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Sample records for scheme reduce catastrophic

  1. Catastrophic health expenditure and rural household impoverishment in China: what role does the new cooperative health insurance scheme play?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Ye; Wu, Qunhong; Liu, Chaojie; Kang, Zheng; Xie, Xin; Yin, Hui; Jiao, Mingli; Liu, Guoxiang; Hao, Yanhua; Ning, Ning

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether the New Cooperative Medical Insurance Scheme (NCMS) is associated with decreased levels of catastrophic health expenditure and reduced impoverishment due to medical expenses in rural households of China...

  2. Indian community health insurance schemes provide partial protection against catastrophic health expenditure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranson Kent

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background More than 72% of health expenditure in India is financed by individual households at the time of illness through out-of-pocket payments. This is a highly regressive way of financing health care and sometimes leads to impoverishment. Health insurance is recommended as a measure to protect households from such catastrophic health expenditure (CHE. We studied two Indian community health insurance (CHI schemes, ACCORD and SEWA, to determine whether insured households are protected from CHE. Methods ACCORD provides health insurance cover for the indigenous population, living in Gudalur, Tamil Nadu. SEWA provides insurance cover for self employed women in the state of Gujarat. Both cover hospitalisation expenses, but only upto a maximum limit of US$23 and US$45, respectively. We reviewed the insurance claims registers in both schemes and identified patients who were hospitalised during the period 01/04/2003 to 31/03/2004. Details of their diagnoses, places and costs of treatment and self-reported annual incomes were obtained. There is no single definition of CHE and none of these have been validated. For this research, we used the following definition; "annual hospital expenditure greater than 10% of annual income," to identify those who experienced CHE. Results There were a total of 683 and 3152 hospital admissions at ACCORD and SEWA, respectively. In the absence of the CHI scheme, all of the patients at ACCORD and SEWA would have had to pay OOP for their hospitalisation. With the CHI scheme, 67% and 34% of patients did not have to make any out-of-pocket (OOP payment for their hospital expenses at ACCORD and SEWA, respectively. Both CHI schemes halved the number of households that would have experienced CHE by covering hospital costs. However, despite this, 4% and 23% of households with admissions still experienced CHE at ACCORD and SEWA, respectively. This was related to the following conditions: low annual income, benefit

  3. National Health Insurance Scheme: How Protected Are Households in Oyo State, Nigeria from Catastrophic Health Expenditure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olayinka Stephen Ilesanmi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background The major objective of the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS in Nigeria is to protect families from the financial hardship of large medical bills. Catastrophic Health Expenditure (CHE is rampart in Nigeria despite the take-off of the NHIS. This study aimed to determine if households enrolled in the NHIS were protected from having CHE. Methods The study took place among 714 households in urban communities of Oyo State. CHE was measured using a threshold of 40% of monthly non-food expenditure. Descriptive statistics were done, Principal Component Analysis was used to divide households into wealth quintiles. Chi-square test and binary logistic regression were done. Results The mean age of household respondent was 33.5 years. The median household income was 43,500 naira (290 US dollars and the range was 7,000–680,000 naira (46.7–4,533 US dollars in 2012. The overall median household healthcare cost was 890 naira (5.9 US dollars and the range was 10-17,700 naira (0.1–118 US dollars in 2012. In all, 67 (9.4% households were enrolled in NHIS scheme. Healthcare services was utilized by 637 (82.9% and CHE occurred in 42 (6.6% households. CHE occurred in 14 (10.9% of the households in the lowest quintile compared to 3 (2.5% in the highest wealth quintile (P= 0.004. The odds of CHE among households in lowest wealth quintile is about 5 times. They had Crude OR (CI: 4.7 (1.3–16.8, P= 0.022. Non enrolled households were two times likely to have CHE, though not significant Conclusion Households in the lowest wealth quintiles were at higher risk of CHE. Universal coverage of health insurance in Nigeria should be fast-tracked to give the expected financial risk protection and decreased incidence of CHE.

  4. Autonomous Droop Scheme With Reduced Generation Cost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nutkani, Inam Ullah; Loh, Poh Chiang; Wang, Peng

    2014-01-01

    . This objective might, however, not suit microgrids well since DGs are usually of different types, unlike synchronous generators. Other factors like cost, efficiency, and emission penalty of each DG at different loading must be considered since they contribute directly to the total generation cost (TGC......) of the microgrid. To reduce this TGC without relying on fast communication links, an autonomous droop scheme is proposed here, whose resulting power sharing is decided by the individual DG generation costs. Comparing it with the traditional scheme, the proposed scheme retains its simplicity and it is hence more...

  5. The effect of new cooperative medical scheme on health outcomes and alleviating catastrophic health expenditure in China: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiaoyun; Guo, Hong; Jin, Chenggang; Peng, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Xiulan

    2012-01-01

    In 2002, the Chinese government launched a new rural health financing policy to provide health insurance (New Cooperative Medical Scheme, NCMS) for its rural population. NCMS, jointly financed by governments and individual households, aims to protect households from impoverishment due to catastrophic health expenditure. In 2011, NCMS covered more than 96% of the rural population. We have systematically searched and reviewed available evidence to estimate the effects of NCMS on health outcomes and on alleviating catastrophic health expenditure. PubMed, Web of Science with Conference Proceedings, ProQuest Digital Dissertations, CMCI, CNKI, and VIP were searched. We also obtained literature from colleague communications. Quasi-experimental studies regarding the effect of NCMS on health outcomes and catastrophic health expenditure were included. Two independent reviewers screened the literature, extracted the data, and assessed the study quality. Fifteen studies out of the 6123 studies in the literature fulfilled criteria and were included in this review. Twelve studies identified the relationship between NCMS and health outcomes, among which six studies measured sickness or injury in the past four weeks, four measured sickness or injury in the past two weeks, and five measured self-reported health status. Four studies focused on the relationship between NCMS and alleviating catastrophic health expenditure. However, the results from these studies were in conflict: individual studies indicated that NCMS had positive, negative, or no effect on health outcomes and/or the incidence of catastrophic health payments, respectively. We still have no clear evidence that NCMS improves the health outcomes and decreases the alleviating catastrophic health expenditure of the China's rural population. In addition, the heterogeneity among individual studies reminds us that provider payment method reforms, benefit package and information systems around NCMS should be improved in the

  6. The effect of new cooperative medical scheme on health outcomes and alleviating catastrophic health expenditure in China: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyun Liang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In 2002, the Chinese government launched a new rural health financing policy to provide health insurance (New Cooperative Medical Scheme, NCMS for its rural population. NCMS, jointly financed by governments and individual households, aims to protect households from impoverishment due to catastrophic health expenditure. In 2011, NCMS covered more than 96% of the rural population. We have systematically searched and reviewed available evidence to estimate the effects of NCMS on health outcomes and on alleviating catastrophic health expenditure. METHODS: PubMed, Web of Science with Conference Proceedings, ProQuest Digital Dissertations, CMCI, CNKI, and VIP were searched. We also obtained literature from colleague communications. Quasi-experimental studies regarding the effect of NCMS on health outcomes and catastrophic health expenditure were included. Two independent reviewers screened the literature, extracted the data, and assessed the study quality. RESULTS: Fifteen studies out of the 6123 studies in the literature fulfilled criteria and were included in this review. Twelve studies identified the relationship between NCMS and health outcomes, among which six studies measured sickness or injury in the past four weeks, four measured sickness or injury in the past two weeks, and five measured self-reported health status. Four studies focused on the relationship between NCMS and alleviating catastrophic health expenditure. However, the results from these studies were in conflict: individual studies indicated that NCMS had positive, negative, or no effect on health outcomes and/or the incidence of catastrophic health payments, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: We still have no clear evidence that NCMS improves the health outcomes and decreases the alleviating catastrophic health expenditure of the China's rural population. In addition, the heterogeneity among individual studies reminds us that provider payment method reforms, benefit package

  7. Can health insurance protect against out-of-pocket and catastrophic expenditures and also support poverty reduction? Evidence from Ghana's National Health Insurance Scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryeetey, Genevieve Cecilia; Westeneng, Judith; Spaan, Ernst; Jehu-Appiah, Caroline; Agyepong, Irene Akua; Baltussen, Rob

    2016-07-22

    Ghana since 2004, begun implementation of a National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) to minimize financial barriers to health care at point of use of service. Usually health insurance is expected to offer financial protection to households. This study aims to analyze the effect health insurance on household out-of-pocket expenditure (OOPE), catastrophic expenditure (CE) and poverty. We conducted two repeated household surveys in two regions of Ghana in 2009 and 2011. We first analyzed the effect of OOPE on poverty by estimating poverty headcount before and after OOPE were incurred. We also employed probit models and use of instrumental variables to analyze the effect of health insurance on OOPE, CE and poverty. Our findings showed that between 7-18 % of insured households incurred CE as a result of OOPE whereas this was between 29-36 % for uninsured households. In addition, between 3-5 % of both insured and uninsured households fell into poverty due to OOPE. Our regression analyses revealed that health insurance enrolment reduced OOPE by 86 % and protected households against CE and poverty by 3.0 % and 7.5 % respectively. This study provides evidence that high OOPE leads to CE and poverty in Ghana but enrolment into the NHIS reduces OOPE, provides financial protection against CE and reduces poverty. These findings support the pro-poor policy objective of Ghana's National Health Insurance Scheme and holds relevance to other low and middle income countries implementing or aiming to implement insurance schemes.

  8. Overfishing reduces resilience of kelp beds to climate-driven catastrophic phase shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, S D; Johnson, C R; Frusher, S D; Ridgway, K R

    2009-12-29

    A key consideration in assessing impacts of climate change is the possibility of synergistic effects with other human-induced stressors. In the ocean realm, climate change and overfishing pose two of the greatest challenges to the structure and functioning of marine ecosystems. In eastern Tasmania, temperate coastal waters are warming at approximately four times the global ocean warming average, representing the fastest rate of warming in the Southern Hemisphere. This has driven range extension of the ecologically important long-spined sea urchin (Centrostephanus rodgersii), which has now commenced catastrophic overgrazing of productive Tasmanian kelp beds leading to loss of biodiversity and important rocky reef ecosystem services. Coincident with the overgrazing is heavy fishing of reef-based predators including the spiny lobster Jasus edwardsii. By conducting experiments inside and outside Marine Protected Areas we show that fishing, by removing large predatory lobsters, has reduced the resilience of kelp beds against the climate-driven threat of the sea urchin and thus increased risk of catastrophic shift to widespread sea urchin barrens. This shows that interactions between multiple human-induced stressors can exacerbate nonlinear responses of ecosystems to climate change and limit the adaptive capacity of these systems. Management actions focused on reducing the risk of catastrophic phase shift in ecosystems are particularly urgent in the face of ongoing warming and unprecedented levels of predator removal from the world's oceans.

  9. Autonomous droop scheme with reduced generation cost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nutkani, Inam Ullah; Loh, Poh Chiang; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2013-01-01

    Droop scheme has been widely applied to the control of Distributed Generators (DGs) in microgrids for proportional power sharing based on their ratings. For standalone microgrid, where centralized management system is not viable, the proportional power sharing based droop might not suit well since...... DGs are usually of different types unlike synchronous generators. This paper presents an autonomous droop scheme that takes into consideration the operating cost, efficiency and emission penalty of each DG since all these factors directly or indirectly contributes to the Total Generation Cost (TGC...

  10. Berm design to reduce risks of catastrophic slope failures at solid waste disposal sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Stefano, Matteo; Gharabaghi, Bahram; Clemmer, Ryan; Jahanfar, M Ali

    2016-11-01

    Existing waste disposal sites are being strained by exceeding their volumetric capacities because of exponentially increasing rates of municipal solid waste generation worldwide, especially in densely populated metropolises. Over the past 40 years, six well-documented and analyzed disposal sites experienced catastrophic failure. This research presents a novel analysis and design method for implementation of a series of in-situ earth berms to slow down the movement of waste material flow following a catastrophic failure. This is the first study of its kind that employs a dynamic landslide analysis model, DAN-W, and the Voellmy rheological model to approximate solid waste avalanche flow. A variety of single and multiple berm configuration scenarios were developed and tested to find an optimum configuration of the various earth berm geometries and number of berms to achieve desired energy dissipation and reduction in total waste material runout length. The case study application of the novel mitigation measure shows that by constructing a series of six relatively inexpensive 3 m high earth berms at an optimum distance of 250 m from the slope toe, the total runout length of 1000 m and associated fatalities of the Leuwigajah dumpsite catastrophic failure in Bandung, Indonesia, could have been reduced by half. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. A reduced feedback proportional fair multiuser scheduling scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Shaqfeh, Mohammad

    2011-12-01

    Multiuser switched-diversity scheduling schemes were recently proposed in order to overcome the heavy feedback requirements of conventional opportunistic scheduling schemes by applying a threshold-based, distributed and ordered scheduling mechanism. A slight reduction in the prospected multiuser diversity gains is an acceptable trade-off for great savings in terms of required channel-state-information feedback messages. In this work, we propose a novel proportional fair multiuser switched-diversity scheduling scheme and we demonstrate that it can be optimized using a practical and distributed method to obtain the per-user feedback thresholds. We demonstrate by numerical examples that our reduced feedback proportional fair scheduler operates within 0.3 bits/sec/Hz from the achievable rates by the conventional full feedback proportional fair scheduler in Rayleigh fading conditions. © 2011 IEEE.

  12. Integrating Land Cover Modeling and Adaptive Management to Conserve Endangered Species and Reduce Catastrophic Fire Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breininger, David; Duncan, Brean; Eaton, Mitchell; Johnson, Fred; Nichols, James

    2014-01-01

    Land cover modeling is used to inform land management, but most often via a two-step process where science informs how management alternatives can influence resources and then decision makers can use this to make decisions. A more efficient process is to directly integrate science and decision making, where science allows us to learn to better accomplish management objectives and is developed to address specific decisions. Co-development of management and science is especially productive when decisions are complicated by multiple objectives and impeded by uncertainty. Multiple objectives can be met by specification of tradeoffs, and relevant uncertainty can be addressed through targeted science (i.e., models and monitoring). We describe how to integrate habitat and fuels monitoring with decision making focused on dual objectives of managing for endangered species and minimizing catastrophic fire risk. Under certain conditions, both objectives might be achieved by a similar management policy, but habitat trajectories suggest tradeoffs. Knowledge about system responses to actions can be informed by applying competing management actions to different land units in the same system state and by ideas about fire behavior. Monitoring and management integration is important to optimize state-specific management decisions and increase knowledge about system responses. We believe this approach has broad utility for and cover modeling programs intended to inform decision making.

  13. Integrating land cover modeling and adaptive management to conserve endangered species and reduce catastrophic fire risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breininger, David; Duncan, Brean; Eaton, Mitchell J.; Johnson, Fred; Nichols, James

    2014-01-01

    Land cover modeling is used to inform land management, but most often via a two-step process, where science informs how management alternatives can influence resources, and then, decision makers can use this information to make decisions. A more efficient process is to directly integrate science and decision-making, where science allows us to learn in order to better accomplish management objectives and is developed to address specific decisions. Co-development of management and science is especially productive when decisions are complicated by multiple objectives and impeded by uncertainty. Multiple objectives can be met by the specification of tradeoffs, and relevant uncertainty can be addressed through targeted science (i.e., models and monitoring). We describe how to integrate habitat and fuel monitoring with decision-making focused on the dual objectives of managing for endangered species and minimizing catastrophic fire risk. Under certain conditions, both objectives might be achieved by a similar management policy; other conditions require tradeoffs between objectives. Knowledge about system responses to actions can be informed by developing hypotheses based on ideas about fire behavior and then applying competing management actions to different land units in the same system state. Monitoring and management integration is important to optimize state-specific management decisions and to increase knowledge about system responses. We believe this approach has broad utility and identifies a clear role for land cover modeling programs intended to inform decision-making.

  14. Seizing Catastrophes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kublitz, Anja

    2013-01-01

    to a distant past but takes place in the present. They use the term Nakba not only to refer to the catastrophe of 1948 but also to designate current catastrophes, such as the Danish Muhammad cartoons affair in 2005 and the Israeli invasion of Gaza in 2008. Through an analysis of the 60th commemoration...

  15. Resounding Catastrophe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Thomas Bjørnsten

    2012-01-01

    The article discusses specific aesthetic strategies for articulating and describing the catastrophic event of 9/11 by focusing on its auditory aspects. This is done through a reading of the American media- and sound artist Stephen Vitiello’s work and novelist Don DeLillo’s Falling Man.......The article discusses specific aesthetic strategies for articulating and describing the catastrophic event of 9/11 by focusing on its auditory aspects. This is done through a reading of the American media- and sound artist Stephen Vitiello’s work and novelist Don DeLillo’s Falling Man....

  16. Replication Catastrophe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toledo, Luis; Neelsen, Kai John; Lukas, Jiri

    2017-01-01

    Proliferating cells rely on the so-called DNA replication checkpoint to ensure orderly completion of genome duplication, and its malfunction may lead to catastrophic genome disruption, including unscheduled firing of replication origins, stalling and collapse of replication forks, massive DNA...... breakage, and, ultimately, cell death. Despite many years of intensive research into the molecular underpinnings of the eukaryotic replication checkpoint, the mechanisms underlying the dismal consequences of its failure remain enigmatic. A recent development offers a unifying model in which the replication...... checkpoint guards against global exhaustion of rate-limiting replication regulators. Here we discuss how such a mechanism can prevent catastrophic genome disruption and suggest how to harness this knowledge to advance therapeutic strategies to eliminate cancer cells that inherently proliferate under...

  17. Catastrophic cheerleading injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Barry P; Tacchetti, Robin; Mueller, Frederick O

    2003-01-01

    There are few epidemiologic studies of cheerleading injuries. To develop a profile of catastrophic injuries in cheerleading and to describe relevant risk factors. Retrospective cohort study. We reviewed 29 of 39 incidents of cheerleading injuries reported to the National Center for Catastrophic Sports Injury Research from 1982 to 2002. Twenty-seven of the injured cheerleaders were women. There were 1.95 direct catastrophic injuries per year or 0.6 injuries per 100,000 participants. The rate of injuries among college cheerleaders was five times that of high school participants. The most common stunts performed at the time of injury were a pyramid (9) or a basket toss (8). Catastrophic injuries included 17 severe head injuries, resulting in 13 skull fractures and 2 deaths; 8 cervical fractures or major ligament injuries; 3 spinal cord contusions; and 1 concomitant head injury and cervical fracture. Suggestions for reducing catastrophic injuries in cheerleaders include enhancing the number and training of spotters, mandating floor mats for complex stunts, restricting complex stunts when surfaces are wet, and encouraging safety certification of coaches. Pyramids and basket tosses should be limited to experienced cheerleaders who have mastered all other skills and should be performed with spotters and landing mats.

  18. Catastrophe medicine; Medecine de catastrophe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebreton, A. [Service Technique de l`Energie Electrique et des Grands Barrages (STEEGB), (France)

    1996-12-31

    The `Catastrophe Medicine` congress which took place in Amiens (France) in December 5 to 7 1996 was devoted to the assessment and management of risks and hazards in natural and artificial systems. The methods of risk evaluation and prevision were discussed in the context of dams accidents with the analysis of experience feedbacks and lessons gained from the organisation of emergency plans. Three round table conferences were devoted to the importance of psychological aspects during such major crises. (J.S.)

  19. Sahelian rangeland development: a catastrophe?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietkerk, M.G.; Ketner, P.; Stroosnijder, L.; Prins, H.H.T.

    1996-01-01

    This paper sets out that the dynamics of the Sahelian range- Iand vegetation can be interpreted as a cusp catastrophe and that this interpretation offers a promising basis for the description and analysis of tbis ecosystem. Firstly, an existing scheme of the dynamics of Sahelian

  20. Assessment of a three-variable reduced kinetic scheme in prescribed turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, S.M. [General Electric Corporate R& D Cent, Schenectady, NY (United States)

    1995-05-01

    A chemical kinetic scheme for the combustion of complex hydrocarbon fuels is developed and assessed at conditions typical of high-intensity turbulent combustion. In the starting scheme, the fuel is assumed to pyrolyze at a global rate to CO and H2, which subsequently are oxidized in a series of elementary steps. The reduced scheme requires three variables: the mixture fraction xi, the fuel mass fraction Y(f), and a combined variable Y for CO and H2. The oxyhydrogen radical pool is assumed to be in a state of partial equilibrium, and the CO and H2 burn out as the radical pool decays via recombination reactions. The reduced scheme is compared with the starting scheme on combustion stability and CO/UHC emissions, in the context of the `partially stirred reactor` (PaSR) model developed earlier. The conditions are 30 atm, 1000 K inlet temperature, 2500 K equilibrium temperature (premixture equivalence ratio = 0.8), and 5 ms reactor residence time (in the perfectly stirred reactor (PSR) limit). PaSR simulations are conducted in the range 10-1000 Hz (mixing frequency), and in each case converge to a stochastic steady state and span the plug flow reactor-PSR limits smoothly. The reduced scheme performs well on flame stability (temperature) and fuel mass fraction, but not as well on CO and H2, because the partial equilibrium assumption breaks down under conditions where significant amounts of fuel are present. Since only three variables are needed, the scheme is computationally fast enough for use in computational fluid dynamic studies of high-intensity turbulent combustion. 19 refs.

  1. Two-level incremental checkpoint recovery scheme for reducing system total overheads.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huixian Li

    Full Text Available Long-running applications are often subject to failures. Once failures occur, it will lead to unacceptable system overheads. The checkpoint technology is used to reduce the losses in the event of a failure. For the two-level checkpoint recovery scheme used in the long-running tasks, it is unavoidable for the system to periodically transfer huge memory context to a remote stable storage. Therefore, the overheads of setting checkpoints and the re-computing time become a critical issue which directly impacts the system total overheads. Motivated by these concerns, this paper presents a new model by introducing i-checkpoints into the existing two-level checkpoint recovery scheme to deal with the more probable failures with the smaller cost and the faster speed. The proposed scheme is independent of the specific failure distribution type and can be applied to different failure distribution types. We respectively make analyses between the two-level incremental and two-level checkpoint recovery schemes with the Weibull distribution and exponential distribution, both of which fit with the actual failure distribution best. The comparison results show that the total overheads of setting checkpoints, the total re-computing time and the system total overheads in the two-level incremental checkpoint recovery scheme are all significantly smaller than those in the two-level checkpoint recovery scheme. At last, limitations of our study are discussed, and at the same time, open questions and possible future work are given.

  2. Volcanic Catastrophes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichelberger, J. C.

    2003-12-01

    The big news from 20th century geophysics may not be plate tectonics but rather the surprise return of catastrophism, following its apparent 19th century defeat to uniformitarianism. Divine miracles and plagues had yielded to the logic of integrating observations of everyday change over time. Yet the brilliant interpretation of the Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary iridium anomaly introduced an empirically based catastrophism. Undoubtedly, decades of contemplating our own nuclear self-destruction played a role in this. Concepts of nuclear winter, volcanic winter, and meteor impact winter are closely allied. And once the veil of threat of all-out nuclear exchange began to lift, we could begin to imagine slower routes to destruction as "global change". As a way to end our world, fire is a good one. Three-dimensional magma chambers do not have as severe a magnitude limitation as essentially two-dimensional faults. Thus, while we have experienced earthquakes that are as big as they get, we have not experienced volcanic eruptions nearly as great as those preserved in the geologic record. The range extends to events almost three orders of magnitude greater than any eruptions of the 20th century. Such a calamity now would at the very least bring society to a temporary halt globally, and cause death and destruction on a continental scale. At maximum, there is the possibility of hindering photosynthesis and threatening life more generally. It has even been speculated that the relative genetic homogeneity of humankind derives from an evolutionary "bottleneck" from near-extinction in a volcanic cataclysm. This is somewhat more palatable to contemplate than a return to a form of Original Sin, in which we arrived at homogeneity by a sort of "ethnic cleansing". Lacking a written record of truly great eruptions, our sense of human impact must necessarily be aided by archeological and anthropological investigations. For example, there is much to be learned about the influence of

  3. Reverse Catastrophe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław Czapliński

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The principal notion of the article–a “backward catastrophe”– stands for a catastrophe which occurs unseen until it becomes recognized and which broadens its destructive activity until it has been recognized. This concept in the article has been referred to the Shoah. The main thesis is that the recognition of the actual influence of the Holocaust began in Polish culture in the mid-1980s (largely it started with the film by Claude Lanzmann Shoah and the essay by Jan Błoński Biedni Polacy patrzą na getto [“The Poor Poles Look at the Ghetto”], that is when the question: “What happened to the Jews”, assumes the form: “Did the things that happened to the Jews, also happened to the Poles?”. Cognitive and ethical reorientation leads to the revealing of the hidden consequences of the Holocaust reaching as far as the present day and undermining the foundations of collective identity. In order to understand this situation (and adopt potentially preventive actions Polish society should be recognized as a postcatastrophic one.

  4. Hospitalization and catastrophic medical payment: evidence from hospitals located in Tehran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiasvand, Hesam; Sha'baninejad, Hossein; Arab, Mohammad; Rashidian, Arash

    2014-07-01

    Hospitalized patients constitute the main fraction of users in any health system. Financial burden of reimbursement for received services and cares by these users is sometimes unbearable and may lead to catastrophic medical payments. So, designing and implementing effective health prepayments schemes appear to be an effective governmental intervention to reduce catastrophic medical payments and protect households against it. We aimed to calculate the proportion of hospitalized patients exposed to catastrophic medical payments, its determinant factors and its distribution. We conducted a cross sectional study with 400 samples in five hospitals affiliated with Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS). A self-administered questionnaire was distributed among respondents. Data were analyzed by logistic regression and χ(2) statistics. Also, we drew the Lorenz curve and calculated the Gini coefficient in order to present the distribution of catastrophic medical payments burden on different income levels. About 15.05% of patients were exposed to catastrophic medical payments. Also, we found that the educational level of the patient's family head, the sex of the patient's family head, hospitalization day numbers, having made any out of hospital payments linked with the same admission and households annual income levels; were linked with a higher likelihood of exposure to catastrophic medical payments. Also, the Gini coefficient is about 0.8 for catastrophic medical payments distribution. There is a high level of catastrophic medical payments in hospitalized patients. The weakness of economic status of households and the not well designed prepayments schemes on the other hand may lead to this. This paper illustrated a clear picture for catastrophic medical payments at hospital level and suggests applicable notes to Iranian health policymakers and planners.

  5. Coping with ecological catastrophe: crossing major thresholds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Cairns, Jr.

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The combination of human population growth and resource depletion makes catastrophes highly probable. No long-term solutions to the problems of humankind will be discovered unless sustainable use of the planet is achieved. The essential first step toward this goal is avoiding or coping with global catastrophes that result from crossing major ecological thresholds. Decreasing the number of global catastrophes will reduce the risks associated with destabilizing ecological systems, which could, in turn, destabilize societal systems. Many catastrophes will be local, regional, or national, but even these upheavals will have global consequences. Catastrophes will be the result of unsustainable practices and the misuse of technology. However, avoiding ecological catastrophes will depend on the development of eco-ethics, which is subject to progressive maturation, comments, and criticism. Some illustrative catastrophes have been selected to display some preliminary issues of eco-ethics.

  6. Whether New Cooperative Mmedical Schemes reduce the economic burden of chronic disease in rural China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanshan Jing

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS provides health insurance coverage for rural populations in China. This study aimed to evaluate changes in household catastrophic health expenditure (CHE due to chronic disease before and after the reimbursement policies for services of chronic disease were implemented to provide additional financial support. METHODS: The study used data from the household surveys conducted in Shandong Province and Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region in 2006 and 2008. The study sample in village-level units was divided into two groups: 36 villages which implemented the NCMS reimbursement policies for chronic diseases as the intervention group, and 72 villages which did not as the control group. Health care expenditure of more than 40% of household's non-food expenditure was defined as a household with CHE (i.e., impoverishment. The conceptual framework was established based on the Andersen socio-behavioral model of health care utilization to explore how the NCMS reimbursement policies impacted health expenditures. A difference-in-difference model was employed to compare the change in the proportion of households incurring CHE due to chronic disease between the two groups over time. RESULTS: The households that participated in the NCMS were less likely to become impoverished (P<0.05. In addition, the households with both male household head and higher income level were protective factors to prevent CHE (P<0.05. Young households with preschool children suffered less from CHE (P<0.05. The effect of the NCMS reimbursement policies for chronic disease on the CHE was negative, yet not statistically significant (p = 0.814. CONCLUSIONS: The NCMS coverage showed financial protection for households with chronic disease. However, the NCMS reimbursement policies should be strengthened in the future.

  7. Gabapentin reduces preoperative anxiety and pain catastrophizing in highly anxious patients prior to major surgery: a blinded randomized placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Hance; Kirkham, Kyle R; Orser, Beverley A; Katznelson, Rita; Mitsakakis, Nicholas; Ko, Raynauld; Snyman, Adam; Ma, Martin; Katz, Joel

    2013-05-01

    Gabapentin is increasingly being used for the treatment of postoperative pain and a variety of psychiatric diseases, including chronic anxiety disorders. Trials have reported mixed results when gabapentin has been administered for the treatment of preoperative anxiety. We tested the hypothesis that gabapentin 1,200 mg vs placebo would reduce preoperative anxiety in patients who exhibit moderate to high preoperative anxiety. A blinded randomized controlled trial was conducted from September 2009 to June 2011 at the Toronto General Hospital. Following ethics approval and informed consent, 50 female patients with a 0-10 numeric rating scale (NRS) anxiety score of greater than or equal to 5/10 consented to receive either gabapentin 1,200 mg (n = 25) or placebo (n = 25) prior to surgery. Randomization was computer generated, and the Investigational Pharmacy was responsible for the blinding and dispensing of medication. All patients and care providers, including physicians, nurses, and study personnel, were blinded to group allocation. Before administering the study medication, baseline anxiety levels were measured using a NRS, the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventories, the Pain Catastrophizing Scale, and the Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale-20. Baseline pain intensity (0-10 NRS) and level of sedation (0-10 NRS and Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale [RASS]) were also measured. Two hours after the administration of gabapentin or placebo (prior to surgery), patients again rated their anxiety, pain, and sedation levels using the same measurement tools as at baseline. The main outcome was a reduction in preoperative anxiety. Forty-four patients (22 treated with gabapentin 1,200 mg and 22 treated with placebo) were included in the analysis of the primary outcome. Analysis of covariance in which pre-drug NRS anxiety scores were used as the covariate showed that post-drug preoperative NRS anxiety (Effect size, 1.44; confidence interval [CI] 0.19 to 2.70) and pain

  8. Computational Benefits Using an Advanced Concatenation Scheme Based on Reduced Order Models for RF Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Heller, Johann; Van Rienen, Ursula; 10.1016/j.phpro.2015.11.060

    2015-01-01

    The computation of electromagnetic fields and parameters derived thereof for lossless radio frequency (RF) structures filled with isotropic media is an important task for the design and operation of particle accelerators. Unfortunately, these computations are often highly demanding with regard to computational effort. The entire computational demand of the problem can be reduced using decomposition schemes in order to solve the field problems on standard workstations. This paper presents one of the first detailed comparisons between the recently proposed state-space concatenation approach (SSC) and a direct computation for an accelerator cavity with coupler-elements that break the rotational symmetry.

  9. Reducing Time to First on Scene: An Ambulance-Community First Responder Scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Alan; Ellington, Matt

    2016-01-01

    The importance of early access to prehospital care has been demonstrated in many medical emergencies. This work aims to describe the potential time benefit of implementing a student Community First Responder scheme to support ambulance services in an inner-city setting in the United Kingdom. Twenty final and penultimate year medical students in the UK were trained in the "First Person on Scene" Business and Technology Education Council (BTEC) qualification. Over 12 months, they attended 89 emergency calls in an inner-city setting as Community First Responders (CFRs), alongside the West Midlands Ambulance Service, UK. At the end of this period, a qualitative survey investigated the perceived educational value of the scheme. The mean CFR response time across all calls was an average of 3 minutes and 8 seconds less than ambulance crew response times. The largest difference was to calls relating to falls (12 min). The difference varied throughout the day, peaking between 16:00 and 18:00. All questionnaire respondents stated that they felt more prepared in assessing and treating acutely unwell patients. In this paper, the authors present a symbiotic solution which has both reduced time to first on scene and provided training and experience in medical emergencies for senior medical students.

  10. Modelling for catastrophe

    OpenAIRE

    Quinn, Paul Michael

    2017-01-01

    This exegesis, Modelling for Catastrophe, examines one of the greatest catastrophes in all fiction. Art has a tradition of producing images of this catastrophe that Christians call hell. Where art involves an interrogative process this exegesis replies to that Christian tradition with an attempt to answer the question, what is hell? Evidence suggests that ideas of hell emerged in an extremely stressful period of history when humans were overawed by supernaturalist explanations of the world. T...

  11. The catastrophic decline of the Sumatran rhino (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis harrissoni in Sabah: Historic exploitation, reduced female reproductive performance and population viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kretzschmar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The reasons for catastrophic declines of Sumatran rhinos are far from clear and data necessary to improve decisions for conservation management are often lacking. We reviewed literature and assembled a comprehensive data set on surveys of the Sumatran rhino subspecies (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis harrissoni in the Malaysian state of Sabah on Borneo to chart the historical development of the population in Sabah and its exploitation until the present day. We fitted resource selection functions to identify habitat features preferred by a remnant population of rhinos living in the Tabin Wildlife Reserve in Sabah, and ran a series of population viability analyses (PVAs to extract the key demographic parameters most likely to affect population dynamics. We show that as preferred habitat, the individuals in the reserve were most likely encountered in elevated areas away from roads, in close distance to mud-volcanoes, with a low presence of human trespassers and a wallow on site, and within a neighbourhood of dense forest and grassland patches preferably on Fluvisols and Acrisols. Our population viability analyses identified the percentage of breeding females and female lifetime reproductive period as the crucial parameters driving population dynamics, in combination with total protection even moderate improvements could elevate population viability substantially. The analysis also indicates that unrestrained hunting between 1930 and 1950 drastically reduced the historical rhino population in Sabah and that the remnant population could be rescued by combining the effort of total protection and stimulation of breeding activity. Based on our results, we recommend to translocate isolated reproductively healthy individuals to protected locations and to undertake measures to maximise conceptions, or running state-of-the-art reproductive management with assisted reproduction techniques. Our study demonstrates that a judicious combination of techniques can do

  12. A reduced complexity scheme for carrier frequency synchronization in uplink 802.16e OFDMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Bayón, Javier; Fernández-Herrero, Angel; Carreras, Carlos

    2012-12-01

    Synchronization of the carrier frequency offset (CFO) in the uplink of OFDMA systems is a complex task because each user presents a different CFO. It is performed in two stages: estimation and compensation. Although a few existing schemes already achieve good performance in terms of bit error rate (BER), all of them perform huge amounts of operations, specially during estimation, thus leading to very costly, if not impractical, hardware implementations. In addition, if estimation is performed in the time domain, a preamble is required. Since the IEEE 802.16e standard for OFDMA has no preamble at the beginning of the uplink frame, optional midambles must be used at the cost of reducing the system throughput. This article proposes a combined CFO estimation and compensation technique that uses the pilot subcarriers of the 802.16e frame. It achieves similar BER performance than previous approaches without any throughput penalty, while reducing the number of required computations by several orders of magnitude. This reduction is the result of a simpler estimation algorithm and two techniques that improve its accuracy: an iterative process integrated with the compensation stage and the delayed correction of the phase shifts.

  13. The Ongoing Catastrophe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kublitz, Anja

    for the girl talk is centred on catastrophes or Nakbas, as they are referred to in Arabic. Not only al-Nakba of 1948 when the Palestinians were displaced from their homeland, but also the many recurring wars and the individual catastrophes that involve dead family members, rapes, loss of children and abusive...

  14. A suggested color scheme for reducing perception-related accidents on construction work sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, June-seong; Kim, Yong-woo; Kim, Ki-aeng; Koo, Bonsang

    2012-09-01

    Changes in workforce demographics have led to the need for more sophisticated approaches to addressing the safety requirements of the construction industry. Despite extensive research in other industry domains, the construction industry has been passive in exploring the impact of a color scheme; perception-related accidents have been effectively diminished by its implementation. The research demonstrated that the use of appropriate color schemes could improve the actions and psychology of workers on site, thereby increasing their perceptions of potentially dangerous situations. As a preliminary study, the objects selected by rigorous analysis on accident reports were workwear, safety net, gondola, scaffolding, and safety passage. The colors modified on site for temporary facilities were adopted from existing theoretical and empirical research that suggests the use of certain colors and their combinations to improve visibility and conspicuity while minimizing work fatigue. The color schemes were also tested and confirmed through two workshops with workers and managers currently involved in actual projects. The impacts of color schemes suggested in this paper are summarized as follows. First, the color schemes improve the conspicuity of facilities with other on site components, enabling workers to quickly discern and orient themselves in their work environment. Secondly, the color schemes have been selected to minimize the visual work fatigue and monotony that can potentially increase accidents. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Catastrophic Antiphospholipid Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawhya R. El-Shereef

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports one case of successfully treated patients suffering from a rare entity, the catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome (CAPS. Management of this patient is discussed in detail.

  16. Catastrophic risks and insurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerkez Marija

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Catastrophic events do not know borders; they threat the local community, but also the whole continent. Catastrophic risk represents the individual risk which endangers a relatively large number of people or property, at the same time posing a threat to insurer's financial strength. One of the most serious problems of modern society is the lack of awareness of the presence of various dangers and possibilities of influencing them. Macro catastrophic event causes losses across several lines of insurance business or can cause loss in unexpected locations or across multiple geographical markets. Risk assessment requires a systematic approach to identifying and analyzing risks. Due to the complexity and unpredictability of natural and technological hazards, different approaches to risk assessment and evaluation systems are a growing challenge and a necessity in the sphere of management catastrophic risks.

  17. Catastrophe Theory and Caustics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravesen, Jens

    1983-01-01

    It is shown by elementary methods that in codimension two and under the assumption that light rays are straight lines, a caustic is the catastrophe set for a time function. The general case is also discussed.......It is shown by elementary methods that in codimension two and under the assumption that light rays are straight lines, a caustic is the catastrophe set for a time function. The general case is also discussed....

  18. Modulation schemes with enhanced switch thermal distribution for single-phase AC-DC-AC reduced-switch converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Zian; Loh, Poh Chiang; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    though various topologies have been proposed. The motivation of this paper is to study two promising single-phase ac-dc-ac converters using reduced number of switches, and subsequently proposes new modulation schemes for them. The proposed schemes help the converters to achieve a better thermal spread...... among their switches, while keeping their dc-link voltages low. Single points of failure are thus minimized, allowing the converters to have longer lifetimes. Simulation and experimental results have demonstrated the intended performances and hence verifying the idea.......ulation schemes can significantly change the performance of a power converter in steady state, and they have been extensively studied, but mostly directed to three-phase topologies, where triplen offsets are added. Single-phase systems, including ac-dc-ac systems, are less widely pursued, even...

  19. Modulation Schemes With Enhanced Switch Thermal Distribution for Single-Phase AC–DC–AC Reduced-Switch Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Zian; Loh, Poh Chiang; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    various topologies have since been proposed. The intention of this paper is, thus, to study two promising single-phase ac-dc-ac converters using reduced number of switches, and subsequently proposes modulation schemes for them. The proposed schemes help the converters to achieve better thermal spread...... among their switches, while keeping their dc-link voltages low. Single points of failure are thus minimized, allowing the converters to have longer lifetimes. Simulation and experimental results have demonstrated the intended performances, hence verifying the analyses presented in this paper.......Modulation schemes can significantly change the performance of a converter in the steady state. They have, thus, been extensively studied, but directed more at three-phase topologies, where triplen offsets are added. Single-phase systems, including ac-dc-ac, are less widely pursued, even though...

  20. Contribution of an emission trading scheme to reduce road traffic induced CO2 emissions in Austria

    OpenAIRE

    Link, Christoph; Stark, Juliane; Sonntag, Axel; Hössinger, Reinhard

    2012-01-01

    The Emission Trading Scheme for green house gases is a key tool of European climate protection. Including the road transport sector might be a promising strategy to limit its CO2 emissions. This could be realized within a common market (trans-sectoral trading permitted) or separated markets (trans-sectoral trading not permitted). Starting from different assumptions on emission reduction objectives, the impact of both options is analyzed using a quantitative model. Although an emission trading...

  1. Clues from stellar catastrophes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rimoldi, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    This thesis uses catastrophic stellar events (supernovae and stellar collisions) to investigate different aspects of their environment. The first part of the thesis examines what happens to supernova remnants near supermassive black holes like the one in the Milky Way Galaxy. To do so, a technique

  2. Catastrophic Medical Expenditure Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Flores (Gabriela); O.A. O'Donnell (Owen)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractMedical expenditure risk can pose a major threat to living standards. We derive decomposable measures of catastrophic medical expenditure risk from reference-dependent utility with loss aversion. We propose a quantile regression based method of estimating risk exposure from cross-section

  3. An Efficience Scheme to Reduce Burst Loss Rate and Supporting Differentiated Services in All-Optical Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Amit Kumar

    2011-06-01

    Due to their one-way resource reservation mechanism, Optical Burst Switching (OBS) networks experience high bursts (thus packets) loss rate. In OBS networks, the contention is resolved either by dropping one of the contending bursts or more efficiently by dropping from one of the contending bursts only the parts that overlap with the other bursts. In both situations, only one data source will suffer the data loss in favor to the other. In this paper, an efficient scheme to reduce burst loss rate has been proposed in conjunction with an appropriate mechanism to provide differentiated service in order to support the quality of service (QoS) requirements of different applications. Simulation results show that the performance of the proposed scheme is better than existing mechanisms in terms of reducing burst (packets) loss. Numerical results show that the proposed scheme provides an accurate fit for the performance of the highest traffic class and lower bounds for the other traffic classes that are tighter than earlier known results.

  4. The role of large herbivores in tick-reducing intervention schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieren, van S.E.

    2016-01-01

    Of all the stages of the tick Ixodes ricinus, adults are the stage with the lowest numbers in any tick population. The majority of the adult ticks feed on large ungulates like deer, who are generally also in low numbers compared to other important tick hosts like rodents. To reduce tick populations,

  5. Design and implementation of Ad-Hoc collaborative proxying scheme for reducing network energy waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafiullah Khan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Network devices are equipped with low power states but they are rarely activated due to their inability of maintaining network connectivity. Recently, Network Connectivity Proxy (NCP concept has been proposed in literature as an effective mechanism to exploit full potential of low power features on network devices by impersonating their virtual presence. However, the NCP concept faces several open issues and challenges especially related to proxying of TCP connections and majority of daily used proprietary closed-source applications. This paper presents a new approach for reducing network energy waste through intelligent collaboration among daily used devices (e.g., desktop computers, laptops, tablets, smartphones, etc. It guarantees to run applications on only and only one user device that is under active use at that specific moment. To reduce energy waste and allow idle devices to sleep, our approach also takes benefit from a light-weight home gateway proxy with very basic practically realizable functionalities. The proposed system not just reduces energy waste of fixed devices but also enables mobile devices to significantly improve their battery life. Our developed software prototypes allow devices to autonomously and seamlessly collaborate with each other without requiring any configuration or user input. Further, this paper also presents the basic performance evaluation of developed prototypes in real networking environments.

  6. CATASTROPHIC EVENTS MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciumas Cristina

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the emergence and evolution of catastrophe models (cat models. Starting with the present context of extreme weather events and features of catastrophic risk (cat risk we’ll make a chronological illustration from a theoretical point of view of the main steps taken for building such models. In this way the importance of interdisciplinary can be observed. The first cat model considered contains three modules. For each of these indentified modules: hazard, vulnerability and financial losses a detailed overview and also an exemplification of a potential case of an earthquake that measures more than 7 on Richter scale occurring nowadays in Bucharest will be provided. The key areas exposed to earthquake in Romania will be identified. Then, based on past catastrophe data and taking into account present conditions of housing stock, insurance coverage and the population of Bucharest the impact will be quantified by determining potential losses. In order to accomplish this work we consider a scenario with data representing average values for: dwelling’s surface, location, finishing works. On each step we’ll make a reference to the earthquake on March 4 1977 to see what would happen today if a similar event occurred. The value of Bucharest housing stock will be determined taking firstly the market value, then the replacement value and ultimately the real value to quantify potential damages. Through this approach we can find the insurance coverage of potential losses and also the uncovered gap. A solution that may be taken into account by public authorities, for example by Bucharest City Hall will be offered: in case such an event occurs the impossibility of paying compensations to insured people, rebuilding infrastructure and public buildings and helping the suffering persons should be avoided. An actively public-private partnership should be created between government authorities, the Natural Disaster Insurance Pool, private

  7. Paraboles et catastrophes

    CERN Document Server

    Thom, René

    1983-01-01

    René Thom, mathématicien français, membre de l'Académie des Sciences, s'est vu décerner en 1958 la médaille Field, équivalent du Prix Nobel en mathématiques, pour ses créations intellectuelles, la " théorie des catastrophes ", regard nouveau sur toutes les transformations qui adviennent de manière brusque, imprévisible, dramatique. Dans ces entretiens qui vont de la mathématique à l'embryologie, de la linguistique à l'anthropologie et à l'histoire, René Thom expose les grandes lignes de la théorie des catastrophes et passe en revue, avec un esprit à la fois critique et passionné, les grands thèmes scientifiques de notre époque, de la physique atomique à la biologie moléculaire, du " progrès " scientifique et technologique aux connexions complexes entre la société et la science. " Ce petit livre est une extraordinaire réussite en vulgarisation ". (Jean Largeault)

  8. Cosmic impacts, cosmic catastrophes. II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, C.R.; Morrison, D. (Planetary Science Institute, Tucson, AZ (USA) NASA, Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA (USA))

    1990-02-01

    The role of extraterrestrial impacts in shaping the earth's history is discussed, arguing that cosmic impacts represent just one example of a general shift in thinking that has made the idea of catastrophes respectable in science. The origins of this view are presented and current catastrophic theory is discussed in the context of modern debate on the geological formation of the earth. Various conflicting theories are reviewed and prominent participants in the ongoing scientific controversy concerning catastrophism are introduced.

  9. The rigorous stochastic matrix multiplication scheme for the calculations of reduced equilibrium density matrices of open multilevel quantum systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xin, E-mail: xin.chen.nj@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2014-04-21

    Understanding the roles of the temporary and spatial structures of quantum functional noise in open multilevel quantum molecular systems attracts a lot of theoretical interests. I want to establish a rigorous and general framework for functional quantum noises from the constructive and computational perspectives, i.e., how to generate the random trajectories to reproduce the kernel and path ordering of the influence functional with effective Monte Carlo methods for arbitrary spectral densities. This construction approach aims to unify the existing stochastic models to rigorously describe the temporary and spatial structure of Gaussian quantum noises. In this paper, I review the Euclidean imaginary time influence functional and propose the stochastic matrix multiplication scheme to calculate reduced equilibrium density matrices (REDM). In addition, I review and discuss the Feynman-Vernon influence functional according to the Gaussian quadratic integral, particularly its imaginary part which is critical to the rigorous description of the quantum detailed balance. As a result, I establish the conditions under which the influence functional can be interpreted as the average of exponential functional operator over real-valued Gaussian processes for open multilevel quantum systems. I also show the difference between the local and nonlocal phonons within this framework. With the stochastic matrix multiplication scheme, I compare the normalized REDM with the Boltzmann equilibrium distribution for open multilevel quantum systems.

  10. 7 CFR 400.458 - Scheme or device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Administrative Remedies for Non-Compliance § 400.458 Scheme or... material scheme or device to obtain catastrophic risk protection, other plans of insurance coverage, or...

  11. Public policy and risk financing strategies for global catastrophe risk management - the role of global risk initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSharry, Patrick; Mitchell, Andrew; Anderson, Rebecca

    2010-05-01

    Decision-makers in both public and private organisations depend on accurate data and scientific understanding to adequately address climate change and the impact of extreme events. The financial impacts of catastrophes on populations and infrastructure can be offset through effective risk transfer mechanisms, structured to reflect the specific perils and levels of exposure to be covered. Optimal strategies depend on the likely socio-econonomic impact, the institutional framework, the overall objectives of the covers placed and the level of both the frequency and severity of loss potential expected. The diversity of approaches across different countries has been documented by the Spanish "Consorcio de Compensación de Seguros". We discuss why international public/private partnerships are necessary for addressing the risk of natural catastrophes. International initiatives such as the Global Earthquake Model (GEM) and the World Forum of Catastrophe Programmes (WFCP) can provide effective guidelines for constructing natural catastrophe schemes. The World Bank has been instrumental in the creation of many of the existing schemes such as the Turkish Catastrophe Insurance Pool, the Caribbean Catastrophe Risk Insurance Facility and the Mongolian Index-Based Livestock Insurance Program. We review existing schemes and report on best practice in relation to providing protection against natural catastrophe perils. The suitability of catastrophe modelling approaches to support schemes across the world are discussed and we identify opportunities to improve risk assessment for such schemes through transparent frameworks for quantifying, pricing, sharing and financing catastrophe risk on a local and global basis.

  12. House design modifications reduce indoor resting malaria vector densities in rice irrigation scheme area in western Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Githeko Andrew

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Simple modifications of typical rural house design can be an effective and relatively inexpensive method of reducing indoor mosquito vector densities and consequently decreasing malaria transmission. Public health scientists have shown the potential for house design to protect people against malaria, yet this type of intervention remains virtually ignored. A randomized-controlled study was, therefore, undertaken to determine the effects of this method of vector control on the density of indoor resting malaria vectors in a rice irrigation scheme area in lowlands of western Kenya. Methods Ten treatment houses were modified with ceilings of papyrus mats and insecticide-treated netting (ITN and tested against ten control houses without papyrus ceilings. To determine densities of mosquitoes resting in homes, the pyrethrum spray method was used to simultaneously collect indoor resting malaria vectors in intervention and control houses. Each house was sampled a total of eight times over a period of four months, resulting in a total of 80 sampling efforts for each treatment. Community response to such intervention was investigated by discussions with residents. Results Papyrus mats ceiling modification reduced house entry by Anopheles gambiae s.l and Anopheles funestus densities by between 78–80% and 86% respectively compared to unmodified houses. Geometric mean density of Anopheles gambiae s.l. and Anopheles funestus in modified houses were significantly lower (t18 = 7.174, P 18 = 2.52, P = 0.02, respectively compared to controls. Unmodified houses were associated with relatively higher densities of malaria vectors. There was a 84% (OR 0.16, 95% CI 0.07–0.39, P Anopheles gambiae s.l. and Anopheles funestus presence in modified houses, respectively, compared with unmodified houses. Residents responded favourably to this mode of vector control. Conclusion House modifications involving insect screen ceilings made from locally

  13. Microstructure of terrestrial catastrophism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clube, S.V.M. (Oxford Univ. (UK). Dept. of Astrophysics); Napier, W.M. (Royal Observatory, Edinburgh (UK))

    1984-12-15

    The theory of evolution involving episodic terrestrial catastrophism predicts that the Oort cloud is disturbed by close encounters with massive nebulae. Each disturbance generates bombardment pulses of a few million years duration, the pulse frequencies being determined by the Sun's passage through the spiral arms and central plane of the Galaxy where nebulae concentrate. The structure within a pulse is shown here to be dominated by a series of 'spikes' of approx. 0.01-0.1 Myr duration separated by approx. 0.1-1.0 Myr, each caused by the arrival in circumterrestrial space of the largest comets followed by their disintegration into short-lived Apollo asteroids. Evidence is presented that a bombardment pulse was induced 3-5 Myr ago and that a 'spike' in the form of debris from a Chiron-like progenitor of Encke's comet has dominated the terrestrial environment for the last 0.02 Myr.

  14. Women, catastrophe and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raphael, Beverley; Taylor, Mel; McAndrew, Virginia

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the concept of catastrophic experience, its relationship to the range of acute and prolonged stressors to which women may be exposed and the broad impacts on their mental health and well-being. It identifies catastrophe in terms of multiple accumulated stresses including death, loss, victimization, demoralization, shame, stigmatization, helplessness and identity. Catastrophic experiences include personal violence in domestic circumstances of intimate partner abuse, sexual assault and child physical and sexual abuse. Women's experiences of loss through the violent deaths of children and loved ones may also have such enduring impacts. Terrorism victimizes men and women in this way, with the enduring impacts for women in terms of threat of ongoing attacks as well as acute effects and their aftermath. The catastrophes of war, conflict, genocide, sexual exploitation and refugee status differentially affect large numbers of women, directly and through their concerns for the care of their children and loved ones. Ultimate catastrophes such as Hiroshima and the Holocaust are discussed but with recognition of the very large numbers of women currently experiencing catastrophe in ongoing ways that may be silent and unrecognized. This is significant for clinical care and population impacts, and in the losses for women across such contexts.

  15. [Abdominal catastrophe--surgeon's view].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyhnánek, F

    2010-07-01

    Abdominal catastrophe is a serious clinical condition, usually being a complication arising during treatment of intraabdominal nontraumatic disorders or abdominal injuries. Most commonly, inflamation- secondary peritonitis, is concerned. Abdominal catastrophe also includes secondary signs of sepsis, abdominal compartment syndrome and enterocutaneous fistules. Most septic abdominal disorders which show signs of abdominal catastrophy, require surgical intervention and reinterventions--planned or "on demand" laparotomies. During the postoperative period, the patient requires intensive care management, including steps taken to stabilize his/hers condition, management of sepsis and metabolic and nutritional support measures, as well as adequate indication for reoperations. New technologies aimed at prevention of complications in laparostomies and to improve conditions for final laparotomy closure are used in phase procedures for surgical management of intraabdominal infections. Despite the new technologies, abdominal catastrophe has higher morbidity and lethality risk rates.

  16. Experimental reduction of pain catastrophizing modulates pain report but not spinal nociception as verified by mediation analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Ellen L; Thompson, Kathryn A; Rhudy, Jamie L

    2015-08-01

    Pain catastrophizing is associated with enhanced pain; however, the mechanisms by which it modulates pain are poorly understood. Evidence suggests that catastrophizing modulates supraspinal processing of pain but does not modulate spinal nociception (as assessed by nociceptive flexion reflex [NFR]). Unfortunately, most NFR studies have been correlational. To address this, this study experimentally reduced catastrophizing to determine whether it modulates spinal nociception (NFR). Healthy pain-free participants (N = 113) were randomly assigned to a brief 30-minute catastrophizing reduction manipulation or a control group that received pain education. Before and after manipulations, 2 types of painful stimuli were delivered to elicit (1) NFR (single trains of stimuli) and (2) temporal summation of NFR (3 stimulations at 2 Hz). After each set of stimuli, participants were asked to report their pain intensity and unpleasantness, as well as their situation-specific catastrophizing. Manipulation checks verified that catastrophizing was effectively reduced. Furthermore, pain intensity and unpleasantness to both stimulation types were reduced by the catastrophizing manipulation, effects that were mediated by catastrophizing. Although NFRs were not affected by the catastrophizing manipulation, temporal summation of NFR was reduced. However, this effect was not mediated by catastrophizing. These results indicate that reductions in catastrophizing lead to reductions in pain perception but do not modulate spinal nociception and provides further evidence that catastrophizing modulates pain at the supraspinal, not the spinal, level.

  17. Catastrophic Antiphospholipid Syndrome: Management Challenges ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is characterized by clinical evidence of multiple organ involvement developing over a very short period of time, histopathological evidence of multiple small vessel occlusions and laboratory confirmation of the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies, usually in high titre. Although patients with catastrophic APS represent ...

  18. Mating strategies with genomic information reduce rates of inbreeding in animal breeding schemes without compromising genetic gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H; Henryon, M; Sørensen, A C

    2017-04-01

    We tested the hypothesis that mating strategies with genomic information realise lower rates of inbreeding (∆F) than with pedigree information without compromising rates of genetic gain (∆G). We used stochastic simulation to compare ∆F and ∆G realised by two mating strategies with pedigree and genomic information in five breeding schemes. The two mating strategies were minimum-coancestry mating (MC) and minimising the covariance between ancestral genetic contributions (MCAC). We also simulated random mating (RAND) as a reference point. Generations were discrete. Animals were truncation-selected for a single trait that was controlled by 2000 quantitative trait loci, and the trait was observed for all selection candidates before selection. The criterion for selection was genomic-breeding values predicted by a ridge-regression model. Our results showed that MC and MCAC with genomic information realised 6% to 22% less ∆F than MC and MCAC with pedigree information without compromising ∆G across breeding schemes. MC and MCAC realised similar ∆F and ∆G. In turn, MC and MCAC with genomic information realised 28% to 44% less ∆F and up to 14% higher ∆G than RAND. These results indicated that MC and MCAC with genomic information are more effective than with pedigree information in controlling rates of inbreeding. This implies that genomic information should be applied to more than just prediction of breeding values in breeding schemes with truncation selection.

  19. Guidance for Catastrophic Emergency Situations Involving Asbestos

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document addresses the types of asbestos issues that may arise during catastrophic events and how EPA has addressed such issues. It replaces the Guidelines for Catastrophic Emergency Situations Involving Asbestos which was issued in 1992.

  20. Pain Catastrophizing is Not Associated With Spinal Nociceptive Processing in People With Chronic Widespread Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, David A; Parker, Rosalind S; Lewis, Gwyn N; Kluger, Michal T; McNair, Peter J

    2017-09-01

    Pain catastrophizing has been associated with higher pain intensity, increased risk of developing chronic pain and poorer outcomes after treatment. Despite this, the mechanisms by which pain catastrophizing influences pain remain poorly understood. It has been hypothesized that pain catastrophizing may impair descending inhibition of spinal level nociception. The aims of this study were to compare spinal nociceptive processing in people with chronic widespread pain and pain-free controls and examine potential relationships between measures of pain catastrophizing and spinal nociception. Twenty-six patients with chronic widespread pain and 22 pain-free individuals participated in this study. Spinal nociception was measured using the nociceptive flexion reflex (NFR) threshold and NFR inhibition, measured as the change in NFR area during exposure to a second, painful conditioning stimulus (cold water immersion). Pain catastrophizing was assessed using the Pain Catastrophizing Scale and a situational pain catastrophizing scale. Compared with pain-free controls, patients with chronic widespread pain had higher pain catastrophizing scores and lower NFR thresholds. Although NFR area was reduced by a painful conditioning stimulus in controls, this was not apparent in individuals with chronic widespread pain. No significant correlations were observed between measures of pain catastrophizing and spinal nociception. Despite increased excitability and decreased inhibition of spinal nociception in patients with chronic widespread pain, we could find no evidence of a significant relationship between pain catastrophizing and measures of spinal nociceptive processing.

  1. Girsanov's transformation based variance reduced Monte Carlo simulation schemes for reliability estimation in nonlinear stochastic dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanjilal, Oindrila, E-mail: oindrila@civil.iisc.ernet.in; Manohar, C.S., E-mail: manohar@civil.iisc.ernet.in

    2017-07-15

    The study considers the problem of simulation based time variant reliability analysis of nonlinear randomly excited dynamical systems. Attention is focused on importance sampling strategies based on the application of Girsanov's transformation method. Controls which minimize the distance function, as in the first order reliability method (FORM), are shown to minimize a bound on the sampling variance of the estimator for the probability of failure. Two schemes based on the application of calculus of variations for selecting control signals are proposed: the first obtains the control force as the solution of a two-point nonlinear boundary value problem, and, the second explores the application of the Volterra series in characterizing the controls. The relative merits of these schemes, vis-à-vis the method based on ideas from the FORM, are discussed. Illustrative examples, involving archetypal single degree of freedom (dof) nonlinear oscillators, and a multi-degree of freedom nonlinear dynamical system, are presented. The credentials of the proposed procedures are established by comparing the solutions with pertinent results from direct Monte Carlo simulations. - Highlights: • The distance minimizing control forces minimize a bound on the sampling variance. • Establishing Girsanov controls via solution of a two-point boundary value problem. • Girsanov controls via Volterra's series representation for the transfer functions.

  2. Catastrophic fires in Russian forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. I. Sukhinin; D. J. McRae; B. J. Stocks; S. G. Conard; WeiMin Hao; A. J. Soja; D. Cahoon

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the contribution of catastrophic fires to the total burned area and the amount of tree mortality in Russia since the 1970’s. Such fires occurred in the central regions of European Russia (1972, 1976, 1989, 2002, 2010), Khabarovsk krai (1976, 1988, 1998), Amur region (1997-2002), Republics of Yakutia and Tuva (2002), Magadan and Kamchatka oblast (1984, 2001...

  3. Inside money, procyclical leverage, and banking catastrophes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles D Brummitt

    Full Text Available We explore a model of the interaction between banks and outside investors in which the ability of banks to issue inside money (short-term liabilities believed to be convertible into currency at par can generate a collapse in asset prices and widespread bank insolvency. The banks and investors share a common belief about the future value of certain long-term assets, but they have different objective functions; changes to this common belief result in portfolio adjustments and trade. Positive belief shocks induce banks to buy risky assets from investors, and the banks finance those purchases by issuing new short-term liabilities. Negative belief shocks induce banks to sell assets in order to reduce their chance of insolvency to a tolerably low level, and they supply more assets at lower prices, which can result in multiple market-clearing prices. A sufficiently severe negative shock causes the set of equilibrium prices to contract (in a manner given by a cusp catastrophe, causing prices to plummet discontinuously and banks to become insolvent. Successive positive and negative shocks of equal magnitude do not cancel; rather, a banking catastrophe can occur even if beliefs simply return to their initial state. Capital requirements can prevent crises by curtailing the expansion of balance sheets when beliefs become more optimistic, but they can also force larger price declines. Emergency asset price supports can be understood as attempts by a central bank to coordinate expectations on an equilibrium with solvency.

