WorldWideScience

Sample records for scattering diagnostic analyses

  1. Incoherent Thomson scattering as a diagnostic tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barth, C. J.

    1998-01-01

    Thomson scattering is a very powerful diagnostic which is applied at nearly every magnetic confinement device. Depending on the experimental conditions different plasma parameters can be diagnosed. When the wavelength is much smaller than the plasma Debye length, the total scattered power is

  2. Primer on laser scattering diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahoda, F.C.

    1978-07-01

    The theory of laser scattering is presented in abbreviated format, with emphasis on physical interpretation, followed by sections on laser sources, practical considerations in designing experiments, and current developments in extending the techniques to multispace and multitime point measurements

  3. Progress in development of the advanced Thomson scattering diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatae, T; Naito, O; Howard, J; Ebizuka, N; Yoshida, H; Nakatsuka, M; Fujita, H; Kajita, S; Narihara, K; Yamada, I; Funaba, H; Hirano, Y; Koguchi, H

    2010-01-01

    We have been studied the advanced Thomson scattering diagnostics from viewpoints of new concepts, laser technology and spectrum analysis. This paper summarizes results of development on technologies for advanced Thomson scattering diagnostics.

  4. Detectors for LIDAR type Thomson scattering diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirsch, K.

    1991-04-01

    A report on the capability of the microchannel plate photomultiplier type (ITT F4128) presently used at the JET LIDAR Thomson Scattering System is given. Detailed investigation on time response, low noise amplification, shutter ratio, gating behaviour, linear mode of operation and saturation pulse recovery carried out during the design phase for LIDAR are presented. New investigation with respect to dc- and gated operation showed no measurable changes in sensitivity of this MCP photomultiplier. Comparing this type of detector with other MCP photomultipliers and with streak cameras some detection schemes for future LIDAR type diagnostic are proposed. (orig.)

  5. Improvements to the MST Thomson Scattering Diagnostic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, D. T.; Borchardt, M. T.; den Hartog, D. J.; Holly, D. J.; Kile, T.; Kubala, S. Z.; Jacobson, C. M.; Thomas, M. A.; Wallace, J. P.; Young, W. C.; MST Thomson Scattering Team

    2017-10-01

    Multiple upgrades to the MST Thomson Scattering diagnostic have been implemented to expand capabilities of the system. In the past, stray laser light prevented electron density measurements everywhere and temperature measurements for -z/a >0.75. To mitigate stray light, a new laser beamline is being commissioned that includes a longer entrance flight tube, close-fitting apertures, and baffles. A polarizer has been added to the collection optics to further reduce stray light. An absolute density calibration using Rayleigh scattering in argon will be performed. An insertable integrating sphere will provide a full-system spectral calibration as well as maps optical fibers to machine coordinates. Reduced transmission of the collection optics due to coatings from plasma-surface interactions is regularly monitored to inform timely replacements of the first lens. Long-wavelength filters have been installed to better characterize non-Maxwellian electron distribution features. Previous work has identified residual photons not described by a Maxwellian distribution during m =0 magnetic bursts. Further effort to characterize the distribution function will be described. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences program under Award No. DE-FC02-05ER54814.

  6. LIDAR Thomson scattering diagnostic on JET (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salzmann, H.; Bundgaard, J.; Gadd, A.

    1988-01-01

    By combining the time-of-flight or LIDAR principle with a Thomson backscatter diagnostic, spatial profiles of the electron temperature and density are measured in a magnetically confined fusion plasma. This technique was realized for the first time on the JET tokamak. A ruby laser (3-J pulse energy, 300-ps pulse duration, 0.5-Hz repetition rate) together with a 700-MHz bandwidth detection and registration system yields a spatial resolution of about 12 cm. A spectrometer with six channels in the wavelength range 400--800 nm gives a dynamic range of the temperature measurements of 0.3--20 keV. The stray light problem in the backscatter geometry is overcome by spectral discrimination and gating of the photomultipliers. A ruby filter in the spectral channel containing the laser wavelength allows calibration of the vignetting along the line of sight by means of Raman scattering, enabling the measurement of density profiles. The low level of background signal due to the short integration time for a single spatial point yields low statistical errors (ΔT/sub e/ /T/sub e/ ≅6%, Δn/sub e/ /n/sub e/ ≅4% at T/sub e/ = 6 keV, n/sub e/ = 3 x 10/sup 19/ m/sup -3/ ). Goodness-of-fit tests indicate that the systematic errors are within the same limits. The system is described and examples of measurements are given

  7. Scatter networks: a new approach for analysing information scatter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamic, Lada A; Suresh, K; Shi Xiaolin

    2007-01-01

    Information on any given topic is often scattered across the Web. Previously this scatter has been characterized through the inequality of distribution of facts (i.e. pieces of information) across webpages. Such an approach conceals how specific facts (e.g. rare facts) occur in specific types of pages (e.g. fact-rich pages). To reveal such regularities, we construct bipartite networks, consisting of two types of vertices: the facts contained in webpages and the webpages themselves. Such a representation enables the application of a series of network analysis techniques, revealing structural features such as connectivity, robustness and clustering. Not only does network analysis yield new insights into information scatter, but we also illustrate the benefit of applying new and existing analysis techniques directly to a bipartite network as opposed to its one-mode projection. We discuss the implications of each network feature to the users' ability to find comprehensive information online. Finally, we compare the bipartite graph structure of webpages and facts with the hyperlink structure between the webpages

  8. Engineering analyses of ITER divertor diagnostic rack design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modestov, Victor S., E-mail: modestov@compmechlab.com [St Petersburg State Polytechnical University, 195251 St Petersburg, 29 Polytechnicheskaya (Russian Federation); Nemov, Alexander S.; Borovkov, Aleksey I.; Buslakov, Igor V.; Lukin, Aleksey V. [St Petersburg State Polytechnical University, 195251 St Petersburg, 29 Polytechnicheskaya (Russian Federation); Kochergin, Mikhail M.; Mukhin, Eugene E.; Litvinov, Andrey E.; Koval, Alexandr N. [Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, 194021 St Petersburg, 26 Polytechnicheskaya (Russian Federation); Andrew, Philip [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • The approach developed early has been used for the assessment of new design of DTS racks and neutron shield units. • Results of most critical EM and seismic analyses indicate that introduced changes significantly improved the system behaviour under these loads. • However further research is required to finalize the design and check it upon meeting all structural, thermal, seismic, EM and fatigue requirements. -- Abstract: The divertor port racks used as a support structure of the divertor Thomson scattering equipment has been carefully analyzed to be consistent with electromagnetic and seismic loads. It follows from the foregoing simulations that namely these analyses demonstrate critical challenges associated with the structure design. Based on the results of the reference structure [2] a modified design of the diagnostic racks is proposed and updated simulation results are given. The results signify a significant improvement over the previous reference layout and the design will be continued towards finalization.

  9. The LIDAR Thomson scattering diagnostic on JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salzmann, H.; Gadd, A.

    1989-01-01

    By combining the time-of-flight or LIDAR principle with a Thomson backscatter diagnostic, spatial profiles of the electron temperature and density can be measured with a single set of detectors for all spatial points. This approach considerably simplifies the collection optics required for measuring a spatial profile. The system is described and examples of measurements are given and compared with the results of other diagnostics. (author)

  10. The ITER Thomson scattering core LIDAR diagnostic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naylor, G.A.; Scannell, R.; Beurskens, M.; Walsh, M.J.; Pastor, I.; Donné, A.J.H.; Snijders, B.; Biel, W.; Meszaros, B.; Giudicotti, L.; Pasqualotto, R.; Marot, L.

    2012-01-01

    The central electron temperature and density of the ITER plasma may be determined by Thomson scattering. A LIDAR topology is proposed in order to minimize the port access required of the ITER vacuum vessel. By using a LIDAR technique, a profile of the electron temperature and density can be

  11. The LIDAR Thomson Scattering Diagnostic on JET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salzmann, H.; Bundgaard, J.; Gadd, A.

    1988-01-01

    By combining the time‐of‐flight or LIDAR principle with a Thomson backscatter diagnostic, spatial profiles of the electron temperature and density are measured in a magnetically confined fusion plasma. This technique was realized for the first time on the JET tokamak. A ruby laser (3‐J pulse ener...

  12. Infrared laser scattering system for plasma diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muraoka, K; Hiraki, N; Kawasaki, S [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics

    1975-05-01

    The possibility of observing the collective scattering of infrared laser light from plasmas is discussed in terms of the laser power requirement, the necessary optical system and the detector performance, and is shown to be feasible with the present day techniques to get the ion temperature by means of a CO/sub 2/ laser on theta pinch plasmas. Based on this estimate, the construction of the TEA CO/sub 2/ laser and the preparations of the optical components have been started and some preliminary results of these are described.

  13. Infrared laser scattering system for plasma diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muraoka, Katsunori; Hiraki, Naoji; Kawasaki, Shoji

    1975-01-01

    The possibility of observing the collective scattering of infrared laser light from plasmas is discussed in terms of the laser power requirement, the necessary optical system and the detector performance, and is shown to be feasible with the present day techniques to get the ion temperature by means of a CO 2 laser on theta pinch plasmas. Based on this estimate, the construction of the TEA CO 2 laser and the preparations of the optical components have been started and some preliminary results of these are described. (auth.)

  14. Advantages of using gyrotron scattering for alpha particle diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woskoboinikow, P.P.; Cohn, D.R.; Machuzak, J.S.; Myer, R.C.; Rhee, R.Y.

    1987-07-01

    Millimeter-wave gyrotron collective Thomson scattering can be an effective diagnostic technique for the study of alpha particle behavior in ignited plasmas. The measurement of alpha particle density, velocity distribution, and alpha particle induced plasma instabilities can be accomplished with both spatial and temporal resolution. Advantages include long pulse operation which can make possible very high signal to noise ratios and use of millimeter waves which maximizes the Doppler shifted scattered signal in WHz -1 and makes possible scattering angles up to 180 0 . Extraordinary mode scattering at approximately 60 and 200 GHz would be used in TFTR and CIT respectively, and 140 GHz ordinary mode scattering in JET. 8 refs., 1 fig

  15. Elastic meson-nucleon partial wave scattering analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arndt, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    Comprehensive analyses of π-n elastic scattering data below 1100 MeV(Tlab), and K+p scattering below 3 GeV/c(Plab) are discussed. Also discussed is a package of computer programs and data bases (scattering data, and solution files) through which users can ''explore'' these interactions in great detail; this package is known by the acronym SAID (for Scattering Analysis Interactive Dialin) and is accessible on VAX backup tapes, or by dialin to the VPI computers. The π-n, and k+p interactions will be described as seen through the SAID programs. A procedure will be described for generating an interpolating array from any of the solutions encoded in SAID; this array can then be used through a fortran callable subroutine (supplied as part of SAID) to give excellent amplitude reconstructions over a broad kinematic range

  16. Infrared laser scattering system for the plasma diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraki, Naoji; Kawasaki, Shoji; Muraoka, Katsunori

    1975-01-01

    As the results of the parametric studies of the double discharge TEA CO 2 laser, the required properties on the laser system for the scattering diagnostics of plasmas are shown to be realized with our CO 2 laser. The direction of the future improvements of the laser performance is also discussed. (auth.)

  17. Mechanical Design of the NSTX High-k Scattering Diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feder, R.; Mazzucato, E.; Munsat, T.; Park, H.; Smith, D.R.; Ellis, R.; Labik, G.; Priniski, C.

    2005-01-01

    The NSTX High-k Scattering Diagnostic measures small-scale density fluctuations by the heterodyne detection of waves scattered from a millimeter wave probe beam at 280 GHz and λ = 1.07 mm. To enable this measurement, major alterations were made to the NSTX vacuum vessel and Neutral Beam armor. Close collaboration between the PPPL physics and engineering staff resulted in a flexible system with steerable launch and detection optics that can position the scattering volume either near the magnetic axis (ρ ∼ .1) or near the edge (ρ ∼ .8). 150 feet of carefully aligned corrugated waveguide was installed for injection of the probe beam and collection of the scattered signal in to the detection electronics

  18. Mechanical Design of the NSTX High-k Scattering Diagnostic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feder, R.; Mazzucato, E.; Munsat, T.; Park, H,; Smith, D. R.; Ellis, R.; Labik, G.; Priniski, C.

    2005-09-26

    The NSTX High-k Scattering Diagnostic measures small-scale density fluctuations by the heterodyne detection of waves scattered from a millimeter wave probe beam at 280 GHz and {lambda}=1.07 mm. To enable this measurement, major alterations were made to the NSTX vacuum vessel and Neutral Beam armor. Close collaboration between the PPPL physics and engineering staff resulted in a flexible system with steerable launch and detection optics that can position the scattering volume either near the magnetic axis ({rho} {approx} .1) or near the edge ({rho} {approx} .8). 150 feet of carefully aligned corrugated waveguide was installed for injection of the probe beam and collection of the scattered signal in to the detection electronics.

  19. Design of new Thomson scattering diagnostic system on COMPASS tokamak

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bílková, Petra; Aftanas, Milan; Böhm, Petr; Weinzettl, Vladimír; Šesták, David; Melich, Radek; Stöckel, Jan; Scannell, R.; Walsh, M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 623, č. 2 (2010), s. 656-659 ISSN 0168-9002. [International Conference on Frontiers in Diagnostic Technologies/1st./. Frascati, 25.11.2009-27.11.2009] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/09/1467; GA ČR GD202/08/H057 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Thomson scattering * Laser diagnostic * Electron temperature * Electron density Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.142, year: 2010 www.elsevier.com/locate/nima

  20. Optical design of the TMX Thomson Scattering Diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, A.M.

    1979-01-01

    The Thomson Scattering Diagnostic on TMX was built to measure the electron temperature in the plug. The design was based on the 2XII system built by Tom Simonen. Substantial improvements were realized over the original design, these include: (1) improved sensitivity, (2) simultaneous multiple position sampling, (3) multiple pulse capability, (4) achromatic imaging, (5) vacuum alignment capability, (6) high reliability, and (7) built in calibration and performance monitoring

  1. X-ray scatter data for diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dick, C.E.; Soares, C.G.; Motz, J.W.

    1978-01-01

    The ratio of the scattered to the total X-ray fluence (scatter fraction) at the centre of the image plane for X-rays transmitted through polystyrene phantoms has been measured for X-ray energies of 32 and 69 keV, X-ray beam diameters from 4 to 40 cm, phantom thicknesses from 5 to 30 cm and phantom-to-image-plane separations from 0.3 to 40 cm. The experimental values for this ratio have less than a 10% variation for these two X-ray energies and the experimental data show good agreement with Monte Carlo calculations and available experimental results for low atomic number materials. Based on these results, simple curves are generated which give estimates (+ - 10%) of the scatter fraction for all combinations of the geometric parameters encountered in diagnostic radiology. (author)

  2. Gated integrator PXI-DAQ system for Thomson scattering diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Kiran, E-mail: kkpatel@ipr.res.in; Pillai, Vishal; Singh, Neha; Thomas, Jinto; Kumar, Ajai

    2017-06-15

    Gated Integrator (GI) PXI based data acquisition (DAQ) system has been designed and developed for the ease of acquiring fast Thomson Scattered signals (∼50 ns pulse width). The DAQ system consists of in-house designed and developed GI modules and PXI-1405 chassis with several PXI-DAQ modules. The performance of the developed system has been validated during the SST-1 campaigns. The dynamic range of the GI module depends on the integrating capacitor (C{sub i}) and the modules have been calibrated using 12 pF and 27 pF integrating capacitors. The developed GI module based data acquisition system consists of sixty four channels for simultaneous sampling using eight PXI based digitization modules having eight channels per module. The error estimation and functional tests of this unit are carried out using standard source and also with the fast detectors used for Thomson scattering diagnostics. User friendly Graphical User Interface (GUI) has been developed using LabVIEW on Windows platform to control and acquire the Thomson scattering signal. A robust, easy to operate and maintain with low power consumption, having higher dynamic range with very good sensitivity and cost effective DAQ system is developed and tested for the SST-1 Thomson scattering diagnostics.

  3. Thomson scattering diagnostic for the Microwave Tokamak Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foote, J.H.; Barter, J.D.; Sewall, N.R.; Jolly, J.J.; Schlander, L.F.

    1990-01-01

    The Thomson-scattering diagnostic system (TSS) on the Microwave Tokamak Experiment (MTX) at LLNL routinely monitors electron temperature (T e ) and density. Typical measured values at the plasma center under clean conditions are 900 ± 70 eV and 1 to 2 x 10 14 (±30%) cm -3 . The TSS apparatus is compact, with all elements mounted on one sturdy, two-level optics table. Because of this, we maintain with minimum effort the alignment of both the ruby-laser input optics and the scattered-light collecting optics. Undesired background signals, e.g., plasma light as well as ruby-laser light scattered off obstacles and walls, are generally small compared with the Thomson-scattered signals we normally detect. In the MTX T e region, the TSS data are definitely fitted better when relativistic effects are included in the equations. Besides determining the temperature of the Maxwellian electron distribution, the system is designed to detect electron heating from GW-level free-electron laser (FEL) pulses by measuring large wavelength shifts of the scattered laser photons. TSS data suggest that we may indeed by able to detect these electrons, which can have energies up to 10 keV, according to computer simulation. 7 refs., 4 figs

  4. Thomson scattering diagnostic for the microwave tokamak experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foote, J.H.; Barter, J.D.; Sewall, N.R.; Jolly, J.J.; Schlander, L.F.

    1990-01-01

    The Thomson scattering diagnostic system (TSS) on the microwave tokamak experiment (MTX) at LLNL routinely monitors electron temperature (T e ) and density. Typical measured values at the plasma center under clean conditions are 900±70 eV and 1--2x10 14 (±30%) cm -3 . The TSS apparatus is compact, with all elements mounted on one sturdy, two-level optics table. Because of this, we maintain with minimum effort the alignment of both the ruby-laser input optics and the scattered-light collecting optics. Undesired background signals, e.g., plasma light as well as ruby-laser light scattered off obstacles and walls, are generally small compared with the Thomson-scattered signals we normally detect. In the MTX T e region, the TSS data are definitely fitted better when relativistic effects are included in the equations. Besides determining the temperature of the Maxwellian electron distribution, the system is designed to detect electron heating from GW-level free-electron laser (FEL) pulses by measuring large wavelength shifts of the scattered laser photons. TSS data suggest that we may indeed be able to detect these electrons, which can have energies up to 10 keV, according to computer simulation

  5. TFTR 60 GHz alpha particle collective Thomson Scattering diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machuzak, J.S.; Woskov, P.P.; Gilmore, J.; Bretz, N.L.; Park, H.K.; Bindslev, H.

    1995-03-01

    A 60 GHz gyrotron collective Thomson Scattering alpha particle diagnostic has been implemented for the D-T period on TFM. Gyrotron power of 0.1-1 kW in pulses of up to 1 second can be launched in X-mode. Efficient corrugated waveguides are used with antennaes and vacuum windows of the TFTR Microwave Scattering system. A multichannel synchronous detector receiver system and spectrum analyzer acquire the scattered signals. A 200 Megasample/sec digitizer is used to resolve fine structure in the frequency spectrum. By scattering nearly perpendicular to the magnetic field, this experiment will take advantage of an enhancement of the scattered signal which results from the interaction of the alpha particles with plasma resonances in the lower hybrid frequency range. Significant enhancements are expected, which will make these measurements possible with gyrotron power less than 1 kW, while maintaining an acceptable signal to noise ratio. We hope to extract alpha particle density and velocity distribution functions from the data. The D and T fuel densities and temperatures may also be obtainable by measurement of the respective ion cyclotron harmonic frequencies

  6. Anti-scatter grids, applied in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porubszky, T.

    2012-01-01

    During imaging in diagnostic radiology, X-ray beam is scattered on all media between X-ray source and X-ray image receptor. The most important one from these is the patient itself. Scattered radiation, reaching X-ray image receptor - which may be even 5-6 times more intensive than X-ray pattern, in case of pelvis of a corpulent patient - reduces image contrast, impairs detail visibility and, moreover - in case of examinations during which staff stays in the controlled area, it causes radiation exposure of the staff. For diminishing scattered radiation, in principle, there are two possibilities. One of them is the so-called air gap, i.e. increasing the distance between the patient and the X-ray image receptor; however, because of the geometric magnification it is not always applicable or appropriate. The other way is application of anti-scatter grids directly in front of the X-ray image receptor. Interest of the patient is firstly the image, appropriate for diagnosis, and only after it the possible lowest radiation exposure. In most cases radiation exposure is optimized if image quality impairing effect of scattered radiation is decreased, although entrance skin dose and so radiation exposure of the patient may increase then by a factor of 2 to 5. Examinations of babies and small children as well as extremities, however, are exceptions: in these cases antiscatter grids are to be removed from the beam as amount of scattered radiation is very small, therefore optimizing radiation exposure in these cases reached by examination without grid. The presentation deals with the most important characteristics of anti-scatter grids as new edition of their international standard will be published next year. (author)

  7. Superscaling analyses, lepton scattering and nucleon momentum distribution in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonov, A.; Ivanov, M.; Gaidarov, M.; Caballero, J.A.; Barbaro, M.; Moya de Guerra, E.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper the following items have been presented: 1) Nucleon momentum distribution from the superscaling analyses of the QE scattering of electrons; 2) CDFM scaling functions in the QE- and _-regions; 3) Charge-changing neutrino scattering from nuclei in the QE- and –region and 4) Neutral current neutrino scattering from nuclei in the QE-region. At the end the following conclusions have been made: 1) 1 It is pointed out that f (ψ') for ψ' < -1 depends on the particular form of the power-law asymptotics of n(k) at large k and thus, is informative for the in-medium NN forces around the core. 2) The total f(ψ), the longitudinal f_L(ψ) and the transverse f_T(ψ) scaling functions are calculated within a new, more general approach within the Coherent Density Fluctuation Model (CDFM_I_I) by taking as starting point the hadronic tensor and the L- and T- response functions in the RFG model. 3) The approach leads to a slight violation of the zero-kind scaling [f_L(ψ)≠f_T(ψ)] in contrast with the situation in the RFG and CDFM_I models. It is found that the ratio f_L(ψ)/f_T(ψ) in the CDFM_I_I has similarities with that from the RPWIA approach (with Lorentz gauge) for positive ψ. 4) At q≳0:7 GeV/c the CDFM_I_I scaling function exhibits scaling of first kind and has a saturation of its asymptotic behavior. 5) The CDFM scaling functions are applied to calculate cross sections of inclusive electron scattering in the quasielastic and Δ-regions for nuclei with 12≤A≤208 at different energies and angles. The results are in agreement with available experimental data, especially in the QE region. 6) The CDFM scaling functions are applied to calculate charge-changing neutrino (antineutrino) scattering and also QE scattering via the weak neutral current on "1"2C at 1÷2 GeV incident energy.

