitor effectiveness of control programs, and provide accurate data to validate transmission models. This study aims to accurately predict age/gender specific intensity profiles of endemic schistosomiasis japonica infection in the Philippines. Poor sensitivity of the Kato-Katz test and large heterogeneity in infection levels across villages complicate these predictions. Data from 1,989 individuals living in three endemic villages were analyzed with a Bayesian cumulative-logit model adjusting for nonproportional odds, variation between villages, and measurement error. The posterior uncertainty regarding the proportion of individuals in each egg category was high compared with that estimated using a model ignoring measurement error and villages' heterogeneity. The intensity profiles were very different in children less than 7 years old compared with older children and adults. This model could easily be adapted to other parasitic infections or outcomes where an analysis by category would be recommended.

  17. Genome-wide identification of Schistosoma japonicum microRNAs using a deep-sequencing approach.

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    Jian Huang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human schistosomiasis is one of the most prevalent and serious parasitic diseases worldwide. Schistosoma japonicum is one of important pathogens of this disease. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a large group of non-coding RNAs that play important roles in regulating gene expression and protein translation in animals. Genome-wide identification of miRNAs in a given organism is a critical step to facilitating our understanding of genome organization, genome biology, evolution, and posttranscriptional regulation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We sequenced two small RNA libraries prepared from different stages of the life cycle of S. japonicum, immature schistosomula and mature pairing adults, through a deep DNA sequencing approach, which yielded approximately 12 million high-quality short sequence reads containing a total of approximately 2 million non-redundant tags. Based on a bioinformatics pipeline, we identified 176 new S. japonicum miRNAs, of which some exhibited a differential pattern of expression between the two stages. Although 21 S. japonicum miRNAs are orthologs of known miRNAs within the metazoans, some nucleotides at many positions of Schistosoma miRNAs, such as miR-8, let-7, miR-10, miR-31, miR-92, miR-124, and miR-125, are indeed significantly distinct from other bilaterian orthologs. In addition, both miR-71 and some miR-2 family members in tandem are found to be clustered in a reversal direction model on two genomic loci, and two pairs of novel S. japonicum miRNAs were derived from sense and antisense DNA strands at the same genomic loci. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The collection of S. japonicum miRNAs could be used as a new platform to study the genomic structure, gene regulation and networks, evolutionary processes, development, and host-parasite interactions. Some S. japonicum miRNAs and their clusters could represent the ancestral forms of the conserved orthologues and a model for the genesis of novel miRNAs.

  18. Homology-based annotation of non-coding RNAs in the genomes of Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma japonicum

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    Santana Clara

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schistosomes are trematode parasites of the phylum Platyhelminthes. They are considered the most important of the human helminth parasites in terms of morbidity and mortality. Draft genome sequences are now available for Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma japonicum. Non-coding RNA (ncRNA plays a crucial role in gene expression regulation, cellular function and defense, homeostasis, and pathogenesis. The genome-wide annotation of ncRNAs is a non-trivial task unless well-annotated genomes of closely related species are already available. Results A homology search for structured ncRNA in the genome of S. mansoni resulted in 23 types of ncRNAs with conserved primary and secondary structure. Among these, we identified rRNA, snRNA, SL RNA, SRP, tRNAs and RNase P, and also possibly MRP and 7SK RNAs. In addition, we confirmed five miRNAs that have recently been reported in S. japonicum and found two additional homologs of known miRNAs. The tRNA complement of S. mansoni is comparable to that of the free-living planarian Schmidtea mediterranea, although for some amino acids differences of more than a factor of two are observed: Leu, Ser, and His are overrepresented, while Cys, Meth, and Ile are underrepresented in S. mansoni. On the other hand, the number of tRNAs in the genome of S. japonicum is reduced by more than a factor of four. Both schistosomes have a complete set of minor spliceosomal snRNAs. Several ncRNAs that are expected to exist in the S. mansoni genome were not found, among them the telomerase RNA, vault RNAs, and Y RNAs. Conclusion The ncRNA sequences and structures presented here represent the most complete dataset of ncRNA from any lophotrochozoan reported so far. This data set provides an important reference for further analysis of the genomes of schistosomes and indeed eukaryotic genomes at large.

  19. Real-time PCR demonstrates high prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum in the Philippines: implications for surveillance and control.

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    Catherine A Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Philippines has a population of approximately 103 million people, of which 6.7 million live in schistosomiasis-endemic areas with 1.8 million people being at risk of infection with Schistosoma japonicum. Although the country-wide prevalence of schistosomiasis japonica in the Philippines is relatively low, the prevalence of schistosomiasis can be high, approaching 65% in some endemic areas. Of the currently available microscopy-based diagnostic techniques for detecting schistosome infections in the Philippines and elsewhere, most exhibit varying diagnostic performances, with the Kato-Katz (KK method having particularly poor sensitivity for detecting low intensity infections. This suggests that the actual prevalence of schistosomiasis japonica may be much higher than previous reports have indicated.Six barangay (villages were selected to determine the prevalence of S. japonicum in humans in the municipality of Palapag, Northern Samar. Fecal samples were collected from 560 humans and examined by the KK method and a validated real-time PCR (qPCR assay. A high S. japonicum prevalence (90.2% was revealed using qPCR whereas the KK method indicated a lower prevalence (22.9%. The geometric mean eggs per gram (GMEPG determined by the qPCR was 36.5 and 11.5 by the KK. These results, particularly those obtained by the qPCR, indicate that the prevalence of schistosomiasis in this region of the Philippines is much higher than historically reported.Despite being more expensive, qPCR can complement the KK procedure, particularly for surveillance and monitoring of areas where extensive schistosomiasis control has led to low prevalence and intensity infections and where schistosomiasis elimination is on the horizon, as for example in southern China.

  20. Induction of species-specific immunity against Schistosoma japonicum by exposure of rats to ultra-violet attenuated cercariae

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    Moloney, N.A.; Webbe, G.; Hinchcliffe, P.

    1987-02-01

    Single percutaneous immunizations of Fischer rats with 1000 ultra-violet attenuated Schistosoma japonicum cercariae induced 52-88% resistance to challenge 4 weeks later. Increasing this to 3 immunizations induced 90% resistance to challenge, and this level of protection remained undiminished for up to 40 weeks after vaccination. Rats vaccinated with gamma-irradiated S. mansoni cercariae were resistant to challenge with S. mansoni but not S. japonicum. Similarly rats vaccinated with u.v.-attenuated S. japonicum cercariae were not resistant to heterologous challenge. Thus irradiated vaccines are species-specific in both permissive and non-permissive hosts.

  1. Comparative analysis of codon usage pattern and its influencing factors in Schistosoma japonicum and Ascaris suum.

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    Mazumder, Gulshana A; Uddin, Arif; Chakraborty, Supriyo

    2017-12-20

    Schistosoma japonicum and Ascaris suum are considered as the major parasites of human which cause various life threatening diseases such as schistomiasis and ascariasis. The codon usage bias (CUB) is known as the phenomenon of more usage of a specific codon than the other synonymous codons for an amino acid. The factors that influence the codon usage bias are mutation pressure, natural selection, gene expression, gene length, GC content, RNA stability, recombination rates, codon position etc. Here we had used various bioinformatic tools and statistical analyses to understand the compositional features, expression level and codon usage bias in the genes of these two species.After estimating the effective number of codon (ENC) in both the species, codon usage bias was found to be low and gene expression was high. The nucleobase A and T were used most often than C and G. From neutrality plot and correspondence analysis it was found that both natural selection and mutation pressure played an important role in shaping the codon usage pattern of both species. Moreover, natural selection played a major role while mutation pressure played a minor role in shaping the codon usage bias in S. japonicum and A.suum. This is the first report on the codon usage biology in S. japonicum and A.suum, and the factors influencing their codon usage bias. These results are expected to be useful for genetic engineering and evolutionary studies.

  2. DISTRIBUSI HABITAT Oncomelania hupensis lindoensis, KEONG PERANTARA Schistosoma japonicum DI DATARAN TINGGI LINDU, KABUPATEN SIGI, SULAWESI TENGAH

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    Triwibowo Ambar Garjito

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Oncomelania hupensis lindoensissnail and its habitat has an important role in the transmission of schistosomiasis in Central Sulawesi, particularly in three isolated areas, Lindu valley, Napu valley and Bada valley. In a part of Schistosomiasis life cycle, inside the snail, Schistosoma japonicummiracidia will undergo a series of stages as sporocyst and cercaria. People are infected by cercaria, the infective stage of S. japonicum.This study were conducted to reconfirm the distribution of O. h. lindoensishabitats in Lindu valley area. The snails were searched and collected in the suspected habitat using ring-sample and man per minute methods by skilled staffs from VBDRU Donggala and Schistosomasis laboratory plus trained local people in the collections. Data on the distribution of snail habitats were recorded by using GPS. Snails and vegetation in the habitats were collected for further analysis in the laboratory. A total of 129 snail habitat were recorded in Lindu valley, consisting of 135 old foci and 1 new focus. In this area, a total of 61 foci are still active of snail habitats. Foci are distributed in several types of habitat, i.e. abandon rice fields, ditches, springs, dry farming, shrubs and forest. Each type habitat has a relative similar vegetation species. The infection rates of O. h. lindoensiswith cercariae in Anca, Tomado dan Puroo villages were 5.27%, 3.19% and 7.58% respectively. These results indicate that the Schistosomiasis transmission is still going on in Lindu valley.Keywords : Distribution, Oncomelania hupensis lindoensis, Habitat, Schistosomiasis, Lindu Valley, Sulawesi TengahAbstrakKeberadaan keong Oncomelania hupensis lindoensis dan habitatnya mempunyai peranan penting terhadap terjadinya penularan Skistosomiasis di Sulawesi Tengah, khususnya di 3 daerah endemis yang cukup terisolasi, yaitu Dataran tinggi Lindu, Dataran Tinggi Napu dan Dataran Tinggi Bada. Di dalam keong tersebut, mirasidium Schistosoma

  3. Therapeutic effect of Schistosoma japonicum cystatin on bacterial sepsis in mice.

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    Li, Huihui; Wang, Shushu; Zhan, Bin; He, Wenxin; Chu, Liang; Qiu, Dapeng; Li, Nan; Wan, Yongkun; Zhang, Hui; Chen, Xingzhi; Fang, Qiang; Shen, Jilong; Yang, Xiaodi

    2017-05-08

    Sepsis is a life-threatening complication of an infection and remains one of the leading causes of mortality in surgical patients. Bacteremia induces excessive inflammatory responses that result in multiple organ damage. Chronic helminth infection and helminth-derived materials have been found to immunomodulate host immune system to reduce inflammation against some allergic or inflammatory diseases. Schistosoma japonicum cystatin (Sj-Cys) is a cysteine protease inhibitor that induces regulatory T-cells and a potential immunomodulatory. The effect of Sj-Cys on reducing sepsis inflammation and mortality was investigated. Sepsis was induced in BALB/c mice using cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), followed by intraperitoneal injection of different doses (10, 25 or 50 μg) of recombinant Sj-Cys (rSj-Cys). The therapeutic effect of rSj-Cys on sepsis was evaluated by observing the survival rates of mice for 96 h after CLP and the pathological injury of liver, kidney and lung by measuring the levels of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (Cr) in sera and the tissue sections pathology, and the expression of MyD88 in liver, kidney and lung tissues. The immunological mechanism was investigated by examining pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β) and IL-10 and TGF-β1 in mice sera and in culture of macrophages stimulated by lipopolysaccharides (LPS). rSj-Cys treatment provided significant therapeutic effects on CLP-induced sepsis in mice demonstrated with increased survival rates, alleviated overall disease severity and tissue injury of liver, kidney and lung. The rSj-Cys conferred therapeutic efficacy was associated with upregualted IL-10 and TGF-β1 cytokines and reduced pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β. MyD88 expression in liver, kidney and lung tissues of rSj-Cys-treated mice was reduced. In vitro assay with macrophages also showed that rSj-Cys inhibited the release of pro

  4. The nature and combination of subunits used in epitope-based Schistosoma japonicum vaccine formulations affect their efficacy

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    Liu Feng

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schistosomiasis remains a major public health problem in endemic countries and is caused by infections with any one of three primary schistosome species. Although there are no vaccines available to date, this strategy appears feasible since natural immunity develops in individuals suffering from repeated infection during a lifetime. Since vaccinations resulting in both Th1- and Th2-type responses have been shown to contribute to protective immunity, a vaccine formulation with the capacity for stimulating multiple arms of the immune response will likely be the most effective. Previously we developed partially protective, single Th- and B cell-epitope-based peptide-DNA dual vaccines (PDDV (T3-PDDV and B3-PDDV, respectively capable of eliciting immune responses against the Schistosoma japonicum 22.6 kDa tegument antigen (Sj22.6 and a 62 kDa fragment of myosin (Sj62, respectively. Results In this study, we developed PDDV cocktails containing multiple epitopes of S. japonicum from Sj22.6, Sj62 and Sj97 antigens by predicting cytotoxic, helper, and B-cell epitopes, and evaluated vaccine potential in vivo. Results showed that mice immunized with a single-epitope PDDV elicited either Tc, Th, or B cell responses, respectively, and mice immunized with either the T3- or B3- single-epitope PDDV formulation were partially protected against infection. However, mice immunized with a multicomponent (3 PDDV components formulation elicited variable immune responses that were less immunoprotective than single-epitope PDDV formulations. Conclusions Our data show that combining these different antigens did not result in a more effective vaccine formulation when compared to each component administered individually, and further suggest that immune interference resulting from immunizations with antigenically distinct vaccine targets may be an important consideration in the development of multicomponent vaccine preparations.

  5. [Activities of treg cells stimulated by soluble adult worm antigen and egg antigen of Schistosoma japonicum].

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    Dong, Xiao-Xiao; Zhang, Cui; Yang, Xiao-Wei; Li, Yong; Chen, Xiao-Jun; Xue, Xue; Zhang, Wei-Wei; Xu, Zhi-Peng; Kong, Wen-Jun; Zhu, Ji-Feng; Zhou, Sha; Liu, Feng; Su, Chuan

    2013-04-01

    To observe and compare the effects of soluble adult worm antigen (SWA) and soluble egg antigen (SEA) of Schistosoma japonicum on the induction of Treg cells and the suppressive activity of Treg cells. Splenocytes were prepared from mice treated with PBS, SWA, and SEA, respectively, and then the proportions of Treg cells and the levels of IL-10 and TGF-beta in Treg cells were determined by FACS. The purified Treg cells from the mice treated as above-mentioned were detected for their immunosuppressive activities by incorporation of [3H] thymidine for the final 16 h of culture. Compared to SWA, SEA induced the higher proportion of Treg cells with a stronger suppressive activity, which produced the higher levels of IL-10 and TGF-beta (P < 0.05). SEA significantly induces Treg cells and enhances their immunosuppressive activity.

  6. CD4+CD25+ Treg induction by an HSP60-derived peptide SJMHE1 from Schistosoma japonicum is TLR2 dependent.

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    Wang, Xuefeng; Zhou, Sha; Chi, Ying; Wen, Xiaoyun; Hoellwarth, Jason; He, Lei; Liu, Feng; Wu, Calvin; Dhesi, Shawn; Zhao, Jiaqing; Hu, Wei; Su, Chuan

    2009-11-01

    Chronic schistosome infection results in the suppression of host immune responses, allowing long-term schistosome survival and restricting pathology. Current theories suggest that Treg play an important role in this regulation. However, the mechanism of Treg induction during schistosome infection is still unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the mechanism behind the induction of CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells by Schistosoma japonicum HSP60 (SjHSP60)-derived peptide SJMHE1 as well as to elucidate the cellular and molecular basis for the induction of CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells during S. japonicum infection. Mice immunized with SJMHE1 or spleen and LN cells from naïve mice pretreated with SJMHE1 in vitro all displayed an increase in CD4(+)CD25(+) T-cell populations. Release of IL-10 and TGF-beta by SJMHE1 stimulation may contribute to suppression. Adoptively transferred SJMHE1-induced CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells inhibited delayed-type hypersensitivity in BALB/c mice. Additionally, SJMHE1-treated APC were tolerogenic and induced CD4(+) cells to differentiate into suppressive CD4(+)CD25(+) Treg. Furthermore, our data support a role for TLR2 in SJMHE1-mediated CD4(+)CD25(+) Treg induction. These findings provide the basis for a more complete understanding of the S. japonicum-host interactions that contribute to host homeostatic mechanisms, preventing an excessive immune response.

  7. Development of a Streptococcus gordonii vaccine strain expressing Schistosoma japonicum Sj-F1 and evaluation of using this strain for intranasal immunization in mice.

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    Wang, Linqian; Liu, Wei; Yang, Ming; Peng, Dan; Chen, Liyu

    2013-04-01

    Schistosomiasis is a worldwide parasitic disease. Currently, chemotherapy is the main effective method to treat schistosomiasis; however, it does not prevent reinfection. No effective vaccine is currently available to prevent schistosomiasis. Sj-F1 (GenBank accession number AY261995) is a novel gene that was discovered through screening adult Schistosoma japonicum worm cDNA library with female S. japonicum antigen-immunized sera. Streptococcus gordonii, a normal inhabitant of the human oral cavity, has been a prime candidate in recent investigations toward developing a live oral vaccine vector. One of the approaches for the surface expression of heterologous antigens in S. gordonii is to surface-localize them with the M6 protein from Streptococcus pyogenes. Here, we develop a recombinant S. gordonii strain that expresses the M6-Sj-F1 fusion protein on the bacterial surface. Intranasal immunization in mice with such M6-Sj-F1-expressing S. gordonii bacteria induced strong serum IgG, serum IgA, and saliva IgA against Sj-F1. The results of protective immunity against a challenge with cercariae of S. japonicum showed statistically significant protection following this treatment, with a worm reduction rate of 21.45% and an egg reduction rate of 34.77%. Our data indicate that the described M6-Sj-F1-expressing S. gordonii is highly immunogenic and can partially protect mice from challenge infection with S. japonicum. Intranasal immunization with recombinant S. gordonii may be an alternative to developing a novel S. japonicum vaccine in a safe, effective, and feasible way.

  8. Recombinase polymerase amplification combined with a lateral flow dipstick for rapid and visual detection of Schistosoma japonicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kui; Xing, Weiwei; Yu, Xinling; Fu, Wenliang; Wang, Yuanyuan; Zou, Minji; Luo, Zhihong; Xu, Donggang

    2016-08-31

    With the continuous decline in prevalence and intensity of Schistosoma japonicum infection in China, more accurate and sensitive methods suitable for field detection become much needed for schistosomiasis control. Here, a novel rapid and visual detection method based on the combination of recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) and lateral flow dipstick (LFD) was developed to detect S. japonicum DNA in fecal samples. The LFD-RPA assay targeting SjR2 could detect 5 fg S. japonicum DNA, which was identical to qPCR and real-time RPA assay, and showed no cross-reaction with other parasites. The detection could be finished within 15-20 min at a wide temperature range (25-45 °C), and the results could be visualized by naked eye. The diagnostic validity of LFD-RPA assay was further assessed with 14 fecal samples of infected patients diagnosed by Kato-Katz method and 31 fecal samples of healthy persons, and compared with that of Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELSIA) and Indirect Hemagglutination Assay (IHA). The LFD-RPA assay showed 92.68 % sensitivity, 100 % specificity and excellent diagnostic agreement with the gold standard Kato-Katz test (k = 0.947, Z = 6.36, P < 0.001), whereas ELISA showed 85.71 % sensitivity, 93.55 % specificity, and substantial diagnostic agreement (k = 0.793, Z = 5.31, P < 0.001), and IHA showed 78.57 % sensitivity, 83.87 % specificity, and moderate diagnostic agreement (k = 0.600, Z = 4.05, P < 0.001), indicating that the LFD-RPA was much better than the traditional methods. The LFD-RPA assay established by us is a sensitive, specific, rapid and convenient method for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis, and shows a great potency in field application.

  9. Identification and functional characterisation of a Schistosoma japonicum insulin-like peptide.

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    Du, Xiaofeng; McManus, Donald P; Cai, Pengfei; Hu, Wei; You, Hong

    2017-04-14

    Previous studies have shown that insulin receptors in schistosomes, triggered by host insulin, play an important role in parasite growth, development and fecundity by regulating glucose metabolism. However, limited information is available on the recently identified endogenous insulin-like peptide (ILP) in blood flukes. We isolated ILPs from Schistosoma japonicum (SjILP) and S. recognised (SmILP) and present results of their molecular and structural analysis. SjILP shares 63% amino acid identity with SmILP, but only 18% identity with human insulin. There is high cross immunological reactivity between the S. japonicum and S. mansoni ILPs as observed in western blots using an anti-SjILP polyclonal antibody. ADP binding/hydrolysis ability was observed in both SjILP and SmILP, but not in human insulin, suggesting a parasite-specific role for ILP compared with host insulin. Protein binding assays using the Octet-RED system showed SjILP binds S. japonicum IRs (SjIR1 and SjIR2) strongly. An anti-phospho antibody against extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) recognised a 44-kDa target band in an extract of adult worms after stimulation by rSjILP in vitro, suggesting an important role for SjILP in activating SjIRs and in regulating downstream signal transduction. Immunolocalisation showed SjILP is located on the tegument and the underlying musculature, similar to that observed for SjIR1, but it is also present throughout the parenchyma of males and in the vitelline cells of females, the same locations as SjIR2 described in an earlier published study of ours. The same localisation of SjILP and the SjIRs is suggestive of an interaction between the insulin-like peptide and the IRs. In addition to binding host insulin, schistosomes also can express their own endogenous ILPs, which can activate the parasite insulin signal pathway, thereby playing a critical role in worm growth, development and fertility. These findings shed new light on ILPs in schistosomes, providing

  10. Identification of Host Insulin Binding Sites on Schistosoma japonicum Insulin Receptors.

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    Rachel J Stephenson

    Full Text Available Schistosoma japonicum insulin receptors (SjIRs have been identified as encouraging vaccine candidates. Interrupting or blocking the binding between host insulin and the schistosome insulin receptors (IRs may result in reduced glucose uptake leading to starvation and stunting of worms with a reduction in egg output. To further understand how schistosomes are able to exploit host insulin for development and growth, and whether these parasites and their mammalian hosts compete for the same insulin source, we identified insulin binding sites on the SjIRs. Based on sequence analysis and the predicted antigenic structure of the primary sequences of the SjIRs, we designed nine and eleven peptide analogues from SjIR-1 and SjIR-2, respectively. Using the Octet RED system, we identified analogues derived from SjIR-1 (10 and SjIR-2 (20, 21 and 22 with insulin-binding sequences specific for S. japonicum. Nevertheless, the human insulin receptor (HIR may compete with the SjIRs in binding human insulin in other positions which are important for HIR binding to insulin. However, no binding occurred between insulin and parasite analogues derived from SjIR-1 (2, 7 and 8 and SjIR-2 (14, 16 and 18 at the same locations as HIR sequences which have been shown to have strong insulin binding affinities. Importantly, we found two analogues (1 and 3, derived from SjIR-1, and two analogues (13 and 15 derived from SjIR-2, were responsible for the major insulin binding affinity in S. japonicum. These peptide analogues were shown to have more than 10 times (in KD value stronger binding capacity for human insulin compared with peptides derived from the HIR in the same sequence positions. Paradoxically, analogues 1, 3, 13 and 15 do not appear to contain major antigenic determinants which resulted in poor antibody responses to native S. japonicum protein. This argues against their future development as peptide-vaccine candidates.

  11. Gene Gun Bombardment with DNA-Coated Golden Particles Enhanced the Protective Effect of a DNA Vaccine Based on Thioredoxin Glutathione Reductase of Schistosoma japonicum

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    Yan Cao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis, caused by infection with Schistosoma species, remains an important parasitic zoonosis. Thioredoxin glutathione reductase of Schistosoma japonicum (SjTGR plays an important role in the development of the parasite and for its survival. Here we present a recombinant plasmid DNA vaccine, pVAX1/SjTGR, to estimate its protection against S. japonicum in BALB/c mice. The DNA vaccine administrated by particle bombardment induced higher protection than by intramuscular injection. All animals vaccinated with pVAX1/SjTGR developed significant specific anti-SjTGR antibodies than control groups. Moreover, animals immunized by gene gun exhibited a splenocyte proliferative response, with an increase in IFN-γ and IL-4. The recombinant plasmid administrated by gene gun achieved a medium protective efficacy of 27.83–38.83% ( of worm reduction and 40.38–44.51% ( of liver egg count reduction. It suggests that different modes of administering a DNA vaccine can influence the protective efficacy induced by the vaccine. Interestingly, from the enzymatic activity results, we found that worms obtained from pVAX1/SjTGR-vaccinated animals expressed lower enzymatic activity than the control group and the antibodies weakened the enzymatic activity of SjTGR in vitro, too. It implies that the high-level antibodies may contribute to the protective effects.

  12. Enhancement of protective efficacy through adenoviral vectored vaccine priming and protein boosting strategy encoding triosephosphate isomerase (SjTPI) against Schistosoma japonicum in mice.

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    Dai, Yang; Wang, Xiaoting; Tang, Jianxia; Zhao, Song; Xing, Yuntian; Dai, Jianrong; Jin, Xiaolin; Zhu, Yinchang

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis japonica is a zoonotic parasitic disease; developing transmission blocking veterinary vaccines are urgently needed for the prevention and control of schistosomiasis in China. Heterologous prime-boost strategy, a novel vaccination approach, is more effective in enhancing vaccine efficacy against multiple pathogens. In the present study, we established a novel heterologous prime-boost vaccination strategy, the rAdV-SjTPI.opt intramuscular priming and rSjTPI subcutaneous boosting strategy, and evaluated its protective efficacy against Schistosoma japonicum in mice. Adenoviral vectored vaccine (rAdV-SjTPI.opt) and recombinant protein vaccine (rSjTPI) were prepared and used in different combinations as vaccines in a mouse model. The specific immune responses and protective efficacies were evaluated. Furthermore, the longevity of protective efficacy was also determined. Results showed that the rAdV-SjTPI.opt priming-rSjTPI boosting strategy elicited higher levels of specific IgG responses and broad-spectrum specific cellular immune responses. The protective efficacy could reach up to nearly 70% and 50% of protection could be observed at 10 weeks after the last immunization in mice. The rAdV-SjTPI.opt intramuscular priming-rSjTPI subcutaneous boosting vaccination strategy is a novel, highly efficient, and stable approach to developing vaccines against Schistosoma japonicum infections in China.

  13. Enhancement of protective efficacy through adenoviral vectored vaccine priming and protein boosting strategy encoding triosephosphate isomerase (SjTPI against Schistosoma japonicum in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Dai

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis japonica is a zoonotic parasitic disease; developing transmission blocking veterinary vaccines are urgently needed for the prevention and control of schistosomiasis in China. Heterologous prime-boost strategy, a novel vaccination approach, is more effective in enhancing vaccine efficacy against multiple pathogens. In the present study, we established a novel heterologous prime-boost vaccination strategy, the rAdV-SjTPI.opt intramuscular priming and rSjTPI subcutaneous boosting strategy, and evaluated its protective efficacy against Schistosoma japonicum in mice.Adenoviral vectored vaccine (rAdV-SjTPI.opt and recombinant protein vaccine (rSjTPI were prepared and used in different combinations as vaccines in a mouse model. The specific immune responses and protective efficacies were evaluated. Furthermore, the longevity of protective efficacy was also determined. Results showed that the rAdV-SjTPI.opt priming-rSjTPI boosting strategy elicited higher levels of specific IgG responses and broad-spectrum specific cellular immune responses. The protective efficacy could reach up to nearly 70% and 50% of protection could be observed at 10 weeks after the last immunization in mice.The rAdV-SjTPI.opt intramuscular priming-rSjTPI subcutaneous boosting vaccination strategy is a novel, highly efficient, and stable approach to developing vaccines against Schistosoma japonicum infections in China.

  14. Expression profile of the Schistosoma japonicum degradome reveals differential protease expression patterns and potential anti-schistosomal intervention targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuai; Cai, Pengfei; Piao, Xianyu; Hou, Nan; Zhou, Xiaosu; Wu, Chuang; Wang, Heng; Chen, Qijun

    2014-10-01

    Blood fluke proteases play pivotal roles in the processes of invasion, nutrition acquisition, immune evasion, and other host-parasite interactions. Hundreds of genes encoding putative proteases have been identified in the recently published schistosome genomes. However, the expression profiles of these proteases in Schistosoma species have not yet been systematically analyzed. We retrieved and culled the redundant protease sequences of Schistosoma japonicum, Schistosoma mansoni, Echinococcus multilocularis, and Clonorchis sinensis from public databases utilizing bioinformatic approaches. The degradomes of the four parasitic organisms and Homo sapiens were then comparatively analyzed. A total of 262 S. japonicum protease sequences were obtained and the expression profiles generated using whole-genome microarray. Four main clusters of protease genes with different expression patterns were identified: proteases up-regulated in hepatic schistosomula and adult worms, egg-specific or predominantly expressed proteases, cercaria-specific or predominantly expressed proteases, and constantly expressed proteases. A subset of protease genes with different expression patterns were further validated using real-time quantitative PCR. The present study represents the most comprehensive analysis of a degradome in Schistosoma species to date. These results provide a firm foundation for future research on the specific function(s) of individual proteases and may help to refine anti-proteolytic strategies in blood flukes.

  15. Helminth Protein Vaccine Induced Follicular T Helper Cell for Enhancement of Humoral Immunity against Schistosoma japonicum

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    Jingyao Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein vaccines combined with adjuvants have been widely used to induce immune responses, especially the humoral immune response, against molecular targets including parasites. Follicular T helper (Tfh cells are the specialized providers of B-cell help, however, the induction of Tfh cells in protein vaccination has been rarely studied. Here, we report that the Schistosoma japonicum recombinant protein (SjGST-32 combined with tacrolimus (FK506 augmented the induction of Tfh cells, which expressed the canonical markers CXCR5, BCL6, and IL-21, and enhanced the humoral immune responses in BALB/c mice. Furthermore, the expression of IL-21R on germinal center (GC B cells and memory B cells increased in immunized mice, which indicated that IL-21 from the induced Tfh cells interacted with IL-21R for activation of B cells and maintenance of long-lived humoral immunity. Our results suggest that helminth protein vaccine combined with FK506 induces Tfh cell for stimulating humoral immune responses and inducing long-lived humoral immunity.

  16. Tissue specific profiling of females of Schistosoma japonicum by integrated laser microdissection microscopy and microarray analysis.

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    Geoffrey N Gobert

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The functions of many schistosome gene products remain to be characterized. A major step towards elucidating function of these genes would be in defining their sites of expression. This goal is rendered difficult to achieve by the generally small size of the parasites and the lack of a body cavity, which precludes analysis of transcriptional profiles of the tissues in isolation.Here, we describe a combined laser microdissection microscopy (LMM and microarray analysis approach to expedite tissue specific profiling and gene atlasing for tissues of adult female Schistosoma japonicum. This approach helps to solve the gene characterization "bottle-neck" brought about by acoelomy and the size of these parasites. Complementary RNA obtained after isolation from gastrodermis (parasite gut mucosa, vitelline glands and ovary by LMM were subjected to microarray analyses, resulting in identification of 147 genes upregulated in the gastrodermis, 4,149 genes in the ovary and 2,553 in the vitellaria.This work will help to shed light on the molecular pathobiology of this debilitating human parasite and aid in the discovery of new targets for the development of anti-schistosome vaccines and drugs.

  17. A Microtus fortis protein, serum albumin, is a novel inhibitor of Schistosoma japonicum schistosomula

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    Rong Li

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is an endemic parasite disease and praziquantel is the only drug currently in use to control this disease. Experimental and epidemiological evidence strongly suggests that Microtus fortis ( Mf is a naturally resistant vertebrate host of Schistosoma japonicum . In the present study, we found that Mf serum albumin ( Mf -albumin and the conditioned medium of pcDNA3.1- Mf -albumin caused 46.2% and 38.7% schistosomula death rates in 96 h, respectively, which were significantly higher than that of the negative control (p < 0.05. We also found that mice injected with Mf -albumin had a 43.5% reduction in worm burden and a 48.1% reduction in liver eggs per gram (p < 0.05 in comparison to the control animals. To characterise the mechanisms involved in clearance, schistosomula were incubated with fluorescein isothiocyanate-labelled Mf -albumin and fluorescent enrichment effects were found in the gut lumen of schistosomula after 48 h of incubation. Next, digestive tract excretions from schistosomula were collected and the sensitivity of Mf -albumin to digestive tract excretions was evaluated. The results indicated that schistosomula digestive tract excretions showed indigestibility of Mf -albumin. The death of schistosomula could be partially attributed to the lack of digestion of Mf -albumin by digestive tract excretions during the development of the schistosomula stage. Therefore, these data indicate the potential of Mf -albumin as one of the major selective forces for schistosomiasis.

  18. [Preliminary study on establishing an animal model of neuroschistosomiasis by direct injection of Schistosoma japonicum eggs through skull].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jia; Lu, Xiao-Jie; Wang, Dan; Wu, Ming-Can; Chen, Shi-Jie; Li, Jun-Chuan; Wang, Peng

    2013-02-01

    To establish an experimental model of neuroschistosomiasis and investigate the model establishment factors. Rabbits were used for the animal model and Schistosoma japonicum eggs (1 mg/ml) were directly injected into the brain by two ways of a bone drill or needle. The symptoms were observed and in the first and second week and later, the rabbits' brains were removed for pathological examinations. One to two weeks after the injection of schistosome eggs, the rabbits had various neurological symptoms such as loss of appetite, hemiparesis, seizure, etc. The pathological analysis showed the schistosome egg granuloma inflammatory reaction among 90% rabbits. This new method of direct injection of S. japonicum eggs through skull into the brain provides a good and easy animal model of neuroschistosomiasis.

  19. A comparative study of the vitelline cell in Schistosoma mansoni, S. haematobium, S. japonicum and S. mattheei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erasmus, D A; Popiel, I; Shaw, J R

    1982-04-01

    A comparison is given of the ultrastructure of the vitelline cell in Schistosoma mansoni, S. haematobium, S. japonicum and S. mattheei. Four stages in development of the vitelline cell have been categorized as follows: Stage 1, the undifferentiated cell; Stage 2, the developing cell showing the beginning of synthetic activity; Stage 3, the developing cell showing active protein synthesis; Stage 4, the fully mature vitelline cell. These stages in development have been defined morphologically and Stages 1, 2 and 3 are very similar in all 4 species. Lipid is present in the Stage 4 cells of all species but appears earlier at Stage 3 in S. haematobium and S. mattheei. There are several differences as to the intercellular inclusions of the Stage 4 cells, the most marked of these being the absence of calcareous corpuscles from S. japonicum as compared with the other 3 species.

  20. Influence of Schistosoma japonicum programmed cell death protein 10 on the growth and development of schistosomula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yan Ru; Huang, Wen Ling; Tang, Chun Lian; Liu, Rong; Zhao, Qin Ping; Ming, Zhen Ping; Dong, Hui Fen

    2018-01-18

    Schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma japonicum is among the most serious endemic zoonoses in China. To study interactions between schistosomula, the pre-adult juvenile stage, and hosts, it is important to study the functions of key genes involved in schistosomula growth and development. Programmed cell death protein 10 (pcdp10) is an important apoptosis-related gene with various biological functions. This study described the molecular characterization of S. japonicum PCDP10 (SjPCDP10) and evaluated its functions in schistosomula. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and western blot were used to detect Sjpcdp10 mRNA and protein levels, respectively, at different developmental stages. Immunolocalization was performed to determine SjPCDP10 expression in the parasite. RNA interference (RNAi) experiments were used to assess gene functions associated with SjPCDP10 in schistosomula growth and development. Real-time qPCR revealed that Sjpcdp10 was expressed during all investigated developmental stages and upregulated during schistosomula growth and development. Histochemical localization showed that SjPCDP10 was mainly distributed in the teguments of schistosomula in all investigated stages and part of the parenchymal area of 14-, 18-, and 21-day-old schistosomula. Following Sjpcdp10 knockdown by RNAi, the lengths, widths, areas, and volumes of schistosomula were significantly lower than those in the control group. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the body surfaces of schistosomula subjected to RNAi were seriously damaged, with few tegumental spines and sensory papillae. Transmission electron microscopy indicated that the teguments of Sjpcdp10-knockdown schistosomula were incomplete, the number of layers was reduced, and the thickness decreased significantly as compared with those in the control group. Furthermore, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labelling results showed that the rate of apoptosis in Sjpcdp10-knockdown

  1. Novel T-cell epitopes on Schistosoma japonicum SjP40 protein and their preventive effect on allergic asthma in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jiling; Hu, Lizhi; Yang, Jing; Yang, Liang; Gao, Fei; Lu, Ping; Fan, Mengyu; Zhu, Yunjuan; Liu, Junyan; Chen, Lingling; Gupta, Shimpy; Yang, Xi; Liu, Peimei

    2016-05-01

    Allergic asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease mediated by Th2 cell immune responses. Currently, immunotherapies based on immune deviation are attractive, preventive, and therapeutic strategies for asthma. Many studies have shown that intracellular bacterial infections such as mycobacteria and their components can suppress asthmatic reactions by enhancing Th1 responses, while helminth infections and their proteins can inhibit allergic asthma via immune regulation. However, some helminth proteins such as SmP40, the major egg antigen of Schistosoma mansoni, are found as Th1 type antigens. Using a panel of overlapping peptides, we identified T-cell epitopes on SjP40 protein of Schistosoma japonicum, which can induce Th1 cytokine and inhibit the production of Th2 cytokines and airway inflammation in a mouse model of allergic asthma. These results reveal a novel form of immune protective mechanism, which may play an important role in the modulating effect of helminth infection on allergic asthmatic reactions. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Combined IL-12 Plasmid and Recombinant SjGST Enhance the Protective and Anti-pathology Effect of SjGST DNA Vaccine Against Schistosoma japonicum

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cheng, Po-Ching; Lin, Ching-Nan; Peng, Shih-Yi; Kang, Tsung-Fu; Lee, Kin-Mu

    2016-01-01

    ...) has previously been reported to achieve a worm reduction rate of 42-44%. To improve the efficiency of the vaccine against Schistosoma japonicum, we immunized mice with a combination of pcDNA vector-encoded 26-kDa SjGST (pcDNA/SjGST...

  3. Recombinant T2 RNase protein of Schistosoma japonicum inhibits expression of α-SMA in LX-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianxin; Peng, Wenxia; Feng, Jinrong; Zhu, Dandan; Chen, Jinling; Sun, Xiaolei; Lyu, Lei; Ju, Shaoqing; Duan, Yinong

    2016-10-01

    Recombinant T2 RNase glycoprotein, which showed a certain degree of homology to Omega-1 from Schistosoma mansoni eggs, was expressed in adult worms of Schistosoma japonicum, but not in eggs of S. japonicum. The direct biological role of the recombinant T2 RNase protein in activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) remains unknown. In the present study, the immortalized human HSC line (LX-2 cells) was treated with the recombinant T2 RNase protein at indicated concentrations for various time points in vitro. The expression levels of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and Smad4 were detected by Western blot. The results showed that the recombinant T2 RNase protein significantly diminished the expression levels of α-SMA and Smad4 in LX-2 cells. The upregulated expression levels of α-SMA and Smad4 by TGF-β1 in LX-2 cells were both suppressed by the recombinant T2 RNase protein. These data suggest that the recombinant T2 RNase protein may be a potential target of therapeutic strategy for the treatment of hepatic fibrosis.

  4. THE EFFECT OF SCHISTOSOMA MOM CERCARIA INFECTION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    S.J. DAFUR, Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medical Sciences,. University of Jos, PMB 2084, Jos Nigeria. E-mail: datuEQuniiosedu.ng,dafurs@yahoo.com. The testicular histology of mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni (S.mans0nr) cercaria and treated with. Niridazole was examined. The results reveal that infection ...

  5. An investigation into the potential effects of infrapopulation structure and other sources of sampling error, on population genetic studies of the transmission of Schistosoma japonicum (Trematoda: Digenea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Guan-Nan; Liu, Liang; He, Hong-Bin; Attwood, Stephen W

    2016-03-21

    Schistosoma japonicum remains a major challenge to human and animal health. Earlier microsatellite-based studies reported possible definitive-host-specific private alleles within S. japonicum, opening the possibility that different definitive hosts might harbour different parasite strains. Previous investigations have also detected near-identical multilocus genotypes in populations of adult worms - possibly the result of mutations occurring during the asexual (intramolluscan) phase of clonal expansion. Research has also revealed extensive deviations from Hardy-Weinberg Proportions (HWP) and conflicting results among studies. The present study was performed to examine some of the potential effects of infrapopulation structure on microsatellite-based studies of the transmission ecology of S. japonicum. Potential sources of bias considered included organotropic distribution of worms, non-random mating and corrections for clonal expansion. Stool samples from naturally infected hosts were used to infect snails in the laboratory and thereby expose mice. 274 individual worms were typed at seven microsatellite loci. Removal of individuals bearing duplicate MLGs (as a correction for presumed clonal expansion) had an impact on both HWP and organotropic genetic differentiation. The study found no evidence that heterozygote deficiencies were caused by a Wahlund effect. Female-male pairings appeared to be random and there was no evidence for mate choice by heterozygosity. There was some indication that excess heterozygosity, induced by clonal expansion, can offset heterozygote deficiencies caused by small population size or populations fragmented by parasite control efforts. The view is supported that miracidia are preferable to adult worms in investigations into host-specific parasite lineages. Where adults must be used, extreme care should be taken with regard to sampling if infrapopulations of small animals are compared with those of larger animals; this is because of

  6. The anterior esophageal region of Schistosoma japonicum is a secretory organ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao Hong; Stark, Meg; Vance, Gillian M; Cao, Jian Ping; Wilson, R Alan

    2014-12-10

    The esophagus of blood-feeding schistosomes has been largely neglected although its posterior portion was designated as a gland decades ago. However, we recently showed it plays a pivotal role in blood processing. It is clearly demarcated into anterior and posterior compartments, both surrounded by a mass of cell bodies. Feeding movies revealed that erythrocytes accumulate in the anterior compartment before entering the posterior, indicating that a distinct process is executed there. We therefore investigated ultrastructural aspects and possible functions of the anterior region. The heads of adult Schistosoma japonicum were detached and prepared for both transmission and scanning electron microscopy to define the detailed ultrastructure of the anterior esophagus. Cryosections of heads were also prepared for immunocytochemistry and confocal microscopy to define the pattern of intrinsic host antibody binding in the anterior esophageal lining. The anterior syncytial lining of the esophagus is highly extended by long, thin corrugations of cytoplasm projecting towards the lumen. Strikingly in the male worm, the tips of the corrugations are further expanded by numerous threads of cytoplasm, producing a spaghetti-like appearance in the central lumen. Flattened, pitted cytoplasmic plates are interspersed in the tangled mass of threads. Abundant, morphologically distinct light vesicles of varied size and contents are manufactured in the cell bodies, from where they traffic through cytoplasmic connections to the corrugations and out to the tips. Clusters of vesicles accumulate in expanded tips in males, together with occasional mitochondria whilst females have more mitochondria but fewer vesicles. The membranous contents of light vesicles are secreted mainly from the tips, but also from the sides of the corrugations. They coat the surfaces and then form organised self-adherent membrane figures when shed into the lumen. Host antibody binds strongly in a characteristic pattern

  7. Schistosoma japonicum risk in Jiangsu province, People’s Republic of China: identification of a spatio-temporal risk pattern along the Yangtze River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Yang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The risk for Schistosoma japonicum infection in Jiangsu province, People’s Republic of China, was investigated by a mouse bioassay. Various investigations were conducted in the period 2009-2011 with the presentation here representing the summary of the results from 45-50 sites in the marshlands along the Yangtze River’s course through the province. Indices representing three aspects of the infection were collected to assess risk: (i the proportion of sentinel points where at least one mouse infection was recorded; (ii the proportion of infected mice at each of these sites; and (iii the average worm burdens. Directional distribution analysis and scan statistics were used to explore the spatio-temporal risk pattern. The spatial distribution was oriented along the Yangtze River and the directional distributions for the proportion of infected mice and mean worm burdens were similar for the positive sentinel sites. Four statistically significant clusters were detected in 2009, but only one in 2010 and 2011, respectively. Temporal windows for infection risk were seen in June and September. The study illustrates the utility of spatio-temporal analysis in assessing the risk for schistosomiasis. This approach should be useful with respect to surveillance and response that can be expected to be increasingly applied when moving from morbidity control to transmission control.

  8. Combined IL-12 Plasmid and Recombinant SjGST Enhance the Protective and Anti-pathology Effect of SjGST DNA Vaccine Against Schistosoma japonicum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Ching Cheng

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is listed as one of most important tropical diseases and more than 200 million people are estimated to be infected. Development of a vaccine is thought to be the most effective way to control this disease. Recombinant 26-kDa glutathione S-transferase (rSjGST has previously been reported to achieve a worm reduction rate of 42-44%. To improve the efficiency of the vaccine against Schistosoma japonicum, we immunized mice with a combination of pcDNA vector-encoded 26-kDa SjGST (pcDNA/SjGST, IL-12 expressing-plasmid (pIL-12, and rSjGST. Co-vaccination with pcDNA/SjGST, pIL-12, and rSjGST led to a reduction in worm burden, hepatic egg burden, and the size of liver tissue granulomas than that in the untreated infection controls. In addition, we detected high levels of specific IgG, IgG1, and IgG2a against the rSjGST antigen in infected mice vaccinated with this combination of pcDNA/SjGST, pIL-12, and rSjGST. Moreover, high expression levels of Th2 cytokines, including IL-4 and IL-10, were also detected in this group, without diminished levels of IL-12, INF-γ, and TNF-α cytokines that are related to parasite killing. In conclusion, we have developed a new vaccination regimen against S. japonicum infection and shown that co-immunization with pcDNA/SjGST vaccine, pIL-12, and rSjGST has significant anti-parasite, anti-hepatic egg and anti-pathology effects in mice. The efficacy of this vaccination method should be further validated in large animals such as water buffalo. This method may help to reduce the transmission of zoonotic schistosomiasis japonica.

  9. Combined IL-12 Plasmid and Recombinant SjGST Enhance the Protective and Anti-pathology Effect of SjGST DNA Vaccine Against Schistosoma japonicum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Po-Ching; Lin, Ching-Nan; Peng, Shih-Yi; Kang, Tsung-Fu; Lee, Kin-Mu

    2016-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is listed as one of most important tropical diseases and more than 200 million people are estimated to be infected. Development of a vaccine is thought to be the most effective way to control this disease. Recombinant 26-kDa glutathione S-transferase (rSjGST) has previously been reported to achieve a worm reduction rate of 42–44%. To improve the efficiency of the vaccine against Schistosoma japonicum, we immunized mice with a combination of pcDNA vector-encoded 26-kDa SjGST (pcDNA/SjGST), IL-12 expressing-plasmid (pIL-12), and rSjGST. Co-vaccination with pcDNA/SjGST, pIL-12, and rSjGST led to a reduction in worm burden, hepatic egg burden, and the size of liver tissue granulomas than that in the untreated infection controls. In addition, we detected high levels of specific IgG, IgG1, and IgG2a against the rSjGST antigen in infected mice vaccinated with this combination of pcDNA/SjGST, pIL-12, and rSjGST. Moreover, high expression levels of Th2 cytokines, including IL-4 and IL-10, were also detected in this group, without diminished levels of IL-12, INF-γ, and TNF-α cytokines that are related to parasite killing. In conclusion, we have developed a new vaccination regimen against S. japonicum infection and shown that co-immunization with pcDNA/SjGST vaccine, pIL-12, and rSjGST has significant anti-parasite, anti-hepatic egg and anti-pathology effects in mice. The efficacy of this vaccination method should be further validated in large animals such as water buffalo. This method may help to reduce the transmission of zoonotic schistosomiasis japonica. PMID:26891172

  10. Evidences of endemic Schistosoma haematobium infection among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried to determine the presence, level of endemicity and the intensity of human Schistosoma haematobium infection in Shonga community of Edu Local Government Area in Kwara State, Nigeria. For permission and maximum cooperation, intensive advocacy and mobilization of the community leaders, school ...

  11. Prevalence and distribution of Schistosoma haematobium infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence and distribution of Schistosoma haematobium infection among school children living in southwestern shores of Lake Malawi. ... Methods: This prospective cross-sectional study was conducted in primary schools. School ... Consistent and uniform interventions can reduce prevalence further and sustain control.

  12. Schistosoma haematobium Infection in Relation to Plasmodium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies were carried out to investigate how infections with Schistosoma haematobium influences Plasmodium parasitaemia level in school children in Ijebu East L.G.A. of Ogun State, south west Nigeria between August and November 2008. One hundred and thirty (130) primary school children, aged between 6 and 15 ...

  13. Possible effects of the Three Gorges dam on the transmission of Schistosoma japonicum on the Jiang Han plain, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X J; Wei, F H; Yang, X X; Dai, Y H; Yu, G Y; Chen, L Y; Su, Z M

    2000-06-01

    The Three Gorges dam, under construction on the Yangtze River in China, might affect the transmission of Schistosoma japonicum on the Jiang Han plain, which is downstream of the dam. To study this possibility, the prevalence of schistosomiasis was investigated in relation to a range of malacological, hydrological and meteorological factors. The general water level in the Yangzte over a year had a marked effect on the distribution of the intermediate host (Oncomelania hupensis) and the prevalence of human schistosomiasis in that year. Disease prevalence showed significant correlations with the density of the snail hosts, the level of the water table, annual rainfall, yearly evaporation, and altitude. Once the dam is complete, the flow of water downstream will probably be maintained at a level between those currently occurring in flood and dry weather, and this may have implications for schistosome transmission. Systematic monitoring is necessary to investigate the impact of the environmental changes brought about by the dam on transmission.

  14. MicroRNAs Are Involved in the Regulation of Ovary Development in the Pathogenic Blood Fluke Schistosoma japonicum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chao; Peng, Jinbiao; Luo, Rong; Zhou, Chunjing; Liu, Juntao; Lin, Jiaojiao; Jin, Youxin; Davis, Richard E.; Cheng, Guofeng

    2016-01-01

    Schistosomes, blood flukes, are an important global public health concern. Paired adult female schistosomes produce large numbers of eggs that are primarily responsible for the disease pathology and critical for dissemination. Consequently, understanding schistosome sexual maturation and egg production may open novel perspectives for intervening with these processes to prevent clinical symptoms and to interrupt the life-cycle of these blood-flukes. microRNAs (miRNAs) are key regulators of many biological processes including development, cell proliferation, metabolism, and signal transduction. Here, we report on the identification of Schistosoma japonicum miRNAs using small RNA deep sequencing in the key stages of male-female pairing, gametogenesis, and egg production. We identified 38 miRNAs, including 10 previously unknown miRNAs. Eighteen of the miRNAs were differentially expressed between male and female schistosomes and during different stages of sexual maturation. We identified 30 potential target genes for 16 of the S. japonicum miRNAs using antibody-based pull-down assays and bioinformatic analyses. We further validated some of these target genes using either in vitro luciferase assays or in vivo miRNA suppression experiments. Notably, suppression of the female enriched miRNAs bantam and miR-31 led to morphological alteration of ovaries in female schistosomes. These findings uncover key roles for specific miRNAs in schistosome sexual maturation and egg production. PMID:26871705

  15. MicroRNAs Are Involved in the Regulation of Ovary Development in the Pathogenic Blood Fluke Schistosoma japonicum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihui Zhu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomes, blood flukes, are an important global public health concern. Paired adult female schistosomes produce large numbers of eggs that are primarily responsible for the disease pathology and critical for dissemination. Consequently, understanding schistosome sexual maturation and egg production may open novel perspectives for intervening with these processes to prevent clinical symptoms and to interrupt the life-cycle of these blood-flukes. microRNAs (miRNAs are key regulators of many biological processes including development, cell proliferation, metabolism, and signal transduction. Here, we report on the identification of Schistosoma japonicum miRNAs using small RNA deep sequencing in the key stages of male-female pairing, gametogenesis, and egg production. We identified 38 miRNAs, including 10 previously unknown miRNAs. Eighteen of the miRNAs were differentially expressed between male and female schistosomes and during different stages of sexual maturation. We identified 30 potential target genes for 16 of the S. japonicum miRNAs using antibody-based pull-down assays and bioinformatic analyses. We further validated some of these target genes using either in vitro luciferase assays or in vivo miRNA suppression experiments. Notably, suppression of the female enriched miRNAs bantam and miR-31 led to morphological alteration of ovaries in female schistosomes. These findings uncover key roles for specific miRNAs in schistosome sexual maturation and egg production.

  16. Genetic Structure Inferred from Mitochondrial 12S Ribosomal RNA Sequence of Oncomelania quadrasi, the Intermediate Snail Host of Schistosoma japonicum in the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Saijuntha, Weerachai; Jarilla, Blanca; Leonardo, Alvin K.; Sunico, Louie S.; Leonardo, Lydia R.; Andrews, Ross H.; Sithithaworn, Paiboon; Trevor N Petney; Kirinoki, Masashi; Kato-Hayashi, Naoko; Kikuchi, Mihoko; Chigusa, Yuichi; Agatsuma, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    Species and subspecies of the Oncomelania hupensis species complex are recognized as intermediate hosts of Schistosoma japonicum. Of these species and subspecies, O. quadrasi is distributed throughout the Philippines. This study used 12S ribosomal RNA sequences to explore the genetic structure of O. quadrasi populations in the Philippines. Three subspecies, O. h. hupensis, O. h. formosana, and O. h. chiui of this group were also examined. The phylogenetic tree and haplotypes network showed th...

  17. Urinary tract pathology in some Schistosoma haematobium infected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2007-01-18

    Jan 18, 2007 ... intensity of infection. Key words: Urinary tract pathology, Schistosoma haematobium, rural volunteers, Nigerian, Ultrasound, Light infection, heavy infection. INTRODUCTION. Urinary Schistosomiasis is a chronic parasitic infection of circulatory system caused by Schistosoma haematobium which affects the ...

  18. The RIO protein kinase-encoding gene Sj-riok-2 is involved in key reproductive processes in Schistosoma japonicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lu; He, Xin; Grevelding, Christoph G; Ye, Qing; Li, Ying; Gasser, Robin B; Dissous, Colette; Mughal, Mudassar N; Zhou, Yan-Qin; Zhao, Jun-Long; Hu, Min

    2017-12-12

    Schistosomiasis is one of the most prevalent parasitic diseases worldwide and is caused by parasitic trematodes of the genus Schistosoma. The pathogenesis of schistosomiasis is caused by eggs whose production is the consequence of the pairing of schistosomes and the subsequent sexual maturation of the female. Previous studies have demonstrated that protein kinases are involved in processes leading to the male-induced differentiation of the female gonads, ovary and vitellarium. Right open reading frame protein kinase 2 (RIOK-2) is a member of the atypical kinase family and shown in other organisms to be responsible for ribosomal RNA biogenesis and cell-cycle progression, as well as involves in nematode development. However, nothing is known about its functions in any trematode including schistosome. We isolated and characterized the riok-2 gene from S. japonicum, and detected the transcriptional profiles of Sj-riok-2 by using real-time PCR and in situ hybridization. RNAi-mediated knockdown of Sj-riok-2 was performed, mitotic activities were detected by EdU incorporation assay and morphological changes on organs were observed by confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM). In silico analyses of the amino acid sequence of Sj-RIOK-2 revealed typical features of this class of kinases including a winged helix (wHTH) domain and a RIO kinase domain. Sj-riok-2 is transcribed in different developmental stages of S. japonicum, with a higher abundance in adult females and eggs. Localization studies showed that Sj-riok-2 was mainly transcribed in female reproductive organs. Experiments with adult schistosomes in vitro demonstrated that the transcriptional level of Sj-riok-2 was affected by pairing. Knocking down Sj-riok-2 by RNAi reduced cell proliferation in the vitellarium and caused the increased amount of mature oocytes in ovary and an accumulation of eggs within the uterus. Sj-riok-2 is involved in the reproductive development and maturation of female S. japonicum. Our

  19. An experimental Schistosoma mattheei infection in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolmarans, C T; de Kock, K N; van der Walt, M P

    1990-12-01

    Certain aspects of the immune response of a male experimentally infected with 3-day old cercariae of a pure field strain of Schistosoma matheei were investigated. Among others, aspects such as the reaction of eosinophils, neutrophils and blood platelets after infection, were included in the study. The involvement of IgG and the cross reaction between these antibodies and S. haematobium and S. mansoni were also investigated. The phenomenon that the cercariae were, 3 days after shedding, still capable of penetrating the skin causing an inflammatory response was studied. The results lend some support to the surmise that a pure S. mattheei infection in humans is incapable of any egg production.