  4. Inside Money, Procyclical Leverage, and Banking Catastrophes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brummitt, Charles D.; Sethi, Rajiv; Watts, Duncan J.

    2014-01-01

    We explore a model of the interaction between banks and outside investors in which the ability of banks to issue inside money (short-term liabilities believed to be convertible into currency at par) can generate a collapse in asset prices and widespread bank insolvency. The banks and investors share a common belief about the future value of certain long-term assets, but they have different objective functions; changes to this common belief result in portfolio adjustments and trade. Positive belief shocks induce banks to buy risky assets from investors, and the banks finance those purchases by issuing new short-term liabilities. Negative belief shocks induce banks to sell assets in order to reduce their chance of insolvency to a tolerably low level, and they supply more assets at lower prices, which can result in multiple market-clearing prices. A sufficiently severe negative shock causes the set of equilibrium prices to contract (in a manner given by a cusp catastrophe), causing prices to plummet discontinuously and banks to become insolvent. Successive positive and negative shocks of equal magnitude do not cancel; rather, a banking catastrophe can occur even if beliefs simply return to their initial state. Capital requirements can prevent crises by curtailing the expansion of balance sheets when beliefs become more optimistic, but they can also force larger price declines. Emergency asset price supports can be understood as attempts by a central bank to coordinate expectations on an equilibrium with solvency. PMID:25136959

  5. Simultaneous removal of Cr(VI) and phenol contaminants using Z-scheme bismuth oxyiodide/reduced graphene oxide/bismuth sulfide system under visible-light irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Acong; Bian, Zhaoyong; Xu, Jie; Xin, Xin; Wang, Hui

    2017-12-01

    An all-solid-state Z-scheme system containing Bi-based semiconductors bismuth oxyiodide (BiOI) and bismuth sulfide (Bi 2 S 3 ) was constructed on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets through an electrostatic self-assembly method to simultaneously remove aqueous Cr(VI) and phenol. In this Z-scheme that mimicked natural photosynthesis, photoinduced electrons in the conduction band (CB) of BiOI were transferred through rGO and reacted with photoinduced holes in the valence band (VB) of Bi 2 S 3 , which significantly increased its photocatalytic activity. The reduction and oxidation reactions were performed on Bi 2 S 3 and BiOI photocatalysts, respectively. Furthermore, complex contaminants of coexisting heavy metal Cr(VI) and organic phenol were treated using the system under visible-light irradiation. Results showed that Cr(VI) reduction and phenol oxidation were achieved efficiently with optimum reductive and oxidative efficiencies up to 73% and 95% under visible-light irradiation, respectively. This work provided a promising method of simultaneously removing heavy metals and organic pollutants by using a Z-scheme system with enhanced photocatalytic activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Health-related financial catastrophe, inequality and chronic illness in Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Mizanur Rahman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bangladesh has a high proportion of households incurring catastrophic health expenditure, and very limited risk sharing mechanisms. Identifying determinants of out-of-pocket (OOP payments and catastrophic health expenditure may reveal opportunities to reduce costs and protect households from financial risk. OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the determinants of high healthcare expenditure and healthcare- related financial catastrophe. METHODS: A cross-sectional household survey was conducted in Rajshahi city, Bangladesh, in 2011. Catastrophic health expenditure was estimated separately based on capacity to pay and proportion of non-food expenditure. Determinants of OOP payments and financial catastrophe were estimated using double hurdle and Poisson regression models respectively. RESULTS: On average households spent 11% of their total budgets on health, half the residents spent 7% of the monthly per capita consumption expenditure for one illness, and nearly 9% of households faced financial catastrophe. The poorest households spent less on health but had a four times higher risk of catastrophe than the richest households. The risk of financial catastrophe and the level of OOP payments were higher for users of inpatient, outpatient public and private facilities respectively compared to using self-medication or traditional healers. Other determinants of OOP payments and catastrophic expenses were economic status, presence of chronic illness in the household, and illness among children and adults. CONCLUSION: Households that received inpatient or outpatient private care experienced the highest burden of health expenditure. The poorest members of the community also face large, often catastrophic expenses. Chronic illness management is crucial to reducing the total burden of disease in a household and its associated increased risk of level of OOP payments and catastrophic expenses. Households can only be protected from these situations by

  7. The Climate Catastrophe as Blockbuster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskjær, Mikkel Fugl

    2013-01-01

    Modern disaster films constitute a specific cultural form that speaks to the anxieties of the “risk society.” This essay looks at how risks like climate change is presented and constructed in popular culture. It regards blockbuster representations as part of a wider discourse of “catastrophism......” within the realm of public climate change communication. For that reason, the essay centers on the interplay between news media and entertainment. It argues that blockbuster disaster films represent an inversion of traditional risk and disaster news....

  8. Does a local financial incentive scheme reduce inequalities in the delivery of clinical care in a socially deprived community? A longitudinal data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glidewell, Liz; West, Robert; Hackett, Julia E C; Carder, Paul; Doran, Tim; Foy, Robbie

    2015-05-14

    osteoporosis risk). For one indicator the deprivation-achievement gap reduced over time (repeat prednisolone prescription (OR 1.01; 1.01,1.01). Larger practices and those serving more affluent areas earned more income per patient than smaller practices and those serving more deprived areas (t = -3.99; p =0.0001). Any gaps in achievement between practices were modest but mostly sustained or widened over the duration of the scheme. Given that financial rewards may not reflect the amount of work undertaken by practices serving more deprived patients, future pay-for-performance schemes also need to address fairness of rewards in relation to workload.

  9. Extensional rheometer based on viscoelastic catastrophes outline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method and a device for determining viscoelastic properties of a fluid. The invention resides inter alia in the generation of viscoelastic catastrophes in confined systems for use in the context of extensional rheology. The viscoelastic catastrophe is according...... to the invention generated in a bistable fluid system, and the flow conditions for which the catastrophe occurs can be used as a fingerprint of the fluid's viscoelastic properties in extensional flow....

  10. Reducing medical claims cost to Ghana's National Health Insurance scheme: a cross-sectional comparative assessment of the paper- and electronic-based claims reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsiah-Boateng, Eric; Asenso-Boadi, Francis; Dsane-Selby, Lydia; Andoh-Adjei, Francis-Xavier; Otoo, Nathaniel; Akweongo, Patricia; Aikins, Moses

    2017-02-06

    A robust medical claims review system is crucial for addressing fraud and abuse and ensuring financial viability of health insurance organisations. This paper assesses claims adjustment rate of the paper- and electronic-based claims reviews of the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) in Ghana. The study was a cross-sectional comparative assessment of paper- and electronic-based claims reviews of the NHIS. Medical claims of subscribers for the year, 2014 were requested from the claims directorate and analysed. Proportions of claims adjusted by the paper- and electronic-based claims reviews were determined for each type of healthcare facility. Bivariate analyses were also conducted to test for differences in claims adjustments between healthcare facility types, and between the two claims reviews. The electronic-based review made overall adjustment of 17.0% from GHS10.09 million (USD2.64 m) claims cost whilst the paper-based review adjusted 4.9% from a total of GHS57.50 million (USD15.09 m) claims cost received, and the difference was significant (p paper-based reviews (p = 0.6484). The electronic-based review adjusted significantly higher claims cost than the paper-based claims review. Scaling up the electronic-based review to cover claims from all accredited care providers could reduce spurious claims cost to the scheme and ensure long term financial sustainability.

  11. Academic Training: Predicting Natural Catastrophes

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2005-01-01

    2005-2006 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 12, 13, 14, 15, 16 December from 11:00 to 12:00 - Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 Predicting Natural Catastrophes E. OKAL / Northwestern University, Evanston, USA 1. Tsunamis -- Introduction Definition of phenomenon - basic properties of the waves Propagation and dispersion Interaction with coasts - Geological and societal effects Origin of tsunamis - natural sources Scientific activities in connection with tsunamis. Ideas about simulations 2. Tsunami generation The earthquake source - conventional theory The earthquake source - normal mode theory The landslide source Near-field observation - The Plafker index Far-field observation - Directivity 3. Tsunami warning General ideas - History of efforts Mantle magnitudes and TREMOR algorithms The challenge of 'tsunami earthquakes' Energy-moment ratios and slow earthquakes Implementation and the components of warning centers 4. Tsunami surveys Principles and methodologies Fifteen years of field surveys and re...

  12. Pain Catastrophizing as Repetitive Negative Thinking: A Development of the Conceptualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flink, Ida Landström; Boersma, Katja; Linton, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    Pain catastrophizing is a well-known concept in the pain literature and has been recognized as one of the most powerful psychological determinants of negative outcomes for pain problems. However, relatively little effort has been put into developing its theoretical underpinnings. More specifically, the intrinsic function of catastrophizing is not explicitly dealt with in contemporary theoretical models. The aim of this article is to add to existing models by proposing a development of the conceptualization of catastrophizing that stresses its function as an emotion regulator. We argue that catastrophizing can be conceptualized as a form of negative repetitive thinking, which is abstract, intrusive, and difficult to disengage from. It has been argued that repetitive negative thinking is a form of ineffective problem solving that functions to downregulate negative affect and that it can be regarded as an avoidant coping strategy because it impedes processing of emotional and somatic responses. Thus, in our conceptualization, catastrophizing is proposed to be a form of problem-solving behavior that functions to reduce negative emotion triggered by pain, and other related stimuli. Furthermore, we argue that catastrophizing is preferably regarded as a process where cognitions, emotions, and overt behavior are intertwined and not viewed as separate entities. To underscore the latter, we suggest the term catastrophic worry. Our intention with this development of the conceptualization is to give rise to new ideas for research and clinical practice and to revitalize discussions about the theoretical framework around pain-related catastrophizing. PMID:23978106

  13. Adaptation to and Recovery from Global Catastrophe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth D. Baum

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Global catastrophes, such as nuclear war, pandemics and ecological collapse threaten the sustainability of human civilization. To date, most work on global catastrophes has focused on preventing the catastrophes, neglecting what happens to any catastrophe survivors. To address this gap in the literature, this paper discusses adaptation to and recovery from global catastrophe. The paper begins by discussing the importance of global catastrophe adaptation and recovery, noting that successful adaptation/recovery could have value on even astronomical scales. The paper then discusses how the adaptation/recovery could proceed and makes connections to several lines of research. Research on resilience theory is considered in detail and used to develop a new method for analyzing the environmental and social stressors that global catastrophe survivors would face. This method can help identify options for increasing survivor resilience and promoting successful adaptation and recovery. A key point is that survivors may exist in small isolated communities disconnected from global trade and, thus, must be able to survive and rebuild on their own. Understanding the conditions facing isolated survivors can help promote successful adaptation and recovery. That said, the processes of global catastrophe adaptation and recovery are highly complex and uncertain; further research would be of great value.

  14. 76 FR 50929 - Catastrophic Risk Protection Endorsement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-17

    ... Protection Endorsement AGENCY: Federal Crop Insurance Corporation, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The Federal Crop Insurance Corporation (FCIC) proposes to amend the Catastrophic Risk Protection Endorsement... Catastrophic Risk Protection Endorsement (7 CFR part 402), to be effective for the 2013 and succeeding crop...

  15. 78 FR 52832 - Catastrophic Risk Protection Endorsement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-27

    ... Federal Crop Insurance Corporation 7 CFR Part 402 RIN 0563-AC31 Catastrophic Risk Protection Endorsement... Corporation (FCIC) finalizes the Catastrophic Risk Protection Endorsement. The intended effect of this action... Protection Endorsement that were published by FCIC on August 17, 2011, as a notice of proposed rulemaking in...

  16. Personality and temperament correlates of pain catastrophizing in young adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.E.H.M. Muris (Peter); C.M.G. Meesters (Cor); M.F.C.M. Van Den Hout (Mari F. C. M.); S. Wessels (Sylvia); I.H.A. Franken (Ingmar); E.G.C. Rassin (Eric)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractPain catastrophizing is generally viewed as an important cognitive factor underlying chronic pain. The present study examined personality and temperament correlates of pain catastrophizing in a sample of young adolescents (N = 132). Participants completed the Pain Catastrophizing Scale

  17. Chromosome Catastrophes Involve Replication Mechanisms Generating Complex Genomic Rearrangements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liu, Pengfei; Erez, Ayelet; Nagamani, Sandesh C. Sreenath; Dhar, Shweta U; Kołodziejska, Katarzyna E; Dharmadhikari, Avinash V; Cooper, M. Lance; Wiszniewska, Joanna; Zhang, Feng; Withers, Marjorie A; Bacino, Carlos A; Campos-Acevedo, Luis Daniel; Delgado, Mauricio R; Freedenberg, Debra; Garnica, Adolfo; Grebe, Theresa A; Hernández-Almaguer, Dolores; Immken, LaDonna; Lalani, Seema R; McLean, Scott D; Northrup, Hope; Scaglia, Fernando; Strathearn, Lane; Trapane, Pamela; Kang, Sung-Hae L; Patel, Ankita; Cheung, Sau Wai; Hastings, P.J; Stankiewicz, Paweł; Lupski, James R; Bi, Weimin

    2011-01-01

    .... Recently, a chromosome catastrophe phenomenon termed chromothripsis, in which numerous genomic rearrangements are apparently acquired in one single catastrophic event, was described in multiple cancers...

  18. Colour schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Leeuwen, Theo

    2013-01-01

    This chapter presents a framework for analysing colour schemes based on a parametric approach that includes not only hue, value and saturation, but also purity, transparency, luminosity, luminescence, lustre, modulation and differentiation.......This chapter presents a framework for analysing colour schemes based on a parametric approach that includes not only hue, value and saturation, but also purity, transparency, luminosity, luminescence, lustre, modulation and differentiation....

  19. Analgesic effect of perioperative escitalopram in high pain catastrophizing patients after total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunn, Troels H; Frokjaer, Vibe G.; Hansen, Torben B

    2015-01-01

    has not previously been investigated. The authors hypothesized that perioperative escitalopram would reduce pain after TKA in high pain catastrophizing patients. METHODS: A total of 120 pain catastrophizing patients (selected using the pain catastrophizing scale as preoperative screening tool......-defined mobilizations and at rest from 2 to 48 h and from days 2 to 6, morphine equivalents, anxiety, depression, and side effects. RESULTS: Pain upon ambulation (mean [95% CI]) 24 h after surgery in the escitalopram versus placebo group was 58 (53 to 64) versus 64 (58 to 69), the mean difference being -5 (-13 to 3), P...... in the escitalopram group. No other between-group differences were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Escitalopram did not reduce pain upon ambulation 24 h after TKA in high pain catastrophizing patients. Future studies on optimal timing, dose, and duration of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor treatment might be warranted....

  20. Microtubule dynamics: Caps, catastrophes, and coupled hydrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, H.; Holy, T.E.; Leibler, S.

    1996-01-01

    and probability distributions relating to available experimental data are derived. Caps are found to be short and the total rate of hydrolysis at a microtubule end is found to be dynamically coupled to growth. The so-called catastrophe rate is a simple function of the microtubule growth rare and fits experimental...... data. A constant nonzero catastrophe rare, identical for both microtubule ends, is predicted at large growth rates. The delay time for dilution-induced catastrophes is stochastic with a simple distribution that fits the experimental one and, like the experimental one, does not depend on the rate...... description of several apparently contradictory experimental data. Experimental results for the catastrophe rate at different concentrations of magnesium ions and of microtubule associated proteins are discussed in terms of the model. Feasible experiments are suggested that can provide decisive tests...

  1. Soap Films, Phase Changes and Catastrophes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovett, David

    1979-01-01

    Discusses how to produce sudden first-order and second-order changes in the configurations of soap films by using models whose dimensions are variable. Shows how to construct a two dimensional catastrophe machine. (GA)

  2. Catastrophic avalanches and methods of their control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Volodicheva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Definition of such phenomenon as “catastrophic avalanche” is presented in this arti-cle. Several situations with releases of catastrophic avalanches in mountains of Caucasus, Alps, and Central Asia are investigated. Materials of snow-avalanche ob-servations performed since 1960s at the Elbrus station of the Lomonosov Moscow State University (Central Caucasus were used for this work. Complex-valued measures of engineering protection demonstrating different efficiencies are consid-ered.

  3. Uniform semiclassical approximations for umbilic bifurcation catastrophes

    CERN Document Server

    Main, J

    1998-01-01

    Gutzwiller's trace formula for the semiclassical density of states diverges at the bifurcation points of periodic orbits and has to be replaced with uniform semiclassical approximations. We present a method to derive these expressions from the standard representations of the elementary catastrophes and to directly relate the uniform solutions to classical periodic orbit parameters. The method is simple even for ungeneric bifurcations with corank 2 such as the umbilic catastrophes. We demonstrate the technique on a hyperbolic umbilic in the diamagnetic Kepler problem.

  4. The impact of mega-catastrophes on insurers: an exposure-based analysis of the U.S. homeowners' insurance market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagendorff, Bjoern; Hagendorff, Jens; Keasey, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Insurance is a key risk-sharing mechanism that protects citizens and governments from the losses caused by natural catastrophes. Given the increase in the frequency and intensity of natural catastrophes over recent years, this article analyzes the performance effects of mega-catastrophes for U.S. insurance firms using a measure of market expectations. Specifically, we analyze the share price losses of insurance firms in response to catastrophe events to ascertain whether mega-catastrophes significantly damage the performance of insurers and whether different types of mega-catastrophes have different impacts. The main message from our analysis is that the impact of mega-catastrophes on insurers has not been too damaging. While the exact impact of catastrophes depends on the nature of the event and the degree of competition within the relevant insurance market (less competition allows insurers to recoup catastrophe losses through adjustments to premiums), our overall results suggest that U.S. insurance firms can adequately manage the risks and costs of mega-catastrophes. From a public policy perspective, our results show that insurance provides a robust means of sharing catastrophe losses to help reduce the financial consequences of a catastrophe event. © 2014 Society for Risk Analysis.

  5. Catastrophizing and Depressive Symptoms as Prospective Predictors of Outcomes Following Total Knee Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert R Edwards

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Several recent reports suggest that pain-related catastrophizing is a risk factor for poor acute pain outcomes following surgical interventions. However, it has been less clear whether levels of catastrophizing influence longer-term postoperative outcomes. Data were analyzed from a relatively small number (n=43 of patients who underwent total knee replacement and were followed for 12 months after their surgery. Previous research has suggested that high levels of both catastrophizing and depression are associated with elevated acute postoperative pain complaints among patients undergoing knee surgery. In this sample, catastrophizing and depression at each of the assessment points were studied as prospective predictors of pain (both global pain ratings and pain at night at the subsequent assessment point over the course of one year. The predictive patterns differed somewhat across measures of pain reporting; depressive symptoms were unique predictors of greater global pain complaints, while catastrophizing was a specific and unique predictor of elevated nighttime pain. While surgical outcomes following total knee replacement are, on average, quite good, a significant minority of patients continue to experience long-term pain. The present findings suggest that high levels of catastrophizing and depression may promote enhanced pain levels, indicating that interventions designed to reduce catastrophizing and depressive symptoms may have the potential to further improve joint replacement outcomes.

  6. Mindfulness, acceptance and catastrophizing in chronic pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maaike J de Boer

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Catastrophizing is often the primary target of the cognitive-behavioral treatment of chronic pain. Recent literature on acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT suggests an important role in the pain experience for the concepts mindfulness and acceptance. The aim of this study is to examine the influence of mindfulness and general psychological acceptance on pain-related catastrophizing in patients with chronic pain. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted, including 87 chronic pain patients from an academic outpatient pain center. RESULTS: The results show that general psychological acceptance (measured with the AAQ-II is a strong predictor of pain-related catastrophizing, independent of gender, age and pain intensity. Mindfulness (measured with the MAAS did not predict levels of pain-related catastrophizing. DISCUSSION: Acceptance of psychological experiences outside of pain itself is related to catastrophizing. Thus, acceptance seems to play a role in the pain experience and should be part of the treatment of chronic pain. The focus of the ACT treatment of chronic pain does not necessarily have to be on acceptance of pain per se, but may be aimed at acceptance of unwanted experiences in general. Mindfulness in the sense of "acting with awareness" is however not related to catastrophizing. Based on our research findings in comparisons with those of other authors, we recommend a broader conceptualization of mindfulness and the use of a multifaceted questionnaire for mindfulness instead of the unidimensional MAAS.

  7. Mindfulness, acceptance and catastrophizing in chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Maaike J; Steinhagen, Hannemike E; Versteegen, Gerbrig J; Struys, Michel M R F; Sanderman, Robbert

    2014-01-01

    Catastrophizing is often the primary target of the cognitive-behavioral treatment of chronic pain. Recent literature on acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) suggests an important role in the pain experience for the concepts mindfulness and acceptance. The aim of this study is to examine the influence of mindfulness and general psychological acceptance on pain-related catastrophizing in patients with chronic pain. A cross-sectional survey was conducted, including 87 chronic pain patients from an academic outpatient pain center. The results show that general psychological acceptance (measured with the AAQ-II) is a strong predictor of pain-related catastrophizing, independent of gender, age and pain intensity. Mindfulness (measured with the MAAS) did not predict levels of pain-related catastrophizing. Acceptance of psychological experiences outside of pain itself is related to catastrophizing. Thus, acceptance seems to play a role in the pain experience and should be part of the treatment of chronic pain. The focus of the ACT treatment of chronic pain does not necessarily have to be on acceptance of pain per se, but may be aimed at acceptance of unwanted experiences in general. Mindfulness in the sense of "acting with awareness" is however not related to catastrophizing. Based on our research findings in comparisons with those of other authors, we recommend a broader conceptualization of mindfulness and the use of a multifaceted questionnaire for mindfulness instead of the unidimensional MAAS.

  8. Creating catastrophes in the classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Thommy

    2013-04-01

    Buildings, infrastructure and human life are being destroyed by wind and landslides. To interest and motivate pupils and to help them understand abstract knowledge, a practical experiment could be useful. These experiments will show why strong winds circulate around tropical cyclones and how fluvial geological processes affect nature and communities. The experiments are easy to set up and the equipment is not expensive. Experiment 1: Exogenic processes of water are often slow processes. This experiment will simulate water processes that can take thousands of years, in less than 40 minutes. This experiment can be presented for and understood by pupils at all levels. Letting the pupils build up the scenery will make them more curious about the course of events. During that time they will see the geomorphological genesis of landforms such as landslides, sandurs, deltas, canyons sedimentations, selective erosions. Placing small houses, bridges etc. we can lead to discussions about natural catastrophes and community planning. Material needed for the experiment is a water bucket, erosion gutter, clay (simulating rock), sand and smaller pebbles (simulating the soil), houses of "Monopoly" size and tubes. By using a table with wheels it is easy to reuse the result for other lessons. Installation of a pump can make the experiment into a closed loop system. This installation can be used for presentations outside the classroom. Experiment 2: The Coriolis Effect explains why the wind (moving objects) deflects when moving. In the northern hemisphere the deflection is clockwise and anti-clockwise in the southern hemisphere. This abstract effect is often hard for upper secondary pupils to understand. This experiment will show the effect and thus make the theory real and visible. Material needed for this experiment is a bucket, pipes, a string. At my school we had cooperation with pupils from the Industrial Technology programme who made a copper pipe construction. During the

  9. Catastrophizers with Chronic Pain Display more Pain Behaviour when in a Relationship with a Low Catastrophizing Spouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Gauthier

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the relationship between couple concordance of catastrophizing and adverse pain outcomes. Possible mechanisms underlying the relationship between couple concordance of catastrophizing and pain outcomes were also explored. Fifty-eight couples were recruited for the study. The chronic pain patients were filmed while lifting a series of weighted canisters. The spouse was later invited to view the video and answer questions about the pain experience of their partner. Median splits on Pain Catastrophizing Scale scores were used to create four ‘catastrophizing concordance’ groups: low catastrophizing patient-low catastrophizing spouse; low catastrophizing patient-high catastrophizing spouse; high catastrophizing patient-low catastrophizing spouse; and high catastrophizing patient-high catastrophizing spouse. Analyses revealed that high catastrophizing pain patients who were in a relationship with a low catastrophizing spouse displayed more pain behaviours than patients in all other groups. These findings suggest that high catastrophizing chronic pain patients may need to increase the ‘volume’ of pain communication to compensate for low catastrophizing spouses’ tendency to underestimate the severity of their pain experience. Patients’ perceived solicitousness and punitive response from the spouse could not explain the group differences in pain behaviour. Theoretical and clinical implications of the findings are discussed.

  10. [Catastrophic health expenditures in Mexico: comparative study by social exclusion level].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Rico, Raymundo; Sesma-Vázquez, Sergio; Puentes-Rosas, Esteban

    2005-01-01

    To describe the differences in catastrophic health expenditures in five Mexican states. This study included five states selected by convenience according to their social exclusion level. Household catastrophic health expenditures attributable to the three components of out of pocket health expenditures (ambulatory care, medication, and inpatient care) were calculated. The risk of impoverishment at the national level was greater in the most vulnerable households, namely, in the 20% poorest, rural, and uninsured households. Nevertheless, in states like Aguascalientes, Guerrero, Sinaloa, and Morelos the results were different. Over 70% of catastrophic health expenditures were attributable to medication and outpatient care expenditures in the poorest states. The differences found among states show that the implementation of local health policies to reduce catastrophic health expenditures should be based on evidence generated from analyses at the state level.

  11. Does catastrophic thinking enhance oesophageal pain sensitivity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martel, M O; Olesen, A E; Jørgensen, D

    2016-01-01

    study visits, mechanical, thermal, and electrical pain sensitivity in the oesophagus was assessed before and after inducing oesophageal sensitization using a 30-min intraluminal oesophageal acid perfusion procedure. RESULTS: Analyses were conducted based on data averaged across the two study visits...... that catastrophic thinking exerts an influence on oesophageal pain sensitivity, but not necessarily on the magnitude of acid-induced oesophageal sensitization. WHAT DOES THIS STUDY ADD?: Catastrophizing is associated with heightened pain sensitivity in the oesophagus. This was substantiated by assessing responses...

  12. Virtual reality exposure therapy as treatment for pain catastrophizing in fibromyalgia patients: proof-of-concept study (Study Protocol).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Linzette D; Grimmer-Somers, Karen A; Spottiswoode, Bruce; Louw, Quinette A

    2011-04-30

    established or negated. The results of this project are envisaged to revolutionize FMS and pain catastrophizing research and in the future, assist health professionals and FMS patients in reducing despondency regarding FMS management. PACTR201011000264179.

  13. Catastrophic Economic Consequences of Healthcare Payments: Effects on Poverty Estimates in Egypt, Jordan, and Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Shoukry Rashad

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Healthcare payments could drive households with no health insurance coverage into financial catastrophe, which might lead them to cut spending on necessities, sell assets, or use credit. In extreme cases, healthcare payments could have devastating consequences on the household economic status that would push them into extreme poverty. Using nationally representative surveys from three Arab countries, namely, Egypt, Jordan, and Palestine, this paper examines the incidence, intensity and distribution of catastrophic health payments, and assesses the poverty impact of out-of-pocket health payments (OOP. The OOP for healthcare were considered catastrophic if it exceeded 10% of a household’s total expenditure or 40% of non-food expenditure. The poverty impact was evaluated using poverty head counts and poverty gaps before and after OOP. Results show that OOP exacerbate households’ living severely in Egypt, pushing more than one-fifth of the population into a financial catastrophe and 3% into extreme poverty in 2011. However, in Jordan and Palestine, the disruptive impact of OOP remains modest over time. In the three countries, the catastrophic health payment is the problem of the better off households. Poverty alleviation policies should help reduce the reliance on OOP to finance healthcare. Moving toward universal health coverage could also be a promising option to protect households from the catastrophic economic consequences of health care payments.

  14. A comparative study of European insurance schemes for extreme weather risks and incentives for risk reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ruiter, Marleen; Hudson, Paul; de Ruig, Lars; Kuik, Onno; Botzen, Wouter

    2017-04-01

    This paper provides an analysis of the insurance schemes that cover extreme weather events in twelve different EU countries and the risk reduction incentives offered by these schemes. Economic impacts of extreme weather events in many regions in Europe and elsewhere are on the rise due to climate change and increasing exposure as driven by urban development. In an attempt to manage impacts from extreme weather events, natural disaster insurance schemes can provide incentives for taking measures that limit weather-related risks. Insurance companies can influence public risk management policies and risk-reducing behaviour of policyholders by "rewarding behaviour that reduces risks and potential damages" (Botzen and Van den Bergh, 2008, p. 417). Examples of insurance market systems that directly or indirectly aim to incentivize risk reduction with varying degrees of success are: the U.S. National Flood Insurance Programme; the French Catastrophes Naturelles system; and the U.K. Flood Re program which requires certain levels of protection standards for properties to be insurable. In our analysis, we distinguish between four different disaster types (i.e. coastal and fluvial floods, droughts and storms) and three different sectors (i.e. residential, commercial and agriculture). The selected case studies also provide a wide coverage of different insurance market structures, including public, private and public-private insurance provision, and different methods of coping with extreme loss events, such as re-insurance, governmental aid and catastrophe bonds. The analysis of existing mechanisms for risk reduction incentives provides recommendations about incentivizing adaptive behaviour, in order to assist policy makers and other stakeholders in designing more effective insurance schemes for extreme weather risks.

  15. Catastrophic complication following injection and extracorporeal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in lameness was noted 14 days post-operatively. Imaging revealed catastrophic fracture of the left MFC. Possible mechanisms leading to failure of the MFC secondary to the described treatment are discussed. Keywords: Equine, Extracorporeal shock wave therapy, Intra-lesional injection, Stifle, Subchondral cystic lesion.

  16. Mindfulness, Acceptance and Catastrophizing in Chronic Pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Maaike J.; Steinhagen, Hannemike E.; Versteegen, Gerbrig J.; Struys, Michel M. R. F.; Sanderman, Robbert

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Catastrophizing is often the primary target of the cognitive-behavioral treatment of chronic pain. Recent literature on acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) suggests an important role in the pain experience for the concepts mindfulness and acceptance. The aim of this study is to

  17. On a new global catastrophic ICT model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riaz, M. Tahir; Bhalerao, Dipashree M.; Madsen, Ole Brun

    2011-01-01

    Many parts of India are prone to natural disasters, particularly caused by earthquakes and floods because of its geographical location. The Catastrophic areas can be rural, remote or urban anywhere in the world. It has been understood that earthquakes directly do not cause causalities but instead...

  18. Catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome in leprosy | Chewoolkar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome is an acute and life threatening variant of antiphospholipid syndrome with a high mortality rate. Many infections are known to be accompanied by the thrombotic manifestations of this syndrome. We came across a patient of leprosy who developed bowel ischaemia secondary to ...

  19. Novel percolation transitions and coupled catastrophes

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Raissa

    Collections of interdependent networks are at the core of modern society, spanning physical, biological and social systems. Simple mathematical models of the structure and function of networks can provide important insights into real-world systems, enhancing our ability to steer and control them. Here our focus is on abrupt changes in networks, due both to phase transitions and to jumping between bi-stable equilibria. We begin with an overview of novel classes of percolation phase transitions that result from repeated, small interventions intended to delay the transition. These new phenomena allow us to extend percolation approaches to modular networks, Brownian motion, and cluster growth dynamics. We then focus on abrupt transitions due to a system jumping between bi-stable equilibria, modeled as a cusp catastrophe in nonlinear dynamics. We show that when systems that each undergo a cusp catastrophe interact, we can observe a new phenomena of catastrophe-hopping leading to non-local cascading failures. Here an intermediate system facilitates the propagation of a sudden change or collapse, and we show that catastrophe hopping is consistent with the outbreak of protests observed during the Arab Spring of 2011.

  20. Thoracic aortic catastrophes : towards the endovascular solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, F.H.W.

    2010-01-01

    Descending thoracic aortic catastrophes include a variety of acute pathologies of the descending thoracic aorta, which are all associated with high morbidity and mortality rates, requiring immediate intervention. For this thesis, we explored the management and outcomes of several thoracic aortic

  1. Community Based Health Insurance Schemes and Protection of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objectives of this study are two folds: firstly to explore the magnitude of catastrophic expenditure, and secondly to determine its contributing factor,s including the protective impact of the voluntary community based health insurance schemes in Tanzania. The study covered 274 respondents. Study findings have shown ...

  2. Evaluation of Rajiv Aarogyasri Health Insurance Scheme in Andrha ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In 2007, out-of-pocket expenditures accounted for 90% of total private expenditure on healthcare in India. The cost of coping with serious disease can be ruinous for families living below the poverty line. The Rajiv Aarogyasri Health Insurance Scheme was established in Andrha Pradesh to mitigate catastrophic healthcare ...

  3. A real helper data scheme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shao, X.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2013-01-01

    The helper data scheme utilizes a secret key to protect biometric templates. The current helper data scheme requires binary feature representations that introduce quantization error and thus reduce the capacity of biometric channels. For spectral-minutiae based fingerprint recognition systems,

  4. Pain Catastrophizing Scale for Francophone Adolescents: A Preliminary Validation

    OpenAIRE

    Isabelle Tremblay; Yves Beaulieu; Annie Bernier; Geert Crombez; Simon Laliberté; Pascal Thibault; Velly, Ana M.; Michael JL Sullivan

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In adults, it is well known that high levels of pain catastrophizing are related to increased pain and disability as well as to heightened anxiety and depression. However, due to the lack of a measure of pain catastrophizing adapted for francophone adolescents, little is known about the role of catastrophizing in this population.OBJECTIVES: To adapt the French version of the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS) and to examine the psychometric properties and factorial structure of the ...

  5. Disaster risk insurance and catastrophe models in risk-prone small Caribbean islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyette, Antonio R T; Nurse, Leonard A; Pulwarty, Roger S

    2015-07-01

    Post-catastrophe recovery and financial liquidity have long challenged small Caribbean islands. These states are vulnerable to multifarious natural hazards that often cause considerable socioeconomic dislocation. Such events inflict heavy losses on businesses and households, and significantly disrupt all aspects of government operations. After Hurricane Ivan devastated the economies of some islands in September 2004-with estimated losses of as much as 200 per cent of gross domestic product in some cases-regional governments, aided by the World Bank and international donors, approved the creation of a regional catastrophe insurance scheme. This parametric-based mechanism is underpinned by derivatives-based catastrophe modelling whose outputs determine policy triggers and pay outs. Hazard models, particularly catastrophe models, are not widely accepted as yet. Despite recent advancements, major concerns have rendered them peripheral tools for many establishments. This paper reviews the region's vulnerabilities and examines constraints on the application of these models and suggests a means of improving their efficacy and acceptability. © 2015 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2015.

  6. 7 CFR 402.4 - Catastrophic Risk Protection Endorsement Provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Catastrophic Risk Protection Endorsement Provisions... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CATASTROPHIC RISK PROTECTION ENDORSEMENT § 402.4 Catastrophic Risk Protection Endorsement Provisions. Department of Agriculture Federal Crop Insurance...

  7. Catastrophe, gender and urban experience 1648-1920

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Employing a broad definition of catastrophe, this book examines how urban communities conceived, adapted to and were transformed by catastrophes. Competing views of gender figure in the telling and retelling of these trag- edies, which are mediated by myth and memory. This is a nuanced account...... that physically and metaphorically maps men and women into the urban landscape and the worlds of catastrophe....

  8. Pain Catastrophizing Scale for Francophone Adolescents: A Preliminary Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Tremblay

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In adults, it is well known that high levels of pain catastrophizing are related to increased pain and disability as well as to heightened anxiety and depression. However, due to the lack of a measure of pain catastrophizing adapted for francophone adolescents, little is known about the role of catastrophizing in this population.

  9. A probabilistic strategy for parametric catastrophe insurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Rui; Martina, Mario; Stephenson, David; Youngman, Benjamin

    2017-04-01

    Economic losses due to natural hazards have shown an upward trend since 1980, which is expected to continue. Recent years have seen a growing worldwide commitment towards the reduction of disaster losses. This requires effective management of disaster risk at all levels, a part of which involves reducing financial vulnerability to disasters ex-ante, ensuring that necessary resources will be available following such events. One way to achieve this is through risk transfer instruments. These can be based on different types of triggers, which determine the conditions under which payouts are made after an event. This study focuses on parametric triggers, where payouts are determined by the occurrence of an event exceeding specified physical parameters at a given location, or at multiple locations, or over a region. This type of product offers a number of important advantages, and its adoption is increasing. The main drawback of parametric triggers is their susceptibility to basis risk, which arises when there is a mismatch between triggered payouts and the occurrence of loss events. This is unavoidable in said programmes, as their calibration is based on models containing a number of different sources of uncertainty. Thus, a deterministic definition of the loss event triggering parameters appears flawed. However, often for simplicity, this is the way in which most parametric models tend to be developed. This study therefore presents an innovative probabilistic strategy for parametric catastrophe insurance. It is advantageous as it recognizes uncertainties and minimizes basis risk while maintaining a simple and transparent procedure. A logistic regression model is constructed here to represent the occurrence of loss events based on certain loss index variables, obtained through the transformation of input environmental variables. Flood-related losses due to rainfall are studied. The resulting model is able, for any given day, to issue probabilities of occurrence of loss

  10. A critical look at catastrophe risk assessments

    CERN Document Server

    Kent, A

    2004-01-01

    Recent papers by Busza et al. (BJSW) and Dar et al. (DDH) argue that astrophysical data can be used to establish bounds on the risk of a catastrophe in forthcoming collider experiments. The safety case set out by BJSW does not rely on these bounds, but on theoretical arguments, which BJSW find sufficiently compelling. However, DDH and other commentators (initially including BJSW) have suggested that the astrophysical bounds alone do give sufficient reassurance. This seems unsupportable when the bounds are expressed in terms of expected cost. For example, DDH's main bound, $p_{\\rm catastrophe} < 2 \\times 10^{-8}$, implies only that the expectation value of the number of deaths is bounded by 120. We thus reappraise the DDH and BJSW risk bounds by comparing risk policy in other areas. We find that requiring a catastrophe risk of no higher than 10^{-15} is necessary to be consistent with established policy for risk optimisation from radiation hazards, even if highly risk tolerant assumptions are made. A respec...

  11. Ensemble learning in fixed expansion layer networks for mitigating catastrophic forgetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coop, Robert; Mishtal, Aaron; Arel, Itamar

    2013-10-01

    Catastrophic forgetting is a well-studied attribute of most parameterized supervised learning systems. A variation of this phenomenon, in the context of feedforward neural networks, arises when nonstationary inputs lead to loss of previously learned mappings. The majority of the schemes proposed in the literature for mitigating catastrophic forgetting were not data driven and did not scale well. We introduce the fixed expansion layer (FEL) feedforward neural network, which embeds a sparsely encoding hidden layer to help mitigate forgetting of prior learned representations. In addition, we investigate a novel framework for training ensembles of FEL networks, based on exploiting an information-theoretic measure of diversity between FEL learners, to further control undesired plasticity. The proposed methodology is demonstrated on a basic classification task, clearly emphasizing its advantages over existing techniques. The architecture proposed can be enhanced to address a range of computational intelligence tasks, such as regression problems and system control.

  12. Catastrophizing and poor sleep quality in early adolescent females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noone, Deirdre M; Willis, Thomas A; Cox, Jenny; Harkness, Frances; Ogilvie, Jayne; Forbes, Erika; Sterr, Annette; Gregory, Alice M

    2014-01-01

    Catastrophizing about sleeplessness has been investigated in adults and children, but little is known about adolescents. This article aimed to (a) investigate whether early adolescent girls catastrophized about consequences of sleeplessness, (b) describe topics in catastrophizing sequences, (c) examine the association between sleep quality and catastrophizing, and (d) assess whether puberty moderated this association. Girls (n = 115) between 11 and 12 years old completed adapted versions of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, the Pubertal Developmental Scale, and the Catastrophizing Interview. Twenty-four (21%) participants produced catastrophizing sequences, including concerns about school and mood. Sleep quality was associated with catastrophizing (β = 0.19, p = .042); however, puberty did not moderate this association (β = 0.15, p = .126). Findings highlight the importance of sleep-related cognitions in adolescent girls.

  13. Additive operator-difference schemes splitting schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Vabishchevich, Petr N

    2013-01-01

    Applied mathematical modeling isconcerned with solving unsteady problems. This bookshows how toconstruct additive difference schemes to solve approximately unsteady multi-dimensional problems for PDEs. Two classes of schemes are highlighted: methods of splitting with respect to spatial variables (alternating direction methods) and schemes of splitting into physical processes. Also regionally additive schemes (domain decomposition methods)and unconditionally stable additive schemes of multi-component splitting are considered for evolutionary equations of first and second order as well as for sy

  14. An Iterative Information-Reduced Quadriphase-Shift-Keyed Carrier Synchronization Scheme Using Decision Feedback for Low Signal-to-Noise Ratio Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, M.; Tkacenko, A.

    2006-01-01

    In a previous publication [1], an iterative closed-loop carrier synchronization scheme for binary phase-shift keyed (BPSK) modulation was proposed that was based on feeding back data decisions to the input of the loop, the purpose being to remove the modulation prior to carrier synchronization as opposed to the more conventional decision-feedback schemes that incorporate such feedback inside the loop. The idea there was that, with sufficient independence between the received data and the decisions on it that are fed back (as would occur in an error-correction coding environment with sufficient decoding delay), a pure tone in the presence of noise would ultimately be produced (after sufficient iteration and low enough error probability) and thus could be tracked without any squaring loss. This article demonstrates that, with some modification, the same idea of iterative information reduction through decision feedback can be applied to quadrature phase-shift keyed (QPSK) modulation, something that was mentioned in the previous publication but never pursued.

  15. Numerical solution of the 1D kinetics equations using a cubic reduced nodal scheme; Solucion numerica de las ecuaciones de la cinetica 1D usando un esquema nodal cubico reducido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez T, A.M.; Valle G, E. del [IPN-ESFM, 07738 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Delfin L, A.; Alonso V, G. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)] e-mail: armagotorres@aol.com

    2003-07-01

    In this work a finite differences technique centered in mesh based on a cubic reduced nodal scheme type finite element to solve the equations of the kinetics 1 D that include the equations corresponding to the concentrations of precursors of delayed neutrons is described. The technique of finite elements used is that of Galerkin where so much the neutron flux as the concentrations of precursors its are spatially approached by means of a three grade polynomial. The matrices of rigidity and of mass that arise during this discretization process are numerically evaluated using the open quadrature non standard of Newton-Cotes and that of Radau respectively. The purpose of the application of these quadratures is the one of to eliminate in the global matrices the couplings among the values of the flow in points of the discretization with the consequent advantages as for the reduction of the order of the matrix associated to the discreet problem that is to solve. As for the time dependent part the classical integration scheme known as {theta} scheme is applied. After carrying out the one reordering of unknown and equations it arrives to a reduced system that it can be solved but quickly. With the McKin compute program developed its were solved three benchmark problems and those results are shown for the relative powers. (Author)

  16. Household Catastrophic Healthcare Expenditure and Impoverishment Due to Rotavirus Gastroenteritis Requiring Hospitalization in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Background While healthcare costs for rotavirus gastroenteritis requiring hospitalization may be burdensome on households in Malaysia, exploration on the distribution and catastrophic impact of these expenses on households are lacking. Objectives We assessed the economic burden, levels and distribution of catastrophic healthcare expenditure, the poverty impact on households and inequities related to healthcare payments for acute gastroenteritis requiring hospitalization in Malaysia. Methods A two-year prospective, hospital-based study was conducted from 2008 to 2010 in an urban (Kuala Lumpur) and rural (Kuala Terengganu) setting in Malaysia. All children under the age of 5 years admitted for acute gastroenteritis were included. Patients were screened for rotavirus and information on healthcare expenditure was obtained. Results Of the 658 stool samples collected at both centers, 248 (38%) were positive for rotavirus. Direct and indirect costs incurred were significantly higher in Kuala Lumpur compared with Kuala Terengganu (US$222 Vs. US$45; ppoverty. However in Kuala Terengganu, only one household (0.5%) experienced catastrophic healthcare expenditure and none were impoverished. The lowest income quintile in Kuala Lumpur was more likely to experience catastrophic payments compared to the highest quintile (87% vs 8%). The concentration index for out-of-pocket healthcare payments was closer to zero at Kuala Lumpur (0.03) than at Kuala Terengganu (0.24). Conclusions While urban households were wealthier, healthcare expenditure due to gastroenteritis had more catastrophic and poverty impact on the urban poor. Universal rotavirus vaccination would reduce both disease burden and health inequities in Malaysia. PMID:25941805

  17. Proterozoic Bushveld-Vredefort catastrophe: Possible causes and consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elston, W. E.; Twist, D.

    1988-01-01

    Bushveld Complex and Vredefort Dome are unique features, formed in close proximity during the same time interval, approximately 2 Ga. Both show evidence of catastrophic events in the shallow marine environment of the otherwise stable Kaapvaal Craton. Explanation by multiple impacts of an asteroid, brecciated by an inter-asteroidal collision and disintegrating in Earth's gravity field is supported by pseudotachylite, shatter cones, coesite, and stishovite at Vredefort but these shock phenomena were not found in the Bushveld Complex. The Bushveld Complex was formerly interpreted as a lopolith, a view incompatible with gravity, electrical resistivity, magnetic, and seismic-reflection data. It is outlined by five inward-dipping lobes of layered ultramafic-mafic plutonic rocks that partly coalesce to form a basin-like feature 400 km in diameter and 65,000 sq. km. in area, equivalent to a small lunar mare. The Bushveld Complex is orders of magnitudes larger than other proposed terrestrial impact structures and differs from them in important ways. Its principal members, in order of age, are Rooiberg Felsite, RLS, and Lebowa Granite. The Bushveld-Vredefort events occurred during the interval from neutral or reducing atmosphere to oxidizing atmosphere. This transition is usually related to the evolution of photosynthesizing organisms. If the impact hypothesis for Bushveld-Vredefort can be confirmed, it may represent a global catastrophe sufficient to contribute to environmental changes favoring aerobic photosynthesizing eukaryotes over anaerobic prokaryotes.

  18. Global regime shift dynamics of catastrophic sea urchin overgrazing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, S. D.; Scheibling, R. E.; Rassweiler, A.; Johnson, C. R.; Shears, N.; Connell, S. D.; Salomon, A. K.; Norderhaug, K. M.; Pérez-Matus, A.; Hernández, J. C.; Clemente, S.; Blamey, L. K.; Hereu, B.; Ballesteros, E.; Sala, E.; Garrabou, J.; Cebrian, E.; Zabala, M.; Fujita, D.; Johnson, L. E.

    2015-01-01

    A pronounced, widespread and persistent regime shift among marine ecosystems is observable on temperate rocky reefs as a result of sea urchin overgrazing. Here, we empirically define regime-shift dynamics for this grazing system which transitions between productive macroalgal beds and impoverished urchin barrens. Catastrophic in nature, urchin overgrazing in a well-studied Australian system demonstrates a discontinuous regime shift, which is of particular management concern as recovery of desirable macroalgal beds requires reducing grazers to well below the initial threshold of overgrazing. Generality of this regime-shift dynamic is explored across 13 rocky reef systems (spanning 11 different regions from both hemispheres) by compiling available survey data (totalling 10 901 quadrats surveyed in situ) plus experimental regime-shift responses (observed during a total of 57 in situ manipulations). The emergent and globally coherent pattern shows urchin grazing to cause a discontinuous ‘catastrophic’ regime shift, with hysteresis effect of approximately one order of magnitude in urchin biomass between critical thresholds of overgrazing and recovery. Different life-history traits appear to create asymmetry in the pace of overgrazing versus recovery. Once shifted, strong feedback mechanisms provide resilience for each alternative state thus defining the catastrophic nature of this regime shift. Importantly, human-derived stressors can act to erode resilience of desirable macroalgal beds while strengthening resilience of urchin barrens, thus exacerbating the risk, spatial extent and irreversibility of an unwanted regime shift for marine ecosystems.

  19. Utilization of symmetrical components in a communication-assisted protection scheme for radial MV feeders with variable or reduced short-circuit currents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciontea, Catalin-Iosif; Bak, Claus Leth; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    Distribution networks are evolving toward the vision of microgrids, which are defined as power systems that contain both loads and Distributed Energy Resources and operate in a grid-connected or islanded mode. Correct operation of the OverCurrent protection is compromised in a typical microgrid...... Medium Voltage microgrid using PSCAD and simulation results prove its effectiveness against various Single Phase to Ground faults. The proposed method solves some of the protection issues associated with a high penetration level of Distributed Generation, as it is less sensitive to the variable short...... because the fault current is significantly lower in the islanded mode compared to the grid-connected mode and consequently a single set of settings for the OC relays is not sufficient. This paper propose a communication-assisted protection scheme that is able to operate correctly in a radial Medium...

  20. Adult attachment and pain catastrophizing for self and significant other.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, Lachlan A; Holmberg, Diane

    2010-05-01

    A growing body of research indicates that attachment insecurity is associated with pain-related catastrophizing. Attachment anxiety has consistently been found to be positively associated with pain catastrophizing. In contrast, the relationship between attachment avoidance and pain catastrophizing has been less consistent. The current study was designed to (a) determine whether anxiety accounts for unique variance in catastrophizing beyond that contributed by the overlapping constructs of self-esteem and neuroticism and (b) clarify the relationship between avoidance and catastrophizing by investigating this relationship when controlling for attachment anxiety. The final objective was to investigate whether attachment is also related to catastrophizing about the pain of significant others. A convenient sample of individuals currently in a romantic relationship (N=148) completed self-report measures of attachment anxiety and avoidance, neuroticism, self-esteem, pain catastrophizing, and significant other pain catastrophizing. Multiple regression analyses indicated that attachment anxiety accounted for unique variance in pain catastrophizing and each of its lower-order components (i.e., rumination, magnification, helplessness), beyond that accounted for by the personality variables. Attachment avoidance was negatively associated with the rumination component of catastrophizing, but this association was only found after controlling for attachment anxiety. The attachment dimensions were also associated with some components of significant other pain catastrophizing. Anxiety was positively associated with the helplessness component of significant other pain catastrophizing, and avoidance was negatively associated with the rumination and helplessness components of significant other pain catastrophizing. Future research directions regarding the social context of pain are discussed. Copyright 2010 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B

  1. A unified approach of catastrophic events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolopoulos, S.; Kapiris, P.; Karamanos, K.; Eftaxias, K.

    2004-10-01

    Although there is an accumulated charge of theoretical, computational, and numerical work, like catastrophe theory, bifurcation theory, stochastic and deterministic chaos theory, there is an important feeling that these matters do not completely cover the physics of real catastrophic events. Recent studies have suggested that a large variety of complex processes, including earthquakes, heartbeats, and neuronal dynamics, exhibits statistical similarities. Here we are studying in terms of complexity and non linear techniques whether isomorphic signatures emerged indicating the transition from the normal state to the both geological and biological shocks. In the last 15 years, the study of Complex Systems has emerged as a recognized field in its own right, although a good definition of what a complex system is, actually is eluded. A basic reason for our interest in complexity is the striking similarity in behaviour close to irreversible phase transitions among systems that are otherwise quite different in nature. It is by now recognized that the pre-seismic electromagnetic time-series contain valuable information about the earthquake preparation process, which cannot be extracted without the use of important computational power, probably in connection with computer Algebra techniques. This paper presents an analysis, the aim of which is to indicate the approach of the global instability in the pre-focal area. Non-linear characteristics are studied by applying two techniques, namely the Correlation Dimension Estimation and the Approximate Entropy. These two non-linear techniques present coherent conclusions, and could cooperate with an independent fractal spectral analysis to provide a detection concerning the emergence of the nucleation phase of the impending catastrophic event. In the context of similar mathematical background, it would be interesting to augment this description of pre-seismic electromagnetic anomalies in order to cover biological crises, namely

  2. A unified approach of catastrophic events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nikolopoulos

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Although there is an accumulated charge of theoretical, computational, and numerical work, like catastrophe theory, bifurcation theory, stochastic and deterministic chaos theory, there is an important feeling that these matters do not completely cover the physics of real catastrophic events. Recent studies have suggested that a large variety of complex processes, including earthquakes, heartbeats, and neuronal dynamics, exhibits statistical similarities. Here we are studying in terms of complexity and non linear techniques whether isomorphic signatures emerged indicating the transition from the normal state to the both geological and biological shocks. In the last 15 years, the study of Complex Systems has emerged as a recognized field in its own right, although a good definition of what a complex system is, actually is eluded. A basic reason for our interest in complexity is the striking similarity in behaviour close to irreversible phase transitions among systems that are otherwise quite different in nature. It is by now recognized that the pre-seismic electromagnetic time-series contain valuable information about the earthquake preparation process, which cannot be extracted without the use of important computational power, probably in connection with computer Algebra techniques. This paper presents an analysis, the aim of which is to indicate the approach of the global instability in the pre-focal area. Non-linear characteristics are studied by applying two techniques, namely the Correlation Dimension Estimation and the Approximate Entropy. These two non-linear techniques present coherent conclusions, and could cooperate with an independent fractal spectral analysis to provide a detection concerning the emergence of the nucleation phase of the impending catastrophic event. In the context of similar mathematical background, it would be interesting to augment this description of pre-seismic electromagnetic anomalies in order to cover biological

  3. Responses to catastrophic AGI risk: a survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotala, Kaj; Yampolskiy, Roman V.

    2015-01-01

    Many researchers have argued that humanity will create artificial general intelligence (AGI) within the next twenty to one hundred years. It has been suggested that AGI may inflict serious damage to human well-being on a global scale (‘catastrophic risk’). After summarizing the arguments for why AGI may pose such a risk, we review the field's proposed responses to AGI risk. We consider societal proposals, proposals for external constraints on AGI behaviors and proposals for creating AGIs that are safe due to their internal design.

  4. Cut-Off Points for Mild, Moderate, and Severe Pain on the Numeric Rating Scale for Pain in Patients with Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain: Variability and Influence of Sex and Catastrophizing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonstra, Anne M; Stewart, Roy E; Köke, Albère J A; Oosterwijk, René F A; Swaan, Jeannette L; Schreurs, Karlein M G; Schiphorst Preuper, Henrica R

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The 0-10 Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) is often used in pain management. The aims of our study were to determine the cut-off points for mild, moderate, and severe pain in terms of pain-related interference with functioning in patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain, to measure the variability of the optimal cut-off points, and to determine the influence of patients' catastrophizing and their sex on these cut-off points. Methods: 2854 patients were included. Pain was assessed by the NRS, functioning by the Pain Disability Index (PDI) and catastrophizing by the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS). Cut-off point schemes were tested using ANOVAs with and without using the PSC scores or sex as co-variates and with the interaction between CP scheme and PCS score and sex, respectively. The variability of the optimal cut-off point schemes was quantified using bootstrapping procedure. Results and conclusion: The study showed that NRS scores ≤ 5 correspond to mild, scores of 6-7 to moderate and scores ≥8 to severe pain in terms of pain-related interference with functioning. Bootstrapping analysis identified this optimal NRS cut-off point scheme in 90% of the bootstrapping samples. The interpretation of the NRS is independent of sex, but seems to depend on catastrophizing. In patients with high catastrophizing tendency, the optimal cut-off point scheme equals that for the total study sample, but in patients with a low catastrophizing tendency, NRS scores ≤ 3 correspond to mild, scores of 4-6 to moderate and scores ≥7 to severe pain in terms of interference with functioning. In these optimal cut-off schemes, NRS scores of 4 and 5 correspond to moderate interference with functioning for patients with low catastrophizing tendency and to mild interference for patients with high catastrophizing tendency. Theoretically one would therefore expect that among the patients with NRS scores 4 and 5 there would be a higher average PDI score for those with low

  5. Delivery of a national home safety equipment scheme in England: a survey of local scheme leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvaney, C A; Watson, M C; Hamilton, T; Errington, G

    2013-11-01

    Unintentional home injuries sustained by preschool children are a major cause of morbidity in the UK. Home safety equipment schemes may reduce home injury rates. In 2009, the Royal Society for the Prevention of Accidents was appointed as central coordinator of a two-year, £18m national home safety equipment scheme in England. This paper reports the findings from a national survey of all scheme leaders responsible for local scheme delivery. A questionnaire mailed to all local scheme leaders sought details of how the schemes were operated locally; barriers and facilitators to scheme implementation; evaluation of the local scheme and its sustainability. A response rate of 73% was achieved. Health visitors and family support workers played a key role in both the identification of eligible families and performing home safety checks. The majority of local scheme leaders (94.6%) reported that they thought their local scheme had been successful in including those families considered 'harder to engage'. Many scheme leaders (72.4%) reported that they had evaluated the provision of safety equipment in their scheme and over half (56.6%) stated that they would not be able to continue the scheme once funding ceased. Local schemes need support to effectively evaluate their scheme and to seek sustainability funding to ensure the future of the scheme. There remains a lack of evidence of whether the provision of home safety equipment reduces injuries in preschool children.

  6. Scheme Program Documentation Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørmark, Kurt

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes and discusses two different Scheme documentation tools. The first is SchemeDoc, which is intended for documentation of the interfaces of Scheme libraries (APIs). The second is the Scheme Elucidator, which is for internal documentation of Scheme programs. Although the tools...

  7. Multiple Sclerosis and Catastrophic Health Expenditure in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juyani, Yaser; Hamedi, Dorsa; Hosseini Jebeli, Seyede Sedighe; Qasham, Maryam

    2016-09-01

    There are many disabling medical conditions which can result in catastrophic health expenditure. Multiple Sclerosis is one of the most costly medical conditions through the world which encounter families to the catastrophic health expenditures. This study aims to investigate on what extent Multiple sclerosis patients face catastrophic costs. This study was carried out in Ahvaz, Iran (2014). The study population included households that at least one of their members suffers from MS. To analyze data, Logit regression model was employed by using the default software STATA12. 3.37% of families were encountered with catastrophic costs. Important variables including brand of drug, housing, income and health insurance were significantly correlated with catastrophic expenditure. This study suggests that although a small proportion of MS patients met the catastrophic health expenditure, mechanisms that pool risk and cost (e.g. health insurance) are required to protect them and improve financial and access equity in health care.

  8. Modeling workplace bullying using catastrophe theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escartin, J; Ceja, L; Navarro, J; Zapf, D

    2013-10-01

    Workplace bullying is defined as negative behaviors directed at organizational members or their work context that occur regularly and repeatedly over a period of time. Employees' perceptions of psychosocial safety climate, workplace bullying victimization, and workplace bullying perpetration were assessed within a sample of nearly 5,000 workers. Linear and nonlinear approaches were applied in order to model both continuous and sudden changes in workplace bullying. More specifically, the present study examines whether a nonlinear dynamical systems model (i.e., a cusp catastrophe model) is superior to the linear combination of variables for predicting the effect of psychosocial safety climate and workplace bullying victimization on workplace bullying perpetration. According to the AICc, and BIC indices, the linear regression model fits the data better than the cusp catastrophe model. The study concludes that some phenomena, especially unhealthy behaviors at work (like workplace bullying), may be better studied using linear approaches as opposed to nonlinear dynamical systems models. This can be explained through the healthy variability hypothesis, which argues that positive organizational behavior is likely to present nonlinear behavior, while a decrease in such variability may indicate the occurrence of negative behaviors at work.

  9. Incident, accident, catastrophe: cyanide on the Danube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Solveig Argeseanu

    2005-06-01

    It has been described as the worst disaster since Chernobyl. In January 2000, a retaining wall failed at the Aurul gold processing plant in Romania, releasing a wave of cyanide and heavy metals that moved quickly from one river to the next through Romania, Hungary, the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and Bulgaria, killing tens of thousands of fish and other forms of wildlife and poisoning drinking-water supplies. This paper examines how and why the chemical spill at Baia Mare occurred and how responses to it emerged from circumstances at the global, local and immediate levels. The spill demonstrates the importance of the flow of information in framing and interpreting disasters, suggesting that such an event can go unnoticed or be viewed as catastrophic, depending on the political, historical and personal struggles that lead to its publicity. The paper offers a framework for understanding why the spill was alternately perceived as an incident, an accident and a catastrophe based on changing perceptions of culpability.

