WorldWideScience

Sample records for scattering lengths

  1. Synthesis of aerogel tiles with high light scattering length

    CERN Document Server

    Danilyuk, A F; Okunev, A G; Onuchin, A P; Shaurman, S A

    1999-01-01

    The possibility of aerogel tiles production for RICH detectors is described. Monolithic blocks of silica aerogel were synthesized by two-step sol-gel processing of tetraethoxysilane Si(OEt) sub 4 followed by high temperature supercritical drying with organic solvent. The important characteristic of aerogel is the light scattering length. In the wide range of refraction indexes the light scattering length exceeds 4 cm at 400 nm.

  2. Scattering cross section of unequal length dipole arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Hema; Jha, Rakesh Mohan

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a detailed and systematic analytical treatment of scattering by an arbitrary dipole array configuration with unequal-length dipoles, different inter-element spacing and load impedance. It provides a physical interpretation of the scattering phenomena within the phased array system. The antenna radar cross section (RCS) depends on the field scattered by the antenna towards the receiver. It has two components, viz. structural RCS and antenna mode RCS. The latter component dominates the former, especially if the antenna is mounted on a low observable platform. The reduction in the scattering due to the presence of antennas on the surface is one of the concerns towards stealth technology. In order to achieve this objective, a detailed and accurate analysis of antenna mode scattering is required. In practical phased array, one cannot ignore the finite dimensions of antenna elements, coupling effect and the role of feed network while estimating the antenna RCS. This book presents the RCS estimati...

  3. On the coherent scattering length of natural gadolinium

    CERN Document Server

    Frank, A I; Kulin, G V; Kulina, O V

    2002-01-01

    Using the reflection of thermal neutrons from the surface of plane sample the coherent scattering length of natural gadolinium was measured. Due to the closeness of resonances in radiation capture cross section the imaginary part of coherent scattering length strongly depends on neutron wavelength. Its real part can be expressed as a sum of Re(b)=b sub 0 + b(lambda). For the constant component of the real part we experimentally obtained the value b sub 0 =(11.5+-0.7)Fm. This result should be considered as a preliminary.

  4. A phenomenological $\\pi^{-}p$ scattering length from pionic hydrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Ericson, Torleif Eric Oskar; Wycech, S

    2004-01-01

    We derive a closed, model independent, expression for the electromagnetic correction factor to a phenomenological hadronic scattering length a/sup h/ extracted from a hydrogenic atom. It is obtained in a non-relativistic approach and in the limit of a short ranged hadronic interaction to terms of order alpha /sup 2/ log alpha using an extended charge distribution. A hadronic pi N scattering length a/sub pi -p//sup h/ = 0.0870(5)m/sub pi //sup -1/ is deduced leading to a pi NN coupling constant from the GMO relation g/sub c //sup 2//(4 pi ) = 14.04(17). (28 refs).

  5. On measuring the neutron coherent scattering length with ultrahigh ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We propose an order of magnitude improvement in the present five parts in 105 precision of a nondispersive interferometric measurement of the neutron coherent scattering length c. For this purpose we make a judicious selection of the Bragg angle for the interferometer and the sample thickness. The precision is further ...

  6. Optical scattering lengths in large liquid-scintillator neutrino detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wurm, M.; Feilitzsch, F. von; Goeger-Neff, M.; Hofmann, M.; Lewke, T.; Meindl, Q.; Moellenberg, R.; Oberauer, L.; Potzel, W.; Tippmann, M.; Todor, S.; Winter, J. [Physik-Department E15, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, James-Franck-Str., D-85748 Garching (Germany); Lachenmaier, T.; Traunsteiner, C. [Excellence Cluster Universe, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Undagoitia, T. Marrodan [Physik-Department E15, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, James-Franck-Str., D-85748 Garching (Germany); Physik-Institut, Universitaet Zuerich, Winterthurstr. 189, CH-8057 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2010-05-15

    For liquid-scintillator neutrino detectors of kiloton scale, the transparency of the organic solvent is of central importance. The present paper reports on laboratory measurements of the optical scattering lengths of the organic solvents phenylxylylethane, linear alkylbenzene (LAB), and dodecane, which are under discussion for next-generation experiments such as SNO+ (Sudbury Neutrino Observatory), HanoHano, or LENA (Low Energy Neutrino Astronomy). Results comprise the wavelength range of 415-440 nm. The contributions from Rayleigh and Mie scattering as well as from absorption/re-emission processes are discussed. Based on the present results, LAB seems to be the preferred solvent for a large-volume detector.

  7. Precision Neutron Scattering Length Measurements with Neutron Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, M. G.; Arif, M.; Jacobson, D. L.; Pushin, D. A.; Abutaleb, M. O.; Shahi, C. B.; Wietfeldt, F. E.; Black, T. C.

    2011-10-01

    Since its inception, single-crystal neutron interferometry has often been utilized for precise neutron scattering length, b, measurements. Scattering length data of light nuclei is particularly important in the study of few nucleon interactions as b can be predicted by two + three nucleon interaction (NI) models. As such they provide a critical test of the accuracy 2+3 NI models. Nuclear effective field theories also make use of light nuclei b in parameterizing mean-field behavior. The NIST neutron interferometer and optics facility has measured b to less than 0.8% relative uncertainty in polarized 3He and to less than 0.1% relative uncertainty in H, D, and unpolarized 3He. A neutron interferometer consists of a perfect silicon crystal machined such that there are three separate blades on a common base. Neutrons are Bragg diffracted in the blades to produce two spatially separate (yet coherent) beam paths much like an optical Mach-Zehnder interferometer. A gas sample placed in one of the beam paths of the interferometer causes a phase difference between the two paths which is proportional to b. This talk will focus on the latest scattering length measurement for n-4He which ran at NIST in Fall/Winter 2010 and is currently being analyzed.

  8. Experimental determination of the scattering length for positron scattering from krypton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zecca, A.; Trainotti, E. [Department of Physics, University of Trento, Povo, 38123 Trento (Italy); Fursa, D.V.; Bray, I. [ARC Centre for Antimatter-Matter Studies, Curtin University, Perth (Australia); Chiari, L. [Departement of Physics, University of Trento, Povo, 38123 Trento (Italy); ARC Centre for Antimatter-Matter Studies, School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, Adelaide (Australia); Brunger, M.J. [ARC Centre for Antimatter-Matter Studies, School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, Adelaide (Australia); Institute of Mathematical Sciences, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2011-10-15

    We report the first experimentally supported determination of the scattering length for positron scattering from krypton. Our result of (-10.3 {+-} 1.5) a.u. compares favourably with that from a convergent close coupling calculation performed as a part of this investigation (-9.5 a.u.), and also with an earlier many body theory calculation of -10.1 a.u. from Gribakin and Ludlow [Phys. Rev. A 70, 032720 (2004)] and a polarized-orbital result of -10.4 a.u. from McEachran et al. [J. Phys. B 13, 1281 (1980)]. The present experimental scattering length supports the existence of a low-lying positron-krypton virtual state (Surko et al. [J. Phys. B 38, R57 (2005)]) at an energy E = 0.13 eV. (authors)

  9. In vivo optical path lengths and path length resolved doppler shifts of multiply scattered light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Babu; Rajan, Vinayakrishnan; Van Leeuwen, Ton G; Steenbergen, Wiendelt

    2010-11-01

    % and that measured on the dorsal and palmar sides of the forearm are 32% and 17%, respectively. The path length distributions depend on the skin site that is being probed and the intra-individual inter-site variability is higher than the inter-individual within-site variability measured on comparable sites between different individuals. In this study, we demonstrated, for the first time to our knowledge, that in vivo path length resolved perfusion measurements are feasible. Optical path length distributions of multiply scattered light, spanning a range of 0-6 mm, and their response to external stimuli such as occlusion and capsicum cream provocation have been measured. This method will enable better interpretation of inter- and intra-individual inter-site variations in the LDF readings that are introduced by the variance in tissue optical properties. The inter- and intra-individual inter-site variations measured with our setup results indicate that that these variations should be taken into account while comparing the perfusion readings from comparable sites between individuals and from different sites of the same individual. Furthermore, the observed inter- and intra-individual inter-site variations in path length resolved Doppler measurements indicate the inherent limitation of conventional LDPM that restrict its clinical usefulness, due to its dependence on the unknown photon path length. Consequently, this method will enable to correctly interpret or counter-act the inter- and intra-individual inter-site variations in the LDF readings introduced by the variance in tissue optical properties. This approach also enables to discriminate between the Doppler-shifted photons resulting from interaction with the moving red blood cells and the non-shifted light scattered only by the surrounding static tissue matrices. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Effects of absorption on coherence domain path length resolved dynamic light scattering in the diffuse regime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petoukhova, Anna; Steenbergen, Wiendelt; van Leeuwen, Ton; de Mul, F.F.M.

    2002-01-01

    A low coherence Mach–Zehnder interferometer is developed for path length resolved dynamic light scattering in highly turbid media. The path length distribution of multiply scatteredphotons in Intralipid is changed by the addition of absorbing dyes. Path length distributions obtained for various

  11. Exchange-current contribution to the pion-deuteron scattering length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robilotta, M. R.

    1980-05-01

    Chiral symmetry, implemented by means of effective lagrangians, is used to evaluate the exchange-current contribution to the pion-deuteron scattering length. It is shown that this approximate ssymmetry is responsible for partial cancellations, yielding an overall contribution of about 10% of the total scattering length. Work supported in part by the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnológico, Brazil.

  12. Path-length-multiplexed scattering-angle-diverse optical coherence tomography for retinal imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bingqing; Yin, Biwei; Dwelle, Jordan; Rylander, H Grady; Markey, Mia K; Milner, Thomas E

    2013-11-01

    A low-resolution path-length-multiplexed scattering angle diverse optical coherence tomography (PM-SAD-OCT) is constructed to investigate the scattering properties of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL). Low-resolution PM-SAD-OCT retinal images acquired from a healthy human subject show the variation of RNFL scattering properties at retinal locations around the optic nerve head. The results are consistent with known retinal ganglion cell neural anatomy and principles of light scattering. Application of PM-SAD-OCT may provide potentially valuable diagnostic information for clinical retinal imaging.

  13. A phenomenological determination of the pion-nucleon scattering lengths from pionic hydrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Ericson, Torleif Eric Oskar; Wycech, S

    2005-01-01

    A model independent expression for the electromagnetic corrections to a phenomenological hadronic pion-nucleon scattering length, extracted from pionic hydrogen, is obtained. In a non-relativistic approach and using an extended charge distribution, these corrections are derived up to terms of order (alpha)**2 log(alpha) in the limit of a short-range hadronic interaction. We infer a charged pion-proton scattering length of 0.0870(5) in units of inverse pion mass, which gives for the charged pion-proton-neutron coupling, through the GMO relation, a value of 14.04(17).

  14. Determination of the negatively charged pion-proton scattering length from pionic hydrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Ericson, Torleif Eric Oskar; Wycech, S

    2003-01-01

    We derive a closed, model independent, expression for the electromagnetic correction factor to the hadronic scattering length extracted from a hydrogenic atom with an extended charge and in the limit of a short ranged hadronic interaction to terms of order ((alpha)**2)(log(alpha)) in the limit of a non-relativistic approach. A hadronic negatively charged pion-proton scattering length of 0.0870(5), in units of inverse charged pion-mass, is deduced, leading to a pion-nucleon coupling constant from the GMO relation equals to 14.00(19).

  15. Three-body recombination in heteronuclear systems at finite temperature with a large positive scattering length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmons, Samuel; Acharya, Bijaya; Platter, Lucas

    2017-01-01

    For an ultracold heteronuclear mixture with a large positive interspecies scattering length and negligible intraspecies scattering length, we determine the three-body recombination rate as a function of collision energy using universal functions of a single scaling variable. We use the zero-range approximation and the Skorniakov -Ter-Martirosian equation to calculate these scaling functions for a range of collision energies. Further, we explore the effects that a nonzero temperature has on three-body recombination, as well as the effects of the formation of deep dimers, for experimentally relevant heteronuclear gases such as the 6Li-133Cs mixture. NSF Grant Nos. PHY-1516077 and PHY-1555030.

  16. Precision calculation of threshold {pi}{sup -}d scattering, {pi}N scattering lengths, and the GMO sum rule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baru, V. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik II, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, D-44870 Bochum (Germany); Institut fuer Kernphysik and Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, B. Cheremushinskaya 25, 117218 Moscow (Russian Federation); Hanhart, C. [Institut fuer Kernphysik and Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Institute for Advanced Simulation, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Hoferichter, M., E-mail: hoferichter@hiskp.uni-bonn.de [Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik and Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Universitaet Bonn, D-53115 Bonn (Germany); Institute of Nuclear and Particle Physics and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701 (United States); Kubis, B. [Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik and Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Universitaet Bonn, D-53115 Bonn (Germany); Nogga, A. [Institut fuer Kernphysik and Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Institute for Advanced Simulation, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    We use chiral perturbation theory (ChPT) to calculate the {pi}{sup -}d scattering length with an accuracy of a few percent, including isospin-violating corrections in both the two- and three-body sectors. In particular, we provide the technical details of a recent letter (Baru et al., 2011) , where we used data on pionic deuterium and pionic hydrogen atoms to extract the isoscalar and isovector pion-nucleon scattering lengths a{sup +} and a{sup -}. We study isospin-breaking contributions to the three-body part of a{sub {pi}}{sup -}{sub d} due to mass differences, isospin violation in the {pi}N scattering lengths, and virtual photons. This last class of effects is ostensibly infrared enhanced due to the smallness of the deuteron binding energy. However, we show that the leading virtual-photon effects that might undergo such enhancement cancel, and hence the standard ChPT counting provides a reliable estimate of isospin violation in a{sub {pi}}{sup -}{sub d} due to virtual photons. Finally, we discuss the validity of the Goldberger-Miyazawa-Oehme sum rule in the presence of isospin violation, and use it to determine the charged-pion-nucleon coupling constant.

  17. Precision calculation of threshold πd scattering, πN scattering lengths, and the GMO sum rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baru, V.; Hanhart, C.; Hoferichter, M.; Kubis, B.; Nogga, A.; Phillips, D. R.

    2011-12-01

    We use chiral perturbation theory (ChPT) to calculate the πd scattering length with an accuracy of a few percent, including isospin-violating corrections in both the two- and three-body sectors. In particular, we provide the technical details of a recent letter (Baru et al., 2011) [1], where we used data on pionic deuterium and pionic hydrogen atoms to extract the isoscalar and isovector pion-nucleon scattering lengths a and a. We study isospin-breaking contributions to the three-body part of a due to mass differences, isospin violation in the πN scattering lengths, and virtual photons. This last class of effects is ostensibly infrared enhanced due to the smallness of the deuteron binding energy. However, we show that the leading virtual-photon effects that might undergo such enhancement cancel, and hence the standard ChPT counting provides a reliable estimate of isospin violation in a due to virtual photons. Finally, we discuss the validity of the Goldberger-Miyazawa-Oehme sum rule in the presence of isospin violation, and use it to determine the charged-pion-nucleon coupling constant.

  18. Path length distribution of multiple-scattered photons by low coherence Doppler interferometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petoukhova, Anna; Steenbergen, Wiendelt; de Mul, F.F.M.; Tuchin, V.V.; Izatt, J.A.; Fujimoto, J.G.

    2002-01-01

    We report results of measurements by low coherence Doppler interferometry of the path length distribution of photons undergoing multiple scattering in a highly turbid medium. We use a Mach-Zehnder interferometer with multimode graded index fibers and a superluminescent diode as light source. The

  19. Precision measurement of the n-4He scattering length using neutron interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, M. G.; Arif, M.; Jacobson, D. L.; Pushin, D. A.; Abutaleb, M. O.; Black, T. C.; Shahi, C. B.; Wietfeldt, F. E.

    2010-11-01

    The NIST neutron interferometer and optics facility (NIOF) is currently performing a precision measurement of the n-4He scattering length to less than 0.3% relative uncertainty. A neutron interferometer consists of a perfect silicon crystal machined such that there are three separate blades on a common base. Neutrons entering the interferometer are Bragg diffracted in the blades to produce two spatially separate yet coherent beam paths much like an optical Mach-Zehnder interferometer. A sample placed in one of the beam paths of the interferometer causes a phase difference between the two paths. This phase difference is directly related to the sample's scattering length. Neutron scattering lengths are one parameter that can be predicted using advanced theoretical models describing two and three nucleon interactions. In an effort to provide tests and/or benchmarks of these theoretical models, the NIOF has already performed precision measurements of neutron scattering lengths to less than 1% relative uncertainty in several low Z gases: H, D, 3He, and polarized 3He. A preliminary result of this work will be given.

  20. Observation of mean path length invariance in light-scattering media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savo, Romolo; Pierrat, Romain; Najar, Ulysse; Carminati, Rémi; Rotter, Stefan; Gigan, Sylvain

    2017-11-10

    The microstructure of a medium strongly influences how light propagates through it. The amount of disorder it contains determines whether the medium is transparent or opaque. Theory predicts that exciting such a medium homogeneously and isotropically makes some of its optical properties depend only on the medium's outer geometry. Here, we report an optical experiment demonstrating that the mean path length of light is invariant with respect to the microstructure of the medium it scatters through. Using colloidal solutions with varying concentration and particle size, the invariance of the mean path length is observed over nearly two orders of magnitude in scattering strength. Our results can be extended to a wide range of systems-however ordered, correlated, or disordered-and apply to all wave-scattering problems. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  1. Efimov effect for heteronuclear three-body systems at positive scattering length and finite temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmons, Samuel B.; Kang, Daekyoung; Acharya, Bijaya; Platter, Lucas

    2017-09-01

    We study the recombination process of three atoms scattering into an atom and diatomic molecule in heteronuclear mixtures of ultracold atomic gases with large and positive interspecies scattering length at finite temperature. We calculate the temperature dependence of the three-body recombination rates by extracting universal scaling functions that parametrize the energy dependence of the scattering matrix. We compare our results to experimental data for the 40K-87Rb mixture and make a prediction for 6Li-87Rb . We find that contributions from higher partial wave channels significantly impact the total rate and, in systems with particularly large mass imbalance, can even obliterate the recombination minima associated with the Efimov effect.

  2. Index of refraction, Rayleigh scattering length, and Sellmeier coefficients in solid and liquid argon and xenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Emily; Butcher, Alistair; Monroe, Jocelyn; Nikkel, James A.

    2017-09-01

    Large liquid argon detectors have become widely used in low rate experiments, including dark matter and neutrino research. However, the optical properties of liquid argon are not well understood at the large scales relevant for current and near-future detectors. The index of refraction of liquid argon at the scintillation wavelength has not been measured, and current Rayleigh scattering length calculations disagree with measurements. Furthermore, the Rayleigh scattering length and index of refraction of solid argon and solid xenon at their scintillation wavelengths have not been previously measured or calculated. We introduce a new calculation using existing data in liquid and solid argon and xenon to extrapolate the optical properties at the scintillation wavelengths using the Sellmeier dispersion relationship.

  3. Measurement of the $\\pi K$ atom lifetime and the $\\pi K$ scattering length

    CERN Document Server

    Adeva, B.; The PS212 collaboration; Allkofer, Y.; Amsler, C.; Anania, A.; Aogaki, S.; Benelli, A.; Brekhovskikh, V.; Cechak, T.; Chiba, M.; Chliapnikov, P.; Drijard, D.; Dudarev, A.; Dumitriu, D.; Federicova, P.; Fluerasu, D.; Gorin, A.; Gorchakov, O.; Gritsay, K.; Guaraldo, C.; Gugiu, M.; Hansroul, M.; Hons, Z.; Horikawa, S.; Iwashita, Y.; Karpukhin, V.; Kluson, J.; Kobayashi, M.; Kruglov, V.; Kruglova, L.; Kulikov, A.; Kulish, E.; Kuptsov, A.; Lamberto, A.; Lanaro, A.; Lednicky, R.; Marinas, C.; Martincik, J.; Nemenov, L.; Nikitin, M.; Okada, K.; Olchevskii, V.; Pentia, M.; Penzo, A.; Plo, M.; Prusa, P.; Rappazzo, G.; Romero Vidal, A.; Ryazantsev, A.; Rykalin, V.; Saborido, J.; Schacher, J.; Sidorov, A.; Smolik, J.; Takeutchi, F.; Tauscher, L.; Trojek, T.; Trusov, S.; Urban, T.; Vrba, T.; Yazkov, V.; Yoshimura, Y.; Zhabitsky, M.; Zrelov, P.

    2017-09-19

    After having announced the statistically significant observation (5.6~$\\sigma$) of the new exotic $\\pi K$ atom, the DIRAC experiment at the CERN proton synchrotron presents the measurement of the corresponding atom lifetime, based on the full $\\pi K$ data sample: $\\tau = (5.5^{+5.0}_{-2.8}) \\cdot 10^{-15}s$. By means of a precise relation ($<1\\%$) between atom lifetime and scattering length, the following value for the S-wave isospin-odd $\\pi K$ scattering length $a_0^{-}~=~\\frac{1}{3}(a_{1/2}-a_{3/2})$ has been derived: $\\left|a_0^-\\right| = (0.072^{+0.031}_{-0.020}) M_{\\pi}^{-1}$.

  4. Precision determination of the $\\pi N$ scattering lengths and the charged $\\pi NN$ coupling constant

    CERN Document Server

    Ericson, Torleif Eric Oskar; Thomas, A W

    2000-01-01

    We critically evaluate the isovector GMO sumrule for the charged $\\pi N N$ coupling constant using recent precision data from $\\pi ^-$p and $\\pi^-$d atoms and with careful attention to systematic errors. From the $\\pi ^-$d scattering length we deduce the pion-proton scattering lengths ${1/2}(a_{\\pi ^-p}+a_{\\pi ^-n})=(-20\\pm 6$(statistic)$ \\pm 10$ (systematic))~$\\cdot 10^{-4}m_{\\pi_c}^{-1}$ and ${1/2}(a_{\\pi ^-p}-a_{\\pi ^-n})=(903 \\pm 14)\\cdot 10^{-4}m_{\\pi_c}^{-1}$. From this a direct evaluation gives $g^2_c(GMO) =14.20\\pm 0.07$(statistic)$\\pm 0.13$(systematic) or $f^2_c= 0.0786\\pm 0.0008$.

  5. Precision Measurement of the n-3He Incoherent Scattering Length Using Neutron Interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Huber, M G; Black, T C; Chen, W C; Gentile, T R; Hussey, D S; Pushin, D; Wietfeldt, F E; Yang, L

    2008-01-01

    We report the first measurement of the low-energy neutron-3He incoherent scattering length using neutron interferometry: b_i' = (-2.417 +/- 0.012 statistical +/- 0.014 systematic) fm. It is in slight disagreement with the only previous measurement of this quantity by Zimmer, et al., b_i' = (-2.365 +/- 0.020) fm, which used a very different technique, pseudomagnetic spin rotation. The neutron-3He scattering lengths are important for testing and developing nuclear potential models that include three nucleon forces, effective field theories for few-body nuclear systems, and for understanding quantum excitations in liquid helium. This work demonstrates the first use of a polarized nuclear target in a neutron interferometer.

  6. Binary matter-wave compactons induced by inter-species scattering length modulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullaev, F. Kh; Hadi, M. S. A.; Salerno, Mario; Umarov, B. A.

    2017-08-01

    Binary mixtures of quasi one-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) trapped in deep optical lattices (OLs) in the presence of periodic time modulations of the inter-species scattering length are investigated. We adopt a mean field description and use the tight-binding approximation and averaging method to derive averaged model equations in the form of two coupled discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equations (DNLSEs) with tunneling constants that nonlinearly depend on inter-species coupling. We show that for strong and rapid modulations of the inter-species scattering length, the averaged system admits exact compacton solutions, e.g. solutions that have no tails and are fully localized on a compact which is achieved when the densities at the compact edges are in correspondence with zeros of the Bessel function (zero tunneling condition). Deviations from exact conditions give rise to the formation of quasi-compactons, e.g. non-exact excitations which look like compactons for any practical purpose, for which the zero tunneling condition is achieved dynamically thanks to an effective nonlinear dispersive coupling induced by scattering length modulation. The stability properties of compactons and quasi-compactons are investigated by linear analysis and numerical integrations of the averaged system, respectively, and the results are compared with those of the original time dependent driven system. In particular, the occurrence of delocalizing transitions with the existence of thresholds in the mean inter-species scattering length is explicitly demonstrated. Under proper management conditions, stationary compactons and quasi-compactons are quite stable and robust excitations that can survive on a very long time scale. A parameter design and a possible experimental setting for the observation of these excitations are briefly discussed.

  7. Determination of the pion-nucleon coupling constant and scattering lengths

    CERN Document Server

    Ericson, Torleif Eric Oskar; Thomas, A W

    2002-01-01

    We critically evaluate the isovector GMO sum rule for forward pion-nucleon scattering using the recent precision measurements of negatively charged pion-proton and pion-deuteron scattering lengths from pionic atoms. We deduce the charged-pion-nucleon coupling constant, with careful attention to systematic and statistical uncertainties. This determination gives, directly from data a pseudoscalar coupling constant of 14.17+-0.05(statistical)+-0.19(systematic) or a pseudovector one of 0.0786(11). This value is intermediate between that of indirect methods and the direct determination from backward neutron-proton differential scattering cross sections. We also use the pionic atom data to deduce the coherent symmetric and antisymmetric sums of the negatively charged pion-proton and pion-neutron scattering lengths with high precision. The symmetric sum gives 0.0017+-0.0002(statistical)+-0.0008 (systematic) and the antisymmetric one 0.0900+-0.0003(statistical)+-0.0013(systematic), both in units of inverse charged pi...

  8. Quantification of Doppler broadening in path length resolved diffusive light scattering using phase modulated low-coherence interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Babu; Rajan, Vinayakrishnan; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Steenbergen, Wiendelt

    2007-02-01

    We describe path length resolved Doppler measurements of the multiply scattered light in turbid media using phase modulated low coherence Mach-Zehnder interferometer, with separate fibers for illumination and detection. A Doppler broadened phase modulation interference peak observed at the modulation frequency shows an increase in the average Doppler shift with optical path length. The path length dependent Doppler broadening of scattered light due to the detection of multiple scattered light is measured from the Lorentzian linewidth and the results are compared with the predictions of Diffusive Wave Spectroscopy. For particles with small scattering anisotropy, the diffusion approximation shows good agreement with our experimental results. For anisotropic scatterers, the experimental results show deviations from the Diffusion theory. The optical path lengths are determined experimentally from the Zero order moment of the phase modulation peak around the modulation frequency and the results are validated with the Monte Carlo technique.

  9. Influence of nearly resonant light on the scattering length in low-temperature atomic gases

    CERN Document Server

    Fedichev, P O; Shlyapnikov, G V; Walraven, J T M

    1996-01-01

    We develop the idea of manipulating the scattering length a in low-temperature atomic gases by using nearly resonant light. As found, if the incident light is close to resonance with one of the bound p levels of electronically excited molecule, then virtual radiative transitions of a pair of interacting atoms to this level can significantly change the value and even reverse the sign of a. The decay of the gas due to photon recoil, resulting from the scattering of light by single atoms, and due to photoassociation can be minimized by selecting the frequency detuning and the Rabi frequency. Our calculations show the feasibility of optical manipulations of trapped Bose condensates through a light-induced change in the mean field interaction between atoms, which is illustrated for ^7Li.

  10. How to extract the ΛN scattering length from production reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparyan, A.; Haidenbauer, J.; Hanhart, C.; Speth, J.

    2004-03-01

    A dispersion integral is derived that allows one to relate directly (spin-dependent) ΛN invariant mass spectra, measured in a large-momentum transfer reaction such as pp→ K+ pΛ or γd→ K+ nΛ , to the scattering length for elastic ΛN scattering. The involved systematic uncertainties are estimated and could be 0.3 fm or even smaller. This estimate is confirmed by comparing results of the proposed formalism with those of microscopic model calculations. We also show, for the specific reaction pp→ K+ Λp , how polarization observables can be used to separate the two spin states of the ΛN system.

  11. Quantification of optical Doppler broadening and optical path lengths of multiply scattered light by phase modulated low coherence interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, B; Rajan, V; van Leeuwen, T G; Steenbergen, W

    2007-07-23

    We show experimental validation of a novel technique to measure optical path length distributions and path length resolved Doppler broadening in turbid media for different reduced scattering coefficients and anisotropies. The technique involves a phase modulated low coherence Mach-Zehnder interferometer, with separate fibers for illumination and detection. Water suspensions of Polystyrene microspheres with high scattering and low absorption levels are used as calibrated scattering phantoms. The path length dependent diffusion broadening or Doppler broadening of scattered light is shown to agree with Diffusive Wave Spectroscopy within 5%. The optical path lengths are determined experimentally from the zero order moment of the phase modulation peak around the modulation frequency in the power spectrum and the results are validated with Monte Carlo simulations.

  12. Quantification of optical Doppler broadening and optical path lengths of multiply scattered light by phase modulated low coherence interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, B.; Rajan, V.; van Leeuwen, T. G.; Steenbergen, W.

    2007-07-01

    We show experimental validation of a novel technique to measure optical path length distributions and path length resolved Doppler broadening in turbid media for different reduced scattering coefficients and anisotropies. The technique involves a phase modulated low coherence Mach-Zehnder interferometer, with separate fibers for illumination and detection. Water suspensions of Polystyrene microspheres with high scattering and low absorption levels are used as calibrated scattering phantoms. The path length dependent diffusion broadening or Doppler broadening of scattered light is shown to agree with Diffusive Wave Spectroscopy within 5%. The optical path lengths are determined experimentally from the zero order moment of the phase modulation peak around the modulation frequency in the power spectrum and the results are validated with Monte Carlo simulations.

  13. Quantification of Optical Doppler broadening and optical path lengths of multiply scattered light with phase modulated low coherence interferometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varghese, Babu; Rajan, Vinayakrishnan; van Leeuwen, Ton; Steenbergen, Wiendelt

    2007-01-01

    We show experimental validation of a novel technique to measure optical path length distributions and path length resolved Doppler broadening in turbid media for different reduced scattering coefficients and anisotropies. The technique involves a phase modulated low coherence Mach-Zehnder

  14. Path-length distribution and path-length-resolved Doppler measurements of multiply scattered photons by use of low-coherence interferometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petoukhova, Anna; Steenbergen, Wiendelt; de Mul, F.F.M.

    2001-01-01

    We report first results of measurements by low-coherence Doppler interferometry of the path-length distribution of photons undergoing multiple scattering in a highly turbid medium. We use a Mach–Zehnder interferometer with multimode graded-index fibers and a superluminescent diode as the light

  15. Meson-Baryon Scattering Lengths from Mixed-Action Lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Will Detmold, William Detmold, Konstantinos Orginos, Aaron Torok, Silas R Beane, Thomas C Luu, Assumpta Parreno, Martin Savage, Andre Walker-Loud

    2010-04-01

    The $\\pi^+\\Sigma^+$, $\\pi^+\\Xi^0$ , $K^+p$, $K^+n$, and $K^0 \\Xi^0$ scattering lengths are calculated in mixed-action Lattice QCD with domain-wall valence quarks on the asqtad-improved coarse MILC configurations at four light-quark masses, and at two light-quark masses on the fine MILC configurations. Heavy Baryon Chiral Perturbation Theory with two and three flavors of light quarks is used to perform the chiral extrapolations. We find no convergence for the kaon-baryon processes in the three-flavor chiral expansion. Using the two-flavor chiral expansion, we find $a_{\\pi^+\\Sigma^+} = ?0.197 ± 0.017$ fm, and $a_{\\pi^+\\Xi^0} = ?0.098 0.017$ fm, where the comprehensive error includes statistical and systematic uncertainties.

  16. First $\\pi K$ atom lifetime and $\\pi K$ scattering length measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Adeva, B; Allkofer, Y; Amsler, C; Anania, A; Aogaki, S; Benelli, A; Brekhovskikh, V; Cechak, T; Chiba, M; Chliapnikov, P; Ciocarlan, C; Constantinescu, S; Doskarova, P; Drijard, D; Dudarev, A; Duma, M; Dumitriu, D; Fluerasu, D; Gorin, A; Gorchakov, O; Gritsay, K; Guaraldo, C; Gugiu, M; Hansroul, M; Hons, Z; Horikawa, S; Iwashita, Y; Karpukhin, V; Kluson, J; Kobayashi, M; Kruglov, V; Kruglova, L; Kulikov, A; Kulish, E; Kuptsov, A; Lamberto, A; Lanaro, A; Lednicky, R; Marinas, C; Martincik, J; Nemenov, L; Nikitin, M; Okada, K; Olchevskii, V; Pentia, M; Penzo, A; Plo, M; Ponta, T; Prusa, P; Rappazzo, G; Romero Vidal, A; Ryazantsev, A; Rykalin, V; Schacher, J; Sidorov, A; Smolik, J; Sugimoto, S; Takeutchi, F; Tauscher, L; Trojek, T; Trusov, S; Urban, T; Vrba, T; Yazkov, V; Yoshimura, Y; Zhabitsky, M; Zrelov, P

    2014-01-01

    The results of a search for hydrogen-like atoms consisting of $\\pi^{\\mp}K^{\\pm}$ mesons are presented. Evidence for $\\pi K$ atom production by 24 GeV/c protons from CERN PS interacting with a nickel target has been seen in terms of characteristic $\\pi K$ pairs from their breakup in the same target ($178 \\pm 49$) and from Coulomb final state interaction ($653 \\pm 42$). Using these results the analysis yields a first value for the $\\pi K$ atom lifetime of $\\tau=(2.5_{-1.8}^{+3.0})$ fs and a first model-independent measurement of the S-wave isospin-odd $\\pi K$ scattering length $\\left|a_0^-\\right|=\\frac{1}{3}\\left|a_{1/2}-a_{3/2}\\right|= \\left( 0.11_{-0.04}^{+0.09} \\right)M_{\\pi}^{-1}$ ($a_I$ for isospin $I$).

  17. Determination of the pion-nucleon coupling constant and s-wave scattering lengths

    CERN Document Server

    Samaranayake, V K

    1972-01-01

    Presently available values of D/sub +or-/, the real parts of the pi /sup +or-/p elastic scattering amplitudes in the forward direction in the laboratory frame, obtained by extrapolation of experimental data to the forward direction, have been fitted up to a pion lab. kinetic energy of 2 GeV using forward dispersion relation. A substantial number of data points have to be discarded to obtain a reasonable goodness of fit. Above 300 MeV the values of D/sub +or-/ obtained from the CERN phase shift analysis are strongly favoured compared with those from the Saclay analysis. The final results for the pion-nucleon coupling constant and s-wave scattering lengths are: 10/sup 3/f/sup 2 /=76.3+or-2.0, 10/sup 3/D/sub +/( mu )=-102.4+or-5.2, 10/sup 3/D/sub - /( mu )=104.8+or-5.4, 10/sup 3/(a/sub 1/-a/sub 3/)=270.6+or-11.3, 10 /sup 3/(a/sub 1/+2a/sub 3/)=3.1+or-8.0. The errors quoted take account of experimental uncertainties and also attempt to include systematic errors arising from the unphysical continuum and from the v...

  18. Path-length distribution and path-length-resolved Doppler measurements of multiply scattered photons by use of low-coherence interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petoukhova, A L; Steenbergen, W; de Mul, F F

    2001-10-01

    We report first results of measurements by low-coherence Doppler interferometry of the path-length distribution of photons undergoing multiple scattering in a highly turbid medium. We use a Mach-Zehnder interferometer with multimode graded-index fibers and a superluminescent diode as the light source. The path-length distribution is obtained by recording of the heterodyne fluctuations that arise from the Brownian motion of particles in an Intralipid suspension as a function of the optical path length. The experimental path-length distribution is in good agreement with predictions of Monte Carlo simulations. In the heterodyne spectrum, an increase of the mean Doppler frequency with path length is observed.

  19. Influence of structural length-scale variations on azimuth-resolved light scattering patterns of inhomogeneous cell models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arifler, Dizem; Guillaud, Martial

    2015-07-01

    Optical scattering provides an intrinsic contrast mechanism for the diagnosis of early precancerous changes in tissues. There have been a multitude of numerical studies targeted at delineating the relationship between cancer-related alterations in morphology and internal structure of cells and the resulting changes in their optical scattering properties. Despite these efforts, we still need to further our understanding of inherent scattering signatures that can be linked to precancer progression. As such, computational studies aimed at relating electromagnetic wave interactions to cellular and subcellular structural alterations are likely to provide a quantitative framework for a better assessment of the diagnostic content of optical signals. In this study, we aim to determine the influence of structural length-scale variations on two-dimensional light scattering properties of cells. We numerically construct cell models with different lower bounds on the size of refractive index heterogeneities and we employ the finite-difference time-domain method to compute their azimuth-resolved light scattering patterns. The results indicate that changes in length-scale variations can significantly alter the two-dimensional scattering patterns of cell models. More specifically, the degree of azimuthal asymmetry characterizing these patterns is observed to be highly dependent on the range of length-scale variations. Overall, the study described here is expected to offer useful insights into whether azimuth-resolved measurements can be explored for diagnostic purposes.

  20. The pion-nucleon scattering lengths from pionic hydrogen and deuterium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, H.-C.; Badertscher, A.; Goudsmit, P.F.A.; Janousch, M.; Leisi, H.J.; Matsinos, E.; Sigg, D.; Zhao, Z.G. [ETH Zurich, Inst. for Particle Physics, Zurich (Switzerland); Chatellard, D.; Egger, J.P. [Neuchatel Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. de Physique; Gabathuler, K.; Hauser, P.; Simons, L.M. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Rusi El Hassani, A.J. [Dept. de Physique, Faculte des Sciences et Technique, Tanger (Morocco)

    2001-07-01

    This is the final publication of the ETH Zurich-Neuchatel-PSI collaboration on the pionic hydrogen and deuterium precision X-ray experiments. We describe the recent hydrogen 3p-1s measurement, report on the determination of the Doppler effect correction to the transition line width, analyze the deuterium shift measurement and discuss implications of the combined hydrogen and deuterium results. From the pionic hydrogen 3p-1s transition experiments we obtain the strong-interaction energy level shift {epsilon}{sub 1s} = -7.108{+-}0.013 (stat.){+-}0.034 (syst.) eV and the total decay width {gamma}{sub 1s} = 0.868{+-}0.040 (stat.){+-}0.038 (syst.) eV of the 1s state. Taking into account the electromagnetic corrections we find the hadronic {pi}N s-wave scattering amplitude a{sub {pi}{sup -}p{yields}{pi}{sup -}p} = 0.0883{+-}0.0008 m{sub {pi}}{sup -1} for elastic scattering and a{sub {pi}{sup -}p{yields}{pi}{sup 0}n} = -0.128{+-}0.006 m{sub {pi}} {sup -1} for single charge exchange, respectively. We then combine the pionic hydrogen results with the 1s level shift measurement on pionic deuterium and test isospin symmetry of the strong interaction: our data are still compatible with isospin symmetry. The isoscalar and isovector {pi}N scattering lengths (within the framework of isospin symmetry) are found to be b{sub 0} = -0.0001{sup +0.0009}{sub -0.0021} m{sub {pi}}{sup -1} and b{sub 1} = -0.0885{sup +0.0010}{sub -0.0021} m{sub {pi}} {sup -1}, respectively. Using the GMO sum rule, we obtain from b{sub 1} a new value of the {pi}N coupling constant (g{sub {pi}}{sub N} = 13.21{sub -0.05}{sup +0.11}) from which follows the Goldberger-Treiman discrepancy {delta}{sub GT}=0.027{sub -0.008}{sup +0.012}. The new values of b{sub 0} and g{sub {pi}}{sub N} imply an increase of the nucleon sigma term by at least 9 MeV. (orig.)

  1. High angle phase modulated low coherence interferometry for path length resolved Doppler measurements of multiply scattered light

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varghese, Babu; Rajan, Vinayakrishnan; van Leeuwen, Ton; Steenbergen, Wiendelt

    2008-01-01

    We describe an improved method for coherence domain path length resolved measurements of multiply scattered photons in turbid media. An electro-optic phase modulator sinusoidally modulates the phase in the reference arm of a low coherence fiber optic Mach–Zehnder interferometer, at a high phase

  2. High angle phase modulated low coherence interferometry for path length resolved Doppler measurements of multiply scattered light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Babu; Rajan, Vinayakrishnan; Van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Steenbergen, Wiendelt

    2008-02-01

    We describe an improved method for coherence domain path length resolved measurements of multiply scattered photons in turbid media. An electro-optic phase modulator sinusoidally modulates the phase in the reference arm of a low coherence fiber optic Mach-Zehnder interferometer, at a high phase modulation angle. For dynamic turbid media this results in Doppler broadened phase modulation interference peaks at the modulation frequency and its multiples. The signal to noise ratio is increased by almost one order or magnitude for large modulation angles and the shape of the spectral peaks resulting from the interference of Doppler shifted sample waves and reference light is not changed. The path length dependent Doppler broadening is compared with the theoretical predictions in the single scattered and diffusive regimes. The experimentally measured optical path lengths are validated with the Monte Carlo technique.

  3. Optical modeling of plasma-deposited ZnO films: Electron scattering at different length scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoops, Harm C. M., E-mail: H.C.M.Knoops@tue.nl; Loo, Bas W. H. van de; Smit, Sjoerd; Ponomarev, Mikhail V.; Weber, Jan-Willem; Sharma, Kashish [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Kessels, Wilhelmus M. M.; Creatore, Mariadriana, E-mail: M.Creatore@tue.nl [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven, The Netherlands and Solliance, High Tech Campus 5, 5656 AE Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2015-03-15

    In this work, an optical modeling study on electron scattering mechanisms in plasma-deposited ZnO layers is presented. Because various applications of ZnO films pose a limit on the electron carrier density due to its effect on the film transmittance, higher electron mobility values are generally preferred instead. Hence, insights into the electron scattering contributions affecting the carrier mobility are required. In optical models, the Drude oscillator is adopted to represent the free-electron contribution and the obtained optical mobility can be then correlated with the macroscopic material properties. However, the influence of scattering phenomena on the optical mobility depends on the considered range of photon energy. For example, the grain-boundary scattering is generally not probed by means of optical measurements and the ionized-impurity scattering contribution decreases toward higher photon energies. To understand this frequency dependence and quantify contributions from different scattering phenomena to the mobility, several case studies were analyzed in this work by means of spectroscopic ellipsometry and Fourier transform infrared (IR) spectroscopy. The obtained electrical parameters were compared to the results inferred by Hall measurements. For intrinsic ZnO (i-ZnO), the in-grain mobility was obtained by fitting reflection data with a normal Drude model in the IR range. For Al-doped ZnO (Al:ZnO), besides a normal Drude fit in the IR range, an Extended Drude fit in the UV-vis range could be used to obtain the in-grain mobility. Scattering mechanisms for a thickness series of Al:ZnO films were discerned using the more intuitive parameter “scattering frequency” instead of the parameter “mobility”. The interaction distance concept was introduced to give a physical interpretation to the frequency dependence of the scattering frequency. This physical interpretation furthermore allows the prediction of which Drude models can be used in a specific

  4. Scattering lengths in SU(2) gauge theory with two fundamental fermions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, R.; Drach, V.; Hansen, Martin Rasmus Lundquist

    2014-01-01

    We investigate non perturbatively scattering properties of Goldstone Bosons in an SU(2) gauge theory with two Wilson fermions in the fundamental representation. Such a theory can be used to build extensions of the Standard Model that unifies Technicolor and pseudo Goldstone composite Higgs models...

  5. Scattering suppression and wideband tunability of a flexible mantle cloak for finite-length conducting rods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, R. S.; Soric, J. C.; Rainwater, D.; Kerkhoff, A.; Alù, A.

    2014-06-01

    A simple, thin, flexible mantle cloak for conducting rods based on scattering cancellation is analyzed, designed and experimentally realized. We show strong scattering suppression at all angles of incidence, for both far-field plane-wave and near-field Gaussian excitations. The required effective shunt surface impedance is realized by a subwavelength patch array, targeting the suppression of the dominant omnidirectional scattering contribution of a conductive rod. Full-wave simulations predict a total radar cross-section reduction better than 14 dB in the lossless case and nearly 8 dB when considering a lossy substrate in the cover. Measurements of the realized cloak are consistent and validate these numerical predictions. The proposed geometry is also shown to be an ideal platform for monolithic integration of varactor diodes, allowing real-time tuning of the effective surface capacitance of the cloak. We show with numerical simulations the possibility of tunable scattering suppression over 1 GHz of bandwidth by seamlessly integrating varactor diodes in our mantle cloak design.

  6. Extracting chemical information from spectral data with multiplicative light scattering effects by optical path-length estimation and correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zeng-Ping; Morris, Julian; Martin, Elaine

    2006-11-15

    When analyzing complex mixtures that exhibit sample-to-sample variability using spectroscopic instrumentation, the variation in the optical path length, resulting from the physical variations inherent within the individual samples, will result in significant multiplicative light scattering perturbations. Although a number of algorithms have been proposed to address the effect of multiplicative light scattering, each has associated with it a number of underlying assumptions, which necessitates additional information relating to the spectra being attained. This information is difficult to obtain in practice and frequently is not available. Thus, with a view to removing the need for the attainment of additional information, a new algorithm, optical path-length estimation and correction (OPLEC), is proposed. The methodology is applied to two near-infrared transmittance spectral data sets (powder mixture data and wheat kernel data), and the results are compared with the extended multiplicative signal correction (EMSC) and extended inverted signal correction (EISC) algorithms. Within the study, it is concluded that the EMSC algorithm cannot be applied to the wheat kernel data set due to core information for the implementation of the algorithm not being available, while the analysis of the powder mixture data using EISC resulted in incorrect conclusions being drawn and hence a calibration model whose performance was unacceptable. In contrast, OPLEC was observed to effectively mitigate the detrimental effects of physical light scattering and significantly improve the prediction accuracy of the calibration models for the two spectral data sets investigated without any additional information pertaining to the calibration samples being required.

  7. First observation of $\\pi^{-}K^+$ and $\\pi^{+}K^-$ atoms, their lifetime measurement and $\\pi K$ scattering lengths evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Afanasyev, Leonid

    2016-01-01

    The Low Energy QCD allows to calculate the ππ and π K scattering lengths with high precision. There are accurate relations between these scattering lengths and π + π − , π − K + , π + K − atoms lifetimes. The experiment on the first observation of π − K + and π + K − atoms is described. The atoms were generated in Nickel and Platinum targets hit by the PS CERN proton beam with momentum of 24 GeV/ c . Moving in the target, part of atoms break up producing characteristic π K pairs (atomic pairs) with small relative momentum Q in their c.m.s. In the experiment, we detected n A = 349 ± 62 (5.6 standard deviations) π − K + and π + K − atomic pairs. The main part of π K pairs are produced in free state. The majority of such particles are generated directly or from short-lived sources as ρ , ω and similar resonances. The electromagnetic interactions in the final state create Coulomb pairs with a known sharp dependence on Q . This effect allows to evaluate the number of these Coulomb pai...

  8. Neutron interferometric measurement of the scattering length difference between the triplet and singlet states of n-$^3$He

    CERN Document Server

    Huber, M G; Chen, W C; Gentile, T R; Hussey, D S; Black, T C; Pushin, D A; Shahi, C B; Wietfeldt, F E; Yang, L

    2014-01-01

    We report a determination of the n-$^3$He scattering length difference $\\Delta b^{\\prime} = b_{1}^{\\prime}-b_{0}^{\\prime} = $ ($-5.411$ $\\pm$ $0.031$ (statistical) $\\pm$ $0.039$ (systematic)) fm between the triplet and singlet states using a neutron interferometer. This revises our previous result $\\Delta b^{\\prime} = $ (-5.610 $\\pm$ $0.027$ (statistical) $\\pm$ $0.032$ (systematic) fm obtained using the same technique in 2008. This revision is due to a re-analysis of the 2008 experiment that includes a more robust treatment of the phase shift caused by magnetic field gradients near the $^3$He cell. Furthermore, we more than doubled our original data set from 2008 by acquiring six months of additional data in 2013. Both the new data set and a re-analysis of the older data are in good agreement. Scattering lengths of low Z isotopes are valued for use in few-body nuclear effective field theories, provide important tests of modern nuclear potential models and in the case of $^3$He aid in the interpretation of neu...

  9. Discrimination between Doppler-shifted and non-shifted light in coherence domain path length resolved measurements of multiply scattered light

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varghese, Babu; Rajan, Vinayakrishnan; van Leeuwen, Ton; Steenbergen, Wiendelt

    2007-01-01

    We show a novel technique to distinguish between Doppler shifted and unshifted light in multiple scattering experiments on mixed static and dynamic media. With a phase modulated low coherence Mach- Zehnder interferometer, optical path lengths of shifted and unshifted light and path length dependent

  10. Hadron-Hadron Interactions from Nf=2 +1 +1 lattice QCD: Isospin-1 K K scattering length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmes, C.; Jost, C.; Knippschild, B.; Kostrzewa, B.; Liu, L.; Urbach, C.; Werner, M.; ETM Collaboration

    2017-08-01

    We present results for the interaction of two kaons at maximal isospin. The calculation is based on Nf=2 +1 +1 flavor gauge configurations generated by the European Twisted Mass Collaboration with pion masses ranging from about 230 MeV to 450 MeV at three values of the lattice spacing. The elastic scattering length a0I =1 is calculated at several values of the bare strange and light quark masses. We find MKa0=-0.385 (16 )stat(+0/-12)ms(+0/-5)ZP(4 )rf as the result of a combined extrapolation to the continuum and to the physical point, where the first error is statistical, and the three following are systematical. This translates to a0=-0.154 (6 )stat(-5+0)ms(-2+0)ZP(2 )rf fm .

  11. LIGHT SOURCE: RF deflecting cavity for bunch length measurement in Tsinghua Thomson scattering X-ray source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jia-Ru; Chen, Huai-Bi; Tang, Chuan-Xiang; Huang, Wen-Hui; Du, Ying-Chao; Zheng, Shu-Xin; Ren, Li

    2009-06-01

    An RF deflecting cavity used for bunch length measurement has been designed and fabricated at Tsinghua University for the Thomson Scattering X-Ray Source. The cavity is a 2856 MHz, π-mode, 3-cell standing-wave cavity, to diagnose the 3.5 MeV beam produced by photocathode electron gun. With a larger power source, the same cavity will again be used to measure the accelerated beam with energy of 50 MeV before colliding with the laser pulse. The RF design using MAFIA for both the cavity shape and the power coupler is reviewed, followed by presenting the fabrication procedure and bench measurement results of two cavities.

  12. Determination of the {ital S}-wave scattering length in pionic deuterium with a high resolution crystal spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatellard, D.; Egger, J.; Jeannet, E. [Institut de Physique de l`Universite, Breguet 1, CH-2000 Neuchatel (Switzerland); Badertscher, A.; Bogdan, M.; Goudsmit, P.F.A.; Leisi, H.J.; Matsinos, E.; Schroeder, H.; Sigg, D.; Zhao, Z.G. [Institut fuer Teilchenphysik der Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule Zuerich, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Aschenauer, E.C.; Gabathuler, K.; Hauser, P.; Simons, L.M. [Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Rusi, A.J.; Hassani, E. [Ecole Mohammadia des Ingenieurs, Rabat (Morocco)

    1995-05-22

    The pionic deuterium 3{ital P}{minus}1{ital S} x-ray transition was measured with a quartz crystal spectrometer in combination with a cyclotron trap and charge coupled device detectors. The strong interaction shift and total decay width of the 1{ital S} level are {epsilon}{sub 1{ital S}}(shift)=2.48{plus_minus}0.10 eV (repulsive), {Gamma}{sub 1{ital S}}(width)=1.02{plus_minus}0.21 eV, where the statistical and systematic errors were added linearly. They yield the total pionic deuterium {ital S}-wave scattering length: {ital a}{sub {pi}{sup {minus}}{ital d}}= {minus}0.0264({plus_minus}0.0011)+{ital i}0.0054({plus_minus}0.0011){ital m}{sub {pi}}{sup {minus}1}.