  20. Genetic variability among Schistosoma japonicum isolates from the Philippines, Japan and China revealed by sequence analysis of three mitochondrial genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fen; Li, Juan; Sugiyama, Hiromu; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Song, Hui-Qun; Zhao, Guang-Hui; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2015-02-01

    The present study examined sequence variability in the mitochondrial (mt) protein-coding genes cytochrome b (cytb), NADH dehydrogenase subunits 2 and 6 (nad2 and nad6) among 24 isolates of Schistosoma japonicum from different endemic regions in the Philippines, Japan and China. The complete cytb, nad2 and nad6 genes were amplified and sequenced separately from individual schistosome. Sequence variations for isolates from the Philippines were 0-0.5% for cytb, 0-0.6% for nad2, and 0-0.9% for nad6. Variation was 0-0.5%, 0.1-0.8%, 0-0.7% for corresponding genes for schistosome samples from mainland China. For worms in Japan, genetic variations were 0-0.2%, 0.1-0.2% and 0 for the three genes, respectively. Sequence variations were 0-1.0%, 0-1.8% and 0-1.1% for cytb, nad2 and nad6, respectively, among schistosome isolates from different geographical strains in the Philippines, Japan and China. Of the three countries, lowest sequence variations were found between isolates from mainland China and the Philippines and highest were detected between Japan and the Philippines in three mtDNA genes. Phylogenetic analyses based on the combined sequences of cytb, nad2 and nad6 revealed that all isolates in the Philippines clustered together sistered to samples from Yunnan and Zhejiang provinces in China, while isolates from Yamanashi in Japan were in a solitary clade. These results demonstrated the usefulness of the combined three mtDNA sequences for studying genetic diversity and population structure among S. japonicum isolates from the Philippines, China and Japan.

  1. Exosomes Derived from Dendritic Cells Treated with Schistosoma japonicum Soluble Egg Antigen Attenuate DSS-Induced Colitis

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    Lifu Wang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Exosomes are 30–150 nm small membrane vesicles that are released into the extracellular medium via cells that function as a mode of intercellular communication. Dendritic cell (DC-derived exosomes modulate immune responses and prevent the development of autoimmune diseases. Moreover, Schistosoma japonicum eggs show modulatory effects in a mouse model of colitis. Therefore, we hypothesized that exosomes derived from DCs treated with S. japonicum soluble eggs antigen (SEA; SEA-treated DC exosomes would be useful for treating inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Exosomes were purified from the supernatant of DCs treated or untreated with SEA and identified via transmission electron microscopy, western blotting and NanoSight. Acute colitis was induced via the administration of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS in drinking water (5.0%, wt/vol. Treatment with exosomes was conducted via intraperitoneal injection (i.p.; 50 μg per mouse from day 0 to day 6. Clinical scores were calculated based on weight loss, stool type, and bleeding. Colon length was measured as an indirect marker of inflammation, and colon macroscopic characteristics were determined. Body weight loss and the disease activity index of DSS-induced colitis mice decreased significantly following treatment with SEA-treated DC exosomes. Moreover, the colon lengths of SEA-treated DC exosomes treated colitis mice improved, and their mean colon macroscopic scores decreased. In addition, histologic examinations and histological scores showed that SEA-treated DC exosomes prevented colon damage in acute DSS-induced colitis mice. These results indicate that SEA-treated DC exosomes attenuate the severity of acute DSS-induced colitis mice more effectively than DC exosomes. The current work suggests that SEA-treated DC exosomes may be useful as a new approach to treat IBD.

  2. Pathology of Schistosoma curassoni infection in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercruysse, J; Fransen, J; Southgate, V R; Rollinson, D

    1985-10-01

    The gross- and histopathology of natural and experimental Schistosoma curassoni infections in sheep were studied. The data obtained showed that S. curassoni infection in sheep causes only slight clinico-pathological manifestations with preferential involvement of the liver, the lower intestine and the urinary bladder. A variable spectrum of host reaction to the eggs within an individual animal was observed, reflecting the duration of presence of eggs in the organs. In the liver, egg granulomas were most numerous in the perilobular regions, while in the intestine, lesions were most pronounced in the mucosa of the rectum. The presence of eggs in 10% of the urinary bladders examined indicated some bladder involvement.

  3. Comparative Analysis of Transcriptional Profiles of Adult Schistosoma japonicum from Different Laboratory Animals and the Natural Host, Water Buffalo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chuang; Hou, Nan; Chen, Qijun

    2015-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis is one of the most widely distributed parasitic diseases in the world. Schistosoma japonicum, a zoonotic parasite with a wide range of mammalian hosts, is one of the major pathogens of this disease. Although numerous studies on schistosomiasis japonica have been performed using laboratory animal models, systematic comparative analysis of whole-genome expression profiles in parasites from different laboratory animals and nature mammalian hosts is lacking to date. Methodology/Principal Findings Adult schistosomes were obtained from laboratory animals BALB/c mice, C57BL/6 mice, New Zealand white rabbits and the natural host, water buffaloes. The gene expression profiles of schistosomes from these animals were obtained and compared by genome-wide oligonucleotide microarray analysis. The results revealed that the gene expression profiles of schistosomes from different laboratory animals and buffaloes were highly consistent (r>0.98) genome-wide. Meanwhile, a total of 450 genes were identified to be differentially expressed in schistosomes which can be clustered into six groups. Pathway analysis revealed that these genes were mainly involved in multiple signal transduction pathways, amino acid, energy, nucleotide and lipid metabolism. We also identified a group of 1,540 abundantly and stably expressed gene products in adult worms, including a panel of 179 Schistosoma- or Platyhelminthes-specific genes that may be essential for parasitism and may be regarded as novel potential anti-parasite intervention targets for future research. Conclusions/Significance This study provides a comprehensive database of gene expression profiles of schistosomes derived from different laboratory animals and water buffaloes. An expanded number of genes potentially affecting the development of schistosomes in different animals were identified. These findings lay the foundation for schistosomiasis research in different laboratory animals and natural hosts at the

  4. Comparative Analysis of Transcriptional Profiles of Adult Schistosoma japonicum from Different Laboratory Animals and the Natural Host, Water Buffalo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuai; Zhou, Xiaosu; Piao, Xianyu; Wu, Chuang; Hou, Nan; Chen, Qijun

    2015-08-01

    Schistosomiasis is one of the most widely distributed parasitic diseases in the world. Schistosoma japonicum, a zoonotic parasite with a wide range of mammalian hosts, is one of the major pathogens of this disease. Although numerous studies on schistosomiasis japonica have been performed using laboratory animal models, systematic comparative analysis of whole-genome expression profiles in parasites from different laboratory animals and nature mammalian hosts is lacking to date. Adult schistosomes were obtained from laboratory animals BALB/c mice, C57BL/6 mice, New Zealand white rabbits and the natural host, water buffaloes. The gene expression profiles of schistosomes from these animals were obtained and compared by genome-wide oligonucleotide microarray analysis. The results revealed that the gene expression profiles of schistosomes from different laboratory animals and buffaloes were highly consistent (r>0.98) genome-wide. Meanwhile, a total of 450 genes were identified to be differentially expressed in schistosomes which can be clustered into six groups. Pathway analysis revealed that these genes were mainly involved in multiple signal transduction pathways, amino acid, energy, nucleotide and lipid metabolism. We also identified a group of 1,540 abundantly and stably expressed gene products in adult worms, including a panel of 179 Schistosoma- or Platyhelminthes-specific genes that may be essential for parasitism and may be regarded as novel potential anti-parasite intervention targets for future research. This study provides a comprehensive database of gene expression profiles of schistosomes derived from different laboratory animals and water buffaloes. An expanded number of genes potentially affecting the development of schistosomes in different animals were identified. These findings lay the foundation for schistosomiasis research in different laboratory animals and natural hosts at the transcriptional level and provide a valuable resource for screening anti

  5. Comparative Analysis of Transcriptional Profiles of Adult Schistosoma japonicum from Different Laboratory Animals and the Natural Host, Water Buffalo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Liu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is one of the most widely distributed parasitic diseases in the world. Schistosoma japonicum, a zoonotic parasite with a wide range of mammalian hosts, is one of the major pathogens of this disease. Although numerous studies on schistosomiasis japonica have been performed using laboratory animal models, systematic comparative analysis of whole-genome expression profiles in parasites from different laboratory animals and nature mammalian hosts is lacking to date.Adult schistosomes were obtained from laboratory animals BALB/c mice, C57BL/6 mice, New Zealand white rabbits and the natural host, water buffaloes. The gene expression profiles of schistosomes from these animals were obtained and compared by genome-wide oligonucleotide microarray analysis. The results revealed that the gene expression profiles of schistosomes from different laboratory animals and buffaloes were highly consistent (r>0.98 genome-wide. Meanwhile, a total of 450 genes were identified to be differentially expressed in schistosomes which can be clustered into six groups. Pathway analysis revealed that these genes were mainly involved in multiple signal transduction pathways, amino acid, energy, nucleotide and lipid metabolism. We also identified a group of 1,540 abundantly and stably expressed gene products in adult worms, including a panel of 179 Schistosoma- or Platyhelminthes-specific genes that may be essential for parasitism and may be regarded as novel potential anti-parasite intervention targets for future research.This study provides a comprehensive database of gene expression profiles of schistosomes derived from different laboratory animals and water buffaloes. An expanded number of genes potentially affecting the development of schistosomes in different animals were identified. These findings lay the foundation for schistosomiasis research in different laboratory animals and natural hosts at the transcriptional level and provide a valuable resource

  6. SjE16.7 activates macrophages and promotes Schistosoma japonicum egg-induced granuloma development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yan; Wu, Chenyun; Chen, Qing; Wu, Jianhua; Yang, Yang; Guo, Xiaokui; Chen, Guangjie; Wang, Zhaojun

    2015-09-01

    SjE16.7 is an egg-specific protein from Schistosoma japonicum that recruits neutrophils and initiates an inflammatory granuloma response in host tissue. However, since macrophages are known to be important regulators of egg granuloma formation we investigated the effect of SjE16.7 on this cell type. Here we report that SjE16.7 is a potent macrophage activator, inducing macrophage chemotaxis and stimulating cytokine production. Treatment of murine primary macrophages with SjE16.7 resulted in upregulation of both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10, IL-12, IL-6 and TNF-α), as well as phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Moreover, SjE16.7 treatment increased MHC Class II expression on the surface of macrophages. Importantly, in vivo blockade of SjE16.7 significantly reduced egg-induced pathology, as a result of decreased leucocyte infiltration and reduced granuloma size. Our results suggest that SjE16.7 is an important pathogenic factor and a potential treatment target for this disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Schistosoma mansoni INFECTIONS AMONGST SCHOOL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    In a different study in Mexico, no correlation was observed between the reliable drinking water and parasitic infections (Quihui et al., 2006). Many have also suggested that the domestic water network in Jos needed to be upgraded. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. To the Department of Zoology, University of Jos for the use of their.

  8. Characterization of Schistosoma japonicum CP1412 protein as a novel member of the ribonuclease T2 molecule family with immune regulatory function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Xue-Dan; Shen, Shuang; Song, Li-Jun; Yu, Chuan-Xin; Kikuchi, Mihoko; Hirayama, Kenji; Gao, Hong; Wang, Jie; Yin, Xuren; Yao, Yuan; Liu, Qian; Zhou, Wei

    2017-02-17

    Schistosome infection typically induces a polarized Th2 type host immune response. As egg antigen molecules play key roles in this immunoregulatory process, clarifying their functions in schistosomiasis would facilitate the development of vaccine and immunotherapeutic methods. Schistosoma japonicum (Sj) CP1412 (GenBank: AY57074.1) has been identified as a new member of the RNase T2 family with immune regulatory functions. The expression plasmid Sj CP1412-pET28a was constructed and transformed into bacteria for production of recombinant Sj CP1412 protein (rSj CP1412) via IPTG induction. The RNase activity of Sj CP1412 was predicted by bioinformatic analysis and confirmed by digesting the yeast tRNA with rSj CP1412.C57BL/6j mice were immunized with rSj CP1412, and its immune regulatory effects in vivo and in vitro were investigated. Meanwhile, the relationship between the RNase activity of Sj CP1412 and its immune regulation was observed. Sj CP1412 was confirmed as a novel RNase T2 family protein with RNase activity. Immunoblotting and RT-PCR analyses demonstrated Sj CP1412 as a protein exclusively secreted/excreted from eggs, but not cercariae and adult worms. Stimulating RAW264.7 macrophages with rSj CP1412 raised the expression of CD206, Arg-1 and IL-10, which are related to M2 type macrophage differentiation. Stimulating dendritic cells (DCs) with rSjCP1412 failed to induce their maturation, and the recombinant protein also inhibited LPS-stimulated DC maturation. Depletion of Sj CP1412 from soluble egg antigen (SEA) impaired the ability of SEA to induce M2 type polarization of RAW264.7 macrophages. Immunizing mice with rSj CP1412 induced high antibody titers, increased serum IL-4 and TGF-β levels and splenic CD4 + CD25 + Foxp3 + T cells, downregulated serum IFN-γ levels and alleviated the egg granuloma pathology of schistosome infection. In vitro stimulation by rSj CP1412 significantly increased CD4 + CD25 + Foxp3 + T cell numbers in

  9. A cluster-randomised intervention trial against Schistosoma japonicum in the Peoples' Republic of China: bovine and human transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren J Gray

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Zoonotic schistosomiasis japonica is a major public health problem in China. Bovines, particularly water buffaloes, are thought to play a major role in the transmission of schistosomiasis to humans in China. Preliminary results (1998-2003 of a praziquantel (PZQ-based pilot intervention study we undertook provided proof of principle that water buffaloes are major reservoir hosts for S. japonicum in the Poyang Lake region, Jiangxi Province.Here we present the results of a cluster-randomised intervention trial (2004-2007 undertaken in Hunan and Jiangxi Provinces, with increased power and more general applicability to the lake and marshlands regions of southern China. The trial involved four matched pairs of villages with one village within each pair randomly selected as a control (human PZQ treatment only, leaving the other as the intervention (human and bovine PZQ treatment. A sentinel cohort of people to be monitored for new infections for the duration of the study was selected from each village. Results showed that combined human and bovine chemotherapy with PZQ had a greater effect on human incidence than human PZQ treatment alone.The results from this study, supported by previous experimental evidence, confirms that bovines are the major reservoir host of human schistosomiasis in the lake and marshland regions of southern China, and reinforce the rationale for the development and deployment of a transmission blocking anti-S. japonicum vaccine targeting bovines.Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12609000263291.

  10. Schistosoma japonicum HSP60-derived peptide SJMHE1 suppresses delayed-type hypersensitivity in a murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuefeng; Wang, Jun; Liang, Yong; Ni, Hongchang; Shi, Liang; Xu, Chengcheng; Zhou, Yuepeng; Su, Yuting; Mou, Xiao; Chen, Deyu; Mao, Chaoming

    2016-03-12

    Parasite-derived molecules with immunomodulatory properties, which have been optimised during host-parasite co-evolution, exhibit potential applications as novel immunotherapeutics. We have previously demonstrated that Schistosoma japonicum HSP60-derived peptide SJMHE1 induces CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T-cells (Tregs) and that adoptively transferred SJMHE1-induced CD4(+)CD25(+) Tregs inhibit delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) in mice. However, multiple concerns regarding this method render this treatment unsuitable. To gain further insights into the potential effects of SJMHE1, we used ovalbumin (OVA)-induced DTH and evaluated the effect of SJMHE1 on DTH mice. BALB/c mice were sensitised with OVA alone or combined with SJMHE1 and then challenged with OVA to induce DTH. We first analysed the potential effects of SJMHE1 by measuring DTH responses, T-cell responses, cytokine secretion, and Treg proportions. We then evaluated the expression levels of IL-10 and TGF-β1 in CD4(+)CD25(+) T-cells during DTH and Treg generation to identify the mechanism by which SJMHE1 suppresses DTH. SJMHE1 modulated the effector response against OVA-induced DTH and stimulated the production of the anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10 and TGF-β1 in immunised mice through a mechanism involving CD4(+)CD25(+) Tregs. SJMHE1-induced CD4(+)CD25(+) Tregs expressed high levels of CTLA-4, IL-10, and TGF-β1, which substantially contributed to the suppressive activity during DTH. The administration of SJMHE1 to DTH in mice led to the expansion of CD4(+)CD25(+) Tregs from CD4(+)CD25(-) T-cells in the periphery, which inhibited DTH responses. Our study proves that the parasite-driven peptide suppresses DTH in mice, which may confer a new option for inflammation treatment.

  11. Development and evaluation of a sensitive PCR-ELISA system for detection of schistosoma infection in feces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Inácia Gomes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A PCR-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (PCR-ELISA was developed to overcome the need for sensitive techniques for the efficient diagnosis of Schistosoma infection in endemic settings with low parasitic burden. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This system amplifies a 121-base pair tandem repeat DNA sequence, immobilizes the resultant 5' biotinylated product on streptavidin-coated strip-well microplates and uses anti-fluorescein antibodies conjugated to horseradish peroxidase to detect the hybridized fluorescein-labeled oligonucleotide probe. The detection limit of the Schistosoma PCR-ELISA system was determined to be 1.3 fg of S. mansoni genomic DNA (less than the amount found in a single cell and estimated to be 0.15 S. mansoni eggs per gram of feces (fractions of an egg. The system showed good precision and genus specificity since the DNA target was found in seven Schistosoma DNA samples: S. mansoni, S. haematobium, S. bovis, S. intercalatum, S. japonicum, S. magrebowiei and S. rhodaini. By evaluating 206 patients living in an endemic area in Brazil, the prevalence of S. mansoni infection was determined to be 18% by examining 12 Kato-Katz slides (41.7 mg/smear, 500 mg total of a single fecal sample from each person, while the Schistosoma PCR-ELISA identified a 30% rate of infection using 500-mg of the same fecal sample. When considering the Kato-Katz method as the reference test, artificial sensitivity and specificity rates of the PCR-ELISA system were 97.4% and 85.1%, respectively. The potential for estimating parasitic load by DNA detection in feces was assessed by comparing absorbance values and eggs per gram of feces, with a Spearman correlation coefficient of 0.700 (P<0.0001. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study reports the development and field evaluation of a sensitive Schistosoma PCR-ELISA, a system that may serve as an alternative for diagnosing Schistosoma infection.

  12. Comparison of Schistosoma mansoni soluble cercarial antigens and soluble egg antigens for serodiagnosing schistosome infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Huw; Doenhoff, Mike; Aitken, Cara; Bailey, Wendi; Ji, Minjun; Dawson, Emily; Gilis, Henk; Spence, Grant; Alexander, Claire; van Gool, Tom

    2012-01-01

    A Schistosoma mansoni cercarial antigen preparation (cercarial transformation fluid--SmCTF) was evaluated for detection of anti-schistosome antibodies in human sera in 4 collaborating laboratories. The performance of SmCTF was compared with that of S. mansoni egg antigens (SmSEA) in an indirect enzyme-immunoassay (ELISA) antigen assay, the latter being used routinely in 3 of the 4 participating laboratories to diagnose S. mansoni and S. haematobium infections. In the fourth laboratory the performance of SmCTF was compared with that of S. japonicum egg antigens (SjSEA) in ELISA for detection of anti-S. japonicum antibodies. In all 4 laboratories the results given by SmCTF in ELISA were very similar to those given by the antigen preparation routinely used in the respective laboratory to detect anti-schistosome antibodies in human infection sera. In so far as the ELISA results from SmCTF are thus so little different from those given by schistosome egg antigens and also cheaper to produce, the former is a potentially useful new diagnostic aid for schistosomiasis.

  13. Comparison of Schistosoma mansoni soluble cercarial antigens and soluble egg antigens for serodiagnosing schistosome infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huw Smith

    Full Text Available A Schistosoma mansoni cercarial antigen preparation (cercarial transformation fluid--SmCTF was evaluated for detection of anti-schistosome antibodies in human sera in 4 collaborating laboratories. The performance of SmCTF was compared with that of S. mansoni egg antigens (SmSEA in an indirect enzyme-immunoassay (ELISA antigen assay, the latter being used routinely in 3 of the 4 participating laboratories to diagnose S. mansoni and S. haematobium infections. In the fourth laboratory the performance of SmCTF was compared with that of S. japonicum egg antigens (SjSEA in ELISA for detection of anti-S. japonicum antibodies. In all 4 laboratories the results given by SmCTF in ELISA were very similar to those given by the antigen preparation routinely used in the respective laboratory to detect anti-schistosome antibodies in human infection sera. In so far as the ELISA results from SmCTF are thus so little different from those given by schistosome egg antigens and also cheaper to produce, the former is a potentially useful new diagnostic aid for schistosomiasis.

  14. Ecological Model to Predict Potential Habitats of Oncomelania hupensis, the Intermediate Host of Schistosoma japonicum in the Mountainous Regions, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Ru Zhu

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis japonica is a parasitic disease that remains endemic in seven provinces in the People's Republic of China (P.R. China. One of the most important measures in the process of schistosomiasis elimination in P.R. China is control of Oncomelania hupensis, the unique intermediate host snail of Schistosoma japonicum. Compared with plains/swamp and lake regions, the hilly/mountainous regions of schistosomiasis endemic areas are more complicated, which makes the snail survey difficult to conduct precisely and efficiently. There is a pressing call to identify the snail habitats of mountainous regions in an efficient and cost-effective manner.Twelve out of 56 administrative villages distributed with O. hupensis in Eryuan, Yunnan Province, were randomly selected to set up the ecological model. Thirty out of the rest of 78 villages (villages selected for building model were excluded from the villages for validation in Eryuan and 30 out of 89 villages in Midu, Yunnan Province were selected via a chessboard method for model validation, respectively. Nine-year-average Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI and Land Surface Temperature (LST as well as Digital Elevation Model (DEM covering Eryuan and Midu were extracted from MODIS and ASTER satellite images, respectively. Slope, elevation and the distance from every village to its nearest stream were derived from DEM. Suitable survival environment conditions for snails were defined by comparing historical snail presence data and remote sensing derived images. According to the suitable conditions for snails, environment factors, i.e. NDVI, LST, elevation, slope and the distance from every village to its nearest stream, were integrated into an ecological niche model to predict O. hupensis potential habitats in Eryuan and Midu. The evaluation of the model was assessed by comparing the model prediction and field investigation. Then, the consistency rate of model validation was calculated in

  15. Schistosoma Infection and Schistosoma-Derived Products Modulate the Immune Responses Associated with Protection against Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Lian Tang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on parasite-induced immunoregulatory mechanisms could contribute to the development of new therapies for inflammatory diseases such as type 2 diabetes (T2D, which is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by persistent elevated glucose levels due to insulin resistance. The association between previous Schistosoma infection and T2D has been confirmed—Schistosoma infection and Schistosoma-derived products modulate the immune system, including innate and acquired immune responses, contributing to T2D disease control. Schistosoma infections and Schistosoma-derived molecules affect the immune cell composition in adipose tissue, dampening inflammation and improving glucose tolerance. This protective role includes the polarization of immune cells to alternatively activated macrophages, dendritic cells, eosinophils, and group 2 innate lymphoid cells. Furthermore, Schistosoma infection and Schistosoma products are effective for the treatment of T2D, as they increase the number of type 2 helper T cells (Th2 and regulatory T cells (Tregs and decrease type 1 helper T cells (Th1 and type 17 helper T cells (Th17 cells. Thus, our aim was to comprehensively review the mechanism through which Schistosoma infection and Schistosoma products modulate the immune response against T2D.

  16. Genetic Evidence of Contemporary Dispersal of the Intermediate Snail Host of Schistosoma japonicum: Movement of an NTD Host Is Facilitated by Land Use and Landscape Connectivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer R Head

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available While the dispersal of hosts and vectors-through active or passive movement-is known to facilitate the spread and re-emergence of certain infectious diseases, little is known about the movement ecology of Oncomelania spp., intermediate snail host of the parasite Schistosoma japonicum, and its consequences for the spread of schistosomiasis in East and Southeast Asia. In China, despite intense control programs aimed at preventing schistosomiasis transmission, there is evidence in recent years of re-emergence and persistence of infection in some areas, as well as an increase in the spatial extent of the snail host. A quantitative understanding of the dispersal characteristics of the intermediate host can provide new insights into the spatial dynamics of transmission, and can assist public health officials in limiting the geographic spread of infection.Oncomelania hupensis robertsoni snails (n = 833 were sampled from 29 sites in Sichuan, China, genotyped, and analyzed using Bayesian assignment to estimate the rate of recent snail migration across sites. Landscape connectivity between each site pair was estimated using the geographic distance distributions derived from nine environmental models: Euclidean, topography, incline, wetness, land use, watershed, stream use, streams and channels, and stream velocity. Among sites, 14.4% to 32.8% of sampled snails were identified as recent migrants, with 20 sites comprising >20% migrants. Migration rates were generally low between sites, but at 8 sites, over 10% of the overall host population originated from one proximal site. Greater landscape connectivity was significantly associated with increased odds of migration, with the minimum path distance (as opposed to median or first quartile emerging as the strongest predictor across all environmental models. Models accounting for land use explained the largest proportion of the variance in migration rates between sites. A greater number of irrigation channels

  17. Development and evaluation of a sensitive PCR-ELISA system for detection of schistosoma infection in feces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Luciana Inácia; Dos Santos Marques, Letícia Helena; Enk, Martin Johannes; de Oliveira, Maria Cláudia; Coelho, Paulo Marcos Zech; Rabello, Ana

    2010-04-20

    A PCR-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (PCR-ELISA) was developed to overcome the need for sensitive techniques for the efficient diagnosis of Schistosoma infection in endemic settings with low parasitic burden. This system amplifies a 121-base pair tandem repeat DNA sequence, immobilizes the resultant 5' biotinylated product on streptavidin-coated strip-well microplates and uses anti-fluorescein antibodies conjugated to horseradish peroxidase to detect the hybridized fluorescein-labeled oligonucleotide probe. The detection limit of the Schistosoma PCR-ELISA system was determined to be 1.3 fg of S. mansoni genomic DNA (less than the amount found in a single cell) and estimated to be 0.15 S. mansoni eggs per gram of feces (fractions of an egg). The system showed good precision and genus specificity since the DNA target was found in seven Schistosoma DNA samples: S. mansoni, S. haematobium, S. bovis, S. intercalatum, S. japonicum, S. magrebowiei and S. rhodaini. By evaluating 206 patients living in an endemic area in Brazil, the prevalence of S. mansoni infection was determined to be 18% by examining 12 Kato-Katz slides (41.7 mg/smear, 500 mg total) of a single fecal sample from each person, while the Schistosoma PCR-ELISA identified a 30% rate of infection using 500-mg of the same fecal sample. When considering the Kato-Katz method as the reference test, artificial sensitivity and specificity rates of the PCR-ELISA system were 97.4% and 85.1%, respectively. The potential for estimating parasitic load by DNA detection in feces was assessed by comparing absorbance values and eggs per gram of feces, with a Spearman correlation coefficient of 0.700 (PSchistosoma PCR-ELISA, a system that may serve as an alternative for diagnosing Schistosoma infection.

  18. Mutagenicity of nicotine in Schistosoma mansoni - infected mice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of meiotic chromosomes showed significant elevation in the Schistosoma-infected mice. Administration of nicotine to infected mice substantially increased the percentages of micronucleated cells and total CAs. The percentage of chromosomal abnormalities in spermatocyte metaphase-I cells increased significantly ...

  19. Infection prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni and associated risk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Schistosomiasis due to infection with Schistosoma mansoniis a public health problem in both tropical and sub tropical countries. Thus, effective control of the disease requires determining its prevalence rate, identifying risk factors of infection and high-risk groups. Therefore, the objective of this study was to establish the ...

  20. Prevalence and clinical correlates of Schistosoma mansoni co-infection among malaria infected patients, Northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getie, Sisay; Wondimeneh, Yitayih; Getnet, Gebeyaw; Workineh, Meseret; Worku, Ligabaw; Kassu, Afework; Moges, Beyene

    2015-09-28

    In Ethiopia, where malaria and schistosomiasis are co-endemic, co-infections are expected to be high. However, data about the prevalence of malaria-schistosomiasis co-infection and their clinical correlation is lacking. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni co-infection and associated clinical correlates in malaria patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2013 at Chwahit Health Center, in northwest Ethiopia. Blood film positive malaria patients (N = 205) were recruited for the study. Clinical, parasitological, hematological, and biochemical parameters were assessed from every study participant. Stool samples were also collected and processed with Kato-Katz technique to diagnose and classify intensity of Schistosoma mansoni. The prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni and malaria co-infection was 19.5%. The age group of 16-20 years old was significantly associated with co-infection. Co-infected patients with a moderate-heavy egg burden of Schistosoma mansoni had significantly high mean Plasmodium parasitemia. On the other hand, age group of 6-10 years old and moderate-heavy Schistosoma mansoni co-infection were significantly associated with severe malaria. Prevalence of malaria and Schistosoma mansoni co-infection in the study area was considerably high. Severity of malaria and parasitemia of Plasmodium were associated with certain age groups and intensity of concurrent Schistosoma mansoni. Further study is needed to explore the underlying mechanisms of interaction between malaria and Schistosoma mansoni.

  1. Evaluation of a polyclonal antibody based sandwich ELISA for the detection of faecal antigens in Schistosoma spindale infection in bovines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sreenivasa Murthy, G S; D’Souza, Placid E; Shrikrishna Isloor, K

    .... Out of the 10 species reported to naturally infect cattle only Schistosoma nasale and Schistosoma spindale have received particular attention, because of their recognized veterinary significance...

  2. Metabonomic investigation of human Schistosoma mansoni infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balog, Crina I.A.; Meissner, Axel; Göraler, Sibel

    2011-01-01

    involving a well-characterized cohort of 447 individuals from a rural area in Uganda near Lake Victoria with a high prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni, a species predominantly occurring in Africa including Madagascar and parts of South America. Cohort samples were collected from individuals at five time...

  3. Schistosoma haematobium co-infection with soil-transmitted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-08-18

    Aug 18, 2016 ... Key words: Haematuria, proteinuria, Schistosoma haematobium, S. mansoni, helminthes,. Bulinus globosus ... Annually, 150, 000 deaths attributable to chronic S. ..... 100. * 1 - 50 eggs/10 ml urine; a tested the null hypothesis that proteinuria and haematuria are not predictive of S. haematobium infection ...

  4. SjCRT, a recombinant Schistosoma japonicum calreticulin, induces maturation of dendritic cells and a Th1-polarized immune response in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizhen Ma

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well known that immunization of radiation-attenuated (RA schistosoma cercariae or schistosomula can induce high levels of protective immunity against schistosoma cercariae reinfection in many animals. Many studies have shown that the Th1 cellular immune response is crucial for the protective effect elicited by RA schistosomula. However, the molecular mechanism of this strong protective immunity remains unclear. Methods The expression profiles of Schistosoma japonicum calreticulin (SjCRT in RA and normal schistosoma-derived cells were investigated by flow cytometry. The effect of recombinant SjCRT (rSjCRT on mouse dendritic cells (DCs was determined by FACS, ELISA and RT-PCR analysis. We also analyzed the effects of SjCRT on the activation of spleen cells from mice immunized with rSjCRT by detecting lymphocyte proliferation and the cytokine profiles of splenocytes. Results We found that the expression level of SjCRT in the cells from RA larvae was significantly higher than that in cells from normal schistosomula at early stages of development (day 4. The results of effect of rSjCRT on mouse DCs showed that rSjCRT could induce phenotypic and functional maturation of DCs, and SjCRT bound to the surface of DCs through the CD91 receptor and could be engulfed by DCs. The results of activation of splenocytes from mice immunized with rSjCRT also demonstrate that rSjCRT can effectively stimulate the proliferative response of splenic lymphocytes, elicit splenocytes from immunized mice to secrete high levels of IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-4, and activate CD4+ T cells to produce high levels of IFN-γ. Conclusion SjCRT is one of the immunostimulatory molecules released from RA schistosomula cells, might play a crucial role in conferring a Th1-polarized immune response induced by RA cercariae/schistosomula in mice, and is a candidate molecule responsible for the high levels of protective immunity induced by RA schistosomula.

  5. Schistosoma mansoni: a rare cause of tubal infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CA Faria

    Full Text Available S. haematobium is an important cause of urinary schistosomiasis, and symptomatic female genital infection is a common gynecological finding in areas where S. haematobium is prevalent. On the other hand, genital manifestations of intestinal schistosomas as S. mansoni are not frequent or are misdiagnosed. A case of a 40-year-old woman with abnormal uterine bleeding and asymptomatic tubal infection by S. mansoni identified in histological examination is presented.

  6. Recombinant Sj16 from Schistosoma japonicum contains a functional N-terminal nuclear localization signal necessary for nuclear translocation in dendritic cells and interleukin-10 production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xi; Yang, Fan; Shen, Jia; Liu, Zhen; Liang, Jinyi; Zheng, Huanqin; Fung, Mingchiu; Wu, Zhongdao

    2016-12-01

    Sj16 is a Schistosoma japonicum-derived protein (16 kDa in molecular weight) that has been identified as an immune modulation molecule, but the mechanisms of modulation of immune responses are not known. In this report, we aimed to investigate the host immune regulation mechanism by recombinant Sj16 (rSj16) and thus illuminate the molecular mechanism of immune evasion by S. japonicum. The effect of rSj16 and rSj16 mutants on the biology of dendritic cells (DCs) was assessed by examining DC maturation, cytokine production, and expression of surface markers by flow cytometry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We found that rSj16 significantly stimulated interleukin (IL)-10 production and inhibited LPS-induced bone marrow-derived dendrite cell (BMDC) maturation in a dose-dependent manner. By using antibody neutralization experiments and IL-10-deficient (knockout) mice, we confirmed that the inhibitory effect of rSj16 on LPS-induced BMDCs is due to its induction of IL-10 production. To understand how rSj16 induces the production of IL-10, we analyzed the protein sequence and revealed two potential nuclear localization signals (NLS) in Sj16. The N-terminal NLS (NLS1) is both necessary and sufficient for translocation of rSj16 to the nucleus of BMDCs and is important for subsequent induction of IL-10 production and the inhibition of BMDC maturation by rSj16. The results of our study concluded that the ability of rSj16 to inhibit DC functions is IL-10 dependent which is operated by IL-10R signal pathway. This study also confirmed that NLS is an important domain associated with increased production of IL-10. Our findings will extend the current understanding on host-schistosome relationship and provide insight about bottleneck of parasitic control.

  7. Anti-Schistosoma IgG responses in Schistosoma haematobium single and concomitant infection with malaria parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morenikeji, Olajumoke A; Adeleye, Olumide; Omoruyi, Ewean C; Oyeyemi, Oyetunde T

    2016-03-01

    Areas prone to schistosomiasis are also at risk of malaria transmission. The interaction between the causal agents of the two diseases could modulate immune responses tailored toward protecting or aggravating morbidity dynamics and impair Schistosoma diagnostic precision. This study aimed at assessing the effect of Plasmodium spp. in concomitant infection with Schistosoma haematobium in modulation of anti-Schistosoma IgG antibodies. The school-based cross-sectional study recruited a total of 322 children screened for S. haematobium and Plasmodium spp. Levels of IgG against S. haematobium-soluble egg antigen (SEA) in single S. haematobium/malaria parasites infection and co-infection of the two parasites in schoolchildren were determined. Data were analyzed using χ(2), Fisher's exact test, and Tukey's multiple comparison test analyses. The prevalence of single infection by S. haematobium, Plasmodium spp., and concurrent infection due to the two pathogens was 27.7, 41.0, and 9.3%, respectively (p Schistosoma IgG production during co-infection of the two pathogens (1.950 ± 0.742 AU) was significantly higher than the value recorded for single malaria parasites' infection (1.402 ± 0.670 AU) (p  0.05). The anti-Schistosoma IgG production in co-infection status was however dependent on the intensity of Plasmodium spp. with individuals having high intensity of malaria parasites recording lower anti-Schistosoma IgG. This study has implication for diagnosis of schistosomiasis where anti-Schistosoma IgG is used as an indicator of infection. Efforts should be made to control the two infections simultaneously in order not to undermine the efforts targeted toward the control of one.

  8. Molecular characterization of thyroid hormone receptor beta from Schistosoma japonicum and assessment of its potential as a vaccine candidate antigen against schistosomiasis in BALB/c mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu Chunhui

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thyroid hormones (TH modulate growth, development and differentiation and metabolic processes by interacting with thyroid hormone receptors (THRs. The purpose of this study was to identify a novel thyroid hormone receptor beta encoding gene of Schistosoma japonicum (SjTHRβ and to investigate its potential as a vaccine candidate antigen against schistosomiasis in BALB/c mice. Methods The full-length cDNA sequence of SjTHRβ, its gene organization, and its transcript levels were characterized, and the phylogenetic relationship between THR, RAR and RXR from other organisms were analysis, the ability of this protein binding to a conserved DNA core motif, and its potential as a vaccine candidate antigen against schistosomiasis in BALB/c mice were evaluated. Results The SjTHRβ cDNA was cloned, verified by 5’ and 3’ Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends and shown to be polyadenylated at the 3’end, suggesting the transcript is full-length. SjTHRβ is homologous to THRs from other species and has a predicted conservative DNA binding domain and ligand binding domain that normally characterizes these receptors. A comparative quantitative PCR analysis showed that SjTHRβ was the highest expressed in 21d worms and the lowest in 7 d and 13 d schistosomula. The cDNA corresponding to DNA binding domain (SjTHRβ-DBD and ligand binding domain (SjTHRβ-LBD were cloned and subsequently expressed in E coli. The expressed proteins were used to immunize mice and generate specific serum against recombinant SjTHRβ (rSjTHRβ. Western blotting revealed that anti-rSjTHRβ-LBD serum recognized two protein bands in extracts from 21 d worm with molecular sizes of approximately 95 kDa and 72 kDa. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA analysis showed that rSjTHRβ-DBD could bind to a conserved DNA core motif. Immunization of BALB/c mice with rSjTHRβ-LBD could induce partial protective efficacy(27.52% worm reduction and 29.50% liver eggs

  9. Diagnosis and Clinical Management of Schistosoma haematobium-Schistosoma bovis Hybrid Infection in a Cluster of Travelers Returning From Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soentjens, Patrick; Cnops, Lieselotte; Huyse, Tine; Yansouni, Cedric; De Vos, Daniel; Bottieau, Emmanuel; Clerinx, Jan; Van Esbroeck, Marjan

    2016-12-15

    Ten Belgian travelers returned from Mali with a Schistosoma haematobium-Schistosoma bovis hybrid infection, confirmed by DNA sequencing from eggs. Clinical symptoms and laboratory findings resembled those of classic acute schistosomiasis, but the detected eggs were morphologically unusual. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Occurrence of Schistosoma nasale infection in bullocks of Puducherry

    OpenAIRE

    Latchumikanthan, A.; Pothiappan, P.; Ilayabharathi, D.; S. S. Das; D.; Kumar; Ilangovan, C.

    2013-01-01

    Nasal schistosomiasis is caused by the blood fluke Schistosoma nasale (S. nasalis) adversely affects the health and production of domestic livestock in various parts of India. The present report describes the occurrence of S. nasale infection in two Hallikar breed bullocks of Union Territory of Puducherry. Eggs of S. nasale were noticed in nasal washings/scrapings of animals and identified as per the standard taxonomical keys.

  11. Low Transmission to Elimination: Rural Development as a Key Determinant of the End-Game Dynamics of Schistosoma japonicum in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Spear

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Rural development has been a critical component of China’s economic miracle since the start of economic reform in the early 1980s, both benefiting from and contributing to the nation’s rapid economic growth. This development has yielded substantial improvements of public health relevance, including contributing to major reductions in schistosomiasis prevalence. The history of schistosomiasis elimination in Japan suggests that development played a dominant causal role in that nation. We argue that it is highly probable that a similar story is playing out in at least some large regions of China. In particular, we summarize evidence from Sichuan Province which supports the case that economic development has led to improvements in rural irrigation and water supply which, together with changes in crop selection and agricultural mechanization, have all contributed to sustainable reductions in the prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum. The two major factors that have experienced major reductions are the area of snail habitat and the degree of human exposure, both through a variety of mechanisms which differ by region and economic circumstance. However, hotspots of transmission remain. Overall, however, economic development in traditionally endemic areas has provided the resources to carry out projects that have had major beneficial impacts on disease transmission that are likely to be sustainable.

  12. Impact of changing water levels and weather on Oncomelania hupensis hupensis populations, the snail host of Schistosoma japonicum, downstream of the Three Gorges Dam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Edmund Y W; Wu, Weiping; Liu, Hong-Yun; Chen, Hong-Gen; Hubbard, Alan; Holt, Ashley; Davis, George M

    2008-06-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that dams impact riverine ecosystems and human diseases. Poyang Lake, one of the largest schistosomiasis endemic environments in China, will change due to the construction of the Yangtze River Three Gorges Dam. We assess changes in Oncomelania hupensis hupensis, the snail host for Schistosoma japonicum, in response to changing water levels and weather from 1998 to 2002. In the 5 years following the major flooding of Poyang Lake in 1998, seasonal water levels have gradually decreased, concomitant with decreases in mean and variance of fall snail densities. Nonlinear relationships suggest that the highest spring density is associated with current, 2-, and 3-month prior temperatures of 18 degrees, 9.1 degrees, and 5.8 degrees C, while the highest fall density is associated with 2- and 3-month prior water levels of 17 and 18 m, respectively. This suggests that lower, more stable water levels downstream of the dam may result in a reduction in mean fall densities and their variance. However, additional data are needed to determine whether snail populations that are typically destroyed by seasonal floods may live longer in more stable environments created by the dam.

  13. [Effects of soluble adult worm antigen and soluble egg antigen of Schistosoma japonicum on differentiation of CD4+ T cells of mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao-Wei; Zhang, Cui; Dong, Xiao-Xiao; Li, Yong; Xu, Zhi-Peng; Zhang, Wei-Wei; Kong, Wen-Jun; Xue, Xue; Chen, Xiao-Jun; Zhu, Ji-Feng; Zhou, Sha; He, Lei; Liu, Feng; Su, Chuan

    2013-04-01

    To investigate and compare the different effects of soluble adult worm antigen (SWA) and soluble egg antigen (SEA) of Schistosoma japonicum on the differentiation of the splenocytes and CD4+ T cells of mice. The splenocytes and CD4+ T cells were prepared from the spleens of mice immunized with SWA or SEA, or the splenocytes of normal mice were harvested and stimulated with SWA or SEA in vitro. Then, the proportions of IFN-gamma and IL-4-producing cells in splenocytes, and the proportions of Th1 and Th2 cells in CD4+ T cells were determined by FACS, respectively. Compared to the SWA stimulation group, the higher proportions of IL-4-producing cells in splenocytes and of Th1 cells in CD4+ T cells were observed under the SEA stimulation group (P < 0.05). Whereas SWA induced the significantly higher proportions of IFN-gamma producing cells in splenocytes and of Th2 cells in CD4+ T cells than those in the SEA stimulation group (P < 0.05). The significantly higher levels of Th1 cells are only observed under SWA induction, however, the differentiation of Th2 cells in response to SEA stimulation is significantly more than that in response to SWA stimulation.

  14. Comparative evaluation of Schistosoma mansoni, Schistosoma intercalatum, and Schistosoma haematobium alkaline phosphatase antigenicity by the alkaline phosphatase immunoassay (APIA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesari, I M; Ballén, D E; Mendoza, L; Ferrer, A; Pointier, J-P; Kombila, M; Richard-Lenoble, D; Théron, A

    2014-04-01

    To know if alkaline phosphatase (AP) from schistosomes other than Schistosoma mansoni can be used as diagnostic marker for schistosomiasis in alkaline phosphatase immunocapture assay (APIA), we comparatively tested n-butanol extracts of adult worm membranes from a Venezuelan (JL) strain of S. mansoni (Ven/AWBE/Sm); a Cameroonian (EDEN) strain of Schistosoma intercalatum (Cam/AWBE/Si) and a Yemeni strain of Schistosoma haematobium (Yem/AWBE/Sh). APIA was evaluated with sera of patients from Venezuela, Senegal, and Gabon infected with S. mansoni, from Gabon infected with S. intercalatum or S. haematobium, from Chine infected with Schistosoma japonicum and from Cambodian patients infected with Schistosoma mekongi. Results indicate that 92.5% (37/40) of Venezuela sera, 75% (15/20) of Senegal sera, 39.5% (17/43) of S. haematobium sera, and 19.2% (5/26) S. intercalatum sera were APIA-positive with the Ven/AWBE/Sm preparation. APIA with the Cam/AWBE/Si preparation showed that 53.8% of S. intercalatum-positive sera had anti-AP antibodies, and 51.2% S. haematobium-positive sera cross-immunocapturing the S. intercalatum AP. APIA performed with Yem/AWBE/Sh showed that 55.8% S. haematobium sera were positive. Only two out of nine S. japonicum sera were APIA-positive with the Ven/AWBE/Sm and Cam/AWBE/Si, and no reaction was observed with Cambodian S. mekongi-positive sera. AP activity was shown to be present in all the schistosome species/strains studied. The use of APIA as a tool to explore the APs antigenicity and the presence of Schistosoma sp. infections through the detection of anti-Schistosoma sp. AP antibodies in a host, allowed us to demonstrate the antigenicity of APs of S. mansoni, S. intercalatum, and S. haematobium.

  15. [SDS-PAGE and EITB analysis of the protein components of different isolates of Schistosoma japonicum in China and Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, L; Liu, S; Xue, H; Zhang, Y; Li, H; Hu, Y; He, Y

    1999-01-01

    To make a supplementary observation on the protein components prepared from adult S. japonicum of 4 different isolates from Zhejiang, Jiangxi, Taiwan Provinces of China and Japan in origin and to observe antigen reactivity of the above-mentioned isolates together with adult worms from Anhwi, Hubei, Sichuan and Yunnan isolates against heterologous anti-Oncomelania h. hupensis (collected from Guangxi, China and Japan) sera by EITB. SDS-PAGE and EITB. SDS-PAGE showed that by Coomassie blue staining, male S. japonicum from Jiangxi, Zhejiang, Taiwan Provinces and Japan isolales revealed 7-17 bands while female worms revealed 1-6 bands. The protein patterns of Taiwan and Zhejiang male worm were similar, but slight difference could be seen above 81 kDa. By silver staining, male worms of the 4 isolates revealed 10-23 bands while female worms revealed 1-19 bands. Male worms from Japan not only showed less bands but also differed in their pattern as compared to those of other Chinese isolates. Results of EITB revealed that each of the 4 isolates had slightly different pattern but all of the tested isolates had common antigens with their heterologous snail hosts i.e., Oncomelania h. hupensis from Guangxi, China and Japan.

  16. Ocular pathological changes in hamsters experimentally infected with Schistosoma mansoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, H I H; Ashour, D S; Abou Rayia, D M; Ali, A L

    2016-11-01

    Ocular lesions have been reported in patients with schistosomiasis; however, the problem with studying schistosomal infection of the human eye is that biopsies are almost impossible to take, and histopathological examination of suspicious lesions can only be undertaken post-mortem or after enucleation. This work aimed to study the possible effects and pathogenesis of schistosomiasis on the eye. This study involved 55 hamsters; five hamsters remained non-infected and the remaining 50 hamsters were infected with Schistosoma mansoni cercariae. Infected hamsters were sacrificed on weeks 8, 12, 16 and 20 post-infection (pi). Eye sections were prepared and stained for histopathological and immunohistochemical studies. Histopathological changes detected in hamsters infected after 16 and 20 weeks included looseness and oedema of the innermost retinal layers together with hyperplastic polypoid growth. Neither eggs nor granulomata were detected in eye sections throughout the experimental period. Deposition of S. mansoni antigen was revealed in 35% of infected hamsters. Later, on weeks 16 and 20 pi, moderate subepithelial conjuctival deposits and marked subchoroidal and scleral deposition were detected. In conclusion, the deposition of schistosomal antigen and immune complexes may play a pivotal role in the ocular changes that occur in schistosomiasis, even in the absence of detectable Schistosoma eggs. Schistosomiasis should be suspected in cases with unexplained ophthalmological findings, especially in endemic areas.

  17. Schistosoma mansoni infection reduces the incidence of murine cerebral malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heyfets Alina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmodium and Schistosoma are two of the most common parasites in tropical areas. Deregulation of the immune response to Plasmodium falciparum, characterized by a Th1 response, leads to cerebral malaria (CM, while a Th2 response accompanies chronic schistosomiasis. Methods The development of CM was examined in mice with concomitant Schistosoma mansoni and Plasmodium berghei ANKA infections. The effect of S. mansoni egg antigen injection on disease development and survival was also determined. Cytokine serum levels were estimated using ELISA. Statistical analysis was performed using t-test. Results The results demonstrate that concomitant S. mansoni and P. berghei ANKA infection leads to a reduction in CM. This effect is dependent on infection schedule and infecting cercariae number, and is correlated with a Th2 response. Schistosomal egg antigen injection delays the death of Plasmodium-infected mice, indicating immune involvement. Conclusions This research supports previous claims of a protective effect of helminth infection on CM development. The presence of multiple parasitic infections in patients from endemic areas should therefore be carefully noted in clinical trials, and in the development of standard treatment protocols for malaria. Defined helminth antigens may be considered for alleviation of immunopathological symptoms.

  18. The association of Schistosoma mansoni infection with hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Edmundo Lima Pereira

    1984-06-01

    Full Text Available The association of Schistosoma mansoni infection with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC was studied in Espirito Santo State, Brazil. Schistosoma infection was diagnosed by stool examinations or by histological finding at autopsy. HCC was diagnosed by biopsy, laparoscopy and biopsy or at autopsy. Among 45 cases of HCC six had Schistosoma mansoni infection (13.04%. The occurrence of Schistosoma infection among HCC HBs Ag positive or negative was similar (13.3 3% and 13.63% respectively. The chi squared comparison showed no significant differences between the frequency of schistosomiasis in patients with HCC and the frequency of Schistosoma infection among people living in the Espirito Santo State (5.9% among children of elementary school from all the counties of the State and 6.7% in people that attended medical care in Vitoria, the capital of the State. Therefore, the authors believe that the association of schistosomiasis mansoni with HCC may be casual, specially in areas where the Schistosoma mansoni infection is frequent.Foi estudada a associação de infecção pelo Schistosoma mansoni em pacientes portadores de carcinoma hepatocelular (CHC diagnosticados no Espírito Santo. O diagnóstico de esquistossomosefoi feito pelo exame parasitológico das fezes ou pelos achados histológicos à necrópsia. O diagnóstico de CHC foi feito por laparoscopia e biópsia, somente biópsia ou por necrópsia. Entre 45 casos de CHC, seis apresentavam infecção pelo S. mansoni (13,04%. A ocorrência de infecção esquistossomótica nos CHC HBsAg positivos ou negativos foi semelhante (13,33 e 13,63% respectivamente. A comparação pelo método do qui quadrado não mostrou diferença significativa entre a freqüência de infeccção esquistossomótica nos pacientes com CHC e a freqüência de esquistossomose na população que vive no E. Santo (5,97% entre crianças do curso primário de todas as regiões do Estado e 6,75% entre a população que procura recursos m

  19. The South-to-North Water Diversion Project: effect of the water diversion pattern on transmission of Oncomelania hupensis, the intermediate host of Schistosoma japonicum in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang You-Sheng

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The South-to-North Water Diversion Project (SNWDP is the largest national water conservancy project in China. However, the Eastern Route Project (ERP of SNWDP will refer to the habitats of Oncomelania hupensis, the intermediate host of Schistosoma japonicum. The present study was aimed at investigating the effects of some factors relating to the water diversion pattern on the spread north of O. hupensis and transmission of S. japonicum. Methods Marked snails were attached to the floating debris, and then placed on the water surface, the passage of snails through water pumps was observed. Some marked living adult snails were placed under water in the 5 spots, 15, 30, 60, 90 and 120 days later, their survival and transfer under water were investigated. 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64 and 128 juvenile snails, with a male: female ratio of about 1, were caged, 1 year later, their reproductions were calculated. Results The snails attached on the floating debris at 100-, 50- and 20-cm-distance from the inlet pipe of the big pump (with a diameter of 80 cm, could be absorbed into the pumps, with passing rates of 2.45%, 3.93% and 43.46%, respectively, compared with 72.07% and 91.00% for the snails at 20 cm and 10 cm-distance from the inlet pipe of the small pump (with a diameter of 20 cm. A total of 36,600 marked living snails were put into 5 ponds and ditches, with the water depths of 1-1.6 m, 15-120 days later, no marked ones were found along the ponds and ditches or in the straw packages. The juvenile snails did not reproduce until their density reached up to 8 snails (ratio of male: female of 1/0.16 m2. Conclusions During the construction of ERP of SNWDP, the risk of northward spread of schistosomiasis japonica will be decreased or eliminated as long as long-term reliable interventions for snail control are implemented.

  20. Three-dimensional structure of Schistosoma japonicum glutathione S-transferase fused with a six-amino acid conserved neutralizing epitope of gp41 from HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, K.; Ho, J. X.; Keeling, K.; Gilliland, G. L.; Ji, X.; Ruker, F.; Carter, D. C.

    1994-01-01

    The 3-dimensional crystal structure of glutathione S-transferase (GST) of Schistosoma japonicum (Sj) fused with a conserved neutralizing epitope on gp41 (glycoprotein, 41 kDa) of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) (Muster T et al., 1993, J Virol 67:6642-6647) was determined at 2.5 A resolution. The structure of the 3-3 isozyme rat GST of the mu gene class (Ji X, Zhang P, Armstrong RN, Gilliland GL, 1992, Biochemistry 31:10169-10184) was used as a molecular replacement model. The structure consists of a 4-stranded beta-sheet and 3 alpha-helices in domain 1 and 5 alpha-helices in domain 2. The space group of the Sj GST crystal is P4(3)2(1)2, with unit cell dimensions of a = b = 94.7 A, and c = 58.1 A. The crystal has 1 GST monomer per asymmetric unit, and 2 monomers that form an active dimer are related by crystallographic 2-fold symmetry. In the binding site, the ordered structure of reduced glutathione is observed. The gp41 peptide (Glu-Leu-Asp-Lys-Trp-Ala) fused to the C-terminus of Sj GST forms a loop stabilized by symmetry-related GSTs. The Sj GST structure is compared with previously determined GST structures of mammalian gene classes mu, alpha, and pi. Conserved amino acid residues among the 4 GSTs that are important for hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions for dimer association and glutathione binding are discussed.

  1. Schistosoma spindale infection in a captive jackal (Canis aureus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimalraj, P G; Latchumikanthan, A

    2015-03-01

    This report is based on the findings from a captive jackal (Canis aureus) housed in Amirthi Zoological Park, Javadu Hills, Vellore. The animal was reported to be dull, depressed and also had diarrhea. Fecal samples were collected in 10 % formalin and subjected to direct and sedimentation method of faecal examination and was examined for endoparasitic infection. Surprisingly, fecal examination revealed two spindle shaped eggs having terminal spine with a size of 250μ by 60μ. The eggs were identified as belonging to Schistosoma spindale and as per the standard keys (Soulsby 1982).

  2. Diagnostic performance of Schistosoma real-time PCR in urine samples from Kenyan children infected with Schistosoma haematobium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinkeles Melchers, Natalie V. S.; van Dam, Govert J.; Shaproski, David

    2014-01-01

    tool for detection of S. haematobium infections, with less day-to-day variation and higher sensitivity compared to microscopy. The superior performance of PCR before, and two and 18 months post-treatment provides a compelling argument for PCR as an accurate and reproducible tool for monitoring......BACKGROUND: In an effort to enhance accuracy of diagnosis of Schistosoma haematobium, this study explores day-to-day variability and diagnostic performance of real-time PCR for detection and quantification of Schistosoma DNA compared to other diagnostic tools in an endemic area before and after......, respectively. Based on the 'gold standard', PCR showed high sensitivity (>92%) as compared to >31% sensitivity for microscopy, both pre- and post-treatment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Detection and quantification of Schistosoma DNA in urine by real-time PCR was shown to be a powerful and specific diagnostic...

