WorldWideScience

Sample records for scene description languages

  1. Hardware description languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Jerry H.

    1994-01-01

    Hardware description languages are special purpose programming languages. They are primarily used to specify the behavior of digital systems and are rapidly replacing traditional digital system design techniques. This is because they allow the designer to concentrate on how the system should operate rather than on implementation details. Hardware description languages allow a digital system to be described with a wide range of abstraction, and they support top down design techniques. A key feature of any hardware description language environment is its ability to simulate the modeled system. The two most important hardware description languages are Verilog and VHDL. Verilog has been the dominant language for the design of application specific integrated circuits (ASIC's). However, VHDL is rapidly gaining in popularity.

  2. Epsilon. A System Description Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kyng, Morten

    This paper discusses the use of Petri nets as a semantic tool in the design of languages and in the construction and analysis of system descriptions. The topics treated are: -- Languages based on nets. -- The problem of time in nets. -- Nets and related models. -- Nets and formal semantics...

  3. Qualitative spatial logic descriptors from 3D indoor scenes to generate explanations in natural language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falomir, Zoe; Kluth, Thomas

    2018-05-01

    The challenge of describing 3D real scenes is tackled in this paper using qualitative spatial descriptors. A key point to study is which qualitative descriptors to use and how these qualitative descriptors must be organized to produce a suitable cognitive explanation. In order to find answers, a survey test was carried out with human participants which openly described a scene containing some pieces of furniture. The data obtained in this survey are analysed, and taking this into account, the QSn3D computational approach was developed which uses a XBox 360 Kinect to obtain 3D data from a real indoor scene. Object features are computed on these 3D data to identify objects in indoor scenes. The object orientation is computed, and qualitative spatial relations between the objects are extracted. These qualitative spatial relations are the input to a grammar which applies saliency rules obtained from the survey study and generates cognitive natural language descriptions of scenes. Moreover, these qualitative descriptors can be expressed as first-order logical facts in Prolog for further reasoning. Finally, a validation study is carried out to test whether the descriptions provided by QSn3D approach are human readable. The obtained results show that their acceptability is higher than 82%.

  4. Natural Language Description of Emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemzadeh, Abe

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation studies how people describe emotions with language and how computers can simulate this descriptive behavior. Although many non-human animals can express their current emotions as social signals, only humans can communicate about emotions symbolically. This symbolic communication of emotion allows us to talk about emotions that we…

  5. Addressing the Language Description Deficit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ali Bolgiin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Well-described language features are key to successful teaching and learning, especially for achieving advanced levels of proficiency. Other measures, such as simply increasing the number of reading and listening passages in a language program alone are not enough to bring the student to a higher level in a given skill. In fact, even being present in the target culture does not suffice. Angelelli and Degueldre (2002 argue that at advanced levels, even spending time in a country where the language is spoken is not necessarily sufficient for learners: "They do not need just exposure; they need answers to questions and explanations that they can rarely get by simply being immersed in a language/ culture." Less commonly taught languages (LCTLs lack descriptions that have such answers and explanations (cf. Fotos, 2002. It is argued in this paper that corpuslinguistic analyses help to provide actual usage-based, rather than intuition-based, descriptions and explanations of language features. Such approach is illustrated through English and Turkish examples.

  6. The geometry description markup language

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chytracek, R.

    2001-01-01

    Currently, a lot of effort is being put on designing complex detectors. A number of simulation and reconstruction frameworks and applications have been developed with the aim to make this job easier. A very important role in this activity is played by the geometry description of the detector apparatus layout and its working environment. However, no real common approach to represent geometry data is available and such data can be found in various forms starting from custom semi-structured text files, source code (C/C++/FORTRAN), to XML and database solutions. The XML (Extensible Markup Language) has proven to provide an interesting approach for describing detector geometries, with several different but incompatible XML-based solutions existing. Therefore, interoperability and geometry data exchange among different frameworks is not possible at present. The author introduces a markup language for geometry descriptions. Its aim is to define a common approach for sharing and exchanging of geometry description data. Its requirements and design have been driven by experience and user feedback from existing projects which have their geometry description in XML

  7. Visualizing Natural Language Descriptions: A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Hassani, Kaveh; Lee, Won-Sook

    2016-01-01

    A natural language interface exploits the conceptual simplicity and naturalness of the language to create a high-level user-friendly communication channel between humans and machines. One of the promising applications of such interfaces is generating visual interpretations of semantic content of a given natural language that can be then visualized either as a static scene or a dynamic animation. This survey discusses requirements and challenges of developing such systems and reports 26 graphi...

  8. Scene perception in posterior cortical atrophy: categorization, description and fixation patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakespeare, Timothy J; Yong, Keir X X; Frost, Chris; Kim, Lois G; Warrington, Elizabeth K; Crutch, Sebastian J

    2013-01-01

    Partial or complete Balint's syndrome is a core feature of the clinico-radiological syndrome of posterior cortical atrophy (PCA), in which individuals experience a progressive deterioration of cortical vision. Although multi-object arrays are frequently used to detect simultanagnosia in the clinical assessment and diagnosis of PCA, to date there have been no group studies of scene perception in patients with the syndrome. The current study involved three linked experiments conducted in PCA patients and healthy controls. Experiment 1 evaluated the accuracy and latency of complex scene perception relative to individual faces and objects (color and grayscale) using a categorization paradigm. PCA patients were both less accurate (faces < scenes < objects) and slower (scenes < objects < faces) than controls on all categories, with performance strongly associated with their level of basic visual processing impairment; patients also showed a small advantage for color over grayscale stimuli. Experiment 2 involved free description of real world scenes. PCA patients generated fewer features and more misperceptions than controls, though perceptual errors were always consistent with the patient's global understanding of the scene (whether correct or not). Experiment 3 used eye tracking measures to compare patient and control eye movements over initial and subsequent fixations of scenes. Patients' fixation patterns were significantly different to those of young and age-matched controls, with comparable group differences for both initial and subsequent fixations. Overall, these findings describe the variability in everyday scene perception exhibited by individuals with PCA, and indicate the importance of exposure duration in the perception of complex scenes.

  9. Smoking scenes in popular Japanese serial television dramas: descriptive analysis during the same 3-month period in two consecutive years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Hideyuki; Okamura, Tomonori; Turin, Tanvir Chowdhury; Hayakawa, Takehito; Kadowaki, Takashi; Ueshima, Hirotsugu

    2006-06-01

    Japanese serial television dramas are becoming very popular overseas, particularly in other Asian countries. Exposure to smoking scenes in movies and television dramas has been known to trigger initiation of habitual smoking in young people. Smoking scenes in Japanese dramas may affect the smoking behavior of many young Asians. We examined smoking scenes and smoking-related items in serial television dramas targeting young audiences in Japan during the same season in two consecutive years. Fourteen television dramas targeting the young audience broadcast between July and September in 2001 and 2002 were analyzed. A total of 136 h 42 min of television programs were divided into unit scenes of 3 min (a total of 2734 unit scenes). All the unit scenes were reviewed for smoking scenes and smoking-related items. Of the 2734 3-min unit scenes, 205 (7.5%) were actual smoking scenes and 387 (14.2%) depicted smoking environments with the presence of smoking-related items, such as ash trays. In 185 unit scenes (90.2% of total smoking scenes), actors were shown smoking. Actresses were less frequently shown smoking (9.8% of total smoking scenes). Smoking characters in dramas were in the 20-49 age group in 193 unit scenes (94.1% of total smoking scenes). In 96 unit scenes (46.8% of total smoking scenes), at least one non-smoker was present in the smoking scenes. The smoking locations were mainly indoors, including offices, restaurants and homes (122 unit scenes, 59.6%). The most common smoking-related items shown were ash trays (in 45.5% of smoking-item-related scenes) and cigarettes (in 30.2% of smoking-item-related scenes). Only 3 unit scenes (0.1 % of all scenes) promoted smoking prohibition. This was a descriptive study to examine the nature of smoking scenes observed in Japanese television dramas from a public health perspective.

  10. Scene perception in Posterior Cortical Atrophy: categorisation, description and fixation patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J Shakespeare

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Partial or complete Balint’s syndrome is a core feature of the clinico-radiological syndrome of posterior cortical atrophy (PCA, in which individuals experience a progressive deterioration of cortical vision. Although multi-object arrays are frequently used to detect simultanagnosia in the clinical assessment and diagnosis of PCA, to date there have been no group studies of scene perception in patients with the syndrome. The current study involved three linked experiments conducted in PCA patients and healthy controls. Experiment 1 evaluated the accuracy and latency of complex scene perception relative to individual faces and objects (colour and greyscale using a categorisation paradigm. PCA patients were both less accurate (faces<scenesscenesdescription of real world scenes. PCA patients generated fewer features and more misperceptions than controls, though perceptual errors were always consistent with the patient’s global understanding of the scene (whether correct or not. Experiment 3 used eye tracking measures to compare patient and control eye movements over initial and subsequent fixations of scenes. Patients’ fixation patterns were significantly different to those of young and age-matched controls, with comparable group differences for both initial and subsequent fixations. Overall, these findings describe the variability in everyday scene perception exhibited by individuals with PCA, and indicate the importance of exposure duration in the perception of complex scenes.

  11. CarSim: Automatic 3D Scene Generation of a Car Accident Description

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egges, A.; Nijholt, A.; Nugues, P.

    2001-01-01

    The problem of generating a 3D simulation of a car accident from a written description can be divided into two subtasks: the linguistic analysis and the virtual scene generation. As a means of communication between these two system parts, we designed a template formalism to represent a written

  12. CarSim: Automatic 3D Scene Generation of a Car Accident Description

    OpenAIRE

    Egges, A.; Nijholt, A.; Nugues, P.

    2001-01-01

    The problem of generating a 3D simulation of a car accident from a written description can be divided into two subtasks: the linguistic analysis and the virtual scene generation. As a means of communication between these two system parts, we designed a template formalism to represent a written accident report. The CarSim system processes formal descriptions of accidents and creates corresponding 3D simulations. A planning component models the trajectories and temporal values of every vehicle ...

  13. VAL language: description and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGraw, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    VAL is a high-level, function-based language designed for use on data flow computers. A data flow computer has many small processors organized to cooperate in the executive of a single computation. A computation is represented by its data flow graph; each operator in a graph is scheduled for execution on one of the processors after all of its operands' values are known. VAL promotes the indentification of concurrency in algorithms and simplifies the mapping into data graphs. This paper presents a detailed introduction to VAL and analyzes its usefulness for programming in a highly concurrent environment. VAL provides implicit concurrency (operations that can execute simultaneously are evident without the need for any explicit language notation). The language uses function- and expression-based features that prohibit all side effects, which simplifies translation to graphs. The salient language features are described and illustrated through examples taken from a complete VAL program for adaptive quadrature. Analysis of the language shows that VAL meets the critical needs for a data flow environment. The language encourages programmers to think in terms of general concurrency, enhances readability (due to the absence of side effects), and possesses a structure amenable to verification techniques. However, VAL is still evolving. The language definition needs refining, and more support tools for programmer use need to be developed. Also, some new kinds of optimization problems should be addressed

  14. A Semantic Scene Description Language for Procedural Layout Solving Problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tutenel, T.; Smelik, R.M.; Bidarra, R.; Kraker, K.J. de

    2010-01-01

    Procedural content generation is becoming more and more relevant to solve the problem of content creation for the ever growing virtual worlds of games, simulations and other applications. However, these procedures are often unintuitive or use vague parameters, making it somewhat difficult for a

  15. The athena data dictionary and description language

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazan, A.; Ghez, P.; Le Flour, T.; Lieunard, S.; Tull, C.

    2001-01-01

    The authors have developed a data object description tool suite and service for Athena consisting of: a language grammar based upon an extended proper subset of IDL 2.0, a compiler front end based upon this language grammar, JavaCC, and a Java Reflection API-like interface, and several compiler back ends which meet specific needs in ATLAS such as automatic generation of object converters, and data object scripting interfaces. The authors present here details of the work and experience to date on the Athena Definition Language and Athena Data Dictionary

  16. Computer hardware description languages - A tutorial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiva, S. G.

    1979-01-01

    The paper introduces hardware description languages (HDL) as useful tools for hardware design and documentation. The capabilities and limitations of HDLs are discussed along with the guidelines needed in selecting an appropriate HDL. The directions for future work are provided and attention is given to the implementation of HDLs in microcomputers.

  17. Behind the scenes: A medical natural language processing project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Joy T; Dernoncourt, Franck; Gehrmann, Sebastian; Tyler, Patrick D; Moseley, Edward T; Carlson, Eric T; Grant, David W; Li, Yeran; Welt, Jonathan; Celi, Leo Anthony

    2018-04-01

    Advancement of Artificial Intelligence (AI) capabilities in medicine can help address many pressing problems in healthcare. However, AI research endeavors in healthcare may not be clinically relevant, may have unrealistic expectations, or may not be explicit enough about their limitations. A diverse and well-functioning multidisciplinary team (MDT) can help identify appropriate and achievable AI research agendas in healthcare, and advance medical AI technologies by developing AI algorithms as well as addressing the shortage of appropriately labeled datasets for machine learning. In this paper, our team of engineers, clinicians and machine learning experts share their experience and lessons learned from their two-year-long collaboration on a natural language processing (NLP) research project. We highlight specific challenges encountered in cross-disciplinary teamwork, dataset creation for NLP research, and expectation setting for current medical AI technologies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Problem of identifying an object in a robotics scene from an imprecise verbal description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farreny, H; Prade, H

    1983-01-01

    The authors investigate the problem of relating imprecise and incomplete verbal descriptions to noisy high-level features supplied by an image analyzer. Pattern-matching problems are specially addressed. The proposed approach allows the direct processing of human-like descriptions. Moreover, the imprecision due to the use of natural language expressions or to the noisiness of the image analyzer, is taken into account. 26 references.

  19. The Athena data dictionary and description language

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazan, Alain; Bouedo, Thierry; Ghez, Philippe; Marino, Massimo; Tull, Craig

    2003-01-01

    Athena is the ATLAS off-line software framework, based upon the GAUDI architecture from LHCb. As part of ATLAS' continuing efforts to enhance and customize the architecture to meet our needs, we have developed a data object description tool suite and service for Athena. The aim is to provide a set of tools to describe, manage, integrate and use the Event Data Model at a design level according to the concepts of the Athena framework (use of patterns, relationships,...). Moreover, to ensure stability and reusability this must be fully independent from the implementation details. After an extensive investigation into the many options, we have developed a language grammar based upon a description language (IDL, ODL) to provide support for object integration in Athena. We have then developed a compiler front end based upon this language grammar, JavaCC, and a Java Reflection API-like interface. We have then used these tools to develop several compiler back ends which meet specific needs in ATLAS such as automatic generation of object converters, and data object scripting interfaces. We present here details of our work and experience to date on the Athena Definition Language and Athena Data Dictionary. (authors)

  20. Analogical reasoning in children with specific language impairment: Evidence from a scene analogy task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzemien, Magali; Jemel, Boutheina; Maillart, Christelle

    2017-01-01

    Analogical reasoning is a human ability that maps systems of relations. It develops along with relational knowledge, working memory and executive functions such as inhibition. It also maintains a mutual influence on language development. Some authors have taken a greater interest in the analogical reasoning ability of children with language disorders, specifically those with specific language impairment (SLI). These children apparently have weaker analogical reasoning abilities than their aged-matched peers without language disorders. Following cognitive theories of language acquisition, this deficit could be one of the causes of language disorders in SLI, especially those concerning productivity. To confirm this deficit and its link to language disorders, we use a scene analogy task to evaluate the analogical performance of SLI children and compare them to controls of the same age and linguistic abilities. Results show that children with SLI perform worse than age-matched peers, but similar to language-matched peers. They are more influenced by increased task difficulty. The association between language disorders and analogical reasoning in SLI can be confirmed. The hypothesis of limited processing capacity in SLI is also being considered.

  1. The Athena Data Dictionary and Description Language

    CERN Document Server

    Bazan, A; Ghez, P; Marino, M; Tull, C

    2003-01-01

    Athena is the ATLAS off-line software framework, based upon the GAUDI architecture from LHCb. As part of ATLAS' continuing efforts to enhance and customise the architecture to meet our needs, we have developed a data object description tool suite and service for Athena. The aim is to provide a set of tools to describe, manage, integrate and use the Event Data Model at a design level according to the concepts of the Athena framework (use of patterns, relationships, ...). Moreover, to ensure stability and reusability this must be fully independent from the implementation details. After an extensive investigation into the many options, we have developed a language grammar based upon a description language (IDL, ODL) to provide support for object integration in Athena. We have then developed a compiler front end based upon this language grammar, JavaCC, and a Java Reflection API-like interface. We have then used these tools to develop several compiler back ends which meet specific needs in ATLAS such as automatic...

  2. Production Logistics Simulation Supported by Process Description Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohács Gábor

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The process description languages are used in the business may be useful in the optimization of logistics processes too. The process description languages would be the obvious solution for process control, to handle the main sources of faults and to give a correct list of what to do during the logistics process. Related to this, firstly, the paper presents the main features of the frequent process description languages. The following section describes the currently most used process modelling languages, in the areas of production and construction logistics. In addition, the paper gives some examples of logistics simulation, as another very important field of logistics system modelling. The main edification of the paper, the logistics simulation supported by process description languages. The paper gives a comparison of a Petri net formal representation and a Simul8 model, through a construction logistics model, as the major contribution of the research.

  3. The Processing Speed of Scene Categorization at Multiple Levels of Description: The Superordinate Advantage Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banno, Hayaki; Saiki, Jun

    2015-03-01

    Recent studies have sought to determine which levels of categories are processed first in visual scene categorization and have shown that the natural and man-made superordinate-level categories are understood faster than are basic-level categories. The current study examined the robustness of the superordinate-level advantage in a visual scene categorization task. A go/no-go categorization task was evaluated with response time distribution analysis using an ex-Gaussian template. A visual scene was categorized as either superordinate or basic level, and two basic-level categories forming a superordinate category were judged as either similar or dissimilar to each other. First, outdoor/ indoor groups and natural/man-made were used as superordinate categories to investigate whether the advantage could be generalized beyond the natural/man-made boundary. Second, a set of images forming a superordinate category was manipulated. We predicted that decreasing image set similarity within the superordinate-level category would work against the speed advantage. We found that basic-level categorization was faster than outdoor/indoor categorization when the outdoor category comprised dissimilar basic-level categories. Our results indicate that the superordinate-level advantage in visual scene categorization is labile across different categories and category structures. © 2015 SAGE Publications.

  4. Typical Toddlers' Participation in "Just-in-Time" Programming of Vocabulary for Visual Scene Display Augmentative and Alternative Communication Apps on Mobile Technology: A Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holyfield, Christine; Drager, Kathryn; Light, Janice; Caron, Jessica Gosnell

    2017-08-15

    Augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) promotes communicative participation and language development for young children with complex communication needs. However, the motor, linguistic, and cognitive demands of many AAC technologies restrict young children's operational use of and influence over these technologies. The purpose of the current study is to better understand young children's participation in programming vocabulary "just in time" on an AAC application with minimized demands. A descriptive study was implemented to highlight the participation of 10 typically developing toddlers (M age: 16 months, range: 10-22 months) in just-in-time vocabulary programming in an AAC app with visual scene displays. All 10 toddlers participated in some capacity in adding new visual scene displays and vocabulary to the app just in time. Differences in participation across steps were observed, suggesting variation in the developmental demands of controls involved in vocabulary programming. Results from the current study provide clinical insights toward involving young children in AAC programming just in time and steps that may allow for more independent participation or require more scaffolding. Technology designed to minimize motor, cognitive, and linguistic demands may allow children to participate in programming devices at a younger age.

  5. Typical Toddlers' Participation in “Just-in-Time” Programming of Vocabulary for Visual Scene Display Augmentative and Alternative Communication Apps on Mobile Technology: A Descriptive Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drager, Kathryn; Light, Janice; Caron, Jessica Gosnell

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) promotes communicative participation and language development for young children with complex communication needs. However, the motor, linguistic, and cognitive demands of many AAC technologies restrict young children's operational use of and influence over these technologies. The purpose of the current study is to better understand young children's participation in programming vocabulary “just in time” on an AAC application with minimized demands. Method A descriptive study was implemented to highlight the participation of 10 typically developing toddlers (M age: 16 months, range: 10–22 months) in just-in-time vocabulary programming in an AAC app with visual scene displays. Results All 10 toddlers participated in some capacity in adding new visual scene displays and vocabulary to the app just in time. Differences in participation across steps were observed, suggesting variation in the developmental demands of controls involved in vocabulary programming. Conclusions Results from the current study provide clinical insights toward involving young children in AAC programming just in time and steps that may allow for more independent participation or require more scaffolding. Technology designed to minimize motor, cognitive, and linguistic demands may allow children to participate in programming devices at a younger age. PMID:28586825

  6. LISp-Miner Control Language description of scripting language implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Simunek

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the LISp-Miner Control Language – a scripting language for the LISp-Miner system, an academic system for knowledge discovery in databases. The main purpose of this language is to provide programmable means to all the features of the LISp-Miner system and mainly to automate the main phases of data mining – from data introduction and preprocessing, formulation of analytical tasks, to discovery of the most interesting patterns. In this sense, the language is a necessary prerequisite for the EverMiner project of data mining automation. Language will serve other purposes too – for an automated verification of the LISp-Miner system functionality before a new version is released and as an educational tool in advanced data mining courses.

  7. A Petri Net Definition of a System Description Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kyng, Morten; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    1979-01-01

    This paper introduces a language for the description of systems with concurrency, and presents a formal definition of its semantics. The language is based on Delta and the semantic model is an extension of Petri nets with a data part and with expressions attached to transitions and to places....

  8. Concept of APDL, the atomic process description language

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Akira

    2004-01-01

    The concept of APDL, the Atomic Process Description Language, which provides simple and complete description of atomic model is presented. The syntax to describe electron orbital and configuration is defined for the use in the atomic structure, kinetics and spectral synthesis simulation codes. (author)

  9. iOS game development : Mobile game development with Swift programming language and SceneKit framework

    OpenAIRE

    Koskenseppä, Juuso

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the thesis was to create an iOS game that could be deemed complete enough, so it could be published in Apple’s App Store. This meant fulfilling different guide-lines specified by Apple. The project was carried out by using Apple’s new Swift programming language and SceneKit framework, with an intention to see how they work for iOS game development. The immaturity of Swift programming language led to several code rewrites, every time a newer Swift version was released. T...

  10. SELECTION OF ONTOLOGY FOR WEB SERVICE DESCRIPTION LANGUAGE TO ONTOLOGY WEB LANGUAGE CONVERSION

    OpenAIRE

    J. Mannar Mannan; M. Sundarambal; S. Raghul

    2014-01-01

    Semantic web is to extend the current human readable web to encoding some of the semantic of resources in a machine processing form. As a Semantic web component, Semantic Web Services (SWS) uses a mark-up that makes the data into detailed and sophisticated machine readable way. One such language is Ontology Web Language (OWL). Existing conventional web service annotation can be changed to semantic web service by mapping Web Service Description Language (WSDL) with the semantic annotation of O...

  11. Descriptive markup languages and the development of digital humanities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Bosančić

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the role of descriptive markup languages in the development of digital humanities, a new research discipline that is part of social sciences and humanities, which focuses on the use of computers in research. A chronological review of the development of digital humanities, and then descriptive markup languages is exposed, through several developmental stages. It is shown that the development of digital humanities since the mid-1980s and the appearance of SGML, markup language that was the foundation of TEI, a key standard for the encoding and exchange of humanities texts in the digital environment, is inseparable from the development of markup languages. Special attention is dedicated to the presentation of the Text Encoding Initiative – TEI development, a key organization that developed the titled standard, both from organizational and markup perspectives. By this time, TEI standard is published in five versions, and during 2000s SGML is replaced by XML markup language. Key words: markup languages, digital humanities, text encoding, TEI, SGML, XML

  12. Prolog as description and implementation language in computer science teaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning

    population with uneven mathematical backgrounds. % Definitional interpreters, compilers, and other models of computation are defined in a systematic way as Prolog programs, and as a result, formal descriptions become running prototypes that can be tested and modified by the students. These programs can......Prolog is a powerful pedagogical instrument for theoretical elements of computer science when used as combined description language and experimentation tool. A teaching methodology based on this principle has been developed and successfully applied in a context with a heterogeneous student...

  13. Scene incongruity and attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Arien; Clarke, Jason; Erol, Muge; Bert, John

    2017-02-01

    Does scene incongruity, (a mismatch between scene gist and a semantically incongruent object), capture attention and lead to conscious perception? We explored this question using 4 different procedures: Inattention (Experiment 1), Scene description (Experiment 2), Change detection (Experiment 3), and Iconic Memory (Experiment 4). We found no differences between scene incongruity and scene congruity in Experiments 1, 2, and 4, although in Experiment 3 change detection was faster for scenes containing an incongruent object. We offer an explanation for why the change detection results differ from the results of the other three experiments. In all four experiments, participants invariably failed to report the incongruity and routinely mis-described it by normalizing the incongruent object. None of the results supports the claim that semantic incongruity within a scene invariably captures attention and provide strong evidence of the dominant role of scene gist in determining what is perceived. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Acceptance Testing Of Web Applications With Test Description Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Olek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acceptance tests are usually created by a client after a part of a system is implemented. However, some methodologies propose the elaboration of test cases before implementing a system. This approach increases the probability of system implementation that fulfills requirements, but may be problematic for customers and testers. To allow acceptance testing in such conditions, we propose to define test cases by recording them on an interactive mockup (a low detailed user-interface prototype. The paper focuses on Test Description Language, a notation used to store test cases.

  15. Descriptive study of 192 adults with speech and language disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Lessa Mansur

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Aphasia is a very disabling condition caused by neurological diseases. In Brazil, we have little data on the profile of aphasics treated in rehabilitation centers. OBJECTIVE: To present a descriptive study of 192 patients, providing a reference sample of speech and language disturbances among Brazilians. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Speech Pathology Unit linked to the Neurology Division of the Hospital das Clínicas of the Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo. SAMPLE: All patients (192 referred to our Speech Pathology service from 1995 to 2000. PROCEDURES: We collected data relating to demographic variables, etiology, language evaluation (functional evaluation, Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination, Boston Naming and Token Test, and neuroimaging studies. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: The results obtained in language tests and the clinical and neuroimaging data were organized and classified. Seventy aphasics were chosen for constructing a profile. Fourteen subjects with left single-lobe dysfunction were analyzed in detail. Seventeen aphasics were compared with 17 normal subjects, all performing the Token Test. RESULTS: One hundred subjects (52% were men and 92 (48% women. Their education varied from 0 to 16 years (average: 6.5; standard deviation: 4.53. We identified the lesion sites in 104 patients: 89% in the left hemisphere and 58% due to stroke. The incidence of aphasia was 70%; dysarthria and apraxia, 6%; functional alterations in communication, 17%; and 7% were normal. Statistically significant differences appeared when comparing the subgroup to controls in the Token Test. CONCLUSIONS: We believe that this sample contributes to a better understanding of neurological patients with speech and language disturbances and may be useful as a reference for health professionals involved in the rehabilitation of such disorders.

  16. The Communication of Culturally Dominant Modes of Attention from Parents to Children: A Comparison of Canadian and Japanese Parent-Child Conversations during a Joint Scene Description Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senzaki, Sawa; Masuda, Takahiko; Takada, Akira; Okada, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Previous findings have indicated that, when presented with visual information, North American undergraduate students selectively attend to focal objects, whereas East Asian undergraduate students are more sensitive to background information. However, little is known about how these differences are driven by culture and socialization processes. In this study, two experiments investigated how young children and their parents used culturally unique modes of attention (selective vs. context sensitive attention). We expected that children would slowly learn culturally unique modes of attention, and the experience of communicating with their parents would aid the development of such modes of attention. Study 1 tested children's solitary performance by examining Canadian and Japanese children's (4-6 vs. 7-9 years old) modes of attention during a scene description task, whereby children watched short animations by themselves and then described their observations. The results confirmed that children did not demonstrate significant cross-cultural differences in attention during the scene description task while working independently, although results did show rudimentary signs of culturally unique modes of attention in this task scenario by age 9. Study 2 examined parent-child (4-6 and 7-9 years old) dyads using the same task. The results indicated that parents communicated to their children differently across cultures, replicating attentional differences among undergraduate students in previous cross-cultural studies. Study 2 also demonstrated that children's culturally unique description styles increased significantly with age. The descriptions made by the older group (7-9 years old) showed significant cross-cultural variances in attention, while descriptions among the younger group (4-6 years old) did not. The significance of parental roles in the development of culturally unique modes of attention is discussed in addition to other possible facilitators of this

  17. The Communication of Culturally Dominant Modes of Attention from Parents to Children: A Comparison of Canadian and Japanese Parent-Child Conversations during a Joint Scene Description Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Akira; Okada, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Previous findings have indicated that, when presented with visual information, North American undergraduate students selectively attend to focal objects, whereas East Asian undergraduate students are more sensitive to background information. However, little is known about how these differences are driven by culture and socialization processes. In this study, two experiments investigated how young children and their parents used culturally unique modes of attention (selective vs. context sensitive attention). We expected that children would slowly learn culturally unique modes of attention, and the experience of communicating with their parents would aid the development of such modes of attention. Study 1 tested children’s solitary performance by examining Canadian and Japanese children’s (4–6 vs. 7–9 years old) modes of attention during a scene description task, whereby children watched short animations by themselves and then described their observations. The results confirmed that children did not demonstrate significant cross-cultural differences in attention during the scene description task while working independently, although results did show rudimentary signs of culturally unique modes of attention in this task scenario by age 9. Study 2 examined parent–child (4–6 and 7–9 years old) dyads using the same task. The results indicated that parents communicated to their children differently across cultures, replicating attentional differences among undergraduate students in previous cross-cultural studies. Study 2 also demonstrated that children’s culturally unique description styles increased significantly with age. The descriptions made by the older group (7–9 years old) showed significant cross-cultural variances in attention, while descriptions among the younger group (4–6 years old) did not. The significance of parental roles in the development of culturally unique modes of attention is discussed in addition to other possible facilitators

  18. The Communication of Culturally Dominant Modes of Attention from Parents to Children: A Comparison of Canadian and Japanese Parent-Child Conversations during a Joint Scene Description Task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawa Senzaki

    Full Text Available Previous findings have indicated that, when presented with visual information, North American undergraduate students selectively attend to focal objects, whereas East Asian undergraduate students are more sensitive to background information. However, little is known about how these differences are driven by culture and socialization processes. In this study, two experiments investigated how young children and their parents used culturally unique modes of attention (selective vs. context sensitive attention. We expected that children would slowly learn culturally unique modes of attention, and the experience of communicating with their parents would aid the development of such modes of attention. Study 1 tested children's solitary performance by examining Canadian and Japanese children's (4-6 vs. 7-9 years old modes of attention during a scene description task, whereby children watched short animations by themselves and then described their observations. The results confirmed that children did not demonstrate significant cross-cultural differences in attention during the scene description task while working independently, although results did show rudimentary signs of culturally unique modes of attention in this task scenario by age 9. Study 2 examined parent-child (4-6 and 7-9 years old dyads using the same task. The results indicated that parents communicated to their children differently across cultures, replicating attentional differences among undergraduate students in previous cross-cultural studies. Study 2 also demonstrated that children's culturally unique description styles increased significantly with age. The descriptions made by the older group (7-9 years old showed significant cross-cultural variances in attention, while descriptions among the younger group (4-6 years old did not. The significance of parental roles in the development of culturally unique modes of attention is discussed in addition to other possible facilitators of

  19. The Subsystem of Numerals in Catalan Sign Language: Description and Examples from a Psycholinguistic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Mariana; Tolchinsky, Liliana

    2004-01-01

    Linguistic descriptions of sign languages are important to the recognition of their linguistic status. These languages are an essential part of the cultural heritage of the communities that create and use them and vital in the education of deaf children. They are also the reference point in language acquisition studies. Ours is exploratory…

  20. A comparison of hardware description languages. [describing digital systems structure and behavior to a computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiva, S. G.

    1978-01-01

    Several high level languages which evolved over the past few years for describing and simulating the structure and behavior of digital systems, on digital computers are assessed. The characteristics of the four prominent languages (CDL, DDL, AHPL, ISP) are summarized. A criterion for selecting a suitable hardware description language for use in an automatic integrated circuit design environment is provided.

  1. Specialized Language Activities: A Description of the First Year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxford Hills High School, South Paris, ME.

    The Specialized Language Activities Program (ESEA Title 3 Project) to motivate students to improve their oral language was conducted in an essentially rural section of Maine with an experimental group and a control group of 80 ninth-grade students with an I.Q. range of 85-100 and poor language usage. Sixty-seven percent of them had repeated at…

  2. Teacher Language Competence Description: Towards a New Framework of Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolova, Nataliya

    2012-01-01

    The article is centred around the concept of "language competence of a foreign language (FL) teacher" and the ways it can be evaluated. Though the definition of teacher language competence might sound obvious it has not yet been clearly structured and, therefore, no component has been thoroughly described. I use this fact as a starting…

  3. Scene construction in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffard, Stéphane; D'Argembeau, Arnaud; Bayard, Sophie; Boulenger, Jean-Philippe; Van der Linden, Martial

    2010-09-01

    Recent research has revealed that schizophrenia patients are impaired in remembering the past and imagining the future. In this study, we examined patients' ability to engage in scene construction (i.e., the process of mentally generating and maintaining a complex and coherent scene), which is a key part of retrieving past experiences and episodic future thinking. 24 participants with schizophrenia and 25 healthy controls were asked to imagine new fictitious experiences and described their mental representations of the scenes in as much detail as possible. Descriptions were scored according to various dimensions (e.g., sensory details, spatial reference), and participants also provided ratings of their subjective experience when imagining the scenes (e.g., their sense of presence, the perceived similarity of imagined events to past experiences). Imagined scenes contained less phenomenological details (d = 1.11) and were more fragmented (d = 2.81) in schizophrenia patients compared to controls. Furthermore, positive symptoms were positively correlated to the sense of presence (r = .43) and the perceived similarity of imagined events to past episodes (r = .47), whereas negative symptoms were negatively related to the overall richness of the imagined scenes (r = -.43). The results suggest that schizophrenic patients' impairments in remembering the past and imagining the future are, at least in part, due to deficits in the process of scene construction. The relationships between the characteristics of imagined scenes and positive and negative symptoms could be related to reality monitoring deficits and difficulties in strategic retrieval processes, respectively. Copyright 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Descriptions of Selected Career-Related College Language Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knodel, Arthur J.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Seven courses or programs at different colleges emphasizing specific career applications of languages are described. They include: Technical French; Spanish for Law Enforcement and Correctional Personnel; Executive German; Proyecto Desarrollo Economico; Spanish for Medical Professions; Elements of Foreign Language, and Business French and Business…

  5. Hardware Descriptive Languages: An Efficient Approach to Device ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contemporarily, owing to astronomical advancements in the very large scale integration (VLSI) market segments, hardware engineers are now focusing on how to develop their new digital system designs in programmable languages like very high speed integrated circuit hardwaredescription language (VHDL) and Verilog ...

  6. Dual Sticky Hierarchical Dirichlet Process Hidden Markov Model and Its Application to Natural Language Description of Motions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Weiming; Tian, Guodong; Kang, Yongxin; Yuan, Chunfeng; Maybank, Stephen

    2017-09-25

    In this paper, a new nonparametric Bayesian model called the dual sticky hierarchical Dirichlet process hidden Markov model (HDP-HMM) is proposed for mining activities from a collection of time series data such as trajectories. All the time series data are clustered. Each cluster of time series data, corresponding to a motion pattern, is modeled by an HMM. Our model postulates a set of HMMs that share a common set of states (topics in an analogy with topic models for document processing), but have unique transition distributions. For the application to motion trajectory modeling, topics correspond to motion activities. The learnt topics are clustered into atomic activities which are assigned predicates. We propose a Bayesian inference method to decompose a given trajectory into a sequence of atomic activities. On combining the learnt sources and sinks, semantic motion regions, and the learnt sequence of atomic activities, the action represented by the trajectory can be described in natural language in as automatic a way as possible. The effectiveness of our dual sticky HDP-HMM is validated on several trajectory datasets. The effectiveness of the natural language descriptions for motions is demonstrated on the vehicle trajectories extracted from a traffic scene.

  7. Using Open Geographic Data to Generate Natural Language Descriptions for Hydrological Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Martin; Sanchez-Soriano, Javier; Corcho, Oscar

    2015-07-03

    Providing descriptions of isolated sensors and sensor networks in natural language, understandable by the general public, is useful to help users find relevant sensors and analyze sensor data. In this paper, we discuss the feasibility of using geographic knowledge from public databases available on the Web (such as OpenStreetMap, Geonames, or DBpedia) to automatically construct such descriptions. We present a general method that uses such information to generate sensor descriptions in natural language. The results of the evaluation of our method in a hydrologic national sensor network showed that this approach is feasible and capable of generating adequate sensor descriptions with a lower development effort compared to other approaches. In the paper we also analyze certain problems that we found in public databases (e.g., heterogeneity, non-standard use of labels, or rigid search methods) and their impact in the generation of sensor descriptions.

  8. Using Open Geographic Data to Generate Natural Language Descriptions for Hydrological Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Molina

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Providing descriptions of isolated sensors and sensor networks in natural language, understandable by the general public, is useful to help users find relevant sensors and analyze sensor data. In this paper, we discuss the feasibility of using geographic knowledge from public databases available on the Web (such as OpenStreetMap, Geonames, or DBpedia to automatically construct such descriptions. We present a general method that uses such information to generate sensor descriptions in natural language. The results of the evaluation of our method in a hydrologic national sensor network showed that this approach is feasible and capable of generating adequate sensor descriptions with a lower development effort compared to other approaches. In the paper we also analyze certain problems that we found in public databases (e.g., heterogeneity, non-standard use of labels, or rigid search methods and their impact in the generation of sensor descriptions.

  9. Automatic classification of written descriptions by healthy adults: An overview of the application of natural language processing and machine learning techniques to clinical discourse analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, Cíntia Matsuda; Cunha, Andre; Scarton, Carolina; Aluísio, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Discourse production is an important aspect in the evaluation of brain-injured individuals. We believe that studies comparing the performance of brain-injured subjects with that of healthy controls must use groups with compatible education. A pioneering application of machine learning methods using Brazilian Portuguese for clinical purposes is described, highlighting education as an important variable in the Brazilian scenario. The aims were to describe how to:(i) develop machine learning classifiers using features generated by natural language processing tools to distinguish descriptions produced by healthy individuals into classes based on their years of education; and(ii) automatically identify the features that best distinguish the groups. The approach proposed here extracts linguistic features automatically from the written descriptions with the aid of two Natural Language Processing tools: Coh-Metrix-Port and AIC. It also includes nine task-specific features (three new ones, two extracted manually, besides description time; type of scene described - simple or complex; presentation order - which type of picture was described first; and age). In this study, the descriptions by 144 of the subjects studied in Toledo 18 were used,which included 200 healthy Brazilians of both genders. A Support Vector Machine (SVM) with a radial basis function (RBF) kernel is the most recommended approach for the binary classification of our data, classifying three of the four initial classes. CfsSubsetEval (CFS) is a strong candidate to replace manual feature selection methods.

  10. Automatic classification of written descriptions by healthy adults: An overview of the application of natural language processing and machine learning techniques to clinical discourse analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia Matsuda Toledo

    Full Text Available Discourse production is an important aspect in the evaluation of brain-injured individuals. We believe that studies comparing the performance of brain-injured subjects with that of healthy controls must use groups with compatible education. A pioneering application of machine learning methods using Brazilian Portuguese for clinical purposes is described, highlighting education as an important variable in the Brazilian scenario.OBJECTIVE: The aims were to describe how to: (i develop machine learning classifiers using features generated by natural language processing tools to distinguish descriptions produced by healthy individuals into classes based on their years of education; and (ii automatically identify the features that best distinguish the groups.METHODS: The approach proposed here extracts linguistic features automatically from the written descriptions with the aid of two Natural Language Processing tools: Coh-Metrix-Port and AIC. It also includes nine task-specific features (three new ones, two extracted manually, besides description time; type of scene described - simple or complex; presentation order - which type of picture was described first; and age. In this study, the descriptions by 144 of the subjects studied in Toledo18 were used, which included 200 healthy Brazilians of both genders.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:A Support Vector Machine (SVM with a radial basis function (RBF kernel is the most recommended approach for the binary classification of our data, classifying three of the four initial classes. CfsSubsetEval (CFS is a strong candidate to replace manual feature selection methods.

  11. GSFC Systems Test and Operation Language (STOL) functional requirements and language description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, R.; Hall, G.; Mcguire, J.; Merwarth, P.; Mocarsky, W.; Truszkowski, W.; Villasenor, A.; Brosi, F.; Burch, P.; Carey, D.

    1978-01-01

    The Systems Tests and Operation Language (STOL) provides the means for user communication with payloads, applications programs, and other ground system elements. It is a systems operation language that enables an operator or user to communicate a command to a computer system. The system interprets each high level language directive from the user and performs the indicated action, such as executing a program, printing out a snapshot, or sending a payload command. This document presents the following: (1) required language features and implementation considerations; (2) basic capabilities; (3) telemetry, command, and input/output directives; (4) procedure definition and control; (5) listing, extension, and STOL nucleus capabilities.

  12. Towards a Pattern Language Approach to Document Description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Waller

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Pattern libraries, originating in architecture, are a common way to share design solutions in interaction design and software engineering. Our aim in this paper is to consider patterns as a way of describing commonly-occurring document design solutions to particular problems, from two points of view. First, we are interested in their use as exemplars for designers to follow, and second, we suggest them as a means of understanding linguistic and graphical data for their organization into corpora that will facilitate descriptive work. We discuss the use of patterns across a range of disciplines before suggesting the need to place patterns in the context of genres, with each potentially belonging to a “home genre” in which it originates and to which it makes an implicit intertextual reference intended to produce a particular reader response in the form of a reading strategy or interpretative stance. We consider some conceptual and technical issues involved in the descriptive study of patterns in naturally-occurring documents, including the challenges involved in building a document corpus.

  13. The carbohydrate sequence markup language (CabosML): an XML description of carbohydrate structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Norihiro; Kameyama, Akihiko; Nakaya, Shuuichi; Ito, Hiromi; Sato, Takashi; Shikanai, Toshihide; Takahashi, Yoriko; Narimatsu, Hisashi

    2005-04-15

    Bioinformatics resources for glycomics are very poor as compared with those for genomics and proteomics. The complexity of carbohydrate sequences makes it difficult to define a common language to represent them, and the development of bioinformatics tools for glycomics has not progressed. In this study, we developed a carbohydrate sequence markup language (CabosML), an XML description of carbohydrate structures. The language definition (XML Schema) and an experimental database of carbohydrate structures using an XML database management system are available at http://www.phoenix.hydra.mki.co.jp/CabosDemo.html kikuchi@hydra.mki.co.jp.

  14. Teaching of science and language by elementary teachers who emphasize the integrated language approach: A descriptive study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blouch, Kathleen Kennedy

    This research involved investigating the nature of science and language instruction in 13 elementary classrooms where teachers have restructured their language programs to reflect an integrated or holistic view of language instruction. The teachers were identified by school administrators and other professionals as teachers who have implemented instructional reforms described in the Pennsylvania Framework for Reading, Writing and Speaking Across the Curriculum (PCRPII), (Lytle & Botel, 1900). The instruction utilized by these teachers was described as atypical when compared to that of teachers utilizing the more traditional didactic skills oriented approach to language literacy. The research involved observing, recording and categorizing teaching behaviors during both science and language instruction. Videotaped observations were followed by analyses and descriptions of these behaviors. Interviews were also conducted to ascertain the basis for selection of the various instructional approaches. The instruction was compared on four dimensions: participation patterns, time the behaviors were practiced, type of tasks and levels of questioning. The instruction was then described in light of constructivist teaching practices: student collaboration, student autonomy, integration and higher order thinking. Constructivist practices differed among teachers for science and language instruction. During science instruction teachers spent more time involved in teacher-whole group participation patterns with more direct questioning as compared to language instruction in which children participated alone or in groups and had opportunity to initiate conversations and questions. Student inquiry was evidenced during language instruction more so than during science. The 13 teachers asked a variety of levels and types of questions both in science and language instruction. More hands-on science experiences were observed when science was taught separately compared to when integrated with

  15. Virtual environments for scene of crime reconstruction and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Toby L. J.; Murta, Alan D.; Gibson, Simon

    2000-02-01

    This paper describes research conducted in collaboration with Greater Manchester Police (UK), to evalute the utility of Virtual Environments for scene of crime analysis, forensic investigation, and law enforcement briefing and training. We present an illustrated case study of the construction of a high-fidelity virtual environment, intended to match a particular real-life crime scene as closely as possible. We describe and evaluate the combination of several approaches including: the use of the Manchester Scene Description Language for constructing complex geometrical models; the application of a radiosity rendering algorithm with several novel features based on human perceptual consideration; texture extraction from forensic photography; and experiments with interactive walkthroughs and large-screen stereoscopic display of the virtual environment implemented using the MAVERIK system. We also discuss the potential applications of Virtual Environment techniques in the Law Enforcement and Forensic communities.

  16. Proceedings of the of the Eleventh Workshop on Language Descriptions, Tools and Applications (LDTA 2011)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This volume contains the proceedings of the Eleventh Workshop on Language Descriptions, Tools and Applications (LDTA 2011), held in Saarbrücken, Germany on March 26 & 27, 2011. LDTA is a two-day satellite event of ETAPS (European Joint Conferences on Theory and Practice of Software) and organized...... in cooperation with ACM SIGPLAN. LDTA is an application and tool-oriented workshop focused on grammarware---software based on grammars in some form. Grammarware applications are typically language processing applications and traditional examples include parsers, program analyzers, optimizers and translators......, as well as techniques and tools, to the test in a new way in the form of the LDTA Tool Challenge. Tool developers were invited to participate in the Challenge by developing solutions to a range of language processing tasks over a simple but evolving set of imperative programming languages. Tool challenge...

  17. Second-Language Composition Instruction, Computers and First-Language Pedagogy: A Descriptive Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, T. Edward

    1987-01-01

    A national survey of full-time instructional faculty (N=208) at universities, 2-year colleges, and high schools regarding attitudes toward using computers in second-language composition instruction revealed a predomination of Apple and IBM-PC computers used, a major frustration in lack of foreign character support, and mixed opinions about real…

  18. HCIDL: Human-computer interface description language for multi-target, multimodal, plastic user interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamia Gaouar

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available From the human-computer interface perspectives, the challenges to be faced are related to the consideration of new, multiple interactions, and the diversity of devices. The large panel of interactions (touching, shaking, voice dictation, positioning … and the diversification of interaction devices can be seen as a factor of flexibility albeit introducing incidental complexity. Our work is part of the field of user interface description languages. After an analysis of the scientific context of our work, this paper introduces HCIDL, a modelling language staged in a model-driven engineering approach. Among the properties related to human-computer interface, our proposition is intended for modelling multi-target, multimodal, plastic interaction interfaces using user interface description languages. By combining plasticity and multimodality, HCIDL improves usability of user interfaces through adaptive behaviour by providing end-users with an interaction-set adapted to input/output of terminals and, an optimum layout. Keywords: Model driven engineering, Human-computer interface, User interface description languages, Multimodal applications, Plastic user interfaces

  19. Systems Biology Graphical Notation: Process Description language Level 1 Version 1.3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodie, Stuart; Le Novère, Nicolas; Demir, Emek; Mi, Huaiyu; Villéger, Alice

    2015-09-04

    The Systems Biological Graphical Notation (SBGN) is an international community effort for standardized graphical representations of biological pathways and networks. The goal of SBGN is to provide unambiguous pathway and network maps for readers with different scientific backgrounds as well as to support efficient and accurate exchange of biological knowledge between different research communities, industry, and other players in systems biology. Three SBGN languages, Process Description (PD), Entity Relationship (ER) and Activity Flow (AF), allow for the representation of different aspects of biological and biochemical systems at different levels of detail. The SBGN Process Description language represents biological entities and processes between these entities within a network. SBGN PD focuses on the mechanistic description and temporal dependencies of biological interactions and transformations. The nodes (elements) are split into entity nodes describing, e.g., metabolites, proteins, genes and complexes, and process nodes describing, e.g., reactions and associations. The edges (connections) provide descriptions of relationships (or influences) between the nodes, such as consumption, production, stimulation and inhibition. Among all three languages of SBGN, PD is the closest to metabolic and regulatory pathways in biological literature and textbooks, but its well-defined semantics offer a superior precision in expressing biological knowledge.