  8. Beam-guiding system for Rutherford-scattering diagnostic at TEXTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosler, A; Bertschinger, G.; Kemmereit, E.; Ven, H.W. van der; Barbian, E.P.; Blokland, A.A.E. van

    1988-01-01

    A beam-guiding system for a neutral beam probe diagnostic has been developed for implementation at TEXTOR. Energetic helium atoms scattered on the plasma ions provide information about the local ion temperature. Time resolution is attained by sampling scattered particles measured individually by a time-of-flight analyser. The mechanical supports have been designed for lateral and angular movement of the beam-guiding system to be used for radial scanning of the torus and for optimization of the scattering angle. The parameters of the probing beam itself can be controlled jby a small beam profile diagnsotic. Provisions are made to observe separately the radial or axial component of the ion velocity distribution. (author). 10 refs.; 7 figs

  9. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering and spontaneous Raman scattering diagnostics of nonequilibrium plasmas and flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lempert, Walter R.; Adamovich, Igor V.

    2014-10-01

    The paper provides an overview of the use of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) and spontaneous Raman scattering for diagnostics of low-temperature nonequilibrium plasmas and nonequilibrium high-enthalpy flows. A brief review of the theoretical background of CARS, four-wave mixing and Raman scattering, as well as a discussion of experimental techniques and data reduction, are included. The experimental results reviewed include measurements of vibrational level populations, rotational/translational temperature, electric fields in a quasi-steady-state and transient molecular plasmas and afterglow, in nonequilibrium expansion flows, and behind strong shock waves. Insight into the kinetics of vibrational energy transfer, energy thermalization mechanisms and dynamics of the pulse discharge development, provided by these experiments, is discussed. Availability of short pulse duration, high peak power lasers, as well as broadband dye lasers, makes possible the use of these diagnostics at relatively low pressures, potentially with a sub-nanosecond time resolution, as well as obtaining single laser shot, high signal-to-noise spectra at higher pressures. Possibilities for the development of single-shot 2D CARS imaging and spectroscopy, using picosecond and femtosecond lasers, as well as novel phase matching and detection techniques, are discussed.

  10. The possibilities of laser scattering diagnostics in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doebele, H.F.

    1974-01-01

    The laser has opened many new possibilities for plasma diagnostics. Intensive monochromatic light sources with higher precision and better time resolution have helped to improve such well-known techniques as interferometry and Schlieren method. At the same time, the range of applicability was extended into the infrared range. Due to the wave length dependence of the plasma diffraction index, the effects increase approximately lambda in interferometry and approximately lambda 2 in the Schlieren methods. The laser also helped to develop entirely new methods such as utilization of the Faraday effect in the electrons of a plasma in a magnetic field which allows the calculation of the product nsub(e) x B from the rotation of the polarization plane of monochromatic light with linear polarization. Here, too, the effect increases approximately lambda 2 , and measurements have been carried out up to FIR (HCN,337 μ). The best diagnostic possibilities are offered by the Thomson scattering diagnostics. Electron and ion temperatures, electron densities, drift velocities, magnetic fields, wave propagation and dissipation can be measured by this method. (orig./AK) [de

  11. Periodic Thomson scattering diagnostic with 16 spatial channels on ASDEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meisel, D.; Murmann, H.; Roehr, H.; Steuer, K.H.; Becker, G.; Bosch, H.S.; Brocken, H.; Eberhagen, A.; Fussmann, G.; Gehre, O.; Gernhardt, J.; Gierke, G. v.; Glock, E.; Gruber, O.; Haas, G.; Hofmann, J.; Janeschitz, G.; Karger, F.; Klueber, O.; Kornherr, M.; Lackner, K.; Lenoci, M.; Lisitano, G.; Mast, F.; Mayer, H.M.; McCormick, K.; Mertens, V.; Niedermeyer, H.; Poschenrieder, W.; Rapp, H.; Roth, J.; Schneider, F.; Setzensack, C.; Siller, G.; Soeldner, F.X.; Wagner, F.; Zasche, D.; Izvozchikov, A.; Ryter, F.

    1986-01-01

    The Nd-YAG Periodic Scattering System (PSS) was developped in teamwork with IPF of Stuttgart-University. At first a PSS with only one spatial channel was successfully tested in the ASDEX-Tokamak in 1982. Subsequently an upgraded system with 16 spatial channels was constructed. This new system is capable of measuring Te, Ne-profiles at 17 ms intervals during the entire ASDEX-Tokamak-discharge. The PSS has been working successfully for the last one and a half years as a standard diagnostic method in the ASDEX-Tokamak. This means, that the measurement is being automatically performed during all plasma-discharges. The Te- and Ne-values are stored in the ASDEX-computer and every user has the possibility to get the Te(r, t), Ne(r, t)-data for his own needs. (orig.)

  12. Control and acquisition for MAST Thomson scattering diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibaev, S.; Naylor, G.; Scannell, R.; McArdle, G.; O'Gorman, T.; Walsh, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    The MAST (mega-amp spherical tokamak) Thomson scattering (TS) diagnostics have been radically upgraded and expanded. Eight 30 Hz 1.6 J Nd:YAG lasers have been combined to produce a sampling rate of 240 Hz. The scattered signals are acquired by two spectrometer systems: core and edge. The core system has been built anew: collection optics, polychromators, digitizers, and control computers. It allows measurement of electron temperature and density at 130 spatial points with ∼10 mm resolution across the plasma. The Nd:YAG scattered light signals are registered in 650 channels as polychromator outputs; each channel is registered on two ADCs: at 1 GHz rate in a short interval around each laser pulse and at 100 kHz for background data. The fast ADCs are combined in 26 data acquisition units. Each unit is assembled in a 6 U PXI chassis with embedded controller and six 4-channel 1 GHz ADC cards. Some chassis contain a 96-channel slow ADC card with Ethernet control. The Ruby TS has been rebuilt with a new spectrometer and CCD camera to provide higher spatial resolution - 512 points; the laser has been modified to add double pulse capability. A new control and acquisition system has been developed; it has modular design allowing flexibility and seamless expansion. The system supports event-triggered and real-time operation (will be added in a later stage). A smart trigger device has been developed for TS timing and synchronisation. It provides complex pulse sequences for laser firing with resynchronisation on a number of digital and analogue inputs including plasma events. This device also triggers TS acquisition. The system is integrated by a TS master process running on the dedicated computer; it is represented as a standard MAST data acquisition unit. The Ruby TS is also implemented as a standard MAST unit linked with the Nd:YAG TS by MAST system services.

  13. Diagnostic Comparison of Meteorological Analyses during the 2002 Antarctic Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manney, Gloria L.; Allen, Douglas R.; Kruger, Kirstin; Naujokat, Barbara; Santee, Michelle L.; Sabutis, Joseph L.; Pawson, Steven; Swinbank, Richard; Randall, Cora E.; Simmons, Adrian J.; hide

    2005-01-01

    Several meteorological datasets, including U.K. Met Office (MetO), European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), and NASA's Goddard Earth Observation System (GEOS-4) analyses, are being used in studies of the 2002 Southern Hemisphere (SH) stratospheric winter and Antarctic major warming. Diagnostics are compared to assess how these studies may be affected by the meteorological data used. While the overall structure and evolution of temperatures, winds, and wave diagnostics in the different analyses provide a consistent picture of the large-scale dynamics of the SH 2002 winter, several significant differences may affect detailed studies. The NCEP-NCAR reanalysis (REAN) and NCEP-Department of Energy (DOE) reanalysis-2 (REAN-2) datasets are not recommended for detailed studies, especially those related to polar processing, because of lower-stratospheric temperature biases that result in underestimates of polar processing potential, and because their winds and wave diagnostics show increasing differences from other analyses between similar to 30 and 10 hPa (their top level). Southern Hemisphere polar stratospheric temperatures in the ECMWF 40-Yr Re-analysis (ERA-40) show unrealistic vertical structure, so this long-term reanalysis is also unsuited for quantitative studies. The NCEP/Climate Prediction Center (CPC) objective analyses give an inferior representation of the upper-stratospheric vortex. Polar vortex transport barriers are similar in all analyses, but there is large variation in the amount, patterns, and timing of mixing, even among the operational assimilated datasets (ECMWF, MetO, and GEOS-4). The higher-resolution GEOS-4 and ECMWF assimilations provide significantly better representation of filamentation and small-scale structure than the other analyses, even when fields gridded at reduced resolution are studied. The choice of which analysis to use is most critical for detailed transport

  14. The spectrometer of the High-Resolution Multi position Thomson Scattering Diagnostic for TJ-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herranz, J.; Barth, C. J.; Castejon, F.; Lopez-Sanchez, A.; Mirones, E.; Pastor, I.; Perez, D.; Rodriguez, C.

    2001-01-01

    Since 1998, a high-resolution multiposition thompson scattering system is in operation at the stellarator TJ-II, combining high accuracy and excellent spatial resolution. A description of the diagnostic spectrometer is presented. The main characteristics of the spectrometer that allow YJ-II Thomson scattering diagnostic to have high spatial and spectral resolution are described in this paper. (Author)

  15. Design of a Thomson scattering diagnostic system for VEST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young-Gi [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong Ha [National Fusion Research Institute, Gwahangno 113, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeongwon; An, YoungHwa; Dang, Jeong Jeung; Jo, Jungmin; Lee, HyunYeong; Chung, Kyoung-Jae; Hwang, Y.S. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Na, Yong-Su, E-mail: ysna@snu.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • A Thomson scattering system for Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus is designed. • The system is designed with care for the plasma with a low target electron density. • APD of low dark current and enhanced sensitivity for near infrared has been chosen. • A collecting optics system will provide a sufficient number of photoelectrons. • A designed polychromator is able to measure the electron temperature of 10–1000 eV. - Abstract: A Thomson scattering diagnostic system is designed for Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus (VEST) to measure the spatial profiles of the electron temperature. The system is carefully designed to collect a sufficient number of photoelectrons and to reduce the noise sources, since relatively low electron densities and temperatures are expected in VEST due to the limited power capacity at present. The target electron temperature and the density are 10–200 eV and 5 × 10{sup 18} m{sup −3}, respectively which are extrapolated from the data of triple Langmuir probes measuring the edge plasma parameters at R = 0.75 m by assuming a parabolic density profile. The collecting optics is designed to have a wide-view angle and low cost by using a commercial photographic lens of low f-number and high transmittance optical fiber bundle. The bandwidths of the interference filters in the polychromator are designed for reliable measurements within the target electron temperature range. As a photo detector which is coupled with the filters, an avalanche photodiode (APD) with a low dark current and an adequate quantum efficiency near the laser wavelength is selected for the high signal-to-noise ratio. The number of photons transferred to the polychromator and the number of photoelectrons in the APD are calculated. At the commissioning phase, an oscilloscope with a high sampling rate will be adopted to check the necessity of the noise reduction by multi-shot signal accumulation.

  16. Expansions for model-independent analyses of inelastic electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, D.F.; Hilton, J.M.; Roberts, A.C.M.

    1977-01-01

    It is noted that the commonly-used Fourier-Bessel expansion for the transition density for inelastic electron scattering depends sensitively on an arbitrary parameter and is not realistic at large distances. Alternative expansions are suggested. (author)

  17. Eikonal phase shift analyses of carbon-carbon scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townsend, L.W.; Bidasaria, H.B.; Wilson, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    A high-energy double-folding optical potential approximation to the exact nucleus-nucleus multiple-scattering series is used to determine eikonal phase shifts for carbon-carbon scattering at 204.2, 242.7, and 288.6 MeV. The double-folding potentials are obtained by folding the energy-dependent free nucleon-nucleon interaction with densities for the projectile and target obtained by unfolding the finite nucleon charge density from harmonic-well carbon charge distributions. The charge parameters for the latter are taken from the results of electron scattering experiments. Predictions for total, reaction, and elastic differential cross sections, using standard partial wave analysis for the scattering of identical particles, are made and compared with recent experimental results. Excellent agreement is obtained although there are no arbitrarily adjusted parameters in the theory

  18. Graphical analyses of connected-kernel scattering equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picklesimer, A.

    1982-10-01

    Simple graphical techniques are employed to obtain a new (simultaneous) derivation of a large class of connected-kernel scattering equations. This class includes the Rosenberg, Bencze-Redish-Sloan, and connected-kernel multiple scattering equations as well as a host of generalizations of these and other equations. The graphical method also leads to a new, simplified form for some members of the class and elucidates the general structural features of the entire class

  19. Analysing power for quasi-elastic pp scattering in carbon and for elastic pp scattering on free protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bystricky, J.; Deregel, J.; Lehar, F.

    1984-01-01

    The ratio of the analysing powers for quasi-elastic pp scattering in carbon and for elastic scattering on free protons was measured from T = 0.52 to 2.8 GeV by scattering of the SATURNE II polarized proton beam on carbon and CH 2 . It was found to have a maximum at about 0.8 GeV. The energy dependence for quasi-elastic scattering on carbon had not been measured before above 1 GeV. The observed effect was not expected from simple models

  20. Beam Diagnostics for Laser Undulator Based on Compton Backward Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Kuroda, R

    2005-01-01

    A compact soft X-ray source is required in various research fields such as material and biological science. The laser undulator based on Compton backward scattering has been developed as a compact soft X-ray source for the biological observation at Waseda University. It is performed in a water window region (250eV - 500 eV) using the interaction between 1047 nm Nd:YLF laser (10ps FWHM) and about 5 MeV high quality electron beam (10ps FWHM) generated from rf gun system. The range of X-ray energy in the water window region has K-shell absorption edges of Oxygen, Carbon and Nitrogen, which mainly constitute of living body. Since the absorption coefficient of water is much smaller than the protein's coefficient in this range, a dehydration of the specimens is not necessary. To generate the soft X-ray pulse stably, the electron beam diagnostics have been developed such as the emittance measurement using double slit scan technique, the bunch length measurement using two frequency analysis technique. In this confere...

  1. Alignment of the Thomson scattering diagnostic on NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeBlanc, B P; Diallo, A

    2013-01-01

    The Thomson scattering diagnostic can provide profile measurement of the electron temperature, T e , and density, n e , in plasmas. Proper laser beam path and optics arrangement permits profiles T e (R) and n e (R) measurement along the major radius R. Keeping proper alignment between the laser beam path and the collection optics is necessary for an accurate determination of the electron density. As time progresses the relative position of the collection optics field of view with respect to the laser beam path will invariably shift. This can be kept to a minimum by proper attention to the physical arrangement of the collection and laser-beam delivery optics. A system has been in place to monitor the relative position between laser beam and collection optics. Variation of the alignment can be detected before it begins to affect the quality of the profile data. This paper discusses details of the instrumentation and techniques used to maintain alignment during NSTX multi-month experimental campaigns

  2. Graphical analyses of connected-kernel scattering equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picklesimer, A.

    1983-01-01

    Simple graphical techniques are employed to obtain a new (simultaneous) derivation of a large class of connected-kernel scattering equations. This class includes the Rosenberg, Bencze-Redish-Sloan, and connected-kernel multiple scattering equations as well as a host of generalizations of these and other equations. The basic result is the application of graphical methods to the derivation of interaction-set equations. This yields a new, simplified form for some members of the class and elucidates the general structural features of the entire class

  3. Applications of phase conjugate mirror to Thomson scattering diagnostics (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatae, T.; Naito, O.; Nakatsuka, M.; Yoshida, H.

    2006-01-01

    A high performance phase conjugate mirror based on stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS-PCM) has been applied to the Thomson scattering system in the JT-60U tokamak for the first time in order to improve the measurement performance. A SBS-PCM realized a high reflectivity of 95% at a high input power of 145 W (2.9 J, 50 Hz). Using the SBS-PCM, two methods have been developed to increase the intensity of scattered light. For the first method, we have developed a new optical design to provide a double-pass scattering method with the SBS-PCM. A laser beam passing through the plasma is reflected by the SBS-PCM. The reflected beam passes the plasma again along the same path by means of the phase conjugation of the optically nonlinear stimulated Brillouin scattering process. The double-pass Thomson scattering method using the SBS-PCM has demonstrated an increase of the scattered light by a factor of 1.6 compared with the single-pass scattering method in JT-60U. A multipass Thomson scattering method in which the laser beam can be confined between a couple of SBS-PCMs is also proposed. It is estimated that the multipass scattering method generates the scattered light more than several times as large as that of the single-pass scattering method. For the second method, a high-average-power yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser system has been developed using the SBS-PCM. The SBS-PCM effectively compensated thermal degradation at two amplifier lines, and the average power was increased by a factor of >8 from 45 W (1.5 J, 30 Hz) to 373 W (7.46 J, 50 Hz). A Nd:YAG laser (5 J, 100 Hz) for the edge Thomson scattering in International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) has been designed based on the result

  4. A Thomson scattering diagnostic to measure fast ion and α-particle distributions in JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costley, A.E.; Hoekzema, J.A.; Stott, P.E.; Watkins, M.L.

    1988-01-01

    The paper presents the findings of a feasibility investigation into the proposed Thomson scattering diagnostic to measure fast ion and α-particle distributions in JET. A description is given of the motivation for alpha particle diagnostics on JET, followed by a brief survey of possible α-particle diagnostics for JET. The basic principles of the collective Thomson scattering technique are presented, along with its implementation on JET. The expected performance of the system, and other applications of the diagnostic system are also discussed. (U.K.)

  5. On model-independent analyses of elastic hadron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avila, R.F.; Campos, S.D.; Menon, M.J.; Montanha, J.

    2007-01-01

    By means of an almost model-independent parametrization for the elastic hadron-hadron amplitude, as a function of the energy and the momentum transfer, we obtain good descriptions of the physical quantities that characterize elastic proton-proton and antiproton-proton scattering (total cross section, r parameter and differential cross section). The parametrization is inferred on empirical grounds and selected according to high energy theorems and limits from axiomatic quantum field theory. Based on the predictive character of the approach we present predictions for the above physical quantities at the Brookhaven RHIC, Fermilab Tevatron and CERN LHC energies. (author)

  6. First 50 pps Thomson scattering diagnostics in a tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roehr, H.; Schramm, G.; Steuer, K.H.; Hirsch, K.; Salzmann, H.

    1981-12-01

    Electron temperature and density measurements by Thomson scattering were performed for the first time for the whole duration of a tokamak discharge. A 50 pps Nd:YAG laser at 1.06 μm was used in ASDEX in combination with Si avalanche photodiode detectors. Density calibration was done by rotational anti-Stokes Raman scattering from hydrogen. The system is used for measurements at electron densities of as low as 2 x 10 12 cm -3 . (orig.)

  7. The simple analytical method for scattered radiation calculation in contrast X-ray diagnostic techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markovic, S; Pavlovic, R [Inst. of Nuclear Science Vinca, Belgrade (Yugoslavia). Radiation and Environmental Protection Lab.; Boreli, F [Fac. of Electrical Engineering, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1996-12-31

    In realization of radiation protection measures for medical staff present during diagnostic procedures, the necessary condition is knowledge of the space - energy distributions of the scattered radiation from the patient. In this paper, the simple calculation procedure for the scattered radiation field of the actual diagnostic energies is presented. Starting from the single Compton scattering model and using the justified transformations the final equations in elementary form are derived. For numerical calculations the computer code ANGIO was created. The calculated results were confirmed by detailed dosimetric measurements of the scattered field around patient (the water phantom) in SSDL in the Institute of nuclear sciences `Vinca`, Belgrade. These results are good base for assessment of irradiation. The main irradiation source for the physician and the other members of the medical team is the back scattered radiation from patient - albedo. (author). 3 figs., 3 refs.

  8. Analysis of Scattered Radiation Influence on Detectability in Diagnostic Radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurvich, V [ALVIM R and D Ltd., P.O.B. 801 Jerusalem 91007 (Israel); Manevich, I [Jerusalem College of Technology, 21 Havaad Haleumi St. P.O.B. 16031, Jerusalem 91160 (Israel)

    1994-12-31

    The calculation of holes detectability in tissue equivalent materials on a X-ray image is implemented. In the calculation various values of scatter accumulation factor are used. The obtained results confirmed by experimental data may be useful for choice of physics-technical conditions of X-ray examination. (authors). 7 refs, 1 fig, 1 tab.

  9. Simulated performance of the optical Thomson scattering diagnostic designed for the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, J. S., E-mail: ross36@llnl.gov; Datte, P.; Divol, L.; Galbraith, J.; Hatch, B.; Landen, O.; Manuel, A. M.; Molander, W.; Moody, J. D.; Swadling, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Froula, D. H.; Katz, J. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Glenzer, S. H. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Kilkenny, J. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92186 (United States); Montgomery, D. S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Weaver, J. [Plasma Physics Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    An optical Thomson scattering diagnostic has been designed for the National Ignition Facility to characterize under-dense plasmas. We report on the design of the system and the expected performance for different target configurations. The diagnostic is designed to spatially and temporally resolve the Thomson scattered light from laser driven targets. The diagnostic will collect scattered light from a 50 × 50 × 200 μm volume. The optical design allows operation with different probe laser wavelengths. A deep-UV probe beam (λ{sub 0} = 210 nm) will be used to Thomson scatter from electron plasma densities of ∼5 × 10{sup 20} cm{sup −3} while a 3ω probe will be used for plasma densities of ∼1 × 10{sup 19} cm{sup −3}. The diagnostic package contains two spectrometers: the first to resolve Thomson scattering from ion acoustic wave fluctuations and the second to resolve scattering from electron plasma wave fluctuations. Expected signal levels relative to background will be presented for typical target configurations (hohlraums and a planar foil).

  10. A simple, high performance Thomson scattering diagnostic for high temperature plasma research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartog, D.J.D.; Cekic, M.

    1994-02-01

    This Thomson scattering diagnostic is used to measure the electron temperature and density of the plasma in the MST reversed-field pinch, a magnetic confinement fusion research device. This diagnostic system is unique for its type in that it combines high performance with simple design and low cost components. In the design of this instrument, careful attention was given to the suppression of stray laser line light with simple and effective beam dumps, viewing dumps, aperatures, and a holographic edge filter. This allows the use of a single grating monochromator for dispersion of the Thomson scattered spectrum onto the microchannel plate detector. Alignment and calibration procedures for the laser beam delivery system, the scattered light collection system, and the spectrometer and detector are described. A sample Thomson scattered spectrum illustrates typical data

  11. SCATTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broome, J.

    1965-11-01

    The programme SCATTER is a KDF9 programme in the Egtran dialect of Fortran to generate normalized angular distributions for elastically scattered neutrons from data input as the coefficients of a Legendre polynomial series, or from differential cross-section data. Also, differential cross-section data may be analysed to produce Legendre polynomial coefficients. Output on cards punched in the format of the U.K. A. E. A. Nuclear Data Library is optional. (author)

  12. Predicted precision of ion temperature and impurity fractional density measurements using the JET collective scattering diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orsitto, F.