  13. Neutron diffraction and quasielastic neutron scattering studies of films of intermediate-length alkanes adsorbed on a graphite surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diama, Armand

    Over the past several years, we have conducted a variety of elastic neutron diffraction and quasielastic neutron scattering experiments to study the structure and the dynamics of films of two intermediate-length alkane molecules (C nH2n+2), adsorbed on a graphite basal-plane surface. The two molecules are the normal alkane n-tetracosane [n-CH 3(CH2)22CH3] and the branched alkane squalane (C30H62 or 2, 6, 10, 15, 19, 23-hexamethyltetracosane) whose carbon backbone is the same length as teteracosane. The temperature dependence of the monolayer structure of tetracosane and squalane was investigated using elastic neutron diffraction and evidence of two phase transitions was observed. Both the low-coverage tetracosane (C 24H50) and squalane (C30H62) monolayers have crystalline-to-"smectic" and "smectic"-to-isotropic fluid phase transitions upon heating. The diffusive motion in the tetracosane and squalane monolayers has been investigated by quasielastic neutron scattering. Two different quasielastic neutron scattering spectrometers at the Center for Neutron Research, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have been used. The spectrometers differ in both their dynamic range and energy resolution allowing molecular motions to be investigated on time scales in the range 10-13--10 -9 s. On these time scales, we observe evidence of translational, rotational, and intermolecular diffusive motions in the tetracosane and squalane monolayers. We conclude that the molecular diffusive motion in the two monolayers is qualitatively similar. Thus, despite the three methyl sidegroups at each end of the squalane molecule, its monolayer structure, phase transitions, and dynamics are qualitatively similar to that of a monolayer of the unbranched tetracosane molecules. With the higher resolution spectrometer at NIST, we have also investigated the molecular diffusive motion in multilayer tetracosane films. The analysis of our measurements indicates slower diffusive motion in

  14. Path-length-resolved measurements of multiple scattered photons in static and dynamic turbid media using phase-modulated low-coherence interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Babu; Rajan, Vinayakrishnan; Van Leeuwen, Ton G; Steenbergen, Wiendelt

    2007-01-01

    In optical Doppler measurements, the path length of the light is unknown. To facilitate quantitative measurements, we develop a phase-modulated Mach-Zehnder interferometer with separate fibers for illumination and detection. With this setup, path-length-resolved dynamic light scattering measurements of multiple scattered light in static and dynamic turbid media are performed. Optical path length distributions spanning a range from 0 to 11 mm are measured from the area under the phase modulation peak around the modulation frequency in the power spectrum. A Doppler-broadened phase modulation interference peak is observed that shows an increase in the average Doppler shift with optical path length, independent of absorption. Validation of the estimated path length distributions is done by measuring their deformation for increasing absorption and comparing these observations with predictions based on Lambert-Beer's law.

  15. The flexibility of low molecular weight double-stranded DNA as a function of length. I. Light scattering measurements and the estimation of persistence lengths from light scattering, sedimentation and viscosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, J E; Eisenberg, H

    1976-09-01

    In the preceding paper are described the isolation and physical characterization of seven narrowly disperse fractions of calf thymus DNA in the molecular weight range 0.3 to 1.3 X 10(6) daltons. Herein, we have determined by light scattering the molecular weights and root mean square radii of these fractions in a solvent comprising 0.2 M NaCl, 2 mM EDTA, 2mM Na-PO4,pH7. Measurements were made in a modified Wippler-Scheibling photometer to a 20 degree lower limit of scattering angle on solutions rendered virtually dust-free by procedures described. The optical anisotropies of the DNA fractions were measured permitting the experimental molecular weights and root mean square radii to be corrected to their true values. From these values, with appropriate polydispersity corrections, we calculate a Kratky-Porod persistence length, a, of 54.0 +/- 5.6 nm which is invariant over the molecular range examined. From the sedimentation coefficients (preceding paper) and the theory of Yamakawa and Fujii, we calculate a to be 66 nm, a value found to apply equally well to several DNA samples of various origins whose sedimentation rates are known in themolecular weight range from about 4 X 10(4) to 10(8) daltons. Similarly, from the intrinsic viscosities and the theory of Yamakawa and Fujii, we calculate a to be 59 nm, which again adequately applies to a number of DNA samples whose viscosities have been measured by other workers in the molecular wieght range 3 X 10(5) to 10(8) daltons. The Flory-Mandelkern paramerter, beta, was found to vary with molecular weight in the manner predicted by the theory of Yamakawa and Fujii. The average value of a from the three sets of measurements is 60 +/- 6nm, which we believe applies to double-stranded DNA molecules, independent of chain length, over the whole range of molecular weights from which reliable data exist.

  16. Discrimination between Doppler-shifted and non-shifted light in coherence domain path length resolved measurements of multiply scattered light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, B; Rajan, V; van Leeuwen, T G; Steenbergen, W

    2007-10-01

    We show a novel technique to distinguish between Doppler shifted and unshifted light in multiple scattering experiments on mixed static and dynamic media. With a phase modulated low coherence Mach- Zehnder interferometer, optical path lengths of shifted and unshifted light and path length dependent Doppler broadening are measured in a two-layer tissue phantom, with a superficial static layer of different thickness covering a semi-infinite dynamic medium having identical optical properties. No Doppler broadening is observed until a certain optical path length depending on the thickness of the superficial static layer. From the minimum optical path length corresponding to the Doppler-shifted light the thickness of the static layer that overlies the dynamic layer can be estimated. Validation of the experimentally determined thickness of the static layer is done with the Doppler Monte Carlo technique. This approach has potential applications in discriminating between statically and dynamically scattered light in the perfusion signal and in determining superficial burn depths.

  17. Gas spectroscopy and optical path-length assessment in scattering media using a frequency-modulated continuous-wave diode laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Liang; Jayaweera, Hiran; Lundin, Patrik; Svanberg, Sune; Somesfalean, Gabriel

    2011-08-15

    Simultaneous assessment of the spectroscopic absorption signal of gas enclosed in a scattering medium and the corresponding optical path length of the probing light is demonstrated using a single setup. Sensitive gas absorption measurements are performed by a tunable diode laser using wavelength-modulation spectroscopy, while the path length is evaluated by the frequency-modulated cw technique commonly used in the field of telecommunication. Proof-of-principle measurements are demonstrated with water vapor as the absorbing gas and using polystyrene foam as an inhomogeneously scattering medium. The combination of these techniques opens up new possibilities for straightforward evaluation of gas presence and exchange in scattering media. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  18. Path length resolved Doppler measurements of multiple scattered photons in turbid media for various absorptions using phase modulated low-coherence interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Babu; Rajan, Vinayakrishnan; Van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Steenbergen, Wiendelt

    2006-04-01

    We report the development of non-invasive, path length resolved Doppler measurements of the multiply scattered light in turbid media, for different absorptions using phase modulated Mach-Zehnder low coherence interferometer, with separate fibers for illumination and detection. A Doppler broadened phase modulation interference peak is observed that shows an increase in the average Doppler shift with optical path length, independent of absorption. The estimated path length distributions indicate suppression and narrowing for increasing absorption and can be related by Lambert-Beer's law.

  19. New measurement of the neutron-proton scattering length anp via the n-d breakup reaction at 25 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, J.; Siepe, A.; von Witsch, W.

    2002-10-01

    The 1S0 n-p scattering length anp has been measured using the n-d breakup reaction at 25 MeV. The experiment was performed in a geometry where the neutron and proton were detected in coincidence at the same angle. The data were analyzed with rigorous three-nucleon calculations using realistic nucleon-nucleon potentials. The result of anp=-24.3+/-1.1 fm agrees with the well-known value from free n-p scattering, and also with previous results from n-d breakup experiments which were performed in different geometries.

  20. Molecular conformation of the full-length tumor suppressor NF2/Merlin--a small-angle neutron scattering study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali Khajeh, Jahan; Ju, Jeong Ho; Atchiba, Moussoubaou; Allaire, Marc; Stanley, Christopher; Heller, William T; Callaway, David J E; Bu, Zimei

    2014-07-29

    The tumor suppressor protein Merlin inhibits cell proliferation upon establishing cell-cell contacts. Because Merlin has high level of sequence similarity to the Ezrin-Radixin-Moesin family of proteins, the structural model of Ezrin-Radixin-Moesin protein autoinhibition and cycling between closed/resting and open/active conformational states is often employed to explain Merlin function. However, recent biochemical studies suggest alternative molecular models of Merlin function. Here, we have determined the low-resolution molecular structure and binding activity of Merlin and a Merlin(S518D) mutant that mimics the inactivating phosphorylation at S518 using small-angle neutron scattering and binding experiments. Small-angle neutron scattering shows that, in solution, both Merlin and Merlin(S518D) adopt a closed conformation, but binding experiments indicate that a significant fraction of either Merlin or Merlin(S518D) is capable of binding to the target protein NHERF1. Upon binding to the phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate lipid, the wild-type Merlin adopts a more open conformation than in solution, but Merlin(S518D) remains in a closed conformation. This study supports a rheostat model of Merlin in NHERF1 binding and contributes to resolving a controversy about the molecular conformation and binding activity of Merlin. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Molecular conformation of the full-length tumor suppressor NF2/Merlin—a small angle neutron scattering study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khajeh, Jahan Ali; Ju, Jeong Ho; Atchiba, Moussoubaou; Allaire, Marc; Stanley, Christopher; Heller, William T.; Callaway, David J.E.; Bu, Zimei

    2014-01-01

    Summary The tumor suppressor protein Merlin inhibits cell proliferation upon establishing cell-cell contacts. Because Merlin has high sequence similarity to the Ezrin-Radixin-Moesin (ERM) family of proteins, the structural model of ERM protein autoinhibition and cycling between closed/resting and open/active conformational states is often employed to explain Merlin function. However, recent biochemical studies suggest alternative molecular models of Merlin function. Here, we have determined the low resolution molecular structure and binding activity of Merlin and a Merlin(S518D) mutant that mimics the inactivating phosphorylation at S518 using small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and binding experiments. SANS shows that in solution both Merlin and Merlin(S518D) adopt a closed conformation, but binding experiments indicate that a significant fraction of either Merlin or Merlin(S518D) is capable of binding to the target protein NHERF1. Upon binding to the phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate lipid, the wild-type Merlin adopts a more open conformation than in solution, but Merlin(S518D) remains in a closed conformation. This study supports a rheostat model of Merlin in NHERF1 binding, and contributes to resolve a controversy about the molecular conformation and binding activity of Merlin. PMID:24882693

  2. On scattered subword complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Kása, Zoltán

    2011-01-01

    Special scattered subwords, in which the gaps are of length from a given set, are defined. The scattered subword complexity, which is the number of such scattered subwords, is computed for rainbow words.

  3. Determination of the S-Wave Pi Pi Scattering Lengths From a Study of K - to Pi - Pi0 Pi0 Decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batley, J.R.; Culling, A.J.; Kalmus, G.; /Cambridge U.; Lazzeroni, C.; /Cambridge U. /Birmingham U.; Munday, D.J.; /Cambridge U.; Slater, M.W.; /Cambridge U. /Birmingham U.; Wotton, S.A.; /Cambridge U.; Arcidiacono, R.; /CERN /Turin U. /INFN, Turin; Bocquet, G.; /CERN; Cabibbo, N.; /CERN /Rome U. /INFN, Rome; Ceccucci, A.; /CERN; Cundy, D.; /CERN /Turin, Cosmo-Geofisica Lab; Falaleev, V.; Fidecaro, M.; Gatignon, L.; Gonidec, A.; Kubischta, W.; /CERN; Norton, A.; /CERN /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara; Maier, A.; Patel, M.; Peters, A.; /CERN /Dubna, JINR /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore /Dubna, JINR /Dubna, JINR /Birmingham U. /Dubna, JINR /CERN /Dubna, JINR /Dubna, JINR /Sofiya U. /Dubna, JINR /Dubna, JINR /Dubna, JINR /INFN, Perugia /Dubna, JINR /Dubna, JINR /Northwestern U. /Dubna, JINR /Chicago U., EFI /Marseille, CPPM /Chicago U., EFI /Edinburgh U. /George Mason U. /Edinburgh U. /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /Florence U. /INFN, Florence /Florence U. /INFN, Florence /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore /INFN, Florence /Modena U. /INFN, Florence /INFN, Florence /Urbino U. /INFN, Florence /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /Bonn U. /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /Northwestern U. /SLAC /Northwestern U. /Northwestern U. /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Northwestern U. /Northwestern U. /UCLA /Perugia U. /INFN, Perugia /Frascati /Perugia U. /INFN, Perugia /INFN, Perugia /INFN, Pisa /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Barcelona, IFAE /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /DSM, DAPNIA, Saclay /DSM, DAPNIA, Saclay /CERN /DSM, DAPNIA, Saclay /Siegen U. /INFN, Turin /Turin U. /INFN, Turin /Bern U. /Turin U. /INFN, Turin /CERN /Turin U. /INFN, Turin /Madrid, CIEMAT /Vienna, OAW

    2012-03-29

    We report the results from a study of the full sample of {approx}6.031 x 10{sup 7} K{sup {+-}} {yields} {pi}{sup {+-}}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0} decays recorded by the NA48/2 experiment at the CERN SPS. As first observed in this experiment, the {pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0} invariant mass (M{sub 00}) distribution shows a cusp-like anomaly in the region around M{sub 00} = 2m{sub +}, where m{sub +} is the charged pion mass. This anomaly has been interpreted as an effect due mainly to the final state charge exchange scattering process {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} {yields} {pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0} in K{sup {+-}} {yields} {pi}{sup {+-}}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} decay. Fits to the M{sub 00} distribution using two different theoretical formulations provide the presently most precise determination of a{sub 0} - a{sub 2}, the difference between the {pi}{pi} S-wave scattering lengths in the isospin I = 0 and I = 2 states. Higher-order {pi}{pi} rescattering terms, included in the two formulations, allow also an independent, though less precise, determination of a{sub 2}.

  4. Determination of the S-wave $\\pi \\pi$ scattering lengths from a study of $K^{\\pm} \\to \\pi^{\\pm} \\pi^{0} \\pi^{0}$ decays

    CERN Document Server

    Batley, J R; Kalmus, G; Lazzeroni, C; Munday, D J; Slater, M W; Wotton, S A; Arcidiacono, R; Bocquet, G; Cabibbo, N; Ceccucci, A; Cundy, D; Falaleev, V; Fidecaro, Maria; Gatignon, L; Gonidec, A; Kubischta, W; Norton, A; Maier, A; Patel, M; Peters, A; Balev, S; Frabetti, P L; Goudzovski, E; Khristov, P Z; Kekelidze, V; Kozhuharov, V; Litov, L; Madigozhin, D T; Marinova, E; Molokanova, N; Polenkevich, I; Potrebenikov, Yu; Stoynev, S; Zinchenko, A; Monnier, E; Swallow, E; Winston, R; Rubin, P; Walker, A; Baldini, W; Cotta-Ramusino, A; Dalpiaz, P; Damiani, C; Fiorini, M; Gianoli, A; Martini, M; Petrucci, F; Savrié, M; Scarpa, M; Wahl, H; Calvetti, M; Iacopini, E; Ruggiero, G; Bizzeti, A; Lenti, M; Veltri, M; Behler, M; Eppard, K; Kleinknecht, K; Marouelli, P; Masetti, L; Moosbrugger, U; Morales-Morales, C; Renk, B; Wache, M; Wanke, R; Winhart, A; Coward, D; Dabrowski, A; Fonseca-Martin, T; Shieh, M; Szleper, M; Velasco, M; Wood, M D; Anzivino, G; Imbergamo, E; Nappi, A; Piccini, M; Raggi, M; Valdata-Nappi, M; Cenci, P; Pepé, M; Pettrucci, M C; Cerri, C; Fantechi, R; Collazuol, G; Di Lella, L; Lamanna, G; Mannelli, I; Michetti, A; Costantini, F; Doble, N; Fiorini, L; Giudici, S; Pierazzini, G; Sozzi, M; Venditti, S; Bloch-Devaux, B; Cheshkov, C; Chèze, J B; De Beer, M; Derré, J; Marel, G; Mazzucato, E; Peyaud, B; Vallage, B; Holder, M; Ziolkowski, M; Bifani, S; Biino, C; Cartiglia, N; Marchetto, F; Bifani, S; Clemencic, M; Goy-Lopez, S; Dibon, H; Jeitler, M; Markytan, M; Mikulec, I; Neuhofer, G; Widhalm, L

    2009-01-01

    We report the results from a study of the full sample of $~6.031 x 10^{7} K^{\\pm} \\to \\pi^{\\pm} \\pi^{0} \\pi^{0}$ decays recorded by the NA48/2 experiment at the CERN SPS. As first observed in this experiment, the $\\pi^{0} \\pi^{0}$ invariant mass (M_00) distribution shows a cusp-like anomaly in the region around $M_{00} = 2m_{+}$, where m_{+} is the charged pion mass. This anomaly has been interpreted as an effect due mainly to the final state charge exchange scattering process $\\pi^{+}\\pi^{-} \\to \\pi^{0} \\pi^{0}$ in $K^{\\pm} \\to \\pi^{\\pm} \\pi^{+} \\pi^{-}$ decay. Fits to the M_{00} distribution using two different theoretical models provide the presently most precise determination of $a_{0}-a_{2}$, the difference between the pi pi S-wave scattering lengths in the isospin I = 0 and I = 2 states. Higher-order pi pi rescattering terms, included in the two models, allow also an independent, though less precise, determination of a_2.

  5. Determination of the S-wave π π scattering lengths from a study of K ±→ π ± π 0 π 0 decays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batley, J. R.; Culling, A. J.; Kalmus, G.; Lazzeroni, C.; Munday, D. J.; Slater, M. W.; Wotton, S. A.; Arcidiacono, R.; Bocquet, G.; Cabibbo, N.; Ceccucci, A.; Cundy, D.; Falaleev, V.; Fidecaro, M.; Gatignon, L.; Gonidec, A.; Kubischta, W.; Norton, A.; Maier, A.; Patel, M.; Peters, A.; Balev, S.; Frabetti, P. L.; Goudzovski, E.; Hristov, P.; Kekelidze, V.; Kozhuharov, V.; Litov, L.; Madigozhin, D.; Marinova, E.; Molokanova, N.; Polenkevich, I.; Potrebenikov, Yu.; Stoynev, S.; Zinchenko, A.; Monnier, E.; Swallow, E.; Winston, R.; Rubin, P.; Walker, A.; Baldini, W.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Dalpiaz, P.; Damiani, C.; Fiorini, M.; Gianoli, A.; Martini, M.; Petrucci, F.; Savrié, M.; Scarpa, M.; Wahl, H.; Calvetti, M.; Iacopini, E.; Ruggiero, G.; Bizzeti, A.; Lenti, M.; Veltri, M.; Behler, M.; Eppard, K.; Kleinknecht, K.; Marouelli, P.; Masetti, L.; Moosbrugger, U.; Morales Morales, C.; Renk, B.; Wache, M.; Wanke, R.; Winhart, A.; Coward, D.; Dabrowski, A.; Fonseca Martin, T.; Shieh, M.; Szleper, M.; Velasco, M.; Wood, M. D.; Anzivino, G.; Imbergamo, E.; Nappi, A.; Piccini, M.; Raggi, M.; Valdata-Nappi, M.; Cenci, P.; Pepe, M.; Petrucci, M. C.; Cerri, C.; Fantechi, R.; Collazuol, G.; Dilella, L.; Lamanna, G.; Mannelli, I.; Michetti, A.; Costantini, F.; Doble, N.; Fiorini, L.; Giudici, S.; Pierazzini, G.; Sozzi, M.; Venditti, S.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Cheshkov, C.; Chèze, J. B.; de Beer, M.; Derré, J.; Marel, G.; Mazzucato, E.; Peyaud, B.; Vallage, B.; Holder, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Biino, C.; Cartiglia, N.; Marchetto, F.; Bifani, S.; Clemencic, M.; Goy Lopez, S.; Dibon, H.; Jeitler, M.; Markytan, M.; Mikulec, I.; Neuhofer, G.; Widhalm, L.

    2009-12-01

    We report the results from a study of the full sample of ˜6.031×107 K ±→ π ± π 0 π 0 decays recorded by the NA48/2 experiment at the CERN SPS. As first observed in this experiment, the π 0 π 0 invariant mass ( M 00) distribution shows a cusp-like anomaly in the region around M 00=2 m +, where m + is the charged pion mass. This anomaly has been interpreted as an effect due mainly to the final state charge exchange scattering process π + π -→ π 0 π 0 in K ±→ π ± π + π - decay. Fits to the M 00 distribution using two different theoretical formulations provide the presently most precise determination of a 0- a 2, the difference between the π π S-wave scattering lengths in the isospin I=0 and I=2 states. Higher-order π π rescattering terms, included in the two formulations, allow also an independent, though less precise, determination of a 2.

  6. Architecture of a Full-length Retroviral Integrase Monomer and Dimer, Revealed by Small Angle X-ray Scattering and Chemical Cross-linking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bojja, Ravi S.; Andrake, Mark D.; Weigand, Steven; Merkel, George; Yarychkivska, Olya; Henderson, Adam; Kummerling, Marissa; Skalka, Anna Marie (Fox Chase); (NWU)

    2012-02-07

    We determined the size and shape of full-length avian sarcoma virus (ASV) integrase (IN) monomers and dimers in solution using small angle x-ray scattering. The low resolution data obtained establish constraints for the relative arrangements of the three component domains in both forms. Domain organization within the small angle x-ray envelopes was determined by combining available atomic resolution data for individual domains with results from cross-linking coupled with mass spectrometry. The full-length dimer architecture so revealed is unequivocally different from that proposed from x-ray crystallographic analyses of two-domain fragments, in which interactions between the catalytic core domains play a prominent role. Core-core interactions are detected only in cross-linked IN tetramers and are required for concerted integration. The solution dimer is stabilized by C-terminal domain (CTD-CTD) interactions and by interactions of the N-terminal domain in one subunit with the core and CTD in the second subunit. These results suggest a pathway for formation of functional IN-DNA complexes that has not previously been considered and possible strategies for preventing such assembly.

  7. Thomson Scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donne, A. J. H.

    1994-01-01

    Thomson scattering is a very powerful diagnostic which is applied at nearly every magnetic confinement device. Depending on the experimental conditions different plasma parameters can be diagnosed. When the wave vector is much larger than the plasma Debye length, the total scattered power is

  8. Crystal structure of monoclinic samarium and cubic europium sesquioxides and bound coherent neutron scattering lengths of the isotopes {sup 154}Sm and {sup 153}Eu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohlmann, Holger [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Inorganic Chemistry; Hein, Christina; Kautenburger, Ralf [Saarland Univ., Saarbruecken (Germany). Inorganic Solid State Chemistry; Hansen, Thomas C.; Ritter, Clemens [Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble (France); Doyle, Stephen [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany). Inst. for Synchrotron Radiation (ISS)

    2016-11-01

    The crystal structures of monoclinic samarium and cubic europium sesquioxide, Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3}, were reinvestigated by powder diffraction methods (laboratory X-ray, synchrotron, neutron). Rietveld analysis yields more precise structural parameters than previously known, especially for oxygen atoms. Interatomic distances d(Sm-O) in Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} range from 226.3(4) to 275.9(2) pm [average 241.6(3) pm] for the monoclinic B type Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} [space group C2/m, a = 1418.04(3) pm, b = 362.660(7) pm, c = 885.48(2) pm, β = 100.028(1) ], d(Eu-O) in Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3} from 229.9(2) to 238.8(2) pm for the cubic bixbyite (C) type [space group Ia anti 3, a = 1086.87(1) pm]. Neutron diffraction at 50 K and 2 K did not show any sign for magnetic ordering in Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Isotopically enriched {sup 154}Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} and {sup 153}Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3} were used for the neutron diffraction work because of the enormous absorption cross section of the natural isotopic mixtures for thermal neutrons. The isotopic purity was determined by inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry to be 98.9% for {sup 154}Sm and 99.8% for {sup 153}Eu. Advanced analysis of the neutron diffraction data suggest that the bound coherent scattering lengths of {sup 154}Sm and {sup 153}Eu need to be revised. We tentatively propose b{sub c}({sup 154}Sm) = 8.97(6) fm and b{sub c}({sup 153}Eu) = 8.85(3) fm for a neutron wavelength of 186.6 pm to be better values for these isotopes, showing up to 8% deviation from accepted literature values. It is shown that inaccurate scattering lengths may result in severe problems in crystal structure refinements causing erroneous structural details such as occupation parameters, which might be critically linked to physical properties like superconductivity in multinary oxides.

  9. Interaction of the Full-length Bax Protein with Biomimetic Mitochondrial Liposomes: A Small-Angle Neutron Scattering and Fluorescence Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satsoura, D [McMaster University; Kucerka, Norbert [Canadian Neutron Beam Centre and Comelius University (Slovakia); Shivakumar, S [McMaster University; Pencer, J [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River Laboratories; Griffiths, C [McMaster University; Leber, B [McMaster University; Andrews, D.W [McMaster University; Katsaras, John [ORNL; Fradin, C [McMaster University

    2012-01-01

    In response to apoptotic stimuli, the pro-apoptotic protein Bax inserts in the outer mitochondrial membrane, resulting in the formation of pores and the release of several mitochondrial components, and sealing the cell's fate. To study the binding of Bax to membranes, we used an in vitro system consisting of 50 nm diameter liposomes prepared with a lipid composition mimicking that of mitochondrial membranes in which recombinant purified full-length Bax was inserted via activation with purified tBid. We detected the association of the protein with the membrane using fluorescence fluctuation methods, and found that it could well be described by an equilibrium between soluble and membrane-bound Bax and that at a high protein-toliposome ratio the binding seemed to saturate at about 15 Bax proteins per 50 nm diameter liposome. We then obtained structural data for samples in this saturated binding regime using small-angle neutron scattering under different contrast matching conditions. Utilizing a simple model to fit the neutron data, we observed that a significant amount of the protein mass protrudes above the membrane, in contrast to the conjecture that all of the membrane-associated Bax states are umbrella-like. Upon protein binding, we also observed a thinning of the lipid bilayer accompanied by an increase in liposome radius, an effect reminiscent of the action of antimicrobial peptides on membranes.

  10. Vertex part T -> d + n and its correlations with the triton binding energy and the doubling energy and the doublet nd-scattering length

    CERN Document Server

    Orlov, Y V; Nikitina, L I

    2002-01-01

    The asymptotic normalization constant C sub T sup 2 of triton is calculated in a two-body potential model with potentials having a Yukawa-type short-distance behavior and asymptotics V(r) -> const r sup - supnu exp(-mu r), where nu 0, 1, 2. It is shown that C sub T sup 2 decreases monotonically, while nu increases. The value of C sub T sup 2 monotonically declines with rising of the product (a sub 2 k), where a sub 2 is the doublet scattering length and k is the triton wave number. Such a behavior is in accordance with the effective range theory, taking k ctg delta pole into account, and with the general trend of the Faddeev calculation results. However, it is shown that some earlier N/D-method calculations give the opposite result: a sharp increase of C sub T sup 2. The T -> d + n-vertex-form-factor model calculations are compared with the known three-body result

  11. Observation of a cusp-like structure in the $\\pi^{0}\\pi^{0}$ invariant mass distribution from $K^{+-} \\to \\pi^{+-}\\pi^{0}\\pi^{0}$ decay and determination of the $\\pi\\pi$ scattering lengths

    CERN Document Server

    Batley, J Richard; Arcidiacono, R; Baldini, W; Balev, S; Behler, M; Biino, C; Bizzeti, A; Bloch-Devaux, B; Bocquet, G; Cabibbo, Nicola; Calvetti, M; Cartiglia, N; Ceccucci, A; Celeghini, E; Cenci, P; Cerri, C; Cheshkov, C; Chèze, J B; Clemencic, M; Collazuol, G; Costantini, F; Cotta-Ramusino, A; Coward, D; Cundy, Donald C; Dabrowski, A; Dalpiaz, P; Damiani, C; De Beer, M; Derré, J; Di Lella, Luigi; Dibon, Heinz; Doble, Niels T; Eppard, K; Falaleev, V; Fantechi, R; Fidecaro, Maria; Fiorini, L; Fiorini, M; Fonseca-Martin, T; Frabetti, P L; Gatignon, L; Gianoli, A; Giudici, Sergio; Gonidec, A; Goudzovski, E; Goy-Lopez, S; Holder, M; Iacopini, E; Imbergamo, E; Jeitler, Manfred; Kekelidze, V D; Khristov, P Z; Kleinknecht, K; Kozhuharov, V; Kubischta, Werner; Lamanna, G; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Lenti, M; Litov, L; Madigozhin, D T; Maier, A; Mannelli, I; Marchetto, F; Marel, Gérard; Marinova, E; Markytan, Manfred; Marouelli, P; Martelli, F; Martini, M; Masetti, L; Mazzucato, E; Michetti, A; Mikulec, I; Molokanova, N A; Monnier, E; Moosbrugger, U; Morales-Morales, C; Munday, D J; Neuhofer, G; Norton, A; Patel, M; Pepé, M; Peters, A; Petrucci, F; Petrucci, M C; Peyaud, B; Piccini, M; Pierazzini, G M; Polenkevich, I; Potrebenikov, Yu K; Raggi, M; Renk, B; Rubin, P; Ruggiero, G; Savrié, M; Scarpa, M; Shieh, M; Slater, M W; Sozzi, M; Stoynev, S; Swallow, E; Szleper, M; Valdata-Nappi, M; Vallage, B; Velasco, M; Veltri, M; Wache, M; Wahl, H; Walker, A; Wanke, R; Widhalm, L; Winhart, A; Winston, R; Wood, M D; Wotton, S A; Zinchenko, A I; Ziolkowski, M

    2006-01-01

    We report the results from a study of ~23 Million K+- ==> pi+- pizero pizero decays recorded by the NA48/2 experiment at the CERN SPS, showing an anomaly in the pizero pizero invariant mass distribution in the region around 2m+, where m+ is the charged pion mass. This anomaly, never observed in previous experiments, can be interpreted as an effect due mainly to the final state charge exchange scattering process pi+ pi- ==> pizero pizero in K+- ==> pi+- pi+ pi- decay. It provides a precise determination of a0 - a2, the difference between the pi-pi scattering lengths in the isospin I=0 and I=2 states.

  12. 'Length'at Length

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Admin

    Translation invariance, axiom of choice, continuum hypothesis, axiom of determinateness. B V Rao was a Professor at the Indian Statistical. Institute, Kolkata. Currently he is with the. Chennai Mathematical. Institute. This is the story of length, one of the simplest concepts. Starting with the concept of length for intervals, we ...

  13. Combining Single-Molecule Optical Trapping and Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering Measurements to Compute the Persistence Length of a Protein ER/K alpha-Helix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivaramakrishnan, S.; Sung, J.; Ali, M.

    2009-01-01

    A relatively unknown protein structure motif forms stable isolated single alpha-helices, termed ER/K alpha-helices, in a wide variety of proteins and has been shown to be essential for the function of some molecular motors. The flexibility of the ER/K alpha-helix determines whether it behaves...... as a force transducer, rigid spacer, or flexible linker in proteins. In this study, we quantity this flexibility in terms of persistence length, namely the length scale over which it is rigid. We use single-molecule optical trapping and small-angle x-ray scattering, combined with Monte Carlo simulations...... to demonstrate that the Kelch ER/K alpha-helix behaves as a wormlike chain with a persistence length of similar to 15 nm or similar to 28 turns of alpha-helix. The ER/K alpha-helix length in proteins varies from 3 to 60 nm, with a median length of similar to 5 nm. Knowledge of its persistence length enables us...

  14. Influence of length and conformation of saccharide head groups on the mechanics of glycolipid membranes: Unraveled by off-specular neutron scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Akihisa; Abuillan, Wasim; Burk, Alexandra S.; Körner, Alexander; Ries, Annika; Werz, Daniel B.; Demé, Bruno; Tanaka, Motomu

    2015-04-01

    The mechanical properties of multilayer stacks of Gb3 glycolipid that play key roles in metabolic disorders (Fabry disease) were determined quantitatively by using specular and off-specular neutron scattering. Because of the geometry of membrane stacks deposited on planar substrates, the scattered intensity profile was analyzed in a 2D reciprocal space map as a function of in-plane and out-of-plane scattering vector components. The two principal mechanical parameters of the membranes, namely, bending rigidity and compression modulus, can be quantified by full calculation of scattering functions with the aid of an effective cut-off radius that takes the finite sample size into consideration. The bulkier "bent" Gb3 trisaccharide group makes the membrane mechanics distinctly different from cylindrical disaccharide (lactose) head groups and shorter "bent" disaccharide (gentiobiose) head groups. The mechanical characterization of membranes enriched with complex glycolipids has high importance in understanding the mechanisms of diseases such as sphingolipidoses caused by the accumulation of non-degenerated glycosphingolipids in lysosomes or inhibition of protein synthesis triggered by the specific binding of Shiga toxin to Gb3.

  15. Influence of length and conformation of saccharide head groups on the mechanics of glycolipid membranes: Unraveled by off-specular neutron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Akihisa, E-mail: ayamamoto@icems.kyoto-u.ac.jp, E-mail: tanaka@uni-heidelberg.de; Tanaka, Motomu, E-mail: ayamamoto@icems.kyoto-u.ac.jp, E-mail: tanaka@uni-heidelberg.de [Physical Chemistry of Biosystems, Institute of Physical Chemistry, University of Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Institute for Integrated Cell-Material Sciences (iCeMS), Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Abuillan, Wasim; Körner, Alexander [Physical Chemistry of Biosystems, Institute of Physical Chemistry, University of Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Burk, Alexandra S. [Physical Chemistry of Biosystems, Institute of Physical Chemistry, University of Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Institute of Toxicology and Genetics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Ries, Annika [Institute of Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry, University of Göttingen, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Werz, Daniel B. [Institute of Organic Chemistry, Technische Universität Braunschweig, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Demé, Bruno [Institut Laue-Langevin, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9, Grenoble (France)

    2015-04-21

    The mechanical properties of multilayer stacks of Gb3 glycolipid that play key roles in metabolic disorders (Fabry disease) were determined quantitatively by using specular and off-specular neutron scattering. Because of the geometry of membrane stacks deposited on planar substrates, the scattered intensity profile was analyzed in a 2D reciprocal space map as a function of in-plane and out-of-plane scattering vector components. The two principal mechanical parameters of the membranes, namely, bending rigidity and compression modulus, can be quantified by full calculation of scattering functions with the aid of an effective cut-off radius that takes the finite sample size into consideration. The bulkier “bent” Gb3 trisaccharide group makes the membrane mechanics distinctly different from cylindrical disaccharide (lactose) head groups and shorter “bent” disaccharide (gentiobiose) head groups. The mechanical characterization of membranes enriched with complex glycolipids has high importance in understanding the mechanisms of diseases such as sphingolipidoses caused by the accumulation of non-degenerated glycosphingolipids in lysosomes or inhibition of protein synthesis triggered by the specific binding of Shiga toxin to Gb3.

  16. Quantum state-resolved molecular scattering of NO (2Π1/2 at the gas-[Cnmim][Tf2N] room temperature ionic liquid interface: Dependence on alkyl chain length, collision energy, and temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Zutz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs represent a promising class of chemically tunable, low vapor pressure solvents with myriad kinetic applications that depend sensitively on the nature of gas-molecule interactions at the liquid surface. This paper reports on rovibronically inelastic dynamics at the gas-RTIL interface, colliding supersonically cooled hyperthermal molecular beams of NO (Π1/22, N = 0 from 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonylimide (or [Cnmim][Tf2N] and probing the scattered NO molecules via laser induced fluorescence (LIF from the A(2Σ state. Specifically, inelastic energy transfer into NO rovibrational and electronic degrees of freedom is explored as a function of RTIL alkyl chain length (n, incident collision energy (Einc and surface temperature (Ts. At low collision energies (Einc = 2.7(9 kcal/mol, the scattered NO molecules exhibit a rotational temperature (Trot systematically colder than Ts for all chain lengths, which signals the presence of non-equilibrium dynamics in the desorption channel. At high collision energies (Einc = 20(2 kcal/mol, microscopic branching into trapping/desorption (TD and impulsive scattering (IS pathways is clearly evident, with the TD fraction (α exhibiting a step-like increase between short (n = 2, 4 and long (n = 8, 12, 16 alkyl chains consistent with theoretical predictions. For all hydrocarbon chain lengths and RTIL temperature conditions, NO rotational excitation in the IS channel yields hyperthermal albeit Boltzmann-like distributions well described by a “temperature” (TIS = 900 -1200 K that decreases systematically with increasing n. Non-adiabatic, collision induced hopping between ground and excited spin-orbit states is found to be independent of RTIL alkyl chain length and yet increase with collision energy. The scattering data confirm previous experimental reports of an enhanced presence of the alkyl tail at the gas-RTIL interface with increasing n, as well as

  17. Low-Resolution Structure of the Full-Length Barley (Hordeum vulgare) SGT1 Protein in Solution, Obtained Using Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taube, Michał; Pieńkowska, Joanna R.; Jarmołowski, Artur; Kozak, Maciej

    2014-01-01

    SGT1 is an evolutionarily conserved eukaryotic protein involved in many important cellular processes. In plants, SGT1 is involved in resistance to disease. In a low ionic strength environment, the SGT1 protein tends to form dimers. The protein consists of three structurally independent domains (the tetratricopeptide repeats domain (TPR), the CHORD- and SGT1-containing domain (CS), and the SGT1-specific domain (SGS)), and two less conserved variable regions (VR1 and VR2). In the present study, we provide the low-resolution structure of the barley (Hordeum vulgare) SGT1 protein in solution and its dimer/monomer equilibrium using small-angle scattering of synchrotron radiation, ab-initio modeling and circular dichroism spectroscopy. The multivariate curve resolution least-square method (MCR-ALS) was applied to separate the scattering data of the monomeric and dimeric species from a complex mixture. The models of the barley SGT1 dimer and monomer were formulated using rigid body modeling with ab-initio structure prediction. Both oligomeric forms of barley SGT1 have elongated shapes with unfolded inter-domain regions. Circular dichroism spectroscopy confirmed that the barley SGT1 protein had a modular architecture, with an α-helical TPR domain, a β-sheet sandwich CS domain, and a disordered SGS domain separated by VR1 and VR2 regions. Using molecular docking and ab-initio protein structure prediction, a model of dimerization of the TPR domains was proposed. PMID:24714665

  18. Determination of the S-wave {pi}{pi} scattering lengths from a study of K{sup {+-}}{yields}{pi}{sup {+-}}{pi}{sup 0} {pi}0 decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batley, J.R.; Culling, A.J.; Kalmus, G.; Lazzeroni, C.; Munday, D.J.; Slater, M.W.; Wotton, S.A. [University of Cambridge, Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Arcidiacono, R.; Bocquet, G.; Cabibbo, N.; Ceccucci, A.; Cundy, D.; Falaleev, V.; Fidecaro, M.; Gatignon, L.; Gonidec, A.; Kubischta, W.; Norton, A.; Maier, A.; Patel, M.; Peters, A. [CERN, Geneve 23 (Switzerland); Balev, S.; Frabetti, P.L.; Goudzovski, E.; Hristov, P.; Kekelidze, V.; Kozhuharov, V.; Litov, L.; Madigozhin, D.; Marinova, E.; Molokanova, N.; Polenkevich, I.; Potrebenikov, Yu.; Stoynev, S.; Zinchenko, A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Monnier, E.; Swallow, E.; Winston, R. [Univ. of Chicago, Enrico Fermi Institute, Chicago, IL (United States); Rubin, P.; Walker, A. [Univ. of Edinburgh, Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Baldini, W.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Dalpiaz, P.; Damiani, C.; Fiorini, M.; Gianoli, A.; Martini, M.; Petrucci, F.; Savrie, M.; Scarpa, M.; Wahl, H. [Dipt. di Fisica dell' Universita e Sezione dell' INFN di Ferrara, Ferrara (Italy); Calvetti, M.; Iacopini, E.; Ruggiero, G. [Dipt. di Fisica dell' Universita e Sezione dell' INFN di Firenze, Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Bizzeti, A.; Lenti, M.; Veltri, M. [Sezione dell' INFN di Firenze, Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Behler, M.; Eppard, K.; Kleinknecht, K.; Marouelli, P.; Masetti, L.; Moosbrugger, U.; Morales Morales, C.; Renk, B.; Wache, M.; Wanke, R.; Winhart, A. [Univ. Mainz, Inst. fuer Physik, Mainz (Germany); Coward, D.; Dabrowski, A.; Fonseca Martin, T.; Shieh, M.; Szleper, M.; Velasco, M.; Wood, M.D. [Northwestern Univ., Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Evanston, IL (United States); Anzivino, G.; Imbergamo, E.; Nappi, A.; Piccini, M.; Raggi, M.; Valdata-Nappi, M. [Dipt. di Fisica dell' Universita e Sezione dell' INFN di Perugia, Perugia (Italy); Cenci, P.; Pepe, M.; Petrucci, M.C. [Sezione dell' INFN di Perugia, Perugia (Italy)] [and others

    2009-12-15

    We report the results from a study of the full sample of {proportional_to}6.031 x 10{sup 7} K{sup {+-}}{yields}{pi}{sup {+-}}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0} decays recorded by the NA48/2 experiment at the CERN SPS. As first observed in this experiment, the {pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0} invariant mass (M{sub 00}) distribution shows a cusp-like anomaly in the region around M{sub 00}=2m{sub +}, where m{sub +} is the charged pion mass. This anomaly has been interpreted as an effect due mainly to the final state charge exchange scattering process {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{yields}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0} in K{sup {+-}}{yields}{pi}{sup {+-}}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} decay. Fits to the M{sub 00} distribution using two different theoretical formulations provide the presently most precise determination of a{sub 0}-a{sub 2}, the difference between the {pi}{pi} S-wave scattering lengths in the isospin I=0 and I=2 states. Higher-order {pi}{pi} rescattering terms, included in the two formulations, allow also an independent, though less precise, determination of a{sub 2}. (orig.)

  19. Incoherent Thomson scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donne, A. J. H.

    1996-01-01

    Thomson scattering is a very powerful diagnostic which is applied at nearly every magnetic confinement device. Depending on the experimental conditions different plasma parameters can be diagnosed. When the wave vector is much larger than the plasma Debye length, the total scattered power is

  20. Flame Length

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Flame length was modeled using FlamMap, an interagency fire behavior mapping and analysis program that computes potential fire behavior characteristics. The tool...

  1. Diffuse scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostorz, G. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Angewandte Physik, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1996-12-31

    While Bragg scattering is characteristic for the average structure of crystals, static local deviations from the average lattice lead to diffuse elastic scattering around and between Bragg peaks. This scattering thus contains information on the occupation of lattice sites by different atomic species and on static local displacements, even in a macroscopically homogeneous crystalline sample. The various diffuse scattering effects, including those around the incident beam (small-angle scattering), are introduced and illustrated by typical results obtained for some Ni alloys. (author) 7 figs., 41 refs.

  2. Critical scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stirling, W.G. [Liverpool Univ., Dep. of Physics, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Perry, S.C. [Keele Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics

    1996-12-31

    We outline the theoretical and experimental background to neutron scattering studies of critical phenomena at magnetic and structural phase transitions. The displacive phase transition of SrTiO{sub 3} is discussed, along with examples from recent work on magnetic materials from the rare-earth (Ho, Dy) and actinide (NpAs, NpSb, USb) classes. The impact of synchrotron X-ray scattering is discussed in conclusion. (author) 13 figs., 18 refs.

  3. Development of asymptotic methods for the study of interactions between cold atoms: determination of scattering lengths of sodium and cesium; Developpement de methodes asymptotiques pour l'etude des interactions entre atomes froids: determination de longueurs de diffusion du sodium et du cesium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T' Jampens, B

    2002-12-15

    Precise knowledge of cold-atom collision properties is essential for the studies of Bose-Einstein condensation or cold molecule formation. In such experiments, the interaction mainly occurs at rather large interatomic distance, in the so-called asymptotic region. We have developed a purely asymptotic method which allows us to fully describe the collision properties of cold alkali atoms without using the inner part of the molecular potentials, which is often known with a poor precision. The key point of the method is the setting of nodal lines, which are the lines connecting the nodes of successive radial wavefunctions near the ground state threshold. Within the framework of Born-Oppenheimer approximation, computing such nodal lines, by numerical integration of the radial Schroedinger equation in the asymptotic region only, provides a very simple way to derive scattering lengths from observed bound level positions. The method has been extended to the multichannel case and appears now as a genuine parametric method, in which a few parameters (some chosen nodal lines) replace the inner part of the potentials. These nodal lines are used as fitting parameters, which are adjusted on experimental results. Once these parameters have been determined, any collision property such as scattering lengths, clock shifts or magnetic field induced Feshbach resonances can be deduced in principle. This method has been applied to obtain the collision properties of ultracold sodium and cesium atoms. (author)

  4. Compton scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botto, D.J.; Pratt, R.H.

    1979-05-01

    The current status of Compton scattering, both experimental observations and the theoretical predictions, is examined. Classes of experiments are distinguished and the results obtained are summarized. The validity of the incoherent scattering function approximation and the impulse approximation is discussed. These simple theoretical approaches are compared with predictions of the nonrelativistic dipole formula of Gavrila and with the relativistic results of Whittingham. It is noted that the A/sup -2/ based approximations fail to predict resonances and an infrared divergence, both of which have been observed. It appears that at present the various available theoretical approaches differ significantly in their predictions and that further and more systematic work is required.

  5. Critical fluid light scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammon, Robert W.

    1988-01-01

    The objective is to measure the decay rates of critical density fluctuations in a simple fluid (xenon) very near its liquid-vapor critical point using laser light scattering and photon correlation spectroscopy. Such experiments were severely limited on Earth by the presence of gravity which causes large density gradients in the sample when the compressibility diverges approaching the critical point. The goal is to measure fluctuation decay rates at least two decades closer to the critical point than is possible on earth, with a resolution of 3 microK. This will require loading the sample to 0.1 percent of the critical density and taking data as close as 100 microK to the critical temperature. The minimum mission time of 100 hours will allow a complete range of temperature points to be covered, limited by the thermal response of the sample. Other technical problems have to be addressed such as multiple scattering and the effect of wetting layers. The experiment entails measurement of the scattering intensity fluctuation decay rate at two angles for each temperature and simultaneously recording the scattering intensities and sample turbidity (from the transmission). The analyzed intensity and turbidity data gives the correlation length at each temperature and locates the critical temperature. The fluctuation decay rate data from these measurements will provide a severe test of the generalized hydrodynamic theories of transport coefficients in the critical regions. When compared to equivalent data from binary liquid critical mixtures they will test the universality of critical dynamics.

  6. Scattering problems in elastodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Diatta, Andre; Wegener, Martin; Guenneau, Sebastien

    2016-01-01

    In electromagnetism, acoustics, and quantum mechanics, scattering problems can routinely be solved numerically by virtue of perfectly matched layers (PMLs) at simulation domain boundaries. Unfortunately, the same has not been possible for general elastodynamic wave problems in continuum mechanics. In this paper, we introduce a corresponding scattered-field formulation for the Navier equation. We derive PMLs based on complex-valued coordinate transformations leading to Cosserat elasticity-tensor distributions not obeying the minor symmetries. These layers are shown to work in two dimensions, for all polarizations, and all directions. By adaptative choice of the decay length, the deep subwavelength PMLs can be used all the way to the quasi-static regime. As demanding examples, we study the effectiveness of cylindrical elastodynamic cloaks of the Cosserat type and approximations thereof.

  7. Investigation of the effect of scattering agent and scattering albedo on modulated light propagation in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, Linda; Alley, Derek; Cochenour, Brandon

    2011-04-01

    A recent paper described experiments completed to study the effect of scattering on the propagation of modulated light in laboratory tank water [Appl. Opt.48, 2607 (2009)APOPAI0003-693510.1364/AO.48.002607]. Those measurements were limited to a specific scattering agent (Maalox antacid) with a fixed scattering albedo (0.95). The purpose of this paper is to study the effects of different scattering agents and scattering albedos on modulated light propagation in water. The results show that the scattering albedo affects the number of attenuation lengths that the modulated optical signal propagates without distortion, while the type of scattering agent affects the degree to which the modulation is distorted with increasing attenuation length. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  8. Incoherent Thomson scattering as a diagnostic tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barth, C. J.

    1998-01-01

    Thomson scattering is a very powerful diagnostic which is applied at nearly every magnetic confinement device. Depending on the experimental conditions different plasma parameters can be diagnosed. When the wavelength is much smaller than the plasma Debye length, the total scattered power is

  9. Electron Effective-Attenuation-Length Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 82 NIST Electron Effective-Attenuation-Length Database (PC database, no charge)   This database provides values of electron effective attenuation lengths (EALs) in solid elements and compounds at selected electron energies between 50 eV and 2,000 eV. The database was designed mainly to provide EALs (to account for effects of elastic-eletron scattering) for applications in surface analysis by Auger-electron spectroscopy (AES) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).

  10. Scattering theory

    CERN Document Server

    Friedrich, Harald

    2016-01-01

    This corrected and updated second edition of "Scattering Theory" presents a concise and modern coverage of the subject. In the present treatment, special attention is given to the role played by the long-range behaviour of the projectile-target interaction, and a theory is developed, which is well suited to describe near-threshold bound and continuum states in realistic binary systems such as diatomic molecules or molecular ions. It is motivated by the fact that experimental advances have shifted and broadened the scope of applications where concepts from scattering theory are used, e.g. to the field of ultracold atoms and molecules, which has been experiencing enormous growth in recent years, largely triggered by the successful realization of Bose-Einstein condensates of dilute atomic gases in 1995. The book contains sections on special topics such as near-threshold quantization, quantum reflection, Feshbach resonances and the quantum description of scattering in two dimensions. The level of abstraction is k...

  11. Controlling the optical path length in turbid media using differential path-length spectroscopy: fiber diameter dependence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaspers, O. P.; Sterenborg, H. J. C. M.; Amelink, A.

    2008-01-01

    We have characterized the path length for the differential path-length spectroscopy (DPS) fiber optic geometry for a wide range of optical properties and for fiber diameters ranging from 200 mu m to 1000 mu m. Phantom measurements show that the path length is nearly constant for scattering

  12. Recoil corrections in antikaon-deuteron scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai Maxim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the non-relativistic effective field theory approach for K−d scattering, it is demonstrated that a systematic perturbative expansion of the recoil corrections in the parameter ξ = MK/mN is possible in spite of the fact that K−d scattering at low energies is inherently non-perturbative due to the large values of the K̄N scattering lengths. The first order correction to the K−d scattering length due to single insertion of the retardation term in the multiple-scattering series is calculated. The recoil effect turns out to be reasonably small even at the physical value of MK/mN ≃ 0:5.

  13. Path length enhancement in disordered media for increased absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mupparapu, Rajeshkumar; Vynck, Kevin; Svensson, Tomas; Burresi, Matteo; Wiersma, Diederik S.