  3. Decline in infection-related morbidities following drug-mediated reductions in the intensity of Schistosoma infection: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Andrade

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Since 1984, WHO has endorsed drug treatment to reduce Schistosoma infection and its consequent morbidity. Cross-sectional studies suggest pre-treatment correlation between infection intensity and risk for Schistosoma-related pathology. However, evidence also suggests that post-treatment reduction in intensity may not reverse morbidity because some morbidities occur at all levels of infection, and some reflect permanent tissue damage. The aim of this project was to systematically review evidence on drug-based control of schistosomiasis and to develop a quantitative estimate of the impact of post-treatment reductions in infection intensity on prevalence of infection-associated morbidity.This review was registered at inception with PROSPERO (CRD42015026080. Studies that evaluated morbidity before and after treatment were identified by online searches and searches of private archives. Post-treatment odds ratios or standardized mean differences were calculated for each outcome, and these were correlated to treatment-related egg count reduction ratios (ERRs by meta-regression. A greater ERR correlated with greater reduction in odds of most morbidities. Random effects meta-analysis was used to derive summary estimates: after treatment of S. mansoni and S. japonicum, left-sided hepatomegaly was reduced by 54%, right-sided hepatomegaly by 47%, splenomegaly by 37%, periportal fibrosis by 52%, diarrhea by 53%, and blood in stools by 75%. For S. haematobium, hematuria was reduced by 92%, proteinuria by 90%, bladder lesions by 86%, and upper urinary tract lesions by 72%. There were no consistent changes in portal dilation or hemoglobin levels. In sub-group analysis, age, infection status, region, parasite species, and interval to follow-up were associated with meaningful differences in outcome.While there are challenges to implementing therapy for schistosomiasis, and praziquantel therapy is not fully curative, reductions in egg output are significantly

  4. Decline in infection-related morbidities following drug-mediated reductions in the intensity of Schistosoma infection: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Gisele; Bertsch, David J; Gazzinelli, Andrea; King, Charles H

    2017-02-01

    Since 1984, WHO has endorsed drug treatment to reduce Schistosoma infection and its consequent morbidity. Cross-sectional studies suggest pre-treatment correlation between infection intensity and risk for Schistosoma-related pathology. However, evidence also suggests that post-treatment reduction in intensity may not reverse morbidity because some morbidities occur at all levels of infection, and some reflect permanent tissue damage. The aim of this project was to systematically review evidence on drug-based control of schistosomiasis and to develop a quantitative estimate of the impact of post-treatment reductions in infection intensity on prevalence of infection-associated morbidity. This review was registered at inception with PROSPERO (CRD42015026080). Studies that evaluated morbidity before and after treatment were identified by online searches and searches of private archives. Post-treatment odds ratios or standardized mean differences were calculated for each outcome, and these were correlated to treatment-related egg count reduction ratios (ERRs) by meta-regression. A greater ERR correlated with greater reduction in odds of most morbidities. Random effects meta-analysis was used to derive summary estimates: after treatment of S. mansoni and S. japonicum, left-sided hepatomegaly was reduced by 54%, right-sided hepatomegaly by 47%, splenomegaly by 37%, periportal fibrosis by 52%, diarrhea by 53%, and blood in stools by 75%. For S. haematobium, hematuria was reduced by 92%, proteinuria by 90%, bladder lesions by 86%, and upper urinary tract lesions by 72%. There were no consistent changes in portal dilation or hemoglobin levels. In sub-group analysis, age, infection status, region, parasite species, and interval to follow-up were associated with meaningful differences in outcome. While there are challenges to implementing therapy for schistosomiasis, and praziquantel therapy is not fully curative, reductions in egg output are significantly correlated with

  5. Evolution of sarcoma 180 (ascitic tumor) in mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni

    OpenAIRE

    Fausto Edmundo Lima Pereira; Pedro Raso; Paulo Marcos Zech Coelho

    1986-01-01

    Mice infected with 60 cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni were more resistant to the sarcoma 180 ascites tumor. Tumor inoculation was performed 50 days after schistosoma infection and the animals were observed and weighed at 48 hours intervals for development and progression of malignancy. In infected mice the weight gain (ascites formation) started later and was shorter than in uninfected Controls. Also, the number of tumor cells into the peritoneal cavity 72h after tumor implantation was short...

  6. Low dose chronic Schistosoma mansoni infection increases susceptibility to Mycobacterium bovis BCG infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, D; Akuffo, H; Thors, C; Pawlowski, A; Britton, S

    2005-03-01

    The incidence of mycobacterial diseases is high and the efficacy of Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG) is low in most areas of the world where chronic worm infections are common. However, if and how concurrent worm infections could affect immunity to mycobacterial infections has not been elucidated. In this study we investigated whether infection of mice with Schistosoma mansoni could affect the ability of the animals to control Mycobacterium bovis BCG infection and the immune response to mycobacterial antigens. BALB/c mice subclinically infected with S. mansoni were challenged with M. bovis BCG via the intravenous route. The ability of the animals to contain the replication of M. bovis BCG in their organs, lung pathology as well as the in vitro mycobacterial and worm antigen induced immune responses were evaluated. The results showed that S. mansoni coinfected mice had significantly higher levels of BCG bacilli in their organs and sustained greater lung pathology compared to Schistosoma uninfected controls. Moreover, Schistosoma infected mice show depressed mycobacterial antigen specific Th1 type responses. This is an indication that chronic worm infection could affect resistance/susceptibility to mycobacterial infections by impairing mycobacteria antigen specific Th1 type responses. This finding is potentially important in the control of TB in helminth endemic parts of the world.

  7. Schistosoma mansoni: on the possibility of Indian buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) being experimentally infected

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Marcos Zech Coelho; Walter S. Lima; Raimundo H. G. Nogueira

    1989-01-01

    Male Indian buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves were submitted to Schistosoma mansoni infection by percutaneous, oral and subcutaneous routes. No worms or eggs were found in four of the animals tested. Bubalus bubalis appears to be refractory for S. mansoni.

  8. Effects of praziquantel on experimental Schistosoma bovis infection in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, M V; Monrad, J; Christensen, N O

    1996-03-01

    The effect of praziquantel against experimental Schistosoma bovis infection in West African Dwarf goats was investigated. Thirty goats were exposed to 2000 cercariae each and 15 of those received a praziquantel treatment (60 mg kg-1) 13 weeks post-infection. One day, 1 week and 4 weeks post-treatment representative goats from each group were killed and worms were recovered by perfusion. For comparison, parasite-free control animals were monitored, some of which were given praziquantel. Every second week during the study, faecal samples were collected. The cure rate was 100% 1 day, 99.4% 1 week and 95.7% 4 weeks post-treatment. Tissue egg counts were significantly reduced (P < 0.001) 4 weeks post-treatment in all parts of the intestines, but not in the liver. Faecal egg counts were reduced by 84.1% 1 week and by 98.3% 3 weeks after treatment, the reduction being highly significant both 1 week 3 weeks after treatment (P < 0.001). Overall strong correlations between the number of worm pairs, tissue egg counts and the final faecal egg count were observed, indicating that the faecal egg counts during infection and following treatment can be used as a guideline for the pathology associated with the infection.

  9. Murine Schistosoma bovis infection: analysis of parasitic and immune parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana da Costa, A; Gaubert, S; Fontaine, J; Lafitte, S; Seixas, A; De Lourdes Sampaio Silva, M; Capron, A; Grzych, J M

    1998-03-01

    Humoral and cellular responses to Schistosoma bovis antigens have been evaluated over a period of 11 weeks in mice exposed to S. bovis cercariae and data analysed in the context of the parasitic parameters (worm and egg loads) recorded at days 30, 60 and 80 of the ongoing infection. Results revealed a decrease of worm burden, particularly marked for female worms, between day 60 and day 80 of infection suggesting a higher susceptibility of female schistosomes to attrition mechanisms. The B-cell response, studied by measuring the production of different isotypes, was directed against different stage specific antigens, with a predominance of IgG1 antibodies associated with a significant increase of IgA and IgE antibodies after egg deposition. The T-cell response, assessed after in vitro stimulation of splenocytes, showed a predominant production of Th-2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10) occurring after egg laying. Interestingly in contrast to S. mansoni infection the Th-2 polarization did not seem to be exclusively triggered by egg-associated antigens since significant amounts of IL-10 were produced after stimulation with adult worm antigen preparation (SWAP) before the beginning of egg deposition.

  10. Local immune responses of the Chinese water buffalo, Bubalus bubalis, against Schistosoma japonicum larvae: crucial insights for vaccine design.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamish E G McWilliam

    Full Text Available Asian schistosomiasis is a zoonotic parasitic disease infecting up to a million people and threatening tens of millions more. Control of this disease is hindered by the animal reservoirs of the parasite, in particular the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis, which is responsible for significant levels of human transmission. A transmission-blocking vaccine administered to buffaloes is a realistic option which would aid in the control of schistosomiasis. This will however require a better understanding of the immunobiology of schistosomiasis in naturally exposed buffaloes, particularly the immune response to migrating schistosome larvae, which are the likely targets of an anti-schistosome vaccine. To address this need we investigated the immune response at the major sites of larval migration, the skin and the lungs, in previously exposed and re-challenged water buffaloes. In the skin, a strong allergic-type inflammatory response occurred, characterised by leukocyte and eosinophil infiltration including the formation of granulocytic abscesses. Additionally at the local skin site, interleukin-5 transcript levels were elevated, while interleukin-10 levels decreased. In the skin-draining lymph node (LN a predominant type-2 profile was seen in stimulated cells, while in contrast a type-1 profile was detected in the lung draining LN, and these responses occurred consecutively, reflecting the timing of parasite migration. The intense type-2 immune response at the site of cercarial penetration is significantly different to that seen in naive and permissive animal models such as mice, and suggests a possible mechanism for immunity. Preliminary data also suggest a reduced and delayed immune response occurred in buffaloes given high cercarial challenge doses compared with moderate infections, particularly in the skin. This study offers a deeper understanding into the immunobiology of schistosomiasis in a natural host, which may aid in the future design of more

  11. Evolution of sarcoma 180 (ascitic tumor in mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Edmundo Lima Pereira

    1986-03-01

    Full Text Available Mice infected with 60 cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni were more resistant to the sarcoma 180 ascites tumor. Tumor inoculation was performed 50 days after schistosoma infection and the animals were observed and weighed at 48 hours intervals for development and progression of malignancy. In infected mice the weight gain (ascites formation started later and was shorter than in uninfected Controls. Also, the number of tumor cells into the peritoneal cavity 72h after tumor implantation was shorter in infected group than incontrols. This in creased resistance against a transplantable tumor probably is related to the effect of endotoxin on tumoricidal activity of macrophages activated by the infection. The immunodepression induced by Schistosoma mansoni infection enhances the proliferation of endogenous bacteria increasing the amount of endotoxin absorbed from the gut.

  12. Placental transfer of immunoglobulins in cattle infected with Schistosoma mattheei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriël, S; Geldhof, P; Phiri, I K; Cornillie, P; Goddeeris, B M; Vercruysse, J

    2005-04-08

    Although the epitheliochorial placenta of ruminants does not allow passage of immunoglobulins from dam to foetus specific antibodies have been detected at birth in calves born to Schistosoma mattheei-infected cows. The present study determined the prevalence of calves born with specific antibodies for S. mattheei and the origin of these antibodies. For the determination of the prevalence, 100 calves born to infected mothers in an endemic area (Zambia) were examined, 24 were seropositive. To study the origin of these antibodies placentomes of 40 naturally S. mattheei-infected cows were examined for the presence of schistosome eggs and lesions which could explain foetal priming and/or leakage of maternal antibodies and/or antigen into the foetus. Tissue damage and schistosome eggs were observed on the maternal as well as the foetal side of the placentomes. In order to determine the specific nature of the antibody response, antibody profiles against soluble adult worm antigen preparation (SWAP) of S. mattheei were compared by Western blot between dams and their newborn calves (n = 8). The specific recognition profiles were identical for the seropositive calves and their dams on SWAP mattheei. Identical recognition profiles between dams and calves were also observed when sera were analysed on Escherichia coli, a pathogen of which the foetus should be free, and would indicate passive antibody transfer from the dam. In conclusion, the present study shows that S. mattheei could induce placentome lesions and that eggs can cross the placenta. Consequently, foeti can come into contact with S. mattheei antigens in utero, and might also contain maternal antibodies from leakage through placentome lesions. As such, the infection status of the mother could have far reaching effects on the immunological status of her offspring and modify their reaction upon infection.

  13. Inheritance of Schistosoma mansoni infection incompatibility in Biomphalaria alexandrina snails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman F Abou El Naga

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we looked at the inheritance of susceptibility and resistance to Schistosoma mansoni infection in the first generation of crossbred Biomphalaria alexandrina snails. Our ultimate goal is to use such information to develop a biological method of controlling schistosomiasis. We infected laboratory-bred snails with S. mansoni miracidia and examined cercarial shedding to determine susceptibility and resistance. Five parental groups were used: Group I contained 30 susceptible snails, Group II contained 30 resistant snails, Group III contained 15 susceptible and 15 resistant snails, Group IV contained 27 susceptible and three resistant snails and Group V contained three susceptible and 27 resistant snails. The percentage of resistant snails in the resulting progeny varied according to the ratio of susceptible and resistant parents per group; they are 7%, 100%, 68%, 45% and 97% from Groups I, II, III, IV and V, respectively. On increasing the percentage of resistant parent snails, the percentage of resistant progeny increased, while cercarial production in their susceptible progeny decreased.

  14. Course of Schistosoma mansoni infection in thymectomized rats. [Gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cioli, D.; Dennert, G.

    1976-07-01

    Inbred rats were thymectomized, irradiated, and reconstituted with T cell-free bone marrow cells. Thymectomized-reconstituted (B rats) and control rats were infected with Schistosoma mansoni cercariae and the number of worms recovered was determined at various times after infection. The extent of immunosuppression was assessed by two criteria: response to an injection of sheep erythrocytes; response to schistosome antigens. Humoral responses to worm antigens were completely suppressed in almost all instances and anti-sheep erythrocytes responses showed a more variable but always very definite depression in B rats. The number of worms in B rats was about 4 times higher than in control animals at 5 weeks and about 3 times higher at 6 weeks. In a different experiment, rats were perfused at 4, 6, and 9 weeks after infection and the number of worms was found to be consistently higher in B rats, by a factor of about 2 at 4 weeks to a factor of about 4 or 6 at subsequent times. Although B rats had more worms than controls even at 9 weeks, a slow drop in their worm burden was noticeable with time in both experiments. Moreover, the size of worms in B rats was smaller than in controls and even 9-week-old worms failed to develop to normal size and appearance and could not be shown to produce fertile eggs. These experiments show a definite involvement of the immune system in the ''self-cure'' phenomenon, but may at the same time suggest that other non-immune mechanisms are involved in determining the pattern of S. mansoni infection in the rat.

  15. Natural infection of wild rodents by Schistosoma mansoni parasitological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosângela Rodrigues e Silva

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of the role of rodents as natural hosts of Schistosoma mansoni was studied at the Pamparrão Valley, Sumidouro, RJ, with monthly captures and examination of the animals. Twenty-three Nectomys squamipes and 9 Akodom arviculoides with a shistosomal infection rate of 56.5% and 22.2% respectively eliminated a great majority of viable eggs. With a strain isolated from one of the naturally infected N. squamipes, we infected 75% of simpatric Biomphalaria glabrata and 100% of albino Mus musculus mice. The adult worms, isolated from N. squamipes after perfusion were located mainly in the liver (91.5% and the mesenteric veins (8.5%. The male/female proportion was 2:1. The eggs were distributed on small intestine segments (proximal, medial and distal portions and the large intestine without any significant differences in egg concentration of these segments. In A. arviculoides, the few eggs eliminated by the stools were viable and there was litlle egg retention on intestinal segments. Considering the ease to complete S. mansoni biological cycle in the Nectomys/Biomphalaria/Nectomys system under laboratory conditions, probably the same is likely to occur in natural conditions. In support to this hypotesis there are also the facts that human mansonic shistosomiasis has a very low prevalence in Sumidouro and endemicity among the rodents has not changed even after repetead treatments of the local patients. Based on our experiments, we conclude that N. squamipes has become a natural host of S. mansoni and possibly may participate in keeping the cycle of schistosomiasis transmission at Pamparrão Valley.

  16. UVB-induced immune suppression and infection with Schistosoma mansoni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noonan, F.P.; Lewis, F.A. [George Washington Univ., Washington, DC (United States). School of Medicine]|[Biomedical Research Inst., Rockville, MD (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Irradiation with ultraviolet B (UVB, 290-320 nm) causes a systematic immunosuppression of cell-mediated immunity. The question of whether UV immunosuppression modulates the course of infectious diseases is important because UVB levels in sunlight are sufficient to predict significant UV-induced immunosuppression at most latitudes. We have investigated the effect of immunosuppressive doses of UVB on the disease caused by the helminth parasite Schistosoma mansoni. C57BL/6 mice were irradiated once or three times weekly over 60-80 days with UV from a bank of FS40 sunlamps. Each UV treatment consisted of an immunosuppressive UV dose, as determined by suppression of contact hypersensitivity to trinitrochlorobenzene, corresponding to about 15-30 min of noonday tropical sunlight exposure under ideal clear sky conditions. Cumulative UV doses were between 80 and 170 kJ/m{sup 2}. Worm and egg burdens, liver granuloma diameters and liver fibrosis showed minimal changes (< 20%) compared with parameters in unirradiated animals. Ultraviolet irradiation (a total of 55 kJ/m{sup 2} administered in six treatments) did not impair the resistance to rechallenge conferred by vaccination with {sup 60}Co-irradiated cercariae. We have observed a dichotomy between UV immnosuppression and both disease and vaccination in this helminth infection, in contrast to the effects of UVB shown in other infectious diseases. (author).

  17. The effect of praziquantel against Schistosoma mansoni-infections in Botswana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, H; Byskov, Jens

    1989-01-01

    Chemotherapy of all infected individuals, using praziquantel 40 mg/kg in a single dose, was the initial component of the recently introduced control programme against Schistosoma mansoni-infections in Ngamiland, Botswana. To evaluate the effect of praziquantel in Ngamiland, 81 children were selec...

  18. Low dose chronic Schistosoma mansoni infection increases susceptibility to Mycobacterium bovis BCG infection in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elias, D; Akuffo, H; Thors, C

    2005-01-01

    The incidence of mycobacterial diseases is high and the efficacy of Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG) is low in most areas of the world where chronic worm infections are common. However, if and how concurrent worm infections could affect immunity to mycobacterial infections has not been elucidated....... In this study we investigated whether infection of mice with Schistosoma mansoni could affect the ability of the animals to control Mycobacterium bovis BCG infection and the immune response to mycobacterial antigens. BALB/c mice subclinically infected with S. mansoni were challenged with M. bovis BCG via...... the intravenous route. The ability of the animals to contain the replication of M. bovis BCG in their organs, lung pathology as well as the in vitro mycobacterial and worm antigen induced immune responses were evaluated. The results showed that S. mansoni coinfected mice had significantly higher levels of BCG...

  19. Praziquantel treatment decreases Schistosoma mansoni genetic diversity in experimental infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Coeli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis has a considerable impact on public health in many tropical and subtropical areas. In the new world, schistosomiasis is caused by the digenetic trematode Schistosoma mansoni. Chemotherapy is the main measure for controlling schistosomiasis, and the current drug of choice for treatment is praziquantel (PZQ. Although PZQ is efficient and safe, its repetitive large-scale use in endemic areas may lead to the selection of resistant strains. Isolates less susceptible to PZQ have been found in the field and selected for in the laboratory. The impact of selecting strains with a decreased susceptibility phenotype on disease dynamics and parasite population genetics is not fully understood. This study addresses the impact of PZQ pressure on the genetics of a laboratory population by analyzing frequency variations of polymorphic genetic markers. METHODOLOGY: Infected mice were treated with increasing PZQ doses until the highest dose of 3 × 300 mg/Kg was reached. The effect of PZQ treatment on the parasite population was assessed using five polymorphic microsatellite markers. Parasitological and genetic data were compared with those of the untreated control. After six parasite generations submitted to treatment, it was possible to obtain a S. mansoni population with decreased susceptibility to PZQ. In our experiments we also observed that female worms were more susceptible to PZQ than male worms. CONCLUSIONS: The selective pressure exerted by PZQ led to decreased genetic variability in S. mansoni and increased endogamy. The understanding of how S. mansoni populations respond to successive drug pressure has important implications on the appearance and maintenance of a PZQ resistance phenotype in endemic regions.

  20. The impact of primary Schistosoma bovis infection on a subsequent challenge infection in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, M V; Monrad, J; Christensen, N O; Lindberg, R

    1997-04-01

    Experimental primary and challenge Schistosoma bovis infections were studied in West African Dwarf goats, using clinicopathological and parasitological parameters. The experiment included 44 goats divided into 4 groups of which group A received primary infection, group B received primary and challenge infection, group C received a challenge control infection, and group D included noninfected controls. Primary infection (wk 0) and challenge infection (wk 16) both comprised exposure to 1,000 cercariae per goat, and necropsies took place 16, 22 and 32 wk following primary infection. Clinicopathological effects were moderate in all infected groups. Egg excretion became gradually reduced following peak levels during early primary infection, and egg excretion increased only marginally following challenge infection in the primary- and challenge-infection group. Similarly, challenge infection of primary-infected goats did not result in an increase in tissue egg counts. Worm recovery and tissue egg counts in primary-infected goats remained comparable throughout the experiment, and although evidence was obtained for a delay in maturation, challenge worm establishment was comparable with challenge-control worm establishment. An anti-fecundity effect is thus an essential component of the regulatory response to both primary and challenge S. bovis infection in the goats. However, it was also shown that the intrauterine egg count is an unreliable parameter for fecundity assessments.

  1. Urinary tract pathology in some Schistosoma haematobium infected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The parasitological investigation assessing the ova of Schistosoma haematobium in urine of 138 volunteers in Ihieve-Ogben, Edo State, Nigeria revealed a prevalence of 43 (31.2%). Children had a higher prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis 30 (41.1%) than their adult counterparts 13 (20.0%). More volunteers had light ...

  2. Schistosoma mansoni Infection in Finchaa Sugar Estate: Public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The survey of Schistosoma mansoni (S. mansoni) in Finchaa Sugar Estate, Western Ethiopia, was conducted to investigate the prevalence and health problems of schistosomiasis with some of the risk factors. The examination was undertaken based on the analysis of retrospective clinical data from the health center and a ...

  3. Schistosoma mansoni: on the possibility of Indian buffalo (Bubalus bubalis being experimentally infected

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Marcos Zech Coelho

    1989-09-01

    Full Text Available Male Indian buffalo (Bubalus bubalis calves were submitted to Schistosoma mansoni infection by percutaneous, oral and subcutaneous routes. No worms or eggs were found in four of the animals tested. Bubalus bubalis appears to be refractory for S. mansoni.

  4. Concomitant testicular infection by Zika virus and Schistosoma mansoni in a Brazilian young boy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Souza Alves

    Full Text Available Sumary The identification of a escrotal mass without pain or report of trauma should be investigated to rule out scrotal cancer. We report the case of a young Brazilian boy who underwent orchiectomy after magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and duplex scan (DS indicating a high possibility of cancer. Blood exams ruled out the possibility of cancer. Testicular biopsy was not indicated. After surgery the diagnostic was extensive orchiepididymitis by Schistosoma. In endemic areas orchiepididymis by Schistosoma should be investigate to avoid unnecessary surgeries. This patient was also infected with Zika virus.

  5. Gynecological manifestations, histopathological findings, and schistosoma-specific polymerase chain reaction results among women with Schistosoma haematobium infection: a cross-sectional study in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randrianasolo, Bodo Sahondra; Jourdan, Peter Mark; Ravoniarimbinina, Pascaline; Ramarokoto, Charles Emile; Rakotomanana, Fanjasoa; Ravaoalimalala, Vololomboahangy Elisabeth; Gundersen, Svein Gunnar; Feldmeier, Hermann; Vennervald, Birgitte Jyding; van Lieshout, Lisette; Roald, Borghild; Leutscher, Peter; Kjetland, Eyrun Floerecke

    2015-07-15

    The pathophysiology of female genital schistosomiasis (FGS) is only partially understood. This study aims to describe the histopathological findings, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results, and gynecological manifestations of FGS in women with different intensities of Schistosoma haematobium infection. Women aged 15-35 years living in an S. haematobium-endemic area in Madagascar underwent pelvic and colposcopic examinations. Small biopsy specimens were obtained from lesions and examined histopathologically. Schistosoma PCR was done on urine, biopsy, cervicovaginal lavage, and genital mucosal surface specimens. Sandy patches and rubbery papules were found in 41 of 118 women (35%). Rubbery papules reflected an intense cellular immune reaction dominated by eosinophils, epithelial erosion, and viable ova. There was a significant decrease in the prevalence of rubbery papules with age, even after adjustment for urinary ova excretion. The sandy patches with grains showed moderate cellular immune reaction and ova (viable and/or calcified). They were most prevalent in cases with low-intensity urinary S. haematobium infection. Forty-two percent of women with Schistosoma-negative urine specimens had at least 1 genital specimen test positive for Schistosoma by PCR. The results indicate a diversity of lesions caused by S. haematobium and a dynamic evolution of the genital lesions. Schistosoma PCR may give an indication of the diagnosis. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  6. Evaluation of a polyclonal antibody based sandwich ELISA for the detection of faecal antigens in Schistosoma spindale infection in bovines

    OpenAIRE

    Sreenivasa Murthy, G. S.; D’Souza, Placid E.; Shrikrishna Isloor, K.

    2012-01-01

    Schistosomosis is a common parasitic infection in animals prevalent in cattle in Asia and Africa, where it is estimated that at least 165 million animals are infected. Out of the 10 species reported to naturally infect cattle only Schistosoma nasale and Schistosoma spindale have received particular attention, because of their recognized veterinary significance. Although animal schistosomes may, under rare conditions favouring intensive transmission, act as important pathogens in endemic areas...

  7. Schistosoma haematobium infections acquired in Corsica, France, August 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtfreter, M C; Moné, H; Müller-Stöver, I; Mouahid, G; Richter, J

    2014-06-05

    A 12 year-old boy in Germany developed urinary schistosomiasis in January 2014. He had bathed in rivers in south-eastern Corsica five months earlier. Before this case, human schistomiasis had not been reported on the island, although its vector, the snail Bulinus truncatus, locally transmitted the zoonotic Schistosoma bovis. The boy’s father excreted S. haematobium ova that were not viable; the boy’s three siblings had a positive serology against schistosomes.

  8. Anti-inflammatory Properties Of Menthol And Menthone In Schistosoma Mansoni Infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Zaia, Mauricio G.; Cagnazzo, Túlio di Orlando; Feitosa, Karina A.; Soares,Edson G.; Faccioli, Lúcia H.; Silmara M. Allegretti; Afonso, Ana; Anibal,Fernanda de Freitas

    2016-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease caused by several species of trematode worms and it is believed that more than 261 million people are affected worldwide. New drug development has become essential because there is a risk of the parasite becoming resistant to Praziquantel, the only drug available for this infection. This study evaluated parasitological, immunological and histological parameters in mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni and treated with an herbal commercial medicine. This...

  9. Potency of Allium sativum and Allium cepa Oils against Schistosoma mansoni Infection in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Metwally, Nadia S

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: It has been reported that garlic (Allium sativum) and onion (Allium cepa) are used all over the world in different diseases, such as infections, injuries, gastrointestinal dysfunctions and cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, our aim in this work was to study the ability of garlic and onion oils to offset the infectivity as well as the metabolic disturbances induced by Schistosoma mansoni parasitism. Methods: The two current drugs were given in a dosage of 5ml / kg body weight/ d...

  10. Lethal effect of oxamniquine and praziquantel on mice experimentally infected with Schistosoma mansoni

    OpenAIRE

    Sonia Maria A.F. Tonelli; Eugênio M.A. Goulart; Edward Tonelli; Paulo Marcos Zech Coelho

    1995-01-01

    Lethality caused by administration of oxamniquine and praziquantel to mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni, and their respective controls (uninfected), has been studied. As the results indicate, the infected animals clearly showed higher mortality rates when praziquantel was used. Surprisingly, it may be noted that exactly the contrary occurs in relation to the use of oxamniquine, inasmuch as marked higher mortality rates were seen in the control animals (uninfected). These observations lea...

  11. Variations in the immune response to natural Schistosoma mattheei infections in calves born to infected mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriël, S; Phiri, I K; Van Dam, G J; Deelder, A M; Duchateau, L; Vercruysse, J

    2004-01-30

    During previous work Schistosoma antibodies and circulating antigens were detected at birth in the serum from some calves born to Schistosoma mattheei infected mothers. The objectives of the present survey were: (1) to investigate the proportion of calves, born to cows infected with S. mattheei, which have specific antibodies and circulating schistosome antigens present in their serum at birth and (2) to investigate whether the presence or absence of these specific antibodies and/or circulating antigens at birth may affect the pattern of a natural S. mattheei infection in calves from 4 to 5 months of age, when the colostral antibodies are thought to be of negligible importance. A total of 28 calves born to infected mothers were randomly selected. Faeces, serum and colostrum samples were collected from the cows at calving, serum samples were collected from the calves at birth (day 0), after intake of colostrum (day 1) and monthly thereafter up to the age of 10 months. Both serum and colostrum samples were analysed for IgG(H+L) against SWAP mattheei and schistosome circulating anodic antigen (CAA) levels. The calves were exposed to a natural challenge from the age of 4-5 months. Faecal samples were collected from the calves monthly, starting at an age of 5 months up to 10 months, and were examined for faecal egg counts. Nine (group 1) out of the 28 calves were found to have specific antibodies in their serum at birth, in 5 of them CAA levels were also detected. In the other 19 calves (group 2) no IgG(H+L) or CAA were detected. At the end of the study faecal egg counts and CAA levels were significantly lower in calves from group 1 compared to group 2. Results confirm earlier work that specific antibodies and circulating antigens may be present in serum from calves at birth, and show that these calves have lower faecal egg counts and CAA levels after exposure to a natural challenge.

  12. Concurrent infections of Fasciola, Schistosoma and Amphistomum spp. in cattle from Kafue and Zambezi river basins of Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabe, J; Phiri, I K; Phiri, A M; Chembensofu, M; Dorny, P; Vercruysse, J

    2008-12-01

    This study investigated interactions among Fasciola gigantica, Schistosoma spp. and Amphistomum spp. concurrent natural infections in Zambian cattle, based on egg and worm counts. In the abattoir 315 cattle were screened for worms of F. gigantica in the liver, Schistosoma spp. in mesenteric veins and/or Amphistomum spp. in the rumen. One hundred and thirty-three (42.2%) of the abattoir-examined cattle harboured one, two or all three trematodes. Of 133 cattle, 50 were randomly selected for worm and egg counts. The mean numbers (+/- SD) of Amphistomum, Schistosoma and Fasciola were 622.08 (+/- 97.87), 33.68 (+/- 7.44) and 19.46 (+/- 4.58), respectively. A total of 32% harboured all the three trematodes, 66% had F. gigantica and Amphistomum spp. infections, 52% had Schistosoma spp. and Amphistomum spp. infections while 32% had F. gigantica and Schistosoma infections. A positive correlation (P = 0.014) was found between F. gigantica and Amphistomum worm burdens. There were no correlations between Amphistomum and Schistosoma worm burdens and between F. gigantica and Schistosoma worm burdens. It may be concluded that there is no significant cross-protection among these trematodes in cattle in endemic areas.

  13. Gynecological manifestations, histopathological findings, and schistosoma-specific polymerase chain reaction results among women with Schistosoma haematobium infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randrianasolo, Bodo Sahondra; Jourdan, Peter Mark; Ravoniarimbinina, Pascaline

    2015-01-01

    haematobium infection. METHODS: Women aged 15-35 years living in an S. haematobium-endemic area in Madagascar underwent pelvic and colposcopic examinations. Small biopsy specimens were obtained from lesions and examined histopathologically. Schistosoma PCR was done on urine, biopsy, cervicovaginal lavage...

  14. The complete mitochondrial genome of Orientobilharzia turkestanicum supports its affinity with African Schistosoma spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Wang, Chun-Ren; Zhao, Guang-Hui; Gao, Jun-Feng; Li, Ming-Wei; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2011-12-01

    Orientobilharzia turkestanicum is a blood fluke of many mammals and causes orientobilharziasis that is also a neglected parasitic zoonosis because the cercaria of O. turkestanicum can infect humans and cause cercarial dermatitis. The present study determined the complete sequence of mt genome of O. turkestanicum and revised its phylogenetic position based on mt gene content and arrangement. The complete mtDNA sequence of O. turkestanicum was 14,755 bp in length, which is slightly larger than the mtDNA genomes of three species of the blood flukes, Schistosoma mekongi (14,072 bp), Schistosoma japonicum (14,085 bp) and Schistosoma mansoni (14,415 bp), but smaller than Schistosoma haematobium (15,003 bp) and Schistosoma spindale (16,901 bp). The mt genome of O. turkestanicum contains 12 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and two ribosomal RNA genes, but lacks an atp8 gene, consistent with that of Schistosoma species. The mt genome arrangement of O. turkestanicum contains an AT-rich region and two non-coding regions (NCRs), including long non-coding region (LNR) and short non-coding region (SNR). Phylogenetic analysis based on amino acids sequences showed that O. turkestanicum belonged to the genus Schistosoma, and is phylogenetically closer to the African schistosome group (S. haematobium, S. spindale and S. mansoni) than to the Asian group (S. mekongi and S. japonicum). But the arrangement of mtDNA protein-coding genes for O. turkestanicum is the same as Asian group, and distinct from the African species. Combining content and arrangement of mtDNA for O. turkestanicum, we conclude that O. turkestanicum should be considered a member of the Schistosoma genus, which shares a closer affinity to the African schistosomes than the Asian species, and gene order of mt genome in O. turkestanicum would be considered sympleisiomorphic (perhaps retained from the ancestor). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Persistent immune responses in late infection and after treatment in experimental Schistosoma bovis infections in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sörén, K; Monrad, J; Johansen, M V; Lindberg, R

    2009-06-01

    This study explored host immune responses and their possible relationship to the anti-fecundity phenomenon in Schistosoma bovis-infected goats. The design comprised a primary infection with or without treatment at week (wk) 13, and with or without challenge at wk 36. Necropsy was performed at 36 or 52wk. Serum levels of anti-egg IgG, and anti-worm IgG and IgM, were measured by ELISA. In chronic infection, anti-worm antibodies stayed high, reflecting persisting worm burdens, whereas anti-egg IgG remained high despite minimized egg excretion. After treatment, anti-worm IgM and anti-egg IgG were minimized, but anti-worm IgG remained above the values of the uninfected controls. Histopathology showed lowered numbers of perioval granulomas in chronic infection and resolution of liver fibrosis with time, but intestinal lymphoplasmacytic perivasculitis and hepatic eosinophilic infiltrates were maintained at wk 52. Significant splenic plasmacytosis persisted after treatment. The results indicated that persistent immune responses, in chronically infected and in treated goats, may explain sustained worm fecundity depression at challenge infection.

  16. Cytokine responses to Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma haematobium in relation to infection in a co-endemic focus in northern Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meurs, Lynn; Mbow, Moustapha; Boon, Nele; Vereecken, Kim; Amoah, Abena Serwaa; Labuda, Lucja A; Dièye, Tandakha Ndiaye; Mboup, Souleymane; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria; Polman, Katja

    2014-08-01

    In Africa, many areas are co-endemic for the two major Schistosoma species, S. mansoni and S. haematobium. Epidemiological studies have suggested that host immunological factors may play an important role in co-endemic areas. As yet, little is known about differences in host immune responses and possible immunological interactions between S. mansoni and S. haematobium in humans. The aim of this study was to analyze host cytokine responses to antigens from either species in a population from a co-endemic focus, and relate these to S. mansoni and S. haematobium infection. Whole blood cytokine responses were investigated in a population in the north of Senegal (n = 200). Blood was stimulated for 72 h with schistosomal egg and adult worm antigens of either Schistosoma species. IL-10, IL-5, IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-2 production was determined in culture supernatants. A multivariate (i.e. multi-response) approach was used to allow a joint analysis of all cytokines in relation to Schistosoma infection. Schistosoma haematobium egg and worm antigens induced higher cytokine production, suggesting that S. haematobium may be more immunogenic than S. mansoni. However, both infections were strongly associated with similar, modified Th2 cytokine profiles. This study is the first to compare S. mansoni and S. haematobium cytokine responses in one population residing in a co-endemic area. These findings are in line with previous epidemiological studies that also suggested S. haematobium egg and worm stages to be more immunogenic than those of S. mansoni.

  17. Schistosome syntenin partially protects vaccinated mice against Schistosoma mansoni infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara C Figueiredo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by several species of trematode of the genus Schistosoma. The disease affects more than 200 million people in the world and causes up to 280,000 deaths per year, besides having high morbidity due to chronic illness that damages internal organs. Current schistosomiasis control strategies are mainly based on chemotherapy, but many researchers believe that the best long-term strategy to control disease is a combination of drug treatment and immunization with an anti-schistosome vaccine. Among the most promising molecules as vaccine candidates are the proteins present in the tegument and digestive tract of the parasite.In this study, we describe for the first time Schistosoma mansoni syntenin (SmSynt and we evaluate its potential as a recombinant vaccine. We demonstrate by real-time PCR that syntenin is mainly expressed in intravascular life stages (schistosomula and adult worms of the parasite life cycle and, by confocal microscopy, we localize it in digestive epithelia in adult worms and schistosomula. Administration of siRNAs targeting SmSynt leads to the knock-down of syntenin gene and protein levels, but this has no demonstrable impact on parasite morphology or viability, suggesting that high SmSynt gene expression is not essential for the parasites in vitro. Mice immunization with rSmSynt, formulated with Freund's adjuvant, induces a Th1-type response, as suggested by the production of IFN-γ and TNF-α by rSmSynt-stimulated cultured splenocytes. The protective effect conferred by vaccination with rSmSynt was demonstrated by 30-37% reduction of worm burden, 38-43% reduction in the number, and 35-37% reduction in the area, of liver granulomas.Our report is the first characterization of syntenin in Schistosoma mansoni and our data suggest that this protein is a potential candidate for the development of a multi-antigen vaccine to control schistosomiasis.

  18. Resveratrol ameliorates oxidative stress and organ dysfunction in Schistosoma mansoni infected mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, R H; Ismail, O A; Badr, M S; Nasr, S M

    2017-03-01

    Schistosoma mansoni causes a major chronic debilitating disease in more than 230 million people around the world. The pathognomonic granuloma is a major cause of the oxidative stress encountered as a consequence of infection not only in the liver, but also in other important organs as spleen, lung, brain and kidney. Resveratrol administration at a dose of 20 mg/kg once daily for two weeks to mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni resulted in improvement in serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Enzymatic antioxidant profile showed significant modulations in Superoxide dismutase, catalase activities and reduced glutathione levels. Specific biomarkers for homeostasis of brain and lung i.e. Tau and RAGE respectively, showed significant improvement after resveratrol administration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of portable microscopic devices for the diagnosis of Schistosoma and soil-transmitted helminth infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogoch, Isaac I; Coulibaly, Jean T; Andrews, Jason R; Speich, Benjamin; Keiser, Jennifer; Stothard, J Russell; N'goran, Eliézer K; Utzinger, Jürg

    2014-12-01

    The diagnosis of parasitic worm (helminth) infections requires specialized laboratory settings, but most affected individuals reside in locations without access to such facilities. We tested two portable microscopic devices for the diagnosis of helminth infections in a cross-sectional survey in rural Côte d'Ivoire. We examined 164 stool samples under a light microscope and then re-examined with a commercial portable light microscope and an experimental mobile phone microscope for the diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni and soil-transmitted helminths. Additionally, 180 filtered urine samples were examined by standard microscopy and compared with the portable light microscope for detection of Schistosoma haematobium eggs. Conventional microscopy was considered the diagnostic reference standard. For S. mansoni, S. haematobium and Trichuris trichiura, the portable light microscope showed sensitivities of 84.8%, 78.6% and 81.5%, respectively, and specificities of 85.7%, 91.0% and 93.0%, respectively. For S. mansoni and T. trichiura, we found sensitivities for the mobile phone microscope of 68.2% and 30.8%, respectively, and specificities of 64.3% and 71.0%, respectively. We conclude that the portable light microscope has sufficient diagnostic yield for Schistosoma and T. trichiura infections, while the mobile phone microscope has only modest sensitivity in its current experimental set-up. Development of portable diagnostic technologies that can be used at point-of-sample collection will enhance diagnostic coverage in clinical and epidemiological settings.

  20. Characterization of a gene family encoding SEA (sea-urchin sperm protein, enterokinase and agrin-domain proteins with lectin-like and heme-binding properties from Schistosoma japonicum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evaristus Chibunna Mbanefo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We previously identified a novel gene family dispersed in the genome of Schistosoma japonicum by retrotransposon-mediated gene duplication mechanism. Although many transcripts were identified, no homolog was readily identifiable from sequence information. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we utilized structural homology modeling and biochemical methods to identify remote homologs, and characterized the gene products as SEA (sea-urchin sperm protein, enterokinase and agrin-domain containing proteins. A common extracellular domain in this family was structurally similar to SEA-domain. SEA-domain is primarily a structural domain, known to assist or regulate binding to glycans. Recombinant proteins from three members of this gene family specifically interacted with glycosaminoglycans with high affinity, with potential implication in ligand acquisition and immune evasion. Similar approach was used to identify a heme-binding site on the SEA-domain. The heme-binding mode showed heme molecule inserted into a hydrophobic pocket, with heme iron putatively coordinated to two histidine axial ligands. Heme-binding properties were confirmed using biochemical assays and UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, which showed high affinity heme-binding (K D = 1.605×10(-6 M and cognate spectroscopic attributes of hexa-coordinated heme iron. The native proteins were oligomers, antigenic, and are localized on adult worm teguments and gastrodermis; major host-parasite interfaces and site for heme detoxification and acquisition. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest potential role, at least in the nucleation step of heme crystallization (hemozoin formation, and as receptors for heme uptake. Survival strategies exploited by parasites, including heme homeostasis mechanism in hemoparasites, are paramount for successful parasitism. Thus, assessing prospects for application in disease intervention is warranted.

  1. Co-infection with Schistosoma haematobium and soil-transmitted helminths in rural South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molvik, Mari; Helland, Elin; Zulu, Siphosenkosi Gift

    2017-01-01

    Schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis are among the most prevalent neglected tropical diseases and may lead to severe consequences. We assessed the extent of co-infection between Schistosoma haematobium and the soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris...... interval =1.58–2.93; plumbricoides and T. trichiura infection. We have demonstrated a highly significant correlation and overall association between urogenital...... schistosomiasis and A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura. We cautiously suggest that all S. haematobium endemic areas should be treated for STH infections....

  2. The influence of colostrum on infection of calves around 7 months of age with Schistosoma mattheei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriël, S; Dorny, P; Duchateau, L; Phiri, I K; Chembensofu, M; Vercruysse, J

    2005-04-20

    Studies have indicated that the intake of colostrum could modulate the offspring reaction towards early schistosome infections. The effect of colostrum (containing immunoglobulins, parasite antigens, immune cells and other cell-related products) on late Schistosoma infections is to our knowledge not documented. The objective of the present study is to determine whether the intake of colostrum from Schistosoma mattheei infected cows will modify late S. mattheei infection patterns in their offspring. Six calves born to confirmed non-infected cows and 10 calves born to confirmed infected mothers were purchased after intake of colostrum. All calves were exposed to a total experimental challenge of 2500 cercariae around the age of 7 months. Serum samples were collected before and after intake of colostrum and monthly thereafter for the determination of specific antibody levels. Faecal samples were collected monthly from 42 days after infection for the determination of faecal egg counts. Six calves of each group were slaughtered around the age of 15 months for worm recovery and tissue egg counting. No differences between both groups were observed in immunoglobulin levels and faecal egg counts after infection, and in worm counts and tissue egg counts at necropsy. In conclusion colostral effects, which were noticed at an early age, are no longer present around the age of 7 months. As such calves which are born during a season of high Schistosoma transmission will still be under colostral influence and therefore be more protected against a primary challenge than calves born during a low transmission season, as the latter will only receive their first challenge when colostral protective effects have disappeared.

  3. High burden of Schistosoma mansoni infection in school-aged children in Marolambo District, Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Stephen A; Penney, James M St John; Russell, Hannah J; Howe, Anthony P; Linder, Cortland; Rakotomampianina, Andriamahitsisambatra L D; Nandimbiniaina, Anjara M; Squire, S Bertel; Stothard, J Russell; Bustinduy, Amaya L; Rahetilahy, Alain M

    2017-06-24

    A school-based survey was undertaken to assess prevalence and infection intensity of schistosomiasis in school-aged children in the Marolambo District of Madagascar. School-aged children from six purposively selected schools were tested for Schistosoma haematobium by urine filtration and Schistosoma mansoni using circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) and Kato-Katz stool analysis. The investigators did not address soil-transmitted helminths (STH) in this study. Of 399 school-aged children screened, 93.7% were infected with S. mansoni based on CCA analysis. Kato-Katz analysis of stool revealed S. mansoni infection in 73.6% (215/ 292). Heavy infections (> 400 eggs per gram) were common (32.1%; 69/ 215), with a mean of 482 eggs per gram of stool. Moderate infection intensities were detected in 31.2% (67/ 215) and light infection intensities in 36.7% (79/ 215) of infected participants. No infection with S. haematobium was detected by urine filtration. Intestinal schistosomiasis appears a considerable public health issue in this remote area of Madagascar where there is a pressing need for mass drug administration.

  4. Genetic variation between Biomphalaria alexandrina snails susceptible and resistant to Schistosoma mansoni infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Nassery, Suzanne M F; Abou-El-Naga, Iman F; Allam, Sonia R; Shaat, Eman A; Mady, Rasha F M

    2013-01-01

    Much effort has been made to control schistosomiasis infection in Egypt. However, enduring effects from such strategies have not yet been achieved. In this study, we sought to determine the genetic variability related to the interaction between Biomphalaria alexandrina snails and Schistosoma mansoni. Using RAPD-PCR with eight (10 mers) random primers, we were able to determine the polymorphic markers that differed between snails susceptible and resistant to Schistosoma mansoni infection using five primers out of the eight. Our results suggest that the RAPD-PCR technique is an efficient means by which to compare genomes and to detect genetic variations between schistosomiasis intermediate hosts. The RAPD technique with the above-noted primers can identify genomic markers that are specifically related to the Biomphalaria alexandrina/Schistosoma mansoni relationship in the absence of specific nucleotide sequence information. This approach could be used in epidemiologic surveys to investigate genetic diversity among Biomphalaria alexandrina snails. The ability to determine resistant markers in Biomphalaria alexandrina snails could potentially lead to further studies that use refractory snails as agents to control the spread of schistosomiasis.

  5. Genetic Variation between Biomphalaria alexandrina Snails Susceptible and Resistant to Schistosoma mansoni Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne M. F. El-Nassery

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Much effort has been made to control schistosomiasis infection in Egypt. However, enduring effects from such strategies have not yet been achieved. In this study, we sought to determine the genetic variability related to the interaction between Biomphalaria alexandrina snails and Schistosoma mansoni. Using RAPD-PCR with eight (10 mers random primers, we were able to determine the polymorphic markers that differed between snails susceptible and resistant to Schistosoma mansoni infection using five primers out of the eight. Our results suggest that the RAPD-PCR technique is an efficient means by which to compare genomes and to detect genetic variations between schistosomiasis intermediate hosts. The RAPD technique with the above-noted primers can identify genomic markers that are specifically related to the Biomphalaria alexandrina/Schistosoma mansoni relationship in the absence of specific nucleotide sequence information. This approach could be used in epidemiologic surveys to investigate genetic diversity among Biomphalaria alexandrina snails. The ability to determine resistant markers in Biomphalaria alexandrina snails could potentially lead to further studies that use refractory snails as agents to control the spread of schistosomiasis.

  6. Pathology of natural infections of Schistosoma spindale Montgomery, 1906, in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fransen, J; De Bont, J; Vercruysse, J; Van Aken, D; Southgate, V R; Rollinson, D

    1990-11-01

    The pathology of natural Schistosoma spindale infections in cattle in Sri Lanka was studied. Hepatic lesions were moderate with periportal cell infiltration and periportal epithelioid cell granulomas within perilobular zones. Submucosal and mucosal granulomas accompanied by cellular changes were present in the small and large intestine. Two unusual observations included the migration of an adult worm from the mesenteric veins to the mucosa of the small intestine in one bull and the presence of epithelioid cell granulomas containing slender living eggs in the urinary bladder of one animal. Intensities of infections, histopathological changes and immunological responses are discussed and comparison is made with other schistosome species.

  7. Sequential histological changes in Biomphalaria glabrata during the course of Schistosoma mansoni infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Queli Teixeira Lemos

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Biomphalaria glabrata, highly susceptible to Schistosoma mansoni, were seen to shed less and less cercariae along the time of infection. Histological examination kept a close correlation with this changing pattern of cercarial shedding, turning an initial picture of no-reaction (tolerance gradually into one of hemocyte proliferation with formation of focal encapsulating lesions around disintegrating sporocysts and cercariae, a change that became disseminated toward the 142nd day post miracidial exposure. Findings were suggestive of a gradual installation of acquired immunity in snails infected with S. mansoni.

  8. Observations on the infectivity and fecundity of Schistosoma curassoni from Senegal in albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercruysse, J; Southgate, V R; Rollinson, D; Hilderson, H M

    1988-06-01

    An average of 11% of adult Schistosoma curassoni were recovered from 200 albino mice which had been infected subcutaneously with 150-250 cercariae. Worms were primarily found in the portal veins. The average number of intrauterine eggs per female during the first 100 days p.i. was 13 and the average number of eggs produced per female worm was 103 per day for the first 60 days post oviposition. The majority of eggs were recovered from the liver (98.3%). The oograms were determined until day 95 p.i. For screening of antischistosomal drugs it is recommended not to use infections older than 60 d.p.i.

  9. Spatially explicit Schistosoma infection risk in eastern Africa using Bayesian geostatistical modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schur, Nadine; Hürlimann, Eveline; Stensgaard, Anna-Sofie

    2013-01-01

    surveys on different age-groups and to acquire separate estimates for individuals aged ≤20 years and entire communities. Prevalence estimates were combined with population statistics to obtain country-specific numbers of Schistosoma infections. We estimate that 122 million individuals in eastern Africa...... are currently infected with either S. mansoni, or S. haematobium, or both species concurrently. Country-specific population-adjusted prevalence estimates range between 12.9% (Uganda) and 34.5% (Mozambique) for S. mansoni and between 11.9% (Djibouti) and 40.9% (Mozambique) for S. haematobium. Our models revealed...

  10. Circulating antigen levels in serum of cattle naturally infected with Schistosoma mattheei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bont, J; Van Lieshout, L; Deelder, A M; Ysebaert, M T; Vercruysse, J

    1996-11-01

    Levels of 2 Schistosoma circulating antigens, the circulating anodic antigen (CAA) and the circulating cathodic antigen (CCA), were determined in serum samples collected, on a monthly basis over a period of 1.5 years, from 32 farm animals of different ages and from 12 tracer calves exposed to Schistosoma mattheei infection on a Zambian farm. Faecal egg counts were monitored in all animals and worm burdens in tracers determined after perfusion. Antigen determination tests in serum, with sensitivities between 95 and 100% in heifers and adult cows, proved to be excellent tools for the diagnosis of cattle schistosomiasis. Also in young calves, some infections could be demonstrated earlier by CCA determination than by faecal egg examination. A poor correlation was seen between the data for faecal egg counts and for CAA and CCA levels. It therefore appears that circulating antigen measurements in serum are of limited value as indicators of the pathogenesis of infection in cattle. Although all tracer calves were found infected at perfusion, large variations were recorded in antigen levels. An unexpected finding was the observation in farm animals of a clear seasonal pattern in CAA levels, with significant increase between August and October during the second half of the dry season, when animals are subjected to heavy physical and nutritional stress. It therefore appears that, although circulating antigen determination may provide an indication of the worm burden in ageing infections, possible variations of antigen clearance rate with the physiological condition of the host may complicate the interpretation of the results.

  11. Evolution of sarcoma 180 (ascitic tumor in mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Edmundo Lima Pereira

    1986-03-01

    Full Text Available Mice infected with 60 cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni were more resistant to the sarcoma 180 ascites tumor. Tumor inoculation was performed 50 days after schistosoma infection and the animals were observed and weighed at 48 hours intervals for development and progression of malignancy. In infected mice the weight gain (ascites formation started later and was shorter than in uninfected Controls. Also, the number of tumor cells into the peritoneal cavity 72h after tumor implantation was shorter in infected group than incontrols. This in creased resistance against a transplantable tumor probably is related to the effect of endotoxin on tumoricidal activity of macrophages activated by the infection. The immunodepression induced by Schistosoma mansoni infection enhances the proliferation of endogenous bacteria increasing the amount of endotoxin absorbed from the gut.Camundongos infectados com 60 cercárias de Schistosoma mansoni tomaram-se mais resistentes ao sarcoma 180 na forma de tumor ascítico. A inoculação das células tumorais foi feita no 50º dia de infecção e a evolução do tumor foi acompanhada através dapesagem dos animais com intervalos de 48 horas. Nos camundongos infectados o ganho de peso (formação da ascite começou mais tarde e foi menor do que nos controles não infectados. Também o número de células tumorais na cavidade peritoneal 72 horas após a implantação do tumor foi menor no grupo infectado. Este aumento de resistência a um tumor transplantávelpossivelmente está relacionado ao efeito de endotoxinas sobre a atividade tumoricida dos macrofagos ativados pela infecção. A imunossupressão induzida pela infecção favorece a proliferação de bactérias da flora endógena aumentando a quantidade de endotoxinas absorvidas pelo intestino.

  12. Spatially explicit Schistosoma infection risk in eastern Africa using Bayesian geostatistical modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schur, Nadine; Hürlimann, Eveline; Stensgaard, Anna-Sofie; Chimfwembe, Kingford; Mushinge, Gabriel; Simoonga, Christopher; Kabatereine, Narcis B; Kristensen, Thomas K; Utzinger, Jürg; Vounatsou, Penelope

    2013-11-01

    Schistosomiasis remains one of the most prevalent parasitic diseases in the tropics and subtropics, but current statistics are outdated due to demographic and ecological transformations and ongoing control efforts. Reliable risk estimates are important to plan and evaluate interventions in a spatially explicit and cost-effective manner. We analysed a large ensemble of georeferenced survey data derived from an open-access neglected tropical diseases database to create smooth empirical prevalence maps for Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma haematobium for a total of 13 countries of eastern Africa. Bayesian geostatistical models based on climatic and other environmental data were used to account for potential spatial clustering in spatially structured exposures. Geostatistical variable selection was employed to reduce the set of covariates. Alignment factors were implemented to combine surveys on different age-groups and to acquire separate estimates for individuals aged ≤20 years and entire communities. Prevalence estimates were combined with population statistics to obtain country-specific numbers of Schistosoma infections. We estimate that 122 million individuals in eastern Africa are currently infected with either S. mansoni, or S. haematobium, or both species concurrently. Country-specific population-adjusted prevalence estimates range between 12.9% (Uganda) and 34.5% (Mozambique) for S. mansoni and between 11.9% (Djibouti) and 40.9% (Mozambique) for S. haematobium. Our models revealed that infection risk in Burundi, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, Somalia and Sudan might be considerably higher than previously reported, while in Mozambique and Tanzania, the risk might be lower than current estimates suggest. Our empirical, large-scale, high-resolution infection risk estimates for S. mansoni and S. haematobium in eastern Africa can guide future control interventions and provide a benchmark for subsequent monitoring and evaluation activities. Copyright © 2011

  13. Variability of urine parameters in children infected with Schistosoma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: The study revealed an overall prevalence of 27% as 108 pupils out of 400 were infected with S. haematobium in the area. Proteinuria, haematuria and leucocyturia were observed to occur in 67.0%, 79.0% and 74.9% respectively. Males had higher infections and higher occurrences of proteinuria, haematuria and ...