  20. SADE: system of acquisition of experimental data. Definition and analysis of an experiment description language

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagniere, Jean-Michel

    1983-01-01

    This research thesis presents a computer system for the acquisition of experimental data. It is aimed at acquiring, at processing and at storing information from particle detectors. The acquisition configuration is described by an experiment description language. The system comprises a lexical analyser, a syntactic analyser, a translator, and a data processing module. It also comprises a control language and a statistics management and plotting module. The translator builds up series of tables which allow, during an experiment, different sequences to be executed: experiment running, calculations to be performed on this data, building up of statistics. Short execution time and ease of use are always looked for [fr

  1. Reproducible computational biology experiments with SED-ML--the Simulation Experiment Description Markup Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltemath, Dagmar; Adams, Richard; Bergmann, Frank T; Hucka, Michael; Kolpakov, Fedor; Miller, Andrew K; Moraru, Ion I; Nickerson, David; Sahle, Sven; Snoep, Jacky L; Le Novère, Nicolas

    2011-12-15

    The increasing use of computational simulation experiments to inform modern biological research creates new challenges to annotate, archive, share and reproduce such experiments. The recently published Minimum Information About a Simulation Experiment (MIASE) proposes a minimal set of information that should be provided to allow the reproduction of simulation experiments among users and software tools. In this article, we present the Simulation Experiment Description Markup Language (SED-ML). SED-ML encodes in a computer-readable exchange format the information required by MIASE to enable reproduction of simulation experiments. It has been developed as a community project and it is defined in a detailed technical specification and additionally provides an XML schema. The version of SED-ML described in this publication is Level 1 Version 1. It covers the description of the most frequent type of simulation experiments in the area, namely time course simulations. SED-ML documents specify which models to use in an experiment, modifications to apply on the models before using them, which simulation procedures to run on each model, what analysis results to output, and how the results should be presented. These descriptions are independent of the underlying model implementation. SED-ML is a software-independent format for encoding the description of simulation experiments; it is not specific to particular simulation tools. Here, we demonstrate that with the growing software support for SED-ML we can effectively exchange executable simulation descriptions. With SED-ML, software can exchange simulation experiment descriptions, enabling the validation and reuse of simulation experiments in different tools. Authors of papers reporting simulation experiments can make their simulation protocols available for other scientists to reproduce the results. Because SED-ML is agnostic about exact modeling language(s) used, experiments covering models from different fields of research

  2. Reproducible computational biology experiments with SED-ML - The Simulation Experiment Description Markup Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The increasing use of computational simulation experiments to inform modern biological research creates new challenges to annotate, archive, share and reproduce such experiments. The recently published Minimum Information About a Simulation Experiment (MIASE) proposes a minimal set of information that should be provided to allow the reproduction of simulation experiments among users and software tools. Results In this article, we present the Simulation Experiment Description Markup Language (SED-ML). SED-ML encodes in a computer-readable exchange format the information required by MIASE to enable reproduction of simulation experiments. It has been developed as a community project and it is defined in a detailed technical specification and additionally provides an XML schema. The version of SED-ML described in this publication is Level 1 Version 1. It covers the description of the most frequent type of simulation experiments in the area, namely time course simulations. SED-ML documents specify which models to use in an experiment, modifications to apply on the models before using them, which simulation procedures to run on each model, what analysis results to output, and how the results should be presented. These descriptions are independent of the underlying model implementation. SED-ML is a software-independent format for encoding the description of simulation experiments; it is not specific to particular simulation tools. Here, we demonstrate that with the growing software support for SED-ML we can effectively exchange executable simulation descriptions. Conclusions With SED-ML, software can exchange simulation experiment descriptions, enabling the validation and reuse of simulation experiments in different tools. Authors of papers reporting simulation experiments can make their simulation protocols available for other scientists to reproduce the results. Because SED-ML is agnostic about exact modeling language(s) used, experiments covering models from

  3. Neural systems language: a formal modeling language for the systematic description, unambiguous communication, and automated digital curation of neural connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ramsay A; Swanson, Larry W

    2013-09-01

    Systematic description and the unambiguous communication of findings and models remain among the unresolved fundamental challenges in systems neuroscience. No common descriptive frameworks exist to describe systematically the connective architecture of the nervous system, even at the grossest level of observation. Furthermore, the accelerating volume of novel data generated on neural connectivity outpaces the rate at which this data is curated into neuroinformatics databases to synthesize digitally systems-level insights from disjointed reports and observations. To help address these challenges, we propose the Neural Systems Language (NSyL). NSyL is a modeling language to be used by investigators to encode and communicate systematically reports of neural connectivity from neuroanatomy and brain imaging. NSyL engenders systematic description and communication of connectivity irrespective of the animal taxon described, experimental or observational technique implemented, or nomenclature referenced. As a language, NSyL is internally consistent, concise, and comprehensible to both humans and computers. NSyL is a promising development for systematizing the representation of neural architecture, effectively managing the increasing volume of data on neural connectivity and streamlining systems neuroscience research. Here we present similar precedent systems, how NSyL extends existing frameworks, and the reasoning behind NSyL's development. We explore NSyL's potential for balancing robustness and consistency in representation by encoding previously reported assertions of connectivity from the literature as examples. Finally, we propose and discuss the implications of a framework for how NSyL will be digitally implemented in the future to streamline curation of experimental results and bridge the gaps among anatomists, imagers, and neuroinformatics databases. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. A comparison of English and Japanese taste languages: taste descriptive methodology, codability and the umami taste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mahony, M; Ishii, R

    1986-05-01

    Everyday taste descriptions for a range of stimuli were obtained from selected groups of American and Japanese subjects, using a variety of stimuli, stimulus presentation procedures and response conditions. In English there was a tendency to use a quadrapartite classification system: 'sweet', 'sour', 'salty' and 'bitter'. The Japanese had a different strategy, adding a fifth label: 'Ajinomoto', referring to the taste of monosodium glutamate. This label was generally replaced by umami--the scientific term--by Japanese who were workers or trained tasters involved with glutamate manufacture. Cultural differences in taste language have consequences for taste psychophysicists who impose a quadrapartite restriction on allowable taste descriptions. Stimulus presentation by filter-paper or aqueous solution elicited the same response trends. Language codability was only an indicator of degree of taste mixedness/singularity if used statistically with samples of sufficient size; it had little value as an indicator for individual subjects.

  5. Proceedings of the of the Tenth Workshop on Language Descriptions, Tools and Applications (LDTA 2010)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Claus

    2010-01-01

    -Louis Giavitto ("A Domain Specific Language for Complex Natural & Artificial Systems Simulations") and the 11 contributed papers that were selected for presentation and the proceedings by the programme committee from 30 submissions (i.e., 37% acceptance rate). Every submission was reviewed by at least three......This volume contains the proceedings of the Tenth Workshop on Language Descriptions, Tools and Applications (LDTA 2010), held in Paphos, Cyprus on March 28--29, 2010. LDTA is a two-day satellite event of ETAPS (European Joint Conferences on Theory and Practice of Software) organized in cooperation...... with ACM Sigplan. LDTA is an application and tool-oriented forum on meta programming in a broad sense. A meta program is a program that takes other programs as input or output. The focus of LDTA is on generated or otherwise efficiently implemented meta programs, possibly using high level descriptions...

  6. Root system markup language: toward a unified root architecture description language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobet, Guillaume; Pound, Michael P; Diener, Julien; Pradal, Christophe; Draye, Xavier; Godin, Christophe; Javaux, Mathieu; Leitner, Daniel; Meunier, Félicien; Nacry, Philippe; Pridmore, Tony P; Schnepf, Andrea

    2015-03-01

    The number of image analysis tools supporting the extraction of architectural features of root systems has increased in recent years. These tools offer a handy set of complementary facilities, yet it is widely accepted that none of these software tools is able to extract in an efficient way the growing array of static and dynamic features for different types of images and species. We describe the Root System Markup Language (RSML), which has been designed to overcome two major challenges: (1) to enable portability of root architecture data between different software tools in an easy and interoperable manner, allowing seamless collaborative work; and (2) to provide a standard format upon which to base central repositories that will soon arise following the expanding worldwide root phenotyping effort. RSML follows the XML standard to store two- or three-dimensional image metadata, plant and root properties and geometries, continuous functions along individual root paths, and a suite of annotations at the image, plant, or root scale at one or several time points. Plant ontologies are used to describe botanical entities that are relevant at the scale of root system architecture. An XML schema describes the features and constraints of RSML, and open-source packages have been developed in several languages (R, Excel, Java, Python, and C#) to enable researchers to integrate RSML files into popular research workflow. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  7. From General Game Descriptions to a Market Specification Language for General Trading Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thielscher, Michael; Zhang, Dongmo

    The idea behind General Game Playing is to build systems that, instead of being programmed for one specific task, are intelligent and flexible enough to negotiate an unknown environment solely on the basis of the rules which govern it. In this paper, we argue that this principle has the great potential to bring to a new level artificially intelligent systems in other application areas as well. Our specific interest lies in General Trading Agents, which are able to understand the rules of unknown markets and then to actively participate in them without human intervention. To this end, we extend the general Game Description Language into a language that allows to formally describe arbitrary markets in such a way that these specifications can be automatically processed by a computer. We present both syntax and a transition-based semantics for this Market Specification Language and illustrate its expressive power by presenting axiomatizations of several well-known auction types.

  8. Evaluating Pragmatic Competence in Nigerian Undergraduates’ Language Errors within Descriptive ESL Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anas Sa’idu Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the level of pragmatic competence for ESL writing skills among Nigerian undergraduates. Methodologically, it adopts descriptive research design within the explanatory framework of the QUAN-Qual model. The instruments used are descriptive essay text and focus group interview questions. In writing the descriptive essays, a total of 402 undergraduates’ participated through convenience sampling. Quantitatively, an independent samples t-test was carried out. The results indicated the females required putting more efforts towards improving their pragmatic competence in the ESL writing as they achieved a higher means for language errors, compared to that of the males. Moreover, the ttest value demonstrated that the females lacked skills in the pragmatic skills of mechanical structure, grammatical function, and sentence structures and this made them commit more language errors. Qualitatively, a focus group interview was held randomly with 12 participants out of the 402 undergraduates through purposive sampling. The results of the interview sessions revealed novelties of culture-specific, learning feasibility and the academic discourse as the key elements that constraint most of the Nigerian undergraduates ESL writing skills, particularly the females. Therefore, this study revealed strong implications on how best to develop Nigerian learners’ pragmatic competence in ESL writing skills

  9. Using Specification and Description Language for Life Cycle Assesment in Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pau Fonseca i Casas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The definition of a Life Cycle Assesment (LCA for a building or an urban area is a complex task due to the inherent complexity of all the elements that must be considered. Furthermore, a multidisciplinary approach is required due to the different sources of knowledge involved in this project. This multidisciplinary approach makes it necessary to use formal language to fully represent the complexity of the used models. In this paper, we explore the use of Specification and Description Language (SDL to represent the LCA of a building and residential area. We also introduce a tool that uses this idea to implement an optimization and simulation mechanism to define the optimal solution for the sustainability of a specific building or residential.

  10. Efficiency of Picture Description and Storytelling Methods in Language Sampling According to the Mean Length of Utterance Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salime Jafari

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Due to limitation of standardized tests for Persian-speakers with language disorders, spontaneous language sampling collection is an important part of assessment of languageprotocol. Therefore, selection of a language sampling method, which will provide information of linguistic competence in a short time, is important. Therefore, in this study, we compared the languagesamples elicited with picture description and storytelling methods in order to determine the effectiveness of the two methods.Methods: In this study 30 first-grade elementary school girls were selected with simple sampling. To investigate picture description method, we used two illustrated stories with four pictures. Languagesamples were collected through storytelling by telling a famous children’s story. To determine the effectiveness of these two methods the two indices of duration of sampling and mean length ofutterance (MLU were compared.Results: There was no significant difference between MLU in description and storytelling methods(p>0.05. However, duration of sampling was shorter in the picture description method than the storytelling method (p<0.05.Conclusion: Findings show that, the two methods of picture description and storytelling have the same potential in language sampling. Since, picture description method can provide language samples with the same complexity in a shorter time than storytelling, it can be used as a beneficial method forclinical purposes.

  11. Simulation Experiment Description Markup Language (SED-ML Level 1 Version 3 (L1V3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergmann Frank T.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The creation of computational simulation experiments to inform modern biological research poses challenges to reproduce, annotate, archive, and share such experiments. Efforts such as SBML or CellML standardize the formal representation of computational models in various areas of biology. The Simulation Experiment Description Markup Language (SED-ML describes what procedures the models are subjected to, and the details of those procedures. These standards, together with further COMBINE standards, describe models sufficiently well for the reproduction of simulation studies among users and software tools. The Simulation Experiment Description Markup Language (SED-ML is an XML-based format that encodes, for a given simulation experiment, (i which models to use; (ii which modifications to apply to models before simulation; (iii which simulation procedures to run on each model; (iv how to post-process the data; and (v how these results should be plotted and reported. SED-ML Level 1 Version 1 (L1V1 implemented support for the encoding of basic time course simulations. SED-ML L1V2 added support for more complex types of simulations, specifically repeated tasks and chained simulation procedures. SED-ML L1V3 extends L1V2 by means to describe which datasets and subsets thereof to use within a simulation experiment.

  12. Simulation Experiment Description Markup Language (SED-ML) Level 1 Version 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Frank T; Cooper, Jonathan; Le Novère, Nicolas; Nickerson, David; Waltemath, Dagmar

    2015-09-04

    The number, size and complexity of computational models of biological systems are growing at an ever increasing pace. It is imperative to build on existing studies by reusing and adapting existing models and parts thereof. The description of the structure of models is not sufficient to enable the reproduction of simulation results. One also needs to describe the procedures the models are subjected to, as recommended by the Minimum Information About a Simulation Experiment (MIASE) guidelines. This document presents Level 1 Version 2 of the Simulation Experiment Description Markup Language (SED-ML), a computer-readable format for encoding simulation and analysis experiments to apply to computational models. SED-ML files are encoded in the Extensible Markup Language (XML) and can be used in conjunction with any XML-based model encoding format, such as CellML or SBML. A SED-ML file includes details of which models to use, how to modify them prior to executing a simulation, which simulation and analysis procedures to apply, which results to extract and how to present them. Level 1 Version 2 extends the format by allowing the encoding of repeated and chained procedures.

  13. Simulation Experiment Description Markup Language (SED-ML) Level 1 Version 3 (L1V3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Frank T; Cooper, Jonathan; König, Matthias; Moraru, Ion; Nickerson, David; Le Novère, Nicolas; Olivier, Brett G; Sahle, Sven; Smith, Lucian; Waltemath, Dagmar

    2018-03-19

    The creation of computational simulation experiments to inform modern biological research poses challenges to reproduce, annotate, archive, and share such experiments. Efforts such as SBML or CellML standardize the formal representation of computational models in various areas of biology. The Simulation Experiment Description Markup Language (SED-ML) describes what procedures the models are subjected to, and the details of those procedures. These standards, together with further COMBINE standards, describe models sufficiently well for the reproduction of simulation studies among users and software tools. The Simulation Experiment Description Markup Language (SED-ML) is an XML-based format that encodes, for a given simulation experiment, (i) which models to use; (ii) which modifications to apply to models before simulation; (iii) which simulation procedures to run on each model; (iv) how to post-process the data; and (v) how these results should be plotted and reported. SED-ML Level 1 Version 1 (L1V1) implemented support for the encoding of basic time course simulations. SED-ML L1V2 added support for more complex types of simulations, specifically repeated tasks and chained simulation procedures. SED-ML L1V3 extends L1V2 by means to describe which datasets and subsets thereof to use within a simulation experiment.

  14. Flexible Description Language for HPC based Processing of Remote Sense Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandra, Constantin; Gorgan, Dorian; Bacu, Victor

    2016-04-01

    When talking about Big Data, the most challenging aspect lays in processing them in order to gain new insight, find new patterns and gain knowledge from them. This problem is likely most apparent in the case of Earth Observation (EO) data. With ever higher numbers of data sources and increasing data acquisition rates, dealing with EO data is indeed a challenge [1]. Geoscientists should address this challenge by using flexible and efficient tools and platforms. To answer this trend, the BigEarth project [2] aims to combine the advantages of high performance computing solutions with flexible processing description methodologies in order to reduce both task execution times and task definition time and effort. As a component of the BigEarth platform, WorDeL (Workflow Description Language) [3] is intended to offer a flexible, compact and modular approach to the task definition process. WorDeL, unlike other description alternatives such as Python or shell scripts, is oriented towards the description topologies, using them as abstractions for the processing programs. This feature is intended to make it an attractive alternative for users lacking in programming experience. By promoting modular designs, WorDeL not only makes the processing descriptions more user-readable and intuitive, but also helps organizing the processing tasks into independent sub-tasks, which can be executed in parallel on multi-processor platforms in order to improve execution times. As a BigEarth platform [4] component, WorDeL represents the means by which the user interacts with the system, describing processing algorithms in terms of existing operators and workflows [5], which are ultimately translated into sets of executable commands. The WorDeL language has been designed to help in the definition of compute-intensive, batch tasks which can be distributed and executed on high-performance, cloud or grid-based architectures in order to improve the processing time. Main references for further

  15. Description of the Assessment of Basic Language and Learning Skills Revisited (ABLLS-R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semenovich M.L.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Diagnostics and assessment of the functional skills of children with disabilities and autism spectrum disorders are to be conducted to develop comprehensive remedial educational programmes. The described Methodology of the Assessment of Basic Language and Learning Skills — Revisited (ABLLS-R allows to simplify and make the diagnostics more efficient, to conduct a comprehensive examination of the child in different areas of development, detect the formed and deficit skills. The second and final part of the description of the methodology offers recommendations on the filling of the Table of the Results of Initial and Repeated Testing and on the choice of goals of correctional work with a child on the basis of performance of individual test scales. The pattern of the table filled after the initial and repeated testing is given. In drawing up of the programme of individual development the willingness of the child to the development of that skill should be considered. Regular practice of selected skills in various situations and the preventive measures against the regression of skills are also important. Conclusive part. Beginning in № 3 (48, 2015

  16. Using Specification and Description Language (SDL) for capturing and reusing human experts' knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Far, B.H.; Koono, Zenya

    1994-01-01

    Conventional knowledge engineering techniques for acquiring experts' knowledge can not produce quality knowledge due to improper knowledge documentation and informal knowledge acquisition method. We propose a new method for knowledge documentation and acquisition using Specification and Description Language (SDL). SDL is used to describe both the target system and the reasoning process. The main idea is to follow deterministic problem solving behavior of human experts and document it. Then knowledge can be extracted by comparing documents of the successive steps. This knowledge is recorded and reused in similar or novel cases. We present an implementation of this method in a tool for software design. The implemented system consists of a SDL CASE tool and an expert system for applying the design knowledge. This system serves as an experimental platform for the study of human design by simulating the design at the lowest level. However, we have found that by acquiring enough domain knowledge, this system can simulate general problem solving of human experts. (author)

  17. The Experience of Teaching of Descriptive Geometry and Engineering Graphics in Russian Language as a Foreign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronina, Marianna V.; Tretyakova, Zlata O.

    2017-01-01

    The article considers the peculiarities of training foreign students subject "Descriptive geometry and Engineering Graphics" in a modern engineering university of Russia. The relevance of the problem conditioned by the fact that virtually there are no special studies of teaching Descriptive Geometry and Engineering Graphics in Russian…

  18. Philippine and North Bornean Languages: Issues in Description, Subgrouping, and Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobel, Jason William

    2013-01-01

    The Philippines, northern Sulawesi, and northern Borneo are home to two or three hundred languages that can be described as Philippine-type. In spite of nearly five hundred years of language documentation in the Philippines, and at least a century of work in Borneo and Sulawesi, the majority of these languages remain grossly underdocumented, and…

  19. An automated approach for generating and checking control logic for reversible hardware description language-based designs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wille, Robert; Keszocze, Oliver; Othmer, Lars

    2017-01-01

    to significantly different design challenges to be addressed. In this work, we consider problems that occur when describing a reversible control flow using Hardware Description Languages (HDLs). Here, the commonly used conditional statements must, in addition to the established if-condition for forward computation......, be provided with an additional fi-condition for backward computation. Unfortunately, deriving correct and consistent fi-conditions is often not obvious. Moreover, HDL descriptions exist which may not be realized with a reversible control flow at all. In this work, we propose automatic solutions, which...

  20. PC Scene Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buford, James A., Jr.; Cosby, David; Bunfield, Dennis H.; Mayhall, Anthony J.; Trimble, Darian E.

    2007-04-01

    AMRDEC has successfully tested hardware and software for Real-Time Scene Generation for IR and SAL Sensors on COTS PC based hardware and video cards. AMRDEC personnel worked with nVidia and Concurrent Computer Corporation to develop a Scene Generation system capable of frame rates of at least 120Hz while frame locked to an external source (such as a missile seeker) with no dropped frames. Latency measurements and image validation were performed using COTS and in-house developed hardware and software. Software for the Scene Generation system was developed using OpenSceneGraph.

  1. Statistics of high-level scene context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Michelle R

    2013-01-01

    CONTEXT IS CRITICAL FOR RECOGNIZING ENVIRONMENTS AND FOR SEARCHING FOR OBJECTS WITHIN THEM: contextual associations have been shown to modulate reaction time and object recognition accuracy, as well as influence the distribution of eye movements and patterns of brain activations. However, we have not yet systematically quantified the relationships between objects and their scene environments. Here I seek to fill this gap by providing descriptive statistics of object-scene relationships. A total of 48, 167 objects were hand-labeled in 3499 scenes using the LabelMe tool (Russell et al., 2008). From these data, I computed a variety of descriptive statistics at three different levels of analysis: the ensemble statistics that describe the density and spatial distribution of unnamed "things" in the scene; the bag of words level where scenes are described by the list of objects contained within them; and the structural level where the spatial distribution and relationships between the objects are measured. The utility of each level of description for scene categorization was assessed through the use of linear classifiers, and the plausibility of each level for modeling human scene categorization is discussed. Of the three levels, ensemble statistics were found to be the most informative (per feature), and also best explained human patterns of categorization errors. Although a bag of words classifier had similar performance to human observers, it had a markedly different pattern of errors. However, certain objects are more useful than others, and ceiling classification performance could be achieved using only the 64 most informative objects. As object location tends not to vary as a function of category, structural information provided little additional information. Additionally, these data provide valuable information on natural scene redundancy that can be exploited for machine vision, and can help the visual cognition community to design experiments guided by statistics

  2. Agent based models of language competition: macroscopic descriptions and order–disorder transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez, F; Castelló, X; San Miguel, M

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the dynamics of two agent based models of language competition. In the first model, each individual can be in one of two possible states, either using language X or language Y, while the second model incorporates a third state XY, representing individuals that use both languages (bilinguals). We analyze the models on complex networks and two-dimensional square lattices by analytical and numerical methods, and show that they exhibit a transition from one-language dominance to language coexistence. We find that the coexistence of languages is more difficult to maintain in the bilinguals model, where the presence of bilinguals facilitates the ultimate dominance of one of the two languages. A stability analysis reveals that the coexistence is more unlikely to happen in poorly connected than in fully connected networks, and that the dominance of just one language is enhanced as the connectivity decreases. This dominance effect is even stronger in a two-dimensional space, where domain coarsening tends to drive the system towards language consensus

  3. Formal Specification and Description Language and Message Sequence Chart to Model and Validate Session Initiation Protocol Services

    OpenAIRE

    Sa'ed Abed; Mohammad H. Al Shayeji; Ovais Ahmed; Sahel Alouneh

    2016-01-01

    Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is a signaling layer protocol for building, adjusting and ending sessions among participants including Internet conferences, telephone calls and multimedia distribution. SIP facilitates user movement by proxying and forwarding requests to the present location of the user. In this paper, we provide a formal Specification and Description Language (SDL) and Message Sequence Chart (MSC) to model and define the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) SIP protocol a...

  4. BILINGUALISM AMONG STUDENTS OF THE FACULTY OF LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE, SALATIGA, INDONESIA: A DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Indrayanti Timotius

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Although bilingualism is an interesting phenomenon these days, not many researchers explore bilingualism in Asia. Most research in a similar field, like that done by Yip and Matthews (2007, and Harding-Esch and Riley (2003, show that children become bilingual because their parents are from countries with different mother tongues. This is not necessarily true in Asian countries like Indonesia. In Indonesia, most of its citizens are bilingual, even though both parents are Indonesian. This happens because children are not only exposed to and taught one language from a young age. Many of them are exposed to at least two languages, which are Indonesian (the national language and lingua franca of Indonesia and their local language – which is different depending on which area of Indonesia they were born or grew up. In addition, it is highly possible that exposure to other languages, such as English, may add to their capability to speak more than just two languages and thus, they become multilingual. This phenomenon has piqued the interest of the writers to conduct a study on bilingualism in Indonesia. The aim of the study is to describe bilingualism/multilingualism among a group of students in Indonesia. The data is collected by distributing questionnaires to 240 participants who are students in the Faculty of Language and Literature (FLL, Satya Wacana Christian University, Salatiga. The study reveals that there are three languages mostly spoken or used by the participants. They are Indonesian, English, and a regional language (mostly Javanese. Also, most of the students‘ first language is Indonesian. As for the second language, it is quite varied, including regional languages and English.

  5. Evaluating Pragmatic Competence in Nigerian Undergraduates' Language Errors within Descriptive ESL Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Anas Sa'idu; Nair, Subadrah Madhawa

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the level of pragmatic competence for ESL writing skills among Nigerian undergraduates. Methodologically, it adopts descriptive research design within the explanatory framework of the QUAN-Qual model. The instruments used are descriptive essay text and focus group interview questions. In writing the descriptive essays, a…

  6. Underwater Scene Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nanyoung

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes an underwater scene composition for elementary-education majors. This project deals with watercolor with crayon or oil-pastel resist (medium); the beauty of nature represented by fish in the underwater scene (theme); texture and pattern (design elements); drawing simple forms (drawing skill); and composition…

  7. A description of Automath and some aspects of its language theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Daalen, D.T.; Nederpelt, R.P.; Geuvers, J.H.; Vrijer, de R.C.

    1994-01-01

    definition and an overview of the language theory. Thus it can serve as an introduction to the papers [van Benthem Jutting 73] and [Zandlevem 73 (E.1)]. Among the various Automath languages this paper concentrates on the original version AUT-68 (because of its relative simplicity) and one extension

  8. Extending a Petri-net based workflow description language for e-business atomicity support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norta, A.H.; Artishchev, S.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper an extension of XRL is presented for supporting Webbased and inter-organizational e-business atomicity spheres in workflow applications. XRL (eXchangable Routing Language), is an extensible, instance-based language that is intended for inter-organizational workflow processes having an

  9. Space and iconicity in German Sign Language (DGS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perniss, P.M.

    2007-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the expression of spatial relationships in German Sign Language (Deutsche Gebärdensprache, DGS). The analysis focuses on linguistic expression in the spatial domain in two types of discourse: static scene description (location) and event narratives (location and

  10. Descriptional Complexity of the Languages KaL: Automata, Monoids and Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Klíma

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The first step when forming the polynomial hierarchies of languages is to consider languages of the form KaL where K and L are over a finite alphabet A and from a given variety V of languages, a being a letter from A. All such KaL's generate the variety of languages BPol1(V. We estimate the numerical parameters of the language KaL in terms of their values for K and L. These parameters include the state complexity of the minimal complete DFA and the size of the syntactic monoids. We also estimate the cardinality of the image of A* in the Schuetzenberger product of the syntactic monoids of K and L. In these three cases we obtain the optimal bounds. Finally, we also consider estimates for the cardinalities of free monoids in the variety of monoids corresponding to BPol1(V in terms of sizes of the free monoids in the variety of monoids corresponding to V.

  11. From oral traditions to elementary textbooks: a description of the maternal languages project in Niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, C L

    1983-12-01

    Niger is experimenting with maternal language instruction in grades 1-3, within a broader context of educational reform. In these early grades, some 25 experimental schools distributed throughout the country are using 1 of 5 national languages -- Hausa, Zarma-Songhai, Fulfulde, Tamajaq, or Kanuri -- as the language of instruction and of standardized examinations, as in traditional schools. The curriculum in these experimental schools for the early grades is also innovative and favors an interdisciplinary approach. Lessons in various subjects are linked at any given time by a them selected by teachers and students. Niger's national pedagogical institute, in collaboration with the US Agency for International Development (USAID), designed a testbook project which was built around a recorded collection of oral traditions. Once assembled, this collection served as a resource to draw on for production of readers for grades 1 through 3. These readers provide content appropriate to the curriculum and serve as an archive of oral traditions for future use. The Institute's procedure for producing elementary readers in maternal languages has not only yielded the desired books but has also facilitated institutional development in several organizations committed to producing national language materials. The project has had several phases, including the collection, transcription, and cataloging of oral materials; the preselection, adaptation, final editing, and illustration of tests; the publication of the textbooks; and the evaluation of the textbooks. Over 70 primary school teachers participated in the collection phase during the summer vacation of 1981. The teachers were selected to assure a distribution of regions and dialects for each of the 5 languages. Before returning to their villages, trainees were issued Panasonic RQ 230 9A tape recorders, batteries, and a box of 20 cassettes. Supervisory teams composed of at least 1 linguist and 1 pedagogical advisor visited each

  12. Integration of literacy into speech-language therapy: a descriptive analysis of treatment practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambyraja, Sherine R; Schmitt, Mary Beth; Justice, Laura M; Logan, Jessica A R; Schwarz, Sadie

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was: (a) to examine the extent to which speech-language therapy provided to children with language disorders in the schools targets code-based literacy skills (e.g., alphabet knowledge and phonological awareness) during business-as-usual treatment sessions, and (b) to determine whether literacy-focused therapy time was associated with factors specific to children and/or speech-language pathologists (SLPs). Participants were 151 kindergarten and first-grade children and 40 SLPs. Video-recorded therapy sessions were coded to determine the amount of time that addressed literacy. Assessments of children's literacy skills were administered as well as questionnaires regarding characteristics of SLPs (e.g., service delivery, professional development). Results showed that time spent addressing code-related literacy across therapy sessions was variable. Significant predictors included SLP years of experience, therapy location, and therapy session duration, such that children receiving services from SLPs with more years of experience, and/or who utilized the classroom for therapy, received more literacy-focused time. Additionally, children in longer therapy sessions received more therapy time on literacy skills. There is considerable variability in the extent to which children received literacy-focused time in therapy; however, SLP-level factors predict time spent in literacy more than child-level factors. Further research is needed to understand the nature of literacy-focused therapy in the public schools. Readers will be able to: (a) define code-based literacy skills, (b) discuss the role that speech-language pathologists have in fostering children's literacy development, and (c) identify key factors that may currently influence the inclusion of literacy targets in school-based speech-language therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Review of infrared scene projector technology-1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driggers, Ronald G.; Barnard, Kenneth J.; Burroughs, E. E.; Deep, Raymond G.; Williams, Owen M.

    1994-07-01

    The importance of testing IR imagers and missile seekers with realistic IR scenes warrants a review of the current technologies used in dynamic infrared scene projection. These technologies include resistive arrays, deformable mirror arrays, mirror membrane devices, liquid crystal light valves, laser writers, laser diode arrays, and CRTs. Other methods include frustrated total internal reflection, thermoelectric devices, galvanic cells, Bly cells, and vanadium dioxide. A description of each technology is presented along with a discussion of their relative benefits and disadvantages. The current state of each methodology is also summarized. Finally, the methods are compared and contrasted in terms of their performance parameters.

  14. A descriptive study of culture related terms in translation of Harry Potter Novel from English to Urdu language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sana Mansoor

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Translation of children fantasy novels and problems faced by translators in translating these novels into different languages is one of the core issues in the field of translation studies. This issue has got attention of many researchers and an extensive study has been carried out on various novels. The Harry Potter series of novels written by British author J.K. Rowling is one of the famous children fantasy novels that gained popularity worldwide and was translated into 73 languages. The use of various cultural terms and made up words in the novel has posed a great challenge for the translators. The purpose of the present study is to identify these cultural related terms and made up words in the novel “Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets” and to investigate the strategies used by the translator in translating them into Urdu language. A descriptive analysis of the translation of culture related items and made up words was made using the strategies proposed by Davies (2003. The findings of this research showed that translator mostly emphasized and predominantly used localization and transformation strategies for food items, magical objects and imaginative words.

  15. How we understand mathematics conceptual integration in the language of mathematical description

    CERN Document Server

    Woźny, Jacek

    2018-01-01

    This volume examines mathematics as a product of the human mind and analyzes the language of "pure mathematics" from various advanced-level sources. Through analysis of the foundational texts of mathematics, it is demonstrated that math is a complex literary creation, containing objects, actors, actions, projection, prediction, planning, explanation, evaluation, roles, image schemas, metonymy, conceptual blending, and, of course, (natural) language. The book follows the narrative of mathematics in a typical order of presentation for a standard university-level algebra course, beginning with analysis of set theory and mappings and continuing along a path of increasing complexity. At each stage, primary concepts, axioms, definitions, and proofs will be examined in an effort to unfold the tell-tale traces of the basic human cognitive patterns of story and conceptual blending. This book will be of interest to mathematicians, teachers of mathematics, cognitive scientists, cognitive linguists, and anyone interested...

  16. Narratives of Suffering in the Press: the construction of scenes and the place of the subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danila Cal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article seeks to understand the narrative strategies mobilized by press journalism to expose scenes of suffering related to child domestic labor, considered by social organizations as one of the activities in which children and adolescents are more oppressed and have their rights violated. It starts with the theoretical discussion of "politics of pity" (H. Arendt in order to understand in journalistic narratives the suffering appropriations considering the narrative configuration of scenes and of the suffering subject. It explores ethical issues underlying these reports, questioning narrative strategies which are commonly recommended to reporters, as the thematization of injustices in the form of the complaint and a description of characters and life stories in the narratives. It concludes, in the light of the language of pity, that these stories are decisive for how child domestic labor is configured or not as a public issue and to understand the gestures of portrayal the suffering in the journalistic narratives.The article seeks to understand the narrative strategies mobilized by press journalism to expose scenes of suffering related to child domestic labor, considered by social organizations as one of the activities in which children and adolescents are more oppressed and have their rights violated. It starts with the theoretical discussion of "politics of pity" (H. Arendt in order to understand in journalistic narratives the suffering appropriations considering the narrative configuration of scenes and of the suffering subject. It explores ethical issues underlying these reports, questioning narrative strategies which are commonly recommended to reporters, as the thematization of injustices in the form of the complaint and a description of characters and life stories in the narratives. It concludes, in the light of the language of pity, that these stories are decisive for how child domestic labor is configured or not as a public issue

  17. Towards "Thick Description" of Educational Transfer: Understanding a Japanese Institution's "Import" of European Language Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappleye, Jeremy; Imoto, Yuki; Horiguchi, Sachiko

    2011-01-01

    Globalisation and convergence in educational policy worldwide has reinvigorated, while rendering more complex, the classic theme of educational transfer. Framed by this wider pursuit of new understandings of a changing transfer/context puzzle, this paper explores how an ethnographic "thick description" might complement and extend recent…

  18. PyDecay/GraphPhys: A Unified Language and Storage System for Particle Decay Process Descriptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunietz, Jesse N.; /MIT /SLAC

    2011-06-22

    To ease the tasks of Monte Carlo (MC) simulation and event reconstruction (i.e. inferring particle-decay events from experimental data) for long-term BaBar data preservation and analysis, the following software components have been designed: a language ('GraphPhys') for specifying decay processes, common to both simulation and data analysis, allowing arbitrary parameters on particles, decays, and entire processes; an automated visualization tool to show graphically what decays have been specified; and a searchable database storage mechanism for decay specifications. Unlike HepML, a proposed XML standard for HEP metadata, the specification language is designed not for data interchange between computer systems, but rather for direct manipulation by human beings as well as computers. The components are interoperable: the information parsed from files in the specification language can easily be rendered as an image by the visualization package, and conversion between decay representations was implemented. Several proof-of-concept command-line tools were built based on this framework. Applications include building easier and more efficient interfaces to existing analysis tools for current projects (e.g. BaBar/BESII), providing a framework for analyses in future experimental settings (e.g. LHC/SuperB), and outreach programs that involve giving students access to BaBar data and analysis tools to give them a hands-on feel for scientific analysis.

  19. Automation in the Teaching of Descriptive Geometry and CAD. High-Level CAD Templates Using Script Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, R.; Bazán, A. M.

    2017-10-01

    The main purpose of this work is to study improvements to the learning method of technical drawing and descriptive geometry through exercises with traditional techniques that are usually solved manually by applying automated processes assisted by high-level CAD templates (HLCts). Given that an exercise with traditional procedures can be solved, detailed step by step in technical drawing and descriptive geometry manuals, CAD applications allow us to do the same and generalize it later, incorporating references. Traditional teachings have become obsolete and current curricula have been relegated. However, they can be applied in certain automation processes. The use of geometric references (using variables in script languages) and their incorporation into HLCts allows the automation of drawing processes. Instead of repeatedly creating similar exercises or modifying data in the same exercises, users should be able to use HLCts to generate future modifications of these exercises. This paper introduces the automation process when generating exercises based on CAD script files, aided by parametric geometry calculation tools. The proposed method allows us to design new exercises without user intervention. The integration of CAD, mathematics, and descriptive geometry facilitates their joint learning. Automation in the generation of exercises not only saves time but also increases the quality of the statements and reduces the possibility of human error.

  20. TAPS: an automated tool for identification of skills, knowledges, and abilities using natural language task description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorgensen, C.C.; Carter, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    A prototype, computer-based tool (TAPS) has been developed to aid training system developers in identifying skills, knowledges, and abilities (SKAs) during task analysis. TAPS uses concepts of flexible pattern matching to evaluate English descriptions of job behaviors and to recode them as SKA lists. This paper addresses the rationale for TAPS and describes its design including SKA definitions and task analysis logic. It also presents examples of TAPS's application

  1. Simulation Experiment Description Markup Language (SED-ML Level 1 Version 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergmann Frank T.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The number, size and complexity of computational models of biological systems are growing at an ever increasing pace. It is imperative to build on existing studies by reusing and adapting existing models and parts thereof. The description of the structure of models is not sufficient to enable the reproduction of simulation results. One also needs to describe the procedures the models are subjected to, as recommended by the Minimum Information About a Simulation Experiment (MIASE guidelines.

  2. TAPS: an automated tool for identification of skills, knowledges, and abilities using natural language task description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorgensen, C.C.; Carter, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    A prototype, computer-based tool (TAPS) has been developed to aid training system developers in identifying skills, knowledges, and abilities (SKAs) during task analysis. TAPS uses concepts of flexible pattern matching to evaluate English descriptions of job behaviors and to recode them as SKA lists. This paper addresses the rationale for TAPS and describes its design including SKA definitions and task analysis logic. It also presents examples of TAPS's application.

  3. TAPS - An automated tool for identification of skills, knowledges, and abilities using natural language task description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorgensen, C.C.; Carter, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    A prototype, computer-based tool (TAPS) has been developed to aid training system developers in identifying skills, knowledges, and abilities (SKAs) during task analysis. TAPS uses concepts of flexible pattern matching to evaluate English descriptions of job behaviors and to recode them as SKA lists. This paper addresses the rationale for TAPS and describes its design including SKA definitions and task analysis logic. It also presents examples of TAPS's application

  4. Systemic functional grammar in natural language generation linguistic description and computational representation

    CERN Document Server

    Teich, Elke

    1999-01-01

    This volume deals with the computational application of systemic functional grammar (SFG) for natural language generation. In particular, it describes the implementation of a fragment of the grammar of German in the computational framework of KOMET-PENMAN for multilingual generation. The text also presents a specification of explicit well-formedness constraints on syntagmatic structure which are defined in the form of typed feature structures. It thus achieves a model of systemic functional grammar that unites both the strengths of systemics, such as stratification, functional diversification

  5. Relevance of Trust Marks and CE Labels in German-Language Store Descriptions of Health Apps: Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Urs-Vito; Hillebrand, Uta; von Jan, Ute

    2018-04-25

    In addition to mandatory CE marking ("CE" representing Conformité Européenne, with the CE marking being a symbol of free marketability in the European Economic Area) for medical devices, there are various seals, initiatives, action groups, etc, in the health app context. However, whether manufacturers use them to distinguish their apps and attach relevance to them is unclear. The objective was to take a snapshot of quality seals, regulatory marks, and other orientation aids available on the German app market and to determine whether manufacturers deem such labels relevant enough to apply them to their apps, namely as reflected by mentions in app description texts in a typical app store (ie, Apple's App Store). A full survey of the metadata of 103,046 apps from Apple's German App Store in the Medicine and Health & Fitness categories was carried out. For apps with German-language store descriptions (N=8767), these were automatically searched for the occurrence of relevant keywords and validated manually (N=41). In addition, the websites of various app seal providers were checked for assigned seals. Few manufacturers referenced seals in the descriptions (5/41), although this would have been expected more often based on the seals we were able to identify from the seal providers' Web pages, and there were 34 of 41 that mentioned CE status in the descriptions. Two apps referenced an app directory curated by experts; however, this is not an alternative to CE marks and seals of approval. Currently, quality seals seem to be irrelevant for manufacturers. In line with regulatory requirements, mentions of medical device status are more frequent; however, neither characteristic is effective for identifying high-quality apps. To improve this situation, a possibly legally obligatory, standardized reporting system should be implemented. ©Urs-Vito Albrecht, Uta Hillebrand, Ute von Jan. Originally published in JMIR Mhealth and Uhealth (http://mhealth.jmir.org), 25.04.2018.

  6. Crime Scene Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Barbara; Kohlmeier, Kris; Kiel, Robert D.

    Casting students in grades 5 through 12 in the roles of reporters, lawyers, and detectives at the scene of a crime, this interdisciplinary activity involves participants in the intrigue and drama of crime investigation. Using a hands-on, step-by-step approach, students work in teams to investigate a crime and solve a mystery. Through role-playing…

  7. Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: – The purpose of this paper is to analyse the consequences of globalisation in the area of corporate communication, and investigate how language may be managed as a strategic resource. Design/methodology/approach: – A review of previous studies on the effects of globalisation on corporate...... communication and the implications of language management initiatives in international business. Findings: – Efficient language management can turn language into a strategic resource. Language needs analyses, i.e. linguistic auditing/language check-ups, can be used to determine the language situation...... of a company. Language policies and/or strategies can be used to regulate a company’s internal modes of communication. Language management tools can be deployed to address existing and expected language needs. Continuous feedback from the front line ensures strategic learning and reduces the risk of suboptimal...

  8. Beyond description. Comment on "Approaching human language with complex networks" by Cong and Liu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer-i-Cancho, R.

    2014-12-01

    In their historical overview, Cong & Liu highlight Sausurre as the father of modern linguistics [1]. They apparently miss G.K. Zipf as a pioneer of the view of language as a complex system. His idea of a balance between unification and diversification forces in the organization of natural systems, e.g., vocabularies [2], can be seen as a precursor of the view of complexity as a balance between order (unification) and disorder (diversification) near the edge of chaos [3]. Although not mentioned by Cong & Liu somewhere else, trade-offs between hearer and speaker needs are very important in Zipf's view, which has inspired research on the optimal networks mapping words into meanings [4-6]. Quantitative linguists regard G.K. Zipf as the funder of modern quantitative linguistics [7], a discipline where statistics plays a central role as in network science. Interestingly, that centrality of statistics is missing Saussure's work and that of many of his successors.

  9. Deep hierarchical attention network for video description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuohao; Tang, Min; Zhang, Jun

    2018-03-01

    Pairing video to natural language description remains a challenge in computer vision and machine translation. Inspired by image description, which uses an encoder-decoder model for reducing visual scene into a single sentence, we propose a deep hierarchical attention network for video description. The proposed model uses convolutional neural network (CNN) and bidirectional LSTM network as encoders while a hierarchical attention network is used as the decoder. Compared to encoder-decoder models used in video description, the bidirectional LSTM network can capture the temporal structure among video frames. Moreover, the hierarchical attention network has an advantage over single-layer attention network on global context modeling. To make a fair comparison with other methods, we evaluate the proposed architecture with different types of CNN structures and decoders. Experimental results on the standard datasets show that our model has a more superior performance than the state-of-the-art techniques.

  10. Descriptive Metaphysics, Natural Language Metaphysics, Sapir-Whorf, and All That Stuff: Evidence from the Mass-Count Distinction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Jeffry Pelletier

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Strawson (1959 described ‘descriptive metaphysics’, Bach (1986a described ‘natural language metaphysics’, Sapir (1929 and Whorf (1940a,b, 1941 describe, well, Sapir-Whorfianism. And there are other views concerning the relation between correct semantic analysis of linguistic phenomena and the “reality” that is supposed to be thereby described. I think some considerations from the analyses of the mass-count distinction can shed some light on that very dark topic.ReferencesBach, Emmon. 1986a. ‘Natural Language Metaphysics’. In Ruth Barcan Marcus, G.J.W. Dorn & Paul Weingartner (eds. ‘Logic, Methodology, and Philosophy of Science, VII’, 573–595. Amsterdam: North Holland.Bach, Emmon. 1986b. ‘The Algebra of Events’. Linguistics and Philosophy 9: 5–16.Berger, Peter & Luckmann, Thomas. 1966. The Social Construction of Reality: A Treatise in the Sociology of Knowledge. New York: Doubleday.Boroditsky, Lera, Schmidt, Lauren & Phillips, Webb. 2003. ‘Sex, Syntax, and Semantics’. In Dedre Gentner & Susan Goldin-Meadow (eds. ‘Language in Mind: Advances in the Study of Language and Cognition’, 59–80. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Cheng, L. & Sybesma, R. 1999. ‘Bare and Not-So-Bare Nouns and the structure of NP’. Linguistic Inquiry 30: 509–542.http://dx.doi.org/10.1162/002438999554192Chierchia, Gennaro. 1998a. ‘Reference to Kinds across Languages’. Natural Language Semantics 6: 339–405.http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1008324218506Chierchia, Gennaro. 1998b. ‘Plurality of Mass Nouns and the Notion of ‘Semantic Parameter’ ’. In S. Rothstein (ed. ‘Events and Grammar’, 53–103. Dordrecht: Kluwer.Chierchia, Gennaro. 2010. ‘Mass Nouns, Vagueness and Semantic Variation’. Synthèse 174: 99–149.http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11229-009-9686-6Doetjes, Jenny. 1997. Quantifiers and Selection: On the Distribution of Quantifying Expressions in French, Dutch and English. Ph.D. thesis, University of Leiden, Holland

  11. Text-Based Argumentation with Multiple Sources: A Descriptive Study of Opportunity to Learn in Secondary English Language Arts, History, and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litman, Cindy; Marple, Stacy; Greenleaf, Cynthia; Charney-Sirott, Irisa; Bolz, Michael J.; Richardson, Lisa K.; Hall, Allison H.; George, MariAnne; Goldman, Susan R.

    2017-01-01

    This study presents a descriptive analysis of 71 videotaped lessons taught by 34 highly regarded secondary English language arts, history, and science teachers, collected to inform an intervention focused on evidence-based argumentation from multiple text sources. Studying the practices of highly regarded teachers is valuable for identifying…

  12. The Study of the Use of Picture Descriptions in Enhancing Communication Skills among the 8th- Grade Students--Learners of English as a Foreign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavalle, Pamela I.; Briesmaster, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Teachers of English as a foreign language (EFL) encourage students to take a more active role in the oral activities in the classroom through different strategies. This study examines the use of picture descriptions as a strategy to develop and enhance communication skills among the eighth-grade students attending a private English school in…

  13. Hydrological AnthropoScenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cudennec, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    The Anthropocene concept encapsulates the planetary-scale changes resulting from accelerating socio-ecological transformations, beyond the stratigraphic definition actually in debate. The emergence of multi-scale and proteiform complexity requires inter-discipline and system approaches. Yet, to reduce the cognitive challenge of tackling this complexity, the global Anthropocene syndrome must now be studied from various topical points of view, and grounded at regional and local levels. A system approach should allow to identify AnthropoScenes, i.e. settings where a socio-ecological transformation subsystem is clearly coherent within boundaries and displays explicit relationships with neighbouring/remote scenes and within a nesting architecture. Hydrology is a key topical point of view to be explored, as it is important in many aspects of the Anthropocene, either with water itself being a resource, hazard or transport force; or through the network, connectivity, interface, teleconnection, emergence and scaling issues it determines. We will schematically exemplify these aspects with three contrasted hydrological AnthropoScenes in Tunisia, France and Iceland; and reframe therein concepts of the hydrological change debate. Bai X., van der Leeuw S., O'Brien K., Berkhout F., Biermann F., Brondizio E., Cudennec C., Dearing J., Duraiappah A., Glaser M., Revkin A., Steffen W., Syvitski J., 2016. Plausible and desirable futures in the Anthropocene: A new research agenda. Global Environmental Change, in press, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2015.09.017 Brondizio E., O'Brien K., Bai X., Biermann F., Steffen W., Berkhout F., Cudennec C., Lemos M.C., Wolfe A., Palma-Oliveira J., Chen A. C-T. Re-conceptualizing the Anthropocene: A call for collaboration. Global Environmental Change, in review. Montanari A., Young G., Savenije H., Hughes D., Wagener T., Ren L., Koutsoyiannis D., Cudennec C., Grimaldi S., Blöschl G., Sivapalan M., Beven K., Gupta H., Arheimer B., Huang Y

  14. Automatic structural scene digitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Rui; Wang, Yuhan; Cosker, Darren; Li, Wenbin

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present an automatic system for the analysis and labeling of structural scenes, floor plan drawings in Computer-aided Design (CAD) format. The proposed system applies a fusion strategy to detect and recognize various components of CAD floor plans, such as walls, doors, windows and other ambiguous assets. Technically, a general rule-based filter parsing method is fist adopted to extract effective information from the original floor plan. Then, an image-processing based recovery method is employed to correct information extracted in the first step. Our proposed method is fully automatic and real-time. Such analysis system provides high accuracy and is also evaluated on a public website that, on average, archives more than ten thousands effective uses per day and reaches a relatively high satisfaction rate.

  15. Semantic Reasoning for Scene Interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Baunegaard With; Baseski, Emre; Pugeault, Nicolas

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a hierarchical architecture for representing scenes, covering 2D and 3D aspects of visual scenes as well as the semantic relations between the different aspects. We argue that labeled graphs are a suitable representational framework for this representation and demonstrat...