    2015-11-01

    We theoretically and numerically investigate the capability of disordered media to enhance the optical path length in dielectric slabs and augment their light absorption efficiency due to scattering. We first perform a series of Monte Carlo simulations of random walks to determine the path length distribution in weakly to strongly (single to multiple) scattering, non-absorbing dielectric slabs under normally incident light and derive analytical expressions for the path length enhancement in these two limits. Quite interestingly, while multiple scattering is expected to produce long optical paths, we find that media containing a vanishingly small amount of scatterers can still provide high path length enhancements due to the very long trajectories sustained by total internal reflection at the slab interfaces. The path length distributions are then used to calculate the light absorption efficiency of media with varying absorption coefficients. We find that maximum absorption enhancement is obtained at an optimal scattering strength, in-between the single-scattering and the diffusive (strong multiple-scattering) regimes. This study can guide experimentalists towards more efficient and potentially low-cost solutions in photovoltaic technologies.

  14. Scattering length density profile of Ni film under controlled corrosion ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We report the density depth profile of an as-deposited Ni film and density profile for the same film after controlled electrochemical corrosion by chloride ions, mea- sured by unpolarized neutron reflectometry. The neutron reflectometry measurement of the film after corrosion shows density degradation along the ...

  15. Scattering length density profile of Ni film under controlled corrosion ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We report the density depth profile of an as-deposited Ni film and density profile for the same film after controlled electrochemical corrosion by chloride ions, measured by unpolarized neutron reflectometry. The neutron reflectometry measurement of the film after corrosion shows density degradation along the thickness of ...

  16. The dependence of scattering length on van der Waals interaction ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    RAY HASI1 2 3 4. Study Centre, S-1/407/6, B.P. Township, Kolkata 700 094, India; Department of Physics, New Alipore College, New Alipore, Kolkata 700 053, India; Department of Science, NITTTR-K, Salt Lake, Kolkata 700 106, India; Code 671, Heliophysics Division, GSFC, NASA, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771, USA ...

  17. The dependence of scattering length on van der Waals interaction ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-06-16

    adiabatic effects. So inclusion of both these effects are extremely useful to describe the cold energy atomic collision processes. It could pro- vide better information if van der Waals interaction is included in all the systems with different ...

  18. On measuring the neutron coherent scattering length with ultrahigh ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    to account for the neutron beam refraction at the sample-ambient interfaces, to infer the correct bc from the observed phase. The formula for the phase used hitherto is approxi- mate and would significantly overestimate bc. The refractive index for neutrons can thus be determined to a phenomenal precision of a few parts in ...

  19. Controlling the optical path length in turbid media using differential path-length spectroscopy: fiber diameter dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspers, O P; Sterenborg, H J C M; Amelink, A

    2008-01-20

    We have characterized the path length for the differential path-length spectroscopy (DPS) fiber optic geometry for a wide range of optical properties and for fiber diameters ranging from 200 microm to 1000 microm. Phantom measurements show that the path length is nearly constant for scattering coefficients in the range 5 mm(-1)path length is proportional to the fiber diameter. The path length decreases with increasing absorption for all fiber diameters, and this effect is more pronounced for larger fiber diameters. An empirical model is formulated that relates the DPS path length to total absorption for all fiber diameters simultaneously.

  20. Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giebink, Noel C. [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States)

    2015-01-31

    concentrator optical efficiency was found to decrease significantly with increasing aperture width beyond 0.5 m due to parasitic waveguide out-coupling loss and low-level absorption that become dominant at larger scale. A heat transfer model was subsequently implemented to predict collector fluid heat gain and outlet temperature as a function of flow rate using the optical model as a flux input. It was found that the aperture width size limitation imposed by the optical efficiency characteristics of the waveguide limits the absolute optical power delivered to the heat transfer element per unit length. As compared to state-of-the-art parabolic trough CPV system aperture widths approaching 5 m, this limitation leads to an approximate factor of order of magnitude increase in heat transfer tube length to achieve the same heat transfer fluid outlet temperature. The conclusion of this work is that scattering solar thermal concentration cannot be implemented at the scale and efficiency required to compete with the performance of current parabolic trough CSP systems. Applied within the alternate context of CPV, however, the results of this work have likely opened up a transformative new path that enables quasi-static, high efficiency CPV to be implemented on rooftops in the form factor of traditional fixed-panel photovoltaics.

  1. Zero energy scattering calculation in Euclidean space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbonell, J. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire, Université Paris-Sud, IN2P3-CNRS, 91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Karmanov, V.A., E-mail: karmanov@sci.lebedev.ru [Lebedev Physical Institute, Leninsky Prospekt 53, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-03-10

    We show that the Bethe–Salpeter equation for the scattering amplitude in the limit of zero incident energy can be transformed into a purely Euclidean form, as it is the case for the bound states. The decoupling between Euclidean and Minkowski amplitudes is only possible for zero energy scattering observables and allows determining the scattering length from the Euclidean Bethe–Salpeter amplitude. Such a possibility strongly simplifies the numerical solution of the Bethe–Salpeter equation and suggests an alternative way to compute the scattering length in Lattice Euclidean calculations without using the Luscher formalism. The derivations contained in this work were performed for scalar particles and one-boson exchange kernel. They can be generalized to the fermion case and more involved interactions.

  2. Bidirectional optical scattering facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Goniometric optical scatter instrument (GOSI)The bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) quantifies the angular distribution of light scattered from a...

  3. Scattering theory of molecules, atoms and nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Canto, L Felipe

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the book is to give a coherent and comprehensive account of quantum scattering theory with applications to atomic, molecular and nuclear systems. The motivation for this is to supply the necessary theoretical tools to calculate scattering observables of these many-body systems. Concepts which are seemingly different for atomic/molecular scattering from those of nuclear systems, are shown to be the same once physical units such as energy and length are diligently clarified. Many-body resonances excited in nuclear systems are the same as those in atomic systems and come under the name

  4. Path-length-resolved optical Doppler perfusion monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Varghese, Babu; Rajan, Vinayakrishnan; van Leeuwen, Ton; Steenbergen, Wiendelt

    2007-01-01

    We report the first path-length-resolved perfusion measurements on human skin measured with a phase-modulated low-coherence Mach-Zehnder interferometer with spatially separated fibers for illumination and detection. Optical path lengths of Doppler shifted and unshifted light and path-length-dependent Doppler broadening of multiply scattered light from skin are measured from the Doppler broadened interference peaks appearing in the power spectrum. Perfusion and its variations during occlusion ...

  5. Neutron scattering. Lectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner (eds.)

    2010-07-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Neutron sources, symmetry of crystals, diffraction, nanostructures investigated by small-angle neutron scattering, the structure of macromolecules, spin dependent and magnetic scattering, structural analysis, neutron reflectometry, magnetic nanostructures, inelastic scattering, strongly correlated electrons, dynamics of macromolecules, applications of neutron scattering. (HSI)

  6. Neutron scattering. Lectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner (eds.)

    2010-07-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Neutron sources, neutron properties and elastic scattering, correlation functions measured by scattering experiments, symmetry of crystals, applications of neutron scattering, polarized-neutron scattering and polarization analysis, structural analysis, magnetic and lattice excitation studied by inelastic neutron scattering, macromolecules and self-assembly, dynamics of macromolecules, correlated electrons in complex transition-metal oxides, surfaces, interfaces, and thin films investigated by neutron reflectometry, nanomagnetism. (HSI)

  7. Neandertal clavicle length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinkaus, Erik; Holliday, Trenton W.; Auerbach, Benjamin M.

    2014-01-01

    The Late Pleistocene archaic humans from western Eurasia (the Neandertals) have been described for a century as exhibiting absolutely and relatively long clavicles. This aspect of their body proportions has been used to distinguish them from modern humans, invoked to account for other aspects of their anatomy and genetics, used in assessments of their phylogenetic polarities, and used as evidence for Late Pleistocene population relationships. However, it has been unclear whether the usual scaling of Neandertal clavicular lengths to their associated humeral lengths reflects long clavicles, short humeri, or both. Neandertal clavicle lengths, along with those of early modern humans and latitudinally diverse recent humans, were compared with both humeral lengths and estimated body masses (based on femoral head diameters). The Neandertal do have long clavicles relative their humeri, even though they fall within the ranges of variation of early and recent humans. However, when scaled to body masses, their humeral lengths are relatively short, and their clavicular lengths are indistinguishable from those of Late Pleistocene and recent modern humans. The few sufficiently complete Early Pleistocene Homo clavicles seem to have relative lengths also well within recent human variation. Therefore, appropriately scaled clavicular length seems to have varied little through the genus Homo, and it should not be used to account for other aspects of Neandertal biology or their phylogenetic status. PMID:24616525

  8. Neandertal clavicle length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinkaus, Erik; Holliday, Trenton W; Auerbach, Benjamin M

    2014-03-25

    The Late Pleistocene archaic humans from western Eurasia (the Neandertals) have been described for a century as exhibiting absolutely and relatively long clavicles. This aspect of their body proportions has been used to distinguish them from modern humans, invoked to account for other aspects of their anatomy and genetics, used in assessments of their phylogenetic polarities, and used as evidence for Late Pleistocene population relationships. However, it has been unclear whether the usual scaling of Neandertal clavicular lengths to their associated humeral lengths reflects long clavicles, short humeri, or both. Neandertal clavicle lengths, along with those of early modern humans and latitudinally diverse recent humans, were compared with both humeral lengths and estimated body masses (based on femoral head diameters). The Neandertal do have long clavicles relative their humeri, even though they fall within the ranges of variation of early and recent humans. However, when scaled to body masses, their humeral lengths are relatively short, and their clavicular lengths are indistinguishable from those of Late Pleistocene and recent modern humans. The few sufficiently complete Early Pleistocene Homo clavicles seem to have relative lengths also well within recent human variation. Therefore, appropriately scaled clavicular length seems to have varied little through the genus Homo, and it should not be used to account for other aspects of Neandertal biology or their phylogenetic status.

  9. Spectral shifts and spectral switches produced by scattering from a random hollow scatterer with adjustable shell thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jianyang; Zhao, Daomu

    2017-05-01

    Within the accuracy of the first-order Born approximation, the spectral shifts and spectral switches produced by the scattering of an electromagnetic light wave from a random hollow scatterer with adjustable shell thickness have been investigated. The effects of the properties of the scatterer and the incident light wave on the far-zone scattered spectrum have been discussed in detail by using numerical examples. It is shown that, as the scattering angle increases, the scattered spectrum will split into two peaks, and subsequently the two peaks will make a rapid transition as a spectral switch. The position at which the spectral switch occurs is affected by the shell thickness, the outer and inner correlation lengths of the scatterer as well as the polarization of the incident light. Besides, the polarization of the incident light also has an impact on the spectral width of the scattered field.

  10. Universal dimer–dimer scattering in lattice effective field theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar Elhatisari

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We consider two-component fermions with short-range interactions and large scattering length. This system has universal properties that are realized in several different fields of physics. In the limit of large fermion–fermion scattering length aff and zero-range interaction, all properties of the system scale proportionally with aff. For the case with shallow bound dimers, we calculate the dimer–dimer scattering phase shifts using lattice effective field theory. We extract the universal dimer–dimer scattering length add/aff=0.618(30 and effective range rdd/aff=−0.431(48. This result for the effective range is the first calculation with quantified and controlled systematic errors. We also benchmark our methods by computing the fermion–dimer scattering parameters and testing some predictions of conformal scaling of irrelevant operators near the unitarity limit.

  11. Lectures in scattering theory

    CERN Document Server

    Sitenko, A G

    1971-01-01

    Lectures in Scattering Theory discusses problems in quantum mechanics and the principles of the non-relativistic theory of potential scattering. This book describes in detail the properties of the scattering matrix and its connection with physically observable quantities. This text presents a stationary formulation of the scattering problem and the wave functions of a particle found in an external field. This book also examines the analytic properties of the scattering matrix, dispersion relations, complex angular moments, as well as the separable representation of the scattering amplitude. Th

  12. Effects of finite laser coherence in quasielastic multiple scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellini, T.; Glaser, M. A.; Clark, N. A.; Degiorgio, V.

    1991-10-01

    We have studied the amplitude and temporal correlations of intensity fluctuations of multiply scattered light transmitted through a colloidal suspension. When the coherence length lc of the incident light becomes comparable to the width of the probability distribution of photon-path lengths, both the amplitude and dynamics of intensity fluctuations become functions of lc. In this article we present a simple theory that relates these coherence effects to the photon path-length distribution P(L). We have tested this theory using P(L) calculated from computer simulations and from the diffusion approximation, and find that our theory qualitatively accounts for the observed dependences on coherence length. Our results indicate when the effects of finite laser coherence must be taken into account in quasielastic multiple scattering. In the few-scattering regime of quasielastic multiple scattering, we find that the intensity autocorrelation function generally has a stretched-exponential form, and we discuss the origin of this behavior.

  13. A new SERS: scattering enhanced Raman scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bixler, Joel N.; Yakovlev, Vladislav V.

    2014-03-01

    Raman spectroscopy is a powerful technique that can be used to obtain detailed chemical information about a system without the need for chemical markers. It has been widely used for a variety of applications such as cancer diagnosis and material characterization. However, Raman scattering is a highly inefficient process, where only one in 1011 scattered photons carry the needed information. Several methods have been developed to enhance this inherently weak effect, including surface enhanced Raman scattering and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering. These techniques suffer from drawbacks limiting their commercial use, such as the need for spatial localization of target molecules to a `hot spot', or the need for complex laser systems. Here, we present a simple instrument to enhance spontaneous Raman scattering using elastic light scattering. Elastic scattering is used to substantially increase the interaction volume. Provided that the scattering medium exhibits very low absorption in the spectral range of interest, a large enhancement factor can be attained in a simple and inexpensive setting. In our experiments, we demonstrate an enhancement of 107 in Raman signal intensity. The proposed novel device is equally applicable for analyzing solids, liquids, and gases.

  14. Electromagnetic wave scattering from some vegetation samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, Mostafa A.; Fung, Adrian K.; Antar, Yahia M.

    1988-01-01

    For an incident plane wave, the field inside a thin scatterer (disk and needle) is estimated by the generalized Rayleigh-Gans (GRG) approximation. This leads to a scattering amplitude tensor equal to that obtained via the Rayleigh approximation (dipole term) with a modifying function. For a finite-length cylinder the inner field is estimated by the corresponding field for the same cylinder of infinite lenght. The effects of different approaches in estimating the field inside the scatterer on the backscattering cross section are illustrated numerically for a circular disk, a needle, and a finite-length cylinder as a function of the wave number and the incidence angle. Finally, the modeling predictions are compared with measurements.

  15. Plane-wave scattering from half-wave dipole arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels E.

    1970-01-01

    A matrix equation for determination of plane-wave scattering from arrays of thin short-circuited dipoles of lengths about half a wavelength is derived. Numerical and experimental results are presented for linear, circular, and concentric circular arrays.......A matrix equation for determination of plane-wave scattering from arrays of thin short-circuited dipoles of lengths about half a wavelength is derived. Numerical and experimental results are presented for linear, circular, and concentric circular arrays....

  16. On the nucleon–nucleon scattering phase shifts through ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The constructed equivalent Yamaguchi potential fits the S-wave scattering phase shifts from. 0 to 300 MeV. At the same time they have also parametrized Hulthen potential to fit the deuteron binding energy and S-wave scattering length. Since its appearance, the. Pramana – J. Phys., Vol. 81, No. 6, December 2013. 959 ...

  17. Path-length-resolved optical Doppler perfusion monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Babu; Rajan, Vinayakrishnan; Van Leeuwen, Ton G; Steenbergen, Wiendelt

    2007-01-01

    We report the first path-length-resolved perfusion measurements on human skin measured with a phase-modulated low-coherence Mach-Zehnder interferometer with spatially separated fibers for illumination and detection. Optical path lengths of Doppler shifted and unshifted light and path-length-dependent Doppler broadening of multiply scattered light from skin are measured from the Doppler broadened interference peaks appearing in the power spectrum. Perfusion and its variations during occlusion are measured in real time for a given optical path length, and the results are compared with the perfusion signal obtained with a conventional laser Doppler perfusion monitor.

  18. Telomere length and depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wium-Andersen, Marie Kim; Ørsted, David Dynnes; Rode, Line

    2017-01-01

    as prospectively and genetically. METHOD: Telomere length and three polymorphisms, TERT, TERC and OBFC1, were measured in 67 306 individuals aged 20-100 years from the Danish general population and associated with register-based attendance at hospital for depression and purchase of antidepressant medication.......0-21.5). The genetic analyses suggested that telomere length was not causally associated with attendance at hospital for depression or with purchase of antidepressant medication. CONCLUSIONS: Short telomeres were not associated with depression in prospective or in causal, genetic analyses.......BACKGROUND: Depression has been cross-sectionally associated with short telomeres as a measure of biological age. However, the direction and nature of the association is currently unclear. AIMS: We examined whether short telomere length is associated with depression cross-sectionally as well...

  19. Relativistic Length Agony Continued

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redzic, D. V.

    2014-06-01

    We made an attempt to remedy recent confusing treatments of some basic relativistic concepts and results. Following the argument presented in an earlier paper (Redzic 2008b), we discussed the misconceptions that are recurrent points in the literature devoted to teaching relativity such as: there is no change in the object in Special Relativity, illusory character of relativistic length contraction, stresses and strains induced by Lorentz contraction, and related issues. We gave several examples of the traps of everyday language that lurk in Special Relativity. To remove a possible conceptual and terminological muddle, we made a distinction between the relativistic length reduction and relativistic FitzGerald-Lorentz contraction, corresponding to a passive and an active aspect of length contraction, respectively; we pointed out that both aspects have fundamental dynamical contents. As an illustration of our considerations, we discussed briefly the Dewan-Beran-Bell spaceship paradox and the 'pole in a barn' paradox.

  20. Telomere Length and Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kimura, Masayuki; Hjelmborg, Jacob V B; Gardner, Jeffrey P

    2008-01-01

    Leukocyte telomere length, representing the mean length of all telomeres in leukocytes, is ostensibly a bioindicator of human aging. The authors hypothesized that shorter telomeres might forecast imminent mortality in elderly people better than leukocyte telomere length. They performed mortality...... telomeres predicted the death of the first co-twin better than the mTRFL did (mTRFL: 0.56, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.49, 0.63; mTRFL(50): 0.59, 95% CI: 0.52, 0.66; mTRFL(25): 0.59, 95% CI: 0.52, 0.66; MTRFL: 0.60, 95% CI: 0.53, 0.67). The telomere-mortality association was stronger in years 3-4 than...

  1. Scattering anomaly in optics

    CERN Document Server

    Silveirinha, Mario G

    2016-01-01

    In time-reversal invariant electronic systems the scattering matrix is anti-symmetric. This property enables an effect, designated here as "scattering anomaly", such that the electron transport does not suffer from back reflections, independent of the specific geometry of the propagation path or the presence of time-reversal invariant defects. In contrast, for a generic time-reversal invariant photonic system the scattering matrix is symmetric and there is no similar anomaly. Here, it is theoretically proven that despite these fundamental differences there is a wide class of photonic platforms - in some cases formed only by time-reversal invariant media - in which the scattering anomaly can occur. It is shown that an optical system invariant under the action of the composition of the time-reversal, parity and duality operators is characterized by an anti-symmetric scattering matrix. Specific examples of photonic platforms wherein the scattering anomaly occurs are given, and it is demonstrated with full wave n...

  2. Scattering of Skyrmions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Foster

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a detailed study of Skyrmion–Skyrmion scattering for two B=1 Skyrmions in the attractive channel where we observe two different scattering regimes. For large separation, the scattering can be approximated as interacting dipoles. We give a qualitative estimate when this approximation breaks down. For small separations we observe an additional short-range repulsion which is qualitatively similar to monopole scattering. We also observe the interesting effect of “rotation without rotating” whereby two Skyrmions, whose orientations remain constant while well-separated, change their orientation after scattering. We can explain this effect by following preimages through the scattering process, thereby measuring which part of an in-coming Skyrmion forms part of an out-going Skyrmion. This leads to a new way of visualising Skyrmions. Furthermore, we consider spinning Skyrmions and find interesting trajectories.

  3. Relativistic length agony continued

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redžić D.V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We made an attempt to remedy recent confusing treatments of some basic relativistic concepts and results. Following the argument presented in an earlier paper (Redžić 2008b, we discussed the misconceptions that are recurrent points in the literature devoted to teaching relativity such as: there is no change in the object in Special Relativity, illusory character of relativistic length contraction, stresses and strains induced by Lorentz contraction, and related issues. We gave several examples of the traps of everyday language that lurk in Special Relativity. To remove a possible conceptual and terminological muddle, we made a distinction between the relativistic length reduction and relativistic FitzGerald-Lorentz contraction, corresponding to a passive and an active aspect of length contraction, respectively; we pointed out that both aspects have fundamental dynamical contents. As an illustration of our considerations, we discussed briefly the Dewan-Beran-Bell spaceship paradox and the ‘pole in a barn’ paradox. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 171028

  4. Introduction to neutron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, W.E. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1996-11-01

    We give here an introduction to the theoretical principles of neutron scattering. The relationship between scattering- and correlation-functions is particularly emphasized. Within the framework of linear response theory (justified by the weakness of the basic interaction) the relation between fluctuation and dissipation is discussed. This general framework explains the particular power of neutron scattering as an experimental method. (author) 4 figs., 4 refs.

  5. Ps-atom scattering at low energies

    CERN Document Server

    Fabrikant, I I

    2015-01-01

    A pseudopotential for positronium-atom interaction, based on electron-atom and positron-atom phase shifts, is constructed, and the phase shifts for Ps-Kr and Ps-Ar scattering are calculated. This approach allows us to extend the Ps-atom cross sections, obtained previously in the impulse approximation [Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 243201 (2014)], to energies below the Ps ionization threshold. Although experimental data are not available in this low-energy region, our results describe well the tendency of the measured cross sections to drop with decreasing velocity at $v<1$ a.u. Our results show that the effect of the Ps-atom van der Waals interaction is weak compared to the polarization interaction in electron-atom and positron-atom scattering. As a result, the Ps scattering length for both Ar and Kr is positive, and the Ramsauer-Townsend minimum is not observed for Ps scattering from these targets. This makes Ps scattering quite different from electron scattering in the low-energy region, in contrast to the inter...

  6. Elastic scattering phenomenology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackintosh, R.S. [The Open University, School of Physical Sciences, Milton Keynes (United Kingdom)

    2017-04-15

    We argue that, in many situations, fits to elastic scattering data that were historically, and frequently still are, considered ''good'', are not justifiably so describable. Information about the dynamics of nucleon-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus scattering is lost when elastic scattering phenomenology is insufficiently ambitious. It is argued that in many situations, an alternative approach is appropriate for the phenomenology of nuclear elastic scattering of nucleons and other light nuclei. The approach affords an appropriate means of evaluating folding models, one that fully exploits available empirical data. It is particularly applicable for nucleons and other light ions. (orig.)

  7. discouraged by queue length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. R. Parthasarathy

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The transient solution is obtained analytically using continued fractions for a state-dependent birth-death queue in which potential customers are discouraged by the queue length. This queueing system is then compared with the well-known infinite server queueing system which has the same steady state solution as the model under consideration, whereas their transient solutions are different. A natural measure of speed of convergence of the mean number in the system to its stationarity is also computed.

  8. Energy-Length Rule

    OpenAIRE

    Mihul, Alexandru C; Mihul, Eleonora A

    2006-01-01

    Lorentz ordering (causality) implies the following rule: for any given energy p0 of a system there is a certain interval c0 on x0 so that their product is the Lorentz ordering constant L It means p0c0 = L. The constant L=hc. Hence Planck constant h in a similar way as c are both consequences of Lorentz metric. The basic ideas are: 1. Lorentz metric implies that x0 must represent a length like the other components of x in X 2. The dual metric space X* is well defined since the Lorentz metric t...

  9. Neutron scattering from fractals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjems, Jørgen; Freltoft, T.; Richter, D.

    1986-01-01

    -angle neutron scattering studies of the variation with aggregation rate are presented. These results allow a very detailed comparison to be made with the theoretical scattering curves. Preliminary incoherent inelastic data on the low-frequency dynamics of hydroxylated silica particle aggregates show a clear...

  10. Purely bianisotropic scatterers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albooyeh, M.; Asadchy, V. S.; Alaee, R.; Hashemi, S. M.; Yazdi, M.; Mirmoosa, M. S.; Rockstuhl, C.; Simovski, C. R.; Tretyakov, S. A.

    2016-12-01

    The polarization response of molecules or meta-atoms to external electric and magnetic fields, which defines the electromagnetic properties of materials, can either be direct (electric field induces electric moment and magnetic field induces magnetic moment) or indirect (magnetoelectric coupling in bianisotropic scatterers). Earlier studies suggest that there is a fundamental bound on the indirect response of all passive scatterers: It is believed to be always weaker than the direct one. In this paper, we prove that there exist scatterers which overcome this bound substantially. Moreover, we show that the amplitudes of electric and magnetic polarizabilities can be negligibly small as compared to the magnetoelectric coupling coefficients. However, we prove that if at least one of the direct-excitation coefficients vanishes, magnetoelectric coupling effects in passive scatterers cannot exist. Our findings open a way to a new class of electromagnetic scatterers and composite materials.

  11. Light scattering measurement of sodium polyacrylate products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lama, Nisha; Norwood, David; Boone, Steven; Massie-Boyer, Valerie

    2015-03-01

    In the presentation, we will describe the use of a multi-detector HPLC incorporating the DAWN EOS multi-angle laser light scattering (MALLS) detector to measure the properties such as molecular weight, RMS radius, contour and persistence length and polydispersity of sodium polyacrylate products. The samples of sodium polyacrylate are used in various industries as thickening agents, coating dispersants, artificial snow, laundry detergent and disposable diapers. Data and results obtained from the experiment will be presented.

  12. Manipulating scattering features by metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Cui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a review on manipulations of electromagnetic scattering features by using metamaterials or metasurfaces. Several approaches in controlling the scattered fields of objects are presented, including invisibility cloaks and radar illusions based on transformation optics, carpet cloak using gradient metamaterials, dc cloaks, mantle cloaks based on scattering cancellation, “skin” cloaks using phase compensation, scattering controls with coding/programmable metasurfaces, and scattering reductions by multilayered structures. Finally, the future development of metamaterials on scattering manipulation is predicted.

  13. Modelling Hyperboloid Sound Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burry, Jane; Davis, Daniel; Peters, Brady

    2011-01-01

    The Responsive Acoustic Surfaces workshop project described here sought new understandings about the interaction between geometry and sound in the arena of sound scattering. This paper reports on the challenges associated with modelling, simulating, fabricating and measuring this phenomenon using...... both physical and digital models at three distinct scales. The results suggest hyperboloid geometry, while difficult to fabricate, facilitates sound scattering.......The Responsive Acoustic Surfaces workshop project described here sought new understandings about the interaction between geometry and sound in the arena of sound scattering. This paper reports on the challenges associated with modelling, simulating, fabricating and measuring this phenomenon using...

  14. Virtual neutron scattering experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Julie Hougaard; Bruun, Jesper; May, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We describe how virtual experiments can be utilized in a learning design that prepares students for hands-on experiments at large-scale facilities. We illustrate the design by showing how virtual experiments are used at the Niels Bohr Institute in a master level course on neutron scattering....... In the last week of the course, students travel to a large-scale neutron scattering facility to perform real neutron scattering experiments. Through student interviews and survey answers, we argue, that the virtual training prepares the students to engage more fruitfully with experiments by letting them focus...

  15. Scattering from randomly oriented scatterers with strong permittivity fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yueh, S. H.; Kong, J. A.; Shin, R. T.

    1990-01-01

    Strong permittivity fluctuation theory is used to solve the problem of scattering from a medium composed of completely randomly oriented scatterers under a low frequency limit. Gaussian statistics are not assumed for the renormalized scattering sources. Numerical results on effective permittivity are illustrated for oblate and prolate spheroidal scatterers and compared with the results for spherical scatterers. The results are consistent with discrete scatterer theory. The effective permittivity of a random medium embedded with nonspherical scatterers shows a higher imaginary part than the spherical scatterer case with equal correlation volume. Under the distorted Born approximation, the polarimetric covariance matrix for the backscattered electric field is calculated for half-space randomly oriented scatterers. The nonspherical geometry of the scatterers shows significant effects on the cross-polarized backscattering returns, and the correlation coefficient between HH and VV returns. The polarimetric backscattering coefficients can provide useful information in distinguishing the geometry of scatterers.

  16. High-precision positioning of radar scatterers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dheenathayalan, Prabu; Small, David; Schubert, Adrian; Hanssen, Ramon F.

    2016-05-01

    Remote sensing radar satellites cover wide areas and provide spatially dense measurements, with millions of scatterers. Knowledge of the precise position of each radar scatterer is essential to identify the corresponding object and interpret the estimated deformation. The absolute position accuracy of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) scatterers in a 2D radar coordinate system, after compensating for atmosphere and tidal effects, is in the order of centimeters for TerraSAR-X (TSX) spotlight images. However, the absolute positioning in 3D and its quality description are not well known. Here, we exploit time-series interferometric SAR to enhance the positioning capability in three dimensions. The 3D positioning precision is parameterized by a variance-covariance matrix and visualized as an error ellipsoid centered at the estimated position. The intersection of the error ellipsoid with objects in the field is exploited to link radar scatterers to real-world objects. We demonstrate the estimation of scatterer position and its quality using 20 months of TSX stripmap acquisitions over Delft, the Netherlands. Using trihedral corner reflectors (CR) for validation, the accuracy of absolute positioning in 2D is about 7 cm. In 3D, an absolute accuracy of up to ˜ 66 cm is realized, with a cigar-shaped error ellipsoid having centimeter precision in azimuth and range dimensions, and elongated in cross-range dimension with a precision in the order of meters (the ratio of the ellipsoid axis lengths is 1/3/213, respectively). The CR absolute 3D position, along with the associated error ellipsoid, is found to be accurate and agree with the ground truth position at a 99 % confidence level. For other non-CR coherent scatterers, the error ellipsoid concept is validated using 3D building models. In both cases, the error ellipsoid not only serves as a quality descriptor, but can also help to associate radar scatterers to real-world objects.

  17. Applied electromagnetic scattering theory

    CERN Document Server

    Osipov, Andrey A

    2017-01-01

    Besides classical applications (radar and stealth, antennas, microwave engineering), scattering and diffraction are enabling phenomena for some emerging research fields (artificial electromagnetic materials or metamaterials, terahertz technologies, electromagnetic aspects of nano-science). This book is a tutorial for advanced students who need to study diffraction theory. The textbook gives fundamental knowledge about scattering and diffraction of electromagnetic waves and provides some working examples of solutions for practical high-frequency scattering and diffraction problems. The book focuses on the most important diffraction effects and mechanisms influencing the scattering process and describes efficient and physically justified simulation methods - physical optics (PO) and the physical theory of diffraction (PTD) - applicable in typical remote sensing scenarios. The material is presented in a comprehensible and logical form, which relates the presented results to the basic principles of electromag...

  18. Gravitational Bhabha scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, A. F.; Khanna, Faqir C.

    2017-10-01

    Gravitoelectromagnetism (GEM) as a theory for gravity has been developed similar to the electromagnetic field theory. A weak field approximation of Einstein theory of relativity is similar to GEM. This theory has been quantized. Traditional Bhabha scattering, electron-positron scattering, is based on quantized electrodynamics theory. Usually the amplitude is written in terms of one photon exchange process. With the development of quantized GEM theory, the scattering amplitude will have an additional component based on an exchange of one graviton at the lowest order of perturbation theory. An analysis will provide the relative importance of the two amplitudes for Bhabha scattering. This will allow an analysis of the relative importance of the two amplitudes as the energy of the exchanged particles increases.

  19. Neutron scattering in dimers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudel, H. U.; Furrer, A.; Kjems, Jørgen

    1986-01-01

    Insulating compounds containing dimers of transition metal and rare earth ions have been studied by inelastic neutron scattering (INS). Energy splittings can be directly determined, and the corresponding parameters are easily extracted from the experimental data. The intensities of dimer excitati......Insulating compounds containing dimers of transition metal and rare earth ions have been studied by inelastic neutron scattering (INS). Energy splittings can be directly determined, and the corresponding parameters are easily extracted from the experimental data. The intensities of dimer...

  20. Scattering of electromagnetic waves from a periodic surface with random roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yueh, H. A.; Shin, R. T.; Kong, J. A.

    1988-01-01

    Equations for the scattering of electromagnetic waves from a randomly perturbed periodic surface have been formulated using the extended boundary condition method and solved using the small perturbation method. Surface currents and scattered fields are solved for up to the second order. The results indicate that as the correlation length of the random roughness increases, the bistatic scattering patterns of the scattered fields show several beams associated with each Bragg diffraction direction of the periodic surface. The beam shape becomes broader with smaller correlation length. Results obtained using the Kirchhoff approximation are found to agree well with the present results for the hh and vv polarized backscattering coefficients for small angles of incidence.

  1. Scattering of Electromagnetic Radiation by Dimers of Two Finite Dielectric Cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovtun-Kuzhel, V. A.; Ponyavina, A. N.

    2017-07-01

    We performed a numerical simulation of the scattering phase function for scattering of light by dimers of dielectric cylinders of finite length, using the volume integral equation formalism. We have studied the dependence of the scattering phase function on the optical and geometric parameters of the individual cylinders and their relative positions. We show that electrodynamic interaction between the cylinders leads to a substantial difference between the angular distribution of radiation scattered by this system and the angular distribution of radiation scattered by two cylinders with no electrodynamic coupling.

  2. Path-length resolved reflectance in tendon and muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chuanmao; Shuaib, Ali; Yao, Gang

    2011-04-25

    Optical diffuse reflectance in fibrous tissues depends on measurement angles in relation to fiber orientation. In this study, path-length resolved optical reflectance was measured in tendon and skeletal muscle samples using a low-coherence Mach-Zehnder interferometer. The results show that the angular dependency in reflectance was eliminated in tendon tissue when representing reflectance as a function of mean path-length. Our analysis indicated that this observation can be understood in the frame work of anisotropic diffuse theory. However the same phenomenon was not observed in muscles, suggesting involvement of additional scattering mechanisms.

  3. Strength-length scaling of elementary hemp fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poriķe, E.; Andersons, J.

    2013-03-01

    The application of hemp fibers as a reinforcement of composite materials necessitates the characterization of fiber strength scatter and the effect of fiber length on its strength. With this aim, elementary hemp fibers were tested in tension at two different gage lengths. Due to the similar morphology of hemp and flax fibers, the probabilistic strength models derived and verified for the latter were applied to the former. The fiber strength was found to agree with the modified Weibull distribution. The modeling approaches developed for describing the variability of the strength and failure strain of elementary flax fibers are shown to be also applicable to hemp fibers.

  4. Virtual neutron scattering experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Julie Hougaard; Bruun, Jesper; May, Michael

    2017-01-01

    . In the last week of the course, students travel to a large-scale neutron scattering facility to perform real neutron scattering experiments. Through student interviews and survey answers, we argue, that the virtual training prepares the students to engage more fruitfully with experiments by letting them focus......We describe how virtual experiments can be utilized in a learning design that prepares students for hands-on experiments at large-scale facilities. We illustrate the design by showing how virtual experiments are used at the Niels Bohr Institute in a master level course on neutron scattering...... on physics and data rather than the overwhelming instrumentation. We argue that this is because they can transfer their virtual experimental experience to the real-life situation. However, we also find that learning is still situated in the sense that only knowledge of particular experiments is transferred...

  5. Electromagnetic scattering theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, J. F.; Farrell, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    Electromagnetic scattering theory is discussed with emphasis on the general stochastic variational principle (SVP) and its applications. The stochastic version of the Schwinger-type variational principle is presented, and explicit expressions for its integrals are considered. Results are summarized for scalar wave scattering from a classic rough-surface model and for vector wave scattering from a random dielectric-body model. Also considered are the selection of trial functions and the variational improvement of the Kirchhoff short-wave approximation appropriate to large size-parameters. Other applications of vector field theory discussed include a general vision theory and the analysis of hydromagnetism induced by ocean motion across the geomagnetic field. Levitational force-torque in the magnetic suspension of the disturbance compensation system (DISCOS), now deployed in NOVA satellites, is also analyzed using the developed theory.

  6. Quantum Optical Multiple Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ott, Johan Raunkjær

    . In the first part we use a scattering-matrix formalism combined with results from random-matrix theory to investigate the interference of quantum optical states on a multiple scattering medium. We investigate a single realization of a scattering medium thereby showing that it is possible to create entangled...... states by interference of squeezed beams. Mixing photon states on the single realization also shows that quantum interference naturally arises by interfering quantum states. We further investigate the ensemble averaged transmission properties of the quantized light and see that the induced quantum...... interference survives even after disorder averaging. The quantum interference manifests itself through increased photon correlations. Furthermore, the theoretical description of a measurement procedure is presented. In this work we relate the noise power spectrum of the total transmitted or reflected light...

  7. Λ scattering equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, Humberto [Instituto de Fisica - Universidade de São Paulo,Caixa Postal 66318, 05315-970 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Facultad de Ciencias Basicas, Universidad Santiago de Cali,Calle 5 62-00 Barrio Pampalinda, Cali, Valle (Colombia)

    2016-06-17

    The CHY representation of scattering amplitudes is based on integrals over the moduli space of a punctured sphere. We replace the punctured sphere by a double-cover version. The resulting scattering equations depend on a parameter Λ controlling the opening of a branch cut. The new representation of scattering amplitudes possesses an enhanced redundancy which can be used to fix, modulo branches, the location of four punctures while promoting Λ to a variable. Via residue theorems we show how CHY formulas break up into sums of products of smaller (off-shell) ones times a propagator. This leads to a powerful way of evaluating CHY integrals of generic rational functions, which we call the Λ algorithm.

  8. Virtual neutron scattering experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Julie Hougaard; Bruun, Jesper; May, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We describe how virtual experiments can be utilized in a learning design that prepares students for hands-on experiments at large-scale facilities. We illustrate the design by showing how virtual experiments are used at the Niels Bohr Institute in a master level course on neutron scattering....... In the last week of the course, students travel to a large-scale neutron scattering facility to perform real neutron scattering experiments. Through student interviews and survey answers, we argue, that the virtual training prepares the students to engage more fruitfully with experiments by letting them focus...... on physics and data rather than the overwhelming instrumentation. We argue that this is because they can transfer their virtual experimental experience to the real-life situation. However, we also find that learning is still situated in the sense that only knowledge of particular experiments is transferred...

  9. MAGNETIC NEUTRON SCATTERING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ZALIZNYAK,I.A.; LEE,S.H.

    2004-07-30

    Much of our understanding of the atomic-scale magnetic structure and the dynamical properties of solids and liquids was gained from neutron-scattering studies. Elastic and inelastic neutron spectroscopy provided physicists with an unprecedented, detailed access to spin structures, magnetic-excitation spectra, soft-modes and critical dynamics at magnetic-phase transitions, which is unrivaled by other experimental techniques. Because the neutron has no electric charge, it is an ideal weakly interacting and highly penetrating probe of matter's inner structure and dynamics. Unlike techniques using photon electric fields or charged particles (e.g., electrons, muons) that significantly modify the local electronic environment, neutron spectroscopy allows determination of a material's intrinsic, unperturbed physical properties. The method is not sensitive to extraneous charges, electric fields, and the imperfection of surface layers. Because the neutron is a highly penetrating and non-destructive probe, neutron spectroscopy can probe the microscopic properties of bulk materials (not just their surface layers) and study samples embedded in complex environments, such as cryostats, magnets, and pressure cells, which are essential for understanding the physical origins of magnetic phenomena. Neutron scattering is arguably the most powerful and versatile experimental tool for studying the microscopic properties of the magnetic materials. The magnitude of the cross-section of the neutron magnetic scattering is similar to the cross-section of nuclear scattering by short-range nuclear forces, and is large enough to provide measurable scattering by the ordered magnetic structures and electron spin fluctuations. In the half-a-century or so that has passed since neutron beams with sufficient intensity for scattering applications became available with the advent of the nuclear reactors, they have became indispensable tools for studying a variety of important areas of modern

  10. Neutron scattering. Experiment manuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner (eds.)

    2010-07-01

    The following topics are dealt with: The thermal triple axis spectrometer PUMA, the high-resolution powder diffractometer SPODI, the hot single-crystal diffractometer HEiDi for structure analysis with neutrons, the backscattering spectrometer SPHERES, neutron polarization analysis with tht time-of-flight spectrometer DNS, the neutron spin-echo spectrometer J-NSE, small-angle neutron scattering with the KWS-1 and KWS-2 diffractometers, the very-small-angle neutron scattering diffractrometer with focusing mirror KWS-3, the resonance spin-echo spectrometer RESEDA, the reflectometer TREFF, the time-of-flight spectrometer TOFTOF. (HSI)

  11. Inversion assuming weak scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xenaki, Angeliki; Gerstoft, Peter; Mosegaard, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    due to the complex nature of the field. A method based on linear inversion is employed to infer information about the statistical properties of the scattering field from the obtained cross-spectral matrix. A synthetic example based on an active high-frequency sonar demonstrates that the proposed...

  12. Small Angle Neutron Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urban, Volker S [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) probes structural details at the nanometer scale in a non-destructive way. This article gives an introduction to scientists who have no prior small-angle scattering knowledge, but who seek a technique that allows elucidating structural information in challenging situations that thwart approaches by other methods. SANS is applicable to a wide variety of materials including metals and alloys, ceramics, concrete, glasses, polymers, composites and biological materials. Isotope and magnetic interactions provide unique methods for labeling and contrast variation to highlight specific structural features of interest. In situ studies of a material s responses to temperature, pressure, shear, magnetic and electric fields, etc., are feasible as a result of the high penetrating power of neutrons. SANS provides statistical information on significant structural features averaged over the probed sample volume, and one can use SANS to quantify with high precision the structural details that are observed, for example, in electron microscopy. Neutron scattering is non-destructive; there is no need to cut specimens into thin sections, and neutrons penetrate deeply, providing information on the bulk material, free from surface effects. The basic principles of a SANS experiment are fairly simple, but the measurement, analysis and interpretation of small angle scattering data involves theoretical concepts that are unique to the technique and that are not widely known. This article includes a concise description of the basics, as well as practical know-how that is essential for a successful SANS experiment.

  13. Inelastic magnon scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert de Mello Koch

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We study the worldsheet S-matrix of a string attached to a D-brane in AdS5×S5. The D-brane is either a giant graviton or a dual giant graviton. In the gauge theory, the operators we consider belong to the su(2|3 sector of the theory. Magnon excitations of open strings can exhibit both elastic (when magnons in the bulk of the string scatter and inelastic (when magnons at the endpoint of an open string participate scattering. Both of these S-matrices are determined (up to an overall phase by the su(2|22 global symmetry of the theory. In this note we study the S-matrix for inelastic scattering. We show that it exhibits poles corresponding to boundstates of bulk and boundary magnons. A crossing equation is derived for the overall phase. It reproduces the crossing equation for maximal giant gravitons, in the appropriate limit. Finally, scattering in the su(2 sector is computed to two loops. This two loop result, which determines the overall phase to two loops, will be useful when a unique solution to the crossing equation is to be selected.

  14. Inelastic magnon scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mello Koch, Robert; van Zyl, Hendrik J. R.

    2017-05-01

    We study the worldsheet S-matrix of a string attached to a D-brane in AdS5 ×S5. The D-brane is either a giant graviton or a dual giant graviton. In the gauge theory, the operators we consider belong to the su (2 | 3) sector of the theory. Magnon excitations of open strings can exhibit both elastic (when magnons in the bulk of the string scatter) and inelastic (when magnons at the endpoint of an open string participate) scattering. Both of these S-matrices are determined (up to an overall phase) by the su(2 | 2) 2 global symmetry of the theory. In this note we study the S-matrix for inelastic scattering. We show that it exhibits poles corresponding to boundstates of bulk and boundary magnons. A crossing equation is derived for the overall phase. It reproduces the crossing equation for maximal giant gravitons, in the appropriate limit. Finally, scattering in the su (2) sector is computed to two loops. This two loop result, which determines the overall phase to two loops, will be useful when a unique solution to the crossing equation is to be selected.

  15. Progress in long scale length laser plasma interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenzer, S. H.; Arnold, P.; Bardsley, G.; Berger, R. L.; Bonanno, G.; Borger, T.; Bower, D. E.; Bowers, M.; Bryant, R.; Buckman, S.; Burkhart, S. C.; Campbell, K.; Chrisp, M. P.; Cohen, B. I.; Constantin, C.; Cooper, F.; Cox, J.; Dewald, E.; Divol, L.; Dixit, S.; Duncan, J.; Eder, D.; Edwards, J.; Erbert, G.; Felker, B.; Fornes, J.; Frieders, G.; Froula, D. H.; Gardner, S. D.; Gates, C.; Gonzalez, M.; Grace, S.; Gregori, G.; Greenwood, A.; Griffith, R.; Hall, T.; Hammel, B. A.; Haynam, C.; Heestand, G.; Henesian, M.; Hermes, G.; Hinkel, D.; Holder, J.; Holdner, F.; Holtmeier, G.; Hsing, W.; Huber, S.; James, T.; Johnson, S.; Jones, O. S.; Kalantar, D.; Kamperschroer, J. H.; Kauffman, R.; Kelleher, T.; Knight, J.; Kirkwood, R. K.; Kruer, W. L.; Labiak, W.; Landen, O. L.; Langdon, A. B.; Langer, S.; Latray, D.; Lee, A.; Lee, F. D.; Lund, D.; MacGowan, B.; Marshall, S.; McBride, J.; McCarville, T.; McGrew, L.; Mackinnon, A. J.; Mahavandi, S.; Manes, K.; Marshall, C.; Menapace, J.; Mertens, E.; Meezan, N.; Miller, G.; Montelongo, S.; Moody, J. D.; Moses, E.; Munro, D.; Murray, J.; Neumann, J.; Newton, M.; Ng, E.; Niemann, C.; Nikitin, A.; Opsahl, P.; Padilla, E.; Parham, T.; Parrish, G.; Petty, C.; Polk, M.; Powell, C.; Reinbachs, I.; Rekow, V.; Rinnert, R.; Riordan, B.; Rhodes, M.; Roberts, V.; Robey, H.; Ross, G.; Sailors, S.; Saunders, R.; Schmitt, M.; Schneider, M. B.; Shiromizu, S.; Spaeth, M.; Stephens, A.; Still, B.; Suter, L. J.; Tietbohl, G.; Tobin, M.; Tuck, J.; Van Wonterghem, B. M.; Vidal, R.; Voloshin, D.; Wallace, R.; Wegner, P.; Whitman, P.; Williams, E. A.; Williams, K.; Winward, K.; Work, K.; Young, B.; Young, P. E.; Zapata, P.; Bahr, R. E.; Seka, W.; Fernandez, J.; Montgomery, D.; Rose, H.

    2004-12-01

    The first experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) have employed the first four beams to measure propagation and laser backscattering losses in large ignition-size plasmas. Gas-filled targets between 2 and 7 mm length have been heated from one side by overlapping the focal spots of the four beams from one quad operated at 351 nm (3ω) with a total intensity of 2 × 1015 W cm-2. The targets were filled with 1 atm of CO2 producing up to 7 mm long homogeneously heated plasmas with densities of ne = 6 × 1020 cm-3 and temperatures of Te = 2 keV. The high energy in an NIF quad of beams of 16 kJ, illuminating the target from one direction, creates unique conditions for the study of laser-plasma interactions at scale lengths not previously accessible. The propagation through the large-scale plasma was measured with a gated x-ray imager that was filtered for 3.5 keV x-rays. These data indicate that the beams interact with the full length of this ignition-scale plasma during the last ~1 ns of the experiment. During that time, the full aperture measurements of the stimulated Brillouin scattering and stimulated Raman scattering show scattering into the four focusing lenses of 3% for the smallest length (~2 mm), increasing to 10-12% for ~7 mm. These results demonstrate the NIF experimental capabilities and further provide a benchmark for three-dimensional modelling of the laser-plasma interactions at ignition-size scale lengths.

  16. Small angle neutron scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cousin Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS is a technique that enables to probe the 3-D structure of materials on a typical size range lying from ∼ 1 nm up to ∼ a few 100 nm, the obtained information being statistically averaged on a sample whose volume is ∼ 1 cm3. This very rich technique enables to make a full structural characterization of a given object of nanometric dimensions (radius of gyration, shape, volume or mass, fractal dimension, specific area… through the determination of the form factor as well as the determination of the way objects are organized within in a continuous media, and therefore to describe interactions between them, through the determination of the structure factor. The specific properties of neutrons (possibility of tuning the scattering intensity by using the isotopic substitution, sensitivity to magnetism, negligible absorption, low energy of the incident neutrons make it particularly interesting in the fields of soft matter, biophysics, magnetic materials and metallurgy. In particular, the contrast variation methods allow to extract some informations that cannot be obtained by any other experimental techniques. This course is divided in two parts. The first one is devoted to the description of the principle of SANS: basics (formalism, coherent scattering/incoherent scattering, notion of elementary scatterer, form factor analysis (I(q→0, Guinier regime, intermediate regime, Porod regime, polydisperse system, structure factor analysis (2nd Virial coefficient, integral equations, characterization of aggregates, and contrast variation methods (how to create contrast in an homogeneous system, matching in ternary systems, extrapolation to zero concentration, Zero Averaged Contrast. It is illustrated by some representative examples. The second one describes the experimental aspects of SANS to guide user in its future experiments: description of SANS spectrometer, resolution of the spectrometer, optimization of

  17. Rayleigh's Scattering Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolomiets, Sergey; Gorelik, Andrey

    This report is devoted to a discussion of applicability limits of Rayleigh’s scattering model. Implicitly, Rayleigh’s ideas are being used in a wide range of remote sensing applications. To begin with it must be noted that most techniques which have been developed to date for measurements by means of active instruments for remote sensing in case of the target is a set of distributed moving scatters are only hopes, to say so, on measurements per se. The problem is that almost all of such techniques use a priori information about the microstructure of the object of interest during whole measurement session. As one can find in the literature, this approach may happily be applied to systems with identical particles. However, it is not the case with respect to scattering targets that consist of particles of different kind or having a particle size distribution. It must be especially noted that the microstructure of most of such targets changes significantly with time and/or space. Therefore, the true measurement techniques designed to be applicable in such conditions must be not only adaptable in order to take into account a variety of models of an echo interpretation, but also have a well-developed set of clear-cut criteria of applicability and exact means of accuracy estimation. So such techniques will require much more parameters to be measured. In spite of the fact that there is still room for some improvements within classical models and approaches, it is multiwavelength approach that may be seen as the most promising way of development towards obtaining an adequate set of the measured parameters required for true measurement techniques. At the same time, Rayleigh’s scattering is an invariant in regard to a change of the wavelength as it follows from the point of view dominating nowadays. In the light of such an idea, the synergy between multivawelength measurements may be achieved - to a certain extent - by means of the synchronous usage of Rayleigh’s and

  18. Light scattering reviews 8 radiative transfer and light scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Kokhanovsky, Alexander A

    2013-01-01

    Light scattering review (vol 8) is aimed at the presentation of recent advances in radiative transfer and light scattering optics. The topics to be covered include: scattering of light by irregularly shaped particles suspended in atmosphere (dust, ice crystals), light scattering by particles much larger as compared the wavelength of incident radiation, atmospheric radiative forcing, astrophysical radiative transfer, radiative transfer and optical imaging in biological media, radiative transfer of polarized light, numerical aspects of radiative transfer.