  14. Susceptibility of freshwater snails to the amphistome Calicophoron microbothrium and the influence of the species on susceptibility of Bulinus tropicus to Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mattheei infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chingwena, Givemore; Mukaratirwa, Samson; Kristensen, Thomas K; Chimberi, Moses

    2002-10-01

    The susceptibility of Bulinus tropicus, B. globosus, Biomphalana pfeifferi, Lymnaea natalensis, and Melanoides tuberculata to Calicophoron microbothrium was examined. Bulinus tropicus had the highest prevalence (65.0%), followed by B. pfeifferi (37.5%), B. globosus (6.8%), and M. tuberculata (5.9%). Lymnaea natalensis was refractory to infection. Bulinus tropicus snails infected with C. microbothrium alone or coinfected with either Schistosoma haematobium or S. mattheei 0, 7, 14, and 21 days after exposure to C. microbothrium produced C. microbothrium cercariae only.

  15. Sj-FABPc fatty-acid-binding protein of the human blood fluke Schistosoma japonicum: structural and functional characterization and unusual solvent exposure of a portal-proximal tryptophan residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, M W; Scott, J C; Lo, S; Beauchamp, J; McManus, D P

    2000-07-01

    Sj-FABPc of the blood fluke of humans, Schistosoma japonicum, is a member of the FABP/P2/CRBP/CRABP family of beta-barrel cytosolic fatty-acid-binding and retinoid-binding proteins. Sj-FABPc has at least eight different variants encoded by a single-copy polymorphic gene. In fluorescence-based assays, recombinant Sj-FABPc was found to bind 11-(dansylamino)undecanoic acid (DAUDA), inducing a shift in peak fluorescence emission from 543 to 493 nm. A similar spectral change was observed in dansyl-amino-octanoic acid (in which the dansyl fluorophore is attached at the alpha-carbon rather than the omega-carbon of DAUDA), indicating that the ligand enters entirely into the binding site. Sj-FABPc also bound the naturally fluorescent cis-parinaric acid, as well as oleic acid and arachidonic acid, by competition, but not all-trans-retinol. Dissociation constants were, for cis-parinaric acid, K(d)=2.5+/-0.1 microM (mean+/-S.E.M.) and an apparent stoichiometry consistent with one binding site per molecule of Sj-FABPc and, for oleic acid, K(i) approximately 80 nM. A deletion mutant from which alpha-II was absent failed to bind ligand. Sj-FABPc modelled well to known structures of the protein family; an unusually solvent-exposed Trp side chain was evident adjacent to the presumptive portal through which ligand is thought to enter and leave. Intrinsic fluorescence analyses of Sj-FABPc and of the deletion mutant (from which Trp-27 is absent) confirmed the unusual disposition of this side chain. Virtually all members of the FABP/P2/CRBP/CRABP protein family have prominent hydrophobic side chains in this position, with the exception of liver FABP and ileal FABP, which instead have charged side chains. Liver FABP is known to be distinct from other members of the protein family in that it does not seem to contact membranes to collect and deposit its ligand. It is therefore postulated that the unusually positioned apolar side chains in Sj-FABPc and others in the family are important in

  16. The pathology of experimental Schistosoma curassoni infections in mice and hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercruysse, J; Fransen, J; Southgate, V R; Rollinson, D

    1986-11-01

    The histopathology of experimental Schistosoma curassoni infections in white mice and hamsters was studied. In mice, hepatic lesions were severe with characteristic extensive perilobular fibrosis and large perilobular granulomas throughout the parenchyma. Only a few granulomas were detected in the lung, small intestine, and rectum of mice. In hamsters, lesions in the liver were limited. Few granulomas were found but the giant cell reaction was pronounced. Lesions in the lung and small intestine were minimal. Many subserosal and submucosal epithelioid cell granulomas were in the colon and rectum of hamsters. Parasites were not detected in the bladder of either mice or hamsters.

  17. Schistosoma haematobium co-infection with soil-transmitted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    transmitted helminthes afflict most-at-risk populations in endemic communities in the developing world. Aim: This study investigated S. haematobium co-infection with soil-transmitted helminthes, and host risk factors in two communities in the ...

  18. The regulation of mortality and fecundity in Schistosoma mattheei following a single experimental infection in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, M J; Smith, G

    1991-12-01

    The regulation of mortality and fecundity of Schistosoma mattheei in sheep was examined using a series of mathematical models applied to data culled from the literature. Parasite mortality (mu) was found to be an increasing linear function of the magnitude of the initial infection over the ranges of doses examined (200-91,000 cercariae) where mu = 9.78 x 10(-3) + 3.476 x 10(-7) infection dose. Parasite fecundity (lambda) was found to be inversely related to the duration of the infection. The best fit model for parasite fecundity was one in which fecundity decreased exponentially with time since initial infection, lambda = lambda 0e-delta(t-tau). There was no evidence for density-dependent regulation of fecundity.

  19. Proteomic mapping of the lung vascular endothelial cell surface in Schistosoma bovis-infected hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Torre-Escudero, Eduardo; Pérez-Sánchez, Ricardo; Manzano-Román, Raúl; Oleaga, Ana

    2014-06-25

    Schistosomes are blood trematodes that are perfectly adapted to living in their intravascular habitat and to achieve this they have developed mechanisms enabling them to evade the immune and haemostatic responses of the host and to regulate endothelial cell function to favour their own survival. The objective of this work was to analyse the changes induced by Schistosoma bovis schistosomula in the proteome expressed by infected hamsters, over 10 and 20 days, on the endothelial surface of their pulmonary vasculature. To accomplish this, we subjected the lungs of non-infected and S. bovis-infected hamsters to vascular perfusion with a biotin ester reactive. Analysis by liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry analysis (LC-MS/MS) of endothelial surface proteins resulted in the identification of a total of 459 non-redundant proteins in the lung vasculature of infected and non-infected hamsters. Here we report the proteins identified, classified according to their biological function and cellular location, further analysing the differences in lung vascular proteomes between non-infected and S. bovis-infected hamsters for ten and twenty days. This work provides the first data on the vascular surface proteome of the lung after S. bovis infection and identifies some of the changes induced in it during infection. To identify the changes induced by schistosomula larvae of Schistosoma bovis in the proteome of the pulmonary vasculature of the host, we compared the proteins expressed on the vascular endothelium of the lungs of non-infected and infected hamsters over 10 and 20 days. Mass spectrometry analysis (LC-MS/MS) of the proteins isolated from the vascular endothelium resulted in the identification of a total of 459 non-redundant proteins in the lung of infected and non-infected hamsters. The proteins identified are classified according to their biological function and cellular location, further analysing the differences in lung vascular proteomes between non-infected

  20. Schistosoma mansoni

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Henrik; Byskov, Jens

    1987-01-01

    Recent surveys in Ngamiland, Botswana, indicate increasing prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni infections. With the introduction of a schistosomiasis control programme, 354 of 373 schoolchildren were examined quantitatively for eggs of S. mansoni, and 317 were examined clinically for hepato- and sp...... with enlarged spleen. 21 of these had schistosomiasis. The prevalence of hepatomegaly was highest among those excreting above 1600 epg. Also the mean size of the enlarged livers increased with intensity of infection....

  1. Quantitative assessment of eosinophiluria in Schistosoma haematobium infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimert, C M; Mshinda, H M; Hatz, C F

    2000-01-01

    (cut-off value for the ECP > or =25 ng/ml) exceeded that of a single egg count. In addition, the ECP was better in discriminating between different grades of bladder pathology. The present study points to the ECP as a useful marker of both S. haematobium infection and of associated bladder morbidity...

  2. Status of Schistosoma mansoni prevalence and intensity of infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis is one of the chronic and neglected tropical diseases affecting rural communities. Heavy infections contribute to anemia and can retard children's growth, physical activity and cognitive function. This study was conducted in order to determine the prevalence, intensity and variation of ...

  3. Passive avoidance response in mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fiore, M; Carere, C; Moroni, R; Aloe, L

    2002-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease of humans and rodents affecting more than 200 million people worldwide. Following the onset of infection, the worms induce granulomas around schistosome eggs in the liver, intestine and central nervous system (both brain and spinal cord), which are likely to

  4. [Experimental infection of goats with Schistosoma bovis and S. curassoni: comparative pathogenic effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbo, R; Boulanger, D; Brémond, P; Chippaux, J P

    2007-03-01

    Specific mortality and morbidity have been quantified in goats experimentally infected with Schistosoma bovis or S. curassoni strains from Niger. The study involved nine animals followed during 380 days after infection with, respectively, 1,800 or 2,400 cercariae. S. bovis was significatively more pathogenic than S. curossoni in terms of mortality, weight loss and packed cell volume decrease. In addition, the intensity of clinical symptoms was significatively and positively correlated to the levels of fecal egg excretion. Compared to non-infected controls, a growth differential of, respectively, 1,600 and 880 grams per month should incite to consider S. bovis and S. curassoni as parasites of serious economical impact in sahelian countries.

  5. Variations in Schistosoma mattheei egg morphology and viability according to age of infection in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bont, J; Vercruysse, J; Massuku, M

    1996-09-01

    Comparison of the numbers of Schistosoma mattheei eggs and miracidia per gram faeces in groups of naturally infected calves, heifers and adult cows showed that the reduction in faecal egg excretion recorded as infection progresses is associated with a decline in the ability of eggs to hatch. While 50% of the eggs from calves produced a miracidium, only 15% of those excreted from adult cows did the same. The decline in egg viability is at least partly associated with morphological changes of the eggs. About twice as many smaller and vacuolated eggs were found in the faeces of heifers and adult cows (33.8%) as compared to animals in early infection (16.1%).

  6. Schistosoma spindale infection in a captive jackal (Canis aureus)

    OpenAIRE

    Vimalraj, P. G.; Latchumikanthan, A.

    2013-01-01

    This report is based on the findings from a captive jackal (Canis aureus) housed in Amirthi Zoological Park, Javadu Hills, Vellore. The animal was reported to be dull, depressed and also had diarrhea. Fecal samples were collected in 10 % formalin and subjected to direct and sedimentation method of faecal examination and was examined for endoparasitic infection. Surprisingly, fecal examination revealed two spindle shaped eggs having terminal spine with a size of 250μ by 60μ. The eggs were iden...

  7. Efficiency of the oral, intramuscular and subcutaneous routes for the experimental infection of hamster and sheep with Schistosoma bovis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleaga, Ana; Ramajo, Vicente

    2004-09-20

    The percutaneous administration of cercariae is the usual method for experimental infections with Schistosoma bovis. These procedures are laborious and have important inconveniences when working with a large number of animals, especially if they are ruminants. In the present study, the efficiency of the oral, intramuscular and subcutaneous routes are evaluated by comparison with the percutaneous route in experimental infections with S. bovis. The infections developed in hamsters and sheep were evaluated taking as a basis the parasite burden, the concentrations of eggs in tissues and the levels of anti-Schistosoma antibodies. The oral infection failed in both hamsters and sheep. The administration of the cercariae by the intramuscular route was effective in sheep, developing infections of intensity similar to that of the infections acquired percutaneously. In hamsters, on the contrary, although all the animals developed the infection, they were very little intense. The injection of the cercariae by the subcutaneous route induces acceptable infections in hamsters and can also be an alternative route to percutaneous exposure. The levels of the anti-Schistosoma bovis antibodies detected in hamster and sheep were proportional to the number of worms present, which shows that the humoral response is a good indicator of the intensity of the infections. It can be concluded that the intramuscular route is a good alternative to the percutaneous route for experimental infections of sheep with S. bovis. Likewise, the subcutaneous route can also substitute, with some advantages, the percutaneous infections in hamsters.

  8. Bladder morbidity and hepatic fibrosis in mixed Schistosoma haematobium and S. mansoni Infections: a population-wide study in Northern Senegal.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meurs, L.; Mbow, M.; Vereecken, K.M.; Menten, J.; Mboup, S.; Polman, K.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The global distribution map of schistosomiasis shows a large overlap of Schistosoma haematobium- and S. mansoni-endemic areas in Africa. Yet, little is known about the consequences of mixed Schistosoma infections for the human host. A recent study in two neighboring co-endemic

  9. Treatment efficacy and regulatory host responses in chronic experimental Schistosoma bovis infections in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monrad, J; Sörén, K; Johansen, M V; Lindberg, R; Ornbjerg, N

    2006-08-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the regulatory responses and the long-term effect of praziquantel treatment in chronically Schistosoma bovis-infected West African Dwarf goats. Forty-two goats were used and the design comprised a primary infection followed by treatment at week 13, challenge infection at week 36 and termination at week 52. Dependent variables included clinico-pathological data, worm numbers, faecal and tissue egg counts, and gross pathology of the liver. The results showed that primary infections remained suppressed for up to 52 weeks and, although challenge infections imposed on 36-week-old primary infections established fully, the impairment of their egg production capacity provided protection against clinico-pathological consequences measured by body weight and haemoglobin levels. The study also confirmed a high efficacy (97.7%) of praziquantel for treatment of S. bovis infection in goats and showed that anthelminthic removal of primary infections does not interfere with the ability of the goat to elicit a marked resistance to a subsequent challenge infection. Although treated goats had more fibrous scarring of livers than untreated goats, no negative effects of liver lesions were reflected in weight gains of treated goats. This study provides strong evidence for the beneficial effects of anthelminthic treatment of young domestic stock as an element of treatment and preventive programmes.

  10. Effect of maternal Schistosoma mansoni infection and praziquantel treatment during pregnancy on Schistosoma mansoni infection and immune responsiveness among offspring at age five years.

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    Robert Tweyongyere

    Full Text Available Offspring of Schistosoma mansoni-infected women in schistosomiasis-endemic areas may be sensitised in-utero. This may influence their immune responsiveness to schistosome infection and schistosomiasis-associated morbidity. Effects of praziquantel treatment of S. mansoni during pregnancy on risk of S. mansoni infection among offspring, and on their immune responsiveness when they become exposed to S. mansoni, are unknown. Here we examined effects of praziquantel treatment of S. mansoni during pregnancy on prevalence of S. mansoni and immune responsiveness among offspring at age five years.In a trial in Uganda (ISRCTN32849447, http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN32849447/elliott, offspring of women treated with praziquantel or placebo during pregnancy were examined for S. mansoni infection and for cytokine and antibody responses to SWA and SEA, as well as for T cell expression of FoxP3, at age five years.Of the 1343 children examined, 32 (2.4% had S. mansoni infection at age five years based on a single stool sample. Infection prevalence did not differ between children of treated or untreated mothers. Cytokine (IFNγ, IL-5, IL-10 and IL-13 and antibody (IgG1, Ig4 and IgE responses to SWA and SEA, and FoxP3 expression, were higher among infected than uninfected children. Praziquantel treatment of S. mansoni during pregnancy had no effect on immune responses, with the exception of IL-10 responses to SWA, which was higher in offspring of women that received praziquantel during pregnancy than those who did not.We found no evidence that maternal S. mansoni infection and its treatment during pregnancy influence prevalence and intensity of S. mansoni infection or effector immune response to S. mansoni infection among offspring at age five years, but the observed effects on IL-10 responses to SWA suggest that maternal S. mansoni and its treatment during pregnancy may affect immunoregulatory responsiveness in childhood schistosomiasis. This might have

  11. Health implications of chronic hepatosplenomegaly in Kenyan school-aged children chronically exposed to malarial infections and Schistosoma mansoni

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Shona; Vennervald, Birgitte J; Kadzo, Hilda

    2010-01-01

    Hepatosplenomegaly among school-aged children in sub-Saharan Africa is highly prevalent. Two of the more common aetiological agents of hepatosplenomegaly, namely chronic exposure to malaria and Schistosoma mansoni infection, can result in similar clinical presentation, with the liver and spleen b...

  12. Schistosoma antigens downregulate CXCL9 production by PBMC of HTLV-1-infected individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Luciane Mota; Cardoso, Luciana Santos; Santos, Silvane Braga; Oliveira, Ricardo Riccio; Oliveira, Sérgio Costa; Góes, Alfredo Miranda; Loukas, Alex; Araujo, Maria Ilma

    2017-03-01

    HTLV-1 is the causal agent of Adult T cell Leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) and HTLV-1-associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis (HAM/TSP). The immune response to HTLV-1-infection is polarized to the Th1-type, and the presence of CXCL9/CXCL10 chemokines may lead to an increase in the recruitment of pro-inflammatory molecules in spinal cord tissue, contributing to the damage observed in the development of HAM/TSP. It has been observed that in chronic helminth-infections, such as schistosomiasis, there is a deviation toward the Th2/regulatory immune response. To evaluate the ability of Schistosoma spp. proteins to decrease the in vitro CXCL9 and CXCL10 production by PBMC of HTLV-1-infected individuals. The Schistosoma proteins rSm29, rSh-TSP-2 and PIII were added to PBMC cultures of HTLV-1-infected individuals and the levels of chemokines in the supernatants were measured using a sandwich ELISA method. The addition of rSm29 to the cultures resulted in decreased production of CXCL9 in all the analyzed individuals and HAM/TSP group (18167±9727pg/mL, p=0.044; 20237±6023pg/mL, p=0.028, respectively) compared to the levels in unstimulated cultures (19745±9729pg/mL; 25078±2392pg/mL, respectively). The addition of rSh-TSP-2 decreased the production of CXCL9 in all studied individuals and carriers group (16136±9233pg/mL, p=0.031; 13977±8857pg/mL, p=0.026) vs unstimulated cultures (19745±9729pg/mL; 18121±10508pg/mL, respectively). Addition of PIII did not alter the results. There was no significant change in the levels of CXCL10 by the addition of the studied proteins. The Schistosoma proteins used in this study were able to down modulate the production of CXCL9, a chemokine associated with the inflammatory process in HTLV-1-infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Lethal effect of oxamniquine and praziquantel on mice experimentally infected with Schistosoma mansoni Efeito letal de oxamniquina e praziquantel em camundongos experimentalmente infectados com Schistosoma mansoni

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    Sonia Maria A.F. Tonelli

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available Lethality caused by administration of oxamniquine and praziquantel to mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni, and their respective controls (uninfected, has been studied. As the results indicate, the infected animals clearly showed higher mortality rates when praziquantel was used. Surprisingly, it may be noted that exactly the contrary occurs in relation to the use of oxamniquine, inasmuch as marked higher mortality rates were seen in the control animals (uninfected. These observations lead to the conclusion that further toxicological studies of antischistosomal drugs using. S. mansoni infected animals are needed.Pesquisou-se a letalidade causada por administração de drogas (oxamniquina e praziquantel em camundongos infectados por Schistosoma mansoni e seus respectivos controles não infectados. Os resultados indicam que os animais infectados apresentam claramente taxas de mortalidade mais altas, quando foi utilizado o praziquantel. Surpreendentemente, o contrário aconteceu com relação ao uso da oxamniquina, uma vez que taxas de mortalidade marcantemente mais altas puderam ser detectadas nos animais controles (não infectados. Estas observações levam à conclusão de que são necessários mais estudos toxicológicos sobre drogas esquistossomicidas, usandose animais infectados com S. mansoni.

  14. Urinary cytokines in Schistosoma haematobium-infected schoolchildren from Tana Delta District of Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njaanake, Kariuki H.; Simonsen, Paul Erik; Vennervald, Birgitte J

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pathological changes due to infection with Schistosoma haematobium include cytokine-mediated urinary tract inflammation. The involved cytokines may be excreted in urine and their presence in urine may therefore reflect S. haematobium-related urinary tract pathology. The present study......, for the first time, reports on the relationship between selected cytokines in urine and infection with S. haematobium in children from an area highly affected by this parasite. METHODS: Children aged 5-12 years from two primary schools in Tana Delta District of Kenya were examined for S. haematobium eggs using......-10 levels using ELISA. RESULTS: There was no significant correlation between urinary and serum levels of IL-6, IFN- γ, TNF-α or IL-10. There was no significant difference in geometric mean intensity (GMI) in any of the serum cytokines, or in urinary TNF-α or IFN-γ, between children with light...

  15. Natural infection with schistosomes of the Schistosoma haematobium group in a dog in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiti, L; De Bont, J; Fransen, J; Kane, R A; Mwase, M; Southgate, V R; Vercruysse, J

    2000-01-01

    Post-mortem examination of an adult male Jack Russell dog from Zambia revealed that it was heavily infected with schistosomes. The dog had been admitted, with a history of retching, 4 days before its death. At necropsy, the liver was found to be enlarged, with multiple pin-point yellowish-white foci scattered diffusely throughout the organ. Multiple pin-point recent and old haemorrhages were seen on the mucosal surface of the gastrointestinal tract, particularly in the stomach and proximal duodenum. Large numbers of schistosome worm pairs and eggs were found in all mesenteric, gastric and hepatic veins. Histological examination of the intestines, mesenteric lymph nodes, liver, spleen, pancreas, stomach and lungs revealed numerous strongly fibrotic, encapsulated, epithelioid-giant cell granulomata containing dead, degenerating and viable eggs. A few examples of the Splendore-Hoeppli phenomenon were also detected. The eggs collected at necropsy had a terminal spine and an average length and breadth of 187.6+/-14.1 microm and 57. 3+/-4.1 microm, respectively. DNA analysis of female worms indicated that the schistosomes were either Schistosoma haematobium or a hybrid of Schistosoma mattheei and S. haematobium. Copyright 2000 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  16. Clinical pathology of experimental Schistosoma curassoni infections in sheep and goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercruysse, J; Fransen, J; Southgate, V R; Rollinson, D; Majeleine, W

    1988-05-01

    The clinical pathology of Schistosoma curassoni infection in sheep and goats was studied for 22 weeks following experimental infection with 7000 and 4000 cercariae, respectively. Excretion of eggs began at week 7 after infection: in goats the numbers increased to 30 to 50 eggs per gram faeces (epg) at weeks 8 to 18, followed by a reduction. In a pregnant goat, epg values increased markedly before and after parturition. The mean faecal egg counts in sheep were lower than in goats, increasing to a maximum level of 30 epg at weeks 16 and 17 after infection. Infected sheep maintained growth rates roughly comparable with controls, whereas infected goats failed to gain as much weight as the controls. Infected goats and sheep produced eosinophil counts of about 3 x 10(3) mm-3, five and eight weeks after infection, respectively. Sheep developed a progressive anaemia from week 11 after infection, in goats blood values remained within normal limits. Differences in serum protein concentration were observed between infected and uninfected goats about nine weeks after infection, but not in sheep. Increased total protein values, hyperglobulinaemia and lowered albumin to globulin ratios were features of infected goats. Serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, glutamate pyruvate transaminase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, total lactate dehydrogenase and bilirubin were not significantly changed. The mean recovery in sheep was 608 worms, in goats 428 worms, but the total tissue egg counts were higher in the latter. Of the total eggs deposited in the goats 92 per cent were found in the liver with 51.5 per cent in the ovine liver. The histopathological changes were studied.

  17. Protective effects of membrane-anchored and secreted DNA vaccines encoding fatty acid-binding protein and glutathione S-transferase against Schistosoma japonicum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaqin Tu

    Full Text Available In order to explore the high performance bivalent DNA-based vaccine against schistosomes, SjFABP and Sj26GST were selected and used to construct a vaccine. Two strategies were used to construct the bivalent DNA vaccine. In the first strategy, a plasmid encoding antigen in the secreted form was used, while in the other, a plasmid encoding a truncated form of SjFABP and Sj26GST targeted to the cell surface was used. Various parameters, including antibody and cytokine response, proliferation, histopathological examination, and characterization of T cell subsets were used to evaluate the type of immune response and the level of protection against challenge infection. Injection with secreted pIRES-sjFABP-sj26GST significantly increased the levels of antibody, splenocyte proliferation, and production of IFN-γ, compared with membrane-anchored groups. Analysis of splenic T cell subsets showed that the secreted vaccine significantly increased the percentage of CD3(+CD4(+ and CD3(+CD8(+ T cells. Liver immunopathology (size of liver granulomas was significantly reduced in the secreted group compared with the membrane-anchored groups. Moreover, challenge experiments showed that the worm and egg burdens were significantly reduced in animals immunized with recombinant vaccines. Most importantly, secreted Sj26GST-SjFABP markedly enhanced protection, by reducing worm and egg burdens by 31.8% and 24.78%, respectively, while the membrane-anchored group decreased worm and egg burdens by 24.80% and 18.80%, respectively. Taken together, these findings suggest that the secretory vaccine is more promising than the membrane-anchored vaccine, and provides support for the development and application of this vaccine.

  18. [A comparison of the superficial argentophilic structures of miracidia from 12 species of the genus Schistosoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albaret, J L

    1984-01-01

    Observation of miracidia of twelve species of Schistosoma shows the fundamental epidermal cell pattern is: 6, 9, 4, 3. Comparison of superficial argentophilic organites permits us: --to divide these species into three inequal groups: mansoni group: Schistosoma mansoni, S. rodhaini. haematobium group: S. haematobium, S. bovis, S. indicum , S. intercalatum, S. margrebowiei , S. mattheei, S. nasale and S. spindale . japonicum group: S. japonicum, S. incognitum . --to emphasize the relatively narrow specificity between members of each group and the snail-hosts. --to position the above species of Schistosoma within the Schistosomatoidea . Furthermore this character gives us some idea of the degree of evolution of species of Schistosoma.

  19. Schistosoma mansoni Infection and Associated Determinant Factors among School Children in Sanja Town, Northwest Ethiopia

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    Ligabaw Worku

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Intestinal schistosomiasis is one of the most widespread parasitic infections in tropical and subtropical countries. Objective. To determine the prevalence of S. mansoni infection and associated determinant factors among school children in Sanja Town, northwest Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted from February to March, 2013. 385 school children were selected using stratified proportionate systematic sampling technique. Pretested questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographic data and associated determinant factors. Stool samples were examinedusing formol-ether concentration and Kato-Katz technique. Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS 20.0 statistical software. Multivariate logistic regression was done for assessing associated risk factors and proportions for categorical variables were compared using chi-square test. P values less than 0.05 were taken as statistically significant. Results. The prevalence of S. mansoni infection was 89.9% (n=346. The overall helminthic infection in this study was 96.6% (n=372. Swimming in the river, washing clothes and utensil using river water, crossing the river with bare foot, and fishing activities showed significant association with the occurrence of S. mansoni infection. Conclusion. Schistosoma mansoni infection was high in the study area. Therefore, mass deworming at least twice a year and health education for community are needed.

  20. Ecotourism as a source of infection withSchistosoma mansoniin Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murta, Felipe Leão Gomes; Massara, Cristiano Lara; Nogueira, Joyce Favacho Cardoso; Dos Santos Carvalho, Omar; de Mendonça, Cristiane Lafetá Furtado; Pinheiro, Viviane Aparecida Oliveira; Enk, Martin Johannes

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, a new pattern of schistosomiasis transmission has been described which is related to recreational activities associated with rural or ecological tourism and migratory flows and accompanying changes in social dynamics in Brazil. The objective of this report is to describe two schistosomiasis outbreaks that occurred during the practice of rural tourism in Minas Gerais, Brazil, and review this pattern of transmission within the wider context of schistosomiasis control. The first outbreak was characterized by its high infection rate, showing that 59 % of the exposed eco-tourists became positive for infection with Schistosoma mansoni . In addition, all three disease transmitting species of intermediate host snails were found in the area. In the second outbreak, all members of one tourist family were infected and reported contact with water in a well-known tourist area. The malacological survey in the region revealed an infection rate with S. mansoni of 8.3 % among the collected snails. Infection of urban dwellers that report contact with contaminated water associated with ecotourism represents a new pattern of disease transmission and dissemination. The infection with the disease at these occasions finds its expression in outbreaks of acute schistosomiasis among internal tourists to rural areas. Therefore, epidemiological surveillance in endemic areas should be aware of this schistosomiasis transmission pattern, and a multidisciplinary approach, most of all sanitation and health education measures, is required in order increase the efficiency of control strategies.

  1. Observations on worm population dynamics in calves naturally infected with Schistosoma mattheei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bont, J; Vercruysse, J; Sabbe, F; Ysebaert, M T

    1995-11-01

    The evolution of faecal egg output, worm burdens and tissue egg counts in young calves was monitored during the first year of natural exposure to Schistosoma mattheei infection on a Zambian farm. According to the duration of their stay on the farm, these calves were classified into 2 groups of 14 temporary tracers (TT calves) which were introduced on a 2-monthly basis for residential periods of 2 months, and 12 permanent tracers (PT calves) introduced either at the beginning of the experiment (Group A) or 2 months later (Group B) and gradually removed after residential periods of 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 months on the farm. Worm counts in the TT calves showed that infection occurred throughout the year on the farm and that levels of infection acquired during each period of 8 weeks correlated well with the respective infected snail densities observed at the main transmission site. Marked differences in worm population dynamics were recorded between the 2 groups of PT calves. In Group B animals which apparently were initially exposed to heavy transmission, according to the results from TT calves, much higher worm counts and greater susceptibility to reinfection were observed than in Group A animals initially exposed to lighter exposure. These results suggest that the development of resistance to natural infection with S. mattheei may depend on the initial exposure to the parasite. Low initial exposures may lead to resistance whereas high initial exposures may result in decreased immune responses resulting in susceptibility to infection.

  2. Portal veins of mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni exhibit an increased reactivity to 5-hydroxytryptamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva CLM

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In chronic severe infection with Schistosoma mansoni, portal hypertension and related vascular alterations usually develop as a consequence of granulomatous response to eggs. In order to investigate a putative direct effect of worms on the reactivity of their host portal vein, mice infected only with male worms were used in the present study. An higher reactivity to 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT characterized by an increase in the maximal contraction and sensitivity was observed in portal vein from infected mice compared to healthy mice. Blockade of NO-synthase with l-NAME induced a small increase in 5-HT potency in portal vein from non-infected mice without changing the amplitude of the contractions, whereas it did not alter the reactivity of veins from infected mice. The present results show that unisexual infection of mice with male S. mansoni increased the reactivity of the portal vein to 5-HT which seems to be partially related to an alteration in the nitric oxide release by endothelium.

  3. Schistosoma mansoni and Host-Parasite Interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M-C.A. de Walick (Saskia)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Blood-dwelling parasitic trematodes (flatworms) of the genus Schistosoma cause the disease schistosomiasis or Bilharzia. There are 5 different Schistosoma species that infect humans and many other infecting different mammals. Over 200 million people worldwide are

  4. Quality control of the slides by Kato-Katz method for the parasitological diagnosis of schistosomiasis infection by Schistosoma mansoni

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa, Constança S.; Gomes, Elainne Christine S.; Marcelino, Jeann Marie R.; Cavalcante, Karina R. L. J.; Nascimento, Wheverton Ricardo C.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Kato-Katz is a laboratory method recommended by the Brazilian Ministry of Health (BMH) and the World Health Organization (WHO) as the gold standard for the diagnosis of human infection by Schistosoma mansoni. The method has great clinical and epidemiological relevance because it allows the parasite load quantification of the infected patient by calculating the number of eggs per gram (EPG) of feces. This classification may also be used to estimate the intensity of infe...

  5. A pathological study of experimental long-standing Schistosoma bovis infection in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreras-Estrada, M C; García-Iglesias, M J; Pérez-Martínez, C; Manga-González, M Y; Ramajo-Martín, V; Escudero-Diez, A; García-Marín, J F

    1998-11-01

    The pathological response of sheep to two dose levels (400 or 10,000 cercariae) of Schistosoma bovis was evaluated 24 weeks after infection. The results confirmed that a single low or high dose causes lesions in the liver and intestine, and that the lungs, lymph nodes, pancreas and abomasum are affected in sheep given a single high dose. In addition, the study showed that pathological changes (mainly a granulomatous inflammatory reaction) were induced not only by eggs but also by adult worms, and that their severity was in general related to the dose of S. bovis. Hoeppli reaction product, observed on the surface of adult schistosomes in some parasitic granulomas, showed no immunoreaction for IgG, IgA or IgM.

  6. Biochemical and histological changes in liver ofNectomys squamipes naturally infected bySchistosoma mansoni

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    Sócrates Fraga da Costa Neto

    Full Text Available The South American water rat Nectomys squamipes is a wild mammal reservoir of Schistosoma mansoni in Brazil. In the present study, wild rodents were collected in the field and categorized into two groups: infected and uninfected by S. mansoni. Blood was collected to analyze changes in the serum glucose level (mg/dL and liver fragments were used to determine the hepatic glycogen content (mg of glucose/g tissue. The histological examination showed inflammatory granulomatous lesions in different phases of development in the liver of rodents naturally infected with S. mansoni, in some cases with total or partial occlusion of the vascular lumen. Early lesions were characterized by the presence of inflammatory infiltrate around morphologically intact recently deposited eggs. Despite the significance of these histological lesions, the biochemical changes differed in extent. N. squamipes naturally infected byS. mansoni showed no variation in hepatic glycogen reserves. These findings were accompanied by a significant increase in plasma glucose contents, probably as a consequence of amino acids deamination, which are degraded, resulting in the formation of intermediates used as precursors for the glucose formation, without compromising the reserves of liver glycogen. In the wild, naturally infected N. squamipes can maintainS. mansoni infections without undergoing alterations in its carbohydrate metabolism, which minimizes the deleterious effects of S. mansoni.

  7. Schistosoma mattheei infections in cattle: changes associated with season and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bont, J; Vercruysse, J; Sabbe, F; Southgate, V R; Rollinson, D

    1995-04-01

    The Schistosoma mattheei egg output was monitored in 31 cattle over a 18-month period on a dairy farm near Lusaka (Zambia). The animals were kept on pasture with free access to two streams which were suitable for the intermediate host, Bulinus globosus. Individual faecal egg excretion reached an average peak of 130 eggs per gram, around 9 months after birth and decreased markedly before the age of 18 months. Average counts declined significantly with age, down to less than five eggs per gram in adult cows. A seasonal increase in B. globosus snails and S. mattheei transmission during the rainy season had no effect on the egg output of animals older than 18 months. Two calves and two adult cows were necropsied to compare fluke and tissue egg counts in young and old infections. There was a marked decline in tissue egg accumulation in older cows, in spite of an increase in the numbers of adult female flukes, as compared with young animals. A shift of egg accumulation from the large intestine towards the liver was also observed as infection progressed. It is concluded from the results of faecal egg counts that cattle reared under conditions of continuous challenge develop acquired resistance to S. mattheei infection within the first year following primary infection. Comparison of fluke and tissue egg counts in farm animals of different ages suggests the acquisition of an anti-fecundity effect as infection progresses.

  8. Mating behaviour in mixed infections of Schistosoma haematobium and S. mattheei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southgate, V R; Tchuem Tchuenté, L A; Vercruysse, J; Jourdane, J

    1995-01-01

    In mixed infections of Schistosoma haematobium and S. mattheei, homospecific and heterospecific pairs are formed, with a preponderance of homospecific pairs indicating the existence of a mate preference system. S. haematobium apparently exhibits a greater specific mate recognition system than does S. mattheei. In sequential infections when mice are exposed to S. mattheei 4 weeks after infection with S. haematobium, S. haematobium males are better at pairing with S. mattheei females than are S. mattheei males. Hence, genetic exchanges between S. haematobium and S. mattheei giving rise to viable hybrids poses the problem of the genetic identity of these species of schistosomes. The most important reproductive isolating mechanisms are definitive host specificity, S. haematobium being primarily a parasite of man, whereas S. mattheei is a parasite of domestic stock and wild ungulates, and the preference for homospecific pairings in simultaneous infections. In contrast, when S. haematobium is the older infection, S. haematobium males are better than S. mattheei males at pairing with females of either species. Hybridisation is the likely outcome of such interactions. The lack of viability of S. mattheei male X S. haematobium female indicates genetic differences between the two species. Occurrences of natural hybridisation between S. haematobium and S. mattheei may lead to a change in the response of the parasite to chemotherapeutic treatment.

  9. Histopathological and immunohistochemical study of lambs experimentally infected with Fasciola hepatica and Schistosoma bovis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreras, M C; García-Iglesias, M J; Manga-González, M Y; Pérez-Martínez, C; Mizinska, Y; Ramajo, V; González-Lanza, M C; Escudero, A; García-Marín, J F

    2000-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the cross-resistance between Fasciola hepatica and Schistosoma bovis in lambs assessing parasitologic, gross pathologic, histopathologic and immunohistochemical changes in liver and small intestine. Thirty Castellana breed lambs were divided into five comparable groups and exposed to F. hepatical S. bovis (group F/S), S. bovis/F. hepatica (group S/F), S. bovis (group S) or F. hepatica (group F) and six unexposed lambs were used as non-infected controls (group C). Primary patent infection with F. hepatica induced a lower number of schistosome eggs and a higher number of lymphocytes in intestinal and liver schistosome egg-induced granulomas in group F/S than in the groups S/F and S, liver damage being mainly attributed to F. hepatica. S. bovis infection followed by challenge with F. hepatica particularly increased the severity of the most significant liver alterations (cholangiohepatitis by F. hepatica and mesoendophlebitis by S. bovis) and F. hepatica seemed not to have an influence on established S. bovis infection. In addition, immunohistochemical results suggested that the predominant local immune response in both double-infected groups was different, being mainly a cell-mediated immune response in group F/S and a mucosal response in group S/F.

  10. The hepatoprotective activity of blue green algae in Schistosoma mansoni infected mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Azza H; Osman, Gamalat Y; Salem, Tarek A; Elmalawany, Alshimaa M

    2014-10-01

    This study aims to evaluate the immunomodulatory effects of a natural product, blue green algae (BGA) (100 mg/kg BW), alone or combined with praziquantel PZQ (250 mg/kg BW) on granulomatous inflammation, liver histopathology, some biochemical and immunological parameters in mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni. Results showed that the diameter and number of egg granuloma were significantly reduced after treatment of S. mansoni-infected mice with BGA, PZQ and their combination. The histopathological alterations observed in the liver of S. mansoni-infected mice were remarkably inhibited after BGA treatments. BGA decreased the activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) as well as the level of total protein (TP) while the level of albumin was increased. Treatment of infected mice with BGA, PZQ as well as their combination led to significant elevation in the activities of hepatic antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) as compared with control group. Combination of BGA and PZQ resulted in significant reduction in the level of intercellular adhesion molecules-1 (ICAM-1), vascular adhesion molecules-1 (VCAM-1) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) when compared to those of the S. mansoni-infected group. Overall, BGA significantly inhibited the liver damage accompanied with schistosomiasis, exhibited a potent antioxidant and immunoprotective activities. This study suggests that BGA can be considered as promising for development a complementary and/or alternative medicine against schistosomiasis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Characterization of hemolymph phenoloxidase activity in two Biomphalaria snail species and impact of Schistosoma mansoni infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Clec'h, Winka; Anderson, Timothy J C; Chevalier, Frédéric D

    2016-01-22

    Biomphalaria snails are the intermediate host of the blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni, which infect more than 67 million people in tropical areas. Phenoloxidase enzymes (POs), including tyrosinases, catecholases, and laccases, are known to play a role in the immune defenses of arthropods, but the PO activity present in Biomphalaria spp. hemolymph has not been characterized. This study was designed to characterize substrate specificity and reaction optima of PO activity in Biomphalaria spp. hemolymph as a starting point to understand the role of this important invertebrate enzyme activity in snail biology and snail-schistosome interactions. We used spectrophotometric assays with 3 specific substrates (L-tyrosine for tyrosinase, L-DOPA for catecholase, and PPD for laccase) and diethylthiocarbarmate (DETC) as specific PO inhibitor to characterize PO activity in the hemolymph of uninfected snails from two Biomphalaria species, and to determine the impact of the parasite Schistosoma mansoni on the PO activity of its B. glabrata vector. We identified laccase activity in hemolymph from uninfected B. glabrata and B. alexandrina. For both species, the activity was optimal at 45 °C and pH 8.5, and located in the plasma. The K m and V max of PO enzymes are 1.45 mM and 0.024 OD.min(-1) for B. glabrata, and 1.19 mM and 0.025 OD.min(-1) for B. alexandrina. When the snail vector is parasitized by S. mansoni, we observed a sharp reduction in laccase activity seven weeks after snail infection. We employed a highly specific spectrophotometric assay using PPD substrate which allows accurate measurement of laccase activity in Biomphalaria spp. hemolymph. We also demonstrated a strong impact of the parasite S. mansoni on laccase activity in the snail host.

  12. Effect of wide spectrum anti-helminthic drugs upon Schistosoma mansoni experimentally infected mice

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    PANCERA Christiane Finardi

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Mebendazole, albendazole, levamisole and thiabendazole are well known as active drugs against several nematode species, and against cestodes as well, when the first two drugs are considered. None of the drugs have proven activity, however, against trematodes. We tested the effect of these drugs on the fecal shedding of schistosome eggs and the recovering of adult schistosomes, after portal perfusion in Schistosoma mansoni experimentally infected mice. Balb/c mice infected with 80 S. mansoni cercariae were divided into three groups, each in turn subdivided into four other groups, for each tested drug. The first group was treated with each one of the studied drugs 25 days after S. mansoni infection; the second group was submitted to treatment with each one of the drugs 60 days after infection. Finally, the third group, considered as control, received no treatment. No effect upon fecal shedding of S. mansoni eggs and recovering of schistosomes after portal perfusion was observed when mice were treated with either mebendazole or albendazole. Mice treated with either levamisole or thiabendazole, on the other hand, showed a significant reduction in the recovering of adult schistosomes after portal perfusion, mainly when both drugs were given during the schistosomula evolution period, i.e., 25 days after cercariae penetration, probably due to unspecific immunomodulation

  13. Tandem repeat recombinant proteins as potential antigens for the sero-diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalenda, Yombo Dan Justin; Kato, Kentaro; Goto, Yasuyuki; Fujii, Yoshito; Hamano, Shinjiro

    2015-12-01

    The diagnosis of schistosome infection, followed by effective treatment and/or mass drug administration, is crucial to reduce the disease burden. Suitable diagnostic tests and field-applicable tools are required to sustain schistosomiasis control programs. We therefore assessed the potential of tandem repeat (TR) proteins for sero-diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni infection using an experimental mouse model. TR genes in the genome of S. mansoni were searched in silico and 7 candidates, named SmTR1, 3, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 15, were selected. Total RNA was extracted from S. mansoni adult worms and eggs. Target TR genes were amplified, cloned, and the proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli competent cells. Female BALB/c mice were infected with 100 S. mansoni cercariae and sera were collected each week post-infection for 18 weeks. The levels of IgG antibodies to SmTR antigens were compared to those to soluble egg antigen (SEA) and to soluble worm antigen preparation (SWAP). Sera of infected mice reacted to all the antigens whereas those of naïve mice did not. IgG responses to SmTR1, 3, 9 and 10 were detected at the early stage of infection. Interestingly, antibodies reacting to SmTR3, 9, 10 and 15 dramatically decreased 4 weeks after treatment with praziquantel, while those against SEA and SWAP remained elevated. Our study suggests that TR proteins, especially SmTR10, may be suitable antigens for sero-diagnosis of infection by S. mansoni and are potential markers for monitoring and surveillance of schistosomiasis, including re-infection after treatment with praziquantel. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The effect of multiple transfers of immune serum on maturing Schistosoma bovis infections in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushara, H O; Omer, O H; Malik, K H; Taylor, M G

    1994-01-01

    To investigate the role of humoral factors in immunity, serum from cattle with naturally acquired immunity to Schistosoma bovis was injected intraperitoneally into calves that had been infected 4 weeks earlier with 10,000 S. bovis cercariae. Serum was injected weekly until 12 weeks post-infection to a total of 4,500 ml per calf and controls received normal serum or saline. No significant difference in worm or in faecal or tissue egg counts were seen in the three groups of recipients in spite of the observation that the serum donors had proved highly resistant to experimental challenge. In a second experiment, pre-infection or 4-, 8- or 12-week post-infection serum from donors given a single experimental infection with 10,000 S. bovis cercariae was injected intraperitoneally into groups of calves that had been infected 4 weeks earlier with 20,000 S. bovis cercariae. Injections were given weekly up to week 10 post-infection to a total of 2000-3500 ml serum per calf. In calves injected with immune serum there was a reduction in faecal and tissue egg counts and in the numbers of worms recovered as compared with the controls. In recipients of 8- and 12-week serum the reductions in faecal and tissue egg counts were higher than those in worm recovery, suggesting that 8- and 12-week post-infection sera contained factors capable of causing, in addition to worm death, suppression of worm fecundity. This provides further evidence of the importance of fecundity suppression in immunity to schistosomiasis.

  15. Acute Schistosoma mansoni infection increases susceptibility to systemic SHIV clade C infection in rhesus macaques after mucosal virus exposure.

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    Agnès-Laurence Chenine

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Individuals living in sub-Saharan Africa represent 10% of the world's population but almost 2/3 of all HIV-1/AIDS cases. The disproportionate HIV-1 infection rates in this region may be linked to helminthic parasite infections that affect many individuals in the developing world. However, the hypothesis that parasite infection increases an individual's susceptibility to HIV-1 has never been prospectively tested in a relevant in vivo model.We measured whether pre-existing infection of rhesus monkeys with a parasitic worm would facilitate systemic infection after mucosal AIDS virus exposure. Two groups of animals, one consisting of normal monkeys and the other harboring Schistosoma mansoni, were challenged intrarectally with decreasing doses of R5-tropic clade C simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV-C. Systemic infection occurred in parasitized monkeys at viral doses that remained sub-infectious in normal hosts. In fact, the 50% animal infectious (AID(50 SHIV-C dose was 17-fold lower in parasitized animals compared to controls (P<0.001. Coinfected animals also had significantly higher peak viral RNA loads than controls (P<0.001, as well as increased viral replication in CD4(+ central memory cells (P = 0.03.Our data provide the first direct evidence that acute schistosomiasis significantly increases the risk of de novo AIDS virus acquisition, and the magnitude of the effect suggests that control of helminth infections may be a useful public health intervention to help decrease the spread of HIV-1.

  16. Defense response of susceptible and resistant Biomphalaria alexandrina snails against Schistosoma mansoni infection

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    Iman F. Abou-El-Naga

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In Egypt, Biomphalaria alexandrina is the intermediate host for Schistosoma mansoni. The fates of Schistosoma miracidia in the snails varies between different species of Biomphalaria. The internal defense system is one of the factors that influence the susceptibility pattern of the snails. The interaction between Biomphalaria snails and S. mansoni needs to be identified for each species, and even between the members of the same species with different degrees of susceptibility. In the present study, the first generation of susceptible and resistant parents of B. alexandrina was examined histologically at the 30th day post exposure. The study includes the characterization of the immune response, as expressed by tissue reactions, of susceptible and resistant B. alexandrina snails against S. mansoni. It was also designed to determine the impact of the resistance increase in parent snails, on the mechanisms of interaction of their offspring against infection. The results showed that the infection rate of the offspring from the susceptible parents was 92%. No susceptible offspring was produced from the resistant parents. When the parents were of equal number of susceptible and resistant snails, they gave an offspring with an infection rate of 20%. Susceptible snails that had susceptible parents showed a higher degree of susceptibility than those that had both susceptible and resistant parents. A common feature of the resistant snails was the absence of any viable parasites. The tissue reactions of the resistant snails having only resistant parents occurred at the site of miracidial penetration. In resistant snails for which susceptible ones were included in their parents, the reactions occurred in the deep tissues. These results characterized the immune response of B. alexandrina snails against Schistosoma infection which was found to occur by two different mechanisms. One type of defense occurs in highly resistant snails, and employs direct

  17. Detection of Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma haematobium DNA by Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification: Identification of Infected Snails from Early Prepatency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Ibrahim; King, Charles H.; Muchiri, Eric M.; Hamburger, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Monitoring post-control transmission of schistosomes by examining humans becomes less effective as infection rates among humans decrease. Molecular monitoring of prepatent schistosome infection in snails by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been used for studying human-to-snail transmission, and snail prepatent infection rates were found to correspond to infection prevalence and average intensity in human populations contacting the sites studied. We have now developed loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays for identifying Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium to facilitate large-scale evaluation of post-intervention transmission potential. LAMP primers were designed based on the Sm1-7 and DraI repeated sequences of the corresponding schistosomes, and amplification by LAMP of these 121-basepair highly abundant sequences provided a detection sensitivity of 0.1 fg of genomic DNA. When these LAMP assays were applied for examining infected laboratory snails, it was possible to identify infection from the first day after exposure to miracidia. The potential advantages of these assays are discussed. PMID:20682894

  18. Tools for diagnosis, monitoring and screening of Schistosoma infections utilizing lateral-flow based assays and upconverting phosphor labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corstjens, Paul L A M; De Dood, Claudia J; Kornelis, Dieuwke; Fat, Elisa M Tjon Kon; Wilson, R Alan; Kariuki, Thomas M; Nyakundi, Ruth K; Loverde, Philip T; Abrams, William R; Tanke, Hans J; Van Lieshout, Lisette; Deelder, André M; Van Dam, Govert J

    2014-12-01

    The potential of various quantitative lateral flow (LF) based assays utilizing up-converting phosphor (UCP) reporters for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis is reviewed including recent developments. Active infections are demonstrated by screening for the presence of regurgitated worm antigens (genus specific polysaccharides), whereas anti-Schistosoma antibodies may indicate ongoing as well as past infections. The circulating anodic antigen (CAA) in serum or urine (and potentially also saliva) is identified as the marker that may allow detection of single-worm infections. Quantitation of antigen levels is a reliable method to study effects of drug administration, worm burden and anti-fecundity mechanisms. Moreover, the ratio of CAA and circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) is postulated to facilitate identification of either Schistosoma mansoni or Schistosoma haematobium infections. The UCP-LF assays allow simultaneous detection of multiple targets on a single strip, a valuable feature for antibody detection assays. Although antibody detection in endemic regions is not a useful tool to diagnose active infections, it gains potential when the ratio of different classes of antibody specific for the parasite/disease can be determined. The UCP-LF antibody assay format allows this type of multiplexing, including testing a linear array of up to 20 different targets. Multiple test spots would allow detection of specific antibodies, e.g. against different Schistosoma species or other pathogens as soil-transmitted helminths. Concluding, the different UCP-LF based assays for diagnosis of schistosomiasis provide a collection of tests with relatively low complexity and high sensitivity, covering the full range of diagnostics needed in control programmes for mapping, screening and monitoring.

  19. Modelling control of Schistosoma haematobium infection: predictions of the long-term impact of mass drug administration in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurarie, David; Yoon, Nara; Li, Emily; Ndeffo-Mbah, Martial; Durham, David; Phillips, Anna E; Aurelio, H Osvaldo; Ferro, Josefo; Galvani, Alison P; King, Charles H

    2015-10-22

    Effective control of schistosomiasis remains a challenging problem for endemic areas of the world. Given knowledge of the biology of transmission and past experience with mass drug administration (MDA) programs, it is important to critically evaluate the likelihood that MDA programs will achieve substantial reductions in Schistosoma prevalence. In implementing the World Health Organization Roadmap for Neglected Tropical Diseases it would useful for policymaking to model projections of the status of Schistosoma control in MDA-treated areas in the next 5-10 years. Calibrated mathematical models were used to project the effects of different frequency and coverage of MDA for schistosomiasis haematobia control in present-day endemic communities, taking into account uncertainties of parasite biology and input data. The modeling approach in this analysis was the Stratified Worm Burden model developed in our earlier works, calibrated using data from longitudinal S. haematobium control trials in Kenya. Model-based simulations of MDA control in typical low-risk and higher-risk communities indicated that infection prevalence can be substantially reduced within 10 years only when there is a high degree of community participation (>70 %) with at least annual MDA. Significant risk for re-emergence of infection remains if MDA is suspended. In a stable (stationary) ecosystem, Schistosoma reproduction and transmission are sufficiently robust that the process of human infection continues, even under pressure from aggressive MDA. MDA alone is unlikely to interrupt transmission, and once mass treatment is suspended, the prevalence of human infection is likely to rebound to pre-control levels over a period of 25-30 years. MDA success in achieving very low levels of infection prevalence is highly dependent on treatment coverage and frequency within the local human population, and requires that both adults and children be included in drug delivery coverage. Ultimately, supplemental

  20. The influence of colostrum on early Schistosoma mattheei infections in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriël, S; De Bont, J; Phiri, I K; Masuku, M; Riveau, G; Schacht, A M; Billiouw, M; Vercruysse, J

    2002-12-01

    The study investigated whether the susceptibility of calves to an early Schistosoma mattheei infection may be modified by intake of colostrum from infected cows. Twelve calves born to non-infected mothers were randomly divided into 2 groups of 6. The animals from group 1 were fed colostrum originating from a pool collected from non-infected cows, the calves from group 2 received colostrum from a pool collected from cows infected with S. mattheei. One month after birth all calves were infected by exposure to 1000 cercariae of a local strain of S. mattheei, and perfused 12 weeks later to determine the worm- and tissue egg counts. IgG(H+L), IgG1, IgG2 and IgA levels against soluble adult worm antigen preparation of S. bovis (SWAP bovis) were analysed in both colostrum pools and in the serum from the calves collected during the study before and after receiving colostrum, then on days 7, 30, 73 and 122. Faecal egg counts were determined from day 73 onwards. The IgG(H+L), IgG1 and IgA levels of the positive colostrum pool were higher than those of the negative pool. Calves of group 2 showed significantly higher levels of IgG(H+L) and IgG1 until day 73, to reach equal levels at necropsy. Calves of group 2 showed significant reductions of 42, 28 and 42% in total worm counts, female worm counts, and tissue egg counts, respectively, and a reduction of 25% in cumulative faecal egg counts. These findings indicate that there was a significant impact of colostrum on the parasitological and serological course of early S. mattheei infections.

  1. Recent advances in Schistosoma genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourão, M M; Grunau, C; LoVerde, P T; Jones, M K; Oliveira, G

    2012-01-01

    Schistosome research has entered the genomic era with the publications reporting the Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma japonicum genomes. Schistosome genomics is motivated by the need for new control tools. However, much can also be learned about the biology of Schistosoma, which is a tractable experimental model. In this article, we review the recent achievements in the field of schistosome research and discuss future perspectives on genomics and how it can be integrated in a usable format, on the genetic mapping and how it has improved the genome assembly and provided new research approaches, on how epigenetics provides interesting insights into the biology of the species and on new functional genomics tools that will contribute to the understanding of the function of genes, many of which are parasite- or taxon specific. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Resistance against Schistosoma mansoni induced by highly irradiated infections: studies on species specificity of immunization and attempts to transfer resistance

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    Bickle, Q.D.; Andrews, B.J.; Doenhoff, M.J.; Ford, M.J.; Taylor, M.G. (London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, St. Albans (UK). Winches Farm Field Station)

    1985-01-01

    Significant levels of resistance against Schistosoma mansoni challenge were developed by mice exposed to highly irradiated (20 krad.) cercariae of the homologous species (53-67%), whereas vaccination with S. bovis, S. haematobium or S. japonicum failed to confer significant levels of resistance (-5-12%), thus confirming the specificity of the immunizing procedure. Attempts to transfer resistance to naive recipients by injection of serum and of spleen or lymph node cells from donor mice vaccinated with highly irradiated cercariae were largely unsuccessful. However, significant levels of resistance could be transferred to mice by injection of serum from rabbits exposed to irradiated cercariae. Comparable levels of resistance were conferred by injection of serum at the time of challenge (34-69%) or 5-6 days later (31-56%). In contrast, sera from rabbits injected with soluble egg antigen or homogenized cercariae failed to confer protection upon recipient mice. Sera from vaccinated mice, vaccinated rabbits and antigen-injected rabbits all caused cell adherence to skin-transformed schistosomula but neither the level of adherence nor the serum titre correlated with the ability to confer protection to mice.