  16. Setting the scene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curran, S.

    1977-01-01

    The reasons for the special meeting on the breeder reactor are outlined with some reference to the special Scottish interest in the topic. Approximately 30% of the electrical energy generated in Scotland is nuclear and the special developments at Dounreay make policy decisions on the future of the commercial breeder reactor urgent. The participants review the major questions arising in arriving at such decisions. In effect an attempt is made to respond to the wish of the Secretary of State for Energy to have informed debate. To set the scene the importance of energy availability as regards to the strength of the national economy is stressed and the reasons for an increasing energy demand put forward. Examination of alternative sources of energy shows that none is definitely capable of filling the foreseen energy gap. This implies an integrated thermal/breeder reactor programme as the way to close the anticipated gap. The problems of disposal of radioactive waste and the safeguards in the handling of plutonium are outlined. Longer-term benefits, including the consumption of plutonium and naturally occurring radioactive materials, are examined. (author)

  17. Is there a domain-general cognitive structuring system? Evidence from structural priming across music, math, action descriptions, and language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Cavey, Joris; Hartsuiker, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive processing in many domains (e.g., sentence comprehension, music listening, and math solving) requires sequential information to be organized into an integrational structure. There appears to be some overlap in integrational processing across domains, as shown by cross-domain interference effects when for example linguistic and musical stimuli are jointly presented (Koelsch, Gunter, Wittfoth, & Sammler, 2005; Slevc, Rosenberg, & Patel, 2009). These findings support theories of overlapping resources for integrational processing across domains (cfr. SSIRH Patel, 2003; SWM, Kljajevic, 2010). However, there are some limitations to the studies mentioned above, such as the frequent use of unnaturalistic integrational difficulties. In recent years, the idea has risen that evidence for domain-generality in structural processing might also be yielded though priming paradigms (cfr. Scheepers, 2003). The rationale behind this is that integrational processing across domains regularly requires the processing of dependencies across short or long distances in the sequence, involving respectively less or more syntactic working memory resources (cfr. SWM, Kljajevic, 2010), and such processing decisions might persist over time. However, whereas recent studies have shown suggestive priming of integrational structure between language and arithmetics (though often dependent on arithmetic performance, cfr. Scheepers et al., 2011; Scheepers & Sturt, 2014), it remains to be investigated to what extent we can also find evidence for priming in other domains, such as music and action (cfr. SWM, Kljajevic, 2010). Experiment 1a showed structural priming from the processing of musical sequences onto the position in the sentence structure (early or late) to which a relative clause was attached in subsequent sentence completion. Importantly, Experiment 1b showed that a similar structural manipulation based on non-hierarchically ordered color sequences did not yield any priming effect

  18. Albedo estimation for scene segmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C H; Rosenfeld, A

    1983-03-01

    Standard methods of image segmentation do not take into account the three-dimensional nature of the underlying scene. For example, histogram-based segmentation tacitly assumes that the image intensity is piecewise constant, and this is not true when the scene contains curved surfaces. This paper introduces a method of taking 3d information into account in the segmentation process. The image intensities are adjusted to compensate for the effects of estimated surface orientation; the adjusted intensities can be regarded as reflectivity estimates. When histogram-based segmentation is applied to these new values, the image is segmented into parts corresponding to surfaces of constant reflectivity in the scene. 7 references.

  19. Forensic 3D Scene Reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LITTLE, CHARLES Q.; PETERS, RALPH R.; RIGDON, J. BRIAN; SMALL, DANIEL E.

    1999-01-01

    Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a feasible prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene

  20. The Effect of Scene Variation on the Redundant Use of Color in Definite Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koolen, Ruud; Goudbeek, Martijn; Krahmer, Emiel

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates to what extent the amount of variation in a visual scene causes speakers to mention the attribute color in their definite target descriptions, focusing on scenes in which this attribute is not needed for identification of the target. The results of our three experiments show that speakers are more likely to redundantly…

  1. Description and status update on GELLO: a proposed standardized object-oriented expression language for clinical decision support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sordo, Margarita; Boxwala, Aziz A; Ogunyemi, Omolola; Greenes, Robert A

    2004-01-01

    A major obstacle to sharing computable clinical knowledge is the lack of a common language for specifying expressions and criteria. Such a language could be used to specify decision criteria, formulae, and constraints on data and action. Al-though the Arden Syntax addresses this problem for clinical rules, its generalization to HL7's object-oriented data model is limited. The GELLO Expression language is an object-oriented language used for expressing logical conditions and computations in the GLIF3 (GuideLine Interchange Format, v. 3) guideline modeling language. It has been further developed under the auspices of the HL7 Clinical Decision Support Technical Committee, as a proposed HL7 standard., GELLO is based on the Object Constraint Language (OCL), because it is vendor-independent, object-oriented, and side-effect-free. GELLO expects an object-oriented data model. Although choice of model is arbitrary, standardization is facilitated by ensuring that the data model is compatible with the HL7 Reference Information Model (RIM).

  2. Zur linguistischen Beschreibung kommunikativer Einheiten in gesprochener Sprache (On the Linguistic Description of Communicative Units in Oral Language)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Rainer

    1973-01-01

    Slightly revised version of a lecture ( Zur grammatischen Beschreibung kommunikativer Elemente in Sprechakten'' Y On Grammatical Description of Communicative Elements in Speech''I) presented in Saarbrucken, West Germany, November 10, 1972. (DD)

  3. Multi- and hyperspectral scene modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borel, Christoph C.; Tuttle, Ronald F.

    2011-06-01

    This paper shows how to use a public domain raytracer POV-Ray (Persistence Of Vision Raytracer) to render multiand hyper-spectral scenes. The scripting environment allows automatic changing of the reflectance and transmittance parameters. The radiosity rendering mode allows accurate simulation of multiple-reflections between surfaces and also allows semi-transparent surfaces such as plant leaves. We show that POV-Ray computes occlusion accurately using a test scene with two blocks under a uniform sky. A complex scene representing a plant canopy is generated using a few lines of script. With appropriate rendering settings, shadows cast by leaves are rendered in many bands. Comparing single and multiple reflection renderings, the effect of multiple reflections is clearly visible and accounts for 25% of the overall apparent canopy reflectance in the near infrared.

  4. A descriptive analysis of language and speech skills in 4- to 5-yr-old children with hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth M; Crawford, Leah; Ni, Andy; Durieux-Smith, Andrée

    2011-01-01

    Early intervention through hearing aids (HAs) and cochlear implants (CIs) aims to reduce the negative effects of childhood hearing loss and to promote optimal communication development over time. The primary goal of this study was to examine the communication outcomes of children with CIs and children with HAs at age 4 to 5 yrs and to consider their spoken language skills relative to a group of typically developing hearing peers. In this multicenter observational study, communication results were obtained for a total of 88 children at age 4 to 5 yrs. Participants were recruited from three clinical programs in two cities in the province of Ontario, Canada. This study was undertaken shortly after the introduction of a new provincial population screening initiative and included both children who were screened and not screened for hearing loss. The study sample comprised 51 children with sensorineural hearing loss and 37 children with normal hearing. Of the 51 children with hearing loss, 26 used CIs and 25 used HAs. The degree of hearing loss ranged from mild to profound. All children were enrolled in rehabilitation programs focused on oral language development. Children's language skills were assessed with an extensive battery of child- and parent-administered speech and language measures. Assessment of language skills showed no significant differences between the children with severe to profound hearing loss using CIs and children with varying degrees of hearing loss using HAs. However, children with HAs showed better articulation skills. Overall, both groups of children obtained scores on communication measures that were lower than their hearing peers. The number of children with hearing loss who obtained spoken speech-language scores within 1 SD of normative populations ranged from 65 to 86% depending on the test measure. Children with average hearing loss of 70 dB HL or better generally obtained scores on all measures in line with those of age-matched norms while

  5. Crime Scenes as Augmented Reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil

    2010-01-01

    Using the concept of augmented reality, this article will investigate how places in various ways have become augmented by means of different mediatization strategies. Augmentation of reality implies an enhancement of the places' emotional character: a certain mood, atmosphere or narrative surplus......, physical damage: they are all readable and interpretable signs. As augmented reality the crime scene carries a narrative which at first is hidden and must be revealed. Due to the process of investigation and the detective's ability to reason and deduce, the crime scene as place is reconstructed as virtual...

  6. Ontology Language to Support Description of Experiment Control System Semantics, Collaborative Knowledge-Base Design and Ontology Reuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyurjyan, Vardan; Abbott, D.; Heyes, G.; Jastrzembski, E.; Moffit, B.; Timmer, C.; Wolin, E.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the control domain specific ontology that is built on top of the domain-neutral Resource Definition Framework (RDF). Specifically, we will discuss the relevant set of ontology concepts along with the relationships among them in order to describe experiment control components and generic event-based state machines. Control Oriented Ontology Language (COOL) is a meta-data modeling language that provides generic means for representation of physics experiment control processes and components, and their relationships, rules and axioms. It provides a semantic reference frame that is useful for automating the communication of information for configuration, deployment and operation. COOL has been successfully used to develop a complete and dynamic knowledge-base for experiment control systems, developed using the AFECS framework.

  7. MDEP Generic Common Position No DICWG-05. Common position on the treatment of hardware description language (HDL) programmed devices for use in nuclear safety systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Following other industries, the nuclear industry developed increasing interest in the use of programmable logic components that are implemented using hardware description language (HDL) such as such as FPGAs, CPLDs or ASICs. HDL programmed devices (HPD) has both characteristics of software and hardware. Therefore applications using HPDs has many similarities with the traditional software (in particular the design may be affected by errors) and characteristics of traditional electronic design (e.g. electronic-level timing and electrical issues). However, due to the unique nature of HPDs, there exist several differences between HPDs and traditional software. Some key differences include: - HPDs use parallel processing with dedicated hardware for each function instead of executing instructions sequentially as in the case of traditional software. - Safety critical software uses imperative languages which specify each instruction of the program whereas HPDs use declarative languages. - The target of software is a microprocessor, which guarantees properties such as memory consistency after each instruction. Such properties are not inherent in HPDs and thus the design process needs different steps to build and guarantee behavioural properties. - Translation of the HDL description to bit-streams in HPDs is much more involved than the translation of source code to binary in software compilation. In the HPD case, this process is not fully automatic, and therefore designer must guide the tools, which may result in undetectable errors. The Digital Instrumentation and Controls Working Group (DICWG) has agreed that a common position on this topic is warranted given the increase of use of Digital I and C in new reactor designs, its safety implications, and the need to develop a common understanding from the perspectives of regulatory authorities. This action follows the DICWG examination of the regulatory requirements of the participating members and of relevant industry

  8. Categorization of natural dynamic audiovisual scenes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olli Rummukainen

    Full Text Available This work analyzed the perceptual attributes of natural dynamic audiovisual scenes. We presented thirty participants with 19 natural scenes in a similarity categorization task, followed by a semi-structured interview. The scenes were reproduced with an immersive audiovisual display. Natural scene perception has been studied mainly with unimodal settings, which have identified motion as one of the most salient attributes related to visual scenes, and sound intensity along with pitch trajectories related to auditory scenes. However, controlled laboratory experiments with natural multimodal stimuli are still scarce. Our results show that humans pay attention to similar perceptual attributes in natural scenes, and a two-dimensional perceptual map of the stimulus scenes and perceptual attributes was obtained in this work. The exploratory results show the amount of movement, perceived noisiness, and eventfulness of the scene to be the most important perceptual attributes in naturalistically reproduced real-world urban environments. We found the scene gist properties openness and expansion to remain as important factors in scenes with no salient auditory or visual events. We propose that the study of scene perception should move forward to understand better the processes behind multimodal scene processing in real-world environments. We publish our stimulus scenes as spherical video recordings and sound field recordings in a publicly available database.

  9. Characteristics of nontrauma scene flights for air medical transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Margaret G; Fletcher, Erica N; Werman, Howard; McKenzie, Lara B

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the use of air medical transport for patients with medical, rather than traumatic, emergencies. This study describes the practices of air transport programs, with respect to nontrauma scene responses, in several areas throughout the United States and Canada. A descriptive, retrospective study was conducted of all nontrauma scene flights from 2008 and 2009. Flight information and patient demographic data were collected from 5 air transport programs. Descriptive statistics were used to examine indications for transport, Glasgow Coma Scale Scores, and loaded miles traveled. A total of 1,785 nontrauma scene flights were evaluated. The percentage of scene flights contributed by nontraumatic emergencies varied between programs, ranging from 0% to 44.3%. The most common indication for transport was cardiac, nonST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (22.9%). Cardiac arrest was the indication for transport in 2.5% of flights. One air transport program reported a high percentage (49.4) of neurologic, stroke, flights. The use of air transport for nontraumatic emergencies varied considerably between various air transport programs and regions. More research is needed to evaluate which nontraumatic emergencies benefit from air transport. National guidelines regarding the use of air transport for nontraumatic emergencies are needed. Copyright © 2014 Air Medical Journal Associates. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Socio-cultural differences in the self-descriptions of two groups of Azerbaijanian students learning in the Russian and Azerbaijani languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzherelievskaya M.A.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The dimension of individualism-collectivism is regarded as one of the most important cultural factors that influence a person’s self-consciousness, and help shape his/her sense of self as independent or interdependent. Moreover, studies support the conclusion that the salience of both tendencies may vary not only within a single national culture (depending on the place of residence, language environment, etc., but also on the level of the individual self (depending on the current situation. In our research we have assumed that the language environment (receiving education in one’s native or a foreign language acts as a socio-cultural factor affecting the self-concept of students of the same nationality–more specifically, the intensity of their individualistic and collectivistic characteristics. Objective: Finding socio-cultural differences in self-image between two groups of Azerbaijanian students (learning in Russian and Azerbaijanian, respectively. Design: The sample included one hundred students from Baku colleges and universities equally divided into two groups. Participants in the first group were studying in Azerbaijani while those in the second group were learning in Russian. We collected data in the form of open-ended self-descriptions. We examined these texts using contentanalysis procedures. Then we calculated correlations between certain defined characteristics for each group. Results: The self-descriptions produced by students learning in Azerbaijanian contained the following features: norm compliance as a significant factor in emotional wellbeing; self-criticism related to negative feelings and expectation of outside criticism; the prevalence of self-justification and bravado as basic forms of psychological defense, combined with the lack of self-enhancement; and focus on society and interpersonal relations affecting the respondents’ inner feelings. The second group’s (those learning in Russian self-descriptions

  11. Dynamics of scene representations in the human brain revealed by magnetoencephalography and deep neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichy, Radoslaw Martin; Khosla, Aditya; Pantazis, Dimitrios; Oliva, Aude

    2017-01-01

    Human scene recognition is a rapid multistep process evolving over time from single scene image to spatial layout processing. We used multivariate pattern analyses on magnetoencephalography (MEG) data to unravel the time course of this cortical process. Following an early signal for lower-level visual analysis of single scenes at ~100 ms, we found a marker of real-world scene size, i.e. spatial layout processing, at ~250 ms indexing neural representations robust to changes in unrelated scene properties and viewing conditions. For a quantitative model of how scene size representations may arise in the brain, we compared MEG data to a deep neural network model trained on scene classification. Representations of scene size emerged intrinsically in the model, and resolved emerging neural scene size representation. Together our data provide a first description of an electrophysiological signal for layout processing in humans, and suggest that deep neural networks are a promising framework to investigate how spatial layout representations emerge in the human brain. PMID:27039703

  12. Beyond scene gist: Objects guide search more than scene background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Kathryn; Eckstein, Miguel P

    2017-06-01

    Although the facilitation of visual search by contextual information is well established, there is little understanding of the independent contributions of different types of contextual cues in scenes. Here we manipulated 3 types of contextual information: object co-occurrence, multiple object configurations, and background category. We isolated the benefits of each contextual cue to target detectability, its impact on decision bias, confidence, and the guidance of eye movements. We find that object-based information guides eye movements and facilitates perceptual judgments more than scene background. The degree of guidance and facilitation of each contextual cue can be related to its inherent informativeness about the target spatial location as measured by human explicit judgments about likely target locations. Our results improve the understanding of the contributions of distinct contextual scene components to search and suggest that the brain's utilization of cues to guide eye movements is linked to the cue's informativeness about the target's location. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Neural Scene Segmentation by Oscillatory Correlation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, DeLiang

    2000-01-01

    The segmentation of a visual scene into a set of coherent patterns (objects) is a fundamental aspect of perception, which underlies a variety of important tasks such as figure/ground segregation, and scene analysis...

  14. Pooling Objects for Recognizing Scenes without Examples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kordumova, S.; Mensink, T.; Snoek, C.G.M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we aim to recognize scenes in images without using any scene images as training data. Different from attribute based approaches, we do not carefully select the training classes to match the unseen scene classes. Instead, we propose a pooling over ten thousand of off-the-shelf object

  15. Stages As Models of Scene Geometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nedović, V.; Smeulders, A.W.M.; Redert, A.; Geusebroek, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Reconstruction of 3D scene geometry is an important element for scene understanding, autonomous vehicle and robot navigation, image retrieval, and 3D television. We propose accounting for the inherent structure of the visual world when trying to solve the scene reconstruction problem. Consequently,

  16. Simulator scene display evaluation device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, R. F. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    An apparatus for aligning and calibrating scene displays in an aircraft simulator has a base on which all of the instruments for the aligning and calibrating are mounted. Laser directs beam at double right prism which is attached to pivoting support on base. The pivot point of the prism is located at the design eye point (DEP) of simulator during the aligning and calibrating. The objective lens in the base is movable on a track to follow the laser beam at different angles within the field of vision at the DEP. An eyepiece and a precision diopter are movable into a position behind the prism during the scene evaluation. A photometer or illuminometer is pivotable about the pivot into and out of position behind the eyepiece.

  17. Unified Modeling Language description of the object-oriented multi-scale adaptive finite element method for Step-and-Flash Imprint Lithography Simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paszynski, Maciej; Gurgul, Piotr; Sieniek, Marcin; Pardo, David

    2010-01-01

    In the first part of the paper we present the multi-scale simulation of the Step-and-Flash Imprint Lithography (SFIL), a modern patterning process. The simulation utilizes the hp adaptive Finite Element Method (hp-FEM) coupled with Molecular Statics (MS) model. Thus, we consider the multi-scale problem, with molecular statics applied in the areas of the mesh where the highest accuracy is required, and the continuous linear elasticity with thermal expansion coefficient applied in the remaining part of the domain. The degrees of freedom from macro-scale element's nodes located on the macro-scale side of the interface have been identified with particles from nano-scale elements located on the nano-scale side of the interface. In the second part of the paper we present Unified Modeling Language (UML) description of the resulting multi-scale application (hp-FEM coupled with MS). We investigated classical, procedural codes from the point of view of the object-oriented (O-O) programming paradigm. The discovered hierarchical structure of classes and algorithms makes the UML project as independent on the spatial dimension of the problem as possible. The O-O UML project was defined at an abstract level, independent on the programming language used.

  18. Ontology of a scene based on Java 3D architecture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén González Crespo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article seeks to make an approach to the class hierarchy of a scene built with the architecture Java 3D, to develop an ontology of a scene as from the semantic essential components for the semantic structuring of the Web3D. Java was selected because the language recommended by the W3C Consortium for the Development of the Web3D oriented applications as from X3D standard is Xj3D which compositionof their Schemas is based the architecture of Java3D In first instance identifies the domain and scope of the ontology, defining classes and subclasses that comprise from Java3D architecture and the essential elements of a scene, as its point of origin, the field of rotation, translation The limitation of the scene and the definition of shaders, then define the slots that are declared in RDF as a framework for describing the properties of the classes established from identifying thedomain and range of each class, then develops composition of the OWL ontology on SWOOP Finally, be perform instantiations of the ontology building for a Iconosphere object as from class expressions defined.

  19. Beyond Gender Stereotypes in Language Comprehension: Self Sex-Role Descriptions Affect the Brain's Potentials Associated with Agreement Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canal, Paolo; Garnham, Alan; Oakhill, Jane

    2015-01-01

    We recorded Event-Related Potentials to investigate differences in the use of gender information during the processing of reflexive pronouns. Pronouns either matched the gender provided by role nouns (such as "king" or "engineer") or did not. We compared two types of gender information, definitional information, which is semantic in nature (a mother is female), or stereotypical (a nurse is likely to be female). When they followed definitional role-nouns, gender-mismatching pronouns elicited a P600 effect reflecting a failure in the agreement process. When instead the gender violation occurred after stereotypical role-nouns the Event Related Potential response was biphasic, being positive in parietal electrodes and negative in anterior left electrodes. The use of a correlational approach showed that those participants with more "feminine" or "expressive" self sex-role descriptions showed a P600 response for stereotype violations, suggesting that they experienced the mismatch as an agreement violation; whereas less "expressive" participants showed an Nref effect, indicating more effort spent in linking the pronouns with the possible, although less likely, counter-stereotypical referent.

  20. Beyond gender stereotypes in language comprehension: self sex-role descriptions affect the brain's potentials associated with agreement processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo eCanal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We recorded Event-Related Potentials to investigate differences in the use of gender information during the processing of reflexive pronouns. Pronouns either matched the gender provided by role nouns (such as king or engineer or did not. We compared two types of gender information, definitional information, which is semantic in nature (a mother is female, or stereotypical (a nurse is likely to be female. When they followed definitional role-nouns, gender-mismatching pronouns elicited a P600 effect reflecting a failure in the agreement process. When instead the gender violation occurred after stereotypical role-nouns the ERP response was biphasic, being positive in parietal electrodes and negative in anterior left electrodes. The use of a correlational approach showed that those participants with more feminine or expressive self sex-role descriptions showed a P600 response for stereotype violations, suggesting that they experienced the mismatch as an agreement violation; whereas less expressive participants showed an Nref effect, indicating more effort spent in linking the pronouns with the possible, although less likely, counter-stereotypical referent.

  1. Scene-Based Contextual Cueing in Pigeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Edward A.; Teng, Yuejia; Brooks, Daniel I.

    2014-01-01

    Repeated pairings of a particular visual context with a specific location of a target stimulus facilitate target search in humans. We explored an animal model of such contextual cueing. Pigeons had to peck a target which could appear in one of four locations on color photographs of real-world scenes. On half of the trials, each of four scenes was consistently paired with one of four possible target locations; on the other half of the trials, each of four different scenes was randomly paired with the same four possible target locations. In Experiments 1 and 2, pigeons exhibited robust contextual cueing when the context preceded the target by 1 s to 8 s, with reaction times to the target being shorter on predictive-scene trials than on random-scene trials. Pigeons also responded more frequently during the delay on predictive-scene trials than on random-scene trials; indeed, during the delay on predictive-scene trials, pigeons predominately pecked toward the location of the upcoming target, suggesting that attentional guidance contributes to contextual cueing. In Experiment 3, involving left-right and top-bottom scene reversals, pigeons exhibited stronger control by global than by local scene cues. These results attest to the robustness and associative basis of contextual cueing in pigeons. PMID:25546098

  2. Associative Processing Is Inherent in Scene Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminoff, Elissa M.; Tarr, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    How are complex visual entities such as scenes represented in the human brain? More concretely, along what visual and semantic dimensions are scenes encoded in memory? One hypothesis is that global spatial properties provide a basis for categorizing the neural response patterns arising from scenes. In contrast, non-spatial properties, such as single objects, also account for variance in neural responses. The list of critical scene dimensions has continued to grow—sometimes in a contradictory manner—coming to encompass properties such as geometric layout, big/small, crowded/sparse, and three-dimensionality. We demonstrate that these dimensions may be better understood within the more general framework of associative properties. That is, across both the perceptual and semantic domains, features of scene representations are related to one another through learned associations. Critically, the components of such associations are consistent with the dimensions that are typically invoked to account for scene understanding and its neural bases. Using fMRI, we show that non-scene stimuli displaying novel associations across identities or locations recruit putatively scene-selective regions of the human brain (the parahippocampal/lingual region, the retrosplenial complex, and the transverse occipital sulcus/occipital place area). Moreover, we find that the voxel-wise neural patterns arising from these associations are significantly correlated with the neural patterns arising from everyday scenes providing critical evidence whether the same encoding principals underlie both types of processing. These neuroimaging results provide evidence for the hypothesis that the neural representation of scenes is better understood within the broader theoretical framework of associative processing. In addition, the results demonstrate a division of labor that arises across scene-selective regions when processing associations and scenes providing better understanding of the functional

  3. A brief description and comparison of programming languages FORTRAN, ALGOL, COBOL, PL/1, and LISP 1.5 from a critical standpoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, F. P.

    1972-01-01

    Several common higher level program languages are described. FORTRAN, ALGOL, COBOL, PL/1, and LISP 1.5 are summarized and compared. FORTRAN is the most widely used scientific programming language. ALGOL is a more powerful language for scientific programming. COBOL is used for most commercial programming applications. LISP 1.5 is primarily a list-processing language. PL/1 attempts to combine the desirable features of FORTRAN, ALGOL, and COBOL into a single language.

  4. Life Cycle V and V Process for Hardware Description Language Programs of Programmable Logic Device-based Instrumentation and Control Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, K. H.; Lee, D. Y.

    2010-01-01

    Programmable Logic Device (PLD), especially Complex PLD (CPLD) or Field Programmable Logic Array (FPGA), has been growing in interest in nuclear Instrumentation and Control (I and C) applications. PLD has been applied to replace an obsolete analog device or old-fashioned microprocessor, or to develop digital controller, subsystem or overall system on hardware aspects. This is the main reason why the PLD-based I and C design provides higher flexibility than the analog-based one, and the PLD-based I and C systems shows better real-time performance than the processor-based I and C systems. Due to the development of the PLD-based I and C systems, their nuclear qualification has been issued in the nuclear industry. Verification and Validation (V and V) is one of necessary qualification activities when a Hardware Description Language (HDL) is used to implement functions of the PLD-based I and C systems. The life cycle V and V process, described in this paper, has been defined as satisfying the nuclear V and V requirements, and it has been applied to verify Correctness, Completeness, and Consistency (3C) among design outputs in a safety-grade programmable logic controller and a safety-critical data communication system. Especially, software engineering techniques such as the Fagan Inspection, formal verification, simulated verification and automated testing have been defined for the life cycle V and V tasks of behavioral, structural, and physical design in VHDL

  5. Scene Integration Without Awareness: No Conclusive Evidence for Processing Scene Congruency During Continuous Flash Suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moors, Pieter; Boelens, David; van Overwalle, Jaana; Wagemans, Johan

    2016-07-01

    A recent study showed that scenes with an object-background relationship that is semantically incongruent break interocular suppression faster than scenes with a semantically congruent relationship. These results implied that semantic relations between the objects and the background of a scene could be extracted in the absence of visual awareness of the stimulus. In the current study, we assessed the replicability of this finding and tried to rule out an alternative explanation dependent on low-level differences between the stimuli. Furthermore, we used a Bayesian analysis to quantify the evidence in favor of the presence or absence of a scene-congruency effect. Across three experiments, we found no convincing evidence for a scene-congruency effect or a modulation of scene congruency by scene inversion. These findings question the generalizability of previous observations and cast doubt on whether genuine semantic processing of object-background relationships in scenes can manifest during interocular suppression. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Literacy in the contemporary scene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela B. Kleiman

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I examine the relationship between literacy and contemporaneity. I take as a point of departure for my discussion school literacy and its links with literacies in other institutions of the contemporary scene, in order to determine the relation between contemporary ends of reading and writing (in other words, the meaning of being literate in contemporary society and the practices and activities effectively realized at school in order to reach those objectives. Using various examples from teaching and learning situations, I discuss digital literacy practices and multimodal texts and multiliteracies from both printed and digital cultures. Throughout, I keep as a background for the discussion the functions and objectives of school literacy and the professional training of teachers who would like to be effective literacy agents in the contemporary world.

  7. When Does Repeated Search in Scenes Involve Memory? Looking at versus Looking for Objects in Scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Melissa L. -H.; Wolfe, Jeremy M.

    2012-01-01

    One might assume that familiarity with a scene or previous encounters with objects embedded in a scene would benefit subsequent search for those items. However, in a series of experiments we show that this is not the case: When participants were asked to subsequently search for multiple objects in the same scene, search performance remained…

  8. Stages as models of scene geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedović, Vladimir; Smeulders, Arnold W M; Redert, André; Geusebroek, Jan-Mark

    2010-09-01

    Reconstruction of 3D scene geometry is an important element for scene understanding, autonomous vehicle and robot navigation, image retrieval, and 3D television. We propose accounting for the inherent structure of the visual world when trying to solve the scene reconstruction problem. Consequently, we identify geometric scene categorization as the first step toward robust and efficient depth estimation from single images. We introduce 15 typical 3D scene geometries called stages, each with a unique depth profile, which roughly correspond to a large majority of broadcast video frames. Stage information serves as a first approximation of global depth, narrowing down the search space in depth estimation and object localization. We propose different sets of low-level features for depth estimation, and perform stage classification on two diverse data sets of television broadcasts. Classification results demonstrate that stages can often be efficiently learned from low-dimensional image representations.

  9. Text Detection in Natural Scene Images by Stroke Gabor Words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Chucai; Tian, Yingli

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm, based on stroke components and descriptive Gabor filters, to detect text regions in natural scene images. Text characters and strings are constructed by stroke components as basic units. Gabor filters are used to describe and analyze the stroke components in text characters or strings. We define a suitability measurement to analyze the confidence of Gabor filters in describing stroke component and the suitability of Gabor filters on an image window. From the training set, we compute a set of Gabor filters that can describe principle stroke components of text by their parameters. Then a K -means algorithm is applied to cluster the descriptive Gabor filters. The clustering centers are defined as Stroke Gabor Words (SGWs) to provide a universal description of stroke components. By suitability evaluation on positive and negative training samples respectively, each SGW generates a pair of characteristic distributions of suitability measurements. On a testing natural scene image, heuristic layout analysis is applied first to extract candidate image windows. Then we compute the principle SGWs for each image window to describe its principle stroke components. Characteristic distributions generated by principle SGWs are used to classify text or nontext windows. Experimental results on benchmark datasets demonstrate that our algorithm can handle complex backgrounds and variant text patterns (font, color, scale, etc.).

  10. Context modulates attention to social scenes in toddlers with autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawarska, Katarzyna; Macari, Suzanne; Shic, Frederick

    2013-01-01

    Background In typical development, the unfolding of social and communicative skills hinges upon the ability to allocate and sustain attention towards people, a skill present moments after birth. Deficits in social attention have been well documented in autism, though the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Methods In order to parse the factors that are responsible for limited social attention in toddlers with autism, we manipulated the context in which a person appeared in their visual field with regard to the presence of salient social (child-directed speech and eye contact) and nonsocial (distractor toys) cues for attention. Participants included 13- to 25-month-old toddlers with autism (AUT; n=54), developmental delay (DD; n=22), and typical development (TD; n=48). Their visual responses were recorded with an eye-tracker. Results In conditions devoid of eye contact and speech, the distribution of attention between key features of the social scene in toddlers with autism was comparable to that in DD and TD controls. However, when explicit dyadic cues were introduced, toddlers with autism showed decreased attention to the entire scene and, when they looked at the scene, they spent less time looking at the speaker’s face and monitoring her lip movements than the control groups. In toddlers with autism, decreased time spent exploring the entire scene was associated with increased symptom severity and lower nonverbal functioning; atypical language profiles were associated with decreased monitoring of the speaker’s face and her mouth. Conclusions While in certain contexts toddlers with autism attend to people and objects in a typical manner, they show decreased attentional response to dyadic cues for attention. Given that mechanisms supporting responsivity to dyadic cues are present shortly after birth and are highly consequential for development of social cognition and communication, these findings have important implications for the understanding of the

  11. Perspective taking in language: Integrating the spatial and action domains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeleine Edith Louisa Beveridge

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Language is an inherently social behaviour. In this paper, we bring together two research areas that typically occupy distinct sections of the literature: perspective taking in spatial language (whether people represent a scene from their own or a different spatial perspective, and perspective taking in action language (the extent to which they simulate an action as though they were performing that action. First, we note that vocabulary is used inconsistently across the spatial and action domains, and propose a more transparent vocabulary that will allow researchers to integrate action- and spatial-perspective taking. Second, we note that embodied theories of language comprehension often make the narrow assumption that understanding action descriptions involves adopting the perspective of an agent carrying out that action. We argue that comprehenders can adopt embodied action-perspectives other than that of the agent, including those of the patient or an observer. Third, we review evidence showing that perspective taking in spatial language is a flexible process. We argue that the flexibility of spatial-perspective taking provides a means for conversation partners engaged in dialogue to maximise similarity between their situation models. These situation models can then be used as the basis for action language simulations, in which language users adopt a particular action-perspective.

  12. Higher-order scene statistics of breast images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbey, Craig K.; Sohl-Dickstein, Jascha N.; Olshausen, Bruno A.; Eckstein, Miguel P.; Boone, John M.

    2009-02-01

    Researchers studying human and computer vision have found description and construction of these systems greatly aided by analysis of the statistical properties of naturally occurring scenes. More specifically, it has been found that receptive fields with directional selectivity and bandwidth properties similar to mammalian visual systems are more closely matched to the statistics of natural scenes. It is argued that this allows for sparse representation of the independent components of natural images [Olshausen and Field, Nature, 1996]. These theories have important implications for medical image perception. For example, will a system that is designed to represent the independent components of natural scenes, where objects occlude one another and illumination is typically reflected, be appropriate for X-ray imaging, where features superimpose on one another and illumination is transmissive? In this research we begin to examine these issues by evaluating higher-order statistical properties of breast images from X-ray projection mammography (PM) and dedicated breast computed tomography (bCT). We evaluate kurtosis in responses of octave bandwidth Gabor filters applied to PM and to coronal slices of bCT scans. We find that kurtosis in PM rises and quickly saturates for filter center frequencies with an average value above 0.95. By contrast, kurtosis in bCT peaks near 0.20 cyc/mm with kurtosis of approximately 2. Our findings suggest that the human visual system may be tuned to represent breast tissue more effectively in bCT over a specific range of spatial frequencies.

  13. Embryo disposition and the new death scene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellison, David

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the IVF clinic - a place designed principally for the production and implantation of embryos - scientists and IVF recipients are faced with decisions regarding the disposition of frozen embryos. At this time there are hundred of thousands of cryopreserved embryos awaiting such determinations. They may be thawed for transfer to the woman herself, they may be donated for research or for use by other infertile couples, they may remain in frozen storage, or they may variously be discarded by being allowed to 'succumb', or 'perish'. Where the choice is discard, some IVF clients have chosen to formalise the process through ceremony. A new language is emerging in response to the desires of the would-be-parents who might wish to characterise the discard experience as a ‘good death’. This article examines the procedure known as ‘compassionate transfer’ where the embryo to be discarded is placed in the woman’s vagina where it is clear that it will not develop further. An alternate method has the embryo transferred in the usual manner but without the benefit of fertility-enhancing hormones at a point in the cycle unreceptive to implantation. The embryo destined for disposal is thus removed from the realm of technological possibility and ‘returned’ to the female body for a homely death. While debates continue about whether or not embryos constitute life, new practices are developing in response to the emotional experience of embryo discard. We argue that compassionate transfer is a death scene taking shape. In this article, we take the measure of this new death scene’s fabrication, and consider the form, significance, and legal complexity of its ceremonies.

  14. Hierarchical Model for the Similarity Measurement of a Complex Holed-Region Entity Scene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanlong Chen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Complex multi-holed-region entity scenes (i.e., sets of random region with holes are common in spatial database systems, spatial query languages, and the Geographic Information System (GIS. A multi-holed-region (region with an arbitrary number of holes is an abstraction of the real world that primarily represents geographic objects that have more than one interior boundary, such as areas that contain several lakes or lakes that contain islands. When the similarity of the two complex holed-region entity scenes is measured, the number of regions in the scenes and the number of holes in the regions are usually different between the two scenes, which complicates the matching relationships of holed-regions and holes. The aim of this research is to develop several holed-region similarity metrics and propose a hierarchical model to measure comprehensively the similarity between two complex holed-region entity scenes. The procedure first divides a complex entity scene into three layers: a complex scene, a micro-spatial-scene, and a simple entity (hole. The relationships between the adjacent layers are considered to be sets of relationships, and each level of similarity measurements is nested with the adjacent one. Next, entity matching is performed from top to bottom, while the similarity results are calculated from local to global. In addition, we utilize position graphs to describe the distribution of the holed-regions and subsequently describe the directions between the holes using a feature matrix. A case study that uses the Great Lakes in North America in 1986 and 2015 as experimental data illustrates the entire similarity measurement process between two complex holed-region entity scenes. The experimental results show that the hierarchical model accounts for the relationships of the different layers in the entire complex holed-region entity scene. The model can effectively calculate the similarity of complex holed-region entity scenes, even if the

  15. Scenes of the self, and trance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan M. Broekman

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Trance shows the Self as a process involved in all sorts and forms of life. A Western perspective on a self and its reifying tendencies is only one (or one series of those variations. The process character of the self does not allow any coherent theory but shows, in particular when confronted with trance, its variability in all regards. What is more: the Self is always first on the scene of itself―a situation in which it becomes a sign for itself. That particular semiotic feature is again not a unified one but leads, as the Self in view of itself does, to series of scenes with changing colors, circumstances and environments. Our first scene “Beyond Monotheism” shows semiotic importance in that a self as determining component of a trance-phenomenon must abolish its own referent and seems not able to answer the question, what makes trance a trance. The Pizzica is an example here. Other social features of trance appear in the second scene, US post traumatic psychological treatments included. Our third scene underlines structures of an unfolding self: beginning with ‘split-ego’ conclusions, a self’s engenderment appears dependent on linguistic events and on spoken words in the first place. A fourth scene explores that theme and explains modern forms of an ego ―in particular those inherent to ‘citizenship’ or a ‘corporation’. The legal consequences are concentrated in the fifth scene, which considers a legal subject by revealing its ‘standing’. Our sixth and final scene pertains to the relation between trance and commerce. All scenes tie together and show parallels between Pizzica, rights-based behavior, RAVE music versus disco, commerce and trance; they demonstrate the meaning of trance as a multifaceted social phenomenon.

  16. Scene analysis in the natural environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewicki, Michael S; Olshausen, Bruno A; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2014-01-01

    The problem of scene analysis has been studied in a number of different fields over the past decades. These studies have led to important insights into problems of scene analysis, but not all of these insights are widely appreciated, and there remain critical shortcomings in current approaches th...... ill-posed problems, (2) the ability to integrate and store information across time and modality, (3) efficient recovery and representation of 3D scene structure, and (4) the use of optimal motor actions for acquiring information to progress toward behavioral goals....

  17. Scene grammar shapes the way we interact with objects, strengthens memories, and speeds search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draschkow, Dejan; Võ, Melissa L-H

    2017-11-28

    Predictions of environmental rules (here referred to as "scene grammar") can come in different forms: seeing a toilet in a living room would violate semantic predictions, while finding a toilet brush next to the toothpaste would violate syntactic predictions. The existence of such predictions has usually been investigated by showing observers images containing such grammatical violations. Conversely, the generative process of creating an environment according to one's scene grammar and its effects on behavior and memory has received little attention. In a virtual reality paradigm, we either instructed participants to arrange objects according to their scene grammar or against it. Subsequently, participants' memory for the arrangements was probed using a surprise recall (Exp1), or repeated search (Exp2) task. As a result, participants' construction behavior showed strategic use of larger, static objects to anchor the location of smaller objects which are generally the goals of everyday actions. Further analysis of this scene construction data revealed possible commonalities between the rules governing word usage in language and object usage in naturalistic environments. Taken together, we revealed some of the building blocks of scene grammar necessary for efficient behavior, which differentially influence how we interact with objects and what we remember about scenes.

  18. Imaging infrared: Scene simulation, modeling, and real image tracking; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Mar. 30, 31, 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triplett, Milton J.; Wolverton, James R.; Hubert, August J.

    1989-09-01

    Various papers on scene simulation, modeling, and real image tracking using IR imaging are presented. Individual topics addressed include: tactical IR scene generator, dynamic FLIR simulation in flight training research, high-speed dynamic scene simulation in UV to IR spectra, development of an IR sensor calibration facility, IR celestial background scene description, transmission measurement of optical components at cryogenic temperatures, diffraction model for a point-source generator, silhouette-based tracking for tactical IR systems, use of knowledge in electrooptical trackers, detection and classification of target formations in IR image sequences, SMPRAD: simplified three-dimensional cloud radiance model, IR target generator, recent advances in testing of thermal imagers, generic IR system models with dynamic image generation, modeling realistic target acquisition using IR sensors in multiple-observer scenarios, and novel concept of scene generation and comprehensive dynamic sensor test.

  19. Global Transsaccadic Change Blindness During Scene Perception

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Henderson, John

    2003-01-01

    .... The results from two experiments demonstrated a global transsaccadic change-blindness effect, suggesting that point-by-point visual representations are not functional across saccades during complex scene perception. Ahstract.

  20. Robotic Discovery of the Auditory Scene

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martinson, E; Schultz, A

    2007-01-01

    .... Motivated by the large negative effect of ambient noise sources on robot audition, the long-term goal is to provide awareness of the auditory scene to a robot, so that it may more effectively act...

  1. Scene Integration for Online VR Advertising Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kalochristianakis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a scene composition approach that allows the combinational use of standard three dimensional objects, called models, in order to create X3D scenes. The module is an integral part of a broader design aiming to construct large scale online advertising infrastructures that rely on virtual reality technologies. The architecture addresses a number of problems regarding remote rendering for low end devices and last but not least, the provision of scene composition and integration. Since viewers do not keep information regarding individual input models or scenes, composition requires the consideration of mechanisms that add state to viewing technologies. In terms of this work we extended a well-known, open source X3D authoring tool.

  2. Children's attention to task-relevant information accounts for relations between language and spatial cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Hilary E; Simmering, Vanessa R

    2018-08-01

    Children's spatial language reliably predicts their spatial skills, but the nature of this relation is a source of debate. This investigation examined whether the mechanisms accounting for such relations are specific to language use or reflect a domain-general mechanism of selective attention. Experiment 1 examined whether 4-year-olds' spatial skills were predicted by their selective attention or their adaptive language use. Children completed (a) an attention task assessing attention to task-relevant color, size, and location cues; (b) a description task assessing adaptive language use to describe scenes varying in color, size, and location; and (c) three spatial tasks. There was correspondence between the cue types that children attended to and produced across description and attention tasks. Adaptive language use was predicted by both children's attention and task-related language production, suggesting that selective attention underlies skills in using language adaptively. After controlling for age, gender, receptive vocabulary, and adaptive language use, spatial skills were predicted by children's selective attention. The attention score predicted variance in spatial performance previously accounted for by adaptive language use. Experiment 2 followed up on the attention task (Experiment 2a) and description task (Experiment 2b) from Experiment 1 to assess whether performance in the tasks related to selective attention or task-specific demands. Performance in Experiments 2a and 2b paralleled that in Experiment 1, suggesting that the effects in Experiment 1 reflected children's selective attention skills. These findings show that selective attention is a central factor supporting spatial skill development that could account for many effects previously attributed to children's language use. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Binary Format for Scene (BIFS): combining MPEG-4 media to build rich multimedia services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signes, Julien

    1998-12-01

    In this paper, we analyze the design concepts and some technical details behind the MPEG-4 standard, particularly the scene description layer, commonly known as the Binary Format for Scene (BIFS). We show how MPEG-4 may ease multimedia proliferation by offering a unique, optimized multimedia platform. Lastly, we analyze the potential of the technology for creating rich multimedia applications on various networks and platforms. An e-commerce application example is detailed, highlighting the benefits of the technology. Compression results show how rich applications may be built even on very low bit rate connections.

  4. New scenes and houses for literature - a challenge for cultural and public library policy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Niels D.

    2012-01-01

    The paper focuses on the emergence of new initiatives and undertakings in the field of promotion and use of literature in comparison with the possibilities and practices of the traditional public library institutions and of public cultural policy. First a description of a dual development...... of the public library and of UNESCO’s agenda City of literature makes a setting; then three parts mention different scenes and initiatives: small scenes for performance of literature, festivals of literature as a mode, and – more detailed – the various types of houses of literature - with primarily Danish...... questions of subsiding and relations to libraries and civil society....

  5. Moving through a multiplex holographic scene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrongovius, Martina

    2013-02-01

    This paper explores how movement can be used as a compositional element in installations of multiplex holograms. My holographic images are created from montages of hand-held video and photo-sequences. These spatially dynamic compositions are visually complex but anchored to landmarks and hints of the capturing process - such as the appearance of the photographer's shadow - to establish a sense of connection to the holographic scene. Moving around in front of the hologram, the viewer animates the holographic scene. A perception of motion then results from the viewer's bodily awareness of physical motion and the visual reading of dynamics within the scene or movement of perspective through a virtual suggestion of space. By linking and transforming the physical motion of the viewer with the visual animation, the viewer's bodily awareness - including proprioception, balance and orientation - play into the holographic composition. How multiplex holography can be a tool for exploring coupled, cross-referenced and transformed perceptions of movement is demonstrated with a number of holographic image installations. Through this process I expanded my creative composition practice to consider how dynamic and spatial scenes can be conveyed through the fragmented view of a multiplex hologram. This body of work was developed through an installation art practice and was the basis of my recently completed doctoral thesis: 'The Emergent Holographic Scene — compositions of movement and affect using multiplex holographic images'.

  6. Maxwellian Eye Fixation during Natural Scene Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Duchesne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available When we explore a visual scene, our eyes make saccades to jump rapidly from one area to another and fixate regions of interest to extract useful information. While the role of fixation eye movements in vision has been widely studied, their random nature has been a hitherto neglected issue. Here we conducted two experiments to examine the Maxwellian nature of eye movements during fixation. In Experiment 1, eight participants were asked to perform free viewing of natural scenes displayed on a computer screen while their eye movements were recorded. For each participant, the probability density function (PDF of eye movement amplitude during fixation obeyed the law established by Maxwell for describing molecule velocity in gas. Only the mean amplitude of eye movements varied with expertise, which was lower in experts than novice participants. In Experiment 2, two participants underwent fixed time, free viewing of natural scenes and of their scrambled version while their eye movements were recorded. Again, the PDF of eye movement amplitude during fixation obeyed Maxwell’s law for each participant and for each scene condition (normal or scrambled. The results suggest that eye fixation during natural scene perception describes a random motion regardless of top-down or of bottom-up processes.

  7. Maxwellian Eye Fixation during Natural Scene Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchesne, Jean; Bouvier, Vincent; Guillemé, Julien; Coubard, Olivier A.

    2012-01-01

    When we explore a visual scene, our eyes make saccades to jump rapidly from one area to another and fixate regions of interest to extract useful information. While the role of fixation eye movements in vision has been widely studied, their random nature has been a hitherto neglected issue. Here we conducted two experiments to examine the Maxwellian nature of eye movements during fixation. In Experiment 1, eight participants were asked to perform free viewing of natural scenes displayed on a computer screen while their eye movements were recorded. For each participant, the probability density function (PDF) of eye movement amplitude during fixation obeyed the law established by Maxwell for describing molecule velocity in gas. Only the mean amplitude of eye movements varied with expertise, which was lower in experts than novice participants. In Experiment 2, two participants underwent fixed time, free viewing of natural scenes and of their scrambled version while their eye movements were recorded. Again, the PDF of eye movement amplitude during fixation obeyed Maxwell's law for each participant and for each scene condition (normal or scrambled). The results suggest that eye fixation during natural scene perception describes a random motion regardless of top-down or of bottom-up processes. PMID:23226987

  8. Correlated Topic Vector for Scene Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Pengxu; Qin, Fei; Wan, Fang; Zhu, Yi; Jiao, Jianbin; Ye, Qixiang

    2017-07-01

    Scene images usually involve semantic correlations, particularly when considering large-scale image data sets. This paper proposes a novel generative image representation, correlated topic vector, to model such semantic correlations. Oriented from the correlated topic model, correlated topic vector intends to naturally utilize the correlations among topics, which are seldom considered in the conventional feature encoding, e.g., Fisher vector, but do exist in scene images. It is expected that the involvement of correlations can increase the discriminative capability of the learned generative model and consequently improve the recognition accuracy. Incorporated with the Fisher kernel method, correlated topic vector inherits the advantages of Fisher vector. The contributions to the topics of visual words have been further employed by incorporating the Fisher kernel framework to indicate the differences among scenes. Combined with the deep convolutional neural network (CNN) features and Gibbs sampling solution, correlated topic vector shows great potential when processing large-scale and complex scene image data sets. Experiments on two scene image data sets demonstrate that correlated topic vector improves significantly the deep CNN features, and outperforms existing Fisher kernel-based features.

  9. Language Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Paul

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the role of linguistics in the investigation of language disorders, focusing on the application of phonetics, descriptive grammatic frameworks, grammatical theory, and concepts from semantics and pragmatics to a variety of disorders and their remediation. Some trends and examples from the field of clinical linguistics are discussed. (GLR)

  10. Influence of semantic consistency and perceptual features on visual attention during scene viewing in toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helo, Andrea; van Ommen, Sandrien; Pannasch, Sebastian; Danteny-Dordoigne, Lucile; Rämä, Pia

    2017-11-01

    Conceptual representations of everyday scenes are built in interaction with visual environment and these representations guide our visual attention. Perceptual features and object-scene semantic consistency have been found to attract our attention during scene exploration. The present study examined how visual attention in 24-month-old toddlers is attracted by semantic violations and how perceptual features (i. e. saliency, centre distance, clutter and object size) and linguistic properties (i. e. object label frequency and label length) affect gaze distribution. We compared eye movements of 24-month-old toddlers and adults while exploring everyday scenes which either contained an inconsistent (e.g., soap on a breakfast table) or consistent (e.g., soap in a bathroom) object. Perceptual features such as saliency, centre distance and clutter of the scene affected looking times in the toddler group during the whole viewing time whereas looking times in adults were affected only by centre distance during the early viewing time. Adults looked longer to inconsistent than consistent objects either if the objects had a high or a low saliency. In contrast, toddlers presented semantic consistency effect only when objects were highly salient. Additionally, toddlers with lower vocabulary skills looked longer to inconsistent objects while toddlers with higher vocabulary skills look equally long to both consistent and inconsistent objects. Our results indicate that 24-month-old children use scene context to guide visual attention when exploring the visual environment. However, perceptual features have a stronger influence in eye movement guidance in toddlers than in adults. Our results also indicate that language skills influence cognitive but not perceptual guidance of eye movements during scene perception in toddlers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Modeling global scene factors in attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torralba, Antonio

    2003-07-01

    Models of visual attention have focused predominantly on bottom-up approaches that ignored structured contextual and scene information. I propose a model of contextual cueing for attention guidance based on the global scene configuration. It is shown that the statistics of low-level features across the whole image can be used to prime the presence or absence of objects in the scene and to predict their location, scale, and appearance before exploring the image. In this scheme, visual context information can become available early in the visual processing chain, which allows modulation of the saliency of image regions and provides an efficient shortcut for object detection and recognition. 2003 Optical Society of America

  12. Understanding and representing natural language meaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltz, D. L.; Maran, L. R.; Dorfman, M. H.; Dinitz, R.; Farwell, D.