  19. Isospin Violation in Threshold Pion-Nucleon Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Ericson, Torleif Eric Oskar

    2005-01-01

    We discuss the electromagnetic corrections to the pion-nucleon scattering lengths generated by minimal e. m. coupling from a knowledge of the low energy expansion of the pion-nucleon elastic scattering amplitude as well as from the nucleon and delta pole terms, all a consequence of purely strong interactions. We assume the heavy baryon limit; the e.m. and axial form factors and the masses are used with their empirical values, such that there is no free parameter. The different terms have a clear physical and intuitive origin. In particular, a large isospin breaking contribution to the isoscalar term appears for the elastic charged-pion scattering lengths. We attempt a comparison to the results from chiral effective field theory (EFT) with a physical interpretation of the empirical constants in that approach. The results are applied to the energy shift and width of pionic hydrogen.

  20. FDTD scattered field formulation for scatterers in stratified dispersive media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olkkonen, Juuso

    2010-03-01

    We introduce a simple scattered field (SF) technique that enables finite difference time domain (FDTD) modeling of light scattering from dispersive objects residing in stratified dispersive media. The introduced SF technique is verified against the total field scattered field (TFSF) technique. As an application example, we study surface plasmon polariton enhanced light transmission through a 100 nm wide slit in a silver film.

  1. Coherent detection of spontaneous Brillouin scattering for distributed temperature sensing using a Brillouin laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecoeuche, V.; Webb, David J.; Pannell, Christopher N.; Jackson, David A.

    1998-08-01

    Distributed temperature sensors based on Brillouin scattering are attractive because they offer very large sensing length. The intensity of spontaneous Brillouin scattering is directly proportional to the temperature of the fiber, and permits a measurement independent of the strain applied to it. We report on a novel system to detect this signal, incorporating a mode-locked Brillouin fiber ring laser.

  2. Equivalent local potentials and phase approach to low-energy scattering parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jana, A.K.; Nandi, T.K.; Paul, A.K.; Talukdar, B. (Department of Physics, Santiniketan, West Bengal (India))

    1994-01-01

    It is shown that the use of the McTavish-Kermode-Melhem-type equivalent local potentials linearizes algorithms of the variable-phase approach needed to compute the low-energy scattering parameters. A case study is presented to demonstrate the merit of the linearized equations, with particular emphasis on the relationship between the interpolating scattering length function and potential functions. (Author).

  3. Electromagnetic scattering from random media

    CERN Document Server

    Field, Timothy R

    2009-01-01

    - ;The book develops the dynamical theory of scattering from random media from first principles. Its key findings are to characterize the time evolution of the scattered field in terms of stochastic differential equations, and to illustrate this framework

  4. Length-weight and length-length relationships for six fish species from Zohreh River, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazdan Keivany

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports Length-weight and length-length parameters for six fish species belonging to four families from the Zohreh River. The weight-length relationships were estimated using the equation W= Lb. The values of the slope parameter (b varied between 2.72 and 3.72, with a mean±SD of 3.015±0.18. The values b parameter in the length-weight relationship equations were calculated as 2.72 for Arabibarbus grypus (Heckel, 1843, 2.96 for Capoeta trutta (Heckel, 1843, 2.72 for Garra rufa (Heckel, 1843, 3.25 for Aphanius dispar (Rüppell, 1829, 2.91 for Sillago sihama (Forsskål, 1775 and 3.15 for Glyptothorax silviae Coad, 1981. This study presents the first reference on LWR and LLR for these species in Zohreh River.

  5. Electron scattering for exotic nuclei

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-11-04

    Nov 4, 2014 ... A brand-new electron scattering facility, the SCRIT Electron Scattering Facility, will soon start its operation at RIKEN RI Beam Factory, Japan. This is the world's first electron scattering facility dedicated to the structure studies of short-lived nuclei. The goal of this facility is to determine the charge density ...

  6. Double parton scattering theory overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diehl, Markus; Gaunt, Jonathan R.

    2017-01-01

    The dynamics of double hard scattering in proton-proton collisions is quite involved compared with the familiar case of single hard scattering. In this contribution, we review our theoretical understanding of double hard scattering and of its interplay with other reaction mechanisms.

  7. Seamount acoustic scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehlert, George W.

    The cover of the March 1 issue of Eos showed a time series of acoustic scattering above Southeast Hancock Seamount (29°48‧N, 178°05‧E) on July 17-18, 1984. In a comment on that cover Martin Hovland (Eos, August 2, p. 760) argued that gas or “other far reaching causes” may be involved in the observed acoustic signals. He favors a hypothesis that acoustic scattering observed above a seeping pockmark in the North Sea is a combination of bubbles, stable microbubbles, and pelagic organisms and infers that this may be a more general phenomenon and indeed plays a role in the attraction of organisms to seamounts

  8. Molecular-beam scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vernon, M.F.

    1983-07-01

    The molecular-beam technique has been used in three different experimental arrangements to study a wide range of inter-atomic and molecular forces. Chapter 1 reports results of a low-energy (0.2 kcal/mole) elastic-scattering study of the He-Ar pair potential. The purpose of the study was to accurately characterize the shape of the potential in the well region, by scattering slow He atoms produced by expanding a mixture of He in N/sub 2/ from a cooled nozzle. Chapter 2 contains measurements of the vibrational predissociation spectra and product translational energy for clusters of water, benzene, and ammonia. The experiments show that most of the product energy remains in the internal molecular motions. Chapter 3 presents measurements of the reaction Na + HCl ..-->.. NaCl + H at collision energies of 5.38 and 19.4 kcal/mole. This is the first study to resolve both scattering angle and velocity for the reaction of a short lived (16 nsec) electronic excited state. Descriptions are given of computer programs written to analyze molecular-beam expansions to extract information characterizing their velocity distributions, and to calculate accurate laboratory elastic-scattering differential cross sections accounting for the finite apparatus resolution. Experimental results which attempted to determine the efficiency of optically pumping the Li(2/sup 2/P/sub 3/2/) and Na(3/sup 2/P/sub 3/2/) excited states are given. A simple three-level model for predicting the steady-state fraction of atoms in the excited state is included.

  9. Means on scattered compacta

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Banakh, T.; Bonnet, R.; Kubiś, Wieslaw

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 1 (2014), s. 5-10 ISSN 2299-3231 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP201/12/0290 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : scattered compact space * mean operation Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/taa.2014.2.issue-1/taa-2014-0002/taa-2014-0002. xml

  10. K sup + - scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Farhan, A M

    2002-01-01

    A prescription is given to construct an effective interaction that may describe the scattering of K sup + by spin-zero nuclei in a more reliable way. This prescription is based on the Lorentz invariant representation of the meson-nucleon amplitude and the use of the Klein-Gordon equation of motion. Good results for K sup + - sup 1 sup 2 C as well as K sup + - D total cross sections at various energies have been obtained. (author)

  11. Neutron scattering in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knott, R.B. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Menai (Australia)

    1994-12-31

    Neutron scattering techniques have been part of the Australian scientific research community for the past three decades. The High Flux Australian Reactor (HIFAR) is a multi-use facility of modest performance that provides the only neutron source in the country suitable for neutron scattering. The limitations of HIFAR have been recognized and recently a Government initiated inquiry sought to evaluate the future needs of a neutron source. In essence, the inquiry suggested that a delay of several years would enable a number of key issues to be resolved, and therefore a more appropriate decision made. In the meantime, use of the present source is being optimized, and where necessary research is being undertaken at major overseas neutron facilities either on a formal or informal basis. Australia has, at present, a formal agreement with the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (UK) for access to the spallation source ISIS. Various aspects of neutron scattering have been implemented on HIFAR, including investigations of the structure of biological relevant molecules. One aspect of these investigations will be presented. Preliminary results from a study of the interaction of the immunosuppressant drug, cyclosporin-A, with reconstituted membranes suggest that the hydrophobic drug interdigitated with lipid chains.

  12. Plasma scattering of electromagnetic radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Sheffield, John

    1975-01-01

    Plasma Scattering of Electromagnetic Radiation covers the theory and experimental application of plasma scattering. The book discusses the basic properties of a plasma and of the interaction of radiation with a plasma; the relationship between the scattered power spectrum and the fluctuations in plasma density; and the incoherent scattering of low-temperature plasma. The text also describes the constraints and problems that arise in the application of scattering as a diagnostic technique; the characteristic performance of various dispersion elements, image dissectors, and detectors; and the ge

  13. A full-angle Monte-Carlo scattering technique including cumulative and single-event Rutherford scattering in plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginson, Drew P.

    2017-11-01

    We describe and justify a full-angle scattering (FAS) method to faithfully reproduce the accumulated differential angular Rutherford scattering probability distribution function (pdf) of particles in a plasma. The FAS method splits the scattering events into two regions. At small angles it is described by cumulative scattering events resulting, via the central limit theorem, in a Gaussian-like pdf; at larger angles it is described by single-event scatters and retains a pdf that follows the form of the Rutherford differential cross-section. The FAS method is verified using discrete Monte-Carlo scattering simulations run at small timesteps to include each individual scattering event. We identify the FAS regime of interest as where the ratio of temporal/spatial scale-of-interest to slowing-down time/length is from 10-3 to 0.3-0.7; the upper limit corresponds to Coulomb logarithm of 20-2, respectively. Two test problems, high-velocity interpenetrating plasma flows and keV-temperature ion equilibration, are used to highlight systems where including FAS is important to capture relevant physics.

  14. Gravitational scattering of electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooker, J. T.; Janis, A. I.

    1980-01-01

    The scattering of electromagnetic radiation by linearized gravitational fields is studied to second order in a perturbation expansion. The incoming electromagnetic radiation can be of arbitrary multipole structure, and the gravitational fields are also taken to be advanced fields of arbitrary multipole structure. All electromagnetic multipole radiation is found to be scattered by gravitational monopole and time-varying dipole fields. No case has been found, however, in which any electromagnetic multipole radiation is scattered by gravitational fields of quadrupole or higher-order multipole structure. This lack of scattering is established for infinite classes of special cases, and is conjectured to hold in general. The results of the scattering analysis are applied to the case of electromagnetic radiation scattered by a moving mass. It is shown how the mass and velocity may be determined by a knowledge of the incident and scattered radiation.

  15. Extracting the σ-term from low-energy pion-nucleon scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz de Elvira, Jacobo; Hoferichter, Martin; Kubis, Bastian; Meißner, Ulf-G.

    2018-02-01

    We present an extraction of the pion-nucleon (π N) scattering lengths from low-energy π N scattering, by fitting a representation based on Roy–Steiner equations to the low-energy data base. We show that the resulting values confirm the scattering-length determination from pionic atoms, and discuss the stability of the fit results regarding electromagnetic corrections and experimental normalization uncertainties in detail. Our results provide further evidence for a large π N σ-term, {σ }π N=58(5) {{MeV}}, in agreement with, albeit less precise than, the determination from pionic atoms.

  16. Inclusive deep-inelastic muon scattering

    CERN Multimedia

    This experiment aims at measuring deep-inelastic inclusive muon scattering to the highest energy and Q$^{2}$ made available by the high intensity muon beam M$^{2}$ and at investigating events in which several muons are simultaneously produced. The momentum of the incident beam is measured with momentum hodoscopes, its time and space coordinates at several positions along the target with additional hodoscopes. The beam halo is detected by an array of anticounters. The target has a length of 40 m of either graphite or liquid hydrogen or liquid deuterium and is surrounded by a magnetized torus which acts as a spectrometer for scattered muons. \\\\ \\\\This magnet has a diameter of 2.75 m and is divided into 10 separate supermodules, 8 of which are presently in use. Each supermodule consists of 8 modules (each module contains 0.44 m of steel), 8 planes of (3m x 3m) MWPC, and 2 planes of circular trigger counters subdivided in rings. The first 6 supermodules are equipped each with a 5 m long target. Muons scattered i...

  17. Measurement of the magneto-optical correlation length in turbid media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenke, Ralf; Eisenmann, Christoph; Reinke, Daniel; Maret, Georg

    2002-11-01

    In multiple light scattering media, magnetic field induced circular birefringence (Faraday effect) influences interference effects such as speckle pattern or coherent backscattering. It was predicted that in the diffusive regime the relevant correlation length with respect to the Faraday rotation l( small star, filled )(F) differs, in general, from the transport mean free path l( small star, filled ). We have experimentally verified the prediction that the ratio l( small star, filled )(F)/l( small star, filled ) equals 2 for Rayleigh scattering and decreases to 1 with increasing scatterer size. We also discuss the influence of the structure factor on l( small star, filled )(F).

  18. Barrier distributions and scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timmers, H.; Leigh, J.R.; Dasgupta, M.; Hinde, D.J.; Mein, J.C.; Morton, C.R.; Newton, J.O. [Department of Nuclear Physics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Austria); Rowley, N. [Centre de Recherches Nucleaires, 23 Rue du Loess, F-67037 Strasbourg CEDEX 2 (France); Stefanini, A.M.; Ackermann, D.; Corradi, L.; He, J.H. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Legnaro (PD) (Italy); Beghini, S.; Montagnoli, G.; Scarlassara, F.; Segato, G.F. [Universita di Padova and INFN Sezione di Padova, Padova (Italy)

    1997-10-01

    The extraction of representations of the fusion barrier distribution from backward-angle, quasi-elastic, elastic and transfer excitation functions is discussed. Such excitation functions have been measured for {sup 16}O, {sup 32}S and {sup 40}Ca projectiles incident on a variety of targets. The results are compared with representations obtained from fusion excitation functions. Varying in their sensitivity, all representations show evidence of the barrier structure. Differences between the scattering and the fusion representations can be related to the effects of coupling to residual, weak reaction channels. (author)

  19. Wave propagation scattering theory

    CERN Document Server

    Birman, M Sh

    1993-01-01

    The papers in this collection were written primarily by members of the St. Petersburg seminar in mathematical physics. The seminar, now run by O. A. Ladyzhenskaya, was initiated in 1947 by V. I. Smirnov, to whose memory this volume is dedicated. The papers in the collection are devoted mainly to wave propagation processes, scattering theory, integrability of nonlinear equations, and related problems of spectral theory of differential and integral operators. The book is of interest to mathematicians working in mathematical physics and differential equations, as well as to physicists studying va

  20. Raman scattering in crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, D.F.

    1988-09-30

    A tutorial presentation is given of Raman scattering in crystals. The physical concepts are emphasized rather than the detailed mathematical formalism. Starting with an introduction to the concepts of phonons and conservation laws, the effects of photon-phonon interactions are presented. This interaction concept is shown for a simple cubic crystal and is extended to a uniaxial crystal. The correlation table method is used for determining the number and symmetry of the Raman active modes. Finally, examples are given to illustrate the relative ease of using this group theoretical method and the predictions are compared with measured Raman spectra. 37 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs.

  1. Scattering of near-zero-energy electrons and positrons by H2

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, J.-Y.

    2014-04-15

    The parameters for S-wave elastic scattering of near-zero-energy electrons and positrons by H2 molecules are calculated using the stabilization method with explicitly correlated Gaussians. The confined variational method is applied to optimize the Gaussians to describe the short-range interaction of incident e± with H2 in the fixed-nuclei approximation. For e+-H2 scattering the scattering length of previous work [Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 223202 (2009)] is substantially improved. More importantly, for e−-H2 scattering, from first principles, the scattering length is computed as a function of the internuclear distance. In the case that the two nuclei are at the equilibrium distance the results are in a good agreement with values derived from fitting experimental total and diffusion cross sections to the modified effective range theory.

  2. When Does Length Cause the Word Length Effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalbert, Annie; Neath, Ian; Bireta, Tamra J.; Surprenant, Aimee M.

    2011-01-01

    The word length effect, the finding that lists of short words are better recalled than lists of long words, has been termed one of the benchmark findings that any theory of immediate memory must account for. Indeed, the effect led directly to the development of working memory and the phonological loop, and it is viewed as the best remaining…

  3. CEBAF Upgrade Bunch Length Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Mahmoud [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Many accelerators use short electron bunches and measuring the bunch length is important for efficient operations. CEBAF needs a suitable bunch length because bunches that are too long will result in beam interruption to the halls due to excessive energy spread and beam loss. In this work, bunch length is measured by invasive and non-invasive techniques at different beam energies. Two new measurement techniques have been commissioned; a harmonic cavity showed good results compared to expectations from simulation, and a real time interferometer is commissioned and first checkouts were performed. Three other techniques were used for measurements and comparison purposes without modifying the old procedures. Two of them can be used when the beam is not compressed longitudinally while the other one, the synchrotron light monitor, can be used with compressed or uncompressed beam.

  4. Continuously variable focal length lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Bernhard W; Chollet, Matthieu C

    2013-12-17

    A material preferably in crystal form having a low atomic number such as beryllium (Z=4) provides for the focusing of x-rays in a continuously variable manner. The material is provided with plural spaced curvilinear, optically matched slots and/or recesses through which an x-ray beam is directed. The focal length of the material may be decreased or increased by increasing or decreasing, respectively, the number of slots (or recesses) through which the x-ray beam is directed, while fine tuning of the focal length is accomplished by rotation of the material so as to change the path length of the x-ray beam through the aligned cylindrical slows. X-ray analysis of a fixed point in a solid material may be performed by scanning the energy of the x-ray beam while rotating the material to maintain the beam's focal point at a fixed point in the specimen undergoing analysis.

  5. Synchrotron x-ray-scattering study of the normal-incommensurate phase transition in Rb2ZnCl4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zinkin, M.P.; McMorrow, D.F.; Hill, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    predictions for the n=2, D=3 (SD-XY) universality class. The scattering observed above T-c corrresponds to critical fluctuations on two distinct length scales: the critical exponents for the short length scale component of the scattering agree with those expected for the 3D-XY universality class. The value...

  6. Kondo length in bosonic lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliano, Domenico; Sodano, Pasquale; Trombettoni, Andrea

    2017-09-01

    Motivated by the fact that the low-energy properties of the Kondo model can be effectively simulated in spin chains, we study the realization of the effect with bond impurities in ultracold bosonic lattices at half filling. After presenting a discussion of the effective theory and of the mapping of the bosonic chain onto a lattice spin Hamiltonian, we provide estimates for the Kondo length as a function of the parameters of the bosonic model. We point out that the Kondo length can be extracted from the integrated real-space correlation functions, which are experimentally accessible quantities in experiments with cold atoms.

  7. Slip length measurement using BBM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadzadegan, Adib; Snoeyink, Craig

    2015-11-01

    We will be presenting experimental characterizations of slip lengths of fluids in nano/micro channels. These channels are becoming increasingly important in sensor and separations applications. However, crucial questions still remain on the mechanisms that govern slip-length behavior. We used Bessel Beam microscopy (BBM), a novel super-resolution imaging system, in conjunction with TIRF system. These two, together led us to be able to do Particle Tracking Velocimetry with significantly higher accuracy than previously possible. We will be presenting results demonstrating the feasibility of this approach and advantages that make this method unique.

  8. Suppression of Andreev reflection mediated transport by diffuse boundary scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, F.; Thornton, T. J.; Stradling, R. A.

    2002-05-01

    In systems consisting of strings of superconducting dots deposited on wet etched InAs/GaSb heterostructure wires we have observed a severe suppression of Andreev reflection mediated transport in the region of small bias. This effect can be attributed to diffuse boundary scattering from the edges of the wires and shows expected enhancements as the wires are made narrower and/or a magnetic field is applied perpendicular to the plane of the wires; both leading to an increase in boundary scattering. The length scales that govern this phenomenon appear consistent with experimental findings.

  9. pH-dependent phase behavior of carbohydrate-based gemini surfactants. Effect of the length of the hydrophobic spacer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijn, Jaap E.; Stuart, Marc C. A.; Scarzello, Marco; Wagenaar, Anno; Engberts, Jan B. F. N.

    2006-01-01

    The phase behavior of a series of carbohydrate-based gemini surfactants with varying spacer lengths was studied using static and dynamic light scattering between pH 2 and 12. Cryo-electron microscopy pictures provide evidence for the different morphologies present in solution. The spacer length of

  10. Evaluation of a multimode fiber optic low coherence interferometer for path length resolved Doppler measurments of diffuse light

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varghese, Babu; Rajan, Vinayakrishnan; van Leeuwen, Ton; Steenbergen, Wiendelt

    2007-01-01

    The performance of a graded index multimode fiber optic low coherence Mach-Zehnder interferometer with phase modulation is analyzed. Investigated aspects were its ability to measure path length distributions and to perform path length resolved Doppler measurements of multiple scattered photons in a

  11. Electromagnetic Scattering and Material Characterization

    CERN Document Server

    Omar, Abbas

    2011-01-01

    Based on the author's more-than 30 years of experience, this first-of-its-kind volume presents a comprehensive and systematic analysis of electromagnetic fields and their scattering by material objects. The book considers all three categories of scattering environments commonly used for material measurements – unbounded regions, waveguides, and cavity resonators. The book covers such essential topics as electromagnetic field propagation, radiation, and scattering, containing mathematically rigorous approaches for the computation of electromagnetic fields and the explanation of their behavior.

  12. Femur length and biparietal diameter

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-12-02

    Dec 2, 2014 ... Conclusion: The fetal parameters used in this study were consistently smaller than reported values from European studies up to the 34th week of ... parameters include crown‑rump length, abdominal circumference, femur ... the continuous mid‑line echo is broken by the cavum septi pellucidi, and taken from ...

  13. How to measure path length?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stroeven, P.

    2015-01-01

    Path length measuring is a relevant engineering problem. Leonardo Da Vinci designed for the military appropriate equipment, the podometer, to do so. Modern equipment such as step meters and map meters are quite similar to Da Vinci?s design, despite geometrical statistical - stereological - methods

  14. Measurement of bone mineral density via light scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ugryumova, Nadya; Matcher, Stephen John; Attenburrow, Don P [Biomedical Physics Group, School of Physics, University of Exeter, Stocker Road, Exeter EX4 4QL (United Kingdom)

    2004-02-07

    In this study we have investigated the potential of optical techniques to monitor changes in bone mineral density (BMD) via changes in scattering coefficient. For each of five bone samples, diffuse reflection and transmission coefficients were measured over the wavelength range 520-960 nm using an integrating sphere and CCD spectrometer. These were converted into optical absorption and scattering coefficients using a Monte Carlo inversion procedure. Measurements were made on samples immersed in formic acid solution for different lengths of time in order to investigate the effect of reduction in BMD on the optical properties. After full demineralization, the optical scattering coefficient fell by a factor 4. From the observed degree of fluctuation of the measurements, we estimate that BMD could be measured with an accuracy of 7% if optical scattering can be measured with an accuracy of 10%. We also report preliminary measurements of bone scattering using optical coherence tomography (OCT). An inter-side variability of 3% is obtained on dry samples with and without overlying periosteum. These results suggest that minimally invasive techniques for measuring optical scattering, such as OCT, may have a role in monitoring regional changes in BMD. This could be an important advance in our understanding of bone remodelling and its relationship to osteoarthritis. Both the integrating sphere and OCT measurements also suggest that light transport in bone is spatially anisotropic. OCT was used to assess probability of obtaining results in vivo.

  15. Advances in total scattering analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proffen, Thomas E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kim, Hyunjeong [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    In recent years the analysis of the total scattering pattern has become an invaluable tool to study disordered crystalline and nanocrystalline materials. Traditional crystallographic structure determination is based on Bragg intensities and yields the long range average atomic structure. By including diffuse scattering into the analysis, the local and medium range atomic structure can be unravelled. Here we give an overview of recent experimental advances, using X-rays as well as neutron scattering as well as current trends in modelling of total scattering data.

  16. Light scattering by small particles

    CERN Document Server

    Hulst, H C van de

    1981-01-01

    ""A must for researchers using the techniques of light scattering."" ? S. C. Snowdon, Journal of the Franklin InstituteThe measurement of light scattering of independent, homogeneous particles has many useful applications in physical chemistry, meteorology and astronomy. There is, however, a sizeable gap between the abstract formulae related to electromagnetic-wave-scattering phenomena, and the computation of reliable figures and curves. Dr. van de Hulst's book enables researchers to bridge that gap. The product of twelve years of work, it is an exhaustive study of light-scattering properties

  17. Dispersion Decay and Scattering Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Komech, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    A simplified, yet rigorous treatment of scattering theory methods and their applications Dispersion Decay and Scattering Theory provides thorough, easy-to-understand guidance on the application of scattering theory methods to modern problems in mathematics, quantum physics, and mathematical physics. Introducing spectral methods with applications to dispersion time-decay and scattering theory, this book presents, for the first time, the Agmon-Jensen-Kato spectral theory for the Schr?dinger equation, extending the theory to the Klein-Gordon equation. The dispersion decay plays a crucial role i

  18. Surface enhanced Raman scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Furtak, Thomas

    1982-01-01

    In the course of the development of surface science, advances have been identified with the introduction of new diagnostic probes for analytical characterization of the adsorbates and microscopic structure of surfaces and interfaces. Among the most recently de­ veloped techniques, and one around which a storm of controversy has developed, is what has now been earmarked as surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). Within this phenomenon, molecules adsorbed onto metal surfaces under certain conditions exhibit an anomalously large interaction cross section for the Raman effect. This makes it possible to observe the detailed vibrational signature of the adsorbate in the ambient phase with an energy resolution much higher than that which is presently available in electron energy loss spectroscopy and when the surface is in contact with a much larger amount of material than that which can be tolerated in infrared absorption experiments. The ability to perform vibrational spectroscopy under these conditions would l...

  19. Elliptic scattering equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardona, Carlos [Physics Division, National Center for Theoretical Sciences, National Tsing-Hua University,Hsinchu, Taiwan 30013 (China); Gomez, Humberto [Instituto de Fisica - Universidade de São Paulo,Caixa Postal 66318, 05315-970 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Facultad de Ciencias Basicas, Universidad Santiago de Cali,Calle 5 62-00 Barrio Pampalinda, Cali, Valle (Colombia)

    2016-06-16

    Recently the CHY approach has been extended to one loop level using elliptic functions and modular forms over a Jacobian variety. Due to the difficulty in manipulating these kind of functions, we propose an alternative prescription that is totally algebraic. This new proposal is based on an elliptic algebraic curve embedded in a ℂP{sup 2} space. We show that for the simplest integrand, namely the n−gon, our proposal indeed reproduces the expected result. By using the recently formulated Λ−algorithm, we found a novel recurrence relation expansion in terms of tree level off-shell amplitudes. Our results connect nicely with recent results on the one-loop formulation of the scattering equations. In addition, this new proposal can be easily stretched out to hyperelliptic curves in order to compute higher genus.

  20. Evaluation of a multimode fiber optic low coherence interferometer for path length resolved Doppler measurments of diffuse light

    OpenAIRE

    Varghese, Babu; Rajan, Vinayakrishnan; van Leeuwen, Ton; Steenbergen, Wiendelt

    2007-01-01

    The performance of a graded index multimode fiber optic low coherence Mach-Zehnder interferometer with phase modulation is analyzed. Investigated aspects were its ability to measure path length distributions and to perform path length resolved Doppler measurements of multiple scattered photons in a turbid suspension of particles undergoing Brownian and translational motion. The path length resolution of this instrument is compared with a system using single mode fibers for illumination and de...

  1. Keeping disease at arm's length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Aske Juul

    2015-01-01

    Many older people live with a range of chronic diseases. However, these diseases do not necessarily impede an active lifestyle. In this article the author analyses the relation between the active ageing discourse and the way older people at two Danish activity centres handle disease. How does...... active ageing change everyday life with chronic disease, and how do older people combine an active life with a range of chronic diseases? The participants in the study use activities to keep their diseases at arm’s length, and this distancing of disease at the same time enables them to engage in social...... and physical activities at the activity centre. In this way, keeping disease at arm’s length is analysed as an ambiguous health strategy. The article shows the importance of looking into how active ageing is practised, as active ageing seems to work well in the everyday life of the older people by not giving...

  2. Length of a Hanging Cable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Costello

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The shape of a cable hanging under its own weight and uniform horizontal tension between two power poles is a catenary. The catenary is a curve which has an equation defined by a hyperbolic cosine function and a scaling factor. The scaling factor for power cables hanging under their own weight is equal to the horizontal tension on the cable divided by the weight of the cable. Both of these values are unknown for this problem. Newton's method was used to approximate the scaling factor and the arc length function to determine the length of the cable. A script was written using the Python programming language in order to quickly perform several iterations of Newton's method to get a good approximation for the scaling factor.

  3. Dynamic measurement of forward scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appel-Hansen, Jørgen; Rusch, W.

    1975-01-01

    A dynamic method for the measurement of forward scattering in a radio anechoic chamber is described. The quantity determined is the induced-field-ratio (IFR) of conducting cylinders. The determination of the IFR is highly sensitive to 1) multiple scattering between the cylinder and the obpring...

  4. Quantum scattering at low energies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derezinski, Jan; Skibsted, Erik

    2009-01-01

    For a class of negative slowly decaying potentials, including V(x):=−γ|x|−μ with 0quantum mechanical scattering theory in the low-energy regime. Using appropriate modifiers of the Isozaki–Kitada type we show that scattering theory is well behaved on the whole continuous spectrum...

  5. Quantum scattering at low energies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derezinski, Jan; Skibsted, Erik

    For a class of negative slowly decaying potentials, including with , we study the quantum mechanical scattering theory in the low-energy regime. Using modifiers of the Isozaki--Kitada type we show that scattering theory is well behaved on the {\\it whole} continuous spectrum of the Hamiltonian...

  6. Light scattering in ophthalmic research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuchin, Valery V.

    1994-06-01

    In the overview optical models of cornea, sclera, and crystalline lens humor will be presented. On the basis of these models eye tissue transmittance spectra and scattering indicatrices for the main informative elements of the mueller matrix will be analyzed. This paper will discuss some problems of eye tissue optical characteristics control, and possibilities and perspectives of elastic scattering spectroscopy in cataract diagnostics.

  7. Quantum scattering in one dimension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barlette, Vania E. [Centro Universitario Franciscano, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Leite, Marcelo M. [Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica, Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Adhikari, Sadhan K. [Instituto de Fisica Teorica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2000-09-01

    A self-contained discussion of non-relativistic quantum scattering is presented in the case of central potentials in one space dimension, which will facilitate the understanding of the more complex scattering theory in two and three dimensions. The present discussion illustrates in a simple way the concepts of partial-wave decomposition, phase shift, optical theorem and effective-range expansion. (author)

  8. Electron scattering for exotic nuclei

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-11-04

    Nov 4, 2014 ... determine the charge density distributions of short-lived exotic nuclei by elastic electron scattering. The first collision ... Electron scattering of highly unstable nuclei is not easy because it is difficult to produce ... both ends form a mirror potential to keep the ions longitudinally inside the SCRIT device, and the ...

  9. Light scattering by soap films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrij, A.

    A theory is constructed describing the scattering from a liquid film (e.g., a soap film) of a light beam polarized normal to the plane of incidence. This scattering is due to the small irregular corrugations caused by thermal motion. The interference of the reflected incident beam with its multiple

  10. Surface scattering from ceramic phosphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenef, Alan; Kelso, John; Peters, Christopher

    2012-02-01

    Scattering from phosphor converters and epitaxial surfaces is critical for solid state lighting device performance. Volume and surface scattering in solid state lighting devices can play a critical role in efficiency/efficacy, color points, and color angular consistency. Surface scattering in particular has not been well characterized in solid state lighting devices and can be complex to model. Because large angle scattering is important in lighting applications, surface scattering models generally require vector electromagnetic theory to avoid ambiguities often associated with scalar theory at these angles. Furthermore, surface features are often on the order of a few wavelengths, bringing ray tracing approaches into question. In this work, experimental angular scattering measurements are made on ceramic phosphor components where surface scattering dominates. The surface ceramic grain structure is responsible for the scattering. The results are compared to approximate statistical vector theory predictions that use the height autocorrelation functions as input. The autocorrelation measurements were derived from atomic-force microscopy topography measurements. Resulting predictions are in fairly good agreement with measurements.

  11. Small-angle neutron scattering study on irradiated kappa carrageenan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abad, Lucille [Neutron Science Laboratory, Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, 106-1 Shirakata, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1106 (Japan) and Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Commonwealth Ave., Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines) and Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, 2-4 Shirane Shirakata, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)]. E-mail: lvabad@pnri.dost.gov.ph; Okabe, Satoshi [Neutron Science Laboratory, Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, 106-1 Shirakata, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1106 (Japan); Koizumi, Satoshi [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, 2-4 Shirane Shirakata, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Shibayama, Mitsuhiro [Neutron Science Laboratory, Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, 106-1 Shirakata, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1106 (Japan)]. E-mail: sibayama@issp.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2006-05-31

    The structure of gamma-ray-irradiated {kappa}-carrageenan in aqueous solutions was investigated in terms of small-angle neutron scattering. The scattered intensity, I(q), of non-irradiated {kappa}-carrageenan solutions (5 wt%) was well described with an Ornstein-Zernike (OZ)-type function with the correlation length of 85 A, indicating that the {kappa}-carrageenan solution behaves just as a polymer solution in the semi-dilute regime. By increasing the irradiation dose (100 kGy), I(q) changed to a power-law function with the scattering exponent of -1.84. Further increase in dose results in a recovery of OZ-type function. This indicates that a progressive cleavage of {kappa}-carrageenan chains takes place randomly, leading to a self-similar structure at 100 kGy. This is followed by further segmentation of {kappa}-carrageenan chains.

  12. The effects of scattering and mirror reflectivity on the performance of a ruby laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, J G

    1967-06-01

    The output energy expected from a conventional ruby laser generator with plane parallel mirrors is calculated for a range of excitation energies, pulse lengths, mirror reflectivities and absorption, scattering and reflection losses. A linear dependence of output energy on excitation energy is expected only for a vanishingly small pulse length. The effects of localized losses such as those from reflections at the ends of the crystal are similar to scattering losses distributed through the crystal. The output mirror reflectivity giving maximum output energy falls as the excitation energy and scattering increase but is typically 50-60%. The reduction in output caused by scattering is less for lower reflectivities. The angular distribution of light scattered from the ruby when lasing is measured by varying the resonator length to assess the scattering. The predictions of output energy are in good agreement with experiment for all the excitation energies, introduced scattering losses, and mirror reflectivities tri d, except that above 70% reflectivity the prediction is up to 60% low. Possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed. It was also found experimentally that the resonances between the ends of the ruby are suppressed when lasing, probably due to the optical inhomogeneities produced by the refractive index changes associated with the population changes during a laser spike. The output energy is thus reduced when the ends are not aligned in the resonator. These dynamic inhomogeneities are thought to override any static inhomogeneities already present in the crystal and are a major source of resonator loss.

  13. Invariance property of wave scattering through disordered media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierrat, Romain; Ambichl, Philipp; Gigan, Sylvain; Haber, Alexander; Carminati, Rémi; Rotter, Stefan

    2014-12-16

    A fundamental insight in the theory of diffusive random walks is that the mean length of trajectories traversing a finite open system is independent of the details of the diffusion process. Instead, the mean trajectory length depends only on the system's boundary geometry and is thus unaffected by the value of the mean free path. Here we show that this result is rooted on a much deeper level than that of a random walk, which allows us to extend the reach of this universal invariance property beyond the diffusion approximation. Specifically, we demonstrate that an equivalent invariance relation also holds for the scattering of waves in resonant structures as well as in ballistic, chaotic or in Anderson localized systems. Our work unifies a number of specific observations made in quite diverse fields of science ranging from the movement of ants to nuclear scattering theory. Potential experimental realizations using light fields in disordered media are discussed.

  14. Small-angle scattering study of Aspergillus awamori glycoprotein glucoamylase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, A. E., E-mail: schmidt@omrb.pnpi.spb.ru; Shvetsov, A. V. [National Research Center “Kurchatov Institute”, Konstantinov Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (Russian Federation); Kuklin, A. I. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Lebedev, D. V.; Surzhik, M. A.; Sergeev, V. R.; Isaev-Ivanov, V. V. [National Research Center “Kurchatov Institute”, Konstantinov Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    Glucoamylase from fungus Aspergillus awamori is glycoside hydrolase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of α-1,4- and α-1,6-glucosidic bonds in glucose polymers and oligomers. This glycoprotein consists of a catalytic domain and a starch-binding domain connected by an O-glycosylated polypeptide chain. The conformation of the linker, the relative arrangement of the domains, and the structure of the full-length enzyme are unknown. The structure of the recombinant glucoamylase GA1 was studied by molecular modelling and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) methods. The experimental SANS data provide evidence that glucoamylase exists as a monomer in solution and contains a glycoside component, which makes a substantial contribution to the scattering. The model of full-length glucoamylase, which was calculated without taking into account the effect of glycosylation, is consistent with the experimental data and has a radius of gyration of 33.4 ± 0.6 Å.

  15. Neutron scattering of advanced magnetic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, S. M.; Kumar, Amit

    2017-09-01

    and spin delocalization at molecular levels, and (iv) role of bridging ligands in propagating magnetic exchange interactions. The neutron diffraction studies have contributed towards the development of spintronics by bringing out (i) correlations between atomic site disorder and electronic spin polarization in full Heusler and half Heusler alloys, and (ii) microscopic origin of magnetic ordering in antiferromagnetic spintronics and other potential spintronic materials. Neutron depolarization, small angle neutron scattering, and neutron reflectometry techniques, on the other hand, have probed magnetism at mesoscopic length scales in such advanced magnetic materials. The derived understanding would be useful to exploit such materials for their practical applications as well as to set directions for future research in these areas.

  16. Studying time of flight imaging through scattering media across multiple size scales (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velten, Andreas

    2017-05-01

    Light scattering is a primary obstacle to optical imaging in a variety of different environments and across many size and time scales. Scattering complicates imaging on large scales when imaging through the atmosphere when imaging from airborne or space borne platforms, through marine fog, or through fog and dust in vehicle navigation, for example in self driving cars. On smaller scales, scattering is the major obstacle when imaging through human tissue in biomedical applications. Despite the large variety of participating materials and size scales, light transport in all these environments is usually described with very similar scattering models that are defined by the same small set of parameters, including scattering and absorption length and phase function. We attempt a study of scattering and methods of imaging through scattering across different scales and media, particularly with respect to the use of time of flight information. We can show that using time of flight, in addition to spatial information, provides distinct advantages in scattering environments. By performing a comparative study of scattering across scales and media, we are able to suggest scale models for scattering environments to aid lab research. We also can transfer knowledge and methodology between different fields.

  17. Low-energy potential scattering in two and three dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Khuri, N.N.; Richard, Jean-Marc; Wu, Tai Tsun

    2009-01-01

    Conditions are established for the existence of a scattering length and an effective range in the low-energy expansion of the S-wave phase-shift of a central potential in two and three dimensions. The behavior of the phase-shift as a function of the momentum is also derived for longer-range power-law potentials which do not fulfill these conditions.

  18. Is large angle exclusive scattering controlled by the hadronic radius?

    CERN Document Server

    Schrempp, Barbara

    1975-01-01

    It is pointed out that the large angle pp to pp data suggest an exponential behaviour in p/sub perpendicular to / modulated by a regular oscillation in p/sub perpendicular to / more naturally than a power law s/sup -N/. It is argued that these effects are due to a manifestation of the same geometrical length scale R approximately=1 fermi which is known to control small angle scattering. (19 refs).

  19. Intermediate scattering function of an anisotropic active Brownian particle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzthaler, Christina; Leitmann, Sebastian; Franosch, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    Various challenges are faced when animalcules such as bacteria, protozoa, algae, or sperms move autonomously in aqueous media at low Reynolds number. These active agents are subject to strong stochastic fluctuations, that compete with the directed motion. So far most studies consider the lowest order moments of the displacements only, while more general spatio-temporal information on the stochastic motion is provided in scattering experiments. Here we derive analytically exact expressions for the directly measurable intermediate scattering function for a mesoscopic model of a single, anisotropic active Brownian particle in three dimensions. The mean-square displacement and the non-Gaussian parameter of the stochastic process are obtained as derivatives of the intermediate scattering function. These display different temporal regimes dominated by effective diffusion and directed motion due to the interplay of translational and rotational diffusion which is rationalized within the theory. The most prominent feature of the intermediate scattering function is an oscillatory behavior at intermediate wavenumbers reflecting the persistent swimming motion, whereas at small length scales bare translational and at large length scales an enhanced effective diffusion emerges. We anticipate that our characterization of the motion of active agents will serve as a reference for more realistic models and experimental observations.

  20. Monte Carlo, small angle light scattering, and dynamic light scattering studies of dilute polymer solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Joseph E.

    The adsorption of negatively charged polymer, negative/neutral block copolymer and a polyampholyte to patterned surfaces is investigated using off-lattice Monte Carlo simulations. The surface is decorated by stripe and checkerboard patterns of mixed charges. The polymer has periodic charge segments, which potentially match the periodicity of the surface pattern. Results show that the chain entropy of a flexible polymer disrupts and prevents full pattern recognition. Quantities such as average adsorption energy and the radii of gyration of the adsorbed polymer are calculated and found to be dictated by the size of the surface pattern and its correlation to the polymer charge density. We performed small angle light scattering on dilute-solution-grown polyethylene crystals grown from quenches in para-xylene. The quench depths ranged from 60 to 85°C for 0.05 wt.% and 0.1 wt.% linear-low-polydispersity polyethylenes. We found asymmetric scattering patterns for the lower temperature quenches to 65°C, and symmetric scattering patterns for the higher temperature quenches to 80°C. There is a smooth transition from asymmetric to symmetric scattering as we change the quench depth. The correlation lengths d=2pi/qmax corresponding to the peaks of intensity versus q ranged from 15 to 30 mum. We find evidence that these length scales correspond to assemblies of single polyethylene crystals. Also, we have performed dynamic light scattering on solutions of sodium-poly(styrene-sulfonate) (NaPSS) and poly(ethylene-oxide) (PEO) in water with BaCl2. The fast mode ( Dfast) and slow mode (Dslow) diffusion coefficients were measured as a function of polymer concentration for both polymers in dilute solution. We found that the diffusion coefficients remained relatively constant in the concentration regimes investigated and Dfast and Dslow for both polymers differed by about 1½ orders of magnitude: 1.1 x 10-6 cm2/s versus 7.8 x 10-8 cm2/s for NaPSS and 6.7 x 10-7 cm2/s versus 4.2 x 10

  1. Heavy-ion nucleus scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Rahman, M A; Haque, S

    2003-01-01

    Heavy ion-nucleus scattering is an excellent laboratory to probe high spin phenomena, exotic nuclei and for the analysis of various exit channels. The Strong Absorption Model or the generalized diffraction models, which are semi-classical in nature, have been employed in the description of various heavy ion-nucleus scattering phenomena with reasonable success. But one needs to treat the deflection function (scattering angles) quantum mechanically in the Wave Mechanical picture for the appropriate description of the heavy-ion nucleus scattering phenomena. We have brought the mathematics for the cross-section of the heavy-ion nucleus scattering to an analytic expression taking account of the deflection function (scattering angles) quantum mechanically. sup 9 Be, sup 1 sup 6 O, sup 2 sup 0 Ne and sup 3 sup 2 S heavy-ion beams elastic scattering from sup 2 sup 8 Si, sup 2 sup 4 Mg and sup 4 sup 0 Ca target nuclei at various projectile energies over the range 20-151 MeV have been analysed in terms of the 2-paramet...

  2. Scattering of electromagnetic waves by obstacles

    CERN Document Server

    Kristensson, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves by Obstacles is to give a theoretical treatment of the scattering phenomena, and to illustrate numerical computations of some canonical scattering problems for different geometries and materials.

  3. Light scattering reviews 9 light scattering and radiative transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Kokhanovsky, Alexander A

    2014-01-01

    This book details modern methods of the radiative transfer theory. It presents recent advances in light scattering (measurements and theory) and highlights the newest developments in remote sensing of aerosol and cloud properties.

  4. Collective stimulated Brillouin scatter

    CERN Document Server

    Korotkevich, Alexander O; Rose, Harvey A

    2011-01-01

    We develop a statistical theory of stimulated Brillouin backscatter (BSBS) of a spatially and temporally partially incoherent laser beam for laser fusion relevant plasma. We find a new collective regime of BSBS which has a much larger threshold than the classical threshold of a coherent beam in long-scale-length laser fusion plasma. We identify two contributions to BSBS convective instability increment. The first is collective with intensity threshold independent of the laser correlation time and controlled by diffraction. The second is independent of diffraction, it grows with increase of the correlation time and does not have an intensity threshold. The instability threshold is inside the typical parameter region of National Ignition Facility (NIF). We also find that the bandwidth of KrF-laser-based fusion systems would be large enough to allow additional suppression of BSBS.

  5. In vivo determination of local skin optical properties and photon path length by use of spatially resolved diffuse reflectance with applications in laser Doppler flowmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Marcus; Nilsson, Henrik; Strömberg, Tomas

    2003-01-01

    Methods for local photon path length and optical properties estimation, based on measured and simulated diffuse reflectance within 2 mm from the light source, are proposed and evaluated in vivo on Caucasian human skin. The accuracy of the methods was good (2%-7%) for path length and reduced scattering but poor for absorption estimation. Reduced scattering and absorption were systematically lower in the fingertip than in the forearm skin (633 nm). A maximum intrasite and interindividual variation of approximately 35% in an average photon path length was found. The methodology was applied in laser Doppler flowmetry, where path-length normalization of the estimated perfusion removed the optical property dependency.

  6. Synthetic Fourier transform light scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyeoreh; Kim, Hyeon-Don; Kim, Kyoohyun; Kim, Youngchan; Hillman, Timothy R; Min, Bumki; Park, Yongkeun

    2013-09-23

    We present synthetic Fourier transform light scattering, a method for measuring extended angle-resolved light scattering (ARLS) from individual microscopic samples. By measuring the light fields scattered from the sample plane and numerically synthesizing them in Fourier space, the angle range of the ARLS patterns is extended up to twice the numerical aperture of the imaging system with unprecedented sensitivity and precision. Extended ARLS patterns of individual microscopic polystyrene beads, healthy human red blood cells (RBCs), and Plasmodium falciparum-parasitized RBCs are presented.

  7. Vector boson scattering at CLIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilian, Wolfgang; Fleper, Christian [Department Physik, Universitaet Siegen, 57068 Siegen (Germany); Reuter, Juergen [DESY Theory Group, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); Sekulla, Marco [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Linear colliders operating in a range of multiple TeV are able to investigate the details of vector boson scattering and electroweak symmetry breaking. We calculate cross sections with the Monte Carlo generator WHIZARD for vector boson scattering processes at the future linear e{sup +} e{sup -} collider CLIC. By finding suitable cuts, the vector boson scattering signal processes are isolated from the background. Finally, we are able to determine exclusion sensitivities on the non-Standard Model parameters of the relevant dimension eight operators.

  8. A Discrete Scatterer Technique for Evaluating Electromagnetic Scattering from Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    distribution is unlimited. 1 1. Introduction Developing sensing capabilities for the detection of ground targets concealed in a forest environment...scatterer simulation are 369 MB and 33 min/frequency, respectively, on a Dell Precision T7500 workstation with Intel Xeon CPU of 2.67 GHz, while those...2. Thirion L, Colin E, Dahon C. Capabilities of a forest coherent scattering model applied to radiometry, interferometry, and polarimetry at P

  9. Comparative Study of Light Scattering from Hepatoma Cells and Hepatocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaogang; Wang, Rongrong; Guo, Yongcai; Gao, Chao; Guo, Xiaoen

    2012-11-01

    Primary liver cancer is one of the highest mortality malignant tumors in the world. China is a high occurrence area of primary liver cancer. Diagnosis of liver cancer, especially early diagnosis, is essential for improving patients' survival. Light scattering and measuring method is an emerging technology developed in recent decades, which has attracted a large number of biomedical researchers due to its advantages, such as fast, simple, high accuracy, good repeatability, and non-destructive. The hypothesis of this project is that there may be some different light scattering information between hepatoma cells and hepatocyte. Combined with the advantages of the dynamic light scattering method and the biological cytology, an experimental scheme to measure the light scattering information of cells was formulated. Hepatoma cells and hepatic cells were irradiated by a semiconductor laser (532 nm). And the Brookhaven BI-200SM wide-angle light scattering device and temperature control apparatus were adopted. The light scattering information of hepatoma cells and hepatic cells in vitro within the 15°C to 30°C temperature range was processed by a BI-9000AT digital autocorrelator. The following points were found: (a) the scattering intensities of human hepatic cells and hepatoma cells are nearly not affected by the temperature factor, and the former is always greater than the latter and (b) the relaxation time of hepatoma cells is longer than that of hepatic cells, and both the relaxation time are shortened with increasing temperature from 15°C to 25°C. It can be concluded that hepatoma cells could absorb more incident light than hepatic cells. The reason may be that there exists more protein and nucleic acid in cancerous cells than normal cells. Furthermore, based on the length relaxation time, a conclusion can be inferred that the Brownian movement of cancer cells is greater.

  10. The thermal neutron scattering cross section of {sup 86}Kr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terburg, B.P.

    1992-05-01

    The availability of 27 1 STP krypton-86 gas, an isotope with unknown thermal neutron scattering cross section, was an excellent occasion to determine the (bound atom) scattering cross section and its coherent part by application of the neutron transmission method and neutron interferometry. The transmission method was applied in a diffractometer, a Larmor spectrometer and a TOF-spectrometer. In addition to {sup 86}Kr also natural krypton ({sup n}Kr) was used for sample in the diffractometer. The diffractometer measurements result in bound atom scattering cross sections {sigma}{sub s}=8.92(46) b for {sup 86}Kr and {sigma}{sub s}=7.08(95) b for {sup n}Kr. The Larmor transmission measurements lead to a final result {sigma}{sub s}=8.44(9) b for {sup 86}Kr. In the TOF-spectrometer the wavelength-dependent total cross section of water was determined. Coherent neutron scattering lengths were determined using the neutron interferometry method with a skew symmetric neutron interferometer. Scans with {sup 86}Kr and {sup n}Kr led to b{sub c}=8.07(26) fm for {sup 86}Kr and 7.72(33) fm for {sup n}Kr, corresponding to coherent scattering cross sections {sigma}{sub c}=8.18(53) b and 7.49(64) b respectively. Due to the large errors in the bound atom scattering cross section and coherent scattering cross section of {sup 86}Kr and {sup n}Kr, the incoherent cross section of both gases, {sigma}{sub i} = 0 within its inaccuracy, {sigma}{sub i}=0.26(54) b for {sup 86}Kr and {sigma}{sub i}=0.41(1.15) b for {sup n}Kr. (orig.).

  11. Laser light scattering basic principles and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Chu, Benjamin

    1994-01-01

    Geared toward upper-level undergraduate and graduate students, this text introduces the interdisciplinary area of laser light scattering, focusing chiefly on theoretical concepts of quasielastic laser scattering.

  12. Scattering of light by crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Hayes, William

    2012-01-01

    This authoritative graduate-level text describes inelastic light scattering by crystals and its use in the investigation of solid-state excitation, with experimental techniques common to all types of excitation. 1978 edition.

  13. Integration rules for scattering equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baadsgaard, Christian; Bjerrum-Bohr, N.E.J.; Bourjaily, Jacob L.; Damgaard, Poul H. [Niels Bohr International Academy and Discovery Center,Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen,Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø (Denmark)

    2015-09-21

    As described by Cachazo, He and Yuan, scattering amplitudes in many quantum field theories can be represented as integrals that are fully localized on solutions to the so-called scattering equations. Because the number of solutions to the scattering equations grows quite rapidly, the contour of integration involves contributions from many isolated components. In this paper, we provide a simple, combinatorial rule that immediately provides the result of integration against the scattering equation constraints for any Möbius-invariant integrand involving only simple poles. These rules have a simple diagrammatic interpretation that makes the evaluation of any such integrand immediate. Finally, we explain how these rules are related to the computation of amplitudes in the field theory limit of string theory.