  3. Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Menthol and Menthone in Schistosoma mansoni Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaia, Mauricio G.; Cagnazzo, Túlio di Orlando; Feitosa, Karina A.; Soares, Edson G.; Faccioli, Lúcia H.; Allegretti, Silmara M.; Afonso, Ana; Anibal, Fernanda de Freitas

    2016-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease caused by several species of trematode worms and it is believed that more than 261 million people are affected worldwide. New drug development has become essential because there is a risk of the parasite becoming resistant to Praziquantel, the only drug available for this infection. This study evaluated parasitological, immunological and histological parameters in mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni and treated with an herbal commercial medicine. This drug consists of menthol (30–55%) and menthone (14–32%). A 60 day treatment regimen with the herbal medicine decreased the number of S. mansoni eggs in the feces, liver, and intestine and reduced the number of hepatic granulomas. We observed a reduction of 84% in blood eosinophilia and a decrease in the IL-4 and IL-10 blood levels after treatment. Therefore, we propose that schistosomiasis treatment with this herbal medicine for 60 days has an immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory action in this animal model for schistosomiasis thus contributing to the decrease in physio pathological effects caused by S. mansoni infection. PMID:27378927

  4. Perinatal priming of calves born to Schistosoma mattheei-infected dams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriël, S; Ververken, C; Vercruysse, J; Duchateau, L; Phiri, I K; Goddeeris, B M

    2007-03-15

    The objective of this study was to elucidate whether calves born to infected dams had been primed against Schistosoma mattheei antigens. Infection-confirmed, pregnant cows were randomly selected for monitoring their offspring. Pre-colostral serum was collected from the neonates for the detection of specific antibodies at birth, as they indicate a transplacental transfer of schistosome-specific antibodies and antigen. At the age of approximately 2 months, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of calves were analysed for specific memory by antigen-specific stimulation in vitro. Twenty-six of the 30 calves demonstrated S. mattheei-specific proliferation. All 12 seropositive-born, as well as 14 of the 18 seronegative-born (before colostrum uptake) calves displayed mattheei-specific proliferation. The results indicate that the calves were primed against S. mattheei and might explain why seropositive-born calves from infected dams are better protected against S. mattheei, and query the impermeability of the damaged ruminant placenta with consequences for antigen transfer.

  5. Therapeutic Effects of Allium sativum and Allium cepa in Schistosoma mansoni experimental infection

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    Mona Mohamed Mantawy

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of both garlic (Allium sativum and onion (Allium cepa on some biochemical parameters in Schistosoma mansoni infected mice individually and mixed either with or without the currently used drug, praziquantel (PZQ were investigated. These involved some immunological parameters, namely IgM, IgG, interleukins 2 and 6 (IL-2 and 6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, some antioxidant enzymes [catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPX]. In addition, parasitological and histopathological investigations were performed. No changes were observed in the normal control mice treated with dry extract of onion or garlic, individually or mixed, with or without PZQ, compared to the normal healthy control group. Infection with S. mansoni showed an increase in IgG, IgM, IL-2, IL-6, TNF-α and catalase enzyme, accompanied with a decrease in GPX and SOD antioxidant enzyme activities. Remarkable amelioration was noticed in the levels of all the measured parameters in S. mansoni infected mice after administration of the studied extracts. Moreover a significant reduction in worm burden, hepatic and intestinal eggs and oogram count was noticed which was reflected in normalization of liver architecture.

  6. Circulating Antigens Levels in Different Clinical Forms of the Schistosoma mansoni Infection

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    Yerkes Pereira e Silva

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available With the aim to evaluate the circulating cathodic antigen (CCA levels in relation to the different clinical phases of Schistosoma sp. infection a sandwich ELISA using monoclonal antibody 5H11 was performed. The sera of three groups of 25 Brazilian patients with acute, intestinal and hepatosplenic forms of S. mansoni infection were tested and compared to a non-infected control group. Patients and control groups were matched for age and sex and the number of eggs per gram of feces was equally distributed among the three patient groups. Sensitivity of 100%, 72%, 52% of the assay was observed for the intestinal, hepatosplenic and acute toxemic groups respectively. The specificity was 100%. Intestinal and hepatosplenic groups presented CCA levels significantly higher in comparison to those observed for acute patients (F-ratio = 2,524; p = 0.000 and F-ratio = 6,314; p = 0.015 respectively. There was no significant difference of CCA serum levels between hepatosplenic and intestinal groups (F-ratio = 1,026; p = 0.316.

  7. A multivariate analysis of the relationship between work ability and S. japonicum infection in Dongting Lake Region, in China Análise multivariada da relação entre capacidade de trabalho e infecção por S. japonicum na região dos lagos de Dongting, China

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    Li Yuesheng

    1993-08-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional case-control study on the association between the reduced work ability and S. japonicum infection was carried out in a moderate endemic area for schistosomiasis japonica in the southern part of Dongting lake in China. A total of 120 cases with reduced work ability and 240 controls paired to the case by age, sex, occupation and without reduced work ability, participated in the study. The mean age for individuals was 37.6 years old (21-60, the ratio of male: female was 60:40, the prevalence of S. japonicum in the individuals was 28.3%. The results obtained in this study showed that the infection of S. japonicum in case and control groups was 49.2% (59/120 and 17.9% (43/240, respectively. Odds ratio for reduced work ability among those who had schistosomiasis was 4.34 (95%, confidence interval was 2.58-7.34, and among those who had S. japonicum infection (egg per gram > 100 was up to 12.67 (95%, confidence interval was 3.64-46.39. After odds ratio was adjusted by multiple logistic regression, it was confirmed that heavier intensity of S. japonicum infection and splenomegaly due to S. japonicum infection were the main risk factors for reduced work ability in the population studied.Um estudo seccional de casos controles da associação entre a capacidade reduzida para o trabalho e a infecção por S. japonicum foi levada a efeito em região moderadamente endêmica para esquistossomose japônica na parte sul do lago Dongting, China. Um total de 120 casos com redução da capacidade de trabalho e 240 controles pareados no que diz respeito a idade, sexo, ocupação sem redução da capacidade de trabalho. A idade média dos pacientes foi 37,6 anos (21-60 e a relação masculino:feminino foi 60:40. A prevalência do S. japonicum foi de 28,3%. Os resultados obtidos neste estudo mostraram que a infecção nos casos e no grupo controle foi 49,2% (59/120 e 17,9% (43/240 respectivamente. A média para redução da capacidade de trabalho

  8. Epidemiological studies of Schistosoma mattheei infections in cattle in the highveld and lowveld communal grazing areas of Zimbabwe

    OpenAIRE

    D.M. Pfukenyi; S. Mukaratirwa; A.L. Willingham; J. Monrad

    2006-01-01

    During the period between January 1999 and December 2000, the distribution and seasonal patterns of Schistosoma mattheei infections in cattle in the highveld and lowveld communal grazing areas of Zimbabwe were determined through monthly coprological examination. Faecal samples of cattle were collected from 12 and nine dipping sites in the highveld and lowveld communal grazing areas, respectively. Patterns of distribution and seasonal fluctuations of the intermediate host-snail population...

  9. Histological assessment of granulomas in natural and experimental Schistosoma mansoni infections using whole slide imaging.

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    Kátia B Amaral

    Full Text Available The pathology of schistosomiasis mansoni, a neglected tropical disease of great clinical and socioeconomic importance, results from the parasite eggs that become trapped in host tissues, particularly in the liver and intestines. Continuous antigenic stimulation from these eggs leads to recruitment of inflammatory cells to the sites of infection with formation of periovular granulomas. These complex structures have variable size and composition and are the most striking histopathological feature of schistosomiasis mansoni. However, evaluation of granulomas by conventional microscopy methods is time-consuming and limited, especially in large-scale studies. Here, we used high resolution Whole Slide Imaging (WSI, which allows fast scanning of entire histological slides, and multiple morphometric evaluations, to assess the granulomatous response elicited in target organs (liver, small and large intestines of two models of schistosomiasis mansoni. One of the advantages of WSI, also termed virtual microscopy, is that it generates images that simultaneously offer high resolution and a wide field of observation. By using a model of natural (Nectomys squamipes, a wild reservoir captured from endemic areas in Brazil and experimental (Swiss mouse infection with Schistosoma mansoni, we provided the first detailed WSI characterization of granulomas and other pathological aspects. WSI and quantitative analyses enabled a fast and reliable assessment of the number, evolutional types, frequency and areas of granulomas and inflammatory infiltrates and revealed that target organs are differentially impacted by inflammatory responses in the natural and experimental infections. Remarkably, high-resolution analysis of individual eosinophils, key cells elicited by this helminthic infection, showed a great difference in eosinophil numbers between the two infections. Moreover, features such as the intestinal egg path and confluent granulomas were uncovered. Thus, WSI may

  10. A highly sensitive TaqMan real-time PCR assay for early detection of Schistosoma species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li; Tang, Jingfeng; Zhao, Youyun; Gong, Rui; Lu, Xuan; Gong, Lulu; Wang, Yefu

    2011-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a major infectious disease and a public health concern in many areas in China and other countries. Sensitive method for detection of the parasite is critical for early diagnosis and for monitoring of effective treatment of the disease. In this study, we developed a highly sensitive TaqMan real-time PCR assay for the detection of Schistosoma japonicum DNA in mouse feces and serum samples. This assay was based on the DNA sequence of the S. japonicum 18S rRNA gene and was able to detect 10 fg of S. japonicum genomic DNA, which is 100 times more sensitive than conventional PCR. We were able to detect the S. japonicum DNA one week post-infection in mouse sera and 4 weeks post-infection in feces, which was one week earlier than egg detection by microscopy in feces. This assay was also highly specific for Asian Schistosomes which are causative species of human Schistosomiasis. In single sex male cercariae infected mice, parasite DNA was only detected in the first 4 weeks post-infection, suggesting that the DNA was derived from decaying worms' corpse in the first 4 weeks whereas the DNA was mainly from decaying parasite eggs afterwards. Therefore we conclude that the established TaqMan real-time PCR assay is a sensitive, specific and convenient method that could be used for the early diagnostic evaluation of S. japonicum infection in humans and for monitoring outbreaks in endemic areas with low prevalence. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Distribution, prevalence and intensity of Schistosoma bovis infection in cattle in Iringa district, Tanzania.

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    Makundi, A E; Kassuku, A A; Maselle, R M; Boa, M E

    1998-02-15

    Monthly abattoir, farms and village surveys were carried out to determine the distribution, prevalence and intensity of Schistosoma bovis infection in cattle in Iringa district in the southern highlands of Tanzania between August 1991 to August 1992. Abattoir surveys were conducted at the Iringa regional abattoir and age, sex, live animal grade and livestock market of origin of each of 342 animals examined were recorded. Five grams of the central part of the jejunum were collected from each animal and schistosome egg counting was carried out after tissue digestion. Nine farms and six villages were randomly selected and age, sex and origin of 501 cattle was recorded. Faecal samples were collected from each animal and quantification of schistosome eggs was carried out by means of the Modified Bell filtration technique. Abattoir surveys revealed S. bovis to be present in 116 out of 342 cattle examined in 10 out of the 12 livestock markets surveyed giving a point prevalence of 34%. A high frequency (70.1%) of low tissue egg counts (bovis infection in cattle is very common in foci in Iringa district and possibly the whole of the southern highlands of Tanzania and in some enzootic farms it could be among the major causes of ill-health and lowered productivity.

  12. Chemometric analysis of biofluids from mice experimentally infected with Schistosoma mansoni

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    Keiser Jennifer

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The urinary metabolic fingerprint of a patent Schistosoma mansoni infection in the mouse has been characterized using spectroscopic methods. However, the temporal dynamics of metabolic alterations have not been studied at the systems level. Here, we investigated the systems metabolic changes in the mouse upon S. mansoni infection by modeling the sequence of metabolic events in urine, plasma and faecal water. Methods Ten female NMRI mice, aged 5 weeks, were infected with 80 S. mansoni cercariae each. Ten age- and sex-matched mice remained uninfected and served as a control group. Urine, plasma and faecal samples were collected 1 day before, and on eight time points until day 73 post-infection. Biofluid samples were subjected to 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy and multivariate statistical analyses. Results Differences between S. mansoni-infected and uninfected control mice were found from day 41 onwards. One of the key metabolic signatures in urine and faecal extracts was an alteration in several gut bacteria-related metabolites, whereas the plasma reflected S. mansoni infection by changes in metabolites related to energy homeostasis, such as relatively higher levels of lipids and decreased levels of glucose. We identified 12 urinary biomarkers of S. mansoni infection, among which hippurate, phenylacetylglycine (PAG and 2-oxoadipate were particularly robust with regard to disease progression. Thirteen plasma metabolites were found to differentiate infected from control mice, with the lipid components, D-3-hydroxybutyrate and glycerophosphorylcholine showing greatest consistency. Faecal extracts were highly variable in chemical composition and therefore only five metabolites were found discriminatory of infected mice, of which 5-aminovalerate was the most stable and showed a positive correlation with urinary PAG. Conclusions The composite metabolic signature of S. mansoni in the mouse derived from perturbations

  13. Epidemiological studies of Schistosoma mattheei infections in cattle in the highveld and lowveld communal grazing areas of Zimbabwe.

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    Pfukenyi, D M; Mukaratirwa, S; Willingham, A L; Monrad, J

    2006-09-01

    During the period between January 1999 and December 2000, the distribution and seasonal patterns of Schistosoma mattheei infections in cattle in the highveld and lowveld communal grazing areas of Zimbabwe were determined through monthly coprological examination. Faecal samples of cattle were collected from 12 and nine dipping sites in the highveld and lowveld communal grazing areas, respectively. Patterns of distribution and seasonal fluctuations of the intermediate host-snail populations and the climatic factors influencing the distribution were also determined at monthly intervals from November 1998 to October 2000, a period of 24 months, in six dams and six streams in the highveld and nine dams in the lowveld communal grazing areas. Monthly, each site was sampled for relative snail density, the vegetation cover and type, and physical and chemical properties of the water. Mean monthly rainfall and temperature were recorded. Snails collected at the same time were individually examined for shedding of cercariae of S. mattheei and Schistosoma haematobium. A total of 16264 (5418 calves, 5461 weaners and 5385 adults) faecal samples were collected during the entire period of study and 734 (4.5%) were positive for S. mattheei eggs. Significantly higher prevalences were found in the highveld compared to the lowveld (P mattheei was recorded from the study sites with the highveld having a significantly higher abundance of the snails than the lowveld (P Schistosoma cercariae. In the highveld, 2.8% of B. globosus were infected with schistosome cercariae and 1.5% in the lowveld, with the figures at individual sites ranging from 0-18.8% in the highveld and from 0-4.5% in the lowveld. The cercariae recorded here were a mixture of S. mattheei and S. haematobium since they share the same intermediate host. The transmission of Schistosoma cercariae exhibited a marked seasonal pattern, being more intensive during the hot, dry season (September/November).

  14. Cytokines and mother sporocysts in susceptible and resistant Bulinus truncatus snails infected with Schistosoma haematobium.

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    El-Din, Abdel Hakim Saad; Gawish, Fathiya Ali; Abu El Einin, Hanaa Mohamed; Mansour, Shereen Mahfouz

    2014-08-01

    The presence of immunoreactive interleukin (IL-2), interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in addition to the citation of mother sporscytes in cephalopodal musculature in the susceptible and resistance Bulinus truncatus the specific intermediate host for the trematode Schistosoma haematobium were investigated,. Using ELISA tests, Results indicated that the concentration of IL-2-like activity in the susceptible and resistant snails decreased significantly after infection then persisted at low levels until the 4th week post exposure (WPE) in susceptible snails, while in resistant snails elevated during the second WPE, and returned to initial level at 3 and 4 WPE. Susceptible snails had low detectable levels of TNF-α and INF-γ like-activity after infection. However, the resistant snails had significant low levels of TNF-α and INF-γ like-activity from 3 WPE until the 4th WPE without any sign of normalization. Histological sections in the head- foot region of susceptible and resistance B. truncatus infected with S. haematobium, mother sporocysts exists from 1 to 7(day post exposure) DPE, in the susceptible snail the mother sporocysts were found as single, multiple and mature types. No mother sporocysts were appear in the lip and mantle of the snail on 2, 5, 7 DPE and on 1-3, 6 DPE respectively. In the resistant snails few mother sporocysts were found in the lip, mantle and tentacles. The results showed that schistosome-resistant Bulinus can be an alternative strategy for the control of schistosomiasis.

  15. Soil transmitted helminths and schistosoma mansoni infections among school children in zarima town, northwest Ethiopia

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    Birhan Wubet

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Ethiopia, because of low quality drinking water supply and latrine coverage, helminths infections are the second most predominant causes of outpatient morbidity. Indeed, there is a scarcity of information on the prevalence of soil transmitted helminths and Schistosomiasis in Ethiopia, special in study area. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of soil transmitted helminths and intestinal Schistosomiasis. Methods Cross-sectional study was conducted among 319 school children of Zarima town from April 1 to May 25, 2009. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic data and possible risk factors exposure. Early morning stool samples were collected and a Kato Katz semi concentration technique was used to examine and count parasitic load by compound light microscope. Data entry and analysis was done using SPSS-15 version and p-value Results Out of 319 study subjects, 263 (82.4% of the study participants infected with one or more parasites. From soil transmitted helminths, Ascaris lumbricoides was the predominant isolate (22% followed by Hookworms (19% and Trichuris trichiura (2.5%. Schistosoma mansoni was also isolated in 37.9% of the study participants. Hookworm and S. mansoni infections showed statistically significant associations with shoe wearing and swimming habit of school children, respectively. Conclusion Prevalence of soil transmitted helminths (STH and S.mansoni was high and the diseases were still major health problem in the study area which alerts public health intervention as soon as possible.

  16. Evaluation of urine CCA assays for detection of Schistosoma mansoni infection in Western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shane, Hillary L; Verani, Jennifer R; Abudho, Bernard; Montgomery, Susan P; Blackstock, Anna J; Mwinzi, Pauline N M; Butler, Sara E; Karanja, Diana M S; Secor, W Evan

    2011-01-25

    Although accurate assessment of the prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni is important for the design and evaluation of control programs, the most widely used tools for diagnosis are limited by suboptimal sensitivity, slow turn-around-time, or inability to distinguish current from former infections. Recently, two tests that detect circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) in urine of patients with schistosomiasis became commercially available. As part of a larger study on schistosomiasis prevalence in young children, we evaluated the performance and diagnostic accuracy of these tests--the carbon test strip designed for use in the laboratory and the cassette format test intended for field use. In comparison to 6 Kato-Katz exams, the carbon and cassette CCA tests had sensitivities of 88.4% and 94.2% and specificities of 70.9% and 59.4%, respectively. However, because of the known limitations of the Kato-Katz assay, we also utilized latent class analysis (LCA) incorporating the CCA, Kato-Katz, and schistosome-specific antibody results to determine their sensitivities and specificities. The laboratory-based CCA test had a sensitivity of 91.7% and a specificity of 89.4% by LCA while the cassette test had a sensitivity of 96.3% and a specificity of 74.7%. The intensity of the reaction in both urine CCA tests reflected stool egg burden and their performance was not affected by the presence of soil transmitted helminth infections. Our results suggest that urine-based assays for CCA may be valuable in screening for S. mansoni infections.

  17. Extra-cellular matrix changes in Schistosoma mansoni-infected Biomphalaria glabrata

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    Borges Claudia Maria da Cunha

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactivity of snails against parasites exhibits a primitive focal reaction, with encapsulation, phagocytosis and destruction of parasite larvae by macrophage-like cells - the hemocytes. This reaction mimics granulomatous inflammation seen in higher animals. However, different from the latter, little is known about the participation of extra-cellular matrix in such snail defense reactions. Normal and Schistosoma mansoni-infected Biomphalaria glabrata of different strains were submitted to cytological, histological, ultrastructural and biochemical methods in order to investigate the behavior of extra-cellular tissues at the site of anti-parasite reactions. In spite of the presence of two cell-types in peripheral hemolymph, only one cell-type was present at the sites of tissue reactions. Although pre-existent collagen and elastic fibers and microfibrils sometimes appeared slightly compressed around focal reactions, no evidences of duplication, synthesis or deposition of connective-tissue extra-cellular components were observed within or around the zones of reactive cell accumulations. Thus, tissue reactions against S. mansoni in the snail B. glabrata appeared exclusively dependent on one specific population of hemocytes.

  18. [Distribution of eosinophils at different stages of hepatic granuloma evolution in mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lins, Romero Antunes Barreto; Cavalcanti, Carmelita Bezerra de Lima; Araújo-Filho, Jorge Luiz Silva; Melo-Júnior, Mário Ribeiro de; Chaves, Maria Elizabeth Cavalcante

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, the distribution of eosinophils at different stages of the formation of hepatic granuloma in mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni was evaluated. From the results obtained, we suggest a new classification for the evolution of hepatic granuloma in mice, constructed from the phases described by other authors. In each phase, there is a different pattern of eosinophil distribution. In the exudative-necrotic phase, the eosinophils are concentrated in the periphery and center of the granuloma, and are scarce in the necrotic area; in the productive phase, the eosinophils are dispersed throughout the granuloma; and in the cure due to fibrosis phase, the eosinophils are concentrated in the periphery and center of the granuloma. Eosinophils were found in direct contact with the eggs at all stages of evolution of the granuloma. It was concluded that the dynamics of eosinophils have an important role in forming the granulomatous reaction of the host and in resolving the inflammatory process caused by the parasite egg, as well as adding new data regarding hepatic granuloma classification.

  19. Autotransplantation of hepatic granulomas into the skin of mice with Schistosoma mansoni infection

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    Nishimura, M.; Epstein, W.L.; Fukuyama, K.

    1982-09-01

    Hepatic egg granulomas of mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni were transplanted into the skin of the same animal and changes occurring to macrophages, eosinophils, and mast cells over time were studied by light and electron microscopy and by autoradiographic techniques. Disappearance of cellular components about the egg granulomas occurred within 1 week; the entire implant became encapsulated by inflammatory cells and stroma. By 3 weeks mononuclear cells and macrophages reorganized the granulomas around the eggs and neutrophils disappeared. Activated macrophages contained both secretory rough endoplasmic reticulum and lysosomal-dense bodies. Granuloma size increased up to 5 weeks after implantation and mast cells and eosinophils tended to migrate into the granulomas. The mast cell index always remained lower than in the original hepatic granulomas, while eosinophils were seen in large numbers. During 3 to 8 weeks after implantation mononuclear cells undergoing DNA synthesis in the granulomas ranged from 2.9-4.8%. Some 3-week-old autotransplants were injected with /sup 3/H-thymidine and biopsied from 1 to 21 days later. Labeled mononuclear cells peaked in the granulomas by 10 days (24%) and the numbers fell off sharply after that. These findings indicate that autologously implanted schistosome egg granulomas can be maintained successfully in the skin for prolonged periods with marked ingress of macrophages and eosinophils. The autoradiographic data suggest the lesions are high turnover granulomas.

  20. Evaluation of a polyclonal antibody based sandwich ELISA for the detection of faecal antigens in Schistosoma spindale infection in bovines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenivasa Murthy, G S; D'Souza, Placid E; Shrikrishna Isloor, K

    2013-04-01

    Schistosomosis is a common parasitic infection in animals prevalent in cattle in Asia and Africa, where it is estimated that at least 165 million animals are infected. Out of the 10 species reported to naturally infect cattle only Schistosoma nasale and Schistosoma spindale have received particular attention, because of their recognized veterinary significance. Although animal schistosomes may, under rare conditions favouring intensive transmission, act as important pathogens in endemic areas occur at a subclinical level, causing significant losses due to long term effects on animal growth and productivity. The detection of Schistosoma antigens in serum or stool could be more valuable in diagnosis, hence early treatment before irreparable damage. In this study, fresh adult worms of S. spindale were collected from the mesenteric blood vessels, whole worm antigen was prepared. These were immunized to rabbit and guinea pig to raise antibodies against S. spindale. Polyclonal antibodies of rabbit are further used as primary capture antibodies to coat ELISA plates. The capture of antibodies of guinea pig was conjugation with horse reddish peroxidase was used as secondary antibodies. Sandwich ELISA was performed to detect Schistosoma antigens in faecal samples collected from a total of 86 infected cattle and buffaloes. The working dilutions of capture antibody, detecting antibody and conjugate were found to be 1:32, 1:20 and 1:5,000 respectively by checker board titration method. The dilution of faecal supernatant antigens of S. spindale antibodies was 1:80. Out of 86 faecal samples, 77 samples were positive by Sandwich ELISA indicating 89.54 % infection. Where as in control samples none of the samples was positive. In mixed infection out of 20 samples positive for fasciola, amphistome and hydatid, Out of 20 samples 2 samples were positive indicating 10 % infection rate. The overall sensitivity of this test is 88.65 % and specificity was 90.90 %. It could be concluded

  1. Susceptibility of Biomphalaria tenagophila and Biomphalaria straminea to Schistosoma mansoni infection detected by low stringency polymerase chain reaction

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    JANNOTTI-PASSOS Liana Konovaloff

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine Schistosoma mansoni infection rates in Biomphalaria tenagophila and B. straminea, low stringency polymerase chain reaction (LS-PCR technique was used as a complementary method to light exposure technique. LS-PCR has already been standardized in our laboratory to detect the trematode DNA in B. glabrata. Higher S. mansoni infection rates were detected using conventional method and LS-PCR. The parasite DNA profile was detected in both species after 7-day exposure to miracidia, using LS-PCR. This technique enables early detection of schistosomiasis transmission focuses, in endemic areas, before the beginning of cercariae shedding.

  2. Rapid detection and identification of four major Schistosoma species by high-resolution melt (HRM) analysis.

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    Li, Juan; Zhao, Guang-Hui; Lin, RuiQing; Blair, David; Sugiyama, Hiromu; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2015-11-01

    Schistosomiasis, caused by blood flukes belonging to several species of the genus Schistosoma, is a serious and widespread parasitic disease. Accurate and rapid differentiation of these etiological agents of animal and human schistosomiasis to species level can be difficult. We report a real-time PCR assay coupled with a high-resolution melt (HRM) assay targeting a portion of the nuclear 18S rDNA to detect, identify, and distinguish between four major blood fluke species (Schistosoma japonicum, Schistosoma mansoni, Schistosoma haematobium, and Schistosoma mekongi). Using this system, the Schistosoma spp. was accurately identified and could also be distinguished from all other trematode species with which they were compared. As little as 10(-5) ng genomic DNA from a Schistosoma sp. could be detected. This process is inexpensive, easy, and can be completed within 3 h. Examination of 21 representative Schistosoma samples from 15 geographical localities in seven endemic countries validated the value of the HRM detection assay and proved its reliability. The melting curves were characterized by peaks of 83.65 °C for S. japonicum and S. mekongi, 85.65 °C for S. mansoni, and 85.85 °C for S. haematobium. The present study developed a real-time PCR coupled with HRM analysis assay for detection and differential identification of S. mansoni, S. haematobium, S. japonicum, and S. mekongi. This method is rapid, sensitive, and inexpensive. It has important implications for epidemiological studies of Schistosoma.

  3. Plasmodium falciparum Infection Status among Children with Schistosoma in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degarege, Abraham; Degarege, Dawit; Veledar, Emir; Erko, Berhanu; Nacher, Mathieu; Beck-Sague, Consuelo M; Madhivanan, Purnima

    2016-12-01

    It has been suggested that Schistosoma infection may be associated with Plasmodium falciparum infection or related reduction in haemoglobin level, but the nature of this interaction remains unclear. This systematic review synthesized evidence on the relationship of S. haematobium or S. mansoni infection with the occurrence of P. falciparum malaria, Plasmodium density and related reduction in haemoglobin level among children in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). A systematic review in according with PRISMA guidelines was conducted. All published articles available in PubMed, Embase, Cochrane library and CINAHL databases before May 20, 2015 were searched without any limits. Two reviewers independently screened, reviewed and assessed all the studies. Cochrane Q and Moran's I2 were used to assess heterogeneity and the Egger test was used to examine publication bias. The summary odds ratio (OR), summary regression co-efficient (β) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using a random-effects model. Out of 2,920 citations screened, 12 articles (five cross-sectional, seven prospective cohort) were eligible to be included in the systematic review and 11 in the meta-analysis. The 12 studies involved 9,337 children in eight SSA countries. Eight studies compared the odds of asymptomatic/uncomplicated P. falciparum infection, two studies compared the incidence of uncomplicated P. falciparum infection, six studies compared P. falciparum density and four studies compared mean haemoglobin level between children infected and uninfected with S. haematobium or S. mansoni. Summary estimates of the eight studies based on 6,018 children showed a higher odds of asymptomatic/uncomplicated P. falciparum infection in children infected with S. mansoni or S. haematobium compared to those uninfected with Schistosoma (summary OR: 1.82; 95%CI: 1.41, 2.35; I2: 52.3%). The increase in odds of asymptomatic/uncomplicated P. falciparum infection among children infected with Schistosoma remained

  4. Prevalence distribution and risk factors for Schistosoma hematobium infection among school children in Blantyre, Malawi.

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    Atupele P Kapito-Tembo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis is a public health problem in Malawi but estimates of its prevalence vary widely. There is need for updated information on the extent of disease burden, communities at risk and factors associated with infection at the district and sub-district level to facilitate effective prioritization and monitoring while ensuring ownership and sustainability of prevention and control programs at the local level. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a cross-sectional study between May and July 2006 among pupils in Blantyre district from a stratified random sample of 23 primary schools. Information on socio-demographic factors, schistosomiasis symptoms and other risk factors was obtained using questionnaires. Urine samples were examined for Schistosoma hematobium ova using filtration method. Bivariate and multiple logistic regressions with robust estimates were used to assess risk factors for S. hematobium. One thousand one hundred and fifty (1,150 pupils were enrolled with a mean age of 10.5 years and 51.5% of them were boys. One thousand one hundred and thirty-nine (1,139 pupils submitted urine and S. hematobium ova were detected in 10.4% (95%CI 5.43-15.41%. Male gender (OR 1.81; 95% CI 1.06-3.07, child's knowledge of an existing open water source (includes river, dam, springs, lake, etc. in the area (OR 1.90; 95% CI 1.14-3.46, history of urinary schistosomiasis in the past month (OR 3.65; 95% CI 2.22-6.00, distance of less than 1 km from school to the nearest open water source (OR 5.39; 95% CI 1.67-17.42 and age 8-10 years (OR 4.55; 95% CI 1.53-13.50 compared to those 14 years or older were associated with infection. Using urine microscopy as a gold standard, the sensitivity and specificity of self-reported hematuria was 68.3% and 73.6%, respectively. However, the positive predictive value was low at 23.9% and was associated with age. CONCLUSION: The study provides an important update on the status of infection in this part of sub

  5. Bladder Morbidity and Hepatic Fibrosis in Mixed Schistosoma haematobium and S. mansoni Infections: A Population-Wide Study in Northern Senegal

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    Meurs, Lynn; Mbow, Moustapha; Vereecken, Kim; Menten, Joris; Mboup, Souleymane; Polman, Katja

    2012-01-01

    Background The global distribution map of schistosomiasis shows a large overlap of Schistosoma haematobium- and S. mansoni-endemic areas in Africa. Yet, little is known about the consequences of mixed Schistosoma infections for the human host. A recent study in two neighboring co-endemic communities in Senegal indicated that infection intensities of both species were higher in mixed than in single infections. Here, we investigated the relationship between mixed Schistosoma infections and morbidity in the same population. So far, this has only been studied in children. Methods Schistosoma infection was assessed by microscopy. Schistosoma-specific morbidity was assessed by ultrasound according to WHO guidelines. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to identify independent risk factors for morbidity. Principal Findings Complete parasitological and morbidity data were obtained from 403 individuals. Schistosoma haematobium-specific bladder morbidity was observed in 83% and S. mansoni-specific hepatic fibrosis in 27% of the participants. Bladder morbidity was positively associated with S. haematobium infection intensity (OR = 1.9 (95% CI 1.3–2.9) for a 10-fold increase in intensity). Moreover, people with mixed infections tended to have less bladder morbidity than those with single S. haematobium infections (OR = 0.3 (95% CI 0.1–1.1)). This effect appeared to be related to ectopic S. mansoni egg elimination in urine. Hepatic fibrosis on the other hand was not related to S. mansoni infection intensity (OR = 0.9 (95% CI 0.6–1.3)), nor to mixed infections (OR = 1.0 (95% CI 0.7–1.7)). Conclusions/Significance This is the first population-wide study on the relationship between mixed Schistosoma infections and morbidity. Mixed infections did not increase the risk of S. mansoni-associated morbidity. They even tended to reduce the risk of S. haematobium-associated morbidity, suggesting a protective effect of S. mansoni infection on bladder

  6. Significant variance in genetic diversity among populations of Schistosoma haematobium detected using microsatellite DNA loci from a genome-wide database.

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    Glenn, Travis C; Lance, Stacey L; McKee, Anna M; Webster, Bonnie L; Emery, Aidan M; Zerlotini, Adhemar; Oliveira, Guilherme; Rollinson, David; Faircloth, Brant C

    2013-10-17

    Urogenital schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma haematobium is widely distributed across Africa and is increasingly being targeted for control. Genome sequences and population genetic parameters can give insight into the potential for population- or species-level drug resistance. Microsatellite DNA loci are genetic markers in wide use by Schistosoma researchers, but there are few primers available for S. haematobium. We sequenced 1,058,114 random DNA fragments from clonal cercariae collected from a snail infected with a single Schistosoma haematobium miracidium. We assembled and aligned the S. haematobium sequences to the genomes of S. mansoni and S. japonicum, identifying microsatellite DNA loci across all three species and designing primers to amplify the loci in S. haematobium. To validate our primers, we screened 32 randomly selected primer pairs with population samples of S. haematobium. We designed >13,790 primer pairs to amplify unique microsatellite loci in S. haematobium, (available at http://www.cebio.org/projetos/schistosoma-haematobium-genome). The three Schistosoma genomes contained similar overall frequencies of microsatellites, but the frequency and length distributions of specific motifs differed among species. We identified 15 primer pairs that amplified consistently and were easily scored. We genotyped these 15 loci in S. haematobium individuals from six locations: Zanzibar had the highest levels of diversity; Malawi, Mauritius, Nigeria, and Senegal were nearly as diverse; but the sample from South Africa was much less diverse. About half of the primers in the database of Schistosoma haematobium microsatellite DNA loci should yield amplifiable and easily scored polymorphic markers, thus providing thousands of potential markers. Sequence conservation among S. haematobium, S. japonicum, and S. mansoni is relatively high, thus it should now be possible to identify markers that are universal among Schistosoma species (i.e., using DNA sequences

  7. Trace elements in the human scalp hair and finger nails as affected by infection with Schistosoma mansoni

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Khatib, Ahmed M.; Bahnassy, Ahmed A.; Denton, M.

    1995-01-01

    The concentration of 13 elements has been determined in finger nail and scalp hair of 4 groups representing normal and infected Schistosoma mansoni subjects. Samples were irradiated by thermal neutrons from a Triga Mark III Reactor, for 10 min. Measurements were made using a HPGe detector coupled with ADC and PDP {11}/{34} data processing equipment. The results showed significant increases of Al, Cl, I and Br in both finger nails and scalp hair of bilharzial patients above those of normal subjects while Mg, Ca, V, Mn, Cu, Sr, K, S and Na showed significant decreases. Most of the elements showed a higher concentration in finger nails than in hair.

  8. Trace elements in the human scalp hair and finger nails as affected by infection with Schistosoma mansoni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Khatib, A.M. (Alexandria Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Physics); Bahnassy, A.A. (King Abdulaziz Univ., Jeddah (Saudi Arabia). Faculty of Medicine); Denton, M. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering)

    1995-01-01

    The concentration of 13 elements has been determined in finger nail and scalp hair of 4 groups representing normal and infected Schistosoma mansoni subjects. Samples were irradiated by thermal neutrons from a Triga Mark III Reactor, for 10 min. Measurements were made using a HPGe detector coupled with ADC and PDP 11/34 data processing equipment. The results showed significant increases of Al, Cl, I and Br in both finger nails and scalp hair of bilharzial patients above those of normal subjects while Mg, Ca, V, Mn, Cu, Sr, K, S and Na showed significant decreases. Most of the elements showed a higher concentration in finger nails than in hair. (author).

  9. Differentiating Schistosoma haematobium from Schistosoma magrebowiei and other closely related schistosomes by polymerase chain reaction amplification of a species specific mitochondrial gene

    OpenAIRE

    Olaoluwa P Akinwale; Hock, Tang T.; Chia-Kwung, Fan; ZHENG Qi; Haimo, Shen; Ezeh, Charles; Gyang, Pam V

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Schistosoma haematobium infection afflicts about 150 million people in 53 countries in Africa and the Middle East. In many endemic areas, S. haematobium is sympatric with Schistosoma bovis, Schistosoma mattheei, Schistosoma curassoni, Schistosoma intercalatum and Schistosoma magrebowiei, its closely related species. In addition, they also develop in the same intermediate snail hosts. Since these schistosome species often infect snails inhabiting the same bodies of water, examini...

  10. Do all human urinary infections with Schistosoma mattheei represent hybridization between S. haematobium and S. mattheei?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, F J; Evans, A C

    1990-12-01

    Enzyme electrophoresis indicated that all Schistosoma mattheei eggs passed in the urine of humans derive from S. mattheei females in copula with S. haematobium males. It appears that S. mattheei males do not reach sexual maturity in man; however, S. haematobiumxS. mattheei males possibly do.

  11. The feasibility of MS and advanced data processing for monitoring Schistosoma mansoni infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balog, Crina I.A.; Alexandrov, Theodore; Derks, Rico J.

    2010-01-01

    Sensitive diagnosis, monitoring of disease progression and the evaluation of chemotherapeutic interventions are of prime importance for the improvement of control and prevention strategies for Schistosomiasis. The aim of the present study was to identify novel markers of Schistosoma mansoni infec...

  12. Epidemiological studies of Schistosoma mattheei infections in cattle in the highveld and lowveld communal grazing areas of Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.M. Pfukenyi

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available During the period between January 1999 and December 2000, the distribution and seasonal patterns of Schistosoma mattheei infections in cattle in the highveld and lowveld communal grazing areas of Zimbabwe were determined through monthly coprological examination. Faecal samples of cattle were collected from 12 and nine dipping sites in the highveld and lowveld communal grazing areas, respectively. Patterns of distribution and seasonal fluctuations of the intermediate host-snail populations and the climatic factors influencing the distribution were also determined at monthly intervals from November 1998 to October 2000, a period of 24 months, in six dams and six streams in the highveld and nine dams in the lowveld communal grazing areas. Monthly, each site was sampled for relative snail density, the vegetation cover and type, and physical and chemical properties of the water. Mean monthly rainfall and temperature were recorded. Snails collected at the same time were individually examined for shedding of cercariae of S. mattheei and Schistosoma haematobium. A total of 16 264 (5 418 calves, 5 461 weaners and 5 385 adults faecal samples were collected during the entire period of study and 734 (4.5 % were positive for S. mattheei eggs. Significantly higher prevalences were found in the highveld compared to the lowveld (P < 0.001, calves compared to adult cattle (P < 0.01 and the wet season compared to the dry season (P < 0.01. Faecal egg output peaked from October/ November to March / April for both years of the study. Bulinus globosus, the snail intermediate host of S. mattheei was recorded from the study sites with the highveld having a significantly higher abundance of the snails than the lowveld (P < 0.01. Monthly densities of B. globosus did not show a clearcut pattern although there were peaks between March / May and September / November. The mean num ber of snails collected was positively correlated with the water plants Nymphaea caerulea and

  13. Omental and pleural milky spots: different reactivity patterns in mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni reveals coelomic compartmentalisation

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    Mônica S Panasco

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In vertebrate animals, pleural and peritoneal cavities are repositories of milky spots (MS, which constitute an organised coelom-associated lymphomyeloid tissue that is intensively activated by Schistosoma mansoni infection. This study compared the reactive patterns of peritoneal MS to pleural MS and concluded from histological analysis that they represent independent responsive compartments. Whole omentum, lungs and the entire mediastinum of 54 S. mansoni-infected mice were studied morphologically. The omental MS of infected animals were highly activated, modulating from myeloid-lymphocytic (60 days of infection to lymphomyeloid (90 days of infection and lymphocytic or lymphoplasmacytic (160 days of infection types. The non-lymphoid component predominated in the acute phase of infection and was expressed by monocytopoietic, eosinopoietic and neutropoietic foci, with isolated megakaryocytes and small foci of late normoblasts and mast cells. Nevertheless, pleural or thoracic MS of infected mice were monotonous, consisting of small and medium lymphocytes with few mast and plasma cells and no myeloid component. Our data indicate that compartmentalisation of the MS response is dependent on the lymphatic vascularisation of each coelomic cavity, limiting the effects or consequences of any stimulating or aggressive agents, as is the case with S. mansoni infection.

  14. Long-term effect of mass chemotherapy, transmission and risk factors for Schistosoma mansoni infection in very low endemic communities of Venezuela

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, Stefanie N.; Tami, Adriana; van Liere, Genevieve A. F. S.; Ballen, Diana; Incani, Renzo N.

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni infection in Venezuela has changed from high to low due mostly to successful control activities, including mass chemotherapy and molluscicide applications. This study examined the impact of mass chemotherapy on S. mansoni transmission and risk factors for

  15. Morfologia e desenvolvimento de Schistosoma mansoni Sambon, 1907 em infecções unissexuais experimentalmente produzidas no camundongo Morphology and development of Schistosoma mansoni Sambon, 1907 in unisexual infections produced experimentally in mice

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    Eliana Maria Zanotti

    1982-04-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o desenvolvimento de Schistosoma mansoni em infecções unissexuais no camundongo. Os esquistossomos fêmeos apresentaram-se menos desenvolvidos do que os machos. Houve correlação entre o comprimento dos machos e o número de testículos. Verificou-se que o isolamento sexual é prejudicial aos dois sexos, principalmente à fêmea.The Schistosoma mansoni development in mice submitted to unisexual infections was studied. The single female worms developed less than the single males. There was correlation between the male's length and the number of his tests. It was verified that sexual isolation of the schistosomes is prejudicial to both sexes, mainly for the female.

  16. Role of mannose-binding lectin deficiency in HIV-1 and schistosoma infections in a rural adult population in Zimbabwe.

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    Rutendo B L Zinyama-Gutsire

    Full Text Available Polymorphism in the MBL2 gene lead to MBL deficiency, which has been shown to increase susceptibility to various bacterial, viral and parasitic infections. We assessed role of MBL deficiency in HIV-1 and schistosoma infections in Zimbabwean adults enrolled in the Mupfure Schistosomiasis and HIV Cohort (MUSH Cohort.HIV-1, S. haematobium and S. mansoni infections were determined at baseline. Plasma MBL concentration was measured by ELISA and MBL2 genotypes determined by PCR. We calculated and compared the proportions of plasma MBL deficiency, MBL2 structural variant alleles B (codon 54A>G, C (codon 57A>G, and D (codon 52T>C as well as MBL2 promoter variants -550(H/L, -221(X/Y and +4(P/Q between HIV-1 and schistosoma co-infection and control groups using Chi Square test.We assessed 379 adults, 80% females, median age (IQR 30 (17-41 years. HIV-1, S. haematobium and S. mansoni prevalence were 26%, 43% and 18% respectively in the MUSH baseline survey. Median (IQR plasma MBL concentration was 800μg/L (192-1936μg/L. Prevalence of plasma MBL deficiency was 18% with high frequency of the C (codon 57G>A mutant allele (20%. There was no significant difference in median plasma MBL levels between HIV negative (912μg/L and HIV positive (688μg/L, p = 0.066. However plasma MBL levels at the assay detection limit of 20μg/L were more frequent among the HIV-1 infected (p = 0.007. S. haematobium and S. mansoni infected participants had significantly higher MBL levels than uninfected. All MBL2 variants were not associated with HIV-1 infection but promoter variants LY and LL were significantly associated with S. haematobium infection.Our data indicate high prevalence of MBL deficiency, no evidence of association between MBL deficiency and HIV-1 infection. However, lower plasma MBL levels were protective against both S. haematobium and S. mansoni infections and MBL2 promoter and variants LY and LL increased susceptibility to S. haematobium infection.

  17. Increased prevalence of leukocytes and elevated cytokine levels in semen from Schistosoma haematobium-infected individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leutscher, Peter D C; Pedersen, Mette; Raharisolo, Clairette

    2005-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the seminal inflammatory response to egg infestation of the urogenital organs in 240 semen-donating men aged 15-49 years living in a Schistosoma haematobium-endemic area of Madagascar. In 29 subjects (12%) with excretion of > or =5 ova/ejaculate, leukocytospermia (>......(6) leukocytes/mL) and the presence of seminal lymphocytes and eosinophil leukocytes were each significantly more prevalent than in 74 subjects (31%) who were S. haematobium negative (P...

  18. Susceptibility of Nectomys rattus (Pelzen, 1883 to experimental infection with Schistosoma mansoni (Sambon, 1907: a potential reservoir in Brazil

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    Ribeiro Ana Cláudia

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present research was to evaluate the potential of Nectomys rattus, the "water rat", to develop Schistosoma mansoni infection. Comparison with N. squamipes was carried out. Both species of rodents were submitted to transcutaneous infection using different infective cercariae loads: 50, 100 or 500. N. rattus showed high susceptibility to S. mansoni, with an infection rate of 71%. Rodents were able to excrete viable eggs of S. mansoni in the feaces during all infection period. For both species, the small intestine, followed by the liver and the large intestine, presented the highest concentration of eggs among the surveyed organs. Infection caused no animal death. Moreover, N. rattus accomplished the parasite's life cycle, by infecting the snails Biomphalaria glabrata and later Mus musculus. These evidences indicate that both N. rattus, as for N. squamipes are potential reservoirs for schistosomiasis in Brazil. Considering the fact that N. rattus and N. squamipes exist in the same natural ecosystems of S. mansoni, we suggest that these rodents must be regarded as influential factors in epidemiology surveys.

  19. T cell clones from Schistosoma haematobium infected and exposed individuals lacking distinct cytokine profiles for Th1/Th2 polarisation

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    Mduluza T

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available T cell clones were derived from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of Schistosoma haematobium infected and uninfected individuals living in an endemic area. The clones were stimulated with S. haematobium worm and egg antigens and purified protein derivative. Attempts were made to classify the T cell clones according to production of the cytokines IL-4, IL-5 and IFN-gamma. All the T cell clones derived were observed to produce cytokines used as markers for the classification of Th1/Th2 subsets. However, the 'signature' cytokines marking each subset were produced at different levels. The classification depended on the dominating cytokine type, which was having either Th0/1 or Th0/2 subsets. The results indicated that no distinct cytokine profiles for polarisation of Th1/Th2 subsets were detected in these S. haematobium infected humans. The balance in the profiles of cytokines marking each subset were related to infection and re-infection status after treatment with praziquantel. In the present study, as judged by the changes in infection status with time, the T cell responses appeared to be less stable and more dynamic, suggesting that small quantitative changes in the balance of the cytokines response could result in either susceptibility or resistant to S. haematobium infection.

  20. Histopathological study of Schistosoma mansoni infection in the murine model using the PC (Pará) and LILA (Maranhão) strains

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Igor da Costa; Santos, Vanessa RC dos; Souza, Vera LR Barros; Rodrigues, Izabel R de C

    2006-01-01

    Experimental models of Schistosoma mansoni infections in mammals have contributed greatly in understanding the pathology and pathogenesis of human infection. The absence of earlier reviews regarding specific strains of the Amazon region prompted research, which the main objective was to describe histopathological lesions in different phases of schistosomiasis in a murine model using PC (Pará) and LILA (Maranhão) S. mansoni strains. One hundred and eighty young female albino swiss mice (Mus mu...

  1. Studies on animal schistosomes in Peninsular Malaysia: record of naturally infected animals and additional hosts of Schistosoma spindale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inder Singh, K; Krishnasamy, M; Ambu, S; Rasul, R; Chong, N L

    1997-06-01

    Surveillance studies on cercarial dermatitis were carried out in paddy growing areas in Peninsular Malaysia. It was observed that dermatitis in paddy planters occurred in paddy fields which were cultivated using animals such as bafflos or fields where domestic animals were allowed to graze during the off planting season as these animals harbored the parasite. The causative agent of cercarial dermatitis was Schistosoma spindale. A total of 215 small mammals trapped from Alor Setar and 126 trapped from Labu were examined for the schistosome. In Alor Setar Bandicota indica, Rattus argentiventer and Rattus rattus diardii were the only wild mammals found to be infected with the parasite, while in the Labu areas only Rattus tiomanicus jalorensis was positive for the schistosome. The occurrence of S. spindale in R. argentiventer and R.r. diardii in Alor Setar and in R.t. jalorensis in Labu constitute new host and geographic distribution records of the schistosome.

  2. Antischistosomal activity of acridanone- hydrazones in Cebus monkeys experimentally infected with the SJ strain of Schistosoma mansoni

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    Paulo Marcos Zech Coelho

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, four compounds were utilized at the dose of 12.5mg/kg body weight, p.o., to treat Cebus monkeys experimentally infected with about 200 cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni (SJ strain, via transcutaneous route. The oograms performed with rectal snips, as well as stool examinations carried out periodically, showed no viable eggs of the parasite, from day 29 to 226post-treatment. The perfusion undertaken after killing the animals showed absence of worms in the treated monkeys, whereas 83 worms were recovered from the control, thus corroborating the results obtained by means of oograms and coproscopy. These results confirm the efficacy of 9-acridanone- hydrazones previously tested against the LE strain of S. mansoni. The low curative dose and apparent absence of toxicity render these dmgs an important therapeutic reserve, taking into consideration the reports on the resistance of S. mansoni to the modern drugs oxamniquine and praziquantel.

  3. Epidemiological studies of Schistosoma mattheei infections in cattle in the highveld and lowveld communal grazing areas of Zimbabwe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfukenyi, D.M.; Mukaratirwa, S.; Willingham, Arve Lee

    2006-01-01

    During the period between January 1999 and December 2000, the distribution and seasonal patterns of Schistosoma mattheei infections in cattle in the highveld and lowveld communal grazing areas of Zimbabwe were determined through monthly coprological examination. Faecal samples of cattle were...... November 1998 to October 2000, a period of 24 months, in six dams and six streams in the highveld and nine dams in the lowveld communal grazing areas. Monthly, each site was sampled for relative snail density, the vegetation cover and type, and physical and chemical properties of the water. Mean monthly...... (4.5 %) were positive for S. mattheei eggs. Significantly higher prevalences were found in the highveld compared to the lowveld (P March...

  4. The phylogeography of Asian Schistosoma (Trematoda: Schistosomatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attwood, S W; Upatham, E S; Meng, X H; Qiu, D C; Southgate, V R

    2002-08-01

    Partial (DNA) sequences are presented for 2 nuclear (18S and 28S rRNA genes) and 2 mitochondrial (12S rRNA and ND1 genes) loci for 5 species belonging to the Schistosoma japonicum, S. sinensium and S. indicum groups of Asian Schistosoma. Fresh field isolates were collected and cultured for the following taxa: S. incognitum (S. indicum group, central Thailand), S. mekongi (S. japonicum group, southern Laos), S. ovuncatum (S. sinensium group, northern Thailand), S. spindale (S. indicum group, northeast Thailand and central Thailand isolates) and S. sinensium (S. sinensium group, Sichuan Province, China). This represents the first published DNA sequence data for S. ovuncatum and for S. sinensium s.s. from the type locality in China. The paper also presents the first sequence data at the above loci for S. incognitum (except for the 28S sequences) and S. sinensium. Congruence was observed between the phylogenies estimated for each locus, although the relationships of S. incognitum were not so well resolved. Fitch-Margoliash, maximum likelihood (M/L) and maximum parsimony methods were used to estimate the phylogenies and the agreement between them was similar to that observed between loci. The ML tree was considered to best represent the data and additional 28S sequences (taken from the GenBank), for S. haematobium, S. japonicum, S. mansoni and Orientobilharzia turkestanicum, were used to construct an overall phylogeny. The S. indicum group taxa showed considerable divergence from the other Asian species and closest affinity with the African group. S. ovuncatum and S. sinensium appeared as sister taxa but their status as sibling species remained supported. The findings are discussed in the context of phylogeographical hypotheses for the origin of Schistosoma. An Asian origin for Schistosoma is also considered.

  5. The use of protein hydrolysate improves the protein intestinal absorption in undernourished mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni

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    Coutinho Eridan M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients residing in endemic areas for schistosomiasis in Brazil are usually undernourished and when they develop the hepatosplenic clinical form of the disease should usually receive hospital care, many of them being in need of nutritional rehabilitation before specific treatment can be undertaken. In the mouse model, investigations carried out in our laboratory detected a reduced aminoacid uptake in undernourished animals which is aggravated by a superimposed infection with Schistosoma mansoni. However, in well-nourished infected mice no dysfunction occurs. In this study, we tried to improve the absorptive intestinal performance of undernourished mice infected with S. mansoni by feeding them with hydrolysed casein instead of whole casein. The values obtained for the coefficient of protein intestinal absorption (cpia among well-nourished mice were above 90% (either hydrolysed or whole protein. In undernourished infected mice, however, the cpia improved significantly after feeding them with hydrolysed casein, animals reaching values close to those obtained in well-nourished infected mice.

  6. Reappraisal of experimental infections with cercariae and schistosomula of a brazilian strain of Schistosoma mansoni in mice

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    M. M. Vilar

    Full Text Available The present investigation involves a reevaluation of previous results obtained after experimental infection of Swiss Webster mice with cercariae and schistosomula of the Schistosoma mansoni LE strain maintained under laboratory conditions. Three experimental groups of mice were considered: the animals of the first group were percutaneously (ring method infected with cercariae, those of the second were subcutaneously inoculated with cercariae and the mice of the third were inoculated by the same route with schistosomula transformed in vitro. The data obtained so far indicated that the most effective method of infection is the subcutaneous injection with schistosomula, with a mean adult worm burden recovery of 54.1% when compared to the abdominal percutaneous and subcutaneous routes of infection with cercariae, in which the values were 36.7% and 32.4%, respectively. This suggests that, in experimental infections of SW mice with a LE S. mansoni strain, the skin is to be considered an effective attrition site in the percutaneous route, whereas in the case of inoculation with cercariae, a small amount of larvae fails to be transformed into viable schistosomula, possibly due to skin phase avoidance. A brief discussion about attrition sites and elimination of larval S. mansoni worms in mice is presented.

  7. Schistosoma mansoni: kinetics of glomerulonephritis in Mongolian gerbils and its correlation with intensity and duration of infection

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    Chisty M.M.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The frequent occurrence of glomerular lesions in schistosomiasis patients has been reported, although appropriate animal models for the study of schistosomal glomerulonephritis have not been developed. To analyze the relationship between glomerulonephritis and Schistosoma mansoni infection, gerbils, Meriones unguiculatus, were infected with different number of cercariae and sacrificed at different weeks of post infection. Fifty cercariae were the optimum dose to produce the disease, glomerulonephritis, without early death of the animal. Infected gerbils showed heterogeneous types of glomerular lesions with increased serum creatinine level. Immune complex deposition was not detected at glomeruli of infected gerbils even by means of immunuofluorescence and also by transmission electron microscopy. However, infiltration of mononuclear cells in and around some of the altered glomeruli was observed. Immunohistochemical staining, using monoclonal antibody (HUSM-M.g. 15 specific to gerbils T-cells, revealed significant infiltration of T-cells. These findings suggest that T-cells might be involved in the development of glomerulonephritis. Gerbil could be a useful model to clarify the role of T-cells in the development of glomerulonephritis of schistosomiasis

  8. Schistosoma mansoni heat shock protein 70 elicits an early humoral immune response in S. mansoni infected baboons

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    Herminia Y Kanamura

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available A study was undertaken to search for DNA recombinant Schistosoma mansoni proteins responsible for eliciting an antibody response from the host at a very early phase after infection. A S. mansoni adult worm cDNA expression library was screened using pooled sera from baboons with four weeks of infection. Based on their specific reactivity with the S. mansoni infected sera and no reactivity when tested against the pre-infection sera from the same baboons, four clones were selected for further studies. Sequence analysis revealed that they were homologous to the S. mansoni heat shock protein 70 (hsp70. The insert sizes of the four selected clones varied from 1150 to 2006 bp. The preliminary characterization for antibody reactivity against a panel of baboon sera showed that the longest clone was the most reactive, eight out of eight acute and three out of four chronic sera reacting positively to this clone. The shortest clone was the least reactive. Our results suggest that the S. mansoni hsp70 elicits an early and strong antibody response in baboons and that antibodies to this protein can be detected in chronically infected animals. Therefore S. mansoni hsp70 may be a valid target for immunodiagnosis. However further studies are needed to identify the portion of the hsp70 that best fits the requirements for a valuable diagnostic antigen.