    1992-11-01

    In a previous investigation the possibility of measuring the bulk ion temperature was considered in detail, in the context of the proposed Thomson scattering diagnostic for fast ions and alpha particles in the Joint European Torus project. In this report we give an affirmative answer to the question of whether good precision can be obtained in the simultaneous determination of the temperatures and densities of plasma ions from a collective scattering experiment provided some conditions are satisfied. (Author)

  13. MICROBUNCH TEMPORAL DIAGNOSTIC BY COMPTON SCATTERING IN INTERFERING LASER BEAMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AMATUNI, A.TS.; POGORELSKY, I.V.

    1998-01-01

    The exact solution of the classical nonlinear equation of motion for a relativistic electron in the field of two electromagnetic (EM) waves is obtained. For the particular case of the linearly polarized standing EM wave in the planar optical cavity, the intensity of the nonlinear Compton scattering, the time of flight, and the momentum variation after the relativistic electron passes along the cavity axis are calculated in weak and strong field limits. The extent of these effects depends on the initial phase of the EM wave when the electron enters the cavity. This can be used for the production, diagnosis, and acceleration of relativistic electron (positron) microbunches

  14. Improvement of the bandwidth of the transient digitizers in the LIDAR Thomson scattering diagnostic on JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristensen, E.

    1990-06-01

    The main limitation on the spatial resolution of the LIDAR Thomson scattering diagnostic on the JET tokamak is due to the narrow bandwidth of the detection system. The transient digitizers, Tektronik 7912AD, are the main contributors to the narrow bandwidth. It is shown how the digitizers can be modified to improve the response time from approx. 480 to 410 ps. (author)

  15. Antenna design for fast ion collective Thomson scattering diagnostic for the international thermonuclear experimental reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leipold, Frank; Furtula, Vedran; Salewski, Mirko

    2009-01-01

    Fast ion physics will play an important role for the international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER), where confined alpha particles will affect and be affected by plasma dynamics and thereby have impacts on the overall confinement. A fast ion collective Thomson scattering (CTS) diagnostic...

  16. First operations with the new Collective Thomson Scattering diagnostic on the Frascati Tokamak Upgrade device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bin, W.; Bruschi, A.; D'Arcangelo, O.

    2015-01-01

    Anomalous emissions were found over the last few years in spectra of Collective Thomson Scattering (CTS) diagnostics in tokamak devices such as TEXTOR, ASDEX and FTU, in addition to real CTS signals. The signal frequency, down-shifted with respect to the probing one, suggested a possible origin i...

  17. Recent advances in Thomson scattering: high repetition rate Thomson scattering diagnostics on large plasma devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roehr, H.; Steuer, K.H.; Hirsch, K.; Salzmann, H.

    1982-09-01

    In contrast to conventional ruby laser scattering devices allowing only singly pulse measurements, time evolution of Te and ne can be obtained with multipulse lasers. Within a short time interval ( proportional 1 ms) rapid variations can be investigated by employing a periodically Q-switched ruby laser. Several scattering systems under construction in different laboratories to register the time evolution of Tsub(e) and nsub(e) during the whole plasma discharge will be reported. The set-up operating successfully on the Garching tokamak ASDEX will be described in detail. This scattering system uses a Nd:YAG laser (1 J/pulse, up to 100 pps, pulse duration 30 ns, burst of max. 400 pulses) and silicon avalanche diodes as detectors. Time resolved nsub(e) and Tsub(e) measurements on different types of ASDEX discharges are shown, e.g. the electron density and electron heating during neutral beam injection in a divertor discharge. As an example of relatively fast changes of nsub(e) and Tsub(e), results on pellet injection are presented. Interferometric and ECE measurements are in good agreement with the Thomson results. Stationary ''long pulse discharges'' in ASDEX (10 s) at low densitites (10 12 cm -3 ) were diagnosed with reduced time resolution by averaging over several laser pulses. Measurements of the time evolution of electron temperature and -density profiles were done in a first step with a scanning mirror system. These results enables optimazing out 15 spatial-point Thomson scattering system on ASDEX. (orig./AH)

  18. Laser Thomson Scattering, Raman Scattering and laser-absorption diagnostics of high pressure microdischarges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnelly, Vincent M; Belostotskiy, Sergey G; Economou, Demetre J; Sadeghi, Nader

    2010-01-01

    Laser scattering experiments were performed in high pressure (100s of Torr) parallel-plate, slot-type DC microdischarges operating in argon or nitrogen. Laser Thomson Scattering (LTS) and Rotational Raman Scattering were employed in a novel, backscattering, confocal configuration. LTS allows direct and simultaneous measurement of both electron density (n e ) and electron temperature (T e ). For 50 mA current and over the pressure range of 300 - 700 Torr, LTS yielded T e = 0.9 ± 0.3 eV and n e = (6 ± 3)·10 13 cm -3 , in reasonable agreement with the predictions of a mathematical model. Rotational Raman spectroscopy (RRS) was employed for absolute calibration of the LTS signal. RRS was also applied to measure the 3D gas temperature (T g ) in nitrogen DC microdischarges. In addition, diode laser absorption spectroscopy was employed to measure the density of argon metastables (1s5 in Paschen notations) in argon microdischarges. The gas temperature, extracted from the width of the absorption profile, was compared with T g values obtained by optical emission spectroscopy.

  19. Development of a neural network technique for KSTAR Thomson scattering diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Hun, E-mail: leesh81@nfri.re.kr; Lee, J. H. [National Fusion Research Institute, 169-148 Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34133 (Korea, Republic of); Yamada, I. [National Institute Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Park, Jae Sun [Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34141 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    Neural networks provide powerful approaches of dealing with nonlinear data and have been successfully applied to fusion plasma diagnostics and control systems. Controlling tokamak plasmas in real time is essential to measure the plasma parameters in situ. However, the χ{sup 2} method traditionally used in Thomson scattering diagnostics hampers real-time measurement due to the complexity of the calculations involved. In this study, we applied a neural network approach to Thomson scattering diagnostics in order to calculate the electron temperature, comparing the results to those obtained with the χ{sup 2} method. The best results were obtained for 10{sup 3} training cycles and eight nodes in the hidden layer. Our neural network approach shows good agreement with the χ{sup 2} method and performs the calculation twenty times faster.

  20. Toward development of a surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-based cancer diagnostic immunoassay panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granger, Jennifer H; Granger, Michael C; Firpo, Matthew A; Mulvihill, Sean J; Porter, Marc D

    2013-01-21

    Proteomic analyses of readily obtained human fluids (e.g., serum, urine, and saliva) indicate that the diagnosis of complex diseases will be enhanced by the simultaneous measurement of multiple biomarkers from such samples. This paper describes the development of a nanoparticle-based multiplexed platform that has the potential for simultaneous read-out of large numbers of biomolecules. For this purpose, we have chosen pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PA) as a test bed for diagnosis and prognosis. PA is a devastating form of cancer in which an estimated 86% of diagnoses resulted in death in the United States in 2010. The high mortality rate is due, in part, to the asymptomatic development of the disease and the dearth of sensitive diagnostics available for early detection. One promising route lies in the development of a serum biomarker panel that can generate a signature unique to early stage PA. We describe the design and development of a proof-of-concept PA biomarker immunoassay array coupled with surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) as a sensitive readout method.

  1. Development of an ejecta particle size measurement diagnostic based on Mie scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schauer, Martin Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Buttler, William Tillman [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Frayer, Daniel K. [National Security Tech, Inc., Los Alamos, NM (United States); Grover, Michael [National Security Technologies, Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Special Technologies Lab.; Monfared, Shabnam Kalighi [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stevens, Gerald D. [National Security Technologies, Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Special Technologies Lab.; Stone, Benjamin J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Turley, William Dale [National Security Technologies, Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Special Technologies Lab.

    2017-09-27

    The goal of this work is to determine the feasibility of extracting the size of particles ejected from shocked metal surfaces (ejecta) from the angular distribution of light scattered by a cloud of such particles. The basis of the technique is the Mie theory of scattering, and implicit in this approach are the assumptions that the scattering particles are spherical and that single scattering conditions prevail. The meaning of this latter assumption, as far as experimental conditions are concerned, will become clear later. The solution to Maxwell’s equations for spherical particles illuminated by a plane electromagnetic wave was derived by Gustav Mie more than 100 years ago, but several modern treatises discuss this solution in great detail. The solution is a complicated series expansion of the scattered electric field, as well as the field within the particle, from which the total scattering and absorption cross sections as well as the angular distribution of scattered intensity can be calculated numerically. The detailed nature of the scattering is determined by the complex index of refraction of the particle material as well as the particle size parameter, x, which is the product of the wavenumber of the incident light and the particle radius, i.e. x = 2rπ= λ. Figure 1 shows the angular distribution of scattered light for different particle size parameters and two orthogonal incident light polarizations as calculated using the Mie solution. It is obvious that the scattering pattern is strongly dependent on the particle size parameter, becoming more forward-directed and less polarizationdependent as the particle size parameter increases. This trend forms the basis for the diagnostic design.

  2. Partial-wave analyses of hadron scattering below 2 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arndt, R.A.; Roper, L.D.

    1991-01-01

    The Center for Analysis of Particle Scattering (CAPS) in the Department of Physics at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University has analyzed basic two-body hadron reactions below 2 GeV for the last two decades. Reactions studied were nucleon-nucleon, pion-nucleon, K + -nucleon and pion photoproduction systems. In addition to analyses of these systems, a computer graphics system (SAID) has been developed and disseminated to over 250 research institutions using VAX computers. The computer-interactive system for disseminating information on basic scattering reactions is also accessible to the physics community through TELNET on the VPI ampersand SU physics department VAX. 6 refs

  3. DIII-D Thomson Scattering Diagnostic Data Acquisition, Processing and Analysis Software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middaugh, K.R.; Bray, B.D.; Hsieh, C.L.; McHarg, B.B.Jr.; Penaflor, B.G.

    1999-01-01

    One of the diagnostic systems critical to the success of the DIII-D tokamak experiment is the Thomson scattering diagnostic. This diagnostic is unique in that it measures local electron temperature and density: (1) at multiple locations within the tokamak plasma; and (2) at different times throughout the plasma duration. Thomson ''raw'' data are digitized signals of scattered light, measured at different times and locations, from the laser beam paths fired into the plasma. Real-time acquisition of this data is performed by specialized hardware. Once obtained, the raw data are processed into meaningful temperature and density values which can be analyzed for measurement quality. This paper will provide an overview of the entire Thomson scattering diagnostic software and will focus on the data acquisition, processing, and analysis software implementation. The software falls into three general categories: (1) Set-up and Control: Initializes and controls all Thomson hardware and software, synchronizes with other DIII-D computers, and invokes other Thomson software as appropriate. (2) Data Acquisition and Processing: Obtains raw measured data from memory and processes it into temperature and density values. (3) Analysis: Provides a graphical user interface in which to perform analysis and sophisticated plotting of analysis parameters

  4. Edge Thomson scattering diagnostic on COMPASS tokamak: Installation, calibration,operation, improvements

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Böhm, Petr; Aftanas, Milan; Bílková, Petra; Štefániková, Estera; Mikulín, Ondřej; Melich, Radek; Janky, Filip; Havlíček, Josef; Šesták, David; Weinzettl, Vladimír; Stöckel, Jan; Hron, Martin; Pánek, Radomír; Scannell, R.; Frassinetti, L.; Fassina, A.; Naylor, G.; Walsh, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 85, č. 11 (2014), 11E431-11E431 ISSN 0034-6748. [Topical Conference on High-Temperature Plasma Diagnostics/20./. Atlanta, Georgia, 01.06.2014-05.06.2014] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011021; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-35260S Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : plasma * tokamak * pedestal * Thomson scattering * diagnostic Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.614, year: 2014 http://scitation.aip.org/content/aip/journal/rsi/85/11/10.1063/1.4893995

  5. Conceptual design of a divertor Thomson scattering diagnostic for NSTX-U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLean, A. G., E-mail: mclean@fusion.gat.com; Soukhanovskii, V. A.; Allen, S. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Carlstrom, T. N. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); LeBlanc, B. P.; Ono, M.; Stratton, B. C. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    A conceptual design for a divertor Thomson scattering (DTS) diagnostic has been developed for the NSTX-U device to operate in parallel with the existing multipoint Thomson scattering system. Higher projected peak heat flux in NSTX-U will necessitate application of advanced magnetics geometries and divertor detachment. Interpretation and modeling of these divertor scenarios will depend heavily on local measurement of electron temperature, T{sub e}, and density, n{sub e}, which DTS provides in a passive manner. The DTS design for NSTX-U adopts major elements from the successful DIII-D DTS system including 7-channel polychromators measuring T{sub e} to 0.5 eV. If implemented on NSTX-U, the divertor TS system would provide an invaluable diagnostic for the boundary program to characterize the edge plasma.

  6. Optical diagnostics based on elastic scattering: Recent clinical demonstrations with the Los Alamos Optical Biopsy System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigio, I.J.; Loree, T.R.; Mourant, J.; Shimada, T. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Story-Held, K.; Glickman, R.D. [Texas Univ. Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX (United States). Dept. of Ophthalmology; Conn, R. [Lovelace Medical Center, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Urology

    1993-08-01

    A non-invasive diagnostic tool that could identify malignancy in situ and in real time would have a major impact on the detection and treatment of cancer. We have developed and are testing early prototypes of an optical biopsy system (OBS) for detection of cancer and other tissue pathologies. The OBS invokes a unique approach to optical diagnosis of tissue pathologies based on the elastic scattering properties, over a wide range of wavelengths, of the microscopic structure of the tissue. The use of elastic scattering as the key to optical tissue diagnostics in the OBS is based on the fact that many tissue pathologies, including a majority of cancer forms, manifest significant architectural changes at the cellular and sub-cellular level. Since the cellular components that cause elastic scattering have dimensions typically on the order of visible to near-IR wavelengths, the elastic (Mie) scattering properties will be strongly wavelength dependent. Thus, morphology and size changes can be expected to cause significant changes in an optical signature that is derived from the wavelength dependence of elastic scattering. The data acquisition and storage/display time with the OBS instrument is {approximately}1 second. Thus, in addition to the reduced invasiveness of this technique compared with current state-of-the-art methods (surgical biopsy and pathology analysis), the OBS offers the possibility of impressively faster diagnostic assessment. The OBS employs a small fiber-optic probe that is amenable to use with any endoscope, catheter or hypodermic, or to direct surface examination (e.g. as in skin cancer or cervical cancer). It has been tested in vitro on animal and human tissue samples, and clinical testing in vivo is currently in progress.

  7. New develops in Thomson scattering diagnostics on the L-2 stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blokh, M.A.; Larionova, N.F.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper, a multichannel plasma diagnostic system employing Thomson scattering is modernized for the L-2 stellarator. A specialized polychromator with a large field of view, high contrast, and transmission is used together with a 16-channel photoelectron recorder. The modernized system makes it possible to measure the electron temperature at three points simultaneously in the plasma column cross-section at a local electron density 3.10 12 cm-3

  8. Measurement of the analysing power of elastic proton-proton scattering at 582 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berdoz, A.; Favier, B.; Foroughi, F.; Weddigen, C.

    1984-01-01

    The authors have measured the analysing power of elastic proton-proton scattering at 582 MeV for 14 angles from 20 to 80 0 CM. The angular range was limited to >20 0 by the energy loss of the recoil protons. The experiment was performed at the PM1 beam line at SIN. A beam intensity of about 10 8 particles s -1 was used. (Auth.)

  9. Partial-wave analyses of hadron scattering below 2 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arndt, R.A.; Roper, L.D.

    1990-01-01

    The Center for Analysis of Particle Scattering (CAPS) in the Department of Physics at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University has analyzed basic two-body hadron reactions below 2 GeV for the last two decades. Reactions studied were nucleon-nucleon, pion-nucleon, K + -nucleon and pion photoproduction systems. In addition to analyses of these systems, a computer graphics system (SAID) has been developed and disseminated to over 200 research institutions using VAX computers. 8 refs

  10. The circuit of polychromator for Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak edge Thomson scattering diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zang, Qing; Zhao, Junyu; Chen, Hui; Li, Fengjuan; Hsieh, C. L.

    2013-01-01

    The detector circuit is the core component of filter polychromator which is used for scattering light analysis in Thomson scattering diagnostic, and is responsible for the precision and stability of a system. High signal-to-noise and stability are primary requirements for the diagnostic. Recently, an upgraded detector circuit for weak light detecting in Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) edge Thomson scattering system has been designed, which can be used for the measurement of large electron temperature (T e ) gradient and low electron density (n e ). In this new circuit, a thermoelectric-cooled avalanche photodiode with the aid circuit is involved for increasing stability and enhancing signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), especially the circuit will never be influenced by ambient temperature. These features are expected to improve the accuracy of EAST Thomson diagnostic dramatically. Related mechanical construction of the circuit is redesigned as well for heat-sinking and installation. All parameters are optimized, and SNR is dramatically improved. The number of minimum detectable photons is only 10

  11. First results from the Thomson scattering diagnostic on proto-MPEX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biewer, T. M., E-mail: biewertm@ornl.gov; Meitner, S.; Rapp, J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Ray, H.; Shaw, G. [Bredesen Center, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    A Thomson scattering (TS) diagnostic has been successfully implemented on the prototype Material Plasma Exposure eXperiment (Proto-MPEX) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The diagnostic collects the light scattered by plasma electrons and spectroscopically resolves the Doppler shift imparted to the light by the velocity of the electrons. The spread in velocities is proportional to the electron temperature, while the total number of photons is proportional to the electron density. TS is a technique used on many devices to measure the electron temperature (T{sub e}) and electron density (n{sub e}) of the plasma. A challenging aspect of the technique is to discriminate the small number of Thomson scattered photons against the large peak of background photons from the high-power laser used to probe the plasma. A variety of methods are used to mitigate the background photons in Proto-MPEX, including Brewster angled windows, viewing dumps, and light baffles. With these methods, first results were measured from argon plasmas in Proto-MPEX, indicating T{sub e} ∼ 2 eV and n{sub e} ∼ 1 × 10{sup 19} m{sup −3}. The configuration of the Proto-MPEX TS diagnostic will be described and plans for improvement will be given.

  12. GPIB based instrumentation and control system for ADITYA Thomson Scattering Diagnostic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Kiran, E-mail: kkpatel@ipr.res.in; Pillai, Vishal; Singh, Neha; Chaudhary, Vishnu; Thomas, Jinto; Kumar, Ajai

    2016-11-15

    The ADITYA Thomson Scattering Diagnostic is a single point Ruby laser based system with a spectrometer for spectral dispersion and photomultiplier tubes for the detection of scattered light. The system uses CAMAC (Computer Automated Measurement And Control) based control and data acquisition system, which synchronizes the Ruby laser, detectors and the digitizer. Previously used serial based CAMAC controller is upgraded to GPIB (General Purpose Interface Bus) based CAMAC controller for configuration and data transfer. The communication protocols for different instruments are converted to a single GPIB based for better interface. The entire control and data acquisition program is developed on LabVIEW platform for versatile operation of diagnostics with improved user friendly GUI (Graphical User Interfaces) and allows user to remotely update the laser firing time with respect to the plasma shot. The software is in handshake with the Tokamak main control program through network to minimize manual interventions for the operation of the diagnostics. The upgraded system improved the performance of the diagnostics in comparison to earlier in terms of better data transmission rate, easy to maintain and program is upgradable.

  13. GPIB based instrumentation and control system for ADITYA Thomson Scattering Diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Kiran; Pillai, Vishal; Singh, Neha; Chaudhary, Vishnu; Thomas, Jinto; Kumar, Ajai

    2016-01-01

    The ADITYA Thomson Scattering Diagnostic is a single point Ruby laser based system with a spectrometer for spectral dispersion and photomultiplier tubes for the detection of scattered light. The system uses CAMAC (Computer Automated Measurement And Control) based control and data acquisition system, which synchronizes the Ruby laser, detectors and the digitizer. Previously used serial based CAMAC controller is upgraded to GPIB (General Purpose Interface Bus) based CAMAC controller for configuration and data transfer. The communication protocols for different instruments are converted to a single GPIB based for better interface. The entire control and data acquisition program is developed on LabVIEW platform for versatile operation of diagnostics with improved user friendly GUI (Graphical User Interfaces) and allows user to remotely update the laser firing time with respect to the plasma shot. The software is in handshake with the Tokamak main control program through network to minimize manual interventions for the operation of the diagnostics. The upgraded system improved the performance of the diagnostics in comparison to earlier in terms of better data transmission rate, easy to maintain and program is upgradable.

  14. RADAR upper hybrid resonance scattering diagnostics of small-scale fluctuations and waves in tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulyiginskiy, D.G.; Gurchenko, A.D.; Gusakov, E.Z.; Korkin, V.V.; Larionov, M.M.; Novik, K.M.; Petrov, Yu.V.; Popov, A.Yu.; Saveliev, A.N.; Selenin, V.L.; Stepanov, A.Yu.

    2001-01-01

    The upper hybrid resonance (UHR) scattering technique possessing such merits as one-dimensional probing geometry, enhancement of cross section, and fine localization of scattering region is modified in the new diagnostics under development to achieve wave number resolution. The fluctuation wave number is estimated in the new technique from the scattering signal time delay measurements. The feasibility of the scheme is checked in the proof of principal experiment in a tokamak. The time delay of the UHR scattering signal exceeding 10 ns is observed. The small scale low frequency density fluctuations are investigated in the UHR RADAR backscattering experiment. The UHR cross-polarization scattering signal related to small scale magnetic fluctuations is observed. The lower hybrid (LH) wave propagation and both linear and nonlinear wave conversion are investigated. The small wavelength (λ≤0.02 cm) high number ion Bernstein harmonics, resulting from the linear wave conversion of the LH wave are observed in a tokamak plasma for the first time

  15. Optical diagnostics based on elastic scattering: An update of clinical demonstrations with the Optical Biopsy System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigio, I.J.; Boyer, J.; Johnson, T.M.; Lacey, J.; Mourant, J.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Conn, R. [Lovelace Medical Center, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bohorfoush, A. [Wisconsin Medical School, Milwaukee, WI (United States)

    1994-10-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory has continued the development of the Optical Biopsy System (OBS) for noninvasive, real-time in situ diagnosis of tissue pathologies. Our clinical studies have expanded since the last Biomedical Optics Europe conference (Budapest, September 1993), and we report here on the latest results of clinical tests in gastrointestinal tract. The OBS invokes a unique approach to optical diagnosis of tissue pathologies based on the elastic scattering properties, over a wide range of wavelengths, of the tissue. The use of elastic scattering as the key to optical tissue diagnostics in the OBS is based on the fact that many tissue pathologies, including a majority of cancer forms, manifest significant architectural changes at the cellular and sub-cellular level. Since the cellular components that cause elastic scattering have dimensions typically on the order of visible to near-IR wavelengths, the elastic (Mie) scattering properties will be wavelength dependent. Thus, morphology and size changes can be expected to cause significant changes in an optical signature that is derived from the wavelength-dependence of elastic scattering. The OBS employs a small fiberoptic probe that is amenable to use with any endoscope or catheter, or to direct surface examination. The probe is designed to be used in optical contact with the tissue under examination and has separate illuminating and collecting fibers. Thus, the light that is collected and transmitted to the analyzing spectrometer must first scatter through a small volume of the tissue before entering the collection fiber(s). Consequently, the system is also sensitive to the optical absorption spectrum of the tissue, over an effective operating range of <300 to 950 nm, and such absorption adds valuable complexity to the scattering spectral signature.