  10. Effects of Mood Induction on the Pain Responses in Patients with Migraine and the Role of Pain Catastrophizing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goli, Zahra; Asghari, Ali; Moradi, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Migraine has close associations with depression and anxiety. Catastrophizing, an alarmist reaction to pain, has been proposed as one of the mediators in the relationship between headache and emotional distress. However, much experimental evidence is needed to make such a view more validated. The aims of this study are to examine the effects of mood induction on the pain responses and to investigate the role of pain catastrophizing in the relationship between pain and mood amongst a sample of patients with migraine. For this purpose, 60 patients with migraine were recruited from a headache clinic in Tehran-Iran and were randomly assigned into one of three groups: negative mood induced group, positive mood induced group and control group. The following instruments and measures were used in this study: mood induction by presenting different types of films (positive, negative), a computerized cognitive task to elicit pain, Beck Depression Inventory and Pain Catastrophizing Scale. The results showed that while the induction of depressed mood increased the pain intensity, the induction of positive mood reduced it significantly (p mood. Once catastrophizing scores were entered into the analyses as a covariate, the significant effect of mood on the pain intensity reduced. In conclusion, both mood and catastrophizing are important factors in understanding the migraine pain. Clinical implications of these findings are discussed in the paper. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Pain-related catastrophizing and mood induction are important factors in understanding pain intensity amongst patients with migraine pain. Catastrophizing as a confounding factor in the relationship between pain and mood may partially mediate the relationship between mood and pain. Therapeutic interventions should focus on the reduction of depression and catastrophizing. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Household catastrophic healthcare expenditure and impoverishment due to rotavirus gastroenteritis requiring hospitalization in Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tharani Loganathan

    Full Text Available While healthcare costs for rotavirus gastroenteritis requiring hospitalization may be burdensome on households in Malaysia, exploration on the distribution and catastrophic impact of these expenses on households are lacking.We assessed the economic burden, levels and distribution of catastrophic healthcare expenditure, the poverty impact on households and inequities related to healthcare payments for acute gastroenteritis requiring hospitalization in Malaysia.A two-year prospective, hospital-based study was conducted from 2008 to 2010 in an urban (Kuala Lumpur and rural (Kuala Terengganu setting in Malaysia. All children under the age of 5 years admitted for acute gastroenteritis were included. Patients were screened for rotavirus and information on healthcare expenditure was obtained.Of the 658 stool samples collected at both centers, 248 (38% were positive for rotavirus. Direct and indirect costs incurred were significantly higher in Kuala Lumpur compared with Kuala Terengganu (US$222 Vs. US$45; p<0.001. The mean direct and indirect costs for rotavirus gastroenteritis consisted 20% of monthly household income in Kuala Lumpur, as compared with only 5% in Kuala Terengganu. Direct medical costs paid out-of-pocket caused 141 (33% households in Kuala Lumpur to experience catastrophic expenditure and 11 (3% households to incur poverty. However in Kuala Terengganu, only one household (0.5% experienced catastrophic healthcare expenditure and none were impoverished. The lowest income quintile in Kuala Lumpur was more likely to experience catastrophic payments compared to the highest quintile (87% vs 8%. The concentration index for out-of-pocket healthcare payments was closer to zero at Kuala Lumpur (0.03 than at Kuala Terengganu (0.24.While urban households were wealthier, healthcare expenditure due to gastroenteritis had more catastrophic and poverty impact on the urban poor. Universal rotavirus vaccination would reduce both disease burden and health

  12. Catastrophizing and Parental Response to Child Symptom Complaints

    OpenAIRE

    Langer, Shelby L.; Romano, Joan M.; Levy, Rona L; Walker, Lynn S.; Whitehead, William E

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated whether catastrophic thinking about pain by children with functional abdominal pain or by their parents is associated with health outcomes in the child. Subjects were 132 parent-child dyads. Child catastrophizing predicted child depression, anxiety and functional disability. Parents’ catastrophizing cognitions about their own pain predicted self-reported protective responses to their children’s abdominal pain (responding in ways that encourage illness behavior). Protec...

  13. Mutation accumulation and the catastrophic senescence of Pacific salmon

    CERN Document Server

    Penna, T J P; Stauffer, D; Stauffer, Dietrich

    1995-01-01

    The bit-string model of biological aging is used to simulate the catastrophic senescence of Pacific Salmon. We have shown that reproduction occuring only once and at a fixed age is the only ingredient needed to explain the catastrophic senescence according the mutation accumulation theory. Several results are presented, some of them with up to 10^8 fishes, showing how the survival rates in catastrophic senescence are affected by changes in the parameters of the model.

  14. Development of an automatic system dedicated to the writing of explicit and reduced chemical schemes suited to the photo-oxidant pollution study at different scales; Developpement d'une chaine automatique d'ecriture de schemas chimiques explicites et reduits adaptes a l'etude de la pollution photooxydante aux differentes echelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laval-Szopa, S

    2003-12-15

    Millions of compounds are involved in atmospheric chemistry. Chemical schemes must then be reduced to model the photo-oxidant pollution using chemistry-transport models (CTM). Such reduced schemes describe the atmospheric VOC oxidation using typically a hundred of species. The reduction methods depend actually on the particular case under consideration. The recent emergence of multi-scale CTM sets the problem of the use of reduced chemical schemes developed for a specified scale to the simultaneous modeling of several space scales. The objective of this work was to develop and assess an automatic procedure allowing to write explicit and reduced chemical schemes suited to the study of photo-oxidant pollution at different scales. The method is based on (1) the development of a tool dedicated to the writing of explicit schemes for VOC oxidation and (2) the assessment of reduced schemes using the explicit scheme as a reference. In order to minimize the problems involved in the development of chemical schemes, an automatic generator of explicit chemical schemes was developed for the tropospheric VOC oxidation. This generator is based on state of the art in terms of reactivity and mechanisms. It allows the writing of the whole set of reactions implied in the oxidation of a given primary compound, from its initiation to its total oxidation in CO{sub 2} et H{sub 2}O. A reference chemical scheme was built, using the generator, for about seventy primary VOC, chosen to be representative of both anthropogenic and biogenic emissions. The scheme describes their oxidation through more than 2 millions of reactions and 350.000 species. Three methods were applied to reduce the size of the chemical scheme: (i) use of operators, based on the redundancy of inorganic chemistry implied in the VOC oxidation, (ii) lumping of primary species having similar reactivities and (iii) lumping of secondary products into surrogate species. The number of species in the final reduced scheme is 150, i

  15. Madame Bovary and Catastrophism: Revolving narratives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Morris

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Cet article relie Madame Bovary au contexte scientifique français des années 1850, en lisant le roman de Flaubert à la lumière des théories de Cuvier. Le savant français Georges Cuvier, avec nombre de ses contemporains, explique les origines du monde à l’aide de la théorie des catastrophes. D’après cette théorie, le monde est divisé en périodes très courtes ponctuées de grandes catastrophes ou, en termes cuviériens, de « révolutions » qui ont éradiqué toute vie et ont permis au monde d’être entièrement repeuplé. Une telle conception affecte l’idée même du « temps ». Cuvier pense que la formation de la Terre est relativement récente, l’époque présente n’étant vieille que de cinq mille ans. Cette compression temporelle peut être rapportée à Madame Bovary dont le « tempo » s’accroît au fur et à mesure qu’on se rapproche du dénouement. Dans la théorie des catastrophes comme dans le roman, le temps ne suit pas une ligne chronologique. Les « révolutions » viennent briser le fil continu du temps et Emma est souvent incapable de distinguer entre le passé, le présent et le futur. Les « révolutions » servent aussi à ponctuer et à perturber le cours de la vie sur Terre en produisant des événements majeurs dans l’histoire du globe. Il en est de même dans la vie d’Emma. Son existence est marquée par des événements majeurs, comme le bal, qui créent un éclatement et une fragmentation de la temporalité, comme dans la théorie de Cuvier. Je défendrai aussi l’idée d’un lien entre la soudaineté et la violence des « révolutions » et les crises nerveuses d’Emma, qui surviennent brusquement et relèvent de l’hystérie. La conception cuviérienne de la temporalité doit enfin être envisagée au regard des théories de l’évolution, ce qui implique de réévaluer les notions d’adaptation, d’hérédité et de mort dans le roman de Flaubert.This paper locates Madame

  16. Pain catastrophizing as a risk factor for chronic pain after total knee arthroplasty: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burns LC

    2015-01-01

    predictor of chronic pain persisting ≥3 months following TKA in five of the studies assessed. Limitations of studies included lack of large-scale data, absence of standardized pain measurements, inadequate multivariate adjustment, such as failure to control for analgesic use and other relevant covariates, and failure to report non-significant parameter estimates. Conclusion: This study provides moderate-level evidence for pain catastrophizing as an independent predictor of chronic pain post-TKA. Directions for future research include larger, well-controlled studies with standard pain outcomes, identification of clinically-relevant catastrophizing cut-offs that predict pain outcomes, investigation of other psychosocial risk factors, and assessment of interventions aimed to reduce pain catastrophizing on chronic pain outcomes following TKA surgery. Keywords: pain catastrophizing, total knee arthroplasty, total knee replacement, knee arthroplasty, risk factors, chronic pain

  17. A ground moving target emergency tracking method for catastrophe rescue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X.; Li, D.; Li, G.

    2014-11-01

    In recent years, great disasters happen now and then. Disaster management test the emergency operation ability of the government and society all over the world. Immediately after the occurrence of a great disaster (e.g., earthquake), a massive nationwide rescue and relief operation need to be kicked off instantly. In order to improve the organizations efficiency of the emergency rescue, the organizers need to take charge of the information of the rescuer teams, including the real time location, the equipment with the team, the technical skills of the rescuers, and so on. One of the key factors for the success of emergency operations is the real time location of the rescuers dynamically. Real time tracking methods are used to track the professional rescuer teams now. But volunteers' participation play more and more important roles in great disasters. However, real time tracking of the volunteers will cause many problems, e.g., privacy leakage, expensive data consumption, etc. These problems may reduce the enthusiasm of volunteers' participation for catastrophe rescue. In fact, the great disaster is just small probability event, it is not necessary to track the volunteers (even rescuer teams) every time every day. In order to solve this problem, a ground moving target emergency tracking method for catastrophe rescue is presented in this paper. In this method, the handheld devices using GPS technology to provide the location of the users, e.g., smart phone, is used as the positioning equipment; an emergency tracking information database including the ID of the ground moving target (including the rescuer teams and volunteers), the communication number of the handheld devices with the moving target, and the usually living region, etc., is built in advance by registration; when catastrophe happens, the ground moving targets that living close to the disaster area will be filtered by the usually living region; then the activation short message will be sent to the selected

  18. Simple scaling of catastrophic landslide dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekström, Göran; Stark, Colin P

    2013-03-22

    Catastrophic landslides involve the acceleration and deceleration of millions of tons of rock and debris in response to the forces of gravity and dissipation. Their unpredictability and frequent location in remote areas have made observations of their dynamics rare. Through real-time detection and inverse modeling of teleseismic data, we show that landslide dynamics are primarily determined by the length scale of the source mass. When combined with geometric constraints from satellite imagery, the seismically determined landslide force histories yield estimates of landslide duration, momenta, potential energy loss, mass, and runout trajectory. Measurements of these dynamical properties for 29 teleseismogenic landslides are consistent with a simple acceleration model in which height drop and rupture depth scale with the length of the failing slope.

  19. Spiral arms, comets and terrestrial catastrophism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clube, S.V.M.; Napier, W.M. (Royal Observatory, Edinburgh (UK))

    1982-03-01

    A review is presented of an hypothesis of terrestrial catastrophism in which comets grow in molecular clouds and are captured by the Sun as it passes through the spiral arms of the Galaxy. Assuming that comets are a major supplier of the Earth-crossing (Appollo) asteroid population, the latter fluctuates correspondingly and leads to episodes of terrestrial bombardment. Changes in the rotational momentum of core and mantle, generated by impacts, lead to episodes of magnetic field reversal and tectonic activity, while surface phenomena lead to ice-ages and mass extinctions. An episodic geophysical history with an interstellar connection is thus implied. If comets in spiral arms are necessary intermediaries in the process of star formation, the theory also has implications relating to early solar system history and galactic chemistry. These aspects are briefly discussed with special reference to the nature of spiral arms.

  20. The asteroids as outcomes of catastrophic collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farinella, P. (Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Merate, Italy); Paolicchi, P.

    1982-12-01

    The role of catastrophic collisions in the evoloution of the asteroids is discussed in detail, employing extrapolations of experimental results on the outcome of high velocity-impacts. The probability of impacts with a given projectile-to-target mass ratio for asteroids of different sizes is derived, taking into account different mass distributions of the asteroid population at the beginning of the collision process. The extrapolations show that collisional breakup against solid-state cohesions must be a widespread process for asteroids. The influence of self-gravitation and transfer of angular momentum during collision is shown to depend strongly on the traget size, resulting in a variety of possible outcomes in the intermediate size range. Comparason of the theoretical results with observations of asteroid rotations and shapes yields favorable results.

  1. The New Cooperative Medical Scheme and Self-Employment in Rural China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baozhong Su

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Using panel data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey, this study estimates the effect of the New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS on self-employment in rural China, based on a difference-in-differences method (combined with propensity score matching. Specifically, we compare employment status of the participants and non-participants groups before and after the NCMS was implemented (within the common-support region. We found that the NCMS increased a rural resident’s likelihood of shifting from working for others to self-employed by 38 percentage points and that of shifting from temporarily employed to self-employed by 23 percentage points. These results suggest that apart from reducing uncertainty in future spending for the insured due to catastrophic illness, universal health insurance could also have a positive effect on the labor market, namely, that of increasing rates of self-employment.

  2. Grasshopper Population Ecology: Catastrophe, Criticality, and Critique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale R. Lockwood

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Grasshopper population dynamics are an important part of the North American rangeland ecosystem and an important factor in the economies that derive from the rangeland. Outbreak dynamics have plagued management strategies in the rangeland, and attempts to find simple, linear and mechanistic solutions to both understanding and predicting the dynamics have proved fruitless. These efforts to ground theory in a correspondence with the "real" world, including whether the population dynamics are ultimately density dependent or density independent, have generated abundant heat but little light. We suggest that a pragmatic approach, in which theories are taken to be "tools" rather than competing claims of truth, has greater promise to move ecological research in a constructive direction. Two recent non-linear approaches exploiting the tools of complexity science provide insights relevant to explaining and forecasting population dynamics. Observation and data collection were used to structure models derived from catastrophe theory and self-organized criticality. These models indicate that nonlinear processes are important in the dynamics of the outbreaks. And the conceptual structures of these approaches provide clear, albeit constrained or contingent, implications for pest managers. We show that, although these two frameworks, catastrophe theory and self-organized criticality, are very different, the frequency distributions of time series from both systems result in power law relationships. Further, we show that a simple lattice-based model, similar to SOC but structured on the biology of the grasshoppers gives a spatial time series similar to data over a 50-year span and the frequency distribution is also a power law relationship. This demonstration exemplifies how a "both-and" rather than an "either-or" approach to ecological modeling, in which the useful elements of particular theories or conceptual structures are extracted, may provide a way forward

  3. [Administrative efficiency in the Mexican Fund for the Prevention of Catastrophic Expenditures in Health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco-Núñez, Emanuel; Alcalde-Rabanal, Jaqueline; Navarro, Juan; Lozano, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    To show that the administrative regime of specialized hospitals has some influence on the administrative processes to operate the Mexican Fund for Catastrophic Expenditures in Health (FPGC, in Spanish), for providing health care to breast cancer, cervical cancer and child leukemia. The variable for estimating administrative efficiency was the time estimated from case notification to reimbursement. For its estimation, semistructured interviews were applied to key actors involved in management of cancer care financed by FPGC. Additionally, a group of experts was organized to make recommendations for improving processes. Specialized hospitals with a decentralized scheme showed less time to solve the administrative process in comparison with the model on the hospitals dependent on State Health Services, where timing and intermediation levels were higher. Decentralized hospitals administrative scheme for specialized care is more efficient, because they tend to be more autonomous.

  4. Catastrophic expenditure on medicines in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luiza, Vera Lucia; Tavares, Noemia Urruth Leão; Oliveira, Maria Auxiliadora; Arrais, Paulo Sergio Dourado; Ramos, Luiz Roberto; Pizzol, Tatiane da Silva Dal; Mengue, Sotero Serrate; Farias, Mareni Rocha; Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso

    2016-12-01

    To describe the magnitude of the expenditure on medicines in Brazil according to region, household size and composition in terms of residents in a situation of dependency. Population-based data from the national household survey were used, with probabilistic sample, applied between September 2013 and February 2014 in urban households. The expenditure on medicines was the main outcome of interest. The prevalence and confidence intervals (95%CI) of the outcomes were stratified according to socioeconomic classification and calculated according to the region, the number of residents dependent on income, the presence of children under five years and residents in a situation of dependency by age. In about one of every 17 households (5.3%) catastrophic health expenditure was reported and, in 3.2%, the medicines were reported as one of the items responsible for this situation. The presence of three or more residents (3.6%) and resident in a situation of dependency (3.6%) were the ones that most reported expenditure on medicines. Southeast was the region with the lowest prevalence of expenditure on medicines. The prevalence of households with catastrophic health expenditure and on medicines in relation to the total of households showed a regressive tendency for economic classes. Catastrophic health expenditure was present in 5.3%, and catastrophic expenditure on medicines in 3.2% of the households. Multi-person households, presence of residents in a situation of economic dependency and belonging to the class D or E had the highest proportion of catastrophic expenditure on medicines. Although the problem is important, permeated by aspects of iniquity, Brazilian policies seem to be protecting families from catastrophic expenditure on health and on medicine. Descrever a magnitude do gasto catastrófico em medicamentos no Brasil segundo região, tamanho das famílias e composição familiar em termos de moradores em situação de dependência. Utilizados dados de inqu

  5. Virtual reality exposure therapy as treatment for pain catastrophizing in fibromyalgia patients: proof-of-concept study (Study Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spottiswoode Bruce

    2011-04-01

    in FMS patients. Proof-of-concept will either be established or negated. The results of this project are envisaged to revolutionize FMS and pain catastrophizing research and in the future, assist health professionals and FMS patients in reducing despondency regarding FMS management. Trial registration PACTR201011000264179

  6. Purchase of Catastrophe Insurance by Dutch Dairy and Arable Farmers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ogurtsov, V.; Asseldonk, van M.A.P.M.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2009-01-01

    This article analyzed the impact of risk perception, risk attitude, and other farmer personal and farm characteristics on the actual purchase of catastrophe insurance by Dutch dairy and arable farmers. The specific catastrophe insurance types considered were hail–fire–storm insurance for buildings,

  7. 'Performative narrativity': Palestinian identity and the performance of catastrophe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saloul, I.

    2008-01-01

    The day Israel annually celebrates as its "Day of Independence" Palestinians commemorate as their day of catastrophe (al-nakba). To most Palestinians, the catastrophic loss of Palestine in 1948 represents the climactic formative event of their lives. In the aftermath of this loss, the Palestinian

  8. Cell death by mitotic catastrophe: a molecular definition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castedo, M.; Perfettini, J.-L.; Roumier, T.; Andreau, K.; Medema, R.H.; Kroemer, G.

    2004-01-01

    The current literature is devoid of a clearcut definition of mitotic catastrophe, a type of cell death that occurs during mitosis. Here, we propose that mitotic catastrophe results from a combination of deficient cell-cycle checkpoints (in particular the DNA structure checkpoints and the spindle

  9. Catastrophic medical malpractice payouts in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bixenstine, Paul J; Shore, Andrew D; Mehtsun, Winta T; Ibrahim, Andrew M; Freischlag, Julie A; Makary, Martin A

    2014-01-01

    Catastrophic medical malpractice payouts, $1 million or greater, greatly influence physicians' practice, hospital policy, and discussions of healthcare reform. However, little is known about the specific characteristics and overall cost burden of these payouts. We reviewed all paid malpractice claims nationwide using the National Practitioner Data Bank over a 7-year period (2004-2010) and used multivariate regression to identify risk factors for catastrophic and increased overall payouts. Claims with catastrophic payouts represented 7.9% (6,130/77,621) of all paid claims. Factors most associated with catastrophic payouts were patient age less than 1 year; quadriplegia, brain damage, or lifelong care; and anesthesia allegation group. Compared with court judgments, settlement was associated with decreased odds of a catastrophic payout (odds ratio, 0.31; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.22-0.42) and lower estimated average payouts ($124,863; 95% CI, $101,509-144,992). A physician's years in practice and previous paid claims history had no effect on the odds of a catastrophic payout. Catastrophic payouts averaged $1.4 billion per year or 0.05% of the National Health Expenditures. Preventing catastrophic malpractice payouts should be only one aspect of comprehensive patient safety and quality improvement strategies. Future studies should evaluate the benefits of targeted interventions based on specific patient safety event characteristics. © 2013 National Association for Healthcare Quality.

  10. Optimal design of earth-moving machine elements with cusp catastrophe theory application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitukhin, A. V.; Skobtsov, I. G.

    2017-10-01

    This paper deals with the optimal design problem solution for the operator of an earth-moving machine with a roll-over protective structure (ROPS) in terms of the catastrophe theory. A brief description of the catastrophe theory is presented, the cusp catastrophe is considered, control parameters are viewed as Gaussian stochastic quantities in the first part of the paper. The statement of optimal design problem is given in the second part of the paper. It includes the choice of the objective function and independent design variables, establishment of system limits. The objective function is determined as mean total cost that includes initial cost and cost of failure according to the cusp catastrophe probability. Algorithm of random search method with an interval reduction subject to side and functional constraints is given in the last part of the paper. The way of optimal design problem solution can be applied to choose rational ROPS parameters, which will increase safety and reduce production and exploitation expenses.

  11. Psychological resilience predicts decreases in pain catastrophizing through positive emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Anthony D; Zautra, Alex J; Reid, M Carrington

    2010-09-01

    The study used a daily process design to examine the role of psychological resilience and positive emotions in the day-to-day experience of pain catastrophizing. A sample of 95 men and women with chronic pain completed initial assessments of neuroticism, psychological resilience, and demographic data, and then completed short diaries regarding pain intensity, pain catastrophizing, and positive and negative emotions every day for 14 consecutive days. Multilevel modeling analyses indicated that independent of level of neuroticism, negative emotions, pain intensity, income, and age, high-resilient individuals reported greater positive emotions and exhibited lower day-to-day pain catastrophizing compared with low-resilient individuals. Mediation analyses revealed that psychologically resilient individuals rebound from daily pain catastrophizing through experiences of positive emotion. Implications for research on psychological resilience, pain catastrophizing, and positive emotions are discussed. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Population extinction risk in the aftermath of a catastrophic event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assaf, Michael; Kamenev, Alex; Meerson, Baruch

    2009-01-01

    We investigate how a catastrophic event (modeled as a temporary fall of the reproduction rate) increases the extinction probability of an isolated self-regulated stochastic population. Using a variant of the Verhulst logistic model as an example, we combine the probability generating function technique with an eikonal approximation to evaluate the exponentially large increase in the extinction probability caused by the catastrophe. This quantity is given by the eikonal action computed over “the optimal path” (instanton) of an effective classical Hamiltonian system with a time-dependent Hamiltonian. For a general catastrophe the eikonal equations can be solved numerically. For simple models of catastrophic events analytic solutions can be obtained. One such solution becomes quite simple close to the bifurcation point of the Verhulst model. The eikonal results for the increase in the extinction probability caused by a catastrophe agree well with numerical solutions of the master equation.

  13. Manipulation of pain catastrophizing: An experimental study of healthy participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel E Bialosky

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Joel E Bialosky1*, Adam T Hirsh2,3, Michael E Robinson2,3, Steven Z George1,3*1Department of Physical Therapy; 2Department of Clinical and Health Psychology; 3Center for Pain Research and Behavioral Health, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USAAbstract: Pain catastrophizing is associated with the pain experience; however, causation has not been established. Studies which specifically manipulate catastrophizing are necessary to establish causation. The present study enrolled 100 healthy individuals. Participants were randomly assigned to repeat a positive, neutral, or one of three catastrophizing statements during a cold pressor task (CPT. Outcome measures of pain tolerance and pain intensity were recorded. No change was noted in catastrophizing immediately following the CPT (F(1,84 = 0.10, p = 0.75, partial η2 < 0.01 independent of group assignment (F(4,84 = 0.78, p = 0.54, partial η2 = 0.04. Pain tolerance (F(4 = 0.67, p = 0.62, partial η2 = 0.03 and pain intensity (F(4 = 0.73, p = 0.58, partial η2 = 0.03 did not differ by group. This study suggests catastrophizing may be difficult to manipulate through experimental pain procedures and repetition of specific catastrophizing statements was not sufficient to change levels of catastrophizing. Additionally, pain tolerance and pain intensity did not differ by group assignment. This study has implications for future studies attempting to experimentally manipulate pain catastrophizing.Keywords: pain, catastrophizing, experimental, cold pressor task, pain catastrophizing scale

  14. Channel Aggregation Schemes for Cognitive Radio Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jongheon; So, Jaewoo

    This paper proposed three channel aggregation schemes for cognitive radio networks, a constant channel aggregation scheme, a probability distribution-based variable channel aggregation scheme, and a residual channel-based variable channel aggregation scheme. A cognitive radio network can have a wide bandwidth if unused channels in the primary networks are aggregated. Channel aggregation schemes involve either constant channel aggregation or variable channel aggregation. In this paper, a Markov chain is used to develop an analytical model of channel aggregation schemes; and the performance of the model is evaluated in terms of the average sojourn time, the average throughput, the forced termination probability, and the blocking probability. Simulation results show that channel aggregation schemes can reduce the average sojourn time of cognitive users by increasing the channel occupation rate of unused channels in a primary network.

  15. Catastrophic worries in mothers of adolescents with internalizing disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triantafyllou, Kalliopi; Cartwright-Hatton, Sam; Korpa, Terpsichori; Kolaitis, Gerasimos; Barrowclough, Christine

    2012-09-01

    This study investigates worrying in mothers of adolescents with internalizing disorders, and tests the hypothesis that these mothers will produce a greater number of worries with higher catastrophic content compared to control groups. Differences in worry steps and in catastrophic content of worries were investigated in a cross-sectional, between groups design, employing a clinical internalizing group, a clinical control, and a non-referred control group. Twenty-five mothers of adolescents with internalizing disorders, 24 mothers of adolescents with externalizing disorders, and 28 mothers with non-referred adolescents participated in two interviews about their 'real' pre-existing worries and their worries in response to a hypothetical situation. The internalizing group produced both a greater number of worry steps and a higher catastrophic content when they talked about their 'real' worries, compared to both control groups. They also produced a greater number of worry steps in response to a hypothetical situation compared to the other two groups. The number of worry steps and the level of catastrophic content of 'real' worries were associated with adolescent depression and anxiety. Additionally, the number of worry steps and the level of catastrophic content of worries in response to a hypothetical situation were related to adolescent depression. The number of worry steps in 'real' worries and the level of catastrophic content in hypothetical worries were also associated with maternal depressive symptoms. Mothers of adolescents with internalizing disorders may worry more catastrophically about their children than other mothers. ©2012 The British Psychological Society.

  16. Changes in catastrophizing and kinesiophobia are predictive of changes in disability and pain after treatment in patients with anterior knee pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doménech, Julio; Sanchis-Alfonso, Vicente; Espejo, Begoña

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate if changes in psychological variables are related to the outcome in pain and disability in patients with chronic anterior knee pain. A longitudinal observational study on 47 patients with chronic anterior knee pain was performed in a secondary healthcare setting. Pain was measured with the visual analogue scale and disability with the Lysholm scale. The psychological variables, such as anxiety, depression, pain coping strategies, catastrophizing and fear to movement beliefs, were studied by using self-administered questionnaires. Among the pain coping strategies, only the catastrophizing subscale showed a significant reduction. Similarly, anxiety, depression and kinesiophobia were significantly reduced after treatment. Those patients who decreased the catastrophizing, kinesiophobia, anxiety and depression showed a greater improvement in pain and disability after a purely biomedical treatment. A multiple regression analysis revealed that changes in catastrophizing predicted the amount of improvement in pain severity and that changes in both catastrophizing and anxiety predicted changes in disability after treatment. What has been found suggests that clinical improvement in pain and disability is associated with a reduction in catastrophizing and kinesiophobia. Therefore, co-interventions to reduce catastrophizing thinking and kinesiophobia may enhance the results. Prospective Cohort Study, Level I for prognosis.

  17. Avoiding Environmental Catastrophes: Varieties of Principled Precaution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan R. Johnson

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The precautionary principle is often proposed as a guide to action in environmental management or risk assessment, and has been incorporated in various legal and regulatory contexts. For many, it reflects the common sense notion of being safe rather than sorry, but it has attracted numerous critics. At times, proponents and critics talk at cross purposes, due to the multiplicity of ways the precautionary principle has been formulated. The approach taken here is to examine four general varieties of precaution, relating each to arguments made in various contexts by others. First, I examine the parallel between the precautionary principle and an argument referred to as Pascal's wager. Critics are right to dismiss versions of the precautionary principle that follow the logic of Pascal's wager, because that argument requires assumption of an infinite catastrophe, which is seldom the case in environmental decisions. Second, I explore precaution viewed as an instance of the phenomenon of ambiguity aversion as described by Daniel Ellsberg. Third, I evaluate precautionary perspectives on our duties to future generations, drawing inspiration from the views of Gifford Pinchot. Fourth, I consider the precautionary principle as an instance of Aldo Leopold's notion of intelligent tinkering. Although controversy persists, I find that a legitimate theoretical foundation exists to implement Ellsbergian, Pinchotian and Leopoldean varieties of precaution in environmental decision making. Additionally, I remark on the role of adaptive management and maintaining resilience in ecological and social systems as an approach to implementing the precautionary principle.

  18. [Fund for Protection against Catastrophic Expenses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aracena-Genao, Belkis; González-Robledo, María Cecilia; González-Robledo, Luz María; Palacio-Mejía, Lina Sofía; Nigenda-López, Gustavo

    2011-01-01

    To document the status of operational and managerial processes of the Fund for Protection against Catastrophic Expenses (FPGC), as well as to describe its evolution, and to explore the relationship between covered diseases and the Mexican health profile. This is a joint management study, which included a qualitative and a quantitative phase. We conducted semi-structured interviews with key informants. We also analyzed the records of CNPSS, the hospital discharge and mortality data bases. Fifty two percent of the states take twice as long to report and validate the cases. From 2004-2009 the FPGC increased its coverage from 6 to 49 interventions, that means a spending increase of 2 306.4% in nominal terms and 1 659.3% in real terms. The HIV/AIDS was the intervention prioritized with 39.3% and Mexico City had the highest proportion of expenditure (25.1%). A few diseases included in the health profile are covered by the FPGC. The review of the inclusion criteria of diseases is urgent, so as to cover diseases of epidemiological importance.

  19. Semiclassical catastrophe theory of simple bifurcations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magner, A. G.; Arita, K.

    2017-10-01

    The Fedoriuk-Maslov catastrophe theory of caustics and turning points is extended to solve the bifurcation problems by the improved stationary phase method (ISPM). The trace formulas for the radial power-law (RPL) potentials are presented by the ISPM based on the second- and third-order expansion of the classical action near the stationary point. A considerable enhancement of contributions of the two orbits (pair consisting of the parent and newborn orbits) at their bifurcation is shown. The ISPM trace formula is proposed for a simple bifurcation scenario of Hamiltonian systems with continuous symmetries, where the contributions of the bifurcating parent orbits vanish upon approaching the bifurcation point due to the reduction of the end-point manifold. This occurs since the contribution of the parent orbits is included in the term corresponding to the family of the newborn daughter orbits. Taking this feature into account, the ISPM level densities calculated for the RPL potential model are shown to be in good agreement with the quantum results at the bifurcations and asymptotically far from the bifurcation points.

  20. Changes in catastrophic health expenditure in post-conflict Sierra Leone: an Oaxaca-blinder decomposition analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edoka, Ijeoma; McPake, Barbara; Ensor, Tim; Amara, Rogers; Edem-Hotah, Joseph

    2017-09-04

    At the end of the eleven-year conflict in Sierra Leone, a wide range of policies were implemented to address both demand- and supply-side constraints within the healthcare system, which had collapsed during the conflict. This study examines the extent to which households' exposure to financial risks associated with seeking healthcare evolved in post-conflict Sierra Leone. This study uses the 2003 and 2011 cross-sections of the Sierra Leone Integrated Household Survey to examine changes in catastrophic health expenditure between 2003 and 2011. An Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition approach is used to quantify the extent to which changes in catastrophic health expenditure are attributable to changes in the distribution of determinants (distributional effect) and to changes in the impact of these determinants on the probability of incurring catastrophic health expenditure (coefficient effect). The incidence of catastrophic health expenditure decreased significantly by 18% from approximately 50% in 2003 t0 32% in 2011. The decomposition analysis shows that this decrease represents net effects attributable to the distributional and coefficient effects of three determinants of catastrophic health expenditure - ill-health, the region in which households reside and the type of health facility used. A decrease in the incidence of ill-health and changes in the regional location of households contributed to a decrease in catastrophic health expenditure. The distributional effect of health facility types observed as an increase in the use of public health facilities, and a decrease in the use of services in facilities owned by non-governmental organizations (NGOs) also contributed to a decrease in the incidence of catastrophic health expenditure. However, the coefficient effect of public health facilities and NGO-owned facilities suggests that substantial exposure to financial risk remained for households utilizing both types of health facilities in 2011. The findings support the

  1. Perry's Intellectual Scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Patrick G.; Guthrie, Victoria L.

    1999-01-01

    Summarizes William Perry's intellectual scheme and places it in the context of the 1990's. Perry's scheme of cognitive development, though more than thirty years old, is still being used by practitioners today to enhance practice in and out of the classroom. It laid a foundation for new research to extend, challenge, and build onto the scheme.…

  2. Finite Boltzmann schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sman, van der R.G.M.

    2006-01-01

    In the special case of relaxation parameter = 1 lattice Boltzmann schemes for (convection) diffusion and fluid flow are equivalent to finite difference/volume (FD) schemes, and are thus coined finite Boltzmann (FB) schemes. We show that the equivalence is inherent to the homology of the

  3. Magnetic reconnection in terms of catastrophe theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echkina, E. Y.; Inovenkov, I. N.; Nefedov, V. V.

    2017-12-01

    Magnetic field line reconnection (magnetic reconnection) is a phenomenon that occurs in space and laboratory plasma. Magnetic reconnection allows both the change the magnetic topology and the conversion of the magnetic energy into energy of fast particles. The critical point (critical line or plane in higher dimensional cases) of the magnetic field play an important role in process of magnetic reconnection, as in its neighborhood occurs a change of its topology of a magnetic field and redistribution of magnetic field energy. A lot of literature is devoted to the analytical and numerical investigation of the reconnection process. The main result of these investigations as the result of magnetic reconnection the current sheet is formed and the magnetic topology is changed. While the studies of magnetic reconnection in 2D and 3D configurations have a led to several important results, many questions remain open, including the behavior of a magnetic field in the neighborhood of a critical point of high order. The magnetic reconnection problem is closely related to the problem of the structural stability of vector fields. Since the magnetic field topology changes during both spontaneous and induced magnetic reconnection, it is natural to expect that the magnetic field should evolve from a structurally unstable into a structurally stable configuration. Note that, in this case, the phenomenon under analysis is more complicated since, during magnetic reconnection in a highly conducting plasma, we deal with the non-linear interaction between two vector fields: the magnetic field and the field of the plasma velocities. The aim of our article is to consider the process of magnetic reconnection and transformation of the magnetic topology from the viewpoint of catastrophe theory. Bifurcations in similar configurations (2D magnetic configuration with null high order point) with varying parameters were thoroughly discussed in a monograph by Poston and Stewart.

  4. Catastrophic Failure and Critical Scaling Laws of Fiber Bundle Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengwang Hao

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a spring-fiber bundle model used to describe the failure process induced by energy release in heterogeneous materials. The conditions that induce catastrophic failure are determined by geometric conditions and energy equilibrium. It is revealed that the relative rates of deformation of, and damage to the fiber bundle with respect to the boundary controlling displacement ε0 exhibit universal power law behavior near the catastrophic point, with a critical exponent of −1/2. The proportion of the rate of response with respect to acceleration exhibits a linear relationship with increasing displacement in the vicinity of the catastrophic point. This allows for the prediction of catastrophic failure immediately prior to failure by extrapolating the trajectory of this relationship as it asymptotes to zero. Monte Carlo simulations are completed and these two critical scaling laws are confirmed.

  5. An Update on Football Deaths and Catastrophic Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Frederick O.; Blyth, Carl S.

    1986-01-01

    The latest figures (1985) indicate a continued decline in football deaths and catastrophic injuries, which is credited to a ban on spearing and to a helmet standard. Guidelines for prevention of fatalities and injuries are listed. (Author/MT)

  6. A comparison of temperature and precipitation responses to different Earth radiation management geoengineering schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Crook, JA; Jackson, LS; Osprey, SM; Forster, PM

    2015-01-01

    Earth radiation management has been suggested as a way to rapidly counteract global warming in the face of a lack of mitigation efforts, buying time and avoiding potentially catastrophic warming. We compare six different radiation management schemes that use surface, troposphere, and stratosphere interventions in a single climate model in which we projected future climate from 2020 to 2099 based on RCP4.5. We analyze the surface air temperature responses to determine how effective the schemes...

  7. Psychological Resilience Predicts Decreases in Pain Catastrophizing Through Positive Emotions

    OpenAIRE

    Ong, Anthony D.; Zautra, Alex J.; Reid, M. Carrington

    2010-01-01

    The study used a daily process design to examine the role of psychological resilience and positive emotions in the day-to-day experience of pain catastrophizing. A sample of 95 men and women with chronic pain completed initial assessments of neuroticism, psychological resilience, and demographic data, and then completed short diaries regarding pain intensity, pain catastrophizing, and positive and negative emotions every day for 14 consecutive days. Multilevel modeling analyses indicated that...

  8. Communications en cas de catastrophe faisant appel aux TIC pour ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    De récents événements survenus dans les Caraïbes ont mis en relief les insuffisances des mesures régionales et nationales de préparation aux catastrophes. On manque ... Accroissement de l'efficacité des applications et outils TIC dans la gestion des catastrophes naturelles dans les Caraïbes. D'août à novembre 2005, ...

  9. Polarization catastrophe in nanostructures doped in photonic band gap materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Mahi R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London N6A 3K7 (Canada)], E-mail: msingh@uwo.ca

    2008-11-30

    In the presence of the dipole-dipole interaction, we have studied a possible dielectric catastrophe in photonic band gap materials doped with an ensemble of four-level nanoparticles. It is found that the dielectric constant of the system has a singularity when the resonance energy lies within the bands. This phenomenon is known as the dielectric catastrophe. It is also found that this phenomenon depends on the strength of the dipole-dipole interaction.

  10. Development of reduced kinetic schemes for the description of pollutants formation in combustion; Mise au point de schemas cinetiques reduits pour decrire la formation des polluants dans la combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrendier, M.

    1998-12-17

    The typical dimensions of details chemical-kinetic mechanisms proposed to describe combustion systems are too large for multi-dimensional computations applications. The objective of reduction methods is to construct low-dimensional schemes that can be incorporated in industrial codes. We consider here a new class of methods based on a mathematical analysis of the detailed chemical-kinetic mechanisms, and the identification of a low-dimensional manifold that describes the slow dynamics of the chemical system. The mathematical reduction methods considered in this work are the Intrinsic Low Dimensional Manifold (ILDM) method proposed by Maas and Pope (1992), and the Singular Perturbation (PS) method proposed by Duchene and Rouchon (1996). The domain of validity of the ILDM or PS reduced schemes is limited to a high temperature domain T {>=} T{sub c}. This result suggests that ignition is out of the domain of application of reduced mechanisms. In the case of a CO/H{sub 2}/N{sub 2}-air combustion system, and using a two-dimensional slow manifold, we find T{sub c} {approx} 750 K. We also find that for that particular system, 2 progress variables are sufficient for an accurate description of the structure and the velocity of a laminar premixed flame. In the case of a CH{sub 4}-air combustion system, and using a two-dimensional slow manifold, we find T{sub c}{approx}1500 K. We also find that 2 progress variables are insufficient for an accurate description of the structure and the velocity of a laminar premixed flame. The study of the different NO formation mechanisms show that the thermal NO mechanism (the Zeldovich mechanism) is dominant for premixed configurations with lean or stoichiometric conditions ({phi}){>=}1.2), and for non-premixed configurations at high temperatures and high pressures (T{sub air}{>=}1000 K, P {>=} 10 bars). Under these conditions, the MPKIVA sub model used to describe NO formation in the IFP version of the KIVA code performs reasonably well. An

  11. Pain Catastrophizing Correlates with Early Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geneviève Chaput

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Identifying which patients are most likely to be at risk of chronic pain and other postconcussion symptoms following mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI is a difficult clinical challenge. Objectives. To examine the relationship between pain catastrophizing, defined as the exaggerated negative appraisal of a pain experience, and early MTBI outcome. Methods. This cross-sectional design included 58 patients diagnosed with a MTBI. In addition to medical chart review, postconcussion symptoms were assessed by self-report at 1 month (Time 1 and 8 weeks (Time 2 after MTBI. Pain severity, psychological distress, level of functionality, and pain catastrophizing were measured by self-report at Time 2. Results. The pain catastrophizing subscales of rumination, magnification, and helplessness were significantly correlated with pain severity (r=.31 to .44, number of postconcussion symptoms reported (r=.35 to .45, psychological distress (r=.57 to .67, and level of functionality (r=-.43 to -.29. Pain catastrophizing scores were significantly higher for patients deemed to be at high risk of postconcussion syndrome (6 or more symptoms reported at both Time 1 and Time 2. Conclusions. Higher levels of pain catastrophizing were related to adverse early MTBI outcomes. The early detection of pain catastrophizing may facilitate goal-oriented interventions to prevent or minimize the development of chronic pain and other postconcussion symptoms.

  12. Mixed ultrasoft/norm-conserved pseudopotential scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokbro, Kurt

    1996-01-01

    A variant of the Vanderbilt ultrasoft pseudopotential scheme, where the norm conservation is released for only one or a few angular channels, is presented. Within this scheme some difficulties of the truly ultrasoft pseudopotentials are overcome without sacrificing the pseudopotential softness. (i......) Ghost states are easily avoided without including semicore shells. (ii) The ultrasoft pseudo-charge-augmentation functions can be made softer. (iii) The number of nonlocal operators is reduced. The scheme will be most useful for transition metals, and the feasibility and accuracy of the scheme...

  13. What Is the Economic Burden of Subsidized HIV/AIDS Treatment Services on Patients in Nigeria and Is This Burden Catastrophic to Households?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enyi Etiaba

    Full Text Available A gap in knowledge exists regarding the economic burden on households of subsidized anti-retroviral treatment (ART programs in Nigeria. This is because patients also incur non-ART drug costs, which may constrain the delivery and utilisation of subsidized services.An exit survey of adults (18+years attending health facilities for HIV/AIDS treatment was conducted in three states in Nigeria (Adamawa, Akwa Ibom and Anambra. In the states, ART was fully subsidized but there were different payment modalities for other costs of treatment. Data was collected and analysed for direct and indirect costs of treatment of HIV/AIDS and co-morbidities' during out-and in-patient visits. The levels of catastrophic health expenditure (CHE were computed and disaggregated by state, socio-economic status (SES and urban-rural location of the respondents. Catastrophic Health Expenditure (CHE in this study measures the number of respondents whose monthly ART-related household expenditure (for in-patient and out-patient visits as a proportion of monthly non-food expenditure was greater than 40% and 10% respectively.The average out-patient and in-patient direct costs were $5.49 and $122.10 respectively. Transportation cost was the highest non-medical cost and it was higher than most medical costs. The presence of co-morbidities contributed to household costs. All the costs were catastrophic to households at 10% and 40% thresholds in the three states, to varying degrees. The poorest SES quintile had the highest incidence of CHE for out-patient costs (p<0.0001. Rural dwellers incurred more CHE for all categories of costs compared to urban dwellers, but the costs were statistically significant for only outpatient costs.ART subsidization is not enough to eliminate economic burden of treatment on HIV patients. Service decentralization to reduce travel costs, and subsidy on other components of HIV treatment services should be introduced to eliminate the persisting inequitable

  14. Catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome in obstetric practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Валерий Николаевич Запорожан

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Thus, the Catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome (CAPS is much more common than has been assumed until now, in all patients the authors strongly recommend screening for AFA. Furthermore, eclampsia, HELLP-syndrome premature detachment of normally located placentae (PDNSP can develop in the presence of other defects of hemostasis, in particular in mutation FV Leiden, MTHFR C677T, deficiency of protein C (PC, protein S (PS. The combination of acquired thrombophilia due to APS, with genetic defects worsen hemostasis during the pathological process leading to the development of thrombotic complications. Perhaps a combination of hereditary thrombophilia and APS creates a favorable environment in which, under certain conditions, possible decompensation of the hemostatic system and the development of CAPS. Patients with APS constitute a group of very high risk of thromboembolic complications in the perioperative period. Even a minimally invasive intervention (biopsy, curettage, tooth extraction may trigger the development of CAPS. Thus, according to Erkan et al. (2003, 40% of patients develop CAPS was provoked by surgery. The main reasons for the development of thrombotic complications in connection with surgical intervention is the damage to the vessel wall, blood stasis and the abolition of indirect anticoagulants. In the study on the presence of genetic thrombophilia was found heterozygous form of FV Leiden mutation and homozygous mutation of MTHFR C677T. He was diagnosed with pregnancy 14 weeks, APS, mixed form of thrombophilia (a combination of acquisitions and multigenic thrombophilia, hyperhomocysteinemia, weighed down by obstetric and somatic history.It is very urgent and important problem remains diagnosis CAPS, which is inconceivable without the determination of AFA. The latter should be mandatory for all pregnant women with preeclampsia habitual miscarriage, Premature detachment of normally situated placenta (PDNSP, genital herpes history

  15. Multidimensional poverty and catastrophic health spending in the mountainous regions of Myanmar, Nepal and India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Sanjay K; Agrawal, Nand Kishor; Mahapatra, Bidhubhusan; Choudhury, Dhrupad; Tuladhar, Sabarnee; Holmgren, E Valdemar

    2017-01-18

    not significant. The multidimensionally poor in the poorer regions are more likely to face health shocks and are less likely to afford professional health services. Increasing government spending on health and increasing households' access to health insurance can reduce catastrophic health spending and multidimensional poverty.

  16. A quantitative study on factors influencing enrolment of dairy farmers in a community health insurance scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greef, Tineke de Groot-de; Monareng, Lydia V; Roos, Janetta H

    2016-12-09

    Access to affordable and effective health care is a challenge in low- and middle- income countries. Out-of-pocket expenditure for health care is a major cause of impoverishment. One way to facilitate access and overcome catastrophic expenditure is through a health insurance mechanism, whereby risks are shared and financial inputs pooled by way of contributions. This study examined factors that influenced the enrolment status of dairy farmers in Western Kenya to a community health insurance (CHI) scheme. Quantitative, cross-sectional research was used to describe factors influencing the enrolment in the CHI scheme. Quota and convenience sampling was used, recruiting a sample of 135 farmers who supply milk to a dairy cooperation. Data were collected using a structured interview schedule and analysed using Stata SE, Data Analysis and Statistical Software, Version 12. Factors influencing non-enrolment were identified as affordability (40%; n = 47), unfamiliarity with the management of the scheme (37%; n = 44) and a lack of understanding about the scheme (41%; n = 48). An exploratory factor analysis was used to reduce the variables to two factors: information provision and understanding community health insurance (CHI). Logistic regression identified factors associated with enrolment in the Tanykina Community Healthcare Plan (TCHP). Supplies of less than six litres of milk per day (OR: 0.22; 95% CI: 0.06-0.84) and information provision (OR: 8.77; 95% CI: 2.25-34.16) were significantly associated with enrolment in the TCHP. Nearly 30% (29.6%; n = 40) of the respondents remarked that TCHP is expensive and 17% (n = 23) asked for more education on CHI and TCHP in an open-ended question. Recommendations related to marketing strategies, financial approach, information provision and further research were outlined to be made to the management of the TCHP as well as to those involved in public health.

  17. Vaginismus: heightened harm avoidance and pain catastrophizing cognitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Charmaine; Peters, Madelon L; Schultz, Willibrord Weijmar; de Jong, Peter J

    2012-02-01

    Catastrophic appraisal of experienced pain may promote hypervigilance and intense pain, while the personality trait of harm avoidance (HA) might prevent the occurrence of correcting such experiences. Women inflicted with vaginismus may enter a self-perpetuating downward spiral of increasing avoidance of (anticipated) pain. In vaginismus the anticipation of pain may give rise to catastrophic pain ideation. This may establish hypervigilance toward painful sexual stimuli, which consequently results in negative appraisal of sexual cues. This process could impair genital and sexual responding, intensify pain and trigger avoidance, which in turn may contribute to the onset and persistence of symptoms in vaginismus and to certain extent also in dyspareunia. To investigate whether women suffering from vaginismus are characterized by heightened levels of habitual pain catastrophic cognitions, together with higher levels of HA. This study consisted of three groups: a lifelong vaginismus group (N = 35, mean age = 28.4; standard deviation [SD] = 5.8), a dyspareunia group (N = 33, mean age = 26.7; SD = 6.8), and women without sexual complaints (N = 54, mean age = 26.5; SD = 6.7). HA scale of Cloninger's tridimensional personality questionnaire, and the pain catastrophizing scale. Specifically women inflicted with vaginismus showed significantly heightened levels of catastrophic pain cognitions compared with the other two groups, as well as significant enhanced HA vs. the control group, and a trend vs. the dyspareunia group. Both traits were shown to have cumulative predictive validity for the presence of vaginismus. This study focused on the personality traits of catastrophizing pain cognitions and HA in women with lifelong vaginismus. Our findings showed that indeed, women suffering from vaginismus are characterized by trait of HA interwoven with habitual pain catastrophizing cognitions. This study could help in the refinement of the current conceptualization and might shed

  18. The Mawala irrigation scheme

    OpenAIRE

    de Bont, Chris

    2018-01-01

    This booklet was written to share research results with farmers and practitioners in Tanzania. It gives a summary of the empirical material collected during three months of field work in the Mawala irrigation scheme (Kilimanjaro Region), and includes maps, tables and photos. It describes the history of the irrigation scheme, as well current irrigation and farming practices. It especially focuses on the different kinds of infrastructural improvement in the scheme (by farmers and the government...

  19. Catastrophes et consommation des substances psychoactives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krivokapić Žilijeta

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available (francuski Les catastrophes, les accidents, les stress, les traumatismes sont des expériences négatives de vie accompagnées de changements physiologiques, cognitifs, émotionnels et comportementaux. Les stratégies les plus courantes inefficaces à résoudre les expériences de vie négatives sont: l' agression - ouverte (physique et / ou verbale, passive et latente, le retrait social, le placage, la dépression, l'impuissance, l' isolement et l' abus de médicaments, en particulier de drogues. Les personnes se trouvant dans des situations stressantes essayent de s' aider elles-mêmes souvent en recourant à des substances qui procurent une amélioration de leur état et suppriment le malaise momentané. Cette 'thérapie par auto-thérapie' comporte de graves risques La personne qui, après une période de consommation de ces substances devenaient dépendante, manifeste des changements visibles au niveau physique et psychologique. Elle se dérobe à ses obligations, rompt avec les activités auxquelles elle prenait plaisir autrefois de même qu' avec ses loisirs et ses intérêts; elle change des amis, ses relations familiales et amicales deviennent pauvres et remplies de nombreux conflits; elle devient moins critique et plus manipulative, commence à mentir, trompe pour dissimuler sa toxicomanie, rejoint un groupe de ses semblables, se livre à des activités criminogènes, de plus en plus se dégrade physiquement. L' alcool qui, étant le plus accessible et par conséquent généralement 'la première mesure d' auto-thérapie', a un impact particulièrement dévastateur sur l' organisme sensible au point de vue psycho-physique. Nous assistons à de nombreuses difficultés et des problèmes qui, à la suite de la consommation d' alcool, aggravent ceux liés à des expériences des événements traumatisants. De même l' efficacité de certains comprimés de réduire les tensions ou d' améliorer l' état du patient conduit fréquemment

  20. Medium term hurricane catastrophe models: a validation experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonazzi, Alessandro; Turner, Jessica; Dobbin, Alison; Wilson, Paul; Mitas, Christos; Bellone, Enrica

    2013-04-01

    Climate variability is a major source of uncertainty for the insurance industry underwriting hurricane risk. Catastrophe models provide their users with a stochastic set of events that expands the scope of the historical catalogue by including synthetic events that are likely to happen in a defined time-frame. The use of these catastrophe models is widespread in the insurance industry but it is only in recent years that climate variability has been explicitly accounted for. In the insurance parlance "medium term catastrophe model" refers to products that provide an adjusted view of risk that is meant to represent hurricane activity on a 1 to 5 year horizon, as opposed to long term models that integrate across the climate variability of the longest available time series of observations. In this presentation we discuss how a simple reinsurance program can be used to assess the value of medium term catastrophe models. We elaborate on similar concepts as discussed in "Potential Economic Value of Seasonal Hurricane Forecasts" by Emanuel et al. (2012, WCAS) and provide an example based on 24 years of historical data of the Chicago Mercantile Hurricane Index (CHI), an insured loss proxy. Profit and loss volatility of a hypothetical primary insurer are used to score medium term models versus their long term counterpart. Results show that medium term catastrophe models could help a hypothetical primary insurer to improve their financial resiliency to varying climate conditions.

  1. Protecting patients with cardiovascular diseases from catastrophic health expenditure and impoverishment by health finance reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Liabsuetrakul, Tippawan; Fan, Yancun; McNeil, Edward

    2015-12-01

    To compare the incidences of catastrophic health expenditure (CHE) and impoverishment, the risk protection offered by two health financial reforms and to explore factors associated with CHE and impoverishment among patients with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in rural Inner Mongolia, China. Cross-sectional study conducted in 2014 in rural Inner Mongolia, China. Patients with CVDs aged over 18 years residing in the sample areas for at least one year were eligible. The definitions of CHE and impoverishment recommended by WHO were adopted. The protection of CHE and impoverishment was compared between the New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS) alone and NCMS plus National Essential Medicines Scheme (NEMS) using the percentage change of incidences for CHE and impoverishment. Logistic regression was used to explore factors associated with CHE and impoverishment. The incidences of CHE and impoverishment under NCMS plus NEMS were 11.26% and 3.30%, respectively, which were lower than those under NCMS alone. The rates of protection were higher among households with patients with CVDs covered by NCMS plus NEMS (25.68% and 34.65%, respectively). NCMS plus NEMS could protect the poor households more from CHE but not impoverishment. NCMS plus NEMS protected more than one-fourth of households from CHE and more than one-third from impoverishment. NCMS plus NEMS was more effective at protecting households with patients with CVDs from CHE and impoverishment than NCMS alone. An integration of NCMS with NEMS should be expanded. However, further strategies to minimise catastrophic health expenditure after this health finance reform are still needed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Stagewise cognitive development: an application of catastrophe theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Maas, H L; Molenaar, P C

    1992-07-01

    In this article an overview is given of traditional methodological approaches to stagewise cognitive developmental research. These approaches are evaluated and integrated on the basis of catastrophe theory. In particular, catastrophe theory specifies a set of common criteria for testing the discontinuity hypothesis proposed by Piaget. Separate criteria correspond to distinct methods used in cognitive developmental research. Such criteria are, for instance, the detection of spurts in development, bimodality of test scores, and increased variability of responses during transitional periods. When a genuine stage transition is present, these criteria are expected to be satisfied. A revised catastrophe model accommodating these criteria is proposed for the stage transition in cognitive development from the preoperational to the concrete operational stage.

  3. Chromosome catastrophes involve replication mechanisms generating complex genomic rearrangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pengfei; Erez, Ayelet; Sreenath Nagamani, Sandesh C.; Dhar, Shweta U.; Kołodziejska, Katarzyna E.; Dharmadhikari, Avinash V.; Cooper, M. Lance; Wiszniewska, Joanna; Zhang, Feng; Withers, Marjorie A.; Bacino, Carlos A.; Campos-Acevedo, Luis Daniel; Delgado, Mauricio R.; Freedenberg, Debra; Garnica, Adolfo; Grebe, Theresa A.; Hernández-Almaguer, Dolores; Immken, LaDonna; Lalani, Seema R.; McLean, Scott D.; Northrup, Hope; Scaglia, Fernando; Strathearn, Lane; Trapane, Pamela; Kang, Sung-Hae L.; Patel, Ankita; Cheung, Sau Wai; Hastings, P. J.; Stankiewicz, Paweł; Lupski, James R.; Bi, Weimin

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Complex genomic rearrangements (CGR) consisting of two or more breakpoint junctions have been observed in genomic disorders. Recently, a chromosome catastrophe phenomenon termed chromothripsis, in which numerous genomic rearrangements are apparently acquired in one single catastrophic event, was described in multiple cancers. Here we show that constitutionally acquired CGRs share similarities with cancer chromothripsis. In the 17 CGR cases investigated we observed localization and multiple copy number changes including deletions, duplications and/or triplications, as well as extensive translocations and inversions. Genomic rearrangements involved varied in size and complexities; in one case, array comparative genomic hybridization revealed 18 copy number changes. Breakpoint sequencing identified characteristic features, including small templated insertions at breakpoints and microhomology at breakpoint junctions, which have been attributed to replicative processes. The resemblance between CGR and chromothripsis suggests similar mechanistic underpinnings. Such chromosome catastrophic events appear to reflect basic DNA metabolism operative throughout an organism’s life cycle. PMID:21925314

  4. Dynamical systems V bifurcation theory and catastrophe theory

    CERN Document Server

    1994-01-01

    Bifurcation theory and catastrophe theory are two of the best known areas within the field of dynamical systems. Both are studies of smooth systems, focusing on properties that seem to be manifestly non-smooth. Bifurcation theory is concerned with the sudden changes that occur in a system when one or more parameters are varied. Examples of such are familiar to students of differential equations, from phase portraits. Moreover, understanding the bifurcations of the differential equations that describe real physical systems provides important information about the behavior of the systems. Catastrophe theory became quite famous during the 1970's, mostly because of the sensation caused by the usually less than rigorous applications of its principal ideas to "hot topics", such as the characterization of personalities and the difference between a "genius" and a "maniac". Catastrophe theory is accurately described as singularity theory and its (genuine) applications. The authors of this book, the first printing of w...

  5. Towards Symbolic Encryption Schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Naveed; Jensen, Christian D.; Zenner, Erik

    2012-01-01

    , namely an authenticated encryption scheme that is secure under chosen ciphertext attack. Therefore, many reasonable encryption schemes, such as AES in the CBC or CFB mode, are not among the implementation options. In this paper, we report new attacks on CBC and CFB based implementations of the well...

  6. Multiresolution signal decomposition schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Goutsias (John); H.J.A.M. Heijmans (Henk)

    1998-01-01

    textabstract[PNA-R9810] Interest in multiresolution techniques for signal processing and analysis is increasing steadily. An important instance of such a technique is the so-called pyramid decomposition scheme. This report proposes a general axiomatic pyramid decomposition scheme for signal analysis

  7. Socioeconomic inequality in catastrophic health expenditure in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boing, Alexandra Crispim; Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso; Barros, Aluísio Jardim Dornellas de; Posenato, Leila Garcia; Peres, Karen Glazer

    2014-08-01

    To analyze the evolution of catastrophic health expenditure and the inequalities in such expenses, according to the socioeconomic characteristics of Brazilian families. Data from the National Household Budget 2002-2003 (48,470 households) and 2008-2009 (55,970 households) were analyzed. Catastrophic health expenditure was defined as excess expenditure, considering different methods of calculation: 10.0% and 20.0% of total consumption and 40.0% of the family's capacity to pay. The National Economic Indicator and schooling were considered as socioeconomic characteristics. Inequality measures utilized were the relative difference between rates, the rates ratio, and concentration index. The catastrophic health expenditure varied between 0.7% and 21.0%, depending on the calculation method. The lowest prevalences were noted in relation to the capacity to pay, while the highest, in relation to total consumption. The prevalence of catastrophic health expenditure increased by 25.0% from 2002-2003 to 2008-2009 when the cutoff point of 20.0% relating to the total consumption was considered and by 100% when 40.0% or more of the capacity to pay was applied as the cut-off point. Socioeconomic inequalities in the catastrophic health expenditure in Brazil between 2002-2003 and 2008-2009 increased significantly, becoming 5.20 times higher among the poorest and 4.17 times higher among the least educated. There was an increase in catastrophic health expenditure among Brazilian families, principally among the poorest and those headed by the least-educated individuals, contributing to an increase in social inequality.

  8. Adaptive protection scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sitharthan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at modelling an electronically coupled distributed energy resource with an adaptive protection scheme. The electronically coupled distributed energy resource is a microgrid framework formed by coupling the renewable energy source electronically. Further, the proposed adaptive protection scheme provides a suitable protection to the microgrid for various fault conditions irrespective of the operating mode of the microgrid: namely, grid connected mode and islanded mode. The outstanding aspect of the developed adaptive protection scheme is that it monitors the microgrid and instantly updates relay fault current according to the variations that occur in the system. The proposed adaptive protection scheme also employs auto reclosures, through which the proposed adaptive protection scheme recovers faster from the fault and thereby increases the consistency of the microgrid. The effectiveness of the proposed adaptive protection is studied through the time domain simulations carried out in the PSCAD⧹EMTDC software environment.