  9. Schistogram changes after administration of antischistosomal drugs in mice at the early phase of Schistosoma mansoni infection

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    Andrea Cassia Simoes Vimieiro

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni were treated with oxamniquine, praziquantel, artesunate at the pre-patent phase, aiming at observing schistogram alterations. Half of the animals were perfused five days post-treatment for counting and classification of immature worms, based on pre-established morphological criteria (schistogram; the remaining animals were evaluated 42 or 100 days after infection and perfusion of the portal-system was performed for collection and counting of adult worms and oogram. It was observed that oxamniquine and artesunate treatment administered at the pre-postural phase causes significant reduction in the number of immature and adult worms. However, there was little reduction with praziquantel when used at the dose of 400 mg/kg for treatments administered 14, 15, 21 or 23 days post-infection. Artesunate was responsible for significant alterations in development of young worms, as well as for a higher number of worms presenting intestinal damages. Immature adult worms were detected in mice treated with artesunate or oxamniquine at the pre-patent phase of infection and recovered by perfusion 100 days after infection. Schistogram proved to be a very useful tool for experimental evaluation of the activity of antischistosomal drugs and a good model to identify the most sensitive stages to drugs.

  10. Proteomic identification of endothelial cell surface proteins isolated from the hepatic portal vein of mice infected with Schistosoma bovis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Torre-Escudero, Eduardo; Valero, Luz; Pérez-Sánchez, Ricardo; Manzano-Román, Raúl; Oleaga, Ana

    2012-12-21

    Schistosomes are blood parasites adapted to their intravascular habitat that have evolved mechanisms to evade the immune and hemostatic responses of their hosts. It has been observed that the schistosome can regulate the endothelium function along the infection, which contributes to modulation of host defensive responses and parasite survival. The purpose of this work was the analysis of the changes induced by Schistosoma bovis adult worms in the proteome expressed by infected mice on the endothelial surface of their portal vein. With this aim, we have utilized a methodology that allows the purification, identification and relative quantification of endothelial cell surface proteins after their selective in vivo labeling with biotin. Trypsin digestion of the biotinylated proteins and subsequent liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry analysis (LC-MS/MS) resulted in the identification of a total 127 non-redundant proteins. All these proteins have been classified according to their function and cellular location, and the differences between S. bovis-infected and non-infected mice in their endothelial surface proteomes have been analyzed. The present work provides the first data on the proteome of the endothelial surface of the portal vein, and identifies some of the changes induced in it after an infection by S. bovis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Mechanisms of protective immunity against Schistosoma mansoni infection in mice vaccinated with irradiated cercariae. V. Anamnestic cellular and humoral responses following challenge infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa-Oliveira, R.; Sher, A.; James, S.L.

    1984-03-01

    Mice vaccinated with radiation-attenuated cercariae display low levels of cellular and humoral immune responses toward schistosomulum antigens, as measured in vitro by lymphocyte blastogenesis and quantitation of anti-larval antibodies by indirect immunofluorescence. Both responses wane with time after vaccination. However subsequent challenge infection provokes immune responses of classical anamnestic character, being both more rapid in appearance and of greater magnitude. Antigen responsive cells appear in lymph nodes draining the challenge site within 24 hours after infection. Both circulating anti-schistosomulum surface antibodies as well as cytophilic IgE anti-worm antigen antibodies increase substantially by 1 week after challenge. All of the anamnestic circulating antibodies belong to the IgG class. Those findings support the concept that vaccine-induced resistance to Schistosoma mansoni infection involves sensitized T and B lymphocytes, and point to the possible role of post-challenge anamnestic responses in the effector mechanism of parasite killing in this model.

  12. Projecting the long-term impact of school- or community-based mass-treatment interventions for control of Schistosoma infection.

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    Xiaoxia Wang

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis remains a significant health burden in many areas of the world. Morbidity control, focused on limiting infection intensity through periodic delivery of anti-schistosomal medicines, is the thrust of current World Health Organization guidelines (2006 for reduction of Schistosoma-related disease. A new appreciation of the lifetime impact of repeated Schistosoma infection has directed attention toward strategies for greater suppression of parasite infection per se, with the goal of transmission interruption. Variations in drug schedules involving increased population coverage and/or treatment frequency are now undergoing field trials. However, their relative effectiveness in long-term infection suppression is presently unknown.Our study used available field data to calibrate advanced network models of village-level Schistosoma transmission to project outcomes of six different community- or school age-based programs, as compared to the impact of current 2006 W.H.O. recommended control strategies. We then scored the number of years each of 10 typical villages would remain below 10% infection prevalence (a practicable level associated with minimal prevalence of disease. All strategies that included four annual treatments effectively reduced community prevalence to less than 10%, while programs having yearly gaps ('holidays' failed to reach this objective in half of the communities. Effective post-program suppression of infection prevalence persisted in half of the 10 villages for 7-10 years, whereas in five high-risk villages, program effects on prevalence lasted zero to four years only.At typical levels of treatment adherence (60 to 70%, current WHO recommendations will likely not achieve effective suppression of Schistosoma prevalence unless implemented for ≥6 years. Following more aggressive 4 year annual intervention, some communities may be able to continue without further intervention for 8-10 years, while in higher

  13. Soil-Transmitted Helminths and Schistosoma mansoni Infections in Ethiopian Orthodox Church Students around Lake Tana, Northwest Ethiopia.

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    Aschalew Afework Bitew

    Full Text Available Soil-transmitted helminths (STH and Schistosoma mansoni infections are the major neglected tropical diseases that result in serious consequences on health, education and nutrition in children in developing countries. The Ethiopian Orthodox church students, who are called Yekolotemari in Amharic, live in areas with poor sanitation and hygiene. Moreover, they are not included in the national STH control programs. Thus, STH and S. mansoni infections prevalence is unknown.A cross-sectional study was conducted on 384 students in June 2014 to determine STH and S. mansoni infections prevalence. Moreover, the knowledge of students about STH and S. mansoni was assessed. Data on knowledge and clinical symptoms were collected using structured questionnaires via face to face interview. Stool specimens were examined by formol-ether concentration method.The overall prevalence of intestinal helminths infections was 85.9% (95% confidence interval (CI: 82.1-89%. STHs infections prevalence was 65.6% (95% CI: 60.7-70.2%. The prevalence of hookworm, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura were 31.8% (95% CI: 27.3-36.6%, 29.4% (25-31% and 3.1% (1.8-5.4%, respectively. On the other hand, S. mansoni prevalence was 14.3% (95% CI: 11.1-18.1%. Majority of students infected with S. mansoni had bloody stool with crud odds-ratio of 2.9 (95% CI: 1.5-5.5. Knowledge assessment showed that 50 (13% and 18 (4.9% of the respondents knew about transmission of STH and S. mansoni, respectively.The prevalence of STH and S. mansoni infections were high thus de-worming program should include the students of Ethiopian Orthodox churches. Furthermore, provision and use of sanitary facilities, health education for students to create awareness of parasitic infections and improved personal hygiene should be in place.

  14. Differential lectin labelling of circulating hemocytes from Biomphalaria glabrata and Biomphalaria tenagophila resistant or susceptible to Schistosoma mansoni infection

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    RL Martins-Souza

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Lectins/carbohydrate binding can be involved in the Schistosoma mansoni recognition and activation of the Biomphalaria hemocytes. Therefore, expression of lectin ligands on Biomphalaria hemocytes would be associated with snail resistance against S. mansoni infection. To test this hypothesis, circulating hemocytes were isolated from B. glabrata BH (snail strain highy susceptible to S. mansoni, B. tenagophila Cabo Frio (moderate susceptibility, and B. tenagophila Taim (completely resistant strains, labelled with FITC conjugated lectins (ConA, PNA, SBA, and WGA and analyzed under fluorescence microscopy. The results demonstrated that although lectin-labelled hemocytes were detected in hemolymph of all snail species tested, circulating hemocytes from both strains of B. tenagophila showed a larger number of lectin-labelled cells than B. glabrata. Moreover, most of circulating hemocytes of B. tenagophila were intensively labelled by lectins PNA-FITC and WGA-FITC, while in B. glabrata small hemocytes were labeled mainly by ConA. Upon S. mansoni infection, lectin-labelled hemocytes almost disappeared from the hemolymph of Taim and accumulated in B. glabrata BH. The role of lectins/carbohydrate binding in resistance of B. tengophila infection to S. mansoni is still not fully understood, but the data suggest that there may be a correlation to its presence with susceptibility or resistance to the parasite.

  15. Humoral immune response and antigenemia in sheep experimentally infected with Schistosoma bovis. Cross-reactivity with Fasciola hepatica antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Osorio, M; Gómez-García, V; Rojas, J; Ramajo-Martin, V

    1999-06-01

    Circulating antigen level, IgG antibody response to worm antigens and to excretory/secretory products (ES), and specificity to Fasciola hepatica antigens were determined in 6 Schistosoma bovis-infected sheep at weekly intervals for 15 wk. A noninfected control group was included. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) sandwich and a double-antibody ELISA test was used for antibody and antigen detection, respectively. The infection induced an early and relatively low IgG response to adult worm extract. This response was significantly elevated by 3 wk postinfection (PI), reached its maximum level at 9 wk PI, and was followed by a subsequent decrease. The response to ES antigens was slightly higher than that to adult worms, although the response started later, at 8 wk PI, and remained at its maximum level until 15 wk. A remarkable level of cross-reactivity was observed when adult F. hepatica extract was used. However, a low degree of cross-reactivity was found with ES antigen. The ELISA for circulating antigens was performed at weekly intervals for 8 wk. Antigens were detected as early as the first week of infection, although differences were statistically significant from week 5 onward. The highest values were observed at 7 week PI.

  16. Biodistribution study of the anesthetic sodium phenobarbital labelled with technetium-99 in swiss mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni Sambon, 1907

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    Simoes, Susana Balmant Emerique; Machado Silva, Jose Roberto [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas. Dept. de Patologia e Laboratorios; Gutfilen, Bianca; Oliveira, Marcia Betania; Bernardo Filho, Mario [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Dept. de Biofisica e Biometria; Presgrave, Otavio Augusto Franca [Fundacao Inst. Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. Nacional de de Controle de Qaulidade em Saude. Dept. de Farmacologia e Toxicologia

    1997-09-01

    Technetium-99 m ({sup 99m} Tc) is a radionuclide that has negligible environmental impact, is easily available, inexpensive and can be used as a radioactive tracer in biological experiences. In order to know the mode of action of sodium phenobarbital in moving adult Schistosoma mansoni worms from mesenteric veins to the liver, we labelled sodium phenobarbital (PBBT) with {sup 99m} Tc and a biodistribution study in infected and non-infected Swiss mice was performed. The PBBT was incubated with stannous chloride used as reducing agent and with {sup 99m} Tc, as sodium pertechnetate. The radioactivity labelling(%) was determined by paper ascending chromatography performed with acetone (solvent). The{sup 99m} Tc-PBBT was administered by intraperitoneal route to Swiss mice infected eight weeks before. The animals were perfused after different periods of time (0,1,2,3,4 hr) when blood, spleen, liver, portal vein, mesenteric veins, stomach, kidneys and adult worms were isolated. The radioactivity present in these samples was counted in a well counter and the percentage was determined. THe radioactivity was mainly taken up by the blood, kidney, liver and spleen. No radioactivity was found on the adult worms. We concluded that the worm shift was due to an action on the host of the sodium phenobarbital. (author) 24 refs., 3 tabs.

  17. Effect of different stages of Schistosoma mansoni infection on the parasite burden and immune response to Strongyloides venezuelensis in co-infected mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rezende, Michelle Carvalho; Araújo, Emília Souza; Moreira, João Marcelo Peixoto; Rodrigues, Vanessa Fernandes; Rodrigues, Jailza Lima; Pereira, Cíntia A de Jesus; Negrão-Corrêa, Deborah

    2015-12-01

    Multiple schistosome and soil-transmitted nematode infections are frequently reported in human populations living in tropical areas of developing countries. In addition to exposure factors, the host immune response plays an important role in helminth control and morbidity in hosts with multiple infections; however, these aspects are difficult to evaluate in human populations. In the current study, female Swiss mice were simultaneously co-infected with Strongyloides venezuelensis and Schistosoma mansoni or infected with St. venezuelensis at 2, 4, or 14 weeks after Sc. mansoni infection. The simultaneously infected mice showed a similar parasite burden for St. venezuelensis compared with mono-infected mice. In contrast, there was a significant reduction of St. venezuelensis burden (primarily during the migration of the larvae) in mice that were previously infected with Sc. mansoni at the acute or chronic phase. Independent of the stage of Sc. mansoni infection, the St. venezuelensis co-infection was capable of inducing IL-4 production in the small intestine, increasing the IgE concentration in the serum and increasing eosinophilia in the lungs and intestine. This result suggests that the nematode infection stimulates local type 2 immune responses independently of the schistosomiasis stage. Moreover, previous Sc. mansoni infection stimulated early granulocyte infiltration in the lungs and trematode-specific IgM and IgG1 production that recognized antigens from St. venezuelensis infective larvae; these immune responses would act in the early control of St. venezuelensis larvae. Our data suggest that the effect of multiple helminth infections on host susceptibility and morbidity largely depends on the species of parasite and the immune response.

  18. Estudo quantitativo de metais presentes na hemolinfa de Biomphalaria glabrata (Gastropoda, infectadas e não infectadas com Schistosoma mansoni Quantitative study of metal present in the hemolymph of Biomphalaria glabrata (Gastropoda, infected and uninfected with Schistosoma mansoni

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    Marco Antonio Vasconcelos Santos

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Inicialmente, desenvolveu-se um estudo para quantificar e comparar as concentrações de alguns metais presentes em duas amostras de hemolinfa do caramujo Biomphalaria glabrata (infectados e não-infectados com Schistosoma mansoni. A espectrometria de emissão óptica com fonte de plasma induzido (ICP-OES, foi utilizada para analisar os metais nas duas amostras. Os metais estudados foram: alumínio, cálcio, cádmio, cobalto, cromo, cobre, ferro, potássio, magnésio, manganês, chumbo e zinco. Os resultados mostram que, a princípio, os metais não são fatores determinantes no processo de defesa desses organismos contra este parasita, quando presente nos seus tecidos.We conducted a preliminary study to quantify and compare two concentrations of the same metals present in the hemolymph of snail Biomphalaria glabrata. In this context, we used Induction Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy technique (ICP-OES, to analyze the metals in the two samples (snails infected and not infected with Schistosoma mansoni. The metals studied were: aluminum, calcium, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, potassium, magnesium, manganese, lead and zinc. Preliminary results showed that such metals are not involved in the defense of these organisms against the parasite, when present in their tissues.

  19. Schistosoma mattheei infection in cattle: the course of the intestinal syndrome, and an estimate of the lethal dose of cercariae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wyk, J A; Van Rensburg, L J; Heitmann, L P

    1997-03-01

    Three groups of young oxen were infected percutaneously with cercariae of Schistosoma mattheei. Three of five oxen infected with 248 cercariae kg-1 mass died or were killed in extremis 58-70 d after infection, a fourth survived extremely severe clinical schistosomosis and the fifth was only slightly affected. None of seven calves infected with 187 cercariae kg-1 died, while one of seven exposed to 119 cercariae kg-1 was in extremis (possibly not from schistosomosis) when killed after 378 d. The LD50 appears to be in the region of the highest dose tested (248 cercariae kg-1), but depends on variations in the viability of the cercariae used. The clinical syndrome was characterized by a drastic, rapid loss in body mass; a severe diarrhoea containing blood clots; straining, gnashing of the teeth, occasional groaning, and other signs of abdominal pain; and markedly sunken eyes. Lethally infected oxen did not become recumbent until shortly before death. Some severely affected animals made remarkable, but slow, recoveries without treatment. Schistosomes, in close association with granulomata, are described-apparently for the first time-in the omental veins of cattle. Mean worm development in three calves that died or were killed in extremis in the acute stage of the disease, was 55.5%. In contrast to most previous findings with S. mattheei, in two of these animals, more female than male worms developed. The worms were recovered by perfusion and, in one animal, a large number of intestinal veins were dissected open to estimate the efficiency of the perfusion method. Only 1.9% of the total worm burden had not been removed by perfusion in this animal.

  20. Schistosoma mansoni Infections, Undernutrition and Anaemia among Primary Schoolchildren in Two Onshore Villages in Rorya District, North-Western Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munisi, David Zadock; Buza, Joram; Mpolya, Emmanuel A; Kinung'hi, Safari M

    2016-01-01

    Undernutrition and anaemia remains to be a major public health problem in many developing countries, where they mostly affect children. Intestinal parasitic infections are known to affect both growth and haemoglobin levels. Much has been reported on the impact of geohelminths on anaemia and undernutrition, leaving that of Schistosoma mansoni not well studied. Therefore this study intended to determine the association between S.mansoni infections, anaemia and undernutrition among schoolchildren in Rorya district, Northwestern Tanzania. A cross-sectional study was carried among schoolchildren in two onshore villages namely Busanga and Kibuyi in Rorya district. Single stool specimens were collected from 513 randomly selected schoolchildren and processed for microscopic examination using the Kato-Katz method. Nutritional status was determined by anthropometry. Blood samples were also collected and examined for malaria parasites and haemoglobin levels using the Giemsa stain and HaemoCue methods, respectively. A pretested questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic data and associated factors. The prevalence of S. mansoni infection and malaria was 84.02% and 9.16%, respectively. Other parasites found were Ascaris lumbricoides (1.36%) and Hookworm (1.36%). The prevalence of stunting and wasting was 38.21% and 14.42%, respectively. The prevalence of anaemia was 29.43%, whereby 0.58% had severe anaemia. S. mansoni infection was not found to be associated with undernutrition or anaemia (p>0.05). The risk of stunting and wasting increased with increasing age (pAnaemia was associated with age, sex and village of residence (panaemia are highly prevalent in the study area. The observed rates of undernutrition and anaemia were seen not to be associated with S.mansoni infection suggesting possibly being a result of poor dietary nutrients. This study suggests that policy makers should consider Rorya district for inclusion into national schistosomiasis control and school

  1. Major role for carbohydrate epitopes preferentially recognized by chronically infected mice in the determination of Schistosoma mansoni schistosomulum surface antigenicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omer-ali, P.; Magee, A.I.; Kelly, C.; Simpson, A.J.G.

    1986-12-01

    A radioimmunoassay that makes use of whole Schistosomula and /sup 125/I-labeled protein A has been used to characterize and to quantify the binding of antisera to the surface of 3 hr mechanically transformed schistosomula of Schistosoma mansoni. This technique facilitates the determination of epitopes on the schistosomula in addition to those detected by surface labeling and immunoprecipitation. By using this technique, it has been demonstrated that there is a much greater binding to the parasite surface of antibodies from chronically infected mice (CMS) than of antibodies from mice infected with highly irradiated cercariae (VMS), and CMS recognizes epitopes that VMS does not. Treatment of the surface of the schistosomula with trifluoromethanesulphonic acid and sodium metaperiodate has suggested that the discrepancy of the binding between the two sera is due to the recognition of a large number of additional epitopes by CMS, which are carbohydrate in nature. Some of the carbohydrate epitopes are expressed on the previously described surface glycoprotein antigens of M/sub r/ 200,000, 38,000, and 17,000.

  2. Experimental Schistosoma bovis infection in goats. Circulating antigen and antibody responses to egg and adult worm antigens during infection and following treatment with praziquantel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, M V; Fillié, Y; Monrad, J; Christensen, N O; Deelder, A

    1996-10-01

    Circulating antigen levels and antibody responses in Schistosoma bovis-infected West African Dwarf goats were evaluated during infection and following treatment with praziquantel (60 mg/kg) 13 weeks post-infection. One day, 1 week and 4 weeks post-treatment, subgroups of goats were sacrificed and perfused for worm recovery. For comparison, parasite-free control animals were included. Blood and faecal samples were collected biweekly. Two gut-associated schistosome antigens, circulating cathodic and circulating anodic antigen (CCA and CAA) and 3 specific antibody responses (total Ig, IgG and IgM) were measured. For specific antibody detection, crude S. bovis adult worm and egg homogenates were used. The level of CCA in the infected groups was significantly elevated from the time of onset of egg excretion onwards. However, following treatment, the CCA titres dropped to control levels within 1 week post-treatment. Strong positive correlations were found between CCA levels and worm counts and faecal egg counts during peak egg excretion. The correlations of CAA and specific antibody titres to egg and worm counts were poor. The antibody responses were all significantly elevated in the infected goats during patency, but only marginally affected by the treatment. Hence, CCA proved to be superior by correlating strongly to the level of infection and by being a sensitive indicator of the effect of treatment.

  3. Toward Measuring Schistosoma Response to Praziquantel Treatment with Appropriate Descriptors of Egg Excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olliaro, Piero L; Vaillant, Michel; Diawara, Aïssatou; Coulibaly, Jean T; Garba, Amadou; Keiser, Jennifer; King, Charles H; Knopp, Stefanie; Landouré, Aly; N'Goran, Eliézer K; Raso, Giovanna; Scherrer, Alexandra U; Sousa-Figueiredo, José Carlos; Stete, Katarina; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Utzinger, Jürg

    2015-01-01

    The control of schistosomiasis emphasizes preventive chemotherapy with praziquantel, which aims at decreasing infection intensity and thus morbidity in individuals, as well as transmission in communities. Standardizing methods to assess treatment efficacy is important to compare trial outcomes across settings, and to monitor program effectiveness consistently. We compared customary methods and looked at possible complementary approaches in order to derive suggestions for standardizing outcome measures. We analyzed data from 24 studies conducted at African, Asian, and Latin American sites, enrolling overall 4,740 individuals infected with Schistosoma mansoni, S. haematobium, or S. japonicum, and treated with praziquantel at doses of 40-80 mg/kg. We found that group-based arithmetic and geometric means can be used interchangeably to express egg reduction rates (ERR) only if treatment efficacy is high (>95%). For lower levels of efficacy, ERR estimates are higher with geometric than arithmetic means. Using the distribution of individual responses in egg excretion, 6.3%, 1.7% and 4.3% of the subjects treated for S. haematobium, S. japonicum and S. mansoni infection, respectively, had no reduction in their egg counts (ERR = 0). The 5th, 10th, and 25th centiles of the subjects treated for S. haematobium had individual ERRs of 0%, 49.3%, and 96.5%; the corresponding values for S. japonicum were 75%, 99%, and 99%; and for S. mansoni 18.2%, 65.3%, and 99.8%. Using a single rather than quadruplicate Kato-Katz thick smear excluded 19% of S. mansoni-infected individuals. Whilst the effect on estimating ERR was negligible by individual studies, ERR estimates by arithmetic means were 8% lower with a single measurement. Arithmetic mean calculations of Schistosoma ERR are more sensitive and therefore more appropriate to monitor drug performance than geometric means. However, neither are satisfactory to identify poor responders. Group-based response estimated by arithmetic mean and

  4. Epidemiology of intestinal helminthiasis among school children with emphasis on Schistosoma mansoni infection in Wolaita zone, Southern Ethiopia

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    Bereket Alemayehu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intestinal helminth infections are major parasitic diseases causing public health problems in Ethiopia. Although the epidemiology of these infections are well documented in Ethiopia, new transmission foci for schistosomiasis are being reported in different parts of the country. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni and other intestinal helminth infections among school children and determine the endemicity of schistosomiasis in Wolaita Zone, southern Ethiopia. Methods Cross-sectional parasitological and malacological surveys were conducted by collecting stool samples for microscopic examination and snails for intermediate host identification. Stool samples were collected from 503 children and processed for microscopic examination using Kato-Katz and formalin-ether concentration methods. Snails collected from aquatic environments in the study area were identified to species level and Biomphalaria pfeifferi snails, the intermediate host of S. mansoni,, were individually exposed to artificial light in order to induce cercariae shedding. Cercariae shed from snails were used to infect laboratory-bred Swiss albino mice in order to identify the schistosome to species level. Results The overall prevalence of intestinal helminth infections was 72.2% among school children. S. mansoni infection prevalence was 58.6%. The prevalence and intensity of S. mansoni infections varied among schools and sex of children. Swimming was the only factor reported to be significantly associated with S. mansoni infection (AOR = 2.954, 95% CI:1.962-4.449. Other intestinal helminth species identified were hookworms (27.6%, Ascaris lumbricoides (8.7%, E. vermicularis (2.8%, Taenia species (2.6%, T. trichiura (1.2% and H. nana (0.6%. Only B. pfeifferi snails collected from streams shed schistosome cercariae and 792 adult S. mansoni worms were harvested from mice exposed to cercariae shed from B. pfeifferi on the 6th

  5. Epidemiology of intestinal helminthiasis among school children with emphasis on Schistosoma mansoni infection in Wolaita zone, Southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemayehu, Bereket; Tomass, Zewdneh; Wadilo, Fiseha; Leja, Dawit; Liang, Song; Erko, Berhanu

    2017-06-20

    Intestinal helminth infections are major parasitic diseases causing public health problems in Ethiopia. Although the epidemiology of these infections are well documented in Ethiopia, new transmission foci for schistosomiasis are being reported in different parts of the country. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni and other intestinal helminth infections among school children and determine the endemicity of schistosomiasis in Wolaita Zone, southern Ethiopia. Cross-sectional parasitological and malacological surveys were conducted by collecting stool samples for microscopic examination and snails for intermediate host identification. Stool samples were collected from 503 children and processed for microscopic examination using Kato-Katz and formalin-ether concentration methods. Snails collected from aquatic environments in the study area were identified to species level and Biomphalaria pfeifferi snails, the intermediate host of S. mansoni,, were individually exposed to artificial light in order to induce cercariae shedding. Cercariae shed from snails were used to infect laboratory-bred Swiss albino mice in order to identify the schistosome to species level. The overall prevalence of intestinal helminth infections was 72.2% among school children. S. mansoni infection prevalence was 58.6%. The prevalence and intensity of S. mansoni infections varied among schools and sex of children. Swimming was the only factor reported to be significantly associated with S. mansoni infection (AOR = 2.954, 95% CI:1.962-4.449). Other intestinal helminth species identified were hookworms (27.6%), Ascaris lumbricoides (8.7%), E. vermicularis (2.8%), Taenia species (2.6%), T. trichiura (1.2%) and H. nana (0.6%). Only B. pfeifferi snails collected from streams shed schistosome cercariae and 792 adult S. mansoni worms were harvested from mice exposed to cercariae shed from B. pfeifferi on the 6th week post-exposure. The present study found high

  6. Diagnostic performance of Schistosoma real-time PCR in urine samples from Kenyan children infected with Schistosoma haematobium: day-to-day variation and follow-up after praziquantel treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinkeles Melchers, Natalie V S; van Dam, Govert J; Shaproski, David; Kahama, Anthony I; Brienen, Eric A T; Vennervald, Birgitte J; van Lieshout, Lisette

    2014-04-01

    In an effort to enhance accuracy of diagnosis of Schistosoma haematobium, this study explores day-to-day variability and diagnostic performance of real-time PCR for detection and quantification of Schistosoma DNA compared to other diagnostic tools in an endemic area before and after treatment. Previously collected urine samples (N = 390) from 114 preselected proven parasitological and/or clinical S. haematobium positive Kenyan schoolchildren were analyzed by a Schistosoma internal transcribed spacer-based real-time PCR after 14 years of storage. Pre-treatment day-to-day fluctuations of PCR and microscopy over three consecutive days were measured for 24 children using intra-class correlation coefficient. A combined 'gold standard' (PCR and/or microscopy positive) was used to measure sensitivity and negative predictive value (NPV) of several diagnostic tools at baseline, two and 18 months post-treatment with praziquantel. All 24 repeatedly tested children were PCR-positive over three days with little daily variation in median Ct-values, while 83.3% were found to be egg-positive for S. haematobium at day 1 and 75.0% at day 2 and 3 pre-treatment, signifying daily fluctuations in microscopy diagnosis. Of all 114 preselected schoolchildren, repeated microscopic measurements were required to detect 96.5% versus 100% of positive pre-treatment cases by single PCR. At two months post-treatment, microscopy and PCR detected 22.8% versus 69.3% positive children, respectively. Based on the 'gold standard', PCR showed high sensitivity (>92%) as compared to >31% sensitivity for microscopy, both pre- and post-treatment. Detection and quantification of Schistosoma DNA in urine by real-time PCR was shown to be a powerful and specific diagnostic tool for detection of S. haematobium infections, with less day-to-day variation and higher sensitivity compared to microscopy. The superior performance of PCR before, and two and 18 months post-treatment provides a compelling argument for

  7. The spatial distribution of Schistosoma mansoni infection in four regions of western Côte d’Ivoire

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    Rufin K. Assaré

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis poses a considerable public health burden in sub- Saharan Africa and a sound understanding of the spatial distribution facilitates to better target control interventions. The objectives of this study were i to assess the prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni among school-aged children in four regions of western Côte d’Ivoire; ii to determine demographic, climatic and environmental factors that influence the distribution of S. mansoni; and iii to map and predict the distribution of S. mansoni in non-sampled locations. Parasitological surveys were carried out in 264 schools from June to December 2011. In each school, we aimed to examine 50 children for S. mansoni infection using duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears. Schools were georeferenced using a hand-held global positioning system receiver. Demographic data were obtained from readily available school lists, while climatic and environmental data were extracted from open-access remote sensing databases. Multivariable, binary non-spatial models and a Bayesian geostatistical logistic regression model were used to identify demographic, climatic and environmental risk factors for S. mansoni infection. Risk maps were developed based on observed S. mansoni prevalences and using Bayesian geostatistical models to predict prevalences at non-sampled locations. Overall, 12,462 children provided a sufficiently large stool sample to perform at least one Kato-Katz thick smear. The observed overall prevalence of S. mansoni infection was 39.9%, ranging from 0 to 100% at the unit of the school. Bayesian geostatistical analysis revealed that age, sex, altitude and difference between land surface temperature at day and night were significantly associated with S. mansoni infection. The S. mansoni risk map presented here is being been used by the national schistosomiasis control programme for spatial targeting of praziquantel and other interventions.

  8. Visceral schistosomiasis of domestic animals in India: humoral immune status of infected cattle, sheep and goats against major polypeptide antigens of Schistosoma indicum and S. spindale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A; Singh, A; Chaudhri, S S

    2004-04-01

    Polypeptide profiles of Schistosoma indicum and S. spindale adult worm homogenates were obtained by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Humoral immune status of infected cattle, sheep and goats against Schistosoma indicum and S. spindale Ags was determined by immunoblot analysis and by indirect ELISA using four major polypeptides of approximate molecular masses 45 kDa, 40 kDa, 28 kDa and 15 kDa electro-eluted from the gel slices. Cattle sera samples had higher levels of antibodies against Si/s40 and Si/s28 than against Si/s45 antigen. Reasons have been discussed for the absence of detectable levels of anti-Si/s28, -Si/s45 and -Si/s40 antibodies in a significant number of sera samples from S. indicum egg-positive sheep.

  9. Vaccination with Enzymatically Cleaved GPI-Anchored Proteins from Schistosoma mansoni Induces Protection against Challenge Infection

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    Vicente P. Martins

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The flatworm Schistosoma mansoni is a blood fluke parasite that causes schistosomiasis, a debilitating disease that occurs throughout the developing world. Current schistosomiasis control strategies are mainly based on chemotherapy, but many researchers believe that the best long-term strategy to control schistosomiasis is through immunization with an antischistosomiasis vaccine combined with drug treatment. In the search for potential vaccine candidates, numerous tegument antigens have been assessed. As the major interface between parasite and mammalian host, the tegument plays crucial roles in the establishment and further course of schistosomiasis. Herein, we evaluated the potential of a GPI fraction, containing representative molecules located on the outer surface of adult worms, as vaccine candidate. Immunization of mice with GPI-anchored proteins induced a mixed Th1/Th2 type of immune response with production of IFN-γ and TNF-α, and low levels of IL-5 into the supernatant of splenocyte cultures. The protection engendered by this vaccination protocol was confirmed by 42% reduction in worm burden, 45% reduction in eggs per gram of hepatic tissue, 29% reduction in the number of granulomas per area, and 53% reduction in the granuloma fibrosis. Taken together, the data herein support the potential of surface-exposed GPI-anchored antigens from the S. mansoni tegument as vaccine candidate.

  10. Vaccination with enzymatically cleaved GPI-anchored proteins from Schistosoma mansoni induces protection against challenge infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Vicente P; Pinheiro, Carina S; Figueiredo, Barbara C P; Assis, Natan R G; Morais, Suellen B; Caliari, Marcelo V; Azevedo, Vasco; Castro-Borges, William; Wilson, R Alan; Oliveira, Sergio C

    2012-01-01

    The flatworm Schistosoma mansoni is a blood fluke parasite that causes schistosomiasis, a debilitating disease that occurs throughout the developing world. Current schistosomiasis control strategies are mainly based on chemotherapy, but many researchers believe that the best long-term strategy to control schistosomiasis is through immunization with an antischistosomiasis vaccine combined with drug treatment. In the search for potential vaccine candidates, numerous tegument antigens have been assessed. As the major interface between parasite and mammalian host, the tegument plays crucial roles in the establishment and further course of schistosomiasis. Herein, we evaluated the potential of a GPI fraction, containing representative molecules located on the outer surface of adult worms, as vaccine candidate. Immunization of mice with GPI-anchored proteins induced a mixed Th1/Th2 type of immune response with production of IFN-γ and TNF-α, and low levels of IL-5 into the supernatant of splenocyte cultures. The protection engendered by this vaccination protocol was confirmed by 42% reduction in worm burden, 45% reduction in eggs per gram of hepatic tissue, 29% reduction in the number of granulomas per area, and 53% reduction in the granuloma fibrosis. Taken together, the data herein support the potential of surface-exposed GPI-anchored antigens from the S. mansoni tegument as vaccine candidate.

  11. Ultrasound monitoring of structural urinary tract disease in Schistosoma haematobium infection

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    King Charles H

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A major advance in our understanding of the natural history of Schistosoma haematobium-related morbidity has come through the introduction of the portable ultrasound machines for non-invasive examination of the kidneys and bladder. With the use of generators or battery packs to supply power in non-clinical field settings, and with the use of instant photography or miniaturized thermal printers to record permanent images, it is possible to examine scores of individuals in endemic communities every day. Broad-based ultrasound screening has allowed better definition of age-specific disease risks in urinary schistosomiasis. Results indicate that urinary tract abnormalities are common (18% overall prevalence in S. haematobium transmission areas, with a 2-4% risk of either severe bladder abnormality or advanced ureteral obstruction. In longitudinal surveys, ultrasound studies have shown that praziquantel and metrifonate therapy are rapidly effective in reversing urinary tract abnormalities among children. The benefits of treating adults are less well known, but research in progress should help to define this issue. Similarly, the prognosis of specific ultrasound findings needs to be clarified, and the ease of sonographic examination will make such long-term follow-up studies feasible. In summary, the painless, quick, and reproducible ultrasound examination has become an essential tool in the study of urinary schistosomiasis.

  12. Intestinal schistosomiasis caused by both Schistosoma intercalatum and Schistosoma mansoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzanetou, Konstantina; Astriti, Myrto; Delis, Vassilios; Moustakas, George; Choreftaki, Theodosia; Papaliodi, Eugenia; Sarri, Katerina; Adamis, George

    2010-05-01

    A case is presented of intestinal schistosomiasis due to both Schistosoma intercalatum and Schistosoma mansoni in a 30-year-old man from Senegal with discussion of diagnostic approach, species identification and determination of the effect of treatment. The patient was admitted to hospital for investigation of renal failure, arterial hypertension and hypereosinophilia. Repeated stool examinations for ova and parasites were negative. Ultrasonography (US) and computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen showed no abnormalities. US of the urinary tract showed kidneys of borderline size with increased echogenicity. Cystoscopy and histopathological examination of bladder biopsy specimens were normal. Flexible colonoscopy revealed numerous nodular lesions in the rectosigmoid region and a few similar lesions in the transverse colon, the histopathological examination of which showed deposition of Schistosoma ova with granuloma formation. Examination of multiple crush biopsy specimens from the rectosigmoid region revealed numerous granulomas formed around Schistosoma eggs which had a terminal spine and were identified as S. intercalatum (longer than Schistosoma haematobium and with a slightly curved terminal spine) and a very few S. mansoni eggs. Crush biopsies from the lesions in the transverse colon showed only S. mansoni eggs. In conclusion, the examination of multiple crush biopsy specimens is a very sensitive and specific technique for species identification of Schistosoma, especially in mixed infections, and for defining the location and extent of the granulomas evoked by each species. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Gestation and breastfeeding in schistosomotic mothers differently modulate the immune response of adult offspring to postnatal Schistosoma mansoni infection

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    Patrícia d‘Emery Alves Santos

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Schistosoma mansoni antigens in the early life alter homologous and heterologous immunity during postnatal infections. We evaluate the immunity to parasite antigens and ovalbumin (OA in adult mice born/suckled by schistosomotic mothers. Newborns were divided into: born (BIM, suckled (SIM or born/suckled (BSIM in schistosomotic mothers, and animals from noninfected mothers (control. When adults, the mice were infected and compared the hepatic granuloma size and cellularity. Some animals were OA + adjuvant immunised. We evaluated hypersensitivity reactions (HR, antibodies levels (IgG1/IgG2a anti-soluble egg antigen and anti-soluble worm antigen preparation, and anti-OA, cytokine production, and CD4+FoxP3+T-cells by splenocytes. Compared to control group, BIM mice showed a greater quantity of granulomas and collagen deposition, whereas SIM and BSIM presented smaller granulomas. BSIM group exhibited the lowest levels of anti-parasite antibodies. For anti-OA immunity, immediate HR was suppressed in all groups, with greater intensity in SIM mice accompanied of the remarkable level of basal CD4+FoxP3+T-cells. BIM and SIM groups produced less interleukin (IL-4 and interferon (IFN-g. In BSIM, there was higher production of IL-10 and IFN-g, but lower levels of IL-4 and CD4+FoxP3+T-cells. Thus, pregnancy in schistosomotic mothers intensified hepatic fibrosis, whereas breastfeeding diminished granulomas in descendants. Separately, pregnancy and breastfeeding could suppress heterologous immunity; however, when combined, the responses could be partially restored in infected descendants.

  14. Selecting targets for the diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni infection: An integrative approach using multi-omic and immunoinformatics data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, Liliane M. V.; Lopes, Marcelo D.; Lopes, Débora O.; Coelho, Paulo Marcos Z.; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa

    2017-01-01

    In order to effectively control and monitor schistosomiasis, new diagnostic methods are essential. Taking advantage of computational approaches provided by immunoinformatics and considering the availability of Schistosoma mansoni predicted proteome information, candidate antigens of schistosomiasis were selected and used in immunodiagnosis tests based on Enzime-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). The computational selection strategy was based on signal peptide prediction; low similarity to human proteins; B- and T-cell epitope prediction; location and expression in different parasite life stages within definitive host. Results of the above-mentioned analysis were parsed to extract meaningful biological information and loaded into a relational database developed to integrate them. In the end, seven proteins were selected and one B-cell linear epitope from each one of them was selected using B-cell epitope score and the presence of intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs). These predicted epitopes generated synthetic peptides that were used in ELISA assays to validate the rational strategy of in silico selection. ELISA was performed using sera from residents of areas of low endemicity for S. mansoni infection and also from healthy donors (HD), not living in an endemic area for schistosomiasis. Discrimination of negative (NEG) and positive (INF) individuals from endemic areas was performed using parasitological and molecular methods. All infected individuals were treated with praziquantel, and serum samples were obtained from them 30 and 180 days post-treatment (30DPT and 180DPT). Results revealed higher IgG levels in INF group than in HD and NEG groups when peptides 1, 3, 4, 5 and 7 were used. Moreover, using peptide 5, ELISA achieved the best performance, since it could discriminate between individuals living in an endemic area that were actively infected from those that were not (NEG, 30DPT, 180DPT groups). Our experimental results also indicate that the

  15. Effect of praziquantel administration on hepatic stereology of mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni and fed a low-protein diet

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    L.A. Barros

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A study was undertaken to investigate the effect of administering praziquantel (PZQ, focusing on the liver stereological findings of malnourished mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni. Thirty female Swiss Webster mice (age: 21 days; weight: 8-14 g were fed either a low-protein diet (8% or standard chow (22% protein for 15 days. Five mice in each group were infected with 50 cercariae each of the BH strain (Brazil. PZQ therapy (80 mg/kg body weight, per day was started on the 50th day of infection and consisted of daily administration for 5 days. Volume density (hepatocytes, sinusoids and hepatic fibrosis was determined by stereology using a light microscope. Body weight gain and total serum albumin levels were always lower in undernourished mice. Our stereological study demonstrated that treatment increased both volume density of hepatocytes in mice fed standard chow (47.56%, treated group and 12.06%, control and low-protein chow (30.98%, treated group and 21.44%, control, and hepatic sinusoids [standard chow (12.52%, treated group and 9.06%, control, low-protein chow (14.42%, treated group and 8.46%, control], while hepatic fibrosis was reduced [standard chow (39.92%, treated group and 78.88%, control and low-protein chow (54.60%, treated group and 70.10%, control]. On the other hand, mice fed low-protein chow decreased density volume of hepatocytes and hepatic fibrosis. In conclusion, our findings indicate that treatment with PZQ ameliorates hepatic schistosomiasis pathology even in mice fed a low-protein diet.

  16. Evaluation of a Mobile Phone-Based Microscope for Screening of Schistosoma haematobium Infection in Rural Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogoch, Isaac I; Koydemir, Hatice C; Tseng, Derek; Ephraim, Richard K D; Duah, Evans; Tee, Joseph; Andrews, Jason R; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2017-06-01

    AbstractSchistosomiasis affects over 170 million people in Africa. Here we compare a novel, low-cost mobile phone microscope to a conventional light microscope for the label-free diagnosis of Schistosoma haematobium infections in a rural Ghanaian school setting. We tested the performance of our handheld microscope using 60 slides that were randomly chosen from an ongoing epidemiologic study in school-aged children. The mobile phone microscope had a sensitivity of 72.1% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 56.1-84.2), specificity of 100% (95% CI: 75.9-100), positive predictive value of 100% (95% CI: 86.3-100), and a negative predictive value of 57.1% (95% CI: 37.4-75.0). With its modest sensitivity and high specificity, this handheld and cost-effective mobile phone-based microscope is a stepping-stone toward developing a powerful tool in clinical and public health settings where there is limited access to conventional laboratory diagnostic support.

  17. Schistosoma haematobium infection and CD4+ T-cell levels: a cross-sectional study of young South African women.

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    Elisabeth Kleppa

    Full Text Available Schistosoma (S. haematobium causes urogenital schistosomiasis and has been hypothesized to adversely impact HIV transmission and progression. On the other hand it has been hypothesized that HIV could influence the manifestations of schistosomiasis. In this cross-sectional study, we explored the association between urogenital S. haematobium infection and CD4 cell counts in 792 female high-school students from randomly selected schools in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. We also investigated the association between low CD4 cell counts in HIV positive women and the number of excreted schistosome eggs in urine. Sixteen percent were HIV positive and 31% had signs of urogenital schistosomiasis (as determined by genital sandy patches and / or abnormal blood vessels on ectocervix / vagina by colposcopy or presence of eggs in urine. After stratifying for HIV status, participants with and without urogenital schistosomiasis had similar CD4 cell counts. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in prevalence of urogenital schistosomiasis in HIV positive women with low and high CD4 cell counts. There was no significant difference in the number of eggs excreted in urine when comparing HIV positive and HIV negative women. Our findings indicate that urogenital schistosomiasis do not influence the number of circulating CD4 cells.

  18. Antischistosomal activity of acridanone- hydrazones in Cebus monkeys experimentally infected with the SJ strain of Schistosoma mansoni

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    Paulo Marcos Zech Coelho

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, four compounds were utilized at the dose of 12.5mg/kg body weight, p.o., to treat Cebus monkeys experimentally infected with about 200 cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni (SJ strain, via transcutaneous route. The oograms performed with rectal snips, as well as stool examinations carried out periodically, showed no viable eggs of the parasite, from day 29 to 226post-treatment. The perfusion undertaken after killing the animals showed absence of worms in the treated monkeys, whereas 83 worms were recovered from the control, thus corroborating the results obtained by means of oograms and coproscopy. These results confirm the efficacy of 9-acridanone- hydrazones previously tested against the LE strain of S. mansoni. The low curative dose and apparent absence of toxicity render these dmgs an important therapeutic reserve, taking into consideration the reports on the resistance of S. mansoni to the modern drugs oxamniquine and praziquantel.No presente trabalho, quatro compostos foram utilizados na dose de 12,5mg/kg de peso, por via oral, em macacos infectados transcutaneamente com cerca de 200 cercárias de Schistosoma mansoni. Os oogramas realizados com fragmentos de mucosa retal e os exames de fezes realizados, periodicamente, demonstraram a ausência de ovos viáveis do parasito a partir do 29- até o 226a dia pós-tratamento. A perfusão, apôs sacrifício dos animais tratados, não detectou vermes, enquanto que do macaco cotztrole 83 vermes foram recuperados, confirmando assim os resultados dos oogramas e da coproscopia. Estes resultados confirmam a eficácia das 9-acridanonas- hydrazonas já observada anteriormente contra a cepa LE de S. mansoni. A baixa dosagem curativa e aparente ausência de toxicidade colocam estas drogas como uma reserva terapêutica importante, tendo em vista o relato de resistência do S. mansoni às drogas modernas oxamniquína e praziquantel.

  19. Detection of Schistosoma Antibodies and exploration of associated factors among local residents around Inlay Lake, Southern Shan State, Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soe, Htin Zaw; Oo, Cho Cho; Myat, Tin Ohn; Maung, Nay Soe

    2017-03-01

    Schistosomiasis is a chronic parasitic disease caused by blood flukes (trematode worms) of the genus Schistosoma. Its transmission has been reported in 78 countries affecting at least 258 million people world-wide. It was documented that S. japonicum species was prevalent in Shan State, Myanmar, but the serological study was not conducted yet. General objective of the present study was to detect schistosoma antibodies and explore associated factors among local residents living around Inlay Lake, Nyaung Shwe Township, and Southern Shan State, Myanmar. An exploratory and cross-sectional analytic study was conducted among local residents (n = 315) in selected rural health center (RHC) areas from December 2012 through June 2013. The participants were interviewed with pretested semi-structured questionnaires and their blood samples (serum) were tested using Schistosomiasis Serology Microwell ELISA test kits (sensitivity 100% and specificity 85%) which detected IgG antibodies but could not distinguish between a new and past infection. Data collected were analysed by SPSS software 16.0 and associations of variables were determined by Chi-squared test with a significant level set at 0.05. Schistosoma seroprevalence (IgG) in study area was found to be 23.8% (95% CI: 18.8-28.8%). The present study is the first and foremost study producing serological evidence of schistosoma infection-one of the neglected tropical diseases-in local people of Myanmar. The factors significantly associated with seropositivity were being male [OR = 2.6 (95% CI: 1.5-4.49), P detected was most probably present at some time in this location of Myanmar, and this should be further confirmed parasitologically and kept under surveillance. Proper trainings on diagnosis, treatment, prevention and control of schistosomiasis should be provided to the healthcare providers. ISRCTN ISRCTN73824458 . Registered 28 September 2014, retrospectively registered.

  20. Combination of the two schistosomal antigens Sm14 and Sm29 elicits significant protection against experimental Schistosoma mansoni infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewaisha, Radwa E; Bahey-El-Din, Mohammed; Mossallam, Shereen F; Amer, Eglal I; Aboushleib, Hamida M; Khalil, Amal M

    2014-10-01

    Schistosomiasis continues to be a serious helminthic disease that is widespread in many regions in the world. Disease management relies mainly on early treatment with praziquantel, nevertheless, re-infection rates can still be high. An effective vaccine against Schistosoma mansoni is still lacking; a situation which hinders the efforts to eradicate the disease worldwide. Most investigators test S. mansoni antigens individually, rather than in combination, in their vaccine trials. A single-antigen vaccine is likely to elicit less protection against schistosomiasis than a multi-antigen vaccine. In the current study, we have selected two promising S. mansoni antigens, Sm14 and Sm29, and investigated their combination as a potential vaccine. Recombinant Sm14 and a truncated form of Sm29, designated TrSm29, were successfully expressed in Escherichiacoli. The two antigens were purified using affinity chromatography and administered to Swiss albino mice individually and in combination. Significant protection against S. mansoni infection was observed in mice immunized with the Sm14/TrSm29 combination in the presence/absence of the immunoadjuvant poly (I:C). The poly (I:C)-adjuvanted combination resulted in 40.3%, 68.2%, and 57.9% reduction in adult worm burden, liver egg burden and intestinal eggs, respectively. Granuloma size and count were also reduced besides improvement of the histopathological picture of livers of immunized mice. This study demonstrates the importance of using multi-antigen vaccines as an effective and simple approach to fulfill enhanced protection against schistosomiasis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Infection with Schistosoma mansoni has an Effect on Quality of Life, but not on Physical Fitness in Schoolchildren in Mwanza Region, North-Western Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinung’hi, Safari; Magnussen, Pascal; Kaatano, Godfrey

    2016-01-01

    parameters, S. mansoni infection had a significant effect on the emotional dimension of quality of life, but not on physical fitness. If PedsQL should be a useful tool to measure schistosome related morbidity, more in depth studies are needed in order to refine the tool so it focuses more on aspects......Background: Infection with Schistosoma mansoni negatively impact children’s physical health and may influence their general well-being. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of S. mansoni infections on a panel of morbidity indicators with emphasis on quality of life (PedsQL; measured...... in four different dimensions) and physical fitness (measured as VO2max) among 572 schoolchildren aged 7–8 years. Methodology/Principal findings: Prevalence of S. mansoni infections was 58.7%, with an arithmetic mean (95% CI) among positives of 207.3 (169.2–245.4) eggs per gram (epg). Most infections were...

  2. Evolução das imunoglobunilas envolvidas na resposta imune de camundongos ao Schistosoma mansoni The evolution of immunoglobulins involved in the immune response to mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni

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    Othon de Carvalho Bastos

    1984-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudada a evolução das imunoglobulinas envolvidas na resposta imune de camundongos ao Schistosoma mansoni durante oito semanas de infecção, utilizando soros pluri-específicos como reativos biológicos e a técnica da imunoeletroforese bidimensional. Os resultados expressaram modulação da resposta imune humoral, tanto em soros de animais parasitados (I como nos normais, tomados como controle (C. Aumentos relativos dos níveis de imunoglobulinas entre estes dois grupos foram constatados pela relação I/C. Foi possível verificar o aparecimento de uma resposta primária, ocorrida entre o início da doença e a segunda semana de infecção, constituída de IgM e IgA, e uma secundária, iniciada na sexta semana de infecção, constituída pelas IgA; IgG1 e IgM, com aumentos relativos de 4.5; 3 e 2 vezes normal.The evolution of immunoglobulins involved in the immune response of mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni was studied by using plurispecific sera and the bi-dimensional immunoelectrophoresis technique. Determinations of the level of different immunoglobulins in infected animals and control groups which were mantained under similar conditions detected significant variations in both groups over the 8 weeks of observation. The study of the relationship (I/C between the level of immunoglobulins of the infected animals (I and that of corresponding control (C showed that the infected animals presented a primary response (1-2 weeks after infection date and a secondary response that was initiated in the 6th week of infection, with levels of IgA, IgG and IgM that were respectively 4.5, 3 and 2 times higher than those of corresponding control.

  3. Small subunit (18S) ribosomal RNA gene divergence in the genus Schistosoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, D A; Kane, R A; Rollinson, D

    1993-08-01

    An entire 18S rRNA gene sequence from Schistosoma spindale (1990 bases) and partial 18S rRNA gene sequences from S. haematobium (1950 bases) and S. japonicum (1648 bases) have been determined. Together with the previously published sequence of the S. mansoni 18S rRNA gene, these data encompass the 4 recognized Schistosoma species groups. Although Schistosoma 18S rRNA genes are highly conserved, the sequences permit a preliminary molecular phylogeny to be established for the genus. This identifies S. haematobium and S. spindale as sister taxa in a clade with S. mansoni. S. japonicum does not appear to be closely related to this clade. Much of the observed variation occurs within a 'hypervariable' stretch of the gene corresponding to part of the V4 region of 18S rRNA. Despite this variation, the 3 new sequences fit models of 18S rRNA secondary structure predicted from the S. mansoni sequence.

  4. Detection of the circulating antigens CAA and CCA in human Schistosoma infections : immunodiagnostic and epidemiological applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lieshout, Elisabeth Antoinette van

    1996-01-01

    Schistosomiasis (bilharzia) is one of the major parasitic infections in tropical areas. It is caused by blood-dwelling flukes, residing in the mesenteric and pelvic veins of the human host. Over 200 million individuals are estimated to be infected with these worms, while at least 700 million people

  5. Massa tumoral secundária a infecção por Schistosoma mansoni simulando neoplasia de pulmão: relato de caso Tumoral pulmonary mass secondary to Schistosoma mansoni infection resembling neoplasia: case report

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    Cláudio Dornas de Oliveira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Indivíduos infectados com Schistosoma mansoni na fase crônica da doença podem apresentar comprometimento pulmonar com sintomatologia e alterações radiológicas variáveis. Os pulmões podem ser acometidos pela migração anômala de ovos do sistema porta para o sistema arterial pulmonar (através de anastomoses porto-sistêmicas e menos comumente por migrações ectópicas de vermes adultos. Há casos com extenso comprometimento parenquimatoso e outros com predomínio de arterites, com hipertensão pulmonar e cor pulmonale. Paciente jovem, residente em área endêmica de esquistossomose, com massa pulmonar sugestiva de neoplasia foi submetida a toracotomia exploradora sem possibilidade de ressecção da massa. Exame histopatológico mostrou vários granulomas esquistossomóticos e hiperplasia do tecido conjuntivo, sem sinais de neoplasia. Evoluiu com insuficiência respiratória e instabilidade hemodinâmica no pós-operatório imediato. Recebeu tratamento específico (praziquantel associado a prednisona. A paciente cursou com infecção pulmonar e choque séptico. Recebeu antibioticoterapia, aminas vasoativas, suporte ventilatório e tratamento hemodiálitico sem melhora. Evoluiu para óbito 28 dias após cirurgia.Patients with chronic Schistosoma mansoni infection may feature a range of pulmonary symptoms and radiological findings. Eggs, and rarely adult worms, may passively enter the pulmonary circulation, usually via the portal system, where they may cause pulmonary inflammation, fibrosis, hypertension and cor pulmonale. A 25-year-old patient who lived in a schistosomiasis endemic area with a pulmonary mass suggestive of malignancy underwent exploratory thoracotomy. The mass was adherent, with no resection possibility. The lung-biopsy specimen evaluation showed several granulomas with Schistosoma mansoni eggs and hyperplasic connective tissue with no sign of malignancy. The patient had respiratory failure and hypotension immediately

  6. Multivariable Regression Analysis in Schistosoma mansoni-Infected Individuals in the Sudan Reveals Unique Immunoepidemiological Profiles in Uninfected, egg+ and Non-egg+ Infected Individuals.

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    Tayseer Elamin Mohamed Elfaki

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the Sudan, Schistosoma mansoni infections are a major cause of morbidity in school-aged children and infection rates are associated with available clean water sources. During infection, immune responses pass through a Th1 followed by Th2 and Treg phases and patterns can relate to different stages of infection or immunity.This retrospective study evaluated immunoepidemiological aspects in 234 individuals (range 4-85 years old from Kassala and Khartoum states in 2011. Systemic immune profiles (cytokines and immunoglobulins and epidemiological parameters were surveyed in n = 110 persons presenting patent S. mansoni infections (egg+, n = 63 individuals positive for S. mansoni via PCR in sera but egg negative (SmPCR+ and n = 61 people who were infection-free (Sm uninf. Immunoepidemiological findings were further investigated using two binary multivariable regression analysis.Nearly all egg+ individuals had no access to latrines and over 90% obtained water via the canal stemming from the Atbara River. With regards to age, infection and an egg+ status was linked to young and adolescent groups. In terms of immunology, S. mansoni infection per se was strongly associated with increased SEA-specific IgG4 but not IgE levels. IL-6, IL-13 and IL-10 were significantly elevated in patently-infected individuals and positively correlated with egg load. In contrast, IL-2 and IL-1β were significantly lower in SmPCR+ individuals when compared to Sm uninf and egg+ groups which was further confirmed during multivariate regression analysis.Schistosomiasis remains an important public health problem in the Sudan with a high number of patent individuals. In addition, SmPCR diagnostics revealed another cohort of infected individuals with a unique immunological profile and provides an avenue for future studies on non-patent infection states. Future studies should investigate the downstream signalling pathways/mechanisms of IL-2 and IL-1β as potential diagnostic markers

  7. Schistosoma haematobium infection and asymptomatic bacteriuria in young South African females

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildemoes, Anna M. O.; Kjetland, Eyrun Floerecke; Zulu, Siphosenkosi Gift

    2015-01-01

    infection and asymptomatic bacteriuria can both portray haematuria, proteinuria and leukocyturia. This shared set of proxy diagnostic markers could fuel routine misdiagnosis in S. haematobium endemic areas. Furthermore, S. haematobium infected individuals might be at a higher risk of contracting bacterial...... by microscopy of urine samples. Furthermore, urine samples were tested with dipslides for asymptomatic bacteriuria and with dipsticks for haematuria, proteinuria and leukocytes. We found no association between asymptomatic bacteriuria and S. haematobium infection in a sample of 1040 female primary and high...