    1982-12-01

    During this contract period the authors have: (1) continued investigation of events and actions by means of representation schemes called 'event shape diagrams'; (2) written a parsing program which selects appropriate word and sentence meanings by a parallel process know as activation and inhibition; (3) begun investigation of the point of a story or event by modeling the motivations and emotional behaviors of story characters; (4) started work on combining and translating two machine-readable dictionaries into a lexicon and knowledge base which will form an integral part of our natural language understanding programs; (5) made substantial progress toward a general model for the representation of cognitive relations by comparing English scene and event descriptions with similar descriptions in other languages; (6) constructed a general model for the representation of tense and aspect of verbs; (7) made progress toward the design of an integrated robotics system which accepts English requests, and uses visual and tactile inputs in making decisions and learning new tasks.

  13. Desirable and undesirable future thoughts call for different scene construction processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vito, S; Neroni, M A; Gamboz, N; Della Sala, S; Brandimonte, M A

    2015-01-01

    Despite the growing interest in the ability of foreseeing (episodic future thinking), it is still unclear how healthy people construct possible future scenarios. We suggest that different future thoughts require different processes of scene construction. Thirty-five participants were asked to imagine desirable and less desirable future events. Imagining desirable events increased the ease of scene construction, the frequency of life scripts, the number of internal details, and the clarity of sensorial and spatial temporal information. The initial description of general personal knowledge lasted longer in undesirable than in desirable anticipations. Finally, participants were more prone to explicitly indicate autobiographical memory as the main source of their simulations of undesirable episodes, whereas they equally related the simulations of desirable events to autobiographical events or semantic knowledge. These findings show that desirable and undesirable scenarios call for different mechanisms of scene construction. The present study emphasizes that future thinking cannot be considered as a monolithic entity.

  14. HDR IMAGING FOR FEATURE DETECTION ON DETAILED ARCHITECTURAL SCENES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kontogianni

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available 3D reconstruction relies on accurate detection, extraction, description and matching of image features. This is even truer for complex architectural scenes that pose needs for 3D models of high quality, without any loss of detail in geometry or color. Illumination conditions influence the radiometric quality of images, as standard sensors cannot depict properly a wide range of intensities in the same scene. Indeed, overexposed or underexposed pixels cause irreplaceable information loss and degrade digital representation. Images taken under extreme lighting environments may be thus prohibitive for feature detection/extraction and consequently for matching and 3D reconstruction. High Dynamic Range (HDR images could be helpful for these operators because they broaden the limits of illumination range that Standard or Low Dynamic Range (SDR/LDR images can capture and increase in this way the amount of details contained in the image. Experimental results of this study prove this assumption as they examine state of the art feature detectors applied both on standard dynamic range and HDR images.

  15. Binary patterns encoded convolutional neural networks for texture recognition and remote sensing scene classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwer, Rao Muhammad; Khan, Fahad Shahbaz; van de Weijer, Joost; Molinier, Matthieu; Laaksonen, Jorma

    2018-04-01

    Designing discriminative powerful texture features robust to realistic imaging conditions is a challenging computer vision problem with many applications, including material recognition and analysis of satellite or aerial imagery. In the past, most texture description approaches were based on dense orderless statistical distribution of local features. However, most recent approaches to texture recognition and remote sensing scene classification are based on Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs). The de facto practice when learning these CNN models is to use RGB patches as input with training performed on large amounts of labeled data (ImageNet). In this paper, we show that Local Binary Patterns (LBP) encoded CNN models, codenamed TEX-Nets, trained using mapped coded images with explicit LBP based texture information provide complementary information to the standard RGB deep models. Additionally, two deep architectures, namely early and late fusion, are investigated to combine the texture and color information. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to investigate Binary Patterns encoded CNNs and different deep network fusion architectures for texture recognition and remote sensing scene classification. We perform comprehensive experiments on four texture recognition datasets and four remote sensing scene classification benchmarks: UC-Merced with 21 scene categories, WHU-RS19 with 19 scene classes, RSSCN7 with 7 categories and the recently introduced large scale aerial image dataset (AID) with 30 aerial scene types. We demonstrate that TEX-Nets provide complementary information to standard RGB deep model of the same network architecture. Our late fusion TEX-Net architecture always improves the overall performance compared to the standard RGB network on both recognition problems. Furthermore, our final combination leads to consistent improvement over the state-of-the-art for remote sensing scene classification.

  16. The Pearl Side of Online Portfolios: A Descriptive Study on the Rich Experience of Using PearlTrees by Master Students of Teaching English as a Foreign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albaiz, Tahany

    2016-01-01

    Teaching English to ESL teachers is a challenging task for a number of reasons, the lack of connection between the target language and the native one being one of the most challenging factors (Ferlazzo & Sypnieski, 2013). Therefore, teachers are supposed to be innovators in creating the tools that could boost the learning process, as well as…

  17. Acute stress influences the discrimination of complex scenes and complex faces in young healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, M; Lech, R K; Scheil, J; Dierolf, A M; Suchan, B; Wolf, O T

    2016-04-01

    The stress-induced release of glucocorticoids has been demonstrated to influence hippocampal functions via the modulation of specific receptors. At the behavioral level stress is known to influence hippocampus dependent long-term memory. In recent years, studies have consistently associated the hippocampus with the non-mnemonic perception of scenes, while adjacent regions in the medial temporal lobe were associated with the perception of objects, and faces. So far it is not known whether and how stress influences non-mnemonic perceptual processes. In a behavioral study, fifty male participants were subjected either to the stressful socially evaluated cold-pressor test or to a non-stressful control procedure, before they completed a visual discrimination task, comprising scenes and faces. The complexity of the face and scene stimuli was manipulated in easy and difficult conditions. A significant three way interaction between stress, stimulus type and complexity was found. Stressed participants tended to commit more errors in the complex scenes condition. For complex faces a descriptive tendency in the opposite direction (fewer errors under stress) was observed. As a result the difference between the number of errors for scenes and errors for faces was significantly larger in the stress group. These results indicate that, beyond the effects of stress on long-term memory, stress influences the discrimination of spatial information, especially when the perception is characterized by a high complexity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. On-scene crisis intervention: psychological guidelines and communication strategies for first responders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Laurence

    2010-01-01

    Effective emergency mental health intervention for victims of crime, natural disaster or terrorism begins the moment the first responders arrive. This article describes a range of on-scene crisis intervention options, including verbal communication, body language, behavioral strategies, and interpersonal style. The correct intervention in the first few moments and hours of a crisis can profoundly influence the recovery course of victims and survivors of catastrophic events.

  19. Behind the scenes at the LHC inauguration

    CERN Document Server

    2008-01-01

    On 21 October the LHC inauguration ceremony will take place and people from all over CERN have been busy preparing. With delegations from 38 countries attending, including ministers and heads of state, the Bulletin has gone behind the scenes to see what it takes to put together an event of this scale.

  20. OpenSceneGraph 3 Cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Rui

    2012-01-01

    This is a cookbook full of recipes with practical examples enriched with code and the required screenshots for easy and quick comprehension. You should be familiar with the basic concepts of the OpenSceneGraph API and should be able to write simple programs. Some OpenGL and math knowledge will help a lot, too.

  1. The primal scene and symbol formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedecken, Dietmut

    2016-06-01

    This article discusses the meaning of the primal scene for symbol formation by exploring its way of processing in a child's play. The author questions the notion that a sadomasochistic way of processing is the only possible one. A model of an alternative mode of processing is being presented. It is suggested that both ways of processing intertwine in the "fabric of life" (D. Laub). Two clinical vignettes, one from an analytic child psychotherapy and the other from the analysis of a 30 year-old female patient, illustrate how the primal scene is being played out in the form of a terzet. The author explores whether the sadomasochistic way of processing actually precedes the "primal scene as a terzet". She discusses if it could even be regarded as a precondition for the formation of the latter or, alternatively, if the "combined parent-figure" gives rise to ways of processing. The question is being left open. Finally, it is shown how both modes of experiencing the primal scene underlie the discoursive and presentative symbol formation, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  2. Wall grid structure for interior scene synthesis

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Wenzhuo; Wang, Bin; Yan, Dongming

    2015-01-01

    We present a system for automatically synthesizing a diverse set of semantically valid, and well-arranged 3D interior scenes for a given empty room shape. Unlike existing work on layout synthesis, that typically knows potentially needed 3D models

  3. From Theatre Improvisation To Video Scenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henry; Hvidt, Niels Christian; Friis, Preben

    2018-01-01

    At Sygehus Lillebaelt, a Danish hospital, there has been a focus for several years on patient communi- cation. This paper reflects on a course focusing on engaging with the patient’s existential themes in particular the negotiations around the creation of video scenes. In the initial workshops, w...

  4. Scene independent real-time indirect illumination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Christensen, Niels Jørgen; Falster, Peter

    2005-01-01

    A novel method for real-time simulation of indirect illumination is presented in this paper. The method, which we call Direct Radiance Mapping (DRM), is based on basal radiance calculations and does not impose any restrictions on scene geometry or dynamics. This makes the method tractable for rea...

  5. How Perceived Distractor Distance Influences Reference Production : Effects of Perceptual Grouping in 2D and 3D Scenes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koolen, R.M.F.; Houben, E.; Huntjens, J.; Krahmer, E.J.; Bello, Paul; Guarini, Marcello; McShane, Marjorie; Scassellati, Brian

    2014-01-01

    This study explored two factors that might have an impact on how participants perceive distance between objects in a visual scene: perceptual grouping and presentation mode (2D versus 3D). More specifically, we examined how these factors affect language production, asking if they cause speakers to

  6. Intervention Techniques Used With Autism Spectrum Disorder by Speech-Language Pathologists in the United States and Taiwan: A Descriptive Analysis of Practice in Clinical Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ming-Yeh; Lynch, Georgina; Madison, Charles

    2018-04-27

    This study examined intervention techniques used with children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) by speech-language pathologists (SLPs) in the United States and Taiwan working in clinic/hospital settings. The research questions addressed intervention techniques used with children with ASD, intervention techniques used with different age groups (under and above 8 years old), and training received before using the intervention techniques. The survey was distributed through the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association to selected SLPs across the United States. In Taiwan, the survey (Chinese version) was distributed through the Taiwan Speech-Language Pathologist Union, 2018, to certified SLPs. Results revealed that SLPs in the United States and Taiwan used 4 common intervention techniques: Social Skill Training, Augmentative and Alternative Communication, Picture Exchange Communication System, and Social Stories. Taiwanese SLPs reported SLP preparation program training across these common intervention strategies. In the United States, SLPs reported training via SLP preparation programs, peer therapists, and self-taught. Most SLPs reported using established or emerging evidence-based practices as defined by the National Professional Development Center (2014) and the National Standards Report (2015). Future research should address comparison of SLP preparation programs to examine the impact of preprofessional training on use of evidence-based practices to treat ASD.

  7. Language and the International Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonkin, Humphrey

    1977-01-01

    A discussion of the issue of unilinguism and linguistic pluralism on the international scene. The need for international communication where English is the dominant force and efforts to preserve cultural equality are seen as compelling reasons for promotion of an international language such as Esperanto. (AMH)

  8. Emotional and neutral scenes in competition: orienting, efficiency, and identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Manuel G; Nummenmaa, Lauri; Hyönä, Jukka

    2007-12-01

    To investigate preferential processing of emotional scenes competing for limited attentional resources with neutral scenes, prime pictures were presented briefly (450 ms), peripherally (5.2 degrees away from fixation), and simultaneously (one emotional and one neutral scene) versus singly. Primes were followed by a mask and a probe for recognition. Hit rate was higher for emotional than for neutral scenes in the dual- but not in the single-prime condition, and A' sensitivity decreased for neutral but not for emotional scenes in the dual-prime condition. This preferential processing involved both selective orienting and efficient encoding, as revealed, respectively, by a higher probability of first fixation on--and shorter saccade latencies to--emotional scenes and by shorter fixation time needed to accurately identify emotional scenes, in comparison with neutral scenes.

  9. The time course of natural scene perception with reduced attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, I.I.A.; Ghebreab, S.; Lamme, V.A.F.; Scholte, H.S.

    Attention is thought to impose an informational bottleneck on vision by selecting particular information from visual scenes for enhanced processing. Behavioral evidence suggests, however, that some scene information is extracted even when attention is directed elsewhere. Here, we investigated the

  10. Improved motion description for action classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jain, M.; Jégou, H.; Bouthemy, P.

    2016-01-01

    Even though the importance of explicitly integrating motion characteristics in video descriptions has been demonstrated by several recent papers on action classification, our current work concludes that adequately decomposing visual motion into dominant and residual motions, i.e., camera and scene

  11. XML Diagnostics Description Standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neto, A.; Fernandes, H.; Varandas, C.; Lister, J.; Yonekawa, I.

    2006-01-01

    A standard for the self-description of fusion plasma diagnostics will be presented, based on the Extensible Markup Language (XML). The motivation is to maintain and organise the information on all the components of a laboratory experiment, from the hardware to the access security, to save time and money when problems arises. Since there is no existing standard to organise this kind of information, every Association stores and organises each experiment in different ways. This can lead to severe problems when the organisation schema is poorly documented or written in national languages. The exchange of scientists, researchers and engineers between laboratories is a common practice nowadays. Sometimes they have to install new diagnostics or to update existing ones and frequently they lose a great deal of time trying to understand the currently installed system. The most common problems are: no documentation available; the person who understands it has left; documentation written in the national language. Standardisation is the key to solving all the problems mentioned. From the commercial information on the diagnostic (component supplier; component price) to the hardware description (component specifications; drawings) to the operation of the equipment (finite state machines) through change control (who changed what and when) and internationalisation (information at least in the native language and in English), a common XML schema will be proposed. This paper will also discuss an extension of these ideas to the self-description of ITER plant systems, since the problems will be identical. (author)

  12. Video Scene Parsing with Predictive Feature Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Xiaojie; Li, Xin; Xiao, Huaxin; Shen, Xiaohui; Lin, Zhe; Yang, Jimei; Chen, Yunpeng; Dong, Jian; Liu, Luoqi; Jie, Zequn; Feng, Jiashi; Yan, Shuicheng

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we address the challenging video scene parsing problem by developing effective representation learning methods given limited parsing annotations. In particular, we contribute two novel methods that constitute a unified parsing framework. (1) \\textbf{Predictive feature learning}} from nearly unlimited unlabeled video data. Different from existing methods learning features from single frame parsing, we learn spatiotemporal discriminative features by enforcing a parsing network to ...

  13. Interactive Procedural Modelling of Coherent Waterfall Scenes

    OpenAIRE

    Emilien , Arnaud; Poulin , Pierre; Cani , Marie-Paule; Vimont , Ulysse

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Combining procedural generation and user control is a fundamental challenge for the interactive design of natural scenery. This is particularly true for modelling complex waterfall scenes where, in addition to taking charge of geometric details, an ideal tool should also provide a user with the freedom to shape the running streams and falls, while automatically maintaining physical plausibility in terms of flow network, embedding into the terrain, and visual aspects of...

  14. Where and when Do Objects Become Scenes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiye G. Kim

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Scenes can be understood with extraordinary speed and facility, not merely as an inventory of individual objects but in the coding of the relations among them. These relations, which can be readily described by prepositions or gerunds (e.g., a hand holding a pen, allows the explicit representation of complex structures. Where in the brain are inter-object relations specified? In a series of fMRI experiments, we show that pairs of objects shown as interacting elicit greater activity in LOC than when the objects are depicted side-by-side (e.g., a hand beside a pen. Other visual areas, PPA, IPS, and DLPFC, did not show this sensitivity to scene relations, rendering it unlikely that the relations were computed in these regions. Using EEG and TMS, we further show that LOC's sensitivity to object interactions arises around 170ms post stimulus onset and that disruption of normal LOC activity—but not IPS activity—is detrimental to the behavioral sensitivity of inter-object relations. Insofar as LOC is the earliest cortical region where shape is distinguished from texture, our results provide strong evidence that scene-like relations are achieved simultaneously with the perception of object shape and not inferred at some stage following object identification.

  15. A Virtual Environments Editor for Driving Scenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald R. Mourant

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this project was to enable the rapid creation of three-dimensional virtual driving environments. We designed and implemented a high-level scene editor that allows a user to construct a driving environment by pasting icons that represent 1 road segments, 2 road signs, 3 trees and 4 buildings. These icons represent two- and three-dimensional objects that have been predesigned. Icons can be placed in the scene at specific locations (x, y, and z coordinates. The editor includes the capability of a user to "drive" a vehicle using a computer mouse for steering, accelerating and braking. At any time during the process of building a virtual environment, a user may switch to "Run Mode" and inspect the three-dimensional scene by "driving" through it using the mouse. Adjustments and additions can be made to the virtual environment by going back to "Build Mode". Once a user is satisfied with the threedimensional virtual environment, it can be saved in a file. The file can used with Java3D software that enables the traversing of three-dimensional environments. The process of building virtual environments from predesigned icons can be applied to many other application areas. It will enable novice computer users to rapidly construct and use three-dimensional virtual environments.

  16. Gay and Lesbian Scene in Metelkova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Velikonja

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the development of the gay and lesbian scene in ACC Metelkova, while specifying the preliminary aspects of establishing and building gay and lesbian activism associated with spatial issues. The struggle for space or occupying public space is vital for the gay and lesbian scene, as it provides not only the necessary socializing opportunities for gays and lesbians, but also does away with the historical hiding of homosexuality in the closet, in seclusion and silence. Because of their autonomy and long-term, continuous existence, homo-clubs at Metelkova contributed to the consolidation of the gay and lesbian scene in Slovenia and significantly improved the opportunities for cultural, social and political expression of gays and lesbians. Such a synthesis of the cultural, social and political, further intensified in Metelkova, and characterizes the gay and lesbian community in Slovenia from the very outset of gay and lesbian activism in 1984. It is this long-term synthesis that keeps this community in Slovenia so vital and politically resilient.

  17. Fast Binary Coding for the Scene Classification of High-Resolution Remote Sensing Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Hu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Scene classification of high-resolution remote sensing (HRRS imagery is an important task in the intelligent processing of remote sensing images and has attracted much attention in recent years. Although the existing scene classification methods, e.g., the bag-of-words (BOW model and its variants, can achieve acceptable performance, these approaches strongly rely on the extraction of local features and the complicated coding strategy, which are usually time consuming and demand much expert effort. In this paper, we propose a fast binary coding (FBC method, to effectively generate efficient discriminative scene representations of HRRS images. The main idea is inspired by the unsupervised feature learning technique and the binary feature descriptions. More precisely, equipped with the unsupervised feature learning technique, we first learn a set of optimal “filters” from large quantities of randomly-sampled image patches and then obtain feature maps by convolving the image scene with the learned filters. After binarizing the feature maps, we perform a simple hashing step to convert the binary-valued feature map to the integer-valued feature map. Finally, statistical histograms computed on the integer-valued feature map are used as global feature representations of the scenes of HRRS images, similar to the conventional BOW model. The analysis of the algorithm complexity and experiments on HRRS image datasets demonstrate that, in contrast with existing scene classification approaches, the proposed FBC has much faster computational speed and achieves comparable classification performance. In addition, we also propose two extensions to FBC, i.e., the spatial co-occurrence matrix and different visual saliency maps, for further improving its final classification accuracy.

  18. The time course of natural scene perception with reduced attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groen, Iris I A; Ghebreab, Sennay; Lamme, Victor A F; Scholte, H Steven

    2016-02-01

    Attention is thought to impose an informational bottleneck on vision by selecting particular information from visual scenes for enhanced processing. Behavioral evidence suggests, however, that some scene information is extracted even when attention is directed elsewhere. Here, we investigated the neural correlates of this ability by examining how attention affects electrophysiological markers of scene perception. In two electro-encephalography (EEG) experiments, human subjects categorized real-world scenes as manmade or natural (full attention condition) or performed tasks on unrelated stimuli in the center or periphery of the scenes (reduced attention conditions). Scene processing was examined in two ways: traditional trial averaging was used to assess the presence of a categorical manmade/natural distinction in event-related potentials, whereas single-trial analyses assessed whether EEG activity was modulated by scene statistics that are diagnostic of naturalness of individual scenes. The results indicated that evoked activity up to 250 ms was unaffected by reduced attention, showing intact categorical differences between manmade and natural scenes and strong modulations of single-trial activity by scene statistics in all conditions. Thus initial processing of both categorical and individual scene information remained intact with reduced attention. Importantly, however, attention did have profound effects on later evoked activity; full attention on the scene resulted in prolonged manmade/natural differences, increased neural sensitivity to scene statistics, and enhanced scene memory. These results show that initial processing of real-world scene information is intact with diminished attention but that the depth of processing of this information does depend on attention. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Description logic rules

    CERN Document Server

    Krötzsch, M

    2010-01-01

    Ontological modelling today is applied in many areas of science and technology,including the Semantic Web. The W3C standard OWL defines one of the most important ontology languages based on the semantics of description logics. An alternative is to use rule languages in knowledge modelling, as proposed in the W3C's RIF standard. So far, it has often been unclear how to combine both technologies without sacrificing essential computational properties. This book explains this problem and presents new solutions that have recently been proposed. Extensive introductory chapters provide the necessary

  20. DSI--Dance Scene Investigation: Exploring a Time in Dance History as Dancer, Choreographer, Historian, and Critic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spear-Jones, Gwen

    2008-01-01

    This article provides a brief description of a dance program at the Old Donation Center Dance Education Program in Virginia Beach, Virginia. The mission of DSI--Dance Scene Investigation--is to nurture the full development of each student's dance potential through intense involvement in every aspect of the art. The program provides differentiated…

  1. Quantum logical description of microsystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stachow, E.-W.

    1984-01-01

    An abstract object language with respect to single microsystems and its pragmatic foundation are considered in a systematic way. The quantum physical restrictions of local operations of a speaker lead to a propositional language which, under certain conditions, can be referred to an individual microsystem. The time dependence of the propositions according to the measuring process is discussed. Finally the language is extended to a space-time description of microsystems. Hereby relativity imposes certain constraints on the validi ty regions of propositions in space-time. Via realization, the language establishes the essential features of quantum physics in Hilbert space. (author)

  2. SADE: system of acquisition of experimental data. Definition and analysis of an experiment description language; SADE: systeme d'acquisition de donnees experimentales. Definition et analyse d'un langage descripteur d'experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagniere, Jean-Michel

    1983-06-10

    This research thesis presents a computer system for the acquisition of experimental data. It is aimed at acquiring, at processing and at storing information from particle detectors. The acquisition configuration is described by an experiment description language. The system comprises a lexical analyser, a syntactic analyser, a translator, and a data processing module. It also comprises a control language and a statistics management and plotting module. The translator builds up series of tables which allow, during an experiment, different sequences to be executed: experiment running, calculations to be performed on this data, building up of statistics. Short execution time and ease of use are always looked for [French] Cette these presente un systeme informatique d'acquisition de donnees experimentales, dit S.A.D.E. Ce systeme est destine a acquerir, a traiter et a stocker les informations en provenance de detecteurs de particules. La configuration d'acquisition est decrite par un langage descripteur d'experiences. Le systeme comporte un analyseur lexical, un analyseur syntaxique, un traducteur et un module de traitement des donnees. Le systeme comporte egalement un langage de commande et un module de gestion et trace de statistiques. Le traducteur construit des series de tables, qui permettent, lors du deroulement d'une experience, l'execution des differentes sequences: lecture des donnees, calculs a effectuer sur ces donnees, construction des statistiques. Tout au long de la realisation, deux objectifs fondamentaux sont consideres: recherche de la rapidite d'execution et facilite d'utilisation. (auteur)

  3. The Linguistic Interpretation for Language Union – Language Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Balalykina

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper is dedicated to the problem of determination of the essence of language union and language family in modern linguistics, which is considered important, because these terms are often used as absolute synonyms. The research is relevant due to the need to distinguish the features of languages that are inherited during their functioning within either language union or language family when these languages are compared. The research has been carried out in order to present the historical background of the problem and to justify the need for differentiation of language facts that allow relating languages to particular language union or language family. In order to fulfill the goal of this work, descriptive, comparative, and historical methods have been used. A range of examples has been provided to prove that some languages, mainly Slavonic and Baltic languages, form a language family rather than a language union, because a whole number of features in their systems are the heritage of their common Indo-European past. Firstly, it is necessary to take into account changes having either common or different nature in the system of particular languages; secondly, one must have a precise idea of what features in the phonetic and morphological systems of compared languages allow to relate them to language union or language family; thirdly, it must be determined whether the changes in compared languages are regular or of any other type. On the basis of the obtained results, the following conclusions have been drawn: language union and language family are two different types of relations between modern languages; they allow identifying both degree of similarity of these languages and causes of differences between them. It is most important that one should distinguish and describe the specific features of two basic groups of languages forming language family or language union. The results obtained during the analysis are very important for linguistics

  4. Primal scene derivatives in the work of Yukio Mishima: the primal scene fantasy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turco, Ronald N

    2002-01-01

    This article discusses the preoccupation with fire, revenge, crucifixion, and other fantasies as they relate to the primal scene. The manifestations of these fantasies are demonstrated in a work of fiction by Yukio Mishima. The Temple of the Golden Pavillion. As is the case in other writings of Mishima there is a fusion of aggressive and libidinal drives and a preoccupation with death. The primal scene is directly connected with pyromania and destructive "acting out" of fantasies. This article is timely with regard to understanding contemporary events of cultural and national destruction.

  5. Popular music scenes and aging bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Andy

    2018-06-01

    During the last two decades there has been increasing interest in the phenomenon of the aging popular music audience (Bennett & Hodkinson, 2012). Although the specter of the aging fan is by no means new, the notion of, for example, the aging rocker or the aging punk has attracted significant sociological attention, not least of all because of what this says about the shifting socio-cultural significance of rock and punk and similar genres - which at the time of their emergence were inextricably tied to youth and vociferously marketed as "youth musics". As such, initial interpretations of aging music fans tended to paint a somewhat negative picture, suggesting a sense in which such fans were cultural misfits (Ross, 1994). In more recent times, however, work informed by cultural aging perspectives has begun to consider how so-called "youth cultural" identities may in fact provide the basis of more stable and evolving identities over the life course (Bennett, 2013). Starting from this position, the purpose of this article is to critically examine how aging members of popular music scenes might be recast as a salient example of the more pluralistic fashion in which aging is anticipated, managed and articulated in contemporary social settings. The article then branches out to consider two ways that aging members of music scenes continue their scene involvement. The first focuses on evolving a series of discourses that legitimately position them as aging bodies in cultural spaces that also continue to be inhabited by significant numbers of people in their teens, twenties and thirties. The second sees aging fans taking advantage of new opportunities for consuming live music including winery concerts and dinner and show events. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Terrain Simplification Research in Augmented Scene Modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    environment. As one of the most important tasks in augmented scene modeling, terrain simplification research has gained more and more attention. In this paper, we mainly focus on point selection problem in terrain simplification using triangulated irregular network. Based on the analysis and comparison of traditional importance measures for each input point, we put forward a new importance measure based on local entropy. The results demonstrate that the local entropy criterion has a better performance than any traditional methods. In addition, it can effectively conquer the "short-sight" problem associated with the traditional methods.

  7. The anatomy of the crime scene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil

    2010-01-01

    in the way that the certain actions and events which have taken place have left a variety of marks and traces which may be read and interpreted. Traces of blood, nails, hair constitutes (DNA)codes which can be decrypted and deciphered, in the same way as traces of gun powder, bullet holes, physical damage...... and interpretation. During her investigation the detective's ability to make logical reasoning and deductive thinking as well as to make use of her imagination is crucial to how the crime scene is first deconstructed and then reconstructed as a setting for the story (that is the actions of crime). By decoding...

  8. Image policy, subjectivation and argument scenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Cristina Salgueiro Marques

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed at discussing, with focus on Jacques Rancière, how an image policy can be noticed in the creative production of scenes of dissent from which the political agent emerge, appears and constitute himself in a process of subjectivation. The political and critical power of the image is linked to survival acts: operations and attempts that enable to resist to captures, silences and excesses comitted by the media discourses, by the social institutions and by the State.

  9. IR characteristic simulation of city scenes based on radiosity model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xixian; Zhou, Fugen; Bai, Xiangzhi; Yu, Xiyu

    2013-09-01

    Reliable modeling for thermal infrared (IR) signatures of real-world city scenes is required for signature management of civil and military platforms. Traditional modeling methods generally assume that scene objects are individual entities during the physical processes occurring in infrared range. However, in reality, the physical scene involves convective and conductive interactions between objects as well as the radiations interactions between objects. A method based on radiosity model describes these complex effects. It has been developed to enable an accurate simulation for the radiance distribution of the city scenes. Firstly, the physical processes affecting the IR characteristic of city scenes were described. Secondly, heat balance equations were formed on the basis of combining the atmospheric conditions, shadow maps and the geometry of scene. Finally, finite difference method was used to calculate the kinetic temperature of object surface. A radiosity model was introduced to describe the scattering effect of radiation between surface elements in the scene. By the synthesis of objects radiance distribution in infrared range, we could obtain the IR characteristic of scene. Real infrared images and model predictions were shown and compared. The results demonstrate that this method can realistically simulate the IR characteristic of city scenes. It effectively displays the infrared shadow effects and the radiation interactions between objects in city scenes.

  10. Semantic guidance of eye movements in real-world scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Alex D; Wang, Hsueh-Cheng; Pomplun, Marc

    2011-05-25

    The perception of objects in our visual world is influenced by not only their low-level visual features such as shape and color, but also their high-level features such as meaning and semantic relations among them. While it has been shown that low-level features in real-world scenes guide eye movements during scene inspection and search, the influence of semantic similarity among scene objects on eye movements in such situations has not been investigated. Here we study guidance of eye movements by semantic similarity among objects during real-world scene inspection and search. By selecting scenes from the LabelMe object-annotated image database and applying latent semantic analysis (LSA) to the object labels, we generated semantic saliency maps of real-world scenes based on the semantic similarity of scene objects to the currently fixated object or the search target. An ROC analysis of these maps as predictors of subjects' gaze transitions between objects during scene inspection revealed a preference for transitions to objects that were semantically similar to the currently inspected one. Furthermore, during the course of a scene search, subjects' eye movements were progressively guided toward objects that were semantically similar to the search target. These findings demonstrate substantial semantic guidance of eye movements in real-world scenes and show its importance for understanding real-world attentional control. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Lateralized discrimination of emotional scenes in peripheral vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Manuel G; Rodríguez-Chinea, Sandra; Fernández-Martín, Andrés

    2015-03-01

    This study investigates whether there is lateralized processing of emotional scenes in the visual periphery, in the absence of eye fixations; and whether this varies with emotional valence (pleasant vs. unpleasant), specific emotional scene content (babies, erotica, human attack, mutilation, etc.), and sex of the viewer. Pairs of emotional (positive or negative) and neutral photographs were presented for 150 ms peripherally (≥6.5° away from fixation). Observers judged on which side the emotional picture was located. Low-level image properties, scene visual saliency, and eye movements were controlled. Results showed that (a) correct identification of the emotional scene exceeded the chance level; (b) performance was more accurate and faster when the emotional scene appeared in the left than in the right visual field; (c) lateralization was equivalent for females and males for pleasant scenes, but was greater for females and unpleasant scenes; and (d) lateralization occurred similarly for different emotional scene categories. These findings reveal discrimination between emotional and neutral scenes, and right brain hemisphere dominance for emotional processing, which is modulated by sex of the viewer and scene valence, and suggest that coarse affective significance can be extracted in peripheral vision.

  12. Language of advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Krchňáková, Leontina

    2015-01-01

    This work is devoted to the Russian language advertising, which examines in an independent system. It aims are analyzing the text of Russian advertising in terms of its information and formal structure. It focuses on a specific aesthetic qualities of language, which the text uses. Work is further focused on the categorization of neologisms and neologisation of the Russian advertising. Next focus is on loanwords from the English language. Used research methods are descriptive and comparative. ...

  13. Descriptive Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigram, Anthony Lewis

    2003-01-01

    Descriptive research is described by Lathom-Radocy and Radocy (1995) to include Survey research, ex post facto research, case studies and developmental studies. Descriptive research also includes a review of the literature in order to provide both quantitative and qualitative evidence of the effect...... starts will allow effect size calculations to be made in order to evaluate effect over time. Given the difficulties in undertaking controlled experimental studies in the creative arts therapies, descriptive research methods offer a way of quantifying effect through descriptive statistical analysis...

  14. Integration and segregation in auditory scene analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Elyse S.

    2005-03-01

    Assessment of the neural correlates of auditory scene analysis, using an index of sound change detection that does not require the listener to attend to the sounds [a component of event-related brain potentials called the mismatch negativity (MMN)], has previously demonstrated that segregation processes can occur without attention focused on the sounds and that within-stream contextual factors influence how sound elements are integrated and represented in auditory memory. The current study investigated the relationship between the segregation and integration processes when they were called upon to function together. The pattern of MMN results showed that the integration of sound elements within a sound stream occurred after the segregation of sounds into independent streams and, further, that the individual streams were subject to contextual effects. These results are consistent with a view of auditory processing that suggests that the auditory scene is rapidly organized into distinct streams and the integration of sequential elements to perceptual units takes place on the already formed streams. This would allow for the flexibility required to identify changing within-stream sound patterns, needed to appreciate music or comprehend speech..

  15. Efficient 3D scene modeling and mosaicing

    CERN Document Server

    Nicosevici, Tudor

    2013-01-01

    This book proposes a complete pipeline for monocular (single camera) based 3D mapping of terrestrial and underwater environments. The aim is to provide a solution to large-scale scene modeling that is both accurate and efficient. To this end, we have developed a novel Structure from Motion algorithm that increases mapping accuracy by registering camera views directly with the maps. The camera registration uses a dual approach that adapts to the type of environment being mapped.   In order to further increase the accuracy of the resulting maps, a new method is presented, allowing detection of images corresponding to the same scene region (crossovers). Crossovers then used in conjunction with global alignment methods in order to highly reduce estimation errors, especially when mapping large areas. Our method is based on Visual Bag of Words paradigm (BoW), offering a more efficient and simpler solution by eliminating the training stage, generally required by state of the art BoW algorithms.   Also, towards dev...

  16. Tachistoscopic illumination and masking of real scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chichka, David; Philbeck, John W; Gajewski, Daniel A

    2015-03-01

    Tachistoscopic presentation of scenes has been valuable for studying the emerging properties of visual scene representations. The spatial aspects of this work have generally been focused on the conceptual locations (e.g., next to the refrigerator) and directional locations of objects in 2-D arrays and/or images. Less is known about how the perceived egocentric distance of objects develops. Here we describe a novel system for presenting brief glimpses of a real-world environment, followed by a mask. The system includes projectors with mechanical shutters for projecting the fixation and masking images, a set of LED floodlights for illuminating the environment, and computer-controlled electronics to set the timing and initiate the process. Because a real environment is used, most visual distance and depth cues can be manipulated using traditional methods. The system is inexpensive, robust, and its components are readily available in the marketplace. This article describes the system and the timing characteristics of each component. We verified the system's ability to control exposure to time scales as low as a few milliseconds.

  17. Linguistic Corpora and Language Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murison-Bowie, Simon

    1996-01-01

    Examines issues raised by corpus linguistics concerning the description of language. The article argues that it is necessary to start from correct descriptions of linguistic units and the contexts in which they occur. Corpus linguistics has joined with language teaching by sharing a recognition of the importance of a larger, schematic view of…

  18. The scene and the unseen: manipulating photographs for experiments on change blindness and scene memory: image manipulation for change blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Felix; Elzemann, Anne; Busch, Niko A

    2014-09-01

    The change blindness paradigm, in which participants often fail to notice substantial changes in a scene, is a popular tool for studying scene perception, visual memory, and the link between awareness and attention. Some of the most striking and popular examples of change blindness have been demonstrated with digital photographs of natural scenes; in most studies, however, much simpler displays, such as abstract stimuli or "free-floating" objects, are typically used. Although simple displays have undeniable advantages, natural scenes remain a very useful and attractive stimulus for change blindness research. To assist researchers interested in using natural-scene stimuli in change blindness experiments, we provide here a step-by-step tutorial on how to produce changes in natural-scene images with a freely available image-processing tool (GIMP). We explain how changes in a scene can be made by deleting objects or relocating them within the scene or by changing the color of an object, in just a few simple steps. We also explain how the physical properties of such changes can be analyzed using GIMP and MATLAB (a high-level scientific programming tool). Finally, we present an experiment confirming that scenes manipulated according to our guidelines are effective in inducing change blindness and demonstrating the relationship between change blindness and the physical properties of the change and inter-individual differences in performance measures. We expect that this tutorial will be useful for researchers interested in studying the mechanisms of change blindness, attention, or visual memory using natural scenes.

  19. A hierarchical inferential method for indoor scene classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Jingzhe

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Indoor scene classification forms a basis for scene interaction for service robots. The task is challenging because the layout and decoration of a scene vary considerably. Previous studies on knowledge-based methods commonly ignore the importance of visual attributes when constructing the knowledge base. These shortcomings restrict the performance of classification. The structure of a semantic hierarchy was proposed to describe similarities of different parts of scenes in a fine-grained way. Besides the commonly used semantic features, visual attributes were also introduced to construct the knowledge base. Inspired by the processes of human cognition and the characteristics of indoor scenes, we proposed an inferential framework based on the Markov logic network. The framework is evaluated on a popular indoor scene dataset, and the experimental results demonstrate its effectiveness.

  20. Language in trouble

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nevile, Maurice Richard

    2016-01-01

    to such moments: a driver warns by announcing his/her presence, movement, or activity, to another driver who then responds. We analyse warnings’ form and occurrence in the order and progress of routine task performance, to consider language as part of multimodal conduct, and relative to the physical surround (e......We examine the language and multimodal character of ’warnings’ in moments of potential ‘trouble’ in tasks for mobile collaborative work. The participants are forklift truck drivers moving objects from one place to another at a training and certification site (a simulated warehouse scene). Our data.......g. change in driving direction, speed, location). Forklift truck collisions can range from very minor to potentially dangerous, so warnings can constitute a form of crisis communication (De Rycker & Mohd Don 2013). We are interested generally in understanding language for the social practices by which...

  1. Sign language typology: The contribution of rural sign languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vos, C.; Pfau, R.

    2015-01-01

    Since the 1990s, the field of sign language typology has shown that sign languages exhibit typological variation at all relevant levels of linguistic description. These initial typological comparisons were heavily skewed toward the urban sign languages of developed countries, mostly in the Western

  2. Recognizing the Stranger: Recognition Scenes in the Gospel of John

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kasper Bro

    Recognizing the Stranger is the first monographic study of recognition scenes and motifs in the Gospel of John. The recognition type-scene (anagnōrisis) was a common feature in ancient drama and narrative, highly valued by Aristotle as a touching moment of truth, e.g., in Oedipus’ tragic self...... structures of the type-scene in order to show how Jesus’ true identity can be recognized behind the half-mask of his human appearance....

  3. Global scene layout modulates contextual learning in change detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conci, Markus; Müller, Hermann J

    2014-01-01

    Change in the visual scene often goes unnoticed - a phenomenon referred to as "change blindness." This study examined whether the hierarchical structure, i.e., the global-local layout of a scene can influence performance in a one-shot change detection paradigm. To this end, natural scenes of a laid breakfast table were presented, and observers were asked to locate the onset of a new local object. Importantly, the global structure of the scene was manipulated by varying the relations among objects in the scene layouts. The very same items were either presented as global-congruent (typical) layouts or as global-incongruent (random) arrangements. Change blindness was less severe for congruent than for incongruent displays, and this congruency benefit increased with the duration of the experiment. These findings show that global layouts are learned, supporting detection of local changes with enhanced efficiency. However, performance was not affected by scene congruency in a subsequent control experiment that required observers to localize a static discontinuity (i.e., an object that was missing from the repeated layouts). Our results thus show that learning of the global layout is particularly linked to the local objects. Taken together, our results reveal an effect of "global precedence" in natural scenes. We suggest that relational properties within the hierarchy of a natural scene are governed, in particular, by global image analysis, reducing change blindness for local objects through scene learning.

  4. Global scene layout modulates contextual learning in change detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus eConci

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Change in the visual scene often goes unnoticed – a phenomenon referred to as ‘change blindness’. This study examined whether the hierarchical structure, i.e., the global-local layout of a scene can influence performance in a one-shot change detection paradigm. To this end, natural scenes of a laid breakfast table were presented, and observers were asked to locate the onset of a new local object. Importantly, the global structure of the scene was manipulated by varying the relations among objects in the scene layouts. The very same items were either presented as global-congruent (typical layouts or as global-incongruent (random arrangements. Change blindness was less severe for congruent than for incongruent displays, and this congruency benefit increased with the duration of the experiment. These findings show that global layouts are learned, supporting detection of local changes with enhanced efficiency. However, performance was not affected by scene congruency in a subsequent control experiment that required observers to localize a static discontinuity (i.e., an object that was missing from the repeated layouts. Our results thus show that learning of the global layout is particularly linked to the local objects. Taken together, our results reveal an effect of global precedence in natural scenes. We suggest that relational properties within the hierarchy of a natural scene are governed, in particular, by global image analysis, reducing change blindness for local objects through scene learning.

  5. The occipital place area represents the local elements of scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamps, Frederik S; Julian, Joshua B; Kubilius, Jonas; Kanwisher, Nancy; Dilks, Daniel D

    2016-05-15

    Neuroimaging studies have identified three scene-selective regions in human cortex: parahippocampal place area (PPA), retrosplenial complex (RSC), and occipital place area (OPA). However, precisely what scene information each region represents is not clear, especially for the least studied, more posterior OPA. Here we hypothesized that OPA represents local elements of scenes within two independent, yet complementary scene descriptors: spatial boundary (i.e., the layout of external surfaces) and scene content (e.g., internal objects). If OPA processes the local elements of spatial boundary information, then it should respond to these local elements (e.g., walls) themselves, regardless of their spatial arrangement. Indeed, we found that OPA, but not PPA or RSC, responded similarly to images of intact rooms and these same rooms in which the surfaces were fractured and rearranged, disrupting the spatial boundary. Next, if OPA represents the local elements of scene content information, then it should respond more when more such local elements (e.g., furniture) are present. Indeed, we found that OPA, but not PPA or RSC, responded more to multiple than single pieces of furniture. Taken together, these findings reveal that OPA analyzes local scene elements - both in spatial boundary and scene content representation - while PPA and RSC represent global scene properties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A statistical model for radar images of agricultural scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, V. S.; Shanmugan, K. S.; Holtzman, J. C.; Stiles, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    The presently derived and validated statistical model for radar images containing many different homogeneous fields predicts the probability density functions of radar images of entire agricultural scenes, thereby allowing histograms of large scenes composed of a variety of crops to be described. Seasat-A SAR images of agricultural scenes are accurately predicted by the model on the basis of three assumptions: each field has the same SNR, all target classes cover approximately the same area, and the true reflectivity characterizing each individual target class is a uniformly distributed random variable. The model is expected to be useful in the design of data processing algorithms and for scene analysis using radar images.

  7. Descrição de línguas indígenas em gramáticas missionárias do Brasil colonial Description of indian languages in missionary grammars of the colonial period in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo de Oliveira Batista

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Nos séculos XVI e XVII, jesuítas escreveram gramáticas de duas das línguas indígenas faladas no Brasil colonial: José de Anchieta e Luís Figueira descreveram o tupi antigo em 1595 e ca. 1621 respectivamente; Luís Vincencio Mamiani, a língua indígena quiriri em 1699. Essa produção teve como objetivo facilitar, por meio da aprendizagem das línguas, o contato entre jesuítas e indígenas, tendo em vista a colonização e a catequização. Neste trabalho, são analisados alguns dos métodos e práticas de descrição das línguas pelos jesuítas. Para isso, seguem-se as indicações metodológicas da historiografia lingüística (Koerner 1989, 1996 e Swiggers 1979, 1981, 1983 em relação à seleção, descrição e análise do material, procurando caracterizar o que chamamos de tradição brasileira da lingüística missionária. O exame das obras nos mostrará uma forma de produção gramatical comum aos três autores e a sua inserção numa tradição posteriormente chamada de lingüística missionária, que teve como uma de suas características mais destacadas a relação com o que se convencionou nomear na história da lingüística de Gramática Tradicional.In the 16th and 17th centuries, Jesuits wrote two of the Indian language grammar spoken in Brazil in the colonial period. José de Anchieta and Luiz Figueira described the ancient Tupi in 1595 and in about 1621 respectively, and Luiz Vincencio Mamiani the Quiriri Indian Language in 1699. This production aimed at facilitating, through language learning, the contact between Indians and Jesuits and consequently their colonization and catechization. Some methods and practices of Jesuits language description will be analyzed in this paper. To do so, we will follow linguistic historiography methodologies (Koerner 1989, 1996 and Swiggers 1979, 1983 concerning material selection, description and analysis, trying to characterize what we call missionary linguistics in the Brazilian

  8. The role of scene type and priming in the processing and selection of a spatial frame of reference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin eJohannsen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The selection and processing of a spatial frame of reference (FOR in interpreting verbal scene descriptions is of great interest to psycholinguistics. In this study, we focus on the choice between the relative and the intrinsic FOR, addressing two questions: a does the presence or absence of a background in the scene influence the selection of a FOR, and b what is the effect of a previously selected FOR on the subsequent processing of a different FOR. Our results show that if a scene includes a realistic background, this will make the selection of the relative FOR more likely. We attribute this effect to the facilitation of mental simulation, which enhances the relation between the viewer and the objects. With respect to the response accuracy, we found both a higher (due to FOR priming and a lower accuracy (due to different FOR, while for the response latencies, we only found a delay effect.

  9. The scene is set for ALICE

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Now that the electromagnetic calorimeter support and the mini space frame have been installed, practically all ALICE’s infrastructure is in place. The calorimeter support, an austenitic stainless steel shell weighing 30 tonnes, was slid gently inside the detector, in between the face of the magnet and the space frame. With the completion of two major installation projects, the scene is finally set for the ALICE experiment…or at least it nearly is, as a few design studies, minor installation jobs and measurements still need to be carried out before the curtain can finally be raised. The experiment’s chief engineer Diego Perini confirms: "All the heavy infrastructure for ALICE has been in place and ready for the grand opening since December 2007." The next step will be the installation of additional modules on the TOF and TRD detectors between January and March 2008, and physicists have already started testing the equipment with co...

  10. Wall grid structure for interior scene synthesis

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Wenzhuo

    2015-02-01

    We present a system for automatically synthesizing a diverse set of semantically valid, and well-arranged 3D interior scenes for a given empty room shape. Unlike existing work on layout synthesis, that typically knows potentially needed 3D models and optimizes their location through cost functions, our technique performs the retrieval and placement of 3D models by discovering the relationships between the room space and the models\\' categories. This is enabled by a new analytical structure, called Wall Grid Structure, which jointly considers the categories and locations of 3D models. Our technique greatly reduces the amount of user intervention and provides users with suggestions and inspirations. We demonstrate the applicability of our approach on three types of scenarios: conference rooms, living rooms and bedrooms.

  11. The Manu-Facturing of a Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washabaugh, William

    1980-01-01

    Discusses Providence Island Sign Language (PSL), an autochthonous and relatively immature language of about 20 speakers. It is a nascent and evolving language whose description can produce rich results for linguistic theory. Such a description will also be an explanation of the phylogeny of a linguistic system. (Author/PJM)

  12. POTENTIALS OF IMAGE BASED ACTIVE RANGING TO CAPTURE DYNAMIC SCENES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Jutzi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Obtaining a 3D description of man-made and natural environments is a basic task in Computer Vision and Remote Sensing. To this end, laser scanning is currently one of the dominating techniques to gather reliable 3D information. The scanning principle inherently needs a certain time interval to acquire the 3D point cloud. On the other hand, new active sensors provide the possibility of capturing range information by images with a single measurement. With this new technique image-based active ranging is possible which allows capturing dynamic scenes, e.g. like walking pedestrians in a yard or moving vehicles. Unfortunately most of these range imaging sensors have strong technical limitations and are not yet sufficient for airborne data acquisition. It can be seen from the recent development of highly specialized (far-range imaging sensors – so called flash-light lasers – that most of the limitations could be alleviated soon, so that future systems will be equipped with improved image size and potentially expanded operating range. The presented work is a first step towards the development of methods capable for application of range images in outdoor environments. To this end, an experimental setup was set up for investigating these proposed possibilities. With the experimental setup a measurement campaign was carried out and first results will be presented within this paper.

  13. Mise en Scene: Conversion of Scenarios to CSP Traces for the Requirements-to-Design-to-Code Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter. John D.; Gardner, William B.; Rash, James L.; Hinchey, Michael G.