  9. Assessing the impoverishing effects, and factors associated with the incidence of catastrophic health care payments in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barasa, Edwine W; Maina, Thomas; Ravishankar, Nirmala

    2017-02-06

    Monitoring the incidence and intensity of catastrophic health expenditure, as well as the impoverishing effects of out of pocket costs to access healthcare, is a key part of benchmarking Kenya's progress towards reducing the financial burden that households experience when accessing healthcare. The study relies on data from the nationally-representative Kenya Household Expenditure and Utilization Survey conducted in 2013 (n =33,675). We undertook health equity analysis to estimate the incidence and intensity of catastrophic expenditure. Households were considered to have incurred catastrophic expenditures if their annual out of-pocket health expenditures exceeded 40% of their annual non-food expenditure. We assessed the impoverishing effects of out of pocket payments using the Kenya national poverty line. We distinguished between direct payments for healthcare such as payments for consultation, medicines, medical procedures, and total healthcare expenditure that includes direct healthcare payments and the cost of transportation to and from health facilities. We used logistic regression analysis to explore the factors associated with the incidence of catastrophic expenditures. When only direct payments to healthcare providers were considered, the incidence of catastrophic expenditures was 4.52%. When transport costs are included, the incidence of catastrophic expenditure increased to 6.58%. 453,470 Kenyans are pushed into poverty annually as a result of direct payments for healthcare. When the cost of transport is included, that number increases by more than one third to 619,541. Unemployment of the household head, presence of an elderly person, a person with a chronic ailment, a large household size, lower household social-economic status, and residence in marginalized regions of the country are significantly associated with increased odds of incurring catastrophic expenditures. Kenyan policy makers should prioritize extending pre-payment mechanisms to more

  10. A preliminary investigation of the efficacy of riparian fencing schemes for reducing contributions from eroding channel banks to the siltation of salmonid spawning gravels across the south west UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Adrian L; Walling, Desmond E; McMellin, Grant K; Zhang, Yusheng; Gray, Janina; McGonigle, Daniel; Cherrington, Ross

    2010-06-01

    The low productivity of salmonids in many river systems across the UK is testament to their intolerance of water quality perturbations including those associated with excessive sedimentation. Catchment and fishery managers concerned with combating such issues require reliable information on the key sources of the sediment problem to target management and on the efficacy of the mitigation options being implemented. In recognition of the latter requirement, a pre- and post-remediation sediment sourcing survey was used to examine the potential for using sediment tracing to assemble preliminary information on the efficacy of riparian fencing schemes for reducing sediment contributions from eroding channel banks to salmonid spawning gravels in the Rivers Camel, Fal, Lynher, Plym, Tamar and Tavy in the south west of the UK. Respective estimates of the overall mean proportion (+/-95% confidence limits) of the interstitial sediment input to salmonid spawning gravels originating from eroding channel banks during the pre- (1999-2000) and post-remediation (2008-2009) study periods were computed at 97+/-1% vs. 69+/-1%, 94+/-1% vs. 91+/-1%, 12+/-1% vs. 10+/-1%, 92+/-1% vs. 34+/-1%, 31+/-1% vs. 16+/-1% and 90+/-1% vs. 66+/-1%. Whilst the study demonstrates the potential utility of the fingerprinting approach for helping to assemble important information on the efficacy of bank fencing as a sediment source control measure at catchment scale, a number of limitations of the work and some suggestions for improving experimental design are discussed. Equivalent data are urgently required for many sediment mitigation options to help inform the development of water quality policy packages designed to protect aquatic ecosystems. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Clinical Pain Catastrophizing in Women With Migraine and Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Dale S; Buse, Dawn C; Lipton, Richard B; Thomas, J Graham; Rathier, Lucille; Roth, Julie; Pavlovic, Jelena M; Evans, E Whitney; Wing, Rena R

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is related to migraine. Maladaptive pain coping strategies (eg, pain catastrophizing) may provide insight into this relationship. In women with migraine and obesity, we cross-sectionally assessed: (1) prevalence of clinical catastrophizing; (2) characteristics of those with and without clinical catastrophizing; and (3) associations of catastrophizing with headache features. Obese women migraineurs seeking weight loss treatment (n = 105) recorded daily migraine activity for 1 month via smartphone and completed the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS). Clinical catastrophizing was defined as total PCS score ≥30. The six-item Headache Impact Test (HIT-6), 12-item Allodynia Symptom Checklist (ASC-12), Headache Management Self-Efficacy Scale (HMSE), and assessments for depression (Centers for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale) and anxiety (seven-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale) were also administered. Using PCS scores and body mass index (BMI) as predictors in linear regression, we modeled a series of headache features (ie, headache days, HIT-6, etc) as outcomes. One quarter (25.7%; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 17.2-34.1%) of participants met criteria for clinical catastrophizing: they had higher BMI (37.9 ± 7.5 vs 34.4 ± 5.7 kg/m(2) , P = .035); longer migraine attack duration (160.8 ± 145.0 vs 97.5 ± 75.2 hours/month, P = .038); higher HIT-6 scores (68.7 ± 4.6 vs 64.5 ± 3.9, P anxiety (11.0 ± 5.2 vs 5.6 ± 4.1, P < .001); and lower self-efficacy (80.1 ± 25.6 vs 104.7 ± 18.9, P < .001) compared with participants without clinical catastrophizing. The odds of chronic migraine were nearly fourfold greater in those with (n = 8/29.6%) vs without (n = 8/10.3%) clinical catastrophizing (odds ratio = 3.68; 95%CI = 1.22-11.10, P = .021). In all participants, higher PCS scores were related to more migraine days (β = 0.331, P = .001), longer attack

  12. Pain catastrophizing predicts verbal expression among children with chronic pain and their mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelby L Langer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examined intra- and inter-personal associations between pain catastrophizing and verbal expression in 70 children with recurrent abdominal pain and their mothers. Participants independently completed the Pain Catastrophizing Scale. Mothers and children then talked about the child’s pain. Speech was categorized using a linguistic analysis program. Catastrophizing was positively associated with the use of negative emotion words by both mothers and children. In addition, mothers’ catastrophizing was positively associated with both mothers’ and children’s anger word usage, whereas children’s catastrophizing was inversely associated with mothers’ anger word usage. Findings extend the literature on behavioral and interpersonal aspects of catastrophizing.

  13. Determining factors of catastrophic health spending in Bogota, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaya Lara, Jeannette Liliana; Ruiz Gómez, Fernando

    2011-06-01

    This study tests whether the low-income population in Bogota not insured under the General Social Security Health System is able to economically handle unexpected health problems or not. It used data from the Health Services Use and Expenditure Study conducted in Colombia in 2001, for which each household recorded its monthly out-of-pocket health expenditure during the year and the household income was measured as the sum of each member's contribution to the household. Payment capacity or available income and catastrophic health spending were based on the latest methodology proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2005. A probit model was adjusted to determine the factors that significantly influence the likelihood of a household having catastrophic health spending. The percentage of households with catastrophic health spending in Bogota was 4.9%; incidence was higher in low-income households where none of the members were affiliated to social security, where there had been an in-patient event, and where the heads of household were over 60 years of age. There is no statistical evidence for rejecting the hypothesis under study, which states that low-income households that have no health insurance are more likely to have catastrophic health spending than higher-income households with health insurance.

  14. [Establishing the personal identity of the victims in aviation catastrophes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramov, S S; Alekseev, I V; Gedygushev, I A; Zaĭtsev, A B; Isaev, Iu S; Nedel'ko, N F; Miller, V V; Proskurin, V N; Khaĭrulin, E G; Shilin, A V

    1999-01-01

    Algorithm of organization measures and expert investigations is proposed, based on experience gained in expert studies during liquidation of aircraft catastrophes. It permits effective classification, differentiation, and identification of victims and is based on traditional and high technological methods of investigation.

  15. [Issues related to the identification process of catastrophes victims].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Roman

    2002-01-01

    Catastrophes on an international scale with an increasingly pronounced terrorist factor (for example, the terrorist attacks in the United States of America on September 11, 2001) are occurring with increasing frequency. This fact compels the international forensic medical community--especially at the present moment--to undertake coordinated and rapid measures in the area, closely related to our profession, of issues connected with problems of identifying the victims of catastrophes. To date organizational issues have not been harmonized to the required at an international level degree. The subject has been raised frequently at congresses and symposiums of forensic medicine. The real and present danger of catastrophes at a national and regional level demands the adoption of rapid organizational activities at these levels too. Because the victims of such catastrophes are often of various nationalities, these activities also demand urgent organizational harmonization in keeping with established international norms. The following article addresses this issue. It contains propositions in outline with the aim of presenting them to discussion. These suggestions refer solely to organizational activities on the regional, national, and international levels, connected with the issue of identification in the broad sense of the word.

  16. Catastrophic ice lake collapse in Aram Chaos, Mars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roda, M.; Kleinhans, M.G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/217675123; Zegers, T.E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/155390562; Oosthoek, J.H.P.

    2014-01-01

    Hesperian chaotic terrains have been recognized as the source of outflow channels formed by catastrophic outflows. Four main scenarios have been proposed for the formation of chaotic terrains that involve different amounts of water and single or multiple outflow events. Here, we test these scenarios

  17. Determinants of Catastrophic Dental Health Expenditure in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiangyu; Bernabé, Eduardo; Liu, Xuenan; Gallagher, Jennifer Elizabeth; Zheng, Shuguo

    2016-01-01

    This study explored catastrophic health expenditure in China, due to out-of-pocket payments for dental care, and its associated individual- and contextual-level factors. We pooled data from 31,566 adults who participated in the third National Oral Health Survey with province-level data from different sources. We defined catastrophic dental health expenditure (CDHE) as payments for dental services and/or medication for dental problems during the last year that exceeded the 10% and 20% of the household income. The association of individual and contextual factors with catastrophic dental health expenditure was evaluated using two-level logistic regression models with individuals nested within provinces. Socioeconomic position (education and household income), household size and dental status (pain in teeth or mouth and number of teeth) were the individual-level factors associated with CDHE among the full sample of participants; and, also, among those who used dental services in the past year. Greater gross domestic product per capita was the only contextual factor associated with CDHE, and only at the lower income threshold. This study shows that out-of-pocket expenses for dental services may put a considerable, and unnecessary, burden on households' finances. Our findings also help characterise those households more likely to face catastrophic expenditure on health if they have to pay for dental services.

  18. History-dependent catastrophes regulate axonal microtubule behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Stepanova (Tatiana); I. Smal (Ihor); J.A.J. van Haren (Jeffrey); U. Akinci (Umut); Z. Liu (Zhe); M. Miedema (Marja); R. Limpens (Ronald); M. van Ham (Marco); M. van der Reijden (Michael); R.A. Poot (Raymond); F.G. Grosveld (Frank); M. Mommaas (Mieke); E. Meijering (Erik); N.J. Galjart (Niels)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractIn Chinese hamster ovary cells, microtubules originate at the microtubule organizing center (MTOC) and grow persistently toward the cell edge, where they undergo catastrophe [1]. In axons, microtubule dynamics must be regulated differently because microtubules grow parallel to the plasma

  19. The Application of Catastrophe Theory to Medical Image Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijper, Arjan; Florack, L.M.J.

    2001-01-01

    In order to investigate the deep structure of Gaussian scale space images, one needs to understand the behaviour of critical points under the influence of blurring. We show how the mathematical framework of catastrophe theory can be used to describe the various different types of

  20. The Application of Catastrophe Theory to Image Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijper, Arjan; Florack, L.M.J.

    2001-01-01

    In order to investigate the deep structure of Gaussian scale space images, one needs to understand the behaviour of critical points under the in flence of blurring. We show how the mathematical framework of catastrophe theory can be used to describe the various different types of annihilations

  1. Catastrophe Theory: A Unified Model for Educational Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryer, Patricia; Elton, Lewis

    1990-01-01

    Catastrophe Theory and Herzberg's theory of motivation at work was used to create a model of change that unifies and extends Lewin's two separate stage and force field models. This new model is used to analyze the behavior of academics as they adapt to the changing university environment. (Author/MLW)

  2. Vaginismus : Heightened Harm Avoidance and Pain Catastrophizing Cognitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borg, Charmaine; Peters, Madelon L.; Schultz, Willibrord Weijmar; de Jong, Peter J.

    Introduction. Catastrophic appraisal of experienced pain may promote hypervigilance and intense pain, while the personality trait of harm avoidance (HA) might prevent the occurrence of correcting such experiences. Women inflicted with vaginismus may enter a self-perpetuating downward spiral of

  3. The Effect of Social Observational Learning, Empathy and Catastrophizing in Chronic Pain Patients During Acute Pain Induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakunchikov, Dmitry Y; Olechowski, Camille J; Simmonds, Mark K; Verrier, Michelle J; Rashiq, Saifudin; McWilliams, Lachlan A; Sobolev, Igor A; Dick, Bruce D

    2017-05-01

    In this study, we were interested in determining whether we could alter a pain response in a chronic pain patient population by exposing participants to different videos prior to inducing acute pain. This observational case series study required participants to report their pain level during the cold pressor task after viewing an instruction video. Recruitment and testing took place in a tertiary care multidisciplinary pain center. Forty adults with chronic pain participated in the study and completed the cold pressor test. Prior to testing, questionnaires measuring pain, empathy, and catastrophic thinking were completed and participants were randomized to view an instructional video where an actress either demonstrated pain behavior or a stoic response during the cold pressor test. Participants with higher levels of catastrophizing reported higher pain levels during the cold pressor test. Personal Distress Empathy measures of participants who viewed the pain catastrophizing video were significantly correlated with their final pain reports. Following the cold pressor task, participants' pain reports for their primary chronic pain sites were significantly reduced. These results support previous findings that people with chronic pain show the tendency toward increased acute pain experience if levels of catastrophizing and Personal Distress Empathy measures are higher. Participants reported attenuated chronic pain following induced pain, also in line with previous research suggesting a central endogenous inhibitory effect. Our findings shed light on the role of emotional and social components affecting the experience of pain in individuals with chronic pain.

  4. Catastrophic head injuries in high school and college football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Barry P; Tacchetti, Robin L; Cantu, Robert C; Knowles, Sarah B; Mueller, Frederick O

    2007-07-01

    Catastrophic head injuries in football are rare but tragic events. To update the profile of catastrophic head injuries in high school and college football players and to describe relevant risk factors. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. We reviewed 94 incidents of severe football head injuries reported to the National Center for Catastrophic Sports Injury Research during 13 academic years (September 1989 through June 2002). In the study period there were an average of 7.23 (standard deviation = 2.05) direct high school and college catastrophic head injuries in scholastic football participants per year. There were 0.67 injuries per 100 000 (95% confidence interval: 0.54, 0.81 per 100 000) high school and 0.21 injuries per 100 000 (95% confidence interval: 0.0, 0.49 per 100 000) college participants for a risk ratio of 3.28 (95% confidence interval: 0.81, 13.3). The injuries resulted in subdural hematoma in 75 athletes, subdural hematoma with diffuse brain edema in 10 athletes, diffuse brain edema in 5 athletes, and arteriovenous malformation or aneurysm in 4 athletes. Fifty-nine percent of the contacts reported that the athlete had a history of a previous head injury, of which 71% occurred within the same season as the catastrophic event. Thirty-nine percent of the athletes (21 of 54) were playing with residual neurologic symptoms from the prior head injury. There were 8 (9%) deaths as a result of the injury, 46 (51%) permanent neurologic injuries, and 36 (40%) serious injuries with full recovery. Most players sustained a major impact to the head either from tackling or being tackled. The incidence of catastrophic head injuries in football has remained low since the advent of the modern day football helmet in the early 1970s. The incidence of catastrophic head injuries in football is dramatically higher at the high school level than at the college level. Although the reason for this discrepancy is unclear, an unacceptably high percentage of high school players were

  5. Succesful labelling schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Hans Jørn; Stacey, Julia

    2001-01-01

    It is usual practice to evaluate the success of a labelling scheme by looking at the awareness percentage, but in many cases this is not sufficient. The awareness percentage gives no indication of which of the consumer segments that are aware of and use labelling schemes and which do not....... In the spring of 2001 MAPP carried out an extensive consumer study with special emphasis on the Nordic environmentally friendly label 'the swan'. The purpose was to find out how much consumers actually know and use various labelling schemes. 869 households were contacted and asked to fill in a questionnaire....... 664 households returned a completed questionnaire. There were five answering categories for each label in the questionnaire: * have not seen the label before. * I have seen the label before but I do not know the precise contents of the labelling scheme. * I have seen the label before, I do not know...

  6. Tabled Execution in Scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willcock, J J; Lumsdaine, A; Quinlan, D J

    2008-08-19

    Tabled execution is a generalization of memorization developed by the logic programming community. It not only saves results from tabled predicates, but also stores the set of currently active calls to them; tabled execution can thus provide meaningful semantics for programs that seemingly contain infinite recursions with the same arguments. In logic programming, tabled execution is used for many purposes, both for improving the efficiency of programs, and making tasks simpler and more direct to express than with normal logic programs. However, tabled execution is only infrequently applied in mainstream functional languages such as Scheme. We demonstrate an elegant implementation of tabled execution in Scheme, using a mix of continuation-passing style and mutable data. We also show the use of tabled execution in Scheme for a problem in formal language and automata theory, demonstrating that tabled execution can be a valuable tool for Scheme users.

  7. Readout scheme of the upgraded ALICE TPC

    CERN Document Server

    Appelshaeuser, Harald; Ivanov, Marian; Lippmann, Christian; Wiechula, Jens

    2016-01-01

    In this document, we present the updated readout scheme for the ALICE TPC Upgrade. Two major design changes are implemented with respect to the concept that was presented in the TPC Upgrade Technical Design Report: – The SAMPA front-end ASIC will be used in direct readout mode. – The ADC sampling frequency will be reduced from 10 to 5 MHz. The main results from simulations and a description of the new readout scheme is outlined.

  8. Kinesiophobia, catastrophizing and anticipated symptoms before stair climbing in chronic fatigue syndrome: an experimental study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijs, J.; Meeus, M.; Heins, M.; Knoop, H.; Moorkens, G.; Bleijenberg, G.

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: Kinesiophobia and catastrophizing are frequent among people with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). This study was aimed at examining (1) whether kinesiophobia, anticipated symptoms and fatigue catastrophizing are related to stair climbing performance in people with CFS; and (2) whether

  9. Kinesiophobia, catastrophizing and anticipated symptoms before stair climbing in chronic fatigue syndrome: an experimental study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijs, J.; Meeuw, M.; Heins, M.; Knoop, H.; Moorkens, G.; Bleijenberg, G.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Kinesiophobia and catastrophizing are frequent among people with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). This study was aimed at examining (1) whether kinesiophobia, anticipated symptoms and fatigue catastrophizing are related to stair climbing performance in people with CFS; and (2) whether

  10. Energy '75: prosperity or catastrophe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sibarium, J.M.

    1975-01-01

    The presentation reviewed some proposals of Project Independence, the theme of the proposal being to reduce dependence on foreign oil. In this light, an all-electric economy is discussed. Other subjects covered include nuclear energy, its safety, and transportation of nuclear wastes. The political power of the new Arab wealth is covered. The Federal government as a waster of energy with its billions of forms required brings attention to the need for conservation. The savings of millions of barrels of oil by the FEA is described. Some coal mining legislation and proposals for converting power plants to coal are discussed. The money problem and legislative actions for energy conservation conclude the paper. Conclusions and recommendations are given on structuring gas and electric rates; saving 3,000,000 barrels of oil a day; how to conserve energy and electricity; saving 4,000,000 barrels a day by revised lighting standards, and rewarding conservation and patriotism. (MCW)

  11. Cambridge community Optometry Glaucoma Scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Jonathan; Shahid, Humma; Bourne, Rupert R; White, Andrew J; Martin, Keith R

    2015-04-01

    With a higher life expectancy, there is an increased demand for hospital glaucoma services in the United Kingdom. The Cambridge community Optometry Glaucoma Scheme (COGS) was initiated in 2010, where new referrals for suspected glaucoma are evaluated by community optometrists with a special interest in glaucoma, with virtual electronic review and validation by a consultant ophthalmologist with special interest in glaucoma. 1733 patients were evaluated by this scheme between 2010 and 2013. Clinical assessment is performed by the optometrist at a remote site. Goldmann applanation tonometry, pachymetry, monoscopic colour optic disc photographs and automated Humphrey visual field testing are performed. A clinical decision is made as to whether a patient has glaucoma or is a suspect, and referred on or discharged as a false positive referral. The clinical findings, optic disc photographs and visual field test results are transmitted electronically for virtual review by a consultant ophthalmologist. The number of false positive referrals from initial referral into the scheme. Of the patients, 46.6% were discharged at assessment and a further 5.7% were discharged following virtual review. Of the patients initially discharged, 2.8% were recalled following virtual review. Following assessment at the hospital, a further 10.5% were discharged after a single visit. The COGS community-based glaucoma screening programme is a safe and effective way of evaluating glaucoma referrals in the community and reducing false-positive referrals for glaucoma into the hospital system. © 2014 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  12. Catastrophe risk data scoping for disaster risk finance in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millinship, Ian; Revilla-Romero, Beatriz

    2017-04-01

    Developing countries across Latin America, Africa, and Asia are some of the most exposed to natural catastrophes in the world. Over the last 20 years, Asia has borne almost half the estimated global economic cost of natural disasters - around 53billion annually. Losses from natural disasters can damage growth and hamper economic development and unlike in developed countries where risk is reallocated through re/insurance, typically these countries rely on budget reallocations and donor assistance in order to attempt to meet financing needs. There is currently an active international dialogue on the need to increase access to disaster risk financing solutions in Asia. The World Bank-GFDRR Disaster Risk Financing and Insurance Program with financial support from the Rockefeller Foundation, is currently working to develop regional options for disaster risk financing for developing countries in Asia. The first stage of this process has been to evaluate available catastrophe data suitable to support the design and implementation of disaster risk financing mechanisms in selected Asian countries. This project was carried out by a consortium of JBA Risk Management, JBA Consulting, ImageCat and Cat Risk Intelligence. The project focuses on investigating potential data sources for fourteen selected countries in Asia, for flood, tropical cyclone, earthquake and drought perils. The project was carried out under four stages. The first phase focused to identify and catalogue live/dynamic hazard data sources such as hazard gauging networks, or earth observations datasets which could be used to inform a parametric trigger. Live data sources were identified that provide credibility, transparency, independence, frequent reporting, consistency and stability. Data were catalogued at regional level, and prioritised at local level for five countries: Bangladesh, Indonesia, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Viet Nam. The second phase was to identify, catalogue and evaluate catastrophe risk models

  13. Optimal Face-Iris Multimodal Fusion Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Sharifi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Multimodal biometric systems are considered a way to minimize the limitations raised by single traits. This paper proposes new schemes based on score level, feature level and decision level fusion to efficiently fuse face and iris modalities. Log-Gabor transformation is applied as the feature extraction method on face and iris modalities. At each level of fusion, different schemes are proposed to improve the recognition performance and, finally, a combination of schemes at different fusion levels constructs an optimized and robust scheme. In this study, CASIA Iris Distance database is used to examine the robustness of all unimodal and multimodal schemes. In addition, Backtracking Search Algorithm (BSA, a novel population-based iterative evolutionary algorithm, is applied to improve the recognition accuracy of schemes by reducing the number of features and selecting the optimized weights for feature level and score level fusion, respectively. Experimental results on verification rates demonstrate a significant improvement of proposed fusion schemes over unimodal and multimodal fusion methods.

  14. Ponzi scheme diffusion in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Anding; Fu, Peihua; Zhang, Qinghe; Chen, Zhenyue

    2017-08-01

    Ponzi schemes taking the form of Internet-based financial schemes have been negatively affecting China's economy for the last two years. Because there is currently a lack of modeling research on Ponzi scheme diffusion within social networks yet, we develop a potential-investor-divestor (PID) model to investigate the diffusion dynamics of Ponzi scheme in both homogeneous and inhomogeneous networks. Our simulation study of artificial and real Facebook social networks shows that the structure of investor networks does indeed affect the characteristics of dynamics. Both the average degree of distribution and the power-law degree of distribution will reduce the spreading critical threshold and will speed up the rate of diffusion. A high speed of diffusion is the key to alleviating the interest burden and improving the financial outcomes for the Ponzi scheme operator. The zero-crossing point of fund flux function we introduce proves to be a feasible index for reflecting the fast-worsening situation of fiscal instability and predicting the forthcoming collapse. The faster the scheme diffuses, the higher a peak it will reach and the sooner it will collapse. We should keep a vigilant eye on the harm of Ponzi scheme diffusion through modern social networks.

  15. Compact Spreader Schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Placidi, M.; Jung, J. -Y.; Ratti, A.; Sun, C.

    2014-07-25

    This paper describes beam distribution schemes adopting a novel implementation based on low amplitude vertical deflections combined with horizontal ones generated by Lambertson-type septum magnets. This scheme offers substantial compactness in the longitudinal layouts of the beam lines and increased flexibility for beam delivery of multiple beam lines on a shot-to-shot basis. Fast kickers (FK) or transverse electric field RF Deflectors (RFD) provide the low amplitude deflections. Initially proposed at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) as tools for beam diagnostics and more recently adopted for multiline beam pattern schemes, RFDs offer repetition capabilities and a likely better amplitude reproducibility when compared to FKs, which, in turn, offer more modest financial involvements both in construction and operation. Both solutions represent an ideal approach for the design of compact beam distribution systems resulting in space and cost savings while preserving flexibility and beam quality.

  16. Space power as a response to global catastrophes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hempsell, Mark

    2006-10-01

    Global catastrophes (events that cause the death of more than a quarter of world population) can credibly be caused through either natural events or human activity. It has been argued that space industrialisation generally offers a response to the risks involved by this class of event and should be the key focus of space infrastructure development. Space power has always been argued as the only energy generating option that avoids depletion of non-renewable resources or pollution induced problems—in particular global warming. However, there are many other potential roles for a solar power capability and the infrastructure associated with it can play in the prevention of global catastrophes and this paper examines this wider application. A very preliminary examination indicates the Solar Power Satellite (SPS) infrastructure can also support strategic defence, Near-Earth Object defence, climate modification, and major resource provision. Combined these may give the capability to deal with all the main threats to human civilisation.

  17. Holographic considerations on non-gaussian statistics and gravothermal catastrophe

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, Everton M C; Barboza, Edesio M; Nunes, Rafael da C

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we have derived the equipartition law of energy using Tsallis formalism and the Kaniadakis power law statistics in order to obtain a modified gravitational constant. We have applied this result in the gravothermal collapse phenomenon. We have discussed the equivalence between Tsallis and the Kaniadakis statistics in the context of Verlinde entropic formalism. In the same way we have analyzed negative heat capacities in the light of gravothermal catastrophe. The relative deviations of the modified gravitational constants are derived.

  18. Intraoperative endobronchial rupture of pulmonary hydatid cyst: An airway catastrophe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richa Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydatid cyst disease of lungs may not be symptomatic. It may present as spontaneous rupture in pleura or a bronchus. During spontaneous breathing, cyst content of endobronchially ruptured pulmonary hydatid cyst is mostly evacuated by coughing. However, during positive pressure ventilation such extruded fragments may lodge into smaller airway leading to an airway catastrophe. We present such accidental endobronchial rupture of pulmonary hydatid cyst during surgery, its prompt detection, and management by rigid bronchoscopy.

  19. Catastrophic neck injuries in the collision sport athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Phillip R; Fadale, Paul D; Palumbo, Mark A

    2008-03-01

    Catastrophic neck injury is defined as a structural distortion of the cervical spinal column associated with actual (or potential) damage to the spinal cord. Although uncommon, this type of traumatic injury can lead to severe neurologic sequelae in the collision sport athlete. Emergency care is complicated by the helmet and shoulder pads worn by the athlete. A thorough understanding of the clinical anatomy, diagnostic considerations, and protocols for on-site evaluation and management is necessary to optimize outcome.

  20. Mitigating Decision-Making Paralysis During Catastrophic Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    civilians out of the north tower and requesting mutual aid assistance. Because the magnitude of the incident required such a large response of FD and...The decision-making premise used in this study resembles that of what could transpire during a catastrophic disaster. For example, similar to military...concluded that “emergency workers responding to contained small-scale disasters are likely to experience milder stress symptoms ” (Durham, McCammon, and

  1. Holographic considerations on non-gaussian statistics and gravothermal catastrophe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Everton M. C.; Neto, Jorge Ananias; Barboza, Edesio M., Jr.; Nunes, Rafael C.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we have derived the equipartition law of energy using Tsallis formalism and the Kaniadakis power law statistics in order to obtain a modified gravitational constant. We have applied this result in the gravothermal collapse phenomenon. We have discussed the equivalence between Tsallis and the Kaniadakis statistics in the context of Verlinde's entropic formalism. In the same way we have analyzed the negative heat capacities in the light of gravothermal catastrophe. The relative deviations of the modified gravitational constants are derived.

  2. Holographic considerations on non-gaussian statistics and gravothermal catastrophe

    OpenAIRE

    Abreu, Everton M. C.; Neto, Jorge Ananias; Barboza Jr., Edesio M.; Nunes, Rafael da C.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we have derived the equipartition law of energy using Tsallis formalism and the Kaniadakis power law statistics in order to obtain a modified gravitational constant. We have applied this result in the gravothermal collapse phenomenon. We have discussed the equivalence between Tsallis and the Kaniadakis statistics in the context of Verlinde entropic formalism. In the same way we have analyzed negative heat capacities in the light of gravothermal catastrophe. The relative deviatio...

  3. Iatrogenic diaphragmatic hernia in infants: Potentially catastrophic when overlooked

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef El-Gohary

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Acquired diaphragmatic hernias are a rare occurrence. They can result from blunt, penetrating or inadvertent iatrogenic injury. When overlooked they can potentially be catastrophic. We report a case of iatrogenic diaphragmatic hernia in a six-month old infant presenting with acute respiratory distress as a result of strangulated bowel herniating into the left hemithorax caused from a traumatic chest tube insertion in the neonatal period.

  4. Study of the catastrophic discharge phenomenon in a Hall thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yongjie; Su, Hongbo; Li, Peng; Wei, Liqiu; Li, Hong; Peng, Wuji; Xu, Yu; Sun, Hezhi; Yu, Daren

    2017-10-01

    In a 1350-W Hall-effect thruster, in which a technique for pushing down the magnetic field is implemented, a catastrophic discharge phenomenon is identified by varying the magnetic field strength while keeping all other operating parameters constant. According to experiments, before and after the discharge catastrophe, the plume changes from focusing state to a divergent state, and discharge parameters such as discharge current and thrust exhibit noticeable changes. The divergence half-angle of the plume increases from 22° to 46°. The oscillation amplitude and mean values of the discharge current significantly increase from 0.8 A to 4 A and from 4.6 A to 6.3 A, respectively, while the thrust increases from 89.3 mN to 91 mN. Analysis of the experimental results shows that as the maximum magnetic field of the thruster we developed is in the plume region, the acceleration occurs in the plume region and a large number of Xe2+ ions appear in the plume area, the catastrophic discharge phenomenon observed.

  5. Deitmar schemes, graphs and zeta functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mérida-Angulo, Manuel; Thas, Koen

    2017-07-01

    In Thas (2014) it was explained how one can naturally associate a Deitmar scheme (which is a scheme defined over the field with one element, F1) to a so-called ;loose graph; (which is a generalization of a graph). Several properties of the Deitmar scheme can be proven easily from the combinatorics of the (loose) graph, and known realizations of objects over F1 such as combinatorial F1-projective and F1-affine spaces exactly depict the loose graph which corresponds to the associated Deitmar scheme. In this paper, we first modify the construction of loc. cit., and show that Deitmar schemes which are defined by finite trees (with possible end points) are ;defined over F1; in Kurokawa's sense; we then derive a precise formula for the Kurokawa zeta function for such schemes (and so also for the counting polynomial of all associated Fq-schemes). As a corollary, we find a zeta function for all such trees which contains information such as the number of inner points and the spectrum of degrees, and which is thus very different than Ihara's zeta function (which is trivial in this case). Using a process called ;surgery,; we show that one can determine the zeta function of a general loose graph and its associated {Deitmar, Grothendieck}-schemes in a number of steps, eventually reducing the calculation essentially to trees. We study a number of classes of examples of loose graphs, and introduce the Grothendieck ring ofF1-schemes along the way in order to perform the calculations. Finally, we include a computer program for performing more tedious calculations, and compare the new zeta function to Ihara's zeta function for graphs in a number of examples.

  6. 4. Payment Schemes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 2. Electronic Commerce - Payment Schemes. V Rajaraman. Series Article Volume 6 Issue 2 February 2001 pp 6-13. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/006/02/0006-0013 ...

  7. Alternative health insurance schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Hans; Hansen, Bodil O.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we present a simple model of health insurance with asymmetric information, where we compare two alternative ways of organizing the insurance market. Either as a competitive insurance market, where some risks remain uninsured, or as a compulsory scheme, where however, the level...... competitive insurance; this situation turns out to be at least as good as either of the alternatives...

  8. MIT Scheme Reference Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    their Butterfly Scheme Reference, and to Margaret O’Connell for translating it from BBN’s text-formatting language to ours. Special thanks to Richard ... Stallman , Bob Chassell, and Brian Fox, all of the Free Software Foundation, for creating and maintaining the Texinfo formatting language in which this

  9. The 1985 Nevado del Ruiz volcano catastrophe: anatomy and retrospection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voight, Barry

    1990-12-01

    This paper seeks to analyze in an objective way the circumstances and events that contributed to the 1985 Nevado del Ruiz catastrophe, in order to provide useful guidelines for future emergencies. The paper is organized into two principal parts. In the first part, an Anatomy of the catastrophe is developed as a step-by-step chronicle of events and actions taken by individuals and organizations during the period November 1984 through November 1985. This chronicle provides the essential background for the crucial events of November 13. This year-long period is broken down further to emphasize important chapters: the gradual awareness of the awakening of the volcano; a long period of institutional skepticism reflecting an absence of credibility; the closure of the credibility gap with the September 11 phreatic eruption, followed by an intensive effort to gird for the worst; and a detailed account of the day of reckoning. The second part of the paper, Retrospection, examines the numerous complicated factors that influenced the catastrophic outcome, and attempts to cull a few "lessons from Armero" in order to avoid similar occurrences in the future. In a nutshell, the government on the whole acted responsibly but was not willing to bear the economic or political costs of early evacuation or a false alarm. Science accurately foresaw the hazards but was insufficiently precise to render reliable warning of the crucial event at the last possible minute. Catastrophe was therefore a calculated risk, and this combination - the limitations of prediction/detection, the refusal to bear a false alarm and the lack of will to act on the uncertain information available - provided its immediate and most obvious causes. But because the crucial event occurred just two days before the Armero emergency management plan was to be critically examined and improved, the numerous circumstances which delayed progress of emergency management over the previous year also may be said to have

  10. Can people catastrophize barriers? An exploratory analysis of the association between pain catastrophizing and perceptions of environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravesloot, Craig; Berendts, Cathy; Schiwal, Alex

    2017-01-01

    Measurement of the environment is taking on increased importance for understanding variability in participation. Most measures of the environment use subjective ratings, yet little is known about how people appraise the environment. /Hypothesis: We conducted this post-hoc study to examine whether or not catastrophizing, an important variable for understanding how pain contributes to disability, may be related to ratings of the environment. We hypothesized higher pain catastrophizing scores would be associated with greater environmental barriers and fewer facilitators. Individuals with functional impairments (N = 525) were recruited from a population-based random sample of households in a small western city in the United States to complete a paper-based survey about their health and community living experiences. We conducted exploratory regression analyses to investigate associations with environmental factor ratings. We found substantial associations between pain catastrophizing and both environmental barriers and personal factor problems after controlling for demographics, participation assessed by community trips per week, health conditions, impairment and pain level. The models accounted for 28% of the variance in environmental factor ratings and 52% of the variability personal factor ratings. We also present odds ratios for the association between personal characteristics and the likelihood of endorsing EF and PF. A variety of individual characteristics are associated with ratings of both environmental and personal factors that impact participation. Among these, pain catastrophizing is a robust predictor of EF and PF ratings which suggests future research designed specifically to test this relationship may generate useful results for developing interventions to increase participation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A numerical scheme for the generalized Burgers–Huxley equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brajesh K. Singh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a numerical solution of generalized Burgers–Huxley (gBH equation is approximated by using a new scheme: modified cubic B-spline differential quadrature method (MCB-DQM. The scheme is based on differential quadrature method in which the weighting coefficients are obtained by using modified cubic B-splines as a set of basis functions. This scheme reduces the equation into a system of first-order ordinary differential equation (ODE which is solved by adopting SSP-RK43 scheme. Further, it is shown that the proposed scheme is stable. The efficiency of the proposed method is illustrated by four numerical experiments, which confirm that obtained results are in good agreement with earlier studies. This scheme is an easy, economical and efficient technique for finding numerical solutions for various kinds of (nonlinear physical models as compared to the earlier schemes.

  12. Selectively strippable paint schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, R.; Thumm, D.; Blackford, Roger W.

    1993-03-01

    In order to meet the requirements of more environmentally acceptable paint stripping processes many different removal methods are under evaluation. These new processes can be divided into mechanical and chemical methods. ICI has developed a paint scheme with intermediate coat and fluid resistant polyurethane topcoat which can be stripped chemically in a short period of time with methylene chloride free and phenol free paint strippers.

  13. Tracheotomy-Related Catastrophic Events: Results of a National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Preety; Zhu, Hannah; Shah, Rahul K.; Roberson, David W.; Berry, Jay; Skinner, Margaret L.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis To gather qualitative and semiquantitative information about catastrophic complications during and following tracheotomy. Study Design National survey distributed to American Academy of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery members via the Academy weekly email newsletter during April and May 2011. Methods A total of 478 respondents provided estimates of the number of four specific tracheotomy-related complications (innominate artery fistula, esophageal fistula, acute tracheotomy occlusion, and obstructing granuloma), all catastrophic events, and events resulting in death or permanent disability encountered during their careers. There were 253 respondents who provided 405 free-text descriptions of specific events. Results The respondents experienced approximately one catastrophic event every 10 years and one event resulting in death or permanent disability every 20 years. More than 90% occurred more than 1 week after surgery. Categories of physicians who experienced more events per year included academic physicians and laryngologists. Pediatric otolaryngologists had twice as many innominate artery fistulas per year of practice as others. Qualitative (free-text) descriptions of the most serious events demonstrated that more of these events involved loss of airway and volume bleeds, usually from innominate or carotid artery erosion. Many of the events due to airway loss involved potentially correctable deficits in family education, nursing care, home care, and other structural factors. Conclusions Even when we allow for selection bias, these data suggest that a substantial number of tracheotomy complications leading to death or permanent disability occur at a national level. The vast majority of events occur more than 1 week after the procedure. Many of the described events were caused by factors that should be amenable to prospective system improvement strategies. PMID:22183626

  14. ATR Prohibits Replication Catastrophe by Preventing Global Exhaustion of RPA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toledo Lazaro, Luis Ignacio; Altmeyer, Matthias; Rask, Maj-Britt

    2013-01-01

    origin firing generates an excess of single-stranded DNA that exhausts the nuclear pool of RPA. Partial reduction of RPA accelerated fork breakage, and forced elevation of RPA was sufficient to delay such "replication catastrophe" even in the absence of ATR activity. Conversely, unscheduled origin firing...... induced breakage of stalled forks even in cells with active ATR. Thus, ATR-mediated suppression of dormant origins shields active forks against irreversible breakage via preventing exhaustion of nuclear RPA. This study elucidates how replicating genomes avoid destabilizing DNA damage. Because cancer cells...

  15. On the governance of global and catastrophic risks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Michael Havbro

    2011-01-01

    The focus of the present paper regards the identification and treatment of critical issues in the process of societal decision making concerning management of global and catastrophic risks. Taking basis in recent works by the author, the paper in particular addresses: 1) Which are the most relevant...... hazards in a holistic global perspective and how may these be categorised in view of strategies for their treatment?; 2) How might robust societal decisions on risk management subject to large uncertainties be formally supported?; 3) How may available economic resources be prioritised for the purpose...

  16. Application of Catastrophe Risk Modelling to Evacuation Public Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, G.

    2009-04-01

    The decision by civic authorities to evacuate an area threatened by a natural hazard is especially fraught when the population in harm's way is extremely large, and where there is considerable uncertainty in the spatial footprint, scale, and strike time of a hazard event. Traditionally viewed as a hazard forecasting issue, civil authorities turn to scientists for advice on a potentially imminent dangerous event. However, the level of scientific confidence varies enormously from one peril and crisis situation to another. With superior observational data, meteorological and hydrological hazards are generally better forecast than geological hazards. But even with Atlantic hurricanes, the track and intensity of a hurricane can change significantly within a few hours. This complicated and delayed the decision to call an evacuation of New Orleans when threatened by Hurricane Katrina, and would present a severe dilemma if a major hurricane were appearing to head for New York. Evacuation needs to be perceived as a risk issue, requiring the expertise of catastrophe risk modellers as well as geoscientists. Faced with evidence of a great earthquake in the Indian Ocean in December 2004, seismologists were reluctant to give a tsunami warning without more direct sea observations. Yet, from a risk perspective, the risk to coastal populations would have warranted attempts at tsunami warning, even though there was significant uncertainty in the hazard forecast, and chance of a false alarm. A systematic coherent risk-based framework for evacuation decision-making exists, which weighs the advantages of an evacuation call against the disadvantages. Implicitly and qualitatively, such a cost-benefit analysis is undertaken by civic authorities whenever an evacuation is considered. With the progress in catastrophe risk modelling, such an analysis can be made explicit and quantitative, providing a transparent audit trail for the decision process. A stochastic event set, the core of a

  17. Changes in pain catastrophizing predict later changes in fibromyalgia clinical and experimental pain report: cross-lagged panel analyses of dispositional and situational catastrophizing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Claudia M; McCauley, Lea; Bounds, Sara C; Mathur, Vani A; Conn, Lora; Simango, Mpepera; Edwards, Robert R; Fontaine, Kevin R

    2012-10-25

    Fibromyalgia (FM), characterized by wide-spread diffuse pain and sensory abnormalities, is associated with elevated indices of distress and pain-related catastrophizing compared to both pain-free samples and those with chronic pain conditions. Catastrophizing is a pervasive negative mental set, and is a strong predictor of negative pain-related outcomes such as clinical pain intensity, and physical disability. Situational catastrophizing, measured in the context of experimentally-induced pain, is strongly related to enhanced pain sensitivity, a core aspect of the pathophysiology of fibromyalgia. However, little is known regarding the temporal course of the association between catastrophizing and pain-related "outcomes". Most studies involve only static assessments of pain and catastrophizing at a single time point, which provides little insight into the direction of the observed associations. We sought to investigate the temporal relationships between catastrophizing and indices of both clinical pain (substudy 1) and experimentally-induced pain (substudy 2) in a larger randomized controlled longitudinal trial. Fifty-seven patients with FM completed catastrophizing, depression, and pain questionnaires as well as laboratory cold pressor pain testing at baseline, post-intervention and three month follow-up during a lifestyle physical activity study. Cross-lagged panel analyses were used to address these temporal relationships. In substudy 1, analyses revealed that pre-to-post changes in dispositional catastrophizing ratings prospectively accounted for unique variance in subsequent post-to-follow-up changes in clinical pain ratings (p = 0.005), while pre-to-post changes in pain ratings did not account for unique variance in post-to-follow-up changes in catastrophizing ratings. An identical pattern was observed experimentally in substudy 2, with pre-to-post changes in situational catastrophizing ratings prospectively accounting for unique variance in subsequent post

  18. CANONICAL BACKWARD DIFFERENTIATION SCHEMES FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CANONICAL BACKWARD DIFFERENTIATION SCHEMES FOR SOLUTION OF NONLINEAR INITIAL VALUE PROBLEMS OF FIRST ORDER ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS. ... Global Journal of Mathematical Sciences ... KEY WORDS: backward differentiation scheme, collocation, initial value problems. Global Jnl ...

  19. A stable fast marching scheme for computational fluid mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnia, M.; de Vahl Davis, G.; Wolfshtein, M.

    1990-04-01

    A stable fast marching scheme has been developed for the solution of coupled parabolic partial differential equations such as the Navier-Stokes equations. The scheme was developed with the aid of a stability analysis. The implementation of the method in standard alternating direction implicit algorithms is straightforward. The scheme was tested on the problem of natural convection in a square cavity. The number of iterations required for convergence was significantly reduced compared to conventional methods.

  20. Bonus Schemes and Trading Activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pikulina, E.S.; Renneboog, L.D.R.; Ter Horst, J.R.; Tobler, P.N.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Little is known about how different bonus schemes affect traders’ propensity to trade and which bonus schemes improve traders’ performance. We study the effects of linear versus threshold (convex) bonus schemes on traders’ behavior. Traders purchase and sell shares in an experimental stock

  1. Bonus schemes and trading activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pikulina, E.S.; Renneboog, L.D.R.; ter Horst, J.R.; Tobler, P.N.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about how different bonus schemes affect traders' propensity to trade and which bonus schemes improve traders' performance. We study the effects of linear versus threshold bonus schemes on traders' behavior. Traders buy and sell shares in an experimental stock market on the basis of

  2. A COMPLETE SCHEME FOR A MUON COLLIDER.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PALMER,R.B.; BERG, J.S.; FERNOW, R.C.; GALLARDO, J.C.; KIRK, H.G.; ALEXAHIN, Y.; NEUFFER, D.; KAHN, S.A.; SUMMERS, D.

    2007-09-01

    A complete scheme for production, cooling, acceleration, and ring for a 1.5 TeV center of mass muon collider is presented, together with parameters for two higher energy machines. The schemes starts with the front end of a proposed neutrino factory that yields bunch trains of both muon signs. Six dimensional cooling in long-period helical lattices reduces the longitudinal emittance until it becomes possible to merge the trains into single bunches, one of each sign. Further cooling in all dimensions is applied to the single bunches in further helical lattices. Final transverse cooling to the required parameters is achieved in 50 T solenoids.

  3. Catastrophe model of the accident process, safety climate, and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guastello, Stephen J; Lynn, Mark

    2014-04-01

    This study aimed (a) to address the evidence for situational specificity in the connection between safety climate to occupational accidents, (b) to resolve similar issues between anxiety and accidents, (c) to expand and develop the concept of safety climate to include a wider range of organizational constructs, (d) to assess a cusp catastrophe model for occupational accidents where safety climate and anxiety are treated as bifurcation variables, and environ-mental hazards are asymmetry variables. Bifurcation, or trigger variables can have a positive or negative effect on outcomes, depending on the levels of asymmetry, or background variables. The participants were 1262 production employees of two steel manufacturing facilities who completed a survey that measured safety management, anxiety, subjective danger, dysregulation, stressors and hazards. Nonlinear regression analyses showed, for this industry, that the accident process was explained by a cusp catastrophe model in which safety management and anxiety were bifurcation variables, and hazards, age and experience were asymmetry variables. The accuracy of the cusp model (R2 = .72) exceeded that of the next best log-linear model (R2 = .08) composed from the same survey variables. The results are thought to generalize to any industry where serious injuries could occur, although situationally specific effects should be anticipated as well.

  4. Snow Catastrophe Conditions: What is its Impact on Orthopedic Injuries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Mardani-Kivi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background:   Iran places sixth amongst high risk natural disaster countries and Guilan province of Iran shoulders a large amount of socio-economic burden due to snow catastrophes. The more knowledge of circumstances we have, the more efficient our future encounters will be. Methods: In this retrospective study, of all of the patients admitted to Poursina Hospital due to snow and ice related trauma in the first two weeks of February 2014, 306 cases were found eligible for entry into the present study. Results: Of the 306 eligible patients (383 injuries, there were 175 men (57.2% and 131 women (42.8%. Most patients suffered from orthopedic injuries (81% and the most common fractures were distal radius fractures in the upper extremities and hip fractures in the lower extremities. Slipping was the most common and motor vehicle accidents had the rarest injury mechanisms. It was shown that the frequency of injuries were higher on icy days (67.6% than snowy days (32.4%. Conclusions: Snow crises may lead to increased risk of slipping and falling situations, especially on icy days. The peak of injury rates is a few days after snowfall with the most common injury being distal radius fracture. Providing essential instructions and supporting resource allocation to better handle such catastrophes may improve outcomes.

  5. Crisis Management Aspects of Bam Catastrophic Earthquake: Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homayoun Sadeghi-Bazargani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bam earthquake was the most catastrophic natural disasters in recent years. The aim of this study was to review different aspects of crisis manage­ment during and after the catastrophic earthquake in Bam City, Iran.Methods: Data needed for this systematic review were collected through search­ing PubMed, EMBASE and SID databases, for the period from 2003 to 2011. Keywords included earthquake, Iran and Bam earthquake. The data were summarized and were analyzed using Content Analysis.Results: Out of 422 articles, 25 articles were included in the study. Crisis Manage­ment aspects and existing pitfalls were classified into seven categories including planning and organization, human resource management, management of logistics, international humanitarian aids, field performance of the military and security forces, health and medical service provision, and information manage­ment. Positive aspects and major pitfalls of crisis management have been introduced in all the mentioned categories. Conclusion: The available evidence indicated poor crisis management during Bam earthquake that resulted in aggravating the losses as well as diminishing the effect of interventions. Thus, concerning the importance of different aspects of the crisis management and the high prevalence of disasters in Iran, the observed vulnerability in disaster management process should be addressed.

  6. Plasma Exchange in the Management of Catastrophic Antiphospholipid Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitri Titeca-Beauport

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Report of a case of catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome (CAPS with multiple organ involvement leading to a life-threatening condition despite early combination corticosteroid and heparin therapy. Initiation of plasma exchange led to rapid improvement of the patient’s general condition. Design. Case report. Setting. University teaching hospital medical intensive care unit. Patient. Single case: 52-year-old man hospitalized for catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome (CAPS with cardiac, renal, and cutaneous involvement. Despite early methylprednisolone and heparin therapy, the patient’s condition progressively deteriorated, resulting in acute renal failure, right adrenal hemorrhage, and pulmonary involvement, leading to acute respiratory distress on day 6, requiring high-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy with FiO2 of 1.0. Interventions. Plasma exchange was started on day 6. Endpoints and Main Results. A marked improvement of the patient’s general condition was observed after initiation of plasma exchange, with successful weaning of oxygen therapy and normalization of platelet count, troponin, and serum creatinine within four days. Conclusions. This case illustrates the efficacy of plasma exchange in CAPS and the difficulty for physicians to determine the optimal timing of plasma exchange.

  7. "Till destruction sicken": the catastrophe of mind in Macbeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarantelli, Carole Beebe

    2010-12-01

    The author examines the tragedy of Macbeth from the vertex of its portrait of the effects of the hero's abandonment to the "blindest fury of destructiveness" (Freud, 1930, p. 121), using aspects of psychoanalytic thought to illuminate the theme. She affirms that Macbeth's immediate transformation in phantasy from loyal subject to future assassin threatens to flood his psyche with the uncontainable energy of destruction and thus to produce a psychic catastrophe. The remainder of the play is then examined as a representation of Macbeth's attempts to defend himself from that catastrophe: the only objects whose existence he can tolerate are those that cannot challenge his possession of the crown, which leads him to attempt to destroy all opposition. Since this is impossible, his alternative is to denude his mind of its perception of the reality in which the actions of others will inevitably produce future transformations which he is unable to control. The play's last soliloquy anticipates the final state, the repose of emptiness; it portrays a mind, emptied of emotion, looking at a world which it has denuded of meaning. Copyright © 2010 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  8. Catastrophic failure in complex socio-technical systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weir, D. [Intercultural Management, Rue Dostoievski, BP 085, 06902 Sophia Antipolis (France)]. E-mail: dweir@tinyworld.co.uk

    2004-07-01

    This paper reviews the sequences leading to catastrophic failures in complex socio-technical systems. It traces some of the elements of an analytic framework to that proposed by Beer in Decision and Control, first published in 1966, and argues that these ideas are centrally relevant to a topic on which research interest has developed subsequently, the study of crises, catastrophes and disasters in complex socio-technical systems in high technology sectors. But while the system perspective is central, it is not by itself entirely adequate. The problems discussed cannot be discussed simply in terms of system parameters like variety, redundancy and complexity. Much empirical research supports the view that these systems typically operate in degraded mode. The degradations may be primarily initiated within the social components of the socio-technical system. Such variables as hierarchical position, actors' motivations and intentions are relevant to explain the ways in which communication systems typically operate to filter out messages from lower participants and to ignore the 'soft signals' issuing from small-scale and intermittent malfunctions. (author)

  9. Crisis management aspects of bam catastrophic earthquake: review article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun; Azami-Aghdash, Saber; Kazemi, Abdolhassan; Ziapour, Behrad

    2015-01-01

    Bam earthquake was the most catastrophic natural disasters in recent years. The aim of this study was to review different aspects of crisis management during and after the catastrophic earthquake in Bam City, Iran. Data needed for this systematic review were collected through searching PubMed, EMBASE and SID databases, for the period from 2003 to 2011. Keywords included earthquake, Iran and Bam earthquake. The data were summarized and were analyzed using Content Analysis. Out of 422 articles, 25 articles were included in the study. Crisis Management aspects and existing pitfalls were classified into seven categories including planning and organization, human resource management, management of logistics, international humanitarian aids, field performance of the military and security forces, health and medical service provision, and information management. Positive aspects and major pitfalls of crisis management have been introduced in all the mentioned categories. The available evidence indicated poor crisis management during Bam earthquake that resulted in aggravating the losses as well as diminishing the effect of interventions. Thus, concerning the importance of different aspects of the crisis management and the high prevalence of disasters in Iran, the observed vulnerability in disaster management process should be addressed.

  10. Current Methods of Natural Hazards Communication used within Catastrophe Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawber, C.; Latchman, S.

    2012-04-01

    In the field of catastrophe modelling, natural hazards need to be explained every day to (re)insurance professionals so that they may understand estimates of the loss potential of their portfolio. The effective communication of natural hazards to city professionals requires different strategies to be taken depending on the audience, their prior knowledge and respective backgrounds. It is best to have at least three sets of tools in your arsenal for a specific topic, 1) an illustration/animation, 2) a mathematical formula and 3) a real world case study example. This multi-faceted approach will be effective for those that learn best by pictorial means, mathematical means or anecdotal means. To show this we will use a set of real examples employed in the insurance industry of how different aspects of natural hazards and the uncertainty around them are explained to city professionals. For example, explaining the different modules within a catastrophe model such as the hazard, vulnerability and loss modules. We highlight how recent technology such as 3d plots, video recording and Google Earth maps, when used properly can help explain concepts quickly and easily. Finally we also examine the pitfalls of using overly-complicated visualisations and in general how counter-intuitive deductions may be made.

  11. Has the Rajiv Aarogyasri Community Health Insurance Scheme of Andhra Pradesh Addressed the Educational Divide in Accessing Health Care?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mala Rao

    Full Text Available Equity of access to healthcare remains a major challenge with families continuing to face financial and non-financial barriers to services. Lack of education has been shown to be a key risk factor for 'catastrophic' health expenditure (CHE, in many countries including India. Consequently, ways to address the education divide need to be explored. We aimed to assess whether the innovative state-funded Rajiv Aarogyasri Community Health Insurance Scheme of Andhra Pradesh state launched in 2007, has achieved equity of access to hospital inpatient care among households with varying levels of education.We used the National Sample Survey Organization 2004 survey as our baseline and the same survey design to collect post-intervention data from 8623 households in the state in 2012. Two outcomes, hospitalisation and CHE for inpatient care, were estimated using education as a measure of socio-economic status and transforming levels of education into ridit scores. We derived relative indices of inequality by regressing the outcome measures on education, transformed as a ridit score, using logistic regression models with appropriate weights and accounting for the complex survey design.Between 2004 and 2012, there was a 39% reduction in the likelihood of the most educated person being hospitalised compared to the least educated, with reductions observed in all households as well as those that had used the Aarogyasri. For CHE the inequality disappeared in 2012 in both groups. Sub-group analyses by economic status, social groups and rural-urban residence showed a decrease in relative indices of inequality in most groups. Nevertheless, inequalities in hospitalisation and CHE persisted across most groups.During the time of the Aarogyasri scheme implementation inequalities in access to hospital care were substantially reduced but not eliminated across the education divide. Universal access to education and schemes such as Aarogyasri have the synergistic potential

  12. Analyses of fatalities from natural catastrophes in different income groups over time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Tobias

    2017-04-01

    Identifying not only economic and insured losses but also numbers of fatalities from natural catastrophes provides new information on resilience and prevention measures in the countries affected. In this talk, we examine how fatalities from Munich Re's NatCatSERVICE database, caused by natural disasters have developed. In addition to the standard approach based on fatalities by country, we introduced a new measure, "fatalities per million inhabitants", and factored in population development over time. The World Bank definition was used to determine the wealth classification of individual countries. This methodology enables us to compare countries with different population sizes and thus produce an index for humanitarian impact. The analyses are key information on ascertaining whether prevention measures or early-warning systems have in fact reduced the number of fatalities in recent decades (1980-2016).

  13. Kinesiophobia, catastrophizing and anticipated symptoms before stair climbing in chronic fatigue syndrome: an experimental study.

    OpenAIRE

    Nijs, J.; Meeuw, M.; Heins, M.; Knoop, H; Moorkens, G.; Bleijenberg, G

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Kinesiophobia and catastrophizing are frequent among people with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). This study was aimed at examining (1) whether kinesiophobia, anticipated symptoms and fatigue catastrophizing are related to stair climbing performance in people with CFS; and (2) whether kinesiophobia and fatigue catastrophizing are related to daily physical activity in CFS. Method: Patients with CFS filled in a set of questionnaires, performed a physical demanding task (two floors stair...

  14. Hospitalization and mortality in Mexico due to breast cancer since its inclusion in the catastrophic expenditures scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura-Alfaro, Carmelita Elizabeth; Torres-Mejía, Gabriela; Ávila-Burgos, Leticia Del Socorro

    2016-04-01

    To compare trends in hospital discharges and mortality due to breast cancer (BC) in Mexico from 2004 to 2012 by insurance condition before and after incorporating BC comprehensive treatment into the System of Social Protection in Health (Sistema de Protrección Social en Salud, SPSS) in 2007. Data on BC hospital discharges and mortality reported in women aged 25 years and over were obtained from the National Health Information System. Mortality rates were adjusted by age and state. At the national level, a growing tendency in hospital discharges was observed, mainly for women without social security, while mortality rate remained constant. Mortality rates by state show that lower marginalization index corresponded to higher mortality. A differential behavior was observed among women according to insurance condition, partly due to the inclusion of BC treatment in the SPSS.

  15. Hospitalization and mortality in Mexico due to breast cancer since its inclusion in the catastrophic expenditures scheme

    OpenAIRE

    Carmelita Elizabeth Ventura-Alfaro; Gabriela Torres-Mejía; Leticia del Socorro Ávila-Burgos

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To compare trends in hospital discharges and mortality due to breast cancer (BC) in Mexico from 2004 to 2012 by insurance condition before and after incorporating BC comprehensive treatment into the System of Social Protection in Health (Sistema de Protrección Social en Salud, SPSS) in 2007. Materials and methods. Data on BC hospital discharges and mortality reported in women aged 25 years and over were obtained from the National Health Information System. Mortality rates were adju...

  16. Factors associated with increased risk for pain catastrophizing in patients with chronic neck pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang Jun; Lee, Rippy; Yoon, Duck Mi; Yoon, Kyung Bong; Kim, Kiwook; Kim, Shin Hyung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Pain catastrophizing is becoming increasingly recognized as a clinically important psychological factor in chronic musculoskeletal pain. In this retrospective cross-sectional study, we have identified factors associated with an increased risk for pain catastrophizing in chronic neck pain (CNP) patients. We obtained data from our medical database on 331 patients who were treated for neck pain as their chief complaint at our clinic. The Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS) was used to define a high pain catastrophizing state (PCS score ≥21) in this study. Patient demographics, pain-related factors, and psychological factors were evaluated with logistic regression analysis to identify risk factors of high pain catastrophizing among patients with CNP. A total of 256 patients with CNP satisfied the study inclusion criteria and were included in the analyses. The median PCS score was 16 (range, 0–45), and 86 of 256 patients (33.5%) reported a PCS score ≥21. In multivariate analysis, high pain intensity, clinical insomnia, and a high level of depression/anxiety were strongly associated with high pain catastrophizing in patients with CNP. Depression was the strongest predictor of high pain catastrophizing, with an odds ratio of 7.35 (95% confidence interval 2.23–24.22). High pain catastrophizing was not significantly related to age, gender, comorbidities, or neck pain-related physical symptoms. In conclusion, poor psychological states should be addressed as an important part of pain management in CNP patients who are susceptible to high pain catastrophizing. PMID:27631217

  17. Pain Catastrophizing and Its Relationship with Health Outcomes: Does Pain Intensity Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Suso-Ribera

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pain catastrophizing is known to contribute to physical and mental functioning, even when controlling for the effect of pain intensity. However, research has yet to explore whether the strength of the relationship between pain catastrophizing and pain-related outcomes varies across pain intensity levels (i.e., moderation. If this was the case, it would have important implications for existing models of pain and current interventions. The present investigation explored whether pain intensity moderates the relationship between pain catastrophizing and pain-related outcomes. Participants were 254 patients (62% women with heterogeneous chronic pain. Patients completed a measure of pain intensity, pain interference, pain catastrophizing, and physical and mental health. Pain intensity moderated the relationship between pain catastrophizing and pain interference and between pain catastrophizing and physical health status. Specifically, the strength of the correlation between pain catastrophizing and these outcomes decreased considerably as pain intensity increased. In contrast, pain intensity did not moderate the relationship between pain catastrophizing and mental health. Study findings provide a new insight into the role of pain intensity (i.e., moderator in the relationship between pain catastrophizing and various pain-related outcomes, which might help develop existent models of pain. Clinical implications are discussed in the context of personalized therapy.

  18. Household catastrophic healthcare expenditure and impoverishment due to rotavirus gastroenteritis requiring hospitalization in Malaysia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Loganathan, Tharani; Lee, Way-Seah; Lee, Kok-Foo; Jit, Mark; Ng, Chiu-Wan

    2015-01-01

    While healthcare costs for rotavirus gastroenteritis requiring hospitalization may be burdensome on households in Malaysia, exploration on the distribution and catastrophic impact of these expenses...

  19. Adaptive guard channel allocation scheme with buffer for mobile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A simulation program written in Java programming language evaluates the performance of the scheme based on blocking/dropping probabilities of both calls. Results of the evaluation is described using descriptive statistics such as bar charts. The proposed scheme would reduce congestion and improve quality of service ...