  8. Role of Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Trichoderma spp. in the control of root rot disease of soybean

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    Syed Ehteshamul-Haque

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Seed treatment of soybean with Bndyrhizobium japonicum, Trichoderma harzianum, T. viride, T. hamatum, T. koningii and T. pseudokoningii significantly controlled the infection of 30-day-old seedlingsby Maerophomina phaseolina, Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium spp. In 60-day-old plants Trichoderma spp.. and B. japonicum inhibited the grouth of R. solani and Fusarium spp., whereas the use of B. japonicum (TAL-102 with T. harzianum. T. viride, T. koningii and T. pseudokoningii controlled the infection by M. phaseolina. Greater grain yield was recorded when B. japonium (TAI-102 was used with T. hamatum.

  9. The relationship between faecal egg counts, worm burden and tissue egg counts in early Schistosoma mattheei infections in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bont, J; Shaw, D J; Vercruysse, J

    2002-01-01

    The relationships between schistosome faecal egg counts (EPG), total tissue egg counts (TEC) and adult female worm burdens (FW) recorded at post-mortem examination of 30 Friesian calves from three different field trials were analysed. The calves in study 1 (n=14) had been exposed to natural Schistosoma mattheei infections for 2 months, those of study 2 (n=9) for between 4 and 12 months, and those in study 3 (n=7) for 8 months. No clinical schistosomiasis was observed in any of the groups, and at perfusion, EPG's varied from 5 to 210, TEC's from 28,800 to 2,439,400 and FW's from 11 to 1218. There was as much variation in EPG, TEC and FW between calves with the same duration of exposure as between calves with different duration of exposure. There were very similar significant positive relationships between log transformed FW and log transformed EPG in all three groups (P0.46, slopes 0.957-1.015). There were also significant positive relationships between log transformed FW and log transformed TEC in all three groups (P0.45) and between log transformed TEC and log transformed EPG in all three groups (P0.48). All three studies had a linear relationship between log transformed FW and log transformed EPG with a slope value close to 1 (P>0.845 for different from one). This indicates that there was no evidence of density dependence in the three studies for the relationship between FW and EPG. In contrast, there was no consistent relationship (in terms of slope) between either log transformed TEC and log transformed FW in the three studies (after correcting for differential duration of exposure), or log transformed TEC and log transformed EPG. For all three sets of comparisons the predictability of one parameter based on another was poor for a single sample.

  10. Single versus double dose praziquantel comparison on efficacy and Schistosoma mansoni re-infection in preschool-age children in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nalugwa, Allen; Nuwaha, Fred; Tukahebwa, Edridah Muheki

    2015-01-01

    (PZQ) treatment on cure rates (CRs), egg reduction rates (ERRs) and re-infection rates 8 months later, in children aged 1-5 years living along Lake Victoria, Uganda. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Infected children (n= 1017) were randomized to receive either a single or double dose of PZQ. Initially......BACKGROUND: Schistosoma mansoni infection is proven to be a major health problem of preschool-age children in sub-Saharan Africa, yet this age category is not part of the schistosomiasis control program. The objective of this study was to compare the impact of single and double dose praziquantel......, abdominal pain and bloody diarrhea. Overall re-infection rate 8 months post treatment was 44.5%. CONCLUSIONS: PZQ is efficacious and relatively safe to use in preschool-age children but there is still an unmet need to improve its formulation to suit small children. Two PZQ doses lead to significant...

  11. Evaluation of circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) urine-tests for diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni infection in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchuem Tchuenté, Louis-Albert; Kueté Fouodo, Césaire Joris; Kamwa Ngassam, Romuald Isaka; Sumo, Laurentine; Dongmo Noumedem, Calvine; Kenfack, Christian Mérimé; Gipwe, Nestor Feussom; Nana, Esther Dankoni; Stothard, J Russell; Rollinson, David

    2012-01-01

    The Kato-Katz is the most common diagnostic method for Schistosoma mansoni infection. However, the day-to-day variability in host egg-excretion and its low detection sensitivity are major limits for its use in low transmission zones and after widespread chemotherapy. We evaluated the accuracy of circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) urine-assay as a diagnostic tool of S. mansoni. In comparison, a low sensitive CCA test (CCA-L) was assessed. THE STUDY WAS CONDUCTED IN THREE SETTINGS: two foci with single S. mansoni infections (settings A and B), and one mixed S. mansoni - S. haematobium focus (setting C). Stool and urine samples were collected from school-children on three consecutive days. Triplicate Kato-Katz readings were performed per stool sample. Each urine sample was tested with one CCA and only the first urine sample was subjected to CCA-L. Urine samples were also examined for S. haematobium eggs using the filtration method and for microhaematuria using urine reagent strips. Overall, 625 children provided three stool and three urine samples. Considering nine Kato-Katz thick smears as 'reference' diagnostic test, the prevalence of S. mansoni was 36.2%, 71.8% and 64.0% in settings A, B and C, respectively. The prevalence of S. haematobium in setting C was 12.0%. The sensitivities of single Kato-Katz, CCA and CCA-L from the first stool or urine samples were 58%, 82% and 46% in setting A, 56.8%, 82.4% and 68.8% in setting B, and 49.0%, 87.7% and 55.5% in setting C. The respective specificities were 100%, 64.7% and 100%; 100%, 62.3% and 91.3%; and 100%, 42.5% and 92.0%. Mixed infection with S. haematobium did not influence the CCA test results for S. mansoni diagnosis. Urine CCA revealed higher sensitivity than CCA-L and triplicate Kato-Katz, and produced similar prevalence as nine Kato-Katz. It seems an attractive method for S. mansoni diagnosis.

  12. Activation-induced apoptosis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells during hepatosplenic Schistosoma mansoni infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoneim, H M; Demian, S R; Heshmat, M G; Ismail, N S; El-Sayed, Laila H

    2008-01-01

    It is well established that programmed cell death (apoptosis) is an important regulator of host responses during infection with a variety of intra- and extra-cellular pathogens. The present work aimed at assessment of in vitro spontaneous and phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-induced apoptosis in mononuclear cells isolated from patients with hepatosplenic form of S. mansoni infections. Cell death data were correlated to the degree of lymphoproliferative responses to PHA as well as to the serum anti-schistosomal antibody titers. A markedly significant increase in PHA-induced apoptosis in lymphocytes isolated from S. mansoni-infected patients was seen when compared to the corresponding healthy controls. However, a slight difference was recorded between the two studied groups regarding the spontaneous apoptosis. This was accompanied with a significant impairment of in vitro PHA-induced lymphoproliferation of T cells from S. mansoni patients. Data of the present study supports the hypothesis that activation-induced cell death (AICD) is a potentially contributing factor in T helper (Th) cell regulation during chronic stages of schistosomiasis, which represents a critically determinant factor in the host-parasite interaction and might influence the destiny of parasitic infections either towards establishment of chronic infection or towards host death.

  13. The synergistic effect of concomitant schistosomiasis, hookworm, and trichuris infections on children's anemia burden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amara E Ezeamama

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available To estimate the degree of synergism between helminth species in their combined effects on anemia.Quantitative egg counts using the Kato-Katz method were determined for Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, Trichuris trichiura, and Schistosoma japonicum in 507 school-age children from helminth-endemic villages in The Philippines. Infection intensity was defined in three categories: uninfected, low, or moderate/high (M+. Anemia was defined as hemoglobin <11 g/dL. Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR, 95% confidence intervals (CI, and synergy index for pairs of concurrent infections.M+ co-infection of hookworm and S. japonicum (OR = 13.2, 95% CI: 3.82-45.5 and of hookworm and T. trichiura (OR = 5.34, 95% CI: 1.76-16.2 were associated with higher odds of anemia relative to children without respective M+ co-infections. For co-infections of hookworm and S. japonicum and of T. trichiura and hookworm, the estimated indices of synergy were 2.9 (95% CI: 1.1-4.6 and 1.4 (95% CI: 0.9-2.0, respectively.Co-infections of hookworm and either S. japonicum or T. trichiura were associated with higher levels of anemia than would be expected if the effects of these species had only independent effects on anemia. This suggests that integrated anti-helminthic treatment programs with simultaneous deworming for S. japonicum and some geohelminths could yield a greater than additive benefit for reducing anemia in helminth-endemic regions.

  14. Anemia and growth retardation associated with Schistosoma haematobium infection in Mali

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stecher, Chalotte W; Sacko, Moussa; Madsen, Henry

    2017-01-01

    associated with anemia; i.e., odds of having anemia in the highest and the next highest category was 3.25 (95% CL 1.61–6.55; page group and gender and the interaction between the two...... factors. Anemia was most pronounced in the 2–5 year olds males (55.5%, n=98). P. falciparum infection was not significantly associated with anemia. Stunting (body mass index [BMI] for age z-scoreage group....... Lower BMI-z-scores (as continuous variable) were associated with anemia (page group and anemia. Participants with malaria infection had lower z-scores (as continuous variables) of weight and height for age...

  15. Schistosoma mansoni Infection of Mice, Rats and Humans Elicits a Strong Antibody Response to a Limited Number of Reduction-Sensitive Epitopes on Five Major Tegumental Membrane Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krautz-Peterson, Greice; Debatis, Michelle; Tremblay, Jacqueline M; Oliveira, Sergio C; Da'dara, Akram A; Skelly, Patrick J; Shoemaker, Charles B

    2017-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a major disease of the developing world for which no vaccine has been successfully commercialized. While numerous Schistosoma mansoni worm antigens have been identified that elicit antibody responses during natural infections, little is known as to the identities of the schistosome antigens that are most prominently recognized by antibodies generated through natural infection. Non-reducing western blots probed with serum from schistosome-infected mice, rats and humans on total extracts of larval or adult schistosomes revealed that a small number of antigen bands predominate in all cases. Recognition of each of these major bands was lost when the blots were run under reducing condition. We expressed a rationally selected group of schistosome tegumental membrane antigens in insect host cells, and used the membrane extracts of these cells to unambiguously identify the major antigens recognized by S. mansoni infected mouse, rat and human serum. These results revealed that a limited number of dominant, reduction-sensitive conformational epitopes on five major tegumental surface membrane proteins: SmTsp2, Sm23, Sm29, SmLy6B and SmLy6F, are primary targets of mouse, rat and human S. mansoni infection sera antibodies. We conclude that, Schistosoma mansoni infection of both permissive (mouse) and non-permissive (rat) rodent models, as well as humans, elicit a dominant antibody response recognizing a limited number of conformational epitopes on the same five tegumental membrane proteins. Thus it appears that neither infecting schistosomula nor mature adult schistosomes are substantively impacted by the robust circulating anti-tegumental antibody response they elicit to these antigens. Importantly, our data suggest a need to re-evaluate host immune responses to many schistosome antigens and has important implications regarding schistosome immune evasion mechanisms and schistosomiasis vaccine development.

  16. Schistosoma mansoni Infection of Mice, Rats and Humans Elicits a Strong Antibody Response to a Limited Number of Reduction-Sensitive Epitopes on Five Major Tegumental Membrane Proteins.

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    Greice Krautz-Peterson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is a major disease of the developing world for which no vaccine has been successfully commercialized. While numerous Schistosoma mansoni worm antigens have been identified that elicit antibody responses during natural infections, little is known as to the identities of the schistosome antigens that are most prominently recognized by antibodies generated through natural infection. Non-reducing western blots probed with serum from schistosome-infected mice, rats and humans on total extracts of larval or adult schistosomes revealed that a small number of antigen bands predominate in all cases. Recognition of each of these major bands was lost when the blots were run under reducing condition. We expressed a rationally selected group of schistosome tegumental membrane antigens in insect host cells, and used the membrane extracts of these cells to unambiguously identify the major antigens recognized by S. mansoni infected mouse, rat and human serum. These results revealed that a limited number of dominant, reduction-sensitive conformational epitopes on five major tegumental surface membrane proteins: SmTsp2, Sm23, Sm29, SmLy6B and SmLy6F, are primary targets of mouse, rat and human S. mansoni infection sera antibodies. We conclude that, Schistosoma mansoni infection of both permissive (mouse and non-permissive (rat rodent models, as well as humans, elicit a dominant antibody response recognizing a limited number of conformational epitopes on the same five tegumental membrane proteins. Thus it appears that neither infecting schistosomula nor mature adult schistosomes are substantively impacted by the robust circulating anti-tegumental antibody response they elicit to these antigens. Importantly, our data suggest a need to re-evaluate host immune responses to many schistosome antigens and has important implications regarding schistosome immune evasion mechanisms and schistosomiasis vaccine development.

  17. Specific immunoglobulin measurements related to exposure and resistance to Schistosoma mansoni infection in Sudanese canal cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Satti, M.Z.; Lind, Peter; Vennervald, B.J.

    1996-01-01

    was used to detect specific IgE and IgG subclasses in response to whole worm antigen (WWH) and soluble egg antigen (SEA) before and 3 months after praziquantel treatment in the groups of canal cleaners and before and 1 year after treatment in normally exposed adults. When intensity of infection...

  18. Influence of Schistosoma mansoni and Hookworm Infection Intensities on Anaemia in Ugandan Villages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chami, Goylette F.; Fenwick, Alan; Bulte, Erwin; Kontoleon, Andreas A.; Kabatereine, Narcis B.; Tukahebwa, Edridah M.; Dunne, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The association of anaemia with intestinal schistosomiasis and hookworm infections are poorly explored in populations that are not limited to children or pregnant women. Methods: We sampled 1,832 individuals aged 5–90 years from 30 communities in Mayuge District, Uganda. Demographic,

  19. Case series of adenocarcinoma of the prostate associated with Schistosoma haematobium infection in Tanzania

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    Humphrey D Mazigo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In endemic areas, schistosomiasis has been associated with the pathogenesis of bladder, prostate, colorectal and renal carcinoma. However, the relationship between prostate cancer and schistosomiasis infection remains controversial. Here we present a series of three cases from Tanzania of prostatic adenocarcinoma associated with urinary schistosomiasis.

  20. Molecular characterization of serine protease inhibitor isoform 3, SmSPI, from Schistosoma mansoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakchotanon, Pattarakul; Molee, Patamaporn; Nuamtanong, Supaporn; Limpanont, Yanin; Chusongsang, Phiraphol; Limsomboon, Jareemate; Chusongsang, Yupa; Maneewatchararangsri, Santi; Chaisri, Urai; Adisakwattana, Poom

    2016-08-01

    Serine protease inhibitors, known as serpins, are pleiotropic regulators of endogenous and exogenous proteases, and molecule transporters. They have been documented in animals, plants, fungi, bacteria, and viruses; here, we characterize a serpin from the trematode platyhelminth Schistosoma mansoni. At least eight serpins have been found in the genome of S. mansoni, but only two have characterized molecular properties and functions. Here, the function of S. mansoni serpin isoform 3 (SmSPI) was analyzed, using both computational and molecular biological approaches. Phylogenetic analysis showed that SmSPI was closely related to Schistosoma haematobium serpin and Schistosoma japonicum serpin B10. Structure determined in silico confirmed that SmSPI belonged to the serpin superfamily, containing nine α-helices, three β-sheets, and a reactive central loop. SmSPI was highly expressed in schistosomules, predominantly in the head gland, and in adult male and female with intensive accumulation on the spines, which suggests that it may have a role in facilitating intradermal and intravenous survival. Recombinant SmSPI was overexpressed in Escherichia coli; the recombinant protein was of the same size (46 kDa) as the native protein. Immunological analysis suggested that mice infected with S. mansoni responded to rSmSPI at 8 weeks postinfection (wpi) but not earlier. The inhibitory activity of rSmSPI was specific to chymotrypsin but not trypsin, neutrophil elastase, and porcine pancreatic elastase. Elucidating the biological and physiological functions of SmSPI as well as other serpins will lead to further understanding of host-parasite interaction machinery that may provide novel strategies to prevent and control schistosomiasis in the future.

  1. Bioavailability and in vivo efficacy of a praziquantel-polyvinylpyrrolidone solid dispersion in Schistosoma mansoni-infected mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Lakkany, Naglaa; Seif El-Din, Sayed Hassan; Heikal, Lamia

    2012-12-01

    One of the problems of praziquantel (PZQ) is its very low aqueous solubility. Moreover, its dissolution rate is considered the limiting factor for its bioavailability. This work correlates the physical properties and the dissolution behavior of PZQ-polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) solid dispersion (SD) at the ratios of 1:1 and 3:7 with its oral bioavailability and its in vivo efficacy against Schistosoma mansoni (S. mansoni). The PZQ and PZQ-PVP SD were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and solubility test. Results showed a decrease in crystallinity, possible interaction between PZQ and PVP, greater increase in dissolution rate and appreciable reduction in particle size. S. mansoni-infected mice treated orally with either pure PZQ or PZQ-PVP at a single dose of 500 mg/kg showed a higher increase in AUC((0-8h)), C (max), K(a) and t (1/2e) with a significant decrease in k (el) versus the corresponding uninfected mice. Moreover, uninfected and infected mice treated with PZQ-PVP SD showed 2.3-, 1.6- and 1.3-, 1.25-fold increase, respectively, in AUC((0-8h)) and C(max), with a decrease in k(el) and increase in t (1/2e) by twofold versus the corresponding pure PZQ-treated groups. Percentage worm reduction at all administered doses (62.5, 125, 250, 500 and 1,000 mg/kg) was significantly higher (1- to 1.5-fold) in mice treated with PZQ-PVP SD (ED₅₀ = 40.92) versus those treated with pure PZQ (ED₅₀ = 99.29). In addition, a significant reduction in total tissue egg load concomitant with a significant decrease in total immature and mature eggs and an increase in dead eggs in PZQ-PVP SD-treated groups versus their corresponding pure PZQ-treated groups was recorded. Solid dispersion of PZQ with PVP could lead to a further improvement in the effectiveness of PZQ therapy especially with the appearance of some PZQ-tolerant S. mansoni isolates.

  2. MONITORING POSITIVITY FOR Schistosoma mansoni IN RODENTS Holochilus sp. NATURALLY INFECTED

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    Guilherme Silva Miranda

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of non-human mammals such as schistosomiasis reservoir has always been an aggravating factor to be studied. Family cricetidae rodents like Nectomys sp, seem to have an important role in the potentiation of the spread of it. However, for Holochilus sp. (Rodentia: Cricetidae, found in Maranhão, studies with this function seem scarce. Thereby, we aimmed to analyze the infection rate of these animals for S. mansoni in São Bento – MA, endemic area for the parasite. These rodents were monitored during 12 months, by the Tomahawk traps for caught and triplicates of stool tests blades, made by Kato–Katz kit, for parasitogical exam. A total of 101 rodents were captured, of which 28.7% were naturally infected by S. mansoni (17.3% females and 82.7% males. This analysis showed that an average of 2.4 rodents was infected for one year, being possible to find positive animals in almost all the collects. Therefore, the rodent Holochilus sp. is a potential candidate in ensuring the maintenance of the schistosomiasis cycle in the region under study.

  3. Differential Spatial Repositioning of Activated Genes in Biomphalaria glabrata Snails Infected with Schistosoma mansoni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arican-Goktas, Halime D.; Ittiprasert, Wannaporn; Bridger, Joanna M.; Knight, Matty

    2014-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is an infectious disease infecting mammals as the definitive host and fresh water snails as the intermediate host. Understanding the molecular and biochemical relationship between the causative schistosome parasite and its hosts will be key to understanding and ultimately treating and/or eradicating the disease. There is increasing evidence that pathogens that have co-evolved with their hosts can manipulate their hosts' behaviour at various levels to augment an infection. Bacteria, for example, can induce beneficial chromatin remodelling of the host genome. We have previously shown in vitro that Biomphalaria glabrata embryonic cells co-cultured with schistosome miracidia display genes changing their nuclear location and becoming up-regulated. This also happens in vivo in live intact snails, where early exposure to miracidia also elicits non-random repositioning of genes. We reveal differences in the nuclear repositioning between the response of parasite susceptible snails as compared to resistant snails and with normal or live, attenuated parasites. Interestingly, the stress response gene heat shock protein (Hsp) 70 is only repositioned and then up-regulated in susceptible snails with the normal parasite. This movement and change in gene expression seems to be controlled by the parasite. Other differences in the behaviour of genes support the view that some genes are responding to tissue damage, for example the ferritin genes move and are up-regulated whether the snails are either susceptible or resistant and upon exposure to either normal or attenuated parasite. This is the first time host genome reorganisation has been seen in a parasitic host and only the second time for any pathogen. We believe that the parasite elicits a spatio-epigenetic reorganisation of the host genome to induce favourable gene expression for itself and this might represent a fundamental mechanism present in the human host infected with schistosome cercariae as well as in

  4. The efficacy of antihelminthic compound; Clorsulon against experimental Schistosoma mansoni infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossallam, Shereen F; Ali, Safia M; El Zawawy, Lobna A; Said, Doaa E

    2007-04-01

    The efficacy of Clorsulon (CLS) against experimental schistosomiasis mansoni, using Praziquantel (PZQ) as a therapeutic control was evaluated. Swiss Albino mice were divided into infected non-treated control, PZQ-treated group given a single dose of 500 mg/kg four weeks post infection (PI), and infected mice treated with single, double, and triple doses of 5 mg/kg CLS per dose, one week apart starting from the 4th week PI. All animals were perfused for adults count. Parts of livers and intestines were examined for granulomata number and sizes. Pathological changes in hepatic parenchyma by H&E and Masson trichrome stains were also examined. Results revealed that a single treatment with PZQ caused a significant percentage reduction (%R) of worm load (92.68%), mean egg count in liver and intestine (91.20 & 94.01% respectively), and mean size of liver granulomata was reduced (92.06%). Regarding CLS, the worm burden was reduced proportionally with number of doses given; 87.80, 96.34 & 97.56% in single, double and triple exposures successively. Egg count in liver was decreased by 85.90, 97.01 & 96.23% respectively in treated mice. Number of intestinal granulomata was decreased by 85.28, 94.24 & 95.49% in a similar way. Size of hepatic granulomata was decreased by 89.02, 94.51 & 95.05% by 1, 2 & 3 doses consecutively. All parameters reflected non significant difference between 2 & 3 dose of CLS. The results were critically discussed.

  5. Elimination of Schistosoma mansoni in infected mice by slow release of artemisone

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    Daniel Gold

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The current treatment of schistosomiasis is based on the anti-helminthic drug praziquantel (PZQ. PZQ affects only the adult stages of schistosomes. In addition, resistance to PZQ is emerging. We suggest a drug, which could serve as a potential alternative or complement to PZQ, and as a means of treating infections at earlier, pre-granuloma stage. Derivatives of the peroxidic antimalarial drug artemisinin have been indicated as alternatives, because both plasmodia and schistosomes are blood-feeding parasites. The mechanism of action of artemisinins is related to oxidative effects of the artemisinins on intracellular reductants leading to formation of cytotoxic reactive oxygen species. We used artemisone, which has improved pharmacokinetics and anti-plasmodial activity, and reduced toxicity compared to other artemisinins in clinical use against malaria. We infected adult mice by subcutaneous injection of S. mansoni cercariae (about 200 and treated them at various times post infection by the following methods: i. artemisone suspension administered by gavage (400–450 mg/kg; ii. subcutaneous injection of a gel containing a known concentration of artemisone (115–120 mg/kg; iii. subcutaneous insertion of the drug incorporated in a solid polymer (56–60 mg/kg; iv. intraperitoneal injection of the drug solubilized in DMSO (115–120 mg/kg. Drug administration in polymers was performed to enable slow release of the artemisone that was verified in vivo and in vitro bioassays using drug-sensitive malaria parasites. We found superior strong anti-schistosome effects up to a total reduction of worm number, mainly following repetitive treatments with the drug absorbed in the polymers (73.1% and 95.9% reduction in mice treated with artemisone in gel 7 and 14, and 21, 28 and 35 days post infection, respectively. The results indicate that artemisone has a potent anti-schistosome activity. Its main importance in this context is its effectiveness in

  6. Reduced T regulatory cell response during acute Plasmodium falciparum infection in Malian children co-infected with Schistosoma haematobium.

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    Kirsten E Lyke

    Full Text Available Regulatory T cells (Tregs suppress host immune responses and participate in immune homeostasis. In co-infection, secondary parasite infections may disrupt the immunologic responses induced by a pre-existing parasitic infection. We previously demonstrated that schistosomiasis-positive (SP Malian children, aged 4-8 years, are protected against the acquisition of malaria compared to matched schistosomiasis-negative (SN children.To determine if Tregs contribute to this protection, we performed immunologic and Treg depletion in vitro studies using PBMC acquired from children with and without S. haematobium infection followed longitudinally for the acquisition of malaria. Levels of Tregs were lower in children with dual infections compared to children with malaria alone (0.49 versus 1.37%, respectively, P = 0.004 but were similar months later, during a period with negligible malaria transmission. The increased levels of Tregs in SN subjects were associated with suppressed serum Th1 cytokine levels, as well as elevated parasitemia compared to co-infected counterparts.These results suggest that lower levels of Tregs in helminth-infected children correlate with altered circulating cytokine and parasitologic results which may play a partial role in mediating protection against falciparum malaria.

  7. A long-term intake of a protein hydrolysate seems to increase the risk of encephalopathy in mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni

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    Haroldo S Ferreira

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous investigations showed that Schistosoma mansoni infection aggravates protein malabsorption in undernourished mice and this can be reverted by administration of casein hydrolysate. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of ingestion of casein hydrolysate for long periods. Albino Swiss mice were divided into eight groups. Diets contained 5% (undernourished or 20% (controls casein levels. For each group there were sub-groups ingesting whole or hydrolysed casein for 12 weeks. Infection with S. mansoni developed in half of the animals under each diet. All undernourished mice developed malabsorption. Low albuminemia was detected in infected animals independently of the protein level in the diet. However, albuminemia was lower in infected controls than in undernourished non-infected mice, suggesting a deficient liver protein synthesis. Infected mice fed on a 20% protein hydrolysed diet exhibited low weight gain and high mortality rates. On the other hand, non-infected mice ingesting the same diet had the highest body weights. We are investigating the hypothesis that infected mice, even when fed normal diets, are unable to metabolise large amounts of amino acids due to the liver lesions related to schistosomiasis and as a result die of hepatic coma. In some of them, the excessive accumulation of ammonia in the blood enhances the outcome of an encephalopathy.

  8. Dynamics of freshwater snails and Schistosoma infection prevalence in schoolchildren during the construction and operation of a multipurpose dam in central Côte d'Ivoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diakité, Nana R; Winkler, Mirko S; Coulibaly, Jean T; Guindo-Coulibaly, Négnorogo; Utzinger, Jürg; N'Goran, Eliézer K

    2017-05-04

    The construction and operation of small multipurpose dams in Africa have a history of altering the transmission of water-based diseases, including schistosomiasis. The current study was designed to investigate the abundance and dynamics of schistosomiasis intermediate host snails and Schistosoma infections in humans during the construction and the first years of operation of a small multipurpose dam in Côte d'Ivoire. The study was carried out in Raffierkro and four neighbouring villages in central Côte d'Ivoire between 2007 and 2012. Snails were collected by two experienced investigators using scoops and forceps for 15 min at each site. Snails were identified at genera and, whenever possible, species level, and subjected to testing for cercarial shedding. Schoolchildren aged 6-15 years were examined once every year for Schistosoma haematobium and S. mansoni infection, using urine filtration and duplication Kato-Katz thick smears, respectively. Additionally, 551 adults were examined for Schistosoma infection before (June 2007) and 359 individuals 2 years after dam construction (June 2009). Overall, 1 700 snails belonging to nine different genera were collected from 19 sampling sites. Bulinus (potential intermediate host snails of S. haematobium) and Pila were the most common genera, whereas Biomphalaria (potential intermediate host snail of S. mansoni), Lymnaea, Physa and Melanoides were found in two villages. During the first-year sampling period, 65 snails were collected, of which 13 (20%) were schistosomiasis intermediate hosts. In subsequent years, out of 1 635 snails collected, 1 079 (66%) were identified as potential intermediate host for schistosomiasis, but none were shedding cercariae. The prevalence of S. mansoni among adults in the study area was low (0.4% in 2007 and 0.3% in 2009), whereas the prevalence of S. haematobium declined from 13.9% to 2.9% in this two-year period. The low prevalence of schistosomiasis in humans and the absence of infected

  9. Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma haematobium infection and morbidity in a co-endemic focus : Integrated study of epidemiological, micro-geographical and immunological patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meurs, Lynn

    2014-01-01

    In Africa, polyparasitism is the rule rather than the exception. The aim of this thesis was to get a detailed insight into the micro-geographical distribution and patterns of S. mansoni and S. haematobium co-infections, and how this affects host morbidity. A community-wide study was carried out in a

  10. Potential role of meflquine (antimalarial drug and methanol extract of Chenopodium ambrosioides and Sesbania sesban in mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni

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    Mohamed Abdel-Wahab El-Emam

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To elucidate the efficacy of mefloquine and methanol extract of the plants Chenopodium ambrosioides (C. ambrosioides and Sesbania sesban (S. sesban as a combined therapy for the treatment of Schistosoma mansoni (S. mansoni infected mice, and study the parasitological, biochemical and histological parameters of treated mice. Methods: Two groups of male Swiss Albino mice were infected with S. mansoni cercariae. The first group untreated served as control. The second group was orally treated with a single dose (200 mg/kg of mefloquine 3 weeks post infection, then subsequently divided into 2 subgroups; the first orally retreated with the plant extracts 1 000 mg/kg of S. sesban followed by 1 250 mg/kg of C. ambrosioides with an 1 h interval, for 2 successive days. The second sub-group was re-treated with the same (dose and method plant extracts after 7 weeks post infection. Results: The results showed that S. mansoni infected mice treated with mefloquine and the plants’ extracts 3 weeks post infection significantly (P < 0.01 reduced the worm burden/ mouse by 95.5% and the few worms recovered from sacrificed mice in this treatment failed to lay ova. Moreover, no worms were recovered from infected mice treated with mefloquine (3 weeks post infection and re-treated by the plant’s extracts at 7 weeks post infection. Also, treatment of infected mice with mefloquine followed by the plants’ extracts either at 3 or 7 weeks post infection ameliorated the activities of the serum enzymes alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkline phosphatase and acid phosphatase as well as the hepatic granulomatous lesions compared to infected untreated group. Conclusions: It is concluded that successive treatment of S. mansoni infected mice with mefloquine and methanol extract of the plants C. ambrosioides and S. sesban could be a promising device in the strategy of schistosomiasis control.

  11. Avaliação terapêutica do artesunato na infecção experimental pelo Schistosoma mansoni Therapeutical evaluation of the artesunate in experimental Schistosoma mansoni infection

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    Neusa Araújo

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available Camundongos infectados experimentalmente com Schistosoma mansoni foram tratados, em dose oral única, com artesunato (LACTAB®, 300 ou 500mg/kg ou durante cinco dias consecutivos. Os animais foram sacrificados 7, 30, 60 ou 90 dias após o tratamento. Diferenças estatisticamente significativas foram encontradas na distribuição e mortalidade dos vermes e na alteração do oograma nos grupos tratados quando comparados ao controle, em todos os esquemas testados quando os animais foram sacrificados 30 dias após o tratamento. A análise morfológica dos vermes mostrou alterações no aparelho reprodutor feminino com diminuição do volume ovariano, rarefação dos folículos vitelínicos, alterações estas mais acentuadas nas dosagens mais altas, justificando o encontro na alteração do oograma que chegou a 100%. Entretanto, quando os animais foram sacrificados 60 ou 90 dias após o tratamento, as diferenças e alterações foram menores, mostrando que os vermes sobreviventes se recuperaram e reiniciaram a postura.Mice experimentally infected with Schistosoma mansoni were treated orally with artesunate (Lactab® in a single dose of 300 or 500mg/kg or over a period of five consecutive days. The animals were sacrificed 7, 30, 60 or 90 days after treatment. Statistically significant differences were found in the distribution and mortality of the worms and in the alterations of the oogram in the treated group when compared to control in all of the tested schemes when the animals were sacrificed 30 days after treatment. Morphological analysis of female worms showed a reduction of ovarian volume and rarefaction of the vitelline follicles. These modifications were more marked after treatment with the higher dose, explaining the alteration of the oogram which reached 100%. However, when the animals were sacrificed 60 or 90 days after treatment, the differences and alterations were smaller, showing that the surviving worms recovered and restarted

  12. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among children under five years of age with emphasis on Schistosoma mansoni in Wonji Shoa Sugar Estate, Ethiopia.

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    Yirgalem G/hiwot

    Full Text Available Intestinal parasite infections are major public health problems of children in developing countries causing undernutrition, anemia, intestinal obstruction and mental and physical growth retardation. This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of intestinal helminthic infections among children under five years of age with emphasis on Schistosoma mansoni in Wonji Shoa Sugar Estate, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional parasitological survey was conducted in under-five children living in Wonji Shoa Sugar Estate Ethiopia, April, 2013. Stool samples were collected and examined for intestinal parasites using single Kato-Katz and single Sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin (SAF solution concentration methods. Out of 374 children examined using single Kato-Katz and single SAF-concentration methods, 24.3% were infected with at least one intestinal parasite species. About 10.4%, 8.8%, 4.6%, 2.9%, 1.6% and 0.8% of the children were infected with Hymenolepis nana, Schistosoma mansoni, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis and hookworm, respectively. Prevalence of double, triple and quadruple intestinal helminthic infection was 6.4%, 0.54% and 1.1%, respectively. A significant increase in prevalence of S. mansoni (8.3% versus 3.2% and T. trichiura (2.7% versus 0.5% infection was observed when determined via the single Kato-Katz method compared to the prevalence of the parasites determined via the single SAF-concentration method. On the other hand, the single SAF-concentration method (9.1% revealed a significantly higher prevalence of H. nana infection than the single Kato-Katz (1.6% does. In conclusion, intestinal helminths infections particularly S. mansoni and H. nana were prevalent in under-five children of Wonji Shoa Sugar Estate. Including praziquantel treatment in the deworming program as per the World Health Organization guidelines would be vital to reduce the burden of these diseases in areas where S. mansoni and H. nana

  13. Abundância e infecção do molusco Biomphalaria glabrata pelo Schistosoma mansoni no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Abundance and Schistosoma mansoni infection of the snail Biomphalaria glabrata, Brazil

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    Alexandre Giovanelli

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Investigar a distribuição espacial, a abundância e os índices de infecção natural de Biomphalaria glabrata, hospedeiro intermediário do Schistosoma mansoni, em localidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil. MÉTODOS: Na localidade de Pamparrão, município de Sumidouro, RJ, as coletas de moluscos foram realizadas bimestralmente no período de junho de 1991 a novembro de 1995. Foram estabelecidos 23 pontos de coleta ao longo do córrego Pamparrão e três de seus afluentes. Os moluscos capturados foram levados ao laboratório para diagnóstico da infecção. Para a análise dos dados, foram usados o coeficiente de Spearman (nível de 0,5% de significância e o teste de qui-quadrado. RESULTADOS: A abundância populacional de B. glabrata foi bastante variável ao longo do tempo e entre os ambientes amostrados. A maioria dos pontos de coleta apresentou correlação negativa com a pluviosidade. O afluente B destacou-se dos demais corpos d'água por apresentar taxas de infecção de B. glabrata elevadas (acima dos 25% em alguns pontos de coleta e persistentes. Foram encontrados mais moluscos infectados na estação seca do que na chuvosa (chi²=20,08; p=0,001. CONCLUSÕES: A população de moluscos foi influenciada negativamente pelo regime de chuvas, principalmente no córrego Pamparrão. A época de estiagem também parece ter favorecido a ocorrência de infecção, provavelmente devido ao menor volume de água dos córregos, o que aumentaria as chances de encontro do parasita com seu hospedeiro intermediário.OBJECTIVES: To investigate the spatial distribution, abundance and natural schistosomiasis infection levels in the snail Biomphalaria glabrata, the intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni in an area of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. METHODS: In the Pamparrão area, Sumidouro county, RJ, Brazil, snail captures were carried out every other month from June 1991 to November 1995. There were 23 collecting sites along

  14. HIV-1 vaccine-specific responses induced by Listeria vector vaccines are maintained in mice subsequently infected with a model helminth parasite, Schistosoma mansoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shollenberger, Lisa M; Bui, Cac T; Paterson, Yvonne; Nyhoff, Lindsay; Harn, Donald A

    2013-11-19

    In areas co-endemic for helminth parasites and HIV/AIDS, infants are often administered vaccines prior to infection with immune modulatory helminth parasites. Systemic Th2 biasing and immune suppression caused by helminth infection reduces cell-mediated responses to vaccines such as tetanus toxoid and BCG. Therefore, we asked if infection with helminthes post-vaccination, alters already established vaccine induced immune responses. In our model, mice are vaccinated against HIV-1 Gag using a Listeria vaccine vector (Lm-Gag) in a prime-boost manner, then infected with the human helminth parasite Schistosoma mansoni. This allows us to determine if established vaccine responses are maintained or altered after helminth infection. Our second objective asked if helminth infection post-vaccination alters the recipient's ability to respond to a second boost. Here we compared responses between uninfected mice, schistosome infected mice, and infected mice that were given an anthelminthic, which occurred coincident with the boost or four weeks prior, as well as comparing to un-boosted mice. We report that HIV-1 vaccine-specific responses generated by Listeria vector HIV-1 vaccines are maintained following subsequent chronic schistosome infection, providing further evidence that Listeria vector vaccines induce potent vaccine-specific responses that can withstand helminth infection. We also were able to demonstrate that administration of a second Listeria boost, which markedly enhanced the immune response, was minimally impacted by schistosome infection, or anthelminthic therapy. Surprisingly, we also observed enhanced antibody responses to HIV Gag in vaccinated mice subsequently infected with schistosomes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of serum levels of IL-9 and IL-17 in human Schistosoma mansoni infection and their relationship with periportal fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Ana Virgínia Matos Sá; Lacerda, Glaucia Alyne Nunes de; Figueiredo, Anna Lígia de Castro; Diniz, George Tadeu Nunes; Gomes, Elainne Christine Souza; Domingues, Ana Lúcia Coutinho; Barbosa, Constança Simões; Montengro, Silvia Maria Lucena; Morais, Clarice Neuenschwander Lins de

    2016-12-01

    Serum levels of IL-9 and IL-17 cytokines were evaluated in patients in the acute, chronic phases and clinical forms of human schistosomiasis and in different classifications of periportal fibrosis. No significant differences between the groups of the disease with serum levels of cytokine were found. However, this study discusses the results of some cytokines that have not fully defined roles in the pathology of human schistosomiasis. Furthermore, an examination was made of subjects in the acute phase. This is an important group that is difficult to identify in areas where the disease is endemic. More studies are being undertaken to study the role of IL-9 and IL-17 in human Schistosoma mansoni infection and their relationship with the immunopathogenesis of disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Learning Curve of Vesico-Urinary Ultrasonography in Schistosoma haematobium Infection with WHO Practical Guide: A “Simple to Learn” Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnard, Philippe; Boutouaba, Samy; Diakhate, Ibrahima; Seck, Modou; Dompnier, Jean-Pierre; Riveau, Gilles

    2011-01-01

    In developing countries, it is difficult to rally a radiologist to conduct field studies. Here, we report how a radiologist taught a clinician to carry out the ultrasound examination as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) record sheet for Schistosoma haematobium related lesions. In a population infected with S. haematobium, the learner and teacher performed two ultrasound exams and the results were compared. One hundred thirty-two children were prospectively included, during 8 ultrasonography sessions split over 23 days. After 51 examinations the learner's sensitivity was above 90%. After the fifth session the specificity reached 100% (results remained stable until the end of the study period). This study shows that a clinician can quickly learn how to carry out a simple ultrasound examination to gather the items needed for the follow-up of S. haematobium related lesions, suggesting that clinicians could implement networks of ultrasound-based surveillance on the field. PMID:22144446

  17. Molecular phylogeny of Schistosoma species supports traditional groupings within the genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, S C; Blair, D

    1996-04-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among 9 blood flukes (7 schistosome species, a spirorchid, and a sanguinicolid) were inferred from nucleotide sequences of the D1 domain of large subunit rRNA and the V4 region of small subunit rRNA. These sequences were more conserved than those examined by previous authors and thus may provide insight into deeper-level relationships. Analyzed separately and combined by 3 methods, these data yielded congruent trees that were well supported by bootstrap resampling. The traditional groups of schistosome species based on egg type were supported. Schistosoma japonicum and Schistosoma mekongi were distinct from the remaining Schistosoma species. Schistosoma spindale (from India and southeast Asia) clustered strongly with the African species to the exclusion of the other Asian species, S. japonicum and S. mekongi. Schistosoma spindale may have been brought to India and southeast Asia from Africa by early humans. Statistical tests revealed only weak evidence for the operation of a molecular clock in the V4 sequence; no evidence was found for this in the D1 domain.

  18. Susceptibility of Argentinean Biomphalaria tenagophila and Biomphalaria straminea to infection by Schistosoma mansoni and the possibility of geographic expansion of mansoni schistosomiasis

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    Luciana Franceschi Simoes

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Human migration and the presence of natural vectors (mollusks of Schistosoma mansoni are the primary causes of the expansion of mansoni schistosomiasis into southern areas of South America. Water conditions are favorable for the expansion of this disease because of the extensive hydrographic network, which includes the basins of the Paraná and Uruguay rivers and favors mollusk reproduction. These rivers also aid agriculture and tourism in the area. Despite these favorable conditions, natural infection by S. mansoni has not yet been reported in Argentina, Uruguay, or Paraguay. Methods Two species of planorbid from Argentina, Biomphalaria straminea and B. tenagophila, were exposed to the miracidia of five Brazilian strains of S. mansoni. Results Biomphalaria tenagophila (Atalaya, Buenos Aires province was infected with the SJS strain (infection rate 3.3%, confirming the experimental susceptibility of this Argentinian species. Biomphalaria straminea (Rio Santa Lucía, Corrientes province was susceptible to two Brazilian strains: SJS (infection rate 6.7% and Sergipe (infection rate 6.7%. Conclusions These results demonstrate that species from Argentina have the potential to be natural hosts of S. mansoni and that the appearance of foci of mansoni schistosomiasis in Argentina is possible.

  19. The effect of current Schistosoma mansoni infection on the immunogenicity of a candidate TB vaccine, MVA85A, in BCG-vaccinated adolescents: An open-label trial.

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    Anne Wajja

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Helminth infection may affect vaccine immunogenicity and efficacy. Adolescents, a target population for tuberculosis booster vaccines, often have a high helminth burden. We investigated effects of Schistosoma mansoni (Sm on the immunogenicity and safety of MVA85A, a model candidate tuberculosis vaccine, in BCG-vaccinated Ugandan adolescents.In this phase II open label trial we enrolled 36 healthy, previously BCG-vaccinated adolescents, 18 with no helminth infection detected, 18 with Sm only. The primary outcome was immunogenicity measured by Ag85A-specific interferon gamma ELISpot assay. Tuberculosis and schistosome-specific responses were also assessed by whole-blood stimulation and multiplex cytokine assay, and by antibody ELISAs.Ag85A-specific cellular responses increased significantly following immunisation but with no differences between the two groups. Sm infection was associated with higher pre-immunisation Ag85A-specific IgG4 but with no change in antibody levels following immunisation. There were no serious adverse events. Most reactogenicity events were of mild or moderate severity and resolved quickly.The significant Ag85A-specific T cell responses and lack of difference between Sm-infected and uninfected participants is encouraging for tuberculosis vaccine development. The implications of pre-existing Ag85A-specific IgG4 antibodies for protective immunity against tuberculosis among those infected with Sm are not known. MVA85A was safe in this population.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02178748.

  20. Distribution and Schistosoma mansoni infection of Biomphalaria glabrata in different habitats in a rural area in the Jequitinhonha Valley, Minas Gerais, Brazil: environmental and epidemiological aspects

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    Helmut Kloos

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the distribution and infection of Biomphalaria glabrata with Schistosoma mansoni in all aquatic snail habitats in a rural area in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, in relation to physico/biotic and behavioral factors. Snail and environmental surveys were carried out semi-annually between July 2001 and November 2002 at 106 sites. Collected snails were examined in the laboratory for infection. B. glabrata densities were highest in overflow ponds, irrigation ponds, springs, canals and wells, and lowest in fishponds and water tanks. Snail densities were higher during the hot, rainy season except for streams and canals and were statistically associated with the presence of fish, pollution, and vegetation density. Tilapia fish and an unidentified Diptera larva were found to be predators of B. glabrata but ducks were not. Twenty-four of the 25 infected snails were collected in 2001(1.4% infection rate and only one in 2002, after mass chemotherapy. The occurrence of B. glabrata in all 11 snail habitats both at and away from water contact sites studied indicates widespread risk of human infection in the study area. In spite of the strong association between B. glabrata and tilapia in fishponds we do not recommend its use in schistosomiasis control for ecological reasons and its relative inefficiency in streams and dams.

  1. The effect of current Schistosoma mansoni infection on the immunogenicity of a candidate TB vaccine, MVA85A, in BCG-vaccinated adolescents: An open-label trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajja, Anne; Kizito, Dennison; Nassanga, Beatrice; Nalwoga, Angela; Kabagenyi, Joyce; Kimuda, Simon; Galiwango, Ronald; Mutonyi, Gertrude; Vermaak, Samantha; Satti, Iman; Verweij, Jaco; Tukahebwa, Edridah; Cose, Stephen; Levin, Jonathan; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Elliott, Alison M; McShane, Helen

    2017-05-01

    Helminth infection may affect vaccine immunogenicity and efficacy. Adolescents, a target population for tuberculosis booster vaccines, often have a high helminth burden. We investigated effects of Schistosoma mansoni (Sm) on the immunogenicity and safety of MVA85A, a model candidate tuberculosis vaccine, in BCG-vaccinated Ugandan adolescents. In this phase II open label trial we enrolled 36 healthy, previously BCG-vaccinated adolescents, 18 with no helminth infection detected, 18 with Sm only. The primary outcome was immunogenicity measured by Ag85A-specific interferon gamma ELISpot assay. Tuberculosis and schistosome-specific responses were also assessed by whole-blood stimulation and multiplex cytokine assay, and by antibody ELISAs. Ag85A-specific cellular responses increased significantly following immunisation but with no differences between the two groups. Sm infection was associated with higher pre-immunisation Ag85A-specific IgG4 but with no change in antibody levels following immunisation. There were no serious adverse events. Most reactogenicity events were of mild or moderate severity and resolved quickly. The significant Ag85A-specific T cell responses and lack of difference between Sm-infected and uninfected participants is encouraging for tuberculosis vaccine development. The implications of pre-existing Ag85A-specific IgG4 antibodies for protective immunity against tuberculosis among those infected with Sm are not known. MVA85A was safe in this population. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02178748.

  2. Liver and spleen magnetic resonance imaging evaluation in patients with chronic Schistosoma mansoni infection; Avaliacao hepatica e esplenica por ressonancia magnetica em pacientes portadores de esquitossomose mansonica cronica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezerra, Alexandre Sergio de Araujo; D' Ippolito, Giuseppe; Caldana, Rogerio Pedreschi; Cecin, Alexandre Oliveira; Szejnfeld, Jacob [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem]. E-mail: alexandrebezerra@ig.com.br

    2004-10-01

    The objective was to qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate the morphological changes of the liver and spleen using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with chronic infection by Schistosoma mansoni and the reproducibility of MRI findings in the hepatosplenic evaluation of these patients. We prospectively studied 28 schistosomiasis patients submitted to MRI of the upper abdomen. The scans were performed using a high field equipment (1.5 T), a body coil and a power injector for administration of intravenous contrast. The scans were interpreted by two independent examiners who evaluated the presence of morphological changes in the liver and spleen. Interobserver and intra observer agreement were measured using the kappa and intra class correlation tests. The results showed qualitative variables presenting good interobserver and intra observer agreement ({kappa} {>=} 0.65 and r {>=} 0.66, respectively). The best interobserver agreement was for the anteroposterior diameter of the spleen (r = 0.98). The observers identified reduction of the right hepatic lobe, enlargement of the left hepatic lobe and caudate lobes associated with splenomegaly in almost all patients, and also identified fissure widening, heterogeneity of hepatic parenchyma, irregularity of hepatic contours, presence of peripheral hepatic vessels and peri portal fibrosis in almost all patients. Hepatic morphological changes are characterized by reduction of the right lobe and enlargement of the caudate and left lobes, and morphological changes in the spleen are characterized by the presence of splenomegaly and siderotic nodules. MRI presents high reproducibility for the evaluation of these changes in patients with chronic infection by Schistosoma mansoni. (author)

  3. [Optimization of time of artificial population schistosome infected Oncomelania hupensis snails].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Chun-Rong; Yao, Yun-Yi; Yang, Kun

    2013-12-01

    To explore the optimizational time of artificial population schistosome infected Oncomelania hupensis snails. Under laboratory conditions, the snails were infected with the miracidia of Schistosoma japonicum for 2 h, 3 h and 4 h respectively, and the death rates and the infection rates of the snails, and the quantities of cercariae of each group were observed 60-120 d after the infection, and all the data observed were analyzed to get the optimizational time of artificial population schistosome infected snails. Of the 3 h group, the snail infection rate was the highest and the mortality was the lowest among the 3 groups (P0.05). Under laboratory conditions, the optimizational time is 3 h in artificial population schistosome infected O. hupensis snails.

  4. A very high infection intensity of Schistosoma mansoni in a Ugandan Lake Victoria Fishing Community is required for association with highly prevalent organ related morbidity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edridah M Tukahebwa

    Full Text Available In schistosomiasis control programmes using mass chemotherapy, epidemiological and morbidity aspects of the disease need to be studied so as to monitor the impact of treatment, and make recommendations accordingly. These aspects were examined in the community of Musoli village along Lake Victoria in Mayuge district, highly endemic for Schistosoma mansoni infection.A cross sectional descriptive study was undertaken in a randomly selected sample of 217 females and 229 males, with a mean age of 26 years (SD ± 16, range 7-76 years. The prevalence of S. mansoni was 88.6% (95% CI: 85.6-91.5. The geometric mean intensity (GMI of S. mansoni was 236.2 (95% CI: 198.5-460.9 eggs per gram (epg faeces. Males had significantly higher GMI (370.2 epg than females (132.6 epg and age was also significantly associated with intensity of infection. Levels of water contact activities significantly influenced intensity of infection and the highest intensity of infection was found among people involved in fishing. However, organomegaly was not significantly associated with S. mansoni except for very heavy infection (>2000 epg. Liver image patterns C and D indicative of fibrosis were found in only 2.2% and 0.2%, respectively. S. mansoni intensity of infection was associated with portal vein dilation and abnormal spleen length. Anaemia was observed in 36.4% of the participants but it was not associated with S. mansoni infection intensity. Considering growth in children as one of the morbidity indicators of schistosomiasis, intensity of S. mansoni was significantly associated with stunting.Although organ-related morbidity, with the exception of periportal fibrosis, and S. mansoni infections were highly prevalent, the two were only associated for individuals with very high infection intensities. These results contrast starkly with reports from Ugandan Lake Albert fishing communities in which periportal fibrosis is more prevalent.

  5. SmCL3, a gastrodermal cysteine protease of the human blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni.

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    Jan Dvorák

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Blood flukes of the genus Schistosoma are platyhelminth parasites that infect 200 million people worldwide. Digestion of nutrients from the host bloodstream is essential for parasite development and reproduction. A network of proteolytic enzymes (proteases facilitates hydrolysis of host hemoglobin and serum proteins.We identified a new cathepsin L termed SmCL3 using PCR strategies based on S. mansoni EST sequence data. An ortholog is present in Schistosoma japonicum. SmCL3 was heterologously expressed as an active enzyme in the yeast, Pichia pastoris. Recombinant SmCL3 has a broad pH activity range against peptidyl substrates and is inhibited by Clan CA protease inhibitors. Consistent with a function in degrading host proteins, SmCL3 hydrolyzes serum albumin and hemoglobin, is localized to the adult gastrodermis, and is expressed mainly in those life stages infecting the mammalian host. The predominant form of SmCL3 in the parasite exists as a zymogen, which is unusual for proteases. This zymogen includes an unusually long prodomain with alpha helical secondary structure motifs. The striking specificity of SmCL3 for amino acids with large aromatic side chains (Trp and Tyr at the P2 substrate position, as determined with positional scanning-synthetic combinatorial library, is consistent with a molecular model that shows a large and deep S2 pocket. A sequence similarity network (SSN view clusters SmCL3 and other cathepsins L in accordance with previous large-scale phylogenetic analyses that identify six super kingdoms.SmCL3 is a gut-associated cathepsin L that may contribute to the network of proteases involved in degrading host blood proteins as nutrients. Furthermore, this enzyme exhibits some unusual sequence and biophysical features that may result in additional functions. The visualization of network inter-relationships among cathepsins L suggests that these enzymes are suitable 'marker sequences' for inclusion in future phylogenetic analyses.

  6. Prevalence and Intensity of Single and Mixed Schistosoma mansoni ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence and Intensity of Single and Mixed Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma haematobium Infections in Primary School Children in Rachuonyo North District, Homabay County, Western Kenya. ... East African Medical Journal ... Subjects: Four hundred and seventy four(474) school children, seven to 15 years old.

  7. Somatic chromosomes of Schistosoma rodhaini, S. mattheei, and S. intercalatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, A I; Short, R B; Kuntz, R E

    1981-02-01

    Karyotypes are reported for three African schistosomes: Schistosoma rodhaini, S. intercalatum, and S. mattheei. All have eight pairs (2n = 16) of chromosomes which comprise three distinct size groups: A, large (two pairs); B, medium (three pairs); and C, small (three pairs). Chromosomes of groups A and B are subtelocentric; those of C are more metacentric or submetacentric. These karyotypes prepared with conventional Giemsa staining are very similar to each other and to those of S. mansoni and S. haematobium. As a group, the African schistosomes studied to date exhibit clear differences in chromosome morphology from the Asian S. japonicum and S. mekongi.

  8. Intestinal fibrovascular nodules caused by Schistosoma mansoni infection in Calomys callosus Rengger, 1830 (Rodentia: Cricetidae: a model of concomitant fibrosis and angiogenesis

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    Jane A Lenzi

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Human schistosomiasis develops extensive and dense fibrosis in portal space, together with congested new blood vessels. This study demonstrates that Calomys callosus infected with Schistosoma mansoni also develops fibrovascular lesions, which are found in intestinal subserosa. Animals were percutaneously infected with 70 cercariae and necropsied at 42, 45, 55, 80, 90 and 160 days after infection. Intestinal sections were stained for brightfield, polarization microscopy, confocal laser scanning, transmission and scanning electron microscopies. Immunohistological analysis was also performed and some nodules were aseptically collected for cell culture. Numerous intestinal nodules, appearing from 55 up to 160 days after infection, were localized at the interface between external muscular layer and intestinal serosa, consisting of fibrovascular tissue forming a shell about central granuloma(s. Intranodular new vessels were derived from the vasculature of the external vascular layer and were positive for laminin, chondroitin-sulfate, smooth muscle alpha-actin and FVIII-RA. Fibroblastic cells and extracellular matrix components (collagens I, III and VI, fibronectin and tenascin comprised the stroma. Intermixed with the fibroblasts and vessels there were variable number of eosinophils, macrophages and haemorrhagic foci. In conclusion, the nodules constitute an excellent and accessible model to study fibrogenesis and angiogenesis, dependent on S. mansoni eggs. The fibrogenic activity is fibroblastic and not myofibroblastic-dependent. The angiogenesis is so prominent that causes haemorrhagic ascites.