  16. Measurement of electron density of the plasma in the Tokamak TCABR, through Thomson scattering diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeronimo, Leonardo Cunha

    2013-01-01

    Over the last few years is remarkable, so increasingly evident the need for a new source of energy for mankind. One promising option is through nuclear fusion, where the plasma produced in the reactor can be converted into electrical energy. Therefore, knowing the characteristics of this plasma is very important to control it and understand it so desirable. One of the diagnostic options is called Thomson scattering . This is considered the most reliable method for the determination of important plasma parameters such as temperature and electron density, and may also help in the study and explanation of various internal mechanisms. The great advantage lies in the tact that they consist of a direct measurement and nonperturbative. But it is a diagnosis whose installation and execution is admittedly complex, limiting it only a few laboratories in the fíeld of fusion for the world. Among the main difficulties, wc can highlight the fact that the scattered signal is very small, thus requiring a large increase of the incident power. Moreover, the external physical conditions can cause mechanical vibrations that eliminate or minimize them as much as possible, is a great challenge, considering the optical micrometrically very sensitive and needs involved in the system. This work describes the entire process of installation and operation of Thomson scattering diagnostic in tokamak TCABR and through this diagnosis, we work on results of electron temperature, to finally be able to calculate the electron density of the plasma. (author)

  17. A multi-laser system for a fast sampling Thomson scattering diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trost, P.K.; Carlstrom, T.N.; DeBoo, J.C.; Greenfield, C.M.; Hsieh, C.L.; Snider, R.T.

    1990-10-01

    A multi-laser system is being developed for the DIII-D Thomson scattering diagnostic. This system combines the beams from up to eight Nd:YAG lasers onto a common beamline in which the beams are nearly parallel and are all focused into a small, common area within the desired scattering volume. Each laser can be fired at a constant rate (20 Hz per laser) for a high average repetition rate, or together in a ''burst,'' which will give very high sampling rates (10--20 kHz) for short periods. The burst mode will be triggerable by plasma events, which will allow for study of transient phenomena, but will require non-periodic firing of the lasers. Beamline diagnostics include position sensitive detectors for computer controlled feedback alignment of the 35 m beamline, an image position detection system for monitoring the alignment of the collection lens to the scattering volume, and a 1-D reticon camera for divergence monitoring. The effects of the non-periodic firing of the lasers will be monitored with the reticon camera. 3 refs., 5 figs

  18. Analysing power for neutron-proton scattering at 14.1 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brock, J.E.; Chisholm, A.; Duder, J.C.; Garrett, R.; Poletti, J.L.

    1981-01-01

    The analysing power Asub(y)(theta) for neutron-proton scattering has been measured at 14.1 MeV for c.m. angles between 50 0 and 157 0 . A polarized neutron beam was produced by the reaction 3 H(d,n) 4 He at 110 keV, using polarized deuterons from an atomic beam polarized ion source. Liquid and plastic scintillators were used for proton targets and the scattered particles were detected in an array of platic scintillators. Use of the associated alpha technique, multi-parameter recording of events and off-line computer treatment led to very low backgrounds. The results differ significantly from the predictions of the phase-shift analyses of Yale IV, Livermore X and Arndt et al. We find, however, excellent agreement with the predictions of the Paris potential of Lacombe et al. Existing n-p analysing power results up to 30 MeV are surveyed and found to be consistent. An attempt was made to look for an isospin splitting of the triplet P-wave phase shifts. (orig.)

  19. Multi-Point Thomson Scattering Diagnostic for the Helicity Injected Torus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liptac, J. E.; Smith, R. J.; Hoffman, C. S.; Jarboe, T. R.; Nelson, B. A.; Leblanc, B. P.; Phillips, P.

    1999-11-01

    The multi-point Thomson scattering system on the Helicity Injected Torus--II can determine electron temperature and density at 11 radial positions at a single time during the plasma discharge. The system includes components on loan from both PPPL and from the University of Texas. The collection optics and Littrow spectrometer from Princeton, and the 1 GW laser and multi-anode microchannel plate detector from Texas have been integrated into a compact structure, creating a mobile and reliable diagnostic. The mobility of the system allows alignment to occur in a room adjacent to the experiment, greatly reducing the disturbance to normal machine operation. The four main parts of the Thomson scattering system, namely, the laser, the beam line, the collection optics, and the mobile structure are presented and discussed.

  20. A 130 point Nd:YAG Thomson scattering diagnostic on MAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scannell, R.; Walsh, M. J.; Dunstan, M. R.; Figueiredo, J.; Naylor, G.; O' Gorman, T.; Shibaev, S. [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Gibson, K. J.; Wilson, H. [Department of Physics, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom)

    2010-10-15

    A Thomson scattering diagnostic designed to measure both edge and core physics has been implemented on MAST. The system uses eight Nd:YAG lasers, each with a repetition rate of 30 Hz. The relative and absolute timing of the lasers may be set arbitrarily to produce fast bursts of measurements to suit the time evolution of the physics being studied. The scattered light is collected at F/6 by a 100 kg six element lens system with an aperture stop of 290 mm. The collected light is then transferred to 130 polychromators by 130 independent fiber bundles. The data acquisition and processing are based on a distributed computer system of dual core processors embedded in 26 chassis. Each chassis is standalone and performs data acquisition and processing for five polychromators. This system allows data to be available quickly after the MAST shot and has potential for real-time operations.

  1. Multiple-scattering and DV-Xα analyses of a Cl-passivated Ge(111) surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, S; Tang, J-C; Shen, S-L

    2003-01-01

    The multiple-scattering cluster and DV-Xα methods have been employed to analyse the chlorine 1s near edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) of a Cl-passivated Ge(111) surface. Our detailed analysis demonstrates how the chlorine atoms form a perfect monochloride structure with Cl bonding to the topmost Ge atom. Our calculation reveals the interaction in the chlorine layer is multipolar electrostatic forces. Furthermore, the DV-Xα cluster calculation shows that the orbital contour of the sharp Cl-Ge resonance exhibits a global symmetry, which confirms it to be σ * -like. The above studies are found to enrich previous experimental NEXAFS investigations

  2. In situ nanoparticle diagnostics by multi-wavelength Rayleigh-Mie scattering ellipsometry

    CERN Document Server

    Gebauer, G

    2003-01-01

    We present and discuss the method of multiple-wavelength Rayleigh-Mie scattering ellipsometry for the in situ analysis of nanoparticles. It is applied to the problem of nanoparticles suspended in low-pressure plasmas. We discuss experimental results demonstrating that the size distribution and the complex refractive index can be determined with high accuracy and present a study on the in situ analysis of etching of melamine-formaldehyde nanoparticles suspended in an oxygen plasma. It is also shown that particles with a shell structure (core plus mantle) can be analysed by Rayleigh-Mie scattering ellipsometry. Rayleigh-Mie scattering ellipsometry is also applicable to in situ analysis of nanoparticles under high gas pressures and in liquids.

  3. Area densitometry using rotating Scheimpflug photography for posterior capsule opacification and surface light scattering analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Keiichiro; Honbo, Masato; Mori, Yosai; Kataoka, Yasushi; Miyata, Kazunori

    2015-11-01

    To compare area densitometry analysis using rotating Scheimpflug photography in quantifications of posterior capsule opacification (PCO) and surface light scattering with previous anterior-segment analyzer measurement. Miyata Eye Hospital, Miyazaki, Japan. Prospective observational case series. Scheimpflug images of eyes with foldable intraocular lenses (IOLs) were obtained using rotating and fixed Scheimpflug photography. Area densitometry on the posterior and anterior surfaces was conducted for PCO and surface light scattering analyses, respectively, with an identical area size. Correlation between two measurements was analyzed using linear regression. The study included 105 eyes of 74 patients who received IOLs 1 to 18 years (mean, 4.9 ± 4.5 years) postoperatively. In the PCO analysis on the posterior IOL surface, there was a significant correlation between the two measurements (P photography exhibited saturation due to intensive scatterings. Area densitometry combined with a rotating Scheimpflug photography was exchangeable to previously established densitometry measurement, and allowed successive evaluation in longer-term observations. Copyright © 2015 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Timing and triggering of the Thomson scattering diagnostics on the COMPASS tokamak

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikulín, Ondřej; Hron, Martin; Böhm, Petr; Naylor, G.; Bílková, Petra; Janky, Filip; Salášek, J.; Pánek, Radomír

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 5 (2014), s. 693-697 ISSN 0920-3796. [The 9th Technical Meeting on Control, Data Acquisition, and Remote Participation for Fusion Research/9./. Hefei, 06.05.2013-10.05.2013] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 7G10072; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011021; GA ČR GAP205/11/2470 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Tokamak * Timing and triggering * FPGA * Real-time control * Diagnostics control * Thomson scattering Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.152, year: 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0920379614002105#

  5. Mechanism design of the Thomson scattering diagnostic system for the TMX east mirror plug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, D.D.; Goodman, R.K.; Jenkins, S.L.; Wilkerson, J.A.; Parkinson, J.L.

    1979-01-01

    This Thomson scattering diagnostic system is used to measure the electron temperature and density of the east mirror plug of the Tandem Mirror Experiment (TMX) at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. The measurements are made by firing a high-power ruby laser pulse through the plasma where the electrons then re-radiate a small fraction of the light. Because of the velocity of the electrons, the wavelength of the re-radiated light is Doppler shifted. The width of the Doppler-shifted wavelength spectrum is a measure of the temperature of the electrons in the plasma, and the total amount of re-radiated light is proportional to the electron density

  6. Spatial Expansion and Automation of the Pegasus Thomson Scattering Diagnostic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodner, G. M.; Bongard, M. W.; Fonck, R. J.; Reusch, J. A.; Schlossberg, D. J.; Winz, G. R.

    2015-11-01

    The Pegasus Thomson scattering diagnostic system has recently undergone modifications to increase the spatial range of the diagnostic and automate the Thomson data collection process. Two multichannel spectrometers have been added to the original configuration, providing a total of 24 data channels to view the plasma volume. The new system configuration allows for observation of three distinct regions of the plasma: the local helicity injection (LHI) source (R ~ 67-73.8 cm), the plasma edge (R ~ 51.5-57.6 cm), and the plasma core (R ~ 35-41.1 cm). Each spectrometer utilizes a volume-phase holographic (VPH) grating and a gated-intensified CCD camera. The edge and the LHI spectrometers have been fitted with low-temperature VPH gratings to cover Te = 10 - 100 eV, while the core spectrometer has been fitted with a high-temperature VPH grating to cover Te = 0 . 1 - 1 . 0 keV. The additional spectrometers have been calibrated to account for detector flatness, detector linearity, and vignetting. Operation of the Thomson system has been overhauled to utilize LabVIEW software to synchronize the major components of the Thomson system with the Pegasus shot cycle and to provide intra-shot beam alignment. Multi-point Thomson scattering measurements will be obtained in the aforementioned regions of LHI and Ohmic discharges and will be compared to Langmuir probe measurements. Work supported by US DOE grant DE-FG02-96ER54375.

  7. Structure analyses of swollen rubber-filler systems by using contrast variation Small angle neutron scattering (SANS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takenaka, Mikihito; Nishitsuji, Shotaro; Yamaguchi, Daisuke; Koizumi, Satoshi

    2009-01-01

    Full text: The polymer layers absorbed on silica particles in rubber-silica systems have investigated with contrast variation small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) method. The scattering intensities of specimens swollen by the solvents having various scattering length densities were measured. The contrast variation SANS for the specimens yielded partial scattering functions: the scattering function for polymer-polymer correlation SPP(q), the scattering function for silica- silica correlation SSS(q), and the scattering function for polymer- silica correlation SPS(q). The analyses of SSS(q) explored the hierarchical structures formed by silica particles. The analyses of SPS(q) and SSS(q) clarified the existence of dense polymer layers around silica aggregates. Several characteristic parameters are estimated from the analyses, such as the size of aggregates, the thickness of layers, the volume fractions of polymer of layers and matrix, and the correlation length of the matrix network. The contrast variation SANS is found to be a powerful tool of the analyses of the structures of the rubber-filler systems. (author)

  8. First operations with the new Collective Thomson Scattering diagnostic on the Frascati Tokamak Upgrade device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin, W.; Bruschi, A.; D'Arcangelo, O.; Castaldo, C.; De Angeli, M.; Figini, L.; Galperti, C.; Garavaglia, S.; Granucci, G.; Grosso, G.; Korsholm, S. B.; Lontano, M.; Mellera, V.; Minelli, D.; Moro, A.; Nardone, A.; Nielsen, S. K.; Rasmussen, J.; Simonetto, A.; Stejner, M.; Tartari, U.

    2015-10-01

    Anomalous emissions were found over the last few years in spectra of Collective Thomson Scattering (CTS) diagnostics in tokamak devices such as TEXTOR, ASDEX and FTU, in addition to real CTS signals. The signal frequency, down-shifted with respect to the probing one, suggested a possible origin in Parametric Decay Instability (PDI) processes correlated with the presence of magnetic islands and occurring for pumping wave power levels well below the threshold predicted by conventional models. A threshold below or close to the Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH) power levels could limit, under certain circumstances, the use of the ECRH in fusion devices. An accurate characterization of the conditions for the occurrence of this phenomenon and of its consequences is thus of primary importance. Exploiting the front-steering configuration available with the real-time launcher, the implementation of a new CTS setup now allows studying these anomalous emission phenomena in FTU under conditions of density and wave injection geometry that are more similar to those envisaged for CTS in ITER. The upgrades of the diagnostic are presented as well as a few preliminary spectra detected with the new system during the very first operations in 2014. The present work has been carried out under an EUROfusion Enabling Research project. A shorter version of this contribution is due to be published in PoS at: 1st EPS conference on Plasma Diagnostics

  9. Image processing methods for noise reduction in the TJ-II Thomson Scattering diagnostic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dormido-Canto, S., E-mail: sebas@dia.uned.es [Departamento de Informatica y Automatica, UNED, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Farias, G. [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Valparaiso (Chile); Vega, J.; Pastor, I. [Asociacion EURATOM/CIEMAT para Fusion, Madrid 28040 (Spain)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We describe an approach in order to reduce or mitigate the stray-light on the images and show the exceptional results. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We analyze the parameters to take account in the proposed process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We report a simplified exampled in order to explain the proposed process. - Abstract: The Thomsom Scattering diagnostic of the TJ-II stellarator provides temperature and density profiles. The CCD camera acquires images corrupted with noise that, in some cases, can produce unreliable profiles. The main source of noise is the so-called stray-light. In this paper we describe an approach that allows mitigation of the effects that stray-light has on the images: extraction regions with connected-components. In addition, the robustness and effectiveness of the noise reduction technique is validated in two ways: (1) supervised classification and (2) comparison of electron temperature profiles.

  10. Time resolved Thomson scattering diagnostic of pulsed gas metal arc welding (GMAW) process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kühn-Kauffeldt, M; Schein, J; Marquès, J L

    2014-01-01

    In this work a Thomson scattering diagnostic technique was applied to obtain time resolved electron temperature and density values during a gas metal arc welding (GMAW) process. The investigated GMAW process was run with aluminum wire (AlMg 4,5 Mn) with 1.2 mm diameter as a wire electrode, argon as a shielding gas and peak currents in the range of 400 A. Time resolved measurements could be achieved by triggering the laser pulse at shifted time positions with respect to the current pulse driving the process. Time evaluation of resulting electron temperatures and densities is used to investigate the state of the plasma in different phases of the current pulse and to determine the influence of the metal vapor and droplets on the plasma properties

  11. Thomson scattering diagnostics of steady state and pulsed welding processes without and with metal vapor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kühn-Kauffeldt, M; Schein, J; Marqués, J-L

    2015-01-01

    Thomson scattering is applied to measure temperature and density of electrons in the arc plasma of the direct current gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) process and pulsed gas metal arc welding (GMAW) process. This diagnostic technique allows to determine these plasma parameters independent from the gas composition and heavy particles temperature. The experimental setup is adapted to perform measurements on stationary as well as transient processes. Spatial and temporal electron temperature and density profiles of a pure argon arc in the case of the GTAW process and argon arc with the presence of aluminum metal vapor in the case of the GMAW process were obtained. Additionally the data is used to estimate the concentration of the metal vapor in the GMAW plasma. (fast track communication)

  12. Laser Thomson scattering diagnostics of non-equilibrium high pressure plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muraoka, K.; Uchino, K.; Bowden, M.D.; Noguchi, Y.

    2001-01-01

    For various applications of non-equilibrium high pressure plasmas, knowledge of electron properties, such as electron density, electron temperature and/or electron energy distribution function (eedf), is prerequisite for any rational approach to understanding physical and chemical processes occurring in the plasmas. For this purpose, laser Thomson scattering has been successfully applied for the first time to measure the electron properties in plasmas for excimer laser pumping and in microdischarges. Although this diagnostic technique is well established for measurements in high temperature plasmas, its applications to these glow discharge plasmas have had various inherent difficulties, such as a presence of high density neutral particles (>10 21 m -3 ) in the excimer laser pumping discharges and an extremely small plasma size (<0.1 mm) and the presence of nearby walls for microdischarges. These difficulties have been overcome and clear signals have been obtained. The measured results are presented and their implications in the respective discharge phenomena are discussed

  13. The design of the optical Thomson scattering diagnostic for the National Ignition Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datte, P S; Ross, J S; Froula, D H; Daub, K D; Galbraith, J; Glenzer, S; Hatch, B; Katz, J; Kilkenny, J; Landen, O; Manha, D; Manuel, A M; Molander, W; Montgomery, D; Moody, J; Swadling, G F; Weaver, J

    2016-11-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a 192 laser beam facility designed to support the Stockpile Stewardship, High Energy Density and Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) programs. We report on the design of an Optical Thomson Scattering (OTS) diagnostic that has the potential to transform the community's understanding of NIF hohlraum physics by providing first principle, local, time-resolved measurements of under-dense plasma conditions. The system design allows operation with different probe laser wavelengths by manual selection of the appropriate beam splitter and gratings before the shot. A deep-UV probe beam (λ 0 -210 nm) will be used to optimize the scattered signal for plasma densities of 5 × 10 20 electrons/cm 3 while a 3ω probe will be used for experiments investigating lower density plasmas of 1 × 10 19 electrons/cm 3 . We report the phase I design of a two phase design strategy. Phase I includes the OTS telescope, spectrometer, and streak camera; these will be used to assess the background levels at NIF. Phase II will include the design and installation of a probe laser.

  14. Heterodyne quasi-elastic light-scattering instrument for biomedical diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedev, A D; Ivanova, M A; Lomakin, A V; Noskin, V A

    1997-10-20

    The heterodyne technique has a number of advantages over the homodyne technique when an accurate characterization of particle-size distribution (PSD) of heterogeneous systems is required. However, there are problems related to acoustic vibrations that make it difficult to take advantage of the heterodyne technique. An instrument developed for quasi-elastic light scattering (QELS) that uses the optical heterodyning principle is described. Vibration-related problems are considerably reduced because of the incorporation of all optical elements into one solid optical block. A real-time correlation analysis of the photocurrent fluctuations is performed by a PC-embedded analog-to-digital converter card with a digital signal processor. Investigation of the PSD in biological fluids for medical diagnostics is presented as a typical application. A diagnostic analysis of the PSD requires a simultaneous processing of a huge number of QELS data. An original statistical algorithm to accomplish this analysis has been developed. Technical specifications of instrumentation for heterodyne QELS measurement are discussed.

  15. Progress on the multipulse Thomson scattering diagnostic on DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockdale, R.E.; Carlstrom, T.N.; Hsieh, C.L.; Makariou, C.C.

    1995-01-01

    The DIII-D Thomson scattering diagnostic, operational since 1990, uses 8 Nd:YAG 20-Hz lasers to measure electron temperature and density profiles (40 spatial points) throughout the plasma discharge. Recent progress has enabled a new set of operating modes to better fulfill varying plasma physics requirements. Custom circuitry for laser control (programmable with 1 μs precision) has successfully replaced a previous scheme which used real-time 68030 software. Two new modes of operation have been demonstrated. Burst mode is useful to study a transient plasma event: a series of laser pulses are fired at a rate ≤10 kHz after an external asynchronous event trigger. Burst mode is also useful to synchronize the Thomson lasers with other systems, such as an asynchronous Michelson ECE diagnostic scanning near 40 Hz. Group mode allows a programmed set of lasers to fire simultaneously into the same (65 ns) data acquisition gate. Improved signal/noise then yields smaller statistical errors in the profile results. This provides profile data for lower density plasmas, such as those anticipated during fast wave current drive experiments. Plans for a new CCD-based laser alignment system for position monitoring and feedback control will also be presented

  16. Progress On The Thomson Scattering Diagnostic For The Helicon Plasma Experiment (HPX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, A.; Emami, T.; Davies, R.; Frank, J.; Hopson, J.; Karama, J.; James, R. W.; Hopson, J.; Paolino, R. N.; Sandri, E.; Turk, J.; Wicke, M.; Cgapl Team

    2017-10-01

    A high-performance spectrometer utilizing volume-phase-holographic (VPH) grating and a charge coupled device (CCD) camera with a range of 380-1090 nm and resolution of 1024x1024 has been assembled on HPX at the Coast Guard Academy Plasma Laboratory (CGAPL). This spectrometer will collect doppler shifted photons, emitted from the plasma by the first harmonic (1064 nm) of a 2.5 J Nd:YAG laser. Direct measurements of the plasma's temperature and density will be determined using HPX's Thomson Scattering (TS) single spatial point diagnostic system. A zero order half wave plate rotates the polarization of the second harmonic TS laser beam when operating at a wavelength of 532 nm. A linear actuated periscope has been constructed to remotely redirect the beam so that 532 and 1064 nm wavelengths can both be used. TS has the capability of determining plasma properties on short time scales and will be used to create a robust picture of the internal plasma parameters. Operating at both 532 and 1064 nm results in a self-consistent measurement and better use our existing spectrometer and soon to be constructed polychrometer. A prototype spectrometer has been constructed to explore the Andor CCD camera's resolution and sensitivity. The current status of the diagnostic development, spectrometer, and collection optics system will be reported. Supported by U.S. DEPS Grant [HEL-JTO] PRWJFY17.

  17. On scattering diagnostics with periodically pulsed lasers to follow the continuous evolution of time dependent plasma parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellermann, M. von; Hirsch, K.; Doeble, H.F.