  20. Comparison of two cash transfer strategies to prevent catastrophic costs for poor tuberculosis-affected households in low- and middle-income countries: An economic modelling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lönnroth, Knut; Boccia, Delia

    2017-01-01

    out of 6 countries, and when increased enough to prevent DS TB catastrophic costs would require a budget between $3.8 million (95% CI: $3.8 million–$3.8 million) and $75 million (95% CI: $50 million–$100 million) per country. If instead cash transfers were provided with a TB-sensitive approach, alone they would be insufficient to prevent DS TB-related catastrophic costs in any of the 6 countries, and when increased enough to prevent DS TB catastrophic costs would require a budget between $298 million (95% CI: $219 million–$378 million) and $165,367 million (95% CI: $134,085 million–$196,425 million) per country. DR TB-related costs were catastrophic before and after TB-specific or TB-sensitive cash transfers in 1 out of 1 countries. Sensitivity analyses showed our findings to be robust to imputation of missing TB-related cost components, and use of 10% or 30% instead of 20% as the threshold for measuring catastrophic costs. Key limitations were using national average data and not considering other health and social benefits of cash transfers. Conclusions A TB-sensitive cash transfer approach to increase all poor households’ income may have broad benefits by reducing poverty, but is unlikely to be as effective or affordable for preventing TB catastrophic costs as a TB-specific cash transfer approach to defray TB-related costs only in poor households with a confirmed TB diagnosis. Preventing DR TB-related catastrophic costs will require considerable additional investment whether a TB-sensitive or a TB-specific cash transfer approach is used. PMID:29112693

  1. Comparison of two cash transfer strategies to prevent catastrophic costs for poor tuberculosis-affected households in low- and middle-income countries: An economic modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudgard, William E; Evans, Carlton A; Sweeney, Sedona; Wingfield, Tom; Lönnroth, Knut; Barreira, Draurio; Boccia, Delia

    2017-11-01

    to prevent DS TB catastrophic costs would require a budget between $3.8 million (95% CI: $3.8 million-$3.8 million) and $75 million (95% CI: $50 million-$100 million) per country. If instead cash transfers were provided with a TB-sensitive approach, alone they would be insufficient to prevent DS TB-related catastrophic costs in any of the 6 countries, and when increased enough to prevent DS TB catastrophic costs would require a budget between $298 million (95% CI: $219 million-$378 million) and $165,367 million (95% CI: $134,085 million-$196,425 million) per country. DR TB-related costs were catastrophic before and after TB-specific or TB-sensitive cash transfers in 1 out of 1 countries. Sensitivity analyses showed our findings to be robust to imputation of missing TB-related cost components, and use of 10% or 30% instead of 20% as the threshold for measuring catastrophic costs. Key limitations were using national average data and not considering other health and social benefits of cash transfers. A TB-sensitive cash transfer approach to increase all poor households' income may have broad benefits by reducing poverty, but is unlikely to be as effective or affordable for preventing TB catastrophic costs as a TB-specific cash transfer approach to defray TB-related costs only in poor households with a confirmed TB diagnosis. Preventing DR TB-related catastrophic costs will require considerable additional investment whether a TB-sensitive or a TB-specific cash transfer approach is used.

  2. Usages des TIC et rapports a l’incertitude en situation de catastrophes naturelles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Brossaud

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article montre comment des professionnels et des sinistrés qui ont été confrontés à des catastrophes naturelles sur trois territoires distincts - la tempête à Limoges en 1999, les inondations à Abbeville (2001 et à Bourg-en-Bresse (2005 - ont construit une histoire commune du risque au moyen des technologies de l’information et de la communication (TIC : Internet, téléphone portable, bases de données, outils de travail partagés, etc. Les usages des TIC sont d’abord resitués concrètement avant, pendant et après les événements dans un contexte historique où les sciences et techniques sont de plus en plus sollicitées pour réduire les incertitudes liées aux menaces sanitaires et écologiques. On voit ensuite s’élaborer une culture du risque sur la base de compétences socio-cognitives et relationnelles particulières face aux événements et à leur prise en charge technologique. Nous examinons en dernier ressort le rôle des TIC dans l’apprentissage d’une argumentation et d’une délibération collective sur les catastrophes, notamment grâce à la mise en place d’outils dédiés à l’étude sur le site http://www.technorisque.net.This article shows how professionnals and disaster victims involved in natural catastrophes in three different areas - Limoges storm in 1999, Abbeville and Bourg-en-Bresse floods in 2001 and 2005 – built a commun risk story with Information and communication technologies (ICT : Internet, mobiles, data bases, groupware, etc. At first, ICT uses are concretely approached before, during and after the events in a historic context where sciences and technology are growing up to reduce uncertainties of medical and ecological threats. Then, in the second part of this article, a risk culture is supported by socio-cognitive and relationnal competences towards events and their technological holding. At last, we examine ICT place in a collective argumentation and deliberation about the

  3. Efficient and Anonymous Authentication Scheme for Wireless Body Area Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Libing; Zhang, Yubo; Li, Li; Shen, Jian

    2016-06-01

    As a significant part of the Internet of Things (IoT), Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) has attract much attention in this years. In WBANs, sensors placed in or around the human body collect the sensitive data of the body and transmit it through an open wireless channel in which the messages may be intercepted, modified, etc. Recently, Wang et al. presented a new anonymous authentication scheme for WBANs and claimed that their scheme can solve the security problems in the previous schemes. Unfortunately, we demonstrate that their scheme cannot withstand impersonation attack. Either an adversary or a malicious legal client could impersonate another legal client to the application provider. In this paper, we give the detailed weakness analysis of Wang et al.'s scheme at first. Then we present a novel anonymous authentication scheme for WBANs and prove that it's secure under a random oracle model. At last, we demonstrate that our presented anonymous authentication scheme for WBANs is more suitable for practical application than Wang et al.'s scheme due to better security and performance. Compared with Wang et al.'s scheme, the computation cost of our scheme in WBANs has reduced by about 31.58%.

  4. MIMO transmit scheme based on morphological perceptron with competitive learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Raul Ambrozio; Abrão, Taufik

    2016-08-01

    This paper proposes a new multi-input multi-output (MIMO) transmit scheme aided by artificial neural network (ANN). The morphological perceptron with competitive learning (MP/CL) concept is deployed as a decision rule in the MIMO detection stage. The proposed MIMO transmission scheme is able to achieve double spectral efficiency; hence, in each time-slot the receiver decodes two symbols at a time instead one as Alamouti scheme. Other advantage of the proposed transmit scheme with MP/CL-aided detector is its polynomial complexity according to modulation order, while it becomes linear when the data stream length is greater than modulation order. The performance of the proposed scheme is compared to the traditional MIMO schemes, namely Alamouti scheme and maximum-likelihood MIMO (ML-MIMO) detector. Also, the proposed scheme is evaluated in a scenario with variable channel information along the frame. Numerical results have shown that the diversity gain under space-time coding Alamouti scheme is partially lost, which slightly reduces the bit-error rate (BER) performance of the proposed MP/CL-NN MIMO scheme. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Security analysis and improvements of arbitrated quantum signature schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiangfu; Qiu, Daowen

    2010-10-01

    A digital signature is a mathematical scheme for demonstrating the authenticity of a digital message or document. For signing quantum messages, some arbitrated quantum signature (AQS) schemes have been proposed. It was claimed that these AQS schemes could guarantee unconditional security. However, we show that they can be repudiated by the receiver Bob. To conquer this shortcoming, we construct an AQS scheme using a public board. The AQS scheme not only avoids being disavowed by the receiver but also preserves all merits in the existing schemes. Furthermore, we discover that entanglement is not necessary while all these existing AQS schemes depend on entanglement. Therefore, we present another AQS scheme without utilizing entangled states in the signing phase and the verifying phase. This scheme has three advantages: it does not utilize entangled states and it preserves all merits in the existing schemes; the signature can avoid being disavowed by the receiver; and it provides a higher efficiency in transmission and reduces the complexity of implementation.

  6. An Efficient Remote Authentication Scheme for Wireless Body Area Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omala, Anyembe Andrew; Kibiwott, Kittur P; Li, Fagen

    2017-02-01

    Wireless body area network (WBAN) provide a mechanism of transmitting a persons physiological data to application providers e.g. hospital. Given the limited range of connectivity associated with WBAN, an intermediate portable device e.g. smartphone, placed within WBAN's connectivity, forwards the data to a remote server. This data, if not protected from an unauthorized access and modification may be lead to poor diagnosis. In order to ensure security and privacy between WBAN and a server at the application provider, several authentication schemes have been proposed. Recently, Wang and Zhang proposed an authentication scheme for WBAN using bilinear pairing. However, in their scheme, an application provider could easily impersonate a client. In order to overcome this weakness, we propose an efficient remote authentication scheme for WBAN. In terms of performance, our scheme can not only provide a malicious insider security, but also reduce running time of WBAN (client) by 51 % as compared to Wang and Zhang scheme.

  7. Changes in pain catastrophizing predict later changes in fibromyalgia clinical and experimental pain report: cross-lagged panel analyses of dispositional and situational catastrophizing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Campbell, Claudia M; McCauley, Lea; Bounds, Sara C; Mathur, Vani A; Conn, Lora; Simango, Mpepera; Edwards, Robert R; Fontaine, Kevin R

    2012-01-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM), characterized by wide-spread diffuse pain and sensory abnormalities, is associated with elevated indices of distress and pain-related catastrophizing compared to both pain-free samples and those...

  8. The Effect of Catastrophic Health Expenditure on Work After Retirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homaie Rad, Enayatollah; Rashidian, Arash; Arab, Mohamad; Souri, Ali

    2017-03-01

    Several factors can force retirees to go to paid work. Catastrophic health-care expenditure (CHCE) is one of the driving forces for retirees to go to paid work. This cross-sectional study was based on 6,307 Iran retirees' data. Xu method was used to calculate CHCE, and a logit model was estimated to show the association between CHCE and bridge employment. Other control variables were added to the model. The findings showed that there was positive relationship between CHCE and bridge employment. Retirement pension had negative relationship with work after retirement. Prevalence of work after retirement was higher in people who lived in rural region and increased due to increase in household size. The financial constraint was the main pushing factor for the retiree to go to paid work. Thus, covering retirees with health insurances and identifying and listing diseases that may face the retirees with CHCE are some possible efforts to decrease CHCE.

  9. Industrial arsenic contamination causes catastrophic changes in freshwater ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guangjie; Shi, Haibin; Tao, Jianshuang; Chen, Li; Liu, Yuanyuan; Lei, Guoliang; Liu, Xiaohai; Smol, John P.

    2015-11-01

    Heavy metal pollution is now widely recognized to pose severe health and environmental threats, yet much of what is known concerning its adverse impacts on ecosystem health is derived from short-term ecotoxicological studies. Due to the frequent absence of long-term monitoring data, little is known of the long-tem ecological consequences of pollutants such as arsenic. Here, our dated sediment records from two contaminated lakes in China faithfully document a 13.9 and 21.4-fold increase of total arsenic relative to pre-1950 background levels. Concurrently, coherent responses in keystone biota signal pronounced ecosystem changes, with a >10-fold loss in crustacean zooplankton (important herbivores in the food webs of these lake systems) and a >5-fold increase in a highly metal-tolerant alga. Such fundamental ecological changes will cascade through the ecosystem, causing potentially catastrophic consequences for ecosystem services in contaminated regions.

  10. Cylinder on an incline as a fold catastrophe system

    CERN Document Server

    Brito, L; Paixao, J

    2003-01-01

    The motion of a cylinder on an inclined plane, acted upon by a torque along its axis, is studied theoretically and experimentally. It is shown that the potential for the centre-of-mass exhibits the features of a fold catastrophe potential, the control parameter being related to the strength of the torque. This parameter determines whether or not the system experiences stable equilibrium positions. If it does, and depending on the initial conditions, it may perform oscillations around an equilibrium position, or it may cross a no-return point and roll down. A cylinder with a magnet inside, placed on an inclined plane in a region where a uniform magnetic field is present, is a real example of such a system. We constructed that system and report the data obtained in a set of experiments.

  11. Catastrophic Antiphospholipid Syndrome Presenting as Bilateral Central Retinal Artery Occlusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven S. Saraf

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A previously healthy 22-year-old African American woman presented with bilateral vision loss associated with headache. Her ocular examination was significant for bilateral retinal arterial “boxcarring,” retinal whitening, retinal hemorrhages, and cherry red spots. She was diagnosed with bilateral central retinal artery occlusions and was hospitalized due to concomitant diagnosis of stroke and hypercoagulable state. She was also found to be in heart failure and kidney failure. Rheumatology was consulted and she was diagnosed with catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome in association with systemic lupus erythematosus. Approximately 7 months after presentation, the patient’s vision improved and remained stable at 20/200 and 20/80.

  12. Critical Amount of Resource in Containing Catastrophic Epidemics

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xiaolong; Feng, Ling; Yang, Chun; Wang, Moming; Fan, Xiaoming; Hu, Yanqing

    2016-01-01

    During an epidemic control, the containment of the disease is usually achieved through increasing public health resource to quickly identify, quarantine and cure the infected population. However, the exact impact of this resource expenditure on the physical spreading dynamics remains unknown. In this work we find that the influence of resource expenditure exhibits extreme critical behaviour, which is the first order phase transition in nature. Specifically, if the amount of invested resource is below a critical value, a significant fraction of the total population will become infected; once it is more than that critical value, the disease outbreak can be effectively eradicated or contained. This finding implies that the government expenditure on infectious disease control needs to meet a certain critical threshold to be of any effectiveness. Otherwise, the outbreak could be catastrophic. We have validated our theoretical results on one real contact network and three typical social networks, with all of them e...

  13. Catastrophes in nature and society mathematical modeling of complex systems

    CERN Document Server

    Khlebopros, Rem G; Fet, Abram I

    2007-01-01

    Many people are concerned about crises leading to disasters in nature, in social and economic life. The book offers a popular account of the causative mechanisms of critical states and breakdown in a broad range of natural and cultural systems - which obey the same laws - and thus makes the reader aware of the origin of catastrophic events and the ways to avoid and mitigate their negative consequences. The authors apply a single mathematical approach to investigate the revolt of cancer cells that destroy living organisms and population outbreaks that upset natural ecosystems, the balance between biosphere and global climate interfered lately by industry, the driving mechanisms of market and related economic and social phenomena, as well as the electoral system the proper use of which is an arduous accomplishment of democracy.

  14. Was the Black Sea catastrophically flooded in the early Holocene?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giosan, Liviu; Filip, Florin; Constatinescu, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    A catastrophic flooding of the Black Sea basin was proposed to have occurred during its reconnection to the ocean in the early Holocene. Possible cultural consequences of the flood include the migration of Neolithic farmers from around the Black Sea towards central Europe as well as the creation of flood myths. Stratigraphic and paleo-geomorphologic information from Danube delta aided by radiocarbon ages on articulated mollusks constrain the level in the Black Sea before the marine reconnection to ca 30 m below the present sea level rather than 80 m or lower. If the flood occurred at all, the sea level increase and the flooded area during the reconnection were significantly smaller than previously proposed.

  15. Astronomy and catastrophes through myth and old texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bon, E.; Ćirković, M.; Stojić, Igor; Gavrilović, Nataša

    In the old myths and iconographies there are some motives that indicate at least one cataclysmic event that influenced many old religions and myths, that could be linked to the impact of the celestial object. We investigate the hypothesis of coherent catastrophism put forward in recent years by Clube, Bailey, Napier and others from both astrobiological and culturogical points of view. The conventional idea that the quasi-periodic break-up of celestial bodies influence terrestrial conditions can today be placed in both wider (astro-biological) and deeper (historico-culturological) context. In particular, we point out that the link between the Neolithic history of astronomy, and origin of Mithraism. We speculate that the main icon of Mithraic religion could pinpoint an event that happened around 4000 BC, when the spring equinox entered the constellation of Taurus. We also, link some motives in other old religions and myths to the same event, or to some similar events that inspired those myths.

  16. Heckling the Catastrophe. On the Holocaust Literary Criticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Wolski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses a special kind of narrative about the catastrophe, treated as a specific genre of writing: the theory of literature of the Holocaust. The article presents its two most significant (although not the only ones features: firstly, the conviction about its unusual character as compared to other genres/forms of writing, sometimes secretly described by such concepts as the uniqueness of the Holocaust (which metonymizes not only the event itself but also the narrations referring to it and, secondly, identifies all text-producing entities (narrator, author etc., simultaneously constituting the basic feature of the most important genre/modality of this kind of writing which is testimony. The article presents the examples of Polish and foreign scholars portraying this state of affairs.

  17. Coupled catastrophes: sudden shifts cascade and hop among interdependent systems

    CERN Document Server

    Brummitt, Charles D; D'Souza, Raissa M

    2014-01-01

    A profoundly important challenge in several disciplines today is to understand how sudden changes can propagate among coupled systems. Examples include the synchronization of business cycles, population collapse in patchy ecosystems, markets shifting to a new technology platform, collapses in prices and in confidence in financial markets, and protests erupting in multiple countries. We characterize these phenomena using a simple model grounded in the theory of fast--slow ordinary differential equations and in catastrophe theory. In the model, a system consists of multiple subsystems (e.g., countries in the global economy or patches of an ecosystem), each described by a scalar quantity (such as economic output or population) that undergoes sudden changes via saddle-node bifurcations. The subsystems are coupled via their scalar quantities (e.g., trade couples economic output, diffusion couples populations); that coupling moves their bifurcations. The model elucidates two ways in which sudden changes can propaga...

  18. Dynamic growth of slip surfaces in catastrophic landslides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germanovich, Leonid N; Kim, Sihyun; Puzrin, Alexander M

    2016-01-01

    This work considers a landslide caused by the shear band that emerges along the potential slip (rupture) surface. The material above the band slides downwards, causing the band to grow along the slope. This growth may first be stable (progressive), but eventually becomes dynamic (catastrophic). The landslide body acquires a finite velocity before it separates from the substrata. The corresponding initial-boundary value problem for a dynamic shear band is formulated within the framework of Palmer & Rice's (Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A332, 527-548. (doi:10.1098/rspa.1973.0040)) approach, which is generalized to the dynamic case. We obtain the exact, closed-form solution for the band velocity and slip rate. This solution assesses when the slope fails owing to a limiting condition near the propagating tip of the shear band. Our results are applicable to both submarine and subaerial landslides of this type. It appears that neglecting dynamic (inertia) effects can lead to a significant underestimation of the slide size, and that the volumes of catastrophic slides can exceed the volumes of progressive slides by nearly a factor of 2. As examples, we consider the Gaviota and Humboldt slides offshore of California, and discuss landslides in normally consolidated sediments and sensitive clays. In particular, it is conceivable that Humboldt slide is unfinished and may still displace a large volume of sediments, which could generate a considerable tsunami. We show that in the case of submarine slides, the effect of water resistance on the shear band dynamics may frequently be limited during the slope failure stage. For a varying slope angle, we formulate a condition of slide cessation.

  19. Catastrophic valley fills record large Himalayan earthquakes, Pokhara, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolle, Amelie; Bernhardt, Anne; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Hoelzmann, Philipp; Adhikari, Basanta R.; Fort, Monique; Korup, Oliver

    2017-12-01

    Uncertain timing and magnitudes of past mega-earthquakes continue to confound seismic risk appraisals in the Himalayas. Telltale traces of surface ruptures are rare, while fault trenches document several events at best, so that additional proxies of strong ground motion are needed to complement the paleoseismological record. We study Nepal's Pokhara basin, which has the largest and most extensively dated archive of earthquake-triggered valley fills in the Himalayas. These sediments form a 148-km2 fan that issues from the steep Seti Khola gorge in the Annapurna Massif, invading and plugging 15 tributary valleys with tens of meters of debris, and impounding several lakes. Nearly a dozen new radiocarbon ages corroborate at least three episodes of catastrophic sedimentation on the fan between ∼700 and ∼1700 AD, coinciding with great earthquakes in ∼1100, 1255, and 1344 AD, and emplacing roughly >5 km3 of debris that forms the Pokhara Formation. We offer a first systematic sedimentological study of this formation, revealing four lithofacies characterized by thick sequences of mid-fan fluvial conglomerates, debris-flow beds, and fan-marginal slackwater deposits. New geochemical provenance analyses reveal that these upstream dipping deposits of Higher Himalayan origin contain lenses of locally derived river clasts that mark time gaps between at least three major sediment pulses that buried different parts of the fan. The spatial pattern of 14C dates across the fan and the provenance data are key to distinguishing these individual sediment pulses, as these are not evident from their sedimentology alone. Our study demonstrates how geomorphic and sedimentary evidence of catastrophic valley infill can help to independently verify and augment paleoseismological fault-trench records of great Himalayan earthquakes, while offering unparalleled insights into their long-term geomorphic impacts on major drainage basins.

  20. Alternative solutions for public and private catastrophe funding in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, M.

    2008-07-01

    The impacts of natural hazards as well as their frequency of occurrence during the last decades have increased decisively. Therefore, the public as well as the private sector are expected to react to this development by providing sufficient funds, in particular for the improvement of protection measures and an enhanced funding of damage compensation for affected private individuals, corporate and public entities. From the public stance, the establishment of an appropriate regulatory environment seems to be indispensable. Structural and legal changes should, on the one hand, renew and improve the current distribution system of public catastrophe funds as well as the profitable investment of these financial resources, and on the other hand, facilitate the application of alternative mechanisms provided by the capital and insurance markets. In particular, capital markets have developed alternative risk transfer and financing mechanisms, such as captive insurance companies, risk pooling, contingent capital solutions, multi-trigger products and insurance securitisation for hard insurance market phases. These instruments have already been applied to catastrophic (re-)insurance in other countries (mainly the US and off-shore domiciles), and may contribute positively to the insurability of extreme weather events in Austria by enhancing financial capacities. Not only private individuals and corporate entities may use alternative mechanisms in order to retain, thus, to finance certain risks, but also public institutions. This contribution aims at analysing potential solutions for an improved risk management of natural hazards in the private and the public sector by considering alternative mechanisms of the capital and insurance markets. Also the establishment of public-private-partnerships, which may contribute to a more efficient cat funding system in Austria, is considered.

  1. Alternative solutions for public and private catastrophe funding in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gruber

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of natural hazards as well as their frequency of occurrence during the last decades have increased decisively. Therefore, the public as well as the private sector are expected to react to this development by providing sufficient funds, in particular for the improvement of protection measures and an enhanced funding of damage compensation for affected private individuals, corporate and public entities.

    From the public stance, the establishment of an appropriate regulatory environment seems to be indispensable. Structural and legal changes should, on the one hand, renew and improve the current distribution system of public catastrophe funds as well as the profitable investment of these financial resources, and on the other hand, facilitate the application of alternative mechanisms provided by the capital and insurance markets.

    In particular, capital markets have developed alternative risk transfer and financing mechanisms, such as captive insurance companies, risk pooling, contingent capital solutions, multi-trigger products and insurance securitisation for hard insurance market phases. These instruments have already been applied to catastrophic (re-insurance in other countries (mainly the US and off-shore domiciles, and may contribute positively to the insurability of extreme weather events in Austria by enhancing financial capacities. Not only private individuals and corporate entities may use alternative mechanisms in order to retain, thus, to finance certain risks, but also public institutions.

    This contribution aims at analysing potential solutions for an improved risk management of natural hazards in the private and the public sector by considering alternative mechanisms of the capital and insurance markets. Also the establishment of public-private-partnerships, which may contribute to a more efficient cat funding system in Austria, is considered.

  2. Effect of household and village characteristics on financial catastrophe and impoverishment due to health care spending in Western and Central Rural China: A multilevel analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Hong

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The study aimed to examine the effect of household and community characteristics on financial catastrophe and impoverishment due to health payment in Western and Central Rural China. Methods A household survey was conducted in 2008 in Hebei and Shaanxi provinces and the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region using a multi-stage sampling technique. Independent variables included village characteristics, household income, chronic illness status, health care use and health spending. A composite contextual variable, named village deprivation, was derived from socio-economic status and availability of health care facilities in each village using factor analysis. Dependent variables were whether household health payment was more than 40% of household's capacity to pay (catastrophic health payment and whether household per capita income was put under Chinese national poverty line (1067 Yuan income per year after health spending (impoverishment. Mixed effects logistic regression was used to assess the effect of the independent variables on the two outcomes. Results Households with low per capita income, having elderly, hospitalized or chronically ill members, and whose head was unemployed were more likely to incur financial catastrophe and impoverishment due to health expenditure. Both catastrophic and impoverishing health payments increased with increased village deprivation. However, the presence of a village health clinic had no effect on the two outcomes, nor did household enrollment in the New Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme (national health insurance. Conclusions Village deprivation independently increases the risk for financial hardship due to health payment after adjusting for known household-level factors. This suggests that policy makers need to view the individual, household and village as separate units for policy targeting.

  3. Small-scale classification schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten

    2004-01-01

    Small-scale classification schemes are used extensively in the coordination of cooperative work. This study investigates the creation and use of a classification scheme for handling the system requirements during the redevelopment of a nation-wide information system. This requirements classificat....... This difference between the written requirements specification and the oral discussions at the meetings may help explain software engineers’ general preference for people, rather than documents, as their information sources.......Small-scale classification schemes are used extensively in the coordination of cooperative work. This study investigates the creation and use of a classification scheme for handling the system requirements during the redevelopment of a nation-wide information system. This requirements....... While coordination mechanisms focus on how classification schemes enable cooperation among people pursuing a common goal, boundary objects embrace the implicit consequences of classification schemes in situations involving conflicting goals. Moreover, the requirements specification focused on functional...

  4. Upward and Downward Catastrophes of Coronal Magnetic Flux Ropes in Quadrupolar Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Quanhao; Wang, Yuming; Hu, Youqiu; Liu, Rui; Liu, Kai; Liu, Jiajia

    2017-12-01

    Coronal magnetic flux ropes are closely related to large-scale solar activities. Using a 2.5-dimensional time-dependent ideal magnetohydrodynamic model in Cartesian coordinates, we carry out numerical simulations to investigate the evolution of a magnetic system consisting of a flux rope embedded in a fully closed quadrupolar magnetic field with different photospheric flux distributions. It is found that when the photospheric flux is not concentrated too much toward the polarity inversion line and the constraint exerted by the background field is not too weak, the equilibrium states of the system are divided into two branches: the rope sticks to the photosphere for the lower branch and levitates in the corona for the upper branch. These two branches are connected by an upward catastrophe (from the lower branch to the upper) and a downward catastrophe (from the upper branch to the lower). Our simulations reveal that there exist both upward and downward catastrophes in quadrupolar fields, which may be either force-free or non-force-free. The existence and the properties of these two catastrophes are influenced by the photospheric flux distribution, and a downward catastrophe is always paired with an upward catastrophe. Comparing the decay indices in catastrophic and noncatastrophic cases, we infer that torus unstable may be a necessary but not sufficient condition for a catastrophic system.

  5. Pain-related catastrophizing in pain patients and people with pain in the general population.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, M.J. de; Struys, M.M.; Versteegen, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Catastrophizing is a defining factor in the pain experience and strongly contributes to the prediction of various aspects of health. Catastrophizing is not just present in pain patients, but may also be present in people with non-clinical pain. The aim of the present study is to

  6. Pain-related catastrophizing in pain patients and people with pain in the general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, M. J.; Struys, M. M. R. F.; Versteegen, G. J.

    Background Catastrophizing is a defining factor in the pain experience and strongly contributes to the prediction of various aspects of health. Catastrophizing is not just present in pain patients, but may also be present in people with non-clinical pain. The aim of the present study is to

  7. Indonesia's Fires and Haze: The Cost of Catastrophe (with a 2006 ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    1999-01-01

    Indonesia's Fires and Haze: The Cost of Catastrophe (with a 2006 update). Book cover Indonesia's Fires and Haze: The Cost of Catastrophe (with a 2006 update. Editor(s):. David Glover and Timothy Jessup. Publisher(s):. ISEAS, IDRC. January 1, 1999. ISBN: 9812300066. 160 pages. e-ISBN: 1552503321. Download PDF.

  8. 12 CFR 741.214 - Report of crime or catastrophic act and Bank Secrecy Act compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Report of crime or catastrophic act and Bank Secrecy Act compliance. 741.214 Section 741.214 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION... Unions § 741.214 Report of crime or catastrophic act and Bank Secrecy Act compliance. Any credit union...

  9. Department of medicine of catastrophes, medical care and mobilization training of health the stages of development

    OpenAIRE

    Akhmerov, F.; Petrov, G.; Shigapov, B.

    2010-01-01

    The article presents the stages of organization and development of the department of medicine of catastrophes, the formation of the service providing emergency medical care and specialized rehabilitation center in the Republic of Tatarstan. Keywords: medicine of catastrophes, emergency medical care.

  10. Catastrophe modelling: deriving the 1-in-200 year mortality shock for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper investigates catastrophe risk for South African life insurers by considering the additional deaths that could arise from a 1-in-200 year mortality shock. Existing South African academic research on catastrophic risk has mostly focused on property losses and the resulting impact on property insurance companies.

  11. Household Catastrophic Healthcare Expenditure and Impoverishment Due to Rotavirus Gastroenteritis Requiring Hospitalization in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Loganathan, T.; Lee, WS; Lee, KF; Jit, M; Ng, CW

    2015-01-01

    Background While healthcare costs for rotavirus gastroenteritis requiring hospitalization may be burdensome on households in Malaysia, exploration on the distribution and catastrophic impact of these expenses on households are lacking. Objectives We assessed the economic burden, levels and distribution of catastrophic healthcare expenditure, the poverty impact on households and inequities related to healthcare payments for acute gastroenteritis requiring hospitalization in Malaysia. Methods A...

  12. Flexible Retirement and the New Swedish Partial-Pension Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratthall, Kenneth

    1976-01-01

    On July 1, 1976 a new National Partial Pension Scheme came into effect in Sweden, which will allow older workers (60-65) to reduce their working hours and draw partial pensions as a preparation for full retirement. (Editor)

  13. Two notes about Ponzi schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Honohan, Patrick

    1987-01-01

    A Ponzi scheme is an arrangement whereby a promoter offers an investment opportunity with attractive dividends, but where the only basis for the dividends is the future receipts from new investors. The first of these two notes explores some of the analytical properties of a Ponzi scheme, addressing in particular the question whether it is possible for a Ponzi scheme to exist if all the participants are rational. The second note briefly examines the collapse of the PMPA insurance company whos...

  14. Microtubule dynamic instability: A new model with coupled GTP hydrolysis and multistep catastrophe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowne-Anderson, Hugo; Zanic, Marija; Kauer, Monika; Howard, Jonathon

    2013-01-01

    A key question in understanding microtubule dynamics is how GTP hydrolysis leads to catastrophe, the switch from slow growth to rapid shrinkage. We first provide a review of the experimental and modeling literature, and then present a new model of microtubule dynamics. We demonstrate that vectorial, random, and coupled hydrolysis mechanisms are not consistent with the dependence of catastrophe on tubulin concentration and show that, although single-protofilament models can explain many features of dynamics, they do not describe catastrophe as a multistep process. Finally, we present a new combined (coupled plus random hydrolysis) multiple-protofilament model that is a simple, analytically solvable generalization of a single-protofilament model. This model accounts for the observed lifetimes of growing microtubules, the delay to catastrophe following dilution and describes catastrophe as a multistep process. PMID:23532586

  15. Sleep disturbance and depressive symptoms in adolescence: the role of catastrophic worry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsson, Nanette S; Harvey, Allison G; Macdonald, Shane; Jansson-Fröjmark, Markus; Linton, Steven J

    2013-08-01

    Depression is a common and debilitating disorder in adolescence. Sleep disturbances and depression often co-occur with sleep disturbances frequently preceding depression. The current study investigated whether catastrophic worry, a potential cognitive vulnerability, mediates the relationship between adolescent sleep disturbances and depressive symptoms, as well as whether there are gender differences in this relationship. High school students, ages 16-18, n = 1,760, 49% girls, completed annual health surveys including reports of sleep disturbance, catastrophic worry, and depressive symptoms. Sleep disturbances predicted depressive symptoms 1-year later. Catastrophic worry partially mediated the relationship. Girls reported more sleep disturbances, depressive symptoms, and catastrophic worry relative to boys. The results, however, were similar regardless of gender. Sleep disturbances and catastrophic worry may provide school nurses, psychologists, teachers, and parents with non-gender specific early indicators of risk for depression. Several potentially important practical implications, including suggestions for intervention and prevention programs, are highlighted.

  16. Remarks on quantum duopoly schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraçkiewicz, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss in some detail the two different quantum schemes for duopoly problems. We investigate under what conditions one of the schemes is more reasonable than the other one. Using the Cournot's duopoly example, we show that the current quantum schemes require a slight refinement so that they output the classical game in a particular case. Then, we show how the amendment changes the way of studying the quantum games with respect to Nash equilibria. Finally, we define another scheme for the Cournot's duopoly in terms of quantum computation.

  17. New Ideas on Labeling Schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rotbart, Noy Galil

    times, effectively eliminating the second penalty mentioned. We continue this theoretical study in several ways. First, we dedicate a large part of the thesis to the graph family of trees, for which we provide an overview of labeling schemes supporting several important functions such as ancestry......, routing and especially adjacency. The survey is complemented by novel contributions to this study, among which are the first asymptotically optimal adjacency labeling scheme for bounded degree trees, improved bounds on ancestry labeling schemes, dynamic multifunctional labeling schemes and an experimental...

  18. Understanding security failures of two authentication and key agreement schemes for telecare medicine information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Dheerendra

    2015-03-01

    Smart card based authentication and key agreement schemes for telecare medicine information systems (TMIS) enable doctors, nurses, patients and health visitors to use smart cards for secure login to medical information systems. In recent years, several authentication and key agreement schemes have been proposed to present secure and efficient solution for TMIS. Most of the existing authentication schemes for TMIS have either higher computation overhead or are vulnerable to attacks. To reduce the computational overhead and enhance the security, Lee recently proposed an authentication and key agreement scheme using chaotic maps for TMIS. Xu et al. also proposed a password based authentication and key agreement scheme for TMIS using elliptic curve cryptography. Both the schemes provide better efficiency from the conventional public key cryptography based schemes. These schemes are important as they present an efficient solution for TMIS. We analyze the security of both Lee's scheme and Xu et al.'s schemes. Unfortunately, we identify that both the schemes are vulnerable to denial of service attack. To understand the security failures of these cryptographic schemes which are the key of patching existing schemes and designing future schemes, we demonstrate the security loopholes of Lee's scheme and Xu et al.'s scheme in this paper.

  19. Incorporating catastrophic risk assessments into setting conservation goals for threatened Pacific salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Thomas P; Davies, Jeremy; Burke, Brian J; Ruckelshaus, Mary H

    2008-01-01

    Catastrophic die-offs can have important consequences for vertebrate population growth and biodiversity, but catastrophic risks are not commonly incorporated into endangered-species recovery planning. Natural (e.g., landslides, floods) and anthropogenic (e.g., toxic leaks and spills) catastrophes pose a challenge for evolutionarily significant units (ESUs) of Pacific salmon listed under the Endangered Species Act and teetering at precariously low population levels. To spread risks among Puget Sound chinook salmon populations, recovery strategies for ESU-wide viability recommend at least two viable populations of historical life-history types in each of five geographic regions. We explored the likelihood of Puget Sound chinook salmon ESU persistence by examining spatial patterns of catastrophic risk and testing ESU viability recommendations for 22 populations of the threatened Puget Sound chinook salmon ESU. We combined geospatial information about catastrophic risks and chinook salmon distribution in Puget Sound watersheds to categorize relative catastrophic risks for each population. We then analyzed similarities in risk scores among regions and compared risk distributions among strategies: (1) population groups selected using the ESU viability recommendations of having populations spread out geographically and including historical life-history diversity, and (2) population groups selected at random. Risks from individual catastrophes varied among populations, but overall risk from catastrophes was similar within geographic regions. Recovery strategies that called for two viable populations in each of five geographic regions had lower risk than random strategies; strategies that included life-history diversity had even lower risks. Geographically distributed populations have varying catastrophic-risks profiles, thus identifying and reinforcing the spatial and life-history diversity critical for populations to respond to environmental change or needed to rescue

  20. Pediatric catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome: descriptive analysis of 45 patients from the "CAPS Registry".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Horacio; Rodríguez-Pintó, Ignasi; Cervera, Ricard; Gregory, Simone; de Meis, Ernesto; Rodrigues, Carlos Ewerton Maia; Aikawa, Nádia Emi; de Carvalho, Jozélio Freire; Springer, Janusz; Niedzwiecki, Maciej; Espinosa, Gerard

    2014-02-01

    Given the lack of information about catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) in pediatric patients, the objective of the current study was to describe the clinical characteristics, laboratory features, treatment, and outcome of pediatric patients with catastrophic APS and compare them with the adult patients with catastrophic APS. We identified patients who were under 18years of age at time of catastrophic APS diagnosis included in the international registry of patients with catastrophic APS (CAPS Registry). Their main demographic and clinical characteristics, laboratory features, treatment, and outcome were described and compared with those of adult patients with catastrophic APS. From the 446 patients included in the CAPS Registry as of May 2013, 45 (10.3%) patients developed 46 catastrophic events before 18years of age (one patient presented two episodes). Overall, 32 (71.1%) patients were female and the mean age was 11.5±4.6years (range, 3months-18years). A total of 31 (68.9%) patients suffered from primary APS and 13 (28.9%) from systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The main differences between the two groups of patients were the higher prevalence of infections as precipitating factor for catastrophic event in the pediatric population (60.9% versus 26.8% in the adult population, pdifference was not statistically significant (26.1% versus 40.2%; odds ratio, 1.9; 95% confidence interval, 0.96-3.79; p=0.063). No differences were found neither in the laboratory features nor in the isolated or combination treatments between groups. Catastrophic APS in pediatric patients is a rare disease. There are minimal differences in the clinical and laboratory features, treatment, and outcome of pediatric and adult catastrophic APS patients. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The Role of Geoscience Information in Reducing Catastrophic Loss Using a Web-Based Economics Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernknopf, Richard L.; Brookshire, David S.; Ganderton, Philip T.

    2003-01-01

    What role can geoscience information play in the assessment of risk and the value of insurance, especially for natural hazard type risks? In an earlier, related paper Ganderton and others (2000) provided subjects with relatively simple geoscience information concerning natural hazard-type risks. Their research looked at how subjects purchase insurance when faced with relatively low probability but high loss risks of the kind that characterize natural hazards and now, increasingly, manmade disasters. They found evidence to support the expected utility theory (definitions of economics terms can be found in a glossary at the end of report), yet there remained the implication that subjects with excessive aversion to risk were willing to pay considerably more for insurance than the actuarially fair price plus any reasonable risk premium. Here, we report the results of additional experiments that provide further support for the basic postulates of expected utility theory. However, these new experiments add considerably to the decision environment facing subjects by offering an option to purchase geoscientific information that would assist them when calculating expected losses from hazards more accurately. Using an Internet-based mechanism to present information and gather data in an experimental setting, this research provided subjects with considerable textual and graphical information, and time to process it. Over a period of three months, almost 400 subjects participated in on-line experiments that generated approximately 22,000 usable data points for the empirical analysis discussed in this report. In the design of the experiment, we modeled the decisions to purchase (1) a detailed map giving subjects more information regarding the distribution of losses from a hazard and (2) insurance to indemnify them from any losses should they occur. On the basis of this design, we find strong evidence in support of the expected utility theory. Many of the findings reinforce those found in the early, similar study (Ganderton and others, 2000). However, this research also finds interactions between the decision to become better informed and the decision to insure. We chose an empirical framework that allows for both explicit and implicit (unobservable) correlations between the two decisions. The results suggest that at the end of the computer game subjects recognize the benefits of greater geoscience information. They take advantage of it, but are sensitive to its cost. When subjects use the more detailed information, they are more likely to purchase insurance when it offers a net benefit.

  2. CANONICAL BACKWARD DIFFERENTIATION SCHEMES FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper describes a new nonlinear backward differentiation schemes for the numerical solution of nonlinear initial value problems of first order ordinary differential equations. The schemes are based on rational interpolation obtained from canonical polynomials. They are A-stable. The test problems show that they give ...

  3. Robust catastrophe-free space agriculture on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Masamichi

    During the early stage of CELSS research, economy was a selling point of the bio-regenerative life support concept. Until system integration was exercised in detail at mission planing for the International Space Station, the turning point from open system to CELSS was estimated 10 years of operation for 10 crew member as a consensus. Initial investment and operational cost for the 10-10 regenerative system was believed to be cheaper than the integrated amount of consumables for running open system. Any drop-out from recycling loop of materials is counted as “penalty”. Under this context, degree of closure was raised as an index to measure “maturity” of CELSS technology. Once it was found quite difficult to achieve 100 % closure perfect, science merit of CELSS study was redefined as a small scaled model of terrestrial biosphere. Natural ecosystem has huge sink and backyard in its materials loop. They provide a basis for keeping member in the ecology without falling into catastrophe. Low productivity at high biological diversity is a common key feature at the climax phase of ecosystem. Artificial ecosystem on ground relies on “unpaid” backyard function of surrounding biosphere together with strong control for realizing high productivity at less degree of bio-diversity. It should be noted that top criteria in engineering manned space system is robustness and survivability of crew. All other item is secondary, and just better to have. Without verification of catastrophe free, space agriculture will never be implemented for space and stay as a fantasy on ground forever. There is a great gap between ecology and this requirement for manned space system. In order to fill this gap, we should remind how gatherer and hunter was civilized after the agricultural revolution about ten thousand years ago. Planting cereal crop was a great second step in agricultural innovation. Cereal grain can be stored more than one year after its harvest. Food processing and

  4. Disease-Related, Nondisease-Related, and Situational Catastrophizing in Sickle Cell Disease and Its Relationship With Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Vani A; Kiley, Kasey B; Carroll, C Patrick; Edwards, Robert R; Lanzkron, Sophie; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer A; Campbell, Claudia M

    2016-11-01

    Catastrophizing is a potent psychological modulator of pain across several chronic pain populations; yet despite evidence that patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) catastrophize more than patients with other chronic pain conditions, previous research indicates that catastrophizing is not related to sickle cell pain after controlling for relevant covariates such as depression. Recent research suggests that pain-related catastrophizing should be assessed across pain contexts (eg, dispositional and situational). In this study, we measured disease-specific, general non-disease-related, and situational catastrophizing and assessed the relationship between these contextual dimensions of catastrophizing and laboratory and clinical pain among patients with SCD. Results revealed differential catastrophizing across pain contexts, with patients reporting greater catastrophizing about SCD-specific pain compared with non-SCD pain and laboratory pain. SCD-specific and non-SCD catastrophizing were associated with clinical pain outcomes, and situational catastrophizing with markers of central sensitization and laboratory pain. Further examination of the time course of laboratory responses revealed that increases in situational catastrophizing were associated with subsequent increases in laboratory pain sensitivity. Taken together, results show the relevance of catastrophizing in understanding pain in SCD, and suggest that context-specific anchors may be beneficial in predicting different aspects of the pain experience (eg, chronic pain, pain sensitization). Patients with SCD report greater catastrophizing about sickle cell-specific pain relative to other pains. Disease-specific and non-disease-related pain catastrophizing were associated with clinical pain, and situational catastrophizing predictive of subsequent laboratory pain. Evaluation of context-specific catastrophizing may more accurately predict different aspects of the pain experience. Copyright © 2016 American Pain

  5. Multiuser Switched Diversity Scheduling Schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Shaqfeh, Mohammad; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2012-01-01

    Multiuser switched-diversity scheduling schemes were recently proposed in order to overcome the heavy feedback requirements of conventional opportunistic scheduling schemes by applying a threshold-based, distributed, and ordered scheduling mechanism. The main idea behind these schemes is that slight reduction in the prospected multiuser diversity gains is an acceptable trade-off for great savings in terms of required channel-state-information feedback messages. In this work, we characterize the achievable rate region of multiuser switched diversity systems and compare it with the rate region of full feedback multiuser diversity systems. We propose also a novel proportional fair multiuser switched-based scheduling scheme and we demonstrate that it can be optimized using a practical and distributed method to obtain the feedback thresholds. We finally demonstrate by numerical examples that switched-diversity scheduling schemes operate within 0.3 bits/sec/Hz from the ultimate network capacity of full feedback sys...

  6. Kinesiophobia, catastrophizing and anticipated symptoms before stair climbing in chronic fatigue syndrome: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijs, Jo; Meeus, Mira; Heins, Marianne; Knoop, Hans; Moorkens, Greta; Bleijenberg, Gijs

    2012-01-01

    Kinesiophobia and catastrophizing are frequent among people with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). This study was aimed at examining (1) whether kinesiophobia, anticipated symptoms and fatigue catastrophizing are related to stair climbing performance in people with CFS; and (2) whether kinesiophobia and fatigue catastrophizing are related to daily physical activity in CFS. Patients with CFS filled in a set of questionnaires, performed a physical demanding task (two floors stair of climbing and descending) with pre-test and post-test heart rate monitoring and immediate post-stair climbing symptom assessment. Real-time activity monitoring was used between the baseline and second assessment day (7 days later). Kinesiophobia and fatigue catastrophizing were strongly related (ρ = 0.62 and 0.67, respectively) to poorer stair climbing performance (i.e. more time required to complete the threatening activity). Kinesiophobia and fatigue catastrophizing were unrelated to the amount of physical activity on the first day following stair climbing or during the seven subsequent days. These findings underscore the importance of kinesiophobia and fatigue catastrophizing for performing physical demanding tasks in everyday life of people with CFS, but refute a cardinal role for kinesiophobia and fatigue catastrophizing in determining daily physical activity level in these patients.

  7. Influence of kinesiophobia and catastrophizing on pain and disability in anterior knee pain patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenech, Julio; Sanchis-Alfonso, Vicente; López, Laura; Espejo, Begoña

    2013-07-01

    To evaluate the prevalence and participation of catastrophizing and fear to movement beliefs on present pain and disability in anterior knee pain patients. A cross-sectional study on 97 patients with chronic anterior knee pain was performed in a secondary healthcare setting. Pain was measured with Visual Analogue Scale and disability with Lysholm Scale. The psychological variables anxiety, depression, pain coping strategies, catastrophizing and fear to movement beliefs were studied by using auto-administered questionnaires. Patients showed a high incidence of psychological distress (anxiety and depression), kinesiophobia and catastrophizing. A moderate correlation between pain and disability was found. Among all the coping strategies, only catastrophizing correlated with pain and disability. Anxiety depression and kinesiophobia also correlated with present pain and disability. In the regression model, catastrophizing and depression explained 56 % of the variance of disability and catastrophizing alone explained 37 % of present pain. The moderate correlation between pain and disability suggests that pain per se is not able to explain all the variability of disability. Catastrophizing and kinesiophobia are shown to be predictors of present pain and disability in anterior knee pain patients. These findings support the fear avoidance model in the genesis and persistence of pain and disability in anterior knee pain patients and open the door to a biopsychosocial perspective in the management of these patients. III.

  8. Out-of-pocket expenditures for hospital care in Iran: who is at risk of incurring catastrophic payments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajizadeh, Mohammad; Nghiem, Hong Son

    2011-12-01

    Since the beginning of 1980s, the Iranian health care system has undergone several reforms designed to increase accessibility of health services. Notwithstanding these reforms, out-of-pocket payments which create a barrier to access health services contribute almost half of total health are financing in Iran. This study aimed to provide a greater understanding about the inequality and determinants of the out-of-pocket expenditure (OOPE) and the related catastrophic expenditure (CE) for hospital services in Iran using a nationwide survey data, the 2003 Utilisation of Health Services Survey (UHSS). The concentration index and the Heckman selection model were used to assess inequality and factors associated with these expenditures. Inequality analysis suggests that the CE is concentrated among households in lower socioeconomic levels. The results of the Heckman selection model indicate that factors such as length of stay, admission to a hospital owned by private sector or Ministry of Health and Medical Education, and living in remote areas are positively associated with higher OOPE. Results of the ordered-probit selection model demonstrate that length of stay, lower household wealth index, and admission to a private hospital are major factors contributing to the increase in the probability of CE. Also, we find that households living in East Azarbaijan, Kordestan and Sistan and Balochestan face a higher level of CE. Based on our findings, the current employer-sponsored health insurance system does not offer equal protection against hospital expenditure in Iran. It seems that a single universal health insurance scheme that covers health services for all Iranian-regardless of their employment status-can better protect households from catastrophic health spending.

  9. The Prestige Catastrophe: Political Decisions, Scientific Counsel, Missing Markets and the Need for an International Maritime Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo L. Giménez

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The Prestige tankship with 77.000 Tons of fuel suffered an accident on November 13th, 2002 at 45 miles from Galician coast under a storm. Although the ship arrived as close as 5 miles from Galiza, Spanish government refused to admit it at any harbor, but to send off-shore northwest direction. This was the first in a number of decisions that provoked the widest oil pollution ever from Exxon Valdez accident. In this paper it is shown that the political decisions first taken by Spanish government may be understood in the light of economic theory: first due to missing markets for pollution accidents both domestic and international, i.e. the non existence of any international maritime protocol; and second, because of Spanish government incompetence by neglecting the counsel of scientific institutions to assess the possible risks in the event of a catastrophe, which made the authorities to misperceive the risks involved on the decisions taken, and then hid to population information about all possible dangers. It is argued that the latter magnified the catastrophe -both ecological and social-, and the former became the government objective closer to the individual coastal population interests than to the social planner, so that the observed outcome was (obviously the well-known free-rider theoretical inefficient result found in the economic theory with externalities, i.e., the Spanish, and later the French, Atlantic coast were fully polluted. This paper has two main goals. First, at the theoretical level, to show the need to introduce the political decision analysis into the economic theory. Second, as a policy recommendation, it is an appeal for the need of an international maritime protocol, which includes scientific assessment for this kind of situations, places of refuge, and a suitable com pensation scheme from those who are benefited, so that this kind of political decisions and this type of disasters will be repeated Never More (Nunca Mais.

  10. A depth refugium from catastrophic coral bleaching prevents regional extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tyler B; Glynn, Peter W; Maté, Juan L; Toth, Lauren T; Gyory, Joanna

    2014-06-01

    Species intolerant of changing climate might avoid extinction within refugia buffered from extreme conditions. Refugia have been observed in the fossil record but are not well documented or understood on ecological time scales. Using a 37-year record from the eastern Pacific across the two most severe El Niño events on record (1982-1983 and 1997 1998) we show how an exceptionally thermally sensitive reef-building hydrocoral, Millepora intricata, twice survived catastrophic bleaching in a deeper-water refuge (> 11 m depth). During both events, M. intricata was extirpated across its range in shallow water, but showed recovery within several years, while two other hydrocorals without deep-water populations were driven to regional extinction. Evidence from the subfossil record in the same area showed shallow-water persistence of abundant M. intricata populations from 5000 years ago, through severe El Niño-Southern Oscillation cycles, suggesting a potential depth refugium on a millennial timescale. Our data confirm the deep refuge hypothesis for corals under thermal stress.

  11. Role of senescence and mitotic catastrophe in cancer therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukla Yogeshwer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Senescence and mitotic catastrophe (MC are two distinct crucial non-apoptotic mechanisms, often triggered in cancer cells and tissues in response to anti-cancer drugs. Chemotherapeuticals and myriad other factors induce cell eradication via these routes. While senescence drives the cells to a state of quiescence, MC drives the cells towards death during the course of mitosis. The senescent phenotype distinguishes tumor cells that survived drug exposure but lost the ability to form colonies from those that recover and proliferate after treatment. Although senescent cells do not proliferate, they are metabolically active and may secrete proteins with potential tumor-promoting activities. The other anti-proliferative response of tumor cells is MC that is a form of cell death that results from abnormal mitosis and leads to the formation of interphase cells with multiple micronuclei. Different classes of cytotoxic agents induce MC, but the pathways of abnormal mitosis differ depending on the nature of the inducer and the status of cell-cycle checkpoints. In this review, we compare the two pathways and mention that they are activated to curb the growth of tumors. Altogether, we have highlighted the possibilities of the use of senescence targeting drugs, mitotic kinases and anti-mitotic agents in fabricating novel strategies in cancer control.

  12. The Umm Al Binni Structure and Bronze Age Catastrophes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.

    Archaeological excavations of sites dating from 2200 BCE and 1200 BCE in the Middle East, Asia Minor, and southeast Europe provide evidence that a large scale disaster affected Bronze Age civilizations. There are numerous debates as to whether this was caused by warfare, a large-scale natural disaster, or some other factor. In 2001, Sharad Master used satellite images to discover a possible Holocene impact structure in the Al 'Amarah marshes of southern Iraq, known as Umm al Binni lake. With an estimated age of impact, I show that although destructive forces would have damaged Sumerian cities within a few hundred km of the coast, it is unlikely that this single impact would have caused the large-scale destruction seen over the larger region. The impact origin of the structure is unconfirmed and any connection to Bronze Age catastrophes remains speculative. Errata: Table 4 provides a list of impact sites, three of which are associated with nickel-iron impactors and therefore cannot be from a "fragmented comet".

  13. Origin of asteroid rotation rates in catastrophic impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, S G; Ahrens, T J

    1997-03-13

    The rotation rates of asteroids, which are deduced from periodic fluctuations in their brightnesses, are controlled by mutual collisions. The link between asteroid spin and collision history is usually made with reference to impact experiments on centimetre-scale targets, where material strength governs the impact response. Recent work, however, indicates that for objects of the size of most observed asteroids (> or = 1 km in diameter), gravity rather than intrinsic strength controls the dynamic response to collisions. Here we explore this idea by modelling the effect of impacts on large gravitating bodies. We find that the fraction of a projectile's angular momentum that is retained by a target asteroid is both lower and more variable than expected from laboratory experiments, with spin evolution being dominated by 'catastrophic' collisions that eject approximately 50 per cent of the target's mass. The remnant of an initially non-rotating silicate asteroid that suffers such a collision rotates at a rate of approximately 2.9 per day, which is close to the observed mean asteroid rotation rate of approximately 2.5 d-1. Moreover, our calculations suggest that the observed trend in the mean spin frequency for different classes of asteroids (2.2 d-1 for C-type asteroids, 2.5 d-1 for S-type, and 4.0 d-1 for M-type) is due to increasing mean density, rather than increasing material strength.

  14. Catastrophic Transculturation in Dracula, The Strain and The Historian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Hoglund

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The article notes that what Paul Brantlinger has referred to as the Imperial Gothic insists that the encounter between cultures results not in a transcultural merger, but in an apocalyptic struggle for survival. As this struggle is often tied to past and present-day imperial sentiment, the article suggests that both late-Victorian and contemporary fiction can effectively be discussed with the help of Marie Louise Pratt's concept transculturation. Through a reading of three vampire narratives, Stokers's Dracula (1897, Del Toro and Hogan's The Strain (2009 and Kostova's The Historian (2005, the article demonstrates how past and present imperial gothic texts describe the derailment of European modernity and insists that cultural encounter produce monstrous hybrids that threaten an ontological and/or epistemological apocalypse. In this way, the cultural encounter that these gothic novels imagine result in catastrophic transculturation and the article argues that this is a common way of understanding the transnational meeting in American neo-imperial discourse.

  15. Hip sonography update. Quality-management, catastrophes - tips and tricks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Reinhard; Mohajer, Mohammad; Plattner, Florian

    2013-12-01

    Hip sonography is today considered to be the diagnostic standard tool for developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) diagnosis. In Germany special commissions control the quality of the sonograms according to checklists to keep the standard high and to avoid over- and under - treatment. This paper lists tips and tricks to avoid typical mistakes according to these results. In 8 German countries the quality of sonograms used to diagnose DDH was checked according to special checklists. An additional 250 medical doctors (pediatricians, radiologists, orthopaedic surgeons) were asked to classify 4 sonograms by measuring and typing. From the same group the projection (standing left, standing right, horizontal-cranial left, horizontal-cranial right) was checked according to the correct diagnosis in the shortest time. In 1.6 % - 43.7% the licence for hip sonography was withdrawn by the German commission. The best projection with the lowest rate of wrong interpretation was the "standing right"-projection. Most of the mistakes were made because of a wrong anatomical identification and usability check. Hip sonography must be trained by authorized teachers. The quality of the sonograms must be controlled according to checklists. The bedside teaching without control leads to a systematic teaching of mistakes and finally catastrophes.

  16. Supersymmetric and non-supersymmetric models without catastrophic Goldstone bosons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braathen, Johannes; Goodsell, Mark D.; Staub, Florian

    2017-11-01

    The calculation of the Higgs mass in general renormalisable field theories has been plagued by the so-called "Goldstone Boson Catastrophe," where light (would-be) Goldstone bosons give infra-red divergent loop integrals. In supersymmetric models, previous approaches included a workaround that ameliorated the problem for most, but not all, parameter space regions; while giving divergent results everywhere for non-supersymmetric models! We present an implementation of a general solution to the problem in the public code SARAH, along with new calculations of some necessary loop integrals and generic expressions. We discuss the validation of our code in the Standard Model, where we find remarkable agreement with the known results. We then show new applications in Split SUSY, the NMSSM, the Two-Higgs-Doublet Model, and the Georgi-Machacek model. In particular, we take some first steps to exploring where the habit of using tree-level mass relations in non-supersymmetric models breaks down, and show that the loop corrections usually become very large well before naive perturbativity bounds are reached.

  17. Chromothripsis: how does such a catastrophic event impact human reproduction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellestor, Franck

    2014-03-01

    The recent discovery of a new kind of massive chromosomal rearrangement, baptized chromothripsis (chromo for chromosomes, thripsis for shattering into pieces), greatly modifies our understanding of molecular mechanisms implicated in the repair of DNA damage and the genesis of complex chromosomal rearrangements. Initially described in cancers, and then in constitutional rearrangements, chromothripsis is characterized by the shattering of one (or a few) chromosome(s) segments followed by a chaotic reassembly of the chromosomal fragments, occurring during one unique cellular event. The diversity and the high complexity of chromothripsis events raise questions about their origin, their ties to chromosome instability and their impact in pathology. Several causative mechanisms, involving abortive apoptosis, telomere erosion, mitotic errors, micronuclei formation and p53 inactivation, have been proposed. The remarkable point is that all these mechanisms have been identified in the field of human reproduction as causal factors for reproductive failures and chromosomal abnormalities. Consequently, it seems important to consider this unexpected catastrophic phenomenon in the context of fertilization and early embryonic development in order to discuss its potential impact on human reproduction.

  18. ENSO floods on river ecosystems: catastrophes or myths?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neiff, J.J. [CECOAL, Corrientes (Argentina). Littoral Applied Ecology Centre; Mendiondo, E.M. [Kassel Univ. (Germany). Hydraulic Structures and Water-Resources Engineering; Univ. Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Pesquisas Hidraulicas; Depettris, C.A. [Northeast National Univ.-UNNE, Chaco (Argentina). Dept. Hydraulics

    2000-07-01

    Very extreme floods ranging from 38000 to 62000 m{sup 3}s{sup -1}, draining a 2 million km{sup 2} catchment area and severe inundations downstream of the Paraguay-Parana confluence in South America are related to the El Nino Southern Oscillation -ENSO-. This paper links ENSO floods to natural ecosystems, e.g. the flood plain patchiness, the biodiversity and the ecosystem structure. River behaviour may be described with parameters, such as frequency, intensity, tension, regularity, amplitude and seasonality. According to the 20th century river time series, noteworthy fluvial changes are related to extreme floods through actual time. Nevertheless, the ecosystem recovers itself by means of resilience and is here assessed by remote sensing. This lack of understanding is at the origin of enormous economic losses in ecosystems impacted by ENSO floods during the 1983-98 period going from catastrophes to myths. Although flood plain ecosystems are often well adapted to ENSO floods, the risks of the latter must be properly addressed. Therefore, adaptations to land use are discussed, demanding a change of attitude of the society to cope with river behaviour and to put the ENSO flood myth into question. (orig.)

  19. Catastrophic debris avalanche deposit of Socompa volcano, northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, P. W.; Gardeweg, M.; Ramirez, C. F.; Rothery, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    Between 10,000 and 500 yr ago the Socompa volcano in northern Chile experienced a catastrophic collapse of a 70 deg sector of the original cone, causing a debris avalanche that descended nearly 3000 m vertically and traveled more than 35 km from the volcano. The deposits cover some 490 sq km and have a minimum volume of 15 cu km. Parts of the original cone slumped in a nearly coherent form and are now preserved as large blocks more than 400 m high. The primary avalanche traveled northwestward over sloping ground before coming to rest transiently, forming a prominent marginal ridge, and then slid away northeastward to form a secondary flow, overriding much of the primary avalanche deposit. Abundant, prismatic, jointed dacite blocks within the debris avalanche deposit and a thin, fine-grained pumiceous deposit beneath it suggest that the collapse was triggered by magmatic activity and may have been accompanied by a violent lateral blast. Collapse was followed by eruption of pumiceous pyroclastic flows and extrusion of voluminous dacite domes.

  20. Eradicating catastrophic collapse in interdependent networks via reinforced nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xin; Hu, Yanqing; Stanley, H Eugene; Havlin, Shlomo

    2017-03-28

    In interdependent networks, it is usually assumed, based on percolation theory, that nodes become nonfunctional if they lose connection to the network giant component. However, in reality, some nodes, equipped with alternative resources, together with their connected neighbors can still be functioning after disconnected from the giant component. Here, we propose and study a generalized percolation model that introduces a fraction of reinforced nodes in the interdependent networks that can function and support their neighborhood. We analyze, both analytically and via simulations, the order parameter-the functioning component-comprising both the giant component and smaller components that include at least one reinforced node. Remarkably, it is found that, for interdependent networks, we need to reinforce only a small fraction of nodes to prevent abrupt catastrophic collapses. Moreover, we find that the universal upper bound of this fraction is 0.1756 for two interdependent Erdős-Rényi (ER) networks: regular random (RR) networks and scale-free (SF) networks with large average degrees. We also generalize our theory to interdependent networks of networks (NONs). These findings might yield insight for designing resilient interdependent infrastructure networks.