  14. Light Scattering in Solid IX

    CERN Document Server

    Cardona, Manuel

    2007-01-01

    This is the ninth volume of a well-established series in which expert practitioners discuss topical aspects of light scattering in solids. It reviews recent developments concerning mainly semiconductor nanostructures and inelastic x-ray scattering, including both coherent time-domain and spontaneous scattering studies. In the past few years, light scattering has become one of the most important research and characterization methods for studying carbon nanotubes and semiconducting quantum dots, and a crucial tool for exploring the coupled exciton--photon system in semiconductor cavities. Among the novel techniques discussed in this volume are pump--probe ultrafast measurements and those which use synchrotron radiation as light source. The book addresses improvements in the intensity, beam quality and time synchronization of modern synchrotron sources, which made it possible to measure the phonon dispersion in very small samples and to determine electronic energy bands as well as enabling real-time observations...

  15. Compton scattering at high intensities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinzl, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.heinzl@plymouth.ac.u [University of Plymouth, School of Mathematics and Statistics, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)

    2009-12-01

    High-intensity Compton scattering takes place when an electron beam is brought into collision with a high power laser. We briefly review the main intensity signatures using the formalism of strong-field quantum electrodynamics.

  16. Neutron scattering and models: Titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, A.B.

    1997-07-01

    Differential neutron elastic-scattering cross sections of elemental titanium were measured from 4.5 {r_arrow} 10.0 MeV in incident energy increments of {approx} 0.5 MeV. At each energy the measurements were made at forty or more scattering angles distributed between {approx} 17 and 160{degree}. Concurrently, differential neutron inelastic-scattering cross sections were measured for observed excitations of 0.975 {+-} 0.034, 1.497 {+-} 0.033, 2.322 {+-} 0.058, 3.252 {+-} 0.043, 3.700 {+-} 0.093, 4.317 {+-} 0.075 and 4.795 {+-} 0.100 MeV. All of the observed inelastically-scattered neutron groups were composites of contributions from several isotopes and/or levels. The experimental results were used to develop energy-average optical, statistical and coupled-channels models.

  17. Modeling fluctuations in scattered waves

    CERN Document Server

    Jakeman, E

    2006-01-01

    Fluctuations in scattered waves limit the performance of imaging and remote sensing systems that operate on all wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum. To better understand these fluctuations, Modeling Fluctuations in Scattered Waves provides a practical guide to the phenomenology, mathematics, and simulation of non-Gaussian noise models and discusses how they can be used to characterize the statistics of scattered waves.Through their discussion of mathematical models, the authors demonstrate the development of new sensing techniques as well as offer intelligent choices that can be made for system analysis. Using experimental results and numerical simulation, the book illustrates the properties and applications of these models. The first two chapters introduce statistical tools and the properties of Gaussian noise, including results on phase statistics. The following chapters describe Gaussian processes and the random walk model, address multiple scattering effects and propagation through an extended med...

  18. Electromagnetic Scattering from Vegetation Canopies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarabandi, Kamal

    Satellite-borne imaging radar has been proposed by the remote sensing community as a potential sensor for the acquisition of quantitative information about forested area on a global scale. To achieve this goal, it is necessary to develop retrieved algorithms that can provide reasonable estimate of vegetation biomass, leaf moisture content, and other physical parameters of tree canopies from multifrequency/multipolarization observations of their radar backscattering coefficients. Retrieval algorithms often are called "inverse problem" because their input/output parameters are the inverse of those associated with the direct problem, which in the present case refers to the development of a radar scattering model that relates the radar response to the canopy architecture and associated parameters. This thesis provides electromagnetic solutions to several problems associated with scattering from tree canopies. The forest canopy is modelled in the form of layers comprised of randomly distributed particles with known statistical properties. In Chapters 2-8 effective scattering models for different constituent particles of vegetation canopies are developed by employing appropriate asymptotic solutions and approximations. The effects of various physical features of the particles, such as curvature and variation in thickness for planar leaves and roughness for tree trunks, on their scattering behavior are examined. In Chapter 9 the scattering problem of inhomogeneous layered media is formulated via the vector radiative transfer equations and a first-order solution for the radar scattering coefficients is obtained. The radiative transfer solution is formulated in terms of two sets of input functions: the scattering matrices of the constituent particles, which are given in Chapters 2-8, and the size and orientation distribution functions of the particles. The radar scattering model and associated input functions can be used to conduct sensitivity analyses to determine the

  19. Radar interferometry persistent scatterer technique

    CERN Document Server

    Kampes, Bert M

    2014-01-01

    This volume is devoted to the Persistent Scatterer Technique, the latest development in radar interferometric data processing. It is the only book on Permanent Scatterer (PS) technique of radar interferometry, and it details a newly developed stochastic model and estimator algorithm to cope with possible problems for the application of the PS technique. The STUN (spatio-temporal unwrapping network) algorithm, developed to cope with these issues in a robust way, is presented and applied to two test sites.

  20. Isogeometric analysis of acoustic scattering

    OpenAIRE

    Venås, Jon Vegard

    2015-01-01

    Acoustic scattering has been thoroughly analyzed with the use of finite element analysis (FEA). The problem at hand is a coupled fluid-structure interaction problem on an unbounded domain, where an object of elastic material is surrounded by fluid. Using physical assumptions, the fluid is described by the wave equation which is transformed to the Helmholtz equation. That is, the frequency domain is considered instead of the time domain. In particular one is interested in the scattered pressur...

  1. Double parton scattering in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Sunar Cerci, Deniz

    2017-01-01

    Recent results on the double parton scattering measurements performed using the proton-proton collision data collected with the CMS detector are presented. The observables, which are sensitive to double parton scattering, are investigated after being corrected for detector effects and selection efficiencies. Multivariate analysis techniques are used for increasing the sensitivity. The effective cross section, $\\sigma_{eff}$ is also extracted using different processes at various center-of-mass energies.

  2. Geometry of area without length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Pei-Ming; Inami, Takeo

    2016-01-01

    To define a free string by the Nambu-Goto action, all we need is the notion of area, and mathematically the area can be defined directly in the absence of a metric. Motivated by the possibility that string theory admits backgrounds where the notion of length is not well defined but a definition of area is given, we study space-time geometries based on the generalization of a metric to an area metric. In analogy with Riemannian geometry, we define the analogues of connections, curvatures, and Einstein tensor. We propose a formulation generalizing Einstein's theory that will be useful if at a certain stage or a certain scale the metric is ill defined and the space-time is better characterized by the notion of area. Static spherical solutions are found for the generalized Einstein equation in vacuum, including the Schwarzschild solution as a special case.

  3. Scattered light characterization of FORTIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCandliss, Stephan R.; Carter, Anna; Redwine, Keith; Teste, Stephane; Pelton, Russell; Hagopian, John; Kutyrev, Alexander; Li, Mary J.; Moseley, S. Harvey

    2017-08-01

    We describe our efforts to build a Wide-Field Lyman alpha Geocoronal simulator (WFLaGs) for characterizing the end-to-end sensitivity of FORTIS (Far-UV Off Rowland-circle Telescope for Imaging and Spectroscopy) to scattered Lyman α emission from outside of the nominal (1/2 degree)2 field-of-view. WFLaGs is a 50 mm diameter F/1 aluminum parabolic collimator fed by a hollow cathode discharge lamp with a 80 mm clear MgF2 window housed in a vacuum skin. It creates emission over a 10 degree FOV. WFLaGS will allow us to validate and refine a recently developed scattered light model and verify our scatter light mitigation strategies, which will incorporate low scatter baffle materials, and possibly 3-d printed light traps, covering exposed scatter centers. We present measurements of scattering intensity of Lyman alpha as a function of angle with respect to the specular reflectance direction for several candidate baffle materials. Initial testing of WFLaGs will be described.

  4. Electron scattering in graphene with adsorbed NaCl nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drabińska, Aneta, E-mail: Aneta.Drabinska@fuw.edu.pl; Kaźmierczak, Piotr; Bożek, Rafał; Karpierz, Ewelina; Wysmołek, Andrzej; Kamińska, Maria [Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, Pasteura 5, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland); Wołoś, Agnieszka [Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, Pasteura 5, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland); Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotników 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Pasternak, Iwona; Strupiński, Włodek [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Wólczyńska 133, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland); Krajewska, Aleksandra [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Wólczyńska 133, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland); Institute of Optoelectronics, Military University of Technology, Kaliskiego 2, 00-908 Warsaw (Poland)

    2015-01-07

    In this work, the results of contactless magnetoconductance and Raman spectroscopy measurements performed for a graphene sample after its immersion in NaCl solution were presented. The properties of the immersed sample were compared with those of a non-immersed reference sample. Atomic force microscopy and electron spin resonance experiments confirmed the deposition of NaCl nanoparticles on the graphene surface. A weak localization signal observed using contactless magnetoconductance showed the reduction of the coherence length after NaCl treatment of graphene. Temperature dependence of the coherence length indicated a change from ballistic to diffusive regime in electron transport after NaCl treatment. The main inelastic scattering process was of the electron-electron type but the major reason for the reduction of the coherence length at low temperatures was additional, temperature independent, inelastic scattering. We associate it with spin flip scattering, caused by NaCl nanoparticles present on the graphene surface. Raman spectroscopy showed an increase in the D and D′ bands intensities for graphene after its immersion in NaCl solution. An analysis of the D, D′, and G bands intensities proved that this additional scattering is related to the decoration of vacancies and grain boundaries with NaCl nanoparticles, as well as generation of new on-site defects as a result of the decoration of the graphene surface with NaCl nanoparticles. The observed energy shifts of 2D and G bands indicated that NaCl deposition on the graphene surface did not change carrier concentration, but reduced compressive biaxial strain in the graphene layer.

  5. Low energy o-Ps-o-Ps elastic scattering using a simple model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Himanshu, Sharma [Veer Kunwar Singh Univ., Dept. of Physics, Bihar (India); Kiran, Kumari [R N College, P. G. Dept. of Physics, Bihar (India); Sumana, Chakraborty [Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Dept. of Theoretical Physics (India)

    2009-06-15

    A simple model is employed to investigate o-Ps-o-Ps (positronium-positronium) scattering at low energies. This model contains the effect of exchange explicitly and a model long range potential in the framework of static-exchange model. These two physical features are of key importance in Ps-Ps (atom-atom) scattering system. S-wave triplet-triplet and singlet-singlet scattering lengths and corresponding phase shifts up to the incident momentum k = 0.5 a.u. are in excellent agreement with those yielded by most elaborate and theoretically sound predictions. (authors)

  6. Application of Small-Angle Neutron and X-ray Scattering in Determining Lipid Bilayer Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jianjun; Heberle, Frederick A.; Kucerka, Norbert; Tristram-Nagle, Stephanie; Szymanski, Michelle; Koepfinger, Mary; Katsaras, John

    2012-02-01

    Accurately determining lipid structure in biologically relevant fluid bilayers is not straightforward. We have recently developed a hybrid experimental/computational technique (i.e., the scattering density profile, or SDP model), which exploits the fact that neutron and X-ray scattering are sensitive to different bilayer thicknesses - the large difference in neutron scattering length density (SLD) between proteated lipid and deuterated water defines the overall bilayer thickness, while X-ray scattering resolves the headgroup-headgroup distance due to the large scattering contrast between the electron-rich phosphate groups and the hydrocarbon/aqueous medium. A key step in the SDP analysis is the use of MD simulations to parse the lipid molecule into fragments whose volume probability distributions follow simple analytical functional forms. Given the appropriate atomic scattering lengths, these volume probabilities can simultaneously predict both the neutron and X-ray SLD profiles, and hence the scattering form factors. Structural results for commonly used phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylglycerol lipids will be given.

  7. Improvement of the accuracy in the optical hematocrit measurement by optimizing mean optical path length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Shiori; Sankai, Yoshiyuki

    2009-09-01

    Optical techniques have been developed to acquire blood information (e.g., hematocrit [Hct], saturation of oxygen, thrombus) noninvasively and continuously in an artificial heart. For the practical use of an optical Hct measurement, Twersky's theory has been shown to be useful and have a good agreement in forward-scattered measurements. However, it was not applied to backward-scattered measurements, which can provide the measurement with a less demanding spatial requirement. Additionally, optimal measurement for accuracy is not well examined. Therefore, we developed an accurate Hct measurement in an artificial heart using current optical devices. To this end, we focused on optimizing an emitter-detector distance to provide a maximum optical path length. We attached optical emitter and detector fibers on Tygon tubing at various distances to measure forward- and backward-scattered light. Fresh bovine blood (Hct: 30-50%) was circulated in the tubing by a nonpulsatile artificial heart. We calculated the optical path length at various emitter-detector distances by fitting the measured optical outputs and the reference Hcts to Twersky's theory. Then, we performed Hct measurements. As a result, Twersky's theory is applicable not only to forward- but also to backward-scattered measurements in the physiogical Hct range. In both forward- and backward-scattered measurements, calculated optical path lengths become maximum at the same emitter-detector distance. The accuracy of Hct measurement is improved two to three times with the emitter-detector distance compared with other distances. The mean error is less than 1 Hct%. This result shows that an accurate Hct measurement is realized by selecting the optimal emitter-detector distance, which provides maximum optical path length defined by Twersky's theory. Our study provides a framework for the practical and less restrictive application of the optical Hct measurement to patients with an artificial heart.

  8. Fundamentals of neutron scattering by condensed matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherm, R. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1996-12-31

    The purpose of this introductory lecture is to give the basic facts about the scattering of neutrons by condensed matter. This lecture is restricted to nuclear scattering, whereas magnetic scattering will be dealt with in an other course. Most of the formalism, however, can also be easily extended to magnetic scattering. (author) 17 figs., 3 tabs., 10 refs.

  9. Radiation length imaging with high-resolution telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolzenberg, U.; Frey, A.; Schwenker, B.; Wieduwilt, P.; Marinas, C.; Lütticke, F.

    2017-02-01

    The construction of low mass vertex detectors with a high level of system integration is of great interest for next generation collider experiments. Radiation length images with a sufficient spatial resolution can be used to measure and disentangle complex radiation length X/X0 profiles and contribute to the understanding of vertex detector systems. Test beam experiments with multi GeV particle beams and high-resolution tracking telescopes provide an opportunity to obtain precise 2D images of the radiation length of thin planar objects. At the heart of the X/X0 imaging is a spatially resolved measurement of the scattering angles of particles traversing the object under study. The main challenges are the alignment of the reference telescope and the calibration of its angular resolution. In order to demonstrate the capabilities of X/X0 imaging, a test beam experiment has been conducted. The devices under test were two mechanical prototype modules of the Belle II vertex detector. A data sample of 100 million tracks at 4 GeV has been collected, which is sufficient to resolve complex material profiles on the 30 μm scale.

  10. High frequency and pulse scattering physical acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Pierce, Allan D

    1992-01-01

    High Frequency and Pulse Scattering investigates high frequency and pulse scattering, with emphasis on the phenomenon of echoes from objects. Geometrical and catastrophe optics methods in scattering are discussed, along with the scattering of sound pulses and the ringing of target resonances. Caustics and associated diffraction catastrophes are also examined.Comprised of two chapters, this volume begins with a detailed account of geometrically based approximation methods in scattering theory, focusing on waves transmitted through fluid and elastic scatterers and glory scattering; surface ray r

  11. Telomere Length in Elite Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniesa, Carlos A; Verde, Zoraida; Diaz-Ureña, Germán; Santiago, Catalina; Gutiérrez, Fernando; Díaz, Enrique; Gómez-Gallego, Félix; Pareja-Galeano, Helios; Soares-Miranda, Luisa; Lucia, Alejandro

    2017-08-01

    Growing evidence suggests that regular moderate-intensity physical activity is associated with an attenuation of leukocyte telomere length (LTL) shortening. However, more controversy exists regarding higher exercise loads such as those imposed by elite-sport participation. The authors investigated LTL differences between young elite athletes (n = 61, 54% men, age [mean ± SD] 27.2 ± 4.9 y) and healthy nonsmoker, physically inactive controls (n = 64, 52% men, 28.9 ± 6.3 y) using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Elite athletes had, on average, higher LTL than control subjects, 0.89 ± 0.26 vs 0.78 ± 0.31, P = .013 for the group effect, with no significant sex (P = .995) or age effect (P = .114). The results suggest that young elite athletes have longer telomeres than their inactive peers. Further research might assess the LTL of elite athletes of varying ages compared with both age-matched active and inactive individuals.

  12. Investigation of photon path length distributions in cloudy atmospheres using GOSAT satellite measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremmling, Beke; Beirle, Steffen; Penning de Vries, Marloes; Wagner, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Photon path length distributions in the atmosphere are significantly affected by multiple scattering events by the presence of clouds. Our study investigates photon path length distributions for different cloud situations by combining high-resolution space-based measurements of the oxygen A-band with radiative transfer simulations. The measured spectra originate from the GOSAT TANSO-FTS instrument whose high spectral resolution allows to almost resolve individual absorption lines, which is a prerequisite to our study. The spectra are compared to radiance simulations from the Monte Carlo Model McArtim, which also provides detailed information on the simulated scattering events. Apart from radiance spectra, the simulation output contains information on each simulated scattering event. This can be used to infer photon path length distributions. In addition, also the photon penetration depth and altitude-resolved photon path length distributions for individual altitude layers are derived. To verify the retrieval method, the TANSO-FTS dataset has been screened for collocations with measurements from CALIOP (CALIPSO) and CPR (CloudSat). Well-characterized cloud scenes have been selected for further analysis. The spectral agreement is discussed and cloud characteristics, such as the cloud altitude, thickness and optical depth, are compared to the values measured by CALIOP and CPR.

  13. Thermal neutron scattering evaluation framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Chris; Leal, Luiz; Rahnema, Farzad; Danon, Yaron; Arbanas, Goran

    2017-09-01

    A neutron scattering kernel data evaluation framework for computation of model-dependent predictions and their uncertainties is outlined. In this framework, model parameters are fitted to double-differential cross section measurements and their uncertainties. For convenience, the initial implementation of this framework uses the molecular dynamics model implemented in the GROMACS code. It is applied to light water using the TIP4P/2005f interaction model. These trajectories computed by GROMACS are then processed using nMOLDYN to compute the density of states, which is then used to calculate the scattering kernel using the Gaussian approximation. Double differential cross sections computed from the scattering kernel are then fitted to double-differential scattering data measured at the Spallation Neutron Source detector at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The fitting procedure is designed to yield optimized model-parameters and their uncertainties in the form of a covariance matrix, from which new evaluations of thermal neutron scattering kernel will be generated. The Unified Monte Carlo method will be used to fit the simulation data to the experimental data.

  14. Structural characterization and pH-induced conformational transition of full-length KcsA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Jochen; Doyle, Declan A; Grossmann, J Günter

    2006-03-01

    The bacterial K+ channel KcsA from Streptomyces lividans was analyzed by neutron and x-ray small-angle solution scattering. The C-terminally truncated version of KcsA, amenable to crystallographic studies, was compared with the full-length channel. Analyzing the scattering data in terms of radius of gyration reveals differences between both KcsA species of up to 13.2 A. Equally, the real-space distance distribution identifies a 40 to 50 A extension of full-length KcsA compared to its C-terminally truncated counterpart. We show that the x-ray and neutron scattering data are amenable for molecular shape reconstruction of full-length KcsA. The molecular envelopes calculated display an hourglass-shaped structure within the C-terminal intracellular domain. The C-terminus extends the membrane spanning region of KcsA by 54-70 A, with a central constriction 10-30 A wide. Solution scattering techniques were further employed to characterize the KcsA channel under acidic conditions favoring its open conformation. The full-length KcsA at pH 5.0 shows the characteristics of a dumbbell-shaped macromolecular structure, originating from dimerization of the tetrameric K+ channel. Since C-terminally truncated KcsA measured under the same low pH conditions remains tetrameric, oligomerization of full-length KcsA seems to proceed via structurally changed C-terminal domains. The determined maximum dimensions of the newly formed complex increase by 50-60%. Shape reconstruction of the pseudooctameric complex indicates the pH-induced conformational reorganization of the intracellular C-terminal domain.

  15. String matching with variable length gaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Vildhøj, Hjalte Wedel

    2012-01-01

    We consider string matching with variable length gaps. Given a string T and a pattern P consisting of strings separated by variable length gaps (arbitrary strings of length in a specified range), the problem is to find all ending positions of substrings in T that match P. This problem is a basic...

  16. 28 CFR 551.4 - Hair length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Hair length. (a) The Warden may not restrict hair length if the inmate keeps it neat and clean. (b) The Warden shall require an inmate with long hair to wear a cap or hair net when working in food service or... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hair length. 551.4 Section 551.4 Judicial...

  17. Multiple Scattering Model for Optical Coherence Tomography with Rytov Approximation

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Muxingzi

    2017-04-24

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a coherence-gated, micrometer-resolution imaging technique that focuses a broadband near-infrared laser beam to penetrate into optical scattering media, e.g. biological tissues. The OCT resolution is split into two parts, with the axial resolution defined by half the coherence length, and the depth-dependent lateral resolution determined by the beam geometry, which is well described by a Gaussian beam model. The depth dependence of lateral resolution directly results in the defocusing effect outside the confocal region and restricts current OCT probes to small numerical aperture (NA) at the expense of lateral resolution near the focus. Another limitation on OCT development is the presence of a mixture of speckles due to multiple scatterers within the coherence length, and other random noise. Motivated by the above two challenges, a multiple scattering model based on Rytov approximation and Gaussian beam optics is proposed for the OCT setup. Some previous papers have adopted the first Born approximation with the assumption of small perturbation of the incident field in inhomogeneous media. The Rytov method of the same order with smooth phase perturbation assumption benefits from a wider spatial range of validity. A deconvolution method for solving the inverse problem associated with the first Rytov approximation is developed, significantly reducing the defocusing effect through depth and therefore extending the feasible range of NA.

  18. Luminosity calibration from elastic scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Stenzel, H

    2006-01-01

    The absolute luminosity of the LHC at the ATLAS interaction point will be calibrated by the measurement of the t-distribution of elastic pp-scattering in the Coulomb-Nuclear interference region. The ALFA detector housed in Roman Pots located 240m away from IP1 is designed to approach the beam at mm distance and to measure elastic pp-scattering at micro-radian scattering angles. This measurement will be performed with dedicated runs using a special beam optics with high beta* and parallel-to-point focusing in order to access the Coulomb regime. In this note the expected performance of this method, evaluated with a simulation of the experimental set-up, is presented.

  19. Quantifying entanglement with scattering experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, O.; Epping, M.; Kampermann, H.; Bruß, D.; Plenio, M. B.; Cramer, M.

    2014-03-01

    We show how the entanglement contained in states of spins arranged on a lattice may be lower bounded with observables arising in scattering experiments. We focus on the partial differential cross section obtained in neutron scattering from magnetic materials but our results are sufficiently general such that they may also be applied to, e.g., optical Bragg scattering from ultracold atoms in optical lattices or from ion chains. We discuss resonating valence bond states and ground and thermal states of experimentally relevant models—such as the Heisenberg, Majumdar-Ghosh, and XY models—in different geometries and with different spin numbers. As a by-product, we find that for the one-dimensional XY model in a transverse field such measurements reveal factorization and the quantum phase transition at zero temperature.

  20. Helium atom scattering from surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    1992-01-01

    High resolution helium atom scattering can be applied to study a number of interesting properties of solid surfaces with great sensitivity and accuracy. This book treats in detail experimental and theoretical aspects ofthis method as well as all current applications in surface science. The individual chapters - all written by experts in the field - are devoted to the investigation of surface structure, defect shapes and concentrations, the interaction potential, collective and localized surface vibrations at low energies, phase transitions and surface diffusion. Over the past decade helium atom scattering has gained widespread recognitionwithin the surface science community. Points in its favour are comprehensiveunderstanding of the scattering theory and the availability of well-tested approximation to the rigorous theory. This book will be invaluable to surface scientists wishing to make an informed judgement on the actual and potential capabilities of this technique and its results.

  1. SCATTERING FROM RAMIFIED POLYMERIC SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Benhamou

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Here, of great interest to us is a quantitative study of the scattering properties from ramified polymeric systems of arbitrary topology. We consider three types of systems, namely ramified polymers in solution, ramified polymer blends, or ternary mixtures made of two ramified polymers of different chemical nature immersed in a good solvent. To achieve the goal of the study, use is made of the Random Phase Approximation. First we determine the exact expression of the form factor of an ideal ramified polymer of any topology, from which we extract the exact expression of its gyration radius. Using the classical Zimm's formulae and the exact form factor, we determine all scattering properties of these three types of ramified polymeric systems. The main conclusion is that ramification of the chains induces drastic changes of the scattering properties.

  2. Scattering functions of Platonic solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xin [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute; Shew, Chwen-Yang [City University of New York (CUNY); He, Lilin [ORNL; Meilleur, Flora [ORNL; Myles, Dean A A [ORNL; Liu, Emily [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute; Zhang, Yang [ORNL; Smith, Greg [ORNL; Herwig, Kenneth W [ORNL; Pynn, Roger [ORNL; Chen, Wei-Ren [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    The single-particle small-angle scattering properties of five Platonic solids, including the tetrahedron, hexahedron, octahedron, dodecahedron and icosahedron, are systematically investigated. For each given geometry, the Debye spatial autocorrelation function, pair distance distribution function and intraparticle structure factor (form factor) are calculated and compared with the corresponding scattering function of a spherical reference system. From the theoretical models, the empirical relationship between the dodecahedral and icosahedral structural characteristics and those of the equivalent spheres is found. Moreover, the single-particle scattering properties of icosahedral and spherical shells with identical volume are investigated, and the prospect of using different data analysis approaches to explore their structural differences is presented and discussed.

  3. Scattering functions of Platonic solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Wei-Ren [ORNL; Herwig, Kenneth W [ORNL; Li, Xin [ORNL; Liu, Emily [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI); Pynn, Roger [ORNL; Shew, Chwen-Yang [City University of New York (CUNY); Smith, Gregory Scott [ORNL; Myles, Dean A A [ORNL; He, Lilin [ORNL; Meilleur, Flora [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    In this report the single-particle scattering properties of five Platonic solids, including tetrahedron, hexahedron, octahedron, dodecahedron and icosahedron, are investigated in a systematic manner. For each given geometry, the Debye spatial autocorrelation function (r), pair distance distribution function (PDDF) p (r) and intraparticle structure factor (form factor) P (Q) are respectively calculated and compared to the corresponding scattering function of the spherical referential system. Based on our theoretical models, the empirical relationship between the dodecahedral and icosahedral structural characteristics and those of the equivalent spheres is found. Moreover, the single-particle scattering properties of the icosahedral and the spherical shells with the same volume are further investigated and the prospect of using different data analysis approaches to explore their structural difference is also presented and discussed.

  4. Optical Waveguide Scattering Reduction. II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    straightforward (23)application of Fraunhofer diffraction theory: ik(z 4-a/2) . 1/2 A(y,z) = A oe 0 2ik an [ix(z-z 0)Io , 0 0 a/2 eikr f e iky ’ ,dy. (45) -a12 The...scattering analysis in the Rayleigh-Debye limit. 45 17 Definition of parameters for determining the scattered field in the Fraunhofer zone...They present photo- graphs showing lO-pm sized triangular and hexagonal inclusions which they describe as metal particles from the crucible. We have not

  5. Optical scattering measurement and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Stover, John C

    2012-01-01

    Newly included are scatter models for pits and particles as well as the use of wafer scanners to locate and size isolated surface features. New sections cover the multimillion-dollar wafer scanner business, establishing that microroughness is the noise, not the signal, in these systems. Scatter measurements, now routinely used to determine whether small-surface features are pits or particles and inspiring new technology that provides information on particle material, are also discussed. These new capabilities are now supported by a series of international standards, and a new chapter reviews t

  6. Effects of magnetic order on the superconducting length scales and critical fields in single crystal ErNi2B2C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammel, P.L.; Barber, B.P.; Ramirez, A.P.

    1999-01-01

    The flux line form factor in small angle neutron scattering and transport data determines the superconducting length scares and critical fields in single crystal ErNi2B2C. For H parallel to c, the coherence length xi increases and the penetration depth lambda decreases when crossing T-N = 6.0 K...

  7. Directionality of A0 Lamb wave mode scattering at defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromme, P.

    2017-04-01

    Localized and distributed guided ultrasonic waves array systems offer an efficient way for the structural health monitoring for large structures. The detection sensitivity for fatigue cracks depends on the orientation of the crack relative to the location of the sensor elements. Crack-like defects have a directionality pattern of the scattered field depending on the angle of the incident wave relative to the defect orientation and on the ratio of the defect depth and length to the wavelength. From FE simulations it has been shown that for cracks and notches almost no energy is scattered in certain directions from the defect, i.e., the data processing algorithm must take into account that for some transducer combinations no change in the signal even for a significant defect will be detected. The scattered wave field directionality pattern for an incident low frequency A0 Lamb wave mode was predicted from 3D Finite Element simulations and verified from experimental measurements at machined part-through and through-thickness notches using a laser interferometer. Good agreement was found and the directionality pattern can be predicted accurately. The amplitude of the scattered wave is quantified for a systematic variation of the angle of the incident wave relative to the defect orientation, the defect depth, and the ratio of the characteristic defect size to the wavelength. Based on these results the detection sensitivity for crack-like defects in plate structures using guided wave sensors arrays can be quantified.

  8. Neutron–19C scattering: Towards including realistic interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Deltuva

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Low-energy neutron–C19 scattering is studied in the three-body n+n+C18 model using a realistic nn potential and a number of shallow and deep n–C18 potentials, the latter supporting deeply-bound Pauli-forbidden states that are projected out. Exact Faddeev-type three-body scattering equations for transition operators including two- and three-body forces are solved in the momentum-space partial-wave framework. Phase shift, inelasticity parameter, and cross sections are calculated. For the elastic n–C19 scattering in the JΠ=0+ partial wave the signatures of the Efimov physics, i.e., the pole in the effective-range expansion and the elastic cross section minimum, are confirmed for both shallow and deep models, but with clear quantitative differences between them, indicating the importance of a proper treatment of deeply-bound Pauli-forbidden states. In contrast, the inelasticity parameter is mostly correlated with the asymptotic normalization coefficient of the C19 bound state. Finally, in the regime of very weak C19 binding and near-threshold (bound or virtual excited C20 state the standard Efimovian behaviour of the n–C19 scattering length and cross section was confirmed, resolving the discrepancies between earlier studies by other authors (Mazumdar et al., 2006 [20], Yamashita et al., 2007 [23].

  9. Neutron-19C scattering: Towards including realistic interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deltuva, A.

    2017-09-01

    Low-energy neutron-19C scattering is studied in the three-body n + n +18C model using a realistic nn potential and a number of shallow and deep n-18C potentials, the latter supporting deeply-bound Pauli-forbidden states that are projected out. Exact Faddeev-type three-body scattering equations for transition operators including two- and three-body forces are solved in the momentum-space partial-wave framework. Phase shift, inelasticity parameter, and cross sections are calculated. For the elastic n-19C scattering in the JΠ =0+ partial wave the signatures of the Efimov physics, i.e., the pole in the effective-range expansion and the elastic cross section minimum, are confirmed for both shallow and deep models, but with clear quantitative differences between them, indicating the importance of a proper treatment of deeply-bound Pauli-forbidden states. In contrast, the inelasticity parameter is mostly correlated with the asymptotic normalization coefficient of the 19C bound state. Finally, in the regime of very weak 19C binding and near-threshold (bound or virtual) excited 20C state the standard Efimovian behaviour of the n-19C scattering length and cross section was confirmed, resolving the discrepancies between earlier studies by other authors (Mazumdar et al., 2006 [20], Yamashita et al., 2007 [23]).

  10. Electromagnetic radiation from filamentary sources in the presence of axially magnetized cylindrical plasma scatterers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Es’kin, V. A.; Ivoninsky, A. V.; Kudrin, A. V., E-mail: kud@rf.unn.ru; Popova, L. L. [Lobachevsky University (Russian Federation)

    2017-02-15

    Electromagnetic radiation from filamentary electric-dipole and magnetic-current sources of infinite length in the presence of gyrotropic cylindrical scatterers in the surrounding free space is studied. The scatterers are assumed to be infinitely long, axially magnetized circular plasma columns parallel to the axis of the filamentary source. The field and the radiation pattern of each source are calculated in the case where the source frequency is equal to one of the surface plasmon resonance frequencies of the cylindrical scatterers. It is shown that the presence of even a single resonant magnetized plasma scatterer of small electrical radius or a few such scatterers significantly affects the total fields of the filamentary sources, so that their radiation patterns become essentially different from those in the absence of scatterers or the presence of isotropic scatterers of the same shape and size. It is concluded that the radiation characteristics of the considered sources can efficiently be controlled using their resonance interaction with the neighboring gyrotropic scatterers.

  11. Light scattering and random lasing in aqueous suspensions of hexagonal boron nitride nanoflakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Brien, S. A.; Harvey, A.; Griffin, A.; Donnelly, T.; Mulcahy, D.; Coleman, J. N.; Donegan, J. F.; McCloskey, D.

    2017-11-01

    Liquid phase exfoliation allows large scale production of 2D materials in solution. The particles are highly anisotropic and strongly scatter light. While spherical particles can be accurately and precisely described by a single parameter—the radius, 2D nanoflakes, however, cannot be so easily described. We investigate light scattering in aqueous solutions of 2D hexagonal boron nitride nanoflakes in the single and multiple scattering regimes. In the single scattering regime, the anisotropic 2D materials show a much stronger depolarization of light when compared to spherical particles of similar size. In the multiple scattering regime, the scattering as a function of optical path for hexagonal boron nitride nanoflakes of a given lateral length was found to be qualitatively equivalent to scattering from spheres with the same diameter. We also report the presence of random lasing in high concentration suspensions of aqueous h-BN mixed with Rhodamine B dye. The h-BN works as a scattering agent and Rhodamine B as a gain medium for the process. We observed random lasing at 587 nm with a threshold energy of 0.8 mJ.

  12. Calibration and features of air-kerma length product meters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merimaa, K; Tapiovaara, M; Kosunen, A; Toroi, P

    2012-12-01

    Pencil-type air-kerma length product meters are generally used for quality control and radiation exposure measurements in computed tomography. To ensure reliable results, these meters should be calibrated so that measurements are traceable to international standards. Suitable calibration procedures, together with the properties of these meters, were examined and compared with the international standards and recommendations. The calibration procedure and setup used in this study were slightly modified compared with international recommendations. The special collimator system was found to cause less scatter than similar setups in earlier studies. The energy dependence of the meter response was investigated for several types of meters with standard radiation qualities. With most tested meter types, the total variation due to energy dependence was meter type varied up to 8 % when rotating the meter around its axis; this should be taken into account when making calibrations with a static setup.

  13. Thirty years since diffuse sound reflection by maximum length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Trevor J.; D'Antonio, Peter

    2005-09-01

    This year celebrates the 30th anniversary of Schroeder's seminal paper on sound scattering from maximum length sequences. This paper, along with Schroeder's subsequent publication on quadratic residue diffusers, broke new ground, because they contained simple recipes for designing diffusers with known acoustic performance. So, what has happened in the intervening years? As with most areas of engineering, the room acoustic diffuser has been greatly influenced by the rise of digital computing technologies. Numerical methods have become much more powerful, and this has enabled predictions of surface scattering to greater accuracy and for larger scale surfaces than previously possible. Architecture has also gone through a revolution where the forms of buildings have become more extreme and sculptural. Acoustic diffuser designs have had to keep pace with this to produce shapes and forms that are desirable to architects. To achieve this, design methodologies have moved away from Schroeder's simple equations to brute force optimization algorithms. This paper will look back at the past development of the modern diffuser, explaining how the principles of diffuser design have been devised and revised over the decades. The paper will also look at the present state-of-the art, and dreams for the future.

  14. Resonant depolarized dynamic light scattering of silver nanoplatelets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimbone, M., E-mail: massimo.zimbone@ct.infn.it [CNR-IMM (Italy); Messina, E. [IPCF-CNR Istituto per i Processi Chimico-Fisici (Italy); Compagnini, G.; Fragalà, M. E. [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche (Italy); Calcagno, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    Polarized and depolarized dynamic light scattering (DDLS) methodology was carried out on silver nanoplatelets showing strong plasmon-enhanced scattering. The hydrodynamic properties of the nanoparticles were determined by measuring the translation diffusion coefficient for “out resonant” condition and the rotational diffusion coefficient for “in resonant” condition. The results have been interpreted by applying an oblate ellipsoidal model, which allows a direct evaluation of nanoplatelets’ size and shape in agreement with scanning electron microscopy. The characterised nanoplatelets reveal a transversal size of 20 nm and a longitudinal length in the range 65–92 nm. Our investigation shows that DDLS in resonant condition is a simple and powerful technique to determine the size and shape of plasmonic nanoparticles and it can be successfully applied to characterise the dynamics of metallic nanoplatelets.

  15. Electronic Raman scattering in cuprate superconductors and parent insulating phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, M.V.; Liu, R.; Salamon, D.; Blumberg, G.; Reznik, D.; Cooper, S.L.; Lee, W.C.; Ginsberg, D.M. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States); Cheong, S.W. [AT and T Labs., Murray Hill, NJ (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Raman scattering from charge and spin excitations in cuprates is reviewed. The two-magnon resonance Raman profile is used to determine the most probable energy for photon-assisted charge transfer leading to exchange between two spins. The difference between this energy and that for absorption is attributed to spin relaxation (spin polaron) effects. Two-magnon spectra in superconducting cuprates are presented. It is argued that their presence is evidence that the antiferromagnetic correlation length is equal to or greater than three lattice constants. The recently-discovered Raman-active excitons are described and possible assignments of them are discussed. It is pointed out that in highly correlated metals and insulators, the mechanisms for fight scattering that are familiar for doped semiconductors or conventional metals are not necessarily the only ones that are operative.

  16. Bound and scattering states with non-local potentials.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viviani, M; Girlanda, L; Kievsky, A; Marcucci, L E; Rosati, S; Schiavilla, R

    2007-06-01

    The application of the hyperspherical harmonics method to the case of non-local potentials is described. Given the properties of the hyperspherical harmonic functions, there are no difficulties in considering the approach in both coordinate and momentum space. The results for the 3H and 4He binding energies and n - 3H scattering lengths are found to be in good agreement with those obtained with other different techniques. A study of the 4He form factor is also reported, with a careful investigation of the contribution from isospin symmetry violation. Its effect on parity violating elastic scattering of polarized electrons from 4He is investigated. In particular, a simple analysis of the recently measured left-right asymmetry at low Q2 shows that the contribution of these isospin admixture are found of comparable magnitude to that associated with strangeness components in the nucleon electric form factor.

  17. Optical scattering in glass ceramics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mattarelli, M.; Montagna, M.; Verrocchio, P.

    2008-01-01

    The transparency of glass ceramics with nanocrystals is generally higher than that expected from the theory of Rayleigh scattering. We attribute this ultra-transparency to the spatial correlation of the nanoparticles. The structure factor is calculated for a simple model system, the random

  18. Nuclear matter and electron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sick, I. [Dept. fuer Physik und Astronomie, Univ. Basel (Switzerland)

    1998-06-01

    We show that inclusive electron scattering at large momentum transfer allows a measurement of short-range properties of nuclear matter. This provides a very valuable constraint in selecting the calculations appropriate for predicting nuclear matter properties at the densities of astrophysical interest. (orig.)

  19. Antiproton-Proton Glory Scattering

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This experiment measures @*p and K|-p backwards scattering between 8 and 16 GeV/c in the Omega spectrometer using the S1 beam, with sensitivities of several events per nanobarn. The mechanism responsible for backward scattering in channels not mediated by particle exchange is not understood, and could be almost energy-independent glory scattering, especially since relatively high cross sections of 190~(@*p) and 120~(K|-p)nb have been measured earlier at 5~GeV/c. @p|-p backwards scattering is measured for monitoring purposes. The trigger requires a forward particle of momentum close to the beam momentum. Absence of light in the two forward Cerenkov counters indicates that the particle is a proton. Combinations of an incident @p|- and an outgoing K|+, or an incident K|- or @* and an outgoing @p|+, cover the following byproducts: @*p~@A~@p|+@p|- which is an (allowed) baryon exchange reaction, and the exotic exchange reactions @p|-p~@A~K|+Y K|-p~@A~@p|+Y|-, where Y|- may be the @S|- or the Y*|-(1385).

  20. Coupling between minimum scattering antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J.; Lessow, H; Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans

    1974-01-01

    Coupling between minimum scattering antennas (MSA's) is investigated by the coupling theory developed by Wasylkiwskyj and Kahn. Only rotationally symmetric power patterns are considered, and graphs of relative mutual impedance are presented as a function of distance and pattern parameters. Crossed......-dipoles and helices are considered in order to establish a correspondence with simple antenna structures....

  1. Pentagon diagrams of Bhabha scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleischer, J. [Bielefeld Univ. (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Physik]|[Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Riemann, T. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Gluza, J.; Kajda, K. [Uniwersytet Slaski, Katowice (Poland). Inst. Fizyki

    2007-12-15

    We report on tensor reduction of five point integrals needed for the evaluation of loop-by-loop corrections to Bhabha scattering. As an example we demonstrate the calculation of the rank two tensor integral with cancellation of the spurious Gram determinant in the denominator. The reduction scheme is worked out for arbitrary five point processes. (orig.)

  2. Pauli Principle and Pion Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethe, H. A.

    1972-10-01

    It is pointed out that if the Pauli principle is taken into account in the discussion of pion scattering by complex nuclei (as it ought, of course, to be) some rather implausible consequences of some earlier treatments of this problem can be avoided. (auth)

  3. ENZYME CATALYTIC RESONANCE SCATTERING SPECTRAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    ABSTRACT. Hydrogen peroxide oxidized guaiacol to form tetramer particles that exhibited a strong resonance scattering (RS) peak at 530 nm in the presence of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in citric acid-Na2HPO4 buffer solution of pH 4.4. The RS peak increased when the concentration of hydrogen peroxide increased.

  4. Thermally stimulated scattering in plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dysthe, K. B.; Mjølhus, E.; Pécseli, H. L.

    1985-01-01

    A theory for stimulated scattering of a laser beam is formulated where the dominant nonlinearity is the ohmic heating of the plasma. The analysis is carried out with particular reference to experimental investigations of CO2 laser heating of linear discharge plasma. In the conditions characterizing...

  5. Simple model for molecular scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Nirav; Ticknor, Christopher; Hazzard, Kaden

    2017-04-01

    The collisions of ultracold molecules are qualitatively different from the collisions of ultracold atoms due to the high density of bimolecular resonances near the collision energy. We present results from a simple N-channel scattering model with square-well channel potentials and constant channel couplings (inside the well) designed to reproduce essential features of chaotic molecular scattering. The potential depths and channel splittings are tuned to reproduce the appropriate density of states for the short-range bimolecular collision complex (BCC), which affords a direct comparison of the resulting level-spacing distribution to that expected from random matrix theory (RMT), namely the so-called Wigner surmise. The density of states also sets the scale for the rate of dissociation from the BCC to free molecules, as approximated by transition state theory (TST). Our model affords a semi-analytic solution for the scattering amplitude in the open channel, and a determinantal equation for the eigenenergies of the short-ranged BCC. It is likely the simplest finite-ranged scattering model that can be compared to expectations from the approximations of RMT, and TST. The validity of these approximations has implications for the many-channel Hubbard model recently developed. This research was funded in part by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. NSF PHY-1125915.

  6. Measurement of the local optical properties of turbid media by differential path-length spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amelink, Arjen; Sterenborg, Henricus J

    2004-05-20

    We report on the development of an optical-fiber-based diagnostic tool with which to determine the local optical properties of a turbid medium. By using a single fiber in contact with the medium to deliver and detect white light, we have optimized the probability of detection of photons scattered from small depths. The contribution of scattered light from greater depths to the signal is measured and subtracted with an additional fiber, i.e., a collection fiber, to yield a differential backscatter signal. Phantoms demonstrate that, when photons have large mean free paths compared with the fiber diameter, single scattering dominates the differential backscatter signal. When photons have small mean free paths compared with the fiber diameter, the apparent path length of the photons that contribute to the differential backscatter signal becomes approximately equal to 4/5 of the fiber diameter. This effect is nearly independent of the optical properties of the sample under investigation.

  7. Rheological Properties of Associative Star Polymers in Aqueous Solutions: Effect of Hydrophobe Length and Polymer Topology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hietala, Sami; Strandman, Satu; Jarvi, Paula

    2009-01-01

    interaction. Polymers bearing shorter PS blocks gave gels with relatively long linear response followed by strain hardening before shear thinning while the longer PS blocks lead to formation of elastic but brittle gels with limited linear regime before shear thinning. Star-block copolymers showed more elastic...... behavior compared with a triblock copolymer of comparable molar mass and composition. In small-angle X-ray scattering measurements the increasing lengths of the PS blocks were observed to lead to a shift in the scattering maxima toward lower q-values. Both rheological and X-ray characterization showed...... that the thermal properties of the gels are changed by increasing the PS block lengths. Gels with short PS blocks soften upon heating at lower temperatures compared with the gels with longer PS blocks....

  8. Inheritance of telomere length in a bird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten Horn

    Full Text Available Telomere dynamics are intensively studied in human ageing research and epidemiology, with many correlations reported between telomere length and age-related diseases, cancer and death. While telomere length is influenced by environmental factors there is also good evidence for a strong heritable component. In human, the mode of telomere length inheritance appears to be paternal and telomere length differs between sexes, with females having longer telomeres than males. Genetic factors, e.g. sex chromosomal inactivation, and non-genetic factors, e.g. antioxidant properties of oestrogen, have been suggested as possible explanations for these sex-specific telomere inheritance and telomere length differences. To test the influence of sex chromosomes on telomere length, we investigated inheritance and sex-specificity of telomere length in a bird species, the kakapo (Strigops habroptilus, in which females are the heterogametic sex (ZW and males are the homogametic (ZZ sex. We found that, contrary to findings in humans, telomere length was maternally inherited and also longer in males. These results argue against an effect of sex hormones on telomere length and suggest that factors associated with heterogamy may play a role in telomere inheritance and sex-specific differences in telomere length.

  9. Length-weight and length-length relationships in populations of Garra rufa from different rivers and basins of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazdan Keivany

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the length-weight and length-length relationships for 28 populations of Garra ruffa in different basins of Iran, including Tigris, Karkheh, Karun, Persis and Hormuz. The length-weight relationships from most localities are reported here for the first time. For most populations the b value was not significantly different from 3, indicating an isometric growth, in a few, it was significantly bigger than 3, indicating a positive allometric growth, and in some, it was significantly smaller than 3, indicating a negative allometric growth. In the whole samples, it was not significantly different from 3, indicating an isometric growth.

  10. Quantitative impact of small angle forward scatter on whole blood oximetry using a Beer-Lambert absorbance model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Serge Emile; Atanya, Monica; Burns, Kevin; Munger, Rejean

    2011-04-21

    It is well known that red blood cell scattering has an impact on whole blood oximetry as well as in vivo retinal oxygen saturation measurements. The goal of this study was to quantify the impact of small angle forward scatter on whole blood oximetry for scattering angles found in retinal oximetry light paths. Transmittance spectra of whole blood were measured in two different experimental setups: one that included small angle scatter in the transmitted signal and one that measured the transmitted signal only, at absorbance path lengths of 25, 50, 100, 250 and 500 µm. Oxygen saturation was determined by multiple linear regression in the 520-600 nm wavelength range and compared between path lengths and experimental setups. Mean calculated oxygen saturation differences between setups were greater than 10% at every absorbance path length. The deviations to the Beer-Lambert absorbance model had different spectral dependences between experimental setups, with the highest deviations found in the 520-540 nm range when scatter was added to the transmitted signal. These results are consistent with other models of forward scatter that predict different spectral dependences of the red blood cell scattering cross-section and haemoglobin extinction coefficients in this wavelength range.

  11. Analytical correlation of routing table length index and routing path length index in hierarchical routing model

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Tingrong

    2008-01-01

    In Kleinrock and Kamoun's paper, the inverse relation of routing table length index and routing path length index in hierarchical routing model is illustrated. In this paper we give the analytical correlation of routing table length index and routing path length index in hierarchical routing model.

  12. Frozen concentration fluctuations in a poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) gel studied by neutron spin echo and small-angle neutron scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Koizumi, S; Richter, D; Schwahn, D; Faragó, B; Annaka, M

    2002-01-01

    By employing neutron spin echo and small-angle neutron scattering, we determined the structure factor of the frozen concentration fluctuations on nano-length scales in a swollen poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) gel. The frozen contribution, showing a plateau at the low scattering wavenumber q (0.02 A sup - sup 1), is intimately related to the abnormal butterfly scattering pattern appearing at low q under deformation. (orig.)

  13. Space-time aspects of hadronic cascading in lepton nucleus scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyulassy, M.; Pluemer, M.

    1989-05-01

    A Monte Carlo model of hadronic cascading in inelastic lepton nucleus scattering is constructed to investigate space-time scenarios consistent with the momentum space description of string models of multiparticle production. The prospects for resolving the ambiguity inherent in the definition of a formation length for composite hadrons are emphasized. 15 refs., 13 figs.

  14. A CO2 laser based two-volume collective scattering instrument for spatially localized turbulence measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saffman, Mark; Zoletnik, S.; Basse, Nils Plesner

    2001-01-01

    We describe and demonstrate a two-volume collective scattering system for localized measurements of plasma turbulence. The finite crossfield correlation length of plasma turbulence combined with spatial variations in the magnetic field direction are used to obtain spatially localized turbulence m...

  15. Damping and scattering of electromagnetic waves by small ferrite spheres suspended in an insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englert, Gerald W.

    1992-01-01

    The intentional degradation of electromagnetic waves by their penetration into a media comprised of somewhat sparsely distributed energy absorbing ferrite spheres suspended in an electrical insulator is investigated. Results are presented in terms of generalized parameters involving wave length and sphere size, sphere resistivity, permeability, and spacing; their influence on dissipation of wave power by eddy currents, magnetic hysteresis, and scattering is shown.

  16. Scattering of light by a periodic structure in the presence of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The earlier prediction, before our technique was introduced, had placed the limit of detection, by intensity measurements alone, at (0/) ∼ 0.33, where 0 is the coherence length of light for scattering by the rough part of the surface and is the wavelength of the periodic part of the surface. In our earlier works we have ...

  17. Total neutron scattering: The key to the local and medium range ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    pattern, however, contains structural information over all length scales, and it can be used to obtain a complete structural ... discussion of the PDF method, its formalism and many more applications can be found in [5]. 2. ... the high resolution instrument NPDF at the Lujan Neutron Scattering Center and the PDF below was ...

  18. Ultra Small-angle X-ray Scattering Study of Flocculation in Silica-filled Rubber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mihara, S.; Datta, Rabin; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.; Amino, N.; Ishikawa, Y.; Nishitsuji, S.; Takenaka, M.

    2014-01-01

    The flocculation of silica during vulcanization is monitored using the ultra small-angle X-ray scattering technique for two different types of silica: a highly dispersible silica (HD) and a conventional silica (CV), mixed into a blend of S-SBR and BR rubbers. The cutoff length of the silica

  19. Temperature dependence of resonant x-ray magnetic scattering in holmium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgesen, G.; Hill, J. P.; Thurston, T. R.; Gibbs, Doon; Kwo, J.; Hong, M.