    1977-04-01

    The possibilities to use periodically pulsed lasers for plasma scattering diagnostics are discussed. An experiment with succesful application of a periodically pulsed frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser is described and results are given. Application of the method to monitor continuously, with millisecond time resolution, parameters of Tokamak type plasmas, is considered. (orig.) [de

  18. Experimental and simulated fast ion velocity distributions on collective Thomson scattering diagnostic in the Large Helical Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nishiura, M.; Kubo, S.; Tanaka, K.

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a collective Thomson scattering diagnostic system in the LHD. The CTS spectrum spread is observed in the frequency region corresponding to the bulk and fast ions during NB injection. The NB originated fast ions are evaluated by the MORH code for understanding the measured CTS sp...

  19. Spectrum response and analysis of 77 GHz band collective Thomson scattering diagnostic for bulk and fast ions in LHD plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nishiura, M.; Kubo, S.; Tanaka, K.

    2014-01-01

    A collective Thomson scattering (CTS) diagnostic was developed and used to measure the bulk and fast ions originating from 180 keV neutral beams in the Large Helical Device (LHD). Electromagnetic waves from a gyrotron at 77 GHz with 1 MW power output function as both the probe and electron cyclot...

  20. Calculation of the nonlinear relativistic Thomson scattering fields and Its application to electron distribution function diagnostic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guasp, J.; Pastor, I.; Álvarez-Estrada, R. F.; Castejón, F.

    2015-02-01

    Analytical results obtained recently of the ab-initio classical incoherent Thomson Scattering (TS) spectrum from a single-electron (Alvarez-Estrada et al 2012 Phys. Plasmas 19 062302) have been numerically implemented in a paralelized code to efficiently compute the TS emission from a given electron distribution function, irrespective of its characteristics and/or the intensity of the incoming radiation. These analytical results display certain differences, when compared with other authors, in the general case of incoming linearly and circularly polarized radiation and electrons with arbitrary initial directions. We regard such discrepancies and the ubiquitous interest in TS as motivations for this work. Here, we implement some analytical advances (like generalized Bessel functions for incoming linearly polarized radiation) in TS. The bulk of this work reports on the efficient computation of TS spectra (based upon our analytical approach), for an electron population having an essentially arbitrary distribution function and for both incoming linearly and circularly polarized radiation. A detailed comparison between the present approach and a previous Monte Carlo one (Pastor et al 2011 Nuclear Fusion 51 043011), dealing with the ab-initio computation of TS spectra, is reported. Both approaches are shown to fully agree with each other. As key computational improvements, the analytical technique yields a × 30 to × 100 gain in computation time and is a very flexible tool to compute the scattered spectrum and eventually the scattered electromagnetic fields in the time domain. The latter are computed explicitly here for the first time, as far as we know. Scaling laws for the power integrated over frequency versus initial kinetic energy are studied for the case of isotropic and monoenergetic electron distribution functions and their potential application as diagnostic tools for high-energy populations is briefly discussed. Finally, we discuss the application of these

  1. Microscopic model analyses of proton elastic scattering from diverse targets in the energy range 65 to 400 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dortmans, P.J.; Amos, K.

    1997-01-01

    Two nucleon (NN) effective interactions based upon two-nucleon g matrices have been used in fully microscopic calculations of nonlocal proton-nucleus optical potentials for protons with energies between 65 and 400 MeV. Excellent predictions of the differential cross sections, analysing powers and spin rotations for scattering angles to 60 deg result. (authors)

  2. The optimisation of analyser geometry for a near back-scattering spectrometer. IRIS on the ISIS pulsed source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telling, M.T.F.; Campbell, S.I.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the upgrade of the pyrolytic graphite (PG) analyser bank on the IRIS high-resolution inelastic spectrometer at ISIS from 1350 graphite pieces (6 rows by 225 columns) to 4212 crystal pieces (18 rows by 234 columns). The analyser array will achieve a three-fold increase in area and in addition the graphite crystals will be cooled close to liquid helium temperature to reduce thermal diffuse scattering, thereby further improving the sensitivity of the spectrometer. For an instrument such as IRIS, with its analyser out of exact back-scattering geometry, optical aberration and variation in the time-of-flight of the analysed neutrons is introduced as one moves out from the horizontal scattering plane. To minimise such effects, the profile of the analyser array has been redesigned. The concept behind the design of the new analyser bank and the factors that effect the overall resolution of the instrument are discussed. Results of Monte Carlo simulations of the expected resolution and intensity of the complete instrument are presented and compared to the current instrument performance. (author)

  3. Small angle scattering of X radiation and slow neutrons in structural analyses of amorphous solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostorz, G.

    1980-01-01

    Small angle scattering of x radiation and slow neutrons allows to detect inhomogeneities of the dimension of ten to some thousands of Angstroem by the difference in the scattering length density. The progress made during recent years in the development of apparatusses has created the possibility of solving very complicated problems. A first outline shows that in separation processes as well as in investigating extended defects the method of small angle scattering may provide valuable contributions to the analysis of the non-crystalline state

  4. Sensitive molecular diagnostics using surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering (SERRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulds, Karen; Graham, Duncan; McKenzie, Fiona; MacRae, Douglas; Ricketts, Alastair; Dougan, Jennifer

    2009-02-01

    Surface enhanced resonance Raman scattering (SERRS) is an analytical technique with several advantages over competitive techniques in terms of improved sensitivity and multiplexing. We have made great progress in the development of SERRS as a quantitative analytical method, in particular for the detection of DNA. SERRS is an extremely sensitive and selective technique which when applied to the detection of labelled DNA sequences allows detection limits to be obtained which rival, and in most cases, are better than fluorescence. Here the conditions are explored which will enable the successful detection of DNA using SERRS. The enhancing surface which is used is crucial and in this case suspensions of nanoparticles were used as they allow quantitative behaviour to be achieved and allow analogous systems to current fluorescence based systems to be made. The aggregation conditions required to obtain SERRS of DNA are crucial and herein we describe the use of spermine as an aggregating agent. The nature of the label which is used, be it fluorescent, positively or negatively charged also effects the SERRS response and these conditions are again explored here. We have clearly demonstrated the ability to identify the components of a mixture of 5 analytes in solution by using two different excitation wavelengths and also of a 6-plex using data analysis techniques. These conditions will allow the use of SERRS for the detection of target DNA in a meaningful diagnostic assay.

  5. Study of a CW, two-dimensional Thomson scattering diagnostic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, C.L.; Bray, B.D.; Liu, C.

    2004-01-01

    We describe an approach to Thomson scattering diagnostic that relies upon a high power CW laser cavity and a rf signal detection technique, instead of the more usual pulsed high energy laser. The system has three major elements: an ultra long (∼150 m) laser resonance cavity that includes the plasma region; an array of CW diode lasers of high power and high modulation frequency that pumps and maintains the average cavity energy (∼10 mJ); and a lock-in detection system of narrow frequency bandwidth (∼2 kHz). The resonance cavity consists of a pumping chamber for power input from diode lasers, and many relay chambers (∼30) distributed across the plasma cross section for Thomson measurement. The cavity has a low energy loss (∼2% round trip) and zero output power. It is estimated that signal-to-noise of the system is ∼100 times better than the present pulsed system on DIII-D Tokamak due to the increase in usable laser energy and the improved background signal rejection

  6. Instrument to synchronize Thomson scattering diagnostic measurements with MHD acitivity in a tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wintenberg, A.L.

    1985-04-01

    An instrument to synchronize the firing of a ruby laser for a Thomson scattering diagnostic with plasma oscillations was designed, developed, and evaluated. The instrument will fire the laser at a user-selected phase of an input sine or sawtooth wave with an accuracy of +-15 0 . Allowable frequencies range from 20 to 500 Hz for a sawtooth and from 1 to 30 kHz for a sine wave. The instrument also allows synchronization with a sine wave to be enabled by a preselected sawtooth phase. The instrument uses analog signal processing circuits to separate the signal components, remove unwanted components, and produce zero-phase synchronization pulses. The instrument measures the period between zero-phase pulses in order to produce phase synchronization pulses delayed a fraction of the period from the zero-phase pulses. The laser is fired by the phase synchronization pulse. Unwanted signal components are attenuated by bandpass filters. A digitally controlled self-adjusting bandpass filter for sine processing. The instrument was used to investigate the variation of the electron temperature profile with the phase of the x-ray signal from an Impurity Studies Experiment (ISX-B) plasma exhibiting magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) activity

  7. [A study on the diagnostic value of tear film objective scatter index in dry eye].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Y D; Liang, Q F; Wang, N L; Antoine, Labbè

    2017-09-11

    Objective: To study the sensitivity and specificity of tear film objective scatter index to the diagnosis dry eye disease (DED). Methods: A prospective case-controlled study. Fifty-three patients with DED and 32 healthy age- and sex-matched control subjects were included from July to October 2016. All subjects underwent the examinations sequentially as follows: evaluation of ocular surface disease symptoms using the Ocular Surface Disease Index, optical quality detection, lipid layer thickness, tear film breakup time and SchirmerⅠtest. With Optical Quality Analysis SystemⅡ, the values of modulation transfer function cut off, basic objective scatter index (OSI) and total OSI were measured. To eliminate the influence of other refractive media, the tear film OSI (TF-OSI) was calculated, and the difference in TF-OSI between two groups was analyzed with the independent-samples t test. Spearman's correlation analysis was used to detect the correlation of each parameter in the DED group. With the receiver operating characteristic curve and the area under the curve (AUC), the specificity and sensitivity of TF-OSI and other parameters were described to differentiate DED from normal eyes. Results: In the dry eye group, the value of modulation transfer function cut off (32.07±11.95) was significantly lower than the normal group (39.38±9.44, t=- 3.096, P= 0.003) , and the mean value and dispersion of TF-OSI (0.50±0.43, 0.52±0.81) were higher than the normal group (0.21±0.16, 0.12±0.01) ( t= 4.300, P= 0.000, t= 3.546, P= 0.001) . The mean value of TF-OSI had a positive correlation with lipid layer thickness ( r= 0.365, P= 0.007) and dispersion of TF-OSI ( r= 0.581, P= 0.000), and a negative correlation with MTF cut off ( r=- 0.368, P= 0.007). To the diagnostic value of DED, the mean value of TF-OSI had a sensitivity of 0.736, a specificity of 0.762, and the AUC was 0.764. The dispersion of TF-OSI had a sensitivity of 0.811 and a specificity of 0.810, and the AUC was 0

  8. New physics capabilities from the upgraded Thomson scattering diagnostic on MAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, K J; Barratt, N; Snape, J; Tallents, G J; Thornton, A [Department of Physics, University of York, Heslington, York (United Kingdom); Chapman, I; Conway, N; Dunstan, M R; Field, A R; Garzotti, L; Kirk, A; Lloyd, B; Meyer, H; Naylor, G; O' Gorman, T; Scannell, R; Shibaev, S; Temple, D; Pinches, S; Valovic, M, E-mail: keiran.gibson@york.ac.u [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon (United Kingdom)

    2010-12-15

    The newly upgraded MAST Thomson scattering (TS) system provides excellent spatial resolution ({approx}1 cm) at over 130 radial locations across a full plasma diameter, and utilizes eight individual Nd: :YAG laser systems which can be fired sequentially, providing electron temperature and density profiles approximately every 4 ms throughout a plasma discharge. By operating the system in burst mode, whereby the laser separation can be adjusted to within a few microseconds of each other, it is possible to obtain detailed profiles of transient and periodic phenomena such as sawteeth crashes, massive gas injection for disruption mitigation and the temperature perturbations associated with neoclassical tearing mode (NTM) islands. Following Fitzpatrick et al (1995 Phys. Plasmas 2 825), we consider a simplified model in which finite parallel diffusive heat transport can provide a threshold for NTM island growth and demonstrate that the TS derived electron temperature profiles around an island can be used to obtain both the island width and the critical island width below which temperature gradients are maintained across the island, potentially removing the bootstrap current drive for the NTM. Initial results from high beta, neutral beam injection heated discharges on MAST show that the measured island width inferred from the TS data is in good agreement with magnetic estimates of the island width (considering both a cylindrical approximation and using a full field line tracing estimate). The temporal behaviour of the island width obtained from the magnetic diagnostics indicates that for the scenarios considered to date, finite parallel diffusion is likely to play an important role in NTM threshold physics in MAST.

  9. Beam Diagnostics of the Compton Scattering Chamber in Jefferson Lab's Hall C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Adam; I&C Group Collaboration

    2013-10-01

    Upcoming experimental runs in Hall C will utilize Compton scattering, involving the construction and installation of a rectangular beam enclosure. Conventional cylindrical stripline-style Beam Position Monitors (BPMs) are not appropriate due to their form factor; therefore to facilitate measurement of position, button-style BPMs are being considered due to the ease of placement within the new beam enclosure. Button BPM experience is limited at JLAB, so preliminary measurements are needed to characterize the field response, and guide the development of appropriate algorithms for the Analog to Digital receiver systems. -field mapping is performed using a Goubau Line (G-Line), which employs a surface wave to mimic the electron beam, helping to avoid problems associated with vacuum systems. Potential algorithms include simplistic 1/r modeling (-field mapping), look-up-tables, as well as a potential third order power series fit. In addition, the use of neural networks specifically the multi-layer Perceptron will be examined. The models, sensor field maps, and utility of the neural network will be presented. Next steps include: modification of the control algorithm, as well as to run an in-situ test of the four Button electrodes inside of a mock beam enclosure. The analysis of the field response using Matlab suggests the button BPMs are accurate to within 10 mm, and may be successful for beam diagnostics in Hall C. More testing is necessary to ascertain the limitations of the new electrodes. The National Science Foundation, Old Dominion University, The Department of Energy, and Jefferson Lab.

  10. Linear algebraic analyses of structures with one predominant type of anomalous scatterer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karle, J.

    1989-01-01

    Further studies have been made of the information content of the exact linear equations for analyzing anomalous dispersion data in one-wavelength experiments. The case of interest concerns structures containing atoms that essentially do not scatter anomalously and one type of anomalously scattering atoms. For this case, there are three alternative ways of writing the equations. The alternative sets of equations and the transformations for transforming one set into the other are given explicitly. Comparison calculations were made with different sets of equations. Isomorphous replacement information is readily introduced into the calculations and the advantage of doing so is clearly illustrated by the results. Another aspect of the potential of the exact linear algebraic theory is its application to multiple-wavelength experiments. Successful applications of the latter have been made by several collaborative groups of investigators. (orig.)

  11. Analyses of pion-40Ca elastic scattering data using the Klein–Gordon equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shehadeh, Z.F.

    2009-01-01

    The elastic scattering data for incident pion energies of 130, 163.3, 180, and 230 MeV on 40 Ca have been analyzed using the full Klein–Gordon equation (KGE), as opposed to its approximate form which renders it to the format of a Schroedinger equation with an energy-dependent potential (RSE). Calculated angular distributions, using KGE and RSE, for all four cases are nearly the same up to about 70° but differ significantly at larger angles. To fit the large-angle data of 163.3 MeV, the nature of the old potential determined by using RSE needs to be revised. The new potentials in four cases are presented and they are compatible with those determined from the inverse scattering theory at a fixed energy in the surface region. (author)

  12. Laser diagnostics in combustion. Elastic scattering and picosecond laser-induced fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ossler, Frederik

    1999-05-01

    Elastic scattering and the Lorenz-Mie (LM) theory in particular is used for the characterization of sub-micron- and micron-sized droplets of organic fuels in sprays and aerosols. Calculations on the Lorenz-Mie theory show that backward-sideward scattered visible radiation can be used for unambiguous detection of ensembles of homogeneous droplets of organic substances with diameters around 1 micrometer (size parameter between 2 and 6). A backward feature in the polarization ratio appears with a value considerably higher than one, on the opposite to the case of the rainbow observed for larger droplets. A comparison between measurements and LM calculations showed that a large amount of droplets in aerosols and well-atomized sprays were smaller than one micrometer in diameter. The LM theory was also used to characterize different size groups in a burning spray. A 3 - D technique based on a picosecond laser and a streak camera was demonstrated for measurements of fast and turbulent biphase flows. The entire 3 - D information was obtained within a time-span of less than 15 nanoseconds. A 2 - D technique for lifetime measurements based on a picosecond laser and a streak camera has been demonstrated on static objects. An analysis indicates that the technique may be applied to measurements of lifetimes around or below one picosecond employing femtosecond lasers and femtosecond streak-cameras. The technique may in principle be used to study dynamic systems when two detectors are used. Fluorescence lifetime measurements on hydrogen and oxygen atoms in flames at atmospheric pressure demonstrate the need of lasers with suiting spectral properties such as jitter and linewidth and the need of detectors with high sensitivity in the near IR in the case of oxygen atoms. The fluorescence lifetimes of gas phase acetone and 3-pentanone at 266 nm excitation wavelength have been measured for mixtures with nitrogen and air at temperatures between 323 and 723 K and pressures between 0

  13. An energy confinement study of the MST [Madison Symmetric Torus] reversed field pinch using a Thomson scattering diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Den Hartog, D.J.

    1989-11-01

    Thomson scattering measurements of the central electron temperature and density during the plasma current peak have been performed on the MST Reversed Field Pinch (RFP). This Thomson scattering diagnostic was calibrated for absolute electron density measurements. These measurements of T e and n e , when combined with profile assumptions, were used to calculate estimates of energy confinement time (τ E ) and poloidal beta (β θ ). A standard discharge with I p ∼ 400 kA, F ∼ -0.1, and θ ∼ 1.6 typically exhibited T e ∼ 275 eV, n e ∼ 2.0 x 10 13 cm -3 , τ E ≤ 1 ms, and β θ ≤ 8%. The results of a limited plasma current scaling study did not indicate a strong scaling of T e or τ E with I p . The Thomson scattering diagnostic was used in conjunction with a bolometer, VUV radiation monitor, and edge magnetic coils to study the loss of energy from the plasma. Results indicate that thermal transport from stochastic magnetic fields, particle loss, and radiation are important energy loss processes. The experiments done for this study included an F-scan, a paddle limiter insertion series, and an argon doping series. The plasma maintained a constant βτ during these perturbation experiments, suggesting that increases in one energy loss channel are compensated by drops in other channels and increases in input power to the plasma

  14. Analyses of electron and proton scattering to low excitation isoscalar states in 20Ne, 24Mg and 28Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amos, K.; Bauhoff, W.

    1983-01-01

    Intermediate energy inelastic proton scattering differential cross section and polarization data from the 2 1 + states in 24 Mg and 28 Si and from the 4 1 + states in 28 Si have been analysed using the Distorted Wave Approximation with large basis models of nuclear structure. These structure models were tested by use in analyses of the longitudinal form factors obtained from inelastic electron scattering, so that analyses of the intermediate energy (p,p') data from the same transitions are then sensitive tests of the two-nucleon t-matrix. Data from these and other 2 1 + transitions in 12 C and 20 Ne at 49 MeV (24 MeV in the case of 20 Ne), were also analysed to compare models of t-matrices at lower energies. An ancilliary study of the momentum transfer dependence of effective charges has been made as both s-d shell and large basis structure models have been used to compare with form factor data up to momentum transfers of 2.5 fm -1 . The deduced momentum dependence of the effective charges is significant

  15. Analyses of the energy-dependent single separable potential models for the NN scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, S.S.; Beghi, L.

    1981-08-01

    Starting from a systematic study of the salient features regarding the quantum-mechanical two-particle scattering off an energy-dependent (ED) single separable potential and its connection with the rank-2 energy-independent (EI) separable potential in the T-(K-) amplitude formulation, the present status of the ED single separable potential models due to Tabakin (M1), Garcilazo (M2) and Ahmad (M3) has been discussed. It turned out that the incorporation of a self-consistent optimization procedure improves considerably the results of the 1 S 0 and 3 S 1 scattering phase shifts for the models (M2) and (M3) up to the CM wave number q=2.5 fm -1 , although the extrapolation of the results up to q=10 fm -1 reveals that the two models follow the typical behaviour of the well-known super-soft core potentials. It has been found that a variant of (M3) - i.e. (M4) involving one more parameter - gives the phase shifts results which are generally in excellent agreement with the data up to q=2.5 fm -1 and the extrapolation of the results for the 1 S 0 case in the higher wave number range not only follows the corresponding data qualitatively but also reflects a behaviour similar to the Reid soft core and Hamada-Johnston potentials together with a good agreement with the recent [4/3] Pade fits. A brief discussion regarding the features resulting from the variations in the ED parts of all the four models under consideration and their correlations with the inverse scattering theory methodology concludes the paper. (author)

  16. Measuring scatter radiation in diagnostic x rays for radiation protection purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panayiotakis, George; Vlachos, Ioannis; Delis, Harry; Tsantilas, Xenophon; Kalyvas, Nektarios; Kandarakis, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    During the last decades, radiation protection and dosimetry in medical X-ray imaging practice has been extensively studied. The purpose of this study was to measure secondary radiation in a conventional radiographic room, in terms of ambient dose rate equivalent H*(10) and its dependence on the radiographic exposure parameters such as X-ray tube voltage, tube current and distance. With some exceptions, the results indicated that the scattered radiation was uniform in the space around the water cylindrical phantom. The results also showed that the tube voltage and filtration affect the dose rate due to the scatter radiation. Finally, the scattered X-ray energy distribution was experimentally calculated. (authors)

  17. Non-destructive diagnostics of irradiated materials using neutron scattering from pulsed neutron sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korenev, Sergey E-mail: sergey_korenev@steris.com; Sikolenko, Vadim

    2004-10-01

    The advantage of neutron-scattering studies as compared to the standard X-ray technique is the high penetration of neutrons that allow us to study volume effects. The high resolution of instrumentation on the basis neutron scattering allows measurement of the parameters of lattice structure with high precision. We suggest the use of neutron scattering from pulsed neutron sources for analysis of materials irradiated with pulsed high current electron and ion beams. The results of preliminary tests using this method for Ni foils that have been studied by neutron diffraction at the IBR-2 (Pulsed Fast Reactor at Joint Institute for Nuclear Research) are presented.

  18. Non-destructive diagnostics of irradiated materials using neutron scattering from pulsed neutron sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenev, Sergey; Sikolenko, Vadim

    2004-09-01

    The advantage of neutron-scattering studies as compared to the standard X-ray technique is the high penetration of neutrons that allow us to study volume effects. The high resolution of instrumentation on the basis neutron scattering allows measurement of the parameters of lattice structure with high precision. We suggest the use of neutron scattering from pulsed neutron sources for analysis of materials irradiated with pulsed high current electron and ion beams. The results of preliminary tests using this method for Ni foils that have been studied by neutron diffraction at the IBR-2 (Pulsed Fast Reactor at Joint Institute for Nuclear Research) are presented.