  1. Quantifying the hurricane catastrophe risk to offshore wind power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Stephen; Jaramillo, Paulina; Small, Mitchell J; Apt, Jay

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has estimated that over 50 GW of offshore wind power will be required for the United States to generate 20% of its electricity from wind. Developers are actively planning offshore wind farms along the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf coasts and several leases have been signed for offshore sites. These planned projects are in areas that are sometimes struck by hurricanes. We present a method to estimate the catastrophe risk to offshore wind power using simulated hurricanes. Using this method, we estimate the fraction of offshore wind power simultaneously offline and the cumulative damage in a region. In Texas, the most vulnerable region we studied, 10% of offshore wind power could be offline simultaneously because of hurricane damage with a 100-year return period and 6% could be destroyed in any 10-year period. We also estimate the risks to single wind farms in four representative locations; we find the risks are significant but lower than those estimated in previously published results. Much of the hurricane risk to offshore wind turbines can be mitigated by designing turbines for higher maximum wind speeds, ensuring that turbine nacelles can turn quickly to track the wind direction even when grid power is lost, and building in areas with lower risk. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  2. Chandler wobble excitation by catastrophic flooding of the Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Boschi

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available It is now widely accepted that during the late Quaternary glaciation the Black Sea formed an isolated inland lake (Ross et al., 1970. New geological data and the recognition of sudden population movements away from the Black Sea coasts suggest that the basin was rapidly flooded through the Bosphorus sill 7150 years bp, causing a sea level rise of ~ 135 m in a few years (Ryan et al., 1997. As shown here, such a catastrophic redistribution of mass has significantly altered the amplitude of the Chandler wobble, the free motion of the pole of rotation around the main inertia axis of the Earth (Lambeck, 1980. We also estimate that during the flooding the pole of rotation was diverted from its secular path and shifted by ~ 30 m, at a rate of several meters per year. These rotational variations are found to be orders of magnitude larger than those produced by other short-term geophysical processes, such as earthquakes seismic moment release (O'Connell and Dziewonski, 1979; Chao et al.,1996, anthropogenic water impoundment (Chao, 1995, and tectonic mass movements (Alfonsi and Spada, 1998. The Black Sea flooding may thus be responsible for the most drastic change in the rotational parameters of the Earth in the recent history of our planet.

  3. Research on the Selection Strategy of Green Building Parts Supplier Based on the Catastrophe Theory and Kent Index Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhua Luo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, the green building and housing industrialization are two mainstream directions in the real estate industry. The production of green building parts which combines green building and housing industrialization, two concepts, is to be vigorously developed. The key of quality assurance in the assembly project is choosing reliable and proper green building parts suppliers. This paper analyzes the inherent requirements of the green building, combined with the characteristics of the housing industrialization, and puts forward an evaluation index system of supplier selection for green building parts, which includes product index, enterprise index, green development index, and cooperation ability index. To reduce the influence of subjective factors, the improved method which merges Kent index method and catastrophe theory is applied to the green building parts supplier selection and evaluation. This paper takes the selection of the unit bathroom suppliers as an example, uses the improved model to calculate and analyze the data of each supplier, and finally selects the optimal supplier. With combination of the Kent index and the catastrophe theory, the result shows that it can effectively reduce the subjectivity of the evaluation and provide a basis for the selection of the green building parts suppliers.

  4. Of Malthus and Methuselah: does longevity treatment aggravate global catastrophic risks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jebari, Karim

    2014-12-01

    Global catastrophic risk is a term that refers to the risk of the occurrence of an event that kills at least millions of people across several continents. While it has been argued by a number of scholars that one major potential risk comes from technology, the obscure nature of future technologies makes it difficult to utilize traditional probabilistic risk for the meaningful study of these risks. This article describes an alternative approach and applies it to a research program that has attracted a considerable amount of resources recently: namely longevity research. The aim of this research is to delay or reverse the ageing process. This article argues that this research program is much more risky or less beneficial than its proponents argue. In particular, they tend to underestimate the concerns associated with the potentially drastic population growth that longevity treatment could cause. The ethical benefit often ascribed to longevity treatment is that such treatment would add more subjective life-years that are worth living. However, in light of contemporary environmental problems, such an increase of the human population might be reckless. Drastically reducing fertility to reduce risks associated with environmental stress would make the benefits of such technology much less compelling.

  5. The epidemiology of catastrophic spine injuries in high school and college football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Sanjitpal S; Boden, Barry P

    2008-03-01

    Athletic events have long been identified as a source of catastrophic spinal injuries. One of the most notorious sports has been American football. At both the amateur and professional level, this collision sport is associated with the highest number of direct catastrophic injuries including cervical spine trauma and quadriplegia. Although modifications in the rules of play and education of players and coaches have significantly diminished the rate of quadriplegia, there remains a need to decrease the number of catastrophic spine injuries in football. Further research related to the prevention and management of athletic cervical spine trauma is necessary.

  6. Enhanced ID-Based Authentication Scheme Using OTP in Smart Grid AMI Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Soo Yeo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the vulnerabilities analyses of KL scheme which is an ID-based authentication scheme for AMI network attached SCADA in smart grid and proposes a security-enhanced authentication scheme which satisfies forward secrecy as well as security requirements introduced in KL scheme and also other existing schemes. The proposed scheme uses MDMS which is the supervising system located in an electrical company as a time-synchronizing server in order to synchronize smart devices at home and conducts authentication between smart meter and smart devices using a new secret value generated by an OTP generator every session. The proposed scheme has forward secrecy, so it increases overall security, but its communication and computation overhead reduce its performance slightly, comparing the existing schemes. Nonetheless, hardware specification and communication bandwidth of smart devices will have better conditions continuously, so the proposed scheme would be a good choice for secure AMI environment.

  7. Development and evaluation of short forms of the Pain Catastrophizing Scale and the Pain Self-efficacy Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, L A; Kowal, J; Wilson, K G

    2015-10-01

    To facilitate efficient screening and reduce the length of comprehensive self-report batteries, a four-item short form of the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS) and a two-item short form of the Pain Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (PSEQ) have been developed and evaluated in samples of patients with arm and upper extremity pain. The first aim of this study was to evaluate these short forms in a heterogeneous sample of patients seeking treatment for chronic musculoskeletal pain, using a priori criteria for determining adequate internal consistency, construct validity and sensitivity to change. In addition, the findings of past studies were used to identify items suitable for new and potentially stronger short forms of these measures. Data were provided by 280 patients who completed the original PCS and PSEQ as part of an interdisciplinary rehabilitation programme. The previously developed four-item PCS and the newly developed six-item short form of the PCS both met the internal consistency and construct validity criteria. They did not meet the criterion regarding sensitivity to change. However, similar to what was obtained using the original PCS, large effect sizes were found when using these short forms to examine pre-treatment to post-treatment changes in catastrophizing. For the PSEQ, the new four-item short form was clearly superior to the other alternatives and met all three criteria. The strongest short forms of the PCS and PSEQ could facilitate the assessment of pain catastrophizing and self-efficacy in situations in which the use of the longer original measures is not feasible. © 2015 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  8. Population and individual elephant response to a catastrophic fire in Pilanesberg National Park.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leigh-Ann Woolley

    Full Text Available In predator-free large herbivore populations, where density-dependent feedbacks occur at the limit where forage resources can no longer support the population, environmental catastrophes may play a significant role in population regulation. The potential role of fire as a stochastic mass-mortality event limiting these populations is poorly understood, so too the behavioural and physiological responses of the affected animals to this type of large disturbance event. During September 2005, a wildfire resulted in mortality of 29 (18% population mortality and injury to 18, African elephants in Pilanesberg National Park, South Africa. We examined movement and herd association patterns of six GPS-collared breeding herds, and evaluated population physiological response through faecal glucocorticoid metabolite (stress levels. We investigated population size, structure and projected growth rates using a simulation model. After an initial flight response post-fire, severely injured breeding herds reduced daily displacement with increased daily variability, reduced home range size, spent more time in non-tourist areas and associated less with other herds. Uninjured, or less severely injured, breeding herds also shifted into non-tourist areas post-fire, but in contrast, increased displacement rate (both mean and variability, did not adjust home range size and formed larger herds post-fire. Adult cow stress hormone levels increased significantly post-fire, whereas juvenile and adult bull stress levels did not change significantly. Most mortality occurred to the juvenile age class causing a change in post-fire population age structure. Projected population growth rate remained unchanged at 6.5% p.a., and at current fecundity levels, the population would reach its previous level three to four years post-fire. The natural mortality patterns seen in elephant populations during stochastic events, such as droughts, follows that of the classic mortality pattern

  9. The Interplay of Parent and Adolescent Catastrophizing and Its Impact on Adolescents’ Pain, Functioning, and Pain Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch-Jordan, Anne M.; Kashikar-Zuck, Susmita; Szabova, Alexandra; Goldschneider, Kenneth R.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Catastrophizing is a coping style linked to poorer patient outcomes. Little attention has focused on the parent-adolescent dyad and catastrophizing as a shared coping style. The purpose of this study was to: (1) examine the effects of adolescent and parent pain catastrophizing on adolescent functioning and (2) explore concordance in catastrophizing in parent-adolescent dyads, with equal interest in outcomes of dyads with discordant coping styles. Methods Pain intensity, catastrophizing, depressive symptoms, quality of life, and pain behaviors were assessed in adolescents (ages 11 to 17) presenting to a pediatric chronic pain clinic (N = 240). Results Significant correlations between (1) parent and adolescent catastrophizing; (2) catastrophizing and pain behaviors; and (3) catastrophizing and adolescent outcomes were found. Parents and adolescents were classified into concordant or discordant dyads based on catastrophizing with a majority of dyads (> 70%) showing concordant coping styles. Among discordant dyads, functional disability and depressive symptoms were significantly higher in a dyad with a high catastrophizing adolescent and low catastrophizing parent. Discussion Results provide further support for catastrophizing being a maladaptive coping strategy for adolescents with pain and their parents. Greater adolescent catastrophizing was related to increased pain behaviors and poorer adolescent functioning. Parent catastrophizing also seems related to poorer adolescent outcomes, and most parent-adolescent dyads showed concordance in use of catastrophizing, which may suggest a shared tendency for adaptive or maladaptive styles of coping with pain. Future research should investigate pain coping at a dyadic or family level to explore how family coping styles magnify distress and disability or buffer adolescents from such problems. PMID:23370064

  10. The interplay of parent and adolescent catastrophizing and its impact on adolescents' pain, functioning, and pain behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch-Jordan, Anne M; Kashikar-Zuck, Susmita; Szabova, Alexandra; Goldschneider, Kenneth R

    2013-08-01

    Catastrophizing is a coping style linked to poorer patient outcomes. Little attention has focused on the parent-adolescent dyad and catastrophizing as a shared coping style. The purpose of this study was to: (1) examine the effects of adolescent and parent pain catastrophizing on adolescent functioning and (2) explore concordance in catastrophizing in parent-adolescent dyads, with equal interest in outcomes of dyads with discordant coping styles. Pain intensity, catastrophizing, depressive symptoms, quality of life, and pain behaviors were assessed in adolescents (ages 11 to 17) presenting to a pediatric chronic pain clinic (N=240). Significant correlations between (1) parent and adolescent catastrophizing; (2) catastrophizing and pain behaviors; and (3) catastrophizing and adolescent outcomes were found. Parents and adolescents were classified into concordant or discordant dyads based on catastrophizing with a majority of dyads (>70%) showing concordant coping styles. Among discordant dyads, functional disability and depressive symptoms were significantly higher in a dyad with a high catastrophizing adolescent and low catastrophizing parent. Results provide further support for catastrophizing being a maladaptive coping strategy for adolescents with pain and their parents. Greater adolescent catastrophizing was related to increased pain behaviors and poorer adolescent functioning. Parent catastrophizing also seems related to poorer adolescent outcomes, and most parent-adolescent dyads showed concordance in use of catastrophizing, which may suggest a shared tendency for adaptive or maladaptive styles of coping with pain. Future research should investigate pain coping at a dyadic or family level to explore how family coping styles magnify distress and disability or buffer adolescents from such problems.

  11. Coordinated renewable energy support schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morthorst, P.E.; Jensen, S.G.

    2006-01-01

    This paper illustrates the effect that can be observed when support schemes for renewable energy are regionalised. Two theoretical examples are used to explain interactive effects on, e.g., the price of power, conditions for conventional power producers, and changes in import and export of power...... RES-E support schemes already has a common liberalised power market. In this case the introduction of a common support scheme for renewable technologies will lead to more efficient sitings of renewable plants, improving economic and environmental performance of the total power system...

  12. The first 10 years of the Universal Coverage Scheme in Thailand: review of its impact on health inequalities and lessons learnt for middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara; Kelly, Matthew; Seubsman, Sam-Ang; Sleigh, Adrian C

    2010-12-01

    AIMS: We aim to assess the impacts of Thailand Universal Coverage Scheme (UCS) of health insurance on health service use and healthcare finance in the past 10 years. METHODS: We review the impacts of the UCS on preventive and health promotion including dental care and reproductive health as well as on vulnerable population subgroups. RESULTS: Three decades after the implementation of low income health insurance in the 1970s, Thailand finally introduced a UCS in 2001. It has brought under its umbrella the uninsured 30% of the Thai population. Many empirical studies of illness expenditure confirm that the Thai UCS substantially reduced the financial burden of healthcare among the poor. The Thai UCS mechanism boosts use of primary healthcare facilities and has substantially reduced catastrophic medical payments and consequent impoverishment. CONCLUSIONS: The UCS relies on a solid primary healthcare foundation. Continued investment into primary healthcare resources will help to ensure sustainable development of the UCS and reduced health inequity. The UCS development in Thailand can provide some valuable lessons for middle income countries pursuing the goal of equity in health and healthcare.

  13. Global Catastrophes in Perspective: Asteroid Impacts vs Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boslough, M. B.; Harris, A. W.

    2008-12-01

    When allocating resources to address threats, decision makers are best served by having objective assessments of the relative magnitude of the threats in question. Asteroids greater than about 1 km in diameter are assumed by the planetary impact community to exceed a "global catastrophe threshold". Impacts from smaller objects are expected to cause local or regional destruction, and would be the proximate cause of most associated fatalities. Impacts above the threshold would be expected to alter the climate, killing billions of people and causing a collapse of civilization. In this apocalyptic scenario, only a small fraction of the casualties would be attributable to direct effects of the impact: the blast wave, thermal radiation, debris, ground motion, or tsunami. The vast majority of deaths would come later and be due to indirect causes: starvation, disease, or violence as a consequence of societal disruption related to the impact-induced global climate change. The concept of a catastrophe threshold comes from "nuclear winter" studies, which form the basis for quantitative estimates of the consequences of a large impact. The probability estimates come from astronomical observations and statistical analysis. Much of the impact threat, at its core, is a climate-change threat. Prior to the Spaceguard Survey of Near-Earth Objects (NEOs), the chance of dying from an asteroid impact was estimated to be 1 in 25,000 (Chapman & Morrison, 1994). Most of the large asteroids have now been discovered, and none is on an impact trajectory. Moreover, new data show that mid-sized asteroids (tens to hundreds of meters across) are less abundant than previously thought, by a factor of three. We now estimate that the lifetime odds of being killed by the impact of one of the remaining undiscovered NEOs are about one in 720,000 for individuals with a life expectancy of 80 years (Harris, 2008). One objective way to compare the relative magnitude of the impact threat to that of

  14. A Novel Iris Segmentation Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Chung Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the key steps in the iris recognition system is the accurate iris segmentation from its surrounding noises including pupil, sclera, eyelashes, and eyebrows of a captured eye-image. This paper presents a novel iris segmentation scheme which utilizes the orientation matching transform to outline the outer and inner iris boundaries initially. It then employs Delogne-Kåsa circle fitting (instead of the traditional Hough transform to further eliminate the outlier points to extract a more precise iris area from an eye-image. In the extracted iris region, the proposed scheme further utilizes the differences in the intensity and positional characteristics of the iris, eyelid, and eyelashes to detect and delete these noises. The scheme is then applied on iris image database, UBIRIS.v1. The experimental results show that the presented scheme provides a more effective and efficient iris segmentation than other conventional methods.

  15. Good governance for pension schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Thornton, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Regulatory and market developments have transformed the way in which UK private sector pension schemes operate. This has increased demands on trustees and advisors and the trusteeship governance model must evolve in order to remain fit for purpose. This volume brings together leading practitioners to provide an overview of what today constitutes good governance for pension schemes, from both a legal and a practical perspective. It provides the reader with an appreciation of the distinctive characteristics of UK occupational pension schemes, how they sit within the capital markets and their social and fiduciary responsibilities. Providing a holistic analysis of pension risk, both from the trustee and the corporate perspective, the essays cover the crucial role of the employer covenant, financing and investment risk, developments in longevity risk hedging and insurance de-risking, and best practice scheme administration.

  16. Super-catastrophic disruption of asteroids at small perihelion distances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granvik, Mikael; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Jedicke, Robert; Bolin, Bryce; Bottke, William F; Beshore, Edward; Vokrouhlický, David; Delbò, Marco; Michel, Patrick

    2016-02-18

    Most near-Earth objects came from the asteroid belt and drifted via non-gravitational thermal forces into resonant escape routes that, in turn, pushed them onto planet-crossing orbits. Models predict that numerous asteroids should be found on orbits that closely approach the Sun, but few have been seen. In addition, even though the near-Earth-object population in general is an even mix of low-albedo (less than ten per cent of incident radiation is reflected) and high-albedo (more than ten per cent of incident radiation is reflected) asteroids, the characterized asteroids near the Sun typically have high albedos. Here we report a quantitative comparison of actual asteroid detections and a near-Earth-object model (which accounts for observational selection effects). We conclude that the deficit of low-albedo objects near the Sun arises from the super-catastrophic breakup (that is, almost complete disintegration) of a substantial fraction of asteroids when they achieve perihelion distances of a few tens of solar radii. The distance at which destruction occurs is greater for smaller asteroids, and their temperatures during perihelion passages are too low for evaporation to explain their disappearance. Although both bright and dark (high- and low-albedo) asteroids eventually break up, we find that low-albedo asteroids are more likely to be destroyed farther from the Sun, which explains the apparent excess of high-albedo near-Earth objects and suggests that low-albedo asteroids break up more easily as a result of thermal effects.

  17. Learning about past catastrophes from the present perturbation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, William

    2017-04-01

    The present perturbation of the climate system is dominated by injection of CO2 into the atmosphere, raisin its concentration from about 270ppm in 1800 to 400 ppm today. The rate of increase is about 300 times that which occurred during the last glacial termination. Predictions of the changes in response to this perturbation have been wrong. In 1982 it was proposed that the Arctic might become ice-free in summer in 2200. It is more likely to occur by 2020. The heating of the Earth's surface has paused from time to time, due to albedo changes induced by atmospheric pollutants and by heat storage in the ocean interior. Over the last decades, sea ice formation around Antarctica had expanded rather than contracted, counterintuitively due to warming of the Southern Ocean. In 2016-2017 the climate system may have experienced a jump to a new state, with winter growth of Arctic sea-ice inhibited and summer melting of circum-Antarctic sea ice greatly enhanced. Analysis of reconstructions of the Ronov (1993, Pliocene through Early Cambrian) and Hay (1994, Quaternary) databases on sedimentary rocks to estimate the amounts originally present suggest that the Holocene and Anthropocene may be unique episodes in geologic history. The Anthropocene climate was originally stabilized by human activity, then massively destabilized in recent centuries. However, Earth was already in a uniquely unstable state, more prone to rapid climate change than at any other time during the Phanerozoic. As the perturbation proceeds we will learn much about climate change from catastrophic events.

  18. Aboveground burial for managing catastrophic losses of livestock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Alan Flory

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Environmental impacts from carcass management are a significant concern globally. Despite a history of costly, ineffective, and environmentally damaging carcass disposal efforts, large animal carcass disposal methods have advanced little in the past decade. An outbreak today will likely be managed with the same carcass disposal techniques used in the previous decades and will likely result in the same economic, health, and environmental impacts. This article overviews the results of one field test that was completed in Virginia (United States using the aboveground burial (AGB technique and the disposal of 111 foot-and-mouth disease (FMD infected sheep in Tunisia using a similar methodology. Materials and Methods: Researchers in the United States conducted a field test to assess the environmental impact and effectiveness of AGB in decomposing livestock carcasses. The system design included a shallow trench excavated into native soil and a carbonaceous base placed on the bottom of the trenches followed by a single layer of animal carcasses. Excavated soils were subsequently placed on top of the animals, and a vegetative layer was established. A similar methodology was used in Tunisia to manage sheep infected with FMDs, Peste des Petits Ruminants virus, and Bluetongue Virus. Results: The results of the field test in the United States demonstrated a significant carcass degradation during the 1-year period of the project, and the migration of nutrients below the carcasses appears to be limited thereby minimizing the threat of groundwater contamination. The methodology proved practical for the disposal of infected sheep carcasses in Tunisia. Conclusions: Based on the analysis conducted to date, AGB appears to offer many benefits over traditional burial for catastrophic mortality management. Ongoing research will help to identify limitations of the method and determine where its application during large disease outbreaks or natural

  19. Modeling subjective well-being in individuals with chronic pain and a physical disability: the role of pain control and pain catastrophizing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furrer, Angela; Michel, Gisela; Terrill, Alexandra L; Jensen, Mark P; Müller, Rachel

    2017-10-23

    To investigate the associations between subjective well-being and pain intensity, pain interference, and depression in individuals with physical disabilities. We hypothesized that (1) pain control and (2) pain catastrophizing mediate the effects of subjective well-being on pain intensity, pain interference, and depression. Analyses of cross-sectional data from 96 individuals diagnosed with spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis, neuromuscular disease, or post-polio syndrome, with average pain intensity of ≥4 (0-10) on at least half the days in the past month. Two models tested study hypotheses using structural equation. Both models showed acceptable model fit. Pain catastrophizing significantly mediated the effect of subjective well-being on pain intensity and pain interference, but not on depression. Pain control did not significantly mediate the effect of subjective well-being on pain intensity, pain interference, or depression. Path coefficients showed significant direct effects of subjective well-being on pain control (β = 0.39), pain catastrophizing (β = -0.61), pain interference (β = -0.48; -0.42), and depression (β = -0.75; -0.78). This study supports the potential of enhancing subjective well-being and lowering pain catastrophizing for reducing pain intensity, pain interference, and depressive symptoms in individuals with chronic pain and a physical disability. The findings indicate that true experiments to test for causal associations are warranted. Implications for rehabilitation The majority of individuals with physical disabilities report having persistent moderate-to-severe pain that may negatively limit daily activities and quality of life. The present cross-sectional study indicates that individuals who reported greater subjective well-being showed significantly lower pain intensity via the mediating effect of lower pain catastrophizing. Since sample size and respective power are low, these findings should be taken as first

  20. Dyadic analysis of child and parent trait and state pain catastrophizing in the process of children's pain communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnie, Kathryn A; Chambers, Christine T; Chorney, Jill; Fernandez, Conrad V; McGrath, Patrick J

    2016-04-01

    When explored separately, child and parent catastrophic thoughts about child pain show robust negative relations with child pain. The objective of this study was to conduct a dyadic analysis to elucidate intrapersonal and interpersonal influences of child and parent pain catastrophizing on aspects of pain communication, including observed behaviours and perceptions of child pain. A community sample of 171 dyads including children aged 8 to 12 years (89 girls) and parents (135 mothers) rated pain catastrophizing (trait and state versions) and child pain intensity and unpleasantness following a cold pressor task. Child pain tolerance was also assessed. Parent-child interactions during the cold pressor task were coded for parent attending, nonattending, and other talk, and child symptom complaints and other talk. Data were analyzed using the actor-partner interdependence model and hierarchical multiple regressions. Children reporting higher state pain catastrophizing had greater symptom complaints regardless of level of parent state pain catastrophizing. Children reporting low state pain catastrophizing had similar high levels of symptom complaints, but only when parents reported high state pain catastrophizing. Higher child and parent state and/or trait pain catastrophizing predicted their own ratings of higher child pain intensity and unpleasantness, with child state pain catastrophizing additionally predicting parent ratings. Higher pain tolerance was predicted by older child age and lower child state pain catastrophizing. These newly identified interpersonal effects highlight the relevance of the social context to children's pain expressions and parent perceptions of child pain. Both child and parent pain catastrophizing warrant consideration when managing child pain.

  1. A case of catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome in an adolescent girl with parvovirus B19 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canpolat, Nur; Topal, Nilufer; Civilibal, Mahmut; Caliskan, Salim; Sever, Lale; Kasapcopur, Ozgur; Baserer, Tahire; Arisoy, Nil

    2008-07-01

    Antiphospholipid syndrome is an autoimmune disease characterized by recurrent thrombosis and the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies. Clinical presentations are dependent on the affected vessels and organs. The most common presentation of antiphospholipid syndrome is arterial or venous thrombosis. An unusual presentation of the disease is characterized by microvascular thrombosis with multiorgan involvement, which is termed catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome. The diagnosis of catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome can be difficult because of the heterogeneity of the different clinical forms. Clinical manifestations of catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome are complex with multiple organ involvement, resulting in renal insufficiency, heart failure, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and liver involvement. Early diagnosis and aggressive therapies are essential in this condition because of the extremely high mortality rate. Herein, the case of a 14-year-old girl with catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome that was previously misdiagnosed as a vasculitis related to parvovirus B19 infection is presented.

  2. Study on Catastrophic Air Current Early-warning and Control System of Coalmines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.F. Fang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Catastrophic air current significantly influences the stability of ventilation system, and existing studies have not considered the flow characteristics of catastrophic air current when designing the control systems. To analyze the effects of different kinds of coalmine accidents on safety production, grey relation entropy theory was used to analyze the hazard assessment of coalmine accidents. Fluent software was employed to study the flow characteristics of catastrophic air current, and the catastrophic air current early-warning and control system of coalmine was researched according to the theoretical analysis and numerical simulation. The threat of fire accidents and roof accidents were larger than other accidents. The influence of temperature and CO volume fraction distribution of fire accidents to the tailwind side was larger than that of the weather side, and gradient decreased on the weather side. This system can effectively control the spread of fire and poisonous gas,

  3. Reconstruction of Prehistoric Landfall Frequencies of Catastrophic Hurricanes in Northwestern Florida from Lake Sediment Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kam-biu; Fearn, Miriam L.

    2000-09-01

    Sediment cores from Western Lake provide a 7000-yr record of coastal environmental changes and catastrophic hurricane landfalls along the Gulf Coast of the Florida Panhandle. Using Hurricane Opal as a modern analog, we infer that overwash sand layers occurring near the center of the lake were caused by catastrophic hurricanes of category 4 or 5 intensity. Few catastrophic hurricanes struck the Western Lake area during two quiescent periods 3400-5000 and 0-1000 14C yr B.P. The landfall probabilities increased dramatically to ca. 0.5% per yr during an "hyperactive" period from 1000-3400 14C yr B.P., especially in the first millennium A.D. The millennial-scale variability in catastrophic hurricane landfalls along the Gulf Coast is probably controlled by shifts in the position of the jet stream and the Bermuda High.

  4. Genome sequencing of pediatric medulloblastoma links catastrophic DNA rearrangements with TP53 mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rausch, Tobias; Jones, David T W; Zapatka, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Genomic rearrangements are thought to occur progressively during tumor development. Recent findings, however, suggest an alternative mechanism, involving massive chromosome rearrangements in a one-step catastrophic event termed chromothripsis. We report the whole-genome sequencing-based analysis ...

  5. Adolescent pain catastrophizing mediates the relationship between protective parental responses to pain and disability over time

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Welkom, Josie S; Hwang, Wei-Ting; Guite, Jessica W

    2013-01-01

    Examine whether the relation between protective parenting responses to pain and functional disability is mediated by pain catastrophizing in adolescents with chronic musculoskeletal pain and their parents over time...

  6. Approximation scheme based on effective interactions for stochastic gene regulation

    CERN Document Server

    Ohkubo, Jun

    2010-01-01

    Since gene regulatory systems contain sometimes only a small number of molecules, these systems are not described well by macroscopic rate equations; a master equation approach is needed for such cases. We develop an approximation scheme for dealing with the stochasticity of the gene regulatory systems. Using an effective interaction concept, original master equations can be reduced to simpler master equations, which can be solved analytically. We apply the approximation scheme to self-regulating systems with monomer or dimer interactions, and a two-gene system with an exclusive switch. The approximation scheme can recover bistability of the exclusive switch adequately.

  7. Lattice design for the CEPC double ring scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiwei; Su, Feng; Bai, Sha; Zhang, Yuan; Bian, Tianjian; Wang, Dou; Yu, Chenghui; Gao, Jie

    2018-01-01

    A future Circular Electron Positron Collider (CEPC) has been proposed by China with the main goal of studying the Higgs boson. Its baseline design, chosen on the basis of its performance, is a double ring scheme; an alternative design is a partial double ring scheme which reduces the budget while maintaining an adequate performance. This paper will present the collider ring lattice design for the double ring scheme. The CEPC will also work as a W and a Z factory. For the W and Z modes, except in the RF region, compatible lattices were obtained by scaling down the magnet strength with energy.

  8. Optimization of Trajectory Correction Scheme for Guided Mortar Projectiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongwei Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Guidance with traditional trajectory correction scheme usually starts from the trajectory apex time to reduce drag penalties early in flight; however, this method cannot get the max trajectory correction capability of canards according to our analysis. This paper presents an optimized trajectory correction scheme by taking different control phases of canards in ballistic ascending segment and ballistic descending segment. Simulation indicates that the optimized trajectory correction can improve the trajectory correction capability greatly. The result of an example trajectory and Monte Carlo simulations with the predictive guidance law and the trajectory tracking guidance law testifies the effectiveness of the optimized trajectory correction scheme.

  9. Breeding schemes in reindeer husbandry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Rönnegård

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper was to investigate annual genetic gain from selection (G, and the influence of selection on the inbreeding effective population size (Ne, for different possible breeding schemes within a reindeer herding district. The breeding schemes were analysed for different proportions of the population within a herding district included in the selection programme. Two different breeding schemes were analysed: an open nucleus scheme where males mix and mate between owner flocks, and a closed nucleus scheme where the males in non-selected owner flocks are culled to maximise G in the whole population. The theory of expected long-term genetic contributions was used and maternal effects were included in the analyses. Realistic parameter values were used for the population, modelled with 5000 reindeer in the population and a sex ratio of 14 adult females per male. The standard deviation of calf weights was 4.1 kg. Four different situations were explored and the results showed: 1. When the population was randomly culled, Ne equalled 2400. 2. When the whole population was selected on calf weights, Ne equalled 1700 and the total annual genetic gain (direct + maternal in calf weight was 0.42 kg. 3. For the open nucleus scheme, G increased monotonically from 0 to 0.42 kg as the proportion of the population included in the selection programme increased from 0 to 1.0, and Ne decreased correspondingly from 2400 to 1700. 4. In the closed nucleus scheme the lowest value of Ne was 1300. For a given proportion of the population included in the selection programme, the difference in G between a closed nucleus scheme and an open one was up to 0.13 kg. We conclude that for mass selection based on calf weights in herding districts with 2000 animals or more, there are no risks of inbreeding effects caused by selection.

  10. Cross-cultural adaptation, reliability, and validity of the German version of the Pain Catastrophizing Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, K.; Sprott, H.; Mannion, A.F.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In patients with chronic pain, catastrophizing is a significant determinant of self-rated pain intensity and disability. The Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS) was developed to assist with both treatment planning and outcome assessment; to date, no German version has been validated. METHODS: A cross-cultural adaptation of the PCS into German was carried out, strictly according to recommended methods. A questionnaire booklet containing the PCS, visual analogue scales (numeric rating s...

  11. Catastrophic relapses following initiation of dimethyl fumarate in two patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamout, Bassem I; Beaini, Shawkat; Zeineddine, Maya M; Akkawi, Nabil

    2017-08-01

    We report two cases of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) who were misdiagnosed as multiple sclerosis (MS) and developed catastrophic relapses following initiation of dimethyl fumarate. Both patients developed a severe myelitis extending from the cervical cord to the medulla with significant cord swelling, resulting in complete quadriplegia and respiratory difficulties, in addition to severe bilateral visual loss in one patient. It is of note that both catastrophic relapses occurred 2 and 3 months following initiation of dimethyl fumarate.

  12. A CATASTROPHIC-CUM-RESTORATIVE QUEUING SYSTEM WITH CORRELATED BATCH ARRIVALS AND VARIABLE CAPACITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study a catastrophic-cum-restorative queuing system with correlated batch arrivals and service in batches of variable sizes. We perform the transient analysis of the queuing model. We obtain the Laplace Transform of the probability generating function of system size. Finally, some particular cases of the model have been derived and discussed. Keywords: Queue length, Catastrophes, Correlated batch arrivals, Broadband services, Variable service capacity, and Restoration.

  13. The importance of catastrophizing for successful pharmacological treatment of peripheral neuropathic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toth C

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cory Toth, Shauna Brady, Melinda Hatfield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada Objective: Catastrophizing may be a negative predictor of pain-related outcomes. We evaluated the impact of catastrophizing upon success of first-line pharmacotherapy in the management of neuropathic pain (NeP due to peripheral polyneuropathy. Methods: Patients with confirmed NeP with NeP Visual Analog Scale (VAS pain severity score ≥4 (0–10 scale completed the Coping Strategies Questionnaire (CSQ catastrophizing subscale at baseline. Pharmacological therapy consisting of first-line agents gabapentin, pregabalin, or a tricyclic antidepressant was initiated. Other measures examined included the Karnofsky Performance Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, EuroQol Quality of Life Health Questionnaire, and Modified Brief Pain Inventory. At 3 and 6 months, questionnaires were repeated and adverse effect reporting was completed. Outcome measures assessed were pharmacotherapy success (≥30% relief of NeP and tolerability over 6 months of follow-up. Bivariate relationships using Pearson product-moment correlations were examined for baseline CSQ catastrophizing subscale score and the change in the NeP VAS scores and medication discontinuation. Results: Sixty-six patients were screened, 62 subjects participated, and 58 subjects (94% completed the final follow-up visit. Greater catastrophizing was associated with poor pain relief response and greater likelihood of discontinuation of pharmacotherapy, reports of greater disability, and impaired quality of life. Duration of pain was negatively associated with likelihood of pharmacotherapy success. Conclusion: Catastrophizing exerts maladaptive effects on outcomes with pharmacotherapy in NeP patients. Detection of catastrophizing during clinical visits when pharmacological therapy is being considered can be a predictive factor for patient outcomes. Keywords: neuropathic pain

  14. Optimization of Trajectory Correction Scheme for Guided Mortar Projectiles

    OpenAIRE

    Yongwei Zhang; Min Gao; Suochang Yang; Dan Fang

    2015-01-01

    Guidance with traditional trajectory correction scheme usually starts from the trajectory apex time to reduce drag penalties early in flight; however, this method cannot get the max trajectory correction capability of canards according to our analysis. This paper presents an optimized trajectory correction scheme by taking different control phases of canards in ballistic ascending segment and ballistic descending segment. Simulation indicates that the optimized trajectory correction can impro...

  15. Tests of Catastrophic Outlier Prediction in Empirical Photometric Redshift Estimation with Redshift Probability Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Evan; Singal, Jack

    2018-01-01

    We present results of using individual galaxies' redshift probability information derived from a photometric redshift (photo-z) algorithm, SPIDERz, to identify potential catastrophic outliers in photometric redshift determinations. By using test data comprised of COSMOS multi-band photometry and known spectroscopic redshifts from the 3D-HST survey spanning a wide redshift range (0method to flag potential catastrophic outliers in an analysis which relies on accurate photometric redshifts. SPIDERz is a custom support vector machine classification algorithm for photo-z analysis that naturally outputs a distribution of redshift probability information for each galaxy in addition to a discrete most probable photo-z value. By applying an analytic technique with flagging criteria to identify the presence of probability distribution features characteristic of catastrophic outlier photo-z estimates, such as multiple redshift probability peaks separated by substantial redshift distances, we can flag potential catastrophic outliers in photo-z determinations. We find that our proposed method can correctly flag large fractions of the outliers and catastrophic outlier galaxies, while only flagging a small fraction of the total non-outlier galaxies. We examine the performance of this strategy in photo-z determinations using a range of flagging parameter values. These results could potentially be useful for utilization of photometric redshifts in future large scale surveys where catastrophic outliers are particularly detrimental to the science goals.

  16. Pricing Zero-Coupon Catastrophe Bonds Using EVT with Doubly Stochastic Poisson Arrivals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zonggang Ma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The frequency and severity of climate abnormal change displays an irregular upward cycle as global warming intensifies. Therefore, this paper employs a doubly stochastic Poisson process with Black Derman Toy (BDT intensity to describe the catastrophic characteristics. By using the Property Claim Services (PCS loss index data from 2001 to 2010 provided by the US Insurance Services Office (ISO, the empirical result reveals that the BDT arrival rate process is superior to the nonhomogeneous Poisson and lognormal intensity process due to its smaller RMSE, MAE, MRPE, and U and larger E and d. Secondly, to depict extreme features of catastrophic risks, this paper adopts the Peak Over Threshold (POT in extreme value theory (EVT to characterize the tail characteristics of catastrophic loss distribution. And then the loss distribution is analyzed and assessed using a quantile-quantile (QQ plot to visually check whether the PCS index observations meet the generalized Pareto distribution (GPD assumption. Furthermore, this paper derives a pricing formula for zero-coupon catastrophe bonds with a stochastic interest rate environment and aggregate losses generated by a compound doubly stochastic Poisson process under the forward measure. Finally, simulation results verify pricing model predictions and show how catastrophic risks and interest rate risk affect the prices of zero-coupon catastrophe bonds.

  17. Financial catastrophe and poverty impacts of out-of-pocket health payments in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özgen Narcı, Hacer; Şahin, İsmet; Yıldırım, Hasan Hüseyin

    2015-04-01

    To determine the prevalence of catastrophic health payments, examine the determinants of catastrophic expenditures, and assess the poverty impact of out-of-pocket (OOP) payments. Data came from the 2004 to 2010 Household Budget Survey. Catastrophic health spending was defined by health payments as percentage of household consumption expenditures and capacity to pay at a set of thresholds. The poverty impact was evaluated by poverty head counts and poverty gaps before and after OOP health payments. The percentage of households that catastrophically spent their consumption expenditure and capacity to pay increased from 2004 to 2010, regardless of the threshold used. Households with a share of more than 40% health spending in both consumption expenditure and capacity to pay accounted for less than 1% across years. However, when a series of potential confounders were taken into account, the study found statistically significantly increased risk for the lowest threshold and decreased risk for the highest threshold in 2010 relative to the base year. Household income, size, education, senior and under 5-year-old members, health insurance, disabled members, payment for inpatient care and settlement were also statistically significant predictors of catastrophic health spending. Overall, poverty head counts were below 1%. Poverty gaps reached a maximum of 0.098%, with an overall increase in 2010 compared to 2004. Catastrophe and poverty increased from 2004 to 2010. However, given that the realization of some recent policies will affect the financial burden of OOP payments on households, the findings of this study need to be replicated.

  18. Catastrophic Health Expenditure and Household Impoverishment: a case of NCDs prevalence in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Mwai

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and problem: Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs have become one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in Kenya. Their claim on financial and time resources adversely affects household welfare. Health care cost for NCDs in Kenya is predominantly paid by households as OOP. Health expenditure on NCD stands at 6.2% of Total Health Expenditure which is 0.4 % of the total gross domestic product of the country. This expenditure scenario could have implications on household welfare through catastrophic expenditure in Kenya. Most studies done on catastrophic expenditure in Kenya have not looked at the effect of NCD on poverty. Methodology: The paper has investigated the determinants of catastrophic health spending in a household with special focus on the NCDs. It has also investigated the effect of catastrophic expenditure on household welfare.A National household level survey data on expenditure and utilization is used. Controlling for endogeneity, the results revealed that NCDs and communicable diseases contribute significantly to the likelihood of a household incurring catastrophic expenditure. Results: Although all types of sicknesses have negative effects on household welfare, NCDs have more severe impacts on impoverishment. Policy wise, government and development partners should put in place a health financing plan entailing health insurance and resource pooling as a mean towards social protection. Key words:  Non-Communicable Diseases (NCD, Catastrophic Health Expenditure, endogeneity Impoverishment

  19. Trading off short-term and long-term risk: minimizing the threat of Laysan duck extinction from catastrophes and sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Michelle; McGowan, Conor P.; Converse, Sarah J.; Mattsson, Brady; Hatfield, Jeffrey S.; McClung, Andrew; Mehrhoff, Loyal; Walters, Jeffrey R.; Uyehara, Kim

    2010-01-01

    Conservation of oceanic island species presents many ecological and logistical challenges. The Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) include 300,000 km2 of ocean waters and 10 groups of sub-tropical islands and atolls of high conservation value. Designated as Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument, the islands provide habitat for four endangered species of terrestrial birds. Despite their protected status, many of these species are faced with the ongoing threat of extinction due to stochastic catastrophes such as disease, invasive mammal introductions, tsunamis, and hurricanes. To reduce the risk that a single catastrophe would lead to extinction, managers propose to restore multiple "insurance" populations on islands currently unoccupied by these species to increase their range and overall numbers.

  20. A snapshot of catastrophic post-disaster health expenses after Typhoon Haiyan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espallardo, Noel; Geroy, Lester Sam; Villanueva, Raul; Gavino, Roy; Nievera, Lucille Angela; Hall, Julie Lyn

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a snapshot of the health-care costs, out-of-pocket expenditures and available safety nets post-Typhoon Haiyan. This descriptive study used a survey and document review to report direct and indirect health-care costs and existing financial protection mechanisms used by households in two municipalities in the Philippines at one week and at seven months post-Haiyan. Reported out-of-pocket health-care expenses were high immediately after the disaster and increased after seven months. The mean reported out-of-pocket expenses were higher than the reported average household income (US$ 24 to US$ 59). The existing local and national mechanisms for health financing were promising and should be strengthened to reduce out-of-pocket expenses and protect people from catastrophic expenditures. Longer-term mechanisms are needed to ensure financial protection, especially among the poorest, beyond three months when most free services and medicines have ended. Preparedness should include prior registration of households that would ensure protection when a disaster comes.

  1. More Than a Decade of Misdiagnosis of Alternating Hemiplegia of Childhood with Catastrophic Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Bashair; Aldarmahi, Ahmad; Abdullah, Ahad

    2017-01-01

    Alternating hemiplegia of childhood (AHC) is a distinct clinical disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of hemiplegia, abnormal ocular movement, and progressive developmental delay. It is an extremely rare genetic disorder related to ATP1A3 gene mutations. In this paper, we present a case of AHC in which the diagnosis was missed for many years until severe hypoxic brain insult occurred from prolonged status epilepticus. Not only we are presenting an interesting clinical entity and radiological images, but also we are shedding the light on a rare genetic disease with catastrophic sequelae. The challenges in diagnosis and treatment lead to a poor outcome as seen in our case. Although early recognition and accurate diagnosis and treatment of the disease may not change the outcome, counseling of the family may change their expectation and reduce their frustration. Referral to a center with expertise in genetic disorders and access to genetic laboratories is of paramount importance in the diagnosis of this disease. Due to the rarity of this disease in Saudi Arabia, a genotype-phenotype correlation is not feasible. PMID:28900444

  2. More Than a Decade of Misdiagnosis of Alternating Hemiplegia of Childhood with Catastrophic Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Algahtani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Alternating hemiplegia of childhood (AHC is a distinct clinical disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of hemiplegia, abnormal ocular movement, and progressive developmental delay. It is an extremely rare genetic disorder related to ATP1A3 gene mutations. In this paper, we present a case of AHC in which the diagnosis was missed for many years until severe hypoxic brain insult occurred from prolonged status epilepticus. Not only we are presenting an interesting clinical entity and radiological images, but also we are shedding the light on a rare genetic disease with catastrophic sequelae. The challenges in diagnosis and treatment lead to a poor outcome as seen in our case. Although early recognition and accurate diagnosis and treatment of the disease may not change the outcome, counseling of the family may change their expectation and reduce their frustration. Referral to a center with expertise in genetic disorders and access to genetic laboratories is of paramount importance in the diagnosis of this disease. Due to the rarity of this disease in Saudi Arabia, a genotype-phenotype correlation is not feasible.

  3. A snapshot of catastrophic post-disaster health expenses post-Haiyan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel Espallardo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This paper provides a snapshot of the health-care costs, out-of-pocket expenditures and available safety nets post-Typhoon Haiyan. Methods: This descriptive study used a survey and document review to report direct and indirect health-care costs and existing financial protection mechanisms used by households in two municipalities in the Philippines at one week and at seven months post-Haiyan. Results: Reported out-of-pocket health-care expenses were high immediately after the disaster and increased after seven months. The mean reported out-of-pocket expenses were higher than the reported average household income (US$ 24 to US$ 59. Discussion: The existing local and national mechanisms for health financing were promising and should be strengthened to reduce out-of-pocket expenses and protect people from catastrophic expenditures. Longer-term mechanisms are needed to ensure financial protection, especially among the poorest, beyond three months when most free services and medicines have ended. Preparedness should include prior registration of households that would ensure protection when a disaster comes.

  4. Health payment-induced poverty under China's New Cooperative Medical Scheme in rural Shandong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoyun; Sleigh, Adrian C; Carmichael, Gordon A; Jackson, Sukhan

    2010-09-01

    To measure the incidence and severity of health payment-induced poverty of rural households under the New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS) in rural Shandong, China. We collected primary data from a household survey to identify catastrophic health payments and measure associated health payment-induced poverty in a county of Shandong province. From a stratified random cluster sample of 3101 households, 375 households that might be at risk of catastrophic payments were identified and interviewed. A validity test of the screening method was conducted, from which we obtained the adjusted total number of households with catastrophic payments in the sample of 3101. The health payment-induced poverty incidence and severity were compared without and with NCMS reimbursements. Before the NCMS intervention, 5.06% of the sample households fell below the national poverty line due to health payments in 2004, compared with 4.03% after reimbursements. With NCMS reimbursements, the health payment-induced poverty gap of those households still remaining below the Chinese national poverty line dropped by 19.2% to an average of 977.2 Yuan. Out-of-pocket health payments remain a severe burden for rural households. Financial protection from the NCMS was limited.

  5. What Is the Economic Burden of Subsidized HIV/AIDS Treatment Services on Patients in Nigeria and Is This Burden Catastrophic to Households?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etiaba, Enyi; Onwujekwe, Obinna; Torpey, Kwasi; Uzochukwu, Benjamin; Chiegil, Robert

    2016-01-01

    A gap in knowledge exists regarding the economic burden on households of subsidized anti-retroviral treatment (ART) programs in Nigeria. This is because patients also incur non-ART drug costs, which may constrain the delivery and utilisation of subsidized services. An exit survey of adults (18+years) attending health facilities for HIV/AIDS treatment was conducted in three states in Nigeria (Adamawa, Akwa Ibom and Anambra). In the states, ART was fully subsidized but there were different payment modalities for other costs of treatment. Data was collected and analysed for direct and indirect costs of treatment of HIV/AIDS and co-morbidities' during out-and in-patient visits. The levels of catastrophic health expenditure (CHE) were computed and disaggregated by state, socio-economic status (SES) and urban-rural location of the respondents. Catastrophic Health Expenditure (CHE) in this study measures the number of respondents whose monthly ART-related household expenditure (for in-patient and out-patient visits) as a proportion of monthly non-food expenditure was greater than 40% and 10% respectively. The average out-patient and in-patient direct costs were $5.49 and $122.10 respectively. Transportation cost was the highest non-medical cost and it was higher than most medical costs. The presence of co-morbidities contributed to household costs. All the costs were catastrophic to households at 10% and 40% thresholds in the three states, to varying degrees. The poorest SES quintile had the highest incidence of CHE for out-patient costs (ptravel costs, and subsidy on other components of HIV treatment services should be introduced to eliminate the persisting inequitable and high cost burden of ART services. Full inclusion of ART services within the benefit package of the National Health Insurance Scheme should be considered.

  6. Science for decision making: Transmitting hazard science using catastrophic scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wein, A.

    2010-12-01

    The ShakeOut and ARkStorm scenarios are scientifically-based, multi-disciplinary efforts to describe the damages and consequences of large, but plausible, natural disasters for use in emergency management and other planning. The ShakeOut earthquake scenario, completed in 2008, posits the occurrence of a major earthquake on the southern San Andreas Fault. It was used by more than 5,000 emergency personnel in a California statewide exercise, and it underpins the Federal Emergency Management Agency’s (FEMA) Catastrophic Plan for Southern California. The ARkStorm winter storm scenario, to be completed in 2010, posits the occurrence of a statewide disaster like the storm that occurred during 1861-1862. The ARkStorm scenario will culminate with two planning summits comprised of federal and state agencies, because such an event would exceed local response and recovery capabilities. This talk will address the following questions that are critical to transmitting science for decision making with examples and observations from the two scenarios: 1) Who are the end users of the scenarios, what types of decisions can scenarios inform, and how are stakeholders engaged? 2) What forms of information and processes work best to communicate and apply the hazard science? 3) What are the challenges of using science in decision making? 4) What future directions shall we pursue? From my perspective as coordinator of economic consequences analyses for the two scenarios, I will share insights to these questions. Framing stakeholder decisions in terms of scale (e.g., household to State) and disaster phase (e.g., emergency response, recovery, and mitigation) allows us to align methods of stakeholder engagement with stakeholder decision making. For these regional-scale scenarios, the methods of engagement included stakeholder participation in project vision, scenario construction workshops, presentations, conferences, and emergency response and recovery exercises. Champions (self

  7. Large scale modelling of catastrophic floods in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azemar, Frédéric; Nicótina, Ludovico; Sassi, Maximiliano; Savina, Maurizio; Hilberts, Arno

    2017-04-01

    The RMS European Flood HD model® is a suite of country scale flood catastrophe models covering 13 countries throughout continental Europe and the UK. The models are developed with the goal of supporting risk assessment analyses for the insurance industry. Within this framework RMS is developing a hydrologic and inundation model for Italy. The model aims at reproducing the hydrologic and hydraulic properties across the domain through a modeling chain. A semi-distributed hydrologic model that allows capturing the spatial variability of the runoff formation processes is coupled with a one-dimensional river routing algorithm and a two-dimensional (depth averaged) inundation model. This model setup allows capturing the flood risk from both pluvial (overland flow) and fluvial flooding. Here we describe the calibration and validation methodologies for this modelling suite applied to the Italian river basins. The variability that characterizes the domain (in terms of meteorology, topography and hydrologic regimes) requires a modeling approach able to represent a broad range of meteo-hydrologic regimes. The calibration of the rainfall-runoff and river routing models is performed by means of a genetic algorithm that identifies the set of best performing parameters within the search space over the last 50 years. We first establish the quality of the calibration parameters on the full hydrologic balance and on individual discharge peaks by comparing extreme statistics to observations over the calibration period on several stations. The model is then used to analyze the major floods in the country; we discuss the different meteorological setup leading to the historical events and the physical mechanisms that induced these floods. We can thus assess the performance of RMS' hydrological model in view of the physical mechanisms leading to flood and highlight the main controls on flood risk modelling throughout the country. The model's ability to accurately simulate antecedent

  8. Physical activity and the mediating effect of fear, depression, anxiety, and catastrophizing on pain related disability in people with chronic low back pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul W M Marshall

    Full Text Available Chronic low back pain is a worldwide burden that is not being abated with our current knowledge and treatment of the condition. The fear-avoidance model is used to explain the relationship between pain and disability in patients with chronic low back pain. However there are gaps in empirical support for pathways proposed within this model, and no evidence exists as to whether physical activity moderates these pathways.This was a cross-sectional study of 218 people with chronic low back pain. Multiple mediation analyses were conducted to determine the role of fear, catastrophizing, depression, and anxiety in the relationship between pain and disability. Separate analyses were performed with physical activity as the moderator. Individuals were classified as performing regular structured physical activity if they described on average once per week for > 30-minutes an activity classified at least moderate intensity (≥ 4-6 METs, activity prescribed by an allied health professional for their back pain, leisure time sport or recreation, or self-directed physical activity such as resistance exercise.Fear, catastrophizing, and depression significantly mediated the relationship between pain and disability (p<0.001. However the mediating effect of catastrophizing was conditional upon weekly physical activity. That is, the indirect effect for catastrophizing mediating the relationship between pain and disability was only significant for individuals reporting weekly physical activity (B = 1.31, 95% CI 0.44 to 2.23, compared to individuals reporting no weekly physical activity (B = 0.21, 95% CI -0.50 to 0.97. Catastrophizing also mediated the relationship between pain and fear (B = 0.37, 95% CI 0.15 to 0.62, with higher scores explaining 53% of the total effect of pain on fear.These results support previous findings about the importance of fear and depression as factors that should be targeted in low back pain patients to reduce back pain related disability

  9. Efficient Scheme for Chemical Flooding Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braconnier Benjamin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate an efficient implicit scheme for the numerical simulation of chemical enhanced oil recovery technique for oil fields. For the sake of brevity, we only focus on flows with polymer to describe the physical and numerical models. In this framework, we consider a black oil model upgraded with the polymer modeling. We assume the polymer only transported in the water phase or adsorbed on the rock following a Langmuir isotherm. The polymer reduces the water phase mobility which can change drastically the behavior of water oil interfaces. Then, we propose a fractional step technique to resolve implicitly the system. The first step is devoted to the resolution of the black oil subsystem and the second to the polymer mass conservation. In such a way, jacobian matrices coming from the implicit formulation have a moderate size and preserve solvers efficiency. Nevertheless, the coupling between the black-oil subsystem and the polymer is not fully resolved. For efficiency and accuracy comparison, we propose an explicit scheme for the polymer for which large time step is prohibited due to its CFL (Courant-Friedrichs-Levy criterion and consequently approximates accurately the coupling. Numerical experiments with polymer are simulated : a core flood, a 5-spot reservoir with surfactant and ions and a 3D real case. Comparisons are performed between the polymer explicit and implicit scheme. They prove that our polymer implicit scheme is efficient, robust and resolves accurately the coupling physics. The development and the simulations have been performed with the software PumaFlow [PumaFlow (2013 Reference manual, release V600, Beicip Franlab].

  10. Multiuser switched diversity scheduling schemes

    KAUST Repository

    Shaqfeh, Mohammad

    2012-09-01

    Multiuser switched-diversity scheduling schemes were recently proposed in order to overcome the heavy feedback requirements of conventional opportunistic scheduling schemes by applying a threshold-based, distributed, and ordered scheduling mechanism. The main idea behind these schemes is that slight reduction in the prospected multiuser diversity gains is an acceptable trade-off for great savings in terms of required channel-state-information feedback messages. In this work, we characterize the achievable rate region of multiuser switched diversity systems and compare it with the rate region of full feedback multiuser diversity systems. We propose also a novel proportional fair multiuser switched-based scheduling scheme and we demonstrate that it can be optimized using a practical and distributed method to obtain the feedback thresholds. We finally demonstrate by numerical examples that switched-diversity scheduling schemes operate within 0.3 bits/sec/Hz from the ultimate network capacity of full feedback systems in Rayleigh fading conditions. © 2012 IEEE.

  11. Effects of a Pain Catastrophizing Induction on Sensory Testing in Women with Chronic Low Back Pain: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturgeon, John A.; Johnson, Kevin A.

    2017-01-01

    Pain catastrophizing, a pattern of negative cognitive-emotional responses to actual or anticipated pain, maintains chronic pain and undermines response to treatments. Currently, precisely how pain catastrophizing influences pain processing is not well understood. In experimental settings, pain catastrophizing has been associated with amplified pain processing. This study sought to clarify pain processing mechanisms via experimental induction of pain catastrophizing. Forty women with chronic low back pain were assigned in blocks to an experimental condition, either a psychologist-led 10-minute pain catastrophizing induction or a control (10-minute rest period). All participants underwent a baseline round of several quantitative sensory testing (QST) tasks, followed by the pain catastrophizing induction or the rest period, and then a second round of the same QST tasks. The catastrophizing induction appeared to increase state pain catastrophizing levels. Changes in QST pain were detected for two of the QST tasks administered, weighted pin pain and mechanical allodynia. Although there is a need to replicate our preliminary results with a larger sample, study findings suggest a potential relationship between induced pain catastrophizing and central sensitization of pain. Clarification of the mechanisms through which catastrophizing affects pain modulatory systems may yield useful clinical insights into the treatment of chronic pain. PMID:28348505

  12. Postoperative pain in children: association between anxiety sensitivity, pain catastrophizing, and female caregivers' responses to children's pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteve, Rosa; Marquina-Aponte, Vanessa; Ramírez-Maestre, Carmen

    2014-02-01

    This study investigated the association between anxiety sensitivity and pain catastrophizing in children, caregivers' anxiety sensitivity and catastrophizing about children's pain and responses to children's pain, pain intensity reported by children, and pain intensity estimated by caregivers. The participants were 102 children scheduled for outpatient surgery and their female caregivers. Before the operation, caregivers' catastrophizing about children's pain, children's pain catastrophizing, and their anxiety sensitivity were assessed, as well as caregivers' responses to children's pain. Pain intensity reported by children and estimated by caregivers was evaluated after the operation and 24 hours afterward. Analyses were performed via path analysis. The results indicated that children and caregivers characterized by higher levels of anxiety sensitivity reported higher levels of pain catastrophizing and catastrophic thinking about children's pain, respectively. Caregivers with higher levels of catastrophic thinking about the children's pain reported higher levels of solicitousness and higher estimations of the children's pain intensity after the operation. Higher levels of children's pain catastrophizing were associated with more frequent responses of discouragement and higher pain intensity reported after the operation. These findings highlight the relevance of catastrophizing about children's pain and children's pain catastrophizing in the experience of postoperative pain in children. Path analysis was used to test a hypothetical model of the associations between anxiety sensitivity, catastrophizing, parental responses, and postoperative pain in children. The results highlight the association between children's and parents' pain catastrophizing and discouragement and solicitous responses and the role of anxiety sensitivity as a traitlike factor associated with catastrophizing. Copyright © 2014 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  13. Modulation Schemes for Wireless Access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Vejrazka

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Four modulation schemes, namely minimum shift keying (MSK, Gaussianminimum shift keying (GMSK, multiamplitude minimum shift keying(MAMSK and π/4 differential quadrature phase shift keying (π/4-QPSKare described and their applicability to wireless access is discussedin the paper. Low complexity receiver structures based on differentialdetection are analysed to estimate the performance of the modulationschemes in the additive Gaussian noise and the Rayleigh and Riceenvelope fast fading channel. The bandwidth efficiency is calculated toevaluate the modulation schemes. The results show that the MAMSK schemegives the greatest bandwidth efficiency, but its performance in theRayleigh channel is rather poor. In contrast, the MSK scheme is lessbandwidth efficient, but it is more resistant to Rayleigh fading. Theperformance of π/4-QPSK signal is considerably improved by appropriateprefiltering.

  14. Implicit Block ACK Scheme for IEEE 802.11 WLANs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sthapit, Pranesh; Pyun, Jae-Young

    2016-01-01

    The throughput of IEEE 802.11 standard is significantly bounded by the associated Medium Access Control (MAC) overhead. Because of the overhead, an upper limit exists for throughput, which is bounded, including situations where data rates are extremely high. Therefore, an overhead reduction is necessary to achieve higher throughput. The IEEE 802.11e amendment introduced the block ACK mechanism, to reduce the number of control messages in MAC. Although the block ACK scheme greatly reduces overhead, further improvements are possible. In this letter, we propose an implicit block ACK method that further reduces the overhead associated with IEEE 802.11e’s block ACK scheme. The mathematical analysis results are presented for both the original protocol and the proposed scheme. A performance improvement of greater than 10% was achieved with the proposed implementation.

  15. Electrical Injection Schemes for Nanolasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lupi, Alexandra; Chung, Il-Sug; Yvind, Kresten

    2014-01-01

    Three electrical injection schemes based on recently demonstrated electrically pumped photonic crystal nanolasers have been numerically investigated: 1) a vertical p-i-n junction through a post structure; 2) a lateral p-i-n junction with a homostructure; and 3) a lateral p-i-n junction....... For this analysis, the properties of different schemes, i.e., electrical resistance, threshold voltage, threshold current, and internal efficiency as energy requirements for optical interconnects are compared and the physics behind the differences is discussed....

  16. Time-division-multiplex control scheme for voltage multiplier rectifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin-Han Liu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A voltage multiplier rectifier with a novel time-division-multiplexing (TDM control scheme for high step-up converters is proposed in this study. In the proposed TDM control scheme, two full-wave voltage doubler rectifiers can be combined to realise a voltage quadrupler rectifier. The proposed voltage quadrupler rectifier can reduce transformer turn ratio and transformer size for high step-up converters and also reduce voltage stress for the output capacitors and rectifier diodes. An N-times voltage rectifier can be straightforwardly produced by extending the concepts from the proposed TDM control scheme. A phase-shift full-bridge (PSFB converter is adopted in the primary side of the proposed voltage quadrupler rectifier to construct a PSFB quadrupler converter. Experimental results for the PSFB quadrupler converter demonstrate the performance of the proposed TDM control scheme for voltage quadrupler rectifiers. An 8-times voltage rectifier is simulated to determine the validity of extending the proposed TDM control scheme to realise an N-times voltage rectifier. Experimental and simulation results show that the proposed TDM control scheme has great potential to be used in high step-up converters.