    1994-08-01

    We report the results of resonant x-ray magnetic scattering experiments on bulk and thin-film single crystals of holmium. The scattering at the principal magnetic reflection has been characterized as a function of the temperature in the spiral phases near and below their respective Néel temperatures. The integrated intensity of the principal magnetic peak in both samples shows power-law behavior versus reduced temperature with nearly equal exponents. The exponents for the scattering at the resonant second and third harmonics in the bulk sample are not simple integer multiples of the first, and motivate the consideration of simple scaling corrections to mean-field theory. We also present and compare the results of high-resolution measurements of the temperature dependence of the magnetic wave vectors, c-axis lattice constants, and correlation lengths of the magnetic scattering of the two samples in their spiral phases. Although the qualitative behavior is similar, systematic differences are found, including uniformly larger magnetic wave vectors and the suppression of the 1/6 phase in the film. The spiral magnetic structure of the film forms a domain state at all temperatures in the ordered phase. The magnetic correlation lengths of both samples are greatest near the Néel temperature, where that of the film appears to exceed the translational correlation lengths of the lattice. As the temperature decreases, the magnetic correlation lengths also decrease. These results are discussed in terms of the strain present in the samples.

  20. Characterization of strongly scattering nanoporous materials as miniaturized multipass cell for tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturini, F.; Schönherr, V.; Rey, J. M.; Adolfsson, E.

    2017-04-01

    Through the confinement of gas in nanoporous materials, it is possible to significantly increase the path length for light-gas interaction. This enables the observation of much stronger absorption features for the confined gas molecules. In this work, we systematically characterized a variety of disordered strongly scattering ZrO_2 and Al_2O_3 nanoporous ceramic materials to exploit the potential of gas in scattering media absorption spectroscopy. As a result, we identified a material with an unprecedented performance in terms of optical path length enhancement. In ZrO_2 with thicknesses above 6 mm, the path enhancement exceeds 1000. The results obtained with near-infrared absorption spectroscopy on oxygen were validated by time-of-flight measurements at 700 nm, thus demonstrating their robustness. Finally, we report quantitative oxygen concentration measurement using nanoporous materials as miniaturized random-scattering multipass cell with an extremely simple and low-cost setup.

  1. Equilibrium limit of thermal conduction and boundary scattering in nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskins, Justin B; Kınacı, Alper; Sevik, Cem; Çağın, Tahir

    2014-06-28

    Determining the lattice thermal conductivity (κ) of nanostructures is especially challenging in that, aside from the phonon-phonon scattering present in large systems, the scattering of phonons from the system boundary greatly influences heat transport, particularly when system length (L) is less than the average phonon mean free path (MFP). One possible route to modeling κ in these systems is through molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, inherently including both phonon-phonon and phonon-boundary scattering effects in the classical limit. Here, we compare current MD methods for computing κ in nanostructures with both L ⩽ MFP and L ≫ MFP, referred to as mean free path constrained (cMFP) and unconstrained (uMFP), respectively. Using a (10,0) CNT (carbon nanotube) as a benchmark case, we find that while the uMFP limit of κ is well-defined through the use of equilibrium MD and the time-correlation formalism, the standard equilibrium procedure for κ is not appropriate for the treatment of the cMFP limit because of the large influence of boundary scattering. To address this issue, we define an appropriate equilibrium procedure for cMFP systems that, through comparison to high-fidelity non-equilibrium methods, is shown to be the low thermal gradient limit to non-equilibrium results. Further, as a means of predicting κ in systems having L ≫ MFP from cMFP results, we employ an extrapolation procedure based on the phenomenological, boundary scattering inclusive expression of Callaway [Phys. Rev. 113, 1046 (1959)]. Using κ from systems with L ⩽ 3 μm in the extrapolation, we find that the equilibrium uMFP κ of a (10,0) CNT can be predicted within 5%. The equilibrium procedure is then applied to a variety of carbon-based nanostructures, such as graphene flakes (GF), graphene nanoribbons (GNRs), CNTs, and icosahedral fullerenes, to determine the influence of size and environment (suspended versus supported) on κ. Concerning the GF and GNR systems, we find that

  2. Dither Cavity Length Controller with Iodine Locking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawson Marty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A cavity length controller for a seeded Q-switched frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser is constructed. The cavity length controller uses a piezo-mirror dither voltage to find the optimum length for the seeded cavity. The piezo-mirror dither also dithers the optical frequency of the output pulse. [1]. This dither in optical frequency is then used to lock to an Iodine absorption line.

  3. Controlling Arc Length in Plasma Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iceland, W. F.

    1986-01-01

    Circuit maintains arc length on irregularly shaped workpieces. Length of plasma arc continuously adjusted by control circuit to maintain commanded value. After pilot arc is established, contactor closed and transfers arc to workpiece. Control circuit then half-wave rectifies ac arc voltage to produce dc control signal proportional to arc length. Circuit added to plasma arc welding machines with few wiring changes. Welds made with circuit cleaner and require less rework than welds made without it. Beads smooth and free of inclusions.

  4. Information, polarization and term length in democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Christian

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers term lengths in a representative democracy where the political issue divides the population on the left-right scale. Parties are ideologically different and better informed about the consequences of policies than voters are. A short term length makes the government more...... accountable, but the re-election incentive leads to policy-distortion as the government seeks to manipulate swing voters' beliefs to make its ideology more popular. This creates a trade-off: A short term length improves accountability but gives distortions. A short term length is best for swing voters when...

  5. Sizing of Microparticles from Angular Scattering Ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.; Karamehmedovic, Mirza

    This technical note deals with light scattering measurements for sizing of micrometer-scale particles in a suspension.......This technical note deals with light scattering measurements for sizing of micrometer-scale particles in a suspension....

  6. Time-Reversal Analysis for Scatterer Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambers, D H; Berryman, J G

    2003-11-05

    Only the simplest monopole scattering behavior has usually been treated in previous time-reversal analyses. A new application of time-reversal processing of wave scattering data permits characterization of scatterers by analyzing the number and nature of the singular functions (or eigenfunctions) associated with individual scatterers when they have multiple contributions from monopole, dipole and/or quadrupole scattering terms. We discuss acoustic, elastic, and electromagnetic scattering problems for low frequencies (ka < 1, k being the wavenumber and a the radius of the scatterer). Specific examples for electromagnetic scattering from one of a number of small conducting spheres show that each sphere can have up to six distinct time-reversal eigenfunctions associated with it.

  7. Optical path-length spectroscopy of incipient caries lesions in relation to quantitative light-induced fluorescence and lesion characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mujat, C; van der Veen, MH; Ruben, JL; ten Bosch, JJ; Dogariu, A

    2003-01-01

    A basic understanding of the light-scattering processes that take place inside the dental tissue (either sound or carious) is obtained both with measurements of the photon path-length distribution of light inside such media and with Monte Carlo simulations. Furthermore, the following is

  8. Structure of PEP-PEO block copolymer micelles: Exploiting the complementarity of small-angle X-ray scattering and static light scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Grethe Vestergaard; Shi, Qing; Hernansanz, María J.

    2011-01-01

    . The present work shows that the same information can be obtained by combining static light scattering (SLS) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), which provide information on, respectively, large and short length scales. Micelles of a series of block copolymers of poly(ethylene propylene...... contrasts of the two components are very different, allowing for resolution of the internal micelle structure. A core-shell model with a PEP core and PEO corona is fitted simultaneously to the SAXS and SLS data using the different contrasts of the two blocks for each technique. With increasing PEO molecular...

  9. Structural photoactivation of a full-length bacterial phytochrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björling, Alexander; Berntsson, Oskar; Lehtivuori, Heli; Takala, Heikki; Hughes, Ashley J; Panman, Matthijs; Hoernke, Maria; Niebling, Stephan; Henry, Léocadie; Henning, Robert; Kosheleva, Irina; Chukharev, Vladimir; Tkachenko, Nikolai V; Menzel, Andreas; Newby, Gemma; Khakhulin, Dmitry; Wulff, Michael; Ihalainen, Janne A; Westenhoff, Sebastian

    2016-08-01

    Phytochromes are light sensor proteins found in plants, bacteria, and fungi. They function by converting a photon absorption event into a conformational signal that propagates from the chromophore through the entire protein. However, the structure of the photoactivated state and the conformational changes that lead to it are not known. We report time-resolved x-ray scattering of the full-length phytochrome from Deinococcus radiodurans on micro- and millisecond time scales. We identify a twist of the histidine kinase output domains with respect to the chromophore-binding domains as the dominant change between the photoactivated and resting states. The time-resolved data further show that the structural changes up to the microsecond time scales are small and localized in the chromophore-binding domains. The global structural change occurs within a few milliseconds, coinciding with the formation of the spectroscopic meta-Rc state. Our findings establish key elements of the signaling mechanism of full-length bacterial phytochromes.

  10. Spin-echo length calibration of OffSpec

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plomp, J.; de Haan, V. O.; Dalgliesh, R. M.; Langridge, S.; van Well, A. A.

    2011-06-01

    OffSpec is one of the seven new spectrometers operational from day one in the second Target Station (TS2) at the pulsed spallation neutron source ISIS. OffSpec is a time-of-flight, low-background reflectometer specialized in off-specular scattering. It is unique because in addition to conventional reflectivity techniques, it is capable of using the neutron spin-echo angle labelling technique. One of the many possibilities of using this technique is measuring structures on a surface with the length scale of 20 nm-15 μm. Up to now the calibration of this length scale was made on the prototype instrument in Delft by measuring magnetic line integrals. This showed that the pole shoe design, an essential part of the spin-echo encoding, was not perfect, resulting in a different effective magnetic encoding angle from the physical angle. Recent reflection measurements on gold gratings not only confirmed this but also resulted in a reliable calibration.

  11. Probing the Conformational Distributions of Sub-Persistence Length DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mastroianni, Alexander; Sivak, David; Geissler, Phillip; Alivisatos, Paul

    2009-06-08

    We have measured the bending elasticity of short double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) chains through small-angle X-ray scattering from solutions of dsDNA-linked dimers of gold nanoparticles. This method, which does not require exertion of external forces or binding to a substrate, reports on the equilibrium distribution of bending fluctuations, not just an average value (as in ensemble FRET) or an extreme value (as in cyclization), and in principle provides a more robust data set for assessing the suitability of theoretical models. Our experimental results for dsDNA comprising 42-94 basepairs (bp) are consistent with a simple worm-like chain model of dsDNA elasticity, whose behavior we have determined from Monte Carlo simulations that explicitly represent nanoparticles and their alkane tethers. A persistence length of 50 nm (150 bp) gave a favorable comparison, consistent with the results of single-molecule force-extension experiments on much longer dsDNA chains, but in contrast to recent suggestions of enhanced flexibility at these length scales.

  12. Scattering of light and other electromagnetic radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Kerker, Milton

    1969-01-01

    The Scattering of Light and Other Electromagnetic Radiation discusses the theory of electromagnetic scattering and describes some practical applications. The book reviews electromagnetic waves, optics, the interrelationships of main physical quantities and the physical concepts of optics, including Maxwell's equations, polarization, geometrical optics, interference, and diffraction. The text explains the Rayleigh2 theory of scattering by small dielectric spheres, the Bessel functions, and the Legendre functions. The author also explains how the scattering functions for a homogenous sphere chan

  13. Spatial photon correlations in multiple scattering media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smolka, Stephan; Muskens, O.; Lagendijk, A.

    2010-01-01

    We present the first angle-resolved measurements of spatial photon correlations that are induced by multiple scattering of light. The correlation relates multiple scattered photons at different spatial positions and depends on incident photon fluctuations.......We present the first angle-resolved measurements of spatial photon correlations that are induced by multiple scattering of light. The correlation relates multiple scattered photons at different spatial positions and depends on incident photon fluctuations....

  14. Modelling small-angle scattering data from complex protein-lipid systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kynde, Søren Andreas Røssell

    as carriers of membrane proteins. Together they form monodisperse soluble aggregates of about 10 nm in size. Chapter 2 introduces the method of small-angle scattering. Small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering are well suited for studying particles in solution on length scales from 1 to 100 nm. This makes...... the techniques very well suited for the study of the nanodisc system. Chapter 3 explains two different modelling approaches that can be used in the analysis of small-angle scattering data from lipid-protein complexes. These are the continuous approach where the system of interest is modelled as a few regular...... geometric objects and the discrete approach were models are build from a large number of points. It is the basic hypothesis of this thesis, that analysis of smallangle scattering data can be approached in a way that combines the continuous and the discrete modelling methods, and that such an approach can...

  15. Investigations of Silk Fibers Using X-Ray Scattering and Atomic Force Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lance D.; Putthanarat, Sirina; Eby, Ronald K.; Adams, W. W.; Liu, G. F.

    1998-03-01

    Silk fibers from the cocoon of Bombyx mori and the dragline of Nephila clavipes have been investigated by small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The large scale morphology of these silks have minimum scattering dimensions, and correlation length on the order of 150-300 nm. Several types of AFM measurements on peeled and abraided silk samples have revealed dimensions in agreement with SAXS results. Further agreemeent has been found through the incorporation of discrete Fourier transform theory on AFM topographic information as compared to SAXS patterns. This incorporation allows the materials scientist a way of visualizing the relationship between a material and its resulting scattering function. All of these studies yield a more complete view of the silk morphology and give a new method of model building from scattering experiments.

  16. Forge-Hardened TiZr Null-Matrix Alloy for Neutron Scattering under Extreme Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuo Okuchi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available For neutron scattering research that is performed under extreme conditions, such as high static pressures, high-strength metals that are transparent to the neutron beam are required. The diffraction of the neutron beam by the metal, which follows Bragg’s law, can be completely removed by alloying two metallic elements that have coherent scattering lengths with opposite signs. An alloy of Ti and Zr, which is known as a TiZr null-matrix alloy, is an ideal combination for such purposes. In this study, we increased the hardness of a TiZr null-matrix alloy via extensive mechanical deformation at high temperatures. We successfully used the resulting product in a high-pressure cell designed for high-static-pressure neutron scattering. This hardened TiZr null-matrix alloy may play a complementary role to normal TiZr alloy in future neutron scattering research under extreme conditions.

  17. uper-resolution Axial Localization of Ultrasound Scatter Using Multi-focal Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diamantis, Konstantinos; Greenaway, Alan H.; Anderson, Tom

    2017-01-01

    and the simple, aberration dependent, image sharpness metric of a single point scatterer. The localization of a point scatterer relies on the generation of multiple overlapping sharpness curves, created by deploying three foci during receive processing, and by assessing the sharpness values after each......This paper aims to develop a method for achieving micrometre axial scatterer localization for medical ultrasound, surpassing the inherent, pulse length dependence limiting ultrasound imaging. Methods: The method, directly translated from cellular microscopy, is based on multi-focal imaging...... to noise ratio in each image. Conclusion: Super-resolution axial imaging from optical microscopy has been successfully translated into ultrasound imaging by using raw ultrasound data and standard beamforming. Significance: The normalized sharpness method has the potential to be used in scatterer...

  18. Second-Harmonic Scattering as a Probe of Structural Correlations in Liquids

    CERN Document Server

    Tocci, Gabriele; Wilkins, David M; Roke, Sylvie; Ceriotti, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Second-harmonic scattering experiments of water and other bulk molecular liquids have long been assumed to be insensitive to interactions between the molecules. The measured intensity is generally thought to arise from incoherent scattering due to individual molecules. We introduce a method to compute the second-harmonic scattering pattern of molecular liquids directly from atomistic computer simulations, which takes into account the coherent terms. We apply this approach to large-scale molecular dynamics simulations of liquid water, where we show that nanosecond second-harmonic scattering experiments contain a coherent contribution arising from radial and angular correlations on a length scale of < 1 nm, much shorter than had been recently hypothesized (Shelton, D. P. J. Chem. Phys. 2014, 141). By combining structural correlations from simulations with experimental data (Shelton, D. P. J. Chem. Phys. 2014, 141), we can also extract an effective molecular hyperpolarizability in the liquid phase. This work ...

  19. Scattering by two spheres: Theory and experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnø, Irina; Jensen, Leif Bjørnø

    1998-01-01

    on three issues: (1) to develop a simplified theory for scattering by two elastical spheres; (2) to measure the scattering by two spheres in a water tank, and (3) to compare the theoretical/numerical results with the measured data. A number of factors influencing multiple scattering, including...

  20. Quasielastic Neutron Scattering by Superionic Strontium Chloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dickens, M. H.; Hutchings, M. T.; Kjems, Jørgen

    1978-01-01

    The scattering, from powder and single crystal samples, appears only above the superionic transition temperature, 1000K. The integrated intensity is found to be strongly dependent on the direction and magnitude of the scattering vector, Q, (which suggests the scattering is coherent) but does not ...

  1. Classical and quantum scattering in optical systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puentes, Graciana

    2007-01-01

    The central topic of the Thesis concerns light scattering experiments with entangled photons. Specifically, we study the effect of scattering processes on polarization-entanglement of twin-photons. The main idea is that scattering generally couples polarization and spatial degrees of freedom of

  2. Scattering amplitudes in gauge theories

    CERN Document Server

    Henn, Johannes M

    2014-01-01

    At the fundamental level, the interactions of elementary particles are described by quantum gauge field theory. The quantitative implications of these interactions are captured by scattering amplitudes, traditionally computed using Feynman diagrams. In the past decade tremendous progress has been made in our understanding of and computational abilities with regard to scattering amplitudes in gauge theories, going beyond the traditional textbook approach. These advances build upon on-shell methods that focus on the analytic structure of the amplitudes, as well as on their recently discovered hidden symmetries. In fact, when expressed in suitable variables the amplitudes are much simpler than anticipated and hidden patterns emerge.   These modern methods are of increasing importance in phenomenological applications arising from the need for high-precision predictions for the experiments carried out at the Large Hadron Collider, as well as in foundational mathematical physics studies on the S-matrix in quantum ...

  3. Scattering of muonic hydrogen atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulhauser, F. [Universite de Fribourg (Switzerland); Adamczak, A. [Institute of Nuclear Physics (Poland); Beer, G.A. [University of Victoria (Canada); Bystritsky, V.M. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Filipowicz, M. [Institute of Physics and Nuclear Techniques (Poland); Fujiwara, M.C. [University of British Columbia (Canada); Huber, T.M. [Gustavus Adolphus College (United States); Jacot-Guillarmod, R. [Universite de Fribourg (Switzerland); Kammel, P. [University of California (United States); Kim, S.K. [Jeonbuk National University (Korea, Republic of); Knowles, P. [Universite de Fribourg (Switzerland); Kunselman, A.R. [University of Wyoming (United States); Maier, M. [University of Victoria (Canada); Markushin, V.E. [Paul Scherrer Institute (Switzerland); Marshall, G.M. [TRIUMF (Canada); Olin, A. [University of Victoria (Canada); Petitjean, C. [Paul Scherrer Institute (Switzerland); Porcelli, T.A. [University of Victoria (Canada); Stolupin, V.A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Wozniak, J. [Institute of Physics and Nuclear Techniques (Poland)] (and others)

    1999-06-15

    Our measurement compares the energy dependence of the scattering cross-sections of muonic deuterium and tritium on hydrogen molecules for collisions in the energy range 0.1-45 eV. A time-of-flight method was used to measure the scattering cross-section as a function of the muonic atom beam energy and shows clearly the Ramsauer-Townsend effect. The results are compared with theoretical calculations by using Monte Carlo simulations. The molecular pd{mu} and pt{mu} formation creates background processes. We measure the formation rates in solid hydrogen by detecting the 5.5 MeV (pd{mu}) and 19.8 MeV (pt{mu}) {gamma}-rays emitted during the subsequent nuclear fusion processes.

  4. Scattering characteristics from porous silicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sabet-Dariani

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available   Porous silicon (PS layers come into existance as a result of electrochemical anodization on silicon. Although a great deal of research has been done on the formation and optical properties of this material, the exact mechanism involved is not well-understood yet.   In this article, first, the optical properties of silicon and porous silicon are described. Then, previous research and the proposed models about reflection from PS and the origin of its photoluminescence are reveiwed. The reflecting and scattering, absorption and transmission of light from this material, are then investigated. These experiments include,different methods of PS sample preparation their photoluminescence, reflecting and scattering of light determining different characteristics with respect to Si bulk.

  5. Neutron scattering studies on chromatin higher-order structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graziano, V.; Gerchman, S.E.; Schneider, D.K.; Ramakrishnan, V. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)

    1994-12-31

    We have been engaged in studies of the structure and condensation of chromatin into the 30nm filament using small-angle neutron scattering. We have also used deuterated histone H1 to determine its location in the chromatin 30nm filament. Our studies indicate that chromatin condenses with increasing ionic strength to a limiting structure that has a mass per unit length of 6-7 nucleosomes/11 nm. They also show that the linker histone H1/H5 is located in the interior of the chromatin filament, in a position compatible with its binding to the inner face of the nucleosome. Analysis of the mass per unit length as a function of H5 stoichiometry suggests that 5-7 contiguous nucleosomes need to have H5 bound before a stable higher order structure can exist.

  6. Spectroscopy, scattering, and KK molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinstein, J. [Univ. of Mississippi, University, MS (United States)

    1994-04-01

    The author presents a pedagogical description of a new theoretical technique, based on the multichannel Schroedinger equation, for simultaneously applying the quark model to both meson spectroscopy and meson-meson scattering. This is an extension of an earlier analysis which led to the prediction that the f{sub o}(975) and a{sub o}(980) scalar mesons are K{bar K} molecular states.

  7. Scattering from Foliage Covered Terrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-01

    approximate theories are derived from continuous random media theory while only a relatively few are based on the truly dis- S crete nature of the random media...The primary difficulty with trying to use continuous randon media theory for truly discrete media is that one is forced into defining a number of...scattering properties of an infinite half-space of foliage and a layer of foliage on a planar ground, respectively, using discrete ran- corn media theory . For

  8. Comparison Between Path Lengths Traveled by Solar Electrons and Ions in Ground-Level Enhancement Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Lun C.; Malandraki, Olga E.; Reames, Donald; NG, Chee K.; Wang, Linghua; Patsou, Ioanna; Papaioannou, Athanasios

    2013-01-01

    We have examined the Wind/3DP/SST electron and Wind/EPACT/LEMT ion data to investigate the path length difference between solar electrons and ions in the ground-level enhancement (GLE) events in solar cycle 23. Assuming that the onset time of metric type II or decameter-hectometric (DH) type III radio bursts is the solar release time of non-relativistic electrons, we have found that within an error range of plus or minus 10% the deduced path length of low-energy (approximately 27 keV) electrons from their release site near the Sun to the 1 AU observer is consistent with the ion path length deduced by Reames from the onset time analysis. In addition, the solar longitude distribution and IMF topology of the GLE events examined are in favor of the coronal mass ejection-driven shock acceleration origin of observed non-relativistic electrons.We have also found an increase of electron path lengths with increasing electron energies. The increasing rate of path lengths is correlated with the pitch angle distribution (PAD) of peak electron intensities locally measured, with a higher rate corresponding to a broader PAD. The correlation indicates that the path length enhancement is due to the interplanetary scattering experienced by first arriving electrons. The observed path length consistency implies that the maximum stable time of magnetic flux tubes, along which particles transport, could reach 4.8 hr.

  9. Narrowband Compton Scattering Yield Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rykovanov, Sergey; Seipt, Daniel; Kharin, Vasily

    2017-10-01

    Compton Scattering (CS) of laser light off high-energy electrons is a well-established source of X- and gamma-rays for applications in medicine, biology, nuclear and material sciences. Main advantage of CS photon sources is the possibility to generate narrow spectra as opposed to a broad continuum obtained when utilizing Bremsstrahlung. However, due to the low cross-section of the linear process, the total photon yield is quite low. The most straightforward way to increase the number of photon-electron beam scattering events is to increase the laser pulse intensity at the interaction point by harder focusing. This leads to an unfortunate consequence. Increase in the laser pulse normalized amplitude a0, leads to additional ponderomotive spectrum broadening of the scattered radiation. The ponderomotive broadening is caused by the v × B force, which slows the electron down near the peak of the laser pulse where the intensity is high, and can be neglected near the wings of the pulse, where the intensity is low. We show that laser pulse chirping, both nonlinear (laser pulse frequency ''following'' the envelope of the pulse) and linear, leads to compensation of the ponderomotive broadening and considerably enhances the yield of the nonlinear Compton sources. Work supported by the Helmholtz Association via Helmholtz Young Investigators Grant (VH-NG-1037).

  10. Rg propagation: Scatter versus Attenuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, M.; Phillips, W. S.; MacCarthy, J.

    2016-12-01

    At near local distances, the Rg seismic phase is often the largest seismic arrival for shallow sources. While Rg is classically defined for the period range of 8-12 s, we use the term generically to refer to short-period observations of Rayleigh waves from shallow sources [e.g. Langston, 1987; Bonner and Russell, 2013]. There is significant interest in using Rg as a basis for seismic discrimination and magnitude (e.g. Bonner and Russell, 2013). However, the propagation of this phase is poorly understood. At Nevada National Security Site, while Rg is well observed near the source, it quickly disappears at greater distances. This observation raises the fundamental question of how much of the Rg energy is simply attenuating versus scattering into other seismic phases. Understanding this is critical to interpreting not only the observed Rg seismic energy, but also the possible enrichment of other seismic phases resulting from Rg scattering. In this study, we use waveform data from the Bighorn Arch Seismic Experiment (BASE) and Source Physics Experiment (SPE) to investigate Rg propagation, looking to identify how much energy from the phase attenuates with distance and how much scatters into other seismic phases.

  11. Telomere length in early life predicts lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidinger, Britt J; Blount, Jonathan D; Boner, Winnie; Griffiths, Kate; Metcalfe, Neil B; Monaghan, Pat

    2012-01-31

    The attrition of telomeres, the ends of eukaryote chromosomes, is thought to play an important role in cell deterioration with advancing age. The observed variation in telomere length among individuals of the same age is therefore thought to be related to variation in potential longevity. Studies of this relationship are hampered by the time scale over which individuals need to be followed, particularly in long-lived species where lifespan variation is greatest. So far, data are based either on simple comparisons of telomere length among different age classes or on individuals whose telomere length is measured at most twice and whose subsequent survival is monitored for only a short proportion of the typical lifespan. Both approaches are subject to bias. Key studies, in which telomere length is tracked from early in life, and actual lifespan recorded, have been lacking. We measured telomere length in zebra finches (n = 99) from the nestling stage and at various points thereafter, and recorded their natural lifespan (which varied from less than 1 to almost 9 y). We found telomere length at 25 d to be a very strong predictor of realized lifespan (P telomeres at all points at which they were measured. Reproduction increased adult telomere loss, but this effect appeared transient and did not influence survival. Our results provide the strongest evidence available of the relationship between telomere length and lifespan and emphasize the importance of understanding factors that determine early life telomere length.

  12. Variation in leader length of bitterbrush

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard L. Hubbard; David. Dunaway

    1958-01-01

    The estimation of herbage production and· utilization in browse plants has been a problem for many years. Most range technicians have simply estimated the average length of twigs or leaders. then expressed use by deer and livestock as a percentage thereof based on the estimated average length left after grazing. Riordan used this method on mountain mahogany (

  13. Analysis of ureteral length in adult cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo F. F. Novaes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In some occasions, correlations between human structures can help planning surgical intra-abdominal interventions. The previous determination of ureteral length helps pre-operatory planning of surgeries, reduces costs of auxiliary exams, the correct choice of double-J catheter with low morbidity and fewer symptoms, and an adequate adhesion to treatment. Objective To evaluate ureteral length in adult cadavers and to analyze its correlation with anthropometric measures. Materials and Methods: From April 2009 to January 2012 we determined ureteral length of adult cadavers submitted to necropsy and obtained the following measures: height, distance from shoulder to wrist, elbow-wrist, xiphoid appendix-umbilicus, umbilicus-pubis, xiphoid appendix-pubis and between iliac spines. We analyzed the correlations between ureteral length and those anthropometric measures. Results We dissected 115 ureters from 115 adult corpses from April 2009 to January 2012. Median ureteral length didn't vary between sexes or according to height. It was observed no correlation among ureteral length and all considered anthropometric measures in all analyzed subgroups and in general population. There were no significant differences between right and left ureteral measures. Conclusions There is no difference of ureteral length in relation to height or gender (male or female. There is no significant correlation among ureteral length and the considered anthropometric measures.

  14. Length-biased Weighted Maxwell Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanak Modi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of length-biased distribution can be employed in development of proper models for life-time data. In this paper, we develop the length-biased form of Weighted Maxwell distribution (WMD. We study the statistical properties of the derived distribution including moments, moment generating function, hazard rate, reverse hazard rate, Shannon entropy and estimation of parameters

  15. Paternal age and telomere length in twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelmborg, Jacob B; Dalgård, Christine; Mangino, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Telomere length, a highly heritable trait, is longer in offspring of older fathers. This perplexing feature has been attributed to the longer telomeres in sperm of older men and it might be an 'epigenetic' mechanism through which paternal age plays a role in telomere length regulation in humans...

  16. On the homology length spectrum of surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Massart, Daniel; Parlier, Hugo

    2014-01-01

    On a surface with a Finsler metric, we investigate the asymptotic growth of the number of closed geodesics of length less than L which minimize length among all geodesic multicurves in the same homology class. An important class of surfaces which are of interest to us are hyperbolic surfaces.

  17. Self-affine subglacial roughness: consequences for radar scattering and basal water discrimination in northern Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Thomas M.; Cooper, Michael A.; Schroeder, Dustin M.; Williams, Christopher N.; Paden, John D.; Siegert, Martin J.; Bamber, Jonathan L.

    2017-05-01

    Subglacial roughness can be determined at a variety of length scales from radio-echo sounding (RES) data either via statistical analysis of topography or inferred from basal radar scattering. Past studies have demonstrated that subglacial terrain exhibits self-affine (power law) roughness scaling behaviour, but existing radar scattering models do not take this into account. Here, using RES data from northern Greenland, we introduce a self-affine statistical framework that enables a consistent integration of topographic-scale roughness with the electromagnetic theory of radar scattering. We demonstrate that the degree of radar scattering, quantified using the waveform abruptness (pulse peakiness), is topographically controlled by the Hurst (roughness power law) exponent. Notably, specular bed reflections are associated with a lower Hurst exponent, with diffuse scattering associated with a higher Hurst exponent. Abrupt waveforms (specular reflections) have previously been used as a RES diagnostic for basal water, and to test this assumption we compare our radar scattering map with a recent prediction for the basal thermal state. We demonstrate that the majority of thawed regions (above pressure melting point) exhibit a diffuse scattering signature, which is in contradiction to the prior approach. Self-affine statistics provide a generalised model for subglacial terrain and can improve our understanding of the relationship between basal properties and ice-sheet dynamics.

  18. Investigating the microstructure of a yield-stress fluid by light scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, David; Gutowski, Iris A.; Bailey, Arthur E.; Rubatat, Laurent; de Bruyn, John R.; Frisken, Barbara J.

    2011-03-01

    We report the results of an experimental study of the microstructure of dispersions of Carbopol ETD 2050, a model yield-stress fluid. Using two different light scattering instruments, measurements were made over three decades in scattering wave vector, from 0.02 to 25 μm-1. These measurements reveal microstructure characterized by two length scales: a longer length scale, 6μm and larger, that depends on Carbopol concentration and the pH of the dispersion and a shorter length scale of approximately 400 nm that is independent of both sample concentration and pH. We relate these results to shear rheology measurement of the yield stress of these materials.

  19. Light Scattering Spectroscopy: From Elastic to Inelastic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perelman, Lev T.; Modell, Mark D.; Vitkin, Edward; Hanlon, Eugene B.

    This chapter reviews light scattering spectroscopic techniques in which coherent effects are critical because they define the structure of the spectrum. In the case of elastic light scattering spectroscopy, the targets themselves, such as aerosol particles in environmental science or cells and subcellular organelles in biomedical applications, play the role of microscopic optical resonators. In the case of inelastic light scattering spectroscopy or Raman spectroscopy, the spectrum is created due to light scattering from vibrations in molecules or optical phonons in solids. We will show that light scattering spectroscopic techniques, both elastic and inelastic, are emerging as very useful tools in material and environmental science and in biomedicine.

  20. Scattering theory of stochastic electromagnetic light waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Zhao, Daomu

    2010-07-15

    We generalize scattering theory to stochastic electromagnetic light waves. It is shown that when a stochastic electromagnetic light wave is scattered from a medium, the properties of the scattered field can be characterized by a 3 x 3 cross-spectral density matrix. An example of scattering of a spatially coherent electromagnetic light wave from a deterministic medium is discussed. Some interesting phenomena emerge, including the changes of the spectral degree of coherence and of the spectral degree of polarization of the scattered field.

  1. Wave propagation and scattering in random media

    CERN Document Server

    Ishimaru, Akira

    1978-01-01

    Wave Propagation and Scattering in Random Media, Volume 2, presents the fundamental formulations of wave propagation and scattering in random media in a unified and systematic manner. The topics covered in this book may be grouped into three categories: waves in random scatterers, waves in random continua, and rough surface scattering. Random scatterers are random distributions of many particles. Examples are rain, fog, smog, hail, ocean particles, red blood cells, polymers, and other particles in a state of Brownian motion. Random continua are the media whose characteristics vary randomly an

  2. Multiphoton Scattering Tomography with Coherent States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Tomás; García-Ripoll, Juan José

    2017-10-13

    In this work we develop an experimental procedure to interrogate the single- and multiphoton scattering matrices of an unknown quantum system interacting with propagating photons. Our proposal requires coherent state laser or microwave inputs and homodyne detection at the scatterer's output, and provides simultaneous information about multiple-elastic and inelastic-segments of the scattering matrix. The method is resilient to detector noise and its errors can be made arbitrarily small by combining experiments at various laser powers. Finally, we show that the tomography of scattering has to be performed using pulsed lasers to efficiently gather information about the nonlinear processes in the scatterer.

  3. Intraocular light scatter, reflections, fluorescence and absorption: what we see in the slit lamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Thomas J T P

    2018-01-01

    Much knowledge has been collected over the past 20 years about light scattering in the eye- in particular in the eye lens- and its visual effect, called straylight. It is the purpose of this review to discuss how these insights can be applied to understanding the slit lamp image. The slit lamp image mainly results from back scattering, whereas the effects on vision result mainly from forward scatter. Forward scatter originates from particles of about wavelength size distributed throughout the lens. Most of the slit lamp image originates from small particle scatter (Rayleigh scatter). For a population of middle aged lenses it will be shown that both these scatter components remove around 10% of the light from the direct beam. For slit lamp observation close to the reflection angles, zones of discontinuity (Wasserspalten) at anterior and posterior parts of the lens show up as rough surface reflections. All these light scatter effects increase with age, but the correlations with age, and also between the different components, are weak. For retro-illumination imaging it will be argued that the density or opacity seen in areas of cortical or posterior subcapsular cataract show up because of light scattering, not because of light loss. NOTES: (1) Light scatter must not be confused with aberrations. Light penetrating the eye is divided into two parts: a relatively small part is scattered, and removed from the direct beam. Most of the light is not scattered, but continues as the direct beam. This non-scattered part is the basis for functional imaging, but its quality is under the control of aberrations. Aberrations deflect light mainly over small angles (light scatter is important because of the straylight effects over large angles (>1°), causing problems like glare and hazy vision. (2) The slit lamp image in older lenses and nuclear cataract is strongly influenced by absorption. However, this effect is greatly exaggerated by the light path lengths concerned. This

  4. Mechanism of nuclear rainbow scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohkubo, S. [Department of Applied Science and Environment, Kochi Women University, Kochi 780-8515 (Japan)

    2001-09-01

    Full text: Nuclear rainbow phenomenon has been widely observed in light heavy ion scattering such as {sup 16} 0 + {sup 16} 0, {sup 16} 0 + {sup 12} C and {sup 12} C + {sup 12} C and great progress has been made experimentally and theoretically especially in the nineties. The nuclear rainbow has been understood quite often in analogy to meteorological rainbow caused by scattering of light from water droplets, because they are both considered to be a refractive phenomenon. Traditionally nuclear rain- bow has been explained by the far side component of the scattering amplitudes in the presence of a strong attractive force: The observed Airy structure in the angular distributions has been understood by the interference between it's two sub amplitudes in analogy to the interference of two refractive waves in meteorological rainbow, although it was not easy to theoretically extract its components separately. By studying the {sup 16} 0 + {sup 16} 0 scattering measured at Strasbourg, we have theoretically succeeded in extracting the sub amplitudes of the far side scattering in a rigorous but easy way: the sub amplitudes are obtained by decomposing the calculated scattering amplitude into its internal wave and barrier wave components. It is found that the Airy structure observed in the angular distributions in the E L = 75-145 MeV is caused by the interference between the far side internal-wave and far side barrier-wave. The minima in the 90-excitation function, which has been interpreted to be the passage of the Airy elephants, can also be explained as the interference between the far side internal- wave and barrier-wave. It is noted that although the internal wave is a refracted wave the barrier wave is a reflected wave, which does not feel the attractive potential in the very internal region. This means that the nuclear Airy structure is caused by the interference between the refractive wave and reflective wave. This finding is very different from the traditional

  5. PREFACE: Atom-surface scattering Atom-surface scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miret-Artés, Salvador

    2010-08-01

    It has been a privilege and a real pleasure to organize this special issue or festschrift in the general field of atom-surface scattering (and its interaction) in honor of J R Manson. This is a good opportunity and an ideal place to express our deep gratitude to one of the leaders in this field for his fundamental and outstanding scientific contributions. J R Manson, or Dick to his friends and colleagues, is one of the founding fathers, together with N Cabrera and V Celli, of the 'Theory of surface scattering and detection of surface phonons'. This is the title of the very well-known first theoretical paper by Dick published in Physical Review Letters in 1969. My first meeting with Dick was around twenty years ago in Saclay. J Lapujoulade organized a small group seminar about selective adsorption resonances in metal vicinal surfaces. We discussed this important issue in surface physics and many other things as if we had always known each other. This familiarity and warm welcome struck me from the very beginning. During the coming years, I found this to be a very attractive aspect of his personality. During my stays in Göttingen, we had the opportunity to talk widely about science and life at lunch or dinner time, walking or cycling. During these nice meetings, he showed, with humility, an impressive cultural background. It is quite clear that his personal opinions about history, religion, politics, music, etc, come from considering and analyzing them as 'open dynamical systems'. In particular, with good food and better wine in a restaurant or at home, a happy cheerful soirée is guaranteed with him, or even with only a good beer or espresso, and an interesting conversation arises naturally. He likes to listen before speaking. Probably not many people know his interest in tractors. He has an incredible collection of very old tractors at home. In one of my visits to Clemson, he showed me the collection, explaining to me in great detail, their technical properties

  6. Kidney Length in Normal Korean Children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, In One; Cheon, Jung Eun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Seok [Dankook University College of Medicine, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sun Wha [Ewha Womans University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ok Hwa [Ajou University College of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ji Hye [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hong Dae [Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, Hanllym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Sim, Jung Suk [Mothers Clinic, Bundang, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-09-15

    Renal length offers important information to detect or follow-up various renal diseases. The purpose of this study was to determine the kidney length of normal Korean children in relation to age, height, weight, body surface area (BSA), and body mass index (BMI). Children between 1 month and 15 years of age without urological abnormality were recruited. Children below 3rd percentile and over 97th percentile for height or weight were excluded. Both renal lengths were measured in the prone position three times and then averaged by experienced radiologists. The mean length and standard deviation for each age group was obtained, and regression equation was calculated between renal length and age, weight, height, BSA, and BMI, respectively. Renal length was measured in 550 children. Renal length grows rapidly until 24 month, while the growth rate is reduced thereafter. The regression equation for age is: renal length (mm) = 45.953 + 1.064 x age (month, {<=} 24 months) (R2 = 0.720) or 62.173 + 0.203 x age (months, > 24 months) (R2 = 0.711). The regression equation for height is: renal length (mm) = 24.494 + 0.457 x height (cm) (R2 = 0.894). The regression equation for weight is: renal length (mm) = 38.342 + 2.117 x weight (kg, {<=}18 kg) (R2 = 0.852) or 64.498 + 0.646 x weight (kg, > 18 kg) (R2 = 0.651). The regression equation for BSA is: renal length (mm) = 31.622 + 61.363 x BSA (m2, {<=} 0.7) (R2 = 0.857) or 52.717 + 29.959 x BSA (m2, > 0.7) (R2 = 0.715). The regression equation for BMI is: renal length (mm) = 44.474 + 1.163 x BMI (R2 = 0.079). This study provides data on the normal renal length and its association with age, weight, height, BSA and BMI. The results of this study will guide the detection and follow-up of renal diseases in Korean children

  7. Diffusing-wave spectroscopy in a standard dynamic light scattering setup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahimi, Zahra; Aangenendt, Frank J.; Voudouris, Panayiotis; Mattsson, Johan; Wyss, Hans M.

    2017-12-01

    Diffusing-wave spectroscopy (DWS) extends dynamic light scattering measurements to samples with strong multiple scattering. DWS treats the transport of photons through turbid samples as a diffusion process, thereby making it possible to extract the dynamics of scatterers from measured correlation functions. The analysis of DWS data requires knowledge of the path length distribution of photons traveling through the sample. While for flat sample cells this path length distribution can be readily calculated and expressed in analytical form; no such expression is available for cylindrical sample cells. DWS measurements have therefore typically relied on dedicated setups that use flat sample cells. Here we show how DWS measurements, in particular DWS-based microrheology measurements, can be performed in standard dynamic light scattering setups that use cylindrical sample cells. To do so we perform simple random-walk simulations that yield numerical predictions of the path length distribution as a function of both the transport mean free path and the detection angle. This information is used in experiments to extract the mean-square displacement of tracer particles in the material, as well as the corresponding frequency-dependent viscoelastic response. An important advantage of our approach is that by performing measurements at different detection angles, the average path length through the sample can be varied. For measurements performed on a single sample cell, this gives access to a wider range of length and time scales than obtained in a conventional DWS setup. Such angle-dependent measurements also offer an important consistency check, as for all detection angles the DWS analysis should yield the same tracer dynamics, even though the respective path length distributions are very different. We validate our approach by performing measurements both on aqueous suspensions of tracer particles and on solidlike gelatin samples, for which we find our DWS-based microrheology

  8. Eliminating electromagnetic scattering from small particles

    CERN Document Server

    Vehmas, Joni; Karilainen, Antti; Tretyakov, Sergei

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents and discusses the conditions for zero electromagnetic scattering by electrically small particles. We consider the most general bi-anisotropic particles, characterized by four dyadic polarizabilities and study the case of uniaxially symmetric objects. Conditions for zero backward and forward scattering are found for a general uniaxial bi-anisotropic particle and specialized for all fundamental classes of bi-anisotropic particles: omega, "moving", chiral, and Tellegen particles. Possibility for zero total scattering is also discussed for aforementioned cases. The scattering pattern and polarization of the scattered wave are also determined for each particle class. In particular, we analyze the interplay between different scattering mechanisms and show that in some cases it is possible to compensate scattering from a polarizable particle by appropriate magneto-electric coupling.

  9. Positronium and Electron Scattering on Helium

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiRienzi, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    A recent work [1] establishes experimentally that Positronium scattering by atoms of various elements is surprisingly close in total cross-section to that of an isolated electron of the same velocity. In this work we will look at the scattering of Ps on Helium and compare it to a determination of the scattering of an e- with the same element. For both the Ps scattering and the e- scattering on He, we assume the symmetrization of the e- with the closed shell He electrons is the dominant interaction. A local effective potential employed in [2] and [3] is used to model the electron exchange and cross- sections are determined for a set of partial waves. For the Ps scattering we include as a secondary effect the Van der Waals interaction. For single e- scattering of He, we also employ a short range Coulomb potential and dispersion as contributing effects. Results of the cross-sections determined in each case are then compared

  10. Stimulated Brillouin scattering continuous wave phase conjugation in step-index fiber optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Steven M; Spring, Justin B; Russell, Timothy H

    2008-07-21

    Continuous wave (CW) stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) phase conjugation in step-index optical fibers was studied experimentally and modeled as a function of fiber length. A phase conjugate fidelity over 80% was measured from SBS in a 40 m fiber using a pinhole technique. Fidelity decreases with fiber length, and a fiber with a numerical aperture (NA) of 0.06 was found to generate good phase conjugation fidelity over longer lengths than a fiber with 0.13 NA. Modeling and experiment support previous work showing the maximum interaction length which yields a high fidelity phase conjugate beam is inversely proportional to the fiber NA(2), but find that fidelity remains high over much longer fiber lengths than previous models calculated. Conditions for SBS beam cleanup in step-index fibers are discussed.

  11. Length filtration of the separable states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Doković, Dragomir Ž.

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the separable states ρ of an arbitrary multi-partite quantum system with Hilbert space H of dimension d. The length L(ρ) of ρ is defined as the smallest number of pure product states having ρ as their mixture. The length filtration of the set of separable states, S , is the increasing chain ∅ ⊊S1‧⊆S2‧⊆⋯, where Si‧={ρ ∈S :L (ρ )≤i }. We define the maximum length, Lmax=maxρ ∈S L (ρ ), critical length, Lcrit, and yet another special length, Lc, which was defined by a simple formula in one of our previous papers. The critical length indicates the first term in the length filtration whose dimension is equal to Dim S . We show that in general d≤Lc≤Lcrit≤Lmax≤d2. We conjecture that the equality Lcrit=Lc holds for all finite-dimensional multi-partite quantum systems. Our main result is that Lcrit=Lc for the bipartite systems having a single qubit as one of the parties. This is accomplished by computing the rank of the Jacobian matrix of a suitable map having S as its range.

  12. Cold keV dark matter from decays and scatterings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeck, Julian; Teresi, Daniele

    2017-08-01

    We explore ways of creating cold keV-scale dark matter by means of decays and scatterings. The main observation is that certain thermal freeze-in processes can lead to a cold dark matter distribution in regions with a small available phase space. In this way the free-streaming length of keV particles can be suppressed without decoupling them too much from the Standard Model. In all cases, dark matter needs to be produced together with a heavy particle that carries away most of the initial momentum. For decays, this simply requires an off-diagonal dark matter (DM) coupling to two heavy particles; for scatterings, the coupling of soft DM to two heavy particles needs to be diagonal, in particular in spin space. Decays can thus lead to cold light DM of any spin, while scatterings only work for bosons with specific couplings. We explore a number of simple models and also comment on the connection to the tentative 3.5 keV line.

  13. Evidence for X(3872) from DD* scattering on the lattice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prelovsek, Sasa; Leskovec, Luka

    2013-11-08

    A candidate for the charmonium(like) state X(3872) is found 11±7 MeV below the DD* threshold using dynamical N(f)=2 lattice simulation with J(PC)=1(++) and I=0. This is the first lattice simulation that establishes a candidate for X(3872) in addition to the nearby scattering states DD* and J/ψω, which inevitably have to be present in dynamical QCD. We extract large and negative DD* scattering length a(0)(DD*)=-1.7±0.4 fm and the effective range r(0)(DD*)=0.5±0.1 fm, but their reliable determination will have to wait for a simulation on a larger volume. In I=1 channel, only the DD* and J/ψρ scattering states are found and no candidate for X(3872). This is in agreement with the interpretation that X(3872) is dominantly I=0, while its small I=1 component arises solely from the isospin breaking and is therefore absent in our simulation with m(u)=m(d).

  14. Fermions in Two Dimensions: Scattering and Many-Body Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galea, Alexander; Zielinski, Tash; Gandolfi, Stefano; Gezerlis, Alexandros

    2017-12-01

    Ultracold atomic Fermi gases in two dimensions (2D) are an increasingly popular topic of research. The interaction strength between spin-up and spin-down particles in two-component Fermi gases can be tuned in experiments, allowing for a strongly interacting regime where the gas properties are yet to be fully understood. We have probed this regime for 2D Fermi gases by performing T = 0 ab initio diffusion Monte Carlo calculations. The many-body dynamics are largely dependent on the two-body interactions; therefore, we start with an in-depth look at scattering theory in 2D. We show the partial-wave expansion and its relation to the scattering length and effective range. Then, we discuss our numerical methods for determining these scattering parameters. We close out this discussion by illustrating the details of bound states in 2D. Transitioning to the many-body system, we use variationally optimized wave functions to calculate ground-state properties of the gas over a range of interaction strengths. We show results for the energy per particle and parametrize an equation of state. We then proceed to determine the chemical potential for the strongly interacting gas.

  15. Automatic Control Of Length Of Welding Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iceland, William F.

    1991-01-01

    Nonlinear relationships among current, voltage, and length stored in electronic memory. Conceptual microprocessor-based control subsystem maintains constant length of welding arc in gas/tungsten arc-welding system, even when welding current varied. Uses feedback of current and voltage from welding arc. Directs motor to set position of torch according to previously measured relationships among current, voltage, and length of arc. Signal paths marked "calibration" or "welding" used during those processes only. Other signal paths used during both processes. Control subsystem added to existing manual or automatic welding system equipped with automatic voltage control.

  16. Deep Inelastic Scattering on Ultracold Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Johannes; Zwerger, Wilhelm

    2017-01-01

    We discuss Bragg scattering on both Bose and Fermi gases with strong short-range interactions in the deep inelastic regime of large wave vector transfer q , where the dynamic structure factor is dominated by a resonance near the free-particle energy ℏω =ɛq=ℏ2q2/2 m . Using a systematic short-distance expansion, the structure factor at high momentum is shown to exhibit a nontrivial dependence on frequency characterized by two separate scaling regimes. First, for frequencies that differ from the single-particle energy by terms of order O (q ) (i.e., small deviations compared to the single-particle energy), the dynamic structure factor is described by the impulse approximation of Hohenberg and Platzman. Second, deviations of order O (q2) (i.e., of the same order or larger than the single-particle energy) are described by the operator product expansion, with a universal crossover connecting both regimes. The scaling is consistent with the leading asymptotics for a number of sum rules in the large momentum limit. Furthermore, we derive an exact expression for the shift and width of the single-particle peak at large momentum due to interactions, thus extending a result by Beliaev [J. Exp. Theor. Phys. 7, 299 (1958)] for the low-density Bose gas to arbitrary values of the scattering length a . The shift exhibits a maximum around q a ≃1 , which is connected with a maximum in the static structure factor due to strong short-range correlations. For Bose gases with moderate interaction strengths, the theoretically predicted shift is consistent with the value observed by Papp et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 135301 (2008), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.101.135301]. Finally, we develop a diagrammatic theory for the dynamic structure factor which accounts for the correlations beyond Bogoliubov theory. It covers the full range of momenta and frequencies and provides an explicit example for the emergence of asymptotic scaling at large momentum.

  17. Characterization of a large glycoprotein proteoglycan by size-exclusion chromatography combined with light and X-ray scattering methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yasushi; Inoko, Yoji

    2013-08-16

    The molecular weight and chain conformation of a proteoglycan derived from shark cartilage in solution were characterized by size-exclusion chromatography combined with low-angle laser light scattering and small-angle X-ray scattering methods. The total molecular weight of the proteoglycan was 3.9±0.2 million and the molecular weight of the main component was about 2.0±0.2 million. The X-ray scattering data revealed that the main components of the proteoglycan are nearly equal to a chain with excluded volume and their persistence lengths range from 13.5 to 16.4nm. These results show that size-exclusion chromatography combined with low-angle laser light scattering and small-angle X-ray scattering measurements are complementarily useful for characterization of large biopolymers in solution. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Coherent Anti-Stokes and Coherent Stokes in Raman Scattering by Superconducting Nanowire Single-Photon Detector for Temperature Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annepu Venkata Naga Vamsi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We have reported the measurement of temperature by using coherent anti-Stroke and coherent Stroke Raman scattering using superconducting nano wire single-photon detector. The measured temperatures by both methods (Coherent Anti-Raman scattering & Coherent Stroke Raman scattering and TC 340 are in good accuracy of ± 5 K temperature range. The length of the pipe line under test can be increased by increasing the power of the pump laser. This methodology can be widely used to measure temperatures at instantaneous positions in test pipe line or the entire temperature of the pipe line under test.