  19. Bag-model analyses of proton-antiproton scattering and atomic bound states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberg, M.A.; Freedman, R.A.; Henley, E.M.; Hwang, W.P.; Seckel, D.; Wilets, L.

    1983-01-01

    We study proton-antiproton (pp-bar ) scattering using the static real potential of Bryan and Phillips outside a cutoff radius rsub0 and two different shapes for the imaginary potential inside a radius R*. These forms, motivated by bag models, are a one-gluon-annihilation potential and a simple geometric-overlap form. In both cases there are three adjustable parameters: the effective bag radius R*, the effective strong coupling constant αsubssup*, and rsub0. There is also a choice for the form of the real potential inside the cutoff radius rsub0. Analysis of the pp-bar scattering data in the laboratory-momentum region 0.4--0.7 GeV/c yields an effective nucleon bag radius R* in the range 0.6--1.1 fm, with the best fit obtained for R* = 0.86 fm. Arguments are presented that the deduced value of R* is likely to be an upper bound on the isolated nucleon bag radius. The present results are consistent with the range of bag radii in current bag models. We have also used the resultant optical potential to calculate the shifts and widths of the sup3Ssub1 and sup1Ssub0 atomic bound states of the pp-bar system. For both states we find upward (repulsive) shifts and widths of about 1 keV. We find no evidence for narrow, strongly bound pp-bar states in our potential model

  20. Scattered radiation field in X-ray diagnostics; Polje rasejanog zracenja u rendgen dijagnostici

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markovic, S; Pavlovic, S; Boreli, F [Institute of Nuclear Sciences VINCA, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1995-07-01

    In order to obtain simple analytical relation for spatial distribution of scattered X radiation around patient, the analytical procedure of simplification of starting equations is presented in this paper. (author)

  1. Robust, high-throughput solution structural analyses by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hura, Greg L.; Menon, Angeli L.; Hammel, Michal; Rambo, Robert P.; Poole II, Farris L.; Tsutakawa, Susan E.; Jenney Jr, Francis E.; Classen, Scott; Frankel, Kenneth A.; Hopkins, Robert C.; Yang, Sungjae; Scott, Joseph W.; Dillard, Bret D.; Adams, Michael W. W.; Tainer, John A.

    2009-07-20

    We present an efficient pipeline enabling high-throughput analysis of protein structure in solution with small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Our SAXS pipeline combines automated sample handling of microliter volumes, temperature and anaerobic control, rapid data collection and data analysis, and couples structural analysis with automated archiving. We subjected 50 representative proteins, mostly from Pyrococcus furiosus, to this pipeline and found that 30 were multimeric structures in solution. SAXS analysis allowed us to distinguish aggregated and unfolded proteins, define global structural parameters and oligomeric states for most samples, identify shapes and similar structures for 25 unknown structures, and determine envelopes for 41 proteins. We believe that high-throughput SAXS is an enabling technology that may change the way that structural genomics research is done.

  2. IOD influence on the early winter tibetan plateau snow cover: diagnostic analyses and an AGCM simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Chaoxia; Tozuka, Tomoki; Yamagata, Toshio [The University of Tokyo, Department of Earth and Planetary Science, Graduate School of Science, Tokyo (Japan)

    2012-10-15

    Using diagnostic analyses and an AGCM simulation, the detailed mechanism of Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) influence on the early winter Tibetan Plateau snow cover (EWTPSC) is clarified. In early winter of pure positive IOD years with no co-occurrence of El Nino, the anomalous dipole diabatic heating over the tropical Indian Ocean excites the baroclinic response in the tropics. Since both baroclinic and barotropic components of the basic zonal wind over the Arabian Peninsula increase dramatically in early winter due to the equatorward retreat of the westerly jet, the baroclinic mode excites the barotropic Rossby wave that propagates northeastward and induces a barotropic cyclonic anomaly north of India. This enables the moisture transport cyclonically from the northern Indian Ocean toward the Tibetan Plateau. The convergence of moisture over the plateau explains the positive influence of IOD on the EWTPSC. In contrast, the basic zonal wind over the Arabian Peninsula is weak in autumn. This is not favorable for excitation of the barotropic Rossby wave and teleconnection, even though the IOD-related diabatic heating anomaly in autumn similar to that in early winter exists. This result explains the insignificant (significant positive) partial correlation between IOD and the autumn (early winter) Tibetan Plateau snow cover after excluding the influence of ENSO. The sensitivity experiment forced by the IOD-related SST anomaly within the tropical Indian Ocean well reproduces the baroclinic response in the tropics, the teleconnection from the Arabian Peninsula, and the increased moisture supply to the Tibetan Plateau. Also, the seasonality of the atmospheric response to the IOD is simulated. (orig.)

  3. Investigation of publication bias in meta-analyses of diagnostic test accuracy: a meta-epidemiological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Enst, W. Annefloor; Ochodo, Eleanor; Scholten, Rob J. P. M.; Hooft, Lotty; Leeflang, Mariska M.

    2014-01-01

    The validity of a meta-analysis can be understood better in light of the possible impact of publication bias. The majority of the methods to investigate publication bias in terms of small study-effects are developed for meta-analyses of intervention studies, leaving authors of diagnostic test

  4. Design advances of the Core Plasma Thomson Scattering diagnostic for ITER.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Scannell, R.; Maslov, M.; Naylor, G.; O’Gorman, T.; Kempenaars, M.; Carr, M.; Bílková, Petra; Böhm, Petr; Giudicotti, L.; Pasqualotto, R.; Bassan, M.; Vayakis, G.; Walsh, M.; Huxford, R.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 12, November (2017), č. článku C11010. ISSN 1748-0221. [International Symposium on Laser-Aided Plasma Diagnostics (LAPD2017) /18./. Prague, 24.09.2017-28.09.2017] Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Nuclear instruments and methods for hot plasma diagnostics * Plasma diagnostics - interferometry * spectroscopy and imaging Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: 2.11 Other engineering and technologies Impact factor: 1.220, year: 2016 http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1748-0221/12/11/C11010/pdf

  5. Diagnostic of the Symbiotic Stars Environment by Thomson, Raman and Rayleigh Scattering Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sekeráš

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Symbiotic stars are long-period interacting binaries consisting of a cool giant as the donor star and a white dwarf as the acretor. Due to acretion of the material from the giant’s stellar wind, the white dwarf becomes very hot and luminous. The circumstellar material partially ionized by the hot star, represents an ideal medium for processes of scattering. To investigate the symbiotic nebula we modeled the wide wings of the resonance lines OVI λ1032 Å, λ1038 Å and HeII λ1640 Å emission line in the spectrum of AG Dra, broadened by Thomson scattering. On the other hand, Raman and Rayleigh scattering arise in the neutral part of the circumstellar matter around the giant and provide a powerful tool to probe e.g. the ionization structure of the symbiotic systems and distribution of the neutral hydrogen atoms in the giant’s wind.

  6. Laser Scattering Diagnostic for Shock Front Arrival and Electron Number Density, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Three diagnostic methods are proposed for measuring properties of interest in the post-shock regions of a hypersonic bow shock wave that is used for studying...

  7. Infrared laser scattering system for the plasma diagnostics: CO/sub 2/ laser characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiraki, N; Kawasaki, S; Muraoka, K

    1975-08-01

    A detailed study was conducted of the operating characteristics of a double discharge infrared TEA carbon dioxide laser used for scattering measurements of plasmas. The discharge condition, the laser output energy and power, the beam profile and divergence, the emission spectral line width, the time lag and jitter of the output from the discharge trigger, have been established. It is concluded that the carbon dioxide oscillator can deliver the allowable beam divergence and spectral line width for the measurement of ion temperature in light scattering studies of theta pinch plasmas. The results presented might be applicable to laser fusion experiments using carbon dioxide lasers.

  8. Small-angle neutron scattering and rheological analyses of nanoemulsion for cosmetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, Takuji

    2014-01-01

    A stable nanoemulsion consisting of nanometer-sized oil droplets in water having a self-standing capability was prepared by high-pressure emulsification. Rheological measurements show that the nanoemulsion has a high viscosity and a yield stress. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) revealed the presence of an ordered crystal-like lattice structure in addition to spherical domains with a diameter of ca. 30 nm. Nonfluidity of nanoemulsion is ascribed to crystal-like lattice structure of nanodroplets. A mixed solution of 2-hydroxyethyl cellulose and the nanoemulsion has shear-thickening behavior (shear-induced gelation). Real-time SANS measurements with a Couette geometry as a function of shear rate (Rheo-SANS) revealed that a possible mechanism of gelation was proposed from the viewpoint of shear-induced percolation transition. Furthermore, mixtures of the nanoemulsion and poly(acrylic acid) solutions were opaque and kept the same interdomain distance and high viscosity. We estimated that it had phase-separated structure between nanoemulsion phase and poly(acrylic acid) solution phase. (author)

  9. Commissioning activities and first results from the collective Thomson scattering diagnostic on ASDEX Upgrade (invited)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meo, Fernando; Bindslev, Henrik; Korsholm, Søren Bang

    2008-01-01

    of the system. First results in near perpendicular of scattered spectra in a neutral beam injection (NBI) and ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) plasma (minority hydrogen) on ASDEX Upgrade have shown evidence of ICRH heating phase of hydrogen. ©2008 American Institute of Physics...

  10. 6Li real potential volume integrals in elastic scattering and distorted-waveBorn approximation analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lezoch, P.; Trost, H.; Strohbusch, U.

    1981-01-01

    The magnitudes of volume integrals per interacting nucleon pair J/sub R/' calculated from a compilation of 6 Li potentials vary between 100 and 500 MeV fm 3 . They are grouped in discrete branches with J/sub R/(A) smoothly increasing with decreasing target mass. Comparison with the results for lighter projectiles restricts the ''physically meaningful'' branches to those characterized by J/sub R/ (A> or =48) 3 . ( 6 Li,d) reaction analyses yield the same fit qualities for 6 Li potentials of the different discrete families, but deduced spectroscopic factors jump (by factors of approx.3) when changing between successive families

  11. Partial wave analyses of scattering below 2 GeV. Progress report, May 1, 1984-April 30, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arndt, R.A.; Roper, L.D.

    1985-08-01

    Progress is reported in the partial wave analysis of nucleon-nucleon elastic scattering, pion-nucleon elastic scattering, and kaon plus-nucleon elastic scattering. Activities are also reported with respect to the Scattering Analysis Interactive Dial-in (SAID) facility

  12. A compact new incoherent Thomson scattering diagnostic for low-temperature plasma studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Benjamin; Tsikata, Sedina; Mazouffre, Stéphane; Minea, Tiberiu; Fils, Jérôme

    2018-05-01

    Incoherent Thomson scattering (ITS) has a long history of application for the determination of electron density and temperature in dense fusion plasmas, and in recent years, has been increasingly extended to studies in low-temperature plasma environments. In this work, the design and preliminary implementation of a new, sensitive and uniquely compact ITS platform known as Thomson scattering experiments for low temperature ion sources are described. Measurements have been performed on a hollow cathode plasma source, providing access to electron densities as low as 1016 m‑3 and electron temperatures of a few eV and below. This achievement has been made possible by the implementation of a narrow volume Bragg grating notch filter for the attenuation of stray light, a feature which guarantees compactness and reduced transmission losses in comparison to standard ITS platforms.

  13. Study of TJ-1 Tokamak plasmas with Thomson scattering and radiation diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardo, C.; Zurro, B.

    1987-06-01

    The Thomson scattering system of TJ-1 is described in detail. The radial profiles of T e and n e obtained in TJ-1 discharges are presented. This data makes possible to deduce characteristic parameters of the plasma confinement in this machine, as energy confinement times, Z eff B. Using also radiation measurements (global and in the visible range) we obtained the particle confinement time and Z eff without non experimental assumptions. (author) 56 figs., 52 refs

  14. Molecular Rayleigh Scattering Diagnostic for Dynamic Temperature, Velocity, and Density Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielke, Amy R.; Elam, Kristie A.; Sung, Chi-Jen

    2006-01-01

    A molecular Rayleigh scattering technique is developed to measure dynamic gas temperature, velocity, and density in unseeded turbulent flows at sampling rates up to 16 kHz. A high power CW laser beam is focused at a point in an air jet plume and Rayleigh scattered light is collected and spectrally resolved. The spectrum of the light, which contains information about the temperature and velocity of the flow, is analyzed using a Fabry-Perot interferometer. The circular interference fringe pattern is divided into four concentric regions and sampled at 1 and 16 kHz using photon counting electronics. Monitoring the relative change in intensity within each region allows for measurement of gas temperature and velocity. Independently monitoring the total scattered light intensity provides a measure of gas density. A low speed heated jet is used to validate the measurement of temperature fluctuations and an acoustically excited nozzle flow is studied to validate velocity fluctuation measurements. Power spectral density calculations of the property fluctuations, as well as mean and fluctuating quantities are presented. Temperature fluctuation results are compared with constant current anemometry measurements and velocity fluctuation results are compared with constant temperature anemometry measurements at the same locations.

  15. Engineering design of the ITER Collective Thomson Scattering diagnostic. Contract EFDA 06-1478

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Poul; Furtula, Vedran; Korsholm, Søren Bang

    This report describes the work done under EFDA contract 06-1478 (EFDA Ref.: TW6-TPDS-DIASUP10). The main part of the work has been focused on: 1) An outline plan for the full development of the CTS diagnostic for ITER, including specifications for future design tasks on the system and R&D tasks...

  16. Elevation angle alignment of quasi optical receiver mirrors of collective Thomson scattering diagnostic by sawtooth measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moseev, D.; Meo, Fernando; Korsholm, Søren Bang

    2012-01-01

    require a good alignment of the optical path in the transmission line. Monitoring the alignment during the experiment greatly benefits the confidence in the CTS measurements. An in situ technique for the assessment of the elevation angle alignment of the receiver is developed. Using the CTS diagnostic...

  17. Spontaneous Raman Scattering Diagnostics: Applications in Practical Combustion Systems. Chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Jun; Viet-Nguyen, Quang; Lackner, Maximilian (Editor); Winter, Franz (Editor); Agarwal, Avinash (Editor)

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter, the recent advancements and practical aspects of laser SRS diagnostics have been reviewed wi til regards to applications in practical combustion systems. Clearly, SRS represents a theoretically and experimentally mature diagnostic technology that has become an essential tool for multiscalar measurements in turbulent combustion at elevated pressures. Today, time-, space-, spectrally, and even polarization-resolved S RS diagnostics is at hand, with aid from recent innovations in theoretical and technological developments on electro-optical or electromechanical devices. Whilst a linear increase in SRS signals can be expected in high-pressure systems (this is perhaps one of the most important advantages for using SRS in high-pressure systems), there are practical (often severe) restrictions associated with pressurized vessels, due mainly to the limited degree of optical access. This narrows ti,e available choice of diagnostics that can be employed at any given time. Point-wise SRS diagnostics provides the highest accuracy on the chemical species and temperature measurements, and will continue to remain a vital approach for the study in such harsh environments. The practical design considerations and hands-on set-up guide for SRS diagnostics provided in this chapter are rarely presented elsewhere. Although the second-harmonic Nd:YAG pulsed laser (532 nm), combined with pulse-stretching optics or the recently introduced White Cell-based laser, seems to be the most favored excitation source of choice by the research community, UV excitation will undoubtedly continue to be used on many occasions, and especially in sooting flames. Detection methods may be divided into ICCD-based nanosecond-gate detection or a rotary-chopper electromechanical shutter-based CCD array detection, and the levels of background flame emission in individual cases would determine this critical design choice. Here, a process of Raman signal calibration based on ti,e crosstalk matrix

  18. Molecular Rayleigh Scattering Diagnostic for Measurement of High Frequency Temperature Fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielke, Amy F.; Elam, Kristie A.

    2005-01-01

    A novel technique for measurement of high frequency temperature fluctuations in unseeded gas flows using molecular Rayleigh scattering is investigated. The spectrum of laser light scattered from molecules in a gas flow is resolved using a Fabry-Perot interferometer. The width of the spectral peak is broadened by thermal motion of the molecules and hence is related to gas temperature. The interference fringe pattern containing spectral information is divided into four concentric regions using a series of mirrors angled with respect to one another. Light from each of these regions is directed towards photomultiplier tubes and sampled at 10 kHz using photon counting electronics. Monitoring the relative change in intensity within each region allows measurement of gas temperature. Independently monitoring the total scattered intensity provides a measure of gas density. This technique also has the potential to simultaneously measure a single component of flow velocity by monitoring the spectral peak location. Measurements of gas temperature and density are demonstrated using a low speed heated air jet surrounded by an unheated air co-flow. Mean values of temperature and density are shown for radial scans across the jet flow at a fixed axial distance from the jet exit plane. Power spectra of temperature and density fluctuations at several locations in the jet are also shown. The instantaneous measurements have fairly high uncertainty; however, long data records provide highly accurate statistically quantities, which include power spectra. Mean temperatures are compared with thermocouple measurements as well as the temperatures derived from independent density measurements. The accuracy for mean temperature measurements was +/- 7 K.

  19. Raman scattering diagnostics of YBa2Cu3Ox high temperature superconducting films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagratashvili, V.N.; Burimov, V.N.; Denisov, V.N.

    1988-01-01

    Superconducting YBa 2 Cu 3 O x films produced by laser spraying of ceramic material are investigated by light Raman scattering (LCS). It is shown that using LCS it is possible to obtain data on phase composition and prevailing film orientation and to find optical conditions for their synthesis. The LCS method feature consists in a possibility of non-destructive remote control and high space resolution (several microns). Experimental results have shown that the best parameters (the highest T c and the narrowest Δ T c interval) are typical of films with prevailing orientation of 0 xy crystallite plane parallel to the surface

  20. Diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donné, A.J.H.; Costley, A.E.; Barnsley, R.

    2007-01-01

    of the measurements—time and spatial resolutions, etc—will in some cases be more stringent. Many of the measurements will be used in the real time control of the plasma driving a requirement for very high reliability in the systems (diagnostics) that provide the measurements. The implementation of diagnostic systems...... on ITER is a substantial challenge. Because of the harsh environment (high levels of neutron and gamma fluxes, neutron heating, particle bombardment) diagnostic system selection and design has to cope with a range of phenomena not previously encountered in diagnostic design. Extensive design and R......&D is needed to prepare the systems. In some cases the environmental difficulties are so severe that new diagnostic techniques are required. The starting point in the development of diagnostics for ITER is to define the measurement requirements and develop their justification. It is necessary to include all...

  1. Analysis and Performance of the Thomson Scattering Diagnostics on HT-7 Tokamak Based on I-EMCCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao Chunqiang; Zhao Junyu; Zang Qing; Han Xiaofeng; Xi Xiaoqi; Yang Jianhua; Chen Hui; Hu Ailan

    2014-01-01

    A visible light imaging Thomson scattering (VIS-TVTS) diagnostic system has been developed for the measurement of plasma electron temperature on the HT-7 tokamak. The system contains a Nd:YAG laser (λ = 532 nm, repetition rate 10 Hz, total pulse duration ≍ 10 ns, pulse energy > 1.0 J), a grating spectrometer, an image intensifier (I.I.) lens coupled with an electron multiplying CCD (EMCCD) and a data acquisition and analysis system. In this paper, the measurement capability of the system is analyzed. In addition to the performance of the system, the capability of measuring plasma electron temperature has been proved. The profile of electron temperature is presented with a spatial resolution of about 0.96 cm (seven points) near the center of the plasma

  2. Analyses and Simulation of 3D Scattering Due to Heterogeneous Crustal Structure and Surface Topography on Regional Phases, Magnitude Discrimination

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pitarka, Arban; Helmberger, Don V; Ni, Sidao

    2008-01-01

    ... into ongoing research for the development of simple empirical models of scattering that can be used in reducing the scatter in measures of Lg and coda wave magnitude and for discrimination purposes as well...

  3. Design calculations for a xenon plasma x-ray shield to protect the NIF optical Thomson scattering diagnostic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swadling, G. F.; Ross, J. S.; Datte, P.; Moody, J.; Divol, L.; Jones, O.; Landen, O. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    An Optical Thomson Scattering (OTS) diagnostic is currently being developed for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This diagnostic is designed to make measurements of the hohlraum plasma parameters, such as the electron temperature and the density, during inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments. NIF ICF experiments present a very challenging environment for optical measurements; by their very nature, hohlraums produce intense soft x-ray emission, which can cause “blanking” (radiation induced opacity) of the radiation facing optical components. The soft x-ray fluence at the surface of the OTS blast shield, 60 cm from the hohlraum, is estimated to be ∼8 J cm{sup −2}. This is significantly above the expected threshold for the onset of “blanking” effects. A novel xenon plasma x-ray shield is proposed to protect the blast shield from x-rays and mitigate “blanking.” Estimates suggest that an areal density of 10{sup 19} cm{sup −2} Xe atoms will be sufficient to absorb 99.5% of the soft x-ray flux. Two potential designs for this shield are presented.

  4. Design calculations for a xenon plasma x-ray shield to protect the NIF optical Thomson scattering diagnostic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swadling, G F; Ross, J S; Datte, P; Moody, J; Divol, L; Jones, O; Landen, O

    2016-11-01

    An Optical Thomson Scattering (OTS) diagnostic is currently being developed for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This diagnostic is designed to make measurements of the hohlraum plasma parameters, such as the electron temperature and the density, during inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments. NIF ICF experiments present a very challenging environment for optical measurements; by their very nature, hohlraums produce intense soft x-ray emission, which can cause "blanking" (radiation induced opacity) of the radiation facing optical components. The soft x-ray fluence at the surface of the OTS blast shield, 60 cm from the hohlraum, is estimated to be ∼8 J cm -2 . This is significantly above the expected threshold for the onset of "blanking" effects. A novel xenon plasma x-ray shield is proposed to protect the blast shield from x-rays and mitigate "blanking." Estimates suggest that an areal density of 10 19 cm -2 Xe atoms will be sufficient to absorb 99.5% of the soft x-ray flux. Two potential designs for this shield are presented.

  5. Engineering design of the ITER Collective Thomson Scattering diagnostic. Contract EFDA 06-1478

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michelsen, P.K.; Furtula, V.; Korsholm, S.B.; Leipold, F.; Meo, F.; Salewski, M.; Bindslev, H.; Lauritzen, B.; Lucas, M.; Nonboel, E.

    2009-12-01

    This report describes the work done under EFDA contract 06-1478 (EFDA Ref.: TW6-TPDS-DIASUP10). The main part of the work has been focused on: 1) An outline plan for the full development of the CTS diagnostic for ITER, including specifications for future design tasks on the system and R and D tasks on critical components. 2) An engineering design and test in a blanket mock-up of the frontend quasi-optical High Field Side (HFS) antenna system,. 3) Some considerations on the waveguide mounting. 4) Neutronics and thermo-elastic calculations on nuclear and radiative heating of the first mirror required to provide input to the engineering design. 5) An engineering design of the front-end quasi-optical components for the Low Field Side (LFS) system in the port plug. 6) A discussion on possible calibration methods. (author)

  6. Analysing Diagnostic Assessment on the Ratio of Sine in a Right Triangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andika, R.; Juandi, D.; Rosjanuardi, R.