  17. Catastrophic health expenditures and its inequality in elderly households with chronic disease patients in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhonghua; Li, Xiangjun; Chen, Mingsheng

    2015-01-20

    Although numerous studies examine catastrophic health expenditures (CHE) worldwide, most focus on whole populations rather than specific vulnerable groups. This study analyzes the extent, associated factors and inequality of CHE in elderly household with chronic disease patients in China. Data were obtained from a nationally representative elderly household survey-the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study-that was conducted by the National School of Development of Peking University in 2011. An elderly household with chronic disease patients is defined by ≥ 1 chronic disease patient who is ≥ 45 years of age. CHE was measured according to the proportion of out-of-pocket health payments to non-food household expenditures. The associated factors of CHE were estimated using ordinary least square and logistic regression modeling. CHE inequality was measured according to the concentration index (CI) and its decomposition. CHE incidence and intensity were relatively high among elderly households with chronic disease patients. The main associated factors of CHE include household size, having members > 65 years, having members with ≥ 2 chronic diseases, per capita income, and elderly household members demonstrating healthcare-seeking behaviors. Healthcare insurance did not significantly affect CHE risk. Disproportionate concentration of CHE was noted among elderly households, and poor elderly households demonstrated a higher probability of experiencing CHE. Factors such as household size, per capita income, having members > 65 years, and having members with ≥ 2 chronic diseases are major and positive contributors to CHE inequality. Some inpatient and outpatient services are negatively contributed to CHE inequality,suggesting that the unequal usage of such services reduces CHE inequality among elderly households with chronic disease patients. Policy efforts should focus on improving financial protection and relieving the economic

  18. Improving multivariate Horner schemes with Monte Carlo tree search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuipers, J.; Plaat, A.; Vermaseren, J. A. M.; van den Herik, H. J.

    2013-11-01

    Optimizing the cost of evaluating a polynomial is a classic problem in computer science. For polynomials in one variable, Horner's method provides a scheme for producing a computationally efficient form. For multivariate polynomials it is possible to generalize Horner's method, but this leaves freedom in the order of the variables. Traditionally, greedy schemes like most-occurring variable first are used. This simple textbook algorithm has given remarkably efficient results. Finding better algorithms has proved difficult. In trying to improve upon the greedy scheme we have implemented Monte Carlo tree search, a recent search method from the field of artificial intelligence. This results in better Horner schemes and reduces the cost of evaluating polynomials, sometimes by factors up to two.

  19. Impact of startup scheme on Francis runner life expectancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagnon, M; Tahan, S A; Bocher, P [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ecole de technologie superieure (ETS) 1100, rue Notre-Dame Ouest, Montreal (Canada); Thibault, D, E-mail: martin.gagnon.8@ens.etsmtl.c [Institut de recherche d' Hydro-Quebec (IREQ), 1800, boul. Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, J3X 1S1 (Canada)

    2010-08-15

    Francis runners are subject to complex dynamic forces which might lead to eventual blade cracking and the need for corrective measure. Damage due to cracks in runner blades are usually not a safety issues but might generate unexpected down time and high repair cost. Avoiding the main damaging operating conditions is often the only option left to plant operators to maximize the life expectancy of their runner. The startup scheme is one of the available parameter which is controlled by the end user and could be used to minimize the damage induced to the runner. In this study, two startup schemes have been used to investigate life expectancy of Francis runner using in situ measurements. The results obtained show that the induced damage during the startup event could be significantly reduced with change to the startup scheme. In our opinion, an optimization of the startup scheme with regard to fatigue damage could extend significantly the life expectancy and the reliability of Francis runner.

  20. Shame, Catastrophizing, and Negative Partner Responses Are Associated With Lower Sexual and Relationship Satisfaction and More Negative Affect in Men With Peyronie's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Seth; Ferrar, Saskia; Sadikaj, Gentiana; Binik, Yitzchak; Carrier, Serge

    2017-04-03

    Peyronie's disease (PD) has a negative impact on men's sexual functioning and quality of life, but little is known about why some men cope better than others and what the effects of PD are on their relationships. The aims of the present study were to describe negative affect, pain, and relationship and sexual satisfaction in men with PD, and to explore their psychosocial correlates. Participants were 110 men diagnosed with PD. All men completed questionnaires. The main outcome measures were as follows: Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction, Dyadic Adjustment Scale, McGill Pain Questionnaire, and Negative Affect Scale. The predictor variables were the following: Experience of Shame Scale, Body Esteem Scale, Body Image Self-Consciousness Scale, Index of Male Genital Image, a modified Pain Catastrophizing Scale, and a modified Multidimensional Pain Inventory. Although men with PD had mean sexual/relationship satisfaction and negative affect scores indicating mild impairment, there was a wide range of variation, with 42% to 52% scoring in the clinical range. Catastrophizing was significantly associated with reduced sexual satisfaction and increased negative affect and pain. Shame was also associated with increased negative affect. The significant associations of relationship satisfaction were partner responses and shame. Given the lack of curative treatment in PD, understanding why some men cope better than others may guide therapy. Shame, catastrophizing, and partner responses may be important therapeutic targets.

  1. Kinesiophobia and maladaptive coping strategies prevent improvements in pain catastrophizing following pain neuroscience education in fibromyalgia/chronic fatigue syndrome: An explorative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malfliet, Anneleen; Van Oosterwijck, Jessica; Meeus, Mira; Cagnie, Barbara; Danneels, Lieven; Dolphens, Mieke; Buyl, Ronald; Nijs, Jo

    2017-08-01

    Many patients with chronic fatigue syndrome(CFS) and/or fibromyalgia(FM) have little understanding of their condition, leading to maladaptive pain cognitions and coping strategies. These should be tackled during therapy, for instance by pain neurophysiology education (PNE). Although positive effects of PNE are well-established, it remains unclear why some patients benefit more than others. This paper aims at exploring characteristics of patients responding poor to PNE to further improve its effectiveness. Data from two RCT's were pooled to search for baseline predictors. Subjects (n = 39) suffering from CFS/FM, as defined by the American College of Rheumatology, underwent PNE treatment. The Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS); Pain Coping Inventory (PCI); and Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia (TSK) were defined as outcome measures. There was a significant negative relationship between baseline TSK and the change in both PCS total score (r = -0.584; p kinesiophobia are likely to experience less reductions in catastrophizing following PNE. It seems that PNE alone is insufficient to reduce catastrophic thinking regarding pain, and supplementary treatment is needed.

  2. The economic burden of pediatric gastroenteritis to Bolivian families: a cross-sectional study of correlates of catastrophic cost and overall cost burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Rachel M; Smith, Emily R; Dahl, Rebecca Moritz; Rebolledo, Paulina A; Calderón, Maria del Carmen; Cañipa, Beatriz; Chavez, Edgar; Pinto, Rolando; Tamayo, Luis; Terán, Carlos; Veizaga, Angel; Zumaran, Remy; Iñiguez, Volga; Leon, Juan S

    2014-06-24

    Worldwide, acute gastroenteritis causes substantial morbidity and mortality in children less than five years of age. In Bolivia, which has one of the lower GDPs in South America, 16% of child deaths can be attributed to diarrhea, and the costs associated with diarrhea can weigh heavily on patient families. To address this need, the study goal was to identify predictors of cost burden (diarrhea-related costs incurred as a percentage of annual income) and catastrophic cost (cost burden ≥ 1% of annual household income). From 2007 to 2009, researchers interviewed caregivers (n = 1,107) of pediatric patients (hospitals. Caregivers were surveyed on demographics, clinical symptoms, direct (e.g. medication, consult fees), and indirect (e.g. lost wages) costs. Multivariate regression models (n = 551) were used to assess relationships of covariates to the outcomes of cost burden (linear model) and catastrophic cost (logistic model). We determined that cost burden and catastrophic cost shared the same significant (p hospital (OR 4.12, 95% CI [2.30, 7.41]); having previously sought treatment for this diarrheal episode (OR 3.92, 95% CI [1.64, 9.35]); and the number of days the child had diarrhea prior to the current visit (OR 1.14, 95% CI [1.05, 1.24]). Our analysis highlights the economic impact of pediatric diarrhea from the familial perspective and provides insight into potential areas of intervention to reduce associated economic burden.

  3. A New Proxy Electronic Voting Scheme Achieved by Six-Particle Entangled States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hai-Jing; Ding, Li-Yuan; Jiang, Xiu-Li; Li, Peng-Fei

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we use quantum proxy signature to construct a new secret electronic voting scheme. In our scheme, six particles entangled states function as quantum channels. The voter Alice, the Vote Management Center Bob, the scrutineer Charlie only perform two particles measurements on the Bell bases to realize the electronic voting process. So the scheme reduces the technical difficulty and increases operation efficiency. We use quantum key distribution and one-time pad to guarantee its unconditional security. The significant advantage of our scheme is that transmitted information capacity is twice as much as the capacity of other schemes.

  4. An Efficient Heterogeneous Signcryption Scheme from Certificateless to Identity-based Cryptosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niu Shufen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The heterogeneous signcryption can not only realize the confidentiality and un-forgeability of the information transmission between different public key cryptography environments, but also reduce the communication cost. The proposed scheme uses bilin-ear pairings between certificateless cryptography and identity-based cryptography to construct a heterogeneous signcryption scheme. In addition, two cryptography systems use different secret master keys. Furthermore, the proposed scheme has the indistin-guishability against adaptive chosen ciphertext attacks and existential unforgeability against adaptive chosen-message attacks in the random oracle model. Through the data analysis, this scheme is more effective than other similar types of scheme.

  5. Catastrophic out-of-pocket payments for health and poverty nexus: evidence from Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Séne, Ligane Massamba; Cissé, Momath

    2015-09-01

    Out-of-pocket payments are the primary source through which health expenditure is met in Senegal. However, these payments are financial burdens that lead to impoverishment when they become catastrophic. The purpose of this study is to cast light on the determinants of catastrophic household out-of-pocket health expenditures and to assess their implications on poverty. The 2011 poverty monitoring survey is used in this study. This survey aims to draw poverty profiles and to highlight the socio-economic characteristics of different social groups. In line with the concerns raised by the new Supplemental Poverty Measure, poverty statistics are adjusted to take into account household health expenditures and to estimate their impoverishing effects. To identify the determinants of the magnitude of catastrophic health expenditure, we implement a seemingly unrelated equations system of Tobit regressions to take into account censoring through a conditional mixed-process estimator procedure. We identify major causes of catastrophic expenditures, such as the level of overall health spending, the expensiveness of health goods and services, the characteristics of health facilities, the health stock shocks, the lack of insurance, etc. Results show evidence that catastrophic health expenditures jeopardize household welfare for some people that fall into poverty as a result of negative effects on disposable income and disruption of the material living standards of households. Our findings warrant further policy improvements to minimize the financial risks of out-of-pocket health expenditures and increase the efficiency of health care system for more effective poverty reduction strategies.

  6. Catastrophe Bonds. From Structure to Strategy – A Cluster Analysis at European Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura-Gabriela CONSTANTIN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available As a core activity and discipline of corporate management and corporate governance, risk management is, especially nowadays, a central part in pursuing the sustainable development desiderates, both from the perspective of the firm and of the society as a whole.Considering the negative impact natural catastrophes have on the companies’ and countries’ competitiveness, the development of sustainable financial products that make a contribution to transferring the risk and allocating the capital in case of disasters stands for a continual preoccupation, especially for the (reinsurance industry, while the study of catastrophe bonds – insurance-linked securities – is of interest in the specialized literature. In this context, the scope of the present research is to expand the empirical studies within this field while examining the link between the structure of the catastrophe bonds and the risk management approach employed while accessing the capital markets through this transactions.The methodology entailed clustering a selection of transactions developed by European cedents based on the size of each issue and correlating the results with an innovative score, developed to encompass several important catastrophe bonds structural components.The findings reflect that the general structural elements of the financial transactions reflect closely the corporate approach regarding the innovative risk intermediation instruments for the examined catastrophe bonds deals. The outcomes also emphasize, as expected, that companies with a stronger presence on this market seem to have a more sophisticated risk management approach.

  7. Catastrophic Outcomes in Free Tissue Transfer: A Six-Year Review of the NSQIP Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W. Grant

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. No studies report robust data on the national incidence and risk factors associated with catastrophic medical outcomes following free tissue transfer. Methods. The American College of Surgeons (ACS multicenter, prospective National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP database was used to identify patients who underwent free tissue transfer between 2006 and 2011. Multivariable logistic regression was used for statistical analysis. Results. Over the 6-year study period 2,349 patients in the NSQIP database underwent a free tissue transfer procedure. One hundred and twenty-two patients had at least one catastrophic medical outcome (5.2%. These 122 patients had 151 catastrophic medical outcomes, including 93 postoperative respiratory failure events (4.0%, 14 pulmonary emboli (0.6%, 13 septic shock events (0.5%, 12 myocardial infarctions (0.5%, 6 cardiac arrests (0.3%, 4 strokes (0.2%, 1 coma (0.0%, and 8 deaths (0.3%. Total length of hospital stay was on average 14.7 days longer for patients who suffered a catastrophic medical complication (P<0.001. Independent risk factors were identified. Conclusions. Free tissue transfer is a proven and safe technique. Catastrophic medical complications were infrequent but added significantly to length of hospital stay and patient morbidity.

  8. Main determinants of catastrophic health expenditures: a Bayesian logit approach on Iranian household survey data (2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazaeli, Ali Akbar; Ghaderi, Hossein; Abbas Fazaeli, Amir; Lotfi, Farhad; Salehi, Masoud; Mehrara, Mohsen

    2015-01-26

    During recent decades, increase in both health care expenditures and improvement of the awareness as well as health expectations have created some problems with regard to finance healthcare expenditures so that the issue of health financing by households has been determined as a major challenge in health sector. According to the definition by the World Health Organization, catastrophic health expenditure is considered if financial contribution for health service is more than 40% of income remaining after subsistence needs have been met. The purpose of our study was determination of Main factors on catastrophic health expenditures in Iranian households. In this study, using an econometrics Bayesian logit model, determinants of the appearance of catastrophic health expenditure based on household budget data collected in 2010 were evaluated. Among Iranian households, the following groups were more likely to encounter with unsustainable health expenditures: rural households, households with the numbers of the elderly more than 65 years, illiterate householders, unemployed householders, households with some unemployed persons, households in upper rank and households with larger equivalent household size were higher than the average of community could significantly predict catastrophic health expenditures. About 2.1% of households were faced with catastrophic health expenditures in 2010. Thus, the implemented policies could not make considerable and significant change in improving justice in financing in health systems.

  9. Rate-weakening friction characterizes both slow sliding and catastrophic failure of landslides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handwerger, Alexander L; Rempel, Alan W; Skarbek, Rob M; Roering, Joshua J; Hilley, George E

    2016-09-13

    Catastrophic landslides cause billions of dollars in damages and claim thousands of lives annually, whereas slow-moving landslides with negligible inertia dominate sediment transport on many weathered hillslopes. Surprisingly, both failure modes are displayed by nearby landslides (and individual landslides in different years) subjected to almost identical environmental conditions. Such observations have motivated the search for mechanisms that can cause slow-moving landslides to transition via runaway acceleration to catastrophic failure. A similarly diverse range of sliding behavior, including earthquakes and slow-slip events, occurs along tectonic faults. Our understanding of these phenomena has benefitted from mechanical treatments that rely upon key ingredients that are notably absent from previous landslide descriptions. Here, we describe landslide motion using a rate- and state-dependent frictional model that incorporates a nonlocal stress balance to account for the elastic response to gradients in slip. Our idealized, one-dimensional model reproduces both the displacement patterns observed in slow-moving landslides and the acceleration toward failure exhibited by catastrophic events. Catastrophic failure occurs only when the slip surface is characterized by rate-weakening friction and its lateral dimensions exceed a critical nucleation length [Formula: see text] that is shorter for higher effective stresses. However, landslides that are extensive enough to fall within this regime can nevertheless slide slowly for months or years before catastrophic failure. Our results suggest that the diversity of slip behavior observed during landslides can be described with a single model adapted from standard fault mechanics treatments.

  10. Distance labeling schemes for trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Stephen; Gørtz, Inge Li; Bistrup Halvorsen, Esben

    2016-01-01

    We consider distance labeling schemes for trees: given a tree with n nodes, label the nodes with binary strings such that, given the labels of any two nodes, one can determine, by looking only at the labels, the distance in the tree between the two nodes. A lower bound by Gavoille et al. [Gavoill...

  11. Distance labeling schemes for trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Stephen; Gørtz, Inge Li; Bistrup Halvorsen, Esben

    2016-01-01

    (log(n)) bits for constant ε> 0. (1 + ε)-stretch labeling schemes with polylogarithmic label size have previously been established for doubling dimension graphs by Talwar [Talwar, STOC, 2004]. In addition, we present matching upper and lower bounds for distance labeling for caterpillars, showing that labels...

  12. Homogenization scheme for acoustic metamaterials

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Min

    2014-02-26

    We present a homogenization scheme for acoustic metamaterials that is based on reproducing the lowest orders of scattering amplitudes from a finite volume of metamaterials. This approach is noted to differ significantly from that of coherent potential approximation, which is based on adjusting the effective-medium parameters to minimize scatterings in the long-wavelength limit. With the aid of metamaterials’ eigenstates, the effective parameters, such as mass density and elastic modulus can be obtained by matching the surface responses of a metamaterial\\'s structural unit cell with a piece of homogenized material. From the Green\\'s theorem applied to the exterior domain problem, matching the surface responses is noted to be the same as reproducing the scattering amplitudes. We verify our scheme by applying it to three different examples: a layered lattice, a two-dimensional hexagonal lattice, and a decorated-membrane system. It is shown that the predicted characteristics and wave fields agree almost exactly with numerical simulations and experiments and the scheme\\'s validity is constrained by the number of dominant surface multipoles instead of the usual long-wavelength assumption. In particular, the validity extends to the full band in one dimension and to regimes near the boundaries of the Brillouin zone in two dimensions.

  13. Repenser le risque et les catastrophes dans les régions de montagne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Hewitt

    2012-03-01

    vie quotidienne des peuples montagnards, les catastrophes environnementales sont bien souvent dépendantes d’autres formes sociales de risque, de vulnérabilité et d’une insécurité corollaire. Pour conclure, la marginalisation des espaces montagnards reste avant tout la conséquence du développement socio-économique de ces territoires, dont les paramètres dépendent des stratégies de développement de l’État et des acteurs métropolitains et internationaux.This chapter presents a view of risk and disaster in the mountains that finds them fully a part of public safety issues in modern states and developments, rather than separated from them. This contrasts with prevailing approaches to disaster focused on natural hazards, “unscheduled” or extreme events, and emergency preparedness; approaches strongly reinforced by mountain stereotypes. Rather, we find the legacies of social and economic histories, especially relations to down-country or metropolitan actors, are decisive in shaping contemporary “mountain realities”. Developments in transportation, resource extraction and tourism that serve state and international agendas can increase rather than reduce risks for mountain populations, and undermine pre-existing strategies to minimise environmental dangers. Above all, we see rapid urbanisation in mountains generally and the Himalaya in particular as highly implicated in exacerbating risks and creating new types of vulnerabilities. Enforced displacement, and concentration of, people in urban agglomerations, is a major part of the modern history of mountain lands that invites more careful exploration. Rapid expansion of built environments and infrastructure, without due regard to hazards and structural safety, introduce new and complex risks, while altering older equations with and to the land and sapping people’s resilience. In the lives of mountain people, environmental hazards are mostly subordinate to other, societal sources of risk and

  14. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Norwegian pain catastrophizing scale in patients with low back pain

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes Linda; Storheim Kjersti; Lochting Ida; Grotle Margreth

    2012-01-01

    Background Pain catastrophizing has been found to be an important predictor of disability and days lost from work in patients with low back pain. The most commonly used outcome measure to identify pain catastrophizing is the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS). To enable the use of the PCS in clinical settings and research in Norwegian speaking patients, the PCS had to be translated. The purpose of this study was therefore to translate and cross-culturally adapt the PCS into N...

  15. Situational but Not Dispositional Pain Catastrophizing Correlates With Early Postoperative Pain in Pain-Free Patients Before Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosen, Kasper; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr; Pilegaard, Hans Kristian; Pfeiffer-Jensen, Mogens; Brock, Birgitte; Vase, Lene

    2016-05-01

    Pain catastrophizing may be assessed as a dispositional measure using a previous painful experience as a reference or as a situational measure using an actual ongoing pain as a reference. The latter has shown more robust correlations with pain-related outcomes; the relative influence of dispositional and situational pain catastrophizing remains unknown in relation to populations with no pain before surgery. Forty-two consecutive patients who underwent corrective surgery for funnel chest were asked to complete the Pain Catastrophizing Scale with reference to 1) a previous painful experience (dispositional pain catastrophizing), 2) experimental pain during a 2-minute cold pressor test (situational experimental pain catastrophizing), and 3) clinical pain 3 days after surgery (situational clinical pain catastrophizing) to investigate whether these measures predicted immediate pain intensity and unpleasantness in the early postoperative period. Thirty-four patients were available for analyses. Dispositional pain catastrophizing was unrelated to situational experimental and situational clinical pain catastrophizing and to postoperative pain and unpleasantness (P > .05). In contrast, the 2 situation-specific pain catastrophizing measures were strongly associated (ρ = .59, P = .0002). In analyses adjusted for preoperative anxiety, depression, and cold pressor pain sensitivity, situational experimental and situational clinical pain catastrophizing correlated with postoperative movement-evoked pain (β = 1.36, P = .01 and β = 1.24, P = .02, respectively) and unpleasantness (β = 1.32, P = .01 and β = 1.36, P = .01, respectively). Pain catastrophizing should be captured in relation to specific painful events in otherwise healthy patients. Future studies might benefit from assessing situational pain catastrophizing to identify patients at risk for increased postoperative pain to optimize stratified pain treatment. Copyright © 2016 American Pain Society

  16. Catastrophic Health Expenditure After the Implementation of Health Sector Evolution Plan: A Case Study in the West of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakhtiar Piroozi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the main objectives of health systems is the financial protection against out-of-pocket (OOP health expenditures. OOP health expenditures can lead to catastrophic payments, impoverishment or poverty among households. In Iran, health sector evolution plan (HSEP has been implemented since 2014 in order to achieve universal health coverage and reduce the OOP health expenditures as a percentage of total health expenditures. This study aimed to explore the percentage of households facing catastrophic health expenditures (CHE after the implementation of HSEP and the factors that determine CHE. Methods: A total of 663 households were selected through a cluster sampling based on the census framework of Sanandaj Health Center in July 2015. Data were gathered using face-to-face interviews based on the household section of the World Health Survey questionnaire. In this study, according to the World Health Organization (WHO definition, if household health expenditures were equal to or more than 40% of the household capacity to pay, household was considered to be facing CHE. The determinants of CHE were analyzed using logistic regression model. Results: The rates of households facing CHE were 4.8%. The key determinants of CHE were household economic status, presence of elderly or disabled members in the household and utilization of inpatient or rehabilitation services. Conclusion: The comparison of our findings and those of other studies carried out using a methodology comparable with ours in different parts of Iran before the implementation of HSEP suggests that the implementation of recent reforms has reduced CHE at the household level. Utilization of inpatient and rehabilitation services, the presence of elderly or disabled members in the household and the low economic status of the household would increase the likelihood of facing CHE. These variables should be considered by health policy-makers in order to review and revise content of

  17. Evaluating the potential for catastrophic fault-rupture-related hazards affecting a key hydroelectric and irrigation region in central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust, D.; Korjenkov, A.; Tibaldi, A.; Usmanova, M.

    2009-04-01

    The Toktogul hydroelectric and irrigation scheme is the largest in central Asia, with a reservoir containing almost 20 km3 of water behind a 230 m-high dam. Annually, the scheme generates 1200 MW of electricity that is distributed over Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kazakhstan and Russia. The scheme is vital for the economic, social and agricultural stability and development of the emerging central Asian republics it serves and, since it is no longer administered centrally as it was in Soviet times, is increasingly the focus of cross-border tensions involving competing needs for irrigation water and power supplies. Our work aims to identify and evaluate potential geo-environmental threats to this region for the benefit of stakeholders; with recommendations for measures to mitigate a range of threat scenarios, presented in a user-friendly GIS format. Most notably these scenarios involve the potential for very large magnitude earthquakes, with associated widespread slope instability, occurring on the little known Talas - Fergana fault. This structure, some 700 km long, bisects the Toktogul region within the actively (~20 mm a-1) contracting Tien Shan mountain range and exhibits geological characteristics similar to large strike-slip faults such as the San Andreas. Historical records are limited in this inaccessible mountainous region that, until Soviet times, was occupied by mainly nomadic peoples, but do not indicate recent fault rupture. This highlights the role of geological investigations in assembling a record of past catastrophic events to serve as a guide for what may be expected in the future, as well as the inherent difficulties in attempting geological forecasts to a precision that is useful on human timescales. Such forecasts in this region must also include the presence of some 23 uranium mining waste dumps within the mountain valleys, a legacy from Soviet times, as well as arsenic-rich waste dumps remaining from an earlier era of gold mining. Many

  18. Catastrophic cervical spine injuries in the collision sport athlete, part 1: epidemiology, functional anatomy, and diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Rahul; Palumbo, Mark A; Fadale, Paul D

    2004-06-01

    Catastrophic cervical spine injuries can lead to devastating consequences for the collision athlete. Improved understanding of these injuries can facilitate early diagnosis and effective on-field management. This article is the first of a 2-part series. The first part reviews the current concepts regarding the epidemiology, functional anatomy, and diagnostic considerations relevant to cervical spine trauma in collision sports. In the second part, to be published later, the principles of emergency care of the cervical spine-injured athlete are reviewed. This article provides a rational approach to the early recognition of the different clinical syndromes associated with catastrophic cervical spine injury. Rapid on-field diagnosis can help to optimize the outcomes of these catastrophic injuries.

  19. Morphological response of a barrier island system on a catastrophic event

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fruergaard, Mikkel; Kroon, Aart

    2016-01-01

    The AD 1634 North Sea storm is one of the most catastrophic storms along the Wadden Sea coast of Denmark. In this study we show how pre-1634 storm morphology exerted a strong control on the resulting post-storm coastal morphology. Erosional responses associated with the storm were barrier breaching...... resulted in several kilometres of coastal progradation. Sediment budgets suggest that formation of the barrier shoal was possible, but the sediment transport rates in the decades after the 1634 storm, must have been two to three times higher than present-day rates. The study demonstrates that catastrophic...... storms are capable of moving large amounts of sediments over relatively short time-periods and can create barrier shoals, whereas moderate storms mostly rework the shoal or barrier and create more local erosion and/or landward migration. Catastrophic storms substantially influence long-term and large...

  20. The importance of fear, beliefs, catastrophizing and kinesiophobia in chronic low back pain rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, E-N; Pers, Y-M; Mercier, G; Cambiere, J-P; Frasson, N; Ster, F; Hérisson, C; Blotman, F

    2010-02-01

    To evaluate fear, beliefs, catastrophizing and kinesiophobia in chronic low back pain patients about to begin a training programme in a rehabilitation centre. Fifty chronic low back pain patients (including both males and females) were assessed in our physical medicine department. We used validated French-language scales to score the patients' pain-related disability, quality of life and psychosocial factors. Seventy percent of the patients had a major functional disability (i.e., a Roland-Morris Scale score over 12) and nearly 73% reported an altered quality of life (the daily living score in the Dallas Pain Questionnaire). Pain correlated with functional impairment and depression but not with catastrophizing or kinesiophobia. Disability was correlated with catastrophizing and kinesiophobia. Psychosocial factors are strongly associated with disability and altered quality of life in chronic low back pain patients. Future rehabilitation programs could optimizing patient management by taking these factors into account. 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Pain Catastrophizing Predicts Poor Response to Topical Analgesics in Patients with Neuropathic Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsipora Mankovsky

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of neuropathic pain approaches 10% in Canada and the United States. Given the aging population and the increasing survival rates following interventions for neuropathic pain, the prevalence of neuropathic pain conditions is expected to rise significantly over the next 20 years. Although pharmacological interventions represent the dominant treatment approach for neuropathic pain, as many as 50% of patients are partially or completely refractory to the available treatments. Pain catastrophizing has been associated with heightened pain experiences in patients with neuropathic pain conditions; however, the clinical relevance of the relationship between catastrophizing and poor treatment outcomes is, to date, unclear. Accordingly, using a numerical rating scale, this study aimed to examine this relationship in patients with varied neuropathic pain conditions who completed a measure of catastrophizing before initiating a course of topical analgesic.

  2. A soft-hard combination-based cooperative spectrum sensing scheme for cognitive radio networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Nhu Tri; An, Beongku

    2015-02-13

    In this paper we propose a soft-hard combination scheme, called SHC scheme, for cooperative spectrum sensing in cognitive radio networks. The SHC scheme deploys a cluster based network in which Likelihood Ratio Test (LRT)-based soft combination is applied at each cluster, and weighted decision fusion rule-based hard combination is utilized at the fusion center. The novelties of the SHC scheme are as follows: the structure of the SHC scheme reduces the complexity of cooperative detection which is an inherent limitation of soft combination schemes. By using the LRT, we can detect primary signals in a low signal-to-noise ratio regime (around an average of -15 dB). In addition, the computational complexity of the LRT is reduced since we derive the closed-form expression of the probability density function of LRT value. The SHC scheme also takes into account the different effects of large scale fading on different users in the wide area network. The simulation results show that the SHC scheme not only provides the better sensing performance compared to the conventional hard combination schemes, but also reduces sensing overhead in terms of reporting time compared to the conventional soft combination scheme using the LRT.

  3. 'Just another incentive scheme': a qualitative interview study of a local pay-for-performance scheme for primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Julia; Glidewell, Liz; West, Robert; Carder, Paul; Doran, Tim; Foy, Robbie

    2014-10-25

    A range of policy initiatives have addressed inequalities in healthcare and health outcomes. Local pay-for-performance schemes for primary care have been advocated as means of enhancing clinical ownership of the quality agenda and better targeting local need compared with national schemes such as the UK Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF). We investigated whether professionals' experience of a local scheme in one English National Health Service (NHS) former primary care trust (PCT) differed from that of the national QOF in relation to the goal of reducing inequalities. We conducted retrospective semi-structured interviews with primary care professionals implementing the scheme and those involved in its development. We purposively sampled practices with varying levels of population socio-economic deprivation and achievement. Interviews explored perceptions of the scheme and indicators, likely mechanisms of influence on practice, perceived benefits and harms, and how future schemes could be improved. We used a framework approach to analysis. Thirty-eight professionals from 16 general practices and six professionals involved in developing local indicators participated. Our findings cover four themes: ownership, credibility of the indicators, influences on behaviour, and exacerbated tensions. We found little evidence that the scheme engendered any distinctive sense of ownership or experiences different from the national scheme. Although the indicators and their evidence base were seldom actively questioned, doubts were expressed about their focus on health promotion given that eventual benefits relied upon patient action and availability of local resources. Whilst practices serving more affluent populations reported status and patient benefit as motivators for participating in the scheme, those serving more deprived populations highlighted financial reward. The scheme exacerbated tensions between patient and professional consultation agendas, general practitioners

  4. Global health and climate change: moving from denial and catastrophic fatalism to positive action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Anthony; Maslin, Mark; Montgomery, Hugh; Johnson, Anne M; Ekins, Paul

    2011-05-13

    The health effects of climate change have had relatively little attention from climate scientists and governments. Climate change will be a major threat to population health in the current century through its potential effects on communicable disease, heat stress, food and water security, extreme weather events, vulnerable shelter and population migration. This paper addresses three health-sector strategies to manage the health effects of climate change-promotion of mitigation, tackling the pathways that lead to ill-health and strengthening health systems. Mitigation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is affordable, and low-carbon technologies are available now or will be in the near future. Pathways to ill-health can be managed through better information, poverty reduction, technological innovation, social and cultural change and greater coordination of national and international institutions. Strengthening health systems requires increased investment in order to provide effective public health responses to climate-induced threats to health, equitable treatment of illness, promotion of low-carbon lifestyles and renewable energy solutions within health facilities. Mitigation and adaptation strategies will produce substantial benefits for health, such as reductions in obesity and heart disease, diabetes, stress and depression, pneumonia and asthma, as well as potential cost savings within the health sector. The case for mitigating climate change by reducing GHGs is overwhelming. The need to build population resilience to the global health threat from already unavoidable climate change is real and urgent. Action must not be delayed by contrarians, nor by catastrophic fatalists who say it is all too late. © 2011 Royal Society

  5. Strategic preparedness for recovery from catastrophic risks to communities and infrastructure systems of systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haimes, Yacov Y

    2012-11-01

    Natural and human-induced disasters affect organizations in myriad ways because of the inherent interconnectedness and interdependencies among human, cyber, and physical infrastructures, but more importantly, because organizations depend on the effectiveness of people and on the leadership they provide to the organizations they serve and represent. These human-organizational-cyber-physical infrastructure entities are termed systems of systems. Given the multiple perspectives that characterize them, they cannot be modeled effectively with a single model. The focus of this article is: (i) the centrality of the states of a system in modeling; (ii) the efficacious role of shared states in modeling systems of systems, in identification, and in the meta-modeling of systems of systems; and (iii) the contributions of the above to strategic preparedness, response to, and recovery from catastrophic risk to such systems. Strategic preparedness connotes a decision-making process and its associated actions. These must be: implemented in advance of a natural or human-induced disaster, aimed at reducing consequences (e.g., recovery time, community suffering, and cost), and/or controlling their likelihood to a level considered acceptable (through the decisionmakers' implicit and explicit acceptance of various risks and tradeoffs). The inoperability input-output model (IIM), which is grounded on Leontief's input/output model, has enabled the modeling of interdependent subsystems. Two separate modeling structures are introduced. These are: phantom system models (PSM), where shared states constitute the essence of modeling coupled systems; and the IIM, where interdependencies among sectors of the economy are manifested by the Leontief matrix of technological coefficients. This article demonstrates the potential contributions of these two models to each other, and thus to more informative modeling of systems of systems schema. The contributions of shared states to this modeling and to

  6. Complement System Abnormalities in Patients with Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome and Catastrophic Antiphospholipid Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demyanova, K A; Kozlovskaya, N L; Bobrova, L A; Kozlov, L V; Andina, S S; Yurova, V A; Kuchieva, A M; Roshchupkina, S V; Shilov, E M

    The role of the alternative complement pathway (AP) abnormalities in the pathogenesis of aHUS is well studied. Clinical and morphological manifestations of atypical HUS and catastrophic APS are often similar. However, studies on the state of AP in patients with CAPS are virtually absent. The aim of our study was to assess the state of AP in patients with CAPS and aHUS. Patients and methods: The study enrolled 67 patients (pts) with a diagnosis of CAPS (28 pts) and aHUS (39 pts). Studies of the complement system are made of 10 pts with CAPS and 20 aHUS. Factor H, I, B, D content, functional activity of factor H, and complement components C3, C4 was determined in serum by ELISA kit. Patients with CAPS and aHUS showed similar changes in complement biomarkers. The factor H level in the serum was significantly higher than the standard value. However, the specific activity of factor H reduced, mean rate 59% for aHUS and 26% for CAPS. The median value of factor D was twice higher than the normal range in both groups, indicating the activation of the AP. There are indications of an AP activation not only in pts with aHUS but in CAPS pts too. We suppose that the activity of factor H is a more sensitive indicator of complement system changes than factor H level. Patients with CAPS and aHUS have similar clinical and laboratory characteristics. However, CAPS is more severe, with the involvement of a larger number of vascular beds. Perhaps this is due to the double damaging effects on the endothelium ― of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) and activated complement. So we hypothesize that CAPS can be called aPL-mediated TMA in pts with a complement system defect.

  7. Optimism Moderates the Influence of Pain Catastrophizing on Shoulder Pain Outcome: A Longitudinal Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronado, Rogelio A; Simon, Corey B; Lentz, Trevor A; Gay, Charles W; Mackie, Lauren N; George, Steven Z

    2017-01-01

    Study Design Secondary analysis of prospectively collected data. Background An abundance of evidence has highlighted the influence of pain catastrophizing and fear avoidance on clinical outcomes. Less is known about the interaction of positive psychological resources with these pain-associated distress factors. Objective To assess whether optimism moderates the influence of pain catastrophizing and fear avoidance on 3-month clinical outcomes in patients with shoulder pain. Methods Data from 63 individuals with shoulder pain (mean ± SD age, 38.8 ± 14.9 years; 30 female) were examined. Demographic, psychological, and clinical characteristics were obtained at baseline. Validated measures were used to assess optimism (Life Orientation Test-Revised), pain catastrophizing (Pain Catastrophizing Scale), fear avoidance (Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire physical activity subscale), shoulder pain intensity (Brief Pain Inventory), and shoulder function (Pennsylvania Shoulder Score function subscale). Shoulder pain and function were reassessed at 3 months. Regression models assessed the influence of (1) pain catastrophizing and optimism and (2) fear avoidance and optimism. The final multivariable models controlled for factors of age, sex, education, and baseline scores, and included 3-month pain intensity and function as separate dependent variables. Results Shoulder pain (mean difference, -1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -2.1, -1.2) and function (mean difference, 2.4; 95% CI: 0.3, 4.4) improved over 3 months. In multivariable analyses, there was an interaction between pain catastrophizing and optimism (β = 0.19; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.35) for predicting 3-month shoulder function (F = 16.8, R2 = 0.69, Poptimism lessened the influence of pain catastrophizing on function. There was no evidence of significant moderation of fear-avoidance beliefs for 3-month shoulder pain (P = .090) or function (P = .092). Conclusion Optimism decreased the negative influence of pain

  8. Floating worlds and their phantoms in the aftermath of social catastrophes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbles, Samuel

    2017-02-01

    In this paper the author describes certain kinds of images (phantoms) that appear in the aftermath of social catastrophes. These phantoms come with an underlying narrative structure, which the author describes as phantom narratives. Phantom narratives show how the unconscious, working at the group and individual levels, provides political and social contexts within which the individual may find a different kind of containment for these catastrophes. In this way their suffering may be potentially processed psychologically and related to symbolically. © 2017, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  9. Catastrophic Failure and Fault-Tolerant Design of IGBT Power Electronic Converters - An Overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Rui; Blaabjerg, Frede; Wang, Huai

    2013-01-01

    Reliability is one of the key issues for the application of Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBTs) in power electronic converters. Many efforts have been devoted to the reduction of IGBT wear out failure induced by accumulated degradation and catastrophic failure triggered by single-event ove......Reliability is one of the key issues for the application of Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBTs) in power electronic converters. Many efforts have been devoted to the reduction of IGBT wear out failure induced by accumulated degradation and catastrophic failure triggered by single...

  10. Comparison of maintenance scheme effects on power transformer reliability performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. C. Durán

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Power transformer failures have a significant impact on electrical systems reliability, as they compromise the electricity delivery. Failures impact the operational cost of electric utilities as they endanger the accomplishment of power commitments. Power transformer failure rate can be modeled from its health condition, which is determined from different condition parameters. This paper is aimed to compare different maintenance schemes that allow the asset to be available the longest possible time. The power transformer operation is represented considering actual electric load profiles and temperature. Electrical and thermal transformer parameters are taken from manufacturer tests and technical standards. An electrical-thermal model is employed to estimate the life span reduction and temperature changes. From life span and loading, the health condition is determined, so as the effects of different maintenance schemes. The failure rates are calculated for unmaintained conditions and different maintained schemes, allowing to determine their effects on transformer reliability. Optimal maintenance schemes are determined and the expected benefits in failure rate reduction, asset reliability and life span extension are presented. As a result, it was found that certain time-based maintenance schemes provide better transformer reliability performance in comparison to condition based schemes, allowing to reduce the interruptions and extending the life of the transformer.

  11. Support Schemes and Ownership Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ropenus, Stephanie; Schröder, Sascha Thorsten; Costa, Ana

    for promoting combined heat and power and energy from renewable sources. These Directives are to be implemented at the national level by the Member States. Section 3 conceptually presents the spectrum of national support schemes, ranging from investment support to market‐based operational support. The choice...... an introduction to the policy context for mCHP. Section 1 describes the rationale for the promotion of mCHP by explaining its potential contribution to European energy policy goals. Section 2 addresses the policy context at the supranational European level by outlining relevant EU Directives on support schemes......In recent years, fuel cell based micro‐combined heat and power has received increasing attention due to its potential contribution to energy savings, efficiency gains, customer proximity and flexibility in operation and capacity size. The FC4Home project assesses technical and economic aspects...

  12. Network Regulation and Support Schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ropenus, Stephanie; Schröder, Sascha Thorsten; Jacobsen, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    -in tariffs to market-based quota systems, and network regulation approaches, comprising rate-of-return and incentive regulation. National regulation and the vertical structure of the electricity sector shape the incentives of market agents, notably of distributed generators and network operators....... This article seeks to investigate the interactions between the policy dimensions of support schemes and network regulation and how they affect the deployment of distributed generation. Firstly, a conceptual analysis examines how the incentives of the different market agents are affected. In particular......At present, there exists no explicit European policy framework on distributed generation. Various Directives encompass distributed generation; inherently, their implementation is to the discretion of the Member States. The latter have adopted different kinds of support schemes, ranging from feed...

  13. Subranging scheme for SQUID sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penanen, Konstantin I. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A readout scheme for measuring the output from a SQUID-based sensor-array using an improved subranging architecture that includes multiple resolution channels (such as a coarse resolution channel and a fine resolution channel). The scheme employs a flux sensing circuit with a sensing coil connected in series to multiple input coils, each input coil being coupled to a corresponding SQUID detection circuit having a high-resolution SQUID device with independent linearizing feedback. A two-resolution configuration (course and fine) is illustrated with a primary SQUID detection circuit for generating a fine readout, and a secondary SQUID detection circuit for generating a course readout, both having feedback current coupled to the respective SQUID devices via feedback/modulation coils. The primary and secondary SQUID detection circuits function and derive independent feedback. Thus, the SQUID devices may be monitored independently of each other (and read simultaneously) to dramatically increase slew rates and dynamic range.

  14. Reported Pain and Fatigue Behaviors Mediate the Relationship Between Catastrophizing and Perceptions of Solicitousness in Patients With Chronic Fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Joan M; Molton, Ivan R; Alschuler, Kevin N; Jensen, Mark P; Schmaling, Karen B; Buchwald, Dedra S

    2016-03-01

    Catastrophizing is associated with negative outcomes in chronic pain and illness. The communal coping model (CCM) and cognitive behavioral (CB) formulations provide differing accounts of the function of catastrophizing in these contexts. In the present study we examined predictions from CCM and CB theoretical models in a sample of 116 patients with chronic fatigue to test (1) whether patient-reported solicitous responses from significant others mediate the relationship of catastrophizing with patient-reported pain and fatigue behaviors, as predicted by the CCM; and (2) whether pain and fatigue behaviors mediate the relationship of catastrophizing with solicitous responses, consistent with a CB model. This work is a secondary data analysis in which the strength of the indirect (i.e., mediating) effects among study variables was examined. Consistent with CB models, pain and fatigue behaviors were associated with catastrophizing and solicitous responses, and there was a significant indirect effect of catastrophizing on solicitous responses through pain and fatigue behaviors. Results were inconsistent with the CCM; catastrophizing was not significantly associated with solicitous responses, nor did solicitous responses mediate the relationship between catastrophizing and pain or fatigue behaviors. These findings highlight the importance of behavioral expressions of pain and fatigue in understanding the relationship of catastrophizing to solicitous responses in chronic fatigue. This study of chronic fatigue patients tested CB and CCMs of catastrophizing, pain, and fatigue behaviors, and solicitous responses by significant others. Results were more consistent with CB formulations, which highlighted the importance of behavioral expressions of pain and fatigue in understanding the relationship of catastrophizing to solicitous responses. Copyright © 2016 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Supporting Argumentation Schemes in Argumentative Dialogue Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wells Simon

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports preliminary work into the exploitation of argumentation schemes within dialogue games. We identify a property of dialogue games that we call “scheme awareness” that captures the relationship between dialogue game systems and argumentation schemes. Scheme awareness is used to examine the ways in which existing dialogue games utilise argumentation schemes and consequently the degree with which a dialogue game can be used to construct argument structures. The aim is to develop a set of guidelines for dialogue game design, which feed into a set of Dialogue Game Description Language (DGDL extensions in turn enabling dialogue games to better exploit argumentation schemes.

  16. An Arbitrated Quantum Signature Scheme without Entanglement*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui-Ran; Luo, Ming-Xing; Peng, Dai-Yuan; Wang, Xiao-Jun

    2017-09-01

    Several quantum signature schemes are recently proposed to realize secure signatures of quantum or classical messages. Arbitrated quantum signature as one nontrivial scheme has attracted great interests because of its usefulness and efficiency. Unfortunately, previous schemes cannot against Trojan horse attack and DoS attack and lack of the unforgeability and the non-repudiation. In this paper, we propose an improved arbitrated quantum signature to address these secure issues with the honesty arbitrator. Our scheme takes use of qubit states not entanglements. More importantly, the qubit scheme can achieve the unforgeability and the non-repudiation. Our scheme is also secure for other known quantum attacks.

  17. A biometric signcryption scheme without bilinear pairing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingwen; Ren, Zhiyuan; Cai, Jun; Zheng, Wentao

    2013-03-01

    How to apply the entropy in biometrics into the encryption and remote authentication schemes to simplify the management of keys is a hot research area. Utilizing Dodis's fuzzy extractor method and Liu's original signcryption scheme, a biometric identity based signcryption scheme is proposed in this paper. The proposed scheme is more efficient than most of the previous proposed biometric signcryption schemes for that it does not need bilinear pairing computation and modular exponentiation computation which is time consuming largely. The analysis results show that under the CDH and DL hard problem assumption, the proposed scheme has the features of confidentiality and unforgeability simultaneously.

  18. Annual Survey of Catastrophic Football Injuries, 1977-1983.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Frederick O.; Blyth, Carl S.

    Football injuries which resulted in permanent spinal cord injury are reported in this survey, part of a concerted effort by individuals and research organizations to reduce the steady increase of football head and neck injuries since the late 1950s. In addition to the reporting of injuries, this document describes steps taken to eliminate the…

  19. An Efficient Resource Allocation Scheme for VoIP Services in the IEEE 802.16e OFDMA System

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Jae-Woo

    In this letter, we propose an efficient resource allocation scheme that improves the system performance by reducing the signaling overhead for voice over Internet protocol (VoIP) services in the IEEE 802.16e OFDMA system. We theoretically analyze the performance of the proposed allocation scheme and carry out a computer simulation to evaluate the FA scheme.

  20. Proposal of dynamic protection/restoration schemes for QoS support in labeled optical burst switching networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yawei; Chi, Shuli; Shi, Jindan; Wu, Jian; Hong, Xiaobin; Lin, Jintong

    2008-11-01

    In this paper, two novel protection and restoration schemes were proposed by using the BC and BR schemes which were originally designed to reduce the bursts loss probability due to contention in OBS network. The 1+1 protection scheme in LOBS can be easily carried out using the MPLS 1+1 protection scheme in the 2.5 layer and burst cloning scheme in the OBS layer. By introducing some new OSPF-TE opaque LSA messages, the burst retransmission scheme can be transplanted into the restoration scheme in LOBS network. Furthermore, the dynamic quality of resilience mechanism to inherit these two schemes according to the QoS requirement of the traffic was also investigated. Experimental study using a LOBS network test bed verified that the proposed schemes suited well in the LOBS network.

  1. Factors affecting sustainability of rural water schemes in Swaziland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Graciana; Nkambule, Sizwe E.

    The Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target to reduce the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water by the year 2015 has been met as of 2010, but huge disparities exist. Some regions, particularly Sub-Saharan Africa are lagging behind it is also in this region where up to 30% of the rural schemes are not functional at any given time. There is need for more studies on factors affecting sustainability and necessary measures which when implemented will improve the sustainability of rural water schemes. The main objective of this study was to assess the main factors affecting the sustainability of rural water schemes in Swaziland using a Multi-Criteria Analysis Approach. The main factors considered were: financial, social, technical, environmental and institutional. The study was done in Lubombo region. Fifteen functional water schemes in 11 communities were studied. Data was collected using questionnaires, checklist and focused group discussion guide. A total of 174 heads of households were interviewed. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to analyse the data and to calculate sustainability scores for water schemes. SPSS was also used to classify sustainability scores according to sustainability categories: sustainable, partially sustainable and non-sustainable. The averages of the ratings for the different sub-factors studied and the results on the sustainability scores for the sustainable, partially sustainable and non-sustainable schemes were then computed and compared to establish the main factors influencing sustainability of the water schemes. The results indicated technical and social factors as most critical while financial and institutional, although important, played a lesser role. Factors which contributed to the sustainability of water schemes were: functionality; design flow; water fetching time; ability to meet additional demand; use by population; equity; participation in decision making on operation and

  2. Privacy protection schemes for fingerprint recognition systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marasco, Emanuela; Cukic, Bojan

    2015-05-01

    The deployment of fingerprint recognition systems has always raised concerns related to personal privacy. A fingerprint is permanently associated with an individual and, generally, it cannot be reset if compromised in one application. Given that fingerprints are not a secret, potential misuses besides personal recognition represent privacy threats and may lead to public distrust. Privacy mechanisms control access to personal information and limit the likelihood of intrusions. In this paper, image- and feature-level schemes for privacy protection in fingerprint recognition systems are reviewed. Storing only key features of a biometric signature can reduce the likelihood of biometric data being used for unintended purposes. In biometric cryptosystems and biometric-based key release, the biometric component verifies the identity of the user, while the cryptographic key protects the communication channel. Transformation-based approaches only a transformed version of the original biometric signature is stored. Different applications can use different transforms. Matching is performed in the transformed domain which enable the preservation of low error rates. Since such templates do not reveal information about individuals, they are referred to as cancelable templates. A compromised template can be re-issued using a different transform. At image-level, de-identification schemes can remove identifiers disclosed for objectives unrelated to the original purpose, while permitting other authorized uses of personal information. Fingerprint images can be de-identified by, for example, mixing fingerprints or removing gender signature. In both cases, degradation of matching performance is minimized.

  3. Socioeconomic status and catastrophic health expenditure evaluation in IR Iran: A comparative study in 2004 and 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Davari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health equity is a main principle of all healthcare systems in the world. Family Physician (FP program, as a health sector reform (HSR in Iran, was executed to reduce households’ health care cost and to achieve health equity in 2004. Meanwhile, catastrophic health expenditure is known as an accepted indicator in HSR evaluation. In this context, after determining and comparing socioeconomic status (SES among different periods, we made an attempt to evaluate households’ health financial protection in different quintiles after implementation of FP program.  Methods: The current cross-sectional study was based on the data obtained from Household Income and Expenditure Survey in 2004 and 2011. The health expenditures, catastrophic health expenditure (CHE, and SES were determined by this data during these years. Descriptive analyses and comparisons using Chi-squared test were carried out via SPSS, version 20.  Results: A total of 1716 households were included in the survey during 2004 and 2011. The highest proportion of households was related to quintiles very poor and poor with respect to each year. Moreover, it was observed that SES in 2011 had the worse situation compared to that in 2004; this situation was worse in urban areas. In the present study, CHE is related to poorer quintiles, and in rural areas no household was faced with CHE in 2011.  Conclusions: Implementation of FP program in rural areas with more primary care has prevented hospitalization. This was considerable for poorer quintiles and has led to financial protection for rural households.

  4. Can the financialized atmosphere be effectively regulated? A critical analysis of the proposed Australian carbon pollution reduction scheme as a complex market solution to global warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Windsor, C. [Bond Univ. (Australia); McNicholas, P. [Monash Univ. (Australia)

    2009-07-01

    A large body of scientific evidence indicates that global warming from human induced greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions is producing harmful climate change that will lead to global environmental and economic catastrophe within 10 years. The threat of human induced global warming has been on the international and public policy agenda for several years; for example on 11 December 1998, government representatives of 108 countries signed the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) an international agreement to reduce global warming or the Kyoto Protocol, with the then exception of the Australian and the United States (U.S.) governments. International action on GHG emissions reduction was thwarted by U.S. and Australian goverments. The then Australian government (1996-2007) surreptitiously funding by vested interests such as the coal industry, had no intention to act even though scientific evidence reported that Australia had begun to experience the detrimental effects of global warming. To fulfil an electoral promise, the center left Labor government signed the Kyoto Protocol on 3 December 2007. To deal with the global warming crisis, the Australian government has proposed an emissions trading scheme now officially called the 'Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme' or CPRS. The proposed scheme is a cap and trade market mechanism that purportedly encourages businesses to operate more efficiently, thus reducing GHG emissions through price signalling in a government instigated market. Hence credible, transparent and efficient information underpins such a market in a post-Keynes deregulated world. The purpose of this paper is to critically examine the integrity of using current financial and reporting regulation that will oversee and monitor the veracity of newly commoditized carbon financial products, particularly since the global financial crisis has exposed significant financial regulatory weaknesses. Further we contend that current corporate

  5. Acute low back pain: pain-related fear and pain catastrophizing influence physical performance and perceived disability.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swinkels-Meewisse, I.E.; Roelofs, J.; Oostendorp, R.A.B.; Verbeek, A.L.M.; Vlaeyen, J.W.S.

    2006-01-01

    Pain-related fear and pain catastrophizing are associated with disability and actual performance in chronic pain patients. In acute low back pain (LBP), little is known about the prediction of actual performance or perceived disability by pain-related fear and pain catastrophizing. This

  6. Disentangling phase transitions and critical points in the proton–neutron interacting boson model by catastrophe theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Ramos, J.E., E-mail: enrique.ramos@dfaie.uhu.es [Departamento de Física Aplicada, Universidad de Huelva, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Unidad Asociada de la Universidad de Huelva al IEM (CSIC), Madrid (Spain); Arias, J.M., E-mail: ariasc@us.es [Departamento de Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Sevilla, Apdo 1065, 41080 Sevilla (Spain); Unidad Asociada de la Universidad de Sevilla al IEM (CSIC), Madrid (Spain); Dukelsky, J., E-mail: dukelsky@iem.cfmac.csic.es [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, Serrano 123, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-09-07

    We introduce the basic concepts of catastrophe theory needed to derive analytically the phase diagram of the proton–neutron interacting boson model (IBM-2). Previous studies [1–3] were based on numerical solutions. We here explain the whole IBM-2 phase diagram including the precise order of the phase transitions in terms of the cusp catastrophe.

  7. METAPHORIC MECHANISMS IN IMAGE SCHEME DEVELOPMENT

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pankratova, S.A

    2017-01-01

    .... In the summary the author underscores that both ways of image scheme development are of importance to cognitive science, both heuristic epiphora and image-based diaphora play a significant role in the explication of image scheme development.

  8. Collapsed Shape of Shallow Unlined Tunnels Based on Functional Catastrophe Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengping Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the collapse mechanisms and possible collapsing block shapes of shallow unlined tunnels under conditions of plane strain. The analysis is performed following the framework from a branch of catastrophe theory, functional catastrophe theory. First, the basic principles of functional catastrophe theory are introduced. Then, an analytical solution for the shape curve of the collapsing block of a shallow unlined tunnel is derived using functional catastrophe theory based on the nonlinear Hoek-Brown failure criterion. The effects of the rock mass parameters of the proposed method on the shape and weight of the collapsing block are examined. Moreover, a critical cover depth expression to classify deep and shallow tunnels is proposed. The analytical results are consistent with those obtained by numerical simulation using the particle flow code, demonstrating the validity of the proposed analytical method. The obtained formulas can be used to predict the height and width of the collapsing block of a shallow unlined tunnel and to provide a direct estimate of the overburden on the tunnel lining. The obtained formulas can be easily used by tunnel engineers and researchers due to their simplicity.

  9. Stochastic simulation of catastrophic hail and windstorm indemnities in the Dutch greenhouse sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asseldonk, van M.A.P.M.; Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2001-01-01

    A risk analysis was performed to examine the effect of changes in the Dutch greenhouse sector on the probability of occurrence and magnitude of indemnities induced by catastrophic natural hazards. Analyzed historical indemnities, which included direct and consequential losses resulting from severe

  10. Pedagogy in Catastrophic Times: Giroux and the Tasks of Critical Public Intellectuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Doug

    2012-01-01

    This article reflects on Henry Giroux's work as a critical public intellectual and the important role his work plays in fostering educated hope and insurgent possibilities during our present times of daily and longer term catastrophes. In addition to attempting to capture the experience of what it means and how it feels to read Giroux along with…

  11. Identification of victims of catastrophes: introduction to the role of forensic odontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndiokwelu, E; Miquel, J L; Coudert, N

    2003-12-01

    There are many ways of identifying victims of catastrophes but in disasters where most soft tissue has been lost, the hard tissues of teeth can be used. This article describes the important role that forensic odontology can play in these cases. This role has not been recognised in most countries, particularly developing countries, where forensic odontology has been restricted to legal affairs.

  12. Metallicity at interphase boundaries due to polar catastrophe induced by charge density discontinuity

    KAUST Repository

    Albar, Arwa

    2018-02-09

    The electronic properties of interphase boundaries are of basic importance for most materials, particularly when those properties deviate strongly from the bulk behavior. We introduce a mechanism that can result in metallicity at stoichiometric interphase boundaries between semiconductors based on the idea of polar catastrophe, which is usually considered only in the context of heterostructures. To this end, we perform ab initio calculations within density functional theory to investigate the electronic states at stoichiometric SnO/SnO2 (110) interphase boundaries. In this system, one would not expect polar catastrophe to have a role according to state-of-the-art theory because the interface lacks formal charge discontinuity. However, we observe the formation of a hole gas between the semiconductors SnO and SnO2. To explain these findings, we provide a generalized theory based on the idea that the charge density discontinuity between SnO and SnO2, a consequence of lattice mismatch, drives a polar catastrophe scenario. As a result, SnO/SnO2 (110) interphase boundaries can develop metallicity depending on the grain size. The concept of metallicity due to polar catastrophe induced by charge density discontinuity is of general validity and applies to many interphase boundaries with lattice mismatch.

  13. Perceptions of Challenge: The Role of Catastrophe Theory in Piano Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugos, Jennifer; Lee, William

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the perceptions of private piano instructors on the role of challenge in teaching and learning the piano and to examine the potential application of catastrophe theory in understanding the role and outcomes of such challenges. A 23-item electronic questionnaire was administered to collect quantitative and…

  14. Forest inventory, catastrophic events and historic geospatial assessments in the south

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis M. Jacobs

    2007-01-01

    Catastrophic events are a regular occurrence of disturbance to forestland in the Southern United States. Each major event affects the integrity of the forest inventory database developed and maintained by the Forest Inventory & Analysis Research Work Unit of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. Some of these major disturbances through the years have...

  15. Modeling demand for catastrophic flood risk insurance in Vietnam using choice experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, R.; Bui, T.; Tuan, T.; Magnussen, K.; Navrud, S.

    2014-01-01

    In a choice experiment, households in Vietnam are offered flood insurance to mitigate increasing catastrophic flood risks due to climate change. Participants are asked to choose their most preferred insurance policy given expected future flood and mortality risks, insurance cover and associated

  16. Catastrophic Misinterpretations as a Predictor of Symptom Change during Treatment for Panic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teachman, Bethany A.; Marker, Craig D.; Clerkin, Elise M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Cognitive models of panic disorder suggest that change in catastrophic misinterpretations of bodily sensations will predict symptom reduction. To examine change processes, we used a repeated measures design to evaluate whether the trajectory of change in misinterpretations over the course of 12-week cognitive behavior therapy is related…

  17. Physical limits of semiconductor laser operation: A time-resolved analysis of catastrophic optical damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziegler, Mathias; Hempel, Martin; Larsen, Henning Engelbrecht

    2010-01-01

    The early stages of catastrophic optical damage (COD) in 808 nm emitting diode lasers are mapped by simultaneously monitoring the optical emission with a 1 ns time resolution and deriving the device temperature from thermal images. COD occurs in highly localized damage regions on a 30 to 400 ns t...

  18. Catastrophic optical mirror damage in diode lasers monitored during single-pulse operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zegler, M.; Tomm, J.W.; Reeber, D.

    2009-01-01

    Catastrophic optical mirror damage (COMD) is analyzed for 808 nm emitting diode lasers in single-pulse operation in order to separate facet degradation from subsequent degradation processes. During each pulse, nearfield and thermal images are monitored. A temporal resolution better than 7 µs...

  19. Penetration of n-hexadecane and water into wood under conditions simulating catastrophic floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganna Baglayeva; Wayne S. Seames; Charles R. Frihart; Jane O' Dell; Evguenii I. Kozliak

    2017-01-01

    To simulate fuel oil spills occurring during catastrophic floods, short-term absorption of two chemicals, n-hexadecane (representative of semivolatile organic compounds in fuel oil) and water, into southern yellow pine was gravimetrically monitored as a function of time at ambient conditions. Different scenarios were run on the basis of (1) the...

  20. Insights into Participants' Behaviours in Educational Games, Simulations and Workshops: A Catastrophe Theory Application to Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryer, Patricia

    1988-01-01

    Develops models for participants' behaviors in games, simulations, and workshops based on Catastrophe Theory and Herzberg's two-factor theory of motivation. Examples are given of how these models can be used, both for describing and understanding the behaviors of individuals, and for eliciting insights into why participants behave as they do. (11…

  1. 78 FR 72576 - Criteria for a Catastrophically Disabled Determination for Purposes of Enrollment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-03

    ... considered catastrophically disabled would increase in the coming years as veterans return from the war in... Alcohol and Drug Dependence; and 64.022, Veterans Home Based Primary Care. Signing Authority The Secretary... Administrative practice and procedure, Alcohol abuse, Alcoholism, Day care, Dental health, Drug abuse, Health...