    2007-01-01

    The "Requirements-to-Design-to-Code" (R2D2C) project at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center is based on deriving a formal specification expressed in Communicating Sequential Processes (CSP) notation from system requirements supplied in the form of CSP traces. The traces, in turn, are to be extracted from scenarios, a user-friendly medium often used to describe the required behavior of computer systems under development. This work, called Mise en Scene, defines a new scenario medium (Scenario Notation Language, SNL) suitable for control-dominated systems, coupled with a two-stage process for automatic translation of scenarios to a new trace medium (Trace Notation Language, TNL) that encompasses CSP traces. Mise en Scene is offered as an initial solution to the problem of the scenarios-to-traces "D2" phase of R2D2C. A survey of the "scenario" concept and some case studies are also provided.

  14. Language Contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelde, Peter Hans

    1995-01-01

    Examines the phenomenon of language contact and recent trends in linguistic contact research, which focuses on language use, language users, and language spheres. Also discusses the role of linguistic and cultural conflicts in language contact situations. (13 references) (MDM)

  15. LANGUAGE SCHOOLS AND FOREIGN LANGUAGE STUDYING PROGRAMS IN PORTUGAL

    OpenAIRE

    Hritchenko, Iryna

    2017-01-01

    The article is devoted to the description and characterizing of language schools and foreign language studying programs in Portugal. The relevance of language learning for professional, mobility, self-developing means is shown. The main courses and programs are observed and the advantages and disadvantages of each of them are given. It is stated that Portuguese courses mostly follow the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages. A small synopsis of the abilities for each level is p...

  16. Mental Layout Extrapolations Prime Spatial Processing of Scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottesman, Carmela V.

    2011-01-01

    Four experiments examined whether scene processing is facilitated by layout representation, including layout that was not perceived but could be predicted based on a previous partial view (boundary extension). In a priming paradigm (after Sanocki, 2003), participants judged objects' distances in photographs. In Experiment 1, full scenes (target),…

  17. Being There: (Re)Making the Assessment Scene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Chris W.

    2011-01-01

    I use Burkean analysis to show how neoliberalism undermines faculty assessment expertise and underwrites testing industry expertise in the current assessment scene. Contending that we cannot extricate ourselves from our limited agency in this scene until we abandon the familiar "stakeholder" theory of power, I propose a rewriting of the…

  18. The Influence of Color on the Perception of Scene Gist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelhano, Monica S.; Henderson, John M.

    2008-01-01

    In 3 experiments the authors used a new contextual bias paradigm to explore how quickly information is extracted from a scene to activate gist, whether color contributes to this activation, and how color contributes, if it does. Participants were shown a brief presentation of a scene followed by the name of a target object. The target object could…

  19. Visual search for arbitrary objects in real scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, George A.; Rosenholtz, Ruth; Kuzmova, Yoana I.; Sherman, Ashley M.

    2011-01-01

    How efficient is visual search in real scenes? In searches for targets among arrays of randomly placed distractors, efficiency is often indexed by the slope of the reaction time (RT) × Set Size function. However, it may be impossible to define set size for real scenes. As an approximation, we hand-labeled 100 indoor scenes and used the number of labeled regions as a surrogate for set size. In Experiment 1, observers searched for named objects (a chair, bowl, etc.). With set size defined as the number of labeled regions, search was very efficient (~5 ms/item). When we controlled for a possible guessing strategy in Experiment 2, slopes increased somewhat (~15 ms/item), but they were much shallower than search for a random object among other distinctive objects outside of a scene setting (Exp. 3: ~40 ms/item). In Experiments 4–6, observers searched repeatedly through the same scene for different objects. Increased familiarity with scenes had modest effects on RTs, while repetition of target items had large effects (>500 ms). We propose that visual search in scenes is efficient because scene-specific forms of attentional guidance can eliminate most regions from the “functional set size” of items that could possibly be the target. PMID:21671156

  20. SAMPEG: a scene-adaptive parallel MPEG-2 software encoder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farin, D.S.; Mache, N.; With, de P.H.N.; Girod, B.; Bouman, C.A.; Steinbach, E.G.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a fully software-based MPEG-2 encoder architecture, which uses scene-change detection to optimize the Group-of-Picture (GOP) structure for the actual video sequence. This feature enables easy, lossless edit cuts at scene-change positions and it also improves overall picture

  1. Children's Development of Analogical Reasoning: Insights from Scene Analogy Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richland, Lindsey E.; Morrison, Robert G.; Holyoak, Keith J.

    2006-01-01

    We explored how relational complexity and featural distraction, as varied in scene analogy problems, affect children's analogical reasoning performance. Results with 3- and 4-year-olds, 6- and 7-year-olds, 9- to 11-year-olds, and 13- and 14-year-olds indicate that when children can identify the critical structural relations in a scene analogy…

  2. Automatic video surveillance of outdoor scenes using track before detect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten; Sørensen, Helge Bjarup Dissing; Birkemark, Christian M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper concerns automatic video surveillance of outdoor scenes using a single camera. The first step in automatic interpretation of the video stream is activity detection based on background subtraction. Usually, this process will generate a large number of false alarms in outdoor scenes due...

  3. Selective scene perception deficits in a case of topographical disorientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, Jessica; Lowe, Matthew X; Pishdadian, Sara; Rivest, Josée; Cant, Jonathan S; Moscovitch, Morris

    2017-07-01

    Topographical disorientation (TD) is a neuropsychological condition characterized by an inability to find one's way, even in familiar environments. One common contributing cause of TD is landmark agnosia, a visual recognition impairment specific to scenes and landmarks. Although many cases of TD with landmark agnosia have been documented, little is known about the perceptual mechanisms which lead to selective deficits in recognizing scenes. In the present study, we test LH, a man who exhibits TD and landmark agnosia, on measures of scene perception that require selectively attending to either the configural or surface properties of a scene. Compared to healthy controls, LH demonstrates perceptual impairments when attending to the configuration of a scene, but not when attending to its surface properties, such as the pattern of the walls or whether the ground is sand or grass. In contrast, when focusing on objects instead of scenes, LH demonstrates intact perception of both geometric and surface properties. This study demonstrates that in a case of TD and landmark agnosia, the perceptual impairments are selective to the layout of scenes, providing insight into the mechanism of landmark agnosia and scene-selective perceptual processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The neural bases of spatial frequency processing during scene perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffmann, Louise; Ramanoël, Stephen; Peyrin, Carole

    2014-01-01

    Theories on visual perception agree that scenes are processed in terms of spatial frequencies. Low spatial frequencies (LSF) carry coarse information whereas high spatial frequencies (HSF) carry fine details of the scene. However, how and where spatial frequencies are processed within the brain remain unresolved questions. The present review addresses these issues and aims to identify the cerebral regions differentially involved in low and high spatial frequency processing, and to clarify their attributes during scene perception. Results from a number of behavioral and neuroimaging studies suggest that spatial frequency processing is lateralized in both hemispheres, with the right and left hemispheres predominantly involved in the categorization of LSF and HSF scenes, respectively. There is also evidence that spatial frequency processing is retinotopically mapped in the visual cortex. HSF scenes (as opposed to LSF) activate occipital areas in relation to foveal representations, while categorization of LSF scenes (as opposed to HSF) activates occipital areas in relation to more peripheral representations. Concomitantly, a number of studies have demonstrated that LSF information may reach high-order areas rapidly, allowing an initial coarse parsing of the visual scene, which could then be sent back through feedback into the occipito-temporal cortex to guide finer HSF-based analysis. Finally, the review addresses spatial frequency processing within scene-selective regions areas of the occipito-temporal cortex. PMID:24847226

  5. 47 CFR 80.1127 - On-scene communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....1127 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) Operating Procedures for Distress and Safety Communications § 80.1127 On-scene communications. (a) On-scene communications...

  6. Emotional Scene Content Drives the Saccade Generation System Reflexively

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nummenmaa, Lauri; Hyona, Jukka; Calvo, Manuel G.

    2009-01-01

    The authors assessed whether parafoveal perception of emotional content influences saccade programming. In Experiment 1, paired emotional and neutral scenes were presented to parafoveal vision. Participants performed voluntary saccades toward either of the scenes according to an imperative signal (color cue). Saccadic reaction times were faster…

  7. Visual search for arbitrary objects in real scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Jeremy M; Alvarez, George A; Rosenholtz, Ruth; Kuzmova, Yoana I; Sherman, Ashley M

    2011-08-01

    How efficient is visual search in real scenes? In searches for targets among arrays of randomly placed distractors, efficiency is often indexed by the slope of the reaction time (RT) × Set Size function. However, it may be impossible to define set size for real scenes. As an approximation, we hand-labeled 100 indoor scenes and used the number of labeled regions as a surrogate for set size. In Experiment 1, observers searched for named objects (a chair, bowl, etc.). With set size defined as the number of labeled regions, search was very efficient (~5 ms/item). When we controlled for a possible guessing strategy in Experiment 2, slopes increased somewhat (~15 ms/item), but they were much shallower than search for a random object among other distinctive objects outside of a scene setting (Exp. 3: ~40 ms/item). In Experiments 4-6, observers searched repeatedly through the same scene for different objects. Increased familiarity with scenes had modest effects on RTs, while repetition of target items had large effects (>500 ms). We propose that visual search in scenes is efficient because scene-specific forms of attentional guidance can eliminate most regions from the "functional set size" of items that could possibly be the target.

  8. Cognitive organization of roadway scenes : an empirical study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gundy, C.M.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes six studies investigating the cognitive organization of roadway scenes. These scenes were represented by still photographs taken on a number of roads outside of built-up areas. Seventy-eight drivers, stratified by age and sex to simulate the Dutch driving population,

  9. Superpixel-Based Feature for Aerial Image Scene Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongguang Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Image scene recognition is a core technology for many aerial remote sensing applications. Different landforms are inputted as different scenes in aerial imaging, and all landform information is regarded as valuable for aerial image scene recognition. However, the conventional features of the Bag-of-Words model are designed using local points or other related information and thus are unable to fully describe landform areas. This limitation cannot be ignored when the aim is to ensure accurate aerial scene recognition. A novel superpixel-based feature is proposed in this study to characterize aerial image scenes. Then, based on the proposed feature, a scene recognition method of the Bag-of-Words model for aerial imaging is designed. The proposed superpixel-based feature that utilizes landform information establishes top-task superpixel extraction of landforms to bottom-task expression of feature vectors. This characterization technique comprises the following steps: simple linear iterative clustering based superpixel segmentation, adaptive filter bank construction, Lie group-based feature quantification, and visual saliency model-based feature weighting. Experiments of image scene recognition are carried out using real image data captured by an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV. The recognition accuracy of the proposed superpixel-based feature is 95.1%, which is higher than those of scene recognition algorithms based on other local features.

  10. Iconic memory for the gist of natural scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Jason; Mack, Arien

    2014-11-01

    Does iconic memory contain the gist of multiple scenes? Three experiments were conducted. In the first, four scenes from different basic-level categories were briefly presented in one of two conditions: a cue or a no-cue condition. The cue condition was designed to provide an index of the contents of iconic memory of the display. Subjects were more sensitive to scene gist in the cue condition than in the no-cue condition. In the second, the scenes came from the same basic-level category. We found no difference in sensitivity between the two conditions. In the third, six scenes from different basic level categories were presented in the visual periphery. Subjects were more sensitive to scene gist in the cue condition. These results suggest that scene gist is contained in iconic memory even in the visual periphery; however, iconic representations are not sufficiently detailed to distinguish between scenes coming from the same category. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Dynamic Frames Based Generation of 3D Scenes and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijel Radošević

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Modern graphic/programming tools like Unity enables the possibility of creating 3D scenes as well as making 3D scene based program applications, including full physical model, motion, sounds, lightning effects etc. This paper deals with the usage of dynamic frames based generator in the automatic generation of 3D scene and related source code. The suggested model enables the possibility to specify features of the 3D scene in a form of textual specification, as well as exporting such features from a 3D tool. This approach enables higher level of code generation flexibility and the reusability of the main code and scene artifacts in a form of textual templates. An example of the generated application is presented and discussed.

  12. System and method for extracting dominant orientations from a scene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Julian; Rosman, Guy; Freifeld, Oren; Leonard, John J.; Fisher, III; , John W.

    2017-05-30

    In one embodiment, a method of identifying the dominant orientations of a scene comprises representing a scene as a plurality of directional vectors. The scene may comprise a three-dimensional representation of a scene, and the plurality of directional vectors may comprise a plurality of surface normals. The method further comprises determining, based on the plurality of directional vectors, a plurality of orientations describing the scene. The determined plurality of orientations explains the directionality of the plurality of directional vectors. In certain embodiments, the plurality of orientations may have independent axes of rotation. The plurality of orientations may be determined by representing the plurality of directional vectors as lying on a mathematical representation of a sphere, and inferring the parameters of a statistical model to adapt the plurality of orientations to explain the positioning of the plurality of directional vectors lying on the mathematical representation of the sphere.

  13. System Description:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schürmann, Carsten; Poswolsky, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Delphin is a functional programming language [Adam Poswolsky and Carsten Schürmann. Practical programming with higher-order encodings and dependent types. In European Symposium on Programming (ESOP), 2008] utilizing dependent higher-order datatypes. Delphin's two-level type-system cleanly separates...

  14. Preliminary Investigation of Visual Attention to Human Figures in Photographs: Potential Considerations for the Design of Aided AAC Visual Scene Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Krista M.; Light, Janice

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Many individuals with complex communication needs may benefit from visual aided augmentative and alternative communication systems. In visual scene displays (VSDs), language concepts are embedded into a photograph of a naturalistic event. Humans play a central role in communication development and might be important elements in VSDs.…

  15. Fixations on objects in natural scenes: dissociating importance from salience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Marius e’t Hart

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The relation of selective attention to understanding of natural scenes has been subject to intense behavioral research and computational modeling, and gaze is often used as a proxy for such attention. The probability of an image region to be fixated typically correlates with its contrast. However, this relation does not imply a causal role of contrast. Rather, contrast may relate to an object’s importance for a scene, which in turn drives attention. Here we operationalize importance by the probability that an observer names the object as characteristic for a scene. We modify luminance contrast of either a frequently named (common/important or a rarely named (rare/unimportant object, track the observers’ eye movements during scene viewing and ask them to provide keywords describing the scene immediately after.When no object is modified relative to the background, important objects draw more fixations than unimportant ones. Increases of contrast make an object more likely to be fixated, irrespective of whether it was important for the original scene, while decreases in contrast have little effect on fixations. Any contrast modification makes originally unimportant objects more important for the scene. Finally, important objects are fixated more centrally than unimportant objects, irrespective of contrast.Our data suggest a dissociation between object importance (relevance for the scene and salience (relevance for attention. If an object obeys natural scene statistics, important objects are also salient. However, when natural scene statistics are violated, importance and salience are differentially affected. Object salience is modulated by the expectation about object properties (e.g., formed by context or gist, and importance by the violation of such expectations. In addition, the dependence of fixated locations within an object on the object’s importance suggests an analogy to the effects of word frequency on landing positions in reading.

  16. 114 African Languages and African Literature Cecilia A. Eme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ike Odimegwu

    multidimensional realizations which are represented in ideas, beliefs, and oral and ... broadly literature in African languages, literature in European languages etc. ..... death and language maintenance: Theoretical, practical and descriptive ...

  17. Descriptive statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nick, Todd G

    2007-01-01

    Statistics is defined by the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) thesaurus as the science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The two broad categories of summarizing and analyzing data are referred to as descriptive and inferential statistics. This chapter considers the science and art of summarizing data where descriptive statistics and graphics are used to display data. In this chapter, we discuss the fundamentals of descriptive statistics, including describing qualitative and quantitative variables. For describing quantitative variables, measures of location and spread, for example the standard deviation, are presented along with graphical presentations. We also discuss distributions of statistics, for example the variance, as well as the use of transformations. The concepts in this chapter are useful for uncovering patterns within the data and for effectively presenting the results of a project.

  18. The Effects of Linguistic Labels Related to Abstract Scenes on Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Inomata

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Boundary extension is the false memory beyond the actual boundary of a picture scene. Gagnier (2011 suggested that a linguistic label has no effect on the magnitude of boundary extension. Although she controlled the timing of the presentation or information of the linguistic label, the information of stimulus was not changed. In the present study, the depiction of the main object was controlled in order to change the contextual information of a scene. In experiment, the 68 participants were shown 12 pictures. The stimulus consisted pictures that depicted the main object or did not depict the main object, and half of them were presented with linguistic description. Participants rated the object-less pictures more closely than the original pictures, when the former were presented with linguistic labels. However, when they were presented without linguistic labels, boundary extension did not occur. There was no effect of labels on the pictures that depicted the main objects. On the basis of these results, the linguistic label enhances the representation of the abstract scene like a homogeneous field or a wall. This finding suggests that boundary extension may be affected by not only visual information but also by other sensory information mediated by linguistic representation.

  19. Art Toys in the contemporary art scene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Sernissi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Art Toys phenomenon, better known as Art Toy Movement, was born in China in the mid-nineties and quickly spread out to the rest of the world. The toys are an artistic production of serial sculpture, made by handcrafts or on an industrial scale. There are several types of toys, such as custom toys and canvas toys, synonyms of designer toys, although they are often defined according to the constituent material, such as vinyl toys (plastic and plush toys (fabric. Art toys are the heirs of an already pop-surrealist and neo-pop circuit, which since the eighties of the twentieth century has pervaded the Japanese-American art scene, winking to the playful spirit of the avant-garde of the early century. Some psychoanalytic, pedagogical and anthropological studies about “play theories”, may also help us to understand and identify these heterogeneous products as real works of art and not simply as collectible toys.

  20. A STEP TOWARDS DYNAMIC SCENE ANALYSIS WITH ACTIVE MULTI-VIEW RANGE IMAGING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Weinmann

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Obtaining an appropriate 3D description of the local environment remains a challenging task in photogrammetric research. As terrestrial laser scanners (TLSs perform a highly accurate, but time-dependent spatial scanning of the local environment, they are only suited for capturing static scenes. In contrast, new types of active sensors provide the possibility of simultaneously capturing range and intensity information by images with a single measurement, and the high frame rate also allows for capturing dynamic scenes. However, due to the limited field of view, one observation is not sufficient to obtain a full scene coverage and therefore, typically, multiple observations are collected from different locations. This can be achieved by either placing several fixed sensors at different known locations or by using a moving sensor. In the latter case, the relation between different observations has to be estimated by using information extracted from the captured data and then, a limited field of view may lead to problems if there are too many moving objects within it. Hence, a moving sensor platform with multiple and coupled sensor devices offers the advantages of an extended field of view which results in a stabilized pose estimation, an improved registration of the recorded point clouds and an improved reconstruction of the scene. In this paper, a new experimental setup for investigating the potentials of such multi-view range imaging systems is presented which consists of a moving cable car equipped with two synchronized range imaging devices. The presented setup allows for monitoring in low altitudes and it is suitable for getting dynamic observations which might arise from moving cars or from moving pedestrians. Relying on both 3D geometry and 2D imagery, a reliable and fully automatic approach for co-registration of captured point cloud data is presented which is essential for a high quality of all subsequent tasks. The approach involves using

  1. An Application for Descriptive Nearness: Iris Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polat Kadirhan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Near Set Theory has various applications in the literature. In this paper, using the concept descriptive nearness, we show how to perform iris recognition. This process has a few algorithms given via Mathematica Script Language.

  2. Generating description with multi-feature fusion and saliency maps of image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lisha; Ding, Yuxuan; Tian, Chunna; Yuan, Bo

    2018-04-01

    Generating description for an image can be regard as visual understanding. It is across artificial intelligence, machine learning, natural language processing and many other areas. In this paper, we present a model that generates description for images based on RNN (recurrent neural network) with object attention and multi-feature of images. The deep recurrent neural networks have excellent performance in machine translation, so we use it to generate natural sentence description for images. The proposed method uses single CNN (convolution neural network) that is trained on ImageNet to extract image features. But we think it can not adequately contain the content in images, it may only focus on the object area of image. So we add scene information to image feature using CNN which is trained on Places205. Experiments show that model with multi-feature extracted by two CNNs perform better than which with a single feature. In addition, we make saliency weights on images to emphasize the salient objects in images. We evaluate our model on MSCOCO based on public metrics, and the results show that our model performs better than several state-of-the-art methods.

  3. Exploiting current-generation graphics hardware for synthetic-scene generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Michael A.; Keen, Wayne A.

    2010-04-01

    Increasing seeker frame rate and pixel count, as well as the demand for higher levels of scene fidelity, have driven scene generation software for hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL) and software-in-the-loop (SWIL) testing to higher levels of parallelization. Because modern PC graphics cards provide multiple computational cores (240 shader cores for a current NVIDIA Corporation GeForce and Quadro cards), implementation of phenomenology codes on graphics processing units (GPUs) offers significant potential for simultaneous enhancement of simulation frame rate and fidelity. To take advantage of this potential requires algorithm implementation that is structured to minimize data transfers between the central processing unit (CPU) and the GPU. In this paper, preliminary methodologies developed at the Kinetic Hardware In-The-Loop Simulator (KHILS) will be presented. Included in this paper will be various language tradeoffs between conventional shader programming, Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) and Open Computing Language (OpenCL), including performance trades and possible pathways for future tool development.

  4. MITLL 2015 Language Recognition Evaluation System Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-27

    912 8.18 qsl-rus Russian 2021 37.80 ara-ary Maghrebi 919 46.91 spa-car Carib. Spa. 194 30.59 ara-arz Egyptian 440 97.27 spa-eur Eur. Spa. 366 8.55...qsl-pol Polish 695 32.14 ara-arb MSA 912 8.18 qsl-rus Russian 2021 37.80 ara-ary Maghrebi 919 46.91 spa-car Carib. Spa. 194 30.59 ara-arz Egyptian ...BOTTLENECK I-VECTOR SYSTEM (BNF1) The Deep Neural Network architecture that we used for this system was composed of seven hidden layers. The sixth

  5. Detection of chromatic and luminance distortions in natural scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Ben J; Wang, Karen; Menzies, Samantha; Kingdom, Frederick A A

    2015-09-01

    A number of studies have measured visual thresholds for detecting spatial distortions applied to images of natural scenes. In one study, Bex [J. Vis.10(2), 1 (2010)10.1167/10.2.231534-7362] measured sensitivity to sinusoidal spatial modulations of image scale. Here, we measure sensitivity to sinusoidal scale distortions applied to the chromatic, luminance, or both layers of natural scene images. We first established that sensitivity does not depend on whether the undistorted comparison image was of the same or of a different scene. Next, we found that, when the luminance but not chromatic layer was distorted, performance was the same regardless of whether the chromatic layer was present, absent, or phase-scrambled; in other words, the chromatic layer, in whatever form, did not affect sensitivity to the luminance layer distortion. However, when the chromatic layer was distorted, sensitivity was higher when the luminance layer was intact compared to when absent or phase-scrambled. These detection threshold results complement the appearance of periodic distortions of the image scale: when the luminance layer is distorted visibly, the scene appears distorted, but when the chromatic layer is distorted visibly, there is little apparent scene distortion. We conclude that (a) observers have a built-in sense of how a normal image of a natural scene should appear, and (b) the detection of distortion in, as well as the apparent distortion of, natural scene images is mediated predominantly by the luminance layer and not chromatic layer.

  6. Advanced radiometric and interferometric milimeter-wave scene simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauss, B. I.; Moffa, P. J.; Steele, W. G.; Agravante, H.; Davidheiser, R.; Samec, T.; Young, S. K.

    1993-01-01

    Smart munitions and weapons utilize various imaging sensors (including passive IR, active and passive millimeter-wave, and visible wavebands) to detect/identify targets at short standoff ranges and in varied terrain backgrounds. In order to design and evaluate these sensors under a variety of conditions, a high-fidelity scene simulation capability is necessary. Such a capability for passive millimeter-wave scene simulation exists at TRW. TRW's Advanced Radiometric Millimeter-Wave Scene Simulation (ARMSS) code is a rigorous, benchmarked, end-to-end passive millimeter-wave scene simulation code for interpreting millimeter-wave data, establishing scene signatures and evaluating sensor performance. In passive millimeter-wave imaging, resolution is limited due to wavelength and aperture size. Where high resolution is required, the utility of passive millimeter-wave imaging is confined to short ranges. Recent developments in interferometry have made possible high resolution applications on military platforms. Interferometry or synthetic aperture radiometry allows the creation of a high resolution image with a sparsely filled aperture. Borrowing from research work in radio astronomy, we have developed and tested at TRW scene reconstruction algorithms that allow the recovery of the scene from a relatively small number of spatial frequency components. In this paper, the TRW modeling capability is described and numerical results are presented.

  7. Towards the management of the databases founded on descriptions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The canonical model is defined in the concept language, developed in our research ... the notion of classes to produce descriptions which are, also, used in the reasoning process. ... Keys-Words: Descriptions logic/ Databases/ Semantics.

  8. Three-dimensional measurement system for crime scene documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, Marcin; Hołowko, Elwira; Lech, Krzysztof; Michoński, Jakub; MÄ czkowski, Grzegorz; Bolewicki, Paweł; Januszkiewicz, Kamil; Sitnik, Robert

    2017-10-01

    Three dimensional measurements (such as photogrammetry, Time of Flight, Structure from Motion or Structured Light techniques) are becoming a standard in the crime scene documentation process. The usage of 3D measurement techniques provide an opportunity to prepare more insightful investigation and helps to show every trace in the context of the entire crime scene. In this paper we would like to present a hierarchical, three-dimensional measurement system that is designed for crime scenes documentation process. Our system reflects the actual standards in crime scene documentation process - it is designed to perform measurement in two stages. First stage of documentation, the most general, is prepared with a scanner with relatively low spatial resolution but also big measuring volume - it is used for the whole scene documentation. Second stage is much more detailed: high resolution but smaller size of measuring volume for areas that required more detailed approach. The documentation process is supervised by a specialised application CrimeView3D, that is a software platform for measurements management (connecting with scanners and carrying out measurements, automatic or semi-automatic data registration in the real time) and data visualisation (3D visualisation of documented scenes). It also provides a series of useful tools for forensic technicians: virtual measuring tape, searching for sources of blood spatter, virtual walk on the crime scene and many others. In this paper we present our measuring system and the developed software. We also provide an outcome from research on metrological validation of scanners that was performed according to VDI/VDE standard. We present a CrimeView3D - a software-platform that was developed to manage the crime scene documentation process. We also present an outcome from measurement sessions that were conducted on real crime scenes with cooperation with Technicians from Central Forensic Laboratory of Police.

  9. Graphics processing unit (GPU) real-time infrared scene generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Chad L.; Gouthas, Efthimios (Themie); Williams, Owen M.

    2007-04-01

    VIRSuite, the GPU-based suite of software tools developed at DSTO for real-time infrared scene generation, is described. The tools include the painting of scene objects with radiometrically-associated colours, translucent object generation, polar plot validation and versatile scene generation. Special features include radiometric scaling within the GPU and the presence of zoom anti-aliasing at the core of VIRSuite. Extension of the zoom anti-aliasing construct to cover target embedding and the treatment of translucent objects is described.

  10. Semantic guidance of eye movements in real-world scenes

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Alex D.; Wang, Hsueh-Cheng; Pomplun, Marc

    2011-01-01

    The perception of objects in our visual world is influenced by not only their low-level visual features such as shape and color, but also their high-level features such as meaning and semantic relations among them. While it has been shown that low-level features in real-world scenes guide eye movements during scene inspection and search, the influence of semantic similarity among scene objects on eye movements in such situations has not been investigated. Here we study guidance of eye movemen...

  11. Picture models for 2-scene comics creating system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miki UENO

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, computer understanding pictures and stories becomes one of the most important research topics in computer science. However, there are few researches about human like understanding by computers because pictures have not certain format and contain more lyric aspect than that of natural laguage. For picture understanding, a comic is the suitable target because it is consisted by clear and simple plot of stories and separated scenes.In this paper, we propose 2 different types of picture models for 2-scene comics creating system. We also show the method of the application of 2-scene comics creating system by means of proposed picture model.

  12. AR goggles make crime scene investigation a desk job

    OpenAIRE

    Aron, Jacob; NORTHFIELD, Dean

    2012-01-01

    CRIME scene investigators could one day help solve murders without leaving the office. A pair of augmented reality glasses could allow local police to virtually tag objects in a crime scene, and build a clean record of the scene in 3D video before evidence is removed for processing.\\ud The system, being developed by Oytun Akman and colleagues at the Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands, consists of a head-mounted display receiving 3D video from a pair of attached cameras controll...

  13. Language Revitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Leanne

    2003-01-01

    Surveys developments in language revitalization and language death. Focusing on indigenous languages, discusses the role and nature of appropriate linguistic documentation, possibilities for bilingual education, and methods of promoting oral fluency and intergenerational transmission in affected languages. (Author/VWL)

  14. RSYST - a short description of the modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruehle, R.

    1976-04-01

    The modular system RSYST is used for reactor and shielding calculations. A data base managed by a central program, data blocks containing structure descriptions, and hierarchical linking of data blocks enable flexible management of all data. Module sequences are formulated using a user command language. The language features logical branches, variables and arithmetic experssions. Sections of the user language may be stored in the data base and activated at any time. (orig.) [de

  15. Descriptive studies of Purepecha: Introductory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Vázquez Rojas Maldonado

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Seven papers in this volume are the result of a collective project of linguistic description. This introduction offers a general background for such enterprise. It provides information about some sociolinguistic and grammatical aspects of the Purepecha language, a list of some recent studies on the language, it describes the orthographic conventions employed. We also provide details about the elicitation methodology and the demographic information of the language consultants.

  16. The influence of color on emotional perception of natural scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codispoti, Maurizio; De Cesarei, Andrea; Ferrari, Vera

    2012-01-01

    Is color a critical factor when processing the emotional content of natural scenes? Under challenging perceptual conditions, such as when pictures are briefly presented, color might facilitate scene segmentation and/or function as a semantic cue via association with scene-relevant concepts (e.g., red and blood/injury). To clarify the influence of color on affective picture perception, we compared the late positive potentials (LPP) to color versus grayscale pictures, presented for very brief (24 ms) and longer (6 s) exposure durations. Results indicated that removing color information had no effect on the affective modulation of the LPP, regardless of exposure duration. These findings imply that the recognition of the emotional content of scenes, even when presented very briefly, does not critically rely on color information. Copyright © 2011 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  17. Scene Categorization in Alzheimer's Disease: A Saccadic Choice Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin Lenoble

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: We investigated the performance in scene categorization of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD using a saccadic choice task. Method: 24 patients with mild AD, 28 age-matched controls and 26 young people participated in the study. The participants were presented pairs of coloured photographs and were asked to make a saccadic eye movement to the picture corresponding to the target scene (natural vs. urban, indoor vs. outdoor. Results: The patients' performance did not differ from chance for natural scenes. Differences between young and older controls and patients with AD were found in accuracy but not saccadic latency. Conclusions: The results are interpreted in terms of cerebral reorganization in the prefrontal and temporo-occipital cortex of patients with AD, but also in terms of impaired processing of visual global properties of scenes.

  18. Scene Classification Using High Spatial Resolution Multispectral Data

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garner, Jamada

    2002-01-01

    ...), High-spatial resolution (8-meter), 4-color MSI data from IKONOS provide a new tool for scene classification, The utility of these data are studied for the purpose of classifying the Elkhorn Slough and surrounding wetlands in central...

  19. Radiative transfer model for heterogeneous 3-D scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimes, D. S.; Kirchner, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    A general mathematical framework for simulating processes in heterogeneous 3-D scenes is presented. Specifically, a model was designed and coded for application to radiative transfers in vegetative scenes. The model is unique in that it predicts (1) the directional spectral reflectance factors as a function of the sensor's azimuth and zenith angles and the sensor's position above the canopy, (2) the spectral absorption as a function of location within the scene, and (3) the directional spectral radiance as a function of the sensor's location within the scene. The model was shown to follow known physical principles of radiative transfer. Initial verification of the model as applied to a soybean row crop showed that the simulated directional reflectance data corresponded relatively well in gross trends to the measured data. However, the model can be greatly improved by incorporating more sophisticated and realistic anisotropic scattering algorithms

  20. Synchronous contextual irregularities affect early scene processing: replication and extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudrik, Liad; Shalgi, Shani; Lamy, Dominique; Deouell, Leon Y

    2014-04-01

    Whether contextual regularities facilitate perceptual stages of scene processing is widely debated, and empirical evidence is still inconclusive. Specifically, it was recently suggested that contextual violations affect early processing of a scene only when the incongruent object and the scene are presented a-synchronously, creating expectations. We compared event-related potentials (ERPs) evoked by scenes that depicted a person performing an action using either a congruent or an incongruent object (e.g., a man shaving with a razor or with a fork) when scene and object were presented simultaneously. We also explored the role of attention in contextual processing by using a pre-cue to direct subjects׳ attention towards or away from the congruent/incongruent object. Subjects׳ task was to determine how many hands the person in the picture used in order to perform the action. We replicated our previous findings of frontocentral negativity for incongruent scenes that started ~ 210 ms post stimulus presentation, even earlier than previously found. Surprisingly, this incongruency ERP effect was negatively correlated with the reaction times cost on incongruent scenes. The results did not allow us to draw conclusions about the role of attention in detecting the regularity, due to a weak attention manipulation. By replicating the 200-300 ms incongruity effect with a new group of subjects at even earlier latencies than previously reported, the results strengthen the evidence for contextual processing during this time window even when simultaneous presentation of the scene and object prevent the formation of prior expectations. We discuss possible methodological limitations that may account for previous failures to find this an effect, and conclude that contextual information affects object model selection processes prior to full object identification, with semantic knowledge activation stages unfolding only later on. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Developing Scene Understanding Neural Software for Realistic Autonomous Outdoor Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    computer using a single graphics processing unit (GPU). To the best of our knowledge, an implementation of the open-source Python -based AlexNet CNN on...1. Introduction Neurons in the brain enable us to understand scenes by assessing the spatial, temporal, and feature relations of objects in the...effort to use computer neural networks to augment human neural intelligence to improve our scene understanding (Krizhevsky et al. 2012; Zhou et al

  2. STREAM PROCESSING ALGORITHMS FOR DYNAMIC 3D SCENE ANALYSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-15

    PROCESSING ALGORITHMS FOR DYNAMIC 3D SCENE ANALYSIS 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8750-14-2-0072 5b. GRANT NUMBER N/A 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62788F 6...of Figures 1 The 3D processing pipeline flowchart showing key modules. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 2 Overall view (data flow) of the proposed...pipeline flowchart showing key modules. from motion and bundle adjustment algorithm. By fusion of depth masks of the scene obtained from 3D

  3. Which Methodology Works Better? English Language Teachers' Awareness of the Innovative Language Learning Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated whether English language teachers were aware of the innovative language learning methodologies in language learning, how they made use of these methodologies and the learners' reactions to them. The descriptive survey method was employed to disclose the frequencies and percentages of 175 English language teachers'…

  4. The Japanese artificial organs scene: current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitamura, Yoshinori; Murabayashi, Shun

    2005-08-01

    Artificial organs and regenerative medicine are the subjects of very active research and development (R&D) in Japan and various artificial organs are widely used in patients. Results of the R&D are presented at the annual conference of the Japanese Society for Artificial Organs (JSAO). Progress in the fields of artificial organs and regenerative medicine are reviewed annually in the Japanese Journal of Artificial Organs. The official English-language journal of JSAO, Journal of Artificial Organs, also publishes many original articles by Japanese researchers. Although the annual conference and the publications of JSAO provide the world with update information on artificial organs and regenerative medicine in Japan, the information is not always understood appropriately in the rest of the world, mainly due to language problems. This article therefore introduces the current status of artificial organs and regenerative medicine in Japan. Artificial hearts and metabolic support systems are reviewed here and other interesting areas such as regenerative medicine can be found elsewhere.

  5. 3D Traffic Scene Understanding From Movable Platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Andreas; Lauer, Martin; Wojek, Christian; Stiller, Christoph; Urtasun, Raquel

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, we present a novel probabilistic generative model for multi-object traffic scene understanding from movable platforms which reasons jointly about the 3D scene layout as well as the location and orientation of objects in the scene. In particular, the scene topology, geometry, and traffic activities are inferred from short video sequences. Inspired by the impressive driving capabilities of humans, our model does not rely on GPS, lidar, or map knowledge. Instead, it takes advantage of a diverse set of visual cues in the form of vehicle tracklets, vanishing points, semantic scene labels, scene flow, and occupancy grids. For each of these cues, we propose likelihood functions that are integrated into a probabilistic generative model. We learn all model parameters from training data using contrastive divergence. Experiments conducted on videos of 113 representative intersections show that our approach successfully infers the correct layout in a variety of very challenging scenarios. To evaluate the importance of each feature cue, experiments using different feature combinations are conducted. Furthermore, we show how by employing context derived from the proposed method we are able to improve over the state-of-the-art in terms of object detection and object orientation estimation in challenging and cluttered urban environments.

  6. Presentation of 3D Scenes Through Video Example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldacci, Andrea; Ganovelli, Fabio; Corsini, Massimiliano; Scopigno, Roberto

    2017-09-01

    Using synthetic videos to present a 3D scene is a common requirement for architects, designers, engineers or Cultural Heritage professionals however it is usually time consuming and, in order to obtain high quality results, the support of a film maker/computer animation expert is necessary. We introduce an alternative approach that takes the 3D scene of interest and an example video as input, and automatically produces a video of the input scene that resembles the given video example. In other words, our algorithm allows the user to "replicate" an existing video, on a different 3D scene. We build on the intuition that a video sequence of a static environment is strongly characterized by its optical flow, or, in other words, that two videos are similar if their optical flows are similar. We therefore recast the problem as producing a video of the input scene whose optical flow is similar to the optical flow of the input video. Our intuition is supported by a user-study specifically designed to verify this statement. We have successfully tested our approach on several scenes and input videos, some of which are reported in the accompanying material of this paper.

  7. Political conservatism predicts asymmetries in emotional scene memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Mark; Gonzalez, Frank J; Giuseffi, Karl; Sievert, Benjamin; Smith, Kevin B; Hibbing, John R; Dodd, Michael D

    2016-06-01

    Variation in political ideology has been linked to differences in attention to and processing of emotional stimuli, with stronger responses to negative versus positive stimuli (negativity bias) the more politically conservative one is. As memory is enhanced by attention, such findings predict that memory for negative versus positive stimuli should similarly be enhanced the more conservative one is. The present study tests this prediction by having participants study 120 positive, negative, and neutral scenes in preparation for a subsequent memory test. On the memory test, the same 120 scenes were presented along with 120 new scenes and participants were to respond whether a scene was old or new. Results on the memory test showed that negative scenes were more likely to be remembered than positive scenes, though, this was true only for political conservatives. That is, a larger negativity bias was found the more conservative one was. The effect was sizeable, explaining 45% of the variance across subjects in the effect of emotion. These findings demonstrate that the relationship between political ideology and asymmetries in emotion processing extend to memory and, furthermore, suggest that exploring the extent to which subject variation in interactions among emotion, attention, and memory is predicted by conservatism may provide new insights into theories of political ideology. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Two Distinct Scene-Processing Networks Connecting Vision and Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldassano, Christopher; Esteva, Andre; Fei-Fei, Li; Beck, Diane M

    2016-01-01

    A number of regions in the human brain are known to be involved in processing natural scenes, but the field has lacked a unifying framework for understanding how these different regions are organized and interact. We provide evidence from functional connectivity and meta-analyses for a new organizational principle, in which scene processing relies upon two distinct networks that split the classically defined parahippocampal place area (PPA). The first network of strongly connected regions consists of the occipital place area/transverse occipital sulcus and posterior PPA, which contain retinotopic maps and are not strongly coupled to the hippocampus at rest. The second network consists of the caudal inferior parietal lobule, retrosplenial complex, and anterior PPA, which connect to the hippocampus (especially anterior hippocampus), and are implicated in both visual and nonvisual tasks, including episodic memory and navigation. We propose that these two distinct networks capture the primary functional division among scene-processing regions, between those that process visual features from the current view of a scene and those that connect information from a current scene view with a much broader temporal and spatial context. This new framework for understanding the neural substrates of scene-processing bridges results from many lines of research, and makes specific functional predictions.

  9. South Korea: Language Policy and Planning in the Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jae Jung

    2012-01-01

    This monograph discusses South Korea's language situation in a language policy and planning context. This monograph consists of four parts. Part 1 presents a genetic, typological and sociolinguistic description of South Korea's national language, and an overview of minority languages, including English as well as other languages, recently…

  10. Language and status: On the limits of language planning

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Post-1994 language planning: the rise of a new policy discourse. 'Language .... was post-1945 'nation building' (Fishman 1968:54) and the emergence of new nationalist movements ..... professional scholars in Africa played in the production of "'inventory' descriptions of ... appropriate conceptualization of its subject matter.

  11. LANGUAGE TRAINING

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz tel. 73127 language.training@cern.ch FRENCH TRAINING General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 26 January to 02 April 2004. These courses are open to all persons working on the Cern site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz: Tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 26 January to 02 April 2004. This course is designed for people wi...

  12. LANGUAGE TRAINING

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz tel. 73127 language.training@cern.ch FRENCH TRAINING General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 26 January to 02 April 2004. These courses are open to all persons working on the Cern site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz : Tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 26 January to 02 April 2004. This course is designed for peop...

  13. A view not to be missed: Salient scene content interferes with cognitive restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Jagt, Alexander P. N.; Craig, Tony; Brewer, Mark J.; Pearson, David G.

    2017-01-01

    Attention Restoration Theory (ART) states that built scenes place greater load on attentional resources than natural scenes. This is explained in terms of "hard" and "soft" fascination of built and natural scenes. Given a lack of direct empirical evidence for this assumption we propose that perceptual saliency of scene content can function as an empirically derived indicator of fascination. Saliency levels were established by measuring speed of scene category detection using a Go/No-Go detection paradigm. Experiment 1 shows that built scenes are more salient than natural scenes. Experiment 2 replicates these findings using greyscale images, ruling out a colour-based response strategy, and additionally shows that built objects in natural scenes affect saliency to a greater extent than the reverse. Experiment 3 demonstrates that the saliency of scene content is directly linked to cognitive restoration using an established restoration paradigm. Overall, these findings demonstrate an important link between the saliency of scene content and related cognitive restoration. PMID:28723975

  14. Research on hyperspectral dynamic scene and image sequence simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dandan; Liu, Fang; Gao, Jiaobo; Sun, Kefeng; Hu, Yu; Li, Yu; Xie, Junhu; Zhang, Lei

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents a simulation method of hyperspectral dynamic scene and image sequence for hyperspectral equipment evaluation and target detection algorithm. Because of high spectral resolution, strong band continuity, anti-interference and other advantages, in recent years, hyperspectral imaging technology has been rapidly developed and is widely used in many areas such as optoelectronic target detection, military defense and remote sensing systems. Digital imaging simulation, as a crucial part of hardware in loop simulation, can be applied to testing and evaluation hyperspectral imaging equipment with lower development cost and shorter development period. Meanwhile, visual simulation can produce a lot of original image data under various conditions for hyperspectral image feature extraction and classification algorithm. Based on radiation physic model and material characteristic parameters this paper proposes a generation method of digital scene. By building multiple sensor models under different bands and different bandwidths, hyperspectral scenes in visible, MWIR, LWIR band, with spectral resolution 0.01μm, 0.05μm and 0.1μm have been simulated in this paper. The final dynamic scenes have high real-time and realistic, with frequency up to 100 HZ. By means of saving all the scene gray data in the same viewpoint image sequence is obtained. The analysis results show whether in the infrared band or the visible band, the grayscale variations of simulated hyperspectral images are consistent with the theoretical analysis results.

  15. Radio Wave Propagation Scene Partitioning for High-Speed Rails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Ai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Radio wave propagation scene partitioning is necessary for wireless channel modeling. As far as we know, there are no standards of scene partitioning for high-speed rail (HSR scenarios, and therefore we propose the radio wave propagation scene partitioning scheme for HSR scenarios in this paper. Based on our measurements along the Wuhan-Guangzhou HSR, Zhengzhou-Xian passenger-dedicated line, Shijiazhuang-Taiyuan passenger-dedicated line, and Beijing-Tianjin intercity line in China, whose operation speeds are above 300 km/h, and based on the investigations on Beijing South Railway Station, Zhengzhou Railway Station, Wuhan Railway Station, Changsha Railway Station, Xian North Railway Station, Shijiazhuang North Railway Station, Taiyuan Railway Station, and Tianjin Railway Station, we obtain an overview of HSR propagation channels and record many valuable measurement data for HSR scenarios. On the basis of these measurements and investigations, we partitioned the HSR scene into twelve scenarios. Further work on theoretical analysis based on radio wave propagation mechanisms, such as reflection and diffraction, may lead us to develop the standard of radio wave propagation scene partitioning for HSR. Our work can also be used as a basis for the wireless channel modeling and the selection of some key techniques for HSR systems.

  16. Changing scenes: memory for naturalistic events following change blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäntylä, Timo; Sundström, Anna

    2004-11-01

    Research on scene perception indicates that viewers often fail to detect large changes to scene regions when these changes occur during a visual disruption such as a saccade or a movie cut. In two experiments, we examined whether this relative inability to detect changes would produce systematic biases in event memory. In Experiment 1, participants decided whether two successively presented images were the same or different, followed by a memory task, in which they recalled the content of the viewed scene. In Experiment 2, participants viewed a short video, in which an actor carried out a series of daily activities, and central scenes' attributes were changed during a movie cut. A high degree of change blindness was observed in both experiments, and these effects were related to scene complexity (Experiment 1) and level of retrieval support (Experiment 2). Most important, participants reported the changed, rather than the initial, event attributes following a failure in change detection. These findings suggest that attentional limitations during encoding contribute to biases in episodic memory.

  17. Integration of heterogeneous features for remote sensing scene classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Xiong, Xingnan; Ning, Chen; Shi, Aiye; Lv, Guofang

    2018-01-01

    Scene classification is one of the most important issues in remote sensing (RS) image processing. We find that features from different channels (shape, spectral, texture, etc.), levels (low-level and middle-level), or perspectives (local and global) could provide various properties for RS images, and then propose a heterogeneous feature framework to extract and integrate heterogeneous features with different types for RS scene classification. The proposed method is composed of three modules (1) heterogeneous features extraction, where three heterogeneous feature types, called DS-SURF-LLC, mean-Std-LLC, and MS-CLBP, are calculated, (2) heterogeneous features fusion, where the multiple kernel learning (MKL) is utilized to integrate the heterogeneous features, and (3) an MKL support vector machine classifier for RS scene classification. The proposed method is extensively evaluated on three challenging benchmark datasets (a 6-class dataset, a 12-class dataset, and a 21-class dataset), and the experimental results show that the proposed method leads to good classification performance. It produces good informative features to describe the RS image scenes. Moreover, the integration of heterogeneous features outperforms some state-of-the-art features on RS scene classification tasks.

  18. Unconscious analyses of visual scenes based on feature conjunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachibana, Ryosuke; Noguchi, Yasuki

    2015-06-01

    To efficiently process a cluttered scene, the visual system analyzes statistical properties or regularities of visual elements embedded in the scene. It is controversial, however, whether those scene analyses could also work for stimuli unconsciously perceived. Here we show that our brain performs the unconscious scene analyses not only using a single featural cue (e.g., orientation) but also based on conjunctions of multiple visual features (e.g., combinations of color and orientation information). Subjects foveally viewed a stimulus array (duration: 50 ms) where 4 types of bars (red-horizontal, red-vertical, green-horizontal, and green-vertical) were intermixed. Although a conscious perception of those bars was inhibited by a subsequent mask stimulus, the brain correctly analyzed the information about color, orientation, and color-orientation conjunctions of those invisible bars. The information of those features was then used for the unconscious configuration analysis (statistical processing) of the central bars, which induced a perceptual bias and illusory feature binding in visible stimuli at peripheral locations. While statistical analyses and feature binding are normally 2 key functions of the visual system to construct coherent percepts of visual scenes, our results show that a high-level analysis combining those 2 functions is correctly performed by unconscious computations in the brain. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Structured multi-stream command language

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glad, A.S.

    1982-12-01

    A multi-stream command language was implemented to provide the sequential and decision-making operations necessary to run the neutral-beam ion sources connected to the Doublet III tokamak fusion device. A multi-stream command language was implemented in Pascal on a Classic 7870 running under MAX IV. The purpose of this paper is threefold. First, to provide a brief description of the programs comprising the command language including the operating system interaction. Second, to give a description of the language syntax and commands necessary to develop a procedure stream. Third, to provide a description of the normal operating procedures for executing either the sequential or interactive streams

  20. Language Planning and Planned Languages: How Can Planned Languages Inform Language Planning?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humphrey Tonkin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The field of language planning (LP has largely ignored planned languages. Of classic descriptions of LP processes, only Tauli (preceded by Wüster suggests that planned languages (what Wüster calls Plansprache might bear on LP theory and practice. If LP aims "to modify the linguistic behaviour of some community for some reason," as Kaplan and Baldauf put it, creating a language de novo is little different. Language policy and planning are increasingly seen as more local and less official, and occasionally more international and cosmopolitan. Zamenhof's work on Esperanto provides extensive material, little studied, documenting the formation of the language and linking it particularly to issues of supranational LP. Defining LP decision-making, Kaplan & Baldauf begin with context and target population. Zamenhof's Esperanto came shortly before Ben-Yehuda's revived Hebrew. His target community was (mostly the world's educated elite; Ben-Yehuda's was worldwide Jewry. Both planners were driven not by linguistic interest but by sociopolitical ideology rooted in reaction to anti-Semitism and imbued with the idea of progress. Their territories had no boundaries, but were not imaginary. Function mattered as much as form (Haugen's terms, status as much as corpus. For Zamenhof, status planning involved emphasis on Esperanto's ownership by its community - a collective planning process embracing all speakers (cf. Hebrew. Corpus planning included a standardized European semantics, lexical selectivity based not simply on standardization but on representation, and the development of written, and literary, style. Esperanto was successful as linguistic system and community language, less as generally accepted lingua franca. Its terminology development and language cultivation offers a model for language revival, but Zamenhof's somewhat limited analysis of language economy left him unprepared to deal with language as power.