    2017-09-01

    This study aims to develop diagnostic assessment with the special topic of the ratio of sinus in a right triangle and analyze the result whether the students are ready to continue to the next lesson of trigonometry specially the sinus rule. The methodology that use in this study is a design research of Plomp model which is it comprises of 3 phases: (a) preliminary research; (b) prototyping phase; and (c) assessment phase. The findings show that almost half of students made a mistake in determining the ratio of sin in a right triangle, consequently the procedure for solving the problem went wrong. In strategic competency and adaptive communication most of students did not solve the problem that was given. According to the result, the students have to get remedial program before to the next lesson, the rule of sin.

  7. Upgrade of the automatic analysis system in the TJ-II Thomson Scattering diagnostic: New image recognition classifier and fault condition detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makili, L.; Vega, J.; Dormido-Canto, S.; Pastor, I.; Pereira, A.; Farias, G.; Portas, A.; Perez-Risco, D.; Rodriguez-Fernandez, M. C.; Busch, P.

    2010-01-01

    An automatic image classification system based on support vector machines (SVM) has been in operation for years in the TJ-II Thomson Scattering diagnostic. It recognizes five different types of images: CCD camera background, measurement of stray light without plasma or in a collapsed discharge,

  8. Enhanced Alignment Techniques for the Thomson Scattering Diagnostic on the Lithium Tokamak eXperiment (LTX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, Enrique; Kozub, Tom; Boyle, Dennis; Lucia, Matthew; Majeski, Richard; Kaita, Robert; Schmitt, John C.; Leblanc, Benoit; Diallo, Ahmed; Jacobson, C. M.

    2014-10-01

    The Thomson Scattering (TS) System in LTX is used to measure electron temperature and density profiles of core and edge plasmas. In view of TS measurements showing low signal-to-noise and high stray light, numerous improvements were performed in recent months. These will allow for better measurements. Due to the nature of LTX's lithium coated walls, a particular challenge was presented by alignment procedures which required insertion and precise positioning of equipment in the vacuum vessel without breaking vacuum. To overcome these difficulties, the laser flight tubes were removed and an alignment probe setup placed along the beam line on a differentially pumped assembly. The probe was then driven into the vacuum vessel and back-illumination of the viewing optics on it allowed for alignment and spatial calibration. Other upgrades included better bracing of flight tubes and viewing optics as well as a redesigned beam dump. An overview of these improvements will be presented. Supported by US DOE Contracts DE-AC02-09CH11466 and DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  9. Differential proteomic and tissue expression analyses identify valuable diagnostic biomarkers of hepatocellular differentiation and hepatoid adenocarcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Henning; Padden, Juliet; Ahrens, Maike; Pütter, Carolin; Bertram, Stefanie; Pott, Leona L; Reis, Anna-Carinna; Weber, Frank; Juntermanns, Benjamin; Hoffmann, Andreas-C; Eisenacher, Martin; Schlaak, Joörg F; Canbay, Ali; Meyer, Helmut E; Sitek, Barbara; Baba, Hideo A

    2015-10-01

    The exact discrimination of lesions with true hepatocellular differentiation from secondary tumours and neoplasms with hepatocellular histomorphology like hepatoid adenocarcinomas (HAC) is crucial. Therefore, we aimed to identify ancillary protein biomarkers by using complementary proteomic techniques (2D-DIGE, label-free MS). The identified candidates were immunohistochemically validated in 14 paired samples of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and non-tumourous liver tissue (NT). The candidates and HepPar1/Arginase1 were afterwards tested for consistency in a large cohort of hepatocellular lesions and NT (n = 290), non-hepatocellular malignancies (n = 383) and HAC (n = 13). Eight non-redundant, differentially expressed proteins were suitable for further immunohistochemical validation and four (ABAT, BHMT, FABP1, HAOX1) for further evaluation. Sensitivity and specificity rates for HCC/HAC were as follows: HepPar1 80.2%, 94.3% / 80.2%, 46.2%; Arginase1 82%, 99.4% / 82%, 69.2%; BHMT 61.4%, 93.8% / 61.4%, 100%; ABAT 84.4%, 33.7% / 84.4%, 30.8%; FABP1 87.2%, 95% / 87.2%, 69.2%; HAOX1 95.5%, 36.3% / 95.5%, 46.2%. The best 2×/3× biomarker panels for the diagnosis of HCC consisted of Arginase1/HAOX1 and BHMT/Arginase1/HAOX1 and for HAC consisted of Arginase1/FABP1 and BHMT/Arginase1/FABP1. In summary, we successfully identified, validated and benchmarked protein biomarker candidates of hepatocellular differentiation. BHMT in particular exhibited superior diagnostic characteristics in hepatocellular lesions and specifically in HAC. BHMT is therefore a promising (panel based) biomarker candidate in the differential diagnostic process of lesions with hepatocellular aspect.

  10. Using rapid diagnostic tests as source of malaria parasite DNA for molecular analyses in the era of declining malaria prevalence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ishengoma, Deus S; Lwitiho, Sudi; Madebe, Rashid A

    2011-01-01

    was conducted to examine if sufficient DNA could be successfully extracted from malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), used and collected as part of routine case management services in health facilities, and thus forming the basis for molecular analyses, surveillance and quality control (QC) testing of RDTs....... continued molecular surveillance of malaria parasites is important to early identify emerging anti-malarial drug resistance, it is becoming increasingly difficult to obtain parasite samples from ongoing studies, such as routine drug efficacy trials. To explore other sources of parasite DNA, this study...

  11. The comparative analyses of different diagnostic approaches in detection of gastroesophageal reflux disease in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristic, Nina; Milovanovic, Ivan; Radusinovic, Milica; Stevic, Marija; Ristic, Milos; Ristic, Maja; Kisic Tepavcevic, Darija; Alempijevic, Tamara

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the different diagnostic approaches in detection of gastroesophageal reflux disease in children presented with symptoms suggesting gastroesophageal reflux disease. The study design was cross sectional. The study retrospectively included all children who underwent combined multiple intraluminal impedance and pH (pH-MII) monitoring due to gastrointestinal and/or extraesophageal symptoms suggesting gastroesophageal reflux disease at University Children's Hospital in Belgrade, from July 2012 to July 2016. A total of 218 (117 boys/101 girls), mean age 6.7 years (range 0.06-18.0 years), met the inclusion criteria. Gastroesophageal reflux disease was found in 128 of 218 children (57.4%) by pH-MII and in 76 (34.1%) children by pH metry alone. Using pH-MII monitoring as gold standard, sensitivity of pH-metry was lowest in infants (22.9%), with tendency to increase in older age groups (reaching 76.4% in children ≥ 9 years). The sensitivity of pH-metry alone in children with extraesophageal symptoms was 38.1%, while the sensitivity of pH-metry in children with gastrointestinal symptoms was 63.8%. Reflux esophagitis was identified in 31 (26.1%) of 119 children who underwent endoscopy. Logistic regression analysis showed that best predictors of endoscopic reflux esophagitis are the longest acid episode (OR = 1.52, preflux composite score (OR = 3.31, preflux composite score ≥ 29 (AUC 0.786, CI 0.695-0.877, preflux ≥ 18 minutes (AUC 0.784, CI 0.692-0.875, pgastroesophageal reflux disease, especially in infants. Our findings also showed that pH-MII parameters correlated significantly with the endoscopically confirmed erosive esophagitis.

  12. A Report on Molecular Diagnostic Testing for Inherited Retinal Dystrophies by Targeted Genetic Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramkumar, Hema L; Gudiseva, Harini V; Kishaba, Kameron T; Suk, John J; Verma, Rohan; Tadimeti, Keerti; Thorson, John A; Ayyagari, Radha

    2017-02-01

    To test the utility of targeted sequencing as a method of clinical molecular testing in patients diagnosed with inherited retinal degeneration (IRD). After genetic counseling, peripheral blood was drawn from 188 probands and 36 carriers of IRD. Single gene testing was performed on each patient in a Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendment (CLIA) certified laboratory. DNA was isolated, and all exons in the gene of interest were analyzed along with 20 base pairs of flanking intronic sequence. Genetic testing was most often performed on ABCA4, CTRP5, ELOV4, BEST1, CRB1, and PRPH2. Pathogenicity of novel sequence changes was predicted by PolyPhen2 and sorting intolerant from tolerant (SIFT). Of the 225 genetic tests performed, 150 were for recessive IRD, and 75 were for dominant IRD. A positive molecular diagnosis was made in 70 (59%) of probands with recessive IRD and 19 (26%) probands with dominant IRD. Analysis confirmed 12 (34%) of individuals as carriers of familial mutations associated with IRD. Thirty-two novel variants were identified; among these, 17 sequence changes in four genes were predicted to be possibly or probably damaging including: ABCA4 (14), BEST1 (2), PRPH2 (1), and TIMP3 (1). Targeted analysis of clinically suspected genes in 225 subjects resulted in a positive molecular diagnosis in 26% of patients with dominant IRD and 59% of patients with recessive IRD. Novel damaging mutations were identified in four genes. Single gene screening is not an ideal method for diagnostic testing given the phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity among IRD cases. High-throughput sequencing of all genes associated with retinal degeneration may be more efficient for molecular diagnosis.

  13. The comparative analyses of different diagnostic approaches in detection of gastroesophageal reflux disease in children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Ristic

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the different diagnostic approaches in detection of gastroesophageal reflux disease in children presented with symptoms suggesting gastroesophageal reflux disease.The study design was cross sectional. The study retrospectively included all children who underwent combined multiple intraluminal impedance and pH (pH-MII monitoring due to gastrointestinal and/or extraesophageal symptoms suggesting gastroesophageal reflux disease at University Children's Hospital in Belgrade, from July 2012 to July 2016.A total of 218 (117 boys/101 girls, mean age 6.7 years (range 0.06-18.0 years, met the inclusion criteria. Gastroesophageal reflux disease was found in 128 of 218 children (57.4% by pH-MII and in 76 (34.1% children by pH metry alone. Using pH-MII monitoring as gold standard, sensitivity of pH-metry was lowest in infants (22.9%, with tendency to increase in older age groups (reaching 76.4% in children ≥ 9 years. The sensitivity of pH-metry alone in children with extraesophageal symptoms was 38.1%, while the sensitivity of pH-metry in children with gastrointestinal symptoms was 63.8%. Reflux esophagitis was identified in 31 (26.1% of 119 children who underwent endoscopy. Logistic regression analysis showed that best predictors of endoscopic reflux esophagitis are the longest acid episode (OR = 1.52, p<0.05 and DeMeester reflux composite score (OR = 3.31, p<0.05. The significant cutoff values included DeMeester reflux composite score ≥ 29 (AUC 0.786, CI 0.695-0.877, p<0.01 and duration of longest acid reflux ≥ 18 minutes (AUC 0.784, CI 0.692-0.875, p<0.01.The results of our study suggested that compared with pH-metry alone, pH-MII had significantly higher detection rate of gastroesophageal reflux disease, especially in infants. Our findings also showed that pH-MII parameters correlated significantly with the endoscopically confirmed erosive esophagitis.

  14. Microscopic model analyses of the elastic scattering of 25, 30, and 40 MeV protons from targets of diverse mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deb, P.K.; Amos, K.; Karataglidis, S.

    2000-01-01

    An extensive survey and analysis of cross section and analysing power data from proton elastic scattering at energies 25 to 40 MeV is presented. The data are compared with predictions obtained from a full folding specification of the proton-nucleus optical potentials. Isotope and energy variation of the data is explained

  15. A real-time digital control, data acquisition and analysis system for the DIII-D multipulse Thomson scattering diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenfield, C.M.; Campbell, G.L.; Carlstrom, T.N.; DeBoo, J.C.; Hsieh, C.-L.; Snider, R.T.; Trost, P.K.

    1990-10-01

    A VME-based real-time computer systems for laser control, data acquisition and analysis for the DIII-D multipulse Thomson scattering diagnostic is described. The laser control task requires precise timing of up to 8 Nd:YAG lasers, each with an average firing rate of 20 Hz. A cpu module in real-time multiprocessing computer system will operate the lasers with evenly staggered laser pulses or in a ''burst mode'', where all available (fully charged) lasers can be fired at 50--100 μsec intervals upon receipt of an external event trigger signal. One of more cpu modules, along with a LeCroy FERA (Fast Encoding and Readout ADC) system, will perform real-time data acquisition and analysis. Partial electron temperature and density profiles will be available for plasma feedback control within 1 msec following each laser pulse. The VME-based computer system consists of 2 or more target processor modules (25 MHz Motorola 68030) running the VMEexec real-time operating system connected to a Unix based host system (also a 68030). All real-time software is fully interrupt driven to maximize system efficiency. Operator interaction and (non real-time) data analysis takes place on a MicroVAX 3400 connected via DECnet. 17 refs., 1 fig

  16. Real-time digital control, data acquisition, and analysis system for the DIII-D multipulse Thomson scattering diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenfield, C.M.; Campbell, G.L.; Carlstrom, T.N.; DeBoo, J.C.; Hsieh, C.; Snider, R.T.; Trost, P.K.

    1990-01-01

    A VME-based real-time computer system for laser control, data acquisition, and analysis for the DIII-D multipulse Thomson scattering diagnostic is described. The laser control task requires precise timing of up to eight Nd:YAG lasers, each with an average firing rate of 20 Hz. A cpu module in a real-time multiprocessing computer system will operate the lasers with evenly staggered laser pulses or in a ''burst mode,'' where all available (fully charged) lasers can be fired at 50--100 μs intervals upon receipt of an external event trigger signal. One or more cpu modules, along with a LeCroy FERA (fast encoding and readout ADC) system, will perform real-time data acquisition and analysis. Partial electron temperature and density profiles will be available for plasma feedback control within 1 ms following each laser pulse. The VME-based computer system consists of two or more target processor modules (25 MHz Motorola 68030) running the VMEexec real-time operating system connected to a Unix-based host system (also a 68030). All real-time software is fully interrupt driven to maximize system efficiency. Operator interaction and (non-real-time) data analysis takes place on a MicroVAX 3400 connected via DECnet

  17. Development of High Spectral Resolution Technique for Registration Quasielastic Light Scattering Spectra Including Rayleigh and Brillouin Scattering as a Diagnostic Tool in Materials Characterization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bairamov, Bakhysh

    2004-01-01

    ...: As detailed in an on-line proposal the contractor will: 1) develop and build an optical device, fitted to a Fabry-Perot interferometer, to perform high-resolution quasieleastic light scattering spectroscopy; 2...

  18. The Evaluation of Bivariate Mixed Models in Meta-analyses of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies with SAS, Stata and R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelgesang, Felicitas; Schlattmann, Peter; Dewey, Marc

    2018-05-01

    Meta-analyses require a thoroughly planned procedure to obtain unbiased overall estimates. From a statistical point of view not only model selection but also model implementation in the software affects the results. The present simulation study investigates the accuracy of different implementations of general and generalized bivariate mixed models in SAS (using proc mixed, proc glimmix and proc nlmixed), Stata (using gllamm, xtmelogit and midas) and R (using reitsma from package mada and glmer from package lme4). Both models incorporate the relationship between sensitivity and specificity - the two outcomes of interest in meta-analyses of diagnostic accuracy studies - utilizing random effects. Model performance is compared in nine meta-analytic scenarios reflecting the combination of three sizes for meta-analyses (89, 30 and 10 studies) with three pairs of sensitivity/specificity values (97%/87%; 85%/75%; 90%/93%). The evaluation of accuracy in terms of bias, standard error and mean squared error reveals that all implementations of the generalized bivariate model calculate sensitivity and specificity estimates with deviations less than two percentage points. proc mixed which together with reitsma implements the general bivariate mixed model proposed by Reitsma rather shows convergence problems. The random effect parameters are in general underestimated. This study shows that flexibility and simplicity of model specification together with convergence robustness should influence implementation recommendations, as the accuracy in terms of bias was acceptable in all implementations using the generalized approach. Schattauer GmbH.

  19. Diagnostic Performance and Utility of Quantitative EEG Analyses in Delirium: Confirmatory Results From a Large Retrospective Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischmann, Robert; Tränkner, Steffi; Bathe-Peters, Rouven; Rönnefarth, Maria; Schmidt, Sein; Schreiber, Stephan J; Brandt, Stephan A

    2018-03-01

    The lack of objective disease markers is a major cause of misdiagnosis and nonstandardized approaches in delirium. Recent studies conducted in well-selected patients and confined study environments suggest that quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG) can provide such markers. We hypothesize that qEEG helps remedy diagnostic uncertainty not only in well-defined study cohorts but also in a heterogeneous hospital population. In this retrospective case-control study, EEG power spectra of delirious patients and age-/gender-matched controls (n = 31 and n = 345, respectively) were fitted in a linear model to test their performance as binary classifiers. We subsequently evaluated the diagnostic performance of the best classifiers in control samples with normal EEGs (n = 534) and real-world samples including pathologic findings (n = 4294). Test reliability was estimated through split-half analyses. We found that the combination of spectral power at F3-P4 at 2 Hz (area under the curve [AUC] = .994) and C3-O1 at 19 Hz (AUC = .993) provided a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 99% to identify delirious patients among normal controls. These classifiers also yielded a false positive rate as low as 5% and increased the pretest probability of being delirious by 57% in an unselected real-world sample. Split-half reliabilities were .98 and .99, respectively. This retrospective study yielded preliminary evidence that qEEG provides excellent diagnostic performance to identify delirious patients even outside confined study environments. It furthermore revealed reduced beta power as a novel specific finding in delirium and that a normal EEG excludes delirium. Prospective studies including parameters of pretest probability and delirium severity are required to elaborate on these promising findings.

  20. THE PHYSICAL ORIGIN AND THE DIAGNOSTIC POTENTIAL OF THE SCATTERING POLARIZATION IN THE Li I RESONANCE DOUBLET AT 6708 A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belluzzi, Luca; Landi Degl'Innocenti, Egidio; Trujillo Bueno, Javier

    2009-01-01

    High-sensitivity measurements of the linearly polarized solar limb spectrum produced by scattering processes in quiet regions of the solar atmosphere showed that the Q/I profile of the lithium doublet at 6708 A has an amplitude ∼10 -4 and a curious three-peak structure, qualitatively similar to that found and confirmed by many observers in the Na I D 2 line. Given that a precise measurement of the scattering polarization profile of the lithium doublet lies at the limit of the present observational possibilities, it is worthwhile to clarify the physical origin of the observed polarization, its diagnostic potential, and what kind of Q/I shapes can be expected from theory. To this end, we have applied the quantum theory of atomic level polarization taking into account the hyperfine structure of the two stable isotopes of lithium, as well as the Hanle effect of a microturbulent magnetic field of arbitrary strength. We find that quantum interferences between the sublevels pertaining to the upper levels of the D 2 and D 1 line transitions of lithium do not cause any observable effect on the emergent Q/I profile. Our theoretical calculations show that only two Q/I peaks can be expected, with the strongest one caused by the D 2 line of 7 Li I and the weakest one due to the D 2 line of 6 Li I. Interestingly, we find that these two peaks in the theoretical Q/I profile stand out clearly only when the kinetic temperature of the thin atmospheric region that produces the emergent spectral line radiation is lower than 4000 K. The fact that such a thin atmospheric region is located around a height of 200 km in standard semi-empirical models, where the kinetic temperature is about 5000 K, leads us to suggest that the most likely Q/I profile produced by the Sun in the lithium doublet should be slightly asymmetric and dominated by the 7 Li I peak.

  1. Thomson Scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donne, A. J. H.

    1994-01-01

    Thomson scattering is a very powerful diagnostic which is applied at nearly every magnetic confinement device. Depending on the experimental conditions different plasma parameters can be diagnosed. When the wave vector is much larger than the plasma Debye length, the total scattered power is

  2. Lectures in plasma diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchinson, I.H.

    1990-06-01

    This paper discusses the following topics on plasma diagnostics: Electric probes in flowing and magnetized plasmas; Electron cyclotron emission absorption; Magnetic diagnostics; Spectroscopy; and Thomson Scattering

  3. The difference in backscatter factors of diagnostic X-rays by the difference in the scattering medium and in the objective dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Hideki; Sakai, Keita; Uchiyama, Mizuki; Suzuki, Kentaro

    2016-01-01

    The diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) of the general X-ray radiography are defined by the absorbed dose of air at the entrance surface with backscattered radiation from a scattering medium. Generally, the entrance surface dose of the general X-ray radiography is calculated from measured air kerma of primary X-ray multiplied by a backscatter factor (BSF). However, the BSF data employed at present used water for scattering medium, and was calculated based on the water-absorbed dose by incident primary photons and backscattered photons from the scattering medium. In the calculation of air dose at the entrance surface defined in DRLs, there are no theoretical consistencies for using BSF based on water dose, and this may be a cause of calculation error. In this paper, we verified the difference in BSF by the difference in the scattering medium and by the difference in the objective dose by means of the Monte Carlo simulation. In this calculation, the scattering medium was set as water and the soft-tissue, and the objective dose was set as air dose, water dose, soft-tissue dose, and skin dose. The difference in BSF calculated by the respective combination was at most about 1.3% and was less than 1% in most cases. In conclusion, even if the entrance surface dose defined by DRLs of general X-ray radiography is calculated using BSF, which set both the scattering medium and the object substance of the absorbed dose as water, a so big error doesn't show. (author)

  4. Validations of calibration-free measurements of electron temperature using double-pass Thomson scattering diagnostics from theoretical and experimental aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tojo, H., E-mail: tojo.hiroshi@qst.go.jp; Hiratsuka, J.; Yatsuka, E.; Hatae, T.; Itami, K. [National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology, 801-1 Mukoyama, Naka 311-0193 (Japan); Yamada, I.; Yasuhara, R.; Funaba, H.; Hayashi, H. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Ejiri, A.; Togashi, H.; Takase, Y. [Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8561 (Japan)

    2016-09-15

    This paper evaluates the accuracy of electron temperature measurements and relative transmissivities of double-pass Thomson scattering diagnostics. The electron temperature (T{sub e}) is obtained from the ratio of signals from a double-pass scattering system, then relative transmissivities are calculated from the measured T{sub e} and intensity of the signals. How accurate the values are depends on the electron temperature (T{sub e}) and scattering angle (θ), and therefore the accuracy of the values was evaluated experimentally using the Large Helical Device (LHD) and the Tokyo spherical tokamak-2 (TST-2). Analyzing the data from the TST-2 indicates that a high T{sub e} and a large scattering angle (θ) yield accurate values. Indeed, the errors for scattering angle θ = 135° are approximately half of those for θ = 115°. The method of determining the T{sub e} in a wide T{sub e} range spanning over two orders of magnitude (0.01–1.5 keV) was validated using the experimental results of the LHD and TST-2. A simple method to provide relative transmissivities, which include inputs from collection optics, vacuum window, optical fibers, and polychromators, is also presented. The relative errors were less than approximately 10%. Numerical simulations also indicate that the T{sub e} measurements are valid under harsh radiation conditions. This method to obtain T{sub e} can be considered for the design of Thomson scattering systems where there is high-performance plasma that generates harsh radiation environments.