  9. Passive transfer of resistance and the site of immune-dependent elimination of the challenge infection in rats vaccinated with highly irradiated cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni

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    Ford, M.J.; Bickle, Q.D.; Taylor, M.G.; Andrews, B.J. (London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (UK))

    1984-12-01

    The immune-dependent elimination of a challenge infection in rats vaccinated with highly-irradiated cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni was analysed by passive transfer of serum, recovery of the challenge from the lungs and livers and by transferring lung-stage schistosomula. Recipients of serum from rats immunized with either unirradiated, 20 or 40 krad.-irradiated cercariae, were equally resistant if the serum was injected on the day of infection or 5-7 days after infection. Vaccinated rat serum transferred to mice and vaccinated rabbit serum transferred to rats conferred comparable protection when injected on day 0 or 5 days after infection of the recipients. This apparent susceptibility of the lung schistosomula to immune attack was confirmed by challenging 20 or 40 krad.-irradiated cercariae vaccinated rats with lung-stage schistosomula derived from mice or rats. All the detectable attrition of a cercarial challenge in vaccinated rats occurred between 7 and 10 days post-challenge, before the parasites reached the liver. Since there was no evidence of damage or attrition in the skin or lungs before day 7 it was concluded that immune-dependent elimination occurred rapidly following a 'window of sensitivity' coinciding with the migration of the parasites from the lungs to the liver.

  10. Estimating sensitivity of the Kato-Katz technique for the diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni and hookworm in relation to infection intensity.

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    Oliver Bärenbold

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Kato-Katz technique is the most widely used diagnostic method in epidemiologic surveys and drug efficacy trials pertaining to intestinal schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis. However, the sensitivity of the technique is low, particularly for the detection of light-intensity helminth infections. Examination of multiple stool samples reduces the diagnostic error; yet, most studies rely on a single Kato-Katz thick smear, thus underestimating infection prevalence. We present a model which estimates the sensitivity of the Kato-Katz technique in Schistosoma mansoni and hookworm, as a function of infection intensity for repeated stool sampling and provide estimates of the age-dependent 'true' prevalence. We find that the sensitivity for S. mansoni diagnosis is dominated by missed light infections, which have a low probability to be diagnosed correctly even through repeated sampling. The overall sensitivity strongly depends on the mean infection intensity. In particular at an intensity of 100 eggs per gram of stool (EPG, we estimate a sensitivity of 50% and 80% for one and two samples, respectively. At an infection intensity of 300 EPG, we estimate a sensitivity of 62% for one sample and 90% for two samples. The sensitivity for hookworm diagnosis is dominated by day-to-day variation with typical values for one, two, three, and four samples equal to 50%, 75%, 85%, and 95%, respectively, while it is only weakly dependent on the mean infection intensity in the population. We recommend taking at least two samples and estimate the 'true' prevalence of S. mansoni considering the dependence of the sensitivity on the mean infection intensity and the 'true' hookworm prevalence by taking into account the sensitivity given in the current study.

  11. Estrogen Metabolism-Associated CYP2D6 and IL6-174G/C Polymorphisms in Schistosoma haematobium Infection

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    Rita Cardoso

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Schistosoma haematobium is a human blood fluke causing a chronic infection called urogenital schistosomiasis. Squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder (SCC constitutes chronic sequelae of this infection, and S. haematobium infection is accounted as a risk factor for this type of cancer. This infection is considered a neglected tropical disease and is endemic in numerous countries in Africa and the Middle East. Schistosome eggs produce catechol-estrogens. These estrogenic molecules are metabolized to active quinones that induce modifications in DNA. The cytochrome P450 (CYP enzymes are a superfamily of mono-oxygenases involved in estrogen biosynthesis and metabolism, the generation of DNA damaging procarcinogens, and the response to anti-estrogen therapies. IL6 Interleukin-6 (IL-6 is a pleiotropic cytokine expressed in various tissues. This cytokine is largely expressed in the female urogenital tract as well as reproductive organs. Very high or very low levels of IL-6 are associated with estrogen metabolism imbalance. In the present study, we investigated the polymorphic variants in the CYP2D6 gene and the C-174G promoter polymorphism of the IL-6 gene on S. haematobium-infected children patients from Guine Bissau. CYP2D6 inactivated alleles (28.5% and IL6G-174C (13.3% variants were frequent in S. haematobium-infected patients when compared to previously studied healthy populations (4.5% and 0.05%, respectively. Here we discuss our recent findings on these polymorphisms and whether they can be predictive markers of schistosome infection and/or represent potential biomarkers for urogenital schistosomiasis associated bladder cancer and infertility.

  12. Identification of surface antigens of schistosomula of Schistosoma mansoni recognized by antibodies from mice immunized by chronic infection and by exposure to highly irradiated cercariae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, A.J.; James, S.L.; Sher, A.

    1983-08-01

    Surface components of mechanically transformed schistosomula of Schistosoma mansoni were labeled by lactoperoxidase-catalyzed iodination. After solubilization with Triton X-100, antigens were identified by immunoprecipitation. Serum from chronically infected Swiss mice reproducibly precipitated seven major polypeptides with approximate molecular weights (X 10/sup 3/) of 94, 68, 45, 40 to 32, 22, and 16. The antigens of molecular weights (X 10/sup 3/) of 94, 40 to 32, 22, and 16 were shown to be exposed on the parasite surface by interaction of the antibodies with intact labeled schistosomula. Sera from several strains of infected inbred mice precipitated the same polypeptides. The antibodies produced during chronic infection were found to be stimulated by adult worms since sera from 6-week-infected animals precipitated none of the surface antigens, and the pattern produced by precipitation with antibodies from a mouse infected with male worms only was indistinguishable from the pattern obtained with sera from mice with bisexual infections. Antibodies from mice immunized with highly irradiated cercariae reproducibly precipitated major polypeptides of approximately (X 10/sup 3/) 94, 68, 45, 32, 22, 19, and 15 daltons. The antigens of (X 10/sup 3/) 94, 43, 32, 22, and 15 daltons were shown to be exposed on the parasite surface by interaction of the antibodies with intact labeled schistosomula. The 15 X 10(3)-dalton surface protein was recognized by sera from vaccinated, but not chronically infected, mice, suggesting that it represents a stage-specific immunogen present on schistosomula but not on adult worms. Sera from two inbred strains of mice which develop different degrees of immunity recognized the same antigens.

  13. Antigens of worms and eggs showed a differentiated detection of specific IgG according to the time of Schistosoma mansoni infection in mice

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    Rafaella Fortini Queiroz Grenfell

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The correlation between the immunological assay and the antibody titer can offer a tool for the experimental analysis of different phases of the disease. METHODS: Two simple immunological assays for Schistosoma mansoni in mice sera samples based on specific IgG detection for worms soluble antigens and eggs soluble antigens were standardized and evaluated in our laboratory. Fifty mice were used in negative and positive groups and the results obtained by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA assays were compared with the number of worms counted and the IgG titers at different times of infection. RESULTS: Data showed that ELISA using adult worm antigens (ELISA-SWAP presented a satisfactory correlation between the absorbance value of IgG titers and the individual number of worms counted after perfusion technique (R²=0.62. In addition, ELISA-SWAP differentially detected positive samples with 30 and 60 days post infection (p=0.011 and 0.003, respectively, whereas ELISA using egg antigens (ELISA-SEA detected samples after 140 days (p=0.03. CONCLUSIONS: These data show that the use of different antigens in immunological methods can be used as potential tools for the analysis of the chronological evolution of S. mansoni infection in murine schistosomiasis. Correlations with human schistosomiasis are discussed.

  14. Antigens of worms and eggs showed a differentiated detection of specific IgG according to the time of Schistosoma mansoni infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenfell, Rafaella Fortini Queiroz; Martins, Watson Hermann; Silva-Moraes, Vanessa; Barata, Suedali Villas-Boas; Ribeiro, Elizandra Giani; Oliveira, Edward; Coelho, Paulo Marcos Zech

    2012-01-01

    The correlation between the immunological assay and the antibody titer can offer a tool for the experimental analysis of different phases of the disease. Two simple immunological assays for Schistosoma mansoni in mice sera samples based on specific IgG detection for worms soluble antigens and eggs soluble antigens were standardized and evaluated in our laboratory. Fifty mice were used in negative and positive groups and the results obtained by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) assays were compared with the number of worms counted and the IgG titers at different times of infection. Data showed that ELISA using adult worm antigens (ELISA-SWAP) presented a satisfactory correlation between the absorbance value of IgG titers and the individual number of worms counted after perfusion technique (R²=0.62). In addition, ELISA-SWAP differentially detected positive samples with 30 and 60 days post infection (p=0.011 and 0.003, respectively), whereas ELISA using egg antigens (ELISA-SEA) detected samples after 140 days (p=0.03). These data show that the use of different antigens in immunological methods can be used as potential tools for the analysis of the chronological evolution of S. mansoni infection in murine schistosomiasis. Correlations with human schistosomiasis are discussed.

  15. Biomphalaria species distribution and its effect on human Schistosoma mansoni infection in an irrigated area used for rice cultivation in northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delmany Moitinho Barboza

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The role of irrigated areas for the spread of schistosomiasis is of worldwide concern. The aim of the present study was to investigate the spatial distribution of the intermediate snail host Biomphalaria in an area highly endemic for schistosomiasis due to Schistosoma mansoni, evaluating the relationship between irrigation and types of natural water sources on one hand, and the influence of place and time of water exposure on the intensity of human infection on the other. A geographical information system (GIS was used to map the distribution of the intermediate snail hosts in Ilha das Flores, Sergipe, Brazil, combined with a clinical/epidemiological survey. We observed a direct correlation between the intensity of human infection with S. mansoni and irrigation projects. Malacological studies to identify snail species and infection rates showed that B. glabrata is the main species responsible for human schistosomiasis in the municipality, but that B. straminea also plays a role. Our results provide evidence for a competitive selection between the two snail species in rice fields with a predominance of B. glabrata in irrigation systems and B. straminea in natural water sources.

  16. Biodistribution Study of the Anaesthetic Sodium Phenobarbital Labelled with Technetium-99m in Swiss Mice Infected with Schistosoma mansoni Sambon, 1907

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Balmant Emerique Simões

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Technetium-99m (99mTc is a radionuclide that has negligible enviromnental impact, is easily available, inexpensive and can be used as a radioactive tracer in biological experiences. In order to know the mode of action of sodium phenobarbital in moving adult Schistosoma mansoni worms from mesenteric veins to the liver, we labelled sodium phenobarbital (PBBT with 99mTc and a biodistribution study in infected and non-infected Swiss mice was performed. The PBBT was incubated with stannous chloride used as reducing agent and with 99mTc, as sodium pertechnetate. The radioactivity labelling (% was determined by paper ascending chromatography perfomed with acetone (solvent. The 99mTc-PBBT was administered by intraperitoneal route to Swiss mice infected eight weeks before. The animals were perfused after diferent periods of time (0,1,2,3,4 hr when blood, spleen, liver, portal vein, mesenteric veins, stomach, kidneys and adult worms were isolated. The radioactivity present in these samples was counted in a well counter and the percentage was determined. The radioactivity was mainly taken up by the blood, kidney, liver and spleen. No radioactivity was found on the adult worms. We concluded that the worm shift was due to an action on the host of the sodium phenobarbital

  17. A fatty acid binding protein from Fasciola hepatica induced protection in C57/BL mice from challenge infection with Schistosoma bovis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abán, J L; Ramajo, V; Arellano, J L; Oleaga, A; Hillyer, G V; Muro, A

    1999-06-15

    Three strains of mice (NMRI, C57/BL, BALB/c) were each immunized with a 12 kDa purified, native Fasciola hepatica fatty acid binding protein (Fh12) and challenged percutaneously with Schistosoma bovis cercariae. C57/BL mice immunized with Fh12 had significant reductions in S. bovis worm burden recoveries (96 and 87% reductions over controls in two separate experiments). When using NMRI or BALB/c mice, Fh12 alone or in Freund's adjuvant failed to induce significant protection against S. bovis. In C57/BL mice vaccinated against Fh 12, antibodies to the IgG2a isotype, but not to the IgG1 isotype, increased by 2 weeks after the second immunization and remained high through 8 weeks of S. bovis infection. Antibodies to S. bovis increased after 4 weeks of infection. Regarding cytokine production by spleen mononuclear cells, C57/BL mice vaccinated with Fh12 in adjuvant, and having the highest protective response against challenge infection with S. bovis, had an increase of IFN-gamma production with Concanavalin A but no increase of IL-4 in similarly stimulated cells. These results suggest that the protection obtained in this group of mice is mediated by a Th1 immune response.

  18. Evaluation of urine-circulating cathodic antigen (Urine-CCA) cassette test for the detection of Schistosoma mansoni infection in areas of moderate prevalence in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erko, Berhanu; Medhin, Girmay; Teklehaymanot, Tilahun; Degarege, Abraham; Legesse, Mengistu

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic performance of antigen detecting urine-CCA cassette test for the detection of Schistosoma mansoni infection in areas of moderate prevalence in Ethiopia. Stool specimens were collected from 620 schoolchildren on three consecutive days. The samples were microscopically examined using double Kato slides; midstream urine specimens were also collected for three consecutive days and tested for S. mansoni. The sensitivity of the urine-CCA cassette test was determined using combined results of six Kato-Katz thick smears and three urine-CCA cassette tests as gold standard. The specificity of the urine-CCA cassette test was evaluated in an area where schistosomiasis is not endemic. Prevalence of S. mansoni infection as determined by single urine-CCA cassette test was 65.9%, by single Kato-Katz smear 37.3% and by six Kato-Katz thick smears 53.1% (P CCA cassette test was significantly (P CCA cassette test showed 100% specificity in endemic settings. In moderate and high prevalence areas, urine-CCA cassette test is more sensitive than the Kato-Katz method and can be used for screening and mapping of S. mansoni infection. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Comparative in vivo antioxidant levels in Schistosoma mansoni infected mice treated with praziquantel or the essential oil of Melaleuca armillaris leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizk, M; Ibrahim, N; El-Rigal, N

    2012-10-15

    Plant extracts are continuously investigated for their extensive inclusion of biologically active constituents that exert therapeutic activities against many diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the antioxidant/anti-schistosomal activities of the essential oil of the fresh leaves of Melaleuca armillaris (M. armillaris) compared to Praziquantel (PZQ) on normal and Schistosoma mansoni-infected mice. The oil was isolated by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The oil was rich in 1,8-cineole (33.93%), terpinen-4-ol (18.79%), limonene (10.37%) and B-pinene (6.59%). M. armillaris oil (150 mg kg(-1), orally) was administered from the second week post infection twice per week for six weeks. PZQ (500 mg kg(-1), orally) was administered for two successive days 8 weeks post infection and mice sacrificed one week later. Total protein, Malondialdehyde (MDA), Glutathione (GSH), vitamins C and E, the antioxidant enzymes catalase and superoxide dismutase, as well as liver weights and liver/body weight were determined in the liver tissues. Results showed that, both treatments significantly ameliorated the disturbed levels ofGSH and MDA in infected mice. Both vitamins were significantly elevated after treatment with the oil while a significant increase in catalase accompanied by a pronounced decrease in SOD were obtained after treatment with PZQ. Both treatments markedly improved liver and body weights in infected mice compared to the infected-untreated ones. In conclusion, natural plant sources may be used as promising alternative agents to chemical drugs for schistosomiasis treatment, since the latter may result in drug-induced resistance arising from repeated use.

  20. Induced tolerance to Schistosoma mansoni antigens modulates periovular granuloma

    OpenAIRE

    Moysés Sadigursky; Maria de Fátima Falangola; Rosella de Oliveira Santos; Silvia Andrade Cardoso; John David

    1987-01-01

    Immunological tolerance to Schistosoma mansoni antigens induced by oral exposure of neonatal and adult mice to adult worm, soluble egg and polysaccharide antigens conducted to modulated periovular granuloma of infected mice. However the tolerance do not interfere in the infection. The estimative population and subpopulation of lymphocytes in the spleen of tolerized (not infected) animals do not differ from normal animals but Lyt 2.2 reactive lymphocytes to Schistosoma antigens was demonstrate...

  1. New Frontiers in Schistosoma Genomics and Transcriptomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahum, Laila A.; Mourão, Marina M.; Oliveira, Guilherme

    2012-01-01

    Schistosomes are digenean blood flukes of aves and mammals comprising 23 species. Some species are causative agents of human schistosomiasis, the second major neglected disease affecting over 230 million people worldwide. Modern technologies including the sequencing and characterization of nucleic acids and proteins have allowed large-scale analyses of parasites and hosts, opening new frontiers in biological research with potential biomedical and biotechnological applications. Nuclear genomes of the three most socioeconomically important species (S. haematobium, S. japonicum, and S. mansoni) have been sequenced and are under intense investigation. Mitochondrial genomes of six Schistosoma species have also been completely sequenced and analysed from an evolutionary perspective. Furthermore, DNA barcoding of mitochondrial sequences is used for biodiversity assessment of schistosomes. Despite the efforts in the characterization of Schistosoma genomes and transcriptomes, many questions regarding the biology and evolution of this important taxon remain unanswered. This paper aims to discuss some advances in the schistosome research with emphasis on genomics and transcriptomics. It also aims to discuss the main challenges of the current research and to point out some future directions in schistosome studies. PMID:23227308

  2. Pectolinarigenin - A Flavonoid Compound from Cirsium Japonicum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    the extract of C. japonicum and its major constituents possess anti-tumor [1, 2], anti- diabetic [3], antioxidant ... Extraction and isolation of pectolinarigenin. The powdered air-dried aerial parts of C. japonicum (1 kg) .... Caspase 3 is a member of the cysteine-aspartic acid protease family and a critical executioner of apoptosis ...

  3. Artesunate effect on schistosome thioredoxin glutathione reductase and cytochrome c peroxidase as new molecular targets in schistosoma mansoni-infected mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdin, Amany A; Ashour, Dalia S; Shoheib, Zeinab S

    2013-12-01

    To investigate the possible effect of artesunate (ART) on schistosome thioredoxin glutathione reductase (TGR) and cytochrome c peroxidase (CcP) in Schistosoma mansoni-infected mice. A total of 200 laboratory bred male Swiss albino mice were divided into 4 groups (50 mice in each group). Group I: infected untreated group (Control group) received a vehicle of 1% sodium carbonyl methylcellulose (CMC-Na); Group II: infected then treated with artesunate; Group III: infected then treated with praziquantel, and group IV: infected then treated with artesunate then praziquantel. Adult S. mansoni worms were collected by Animal Perfusion Method, tissue egg counted, TGR, and CcP mRNA Expression were estimated of in S. mansoni adult worms by semi-quantitative rt-PCR. Semi-quantitative rt-PCR values revealed that treatment with artesunate caused significant decrease in expression of schistosome TGR and CcP in comparison to the untreated group. In contrast, the treatment with praziquantel did not cause significant change in expression of these genes. The results showed more reduction in total worm and female worm count in combined ART-PZQ treated group than in monotherapy treated groups by either ART or PZQ. Moreover, complete disappearance (100%) of tissue eggs was recorded in ART-PZQ treated group with a respective reduction rate of 95.9% and 68.4% in ART- and PZQ-treated groups. The current study elucidated for the first time that anti-schistosomal mechanisms of artesunate is mediated via reduction in expression of schistosome TGR and CcP. Linking these findings, addition of artesunate to praziquantel could achieve complete cure outcome in treatment of schistosomiasis. Copyright © 2013 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  4. Susceptibility of Biomphalaria amazonica and Biomphalaria occidentalis from Manso Dam, Mato Grosso, Brazil to infection with three strains of Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Ammon Fernandez

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available As well as malaria and yellow fever, schistosomiasis is one of the main endemic diseases associated to environments which suffered some impact related to the development of great economic projects, as for example the construction of hydroelectric power stations. Aiming to investigate the occurrence and distribution of freshwater snails of medical and veterinary importance in the area which suffered impact from the Manso hydroelectric power station a survey was performed during the period of 2002 to 2003 and revealed the occurrence of populations of Biomphalaria amazonica and Biomphalaria occidentalis. Studies on parasite-mollusc compatibility were undertaken using five B. amazonica colonies (Barão de Melgaço, Poconé, Santo Antônio do Leverger, and Chapada dos Guimarães, in the Manso and Casca rivers, and four B. occidentalis colonies (Cuiabá, Santo Antônio do Leverger, and Chapada dos Guimarães, in the Água Fria district and Casca river were exposed to miracidia of Schistosoma mansoni. Of 257 snails of B. amazonica used, 17 became infected (infection index of 6.61% and all specimens of B. occidentalis proved unsusceptible. According to the strains used, of the 158 snails exposed to BH miracidia, 6 became infected (3.79%; of the 44 exposed to SJ miracidia, 6 became infected (13.63%; and of the 55 snails of B. amazonica exposed to EC miracidia, 5 became infected (9.09%. These results point out the low possibility of introduction of schistosomiasis in those areas, but we believe it can not be discarded as due the presence of B. amazonica.

  5. Low transformation growth factor-β1 production and collagen synthesis correlate with the lack of hepatic periportal fibrosis development in undernourished mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Ferreira Barros

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Undernourished mice infected (UI submitted to low and long-lasting infections by Schistosoma mansoni are unable to develop the hepatic periportal fibrosis that is equivalent to Symmers’ fibrosis in humans. In this report, the effects of the host’s nutritional status on parasite (worm load, egg viability and maturation and host (growth curves, biology, collagen synthesis and characteristics of the immunological response were studied and these are considered as interdependent factors influencing the amount and distribution of fibrous tissue in hepatic periovular granulomas and portal spaces. The nutritional status of the host influenced the low body weight and low parasite burden detected in UI mice as well as the number, viability and maturation of released eggs. The reduced oviposition and increased number of degenerated or dead eggs were associated with low protein synthesis detected in deficient hosts, which likely induced the observed decrease in transformation growth factor (TGF-β1 and liver collagen. Despite the reduced number of mature eggs in UI mice, the activation of TGF-β1 and hepatic stellate cells occurred regardless of the unviability of most miracidia, due to stimulation by fibrogenic proteins and eggshell glycoproteins. However, changes in the repair mechanisms influenced by the nutritional status in deficient animals may account for the decreased liver collagen detected in the present study.

  6. A multivalent chimeric vaccine composed of Schistosoma mansoni SmTSP-2 and Sm29 was able to induce protection against infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, C S; Ribeiro, A P D; Cardoso, F C; Martins, V P; Figueiredo, B C P; Assis, N R G; Morais, S B; Caliari, M V; Loukas, A; Oliveira, S C

    2014-07-01

    Schistosoma mansoni is a blood fluke parasite responsible for schistosomiasis. The best long-term strategy to control schistosomiasis is through immunization combined with drug treatment. In this study, we cloned, expressed and purified SmTSP-2 fused to the N- and C-terminal halves of Sm29 and tested these chimeras as vaccine candidates using an adjuvant approved to be used in humans. The results demonstrated that vaccination with SmTSP-2 fused to N- or C-terminus of Sm29-induced reduction in worm burden and liver pathology when compared to control animals. Additionally, we detected high levels of mouse-specific IgG, IgG1 and IgG2a against both chimeras and significant amounts of IFN-γ and TNF-α and no IL-4. Finally, studies with sera from patients resistant to infection and living in schistosomiasis endemic areas revealed high levels of specific IgG to both chimeras when compared to healthy individuals. In conclusion, SmTSP-2/Sm29 chimeras tested here induced partial protection against infection and might be a potential vaccine candidate. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. An immunohistological study of phenotypic characteristics of cells of the inflammatory response in the intestine of Schistosoma bovis-infected goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, R; Johansen, M V; Nilsson, C; Nansen, P

    1999-01-01

    The cellular inflammatory response in the small intestine of 21 goats infected with Schistosoma bovis was phenotypically characterized by immunohistochemistry between 6 and 32 weeks post-exposure, with particular reference to perioval granulomatous reactions. Macrophages of granulomas consistently expressed MHC class II molecules, whereas multi-nucleated giant cells in general did not. Most granulomas contained moderate infiltrates of CD2+ (CD4+ or CD8+) and gamma/delta (T19+) T cells, whereas B lymphocytes were sparse. Intact extravascular mucosal eggs, lacking appreciable cellular reactivity on plain histopathology, displayed surrounding collars of MHC class II+ macrophages. Gamma/delta T cells and MHC class II+ macrophages were the predominant cell types in perivascular inflammatory cell clusters in the submucosa. The phenotypic cellular composition of granulomas did not change appreciably with duration of infection. The results indicate the importance of MHC class II-restricted immune events in the caprine S. bovis egg granulomas and also suggest a role of gamma/delta T cells in their pathogenesis. It is hypothesized that the early appearance of perioval macrophage collars may serve to protect eggs from ovicidal host defence mechanisms, facilitating excretion and continuation of the life-cycle.

  8. Schistosoma-associated chronic septicemic salmonellosis: evolution of knowledge and immunopathogenic mechanisms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maria Imaculada Muniz-Junqueira; Carlos Eduardo Tosta; Aluízio Prata

    2009-01-01

      Chronic septicemic salmonellosis is an individualized clinical entity characterized by prolonged fever with enlargement of the liver and spleen that occurs in Schistosoma-infected individuals who...

  9. In vivo effects of monoclonal anti-L3T4 antibody on immune responsiveness of mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni. Reduction of irradiated cercariae-induced resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, E.A.; Colley, D.G.

    1988-04-15

    Mice can be partially protected against challenge infections of Schistosoma mansoni cercariae by either single or multiple exposure to irradiated cercariae (x-cerc). The participation of L3T4+ lymphocytes on this resistance phenomenon was evaluated by selectively depleting this cell population through in vivo administration of mAb anti-L3T4 at three different times in relationship to the challenge infections. Treatment with anti-L3T4 before challenge such that depletion was effective during the time of cercarial skin penetration and dermal/s.c. residence significantly reduced the level of resistance induced by x-cerc sensitization. When treatment was delayed until after challenge, depletion of L3T4+ cells coincided with either the lung or post-lung/liver phases of schistosomular migration, and normal levels of x-cerc-induced resistance were induced. In contrast to once-immunized mice, mice hyperimmunized by five exposures to x-cerc and then depleted of L3T4+ cells at the time of challenge still expressed resistance to the challenge. These data suggest that when mice are sensitized only once with x-cerc the challenge infection provides a necessary immunologic boost which requires L3T4+ cells for effective expression of resistance. The requirement for this anamnestic effect by the challenge infection can be circumvented by hyperimmunization. Evaluation of the immune response of one-time sensitized or hyperimmunized mice demonstrated that cellular Ag-specific proliferative responses and mitogen-induced lymphokine production were abrogated after any of the various in vivo regimens of anti-L3T4 antibody. In contrast, immunoblot analysis of humoral responsiveness revealed a correlation between the expression of resistance and the ability of sera from immunized and anti-L3T4 treated mice to recognize a 75-kDa parasite antigenic component.

  10. Long-term effect of mass chemotherapy, transmission and risk factors for Schistosoma mansoni infection in very low endemic communities of Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstede, Stefanie N; Tami, Adriana; van Liere, Genevieve A F S; Ballén, Diana; Incani, Renzo N

    2014-12-01

    The prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni infection in Venezuela has changed from high to low due mostly to successful control activities, including mass chemotherapy and molluscicide applications. This study examined the impact of mass chemotherapy on S. mansoni transmission and risk factors for infection 12 years after administration of praziquantel in Venezuela. Two relatively isolated rural communities were studied, one with snail control (Manuare) and the second without (Los Naranjos). A cross-sectional survey of randomly selected households included 226 (Manuare) and 192 (Los Naranjos) consenting participants. S. mansoni prevalence was determined using a combination of coprological (Kato-Katz) and serological (circumoval precipitin test, alkaline phosphatase immunoassay and Western blot) tests. Data on epidemiological and socioeconomic risk factors were obtained through individual structured interviews. Univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression models identified independent risk factors for infection. Water sites were examined for the presence of Biomphalaria glabrata snails. Only one participant was positive by coprology. The overall prevalences according to the combined tests were 32.7% in Manuare and 26.6% in Los Naranjos. Lower prevalences (12.7% in Manuare and 13.2% in Los Naranjos) were found in children 25 years), contact with specific water sites, and being a farmer/non-specialised worker. Mass treatment with praziquantel applied once to endemic communities led to an important and long-lasting sustained reduction of S. mansoni infections independent of the application of snail control. A degree of low active transmission of S. mansoni persisted in the treated areas which was associated with similar factors in both communities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Cerebral Schistosomiasis Caused by Schistosoma mansoni: a Case Report with Clinical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Li

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available "nCentral nervous system involvement arising from schistosomiasis is uncommon. It may be produced most fre­quently by Schistosoma japonicum infection, but reports of S. mansoni presenting as an intracerebral mass lesion are particularly rare. The authors describe the case of a 35-year-old woman with a 3-month history of partial epilep­tic seizures and head­aches. She immigrated to Egypt 4 years ago and had worked in Iraq for 2 years after the immigration. The patient's gen­eral physical and neurological examinations were unremarkable. Magnetic resonance (MR imaging revealed an enhanc­ing lesion with surrounding edema and mild mass effect in the left frontal lobe. A stereotactic brain biopsy demonstrated intraparenchymal granulomas surrounding S. mansoni eggs. S. mansoni was identified by stool examination. Prednisone (1 mg/kg per day for 1 week, with gradual with­drawal during the following 3 weeks and praziquantel (2 doses at 20 mg/kg per day therapy was initiated. The patient's symptoms resolved following medical treatment and the follow-up MR imaging yielded normal findings. This case is the rare imported case of cerebral schistosomiasis in China and the neuroschistosomiasis should be considered as the patient lived in a region in which this disease is endemic.

  12. Schistosoma mattheei--an ovum containing twin miracidia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rensburg, L J; Van Wyk, J A

    2003-03-01

    A large Schistosoma mettheei ovum containing two miracidia was recovered from a squash preparation of the liver of an experimentally infected hamster. When observed, the miracidia were motile and facing in opposite directions.

  13. Positive fecal occult blood test as a diagnostic cue for Schistosoma mansoni infection in a developed country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Itaru; Yagi, Kenji; Kumagai, Takashi; Ohta, Nobuo

    2017-01-01

    The rise in eco-tourism and travel off the beaten track have increased numbers of tourists with schistosomiasis which is seldom seen in developed countries, although this disease is considered a neglected tropical disease especially in poor communities. A Guinean male living in Japan was seen complaining of severe constipation. He was positive for fecal occult blood (FOB) and underwent colonoscopy. Colonoscopy showed petechiae of the rectal mucosa, with pathologic examination of biopsy tissue showing calcified eggs of the genus Schistosoma. Direct examination of eggs in feces and antibody tests of serum confirmed the diagnosis of schistosomiasis. The patient was administered Praziquantel (400 mg/day for 2 days) and FOB and fecal ova tests were negative after treatment. FOB tests have been reported as a useful assessment of morbidities associated with intestinal schistosomiasis. In developed countries, positive FOB result, which is used as a main examination for bowel malignant disease, are not recognized as being due to schistosomiasis. As this tropical disease is rarely present in developed countries, it may be under-diagnosed. Schistosomiasis should be included in the differential diagnosis of patients with positive FOB tests.

  14. Potential of a recombinant Schistosoma bovis-derived glutathione S-transferase to protect cattle against experimental and natural S. mattheei infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bont, J; Vercruysse, J; Grzych, J M; Meeus, P F; Capron, A

    1997-09-01

    The potential of a recombinant Schistosoma bovis-derived glutathione S-transferase (rSb28GST) to protect cattle against S. mattheei infection was tested in Zambia. All animals were challenged 2 weeks after the second inoculation with either 0.250 mg rSb28GST in adjuvants (vaccinated calves, n = 14) or adjuvants alone (controls, n = 14). In a first experiment, 7 vaccinated and 7 control animals were exposed to 10000 S. mattheei cercariae percutaneously. All animals developed clinical schistosomiasis 7-8 weeks after challenge. At perfusion, 12 weeks after challenge, vaccinated and control groups had averages of 887 and 541 eggs per gramme (epg) faeces, 6515 and 5990 worms, and 4.2 and 3.4 million tissue eggs, respectively. These results indicate that the immunization protocol used did not protect these calves against the massive single experimental challenge. In a second experiment, another 2 groups (n = 7) of vaccinated and control animals were challenged naturally over a period of 9 months on a farm known to be endemic for S. mattheei. The natural infections were much lighter in intensity, as indicated by the mean faecal egg count (13 epg), worm count (139) and tissue egg count (294000) in non-vaccinated controls. In vaccinated calves, significant reductions in female worm burdens (50%), faecal egg count (89%) and miracidial counts (93%) were recorded. Total tissue egg counts were also reduced by 42% in vaccinated animals. It therefore appears that the rSb28GST can provide significant protection in cattle against S. mattheei under conditions of low to moderate natural infection.

  15. presumptive diagnosis of schistosoma haematobium and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    ABSTRACT. A cross-sectional study was carried out in Ilie community of Olorunda Local Government Area in Osun state, southwestern. Nigeria to comparatively evaluate the presumptive diagnosis of schistosoma infections using microscopy as gold standard. One hundred and thirty seven consented primary school ...

  16. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Detection of Schistosoma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite decades of prevention and control efforts, the water-borne parasitic disease schistosomiasis is still endemic in 74 countries of the developing nations of the world. It is known that five species of the Schistosoma trematode are pathogenic to humans; S. haematobium is one of these infective agents of schistosomiasis ...

  17. Efficacy of Parazoquantel against Schistosoma Heamatobium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Schistosomiasis is a chronic debilitating infection due to Schistosoma species belonging to parasitic trematode worms. It continues to threaten millions of people, particularly the rural poor in the developing countries. A study was carried out to determine the prevalence of urinary Schistosomiasis among dwellers of Wasai ...

  18. Cofactors Influencing Prevalence and Intensity of Schistosoma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An epidemiological study of sedentary Fulani settlements in Dumbi, Igabi Local Government Area of Kaduna State was undertaken to determine cofactors of Schistosoma haematobium prevalence and intensity of infection. Consenting individuals were recruited after sensitization from six settlements and administered a ...

  19. Failure of a recombinant Schistosoma bovis-derived glutathione S-transferase to protect cattle against experimental Fasciola hepatica infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bont, J; Claerebout, E; Riveau, G; Schacht, A M; Smets, K; Conder, G; Brake, D A; Capron, A; Vercruysse, J

    2003-04-18

    The potential of a recombinant Schistosoma bovis 28-kDa glutathione S-transferase (rSb28GST) to protect cattle against Fasciola hepatica was tested in a vaccination trial. Thirty two calves were randomly divided into four groups of eight animals. Calves of the three vaccine groups received two intramuscular injections at 3 weeks interval, of 0.250mg rSb28GST in either aluminium hydroxide (Al(OH)(3)), Quil A, or PBS emulsified in an equal volume of Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA).Animals of the control group received injections of Al(OH)(3)/PBS only. All animals were challenged orally with a total of 360 metacercariae of F. hepatica, spread over 6 weeks. All groups of vaccinated animals produced measurable IgG antibody titers to rSb28GST after vaccination. Animals immunised with FCA adjuvanted vaccine had the highest and more durable antibody titers and only sera from this group recognised an approximately 24kDa protein band from F. hepatica, that is thought to be a F. hepatica GST. Despite a good antibody response differences in cumulative faecal egg output between the groups were not statistically significant. In addition, no significant difference was found between groups in terms of total worm numbers or percentage of immature flukes recovered at necropsy. In conclusion, the recombinant S. bovis 28kDa GST was not found to adequately protect cattle against experimental F. hepatica challenge, using either aluminium hydroxide, Quil A or FCA as adjuvant.

  20. The complete mitochondrial genomes of Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma spindale and the evolutionary history of mitochondrial genome changes among parasitic flatworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlewood, D Timothy J; Lockyer, Anne E; Webster, Bonnie L; Johnston, David A; Le, Thanh Hoa

    2006-05-01

    Complete mitochondrial genome sequences for the schistosomes Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma. spindale have been characterized. S. haematobium is the causative agent of urinary schistosomiasis in humans and S. spindale uses ruminants as its definitive host; both are transmitted by freshwater snail intermediate hosts. Results confirm a major gene order rearrangement among schistosomes in all traditional Schistosoma species groups other than Schistosoma japonicum; i.e., species groups S. mansoni, S. haematobium, and S. indicum. These data lend support to the 'out of Asia' (East and Southeast Asia) hypothesis for Schistosoma. The gene order change involves translocation of atp6-nad2-trnA and a rearrangement of nad3-nad1 relative to other parasitic flatworm mt genomes so far sequenced. Gene order and tRNA secondary structure changes (loss and acquisition of the DHU and/or TPsiC arms of trnC, trnF, and trnR) between mitochondrial genomes of these and other (digenean and cestode) flatworms were inferred by character mapping onto a phylogeny estimated from nuclear small subunit rRNA gene sequences of these same species, in order to find additional rare genomic changes suitable as synapomorphies. Denser and wider taxon sampling of mt genomes across the Platyhelminthes will validate these putative characters.

  1. Human infections and co-infections with helminths in a rural population in Guichi, Anhui Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yi; Li, Rui; Ward, Michael P; Chen, Yue; Lynn, Henry; Wang, Decheng; Chen, Gengxin; He, Zonggui; Sun, Liqian; Xiong, Chenglong; Zhang, Zhijie; Jiang, Qingwu

    2015-11-04

    Helminth infections are believed to be common in tropical and subtropical countries. A cross-sectional study was carried out in two villages located in Guichi District in Anhui Province, the People's Republic of China, where multiparasitism was investigated using parasitological tests. The data collected were fitted to Bayesian multi-level models to profile risk factors for helminth infections. The prevalence of Schistosoma (S.) japonicum, Ascaris (A.) lumbricoides and Trichuris (T.) trichiura were 0.43% (range: 0-0.87% at the village level), 2.28% (range: 1.69-2.88%), and 0.21% (range: 0-0.42%), respectively. No hookworm infection was found. With regard to multiparasitism, only a 33-year-old female was found to be co-infected with S. japonicum and A. lumbricoides. Multiparasitism was unexpectedly rare in the study area, which contrasts with results from other studies carried out elsewhere in the country. The long-term usage of albendazole for individuals serologically positive for schistosomiasis may be the main reason, but this needs to be confirmed by future studies.

  2. Human infections and co-infections with helminths in a rural population in Guichi, Anhui Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Hu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Helminth infections are believed to be common in tropical and subtropical countries. A cross-sectional study was carried out in two villages located in Guichi District in Anhui Province, the People’s Republic of China, where multiparasitism was investigated using parasitological tests. The data collected were fitted to Bayesian multi-level models to profile risk factors for helminth infections. The prevalence of Schistosoma (S. japonicum, Ascaris (A. lumbricoides and Trichuris (T. trichiura were 0.43% (range: 0-0.87% at the village level, 2.28% (range: 1.69-2.88%, and 0.21% (range: 0-0.42%, respectively. No hookworm infection was found. With regard to multiparasitism, only a 33-year-old female was found to be co-infected with S. japonicum and A. lumbricoides. Multiparasitism was unexpectedly rare in the study area, which contrasts with results from other studies carried out elsewhere in the country. The long-term usage of albendazole for individuals serologically positive for schistosomiasis may be the main reason, but this needs to be confirmed by future studies.

  3. Schistosoma mansoni Infection Can Jeopardize the Duration of Protective Levels of Antibody Responses to Immunizations against Hepatitis B and Tetanus Toxoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riner, Diana K; Ndombi, Eric M; Carter, Jennifer M; Omondi, Amos; Kittur, Nupur; Kavere, Emmy; Korir, Harrison K; Flaherty, Briana; Karanja, Diana; Colley, Daniel G

    2016-12-01

    Schistosomiasis is a disease of major public health importance in sub-Saharan Africa. Immunoregulation begins early in schistosome infection and is characterized by hyporesponsiveness to parasite and bystander antigens, suggesting that a schistosome infection at the time of immunization could negatively impact the induction of protective vaccine responses. This study examined whether having a Schistosoma mansoni infection at the time of immunization with hepatitis B and tetanus toxoid (TT) vaccines impacts an individual's ability to achieve and maintain protective antibody levels against hepatitis B surface antigen or TT. Adults were recruited from Kisumu Polytechnic College in Western Kenya. At enrollment, participants were screened for schistosomiasis and soil transmitted helminths (STHs) and assigned to groups based on helminth status. The vaccines were then administered and helminth infections treated a week after the first hepatitis B boost. Over an 8 month period, 3 blood specimens were obtained for the evaluation of humoral and cytokine responses to the vaccine antigens and for immunophenotyping. 146 individuals were available for final analysis and 26% were S. mansoni positive (Sm+). Schistosomiasis did not impede the generation of initial minimum protective antibody levels to either hepatitis B or TT vaccines. However, median hepatitis B surface antibody levels were significantly lower in the Sm+ group after the first boost and remained lower, but not significantly lower, following praziquantel (PZQ) treatment and final boost. In addition, 8 months following TT boost and 7 months following PZQ treatment, Sm+ individuals were more likely to have anti-TT antibody levels fall below levels considered optimal for long term protection. IL-5 levels in response to in vitro TT stimulation of whole blood were significantly higher in the Sm+ group at the 8 month time period as well. Individuals with schistosomiasis at the start the immunizations were capable of

  4. Schistosoma mansoni Infection Can Jeopardize the Duration of Protective Levels of Antibody Responses to Immunizations against Hepatitis B and Tetanus Toxoid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana K Riner

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is a disease of major public health importance in sub-Saharan Africa. Immunoregulation begins early in schistosome infection and is characterized by hyporesponsiveness to parasite and bystander antigens, suggesting that a schistosome infection at the time of immunization could negatively impact the induction of protective vaccine responses. This study examined whether having a Schistosoma mansoni infection at the time of immunization with hepatitis B and tetanus toxoid (TT vaccines impacts an individual's ability to achieve and maintain protective antibody levels against hepatitis B surface antigen or TT.Adults were recruited from Kisumu Polytechnic College in Western Kenya. At enrollment, participants were screened for schistosomiasis and soil transmitted helminths (STHs and assigned to groups based on helminth status. The vaccines were then administered and helminth infections treated a week after the first hepatitis B boost. Over an 8 month period, 3 blood specimens were obtained for the evaluation of humoral and cytokine responses to the vaccine antigens and for immunophenotyping.146 individuals were available for final analysis and 26% were S. mansoni positive (Sm+. Schistosomiasis did not impede the generation of initial minimum protective antibody levels to either hepatitis B or TT vaccines. However, median hepatitis B surface antibody levels were significantly lower in the Sm+ group after the first boost and remained lower, but not significantly lower, following praziquantel (PZQ treatment and final boost. In addition, 8 months following TT boost and 7 months following PZQ treatment, Sm+ individuals were more likely to have anti-TT antibody levels fall below levels considered optimal for long term protection. IL-5 levels in response to in vitro TT stimulation of whole blood were significantly higher in the Sm+ group at the 8 month time period as well.Individuals with schistosomiasis at the start the immunizations were

  5. P53 and cancer-associated sialylated glycans are surrogate markers of cancerization of the bladder associated with Schistosoma haematobium infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Júlio; Fernandes, Elisabete; Ferreira, José Alexandre; Lima, Luís; Tavares, Ana; Peixoto, Andreia; Parreira, Beatriz; Correia da Costa, José Manuel; Brindley, Paul J; Lopes, Carlos; Santos, Lúcio L

    2014-12-01

    Bladder cancer is a significant health problem in rural areas of Africa and the Middle East where Schistosoma haematobium is prevalent, supporting an association between malignant transformation and infection by this blood fluke. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms linking these events are poorly understood. Bladder cancers in infected populations are generally diagnosed at a late stage since there is a lack of non-invasive diagnostic tools, hence enforcing the need for early carcinogenesis markers. Forty-three formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded bladder biopsies of S. haematobium-infected patients, consisting of bladder tumours, tumour adjacent mucosa and pre-malignant/malignant urothelial lesions, were screened for bladder cancer biomarkers. These included the oncoprotein p53, the tumour proliferation rate (Ki-67>17%), cell-surface cancer-associated glycan sialyl-Tn (sTn) and sialyl-Lewisa/x (sLea/sLex), involved in immune escape and metastasis. Bladder tumours of non-S. haematobium etiology and normal urothelium were used as controls. S. haematobium-associated benign/pre-malignant lesions present alterations in p53 and sLex that were also found in bladder tumors. Similar results were observed in non-S. haematobium associated tumours, irrespectively of their histological nature, denoting some common molecular pathways. In addition, most benign/pre-malignant lesions also expressed sLea. However, proliferative phenotypes were more prevalent in lesions adjacent to bladder tumors while sLea was characteristic of sole benign/pre-malignant lesions, suggesting it may be a biomarker of early carcionogenesis associated with the parasite. A correlation was observed between the frequency of the biomarkers in the tumor and adjacent mucosa, with the exception of Ki-67. Most S. haematobium eggs embedded in the urothelium were also positive for sLea and sLex. Reinforcing the pathologic nature of the studied biomarkers, none was observed in the healthy urothelium. This

  6. P53 and cancer-associated sialylated glycans are surrogate markers of cancerization of the bladder associated with Schistosoma haematobium infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bladder cancer is a significant health problem in rural areas of Africa and the Middle East where Schistosoma haematobium is prevalent, supporting an association between malignant transformation and infection by this blood fluke. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms linking these events are poorly understood. Bladder cancers in infected populations are generally diagnosed at a late stage since there is a lack of non-invasive diagnostic tools, hence enforcing the need for early carcinogenesis markers.Forty-three formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded bladder biopsies of S. haematobium-infected patients, consisting of bladder tumours, tumour adjacent mucosa and pre-malignant/malignant urothelial lesions, were screened for bladder cancer biomarkers. These included the oncoprotein p53, the tumour proliferation rate (Ki-67>17%, cell-surface cancer-associated glycan sialyl-Tn (sTn and sialyl-Lewisa/x (sLea/sLex, involved in immune escape and metastasis. Bladder tumours of non-S. haematobium etiology and normal urothelium were used as controls. S. haematobium-associated benign/pre-malignant lesions present alterations in p53 and sLex that were also found in bladder tumors. Similar results were observed in non-S. haematobium associated tumours, irrespectively of their histological nature, denoting some common molecular pathways. In addition, most benign/pre-malignant lesions also expressed sLea. However, proliferative phenotypes were more prevalent in lesions adjacent to bladder tumors while sLea was characteristic of sole benign/pre-malignant lesions, suggesting it may be a biomarker of early carcionogenesis associated with the parasite. A correlation was observed between the frequency of the biomarkers in the tumor and adjacent mucosa, with the exception of Ki-67. Most S. haematobium eggs embedded in the urothelium were also positive for sLea and sLex. Reinforcing the pathologic nature of the studied biomarkers, none was observed in the healthy urothelium

  7. Resistência de Biomphalaria peregrina de Santa Rita do Sapucaí, Minas Gerais, a infecção com três cepas de Schistosoma mansoni Resistance of Biomphalaria peregrina from Santa Rita do Sapucaí, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, to infection with strain of Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília Pereira de Souza

    1988-12-01

    Full Text Available Descendentes do planorbídeo Biomphalaria peregrina, coletados em Santa Rita do Sapucaí, Minas Gerais, Brasil, foram expostos a miracídios de três cepas de Schistosoma mansoni: "LE" de Belo Horizonte, MG; "SJ" de São José dos Campos, SP e "AL" do Estado de Alagoas. Dentre 300 exemplares expostos, nenhum se infectou com as três cepas do trematódeo. Por outro lado, 300 exemplares de B. glabrata, dos grupos de controle, apresentaram taxas de infecção de 61,1 a 95,3% com as três cepas do trematódeo. As taxas de mortalidade de B. peregrina e de B. glabrata foram de 20,0 e de 28,0%, respectivamente.The descendants of the planorbid snail Biomphalaria peregrina, collected in the region of Santa rita do Sapucaí, Minas Gerais, Brazil, were exposed to miracidia of three strains of Schistosoma mansoni: "LE" strain from Belo Horizonte, State of Minas Gerais; "SJ", strain from São José dos Campos, State of São Paulo and "AL" strain from State of Alagoas. Of 300 snails exposed to miracidia of the three strains, none was infected. On the other hand, 300 Biomphalaria glabrata of the control groups showed infection rates of 61.1 to 95.3% with three strains. The mortality rates of B. peregrina and B. glabrata were 20% and 28%, respectively.

  8. Improvement of the liver pathology by the aqueous extract and the n-butanol fraction of Sida pilosa Retz in Schistosoma mansoni-infected mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jatsa, Hermine Boukeng; Russo, Remo Castro; Pereira, Cintia Aparecida de Jesus; Aguilar, Edenil Costa; Garcia, Cristiana Couto; Araújo, Emília Souza; Oliveira, Jailza Lima Rodrigues; Rodrigues, Vanessa Fernandes; de Oliveira, Vinícius Gustavo; Alvarez-Leite, Jacqueline Isaura; Braga, Fernão Castro; Louis-Albert Tchuem Tchuente; Kamtchouing, Pierre; Negrão-Corrêa, Deborah Aparecida; Teixeira, Mauro Martins

    2016-03-02

    Sida pilosa Retz (Malvaceae) is a plant used in Africa for the treatment of intestinal helminthiasis, lower abdominal pains and dysmenorrhea. In order to determine the potential use of S. pilosa in the treatment of schistosomiasis mansoni, we evaluated the schistosomicidal, antioxidant and anti-fibrotic properties of the aqueous extract and the n-butanol fraction of its aerial parts. S. pilosa aqueous extract (SpAE) at 100, 200 and 400mg/kg and n-butanol fraction (SpBF) at 50, 100 and 200mg/kg were administered per os to Schistosoma mansoni-infected mice for 4 weeks. Praziquantel (100mg/kg × 5 days) was used as reference drug. After sacrifice, worm burden and egg count, transaminases and proteins levels were evaluated. Malondialdehyde (MDA), lipid hydroperoxydes (LOOH), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were also measured. The anti-fibrotic effect of the plant was evaluated by the determination of hydroxyproline and γ-interferon (IFN-γ). The treatment of S. mansoni-infected mice by SpAE or SpBF resulted in a moderate reduction of worm burden and egg load in the liver and intestine. Both SpAE and SpBF significantly reversed the increasing liver proteins, MDA, LOOH and CAT levels induced by the infection. Moreover, SOD activity was improved by SpAE and SpBF. Schistosomiasis mansoni considerably increased the EPO (p<0.001) and MPO activities (p<0.001). SpAE treatment significantly reduced EPO and MPO activities at all doses. SpBF failed to reduce the increasing MPO and decreased EPO only at the highest dose. S. mansoni-infection induced an increase in hydroxyproline content (p<0.001) and a decrease in IFN-γ level (p<0.001). Both SpAE and SpBF significantly reduced hepatic hydroxyproline content, while only SpAE (p<0.05) improved IFN-γ level. These results suggest that the liver pathology in schistosomiasis mansoni is improved by S. pilosa aqueous extract, which disclosed a moderate schistosomicidal

  9. Effective anthelmintic therapy of residents living in endemic area of high prevalence for Hookworm and Schistosoma mansoni infections enhances the levels of allergy risk factor anti-Der p1 IgE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campolina, Sabrina S.; Araujo, Marcio S.S.; Rezende, Tércia M.R.L.; Matoso, Leonardo; Quites, Humberto F.O.; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Martins-Filho, Olindo A.; Gazzinelli, Andrea; Correa-Oliveira, Rodrigo

    2013-01-01

    In this work were investigated the relationship between Hookworm/Schistosoma mansoni infections and allergy related risk factors in two endemic areas with distinct prevalence of infections and co-infection. The intensity of infections, eosinophilia, allergy risk factors, infections status and anti-Der p1 IgE levels before and 2 years (population 1) and 3 years (population 2) after anthelmintic treatment, were evaluated. It was observed that the population with lower prevalence and intensity of infection (population 2) had lower eosinophils counts (>600/mm3) and higher animal contact than the population with higher parasites intensity (population 1). After anthelmintic treatment the intensity of S. mansoni single infection decreased, but no changes were observed in Hookworm and co-infected individuals. The anthelmintic treatment also enhanced anti-Der p1 IgE optical density in ELISA on the subgroups that became negative for helminth infection regardless of their previous infection condition in population 1. Facing that, we evaluated the anti-Der p1 IgE reactivity index, and the ratio (after/before treatment) was significantly higher in patients co-infected before treatment. On the other hand, no association between anti-Der p1 IgE reactivity index and the intensity of infections were observed. In conclusion, effective anthelmintic therapy of subjects from endemic areas with high prevalence of Hookworm and S. mansoni infections enhances anti-Der p1 IgE levels. PMID:25905031

  10. Effective anthelmintic therapy of residents living in endemic area of high prevalence for Hookworm and Schistosoma mansoni infections enhances the levels of allergy risk factor anti-Der p1 IgE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina S. Campolina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work were investigated the relationship between Hookworm/Schistosoma mansoni infections and allergy related risk factors in two endemic areas with distinct prevalence of infections and co-infection. The intensity of infections, eosinophilia, allergy risk factors, infections status and anti-Der p1 IgE levels before and 2 years (population 1 and 3 years (population 2 after anthelmintic treatment, were evaluated. It was observed that the population with lower prevalence and intensity of infection (population 2 had lower eosinophils counts (>600/mm3 and higher animal contact than the population with higher parasites intensity (population 1. After anthelmintic treatment the intensity of S. mansoni single infection decreased, but no changes were observed in Hookworm and co-infected individuals. The anthelmintic treatment also enhanced anti-Der p1 IgE optical density in ELISA on the subgroups that became negative for helminth infection regardless of their previous infection condition in population 1. Facing that, we evaluated the anti-Der p1 IgE reactivity index, and the ratio (after/before treatment was significantly higher in patients co-infected before treatment. On the other hand, no association between anti-Der p1 IgE reactivity index and the intensity of infections were observed. In conclusion, effective anthelmintic therapy of subjects from endemic areas with high prevalence of Hookworm and S. mansoni infections enhances anti-Der p1 IgE levels.

  11. The evaluation of non-specific cellular immunological parameters amongst children with Schistosoma haematobium infection in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukwandu, N C; Nmorsi, O P; Oyahkire, G K; Nwaosu, S C; Adebayo, I A; Elemuwa, C O

    2001-10-01

    This study used the leucocyte migration index to assess cellular immune function in children with urinary schistosomiasis. Migration inhibitory factor was produced (with other lymphokines) by sensitizing mitogens. The production of antigen-induced migration inhibitory factor in vitro correlated with the in vivo state of cellular hypersensitivity of the lymphocyte donor. The percentage positive leucocyte migration rate using three mitogens was least with inactivated measles haemagglutinin virus (IMV) and highest with Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) in the control group, while highest with tuberculin purified protein derivative (PPD) and least with IMV in the test group. The measurement of the migration index of leucocytes comparing the control with lightly- and heavily-infected children on activation using three mitogens was significantly reduced, except in the case of the control versus lightly-infected children using IMV. Using IMV, the leucocyte migration index for control versus lightly-infected children and heavily-infected children was significant (p > 0.002 and p migration between control and the lightly- or heavily-infected children. In all leucocyte migration index decreased with intensity of infection except in the case of PPD (p migration index; for BCG (r = -0.20, p < 0.005); for IMV (r = -0.3, p < 0.001); for PPD (r = -0.38,p < 0.001). Patients with schistosomiasis infection can express normal and effective cellular immune responses to non-schistosomal antigens and also have equal immunological ability to combat pathogens as S. haematobium-free controls.

  12. Differentiating Schistosoma haematobium from Schistosoma magrebowiei and other closely related schistosomes by polymerase chain reaction amplification of a species specific mitochondrial gene

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Olaoluwa Akinwale; Tang Hock; Fan Chia-Kwung; Qi Zheng; Shen Haimo; Charles Ezeh; Pam Gyang

    2014-01-01

    .... In many endemic areas, S. haematobium is sympatric with Schistosoma bovis, Schistosoma mattheei, Schistosoma curassoni, Schistosoma intercalatum and Schistosoma magrebowiei, its closely related species...

  13. Schistosoma mansoni tegument protein Sm29 is able to induce a Th1-type of immune