  2. The Development and Psychometric Validation of an Arabic-Language Version of the Pain Catastrophizing Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huijer, Huda Abu-Saad; Fares, Souha; French, Douglas J

    2017-01-01

    Context. The Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS) is the most widely used measure of pain-specific catastrophizing. Objectives. The purpose of the present study was to develop and psychometrically evaluate an Arabic-language version of the PCS. Methods. In Study 1, 150 adult chronic nonmalignant pain patients seeking treatment at a hospital setting completed the PCS-A and a number of self-report measures assessing clinical parameters of pain, symptoms of depression, and quality of life. Study 2 employed a cold pressor pain task to examine the PCS-A in a sample of 44 healthy university students. Results. Exploratory factor analyses suggested a two-factor structure. Confirmatory factor analysis comparing the 2-factor model, Sullivan's original 3-factor model, and a 1-factor model based on the total score all provided adequate fit to the data. Cronbach's alpha coefficients across all models met or exceeded accepted standards of reliability. Catastrophizing was associated with higher levels of depression and increased pain intensity and interference. Catastrophizing predicted decreased quality of life, even after controlling for the contribution of gender, employment, depression, and pain interference. PCS-A scores were positively correlated with heightened experimental pain severity and decreased pain tolerance. Conclusion. The present results provide strong support for the psychometric properties of the PCS-A.

  3. The Development and Psychometric Validation of an Arabic-Language Version of the Pain Catastrophizing Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huda Abu-Saad Huijer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context. The Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS is the most widely used measure of pain-specific catastrophizing. Objectives. The purpose of the present study was to develop and psychometrically evaluate an Arabic-language version of the PCS. Methods. In Study 1, 150 adult chronic nonmalignant pain patients seeking treatment at a hospital setting completed the PCS-A and a number of self-report measures assessing clinical parameters of pain, symptoms of depression, and quality of life. Study 2 employed a cold pressor pain task to examine the PCS-A in a sample of 44 healthy university students. Results. Exploratory factor analyses suggested a two-factor structure. Confirmatory factor analysis comparing the 2-factor model, Sullivan’s original 3-factor model, and a 1-factor model based on the total score all provided adequate fit to the data. Cronbach’s alpha coefficients across all models met or exceeded accepted standards of reliability. Catastrophizing was associated with higher levels of depression and increased pain intensity and interference. Catastrophizing predicted decreased quality of life, even after controlling for the contribution of gender, employment, depression, and pain interference. PCS-A scores were positively correlated with heightened experimental pain severity and decreased pain tolerance. Conclusion. The present results provide strong support for the psychometric properties of the PCS-A.

  4. Nonlinear Analysis on Traffic Flow Based on Catastrophe and Chaos Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Gu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We applied catastrophe and chaos theory to analyze the traffic nonlinear characteristics of expressway condition. Catastrophe theory was generally used to explore the mathematical relationships among the traffic data collected from highway conditions, which could not be appropriate for the urban expressway conditions. Traffic flow data collected from the 3rd ring road expressway in Beijing was used to build flow-density model and speed-density Greenshields model. Then the density was discussed based on the traffic wave speed function with cusp catastrophe theory; in particular, density conditions on median lanes and shoulder lanes were deeply discussed. Meanwhile the chaotic characteristics were analyzed based on the traffic temporal sequence data collected from 29 detectors located at the 3rd ring road expressway, and C-C method was used to reconstruct the phase space and the largest Lyapunov exponents were estimated by Wolf method and the small data sets method. The results indicated that the traffic operation catastrophe density on the median lanes was a bit higher than that on the shoulder lanes; additionally chaotic characteristics obviously existed in the local corridor composed of 29 detectors in the 3rd ring road expressway traffic flow system.

  5. Well below 2 °C: Mitigation strategies for avoiding dangerous to catastrophic climate changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yangyang; Ramanathan, Veerabhadran

    2017-01-01

    The historic Paris Agreement calls for limiting global temperature rise to “well below 2 °C.” Because of uncertainties in emission scenarios, climate, and carbon cycle feedback, we interpret the Paris Agreement in terms of three climate risk categories and bring in considerations of low-probability (5%) high-impact (LPHI) warming in addition to the central (∼50% probability) value. The current risk category of dangerous warming is extended to more categories, which are defined by us here as follows: >1.5 °C as dangerous; >3 °C as catastrophic; and >5 °C as unknown, implying beyond catastrophic, including existential threats. With unchecked emissions, the central warming can reach the dangerous level within three decades, with the LPHI warming becoming catastrophic by 2050. We outline a three-lever strategy to limit the central warming below the dangerous level and the LPHI below the catastrophic level, both in the near term (warming below dangerous levels. To limit the LPHI warming below dangerous levels, the CES lever must be pulled as well to extract as much as 1 trillion tons of CO2 before 2100 to both limit the preindustrial to 2100 cumulative net CO2 emissions to 2.2 trillion tons and bend the warming curve to a cooling trend. PMID:28912354

  6. A Call to Action: Responding to Large-Scale Disasters, Catastrophes, and Traumas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parham, William D.

    2011-01-01

    The ascendance of large-scale disasters, catastrophes, and traumas as a concentrated focus of academic inquiry in counseling psychology is timely, and this special issue and subsequent investigations represent welcome areas of scholarship. The observations and comments herein salute the authors for responding to a post-Katrina discovery by…

  7. Pain catastrophizing is associated with dental pain in a stressful context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C-S; Niddam, D M; Hsu, M-L; Hsieh, J-C

    2013-02-01

    Pain is associated with anxiety in a dental setting. It has remained unclear how cognitive-affective factors modulate pain and anxiety in a stressful context, such as receiving dental procedures. We hypothesized that both the situational factor (unpredictability about painful stimuli) and the trait factor (pain catastrophizing, i.e., the tendency to interpret pain in negative orientation) account for dental pain. Fifteen healthy participants were recruited to perform an associative learning task. They were asked to learn the pairing between visual cues and the intensity of incoming painful stimuli delivered at the right upper central incisor. Brain activation associated with pain was recorded by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The participants reported increased anxiety and pain in the stressful context, where stimuli intensity was not predicted by the preceding cue. The score of the Pain Catastrophizing Scale was positively correlated with the increased pain modulated by unpredictability. Brain activation at the right posterior hippocampus, a region critically related to associative learning of aversive stimuli and context, was correlated with the individual catastrophizing level. Our findings suggest that both the situational factor (unpredictability) and the trait factor (catastrophizing) influence dental pain, highlighting the role of cognitive-affective factors in pain control of dental patients.

  8. A Primer on a Domestic Catastrophic Disaster Response for the Joint Logistics Enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-30

    COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE (U) A Primer on a Domestic Catastrophic Disaster Response 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER N00014-16-D-5003 for the...3  National Response Framework and the Post -Katrina Emergency...level responses to local incidents, all disaster responses begin and end at the local level. National Response Framework and the Post - Katrina Emergency

  9. The Ubiquity of Smooth Hilbert Schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Staal, Andrew P.

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the geography of Hilbert schemes that parametrize closed subschemes of projective space with a specified Hilbert polynomial. We classify Hilbert schemes with unique Borel-fixed points via combinatorial expressions for their Hilbert polynomials. We realize the set of all nonempty Hilbert schemes as a probability space and prove that Hilbert schemes are irreducible and nonsingular with probability greater than $0.5$.

  10. MIRD radionuclide data and decay schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Eckerman, Keith F

    2007-01-01

    For all physicians, scientists, and physicists working in the nuclear medicine field, the MIRD: Radionuclide Data and Decay Schemes updated edition is an essential sourcebook for radiation dosimetry and understanding the properties of radionuclides. Includes CD Table of Contents Decay schemes listed by atomic number Radioactive decay processes Serial decay schemes Decay schemes and decay tables This essential reference for nuclear medicine physicians, scientists and physicists also includes a CD with tabulations of the radionuclide data necessary for dosimetry calculations.

  11. Catastrophic injury in rugby union: is the level of risk acceptable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Colin W

    2008-01-01

    Rugby union is a full contact sport with a relatively high overall risk of injury and a small specific risk of fatal and catastrophic spinal injury. Although catastrophic injuries in rugby union cause public concern and generate strong emotive reactions, the magnitude of society's concern about this type of injury is often dominated by people's perceptions rather than by actual levels of risk. This article assesses published values for the risk of catastrophic injuries in rugby union, evaluates these against the risk standards of the UK Health and Safety Executive (HSE) and compares the values with the risks associated with other common sport and non-sport activities. The assessment showed that the risks of sustaining a catastrophic injury in rugby union in England (0.8/100,000 per year), Ireland (0.9/100,000 per year) and Argentina (1.9/100,000 per year) were within the HSE's 'acceptable' region of risk (0.1-2/100,000 per year), whilst the risks in New Zealand (4.2/100,000 per year), Australia (4.4/100,000 per year) and Fiji (13/100,000 per year) were within the 'tolerable' region of risk (2-100/100,000 per year). The risk of sustaining a catastrophic injury in rugby union was generally lower than or comparable with the levels reported for a wide range of other collision sports, such as ice hockey (4/100,000 per year), rugby league (2/100,000 per year) and American Football (2/100,000 per year). In addition, the risk of catastrophic injury in rugby union was comparable with that experienced by most people in work-based situations and lower than that experienced by motorcyclists, pedestrians and car occupants. Whilst ranking risks provides an effective way of assessing their acceptability, it is recognized that representing risks by a single risk value can be misleading, as account must also be taken of the public's perception of the risks and the inherent differences in the types of risk being considered. However, an acceptable level of risk is often regarded as

  12. Attentional strategy moderates effects of pain catastrophizing on symptom-specific physiological responses in chronic low back pain patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quartana, Phillip J; Burns, John W; Lofland, Kenneth R

    2007-06-01

    In the present study, we examined whether experimentally-manipulated attentional strategies moderated relations between pain catastrophizing and symptom-specific physiological responses to a cold-pressor task among sixty-eight chronic low back patients. Patients completed measures of pain catastrophizing and depression, and were randomly assigned to sensory focus, distraction or suppression conditions during a cold pressor. Lumbar paraspinal and trapezius EMG, and cardiovascular responses to the cold pressor were assessed. Attentional strategies moderated the relation between pain catastrophizing and lumbar paraspinal muscle, but not trapezius muscle or cardiovascular responses. Only for participants in the suppression condition was catastrophizing related significantly to lumbar paraspinal muscle responses. Depressed affect did not account for this relation. These findings indicate that 'symptom-specific' responses among pain catastrophizers with chronic low back depend on how they attend to pain-related information. Specifically, it appears that efforts to suppress awareness of pain exaggerate muscular responses near the site of injury.

  13. Efficient Conservative Reformulation Schemes for Lithium Intercalation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urisanga, PC; Rife, D; De, S; Subramanian, VR

    2015-02-18

    Porous electrode theory coupled with transport and reaction mechanisms is a widely used technique to model Li-ion batteries employing an appropriate discretization or approximation for solid phase diffusion with electrode particles. One of the major difficulties in simulating Li-ion battery models is the need to account for solid phase diffusion in a second radial dimension r, which increases the computation time/cost to a great extent. Various methods that reduce the computational cost have been introduced to treat this phenomenon, but most of them do not guarantee mass conservation. The aim of this paper is to introduce an inherently mass conserving yet computationally efficient method for solid phase diffusion based on Lobatto III A quadrature. This paper also presents coupling of the new solid phase reformulation scheme with a macro-homogeneous porous electrode theory based pseudo 20 model for Li-ion battery. (C) The Author(s) 2015. Published by ECS. All rights reserved.

  14. THROUGHPUT ANALYSIS OF EXTENDED ARQ SCHEMES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PUBLICATIONS1

    and Wait (SW), Selective Repeat (SR), Stutter. (ST) and Go-Back-N (GBN) (Lin and Costello,. 2003). Combinations of these schemes lead to mixed mode schemes which include the SR-. GBN, SR-ST1 and SR-ST2. In the mixed mode schemes, when a prescribed number of failures occur in the SR mode, the GBN or ST ...

  15. Cost-prioritized droop schemes for autonomous microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nutkani, Inam Ullah; Loh, Poh Chiang; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2013-01-01

    Droop schemes for parallel source control usually aims for proportional power sharing tuned in accordance to the source ratings. This works fine for sources with close similarity, but not really for an autonomous microgrid where different types of Distributed Generators (DGs) may be present without...... centralized optimal dispatch control. To better adapt to this non-uniformity, an alternative viewpoint based on reducing the Total Generation Cost (TGC including fuel cost, emission penalty and other operational concerns) of the microgrid is discussed, from which two new cost-prioritized droop schemes...

  16. A COMPLETE SCHEME FOR IONIZATION COOLING FOR A MUON COLLIDER.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PALMER,R.B.; BERG, J.S.; FERNOW, R.C.; GALLARDO, J.C.; KIRK, H.G.; ALEXAHIN, Y.; NEUFFER, D.; KAHN, S.A.; SUMMERS, D.

    2007-06-25

    A complete scheme for production and cooling a muon beam for three specified muon colliders is presented. Parameters for these muon colliders are given. The scheme starts with the front end of a proposed neutrino factory that yields bunch trains of both muon signs. Emittance exchange cooling in slow helical lattices reduces the longitudinal emittance until it becomes possible to merge the trains into single bunches, one of each sign. Further cooling in all dimensions is applied to the single bunches in further slow helical lattices. Final transverse cooling to the required parameters is achieved in 50 T solenoids using high TC superconductor at 4 K. Preliminary simulations of each element are presented.

  17. Reconstructing local population dynamics in noisy metapopulations--the role of random catastrophes and Allee effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmund M Hart

    Full Text Available Reconstructing the dynamics of populations is complicated by the different types of stochasticity experienced by populations, in particular if some forms of stochasticity introduce bias in parameter estimation in addition to error. Identification of systematic biases is critical when determining whether the intrinsic dynamics of populations are stable or unstable and whether or not populations exhibit an Allee effect, i.e., a minimum size below which deterministic extinction should follow. Using a simulation model that allows for Allee effects and a range of intrinsic dynamics, we investigated how three types of stochasticity--demographic, environmental, and random catastrophes--affect our ability to reconstruct the intrinsic dynamics of populations. Demographic stochasticity aside, which is only problematic in small populations, we find that environmental stochasticity--positive and negative environmental fluctuations--caused increased error in parameter estimation, but bias was rarely problematic, except at the highest levels of noise. Random catastrophes, events causing large-scale mortality and likely to be more common than usually recognized, caused immediate bias in parameter estimates, in particular when Allee effects were large. In the latter case, population stability was predicted when endogenous dynamics were actually unstable and the minimum viable population size was overestimated in populations with small or non-existent Allee effects. Catastrophes also generally increased extinction risk, in particular when endogenous Allee effects were large. We propose a method for identifying data points likely resulting from catastrophic events when such events have not been recorded. Using social spider colonies (Anelosimus spp. as models for populations, we show that after known or suspected catastrophes are accounted for, reconstructed growth parameters are consistent with intrinsic dynamical instability and substantial Allee effects. Our

  18. Reconstructing local population dynamics in noisy metapopulations--the role of random catastrophes and Allee effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Edmund M; Avilés, Leticia

    2014-01-01

    Reconstructing the dynamics of populations is complicated by the different types of stochasticity experienced by populations, in particular if some forms of stochasticity introduce bias in parameter estimation in addition to error. Identification of systematic biases is critical when determining whether the intrinsic dynamics of populations are stable or unstable and whether or not populations exhibit an Allee effect, i.e., a minimum size below which deterministic extinction should follow. Using a simulation model that allows for Allee effects and a range of intrinsic dynamics, we investigated how three types of stochasticity--demographic, environmental, and random catastrophes--affect our ability to reconstruct the intrinsic dynamics of populations. Demographic stochasticity aside, which is only problematic in small populations, we find that environmental stochasticity--positive and negative environmental fluctuations--caused increased error in parameter estimation, but bias was rarely problematic, except at the highest levels of noise. Random catastrophes, events causing large-scale mortality and likely to be more common than usually recognized, caused immediate bias in parameter estimates, in particular when Allee effects were large. In the latter case, population stability was predicted when endogenous dynamics were actually unstable and the minimum viable population size was overestimated in populations with small or non-existent Allee effects. Catastrophes also generally increased extinction risk, in particular when endogenous Allee effects were large. We propose a method for identifying data points likely resulting from catastrophic events when such events have not been recorded. Using social spider colonies (Anelosimus spp.) as models for populations, we show that after known or suspected catastrophes are accounted for, reconstructed growth parameters are consistent with intrinsic dynamical instability and substantial Allee effects. Our results are

  19. Catastrophic cervical spine injuries in high school and college football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Barry P; Tacchetti, Robin L; Cantu, Robert C; Knowles, Sarah B; Mueller, Frederick O

    2006-08-01

    Catastrophic cervical spine injuries in football are rare but tragic events. To update the incidence of catastrophic cervical injuries in scholastic football players and identify new injury patterns. Descriptive epidemiology study. The authors retrospectively reviewed 196 incidents of catastrophic high school and collegiate football injuries reported to the National Center for Catastrophic Sports Injury Research during 13 academic years (September 1989 through June 2002). There were 15.08 direct catastrophic cervical spine injuries in scholastic football participants per year, an incidence of 1.10 and 4.72 injuries per 100 000 high school and 100 000 college participants, respectively. Seventy-six athletes had quadriplegia (5.85 per year), 0.50 per 100 000 high school players and 0.82 per 100 000 college players. Spear tackling by players on defense continued to be the predominant mechanism of injury causing quadriplegia. Five athletes had a Brown-Séquard-like syndrome; only 1 made a full recovery. One athlete with Brown-Séquard-like syndrome and permanent neurologic symptoms reported a cervical cord neurapraxia event before the study period. Forty-three athletes (3.31 per year) had diagnosed cervical cord neurapraxia. In addition to hyperflexion and hyperextension injuries, axial forces were found to cause cervical cord neurapraxia. Sixteen of the 43 athletes returned to football after a cervical cord neurapraxia episode, and none of the 16 suffered a permanent quadriplegic event. Nine athletes sustained an isolated injury at the C1 or C2 level, and 7 sustained a combined injury at the C1, or C2 level and at a subaxial level. The total number of quadriplegic events for high school and college football players is approximately 6 per year, with a higher incidence at the college level. Cervical cord neurapraxia can be caused by hyperflexion, hyperextension, and axial compression forces. Upper level cervical injuries involving the atlas and axis can occur in

  20. Predictive capacity of pain beliefs and catastrophizing in Whiplash Associated Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostick, Geoff P; Carroll, Linda J; Brown, Cary A; Harley, Dwight; Gross, Douglas P

    2013-11-01

    Beliefs about pain are known to be important factors in recovery, most notably in LBP. Relatively less is known about the role of pain beliefs in Whiplash Associated Disorder (WAD). The widely advocated cognitive-behavioural approach to pain management necessitates cognitive factors such as pain beliefs be examined, even early after injury. The primary purpose of this study was to explore the predictive capacity of early post-injury pain beliefs and catastrophizing in patients with WAD. Patients (n=72) undergoing treatment for acute WAD in physical therapy and chiropractic clinics were invited to participate in the study. Research participants were asked to complete measures of beliefs (Survey of Pain Attitudes (SOPA) and Pain Beliefs and Perception Inventory (PBPI)) and catastrophizing (Pain Catastrophizing Scale) at baseline (within 6 weeks of injury), and 3 and 6 months post-injury. In addition, pain severity and self-reported disability using the Whiplash Disability Questionnaire (WDQ) were recorded at each measurement occasion. Baseline belief and catastrophizing scores were examined for their relationship with future pain and disability using multiple linear regression. Expectancy beliefs (PBPI Permanence and SOPA Medical Cure) were negatively correlated with pain intensity at 6-months and uniquely accounted for 16% and 14% of explained variance, respectively, after controlling for baseline pain intensity, age, sex and history of WAD. Consistent with previous research, catastrophizing was also found to be predictive of future pain. The amount of unique variance explained by beliefs in the prediction of future disability was modest after controlling for baseline disability, age, sex and history of WAD. These results suggest that expectancy beliefs are potentially important constructs to include in future explanatory prognosis studies. The Medical Cure and Permanence subscales of the SOPA and PBPI are tools that could be used to measure these expectancy

  1. Repositioning error, pressure pain threshold, catastrophizing and anxiety in adolescents with chronic idiopathic neck pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá, Sofia; Silva, Anabela G

    2017-08-01

    Impaired proprioception, increased pain sensitivity, higher levels of anxiety and catastrophizing are present in adults with chronic idiopathic neck pain. Despite the high prevalence of neck pain, studies in adolescents are scarce. The main aim was to compare pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) and joint repositioning error (JRE) between adolescents with chronic idiopathic neck pain and adolescents without neck pain. Secondary aims were to compare these groups for catastrophizing and anxiety and to investigate the association between PPTs, JRE and psychosocial variables and pain characteristics. 80 adolescents (40 with and 40 without chronic neck pain) were assessed for: neck repositioning error, neck, upper trapezius and tibialis anterior PPTs, anxiety and catastrophizing. Neck pain was characterized in terms of intensity, frequency, duration and associated disability. MANCOVA was used for between group comparisons and Pearson and Spearman coefficients for correlational analysis. Adolescents with neck pain showed higher levels of catastrophizing (p < 0.001) and anxiety (trait: p < 0.001; state: p = 0.028), lower PPTs (p < 0.001) and higher JRE (p < 0.001) than asymptomatic controls. Pain intensity, frequency and duration were moderately correlated with anxiety, and disability was moderately correlated with anxiety (r between 0.43 and 0.50, p < 0.05) and catastrophizing (r = 0.40, p < 0.05). This study suggests that functional changes and maladaptive cognitive processes are present in adolescents with neck pain aged 16-18 years old. These findings need to be replicated in future studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Effect of Pain Catastrophizing on Outcomes: A Developmental Perspective Across Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults With Chronic Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Amanda B; Sturgeon, John A; Darnall, Beth D; Dunn, Ashley L; Rico, Tom; Kao, Ming C; Bhandari, Rashmi P

    2017-02-01

    Pain catastrophizing is one of the most powerful predictors of poor outcomes in youth and adults with pain; however, little is known about differential effects of pain catastrophizing on outcomes as a function of age. The current study examined the predictive value of pain catastrophizing on pain interference and pain intensity across children, adolescents, and 2 age groups of young adults with chronic pain. Cross-sectional data are presented from the adult and pediatric Collaborative Health Outcomes Information Registry (CHOIR), including measures of pain catastrophizing, pain intensity, pain interference, and emotional distress from 1,028 individuals with chronic pain. Results revealed that age moderated the relation between pain catastrophizing and pain interference, with the strength of these effects declining with age. The effect of pain catastrophizing on pain interference was strongest in adolescents and relatively weak in all 3 other groups. Emotional distress was the strongest predictor of pain interference for children, whereas pain intensity was the strongest predictor for both adult groups. Pain catastrophizing was found to predict pain intensity and, although age was a significant moderator, statistical findings were weak. Developmental considerations and clinical implications regarding the utility of the construct of pain catastrophizing across age groups are discussed. This article explores differences in pain catastrophizing as predictors of pain interference and pain intensity across cohorts of children, adolescents, and 2 age groups of young adults. This work may stimulate further research on chronic pain from a developmental perceptive and inform developmentally tailored treatment interventions that target catastrophizing, emotional distress, and pain intensity. Copyright © 2016 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The Original Management Incentive Schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Richard T. Holden

    2005-01-01

    During the 1990s, the structure of pay for top corporate executives shifted markedly as the use of stock options greatly expanded. By the early 2000s, as the dot-com boom ended and the Nasdaq stock index melted down, these modern executive incentive schemes were being sharply questioned on many grounds—for encouraging excessive risk-taking and a short-run orientation, for being an overly costly and inefficient method of providing incentives, and even for tempting managers of firms like Enron,...

  4. Adaptive Optics Metrics & QC Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Julien H.

    2017-09-01

    "There are many Adaptive Optics (AO) fed instruments on Paranal and more to come. To monitor their performances and assess the quality of the scientific data, we have developed a scheme and a set of tools and metrics adapted to each flavour of AO and each data product. Our decisions to repeat observations or not depends heavily on this immediate quality control "zero" (QC0). Atmospheric parameters monitoring can also help predict performances . At the end of the chain, the user must be able to find the data that correspond to his/her needs. In Particular, we address the special case of SPHERE."

  5. The mathematics of Ponzi schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Artzrouni, Marc

    2009-01-01

    A first order linear differential equation is used to describe the dynamics of an investment fund that promises more than it can deliver, also known as a Ponzi scheme. The model is based on a promised, unrealistic interest rate; on the actual, realized nominal interest rate; on the rate at which new deposits are accumulated and on the withdrawal rate. Conditions on these parameters are given for the fund to be solvent or to collapse. The model is fitted to data available on Charles...

  6. An efficient compression scheme for bitmap indices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Kesheng; Otoo, Ekow J.; Shoshani, Arie

    2004-04-13

    When using an out-of-core indexing method to answer a query, it is generally assumed that the I/O cost dominates the overall query response time. Because of this, most research on indexing methods concentrate on reducing the sizes of indices. For bitmap indices, compression has been used for this purpose. However, in most cases, operations on these compressed bitmaps, mostly bitwise logical operations such as AND, OR, and NOT, spend more time in CPU than in I/O. To speedup these operations, a number of specialized bitmap compression schemes have been developed; the best known of which is the byte-aligned bitmap code (BBC). They are usually faster in performing logical operations than the general purpose compression schemes, but, the time spent in CPU still dominates the total query response time. To reduce the query response time, we designed a CPU-friendly scheme named the word-aligned hybrid (WAH) code. In this paper, we prove that the sizes of WAH compressed bitmap indices are about two words per row for large range of attributes. This size is smaller than typical sizes of commonly used indices, such as a B-tree. Therefore, WAH compressed indices are not only appropriate for low cardinality attributes but also for high cardinality attributes.In the worst case, the time to operate on compressed bitmaps is proportional to the total size of the bitmaps involved. The total size of the bitmaps required to answer a query on one attribute is proportional to the number of hits. These indicate that WAH compressed bitmap indices are optimal. To verify their effectiveness, we generated bitmap indices for four different datasets and measured the response time of many range queries. Tests confirm that sizes of compressed bitmap indices are indeed smaller than B-tree indices, and query processing with WAH compressed indices is much faster than with BBC compressed indices, projection indices and B-tree indices. In addition, we also verified that the average query response time

  7. Constrained H1-regularization schemes for diffeomorphic image registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mang, Andreas; Biros, George

    2017-01-01

    We propose regularization schemes for deformable registration and efficient algorithms for their numerical approximation. We treat image registration as a variational optimal control problem. The deformation map is parametrized by its velocity. Tikhonov regularization ensures well-posedness. Our scheme augments standard smoothness regularization operators based on H1- and H2-seminorms with a constraint on the divergence of the velocity field, which resembles variational formulations for Stokes incompressible flows. In our formulation, we invert for a stationary velocity field and a mass source map. This allows us to explicitly control the compressibility of the deformation map and by that the determinant of the deformation gradient. We also introduce a new regularization scheme that allows us to control shear. We use a globalized, preconditioned, matrix-free, reduced space (Gauss–)Newton–Krylov scheme for numerical optimization. We exploit variable elimination techniques to reduce the number of unknowns of our system; we only iterate on the reduced space of the velocity field. Our current implementation is limited to the two-dimensional case. The numerical experiments demonstrate that we can control the determinant of the deformation gradient without compromising registration quality. This additional control allows us to avoid oversmoothing of the deformation map. We also demonstrate that we can promote or penalize shear whilst controlling the determinant of the deformation gradient. PMID:29075361

  8. A hybrid TIM-NOMA scheme for the Broadcast Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kalokidou

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Future mobile communication networks will require enhanced network efficiency and reduced system overhead. Research on Blind Interference Alignment and Topological Interference Management (TIM has shown that optimal Degrees of Freedom can be achieved, in the absence of Channel State Information at the transmitters. Moreover, the recently emerged Non- Orthogonal Multiple Access (NOMA scheme suggests a different multiple access approach, compared to the orthogonal methods employed in 4G, resulting in high capacity gains. Our contribution is a hybrid TIM-NOMA scheme in K-user cells, where users are divided into T groups. By superimposing users in the power domain, we introduce a two-stage decoding process, managing “inter-group” interference based on the TIM principles, and “intra-group” interference based on Successful Interference Cancellation, as proposed by NOMA. We show that the hybrid scheme can improve the sum rate by at least 100% compared to Time Division Multiple Access, for high SNR values.

  9. REMINDER: Saved Leave Scheme (SLS)

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Transfer of leave to saved leave accounts Under the provisions of the voluntary saved leave scheme (SLS), a maximum total of 10 days'* annual and compensatory leave (excluding saved leave accumulated in accordance with the provisions of Administrative Circular No 22B) can be transferred to the saved leave account at the end of the leave year (30 September). We remind you that unused leave of all those taking part in the saved leave scheme at the closure of the leave year accounts is transferred automatically to the saved leave account on that date. Therefore, staff members have no administrative steps to take. In addition, the transfer, which eliminates the risk of omitting to request leave transfers and rules out calculation errors in transfer requests, will be clearly shown in the list of leave transactions that can be consulted in EDH from October 2003 onwards. Furthermore, this automatic leave transfer optimizes staff members' chances of benefiting from a saved leave bonus provided that they ar...

  10. Hemorrhagic Stroke Associated with Pulmonary Edema and Catastrophic Cardiac Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiun-Chang Lee

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral arteriovenous fistula (AVF is a vascular malformation that is rare in the pediatric population. Older children with cerebral AVF tend to present with neurologic problems related to intracranial venous hypertension or intracranial hemorrhage. Cardiac and pulmonary complications following acute neurologic injury such as subarachnoid hemorrhage are common in adults, but are rarely reported in children. However, complications have been reported in cases of enterovirus 71 rhombencephalitis in infants and children and can cause high morbidity and mortality. Here, we report a 14-year-old boy who presented with cardiac failure associated with pulmonary edema following cerebral hemorrhagic stroke due to AVF. After aggressive investigation and management, we intervened before significant hypoxia and hypotension developed, potentially reducing the risk of long-term adverse neurologic consequences in this patient.

  11. Extinction Risk in Successional Landscapes Subject to Catastrophic Disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Boughton

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available We explore the thesis that stochasticity in successional-disturbance systems can be an agent of species extinction. The analysis uses a simple model of patch dynamics for seral stages in an idealized landscape; each seral stage is assumed to support a specialist biota. The landscape as a whole is characterized by a mean patch birth rate, mean patch size, and mean lifetime for each patch type. Stochasticity takes three forms: (1 patch stochasticity is randomness in the birth times and sizes of individual patches, (2 landscape stochasticity is variation in the annual means of birth rate and size, and (3 turnover mode is whether a patch is eliminated by disturbance or by successional change. Analytical and numerical analyses of the model suggest that landscape stochasticity is the most important agent. Landscape stochasticity increases the extinction risk to species by increasing the risk that the habitat will fluctuate to zero, by reducing the mean abundance of species, and by increasing the variance in species abundance. The highest risk was found to occur in species that inhabit patches with short lifetimes. The results of this general model suggest an important mechanism by which climate change threatens biodiversity: an increase in the frequency of extreme climate events will probably cause pulses of disturbance during some time periods; these in turn would cause wider fluctuations in annual disturbance rates and thus increase the overall level of landscape stochasticity. However, the model also suggests that humans can manipulate landscape stochasticity to reduce risk. In particular, if managed disturbances were more evenly distributed in time, attrition of the regional biota might be prevented. Other work on the connection between patch dynamics and extinction risk assumes the absence of landscape stochasticity and thus overlooks an important component of risk to biodiversity.

  12. Hybrid scheme for Brownian semistationary processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Mikkel; Lunde, Asger; Pakkanen, Mikko S.

    is to approximate the kernel function by a power function near zero and by a step function elsewhere. The resulting approximation of the process is a combination of Wiener integrals of the power function and a Riemann sum, which is why we call this method a hybrid scheme. Our main theoretical result describes...... the asymptotics of the mean square error of the hybrid scheme and we observe that the scheme leads to a substantial improvement of accuracy compared to the ordinary forward Riemann-sum scheme, while having the same computational complexity. We exemplify the use of the hybrid scheme by two numerical experiments......We introduce a simulation scheme for Brownian semistationary processes, which is based on discretizing the stochastic integral representation of the process in the time domain. We assume that the kernel function of the process is regularly varying at zero. The novel feature of the scheme...

  13. Local ensemble assimilation scheme with global constraints and conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Alexander; Yan, Yajing; Alvera-Azcárate, Aida; Beckers, Jean-Marie

    2016-12-01

    Ensemble assimilation schemes applied in their original, global formulation respect linear conservation properties if the ensemble perturbations are set up accordingly. For realistic ocean systems, only a relatively small number of ensemble members can be calculated. A localization of the ensemble increment is therefore necessary to filter out spurious long-range correlations. The conservation of the global properties will be lost if the assimilation is performed locally, since the conservation requires a coupling between all model grid points which is removed by the localization. The distribution of ocean observations is often highly inhomogeneous. Systematic errors of the observed parts of the ocean state can lead to spurious adjustment of the non-observed parts via data assimilation and thus to a spurious increase or decrease in long-term simulations of global properties which should be conserved. In this paper, we propose a local assimilation scheme (with different variants and assumptions) which can satisfy global conservation properties. The proposed scheme can also be used for non-local observation operators. Different variants of the proposed scheme are tested in an idealized model and compared to the traditional covariance localization with an ad-hoc step enforcing conservation. It is shown that the inclusion of the conservation property reduces the total RMS error and that the presented stochastic and deterministic schemes avoiding error space rotation provide better results than the traditional covariance localization.

  14. Embedded Zassenhaus Expansion to Splitting Schemes: Theory and Multiphysics Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Geiser

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present some operator splitting methods improved by the use of the Zassenhaus product and designed for applications to multiphysics problems. We treat iterative splitting methods that can be improved by means of the Zassenhaus product formula, which is a sequential splitting scheme. The main idea for reducing the computation time needed by the iterative scheme is to embed fast and cheap Zassenhaus product schemes, since the computation of the commutators involved is very cheap, since we are dealing with nilpotent matrices. We discuss the coupling ideas of iterative and sequential splitting techniques and their convergence. While the iterative splitting schemes converge slowly in their first iterative steps, we improve the initial convergence rates by embedding the Zassenhaus product formula. The applications are to multiphysics problems in fluid dynamics. We consider phase models in computational fluid dynamics and analyse how to obtain higher order operator splitting methods based on the Zassenhaus product. The computational benefits derive from the use of sparse matrices, which arise from the spatial discretisation of the underlying partial differential equations. Since the Zassenhaus formula requires nearly constant CPU time due to its sparse commutators, we have accelerated the iterative splitting schemes.

  15. High Kinesiophobia and Pain Catastrophizing in People with Articular Cartilage Defects in the Knee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, Louise M.; Flanigan, David C.; Best, Thomas M.; Schmitt, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Psychosocial factors, including kinesiophobia and pain catastrophizing, are increasingly recognized for the role they play in knee function and quality of life for people with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR), knee osteoarthritis (OA), and total knee arthroplasties (TKA). People with articular cartilage defects in the knee have impaired function and poor quality of life, however the extent to which they present with kinesiophobia and pain catastrophizing is not known. The purpose of this study is to compare kinesiophobia, i.e. fear of movement-related pain/reinjury, and pain catastrophizing of people with articular cartilage defects (ACD) in the knee to healthy controls. Methods: Thirty-five individuals (19M:16F, Age mean ± 95%CI 29.8 ± 2.8 years old, BMI 28.1 ± 1.44) seeking surgical consultation for an ACD in the knee confirmed with 3.0T MRI and 18 controls (9M:9F, Age 29.8 ± 3.0 years old, BMI 24.9 ± 1.3) without history of knee injury participated in the study. Exclusion criteria included; age >55 years, BMI >35kg/m2, recent surgery, current low back pain or unrelated lower extremity pain, and history of spine surgery or neurological injury and pathology. Kinesiophobia for all 53 subjects was measured with the Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia (TSK). The TSK was scored using the original 17-item (TSK-17, Min 17 - Max 68) and modified 11-item (TSK-11, Min 11 - Max 44) scoring systems as both have been commonly used in the literature. Pain catastrophizing was measured with the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS, Min 0 - Max 52). Higher scores on these measures indicate greater kinesiophobia and pain catastrophizing. Independent t-tests were used to compare the ACD group to the healthy controls (α=0.05). Mean TSK and PCS scores (± 95% CI) were plotted alongside values published in samples with other knee pathologies for reference. Results: Participants with ACDs reported higher kinesiophobia (TSK-17 mean score ± 95%CI [range]: ACD 40

  16. Meal box schemes a convenient way to avoid convenience food? Uses and understandings of meal box schemes among Danish consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz, Frej Daniel; Halkier, Bente

    2017-07-01

    The term convenience food is subject to diversification, lack of clarity and moral ambiguity. In this paper we address these issues and critically discuss convenience food by using empirical findings from a Danish study that deals with practitioners' uses of meal box schemes. The methodological design consists of thirteen individual interviews, four focus groups and some observations of cooking practices. We combine the empirical findings with a particular definition of convenience food by Brunner et al. (2010) and selected practice theoretical concepts. This particular combination enables us to categorize meal box schemes as a new form of convenience food called convenient food. In addition, results suggest that meal box schemes reduce leftovers from dinner. Meal boxes also influence dinner related activities such as planning ahead in time and grocery shopping, which require less physical and mental effort. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Analysis of peripheral vascular injuries: A social catastrophe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman Yazıcı

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective:In the current study, peripheral vascular injuries caused from weapons and the associated clinical outcomes were retrospectively investigated. Methods:Two hundred patients who received a surgical procedure for a vascular injury between January 2009 and December 2011 were included in the study. The patients were evaluated retrospectively; type of injury, localization, characteristics, and type of surgical application were classified. Results: Weapon-related penetrating injuries were classified as gunshot injuries (n=55, 28%, stab wounds (n =143, 71%, and mine injuries (n= 2, 1%. There were 77 interposition applications (71 arterial and 6 venous with saphene vein grafts, 16 arterial interposition applications with polytetrafluoroethylene grafts, and 11 venous ligations. A total of 170 direct repairs (134 arterial and 36 venous were performed. Postoperative amputation was required in none of the cases, advanced intensive care unit follow-up was required for four patients (2%; two cases were referred with hypovolemic shock and two case were referred with asystole, and a postoperative follow-up period for any mortality was not observed. Conclusion:Some regions contain higher levels of warinjuries. Therefore, these regions require specialized intervention centres. A large amount of these injuries arevascular, and surgery and rapid interventions are essential for reducing mortality and morbidity rates. Successful results can be obtained in these cases through the collaboration of various medical disciplines.

  18. Common lesions of the distal end of the third metacarpal/metatarsal bone in racehorse catastrophic breakdown injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janes, Jennifer G; Kennedy, Laura A; Garrett, Katherine S; Engiles, Julie B

    2017-07-01

    Equine catastrophic skeletal breakdown injury is a serious issue within the racing industry, given the impact on equine and human health. The metacarpo- and metatarso-phalangeal (fetlock) joints are common sites of catastrophic injury. However, lesions involving articular cartilage, subchondral bone, and synovium are commonly identified within the fetlock of the contralateral limb; hence, it is imperative that lesions in both limbs are evaluated and characterized during postmortem examination. Bone and articular cartilage changes typically occur in specific locations, related to cyclic fetlock load and overextension during high-speed exercise. Associations between preexisting degenerative fetlock lesions and catastrophic injury are a focus of continued research. These lesions often occur because of adaptive failure related to cumulative damage. Further investigation of these lesions is imperative to determine their impact on equine performance or injury. Ultimately, consistent documentation of catastrophic versus non-catastrophic osteochondral lesions provided by pathologists, in the context of training history, diagnostic imaging, and the presence or absence of catastrophic injury, will contribute to further understanding of skeletal responses associated with catastrophic failure.

  19. A NOVEL HYBRID SCHEME FOR CONTENTION MINIMIZATION IN OPTICAL BURST SWITCHED NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilip H. Patel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In Optical Burst Switched (OBS Networks, data is transported in a bufferless network and hence there is fair amount of possibility of contention among the data bursts. This occurs when multiple bursts contend for the same link. The existing reactive contention resolution schemes attempt to address issue of contention without making any efforts to minimize the occurrences of contention in the network. Also, the existing proactive contention minimization schemes fail to provide improvement in contention loss at a very high load. Therefore, we are presenting new scheme for reducing the occurrence of contention in OBS network and it is known as Dynamic Hybrid Cluster and Deflection Feedback (DHCF scheme. In proposed DHCF scheme entire OBS network is partitioned into many small clusters. In each cluster, one node acts as cluster head for gathering the information of resources in the network. The contention is minimized using clustering approach and it can be further improved with the help of deflection feedback mechanism. A performance metrics is considered to evaluate merits of the proposed DHCF scheme and its effects on overall network performance. Also, the comparison of the performance of the DHCF scheme with limited hybrid deflection and retransmission (LHDR scheme and dynamic hybrid retransmission in deflection routing (DHRD scheme is made. The simulation results show that the proposed scheme gives improvement in Burst Loss Probability (BLP in the range of 31% to 38% and delay improvement in the range of 64% to 74% on vBSN network. The vBSN is network topology.

  20. High-Order Hyperbolic Residual-Distribution Schemes on Arbitrary Triangular Grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazaheri, Alireza; Nishikawa, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we construct high-order hyperbolic residual-distribution schemes for general advection-diffusion problems on arbitrary triangular grids. We demonstrate that the second-order accuracy of the hyperbolic schemes can be greatly improved by requiring the scheme to preserve exact quadratic solutions. We also show that the improved second-order scheme can be easily extended to third-order by further requiring the exactness for cubic solutions. We construct these schemes based on the LDA and the SUPG methodology formulated in the framework of the residual-distribution method. For both second- and third-order-schemes, we construct a fully implicit solver by the exact residual Jacobian of the second-order scheme, and demonstrate rapid convergence of 10-15 iterations to reduce the residuals by 10 orders of magnitude. We demonstrate also that these schemes can be constructed based on a separate treatment of the advective and diffusive terms, which paves the way for the construction of hyperbolic residual-distribution schemes for the compressible Navier-Stokes equations. Numerical results show that these schemes produce exceptionally accurate and smooth solution gradients on highly skewed and anisotropic triangular grids, including curved boundary problems, using linear elements. We also present Fourier analysis performed on the constructed linear system and show that an under-relaxation parameter is needed for stabilization of Gauss-Seidel relaxation.

  1. Integrating Legacy Data to Understand Agroecosystem Regional Dynamics to Catastrophic Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, D. P. C.; Burruss, N. D.; Yao, J.; Okin, G.; Hatfield, J.; Scroggs, S. L. P.; Monger, H. C.; Havstad, K.

    2016-12-01

    Multi-year extreme drought events are part of the history of the Earth system. Legacy data on the climate drivers, geomorphic features, and agroecosystem responses across a dynamically changing landscape throughout a region can provide important insights to a future where large-scale catastrophic events may occur more frequently. One of the most devastating multi-year droughts occurred in the central grasslands region of North America in the 1930s. This regional-scale climatic event combined with land management practices to result in broad-scale plant mortality and massive dust storms that impacted the entire continent. However, not all areas were affected similarly, even across relatively short distances with similar climate, soils, and land management. Spatial discontinuities in impacts occurred across a 100-km transition from high plant mortality and high rates of soil erosion in eastern Nebraska to areas in western Iowa with reductions in grass cover and biomass, but low rates of plant mortality and erosion. Because this time period preceded modern agriculture and the extensive tillage of native tallgrass prairie, the landscape was composed of both native prairie grassland and cropland. Responses were compared during the drought to responses for the same region in the 1920s (pre-drought) and the 1940s (post-drought). A large number of legacy datasets from the U.S. Department of Agriculture and other sources were spatially integrated to test two hypotheses: (1) local factors of climate and soil properties explained agroecosystem responses in the pre- and post-drought periods, (2) local factors were insufficient to explain agroecosystem responses during the multi-year drought. Analyses supported these hypotheses and found that landscape features, such as large alluvial plains that reduced connectivity by sand and deposition by wind, were more important than local factors to explain different responses along the gradient during the drought. Similar results were

  2. CAC DPLB MCN: A Distributed Load Balancing Scheme in Multimedia Mobile Cellular Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Abhijit

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The problem of non-uniform traffic demand in different cells of a cellular network may lead to a gross imbalance in the system performance. Thus, the users in hot cells may suffer from low throughput. In this paper, an effective and simple load balancing scheme CAC_DPLB_MCN is proposed that can effectively reduce the overall call blocking. This model considers dealing with multi-media traffic as well as time-varying geographical traffic distribution. The proposed scheme uses the concept of cell-tiering thereby creating fractional frequency reuse environment. A message exchange based distributed scheme instead of centralized one is used which help the proposed scheme be implemented in a multiple hot cell environment also. Furthermore, concept of dynamic pricing is used to serve the best interest of the users as well as for the service providers. The performance of the proposed scheme is compared with two other existing schemes in terms of call blocking probability and bandwidth utilization. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme can reduce the call blocking significantly in highly congested cell with highest bandwidth utilization. Use of dynamic pricing also makes the scheme useful to increase revenue of the service providers in contrast with compared schemes.

  3. Cooling schemes for two-component fermions in layered optical lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Shimpei; Danshita, Ippei

    2017-12-01

    Recently, a cooling scheme for ultracold atoms in a bilayer optical lattice has been proposed (A. Kantian et al., arXiv:1609.03579). In their scheme, the energy offset between the two layers is increased dynamically such that the entropy of one layer is transferred to the other layer. Using the full-Hilbert-space approach, we compute cooling dynamics subjected to the scheme in order to show that their scheme fails to cool down two-component fermions. We develop an alternative cooling scheme for two-component fermions, in which the spin-exchange interaction of one layer is significantly reduced. Using both full-Hilbert-space and matrix-product-state approaches, we find that our scheme can decrease the temperature of the other layer by roughly half.

  4. Scheme of thinking quantum systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukalov, V. I.; Sornette, D.

    2009-11-01

    A general approach describing quantum decision procedures is developed. The approach can be applied to quantum information processing, quantum computing, creation of artificial quantum intelligence, as well as to analyzing decision processes of human decision makers. Our basic point is to consider an active quantum system possessing its own strategic state. Processing information by such a system is analogous to the cognitive processes associated to decision making by humans. The algebra of probability operators, associated with the possible options available to the decision maker, plays the role of the algebra of observables in quantum theory of measurements. A scheme is advanced for a practical realization of decision procedures by thinking quantum systems. Such thinking quantum systems can be realized by using spin lattices, systems of magnetic molecules, cold atoms trapped in optical lattices, ensembles of quantum dots, or multilevel atomic systems interacting with electromagnetic field.

  5. Fragment separator momentum compression schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandura, Laura, E-mail: bandura@anl.gov [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB), 1 Cyclotron, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States); National Superconducting Cyclotron Lab, Michigan State University, 1 Cyclotron, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States); Erdelyi, Bela [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL 60115 (United States); Hausmann, Marc [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB), 1 Cyclotron, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States); Kubo, Toshiyuki [RIKEN Nishina Center, RIKEN, Wako (Japan); Nolen, Jerry [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Portillo, Mauricio [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB), 1 Cyclotron, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States); Sherrill, Bradley M. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Lab, Michigan State University, 1 Cyclotron, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States)

    2011-07-21

    We present a scheme to use a fragment separator and profiled energy degraders to transfer longitudinal phase space into transverse phase space while maintaining achromatic beam transport. The first order beam optics theory of the method is presented and the consequent enlargement of the transverse phase space is discussed. An interesting consequence of the technique is that the first order mass resolving power of the system is determined by the first dispersive section up to the energy degrader, independent of whether or not momentum compression is used. The fragment separator at the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams is a specific application of this technique and is described along with simulations by the code COSY INFINITY.

  6. Fragment separator momentum compression schemes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandura, L.; Erdelyi, B.; Hausmann, M.; Kubo, T.; Nolen, J.; Portillo, M.; Sherrill, B.M. (Physics); (MSU); (Northern Illinois Univ.); (RIKEN)

    2011-07-21

    We present a scheme to use a fragment separator and profiled energy degraders to transfer longitudinal phase space into transverse phase space while maintaining achromatic beam transport. The first order beam optics theory of the method is presented and the consequent enlargement of the transverse phase space is discussed. An interesting consequence of the technique is that the first order mass resolving power of the system is determined by the first dispersive section up to the energy degrader, independent of whether or not momentum compression is used. The fragment separator at the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams is a specific application of this technique and is described along with simulations by the code COSY INFINITY.

  7. Fragment separator momentum compression schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandura, Laura; Erdelyi, Bela; Hausmann, Marc; Kubo, Toshiyuki; Nolen, Jerry; Portillo, Mauricio; Sherrill, Bradley M.

    2011-07-01

    We present a scheme to use a fragment separator and profiled energy degraders to transfer longitudinal phase space into transverse phase space while maintaining achromatic beam transport. The first order beam optics theory of the method is presented and the consequent enlargement of the transverse phase space is discussed. An interesting consequence of the technique is that the first order mass resolving power of the system is determined by the first dispersive section up to the energy degrader, independent of whether or not momentum compression is used. The fragment separator at the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams is a specific application of this technique and is described along with simulations by the code COSY INFINITY.

  8. Electrical injection schemes for nanolasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lupi, Alexandra; Chung, Il-Sug; Yvind, Kresten

    2013-01-01

    threshold current has been achieved with the lateral electrical injection through the BH; while the lowest resistance has been obtained from the current post structure even though this model shows a higher current threshold because of the lack of carrier confinement. Final scope of the simulations......The performance of injection schemes among recently demonstrated electrically pumped photonic crystal nanolasers has been investigated numerically. The computation has been carried out at room temperature using a commercial semiconductor simulation software. For the simulations two electrical...... of 3 InGaAsP QWs on an InP substrate has been chosen for the modeling. In the simulations the main focus is on the electrical and optical properties of the nanolasers i.e. electrical resistance, threshold voltage, threshold current and wallplug efficiency. In the current flow evaluation the lowest...

  9. Staggered Schemes for Fluctuating Hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Balboa, F; Delgado-Buscalioni, R; Donev, A; Fai, T; Griffith, B; Peskin, C S

    2011-01-01

    We develop numerical schemes for solving the isothermal compressible and incompressible equations of fluctuating hydrodynamics on a grid with staggered momenta. We develop a second-order accurate spatial discretization of the diffusive, advective and stochastic fluxes that satisfies a discrete fluctuation-dissipation balance, and construct temporal discretizations that are at least second-order accurate in time deterministically and in a weak sense. Specifically, the methods reproduce the correct equilibrium covariances of the fluctuating fields to third (compressible) and second (incompressible) order in the time step, as we verify numerically. We apply our techniques to model recent experimental measurements of giant fluctuations in diffusively mixing fluids in a micro-gravity environment [A. Vailati et. al., Nature Communications 2:290, 2011]. Numerical results for the static spectrum of non-equilibrium concentration fluctuations are in excellent agreement between the compressible and incompressible simula...

  10. Financial access to health care for older people in Cambodia: 10-year trends (2004-14) and determinants of catastrophic health expenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Bart; de Groot, Richard; Fernandes Antunes, Adélio

    2016-06-17

    Older people make up an increasing proportion of the population in low- and middle-income countries. This brings a number of challenges, as their health needs are greater than, and different from, those of younger people. In general, these health systems are not geared to address their needs, and traditional support systems tend to erode, potentially causing financial hardship when accessing health care. This paper provides an overview of older Cambodians' financial access to health care over time, using nationally representative data to enable the formulation of appropriate responses. Using data from three nationally representative household surveys from 2004, 2009 and 2014, we assess key indicators of financial access to health care for households with older people (aged 60 years or older), and compare these with households without older members. For 2014 data, the determinants of catastrophic health expenses at the 10 and 40 % threshold were determined for older people. Data was stratified by age and place of residence (urban/rural), and analysed using Stata statistical software. Sample weights were calibrated to reflect accurate population composition at the time of the survey. Monetary values for 2004 and 2009 were transformed into 2014 values using annual inflation rate figures. Care-seeking when sick among older people increased considerably from 2004 to 2014, irrespective of gender or place of residence. There were positive trends in the incidence of catastrophic and impoverishing healthcare expenses over the studied time periods. This was also the case for indebtedness. Rural households with older people were considerable more likely to suffer financial hardship due to health-related expenses than their urban equivalents. In 2014, older people spent 50 % more per month on health care than younger people. Determinants of catastrophic health expenditures among households with older people were residing in a rural area, and having a household member with an

  11. Error catastrophe and phase transition in the empirical fitness landscape of HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Gregory R; Ferguson, Andrew L

    2015-03-01

    We have translated clinical sequence databases of the p6 HIV protein into an empirical fitness landscape quantifying viral replicative capacity as a function of the amino acid sequence. We show that the viral population resides close to a phase transition in sequence space corresponding to an "error catastrophe" beyond which there is lethal accumulation of mutations. Our model predicts that the phase transition may be induced by drug therapies that elevate the mutation rate, or by forcing mutations at particular amino acids. Applying immune pressure to any combination of killer T-cell targets cannot induce the transition, providing a rationale for why the viral protein can exist close to the error catastrophe without sustaining fatal fitness penalties due to adaptive immunity.

  12. Polar catastrophe at the MgO(100)/SnO2(110) interface

    KAUST Repository

    Albar, Arwa

    2016-11-14

    First principles calculations, based on density functional theory, are used to investigate the structural and electronic properties of the epitaxial MgO(100)/SnO2(110) interface of wide band gap insulators. Depending on the interface termination, nonmagnetic metallic and half-metallic interface states are observed. The formation of these states is explained by a polar catastrophe model for nonpolar-polar interfaces. Strong lattice distortions and buckling develop in SnO2, which influence the interface properties as the charge discontinuity is partially screened. Already a single unit cell of SnO2 is sufficient to drive the polar catastrophe scenario. © 2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  13. A swallowtail catastrophe model for the emergence of leadership in coordination-intensive groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guastello, Stephen J; Bond, Robert W

    2007-04-01

    This research extended the previous studies concerning the swallowtail catastrophe model for leadership emergence to coordination-intensive groups. Thirteen 4-person groups composed of undergraduates played in Intersection coordination (card game) task and were allowed to talk while performing it; 13 other groups worked nonverbally. A questionnaire measured leadership emergence at the end of the game along with other social contributions to the groups' efforts. The swallowtail catastrophe model that was evident in previous leadership emergence phenomena in creative problem solving and production groups was found here also. All three control parameters were identified: a general participation variable that was akin to K in the rugged landscape model of self-organization, task control, and whether the groups worked verbally or nonverbally. Several new avenues for future research were delineated.

  14. Catastrophic cervical spine injuries in the collision sport athlete, part 2: principles of emergency care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Rahul; Palumbo, Mark A; Fadale, Paul D

    2004-01-01

    Catastrophic cervical spine injuries can lead to devastating consequences for the collision athlete. Improved understanding of these injuries can lead to identification of risk factors, early diagnosis, and effective on-field management. This article is the second in a 2-part series. The first part, published in the June 2004 issue, reviewed the current concepts regarding the epidemiology, functional anatomy, and diagnostic considerations relevant to cervical spine trauma in collision sports. In this article, the principles of on-field emergency care of the spine-injured athlete are reviewed. The authors discuss the need for effective pre-event planning, on-field evaluation and management of cervical spine injuries, and the transition of care from the playing field to the emergency room. The protocol for equipment removal, when necessary, is also reviewed. An organized, rapid approach to the management of cervical spine-injured collision athletes can help to optimize the outcomes of these catastrophic injuries.

  15. INVESTIGATING FINANCIAL INNOVATION AND EUROPEAN CAPITAL MARKETS. THE CASE OF CATASTROPHE BONDS AND LISTED REINSURANCE COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CONSTANTIN LAURA-GABRIELA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on the financial innovation – stock market interconnections, the present research studies the association between the insurance-linked market activity of European (reinsurance companies and their evolution on the capital markets. With the aim of emphasizing the connections from the perspective of the stock performance and their risk, the empirical analysis is based on vector autoregression (VAR and Granger causality analyses. The proposed examination is further developed by considering both impulse response functions and variance decomposition insights. The proxies of the catastrophe bond market, as financial innovation, there are employed both the size and the number of catastrophe bonds transactions, while the stock returns and their standard deviation stand for representatives of the evolution of the reinsurance companies on the capital markets in terms of financial performance and risk. The main results confirm other studies, suggesting that the effects of issuing cat bonds on the ceding companies is reflected rather in terms of stocks’ risk diminishing

  16. Catastrophe Bonds Structures at European Level – A Cluster Analysis Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadotti Loris Lino Maria

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims at examining several characteristics of the catastrophe bonds (CB market by focusing on emblematic transactions with the objective of stressing the choices of the European-based (reinsurance groups in terms of the CB tranches structure. For the purpose of highlighting the common individualities regarding the configuration of the catastrophe bonds, there are recognized homogenous groups in terms of covered perils and size of the each CB tranche, while emphasizing some stringent aspects linked to their trigger mechanism (like the basis risk, their rating, or tenor. The research identifies several profiles regarding the structural characteristics of the CB during the entire analysed period (1999-2014 and the main periods of development of the market. Accommodating categorical and continuous data, the structural patterns are determined and analysed by applying the two-step cluster methodology.

  17. Waste management in catastrophic situation; Manejo de residuos en situaciones de catastrofes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvo Redruejo, F.

    2004-07-01

    This article describes how the solid waste management system of a town can be affected in a catastrophic situation. It likewise outlines certain measures to be taken in order to restore the public cleaning system following floods, hurricanes, earthquakes and other adverse events of this nature. They should encompass the general lines to ensure the participation of the general public in the different stages for the restoration of the service, as well as the methodological guidelines for calculating the generation of the different kinds of waste following a catastrophe. The situation resulting from a natural or entropogenic disaster could lead to special attention being paid to public and private bodies oa a town and the setting up of a line of improvement of the solid waste management system, both before and after the event. (Author) 7 refs.

  18. Changes in Climate Extremes and Catastrophic Events in the Mongolian Plateau from 1951 to 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Lei; Yao, Zhi-Jun; Jiang, Liguang

    2016-01-01

    The spatiotemporal changes in 21 indices of extreme temperature and precipitation for the Mongolian Plateau from 1951 to 2012 were investigated on the basis of daily temperature and precipitation data from 70 meteorological stations. Changes in catastrophic events, such as droughts, floods...... was shown for total precipitation from west to east as based on the spatial distribution of decadal trends. Drought was the most serious extreme disaster, and prolonged drought for longer than 3 yr occurred about every 7-11 yr. An increasing trend in the disaster area was apparent for flood events from 1951......, and snowstorms, were also investigated for the same period. The correlations between catastrophic events and the extreme indices were examined. The results show that the Mongolian Plateau experienced an asymmetric warming trend. Both the cold extremes and warm extremes showed greater warming at night than...

  19. Repeated catastrophic valley infill following medieval earthquakes in the Nepal Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Bernhardt, Anne; Stolle, Amelie; Hoelzmann, Philipp; Adhikari, Basanta R; Andermann, Christoff; Tofelde, Stefanie; Merchel, Silke; Rugel, Georg; Fort, Monique; Korup, Oliver

    2016-01-08

    Geomorphic footprints of past large Himalayan earthquakes are elusive, although they are urgently needed for gauging and predicting recovery times of seismically perturbed mountain landscapes. We present evidence of catastrophic valley infill following at least three medieval earthquakes in the Nepal Himalaya. Radiocarbon dates from peat beds, plant macrofossils, and humic silts in fine-grained tributary sediments near Pokhara, Nepal's second-largest city, match the timing of nearby M > 8 earthquakes in ~1100, 1255, and 1344 C.E. The upstream dip of tributary valley fills and x-ray fluorescence spectrometry of their provenance rule out local sources. Instead, geomorphic and sedimentary evidence is consistent with catastrophic fluvial aggradation and debris flows that had plugged several tributaries with tens of meters of calcareous sediment from a Higher Himalayan source >60 kilometers away. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  20. Assessment of the reduction methods used to develop chemical schemes: building of a new chemical scheme for VOC oxidation suited to three-dimensional multiscale HOx-NOx-VOC chemistry simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Szopa

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to develop and assess an automatic procedure to generate reduced chemical schemes for the atmospheric photooxidation of volatile organic carbon (VOC compounds. The procedure is based on (i the development of a tool for writing the fully explicit schemes for VOC oxidation (see companion paper Aumont et al., 2005, (ii the application of several commonly used reduction methods to the fully explicit scheme, and (iii the assessment of resulting errors based on direct comparison between the reduced and full schemes. The reference scheme included seventy emitted VOCs chosen to be representative of both anthropogenic and biogenic emissions, and their atmospheric degradation chemistry required more than two million reactions among 350000 species. Three methods were applied to reduce the size of the reference chemical scheme: (i use of operators, based on the redundancy of the reaction sequences involved in the VOC oxidation, (ii grouping of primary species having similar reactivities into surrogate species and (iii grouping of some secondary products into surrogate species. The number of species in the final reduced scheme is 147, this being small enough for practical inclusion in current three-dimensional models. Comparisons between the fully explicit and reduced schemes, carried out with a box model for several typical tropospheric conditions, showed that the reduced chemical scheme accurately predicts ozone concentrations and some other aspects of oxidant chemistry for both polluted and clean tropospheric conditions.