  1. Narrative Collage of Image Collections by Scene Graph Recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Fei; Yi, Miao; Feng, Hui; Hu, Shenghong; Xiao, Chunxia

    2017-10-04

    Narrative collage is an interesting image editing art to summarize the main theme or storyline behind an image collection. We present a novel method to generate narrative images with plausible semantic scene structures. To achieve this goal, we introduce a layer graph and a scene graph to represent relative depth order and semantic relationship between image objects, respectively. We firstly cluster the input image collection to select representative images, and then extract a group of semantic salient objects from each representative image. Both Layer graphs and scene graphs are constructed and combined according to our specific rules for reorganizing the extracted objects in every image. We design an energy model to appropriately locate every object on the final canvas. Experiment results show that our method can produce competitive narrative collage result and works well on a wide range of image collections.

  2. Gordon Craig's Scene Project: a history open to revision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article proposes a review of Gordon Craig’s Scene project, an invention patented in 1910 and developed until 1922. Craig himself kept an ambiguous position whether it was an unfulfilled project or not. His son and biographer Edward Craig sustained that Craig’s original aims were never achieved because of technical limitation, and most of the scholars who examined the matter followed this position. Departing from the actual screen models saved in the Bibliothèque Nationale de France, Craig’s original notebooks, and a short film from 1963, I defend that the patented project and the essay published in 1923 mean, indeed, the materialisation of the dreamed device of the thousand scenes in one scene

  3. Scene recognition based on integrating active learning with dictionary learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengxi; Yin, Xueyan; Yang, Lin; Gong, Chengrong; Zheng, Caixia; Yi, Yugen

    2018-04-01

    Scene recognition is a significant topic in the field of computer vision. Most of the existing scene recognition models require a large amount of labeled training samples to achieve a good performance. However, labeling image manually is a time consuming task and often unrealistic in practice. In order to gain satisfying recognition results when labeled samples are insufficient, this paper proposed a scene recognition algorithm named Integrating Active Learning and Dictionary Leaning (IALDL). IALDL adopts projective dictionary pair learning (DPL) as classifier and introduces active learning mechanism into DPL for improving its performance. When constructing sampling criterion in active learning, IALDL considers both the uncertainty and representativeness as the sampling criteria to effectively select the useful unlabeled samples from a given sample set for expanding the training dataset. Experiment results on three standard databases demonstrate the feasibility and validity of the proposed IALDL.

  4. SAR Raw Data Generation for Complex Airport Scenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Li

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The method of generating the SAR raw data of complex airport scenes is studied in this paper. A formulation of the SAR raw signal model of airport scenes is given. Via generating the echoes from the background, aircrafts and buildings, respectively, the SAR raw data of the unified SAR imaging geometry is obtained from their vector additions. The multipath scattering and the shadowing between the background and different ground covers of standing airplanes and buildings are analyzed. Based on the scattering characteristics, coupling scattering models and SAR raw data models of different targets are given, respectively. A procedure is given to generate the SAR raw data of airport scenes. The SAR images from the simulated raw data demonstrate the validity of the proposed method.

  5. Real-time maritime scene simulation for ladar sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Chad L.; Gouthas, Efthimios; Swierkowski, Leszek; Williams, Owen M.

    2011-06-01

    Continuing interest exists in the development of cost-effective synthetic environments for testing Laser Detection and Ranging (ladar) sensors. In this paper we describe a PC-based system for real-time ladar scene simulation of ships and small boats in a dynamic maritime environment. In particular, we describe the techniques employed to generate range imagery accompanied by passive radiance imagery. Our ladar scene generation system is an evolutionary extension of the VIRSuite infrared scene simulation program and includes all previous features such as ocean wave simulation, the physically-realistic representation of boat and ship dynamics, wake generation and simulation of whitecaps, spray, wake trails and foam. A terrain simulation extension is also under development. In this paper we outline the development, capabilities and limitations of the VIRSuite extensions.

  6. Use of AFIS for linking scenes of crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefetz, Ido; Liptz, Yakir; Vaturi, Shaul; Attias, David

    2016-05-01

    Forensic intelligence can provide critical information in criminal investigations - the linkage of crime scenes. The Automatic Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS) is an example of a technological improvement that has advanced the entire forensic identification field to strive for new goals and achievements. In one example using AFIS, a series of burglaries into private apartments enabled a fingerprint examiner to search latent prints from different burglary scenes against an unsolved latent print database. Latent finger and palm prints coming from the same source were associated with over than 20 cases. Then, by forensic intelligence and profile analysis the offender's behavior could be anticipated. He was caught, identified, and arrested. It is recommended to perform an AFIS search of LT/UL prints against current crimes automatically as part of laboratory protocol and not by an examiner's discretion. This approach may link different crime scenes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Tracking down abstract linguistic meaning: neural correlates of spatial frame of reference ambiguities in language.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Janzen

    Full Text Available This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study investigates a crucial parameter in spatial description, namely variants in the frame of reference chosen. Two frames of reference are available in European languages for the description of small-scale assemblages, namely the intrinsic (or object-oriented frame and the relative (or egocentric frame. We showed participants a sentence such as "the ball is in front of the man", ambiguous between the two frames, and then a picture of a scene with a ball and a man--participants had to respond by indicating whether the picture did or did not match the sentence. There were two blocks, in which we induced each frame of reference by feedback. Thus for the crucial test items, participants saw exactly the same sentence and the same picture but now from one perspective, now the other. Using this method, we were able to precisely pinpoint the pattern of neural activation associated with each linguistic interpretation of the ambiguity, while holding the perceptual stimuli constant. Increased brain activity in bilateral parahippocampal gyrus was associated with the intrinsic frame of reference whereas increased activity in the right superior frontal gyrus and in the parietal lobe was observed for the relative frame of reference. The study is among the few to show a distinctive pattern of neural activation for an abstract yet specific semantic parameter in language. It shows with special clarity the nature of the neural substrate supporting each frame of spatial reference.

  8. Detecting text in natural scenes with multi-level MSER and SWT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tongwei; Liu, Renjun

    2018-04-01

    The detection of the characters in the natural scene is susceptible to factors such as complex background, variable viewing angle and diverse forms of language, which leads to poor detection results. Aiming at these problems, a new text detection method was proposed, which consisted of two main stages, candidate region extraction and text region detection. At first stage, the method used multiple scale transformations of original image and multiple thresholds of maximally stable extremal regions (MSER) to detect the text regions which could detect character regions comprehensively. At second stage, obtained SWT maps by using the stroke width transform (SWT) algorithm to compute the candidate regions, then using cascaded classifiers to propose non-text regions. The proposed method was evaluated on the standard benchmark datasets of ICDAR2011 and the datasets that we made our own data sets. The experiment results showed that the proposed method have greatly improved that compared to other text detection methods.

  9. Multiple vehicle routing and dispatching to an emergency scene

    OpenAIRE

    M S Daskin; A Haghani

    1984-01-01

    A model of the distribution of arrival time at the scene of an emergency for the first of many vehicles is developed for the case in which travel times on the links of the network are normally distributed and the path travel times of different vehicles are correlated. The model suggests that the probability that the first vehicle arrives at the scene within a given time may be increased by reducing the path time correlations, even if doing so necessitates increasing the mean path travel time ...

  10. Cortical Representations of Speech in a Multitalker Auditory Scene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puvvada, Krishna C; Simon, Jonathan Z

    2017-09-20

    The ability to parse a complex auditory scene into perceptual objects is facilitated by a hierarchical auditory system. Successive stages in the hierarchy transform an auditory scene of multiple overlapping sources, from peripheral tonotopically based representations in the auditory nerve, into perceptually distinct auditory-object-based representations in the auditory cortex. Here, using magnetoencephalography recordings from men and women, we investigate how a complex acoustic scene consisting of multiple speech sources is represented in distinct hierarchical stages of the auditory cortex. Using systems-theoretic methods of stimulus reconstruction, we show that the primary-like areas in the auditory cortex contain dominantly spectrotemporal-based representations of the entire auditory scene. Here, both attended and ignored speech streams are represented with almost equal fidelity, and a global representation of the full auditory scene with all its streams is a better candidate neural representation than that of individual streams being represented separately. We also show that higher-order auditory cortical areas, by contrast, represent the attended stream separately and with significantly higher fidelity than unattended streams. Furthermore, the unattended background streams are more faithfully represented as a single unsegregated background object rather than as separated objects. Together, these findings demonstrate the progression of the representations and processing of a complex acoustic scene up through the hierarchy of the human auditory cortex. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Using magnetoencephalography recordings from human listeners in a simulated cocktail party environment, we investigate how a complex acoustic scene consisting of multiple speech sources is represented in separate hierarchical stages of the auditory cortex. We show that the primary-like areas in the auditory cortex use a dominantly spectrotemporal-based representation of the entire auditory

  11. Image Chunking: Defining Spatial Building Blocks for Scene Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    mumgs0.USmusa 7.AUWOJO 4. CIUTAC Rm6ANT Wuugme*j James V/. Mlahoney DACA? 6-85-C-00 10 NOQ 1 4-85-K-O 124 Artificial Inteligence Laboratory US USS 545...0197 672 IMAGE CHUWING: DEINING SPATIAL UILDING PLOCKS FOR 142 SCENE ANRLYSIS(U) MASSACHUSETTS INST OF TECH CAIIAIDGE ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LAO J...Technical Report 980 F-Image Chunking: Defining Spatial Building Blocks for Scene DTm -Analysis S ELECTED James V. Mahoney’ MIT Artificial Intelligence

  12. Improved content aware scene retargeting for retinitis pigmentosa patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Atabany Walid I

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this paper we present a novel scene retargeting technique to reduce the visual scene while maintaining the size of the key features. The algorithm is scalable to implementation onto portable devices, and thus, has potential for augmented reality systems to provide visual support for those with tunnel vision. We therefore test the efficacy of our algorithm on shrinking the visual scene into the remaining field of view for those patients. Methods Simple spatial compression of visual scenes makes objects appear further away. We have therefore developed an algorithm which removes low importance information, maintaining the size of the significant features. Previous approaches in this field have included seam carving, which removes low importance seams from the scene, and shrinkability which dynamically shrinks the scene according to a generated importance map. The former method causes significant artifacts and the latter is inefficient. In this work we have developed a new algorithm, combining the best aspects of both these two previous methods. In particular, our approach is to generate a shrinkability importance map using as seam based approach. We then use it to dynamically shrink the scene in similar fashion to the shrinkability method. Importantly, we have implemented it so that it can be used in real time without prior knowledge of future frames. Results We have evaluated and compared our algorithm to the seam carving and image shrinkability approaches from a content preservation perspective and a compression quality perspective. Also our technique has been evaluated and tested on a trial included 20 participants with simulated tunnel vision. Results show the robustness of our method at reducing scenes up to 50% with minimal distortion. We also demonstrate efficacy in its use for those with simulated tunnel vision of 22 degrees of field of view or less. Conclusions Our approach allows us to perform content aware video

  13. Forensic DNA Phenotyping: Predicting human appearance from crime scene material for investigative purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayser, Manfred

    2015-09-01

    Forensic DNA Phenotyping refers to the prediction of appearance traits of unknown sample donors, or unknown deceased (missing) persons, directly from biological materials found at the scene. "Biological witness" outcomes of Forensic DNA Phenotyping can provide investigative leads to trace unknown persons, who are unidentifiable with current comparative DNA profiling. This intelligence application of DNA marks a substantially different forensic use of genetic material rather than that of current DNA profiling presented in the courtroom. Currently, group-specific pigmentation traits are already predictable from DNA with reasonably high accuracies, while several other externally visible characteristics are under genetic investigation. Until individual-specific appearance becomes accurately predictable from DNA, conventional DNA profiling needs to be performed subsequent to appearance DNA prediction. Notably, and where Forensic DNA Phenotyping shows great promise, this is on a (much) smaller group of potential suspects, who match the appearance characteristics DNA-predicted from the crime scene stain or from the deceased person's remains. Provided sufficient funding being made available, future research to better understand the genetic basis of human appearance will expectedly lead to a substantially more detailed description of an unknown person's appearance from DNA, delivering increased value for police investigations in criminal and missing person cases involving unknowns. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Scene and character: interdisciplinary analysis of musical and sound symbols for higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Gustems Carnicer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze interdisciplinary and educationally the descriptive aspects of the characters in literature in the world of music (opera, ballet, musical theater, program music, audiovisual, etc. through a wide range of resources and creative processes in various skills that include or encompass the sound. Because of that a literature review and multidisciplinary documentary is done from the most relevant texts and principal authors of the dynamic and stable personality models, from the analysis of vocal features in the scene and in the audiovisuals, from the leitmotiv as a symbol and sound representation of the character, from the the conflicts faced by the characters and how they can overcome them and how we could translated into music those transitions. The subject of myths brought to the world of music scene, character stereotypes and sound symbols that may characterize these scenic and literary content is also addressed. Notably, there is a broad consensus on the use of sound resources to characterize the different characters throughout the history of Western music in its various styles and genres. Furthermore, indications for their use are given and suggestions for activities to higher education suggest.

  15. Real time imaging and infrared background scene analysis using the Naval Postgraduate School infrared search and target designation (NPS-IRSTD) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, Jean D.

    1991-09-01

    The imaging in real time of infrared background scenes with the Naval Postgraduate School Infrared Search and Target Designation (NPS-IRSTD) System was achieved through extensive software developments in protected mode assembly language on an Intel 80386 33 MHz computer. The new software processes the 512 by 480 pixel images directly in the extended memory area of the computer where the DT-2861 frame grabber memory buffers are mapped. Direct interfacing, through a JDR-PR10 prototype card, between the frame grabber and the host computer AT bus enables each load of the frame grabber memory buffers to be effected under software control. The protected mode assembly language program can refresh the display of a six degree pseudo-color sector in the scanner rotation within the two second period of the scanner. A study of the imaging properties of the NPS-IRSTD is presented with preliminary work on image analysis and contrast enhancement of infrared background scenes.

  16. Recognition and attention guidance during contextual cueing in real-world scenes: evidence from eye movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockmole, James R; Henderson, John M

    2006-07-01

    When confronted with a previously encountered scene, what information is used to guide search to a known target? We contrasted the role of a scene's basic-level category membership with its specific arrangement of visual properties. Observers were repeatedly shown photographs of scenes that contained consistently but arbitrarily located targets, allowing target positions to be associated with scene content. Learned scenes were then unexpectedly mirror reversed, spatially translating visual features as well as the target across the display while preserving the scene's identity and concept. Mirror reversals produced a cost as the eyes initially moved toward the position in the display in which the target had previously appeared. The cost was not complete, however; when initial search failed, the eyes were quickly directed to the target's new position. These results suggest that in real-world scenes, shifts of attention are initially based on scene identity, and subsequent shifts are guided by more detailed information regarding scene and object layout.

  17. Dynamical Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Huimin

    The following sections are included: * Definition of Dynamical Languages * Distinct Excluded Blocks * Definition and Properties * L and L″ in Chomsky Hierarchy * A Natural Equivalence Relation * Symbolic Flows * Symbolic Flows and Dynamical Languages * Subshifts of Finite Type * Sofic Systems * Graphs and Dynamical Languages * Graphs and Shannon-Graphs * Transitive Languages * Topological Entropy

  18. Fuzzy Emotional Semantic Analysis and Automated Annotation of Scene Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfang Cao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advances in electronic and imaging techniques, the production of digital images has rapidly increased, and the extraction and automated annotation of emotional semantics implied by images have become issues that must be urgently addressed. To better simulate human subjectivity and ambiguity for understanding scene images, the current study proposes an emotional semantic annotation method for scene images based on fuzzy set theory. A fuzzy membership degree was calculated to describe the emotional degree of a scene image and was implemented using the Adaboost algorithm and a back-propagation (BP neural network. The automated annotation method was trained and tested using scene images from the SUN Database. The annotation results were then compared with those based on artificial annotation. Our method showed an annotation accuracy rate of 91.2% for basic emotional values and 82.4% after extended emotional values were added, which correspond to increases of 5.5% and 8.9%, respectively, compared with the results from using a single BP neural network algorithm. Furthermore, the retrieval accuracy rate based on our method reached approximately 89%. This study attempts to lay a solid foundation for the automated emotional semantic annotation of more types of images and therefore is of practical significance.

  19. Evaluating Color Descriptors for Object and Scene Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Sande, K.E.A.; Gevers, T.; Snoek, C.G.M.

    2010-01-01

    Image category recognition is important to access visual information on the level of objects and scene types. So far, intensity-based descriptors have been widely used for feature extraction at salient points. To increase illumination invariance and discriminative power, color descriptors have been

  20. Number of perceptually distinct surface colors in natural scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Franch, Iván; Foster, David H

    2010-09-30

    The ability to perceptually identify distinct surfaces in natural scenes by virtue of their color depends not only on the relative frequency of surface colors but also on the probabilistic nature of observer judgments. Previous methods of estimating the number of discriminable surface colors, whether based on theoretical color gamuts or recorded from real scenes, have taken a deterministic approach. Thus, a three-dimensional representation of the gamut of colors is divided into elementary cells or points which are spaced at one discrimination-threshold unit intervals and which are then counted. In this study, information-theoretic methods were used to take into account both differing surface-color frequencies and observer response uncertainty. Spectral radiances were calculated from 50 hyperspectral images of natural scenes and were represented in a perceptually almost uniform color space. The average number of perceptually distinct surface colors was estimated as 7.3 × 10(3), much smaller than that based on counting methods. This number is also much smaller than the number of distinct points in a scene that are, in principle, available for reliable identification under illuminant changes, suggesting that color constancy, or the lack of it, does not generally determine the limit on the use of color for surface identification.

  1. Non-uniform crosstalk reduction for dynamic scenes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, F.A.; Liere, van R.; Fröhlich, B.

    2007-01-01

    Stereo displays suffer from crosstalk, an effect that reduces or even inhibits the viewer's ability to correctly perceive depth. Previous work on software crosstalk reduction focussed on the preprocessing of static scenes which are viewed from a fixed viewpoint. However, in virtual environments

  2. Range and intensity vision for rock-scene segmentation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mkwelo, SG

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents another approach to segmenting a scene of rocks on a conveyor belt for the purposes of measuring rock size. Rock size estimation instruments are used to monitor, optimize and control milling and crushing in the mining industry...

  3. Modelling Technology for Building Fire Scene with Virtual Geographic Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Y.; Zhao, L.; Wei, M.; Zhang, H.; Liu, W.

    2017-09-01

    Building fire is a risky activity that can lead to disaster and massive destruction. The management and disposal of building fire has always attracted much interest from researchers. Integrated Virtual Geographic Environment (VGE) is a good choice for building fire safety management and emergency decisions, in which a more real and rich fire process can be computed and obtained dynamically, and the results of fire simulations and analyses can be much more accurate as well. To modelling building fire scene with VGE, the application requirements and modelling objective of building fire scene were analysed in this paper. Then, the four core elements of modelling building fire scene (the building space environment, the fire event, the indoor Fire Extinguishing System (FES) and the indoor crowd) were implemented, and the relationship between the elements was discussed also. Finally, with the theory and framework of VGE, the technology of building fire scene system with VGE was designed within the data environment, the model environment, the expression environment, and the collaborative environment as well. The functions and key techniques in each environment are also analysed, which may provide a reference for further development and other research on VGE.

  4. Words Matter: Scene Text for Image Classification and Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karaoglu, S.; Tao, R.; Gevers, T.; Smeulders, A.W.M.

    Text in natural images typically adds meaning to an object or scene. In particular, text specifies which business places serve drinks (e.g., cafe, teahouse) or food (e.g., restaurant, pizzeria), and what kind of service is provided (e.g., massage, repair). The mere presence of text, its words, and

  5. Significance of perceptually relevant image decolorization for scene classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Sowmya; Divakaran, Govind; Soman, Kutti Padanyl

    2017-11-01

    Color images contain luminance and chrominance components representing the intensity and color information, respectively. The objective of this paper is to show the significance of incorporating chrominance information to the task of scene classification. An improved color-to-grayscale image conversion algorithm that effectively incorporates chrominance information is proposed using the color-to-gray structure similarity index and singular value decomposition to improve the perceptual quality of the converted grayscale images. The experimental results based on an image quality assessment for image decolorization and its success rate (using the Cadik and COLOR250 datasets) show that the proposed image decolorization technique performs better than eight existing benchmark algorithms for image decolorization. In the second part of the paper, the effectiveness of incorporating the chrominance component for scene classification tasks is demonstrated using a deep belief network-based image classification system developed using dense scale-invariant feature transforms. The amount of chrominance information incorporated into the proposed image decolorization technique is confirmed with the improvement to the overall scene classification accuracy. Moreover, the overall scene classification performance improved by combining the models obtained using the proposed method and conventional decolorization methods.

  6. Estimating cotton canopy ground cover from remotely sensed scene reflectance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maas, S.J.

    1998-01-01

    Many agricultural applications require spatially distributed information on growth-related crop characteristics that could be supplied through aircraft or satellite remote sensing. A study was conducted to develop and test a methodology for estimating plant canopy ground cover for cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) from scene reflectance. Previous studies indicated that a relatively simple relationship between ground cover and scene reflectance could be developed based on linear mixture modeling. Theoretical analysis indicated that the effects of shadows in the scene could be compensated for by averaging the results obtained using scene reflectance in the red and near-infrared wavelengths. The methodology was tested using field data collected over several years from cotton test plots in Texas and California. Results of the study appear to verify the utility of this approach. Since the methodology relies on information that can be obtained solely through remote sensing, it would be particularly useful in applications where other field information, such as plant size, row spacing, and row orientation, is unavailable

  7. Audio scene segmentation for video with generic content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Feng; Goela, Naveen; Divakaran, Ajay; Abdel-Mottaleb, Mohamed

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present a content-adaptive audio texture based method to segment video into audio scenes. The audio scene is modeled as a semantically consistent chunk of audio data. Our algorithm is based on "semantic audio texture analysis." At first, we train GMM models for basic audio classes such as speech, music, etc. Then we define the semantic audio texture based on those classes. We study and present two types of scene changes, those corresponding to an overall audio texture change and those corresponding to a special "transition marker" used by the content creator, such as a short stretch of music in a sitcom or silence in dramatic content. Unlike prior work using genre specific heuristics, such as some methods presented for detecting commercials, we adaptively find out if such special transition markers are being used and if so, which of the base classes are being used as markers without any prior knowledge about the content. Our experimental results show that our proposed audio scene segmentation works well across a wide variety of broadcast content genres.

  8. Range sections as rock models for intensity rock scene segmentation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mkwelo, S

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents another approach to segmenting a scene of rocks on a conveyor belt for the purposes of measuring rock size. Rock size estimation instruments are used to monitor, optimize and control milling and crushing in the mining industry...

  9. Coping with Perceived Ethnic Prejudice on the Gay Scene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaspal, Rusi

    2017-01-01

    There has been only cursory research into the sociological and psychological aspects of ethnic/racial discrimination among ethnic minority gay and bisexual men, and none that focuses specifically upon British ethnic minority gay men. This article focuses on perceptions of intergroup relations on the gay scene among young British South Asian gay…

  10. Semantic Categorization Precedes Affective Evaluation of Visual Scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nummenmaa, Lauri; Hyona, Jukka; Calvo, Manuel G.

    2010-01-01

    We compared the primacy of affective versus semantic categorization by using forced-choice saccadic and manual response tasks. Participants viewed paired emotional and neutral scenes involving humans or animals flashed rapidly in extrafoveal vision. Participants were instructed to categorize the targets by saccading toward the location occupied by…

  11. Cultural heritage and history in the European metal scene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klepper, de S.; Molpheta, S.; Pille, S.; Saouma, R.; During, R.; Muilwijk, M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper represents an inquiry on the use of history and cultural heritage in the metal scene. It is an attempt to show how history and cultural heritage can possibly be spread among people using an unconventional way. The followed research method was built on an explorative study that included an

  12. The role of memory for visual search in scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le-Hoa Võ, Melissa; Wolfe, Jeremy M

    2015-03-01

    Many daily activities involve looking for something. The ease with which these searches are performed often allows one to forget that searching represents complex interactions between visual attention and memory. Although a clear understanding exists of how search efficiency will be influenced by visual features of targets and their surrounding distractors or by the number of items in the display, the role of memory in search is less well understood. Contextual cueing studies have shown that implicit memory for repeated item configurations can facilitate search in artificial displays. When searching more naturalistic environments, other forms of memory come into play. For instance, semantic memory provides useful information about which objects are typically found where within a scene, and episodic scene memory provides information about where a particular object was seen the last time a particular scene was viewed. In this paper, we will review work on these topics, with special emphasis on the role of memory in guiding search in organized, real-world scenes. © 2015 New York Academy of Sciences.

  13. Learning object-to-class kernels for scene classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Zhen, Xiantong; Shao, Ling

    2014-08-01

    High-level image representations have drawn increasing attention in visual recognition, e.g., scene classification, since the invention of the object bank. The object bank represents an image as a response map of a large number of pretrained object detectors and has achieved superior performance for visual recognition. In this paper, based on the object bank representation, we propose the object-to-class (O2C) distances to model scene images. In particular, four variants of O2C distances are presented, and with the O2C distances, we can represent the images using the object bank by lower-dimensional but more discriminative spaces, called distance spaces, which are spanned by the O2C distances. Due to the explicit computation of O2C distances based on the object bank, the obtained representations can possess more semantic meanings. To combine the discriminant ability of the O2C distances to all scene classes, we further propose to kernalize the distance representation for the final classification. We have conducted extensive experiments on four benchmark data sets, UIUC-Sports, Scene-15, MIT Indoor, and Caltech-101, which demonstrate that the proposed approaches can significantly improve the original object bank approach and achieve the state-of-the-art performance.

  14. Semi-Supervised Multitask Learning for Scene Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaoqiang; Li, Xuelong; Mou, Lichao

    2015-09-01

    Scene recognition has been widely studied to understand visual information from the level of objects and their relationships. Toward scene recognition, many methods have been proposed. They, however, encounter difficulty to improve the accuracy, mainly due to two limitations: 1) lack of analysis of intrinsic relationships across different scales, say, the initial input and its down-sampled versions and 2) existence of redundant features. This paper develops a semi-supervised learning mechanism to reduce the above two limitations. To address the first limitation, we propose a multitask model to integrate scene images of different resolutions. For the second limitation, we build a model of sparse feature selection-based manifold regularization (SFSMR) to select the optimal information and preserve the underlying manifold structure of data. SFSMR coordinates the advantages of sparse feature selection and manifold regulation. Finally, we link the multitask model and SFSMR, and propose the semi-supervised learning method to reduce the two limitations. Experimental results report the improvements of the accuracy in scene recognition.

  15. Line grouping using perceptual saliency and structure prediction for car detection in traffic scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denasi, Sandra; Quaglia, Giorgio

    1993-08-01

    Autonomous and guide assisted vehicles make a heavy use of computer vision techniques to perceive the environment where they move. In this context, the European PROMETHEUS program is carrying on activities in order to develop autonomous vehicle monitoring that assists people to achieve safer driving. Car detection is one of the topics that are faced by the program. Our contribution proposes the development of this task in two stages: the localization of areas of interest and the formulation of object hypotheses. In particular, the present paper proposes a new approach that builds structural descriptions of objects from edge segmentations by using geometrical organization. This approach has been applied to the detection of cars in traffic scenes. We have analyzed images taken from a moving vehicle in order to formulate obstacle hypotheses: preliminary results confirm the efficiency of the method.

  16. Anticipatory scene representation in preschool children's recall and recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreindel, Erica; Intraub, Helene

    2017-09-01

    Behavioral and neuroscience research on boundary extension (false memory beyond the edges of a view of a scene) has provided new insights into the constructive nature of scene representation, and motivates questions about development. Early research with children (as young as 6-7 years) was consistent with boundary extension, but relied on an analysis of spatial errors in drawings which are open to alternative explanations (e.g. drawing ability). Experiment 1 replicated and extended prior drawing results with 4-5-year-olds and adults. In Experiment 2, a new, forced-choice immediate recognition memory test was implemented with the same children. On each trial, a card (photograph of a simple scene) was immediately replaced by a test card (identical view and either a closer or more wide-angle view) and participants indicated which one matched the original view. Error patterns supported boundary extension; identical photographs were more frequently rejected when the closer view was the original view, than vice versa. This asymmetry was not attributable to a selection bias (guessing tasks; Experiments 3-5). In Experiment 4, working memory load was increased by presenting more expansive views of more complex scenes. Again, children exhibited boundary extension, but now adults did not, unless stimulus duration was reduced to 5 s (limiting time to implement strategies; Experiment 5). We propose that like adults, children interpret photographs as views of places in the world; they extrapolate the anticipated continuation of the scene beyond the view and misattribute it to having been seen. Developmental differences in source attribution decision processes provide an explanation for the age-related differences observed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Localisation - When Language, Culture and Technology Join Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jody Byrne

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available When you switch on your computer and type up a letter, what language do you see? What about when you visit a website or play a computer game? Does your mobile phone speak your language? Chances are that each of these technological marvels of the modern age communicates with you in your own language. For many of us, this is so commonplace and seamless that we hardly give it a moment's thought but behind the scenes there is a whole industry dedicated to making sure that technology bridges the gap between language and culture without you even noticing.

  18. Localisation - When Language, Culture and Technology Join Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jody Byrne

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available When you switch on your computer and type up a letter, what language do you see? What about when you visit a website or play a computer game? Does your mobile phone speak your language? Chances are that each of these technological marvels of the modern age communicates with you in your own language. For many of us, this is so commonplace and seamless that we hardly give it a moment's thought but behind the scenes there is a whole industry dedicated to making sure that technology bridges the gap between language and culture without you even noticing.

  19. Hebrew and Palestinian Arabic in Israel: Linguistic Frameworks and Speech-Language Pathology Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uziel-Karl, Sigal; Kanaan, Fadi; Yifat, Rachel; Meir, Irit; Abugov, Netta; Ravid, Dorit

    2014-01-01

    This article is the result of cooperation between Israeli Jewish and Arab psycholinguists and speech-language disorders specialists. It presents two facets of the Israeli communications disorders scene: (1) a review of some linguistic, psycholinguistic, and sociolinguistic facets of Hebrew and Palestinian Arabic, two Semitic languages whose…

  20. Fiche pratique: La vie en rose; Scenes de menage; Comptines en memoire; Premier emploi (Practical Ideas: Life through Rose-Colored Glasses; Home Life; Singsongs from the Past; First Job).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenoble, Martine; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Four ideas for French language classroom activities include creation of a parody horoscope, reenactment of household scenes from a comic strip, an exercise in memorizing grammatical rules through children's chants, and analysis of a videotape's content, aural, and visual components. (MSE)

  1. Construction and Optimization of Three-Dimensional Disaster Scenes within Mobile Virtual Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya Hu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Because mobile virtual reality (VR is both mobile and immersive, three-dimensional (3D visualizations of disaster scenes based in mobile VR enable users to perceive and recognize disaster environments faster and better than is possible with other methods. To achieve immersion and prevent users from feeling dizzy, such visualizations require a high scene-rendering frame rate. However, the existing related visualization work cannot provide a sufficient solution for this purpose. This study focuses on the construction and optimization of a 3D disaster scene in order to satisfy the high frame-rate requirements for the rendering of 3D disaster scenes in mobile VR. First, the design of a plugin-free browser/server (B/S architecture for 3D disaster scene construction and visualization based in mobile VR is presented. Second, certain key technologies for scene optimization are discussed, including diverse modes of scene data representation, representation optimization of mobile scenes, and adaptive scheduling of mobile scenes. By means of these technologies, smartphones with various performance levels can achieve higher scene-rendering frame rates and improved visual quality. Finally, using a flood disaster as an example, a plugin-free prototype system was developed, and experiments were conducted. The experimental results demonstrate that a 3D disaster scene constructed via the methods addressed in this study has a sufficiently high scene-rendering frame rate to satisfy the requirements for rendering a 3D disaster scene in mobile VR.

  2. Sensory substitution: the spatial updating of auditory scenes ‘mimics’ the spatial updating of visual scenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achille ePasqualotto

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Visual-to-auditory sensory substitution is used to convey visual information through audition, and it was initially created to compensate for blindness; it consists of software converting the visual images captured by a video-camera into the equivalent auditory images, or ‘soundscapes’. Here, it was used by blindfolded sighted participants to learn the spatial position of simple shapes depicted in images arranged on the floor. Very few studies have used sensory substitution to investigate spatial representation, while it has been widely used to investigate object recognition. Additionally, with sensory substitution we could study the performance of participants actively exploring the environment through audition, rather than passively localising sound sources. Blindfolded participants egocentrically learnt the position of six images by using sensory substitution and then a judgement of relative direction task (JRD was used to determine how this scene was represented. This task consists of imagining being in a given location, oriented in a given direction, and pointing towards the required image. Before performing the JRD task, participants explored a map that provided allocentric information about the scene. Although spatial exploration was egocentric, surprisingly we found that performance in the JRD task was better for allocentric perspectives. This suggests that the egocentric representation of the scene was updated. This result is in line with previous studies using visual and somatosensory scenes, thus supporting the notion that different sensory modalities produce equivalent spatial representation(s. Moreover, our results have practical implications to improve training methods with sensory substitution devices.

  3. Foreign Language Training in the United States Peace Corps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulakow, Allan

    This document reports on the foreign language training offered in the Peace Corps. Following a brief introductory statement, a list of languages taught by the Peace Corps in the years 1961-67 is provided, as well as a brief description of Peace Corps language training methods. Guidelines for language coordinators are outlined, and the approach to…

  4. Sources, Developments and Directions of Task-Based Language Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bygate, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an outline of the origins, the current shape and the potential directions of task-based language teaching (TBLT) as an approach to language pedagogy. It first offers a brief description of TBLT and considers its origins within language teaching methodology and second language acquisition. It then summarises the current position…

  5. Object Language and the Language Subject: On the Mediating Role of Applied Linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widdowson, Henry G.

    2000-01-01

    Examines the extent to which linguistic descriptions can adequately account for their reality for learners and provide a reference point for the design of language courses. Special concern is focused on second language learners as a particular kind of language user. (Author/VWL)

  6. Modelling language

    CERN Document Server

    Cardey, Sylviane

    2013-01-01

    In response to the need for reliable results from natural language processing, this book presents an original way of decomposing a language(s) in a microscopic manner by means of intra/inter‑language norms and divergences, going progressively from languages as systems to the linguistic, mathematical and computational models, which being based on a constructive approach are inherently traceable. Languages are described with their elements aggregating or repelling each other to form viable interrelated micro‑systems. The abstract model, which contrary to the current state of the art works in int

  7. RSYST: short description of the modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruehle, R.

    Since 1969, the modular system RSYST has been used for reactor and shielding calculations. A data base managed by a central program, data blocks containing structure descriptions, and hierarchical linking of data blocks enable flexible management of all data. Module sequences are formulated using a user command language. The language features logical branches, variables and arithmetic expressions. Sections of the user language may be stored in the data base and activated at any time. Presently, an interactive version of the system is developed. It supports basic operations and interactive input checking on a front end computer

  8. Technicolor/INRIA team at the MediaEval 2013 Violent Scenes Detection Task

    OpenAIRE

    Penet , Cédric; Demarty , Claire-Hélène; Gravier , Guillaume; Gros , Patrick

    2013-01-01

    International audience; This paper presents the work done at Technicolor and INRIA regarding the MediaEval 2013 Violent Scenes Detection task, which aims at detecting violent scenes in movies. We participated in both the objective and the subjective subtasks.

  9. 3D Aware Correction and Completion of Depth Maps in Piecewise Planar Scenes

    KAUST Repository

    Thabet, Ali Kassem; Lahoud, Jean; Asmar, Daniel; Ghanem, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    RGB-D sensors are popular in the computer vision community, especially for problems of scene understanding, semantic scene labeling, and segmentation. However, most of these methods depend on reliable input depth measurements, while discarding

  10. Feature diagnosticity and task context shape activity in human scene-selective cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Matthew X; Gallivan, Jason P; Ferber, Susanne; Cant, Jonathan S

    2016-01-15

    Scenes are constructed from multiple visual features, yet previous research investigating scene processing has often focused on the contributions of single features in isolation. In the real world, features rarely exist independently of one another and likely converge to inform scene identity in unique ways. Here, we utilize fMRI and pattern classification techniques to examine the interactions between task context (i.e., attend to diagnostic global scene features; texture or layout) and high-level scene attributes (content and spatial boundary) to test the novel hypothesis that scene-selective cortex represents multiple visual features, the importance of which varies according to their diagnostic relevance across scene categories and task demands. Our results show for the first time that scene representations are driven by interactions between multiple visual features and high-level scene attributes. Specifically, univariate analysis of scene-selective cortex revealed that task context and feature diagnosticity shape activity differentially across scene categories. Examination using multivariate decoding methods revealed results consistent with univariate findings, but also evidence for an interaction between high-level scene attributes and diagnostic visual features within scene categories. Critically, these findings suggest visual feature representations are not distributed uniformly across scene categories but are shaped by task context and feature diagnosticity. Thus, we propose that scene-selective cortex constructs a flexible representation of the environment by integrating multiple diagnostically relevant visual features, the nature of which varies according to the particular scene being perceived and the goals of the observer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Evalutive Descriptions of Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Lah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking into account the fact that, throughout history, certain artworks have been considered as “worth of watching” (according to the Greek etymon ἀξιοϑέατος / aksioteatos, preservation, or theorizing, while others were not, one is led to investigate the various types of evaluative descriptions. Those artworks that are more valuable than others, or simply valuable in themselves on the basis of rather specific features, have always represented the paradigmatic model for the evaluator, thus revealing the identitary nature of value as different from one epoch to another. Our aim has been to discern, with regard to this starting point, the way in which the process of evaluating artworks fits the general matrix of the universal theory of value, with its clearly distinguished levels of evaluation, beginning with value descriptions, continuing through the features of evaluation or abstract qualities of values extracted from these descriptions, and ending with value norms or systems of accepted generalizations in evaluation. Value standpoints in such an evaluation matrix represent dispositions or preferences in procedures, which reflect the norms or signifying concepts of the time. Corresponding procedures, or applications of the hierarchicized signification of artworks, are manifested in all known forms of artwork assessment: attribution, institutionalization, and setting of priorities in terms of exhibition, conservation, acquisition, restoration, and so on. Research in the history of European art-historical ideas has corroborated the hypothesis that, prior to the late 18th century, clear normative patterns were applied when it came to the evaluation of artworks. However, with the emergence of early Romanticism, this could no longer be done in the traditional way. Before the period in question, visual art was created (regardless of some stylistic discrepancies between individual authors and classified according to well-defined thematic

  12. Unsupervised Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Marcken, Carl

    1996-11-01

    This thesis presents a computational theory of unsupervised language acquisition, precisely defining procedures for learning language from ordinary spoken or written utterances, with no explicit help from a teacher. The theory is based heavily on concepts borrowed from machine learning and statistical estimation. In particular, learning takes place by fitting a stochastic, generative model of language to the evidence. Much of the thesis is devoted to explaining conditions that must hold for this general learning strategy to arrive at linguistically desirable grammars. The thesis introduces a variety of technical innovations, among them a common representation for evidence and grammars, and a learning strategy that separates the ``content'' of linguistic parameters from their representation. Algorithms based on it suffer from few of the search problems that have plagued other computational approaches to language acquisition. The theory has been tested on problems of learning vocabularies and grammars from unsegmented text and continuous speech, and mappings between sound and representations of meaning. It performs extremely well on various objective criteria, acquiring knowledge that causes it to assign almost exactly the same structure to utterances as humans do. This work has application to data compression, language modeling, speech recognition, machine translation, information retrieval, and other tasks that rely on either structural or stochastic descriptions of language.

  13. A view not to be missed: Salient scene content interferes with cognitive restoration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Jagt, A.P.N.; Craig, Tony; Brewer, Mark J.; Pearson, David G.

    2017-01-01

    Attention Restoration Theory (ART) states that built scenes place greater load on attentional resources than natural scenes. This is explained in terms of "hard" and "soft" fascination of built and natural scenes. Given a lack of direct empirical evidence for this assumption we propose that

  14. Scene complexity: influence on perception, memory, and development in the medial temporal lobe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqian J Chai

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Regions in the medial temporal lobe (MTL and prefrontal cortex (PFC are involved in memory formation for scenes in both children and adults. The development in children and adolescents of successful memory encoding for scenes has been associated with increased activation in PFC, but not MTL, regions. However, evidence suggests that a functional subregion of the MTL that supports scene perception, located in the parahippocampal gyrus (PHG, goes through a prolonged maturation process. Here we tested the hypothesis that maturation of scene perception supports the development of memory for complex scenes. Scenes were characterized by their levels of complexity defined by the number of unique object categories depicted in the scene. Recognition memory improved with age, in participants ages 8-24, for high, but not low, complexity scenes. High-complexity compared to low-complexity scenes activated a network of regions including the posterior PHG. The difference in activations for high- versus low- complexity scenes increased with age in the right posterior PHG. Finally, activations in right posterior PHG were associated with age-related increases in successful memory formation for high-, but not low-, complexity scenes. These results suggest that functional maturation of the right posterior PHG plays a critical role in the development of enduring long-term recollection for high-complexity scenes.

  15. Separate and simultaneous adjustment of light qualities in a real scene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xia, L.; Pont, S.C.; Heynderickx, I.E.J.R.

    2017-01-01

    Humans are able to estimate light field properties in a scene in that they have expectations of the objects' appearance inside it. Previously, we probed such expectations in a real scene by asking whether a "probe object" fitted a real scene with regard to its lighting. But how well are observers

  16. Guidance of Attention to Objects and Locations by Long-Term Memory of Natural Scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Mark W.; Rasmussen, Ian P.

    2008-01-01

    Four flicker change-detection experiments demonstrate that scene-specific long-term memory guides attention to both behaviorally relevant locations and objects within a familiar scene. Participants performed an initial block of change-detection trials, detecting the addition of an object to a natural scene. After a 30-min delay, participants…

  17. Mirth and Murder: Crime Scene Investigation as a Work Context for Examining Humor Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Gene L.; Vivona, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Within work settings, humor is used by workers for a wide variety of purposes. This study examines humor applications of a specific type of worker in a unique work context: crime scene investigation. Crime scene investigators examine death and its details. Members of crime scene units observe death much more frequently than other police officers…

  18. Visual search for changes in scenes creates long-term, incidental memory traces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utochkin, Igor S; Wolfe, Jeremy M

    2018-05-01

    Humans are very good at remembering large numbers of scenes over substantial periods of time. But how good are they at remembering changes to scenes? In this study, we tested scene memory and change detection two weeks after initial scene learning. In Experiments 1-3, scenes were learned incidentally during visual search for change. In Experiment 4, observers explicitly memorized scenes. At test, after two weeks observers were asked to discriminate old from new scenes, to recall a change that they had detected in the study phase, or to detect a newly introduced change in the memorization experiment. Next, they performed a change detection task, usually looking for the same change as in the study period. Scene recognition memory was found to be similar in all experiments, regardless of the study task. In Experiment 1, more difficult change detection produced better scene memory. Experiments 2 and 3 supported a "depth-of-processing" account for the effects of initial search and change detection on incidental memory for scenes. Of most interest, change detection was faster during the test phase than during the study phase, even when the observer had no explicit memory of having found that change previously. This result was replicated in two of our three change detection experiments. We conclude that scenes can be encoded incidentally as well as explicitly and that changes in those scenes can leave measurable traces even if they are not explicitly recalled.

  19. Defining spatial relations in a specific ontology for automated scene creation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Contraş

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the approach of building an ontology for automatic scene generation. Every scene contains various elements (backgrounds, characters, objects which are spatially interrelated. The article focuses on these spatial and temporal relationships of the elements constituting a scene.

  20. Multimodal computational attention for scene understanding and robotics

    CERN Document Server

    Schauerte, Boris

    2016-01-01

    This book presents state-of-the-art computational attention models that have been successfully tested in diverse application areas and can build the foundation for artificial systems to efficiently explore, analyze, and understand natural scenes. It gives a comprehensive overview of the most recent computational attention models for processing visual and acoustic input. It covers the biological background of visual and auditory attention, as well as bottom-up and top-down attentional mechanisms and discusses various applications. In the first part new approaches for bottom-up visual and acoustic saliency models are presented and applied to the task of audio-visual scene exploration of a robot. In the second part the influence of top-down cues for attention modeling is investigated. .

  1. Endangered Languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Ken; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Endangered languages, or languages on the verge of becoming extinct, are discussed in relation to the larger process of loss of cultural and intellectual diversity. This article summarizes essays presented at the 1991 Linguistic Society of America symposium, "Endangered Languages and Their Preservation." (11 references) (LB)

  2. Enhancing Visual Basic GUI Applications using VRML Scenes

    OpenAIRE

    Bala Dhandayuthapani Veerasamy

    2010-01-01

    Rapid Application Development (RAD) enables ever expanding needs for speedy development of computer application programs that are sophisticated, reliable, and full-featured. Visual Basic was the first RAD tool for the Windows operating system, and too many people say still it is the best. To provide very good attraction in visual basic 6 applications, this paper directing to use VRML scenes over the visual basic environment.

  3. Overt attention in natural scenes: objects dominate features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Josef; Thrun, Michael; Nuthmann, Antje; Einhäuser, Wolfgang

    2015-02-01

    Whether overt attention in natural scenes is guided by object content or by low-level stimulus features has become a matter of intense debate. Experimental evidence seemed to indicate that once object locations in a scene are known, salience models provide little extra explanatory power. This approach has recently been criticized for using inadequate models of early salience; and indeed, state-of-the-art salience models outperform trivial object-based models that assume a uniform distribution of fixations on objects. Here we propose to use object-based models that take a preferred viewing location (PVL) close to the centre of objects into account. In experiment 1, we demonstrate that, when including this comparably subtle modification, object-based models again are at par with state-of-the-art salience models in predicting fixations in natural scenes. One possible interpretation of these results is that objects rather than early salience dominate attentional guidance. In this view, early-salience models predict fixations through the correlation of their features with object locations. To test this hypothesis directly, in two additional experiments we reduced low-level salience in image areas of high object content. For these modified stimuli, the object-based model predicted fixations significantly better than early salience. This finding held in an object-naming task (experiment 2) and a free-viewing task (experiment 3). These results provide further evidence for object-based fixation selection--and by inference object-based attentional guidance--in natural scenes. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of Smoking Scenes in Films on Immediate Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmueli, Dikla; Prochaska, Judith J.; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2010-01-01

    Background The National Cancer Institute has concluded that exposure to smoking in movies causes adolescent smoking and there are similar results for young adults. Purpose This study investigated whether exposure of young adult smokers to images of smoking in films stimulated smoking behavior. Methods 100 cigarette smokers aged 18–25 years were randomly assigned to watch a movie montage composed with or without smoking scenes and paraphernalia followed by a10-minute recess. The outcome was whether or not participants smoked during the recess. Data were collected and analyzed in 2008 and 2009. Results Smokers who watched the smoking scenes were more likely to smoke during the break (OR3.06, 95% CI=1.01, 9.29). In addition to this acute effect of exposure, smokers who had seen more smoking in movies before the day of the experiment were more likely to smoke during the break (OR 6.73; 1.00–45.25 comparing the top to bottom percentiles of exposure) were more likely to smoke during the break. Level of nicotine dependence (OR 1.71; 1.27–2.32 per point on the FTND scale), “contemplation” (OR 9.07; 1.71–47.99) and “precontemplation” (OR 7.30; 1.39–38.36) stages of change, and impulsivity (OR 1.21; 1.03–1.43), were also associated with smoking during the break. Participants who watched the montage with smoking scenes and those with a higher level of nicotine dependence were also more likely to have smoked within 30 minutes after the study. Conclusions There is a direct link between viewing smoking scenes and immediate subsequent smoking behavior. This finding suggests that individuals attempting to limit or quit smoking should be advised to refrain from or reduce their exposure to movies that contain smoking. PMID:20307802

  5. TESSITURA OF A CREATIVE PROCESS: AUTOBIOGRAPHY ON SCENE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Santos Costa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This text presents weavings of a way to make the arts scene using the autobiographical support the creative process. Thus, we elucidate some of these weavings process while legitimizing the production of knowledge through artistic praxis, of sensitive experience. Introducing the concept of autobiography in analogy to the artistic and sequentially present the possibility of a laboratory setting amalgamated into reality/fiction. Keywords: creative process; autobiography; body.

  6. Neural Correlates of Divided Attention in Natural Scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagioli, Sabrina; Macaluso, Emiliano

    2016-09-01

    Individuals are able to split attention between separate locations, but divided spatial attention incurs the additional requirement of monitoring multiple streams of information. Here, we investigated divided attention using photos of natural scenes, where the rapid categorization of familiar objects and prior knowledge about the likely positions of objects in the real world might affect the interplay between these spatial and nonspatial factors. Sixteen participants underwent fMRI during an object detection task. They were presented with scenes containing either a person or a car, located on the left or right side of the photo. Participants monitored either one or both object categories, in one or both visual hemifields. First, we investigated the interplay between spatial and nonspatial attention by comparing conditions of divided attention between categories and/or locations. We then assessed the contribution of top-down processes versus stimulus-driven signals by separately testing the effects of divided attention in target and nontarget trials. The results revealed activation of a bilateral frontoparietal network when dividing attention between the two object categories versus attending to a single category but no main effect of dividing attention between spatial locations. Within this network, the left dorsal premotor cortex and the left intraparietal sulcus were found to combine task- and stimulus-related signals. These regions showed maximal activation when participants monitored two categories at spatially separate locations and the scene included a nontarget object. We conclude that the dorsal frontoparietal cortex integrates top-down and bottom-up signals in the presence of distractors during divided attention in real-world scenes.