  19. Future of Electron Scattering and Diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Ernest [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Stemmer, Susanne [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Zheng, Haimei [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Zhu, Yimei [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Maracas, George [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States). Office of Science

    2014-02-25

    The ability to correlate the atomic- and nanoscale-structure of condensed matter with physical properties (e.g., mechanical, electrical, catalytic, and optical) and functionality forms the core of many disciplines. Directing and controlling materials at the quantum-, atomic-, and molecular-levels creates enormous challenges and opportunities across a wide spectrum of critical technologies, including those involving the generation and use of energy. The workshop identified next generation electron scattering and diffraction instruments that are uniquely positioned to address these grand challenges. The workshop participants identified four key areas where the next generation of such instrumentation would have major impact: A – Multidimensional Visualization of Real Materials B – Atomic-scale Molecular Processes C – Photonic Control of Emergence in Quantum Materials D – Evolving Interfaces, Nucleation, and Mass Transport Real materials are comprised of complex three-dimensional arrangements of atoms and defects that directly determine their potential for energy applications. Understanding real materials requires new capabilities for three-dimensional atomic scale tomography and spectroscopy of atomic and electronic structures with unprecedented sensitivity, and with simultaneous spatial and energy resolution. Many molecules are able to selectively and efficiently convert sunlight into other forms of energy, like heat and electric current, or store it in altered chemical bonds. Understanding and controlling such process at the atomic scale require unprecedented time resolution. One of the grand challenges in condensed matter physics is to understand, and ultimately control, emergent phenomena in novel quantum materials that necessitate developing a new generation of instruments that probe the interplay among spin, charge, orbital, and lattice degrees of freedom with intrinsic time- and length-scale resolutions. Molecules and soft matter require imaging and

  20. Light scattering near phase transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Cummins, HZ

    1983-01-01

    Since the development of the laser in the early 1960's, light scattering has played an increasingly crucial role in the investigation of many types of phase transitions and the published work in this field is now widely dispersed in a large number of books and journals.A comprehensive overview of contemporary theoretical and experimental research in this field is presented here. The reviews are written by authors who have actively contributed to the developments that have taken place in both Eastern and Western countries.

  1. Barrier distributions from elastic scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowley, N. [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics]|[Surrey Univ., Guildford (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics; Timmers, H.; Leigh, J.R.; Masgupta, M.; Hinde, D.J.; Mein, J.C.; Morton, C.R.; Newton, J.O. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia). Dept. of Nuclear Physics

    1996-01-01

    A new representation of the distribution of potential barriers present in heavy ion reactions is defined in terms of the elastic scattering excitation function. Its validity is demonstrated for the systems {sup 16}0 + {sup 144,} {sup 154}Sm, {sup 186}W, {sup 208}Pb, for which precise measurements have been made. Compared with fusion barrier distributions, which show structures characteristic of collective inelastic couplings, the elastic distributions are less detailed. This appears to be due to couplings to weaker direct reaction channels. 20 refs., 3 figs.

  2. Compton scattering on $^{208}$Pb

    CERN Document Server

    Alberico, W M

    1982-01-01

    The authors briefly review the formalism of the nuclear Compton scattering in the frame of the low-energy theorems (LET). They treat the resonant terms of the amplitude, having collective intermediate nuclear states, as a superposition of Lorentz lines with energy, width and strength fixed by the photo-absorption experiments. The gauge terms are evaluated starting from a simple, but realistic, nuclear Hamiltonian. Dynamical nucleon-nucleon correlations are consistently taken into account, beyond those imposed by the Pauli principle. The comparison of the theoretical predictions with the data of elastic diffusion of photons from /sup 208/Pb shows that LET are insufficient to account for the experiment.

  3. Small angle scattering and polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotton, J.P. [Laboratoire Leon Brillouin (LLB) - Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1996-12-31

    The determination of polymer structure is a problem of interest for both statistical physics and industrial applications. The average polymer structure is defined. Then, it is shown why small angle scattering, associated with isotopic substitution, is very well suited to the measurement of the chain conformation. The corresponding example is the old, but pedagogic, measurement of the chain form factor in the polymer melt. The powerful contrast variation method is illustrated by a recent determination of the concentration profile of a polymer interface. (author) 12 figs., 48 refs.

  4. New Techniques in Neutron Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birk, Jonas Okkels

    Neutron scattering is an important experimental technique in amongst others solid state physics, biophysics, and engineering. This year construction of European Spallation Source (ESS) was commenced in Lund, Sweeden. The facility will use a new long pulsed source principle to obtain higher....... The instrument is ideally suited for solid state experiments with extreme sample environments such as large pressures and strong magnetic fields. CAMEA combines the time-of-flight technique to determine the energy of the incoming neutrons with a complex multiplex backend that will analyse and detect...

  5. Hadron scattering, resonances, and QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briceno, Raul [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-12-01

    The non-perturbative nature of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) has historically left a gap in our understanding of the connection between the fundamental theory of the strong interactions and the rich structure of experimentally observed phenomena. For the simplest properties of stable hadrons, this is now circumvented with the use of lattice QCD (LQCD). In this talk I discuss a path towards a rigorous determination of few-hadron observables from LQCD. I illustrate the power of the methodology by presenting recently determined scattering amplitudes in the light-meson sector and their resonance content.

  6. Observation of Laser Induced Magnetization Dynamics in Co/Pd Multilayers with Coherent X-ray Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Benny

    2012-04-05

    We report on time-resolved coherent x-ray scattering experiments of laser induced magnetization dynamics in Co/Pd multilayers with a high repetition rate optical pump x-ray probe setup. Starting from a multi-domain ground state, the magnetization is uniformly reduced after excitation by an intense 50 fs laser pulse. Using the normalized time correlation, we study the magnetization recovery on a picosecond timescale. The dynamic scattering intensity is separated into an elastic portion at length scales above 65 nm which retains memory of the initial domain magnetization, and a fluctuating portion at smaller length scales corresponding to domain boundary motion during recovery.

  7. Martian Length of Day Measurements from Rovers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eubanks, T. M.; Bills, B.

    2012-06-01

    Changes in the Martian Length of Day (LOD) can be determined at a scientifically use level by a combination of regular (but not necessarily frequent) range and Doppler measurements from Earth and dead reckoning in a Kalman filter.

  8. Carbon Nanotubes: Measuring Dispersion and Length

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fagan, Jeffrey A.; Bauer, Barry J.; Hobbie, Erik K.; Becker, Matthew L.; Hight-Walker, Angela; Simpson, Jeffrey R.; Chun, Jaehun; Obrzut, Jan; Bajpai, Vardhan; Phelan, Fred R.; Simien, Daneesh; Yeon Huh, Ji; Migler, Kalman B.

    2011-03-01

    Advanced technological uses of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) rely on the production of single length and chirality populations that are currently only available through liquid phase post processing. The foundation of all of these processing steps is the attainment of individualized nanotube dispersion in solution; an understanding of the collodial properties of the dispersed SWCNTs can then be used to designed appropriate conditions for separations. In many instances nanotube size, particularly length, is especially active in determining the achievable properties from a given population, and thus there is a critical need for measurement technologies for both length distribution and effective separation techniques. In this Progress Report, we document the current state of the art for measuring dispersion and length populations, including separations, and use examples to demonstrate the desirability of addressing these parameters.

  9. Identification of amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Identification of amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fragments linked to soybean mosaic virus resistance gene in Glycine soja and conversion to a sequence characterized amplified regions (SCAR) marker for rapid selection.

  10. CPS Trawl Life History Length Frequency Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Length distribution of a subset of individuals from a species (mainly non-target) caught during SWFSC-FRD fishery independent trawl surveys of coastal pelagic...

  11. Impedance of finite length resistive cylinder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Krinsky

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available We determine the impedance of a cylindrical metal tube (resistor of radius a, length g, and conductivity σ attached at each end to perfect conductors of semi-infinite length. Our main interest is in the asymptotic behavior of the impedance at high frequency (k≫1/a. In the equilibrium regime, ka^{2}≪g, the impedance per unit length is accurately described by the well-known result for an infinite length tube with conductivity σ. In the transient regime, ka^{2}≫g, where the contribution of transition radiation arising from the discontinuity in conductivity is important, we derive an analytic expression for the impedance and compute the short-range wakefield. The analytic results are shown to agree with numerical evaluation of the impedance.

  12. Length and coverage of inhibitory decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Alsolami, Fawaz

    2012-01-01

    Authors present algorithms for optimization of inhibitory rules relative to the length and coverage. Inhibitory rules have a relation "attribute ≠ value" on the right-hand side. The considered algorithms are based on extensions of dynamic programming. Paper contains also comparison of length and coverage of inhibitory rules constructed by a greedy algorithm and by the dynamic programming algorithm. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

  13. Radiation length imaging with high resolution telescopes

    OpenAIRE

    Stolzenberg, U.; Frey, A.; Schwenker, B; Wieduwilt, P.; Marinas, C; Lütticke, F.

    2016-01-01

    The construction of low mass vertex detectors with a high level of system integration is of great interest for next generation collider experiments. Radiation length images with a sufficient spatial resolution can be used to measure and disentangle complex radiation length $X$/$X_0$ profiles and contribute to the understanding of vertex detector systems. Test beam experiments with multi GeV particle beams and high-resolution tracking telescopes provide an opportunity to obtain precise 2D imag...

  14. Process for fabricating continuous lengths of superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, Donald M.; List, III, Frederick A.

    1998-01-01

    A process for manufacturing a superconductor. The process is accomplished by depositing a superconductor precursor powder on a continuous length of a first substrate ribbon, overlaying a continuous length of a second substrate ribbon on said first substrate ribbon, and applying sufficient pressure to form a bound layered superconductor precursor between said first substrate ribbon and said second substrates ribbon. The layered superconductor precursor is then heat treated to form a super conductor layer.

  15. Sequence-Dependent Persistence Lengths of DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jonathan S; Glowacki, Jaroslaw; Grandchamp, Alexandre E; Manning, Robert S; Maddocks, John H

    2017-04-11

    A Monte Carlo code applied to the cgDNA coarse-grain rigid-base model of B-form double-stranded DNA is used to predict a sequence-averaged persistence length of l F = 53.5 nm in the sense of Flory, and of l p = 160 bp or 53.5 nm in the sense of apparent tangent-tangent correlation decay. These estimates are slightly higher than the consensus experimental values of 150 bp or 50 nm, but we believe the agreement to be good given that the cgDNA model is itself parametrized from molecular dynamics simulations of short fragments of length 10-20 bp, with no explicit fit to persistence length. Our Monte Carlo simulations further predict that there can be substantial dependence of persistence lengths on the specific sequence [Formula: see text] of a fragment. We propose, and confirm the numerical accuracy of, a simple factorization that separates the part of the apparent tangent-tangent correlation decay [Formula: see text] attributable to intrinsic shape, from a part [Formula: see text] attributable purely to stiffness, i.e., a sequence-dependent version of what has been called sequence-averaged dynamic persistence length l̅ d (=58.8 nm within the cgDNA model). For ensembles of both random and λ-phage fragments, the apparent persistence length [Formula: see text] has a standard deviation of 4 nm over sequence, whereas our dynamic persistence length [Formula: see text] has a standard deviation of only 1 nm. However, there are notable dynamic persistence length outliers, including poly(A) (exceptionally straight and stiff), poly(TA) (tightly coiled and exceptionally soft), and phased A-tract sequence motifs (exceptionally bent and stiff). The results of our numerical simulations agree reasonably well with both molecular dynamics simulation and diverse experimental data including minicircle cyclization rates and stereo cryo-electron microscopy images.

  16. Step Length Estimation Using Handheld Inertial Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Renaudin, Valérie; SUSI, Melania; Lachapelle, Gérard

    2012-01-01

    In this paper a novel step length model using a handheld Micro Electrical Mechanical System (MEMS) is presented. It combines the user’s step frequency and height with a set of three parameters for estimating step length. The model has been developed and trained using 12 different subjects: six men and six women. For reliable estimation of the step frequency with a handheld device, the frequency content of the handheld sensor’s signal is extracted by applying the Short Time Fourier...

  17. A neutron scattering study of triblock copolymer micelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerstenberg, M.C.

    1997-11-01

    The thesis describes the neutron scattering experiments performed on poly(ethylene oxide)/poly(propylene oxide)/poly(ethylene oxide) triblock copolymer micelles in aqueous solution. The studies concern the non-ionic triblock copolymer P85 which consists of two outer segments of 25 monomers of ethylene oxide attached to a central part of 40 monomers of propylene oxide. The amphiphilic character of P85 leads to formation of various structures in aqueous solution such as spherical micelles, rod-like structures, and a BCC liquid-crystal mesophase of spherical micelles. The present investigations are centered around the micellar structures. In the first part of this thesis a model for the micelle is developed for which an analytical scattering form factor can be calculated. The micelle is modeled as a solid sphere with tethered Gaussian chains. Good agreement was found between small-angle neutron scattering experiments and the form factor of the spherical P85 micelles. Above 60 deg. C some discrepancies were found between the model and the data which is possibly due to an elongation of the micelles. The second part focuses on the surface-induced ordering of the various micellar aggregates in the P85 concentration-temperature phase diagram. In the spherical micellar phase, neutron reflection measurements indicated a micellar ordering at the hydrophilic surface of quartz. Extensive modeling was performed based on a hard sphere description of the micellar interaction. By convolution of the distribution of hard spheres at a hard wall, obtained from Monte Carlo simulations, and the projected scattering length density of the micelle, a numerical expression was obtained which made it possible to fit the data. The hard-sphere-hard-wall model gave an excellent agreement in the bulk micellar phase. However, for higher concentrations (25 wt % P85) close to the transition from the micellar liquid into a micellar cubic phase, a discrepancy was found between the model and the

  18. Scattering amplitudes in gauge theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henn, Johannes M. [Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ (United States). School of Natural Sciences; Plefka, Jan C. [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik

    2014-03-01

    First monographical text on this fundamental topic. Course-tested, pedagogical and self-contained exposition. Includes exercises and solutions. At the fundamental level, the interactions of elementary particles are described by quantum gauge field theory. The quantitative implications of these interactions are captured by scattering amplitudes, traditionally computed using Feynman diagrams. In the past decade tremendous progress has been made in our understanding of and computational abilities with regard to scattering amplitudes in gauge theories, going beyond the traditional textbook approach. These advances build upon on-shell methods that focus on the analytic structure of the amplitudes, as well as on their recently discovered hidden symmetries. In fact, when expressed in suitable variables the amplitudes are much simpler than anticipated and hidden patterns emerge. These modern methods are of increasing importance in phenomenological applications arising from the need for high-precision predictions for the experiments carried out at the Large Hadron Collider, as well as in foundational mathematical physics studies on the S-matrix in quantum field theory. Bridging the gap between introductory courses on quantum field theory and state-of-the-art research, these concise yet self-contained and course-tested lecture notes are well-suited for a one-semester graduate level course or as a self-study guide for anyone interested in fundamental aspects of quantum field theory and its applications. The numerous exercises and solutions included will help readers to embrace and apply the material presented in the main text.

  19. Intrabeam scattering in the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Mertens, Tom; Sousa Da Costa, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    Intrabeam Scattering (IBS) is the process where particles within an accelerator beam elastically scatter off each other. The effect of IBS is not to be confused with the Coulomb repulsion due to the fields generated by the other particles in the beam. The Coulomb repulsion effects are referred to as space-charge effects in Accelerator Physics and become less important than IBS at high energies because of the 1/gamma^2 that occurs in the space-charge equations making IBS one of the most important causes of beam size growth. At high energies (for example at 7 TeV or the LHC nominal operation energy) IBS effects are counteracted by Radiation Damping effects, in some cases leading to decrease in beam sizes instead of beam growth. But at the time of writing the operation energies were still low enough to neglect Radiation Damping Effects in comparison with IBS effects (Radiation Lifetimes were a factor five to ten higher than the IBS Lifetimes in the cases presented at the end of this text). Because of its effect ...

  20. Interaction between structurally different heteroexopolysaccharides and β-lactoglobulin studied by solution scattering and analytical ultracentrifugation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Sanaullah; Birch, Johnny; Van Calsteren, Marie-Rose

    2018-01-01

    to characterize the interactions of six lactic acid bacterial heteroexopolysaccharides (HePS-1-HePS-6) with β-lactoglobulin (BLG). Compared to free HePSs, a large increase in the X-ray radius of gyration RG, maximum length L and hydrodynamic diameter dH of HePS-1-HePS-4 mixed with BLG revealed strong aggregation......Despite a very large number of bacterial exopolysaccharides have been reported, detailed knowledge on their molecular structures and associative interactions with proteins is lacking. Small-angle X-ray scattering, dynamic light scattering and analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) were used...

  1. Bragg scattering of electromagnetic waves by microwave-produced plasma layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, S. P.; Zhang, Y. S.

    1990-01-01

    A set of parallel plasma layers is generated by two intersecting microwave pulses in a chamber containing dry air at a pressure comparable to the upper atmosphere. The dependencies of breakdown conditions on the pressure and pulse length are examined. The results are shown to be consistent with the appearance of tail erosion of the microwave pulse caused by air breakdown. A Bragg scattering experiment, using the plasma layers as a Bragg reflector, is then performed. Both time domain and frequency domain measurements of wave scattering are conducted. The experimental results are found to agree very well with the theory.

  2. Structure of Lambda(1405) and threshold behavior of pi Sigma scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoichi Ikeda, Tesuo Hyodo, Daisuke Jido, Hiroyuki Kamano, Toru Sato, Koichi Yazaki

    2011-01-01

    The scattering length and effective range of the pi-Sigma channel are studied in order to characterize the strangeness S = -1 meson-baryon scattering and the Lambda (1405) resonance. We examine various off-shell dependence of the amplitude in dynamical chiral models to evaluate the threshold quantities with the constraint at the KN threshold. We find that the pi-Sigma threshold parameters are important to the structure of the Lambda (1405) resonance and provide further constraints on the subthreshold extrapolation of the KN interaction.

  3. Implementation of Chord Length Sampling for Transport Through a Binary Stochastic Mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T.J. Donovan; T.M. Sutton; Y. Danon

    2002-11-18

    Neutron transport through a special case stochastic mixture is examined, in which spheres of constant radius are uniformly mixed in a matrix material. A Monte Carlo algorithm previously proposed and examined in 2-D has been implemented in a test version of MCNP. The Limited Chord Length Sampling (LCLS) technique provides a means for modeling a binary stochastic mixture as a cell in MCNP. When inside a matrix cell, LCLS uses chord-length sampling to sample the distance to the next stochastic sphere. After a surface crossing into a stochastic sphere, transport is treated explicitly until the particle exits or is killed. Results were computed for a simple model with two different fixed neutron source distributions and three sets of material number densities. Stochastic spheres were modeled as black absorbers and varying degrees of scattering were introduced in the matrix material. Tallies were computed using the LCLS capability and by averaging results obtained from multiple realizations of the random geometry. Results were compared for accuracy and figures of merit were compared to indicate the efficiency gain of the LCLS method over the benchmark method. Results show that LCLS provides very good accuracy if the scattering optical thickness of the matrix is small ({le} 1). Comparisons of figures of merit show an advantage to LCLS varying between factors of 141 and 5. LCLS efficiency and accuracy relative to the benchmark both decrease as scattering is increased in the matrix.

  4. Optical Sensors Using Stimulated Brillouin Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Caleb A (Inventor); Zavriyev, Anton (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A method for enhancing a sensitivity of an optical sensor having an optical cavity counter-propagates beams of pump light within the optical cavity to produce scattered light based on Stimulated Brillouin Scattering (SBS). The properties of the pump light are selected to generate fast-light conditions for the scattered light, such that the scattered light includes counter-propagating beams of fast light. The method prevents the pump light from resonating within the optical cavity, while allowing the scattered light to resonate within the optical cavity. At least portions of the scattered light are interfered outside of the optical cavity to produce a beat note for a measurement of the optical sensor. The disclosed method is particularly applicable to optical gyroscopes.

  5. Scattering of acoustic waves by small crustaceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, I. B.; Tarasov, L. L.

    2003-03-01

    Features of underwater sound scattering by small crustaceans are considered. The scattering data are obtained with the use of unique instrumentation that allows one to measure quantitative scattering characteristics (backscattering cross sections and angular scattering patterns) for crustaceans of different sizes, at different frequencies (20 200 kHz) and different insonification aspects. A computational model of crustaceans is considered with allowance for both the soft tissues of the main massive part of the animal's body and the stiff armour. The model proves to be advantageous for explaining some scattering features observed in the experiments. The scattering cross sections of crustaceans measured by other researchers are presented in a unified form appropriate for comparison. Based on such a quantitative comparison, relatively simple approximate empirical formulas are proposed for estimating the backscattering cross sections of small (within several centimeters) marine crustaceans in a broad frequency range.

  6. Scattering from isotropic plasma coated nihility sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussan, M. M.; Ghaffar, A.; Alkanhal, Majeed A. S.; Naz, M. Y.; Ur Rehman, Sajjad; Khan, Y.

    2017-06-01

    In this study, it is observed that when an isotropic collisional plasma coating layer is produced on a nihility sphere, its back scattering efficiency becomes non-zero. Field equations, at each interface, are expanded in terms of spherical wave vector functions (SWVFs) by enforcing the extended classical wave scattering theory. Electromagnetic boundary conditions are applied at both interfaces, i.e., free space-plasma and plasma layer-nihility sphere core to obtain the scattering coefficients. The obtained scattering coefficients are used to calculate the forward scattering, back scattering, and extinction efficiencies. The obtained computational results show that an increase in collisional frequency causes a decrease in both forward and backscattered efficiencies and an increase in extinction efficiency. Furthermore, the numerical results indicate that an increase in plasma density causes an increase in both forward and backscattered efficiencies and a decrease in extinction efficiency.

  7. Large momentum transfer scattering and hadronic bremsstrahlung

    CERN Document Server

    Blankenbecler, Richard

    1975-01-01

    The interchange theory provides a simple picture of large momentum transfer scattering which correlates many features of hadrons and their interactions. It is simple to compute and has considerable predictive power. It unites the electromagnetic structure of hadrons as expressed through their form factors and inelastic structure functions with elastic and inelastic hadron-hadron scattering. The theory joins smoothly onto Regge behavior which controls forward scattering and in fact predicts such behaviour. The unified description of large and small momentum transfer scattering provided by the interchange model should allow considerable insight into the interaction of hadrons and their possible composite nature. It already yields a remarkably simple quantitative description which seems valid all the way from large angle elastic scattering at 5 GeV/c to inclusive scattering at the CERN-ISR. (13 refs).

  8. Optical phantoms with adjustable subdiffusive scattering parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauter, Philipp; Nothelfer, Steffen; Bodenschatz, Nico; Simon, Emanuel; Stocker, Sabrina; Foschum, Florian; Kienle, Alwin

    2015-10-01

    A new epoxy-resin-based optical phantom system with adjustable subdiffusive scattering parameters is presented along with measurements of the intrinsic absorption, scattering, fluorescence, and refractive index of the matrix material. Both an aluminium oxide powder and a titanium dioxide dispersion were used as scattering agents and we present measurements of their scattering and reduced scattering coefficients. A method is theoretically described for a mixture of both scattering agents to obtain continuously adjustable anisotropy values g between 0.65 and 0.9 and values of the phase function parameter γ in the range of 1.4 to 2.2. Furthermore, we show absorption spectra for a set of pigments that can be added to achieve particular absorption characteristics. By additional analysis of the aging, a fully characterized phantom system is obtained with the novelty of g and γ parameter adjustment.

  9. An electrical analogy to Mie scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caridad, José M; Connaughton, Stephen; Ott, Christian; Weber, Heiko B; Krstić, Vojislav

    2016-09-27

    Mie scattering is an optical phenomenon that appears when electromagnetic waves, in particular light, are elastically scattered at a spherical or cylindrical object. A transfer of this phenomenon onto electron states in ballistic graphene has been proposed theoretically, assuming a well-defined incident wave scattered by a perfectly cylindrical nanometer scaled potential, but experimental fingerprints are lacking. We present an experimental demonstration of an electrical analogue to Mie scattering by using graphene as a conductor, and circular potentials arranged in a square two-dimensional array. The tabletop experiment is carried out under seemingly unfavourable conditions of diffusive transport at room-temperature. Nonetheless, when a canted arrangement of the array with respect to the incident current is chosen, cascaded Mie scattering results robustly in a transverse voltage. Its response on electrostatic gating and variation of potentials convincingly underscores Mie scattering as underlying mechanism. The findings presented here encourage the design of functional electronic metamaterials.

  10. Semiclassical scattering amplitudes of dressed gravitons

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Kyungsik; Kondrashuk, Igor

    2004-01-01

    We consider effective action for the Einstein gravity and show that dressed mean fields are actual variables of the effective action. Kernels of this effective action expressed in terms of dressed effective fields are constituent parts of scattering amplitudes for gravitons. Possible applications to the graviton scattering and black hole formation are discussed at the semiclassical level. In particular, we consider graviton scattering in four dimensions based on the Lipatov effective action f...

  11. Coulomb correction to elastic. alpha. -. alpha. scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bera, P.K.; Jana, A.K.; Haque, N.; Talukdar, B. (Department of Physics, Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan-731235, West Bengal, India (IN))

    1991-02-01

    The elastic {alpha}-{alpha} scattering is treated within the framework of a generalized phase-function method (GPFM). This generalization consists in absorbing the effect of Coulomb interaction in the comparison functions for developing the phase equation. Based on values of scattering phase shifts computed by the present method, it is concluded that the GPFM provides an uncomplicated approach to rigorous Coulomb correction in the {alpha}-{alpha} scattering.

  12. Dispersion Relations in Scattering and Antenna Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Sohl, Christian

    2008-01-01

    This dissertation deals with physical bounds on scattering and absorption of acoustic and electromagnetic waves. A general dispersion relation or sum rule for the extinction cross section of such waves is derived from the holomorphic properties of the scattering amplitude in the forward direction. The derivation is based on the forward scattering theorem via certain Herglotz functions and their asymptotic expansions in the low-frequency and high-frequency regimes. The result states that, for ...

  13. Kaons and antiproton-nucleus scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Haque, S; Rahman, S N

    2003-01-01

    The elastic scattering of Kaons and antiprotons from several nuclei is studied in the framework of the generalized diffraction model due to Frahn and Venter. The systematics of reaction cross section and the standard nuclear radius, as given by the model, are discussed. The parameters obtained from the elastic scattering analyses are used, without any adjustment, to reproduce some inelastic scattering angular distributions and the corresponding deformation parameters are determined.

  14. Hierarchy in chaotic scattering in Hill's problem

    CERN Document Server

    Kovács, Z

    1997-01-01

    Hierarchic properties of chaotic scattering in a model of satellite encounters, studied first by Petit and Henon, are examined by decomposing the dwell time function and comparing scattering trajectories. The analysis reveals an (approximate) ternary organization in the chaotic set of bounded orbits and the presence of a stable island. The results can open the way for a calculation of global quantities characterizing the scattering process by using tools of the thermodynamic formalism.

  15. Circular Intensity Differential Scattering of chiral molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustamante, C.J.

    1980-12-01

    In this thesis a theory of the Circular Intensity Differential Scattering (CIDS) of chiral molecules as modelled by a helix oriented with respect to the direction of incidence of light is presented. It is shown that a necessary condition for the existence of CIDS is the presence of an asymmetric polarizability in the scatterer. The polarizability of the scatterer is assumed generally complex, so that both refractive and absorptive phenomena are taken into account.

  16. Scattering from Rock and Rock Outcrops

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Scattering from Rock and Rock Outcrops Derek R. Olson The Pennsylvania State University Applied Research Laboratory, P.O. Box 30 State...In terms of target detection and classification, scattering from exposed rock on the seafloor, (i.e., individual rocks and rock outcrops) presents...levels, and other statistical measures of acoustic scattering from rocks and rock outcrops is therefore critical. Unfortunately (and curiously

  17. Influence of nanotube length and density on the plasmonic terahertz response of single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsen, P.; Shuba, M. V.; Beckerleg, C.; Yuko, D. I.; Kuzhir, P. P.; Maksimenko, S. A.; Ksenevich, V.; Viet, Ho; Nasibulin, A. G.; Tenne, R.; Hendry, E.

    2018-01-01

    We measure the conductivity spectra of thin films comprising bundled single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) of different average lengths in the frequency range 0.3–1000 THz and temperature interval 10–530 K. The observed temperature-induced changes in the terahertz conductivity spectra are shown to depend strongly on the average CNT length, with a conductivity around 1 THz that increases/decreases as the temperature increases for short/long tubes. This behaviour originates from the temperature dependence of the electron scattering rate, which we obtain from Drude fits of the measured conductivity in the range 0.3–2 THz for 10 μm length CNTs. This increasing scattering rate with temperature results in a subsequent broadening of the observed THz conductivity peak at higher temperatures and a shift to lower frequencies for increasing CNT length. Finally, we show that the change in conductivity with temperature depends not only on tube length, but also varies with tube density. We record the effective conductivities of composite films comprising mixtures of WS2 nanotubes and CNTs versus CNT density for frequencies in the range 0.3–1 THz, finding that the conductivity increases/decreases for low/high density films as the temperature increases. This effect arises due to the density dependence of the effective length of conducting pathways in the composite films, which again leads to a shift and temperature dependent broadening of the THz conductivity peak.

  18. Angle Statistics Reconstruction: a robust reconstruction algorithm for Muon Scattering Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, M.; Burns, J.; Quillin, S.; Steer, C.

    2014-11-01

    Muon Scattering Tomography (MST) is a technique for using the scattering of cosmic ray muons to probe the contents of enclosed volumes. As a muon passes through material it undergoes multiple Coulomb scattering, where the amount of scattering is dependent on the density and atomic number of the material as well as the path length. Hence, MST has been proposed as a means of imaging dense materials, for instance to detect special nuclear material in cargo containers. Algorithms are required to generate an accurate reconstruction of the material density inside the volume from the muon scattering information and some have already been proposed, most notably the Point of Closest Approach (PoCA) and Maximum Likelihood/Expectation Maximisation (MLEM) algorithms. However, whilst PoCA-based algorithms are easy to implement, they perform rather poorly in practice. Conversely, MLEM is a complicated algorithm to implement and computationally intensive and there is currently no published, fast and easily-implementable algorithm that performs well in practice. In this paper, we first provide a detailed analysis of the source of inaccuracy in PoCA-based algorithms. We then motivate an alternative method, based on ideas first laid out by Morris et al, presenting and fully specifying an algorithm that performs well against simulations of realistic scenarios. We argue this new algorithm should be adopted by developers of Muon Scattering Tomography as an alternative to PoCA.

  19. Cloaking through cancellation of diffusive wave scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, P. Y.; Guenneau, S.; Bağcı, H.; Salama, K. N.; Alù, A.

    2016-01-01

    A new cloaking mechanism, which makes enclosed objects invisible to diffusive photon density waves, is proposed. First, diffusive scattering from a basic core–shell geometry, which represents the cloaked structure, is studied. The conditions of scattering cancellation in a quasi-static scattering regime are derived. These allow for tailoring the diffusivity constant of the shell enclosing the object so that the fields scattered from the shell and the object cancel each other. This means that the photon flow outside the cloak behaves as if the cloaked object were not present. Diffusive light invisibility may have potential applications in hiding hot spots in infrared thermography or tissue imaging. PMID:27616925

  20. Charmed Meson Scattering from Lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Moir, Graham

    2016-01-01

    State-of-the-art lattice QCD calculations of scattering amplitudes in coupled-channel $D\\pi$, $D\\eta$ and $D_{s}\\bar{K}$ scattering, as well elastic $DK$ scattering are discussed. The methodology employed allows a determination of the relevant poles in the scattering matrix, while also providing a measure of the coupling of each channel to a given pole. By investigating $S$, $P$ and $D$ wave interactions, the nature of states with $J^{P} = 0^{+}$, relevant for the $D^{*}_{0}(2400)$ and $D^{*}_{s0}(2317)$, as well as states with $J^{P} = 1^{-}, 2^{+}$ are discussed.

  1. Spontaneous Brillouin scattering in a microdroplet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, S. C.; Leung, P. T.; Young, K.

    1990-05-01

    Spontaneous Brillouin scattering in a micrometer-sized liquid droplet is analyzed from first principles, using the spherical-wave normal-mode basis. Instead of the conservation of linear momentum, this interaction is governed by a selection rule due to the conservation of angular momentum. The Brillouin spectrum is then calculated, both for observation at a given angle and for the sum over all angles, and compared with scattering in a bulk medium. Special attention is paid to the case where the incident and scattered radiation fall on an electromagnetic resonance of the droplet. The analysis lays the foundation for formulating stimulated Brillouin scattering in the same system.

  2. Parallel QR Decomposition for Electromagnetic Scattering Problems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boleng, Jeff

    1997-01-01

    This report introduces a new parallel QR decomposition algorithm. Test results are presented for several problem sizes, numbers of processors, and data from the electromagnetic scattering problem domain...

  3. Forward Scattering of Loaded and Unloaded Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Mats; Andersen, Jørgen Bach; Kristensson, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    Forward scattering of antennas is related to antenna performance via the forward-scattering sum rule. The forward-scattering sum rule is an integral identity that shows that a weighted integral of the extinction cross section over all spectrum is proportional to the static polarizability...... of the antenna structure. Here, the forward-scattering sum rule is experimentally verified for loaded, short-circuit, and open-circuit cylindrical dipole antennas. It is also shown that the absorption efficiency cannot be greater than 1/2 for reciprocal linearly polarized lossless matched antennas...

  4. Compton scatter tomography in TOF-PET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmati, Hamidreza; Kamali-Asl, Alireza; Ay, Mohammadreza; Ghafarian, Pardis

    2017-10-01

    Scatter coincidences contain hidden information about the activity distribution on the positron emission tomography (PET) imaging system. However, in conventional reconstruction, the scattered data cause the blurring of images and thus are estimated and subtracted from detected coincidences. List mode format provides a new aspect to use time of flight (TOF) and energy information of each coincidence in the reconstruction process. In this study, a novel approach is proposed to reconstruct activity distribution using the scattered data in the PET system. For each single scattering coincidence, a scattering angle can be determined by the recorded energy of the detected photons, and then possible locations of scattering can be calculated based on the scattering angle. Geometry equations show that these sites lie on two arcs in 2D mode or the surface of a prolate spheroid in 3D mode, passing through the pair of detector elements. The proposed method uses a novel and flexible technique to estimate source origin locations from the possible scattering locations, using the TOF information. Evaluations were based on a Monte-Carlo simulation of uniform and non-uniform phantoms at different resolutions of time and detector energy. The results show that although the energy uncertainties deteriorate the image spatial resolution in the proposed method, the time resolution has more impact on image quality than the energy resolution. With progress of the TOF system, the reconstruction using the scattered data can be used in a complementary manner, or to improve image quality in the next generation of PET systems.

  5. Scatter corrections for cone beam optical CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olding, Tim; Holmes, Oliver [Department of Physics, Queen' s University (United Kingdom); Schreiner, L John [Medical Physics Department, Cancer Centre of Southeastern Ontario (Canada)], E-mail: Tim.Olding@krcc.on.ca

    2009-05-01

    Cone beam optical computed tomography (OptCT) employing the VISTA scanner (Modus Medical, London, ON) has been shown to have significant promise for fast, three dimensional imaging of polymer gel dosimeters. One distinct challenge with this approach arises from the combination of the cone beam geometry, a diffuse light source, and the scattering polymer gel media, which all contribute scatter signal that perturbs the accuracy of the scanner. Beam stop array (BSA), beam pass array (BPA) and anti-scatter polarizer correction methodologies have been employed to remove scatter signal from OptCT data. These approaches are investigated through the use of well-characterized phantom scattering solutions and irradiated polymer gel dosimeters. BSA corrected scatter solutions show good agreement in attenuation coefficient with the optically absorbing dye solutions, with considerable reduction of scatter-induced cupping artifact at high scattering concentrations. The application of BSA scatter corrections to a polymer gel dosimeter lead to an overall improvement in the number of pixel satisfying the (3%, 3mm) gamma value criteria from 7.8% to 0.15%.

  6. Hadron scattering and resonances in QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudek, Jozef J. [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    I describe how hadron-hadron scattering amplitudes are related to the eigenstates of QCD in a finite cubic volume. The discrete spectrum of such eigenstates can be determined from correlation functions computed using lattice QCD, and the corresponding scattering amplitudes extracted. I review results from the Hadron Spectrum Collaboration who have used these finite volume methods to study pi pi elastic scattering, including the rho resonance, as well as coupled-channel pi K, eta K scattering. Ongoing calculations are advertised and the outlook for finite volume approaches is presented.

  7. Ultrasound assessment of cervical length in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, An-Shine; Chao, Angel; Hsieh, Peter Ching-Chang

    2008-09-01

    Cervical length in high-risk women for preterm birth has to be identified before early second trimester. Sequential evaluations lead to high predictive significance. The mean cervical length at 24 weeks is about 35 mm when measured by transvaginal ultrasound. A short cervix is defined as a cervix that is less than 25 mm and funneling, i.e. ballooning of the membranes into a dilated internal os, but with a closed external os. Factors such as short cervical length, uterine anomaly, previous cervical surgery, multiple gestation and positive fetal fibronectin results are associated with preterm delivery. Serial transvaginal ultrasound examinations during the early second trimester would provide longitudinal changes in the cervical length. The use of 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate and cerclage has shown to be beneficial in preventing preterm delivery. When combined with other predictors such as occiput position, parity, maternal age and body mass index, cervical length is a useful parameter for predicting the feasibility of labor induction and successful delivery.

  8. Ultrasound Assessment of Cervical Length in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An-Shine Chao

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Cervical length in high-risk women for preterm birth has to be identified before early second trimester. Sequential evaluations lead to high predictive significance. The mean cervical length at 24 weeks is about 35 mm when measured by transvaginal ultrasound. A short cervix is defined as a cervix that is less than 25 mm and funneling, i.e. ballooning of the membranes into a dilated internal os, but with a closed external os. Factors such as short cervical length, uterine anomaly, previous cervical surgery, multiple gestation and positive fetal fibronectin results are associated with preterm delivery. Serial transvaginal ultrasound examinations during the early second trimester would provide longitudinal changes in the cervical length. The use of 17α-hydroxyprogesterone caproate and cerclage has shown to be beneficial in preventing preterm delivery. When combined with other predictors such as occiput position, parity, maternal age and body mass index, cervical length is a useful parameter for predicting the feasibility of labor induction and successful delivery.

  9. Scaling of avian primary feather length.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L Nudds

    Full Text Available The evolution of the avian wing has long fascinated biologists, yet almost no work includes the length of primary feathers in consideration of overall wing length variation. Here we show that the length of the longest primary feather (f(prim contributing to overall wing length scales with negative allometry against total arm (ta = humerus+ulna+manus. The scaling exponent varied slightly, although not significantly so, depending on whether a species level analysis was used or phylogeny was controlled for using independent contrasts: f(prim is proportional to ta(0.78-0.82. The scaling exponent was not significantly different from that predicted (0.86 by earlier work. It appears that there is a general trend for the primary feathers of birds to contribute proportionally less, and ta proportionally more, to overall wingspan as this dimension increases. Wingspan in birds is constrained close to mass (M(1/3 because of optimisation for lift production, which limits opportunities for exterior morphological change. Within the wing, variations in underlying bone and feather lengths nevertheless may, in altering the joint positions, permit a range of different flight styles by facilitating variation in upstroke kinematics.

  10. Grassmannian geometry of scattering amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Cachazo, Freddy; Goncharov, Alexander; Postnikov, Alexander; Trnka, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    Outlining a revolutionary reformulation of the foundations of perturbative quantum field theory, this book is a self-contained and authoritative analysis of the application of this new formulation to the case of planar, maximally supersymmetric Yang–Mills theory. The book begins by deriving connections between scattering amplitudes and Grassmannian geometry from first principles before introducing novel physical and mathematical ideas in a systematic manner accessible to both physicists and mathematicians. The principle players in this process are on-shell functions which are closely related to certain sub-strata of Grassmannian manifolds called positroids - in terms of which the classification of on-shell functions and their relations becomes combinatorially manifest. This is an essential introduction to the geometry and combinatorics of the positroid stratification of the Grassmannian and an ideal text for advanced students and researchers working in the areas of field theory, high energy physics, and the...

  11. Scattering theory for Riemannian Laplacians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ito, Kenichi; Skibsted, Erik

    condition is certain bounds of derivatives up to order one of the trace of this quantity. These conditions are shown to be optimal for existence and completeness of a wave operator. Our theory does not involve prescribed asymptotic behaviour of the metric at infinity (like asymptotic Euclidean or hyperbolic......In this paper we introduce a notion of scattering theory for the Laplace-Beltrami operator on non-compact, connected and complete Riemannian manifolds. A principal condition is given by a certain positive lower bound of the second fundamental form of angular submanifolds at infinity. Another...... metrics studied previously in the literature). A consequence of the theory is spectral theory for the Laplace-Beltrami operator including identification of the continuous spectrum and absence of singular continuous spectrum....

  12. Neutron scattering and models : molybdenum.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, A.B.

    1999-05-26

    A comprehensive interpretation of the fast-neutron interaction with elemental and isotopic molybdenum at energies of {le} 30 MeV is given. New experimental elemental-scattering information over the incident energy range 4.5 {r_arrow} 10 MeV is presented. Spherical, vibrational and dispersive models are deduced and discussed, including isospin, energy-dependent and mass effects. The vibrational models are consistent with the ''Lane potential''. The importance of dispersion effects is noted. Dichotomies that exist in the literature are removed. The models are vehicles for fundamental physical investigations and for the provision of data for applied purposes. A ''regional'' molybdenum model is proposed. Finally, recommendations for future work are made.

  13. Critical review of NNbar scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Bradamante, Franco

    1999-01-01

    Nucleon-antinucleon scattering experiments carried out at LEAR are briefly reviewed. Differential cross-section data of high accuracy are now available at many energies, and for the first time also analysing power data and some data on spin correlation parameters. Excellent fits to the NNbar data base have been performed by the Nijmegen group, both with a phase-shift analysis and with a coupled-channel potential model. The high precision cross section data from experiment PS206 have allowed a determination of the charged pion-nucleon coupling constant by a simple extrapolation to the pion pole. A phenomenological analysis of the line-reversed reaction np -> pn and pbarp -> nbarn data is ongoing, to single out the basic dynamical features of the long-range part of the interaction and possibly experimental manifestations of the G-parity rule.

  14. Enhanced incoherent scatter plasma lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Nilsson

    Full Text Available Detailed model calculations of auroral secondary and photoelectron distributions for varying conditions have been used to calculate the theoretical enhancement of incoherent scatter plasma lines. These calculations are compared with EISCAT UHF radar measurements of enhanced plasma lines from both the E and F regions, and published EISCAT VHF radar measurements. The agreement between the calculated and observed plasma line enhancements is good. The enhancement from the superthermal distribution can explain even the very strong enhancements observed in the auroral E region during aurora, as previously shown by Kirkwood et al. The model calculations are used to predict the range of conditions when enhanced plasma lines will be seen with the existing high-latitude incoherent scatter radars, including the new EISCAT Svalbard radar. It is found that the detailed structure, i.e. the gradients in the suprathermal distribution, are most important for the plasma line enhancement. The level of superthermal flux affects the enhancement only in the region of low phase energy where the number of thermal electrons is comparable to the number of suprathermal electrons and in the region of high phase energy where the suprathermal fluxes fall to such low levels that their effect becomes small compared to the collision term. To facilitate the use of the predictions for the different radars, the expected signal- to-noise ratios (SNRs for typical plasma line enhancements have been calculated. It is found that the high-frequency radars (Søndre Strømfjord, EISCAT UHF should observe the highest SNR, but only for rather high plasma frequencies. The VHF radars (EISCAT VHF and Svalbard will detect enhanced plasma lines over a wider range of frequencies, but with lower SNR.

  15. Survey of background scattering from materials found in small-angle neutron scattering

    OpenAIRE

    Barker, J. G.; Mildner, D. F. R.

    2015-01-01

    Measurements and calculations of beam attenuation and background scattering for common materials placed in a neutron beam are presented over the temperature range of 300?700?K. Time-of-flight (TOF) measurements have also been made, to determine the fraction of the background that is either inelastic or quasi-elastic scattering as measured with a 3He detector. Other background sources considered include double Bragg diffraction from windows or samples, scattering from gases, and phonon scatter...

  16. Altered Maxwell equations in the length gauge

    CERN Document Server

    Reiss, H R

    2013-01-01

    The length gauge uses a scalar potential to describe a laser field, thus treating it as a longitudinal field rather than as a transverse field. This distinction is revealed in the fact that the Maxwell equations that relate to the length gauge are not the same as those for transverse fields. In particular, a source term is necessary in the length-gauge Maxwell equations, whereas the Coulomb-gauge description of plane waves possesses the basic property of transverse fields that they propagate with no source terms at all. This difference is shown to be importantly consequential in some previously unremarked circumstances; and it explains why the G\\"oppert-Mayer gauge transformation does not provide the security that might be expected of full gauge equivalence.

  17. Minimal Length Scale Scenarios for Quantum Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Hossenfelder

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the question of whether the fundamental laws of nature limit our ability to probe arbitrarily short distances. First, we examine what insights can be gained from thought experiments for probes of shortest distances, and summarize what can be learned from different approaches to a theory of quantum gravity. Then we discuss some models that have been developed to implement a minimal length scale in quantum mechanics and quantum field theory. These models have entered the literature as the generalized uncertainty principle or the modified dispersion relation, and have allowed the study of the effects of a minimal length scale in quantum mechanics, quantum electrodynamics, thermodynamics, black-hole physics and cosmology. Finally, we touch upon the question of ways to circumvent the manifestation of a minimal length scale in short-distance physics.

  18. Environmental stresses disrupt telomere length homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gal Hagit Romano

    Full Text Available Telomeres protect the chromosome ends from degradation and play crucial roles in cellular aging and disease. Recent studies have additionally found a correlation between psychological stress, telomere length, and health outcome in humans. However, studies have not yet explored the causal relationship between stress and telomere length, or the molecular mechanisms underlying that relationship. Using yeast as a model organism, we show that stresses may have very different outcomes: alcohol and acetic acid elongate telomeres, whereas caffeine and high temperatures shorten telomeres. Additional treatments, such as oxidative stress, show no effect. By combining genome-wide expression measurements with a systematic genetic screen, we identify the Rap1/Rif1 pathway as the central mediator of the telomeric response to environmental signals. These results demonstrate that telomere length can be manipulated, and that a carefully regulated homeostasis may become markedly deregulated in opposing directions in response to different environmental cues.

  19. A new type of alternating code for incoherent scatter measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulzer, Michael P.

    1993-11-01

    An alternating code set is employed as one of several possible techniques used in incoherent scatter radar transmissions to obtain ambiguity-free measurements of autocorrelation functions or spectra with good range resolution. An alternating code set consists of several codes; typically, each successive radar pulse is modulated with a different code in the sequence. This technique is useful in other types of radar transmissions when the target is overspread, assuming the targets have certain statistical properties. Code sets for a new type of alternating code are presented for code lengths 8-12. This new type of alternating code differs from the first kind in two ways: it is subject to a slightly different condition for the elimination of ambiguity, and it is not restricted to lengths that are powers of 2. The new lengths are useful because they allow greater freedom in designing a multipurpose radar waveform best utilizing the available duty cycle of the radar. The alternating code technique is described in detail sufficient to allow an understanding of the two types and to show that the new condition for ambiguity-free measurements is a useful one. A search program was used to find the new sets; the aspects of the program important for decreasing the size of the search space are described. The code sets are presented, and their significance and uses are discussed.

  20. Radiative transport equation for the Mittag-Leffler path length distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liemert, André; Kienle, Alwin

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, we consider the radiative transport equation for infinitely extended scattering media that are characterized by the Mittag-Leffler path length distribution p (ℓ ) =-∂ℓEα(-σtℓα ) , which is a generalization of the usually assumed Lambert-Beer law p (ℓ ) =σtexp(-σtℓ ) . In this context, we derive the infinite-space Green's function of the underlying fractional transport equation for the spherically symmetric medium as well as for the one-dimensional string. Moreover, simple analytical solutions are presented for the prediction of the radiation field in the single-scattering approximation. The resulting equations are compared with Monte Carlo simulations in the steady-state and time domain showing, within the stochastic nature of the simulations, an excellent agreement.

  1. Sighting optics including an optical element having a first focal length and a second focal length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, David Lynn [Idaho Falls, ID

    2011-08-01

    One embodiment of sighting optics according to the teachings provided herein may include a front sight and a rear sight positioned in spaced-apart relation. The rear sight includes an optical element having a first focal length and a second focal length. The first focal length is selected so that it is about equal to a distance separating the optical element and the front sight and the second focal length is selected so that it is about equal to a target distance. The optical element thus brings into simultaneous focus, for a user, images of the front sight and the target.

  2. Epinephrine auto-injector needle length: what is the ideal length?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, T Ted; Lieberman, Phil

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this manuscript is to review the literature on the clinical effects of the needle length of epinephrine (adrenaline) auto-injectors. Epinephrine has maximal pharmacodynamic effect within 10 min of intramuscular administration into the thigh. Prefilled epinephrine auto-injectors are designed for simplicity of use and safety. Auto-injectors are primarily used by patients in an unsupervised setting in cases of anaphylaxis. There are weight-appropriate doses of epinephrine available with auto-injectors that are prefilled, to prevent dosing errors, with 0.15, 0.30, and 0.50 mg amounts. In addition, needle lengths vary from 1.17 to 2.50 cm. The recommended needle lengths differ between adults and pediatric patients. In addition, the needle lengths differ between devices as well. There are concerns that the needle length may be too short in select obese patients. Yet, there are also concerns that the needle length may be too long in some patients. Factors that affect the depth of the injection, and therefore the pharmacokinetics of the drug, include not only the needle length but also the BMI, obesity, compression of soft tissue, and propulsion. Epinephrine auto-injectors have different needle lengths. Using the right device with appropriate needle length based on BMI, obesity, and employing the proper technique can improve the outcome in an anaphylactic event.

  3. Cutting Whole Length or Partial Length of Internal Anal Sphincter in Managementof Fissure in Ano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furat Shani Aoda

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A chronic anal fissure is a common painful perianal condition.The main operative procedure to treat this painful condition is a lateral internal sphincteretomy (LIS.The aim of study is to compare the outcome and complications of closed LIS up to the dentate line (whole length of internal sphincter or up to the fissure apex (partial length of internal sphincter in the treatment of anal fissure.It is a prospective comparativestudy including 100 patients with chronic fissure in ano. All patients assigned to undergo closed LIS. Those patients were randomly divided into two groups: 50 patients underwent LIS to the level of dentate line (whole length and other 50 patients underwent LIS to the level of fissure apex (partial length. Patients were followed up weekly in the 1st month, twice monthly in the second month then monthly   for next 2 months and finally after 1 year. There was satisfactory relief of pain in all patients in both groups & complete healing of the fissure occurred. Regarding post operative incontinence no major degree of incontinence occur in both group but minor degree of incontinence persists In 7 patients after whole length LIS after one year. In conclusion, both whole length & partial length LIS associated with improvement of pain, good chance of healing but whole length LIS associated with more chance of long term  flatus incontinence. Hence,we recommend partial length LIS as treatment forchronic anal fissure.

  4. Apparatus for fabricating continuous lengths of superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, Donald M.; List, III, Frederick A.