  7. Machine tongues. X. Constraint languages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levitt, D.

    Constraint languages and programming environments will help the designer produce a lucid description of a problem domain, and then of particular situations and problems in it. Early versions of these languages were given descriptions of real world domain constraints, like the operation of electrical and mechanical parts. More recently, the author has automated a vocabulary for describing musical jazz phrases, using constraint language as a jazz improviser. General constraint languages will handle all of these domains. Once the model is in place, the system will connect built-in code fragments and algorithms to answer questions about situations; that is, to help solve problems. Bugs will surface not in code, but in designs themselves. 15 references.

  8. Sociolinguistic Typology and Sign Languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schembri, Adam; Fenlon, Jordan; Cormier, Kearsy; Johnston, Trevor

    2018-01-01

    This paper examines the possible relationship between proposed social determinants of morphological 'complexity' and how this contributes to linguistic diversity, specifically via the typological nature of the sign languages of deaf communities. We sketch how the notion of morphological complexity, as defined by Trudgill (2011), applies to sign languages. Using these criteria, sign languages appear to be languages with low to moderate levels of morphological complexity. This may partly reflect the influence of key social characteristics of communities on the typological nature of languages. Although many deaf communities are relatively small and may involve dense social networks (both social characteristics that Trudgill claimed may lend themselves to morphological 'complexification'), the picture is complicated by the highly variable nature of the sign language acquisition for most deaf people, and the ongoing contact between native signers, hearing non-native signers, and those deaf individuals who only acquire sign languages in later childhood and early adulthood. These are all factors that may work against the emergence of morphological complexification. The relationship between linguistic typology and these key social factors may lead to a better understanding of the nature of sign language grammar. This perspective stands in contrast to other work where sign languages are sometimes presented as having complex morphology despite being young languages (e.g., Aronoff et al., 2005); in some descriptions, the social determinants of morphological complexity have not received much attention, nor has the notion of complexity itself been specifically explored.

  9. Sociolinguistic Typology and Sign Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schembri, Adam; Fenlon, Jordan; Cormier, Kearsy; Johnston, Trevor

    2018-01-01

    This paper examines the possible relationship between proposed social determinants of morphological ‘complexity’ and how this contributes to linguistic diversity, specifically via the typological nature of the sign languages of deaf communities. We sketch how the notion of morphological complexity, as defined by Trudgill (2011), applies to sign languages. Using these criteria, sign languages appear to be languages with low to moderate levels of morphological complexity. This may partly reflect the influence of key social characteristics of communities on the typological nature of languages. Although many deaf communities are relatively small and may involve dense social networks (both social characteristics that Trudgill claimed may lend themselves to morphological ‘complexification’), the picture is complicated by the highly variable nature of the sign language acquisition for most deaf people, and the ongoing contact between native signers, hearing non-native signers, and those deaf individuals who only acquire sign languages in later childhood and early adulthood. These are all factors that may work against the emergence of morphological complexification. The relationship between linguistic typology and these key social factors may lead to a better understanding of the nature of sign language grammar. This perspective stands in contrast to other work where sign languages are sometimes presented as having complex morphology despite being young languages (e.g., Aronoff et al., 2005); in some descriptions, the social determinants of morphological complexity have not received much attention, nor has the notion of complexity itself been specifically explored. PMID:29515506

  10. Sociolinguistic Typology and Sign Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Schembri

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the possible relationship between proposed social determinants of morphological ‘complexity’ and how this contributes to linguistic diversity, specifically via the typological nature of the sign languages of deaf communities. We sketch how the notion of morphological complexity, as defined by Trudgill (2011, applies to sign languages. Using these criteria, sign languages appear to be languages with low to moderate levels of morphological complexity. This may partly reflect the influence of key social characteristics of communities on the typological nature of languages. Although many deaf communities are relatively small and may involve dense social networks (both social characteristics that Trudgill claimed may lend themselves to morphological ‘complexification’, the picture is complicated by the highly variable nature of the sign language acquisition for most deaf people, and the ongoing contact between native signers, hearing non-native signers, and those deaf individuals who only acquire sign languages in later childhood and early adulthood. These are all factors that may work against the emergence of morphological complexification. The relationship between linguistic typology and these key social factors may lead to a better understanding of the nature of sign language grammar. This perspective stands in contrast to other work where sign languages are sometimes presented as having complex morphology despite being young languages (e.g., Aronoff et al., 2005; in some descriptions, the social determinants of morphological complexity have not received much attention, nor has the notion of complexity itself been specifically explored.

  11. The Anthropo-scene: A guide for the perplexed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorimer, Jamie

    2017-02-01

    The scientific proposal that the Earth has entered a new epoch as a result of human activities - the Anthropocene - has catalysed a flurry of intellectual activity. I introduce and review the rich, inchoate and multi-disciplinary diversity of this Anthropo-scene. I identify five ways in which the concept of the Anthropocene has been mobilized: scientific question, intellectual zeitgeist, ideological provocation, new ontologies and science fiction. This typology offers an analytical framework for parsing this diversity, for understanding the interactions between different ways of thinking in the Anthropo-scene, and thus for comprehending elements of its particular and peculiar sociabilities. Here I deploy this framework to situate Earth Systems Science within the Anthropo-scene, exploring both the status afforded science in discussions of this new epoch, and the various ways in which the other means of engaging with the concept come to shape the conduct, content and politics of this scientific enquiry. In conclusion the paper reflects on the potential of the Anthropocene for new modes of academic praxis.

  12. Oxytocin increases amygdala reactivity to threatening scenes in females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lischke, Alexander; Gamer, Matthias; Berger, Christoph; Grossmann, Annette; Hauenstein, Karlheinz; Heinrichs, Markus; Herpertz, Sabine C; Domes, Gregor

    2012-09-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) is well known for its profound effects on social behavior, which appear to be mediated by an OT-dependent modulation of amygdala activity in the context of social stimuli. In humans, OT decreases amygdala reactivity to threatening faces in males, but enhances amygdala reactivity to similar faces in females, suggesting sex-specific differences in OT-dependent threat-processing. To further explore whether OT generally enhances amygdala-dependent threat-processing in females, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in a randomized within-subject crossover design to measure amygdala activity in response to threatening and non-threatening scenes in 14 females following intranasal administration of OT or placebo. Participants' eye movements were recorded to investigate whether an OT-dependent modulation of amygdala activity is accompanied by enhanced exploration of salient scene features. Although OT had no effect on participants' gazing behavior, it increased amygdala reactivity to scenes depicting social and non-social threat. In females, OT may, thus, enhance the detection of threatening stimuli in the environment, potentially by interacting with gonadal steroids, such as progesterone and estrogen. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A Benchmark for Endoluminal Scene Segmentation of Colonoscopy Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Vázquez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third cause of cancer death worldwide. Currently, the standard approach to reduce CRC-related mortality is to perform regular screening in search for polyps and colonoscopy is the screening tool of choice. The main limitations of this screening procedure are polyp miss rate and the inability to perform visual assessment of polyp malignancy. These drawbacks can be reduced by designing decision support systems (DSS aiming to help clinicians in the different stages of the procedure by providing endoluminal scene segmentation. Thus, in this paper, we introduce an extended benchmark of colonoscopy image segmentation, with the hope of establishing a new strong benchmark for colonoscopy image analysis research. The proposed dataset consists of 4 relevant classes to inspect the endoluminal scene, targeting different clinical needs. Together with the dataset and taking advantage of advances in semantic segmentation literature, we provide new baselines by training standard fully convolutional networks (FCNs. We perform a comparative study to show that FCNs significantly outperform, without any further postprocessing, prior results in endoluminal scene segmentation, especially with respect to polyp segmentation and localization.

  14. The Hip-Hop club scene: Gender, grinding and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Weinstein, Hannah; Parker, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Hip-Hop culture is a key social medium through which many young men and women from communities of colour in the USA construct their gender. In this study, we focused on the Hip-Hop club scene in New York City with the intention of unpacking narratives of gender dynamics from the perspective of young men and women, and how these relate to their sexual experiences. We conducted a three-year ethnographic study that included ethnographic observations of Hip-Hop clubs and their social scene, and in-depth interviews with young men and young women aged 15-21. This paper describes how young people negotiate gender relations on the dance floor of Hip-Hop clubs. The Hip-Hop club scene represents a context or setting where young men's masculinities are contested by the social environment, where women challenge hypermasculine privilege and where young people can set the stage for what happens next in their sexual and emotional interactions. Hip-Hop culture therefore provides a window into the gender and sexual scripts of many urban minority youth. A fuller understanding of these patterns can offer key insights into the social construction of sexual risk, as well as the possibilities for sexual health promotion, among young people in urban minority populations.

  15. Design and implementation of a scene-dependent dynamically selfadaptable wavefront coding imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carles, Guillem; Ferran, Carme; Carnicer, Artur; Bosch, Salvador

    2012-01-01

    A computational imaging system based on wavefront coding is presented. Wavefront coding provides an extension of the depth-of-field at the expense of a slight reduction of image quality. This trade-off results from the amount of coding used. By using spatial light modulators, a flexible coding is achieved which permits it to be increased or decreased as needed. In this paper a computational method is proposed for evaluating the output of a wavefront coding imaging system equipped with a spatial light modulator, with the aim of thus making it possible to implement the most suitable coding strength for a given scene. This is achieved in an unsupervised manner, thus the whole system acts as a dynamically selfadaptable imaging system. The program presented here controls the spatial light modulator and the camera, and also processes the images in a synchronised way in order to implement the dynamic system in real time. A prototype of the system was implemented in the laboratory and illustrative examples of the performance are reported in this paper. Program summaryProgram title: DynWFC (Dynamic WaveFront Coding) Catalogue identifier: AEKC_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEKC_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 10 483 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 2 437 713 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Labview 8.5 and NI Vision and MinGW C Compiler Computer: Tested on PC Intel ® Pentium ® Operating system: Tested on Windows XP Classification: 18 Nature of problem: The program implements an enhanced wavefront coding imaging system able to adapt the degree of coding to the requirements of a specific scene. The program controls the acquisition by a camera, the display of a spatial light modulator

  16. Adapting comics to storyboard language

    OpenAIRE

    Manhães Ricardo; Milton Luiz Horn Vieira; Carolina Cesar Coral

    2017-01-01

    This article analyzes the practical differences between the language of comics and the storyboard, in adapting a format to the other. The result of this adjustment will be applied in an animation. Graphics solutions used in each of these languages, the expression of their contents, were compared descriptively. Features such as the horizontal format, the vignette, audio, kinetic figures, visual metaphors and subtitles, when placed side by side, highlight the differences and similarities betwee...

  17. Some Dictionary Descriptions of Grammatical Structure | Branford ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines some points in the treatment of grammatical structure in four recent dictionaries of English as Ll. These are viewed against the background concepts of "Iexicogrammar" (Halliday 1978) and of the interdependence of lexicographical and syntactic descriptions of language. Its scope is necessari1y ...

  18. Language Acquisition and Language Revitalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, William; Hattori, Ryoko

    2016-01-01

    Intergenerational transmission, the ultimate goal of language revitalization efforts, can only be achieved by (re)establishing the conditions under which an imperiled language can be acquired by the community's children. This paper presents a tutorial survey of several key points relating to language acquisition and maintenance in children,…

  19. Effects of scene content and layout on the perceived light direction in 3D spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ling; Pont, Sylvia C; Heynderickx, Ingrid

    2016-08-01

    The lighting and furnishing of an interior space (i.e., the reflectance of its materials, the geometries of the furnishings, and their arrangement) determine the appearance of this space. Conversely, human observers infer lighting properties from the space's appearance. We conducted two psychophysical experiments to investigate how the perception of the light direction is influenced by a scene's objects and their layout using real scenes. In the first experiment, we confirmed that the shape of the objects in the scene and the scene layout influence the perceived light direction. In the second experiment, we systematically investigated how specific shape properties influenced the estimation of the light direction. The results showed that increasing the number of visible faces of an object, ultimately using globally spherical shapes in the scene, supported the veridicality of the estimated light direction. Furthermore, symmetric arrangements in the scene improved the estimation of the tilt direction. Thus, human perception of light should integrally consider materials, scene content, and layout.

  20. Audio Description as a Pedagogical Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Kleege

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Audio description is the process of translating visual information into words for people who are blind or have low vision. Typically such description has focused on films, museum exhibitions, images and video on the internet, and live theater. Because it allows people with visual impairments to experience a variety of cultural and educational texts that would otherwise be inaccessible, audio description is a mandated aspect of disability inclusion, although it remains markedly underdeveloped and underutilized in our classrooms and in society in general. Along with increasing awareness of disability, audio description pushes students to practice close reading of visual material, deepen their analysis, and engage in critical discussions around the methodology, standards and values, language, and role of interpretation in a variety of academic disciplines. We outline a few pedagogical interventions that can be customized to different contexts to develop students' writing and critical thinking skills through guided description of visual material.

  1. Viewpoints, Formalisms, Languages, and Tools for Cyber-Physical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-16

    ACM, Inc., fax +1 (212) 869-0481. Formalisms Languages and ToolsViewpoints supported by implemented by based on Figure 1: Framework for Viewpoints...Description Languages Examples: VHDL , Verilog, and AMS extensions Reactive languages Examples: SCADE/Lustre and Giotto Model Checkers Examples: Spin, NuSMV...syntax and a formal semantics. Languages are con- crete implementations of formalisms. A language has a con- crete syntax, may deviate slightly from

  2. A functional language for describing reversible logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Michael Kirkedal

    2012-01-01

    Reversible logic is a computational model where all gates are logically reversible and combined in circuits such that no values are lost or duplicated. This paper presents a novel functional language that is designed to describe only reversible logic circuits. The language includes high....... Reversibility of descriptions is guaranteed with a type system based on linear types. The language is applied to three examples of reversible computations (ALU, linear cosine transformation, and binary adder). The paper also outlines a design flow that ensures garbage- free translation to reversible logic...... circuits. The flow relies on a reversible combinator language as an intermediate language....

  3. Developmental language and speech disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiel, G; Brunner, E; Allmayer, B; Pletz, A

    2001-09-01

    Speech disabilities (articulation deficits) and language disorders--expressive (vocabulary) receptive (language comprehension) are not uncommon in children. An overview of these along with a global description of the impairment of communication as well as clinical characteristics of language developmental disorders are presented in this article. The diagnostic tables, which are applied in the European and Anglo-American speech areas, ICD-10 and DSM-IV, have been explained and compared. Because of their strengths and weaknesses an alternative classification of language and speech developmental disorders is proposed, which allows a differentiation between expressive and receptive language capabilities with regard to the semantic and the morphological/syntax domains. Prevalence and comorbidity rates, psychosocial influences, biological factors and the biological social interaction have been discussed. The necessity of the use of standardized examinations is emphasised. General logopaedic treatment paradigms, specific therapy concepts and an overview of prognosis have been described.

  4. Specialized languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mousten, Birthe; Laursen, Anne Lise

    2016-01-01

    Across different fields of research, one feature is often overlooked: the use of language for specialized purposes (LSP) as a cross-discipline. Mastering cross-disciplinarity is the precondition for communicating detailed results within any field. Researchers in specialized languages work cross...... science fields communicate their findings. With this article, we want to create awareness of the work in this special area of language studies and of the inherent cross-disciplinarity that makes LSP special compared to common-core language. An acknowledgement of the importance of this field both in terms...... of more empirical studies and in terms of a greater application of the results would give language specialists in trade and industry a solid and updated basis for communication and language use....

  5. Speakers of different languages process the visual world differently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabal, Sarah; Marian, Viorica

    2015-06-01

    Language and vision are highly interactive. Here we show that people activate language when they perceive the visual world, and that this language information impacts how speakers of different languages focus their attention. For example, when searching for an item (e.g., clock) in the same visual display, English and Spanish speakers look at different objects. Whereas English speakers searching for the clock also look at a cloud, Spanish speakers searching for the clock also look at a gift, because the Spanish names for gift (regalo) and clock (reloj) overlap phonologically. These different looking patterns emerge despite an absence of direct language input, showing that linguistic information is automatically activated by visual scene processing. We conclude that the varying linguistic information available to speakers of different languages affects visual perception, leading to differences in how the visual world is processed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Rapid discrimination of visual scene content in the human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anokhin, Andrey P.; Golosheykin, Simon; Sirevaag, Erik; Kristjansson, Sean; Rohrbaugh, John W.; Heath, Andrew C.

    2007-01-01

    The rapid evaluation of complex visual environments is critical for an organism's adaptation and survival. Previous studies have shown that emotionally significant visual scenes, both pleasant and unpleasant, elicit a larger late positive wave in the event-related brain potential (ERP) than emotionally neutral pictures. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether neuroelectric responses elicited by complex pictures discriminate between specific, biologically relevant contents of the visual scene and to determine how early in the picture processing this discrimination occurs. Subjects (n=264) viewed 55 color slides differing in both scene content and emotional significance. No categorical judgments or responses were required. Consistent with previous studies, we found that emotionally arousing pictures, regardless of their content, produce a larger late positive wave than neutral pictures. However, when pictures were further categorized by content, anterior ERP components in a time window between 200−600 ms following stimulus onset showed a high selectivity for pictures with erotic content compared to other pictures regardless of their emotional valence (pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant) or emotional arousal. The divergence of ERPs elicited by erotic and non-erotic contents started at 185 ms post-stimulus in the fronto-central midline regions, with a later onset in parietal regions. This rapid, selective, and content-specific processing of erotic materials and its dissociation from other pictures (including emotionally positive pictures) suggests the existence of a specialized neural network for prioritized processing of a distinct category of biologically relevant stimuli with high adaptive and evolutionary significance. PMID:16712815

  7. Navigating the auditory scene: an expert role for the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teki, Sundeep; Kumar, Sukhbinder; von Kriegstein, Katharina; Stewart, Lauren; Lyness, C Rebecca; Moore, Brian C J; Capleton, Brian; Griffiths, Timothy D

    2012-08-29

    Over a typical career piano tuners spend tens of thousands of hours exploring a specialized acoustic environment. Tuning requires accurate perception and adjustment of beats in two-note chords that serve as a navigational device to move between points in previously learned acoustic scenes. It is a two-stage process that depends on the following: first, selective listening to beats within frequency windows, and, second, the subsequent use of those beats to navigate through a complex soundscape. The neuroanatomical substrates underlying brain specialization for such fundamental organization of sound scenes are unknown. Here, we demonstrate that professional piano tuners are significantly better than controls matched for age and musical ability on a psychophysical task simulating active listening to beats within frequency windows that is based on amplitude modulation rate discrimination. Tuners show a categorical increase in gray matter volume in the right frontal operculum and right superior temporal lobe. Tuners also show a striking enhancement of gray matter volume in the anterior hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, and superior temporal gyrus, and an increase in white matter volume in the posterior hippocampus as a function of years of tuning experience. The relationship with gray matter volume is sensitive to years of tuning experience and starting age but not actual age or level of musicality. Our findings support a role for a core set of regions in the hippocampus and superior temporal cortex in skilled exploration of complex sound scenes in which precise sound "templates" are encoded and consolidated into memory over time in an experience-dependent manner.

  8. Human matching performance of genuine crime scene latent fingerprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Matthew B; Tangen, Jason M; McCarthy, Duncan J

    2014-02-01

    There has been very little research into the nature and development of fingerprint matching expertise. Here we present the results of an experiment testing the claimed matching expertise of fingerprint examiners. Expert (n = 37), intermediate trainee (n = 8), new trainee (n = 9), and novice (n = 37) participants performed a fingerprint discrimination task involving genuine crime scene latent fingerprints, their matches, and highly similar distractors, in a signal detection paradigm. Results show that qualified, court-practicing fingerprint experts were exceedingly accurate compared with novices. Experts showed a conservative response bias, tending to err on the side of caution by making more errors of the sort that could allow a guilty person to escape detection than errors of the sort that could falsely incriminate an innocent person. The superior performance of experts was not simply a function of their ability to match prints, per se, but a result of their ability to identify the highly similar, but nonmatching fingerprints as such. Comparing these results with previous experiments, experts were even more conservative in their decision making when dealing with these genuine crime scene prints than when dealing with simulated crime scene prints, and this conservatism made them relatively less accurate overall. Intermediate trainees-despite their lack of qualification and average 3.5 years experience-performed about as accurately as qualified experts who had an average 17.5 years experience. New trainees-despite their 5-week, full-time training course or their 6 months experience-were not any better than novices at discriminating matching and similar nonmatching prints, they were just more conservative. Further research is required to determine the precise nature of fingerprint matching expertise and the factors that influence performance. The findings of this representative, lab-based experiment may have implications for the way fingerprint examiners testify in

  9. The capture and recreation of 3D auditory scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiyun

    The main goal of this research is to develop the theory and implement practical tools (in both software and hardware) for the capture and recreation of 3D auditory scenes. Our research is expected to have applications in virtual reality, telepresence, film, music, video games, auditory user interfaces, and sound-based surveillance. The first part of our research is concerned with sound capture via a spherical microphone array. The advantage of this array is that it can be steered into any 3D directions digitally with the same beampattern. We develop design methodologies to achieve flexible microphone layouts, optimal beampattern approximation and robustness constraint. We also design novel hemispherical and circular microphone array layouts for more spatially constrained auditory scenes. Using the captured audio, we then propose a unified and simple approach for recreating them by exploring the reciprocity principle that is satisfied between the two processes. Our approach makes the system easy to build, and practical. Using this approach, we can capture the 3D sound field by a spherical microphone array and recreate it using a spherical loudspeaker array, and ensure that the recreated sound field matches the recorded field up to a high order of spherical harmonics. For some regular or semi-regular microphone layouts, we design an efficient parallel implementation of the multi-directional spherical beamformer by using the rotational symmetries of the beampattern and of the spherical microphone array. This can be implemented in either software or hardware and easily adapted for other regular or semi-regular layouts of microphones. In addition, we extend this approach for headphone-based system. Design examples and simulation results are presented to verify our algorithms. Prototypes are built and tested in real-world auditory scenes.

  10. Fuzzy Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahonis, George

    The theory of fuzzy recognizable languages over bounded distributive lattices is presented as a paradigm of recognizable formal power series. Due to the idempotency properties of bounded distributive lattices, the equality of fuzzy recognizable languages is decidable, the determinization of multi-valued automata is effective, and a pumping lemma exists. Fuzzy recognizable languages over finite and infinite words are expressively equivalent to sentences of the multi-valued monadic second-order logic. Fuzzy recognizability over bounded ℓ-monoids and residuated lattices is briefly reported. The chapter concludes with two applications of fuzzy recognizable languages to real world problems in medicine.

  11. Language Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Karen M.

    2008-01-01

    Like any other text, instructive texts function within a given cultural and situational setting and may only be available in one language. However, the end users may not be familiar with that language and therefore unable to read and understand the instructions. This article therefore argues...... that instructive texts should always be available in a language that is understood by the end users, and that a corporate communication policy which includes a language policy should ensure that this is in fact the case for all instructive texts....

  12. Scene recognition and colorization for vehicle infrared images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Junjie; Sun, Shaoyuan; Shen, Zhenyi; Huang, Zhen; Zhao, Haitao

    2016-10-01

    In order to make better use of infrared technology for driving assistance system, a scene recognition and colorization method is proposed in this paper. Various objects in a queried infrared image are detected and labelled with proper categories by a combination of SIFT-Flow and MRF model. The queried image is then colorized by assigning corresponding colors according to the categories of the objects appeared. The results show that the strategy here emphasizes important information of the IR images for human vision and could be used to broaden the application of IR images for vehicle driving.

  13. The anatomy of the crime scene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil

    simulated. The selected series range from more colourful and para-psychological based methods of investigation in series such as The Profiler and Medium to more realistic practises such as those found in series like Unit One and CSI. This analysis will be broadened by applying knowledge about how real...... scenes in order to reconstruct how the actual crime may have taken place. The profiling expert of the investigation team places herself in the role of the criminal, trying to gain insight into the criminal's psychology, way of thinking and reasoning and so on (like detective Lacour does in the Danish TV...

  14. Scenes of shame, social Roles, and the play with masks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welz, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    This article explores various scenes of shame, raising the questions of what shame discloses about the self and how this self-disclosure takes place. Thereby, the common idea that shame discloses the self’s debasement will be challenged. The dramatic dialectics of showing and hiding display a much...... reflected, the self’s active reflections on its shame are to be taken into account. As examples from Milan Kundera, Shakespeare’s King Lear, a line from Kingsley Amis, a speech by Vaclav Havel and Adam Smith’s Theory of Moral Sentiments indicate, self-(re)presentation in the public and the private sphere...

  15. Estimating the number of people in crowded scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minjin; Kim, Wonjun; Kim, Changick

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a method to estimate the number of people in crowded scenes without using explicit object segmentation or tracking. The proposed method consists of three steps as follows: (1) extracting space-time interest points using eigenvalues of the local spatio-temporal gradient matrix, (2) generating crowd regions based on space-time interest points, and (3) estimating the crowd density based on the multiple regression. In experimental results, the efficiency and robustness of our proposed method are demonstrated by using PETS 2009 dataset.

  16. Dynamic thermal signature prediction for real-time scene generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Chad L.; Gouthas, Efthimios (Themie); Williams, Owen M.; Swierkowski, Leszek

    2013-05-01

    At DSTO, a real-time scene generation framework, VIRSuite, has been developed in recent years, within which trials data are predominantly used for modelling the radiometric properties of the simulated objects. Since in many cases the data are insufficient, a physics-based simulator capable of predicting the infrared signatures of objects and their backgrounds has been developed as a new VIRSuite module. It includes transient heat conduction within the materials, and boundary conditions that take into account the heat fluxes due to solar radiation, wind convection and radiative transfer. In this paper, an overview is presented, covering both the steady-state and transient performance.

  17. Eye tracking to evaluate evidence recognition in crime scene investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watalingam, Renuka Devi; Richetelli, Nicole; Pelz, Jeff B; Speir, Jacqueline A

    2017-11-01

    Crime scene analysts are the core of criminal investigations; decisions made at the scene greatly affect the speed of analysis and the quality of conclusions, thereby directly impacting the successful resolution of a case. If an examiner fails to recognize the pertinence of an item on scene, the analyst's theory regarding the crime will be limited. Conversely, unselective evidence collection will most likely include irrelevant material, thus increasing a forensic laboratory's backlog and potentially sending the investigation into an unproductive and costly direction. Therefore, it is critical that analysts recognize and properly evaluate forensic evidence that can assess the relative support of differing hypotheses related to event reconstruction. With this in mind, the aim of this study was to determine if quantitative eye tracking data and qualitative reconstruction accuracy could be used to distinguish investigator expertise. In order to assess this, 32 participants were successfully recruited and categorized as experts or trained novices based on their practical experiences and educational backgrounds. Each volunteer then processed a mock crime scene while wearing a mobile eye tracker, wherein visual fixations, durations, search patterns, and reconstruction accuracy were evaluated. The eye tracking data (dwell time and task percentage on areas of interest or AOIs) were compared using Earth Mover's Distance (EMD) and the Needleman-Wunsch (N-W) algorithm, revealing significant group differences for both search duration (EMD), as well as search sequence (N-W). More specifically, experts exhibited greater dissimilarity in search duration, but greater similarity in search sequences than their novice counterparts. In addition to the quantitative visual assessment of examiner variability, each participant's reconstruction skill was assessed using a 22-point binary scoring system, in which significant group differences were detected as a function of total

  18. Stereo Scene Flow for 3D Motion Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Wedel, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    This book presents methods for estimating optical flow and scene flow motion with high accuracy, focusing on the practical application of these methods in camera-based driver assistance systems. Clearly and logically structured, the book builds from basic themes to more advanced concepts, culminating in the development of a novel, accurate and robust optic flow method. Features: reviews the major advances in motion estimation and motion analysis, and the latest progress of dense optical flow algorithms; investigates the use of residual images for optical flow; examines methods for deriving mot

  19. Historical Development of Hong Kong Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sze, Felix; Lo, Connie; Lo, Lisa; Chu, Kenny

    2013-01-01

    This article traces the origins of Hong Kong Sign Language (hereafter HKSL) and its subsequent development in relation to the establishment of Deaf education in Hong Kong after World War II. We begin with a detailed description of the history of Deaf education with a particular focus on the role of sign language in such development. We then…

  20. Information Retrieval and the Philosophy of Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, David C.

    2003-01-01

    Provides an overview of some of the main ideas in the philosophy of language that have relevance to the issues of information retrieval, focusing on the description of the intellectual content. Highlights include retrieval problems; recall and precision; words and meanings; context; externalism and the philosophy of language; and scaffolding and…

  1. Spatial Language, Visual Attention, and Perceptual Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coventry, Kenny R.; Lynott, Dermot; Cangelosi, Angelo; Monrouxe, Lynn; Joyce, Dan; Richardson, Daniel C.

    2010-01-01

    Spatial language descriptions, such as "The bottle is over the glass", direct the attention of the hearer to particular aspects of the visual world. This paper asks how they do so, and what brain mechanisms underlie this process. In two experiments employing behavioural and eye tracking methodologies we examined the effects of spatial language on…

  2. Applications of Quality Management in Language Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyworth, Frank

    2013-01-01

    This review examines applications of quality management (QM) in language education. QM approaches have been adapted from methodologies developed in industrial and commercial settings, and these are briefly described. Key aspects of QM in language education are the definition of purpose, descriptions of principles and practice, including various…

  3. Interaction between scene-based and array-based contextual cueing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Gail M; Jiang, Yuhong V

    2013-07-01

    Contextual cueing refers to the cueing of spatial attention by repeated spatial context. Previous studies have demonstrated distinctive properties of contextual cueing by background scenes and by an array of search items. Whereas scene-based contextual cueing reflects explicit learning of the scene-target association, array-based contextual cueing is supported primarily by implicit learning. In this study, we investigated the interaction between scene-based and array-based contextual cueing. Participants searched for a target that was predicted by both the background scene and the locations of distractor items. We tested three possible patterns of interaction: (1) The scene and the array could be learned independently, in which case cueing should be expressed even when only one cue was preserved; (2) the scene and array could be learned jointly, in which case cueing should occur only when both cues were preserved; (3) overshadowing might occur, in which case learning of the stronger cue should preclude learning of the weaker cue. In several experiments, we manipulated the nature of the contextual cues present during training and testing. We also tested explicit awareness of scenes, scene-target associations, and arrays. The results supported the overshadowing account: Specifically, scene-based contextual cueing precluded array-based contextual cueing when both were predictive of the location of a search target. We suggest that explicit, endogenous cues dominate over implicit cues in guiding spatial attention.

  4. Colour agnosia impairs the recognition of natural but not of non-natural scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijboer, Tanja C W; Van Der Smagt, Maarten J; Van Zandvoort, Martine J E; De Haan, Edward H F

    2007-03-01

    Scene recognition can be enhanced by appropriate colour information, yet the level of visual processing at which colour exerts its effects is still unclear. It has been suggested that colour supports low-level sensory processing, while others have claimed that colour information aids semantic categorization and recognition of objects and scenes. We investigated the effect of colour on scene recognition in a case of colour agnosia, M.A.H. In a scene identification task, participants had to name images of natural or non-natural scenes in six different formats. Irrespective of scene format, M.A.H. was much slower on the natural than on the non-natural scenes. As expected, neither M.A.H. nor control participants showed any difference in performance for the non-natural scenes. However, for the natural scenes, appropriate colour facilitated scene recognition in control participants (i.e., shorter reaction times), whereas M.A.H.'s performance did not differ across formats. Our data thus support the hypothesis that the effect of colour occurs at the level of learned associations.

  5. A view not to be missed: Salient scene content interferes with cognitive restoration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander P N Van der Jagt

    Full Text Available Attention Restoration Theory (ART states that built scenes place greater load on attentional resources than natural scenes. This is explained in terms of "hard" and "soft" fascination of built and natural scenes. Given a lack of direct empirical evidence for this assumption we propose that perceptual saliency of scene content can function as an empirically derived indicator of fascination. Saliency levels were established by measuring speed of scene category detection using a Go/No-Go detection paradigm. Experiment 1 shows that built scenes are more salient than natural scenes. Experiment 2 replicates these findings using greyscale images, ruling out a colour-based response strategy, and additionally shows that built objects in natural scenes affect saliency to a greater extent than the reverse. Experiment 3 demonstrates that the saliency of scene content is directly linked to cognitive restoration using an established restoration paradigm. Overall, these findings demonstrate an important link between the saliency of scene content and related cognitive restoration.

  6. Dealing with behavioral ambiguity in textual process descriptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Aa, Han; Leopold, Henrik; Reijers, Hajo A.

    2016-01-01

    Textual process descriptions are widely used in organizations since they can be created and understood by virtually everyone. The inherent ambiguity of natural language, however, impedes the automated analysis of textual process descriptions. While human readers can use their context knowledge to

  7. A hybrid multiview stereo algorithm for modeling urban scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafarge, Florent; Keriven, Renaud; Brédif, Mathieu; Vu, Hoang-Hiep

    2013-01-01

    We present an original multiview stereo reconstruction algorithm which allows the 3D-modeling of urban scenes as a combination of meshes and geometric primitives. The method provides a compact model while preserving details: Irregular elements such as statues and ornaments are described by meshes, whereas regular structures such as columns and walls are described by primitives (planes, spheres, cylinders, cones, and tori). We adopt a two-step strategy consisting first in segmenting the initial meshbased surface using a multilabel Markov Random Field-based model and second in sampling primitive and mesh components simultaneously on the obtained partition by a Jump-Diffusion process. The quality of a reconstruction is measured by a multi-object energy model which takes into account both photo-consistency and semantic considerations (i.e., geometry and shape layout). The segmentation and sampling steps are embedded into an iterative refinement procedure which provides an increasingly accurate hybrid representation. Experimental results on complex urban structures and large scenes are presented and compared to state-of-the-art multiview stereo meshing algorithms.

  8. Estimating perception of scene layout properties from global image features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Michael G; Oliva, Aude

    2010-01-08

    The relationship between image features and scene structure is central to the study of human visual perception and computer vision, but many of the specifics of real-world layout perception remain unknown. We do not know which image features are relevant to perceiving layout properties, or whether those features provide the same information for every type of image. Furthermore, we do not know the spatial resolutions required for perceiving different properties. This paper describes an experiment and a computational model that provides new insights on these issues. Humans perceive the global spatial layout properties such as dominant depth, openness, and perspective, from a single image. This work describes an algorithm that reliably predicts human layout judgments. This model's predictions are general, not specific to the observers it trained on. Analysis reveals that the optimal spatial resolutions for determining layout vary with the content of the space and the property being estimated. Openness is best estimated at high resolution, depth is best estimated at medium resolution, and perspective is best estimated at low resolution. Given the reliability and simplicity of estimating the global layout of real-world environments, this model could help resolve perceptual ambiguities encountered by more detailed scene reconstruction schemas.

  9. Evaluating color descriptors for object and scene recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Sande, Koen E A; Gevers, Theo; Snoek, Cees G M

    2010-09-01

    Image category recognition is important to access visual information on the level of objects and scene types. So far, intensity-based descriptors have been widely used for feature extraction at salient points. To increase illumination invariance and discriminative power, color descriptors have been proposed. Because many different descriptors exist, a structured overview is required of color invariant descriptors in the context of image category recognition. Therefore, this paper studies the invariance properties and the distinctiveness of color descriptors (software to compute the color descriptors from this paper is available from http://www.colordescriptors.com) in a structured way. The analytical invariance properties of color descriptors are explored, using a taxonomy based on invariance properties with respect to photometric transformations, and tested experimentally using a data set with known illumination conditions. In addition, the distinctiveness of color descriptors is assessed experimentally using two benchmarks, one from the image domain and one from the video domain. From the theoretical and experimental results, it can be derived that invariance to light intensity changes and light color changes affects category recognition. The results further reveal that, for light intensity shifts, the usefulness of invariance is category-specific. Overall, when choosing a single descriptor and no prior knowledge about the data set and object and scene categories is available, the OpponentSIFT is recommended. Furthermore, a combined set of color descriptors outperforms intensity-based SIFT and improves category recognition by 8 percent on the PASCAL VOC 2007 and by 7 percent on the Mediamill Challenge.

  10. Collaborating Filtering Community Image Recommendation System Based on Scene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Tao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advancement of smart city, the development of intelligent mobile terminal and wireless network, the traditional text information service no longer meet the needs of the community residents, community image service appeared as a new media service. “There are pictures of the truth” has become a community residents to understand and master the new dynamic community, image information service has become a new information service. However, there are two major problems in image information service. Firstly, the underlying eigenvalues extracted by current image feature extraction techniques are difficult for users to understand, and there is a semantic gap between the image content itself and the user’s understanding; secondly, in community life of the image data increasing quickly, it is difficult to find their own interested image data. Aiming at the two problems, this paper proposes a unified image semantic scene model to express the image content. On this basis, a collaborative filtering recommendation model of fusion scene semantics is proposed. In the recommendation model, a comprehensiveness and accuracy user interest model is proposed to improve the recommendation quality. The results of the present study have achieved good results in the pilot cities of Wenzhou and Yan'an, and it is applied normally.

  11. S3-2: Colorfulness Perception Adapting to Natural Scenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Mizokami

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Our visual system has the ability to adapt to the color characteristics of environment and maintain stable color appearance. Many researches on chromatic adaptation and color constancy suggested that the different levels of visual processes involve the adaptation mechanism. In the case of colorfulness perception, it has been shown that the perception changes with adaptation to chromatic contrast modulation and to surrounding chromatic variance. However, it is still not clear how the perception changes in natural scenes and what levels of visual mechanisms contribute to the perception. Here, I will mainly present our recent work on colorfulness-adaptation in natural images. In the experiment, we examined whether the colorfulness perception of an image was influenced by the adaptation to natural images with different degrees of saturation. Natural and unnatural (shuffled or phase-scrambled images are used for adapting and test images, and all combinations of adapting and test images were tested (e.g., the combination of natural adapting images and a shuffled test image. The results show that colorfulness perception was influenced by adaptation to the saturation of images. A test image appeared less colorful after adaptation to saturated images, and vice versa. The effect of colorfulness adaptation was the strongest for the combination of natural adapting and natural test images. The fact that the naturalness of the spatial structure in an image affects the strength of the adaptation effect implies that the recognition of natural scene would play an important role in the adaptation mechanism.

  12. People detection in crowded scenes using active contour models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidla, Oliver

    2009-01-01

    The detection of pedestrians in real-world scenes is a daunting task, especially in crowded situations. Our experience over the last years has shown that active shape models (ASM) can contribute significantly to a robust pedestrian detection system. The paper starts with an overview of shape model approaches, it then explains our approach which builds on top of Eigenshape models which have been trained using real-world data. These models are placed over candidate regions and matched to image gradients using a scoring function which integrates i) point distribution, ii) local gradient orientations iii) local image gradient strengths. A matching and shape model update process is iteratively applied in order to fit the flexible models to the local image content. The weights of the scoring function have a significant impact on the ASM performance. We analyze different settings of scoring weights for gradient magnitude, relative orientation differences, distance between model and gradient in an experiment which uses real-world data. Although for only one pedestrian model in an image computation time is low, the number of necessary processing cycles which is needed to track many people in crowded scenes can become the bottleneck in a real-time application. We describe the measures which have been taken in order to improve the speed of the ASM implementation and make it real-time capable.

  13. The Influence of Familiarity on Affective Responses to Natural Scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanabria Z., Jorge C.; Cho, Youngil; Yamanaka, Toshimasa

    This kansei study explored how familiarity with image-word combinations influences affective states. Stimuli were obtained from Japanese print advertisements (ads), and consisted of images (e.g., natural-scene backgrounds) and their corresponding headlines (advertising copy). Initially, a group of subjects evaluated their level of familiarity with images and headlines independently, and stimuli were filtered based on the results. In the main experiment, a different group of subjects rated their pleasure and arousal to, and familiarity with, image-headline combinations. The Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM) scale was used to evaluate pleasure and arousal, and a bipolar scale was used to evaluate familiarity. The results showed a high correlation between familiarity and pleasure, but low correlation between familiarity and arousal. The characteristics of the stimuli, and their effect on the variables of pleasure, arousal and familiarity, were explored through ANOVA. It is suggested that, in the case of natural-scene ads, familiarity with image-headline combinations may increase the pleasure response to the ads, and that certain components in the images (e.g., water) may increase arousal levels.

  14. The language phenomenon human communication from milliseconds to millennia

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, K

    2013-01-01

    This volume contains a contemporary, integrated description of the processes of language. These range from fast scales (fractions of a second) to slow ones (over a million years). The contributors, all experts in their fields, address language in the brain, production of sentences and dialogues, language learning, transmission and evolutionary processes that happen over centuries or millenia, the relation between language and genes, the origins of language, self-organization, and language competition and death. The book as a whole will help to show how processes at different scales affect each other, thus presenting language as a dynamic, complex and profoundly human phenomenon.

  15. Semi-automatic scene generation using the Digital Anatomist Foundational Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, B A; Rosse, C; Brinkley, J F

    1999-01-01

    A recent survey shows that a major impediment to more widespread use of computers in anatomy education is the inability to directly manipulate 3-D models, and to relate these to corresponding textual information. In the University of Washington Digital Anatomist Project we have developed a prototype Web-based scene generation program that combines the symbolic Foundational Model of Anatomy with 3-D models. A Web user can browse the Foundational Model (FM), then click to request that a 3-D scene be created of an object and its parts or branches. The scene is rendered by a graphics server, and a snapshot is sent to the Web client. The user can then manipulate the scene, adding new structures, deleting structures, rotating the scene, zooming, and saving the scene as a VRML file. Applications such as this, when fully realized with fast rendering and more anatomical content, have the potential to significantly change the way computers are used in anatomy education.

  16. Scene reassembly after multimodal digitization and pipeline evaluation using photorealistic rendering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stets, Jonathan Dyssel; Dal Corso, Alessandro; Nielsen, Jannik Boll

    2017-01-01

    of the lighting environment. This enables pixelwise comparison of photographs of the real scene with renderings of the digital version of the scene. Such quantitative evaluation is useful for verifying acquired material appearance and reconstructed surface geometry, which is an important aspect of digital content......Transparent objects require acquisition modalities that are very different from the ones used for objects with more diffuse reflectance properties. Digitizing a scene where objects must be acquired with different modalities requires scene reassembly after reconstruction of the object surfaces....... This reassembly of a scene that was picked apart for scanning seems unexplored. We contribute with a multimodal digitization pipeline for scenes that require this step of reassembly. Our pipeline includes measurement of bidirectional reflectance distribution functions and high dynamic range imaging...

  17. Short report: the effect of expertise in hiking on recognition memory for mountain scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Satoru; Suzuki, Sae; Morikawa, Kazunori

    2007-10-01

    The nature of an expert memory advantage that does not depend on stimulus structure or chunking was examined, using more ecologically valid stimuli in the context of a more natural activity than previously studied domains. Do expert hikers and novice hikers see and remember mountain scenes differently? In the present experiment, 18 novice hikers and 17 expert hikers were presented with 60 photographs of scenes from hiking trails. These scenes differed in the degree of functional aspects that implied some action possibilities or dangers. The recognition test revealed that the memory performance of experts was significantly superior to that of novices for scenes with highly functional aspects. The memory performance for the scenes with few functional aspects did not differ between novices and experts. These results suggest that experts pay more attention to, and thus remember better, scenes with functional meanings than do novices.

  18. Relationship between Childhood Meal Scenes at Home Remembered by University Students and their Current Personality

    OpenAIRE

    恩村, 咲希; Onmura, Saki

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between childhood meal scenes at home that are remembered by university students and their current personality. The meal scenes are analyzed in terms of companions, conversation content, conversation frequency, atmosphere, and consideration of meals. The scale of the conversation content in childhood meal scenes was prepared on the basis of the results of a preliminary survey. The result showed that a relationship was found between personality traits and c...

  19. Adaptive attunement of selective covert attention to evolutionary-relevant emotional visual scenes

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández-Martín, Andrés (UNIR); Gutiérrez-García, Aida; Capafons, Juan; Calvo, Manuel G

    2017-01-01

    We investigated selective attention to emotional scenes in peripheral vision, as a function of adaptive relevance of scene affective content for male and female observers. Pairs of emotional neutral images appeared peripherally with perceptual stimulus differences controlled while viewers were fixating on a different stimulus in central vision. Early selective orienting was assessed by the probability of directing the first fixation towards either scene, and the time until first fixation. Emo...

  20. Integrating mechanisms of visual guidance in naturalistic language production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coco, Moreno I; Keller, Frank

    2015-05-01

    Situated language production requires the integration of visual attention and linguistic processing. Previous work has not conclusively disentangled the role of perceptual scene information and structural sentence information in guiding visual attention. In this paper, we present an eye-tracking study that demonstrates that three types of guidance, perceptual, conceptual, and structural, interact to control visual attention. In a cued language production experiment, we manipulate perceptual (scene clutter) and conceptual guidance (cue animacy) and measure structural guidance (syntactic complexity of the utterance). Analysis of the time course of language production, before and during speech, reveals that all three forms of guidance affect the complexity of visual responses, quantified in terms of the entropy of attentional landscapes and the turbulence of scan patterns, especially during speech. We find that perceptual and conceptual guidance mediate the distribution of attention in the scene, whereas structural guidance closely relates to scan pattern complexity. Furthermore, the eye-voice span of the cued object and its perceptual competitor are similar; its latency mediated by both perceptual and structural guidance. These results rule out a strict interpretation of structural guidance as the single dominant form of visual guidance in situated language production. Rather, the phase of the task and the associated demands of cross-modal cognitive processing determine the mechanisms that guide attention.

  1. Graphic Description: The Mystery of Ibn Khafaja\\'s Success in Description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    جواد رنجبر

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Graphic Description:   The Mystery of Ibn Khafaja's Success in Description    Ali Bagher Taheriniya *  Javad Ranjbar **      Abstract Ibn Khafaja is one of the poets and men of letters in Spain. He is titled to Sanobari of Spain. He is one of the masters of description. Hence, the analysis of successful techniques he has used in the descriptive art could illuminate the way for others. Al-Taswir al-harfi (graphic description is a term which denotes the highest and most detailed poems. On this basis, the best descriptive poem is one which is closer to a painting. He has used some elements called conforming elements of description which contain: imagination, feeling, faculty, and dialogue as well as three other elements: to be inborn in description, enchanting nature and convenient life. This article is going to give an analysis of the reasons for Ibn Khafaja’s success in description and portrait making.   Key words: Ibn Khafaja, poetry, description, portrait   * Associate Professor, Bu Ali Sina University of Hamadan E-mail: bTaheriniya@yahoo.com  ** M.A. in Arabic Language and Literature

  2. Description of Sizewell B nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, G.; Stokke, E.

    1997-09-01

    The intention of this report is to present a condensed technical description of Sizewell B in a language understandable to non-technical personnel. It is unavoidable that some parts will be less precise than the technically initiated would like to see, but hopefully the content still give a realistic picture of Sizewell B. The technical description is based on publicly available material, of which the Sizewell B safety report has been particularly useful. Nearly all figures and drawings found in this description are reproductions of corresponding material in the safety report. To keep the description from becoming too voluminous it has been necessary to condense some background material down to a small volume. Hopefully this has not introduced any errors or inaccuracies, possible oversimplification at certain points must be weighed against the wish to cover most of the topics in the agreed table of contents for these NKS reports. (au)

  3. Guidelines for Description

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Links, P.; Horsman, Peter; Kühnel, Karsten; Priddy, M.; Reijnhoudt, Linda; Merenmies, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The Guidelines follow the conceptual metadata model (deliverable 17.2). They include guidelines for description of collection-holding institutions, document collections, organisations, personalities, events, camps and ghettos. As much as possible the guidelines comply with the descriptive standards

  4. Classroom Management in Foreign Language Education: An Exploratory Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macías, Diego Fernando

    2018-01-01

    This review examines studies in the area of classroom management in foreign language education. It is organized into three large areas: The first area focuses on the distinctive characteristics of foreign language instruction that are more likely to impact classroom management in foreign language classes. The second area provides a description of…

  5. The Sociolinguistic Model in Speech and Language Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfram, Walt

    A discussion of the role of sociolinguistics in the treatment of communication disorders focuses on issues related to dialect and language variation. It begins with an examination of linguistic diversity and dynamic description of language, reporting on a study of speech and language pathologists' judgments of sentences in African American…

  6. Dyslexia and Learning a Foreign Language: A Personal Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Charlann S.

    2000-01-01

    This participant observer report reviews research on how dyslexia complicates learning a second language, a description of how dyslexia has affected educational experiences, personal experiences learning a foreign language, and recommendations to individuals with dyslexia who are faced with fulfilling a foreign language requirement and their…

  7. GlottoVis : Visualizing Language Endangerment and Documentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castermans, T.H.A.; Speckmann, B.; Verbeek, K.A.B.; Westenberg, M.A.; Hammarström, H.

    2017-01-01

    We present GlottoVis, a system designed to visualize language endangerment as collected by UNESCO and descriptive status as collected by the Glottolog project. Glottolog records bibliographic data for the world’s (lesser known) languages. Languages are documented with increasing detail, but the

  8. Hyperspectral target detection analysis of a cluttered scene from a virtual airborne sensor platform using MuSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packard, Corey D.; Viola, Timothy S.; Klein, Mark D.

    2017-10-01

    The ability to predict spectral electro-optical (EO) signatures for various targets against realistic, cluttered backgrounds is paramount for rigorous signature evaluation. Knowledge of background and target signatures, including plumes, is essential for a variety of scientific and defense-related applications including contrast analysis, camouflage development, automatic target recognition (ATR) algorithm development and scene material classification. The capability to simulate any desired mission scenario with forecast or historical weather is a tremendous asset for defense agencies, serving as a complement to (or substitute for) target and background signature measurement campaigns. In this paper, a systematic process for the physical temperature and visible-through-infrared radiance prediction of several diverse targets in a cluttered natural environment scene is presented. The ability of a virtual airborne sensor platform to detect and differentiate targets from a cluttered background, from a variety of sensor perspectives and across numerous wavelengths in differing atmospheric conditions, is considered. The process described utilizes the thermal and radiance simulation software MuSES and provides a repeatable, accurate approach for analyzing wavelength-dependent background and target (including plume) signatures in multiple band-integrated wavebands (multispectral) or hyperspectrally. The engineering workflow required to combine 3D geometric descriptions, thermal material properties, natural weather boundary conditions, all modes of heat transfer and spectral surface properties is summarized. This procedure includes geometric scene creation, material and optical property attribution, and transient physical temperature prediction. Radiance renderings, based on ray-tracing and the Sandford-Robertson BRDF model, are coupled with MODTRAN for the inclusion of atmospheric effects. This virtual hyperspectral/multispectral radiance prediction methodology has been

  9. Parallel programming of saccades during natural scene viewing: evidence from eye movement positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Esther X W; Gilani, Syed Omer; van Boxtel, Jeroen J A; Amihai, Ido; Chua, Fook Kee; Yen, Shih-Cheng

    2013-10-24

    Previous studies have shown that saccade plans during natural scene viewing can be programmed in parallel. This evidence comes mainly from temporal indicators, i.e., fixation durations and latencies. In the current study, we asked whether eye movement positions recorded during scene viewing also reflect parallel programming of saccades. As participants viewed scenes in preparation for a memory task, their inspection of the scene was suddenly disrupted by a transition to another scene. We examined whether saccades after the transition were invariably directed immediately toward the center or were contingent on saccade onset times relative to the transition. The results, which showed a dissociation in eye movement behavior between two groups of saccades after the scene transition, supported the parallel programming account. Saccades with relatively long onset times (>100 ms) after the transition were directed immediately toward the center of the scene, probably to restart scene exploration. Saccades with short onset times (programming of saccades during scene viewing. Additionally, results from the analyses of intersaccadic intervals were also consistent with the parallel programming hypothesis.

  10. Accumulating and remembering the details of neutral and emotional natural scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melcher, David

    2010-01-01

    In contrast to our rich sensory experience with complex scenes in everyday life, the capacity of visual working memory is thought to be quite limited. Here our memory has been examined for the details of naturalistic scenes as a function of display duration, emotional valence of the scene, and delay before test. Individual differences in working memory and long-term memory for pictorial scenes were examined in experiment 1. The accumulation of memory for emotional scenes and the retention of these details in long-term memory were investigated in experiment 2. Although there were large individual differences in performance, memory for scene details generally exceeded the traditional working memory limit within a few seconds. Information about positive scenes was learned most quickly, while negative scenes showed the worst memory for details. The overall pattern of results was consistent with the idea that both short-term and long-term representations are mixed together in a medium-term 'online' memory for scenes.

  11. Viewing nature scenes positively affects recovery of autonomic function following acute-mental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Daniel K; Barton, Jo L; Gladwell, Valerie F

    2013-06-04

    A randomized crossover study explored whether viewing different scenes prior to a stressor altered autonomic function during the recovery from the stressor. The two scenes were (a) nature (composed of trees, grass, fields) or (b) built (composed of man-made, urban scenes lacking natural characteristics) environments. Autonomic function was assessed using noninvasive techniques of heart rate variability; in particular, time domain analyses evaluated parasympathetic activity, using root-mean-square of successive differences (RMSSD). During stress, secondary cardiovascular markers (heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure) showed significant increases from baseline which did not differ between the two viewing conditions. Parasympathetic activity, however, was significantly higher in recovery following the stressor in the viewing scenes of nature condition compared to viewing scenes depicting built environments (RMSSD; 50.0 ± 31.3 vs 34.8 ± 14.8 ms). Thus, viewing nature scenes prior to a stressor alters autonomic activity in the recovery period. The secondary aim was to examine autonomic function during viewing of the two scenes. Standard deviation of R-R intervals (SDRR), as change from baseline, during the first 5 min of viewing nature scenes was greater than during built scenes. Overall, this suggests that nature can elicit improvements in the recovery process following a stressor.

  12. CDL as a language for implementation systems in scientific environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinescu, D.C.

    1977-01-01

    The special language is characterized which is convenient for system program description; compilers, editors, monitors, supervisors, etc. The definition for its basic syntactical constructions and some notes about the possible usage are described. The version of the compiler for this language has been implemented by the author for the CDC-6500 at JINR, and this report contains the description for the access to this compiler and some possibilities of using this language on different computers

  13. CDL as a language for implementation systems in scientific environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinescu, D.C.

    1977-01-01

    The special language is characterized which is convenient for system program description: translators, aditors, monitors, supervisors, etc. The definition for its basic syntactical constructions and some notes about the possible usage are described. The version of the translator for this language has been implemented by the author for CDC-6500 at JINR, and this report contains the description for the access to this translator and some possibilities of using this language on different computers. (Author)

  14. Language Training: Anglais

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an 'application for training' form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. Writing Professional Documents in English This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken English. Duration: 2 hours a week between 26 April and 1 July 2004. Timetable: Thursdays 12.00 to 14.00 Price: 440 CHF (for 8 students and 20 hours) For registration and further information, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mr. Liptow: tel. 72957 FORMATION EN LANGUES LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 language.training@cern.ch

  15. Second Language Learning Motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvyda Liuolienė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the peculiarities of ESP learning motivation. The meaning of motivation and three main approaches to motivational psychology: expectancy-value theory, goal-directed theory and the self-determination theory are presented, two distinct orientations for learning a language: integrative and instrumental are described in the paper. The importance of needs analysis to ESP learning is stressed and the main conditions (interest in the topic and activity; relevance to the students’ lives; expectancy of success and feelings of being in control and satisfaction in the outcome for motivation are described. The skills that ESP learners need to develop are specified. The description of approaches to motivational psychology is proposed, as motivation is of great significance in foreign language learning.

  16. Language Training: English Training

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. Language Training Françoise Benz tel. 73127 language.training@cern.ch General and Professional English Courses The next session will take place: from 1st March to 25 June 2004 (2 weeks break at Easter). These courses are open to all persons working on the Cern site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mr. Liptow: tel. 72957.

  17. Language Training: English Training

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz tel. 73127 language.training@cern.ch General and Professional English Courses The next session will take place: from 1st March to 25 June 2004 (2 weeks break at Easter). These courses are open to all persons working on the Cern site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mr. Liptow: tel. 72957.

  18. Children with language problems in a speech and hearing clinic : Background variables and extent of language problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keegstra, A.L.; Knijff, W.A.; Post, W.J.; Goorhuis-Brouwer, S.M.

    Objective: Analysis of a clinical population referred for language analysis in terms of background variables and extent of language problems. Design: Descriptive study. Materials and methods: Children referred to a speech and hearing clinic because of assumed language problems were analyzed with

  19. Effects of Sound, Vocabulary, and Grammar Learning Aptitude on Adult Second Language Speech Attainment in Foreign Language Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kazuya

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between different types of language learning aptitude (measured via the LLAMA test) and adult second language (L2) learners' attainment in speech production in English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) classrooms. Picture descriptions elicited from 50 Japanese EFL learners from varied proficiency levels were analyzed…

  20. Distúrbio de linguagem como parte de um transtorno global do desenvolvimento: descrição de um processo terapêutico fonoaudiológico Language disorder in a pervasive developmental disorder: description of a speech-language intervention process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubem Abrão da Silva

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo de caso foi descrever a intervenção fonoaudiológica de uma criança autista, tendo sido este trabalho realizado na Clínica de Fonoaudiologia da Faculdade de Odontologia de Bauru (FOB-USP. A criança em questão era do gênero masculino, com diagnóstico de autismo realizado aos 24 meses de idade, e que, desde a época do diagnóstico, recebeu intervenção fonoaudiológica individual duas vezes por semana, sendo aqui relatados os primeiros nove meses de terapia. Os resultados mostram que a criança desenvolveu uma comunicação funcional por meio da linguagem oral e outras formas de simbolismo, além de contato ocular espontâneo e comunicativo e momentos de atenção conjunta com adultos e crianças.This study aims to describe language intervention process of an autistic child at the Speech Pathology Department at USP-Bauru. An autistic male child diagnosed at two years old was submitted to private language intervention twice a week, since diagnosis. The study reports the first nine months of therapy. Results show that the child developed functional communication through oral language and other ways of symbolism, in addition to spontaneous and communicative eye contact, moments of attention in activities with adults and children.

  1. ADULT BASIC LIFE SUPPORT ON NEAR DROWNING AT THE SCENE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gd. Harry Kurnia Prawedana

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is a popular tourist destination which has potential for drowning cases. Therefore, required knowledge of adult basic life support to be able to deal with such cases in the field. Basic life support in an act to maintain airway and assist breathing and circulation without the use of tools other than simple breathing aids. The most important factor that determines the outcome of drowning event is the duration and severity of hypoxia induced. The management of near drowning at the scene include the rescue of victim from the water, rescue breathing, chest compression, cleaning the vomit substances which allowing blockage of the airway, prevent loss of body heat, and transport the victim to nearest emergency department for evaluation and monitoring.

  2. Behinds the scenes of GS: a DSO like no other

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2014-01-01

    At CERN, Departmental Safety Officers (DSOs) are responsible for making the members of their department aware of safety issues. They’re our first point of call every time a problem arises relating to environmental matters or the safety of people and installations. In GS, this role is even more crucial as the Department’s activities are scattered across the Laboratory and affect everyone.   As we have pointed out in our article series "Behind the scenes of GS”, the GS Department is responsible for the construction, renovation and maintenance of buildings and related technical infrastructures. The latter include heating and toilet facilities; detection and alarm systems; the management of the hotels, stores, stocks, shuttle services and mail; and the development of technical and administrative databases. The activities of the Medical Service and the Fire and Rescue Service also come under the umbrella of GS, as do the many other daily activities that are pa...

  3. Text Line Detection from Rectangle Traffic Panels of Natural Scene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shiyuan; Huang, Linlin; Hu, Jian

    2018-01-01

    Traffic sign detection and recognition is very important for Intelligent Transportation. Among traffic signs, traffic panel contains rich information. However, due to low resolution and blur in the rectangular traffic panel, it is difficult to extract the character and symbols. In this paper, we propose a coarse-to-fine method to detect the Chinese character on traffic panels from natural scenes. Given a traffic panel Color Quantization is applied to extract candidate regions of Chinese characters. Second, a multi-stage filter based on learning is applied to discard the non-character regions. Third, we aggregate the characters for text lines by Distance Metric Learning method. Experimental results on real traffic images from Baidu Street View demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  4. Adaptive and Selective Time Averaging of Auditory Scenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McWalter, Richard Ian; McDermott, Josh H.

    2018-01-01

    longer than previously reported integration times in the auditory system. Integration also showed signs of being restricted to sound elements attributed to a common source. The results suggest an integration process that depends on stimulus characteristics, integrating over longer extents when......To overcome variability, estimate scene characteristics, and compress sensory input, perceptual systems pool data into statistical summaries. Despite growing evidence for statistical representations in perception, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. One example...... it benefits statistical estimation of variable signals and selectively integrating stimulus components likely to have a common cause in the world. Our methodology could be naturally extended to examine statistical representations of other types of sensory signals. Sound texture perception is thought...

  5. Multiscale deep features learning for land-use scene recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Baohua; Li, Shijin; Li, Ning

    2018-01-01

    The features extracted from deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have shown their promise as generic descriptors for land-use scene recognition. However, most of the work directly adopts the deep features for the classification of remote sensing images, and does not encode the deep features for improving their discriminative power, which can affect the performance of deep feature representations. To address this issue, we propose an effective framework, LASC-CNN, obtained by locality-constrained affine subspace coding (LASC) pooling of a CNN filter bank. LASC-CNN obtains more discriminative deep features than directly extracted from CNNs. Furthermore, LASC-CNN builds on the top convolutional layers of CNNs, which can incorporate multiscale information and regions of arbitrary resolution and sizes. Our experiments have been conducted using two widely used remote sensing image databases, and the results show that the proposed method significantly improves the performance when compared to other state-of-the-art methods.

  6. Sound Classification in Hearing Aids Inspired by Auditory Scene Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büchler, Michael; Allegro, Silvia; Launer, Stefan; Dillier, Norbert

    2005-12-01

    A sound classification system for the automatic recognition of the acoustic environment in a hearing aid is discussed. The system distinguishes the four sound classes "clean speech," "speech in noise," "noise," and "music." A number of features that are inspired by auditory scene analysis are extracted from the sound signal. These features describe amplitude modulations, spectral profile, harmonicity, amplitude onsets, and rhythm. They are evaluated together with different pattern classifiers. Simple classifiers, such as rule-based and minimum-distance classifiers, are compared with more complex approaches, such as Bayes classifier, neural network, and hidden Markov model. Sounds from a large database are employed for both training and testing of the system. The achieved recognition rates are very high except for the class "speech in noise." Problems arise in the classification of compressed pop music, strongly reverberated speech, and tonal or fluctuating noises.

  7. Luminance cues constrain chromatic blur discrimination in natural scene stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharman, Rebecca J; McGraw, Paul V; Peirce, Jonathan W

    2013-03-22

    Introducing blur into the color components of a natural scene has very little effect on its percept, whereas blur introduced into the luminance component is very noticeable. Here we quantify the dominance of luminance information in blur detection and examine a number of potential causes. We show that the interaction between chromatic and luminance information is not explained by reduced acuity or spatial resolution limitations for chromatic cues, the effective contrast of the luminance cue, or chromatic and achromatic statistical regularities in the images. Regardless of the quality of chromatic information, the visual system gives primacy to luminance signals when determining edge location. In natural viewing, luminance information appears to be specialized for detecting object boundaries while chromatic information may be used to determine surface properties.

  8. Attention, awareness, and the perception of auditory scenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel S Snyder

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Auditory perception and cognition entails both low-level and high-level processes, which are likely to interact with each other to create our rich conscious experience of soundscapes. Recent research that we review has revealed numerous influences of high-level factors, such as attention, intention, and prior experience, on conscious auditory perception. And recently, studies have shown that auditory scene analysis tasks can exhibit multistability in a manner very similar to ambiguous visual stimuli, presenting a unique opportunity to study neural correlates of auditory awareness and the extent to which mechanisms of perception are shared across sensory modalities. Research has also led to a growing number of techniques through which auditory perception can be manipulated and even completely suppressed. Such findings have important consequences for our understanding of the mechanisms of perception and also should allow scientists to precisely distinguish the influences of different higher-level influences.

  9. "Undoing" (or Symbolic Reversal) at Homicide Crime Scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Maria; Schlesinger, Louis B; Leon, Maria; Holdren, Samantha

    2018-03-01

    A closed case file review of a nonrandom national sample of 975 homicides disclosed 11 cases (1.13%) of undoing, wherein offenders engaged in crime scene behavior that has been considered an attempt to symbolically reverse the murder. The frequency of the various methods of undoing involved the use of blankets to cover the victim's body (55%), positioning the body (55%), use of a bed or couch (42%), washing the body (36%), using pillows (36%), as well as removing clothing and adding other types of adornments (27%). Ten of the 11 offenders were male, and one was female; all 12 victims were female. Ten of the 12 victims were family members or relationship intimates. These findings are consistent with prior reports which concluded that the motivation for undoing behavior is an attempt to compensate for guilt or remorse for having committed the homicide. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  10. Image-Based Reconstruction and Analysis of Dynamic Scenes in a Landslide Simulation Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaioni, M.; Crippa, J.; Longoni, L.; Papini, M.; Zanzi, L.

    2017-12-01

    The application of image processing and photogrammetric techniques to dynamic reconstruction of landslide simulations in a scaled-down facility is described. Simulations are also used here for active-learning purpose: students are helped understand how physical processes happen and which kinds of observations may be obtained from a sensor network. In particular, the use of digital images to obtain multi-temporal information is presented. On one side, using a multi-view sensor set up based on four synchronized GoPro 4 Black® cameras, a 4D (3D spatial position and time) reconstruction of the dynamic scene is obtained through the composition of several 3D models obtained from dense image matching. The final textured 4D model allows one to revisit in dynamic and interactive mode a completed experiment at any time. On the other side, a digital image correlation (DIC) technique has been used to track surface point displacements from the image sequence obtained from the camera in front of the simulation facility. While the 4D model may provide a qualitative description and documentation of the experiment running, DIC analysis output quantitative information such as local point displacements and velocities, to be related to physical processes and to other observations. All the hardware and software equipment adopted for the photogrammetric reconstruction has been based on low-cost and open-source solutions.

  11. IMAGE-BASED RECONSTRUCTION AND ANALYSIS OF DYNAMIC SCENES IN A LANDSLIDE SIMULATION FACILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Scaioni

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The application of image processing and photogrammetric techniques to dynamic reconstruction of landslide simulations in a scaled-down facility is described. Simulations are also used here for active-learning purpose: students are helped understand how physical processes happen and which kinds of observations may be obtained from a sensor network. In particular, the use of digital images to obtain multi-temporal information is presented. On one side, using a multi-view sensor set up based on four synchronized GoPro 4 Black® cameras, a 4D (3D spatial position and time reconstruction of the dynamic scene is obtained through the composition of several 3D models obtained from dense image matching. The final textured 4D model allows one to revisit in dynamic and interactive mode a completed experiment at any time. On the other side, a digital image correlation (DIC technique has been used to track surface point displacements from the image sequence obtained from the camera in front of the simulation facility. While the 4D model may provide a qualitative description and documentation of the experiment running, DIC analysis output quantitative information such as local point displacements and velocities, to be related to physical processes and to other observations. All the hardware and software equipment adopted for the photogrammetric reconstruction has been based on low-cost and open-source solutions.

  12. Building Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Glossary Contact Information Information For… Media Policy Makers Building Languages Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Communicating ... any speech and only very loud sounds. Close × “Building Blocks” “Building Blocks” refers to the different skills ...

  13. Optimized 3D Street Scene Reconstruction from Driving Recorder Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjun Zhang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an automatic region detection based method to reconstruct street scenes from driving recorder images. The driving recorder in this paper is a dashboard camera that collects images while the motor vehicle is moving. An enormous number of moving vehicles are included in the collected data because the typical recorders are often mounted in the front of moving vehicles and face the forward direction, which can make matching points on vehicles and guardrails unreliable. Believing that utilizing these image data can reduce street scene reconstruction and updating costs because of their low price, wide use, and extensive shooting coverage, we therefore proposed a new method, which is called the Mask automatic detecting method, to improve the structure results from the motion reconstruction. Note that we define vehicle and guardrail regions as “mask” in this paper since the features on them should be masked out to avoid poor matches. After removing the feature points in our new method, the camera poses and sparse 3D points that are reconstructed with the remaining matches. Our contrast experiments with the typical pipeline of structure from motion (SfM reconstruction methods, such as Photosynth and VisualSFM, demonstrated that the Mask decreased the root-mean-square error (RMSE of the pairwise matching results, which led to more accurate recovering results from the camera-relative poses. Removing features from the Mask also increased the accuracy of point clouds by nearly 30%–40% and corrected the problems of the typical methods on repeatedly reconstructing several buildings when there was only one target building.

  14. Using Visual Scene Displays as Communication Support Options for People with Chronic, Severe Aphasia: A Summary of AAC Research and Future Research Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beukelman, David R; Hux, Karen; Dietz, Aimee; McKelvey, Miechelle; Weissling, Kristy

    2015-01-01

    Research about the effectiveness of communicative supports and advances in photographic technology has prompted changes in the way speech-language pathologists design and implement interventions for people with aphasia. The purpose of this paper is to describe the use of photographic images as a basis for developing communication supports for people with chronic aphasia secondary to sudden-onset events due to cerebrovascular accidents (strokes). Topics include the evolution of AAC-based supports as they relate to people with aphasia, the development and key features of visual scene displays (VSDs), and future directions concerning the incorporation of photographs into communication supports for people with chronic and severe aphasia.

  15. Distinct contributions of functional and deep neural network features to representational similarity of scenes in human brain and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groen, Iris Ia; Greene, Michelle R; Baldassano, Christopher; Fei-Fei, Li; Beck, Diane M; Baker, Chris I

    2018-03-07

    Inherent correlations between visual and semantic features in real-world scenes make it difficult to determine how different scene properties contribute to neural representations. Here, we assessed the contributions of multiple properties to scene representation by partitioning the variance explained in human behavioral and brain measurements by three feature models whose inter-correlations were minimized a priori through stimulus preselection. Behavioral assessments of scene similarity reflected unique contributions from a functional feature model indicating potential actions in scenes as well as high-level visual features from a deep neural network (DNN). In contrast, similarity of cortical responses in scene-selective areas was uniquely explained by mid- and high-level DNN features only, while an object label model did not contribute uniquely to either domain. The striking dissociation between functional and DNN features in their contribution to behavioral and brain representations of scenes indicates that scene-selective cortex represents only a subset of behaviorally relevant scene information.

  16. The Comparative Effect of Online Self-Correction, Peer- correction, and Teacher Correction in Descriptive Writing Tasks on Intermediate EFL Learners’ Grammar Knowledge The Prospect of Mobile Assisted Language Learning (MALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Aghajani

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available 60 participants of the study were selected based on their scores on the Nelson proficiency test and divided into three Telegram groups comprising a peer-correction, a self-correction and a teacher-correction group, each with 20 students. The pretest was administered to measure the subjects' grammar knowledge. Subsequently, three Telegram groups each with 21 members (20 students + 1 teacher were formed. Then during a course of nearly one academic term the grammatical notions were taught by the teacher. The members were required to write on the prompt in about 50 to 70 words and post it on the group. Then, their writings were corrected through self-correction, peer-correction and teacher-correction under the feedback provided by the researcher. The study used a pretest-posttest design to compare the learners’ progress after the application of three different types of treatment. One-Way between-groups ANOVA was run to test whether there was any statistically significant difference in grammar knowledge in descriptive writing of intermediate EFL learners’ who receive mobile-assisted self-correction, peer-correction and teacher-correction. The researcher also used Post-Hoc Tests to determine the exact difference between correction methods. Online self-correction, peer-correction and teacher-correction were the independent variables and grammar knowledge was the dependent variable. Examining the result of the study prove that significance level between self-correction and teacher-correction was the strongest (sig. = 0.000 but the significance level was a little less strong between peer-correction and teacher-correction whereas no significance was observed between self-correction and peer-correction.

  17. Language and Ageing--Exploring Propositional Density in Written Language--Stability over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Elizabeth; Craig, Hugh; Ferguson, Alison; Colyvas, Kim

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the stability of propositional density (PD) in written texts, as this aspect of language shows promise as an indicator and as a predictor of language decline with ageing. This descriptive longitudinal study analysed written texts obtained from the Australian Longitudinal Study of Women's Health in which participants were…

  18. Effect of Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety on Turkish University Students' Academic Achievement in Foreign Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncer, Murat; Dogan, Yunus

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out in order to identify to what extent the Turkish students' English classroom anxiety affects their academic achievement in English language. In this quantitative descriptive study, a correlational survey model was employed, and the convenience sampling was done. In order to collect data, the Foreign Language Classroom…

  19. Caught in the Middle: Child Language Brokering as a Form of Unrecognised Language Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonini, Rachele

    2016-01-01

    This paper will present the findings of a wide-scale research aimed at studying the phenomenon of Child Language Brokering (henceforth CLB) in Italy. After providing a description of recent immigration patterns and the provision of language services in Italy, and an overview of current research in this field, this study will discuss narrative data…

  20. First Steps to Endangered Language Documentation: The Kalasha Language, a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mela-Athanasopoulou, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    The present paper based on extensive fieldwork D conducted on Kalasha, an endangered language spoken in the three small valleys in Chitral District of Northwestern Pakistan, exposes a spontaneous dialogue-based elicitation of linguistic material used for the description and documentation of the language. After a brief display of the basic typology…

  1. XML for Detector Description at GLAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogart, Joanne

    2002-04-30

    The problem of representing a detector in a form which is accessible to a variety of applications, allows retrieval of information in ways which are natural to those applications, and is maintainable has been vexing physicists for some time. Although invented to address an entirely different problem domain, the document markup meta-language XML is well-suited to detector description. This paper describes its use for a GLAST detector.

  2. XML for detector description at GLAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogart, J.; Favretto, D.; Giannitrapani, R.

    2001-01-01

    The problem of representing a detector in a form which is accessible to a variety of applications, allows retrieval of information in ways which are natural to those applications, and is maintainable has been vexing physicists for some time. Although invented to address an entirely different problem domain, the document markup meta-language XML is well-suited to detector description. The author describes its use for a GLAST detector

  3. XML for Detector Description at GLAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogart, Joanne

    2002-01-01

    The problem of representing a detector in a form which is accessible to a variety of applications, allows retrieval of information in ways which are natural to those applications, and is maintainable has been vexing physicists for some time. Although invented to address an entirely different problem domain, the document markup meta-language XML is well-suited to detector description. This paper describes its use for a GLAST detector

  4. The roles of scene gist and spatial dependency among objects in the semantic guidance of attention in real-world scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chia-Chien; Wang, Hsueh-Cheng; Pomplun, Marc

    2014-12-01

    A previous study (Vision Research 51 (2011) 1192-1205) found evidence for semantic guidance of visual attention during the inspection of real-world scenes, i.e., an influence of semantic relationships among scene objects on overt shifts of attention. In particular, the results revealed an observer bias toward gaze transitions between semantically similar objects. However, this effect is not necessarily indicative of semantic processing of individual objects but may be mediated by knowledge of the scene gist, which does not require object recognition, or by known spatial dependency among objects. To examine the mechanisms underlying semantic guidance, in the present study, participants were asked to view a series of displays with the scene gist excluded and spatial dependency varied. Our results show that spatial dependency among objects seems to be sufficient to induce semantic guidance. Scene gist, on the other hand, does not seem to affect how observers use semantic information to guide attention while viewing natural scenes. Extracting semantic information mainly based on spatial dependency may be an efficient strategy of the visual system that only adds little cognitive load to the viewing task. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. GESTURE'S ROLE IN CREATING AND LEARNING LANGUAGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2010-09-22

    Imagine a child who has never seen or heard language. Would such a child be able to invent a language? Despite what one might guess, the answer is "yes". This chapter describes children who are congenitally deaf and cannot learn the spoken language that surrounds them. In addition, the children have not been exposed to sign language, either by their hearing parents or their oral schools. Nevertheless, the children use their hands to communicate--they gesture--and those gestures take on many of the forms and functions of language (Goldin-Meadow 2003a). The properties of language that we find in these gestures are just those properties that do not need to be handed down from generation to generation, but can be reinvented by a child de novo. They are the resilient properties of language, properties that all children, deaf or hearing, come to language-learning ready to develop. In contrast to these deaf children who are inventing language with their hands, hearing children are learning language from a linguistic model. But they too produce gestures, as do all hearing speakers (Feyereisen and de Lannoy 1991; Goldin-Meadow 2003b; Kendon 1980; McNeill 1992). Indeed, young hearing children often use gesture to communicate before they use words. Interestingly, changes in a child's gestures not only predate but also predict changes in the child's early language, suggesting that gesture may be playing a role in the language-learning process. This chapter begins with a description of the gestures the deaf child produces without speech. These gestures assume the full burden of communication and take on a language-like form--they are language. This phenomenon stands in contrast to the gestures hearing speakers produce with speech. These gestures share the burden of communication with speech and do not take on a language-like form--they are part of language.

  6. [Perception of objects and scenes in age-related macular degeneration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, T H C; Boucart, M

    2012-01-01

    Vision related quality of life questionnaires suggest that patients with AMD exhibit difficulties in finding objects and in mobility. In the natural environment, objects seldom appear in isolation. They appear in a spatial context which may obscure them in part or place obstacles in the patient's path. Furthermore, the luminance of a natural scene varies as a function of the hour of the day and the light source, which can alter perception. This study aims to evaluate recognition of objects and natural scenes by patients with AMD, by using photographs of such scenes. Studies demonstrate that AMD patients are able to categorize scenes as nature scenes or urban scenes and to discriminate indoor from outdoor scenes with a high degree of precision. They detect objects better in isolation, in color, or against a white background than in their natural contexts. These patients encounter more difficulties than normally sighted individuals in detecting objects in a low-contrast, black-and-white scene. These results may have implications for rehabilitation, for layout of texts and magazines for the reading-impaired and for the rearrangement of the spatial environment of older AMD patients in order to facilitate mobility, finding objects and reducing the risk of falls. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Places in the Brain: Bridging Layout and Object Geometry in Scene-Selective Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Moira R; Persichetti, Andrew S; Spelke, Elizabeth S; Dilks, Daniel D

    2017-06-13

    Diverse animal species primarily rely on sense (left-right) and egocentric distance (proximal-distal) when navigating the environment. Recent neuroimaging studies with human adults show that this information is represented in 2 scene-selective cortical regions-the occipital place area (OPA) and retrosplenial complex (RSC)-but not in a third scene-selective region-the parahippocampal place area (PPA). What geometric properties, then, does the PPA represent, and what is its role in scene processing? Here we hypothesize that the PPA represents relative length and angle, the geometric properties classically associated with object recognition, but only in the context of large extended surfaces that compose the layout of a scene. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging adaptation, we found that the PPA is indeed sensitive to relative length and angle changes in pictures of scenes, but not pictures of objects that reliably elicited responses to the same geometric changes in object-selective cortical regions. Moreover, we found that the OPA is also sensitive to such changes, while the RSC is tolerant to such changes. Thus, the geometric information typically associated with object recognition is also used during some aspects of scene processing. These findings provide evidence that scene-selective cortex differentially represents the geometric properties guiding navigation versus scene categorization. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. A semi-interactive panorama based 3D reconstruction framework for indoor scenes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dang, T.K.; Worring, M.; Bui, T.D.

    2011-01-01

    We present a semi-interactive method for 3D reconstruction specialized for indoor scenes which combines computer vision techniques with efficient interaction. We use panoramas, popularly used for visualization of indoor scenes, but clearly not able to show depth, for their great field of view, as

  9. The ART of CSI: An augmented reality tool (ART) to annotate crime scenes in forensic investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Streefkerk, J.W.; Houben, M.; Amerongen, P. van; Haar, F. ter; Dijk, J.

    2013-01-01

    Forensic professionals have to collect evidence at crime scenes quickly and without contamination. A handheld Augmented Reality (AR) annotation tool allows these users to virtually tag evidence traces at crime scenes and to review, share and export evidence lists. In an user walkthrough with this

  10. The Interplay of Episodic and Semantic Memory in Guiding Repeated Search in Scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Melissa L.-H.; Wolfe, Jeremy M.

    2013-01-01

    It seems intuitive to think that previous exposure or interaction with an environment should make it easier to search through it and, no doubt, this is true in many real-world situations. However, in a recent study, we demonstrated that previous exposure to a scene does not necessarily speed search within that scene. For instance, when observers…

  11. Automating the construction of scene classifiers for content-based video retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, L.; Israël, Menno; Petrushin, V.A.; van den Broek, Egon; van der Putten, Peter

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces a real time automatic scene classifier within content-based video retrieval. In our envisioned approach end users like documentalists, not image processing experts, build classifiers interactively, by simply indicating positive examples of a scene. Classification consists of a

  12. Panoramic Search: The Interaction of Memory and Vision in Search through a Familiar Scene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Aude; Wolfe, Jeremy M. Arsenio, Helga C.

    2004-01-01

    How do observers search through familiar scenes? A novel panoramic search method is used to study the interaction of memory and vision in natural search behavior. In panoramic search, observers see part of an unchanging scene larger than their current field of view. A target object can be visible, present in the display but hidden from view, or…

  13. Motivational Objects in Natural Scenes (MONS: A Database of >800 Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Schomaker

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In daily life, we are surrounded by objects with pre-existing motivational associations. However, these are rarely controlled for in experiments with natural stimuli. Research on natural stimuli would therefore benefit from stimuli with well-defined motivational properties; in turn, such stimuli also open new paths in research on motivation. Here we introduce a database of Motivational Objects in Natural Scenes (MONS. The database consists of 107 scenes. Each scene contains 2 to 7 objects placed at approximately equal distance from the scene center. Each scene was photographed creating 3 versions, with one object (“critical object” being replaced to vary the overall motivational value of the scene (appetitive, aversive, and neutral, while maintaining high visual similarity between the three versions. Ratings on motivation, valence, arousal and recognizability were obtained using internet-based questionnaires. Since the main objective was to provide stimuli of well-defined motivational value, three motivation scales were used: (1 Desire to own the object; (2 Approach/Avoid; (3 Desire to interact with the object. Three sets of ratings were obtained in independent sets of observers: for all 805 objects presented on a neutral background, for 321 critical objects presented in their scene context, and for the entire scenes. On the basis of the motivational ratings, objects were subdivided into aversive, neutral, and appetitive categories. The MONS database will provide a standardized basis for future studies on motivational value under realistic conditions.

  14. Anticipatory Scene Representation in Preschool Children's Recall and Recognition Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreindel, Erica; Intraub, Helene

    2017-01-01

    Behavioral and neuroscience research on boundary extension (false memory beyond the edges of a view of a scene) has provided new insights into the constructive nature of scene representation, and motivates questions about development. Early research with children (as young as 6-7 years) was consistent with boundary extension, but relied on an…

  15. Developmental Changes in Attention to Faces and Bodies in Static and Dynamic Scenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda M Stoesz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Typically developing individuals show a strong visual preference for faces and face-like stimuli; however, this may come at the expense of attending to bodies or to other aspects of a scene. The primary goal of the present study was to provide additional insight into the development of attentional mechanisms that underlie perception of real people in naturalistic scenes. We examined the looking behaviours of typical children, adolescents, and young adults as they viewed static and dynamic scenes depicting one or more people. Overall, participants showed a bias to attend to faces more than on other parts of the scenes. Adding motion cues led to a reduction in the number, but an increase in the average duration of face fixations in single-character scenes. When multiple characters appeared in a scene, motion-related effects were attenuated and participants shifted their gaze from faces to bodies, or made off-screen glances. Children showed the largest effects related to the introduction of motion cues or additional characters, suggesting that they find dynamic faces difficult to process, and are especially prone to look away from faces when viewing complex social scenes – a strategy that could reduce the cognitive and the affective load imposed by having to divide one’s attention between multiple faces. Our findings provide new insights into the typical development of social attention during natural scene viewing, and lay the foundation for future work examining gaze behaviours in typical and atypical development.

  16. Number 13 / Part I. Music. 3. Mad Scenes: A Warning against Overwhelming Passions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisi Rossella

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on mad scenes in poetry and musical theatre, stressing that, according to Aristotle’s theory on catharsis and the Affektenlehre, they had a pedagogical role on the audience. Some mad scenes by J.S. Bach, Handel and Mozart are briefly analyzed, highlighting their most relevant textual and musical characteristics.

  17. Object Attention Patches for Text Detection and Recognition in Scene Images using SIFT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sriman, Bowornrat; Schomaker, Lambertus; De Marsico, Maria; Figueiredo, Mário; Fred, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Natural urban scene images contain many problems for character recognition such as luminance noise, varying font styles or cluttered backgrounds. Detecting and recognizing text in a natural scene is a difficult problem. Several techniques have been proposed to overcome these problems. These are,

  18. Eye Movement Control in Scene Viewing and Reading: Evidence from the Stimulus Onset Delay Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Steven G.; Nuthmann, Antje; Henderson, John M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study used the stimulus onset delay paradigm to investigate eye movement control in reading and in scene viewing in a within-participants design. Short onset delays (0, 25, 50, 200, and 350 ms) were chosen to simulate the type of natural processing difficulty encountered in reading and scene viewing. Fixation duration increased…

  19. Fundamental remote sensing science research program. Part 1: Scene radiation and atmospheric effects characterization project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, R. E.; Deering, D. W.

    1984-01-01

    Brief articles summarizing the status of research in the scene radiation and atmospheric effect characterization (SRAEC) project are presented. Research conducted within the SRAEC program is focused on the development of empirical characterizations and mathematical process models which relate the electromagnetic energy reflected or emitted from a scene to the biophysical parameters of interest.

  20. Was That Levity or Livor Mortis? Crime Scene Investigators' Perspectives on Humor and Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivona, Brian D.

    2012-01-01

    Humor is common and purposeful in most work settings. Although researchers have examined humor and joking behavior in various work settings, minimal research has been done on humor applications in the field of crime scene investigation. The crime scene investigator encounters death, trauma, and tragedy in a more intimate manner than any other…

  1. Motivational Objects in Natural Scenes (MONS): A Database of >800 Objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomaker, Judith; Rau, Elias M; Einhäuser, Wolfgang; Wittmann, Bianca C

    2017-01-01

    In daily life, we are surrounded by objects with pre-existing motivational associations. However, these are rarely controlled for in experiments with natural stimuli. Research on natural stimuli would therefore benefit from stimuli with well-defined motivational properties; in turn, such stimuli also open new paths in research on motivation. Here we introduce a database of Motivational Objects in Natural Scenes (MONS). The database consists of 107 scenes. Each scene contains 2 to 7 objects placed at approximately equal distance from the scene center. Each scene was photographed creating 3 versions, with one object ("critical object") being replaced to vary the overall motivational value of the scene (appetitive, aversive, and neutral), while maintaining high visual similarity between the three versions. Ratings on motivation, valence, arousal and recognizability were obtained using internet-based questionnaires. Since the main objective was to provide stimuli of well-defined motivational value, three motivation scales were used: (1) Desire to own the object; (2) Approach/Avoid; (3) Desire to interact with the object. Three sets of ratings were obtained in independent sets of observers: for all 805 objects presented on a neutral background, for 321 critical objects presented in their scene context, and for the entire scenes. On the basis of the motivational ratings, objects were subdivided into aversive, neutral, and appetitive categories. The MONS database will provide a standardized basis for future studies on motivational value under realistic conditions.

  2. Eye Movements when Looking at Unusual/Weird Scenes: Are There Cultural Differences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, Keith; Castelhano, Monica S.; Yang, Jinmian

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that eye movement patterns while viewing scenes differ for people from different cultural backgrounds and that these differences in how scenes are viewed are due to differences in the prioritization of information (background or foreground). The current study examined whether there are cultural differences in how…

  3. Face, Body, and Center of Gravity Mediate Person Detection in Natural Scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindemann, Markus; Scheepers, Christoph; Ferguson, Heather J.; Burton, A. Mike

    2010-01-01

    Person detection is an important prerequisite of social interaction, but is not well understood. Following suggestions that people in the visual field can capture a viewer's attention, this study examines the role of the face and the body for person detection in natural scenes. We observed that viewers tend first to look at the center of a scene,…

  4. Making a scene: exploring the dimensions of place through Dutch popular music, 1960-2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandellero, A.; Pfeffer, K.

    2015-01-01

    This paper applies a multi-layered conceptualisation of place to the analysis of particular music scenes in the Netherlands, 1960-2010. We focus on: the clustering of music-related activities in locations; the delineation of spatially tied music scenes, based on a shared identity, reproduced over

  5. Visual search in scenes involves selective and non-selective pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Jeremy M; Vo, Melissa L-H; Evans, Karla K; Greene, Michelle R

    2010-01-01

    How do we find objects in scenes? For decades, visual search models have been built on experiments in which observers search for targets, presented among distractor items, isolated and randomly arranged on blank backgrounds. Are these models relevant to search in continuous scenes? This paper argues that the mechanisms that govern artificial, laboratory search tasks do play a role in visual search in scenes. However, scene-based information is used to guide search in ways that had no place in earlier models. Search in scenes may be best explained by a dual-path model: A “selective” path in which candidate objects must be individually selected for recognition and a “non-selective” path in which information can be extracted from global / statistical information. PMID:21227734

  6. COMPETENCIES OF GERMAN LANGUAGE TEACHERS IN INDONESIA AND VIETNAM BASED ON COMMON EUROPEAN FRAMEWORK OF REFERENCE FOR LANGUAGES (CEFR)

    OpenAIRE

    Pratomo Widodo; Akbar K Setiawan; Le Hoai An

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to (1) identify and compare the language competencies of German language teachers in Indonesia and Vietnam, and (2) identify the factors attributable to their competency levels. This was a qualitative descriptive study. The data were collected by means of questionnaires. The study shows that, based on the CEFR, the competencies of German language teachers in Vietnam are in the B2 level, while those of German language teachers in Indonesia are in the B1 level. T...

  7. Classroom Management in Foreign Language Education: An Exploratory Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Fernando Macías

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This review examines studies in the area of classroom management in foreign language education. It is organized into three large areas: The first area focuses on the distinctive characteristics of foreign language instruction that are more likely to impact classroom management in foreign language classes. The second area provides a description of classroom management issues that foreign language teachers usually encounter in their practice; and the third area centers on the different alternatives to reduce the negative impact of classroom management on foreign language classes. Conclusions suggest a need for more research particularly on the relationship between classroom management and aspects such as target language use and teaching methods.

  8. Design automation, languages, and simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Wai-Kai

    2003-01-01

    As the complexity of electronic systems continues to increase, the micro-electronic industry depends upon automation and simulations to adapt quickly to market changes and new technologies. Compiled from chapters contributed to CRC's best-selling VLSI Handbook, this volume covers a broad range of topics relevant to design automation, languages, and simulations. These include a collaborative framework that coordinates distributed design activities through the Internet, an overview of the Verilog hardware description language and its use in a design environment, hardware/software co-design, syst

  9. An argument for VP coordination: scene-setting coordination and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article demonstrates the properties of this curious construction type and proposes the first analysis to date. It is argued that this is an instance of VP coordination and that this configuration allows the possibility of high merger of direct objects in a constrained fashion. Southern African Linguistics and Applied Language ...

  10. A hierarchical probabilistic model for rapid object categorization in natural scenes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofu He

    Full Text Available Humans can categorize objects in complex natural scenes within 100-150 ms. This amazing ability of rapid categorization has motivated many computational models. Most of these models require extensive training to obtain a decision boundary in a very high dimensional (e.g., ∼6,000 in a leading model feature space and often categorize objects in natural scenes by categorizing the context that co-occurs with objects when objects do not occupy large portions of the scenes. It is thus unclear how humans achieve rapid scene categorization.To address this issue, we developed a hierarchical probabilistic model for rapid object categorization in natural scenes. In this model, a natural object category is represented by a coarse hierarchical probability distribution (PD, which includes PDs of object geometry and spatial configuration of object parts. Object parts are encoded by PDs of a set of natural object structures, each of which is a concatenation of local object features. Rapid categorization is performed as statistical inference. Since the model uses a very small number (∼100 of structures for even complex object categories such as animals and cars, it requires little training and is robust in the presence of large variations within object categories and in their occurrences in natural scenes. Remarkably, we found that the model categorized animals in natural scenes and cars in street scenes with a near human-level performance. We also found that the model located animals and cars in natural scenes, thus overcoming a flaw in many other models which is to categorize objects in natural context by categorizing contextual features. These results suggest that coarse PDs of object categories based on natural object structures and statistical operations on these PDs may underlie the human ability to rapidly categorize scenes.

  11. SCEGRAM: An image database for semantic and syntactic inconsistencies in scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öhlschläger, Sabine; Võ, Melissa Le-Hoa

    2017-10-01

    Our visual environment is not random, but follows compositional rules according to what objects are usually found where. Despite the growing interest in how such semantic and syntactic rules - a scene grammar - enable effective attentional guidance and object perception, no common image database containing highly-controlled object-scene modifications has been publically available. Such a database is essential in minimizing the risk that low-level features drive high-level effects of interest, which is being discussed as possible source of controversial study results. To generate the first database of this kind - SCEGRAM - we took photographs of 62 real-world indoor scenes in six consistency conditions that contain semantic and syntactic (both mild and extreme) violations as well as their combinations. Importantly, always two scenes were paired, so that an object was semantically consistent in one scene (e.g., ketchup in kitchen) and inconsistent in the other (e.g., ketchup in bathroom). Low-level salience did not differ between object-scene conditions and was generally moderate. Additionally, SCEGRAM contains consistency ratings for every object-scene condition, as well as object-absent scenes and object-only images. Finally, a cross-validation using eye-movements replicated previous results of longer dwell times for both semantic and syntactic inconsistencies compared to consistent controls. In sum, the SCEGRAM image database is the first to contain well-controlled semantic and syntactic object-scene inconsistencies that can be used in a broad range of cognitive paradigms (e.g., verbal and pictorial priming, change detection, object identification, etc.) including paradigms addressing developmental aspects of scene grammar. SCEGRAM can be retrieved for research purposes from http://www.scenegrammarlab.com/research/scegram-database/ .

  12. Complementary Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preisler, Bent

    2009-01-01

    society is everywhere unproblematic. A case in point is Higher Education. I will also argue that the recently proposed solution to ‘domain loss' - Danish and English used ‘in parallel', ‘parallel languages' - because it is unrealistic as well as undesirable as a consistent principle - should be replaced......The Danish language debate is dominated by two key concepts: ‘domain loss' and its opposite, ‘parallel languages' (parallelsproglighed). The under­stood reference is to the relationship between Danish and English - i.e. the spread of English at the expense of Danish vs. the coexistence of Danish...... and English within relevant ‘domains' of Danish society. In this article I am going to argue that the concept of ‘domain loss' is not theoretically tenable - its usual depiction ranging from the vague to the nonsensical - which is not to say that the relationship between English and Danish within Danish...

  13. Learning Icelandic Language and Culture in Virtual Reykjavik: Starting to Talk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bédi, Branislav; Arnbjörnsdóttir, Birna; Vilhjálmsson, Hannes Högni; Helgadóttir, Hafdís Erla; Ólafsson, Stefán; Björgvinsson, Elías

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes how beginners of Icelandic as a foreign and second language responded to playing the first scene in Virtual Reykjavik, a video game-like environment where learners interact with virtual characters--Embodied Conversational Agents (ECAs). This game enables learners to practice speaking and listening skills, to learn about the…

  14. Color adaptation induced from linguistic description of color.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liling Zheng

    Full Text Available Recent theories propose that language comprehension can influence perception at the low level of perceptual system. Here, we used an adaptation paradigm to test whether processing language caused color adaptation in the visual system. After prolonged exposure to a color linguistic context, which depicted red, green, or non-specific color scenes, participants immediately performed a color detection task, indicating whether they saw a green color square in the middle of a white screen or not. We found that participants were more likely to perceive the green color square after listening to discourses denoting red compared to discourses denoting green or conveying non-specific color information, revealing that language comprehension caused an adaptation aftereffect at the perceptual level. Therefore, semantic representation of color may have a common neural substrate with color perception. These results are in line with the simulation view of embodied language comprehension theory, which predicts that processing language reactivates the sensorimotor systems that are engaged during real experience.

  15. Self-serving bias in attitude judgments : The use of person versus issue implicated language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martijn, C; van der Pligt, J; Spears, R

    1996-01-01

    This study examines participants' perceptions of the appropriateness of judgmental language to describe own, similar, and dissimilar attitudes. The judgmental language consisted of pre-tested adjectives that varied in terms of their descriptive content, evaluative connotation and type of

  16. Development of a test and flight engineering oriented language. Phase 3: Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamsler, W. F.; Case, C. W.; Kinney, E. L.; Gyure, J.

    1970-01-01

    The format material used in an oral presentation of the phase 3 study effort is given. The material includes a description of the language ALOFT and a terminology comparison with other test languages.

  17. Qualitative Descriptive Methods in Health Science Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorafi, Karen Jiggins; Evans, Bronwynne

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this methodology paper is to describe an approach to qualitative design known as qualitative descriptive that is well suited to junior health sciences researchers because it can be used with a variety of theoretical approaches, sampling techniques, and data collection strategies. It is often difficult for junior qualitative researchers to pull together the tools and resources they need to embark on a high-quality qualitative research study and to manage the volumes of data they collect during qualitative studies. This paper seeks to pull together much needed resources and provide an overview of methods. A step-by-step guide to planning a qualitative descriptive study and analyzing the data is provided, utilizing exemplars from the authors' research. This paper presents steps to conducting a qualitative descriptive study under the following headings: describing the qualitative descriptive approach, designing a qualitative descriptive study, steps to data analysis, and ensuring rigor of findings. The qualitative descriptive approach results in a summary in everyday, factual language that facilitates understanding of a selected phenomenon across disciplines of health science researchers. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Descriptive set theory

    CERN Document Server

    Moschovakis, YN

    1987-01-01

    Now available in paperback, this monograph is a self-contained exposition of the main results and methods of descriptive set theory. It develops all the necessary background material from logic and recursion theory, and treats both classical descriptive set theory and the effective theory developed by logicians.

  19. Description logics of context

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Klarman, S

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We introduce Description Logics of Context (DLCs) - an extension of Description Logics (DLs) for context-based reasoning. Our approach descends from J. McCarthy's tradition of treating contexts as formal objects over which one can quantify...

  20. Physics 3204. Course Description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newfoundland and Labrador Dept. of Education.

    A description of the physics 3204 course in Newfoundland and Labrador is provided. The description includes: (1) statement of purpose, including general objectives of science education; (2) a list of six course objectives; (3) course content for units on sound, light, optical instruments, electrostatics, current electricity, Michael Faraday and…