    2001-01-01

    A process and apparatus for manufacturing a superconductor. The process is accomplished by depositing a superconductor precursor powder on a continuous length of a first substrate ribbon, overlaying a continuous length of a second substrate ribbon on said first substrate ribbon, and applying sufficient pressure to form a bound layered superconductor comprising a layer of said superconducting precursor powder between said first substrate ribbon and said second substrates ribbon. The layered superconductor is then heat treated to establish the superconducting phase of said superconductor precursor powder.

  5. Apparatus for fabricating continuous lengths of superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, Donald M.; List, III, Frederick A.

    2002-01-01

    A process and apparatus for manufacturing a superconductor. The process is accomplished by depositing a superconductor precursor powder on a continuous length of a first substrate ribbon, overlaying a continuous length of a second substrate ribbon on said first substrate ribbon, and applying sufficient pressure to form a bound layered superconductor comprising a layer of said superconducting precursor powder between said first substrate ribbon and said second substrates ribbon. The layered superconductor is then heat treated to establish the superconducting phase of said superconductor precursor powder.

  6. Cooperative scattering of scalar waves by optimized configurations of point scatterers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Frank; Eckert, Felix; Wellens, Thomas

    2017-12-01

    We investigate multiple scattering of scalar waves by an ensemble of N resonant point scatterers in three dimensions. For up to N = 21 scatterers, we numerically optimize the positions of the individual scatterers, to maximize the total scattering cross section for an incoming plane wave, on the one hand, and to minimize the decay rate associated to a long-lived scattering resonance, on the other. In both cases, the optimum is achieved by configurations where all scatterers are placed on a line parallel to the direction of the incoming plane wave. The associated maximal scattering cross section increases quadratically with the number of scatterers for large N, whereas the minimal decay rate—which is realized by configurations that are not the same as those that maximize the scattering cross section—decreases exponentially as a function of N. Finally, we also analyze the stability of our optimized configurations with respect to small random displacements of the scatterers. These results demonstrate that optimized configurations of scatterers bear a considerable potential for applications such as quantum memories or mirrors consisting of only a few atoms.

  7. Four-phonon scattering reduces intrinsic thermal conductivity of graphene and the contributions from flexural phonons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Tianli; Ruan, Xiulin

    2018-01-01

    We have developed a formalism of the exact solution to linearized phonon Boltzmann transport equation (BTE) for thermal conductivity calculation including three- and four-phonon scattering. We find strikingly high four-phonon scattering rates in single-layer graphene (SLG) based on the optimized Tersoff potential. The reflection symmetry in graphene, which forbids the three-ZA (out-of-plane acoustic) scattering, allows the four-ZA processes ZA +ZA ⇌ZA +ZA and ZA ⇌ZA +ZA + ZA. As a result, the large phonon population of the low-energy ZA branch originated from the quadratic phonon dispersion leads to high four-phonon scattering rates, even much higher than the three-phonon scattering rates at room temperature. These four-phonon processes are dominated by the normal processes, which lead to a failure of the single mode relaxation time approximation. Therefore, we have solved the exact phonon BTE using an iterative scheme and then calculated the length- and temperature-dependent thermal conductivities. We find that the predicted thermal conductivity of SLG is lower than the previously predicted value from the three-phonon scattering only. The relative contribution of the ZA branch is reduced from 70% to 30% when four-phonon scattering is included. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that the four-phonon scattering in multilayer graphene and graphite is not strong due to the ZA splitting by interlayer van der Waals interaction. We also demonstrate that the five-phonon process in SLG is not strong due to the restriction of reflection symmetry.

  8. Blue Skies, Coffee Creamer, and Rayleigh Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebl, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The first physical explanation of Earths blue sky was fashioned in 1871 by Lord Rayleigh. Many discussions of Rayleigh scattering and approaches to studying it both in and out of the classroom are available. Rayleigh scattering accounts for the blue color of the sky and the orange/red color of the Sun near sunset and sunrise, and a number of…

  9. Fluctuations in doubly scattered laser light

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijswijk, F.C. van; Smith, U.L.

    1975-01-01

    Fluctuations in laser light, doubly scattered by brownian particles, were analysed by measuring the spectral noise power of the photodetector current. Scattering took place at two spatially separated systems of spherical particles. Analytic expressions for the field and intensity correlations are

  10. Critical Magnetic Scattering of Neutrons in Iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Passell, L.; Blinowski, K.; Brun, T.

    1964-01-01

    scattered at small angles in iron and determined the spin correlation range 1∕κ1 and a parameter Λ associated with the lifetime of the fluctuations. Our results confirm the recent observation of Jacrot, Konstantinovic, Parette, and Cribier that the scattering is not elastic even at the Curie temperature. We...

  11. Efficient Fixed-Offset GPR Scattering Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meincke, Peter; Chen, Xianyao

    2004-01-01

    The electromagnetic scattering by buried three-dimensional penetrable objects, as involved in the analysis of ground penetrating radar systems, is calculated using the extended Born approximation. The involved scattering tensor is calculated using fast Fourier transforms (FFT's). We incorporate i...

  12. Inelastic Neutron Scattering from Cerium under Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rainford, B. D.; Buras, B.; Lebech, Bente

    1977-01-01

    Inelastic neutron scattering from Ce metal at 300 K was studied both below and above the first order γ-α phase transition, using a triple axis spectrometer. It was found that (a) there is no indication of any residual magnetic scattering in the collapsed α phase, and (b) the energy width of the p...

  13. Hermite scatterers in an ultraviolet sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Kevin J.

    2017-12-01

    The scattering from spherical inhomogeneities has been a major historical topic in acoustics, optics, and electromagnetics and the phenomenon shapes our perception of the world including the blue sky. The long wavelength limit of ;Rayleigh scattering; is characterized by intensity proportional to k4 (or λ-4) where k is the wavenumber and λ is the wavelength. With the advance of nanotechnology, it is possible to produce scatterers that are inhomogeneous with material properties that are functions of radius r, such as concentric shells. We demonstrate that with proper choice of material properties linked to the Hermite polynomials in r, scatterers can have long wavelength scattering behavior of higher powers: k8, k16, and higher. These ;Hermite scatterers; could be useful in providing unique signatures (or colors) to regions where they are present. If suspended in air under white light, the back-scattered spectrum would be shifted from blue towards violet and then ultraviolet as the higher order Hermite scatterers were illuminated.

  14. High-precision positioning of radar scatterers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dheenathayalan, P.; Small, D.; Schubert, A.; Hanssen, R.F.

    2016-01-01

    Remote sensing radar satellites cover wide areas and provide spatially dense measurements, with millions of scatterers. Knowledge of the precise position of each radar scatterer is essential to identify the corresponding object and interpret the estimated deformation. The absolute position accuracy

  15. Double pulse Thomson scattering system at RTP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beurskens, M. N. A.; Barth, C. J.; Chu, C.C.; Donne, A. J. H.; Herranz, J. A.; Cardozo, N. J. L.; van der Meiden, H. J.; Pijper, F.J.

    1997-01-01

    In this article a double pulse multiposition Thomson scattering diagnostic, under construction at RTP, is discussed. Light from a double pulsed ruby laser (pulse separation: 10-800 mu s, max. 2x12.5 J) is scattered by the free electrons of the tokamak plasma and relayed to a Littrow polychromator

  16. Critical Magnetic Scattering of Neutrons in Iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Passell, L.; Blinowski, K.; Brun, T.

    1965-01-01

    Measurements of the angular and energy distributions of 4.28 Å neutrons scattered at small angles from iron at temperatures above the Curie temperature are described. The results are interpreted in terms of Van Hove's theory of critical magnetic scattering and yield information on the range of spin...

  17. Cascaded Bragg scattering in fiber optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y Q; Erkintalo, M; Genty, G; Murdoch, S G

    2013-01-15

    We report on a theoretical and experimental study of cascaded Bragg scattering in fiber optics. We show that the usual energy-momentum conservation of Bragg scattering can be considerably relaxed via cascade-induced phase-matching. Experimentally we demonstrate frequency translation over six- and 11-fold cascades, in excellent agreement with derived phase-matching conditions.

  18. Inverse acoustic problem of N homogeneous scatterers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berntsen, Svend

    2002-01-01

    The three-dimensional inverse acoustic medium problem of N homogeneous objects with known geometry and location is considered. It is proven that one scattering experiment is sufficient for the unique determination of the complex wavenumbers of the objects. The mapping from the scattered fields...

  19. The Amsterdam-Granada Light Scattering Database

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muñoz, O.; Moreno, F.; Guirado, D.; Dabrowska, D.D.; Volten, H.; Hovenier, J.W.

    2012-01-01

    The Amsterdam Light Scattering Database proved to be a very successful way of promoting the use of the data obtained with the Amsterdam Light Scattering apparatus at optical wavelengths. Many different research groups around the world made use of the experimental data. After the closing down of the

  20. Energy transfer in scattering by rotating potentials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Quantum mechanical scattering theory is studied for time-dependent Schrödinger operators, in particular for particles in a rotating potential. Under various assumptions about the decay rate at infinity we show uniform boundedness in time for the kinetic energy of scattering states, existence and completeness of wave ...

  1. Scattering Amplitudes via Algebraic Geometry Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Mads

    Feynman diagrams. The study of multiloop scattering amplitudes is crucial for the new era of precision phenomenology at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. Loop-level scattering amplitudes can be reduced to a basis of linearly independent integrals whose coefficients are extracted from generalized...

  2. Influence of dsDNA fragment length on particle binding in an evanescent field biosensing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koets, Marjo; van Ommering, Kim; Wang, Liqin; Testori, Emilie; Evers, Toon H; Prins, Menno W J

    2014-04-07

    Particle labels are widely used in affinity-based biosensing due to the high detection signal per label, the high stability, and the convenient biofunctionalization of particles. In this paper we address the question how the time-course of particle binding and the resulting signals depend on the length of captured target molecules. As a model system we used fragments of dsDNA with lengths of 105 bp (36 nm), 290 bp (99 nm) and 590 bp (201 nm), detected in an evanescent-field optomagnetic biosensing system. On both ends the fragments were provided with small-molecule tags to allow binding of the fragments to protein-coated particles and to the capture molecules at the sensor surface. For isolated single particles bound to the surface, we observe that the optical scattering signal per particle depends only weakly on the fragment length, which we attribute to the pivoting motion that allows the particles to get closer to the surface. Our data show a strong influence of the fragment length on the particle binding: the binding rate of particles to the sensor surface is an order of magnitude higher for the longest dsDNA fragments compared to the smallest fragment studied in this paper. We attribute the enhanced binding rate to the length and motional freedom of the fragments. These results generate a new dimension for the design of assays and systems in particle-based biosensing.

  3. Small-angle neutron scattering studies from solutions of bovine nasal cartilage proteoglycan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, A.; Stivala, S. S.; Damle, S. P.; Gregory, J. D.; Bunick, G. J.; Uberbacher, E. C.

    1986-02-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering, SANS, of the proteoglycan subunit of bovine nasal cartilage in 0.15 N LiC1 at 25°C yielded the radius of gyration, R g, radius of gyration of the cross-section, R q, persistence length, a *, and the molecular weight, M. The following values were obtained: M = 3.9 × 10 6, R g = 745 Å, R q = 34.6 Å and a * = 35.2 Å. These values compare favorably with those that were obtained from small angle X-ray scattering, SAXS, of a similar extract. The scattering curve of the proteoglycan subunit in D 2O showed a characteristic broad peak in the specified angular range similar to that observed from SAXS, thus confirming the polyelectrolyte nature of the proteoglycan.

  4. Detailed analysis of Rouse mode and dynamic scattering function of highly entangled polymer melts in equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hsiao-Ping; Kremer, Kurt

    2017-03-01

    We present large-scale molecular dynamics simulations for a coarse-grained model of polymer melts in equilibrium. From detailed Rouse mode analysis we show that the time-dependent relaxation of the autocorrelation function (ACF) of modes p can be well described by the effective stretched exponential function due to the crossover from Rouse to reptation regime. The ACF is independent of chain sizes N for N/p reptation regime. We have also provided evidence that the incoherent dynamic scattering function follows the same crossover scaling behavior of the mean square displacement of monomers at the corresponding characteristic time scales. The decay of the coherent dynamic scattering function is slowed down and a plateau develops as chain sizes increase at the intermediate time and wave length scales. The tube diameter extracted from the coherent dynamic scattering function is equivalent to the previous estimate from the mean square displacement of monomers.

  5. Solution structure of a short dna fragment studied by neutron scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lederer, H.; May, R. P.; Kjems, Jørgen

    1986-01-01

    The solution structure of a DNA fragment of 130 base pairs and known sequence has been investigated by neutron small-angle scattering. In 0.1 M NaCl, the overall structure of the DNA fragment which contains the strong promoter A1 of the Escherichia coli phage T7 agrees with that expected for B......-DNA. The neutron scattering curve is well fitted by that of a rigid rod with a length of 44 nm and a diameter of 2 nm. The result were confirmed by quasi-elastic light scattering and analytical centrifugation. The neutron measurements in H2O and D2O buffer reveal a cross-sectional in homogeneity not detected by X...

  6. Scattering of e Polarized Whispering-Gallery mode from Concave Boundary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander P. Anyutin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work we present numerical results for the 2D problem of scattering E polarised whispering-gallery mode from concave convex perfectly conducting boundary. The results were obtained by applying the developed method of currants integral equations (CIE [6,7] for high frequency domain when the size of the scatterer match is greater than the wave length. We have applied the described procedure in order to find numerical solutions of scattering whispering-gallery mode by concave finite convex boundary as a part of a circular cylinder or part of parabolic cylinder. As incident wave we have considered cylindrical waves from line source and Gauss beam [6] with different effective width. It is shown that we have a complicated process of focusing and oscillating of the beam’s reflected field, both cylindrical and Gauss beam incident fields. The distortions of reflected field depend on shape of the boundary and parameters of the incident fields.

  7. Time-resolved small-angle neutron scattering of a micelle-to-vesicle transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egelhaaf, S.U. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 -Grenoble (France); Schurtenberger, P. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1997-04-01

    Amphiphilic molecules spontaneously self-assemble in solution to form a variety of aggregates. Only limited information is available on the kinetics of the structural transitions as well as on the existence of non-equilibrium or metastable states. Aqueous mixtures of lecithin and bile salt are very interesting biological model-systems which exhibit a spontaneous transition from polymer-like mixed micelles to vesicles upon dilution. The small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) instrument D22, with its very high neutron flux and the broad range of scattering vectors covered in a single instrumental setting, allowed us for the first time to perform time-resolved scattering experiments in order to study the micelle-to-vesicle transition. The temporal evolution of the aggregate structures were followed and detailed information was obtained even on molecular length-scales. (author). 5 refs.

  8. A simple nonbinary scattering model applicable to atomic collisions is crystals at 1ow energies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Henrik; Sigmund, Peter

    1966-01-01

    the projectile and each ring atom is described by a Born-Mayer potential, and the scattering is assumed to be elastic and governed by the classical equations of motion. Because of symmetry, the problem can be reduced to plane motion of a particle in a potential of elliptic symmetry. The elliptic force field...... the elliptic to the spherical potential are investigated. Special attention is paid to proper definitions of collision time and collision length which are important in collisions in crystals. Limitations to classical scattering arising from the uncertainty principle prove to be more serious than assumed...... previously. Inelastic contributions to the energy loss can easily be included. The oscillator forces binding lattice atoms turn out to influence the scattering process only at very small energies. The validity of the so-called momentum approximation and a related perturbation method are also investigated....

  9. Scattering properties of electromagnetic waves from metal object in the lower terahertz region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Dang, H. X.; Hu, T. Y.; Su, Xiang; Lv, R. C.; Li, Hao; Tan, X. M.; Cui, T. J.

    2018-01-01

    An efficient hybrid algorithm is proposed to analyze the electromagnetic scattering properties of metal objects in the lower terahertz (THz) frequency. The metal object can be viewed as perfectly electrical conducting object with a slightly rough surface in the lower THz region. Hence the THz scattered field from metal object can be divided into coherent and incoherent parts. The physical optics and truncated-wedge incremental-length diffraction coefficients methods are combined to compute the coherent part; while the small perturbation method is used for the incoherent part. With the MonteCarlo method, the radar cross section of the rough metal surface is computed by the multilevel fast multipole algorithm and the proposed hybrid algorithm, respectively. The numerical results show that the proposed algorithm has good accuracy to simulate the scattering properties rapidly in the lower THz region.

  10. Size distribution and radial density profile of synaptic vesicles by SAXS and light scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castorph, Simon; Salditt, Tim [Institute for X-ray Physics, Goettingen (Germany); Holt, Matthew; Jahn, Reinhard [Max Plank Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Goettingen (Germany); Sztucki, Michael [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France)

    2008-07-01

    Synaptic vesicles are small membraneous organelles within the nerve terminal, encapsulating neurotransmitters by a lipid bilayer. The transport of the neurotransmitter, the fusion at the plasma membrane, and the release of the stored neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft are since long know as essential step in nerve conduction of the chemical synapse. A detailed structural view of these molecular mechanisms is still lacking, not withstanding the enormous progress in the field during recent years. From measurements and quantitative fitting of small angle X-ray scattering curves and dynamic light scattering the averaged structural properties of synaptic vesicles can be determined. We present SAXS measurements and fits revealing the width of the size distribution function and details of the radial scattering length profile of synaptic vesicles from rat brain. Representative values for the inner and outer radius and the size polydispersity as well as the density and width of the outer protein layer are obtained.

  11. Further Examination of a Simplified Model for Positronium-Helium Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiRienzi, J.; Drachman, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    While carrying out investigations on Ps-He scattering we realized that it would be possible to improve the results of a previous work on zero-energy scattering of ortho-positronium by helium atoms. The previous work used a model to account for exchange and also attempted to include the effect of short-range Coulomb interactions in the close-coupling approximation. The 3 terms that were then included did not produce a well-converged result but served to give some justification to the model. Now we improve the calculation by using a simple variational wave function, and derive a much better value of the scattering length. The new result is compared with other computed values, and when an approximate correction due to the van der Waals potential is included the total is consistent with an earlier conjecture.

  12. Is cervical length associated with maternal characteristics?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ven, A. J.; van Os, M. A.; Kleinrouweler, C. E.; de Groot, C. J. M.; Haak, M. C.; Mol, B. W. J.; Pajkrt, E.; Kazemier, B. M.

    2015-01-01

    Women with a mid-trimester short cervical length (CL) are at increased risk for preterm delivery. Consequently, CL measurement is a potential screening tool to identify women at risk for preterm birth. Our objective was to assess possible associations between CL and maternal characteristics. A

  13. Exciton diffusion length in narrow bandgap polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mikhnenko, Oleksandr V.; Azimi, Hamed; Scharber, Markus; Morana, Mauro; Blom, Paul W. M.; Loi, Maria Antonietta

    We developed a new method to accurately extract the singlet exciton diffusion length in organic semiconductors by blending them with a low concentration of methanofullerene[6,6]-phenyl-C-61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). The dependence of photoluminescence (PL) decay time on the fullerene

  14. Stylish lengths: Mate choice in flowers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Accordingly, selection should favour a longer 'race' to better discriminate among variable pollen by increasing style length. ... Department of Crop Physiology, University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK, Bangalore 560 065, India; School of Ecology and Conservation, University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK, Bangalore 560 ...

  15. Relationship between sonographic renal length and renal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To determine the relationship between sonographic renal parenchymal thickness (RPT) and renal length (RL) in normal adult Nigerian. Study design: The RL and RPT of 309 normal subjects within the age range of 18 – 80years were measured sonographically and prospectively. Correlation was performed between ...

  16. Path length resolved optical Doppler flowmetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varghese, Babu; Rajan, Vinayakrishnan; van Leeuwen, Ton; Steenbergen, Wiendelt; Wax, Adam; Backman, Vadim

    2009-01-01

    The readings in laser Doppler perfusion monitoring are affected by the optical properties of the tissue in which the microvasculature is embedded, through their effect on the optical path lengths. Thus for a constant perfusion, the LDF output signal is affected by the variance in individual photon

  17. On some queue length controlled stochastic processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lev Abolnikov

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors study the input, output and queueing processes in a general controlled single-server bulk queueing system. It is supposed that inter-arrival time, service time, batch size of arriving units and the capacity of the server depend on the queue length.

  18. Indicators for Cervical Length in Twin Pregnancies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, Frederik J. R.; Schuit, Ewoud; Liem, Sophie M. S.; Lim, Arianne C.; Duvekot, Johannes; Scheepers, Liesbeth C. J.; Woiski, Mallory M.; Franssen, Maureen M.; Oudijk, Martijn A.; Bloemenkamp, Kitty W. M.; Bijvanck, Bas Nij; Bekedam, Dick J.; Opmeer, Brent C.; Mol, Ben Willem J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Cervical length (CL) is associated with the risk of preterm birth (PTB) in multiple pregnancies. However, the position of CL within the pathophysiological pathway of PTB is unclear, and it is unknown which factors are predictive for CL. This study aims to investigate whether in twin

  19. Bunch length measurements using synchrotron ligth monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Mahmoud [Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA; Tiefenback, Michael G. [Jefferson Lab, Newport News, VA

    2015-09-01

    The bunch length is measured at CEBAF using an invasive technique. The technique depends on applying an energy chirp for the electron bunch and imaging it through a dispersive region. The measurements are taken through Arc1 and Arc2 at CEBAF. The fundamental equations, procedure and the latest results are given.

  20. Context quantization by minimum adaptive code length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Wu, Xiaolin

    2007-01-01

    Context quantization is a technique to deal with the issue of context dilution in high-order conditional entropy coding. We investigate the problem of context quantizer design under the criterion of minimum adaptive code length. A property of such context quantizers is derived for binary symbols...

  1. Paternal age and telomere length in twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelmborg, Jacob B; Dalgård, Christine; Mangino, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    . Based on two independent (discovery and replication) twin studies, comprising 889 twin pairs, we show an increase in the resemblance of leukocyte telomere length between dizygotic twins of older fathers, which is not seen in monozygotic twins. This phenomenon might result from a paternal age...

  2. Fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rosa rugosa is an excellent ornamental plant with important ecological, economical and medicinal values in China. Polymorphism amplifications of the genomic DNA of 5 wild R. rugosa accessions and 25 cultivars that originated from China with fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism molecular markers were ...

  3. Scale Length of the Galactic Thin Disk

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    synthetic stellar population model, gives strong evidence that the Galactic thin disk density scale length, hR, ... be preferred to investigate the stellar distribution, specially at large distances from the. Sun. In this paper, we present ... city gradient according to age metallicity and age scale height relations. In the model, the key ...

  4. Hydrodynamic slip length as a surface property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Alvarado, Bladimir; Kumar, Satish; Peterson, G. P.

    2016-02-01

    Equilibrium and nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations were conducted in order to evaluate the hypothesis that the hydrodynamic slip length is a surface property. The system under investigation was water confined between two graphite layers to form nanochannels of different sizes (3-8 nm). The water-carbon interaction potential was calibrated by matching wettability experiments of graphitic-carbon surfaces free of airborne hydrocarbon contamination. Three equilibrium theories were used to calculate the hydrodynamic slip length. It was found that one of the recently reported equilibrium theories for the calculation of the slip length featured confinement effects, while the others resulted in calculations significantly hindered by the large margin of error observed between independent simulations. The hydrodynamic slip length was found to be channel-size independent using equilibrium calculations, i.e., suggesting a consistency with the definition of a surface property, for 5-nm channels and larger. The analysis of the individual trajectories of liquid particles revealed that the reason for observing confinement effects in 3-nm nanochannels is the high mobility of the bulk particles. Nonequilibrium calculations were not consistently affected by size but by noisiness in the smallest systems.

  5. Length, protein–protein interactions, and complexity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, T.; Frenkel, D.; Gupta, V.; Deem, M.W.

    2005-01-01

    The evolutionary reason for the increase in gene length from archaea to prokaryotes to eukaryotes observed in large-scale genome sequencing efforts has been unclear. We propose here that the increasing complexity of protein–protein interactions has driven the selection of longer proteins, as they

  6. Analytical calculation of chain length in ferrofluids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Verdet coefficient (constant), particle diameter, viscosity of the carrier fluid, particle density, magnetization and shear rate. The formulated relation of chain length is supported by error analysis to yield the uncertainty in the result. The maximum uncertainty in four sets of data is found as ∼0.75. Keywords. Ferrofluid; chain ...

  7. Relationship between morphological and amplified fragment length ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... morphological and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) marker based genetic diversity, to estimate mid parent heterosis and to correlate the estimated parental genetic diversity with heterosis chilli. Five CMS B - lines and 30 testers were used for morphological and AFLP marker genetic divergence analysis.

  8. Information-theoretic lengths of Jacobi polynomials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero, A; Dehesa, J S [Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Granada, Granada (Spain); Sanchez-Moreno, P, E-mail: agmartinez@ugr.e, E-mail: pablos@ugr.e, E-mail: dehesa@ugr.e [Instituto ' Carlos I' de Fisica Teorica y Computacional, Universidad de Granada, Granada (Spain)

    2010-07-30

    The information-theoretic lengths of the Jacobi polynomials P{sup ({alpha}, {beta})}{sub n}(x), which are information-theoretic measures (Renyi, Shannon and Fisher) of their associated Rakhmanov probability density, are investigated. They quantify the spreading of the polynomials along the orthogonality interval [- 1, 1] in a complementary but different way as the root-mean-square or standard deviation because, contrary to this measure, they do not refer to any specific point of the interval. The explicit expressions of the Fisher length are given. The Renyi lengths are found by the use of the combinatorial multivariable Bell polynomials in terms of the polynomial degree n and the parameters ({alpha}, {beta}). The Shannon length, which cannot be exactly calculated because of its logarithmic functional form, is bounded from below by using sharp upper bounds to general densities on [- 1, +1] given in terms of various expectation values; moreover, its asymptotics is also pointed out. Finally, several computational issues relative to these three quantities are carefully analyzed.

  9. Twin correlations of telomere length metrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelmborg, Jacob B; Dalgård, Christine; Möller, Sören

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Leucocyte telomere length (LTL) is a complex trait associated with ageing and longevity. LTL dynamics are defined by LTL and its age-dependent attrition. Strong, but indirect evidence suggests that LTL at birth and its attrition during childhood largely explains interindividual LTL va...

  10. Wave length dependence of photomorphogenesis in plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolwijk, J.A.J.

    1954-01-01

    Light of various spectral regions (at low or high intensities) supplemented a short day (SD) in white light, or was used alone at high intensity. Two types of relation of wave length to photoperiodic reaction were found: Crucifers were sensitive to blue and infrared (even SD exposure promoted

  11. 23 CFR 658.13 - Length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Length. 658.13 Section 658.13 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS TRUCK SIZE AND WEIGHT, ROUTE... Network or in transit between these highways and terminals or service locations pursuant to § 658.19. (b...

  12. Phenotypic Relationships Between Gestation Length And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phenotypic Relationships Between Gestation Length And Preweaning Litter Traits In Rabbits. ... size at birth(LSB), litter size at 21 days (LS21), litter weight at 21 days(LW21), litter weight at birth (LWAB), and still birth number(SBN) when subjected to multiple regression analysis revealed non-significant t-test value with GL.

  13. Rotational superradiant scattering in a vortex flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Theo; Patrick, Sam; Coutant, Antonin; Richartz, Maurício; Tedford, Edmund W.; Weinfurtner, Silke

    2017-09-01

    When an incident wave scatters off of an obstacle, it is partially reflected and partially transmitted. In theory, if the obstacle is rotating, waves can be amplified in the process, extracting energy from the scatterer. Here we describe in detail the first laboratory detection of this phenomenon, known as superradiance. We observed that waves propagating on the surface of water can be amplified after being scattered by a draining vortex. The maximum amplification measured was 14% +/- 8%, obtained for 3.70 Hz waves, in a 6.25-cm-deep fluid, consistent with the superradiant scattering caused by rapid rotation. We expect our experimental findings to be relevant to black-hole physics, since shallow water waves scattering on a draining fluid constitute an analogue of a black hole, as well as to hydrodynamics, due to the close relation to over-reflection instabilities.

  14. Gravitomagnetic field and Penrose scattering processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Reva Kay

    2005-06-01

    In this paper we present theoretical model calculations involving Monte Carlo computer simulations of Compton scattering and electron-positron (e-e+) pair production processes in the ergosphere of a supermassive rotating black hole. Particles from an accretion disk surrounding the rotating black hole fall into the ergosphere and are scattered by particles that are confined in equatorial and nonequatorial orbits. The energy-momentum vectors are calculated for the scattered escaping particles. Particles escape with energies of about 3 GeV or greater. Importantly, these model calculations show that the Lense-Thirring effect, that is, the dragging of local inertial frames into rotation, inside the ergosphere, caused by the angular momentum of the rotating black hole, results in a gravitomagnetic force being exerted on the scattered escaping particles. Effects of this force on the Penrose scattered particles are analyzed and discussed.

  15. Scattering cross section for various potential systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myagmarjav Odsuren

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the problems of scattering in this framework, and show that the applied method is very useful in the investigation of the effect of the resonance in the observed scattering cross sections. In this study, not only the scattering cross sections but also the decomposition of the scattering cross sections was computed for the α–α system. To obtain the decomposition of scattering cross sections into resonance and residual continuum terms, the complex scaled orthogonality condition model and the extended completeness relation are used. Applying the present method to the α–α and α–n systems, we obtained good reproduction of the observed phase shifts and cross sections. The decomposition into resonance and continuum terms makes clear that resonance contributions are dominant but continuum terms and their interference are not negligible. To understand the behavior of observed phase shifts and the shape of the cross sections, both resonance and continuum terms are calculated.

  16. Scattering resonances in a degenerate Fermi gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Challis, Katharine; Nygaard, Nicolai; Mølmer, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    We consider elastic single-particle scattering from a one-dimensional trapped two-component superfluid Fermi gas when the incoming projectile particle is identical to one of the confined species. Our theoretical treatment is based on the Hartree-Fock ground state of the trapped gas and a configur......We consider elastic single-particle scattering from a one-dimensional trapped two-component superfluid Fermi gas when the incoming projectile particle is identical to one of the confined species. Our theoretical treatment is based on the Hartree-Fock ground state of the trapped gas...... and a configuration-interaction description of the excitations. We determine the scattering phase shifts for the system and predict Fano-type scattering resonances that are a direct consequence of interatomic pairing. We describe the main characteristics of the scattering resonances and make a comparison...

  17. Scattering cross section for various potential systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odsuren, Myagmarjav; Khuukhenkhuu, Gonchigdorj; Davaa, Suren [Nuclear Research Center, School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, National University of Mongolia, Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia); Kato, Kiyoshi [Nuclear Reaction Data Centre, Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)

    2017-08-15

    We discuss the problems of scattering in this framework, and show that the applied method is very useful in the investigation of the effect of the resonance in the observed scattering cross sections. In this study, not only the scattering cross sections but also the decomposition of the scattering cross sections was computed for the α–α system. To obtain the decomposition of scattering cross sections into resonance and residual continuum terms, the complex scaled orthogonality condition model and the extended completeness relation are used. Applying the present method to the α–α and α–n systems, we obtained good reproduction of the observed phase shifts and cross sections. The decomposition into resonance and continuum terms makes clear that resonance contributions are dominant but continuum terms and their interference are not negligible. To understand the behavior of observed phase shifts and the shape of the cross sections, both resonance and continuum terms are calculated.

  18. Non-label bioimaging utilizing scattering lights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Tomonobu M.; Ichimura, Taro; Fujita, Hideaki

    2017-04-01

    Optical microscopy is an indispensable tool for medical and life sciences. Especially, the microscopes utilized with scattering light offer a detailed internal observation of living specimens in real time because of their non-labeling and non-invasive capability. We here focus on two kinds of scattering lights, Raman scattering light and second harmonic generation light. Raman scattering light includes the information of all the molecular vibration modes of the molecules, and can be used to distinguish types and/or state of cell. Second harmonic generation light is derived from electric polarity of proteins in the specimen, and enables to detect their structural change. In this conference, we would like to introduce our challenges to extract biological information from those scattering lights.

  19. Improved Gaussian Beam-Scattering Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, James A.

    1995-01-01

    The localized model of the beam-shape coefficients for Gaussian beam-scattering theory by a spherical particle provides a great simplification in the numerical implementation of the theory. We derive an alternative form for the localized coefficients that is more convenient for computer computations and that provides physical insight into the details of the scattering process. We construct a FORTRAN program for Gaussian beam scattering with the localized model and compare its computer run time on a personal computer with that of a traditional Mie scattering program and with three other published methods for computing Gaussian beam scattering. We show that the analytical form of the beam-shape coefficients makes evident the fact that the excitation rate of morphology-dependent resonances is greatly enhanced for far off-axis incidence of the Gaussian beam.

  20. Radiofrequency encoded angular-resolved light scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buckley, Brandon W.; Akbari, Najva; Diebold, Eric D.

    2015-01-01

    The sensitive, specific, and label-free classification of microscopic cells and organisms is one of the outstanding problems in biology. Today, instruments such as the flow cytometer use a combination of light scatter measurements at two distinct angles to infer the size and internal complexity...... of cells at rates of more than 10,000 per second. However, by examining the entire angular light scattering spectrum it is possible to classify cells with higher resolution and specificity. Current approaches to performing these angular spectrum measurements all have significant throughput limitations...... Encoded Angular-resolved Light Scattering (REALS), this technique multiplexes angular light scattering in the radiofrequency domain, such that a single photodetector captures the entire scattering spectrum from a particle over approximately 100 discrete incident angles on a single shot basis. As a proof...

  1. Double hard scattering without double counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Markus; Gaunt, Jonathan R.; Schönwald, Kay

    2017-06-01

    Double parton scattering in proton-proton collisions includes kinematic regions in which two partons inside a proton originate from the perturbative splitting of a single parton. This leads to a double counting problem between single and double hard scattering. We present a solution to this problem, which allows for the definition of double parton distributions as operator matrix elements in a proton, and which can be used at higher orders in perturbation theory. We show how the evaluation of double hard scattering in this framework can provide a rough estimate for the size of the higher-order contributions to single hard scattering that are affected by double counting. In a numeric study, we identify situations in which these higher-order contributions must be explicitly calculated and included if one wants to attain an accuracy at which double hard scattering becomes relevant, and other situations where such contributions may be neglected.

  2. Double hard scattering without double counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, Markus [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Gaunt, Jonathan R. [VU Univ. Amsterdam (Netherlands). NIKHEF Theory Group; Schoenwald, Kay [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)

    2017-02-15

    Double parton scattering in proton-proton collisions includes kinematic regions in which two partons inside a proton originate from the perturbative splitting of a single parton. This leads to a double counting problem between single and double hard scattering. We present a solution to this problem, which allows for the definition of double parton distributions as operator matrix elements in a proton, and which can be used at higher orders in perturbation theory. We show how the evaluation of double hard scattering in this framework can provide a rough estimate for the size of the higher-order contributions to single hard scattering that are affected by double counting. In a numeric study, we identify situations in which these higher-order contributions must be explicitly calculated and included if one wants to attain an accuracy at which double hard scattering becomes relevant, and other situations where such contributions may be neglected.

  3. Study of chemically unfolded {beta}-casein by means of small-angle neutron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aschi, Adel [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere Molle, Faculte des Sciences de Tunis, Campus Universitaire, 1060, Tunis (Tunisia)]. E-mail: aschi13@yahoo.fr; Gharbi, Abdelhafidh [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere Molle, Faculte des Sciences de Tunis, Campus Universitaire, 1060, Tunis (Tunisia); Daoud, Mohamed [Service de Physique de l' Etat Condense. CEA Saclay. 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France); Douillard, Roger [Equipe de Biochimie des Macromolecules Vegetales, Centre de Recherche Agronomique, 2Esplanade R. Garros, BP 224, 51686 Reims cedex 2 (France); Calmettes, Patrick [Laboratoire Leon Brillouin, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France)

    2007-01-01

    {beta}-casein is a flexible amphiphilic milk protein which forms an unfolded conformation in presence of very high denaturant concentrations. The structure of {beta}-casein formed at the bulk was studied by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). The value of the second virial coefficient of the protein solutions indicates that the interactions between the polypeptide chain and solvent are repulsive. The protein conformation is similar to an excluded volume chain. The corresponding values of the contour length, L, the statistical length, b and the apparent radius of the chain cross-section, R{sub c} are given.

  4. Coherent scattering function in the reptation model: analysis beyond asymptotic limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Lothar; Ebert, Ute; Baumgärtner, Artur

    2002-06-01

    We calculate the coherent dynamical scattering function S(c)(q,t;N) of a flexible chain of length N, diffusing through an ordered background of topological obstacles. As an instructive generalization, we also calculate the scattering function S(c)(q,t;M,N) for the central piece of length Mreptation model, we treat global creep, tube length fluctuations, and internal relaxation within a consistent and unified approach. Our theory concentrates on the universal aspects of reptational motion, and our results in all details show excellent agreement with our simulations of the Evans-Edwards model, provided we allow for a phenomenological prefactor which accounts for nonuniversal effects of the microstructure of the Monte Carlo chain, present for short times. Previous approaches to the coherent structure function can be analyzed as special limits of our theory. First, the effects of internal relaxation can be isolated by studying the limit N--> infinity, M fixed. The results do not support the model of a "Rouse chain in a tube." We trace this back to the nonequilibrium initial conditions of the latter model. Second, in the limit of long chains (M=N--> infinity ) and times large compared to the internal relaxation time (t/N(2)--> infinity ), our theory reproduces the results of the primitive chain model. This limiting form applies only to extremely long chains, and for chain lengths accessible in practice, effects of, e.g., tube length fluctuations are not negligible.

  5. Higher moments of scattered light fields by heterodyne analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, M.; Paerson, G. N.; Hill, C. A.; Vaughan, J. M.

    1994-10-01

    A simple scattering experiment employing heterodyne detection and operating in Gaussian scattering regime (with large number of illuminated independent scatterers) is shown to yield experimental values of higher-order moments of scattered light intensity distribution in agreement with theoretical predictions. This permits assessment of Gaussian behavior. Laser light scattering from a rotating glass screen is used in the study.

  6. Reprint of Testing scattering matrices: a compendium of recipes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovenier, J.W.; van der Mee, C.V.M.

    2010-01-01

    Scattering matrices describe the transformation of the Stokes parameters of a beam of radiation upon scattering of that beam. The problems of testing scattering matrices for scattering by one particle and for single scattering by an assembly of particles are addressed. The treatment concerns

  7. Determination of interfacial roughness using X-ray scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munkholm, Anneli [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1997-05-01

    Crystal truncation rod (CTR) scattering is shown to be a powerful technique for determining interfacial roughness non-destructively. By measuring the decay of scattering away from a Bragg reflection in the surface direction an rms roughness of the surface or interface can be extracted. The authors obtain rms roughness values with an accuracy of ± 0.1 Å. Sensitivity to lateral length scale roughness ranges from the wavelength of the x-rays to between 1,000--10,000 Å depending on the instrument function and the specific truncation rod. The influence of different cleans, as well as the thermal oxidation process, on the Si-SiO2 interface is investigated. A hot water treatment prior to the thermal oxidation is shown to roughen the Si-SiO2 interface. CTR scattering results also show a smoothing of the interface as a result of the oxidation process even for as little as 60 Å of thermal oxidation. Comparison between AFM and CTR scattering gives a consistent picture of the relative roughness of the wafers, although the absolute numbers do not agree. The differences in the absolute values can be explained by the lateral roughness scale that the two techniques measure, indicating that it is at periodicities below ~ 100 Å that the increased roughness observed by the x-ray is found. Crystal truncation rods are shown to be perpendicular to the surface and not along the crystallographic axes of a miscut crystal. It is shown that for a crystal terminated by a regular step array both an atomistic and a continuum description of CTR scattering give identical results. Furthermore, the atomistic approach is used to show that a diamond cubic surface with a miscut is inherently rough. Even for a small miscut the tilt of the CTR with respect to the crystallographic axes results in complications for measuring the rod intensity. The authors present schemes for determining the exact position of the CTR in reciprocal space and for measuring the miscut of a single

  8. Evaluation of a multimode fiber optic low coherence interferometer for path length resolved Doppler measurements of diffuse light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Babu; Rajan, Vinayakrishnan; Van Leeuwen, Ton G; Steenbergen, Wiendelt

    2007-12-01

    The performance of a graded index multimode fiber optic low coherence Mach-Zehnder interferometer with phase modulation is analyzed. Investigated aspects were its ability to measure path length distributions and to perform path length resolved Doppler measurements of multiple scattered photons in a turbid suspension of particles undergoing Brownian and translational motion. The path length resolution of this instrument is compared with a system using single mode fibers for illumination and detection. The optical path lengths are determined from the zero order moment of the phase modulation peak in the power spectrum. The weighted first moment, which is equal to the average Doppler shift, shows a linear response for different mean flow velocities within the physiological range.

  9. Evaluation of a multimode fiber optic low coherence interferometer for path length resolved Doppler measurements of diffuse light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Babu; Rajan, Vinayakrishnan; Van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Steenbergen, Wiendelt

    2007-12-01

    The performance of a graded index multimode fiber optic low coherence Mach-Zehnder interferometer with phase modulation is analyzed. Investigated aspects were its ability to measure path length distributions and to perform path length resolved Doppler measurements of multiple scattered photons in a turbid suspension of particles undergoing Brownian and translational motion. The path length resolution of this instrument is compared with a system using single mode fibers for illumination and detection. The optical path lengths are determined from the zero order moment of the phase modulation peak in the power spectrum. The weighted first moment, which is equal to the average Doppler shift, shows a linear response for different mean flow velocities within the physiological range.

  10. Direct computation of length-N DHT from three adjacent length-N/3 DHT coefficients

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Jiasong; Wang, Lu; Shu, Huazhong; Senhadji, Lotfi

    2010-01-01

    International audience; A fast direct method for obtaining the length-N discrete Hartley transform (DHT) coefficients from three adjacent length-N/3 DHT coefficients is presented. The proposed method reduces significantly the number of arithmetic operations compared to the traditional approach. Furthermore, it is easy to implement.

  11. Broad-band near-field ground motion simulations in 3-dimensional scattering media

    KAUST Repository

    Imperatori, W.

    2012-12-06

    The heterogeneous nature of Earth\\'s crust is manifested in the scattering of propagating seismic waves. In recent years, different techniques have been developed to include such phenomenon in broad-band ground-motion calculations, either considering scattering as a semi-stochastic or purely stochastic process. In this study, we simulate broad-band (0–10 Hz) ground motions with a 3-D finite-difference wave propagation solver using several 3-D media characterized by von Karman correlation functions with different correlation lengths and standard deviation values. Our goal is to investigate scattering characteristics and its influence on the seismic wavefield at short and intermediate distances from the source in terms of ground motion parameters. We also examine scattering phenomena, related to the loss of radiation pattern and the directivity breakdown. We first simulate broad-band ground motions for a point-source characterized by a classic ω2 spectrum model. Fault finiteness is then introduced by means of a Haskell-type source model presenting both subshear and super-shear rupture speed. Results indicate that scattering plays an important role in ground motion even at short distances from the source, where source effects are thought to be dominating. In particular, peak ground motion parameters can be affected even at relatively low frequencies, implying that earthquake ground-motion simulations should include scattering also for peak ground velocity (PGV) calculations. At the same time, we find a gradual loss of the source signature in the 2–5 Hz frequency range, together with a distortion of the Mach cones in case of super-shear rupture. For more complex source models and truly heterogeneous Earth, these effects may occur even at lower frequencies. Our simulations suggests that von Karman correlation functions with correlation length between several hundred metres and few kilometres, Hurst exponent around 0.3 and standard deviation in the 5–10 per cent

  12. Scattering on rough surfaces with alpha-stable non-Gaussian height distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Guérin, Charles-Antoine

    2002-01-01

    We study the electromagnetic scattering problem on a random rough surface when the height distribution of the profile belongs to the family of alpha-stable laws. This allows us to model peaks of very large amplitude that are not accounted for by the classical Gaussian scheme. For such probability distributions with infinite variance the usual roughness parameters such as the RMS height, the correlation length or the correlation function are irrelevant. We show, however, that these notions can...

  13. Supercontinuum generation for coherent anti- Stokes Raman scattering microscopy with photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pernille Klarskov; Isomäki, Antti; Hansen, Kim P.

    2011-01-01

    with power concentrated around the relevant wavelengths for lipid imaging (648 nm and 1027 nm). This new PCF is characterized by varying the fiber length, the average power, and the pulse width of the fs pump pulses. It was found that the selected PCF design gave a significantly improved spectral...... analysis, the nonlinear effects responsible for the spectral broadening are explained to be soliton fission processes, dispersive waves, and stimulated Raman scattering....

  14. Characterization of Nanocellulose Using Small-Angle Neutron, X-ray, and Dynamic Light Scattering Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yimin; Liu, Kai; Zhan, Chengbo; Geng, Lihong; Chu, Benjamin; Hsiao, Benjamin S

    2017-02-16

    Nanocellulose extracted from wood pulps using TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl radical)-mediated oxidation and sulfuric acid hydrolysis methods was characterized by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and dynamic light scattering (DLS) techniques. The dimensions of this nanocellulose (TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofiber (TOCN) and sulfuric acid hydrolyzed cellulose nanocrystal (SACN)) revealed by the different scattering methods were compared with those characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The SANS and SAXS data were analyzed using a parallelepiped-based form factor. The width and thickness of the nanocellulose cross section were ∼8 and ∼2 nm for TOCN and ∼20 and ∼3 nm for SACN, respectively, where the fitting results from SANS and SAXS profiles were consistent with each other. DLS was carried out under both the VV mode with the polarizer and analyzer parallel to each other and the HV mode having them perpendicular to each other. Using rotational and translational diffusion coefficients obtained under the HV mode yielded a nanocellulose length qualitatively consistent with that observed by TEM, whereas the length derived by the translational diffusion coefficient under the VV mode appeared to be overestimated.

  15. Solitary and cnoidal wave scattering by a submerged horizontal plate in shallow water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Hayatdavoodi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Solitary and cnoidal wave transformation over a submerged, fixed, horizontal rigid plate is studied by use of the nonlinear, shallow-water Level I Green-Naghdi (GN equations. Reflection and transmission coefficients are defined for cnoidal and solitary waves to quantify the nonlinear wave scattering. Results of the GN equations are compared with the laboratory experiments and other theoretical solutions for linear and nonlinear waves in intermediate and deep waters. The GN equations are then used to study the nonlinear wave scattering by a plate in shallow water. It is shown that in deep and intermediate depths, the wave-scattering varies nonlinearly by both the wavelength over the plate length ratio, and the submergence depth. In shallow water, however, and for long-waves, only the submergence depth appear to play a significant role on wave scattering. It is possible to define the plate submergence depth and length such that certain wave conditions are optimized above, below, or downwave of the plate for different applications. A submerged plate in shallow water can be used as a means to attenuate energy, such as in wave breakers, or used for energy focusing, and in wave energy devices.

  16. Optical biopsy of breast tissue using differential path-length spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Veen, Robert L P; Amelink, Arjen; Menke-Pluymers, Marian; van der Pol, Carmen; Sterenborg, Henricus J C M

    2005-06-07

    Differential path-length spectroscopy (DPS) was used to determine the local optical properties of breast tissue in vivo. DPS measurements were made on healthy and malignant breast tissue using a fibre-optic needle probe, and were correlated to the histological outcome of core-needle biopsies taken from the same location as the measurements. DPS yields information on the local tissue blood content, the local blood oxygenation, the average micro-vessel diameter, the beta-carotene concentration and the scatter slope. Our data show that malignant breast tissue is characterized by a significant decrease in tissue oxygenation and a higher blood content compared to normal breast tissue.

  17. Length Scale Dependence of the Dynamic Properties of Hyaluronic Acid Solutions in the Presence of Salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horkay, Ferenc; Falus, Peter; Hecht, Anne-Marie; Geissler, Erik (CNRS-UMR); (NIH); (ILL)

    2010-12-07

    In solutions of the charged semirigid biopolymer hyaluronic acid in salt-free conditions, the diffusion coefficient D{sub NSE} measured at high transfer momentum q by neutron spin echo is more than an order of magnitude smaller than that determined by dynamic light scattering, D{sub DLS}. This behavior contrasts with neutral polymer solutions. With increasing salt content, D{sub DLS} approaches D{sub NSE}, which is independent of ionic strength. Contrary to theoretical expectation, the ion-polymer coupling, which dominates the low q dynamics of polyelectrolyte solutions, already breaks down at distance scales greater than the Debye-Hueckel length.

  18. SU-E-I-16: Scan Length Dependency of the Radial Dose Distribution in a Long Polyethylene Cylinder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakalyar, D; McKenney, S [Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Feng, W [New York Presbyterian Hospital, Tenafly, NJ (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The area-averaged dose in the central plane of a long cylinder following a CT scan depends upon the radial dose distribution and the length of the scan. The ICRU/TG200 phantom, a polyethylene cylinder 30 cm in diameter and 60 cm long, was the subject of this study. The purpose was to develop an analytic function that could determine the dose for a scan length L at any point in the central plane of this phantom. Methods: Monte Carlo calculations were performed on a simulated ICRU/TG200 phantom under conditions of cylindrically symmetric conditions of irradiation. Thus, the radial dose distribution function must be an even function that accounts for two competing effects: The direct beam makes its weakest contribution at the center while the scatter begins abruptly at the outer radius and grows as the center is approached. The scatter contribution also increases with scan length with the increase approaching its limiting value at the periphery faster than along the central axis. An analytic function was developed that fit the data and possessed these features. Results: Symmetry and continuity dictate a local extremum at the center which is a minimum for the ICRU/TG200 phantom. The relative depth of the minimum decreases as the scan length grows and an absolute maximum can occur between the center and outer edge of the cylinders. As the scan length grows, the relative dip in the center decreases so that for very long scan lengths, the dose profile is relatively flat. Conclusion: An analytic function characterizes the radial and scan length dependency of dose for long cylindrical phantoms. The function can be integrated with the results expressed in closed form. One use for this is to help determine average dose distribution over the central cylinder plane for any scan length.

  19. Exclusive scattering off the deuteron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amrath, D.

    2007-12-15

    Exclusive processes are a special class of processes giving insight into the inner structure of hadrons. In this thesis we consider two exclusive processes and compute their total cross sections as well as the beam charge and beam polarization asymmetries for different kinematical constraints. These calculations o er the opportunity to get access to the nonperturbative GPDs. Theoretically they can be described with the help of models. The rst process we investigate contains a GPD of the pion, which is basically unknown so far. We include different models and make predictions for observables that could in principle be measured at HERMES at DESY and CLAS at JLab. The second process we consider is electron-deuteron scattering in the kinematical range where the deuteron breaks up into a proton and a neutron. This can be used to investigate the neutron, which cannot be taken as a target due to its lifetime of approximately 15 minutes. For the calculation of the electron-deuteron cross section we implement models for the proton and neutron GPDs. Once there are experimental data available our calculations are ready for comparison. (orig.)

  20. Phase-locking in cascaded stimulated Brillouin scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Büttner, Thomas F S; Steel, M J; Hudson, Darren D; Eggleton, Benjamin J

    2015-01-01

    Cascaded stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) is a complex nonlinear optical process that results in the generation of several optical waves that are frequency shifted by an acoustic resonance frequency. Four-wave mixing (FWM) between these Brillouin shifted optical waves can create an equally spaced optical frequency comb with a stable spectral phase, i.e. a Brillouin frequency comb (BFC). Here, we investigate phase-locking of the spectral components of BFCs, considering FWM interactions arising from the Kerr-nonlinearity as well as from coupling by the acoustic field. Deriving for the first time the coupled-mode equations that include all relevant nonlinear interactions, we examine the contribution of the various nonlinear processes to phase-locking, and show that different regimes can be obtained that depend on the length scale on which the field amplitudes vary.