  5. Upgrade of the automatic analysis system in the TJ-II Thomson Scattering diagnostic: New image recognition classifier and fault condition detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makili, L.; Vega, J.; Dormido-Canto, S.; Pastor, I.; Pereira, A.; Farias, G.; Portas, A.; Perez-Risco, D.; Rodriguez-Fernandez, M.C.; Busch, P.

    2010-01-01

    An automatic image classification system based on support vector machines (SVM) has been in operation for years in the TJ-II Thomson Scattering diagnostic. It recognizes five different types of images: CCD camera background, measurement of stray light without plasma or in a collapsed discharge, image during ECH phase, image during NBI phase and image after reaching the cut off density during ECH heating. Each kind of image implies the execution of different application software. Due to the fact that the recognition system is based on a learning system and major modifications have been carried out in both the diagnostic (optics) and TJ-II plasmas (injected power), the classifier model is no longer valid. A new SVM model has been developed with the current conditions. Also, specific error conditions in the data acquisition process can automatically be detected and managed now. The recovering process has been automated, thereby avoiding the loss of data in ensuing discharges.

  6. ITER Plasma at Ion Cyclotron Frequency Domain: The Fusion Alpha Particles Diagnostics Based on the Stimulated Raman Scattering of Fast Magnetosonic Wave off High Harmonic Ion Bernstein Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan, V. Alexander

    2014-10-01

    A novel method for alpha particle diagnostics is proposed. The theory of stimulated Raman scattering, SRS, of the fast wave and ion Bernstein mode, IBM, turbulence in multi-ion species plasmas, (Stefan University Press, La Jolla, CA, 2008). is utilized for the diagnostics of fast ions, (4)He (+2), in ITER plasmas. Nonlinear Landau damping of the IBM on fast ions near the plasma edge leads to the space-time changes in the turbulence level, (inverse alpha particle channeling). The space-time monitoring of the IBM turbulence via the SRS techniques may prove efficient for the real time study of the fast ion velocity distribution function, spatial distribution, and transport. Supported by Nikola Tesla Labs., La Jolla, CA 92037.

  7. Upgrade of the automatic analysis system in the TJ-II Thomson Scattering diagnostic: New image recognition classifier and fault condition detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makili, L. [Dpto. Informatica y Automatica - UNED, Madrid (Spain); Vega, J. [Asociacion EURATOM/CIEMAT para Fusion, Madrid (Spain); Dormido-Canto, S., E-mail: sebas@dia.uned.e [Dpto. Informatica y Automatica - UNED, Madrid (Spain); Pastor, I.; Pereira, A. [Asociacion EURATOM/CIEMAT para Fusion, Madrid (Spain); Farias, G. [Dpto. Informatica y Automatica - UNED, Madrid (Spain); Portas, A.; Perez-Risco, D.; Rodriguez-Fernandez, M.C. [Asociacion EURATOM/CIEMAT para Fusion, Madrid (Spain); Busch, P. [FOM Institut voor PlasmaFysica Rijnhuizen, Nieuwegein (Netherlands)

    2010-07-15

    An automatic image classification system based on support vector machines (SVM) has been in operation for years in the TJ-II Thomson Scattering diagnostic. It recognizes five different types of images: CCD camera background, measurement of stray light without plasma or in a collapsed discharge, image during ECH phase, image during NBI phase and image after reaching the cut off density during ECH heating. Each kind of image implies the execution of different application software. Due to the fact that the recognition system is based on a learning system and major modifications have been carried out in both the diagnostic (optics) and TJ-II plasmas (injected power), the classifier model is no longer valid. A new SVM model has been developed with the current conditions. Also, specific error conditions in the data acquisition process can automatically be detected and managed now. The recovering process has been automated, thereby avoiding the loss of data in ensuing discharges.

  8. Application of Thomson scattering at 1.06μm as a diagnostic for spatial profile measurements of electron temperature and density on the TCV tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franke, S.

    1997-04-01

    The variable configuration tokamak, TCV, in operation at CRPP since the end of 1991, is a particularly challenging machine with regard to the experimental system that must provide essential information regarding properties of confined plasmas with strongly shaped, non-circular cross-sections. The importance of the energy confinement issue in a machine designed specifically for the investigation of the effect of plasma shape on confinement and stability is self-evident, as is the necessity for a diagnostic capable of providing the profiles of electron temperature and density required for evaluation of this confinement. For TCV, a comprehensive Thomson Scattering (TS) diagnostic was the natural choice, specifically owing to the resulting spatially localized and time resolved measurement. The details of the system installed on TCV, together with the results obtained from the diagnostic comprise the subject matter of this thesis. A first version of the diagnostic was equipped with only ten observation volumes. In this case, adequate spatial resolution can only be maintained if measurements are limited to plasmas located in the upper half of the highly elongated TCV vacuum vessel. The system has recently been upgraded through the addition of a further fifteen observation volumes, together with major technical improvements in the scattered light detection system. This new version now permits TS observations in all TCV plasma configurations, including equilibria produced in the lower and upper halves of the vacuum vessel and the highly elongated plasmas now routinely created. Whilst a description of the new detection system along with some results obtained using the extended set of observation volumes are included, this thesis reports principally on the hardware details of and the interpretation of data from the original, ten observation volume system. (author) figs., tabs., 75 refs

  9. Influence of companion diagnostics on efficacy and safety of targeted anti-cancer drugs: systematic review and meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocana, Alberto; Ethier, Josee-Lyne; Díez-González, Laura; Corrales-Sánchez, Verónica; Srikanthan, Amirrtha; Gascón-Escribano, María J; Templeton, Arnoud J; Vera-Badillo, Francisco; Seruga, Bostjan; Niraula, Saroj; Pandiella, Atanasio; Amir, Eitan

    2015-11-24

    Companion diagnostics aim to identify patients that will respond to targeted therapies, therefore increasing the clinical efficacy of such drugs. Less is known about their influence on safety and tolerability of targeted anti-cancer agents. Randomized trials evaluating targeted agents for solid tumors approved by the US Food and Drug Administration since year 2000 were assessed. Odds ratios (OR) and and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed for treatment-related death, treatment-discontinuation related to toxicity and occurrence of any grade 3/4 adverse events (AEs). The 12 most commonly reported individual AEs were also explored. ORs were pooled in a meta-analysis. Analysis comprised 41 trials evaluating 28 targeted agents. Seventeen trials (41%) utilized companion diagnostics. Compared to control groups, targeted drugs in experimental arms were associated with increased odds of treatment discontinuation, grade 3/4 AEs, and toxic death irrespective of whether they utilized companion diagnostics or not. Compared to drugs without available companion diagnostics, agents with companion diagnostics had a lower magnitude of increased odds of treatment discontinuation (OR = 1.12 vs. 1.65, p diagnostics were greatest for diarrhea (OR = 1.29 vs. 2.43, p diagnostics are associated with improved safety, and tolerability. Differences were most marked for gastrointestinal, cutaneous and neurological toxicity.

  10. Analyses of Alpha-Alpha Elastic Scattering Data in the Energy Range 140 - 280 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shehadeh, Zuhair F. [Taif University, Taif (Saudi Arabia)

    2017-01-15

    The differential and the reaction cross-sections for 4He-4He elastic scattering data have been nicely obtained at four energies ranging from 140 MeV to 280 MeV (lab system), namely, 140, 160, 198 and 280 MeV, by using a new optical potential with a short-range repulsive core. The treatment has been handled relativistically as υ/c > 0.25 for the two lower energies and υ/c > 0.31 for the two higher ones. In addition to explaining the elastic angular distributions, the adopted potentials accounted for the structure that may exist at angles close to 90◦ , especially for the 198 and the 280-MeV incident energies. No renormalization has been used, and all our potential parameters are new. The necessity of including a short-range repulsive potential term in our real nuclear potential part has been demonstrated. Our results contribute to solving a long-standing problem concerning the nature of the alpha-alpha potential. This is very beneficial in explaining unknown alpha-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus relativistic reactions by using the cluster formalism.

  11. Planar Spontaneous Raman-Scattering Spectroscopy for Reacting Jet-Flow Diagnostics Using Lyot-Ehman Tunable Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharaborin, D. K.; Markovich, D. M.; Dulin, V. M.

    2018-01-01

    The spatial-density distribution in burning a premixed methane-air swirling turbulent jet has been studied by measuring the intensity of the Stokes branch of spontaneous Raman scattering for vibrational-rotational transitions in nitrogen. An optical system comprising a Nd:YAG laser and the liquid-crystalline Lyot-Ehman tunable filter has been created and tested by measuring the temperature and density fields in a cone-shaped laminar flame. It has been established that the difference of data obtained using the Stokes component of Raman scattering in nitrogen and its ratio to the anti-Stokes component does not exceed 5% in a temperature range from 300 to 1800 K.

  12. Recommendations for reporting of systematic reviews and meta-analyses of diagnostic test accuracy: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McGrath, Trevor A.; Alabousi, Mostafa; Skidmore, Becky; Korevaar, Daniël A.; Bossuyt, Patrick M. M.; Moher, David; Thombs, Brett; McInnes, Matthew D. F.

    2017-01-01

    This study is to perform a systematic review of existing guidance on quality of reporting and methodology for systematic reviews of diagnostic test accuracy (DTA) in order to compile a list of potential items that might be included in a reporting guideline for such reviews: Preferred Reporting Items

  13. Purification and analyses of the specificity of two putative diagnostic antigens for larval cyathostomin infection in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowdall, S M J; Proudman, C J; Love, S; Klei, T R; Matthews, J B

    2003-12-01

    Cyathostomins are important equine gastrointestinal parasites. Mass emergence of mucosal stage larvae causes a potentially fatal colitis. Mucosal stages are undetectable non-invasively. An assay that would estimate mucosal larval stage infection would greatly assist in treatment, control and prognosis. Previously, we identified two putative diagnostic antigens (20 and 25 kDa) in somatic larval preparations. Here, we describe their purification and antigen-specific IgG(T) responses to them. Western blots confirmed the purity of the antigens and showed that epitopes in the 20 kDa complex were specific to larval cyathostomins. No cross-reactive antigens appeared to be present in Parascaris equorum or Strongyloides westeri species. Low levels of cross-reactivity were observed in Strongylus edentatus and Strongylus vulgaris species. Use of purified antigens greatly reduced background binding in equine sera. These results indicate that both antigen complexes may be of use in a diagnostic assay.

  14. Contactless diagnostics of biophysical parameters of skin and blood on the basis of approximating functions for radiation fluxes scattered by skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisenko, S A; Kugeiko, M M [Belarusian State University, Minsk (Belarus)

    2014-03-28

    Approximating expressions are derived to calculate spectral and spatial characteristics of diffuse reflection of light from a two-layer medium mimicking human skin. The effectiveness of the use of these expressions in the optical diagnosis of skin biophysical parameters (tissue scattering parameters, concentration of melanin in the epidermis, concentration of total haemoglobin and bilirubin in the tissues of the dermis) and content of haemoglobin derivatives in blood (oxy-, deoxy-, met-, carboxy- and sulfhaemoglobin) is analysed numerically. The methods are proposed to determine in realtime these parameters without contact of the measuring instrument with the patient's body. (biophotonics)

  15. Contactless diagnostics of biophysical parameters of skin and blood on the basis of approximating functions for radiation fluxes scattered by skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisenko, S. A.; Kugeiko, M. M.

    2014-03-01

    Approximating expressions are derived to calculate spectral and spatial characteristics of diffuse reflection of light from a two-layer medium mimicking human skin. The effectiveness of the use of these expressions in the optical diagnosis of skin biophysical parameters (tissue scattering parameters, concentration of melanin in the epidermis, concentration of total haemoglobin and bilirubin in the tissues of the dermis) and content of haemoglobin derivatives in blood (oxy-, deoxy-, met-, carboxy- and sulfhaemoglobin) is analysed numerically. The methods are proposed to determine in realtime these parameters without contact of the measuring instrument with the patient's body.

  16. A Bacterial Analysis Platform: An Integrated System for Analysing Bacterial Whole Genome Sequencing Data for Clinical Diagnostics and Surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Martin Christen Frølund; Ahrenfeldt, Johanne; Bellod Cisneros, Jose Luis

    2016-01-01

    and made publicly available, providing easy-to-use automated analysis of bacterial whole genome sequencing data. The platform may be of immediate relevance as a guide for investigators using whole genome sequencing for clinical diagnostics and surveillance. The platform is freely available at: https://cge.cbs.dtu.dk/services...... and antimicrobial resistance genes. A short printable report for each sample will be provided and an Excel spreadsheet containing all the metadata and a summary of the results for all submitted samples can be downloaded. The pipeline was benchmarked using datasets previously used to test the individual services...

  17. Diagnostic accuracy of serological diagnosis of hepatitis C and B using dried blood spot samples (DBS): two systematic reviews and meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Berit; Cohn, Jennifer; Roberts, Teri; Camp, Johannes; Chauffour, Jeanne; Gummadi, Nina; Ishizaki, Azumi; Nagarathnam, Anupriya; Tuaillon, Edouard; van de Perre, Philippe; Pichler, Christine; Easterbrook, Philippa; Denkinger, Claudia M

    2017-11-01

    Dried blood spots (DBS) are a convenient tool to enable diagnostic testing for viral diseases due to transport, handling and logistical advantages over conventional venous blood sampling. A better understanding of the performance of serological testing for hepatitis C (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) from DBS is important to enable more widespread use of this sampling approach in resource limited settings, and to inform the 2017 World Health Organization (WHO) guidance on testing for HBV/HCV. We conducted two systematic reviews and meta-analyses on the diagnostic accuracy of HCV antibody (HCV-Ab) and HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) from DBS samples compared to venous blood samples. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Global Health and Cochrane library were searched for studies that assessed diagnostic accuracy with DBS and agreement between DBS and venous sampling. Heterogeneity of results was assessed and where possible a pooled analysis of sensitivity and specificity was performed using a bivariate analysis with maximum likelihood estimate and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). We conducted a narrative review on the impact of varying storage conditions or limits of detection in subsets of samples. The QUADAS-2 tool was used to assess risk of bias. For the diagnostic accuracy of HBsAg from DBS compared to venous blood, 19 studies were included in a quantitative meta-analysis, and 23 in a narrative review. Pooled sensitivity and specificity were 98% (95%CI:95%-99%) and 100% (95%CI:99-100%), respectively. For the diagnostic accuracy of HCV-Ab from DBS, 19 studies were included in a pooled quantitative meta-analysis, and 23 studies were included in a narrative review. Pooled estimates of sensitivity and specificity were 98% (CI95%:95-99) and 99% (CI95%:98-100), respectively. Overall quality of studies and heterogeneity were rated as moderate in both systematic reviews. HCV-Ab and HBsAg testing using DBS compared to venous blood sampling was associated with excellent diagnostic accuracy

  18. Hydraulic fracture diagnostic: recent advances and their impact; Analyses de la fracturation hydraulique: progres recents et leur impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolhart, St.L. [GRI, United States (United States)

    2000-07-01

    The use of hydraulic fracturing has grown tremendously since its introduction over 50 years ago. Most wells in low permeability reservoirs are not economic without hydraulic fracture stimulation. Hydraulic fracturing is also seeing increasing use in high permeability applications. The success of this technology can be attributed to the great strides made in three areas: hydraulic fracture theory and modeling, improved surface and subsurface equipment and advanced fluid systems and proppers. However, industry still has limited capabilities when it comes to determining the geometry of the created hydraulic fracture. This limitation, in turn places limits on the continued improvement of hydraulic fracturing as a means to optimize productivity and recovery. GRI's Advanced Hydraulic Fracture Diagnostics Program has developed two new technologies, microseismic hydraulic fracture mapping and downhole tilt-meter hydraulic fracture mapping, to address this limitation. These two technologies have been utilized to improve field development and reduce hydraulic fracturing costs. This paper reviews these technologies and presents case histories of their use. (author)

  19. Analysing Performance Characteristics of Biomass Haulage in Ireland for Bioenergy Markets with GPS, GIS and Fuel Diagnostic Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Sosa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In Ireland, truck transport by road dominates and will remain the main transportation mode of biomass. Cost efficiency and flexibility of forest transport can be typically improved by optimising routes. It is important to know every process and attributes within the workflow of roundwood transport. This study aimed to analyse characteristics of timber trucking in Ireland, and to estimate the least-cost route for the distribution of biomass with the use of geographic information systems (GIS. Firstly, a tracking system that recorded the truck’s movements and fuel consumption was installed. A total of 152 trips were recorded, routes were chosen by the truck driver. The recorded information was used to analyse the distances and times travelled loaded and unloaded per road class, breaks, loading and unloading times as well as fuel consumption. Secondly, the routes taken by the truck where compared with routes created using Network Analyst (NA, an extension of ArcGIS. Four scenarios based on route selection criteria were selected: shortest distance (S1, shorted time (S2, and prioritising high-class roads with shortest distance (S3 and time (S4. Results from the analysis of the tracking system data showed that driving both loaded and unloaded occupied on average 69% of the driver’s working shift; with an average time driving loaded of 49%. The travel distance per trip varied from 112 km and 197 km, with the truck driver using mostly national and regional roads. An average 2% of the total distance and 11% of the total time was spent driving on forest roads. In general, the truck’s speed recorded on the different road classes was on average 30% lower than the legal maximum speed. The average fuel consumption was 0.64 L/km. In terms of the route comparison, the driving directions from the truck routes coincided with 77% of the directions of the routes based on shortest driving time (S2 and S4. All the routes chosen by the driver had 22% longer

  20. The simultaneous measurements of core and outer core density fluctuations in L-H transition using CO2 laser collective scattering diagnostic in the EAST superconducting tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, G.M.; Li, Y.D.; Zhang, X.D.; Sun, P.J.; Hu, L.Q.; Li, J.G.; Wu, G.J.

    2013-01-01

    The H-mode is the projected basic operation scenario for the ITER tokamak. The turbulence de-correlation by the synergistic effect of zonal flow and equilibrium ExB flow shear is believed to be the reason for L-H transition, however, the detailed physical mechanism has not been identified so far. Tangential multi-channel CO 2 laser collective scattering diagnostic system (mainly k r measurement) was first installed to investigate electron density fluctuations on EAST tokamak. The measurements in a spontaneous dithering L-H transition show that in core plasma (0 < r/a < 0.5) the low-frequency fluctuations strengthen greatly before L-H transition; meanwhile in outer core plasma (0.2 < r/a < 1) the low-frequency fluctuations strengthen slightly. Bispectral analysis reveals that the coupling strength between low- and high-frequency fluctuations in both core and outer core plasma strengthens greatly before the transition, but the latter is greater than the former. The results indicate that the low-frequency fluctuations of the core and outer core plasma play active, but different, roles in the spontaneous L-H transition. (author)

  1. Validation of the sperm class analyser CASA system for sperm counting in a busy diagnostic semen analysis laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dearing, Chey G; Kilburn, Sally; Lindsay, Kevin S

    2014-03-01

    Sperm counts have been linked to several fertility outcomes making them an essential parameter of semen analysis. It has become increasingly recognised that Computer-Assisted Semen Analysis (CASA) provides improved precision over manual methods but that systems are seldom validated robustly for use. The objective of this study was to gather the evidence to validate or reject the Sperm Class Analyser (SCA) as a tool for routine sperm counting in a busy laboratory setting. The criteria examined were comparison with the Improved Neubauer and Leja 20-μm chambers, within and between field precision, sperm concentration linearity from a stock diluted in semen and media, accuracy against internal and external quality material, assessment of uneven flow effects and a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis to predict fertility in comparison with the Neubauer method. This work demonstrates that SCA CASA technology is not a standalone 'black box', but rather a tool for well-trained staff that allows rapid, high-number sperm counting providing errors are identified and corrected. The system will produce accurate, linear, precise results, with less analytical variance than manual methods that correlate well against the Improved Neubauer chamber. The system provides superior predictive potential for diagnosing fertility problems.

  2. Neutron-proton scattering experiments and phase analyses for the n-p system in the energy range from 17 to 50 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krupp, H.

    1986-01-01

    In the framework of the study of the nucleon-nucleon interaction neutron-proton scattering experiments were performed at the neutron collimator POLKA of the Karlsruhe cyclotron. Neutrons were produced by the source reaction D(d,n)X in the energy range between 17 and 50 MeV. Measured were the differential cross section, the analyzing power, and the spin correlation coefficient of the elastic n-p scattering. By means of the new data the knowledge of the isospin T=0 scattering phases could be improved. It is for the first time possible to determine the scattering phases for T=1 independently from n-p and p-p data with comparable accuracy. (orig./HSI) [de

  3. Introducing a Global Optical Model Approach for Analysing 16O+16O Elastic Scattering at 5-10MeV/nucleon Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Küçükoğlu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In this paper, the experimental data on elastic scattering of the 16O+16O reaction for the energy range 5-10 MeV/nucleon have been analyzed within the optical model (OM formalism by using the phenomenological potential forms in Fresco code. When developing the shape of the nuclear potential for the calculations, we have used the Woods-Saxon (WS or Woods-Saxon squared (WS2 potentials for the imaginary part together with a WS2 type real part. Although most of the previous OM analyses using phenomenological potentials have provided reasonably good fits with the experimental measurements, none of them could completely relate the behavior of the imaginary potential to the energy of the projectile yet. However, we have managed to introduce two analyses that can keep the real potential parameters almost constant and suggest a linear expression for the depth of the imaginary part of the nuclear potential depending on the incidence energy. Thus, 16O+16O system within this wide energy range has been described globally by the optical potentials having a deep, attractive real potential part and a weaker, energy dependent absorptive imaginary potential part. It has been also shown that, our calculations with these potential forms can reproduce the experimental elastic scattering angular distributions successfully and the maxima and minima are predicted correctly for most of the energies. Key words: 16O+16O reaction, optical model, elastic scattering, cross-section, phenomenological potentials. 5-10MeV/nükleon Bölgesinde 16O+16O Esnek Saçılmasının Analizi için Global bir Optik Model Yaklaşımının Tanıtılması Özet: Bu çalışmada 5-10 MeV/nükleon enerji aralığında 16O+16O reaksiyonunun deneysel esnek saçılma verileri, optik model (OM formalizmi altında, Fresco kodunda fenomenolojik potansiyel formları kullanılarak analiz edilmektedir. Hesaplamalar için nükleer potansiyelin şekli oluşturulurken gerçel kısım için Woods

  4. Influence of optic disc size on the diagnostic performance of macular ganglion cell complex and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer analyses in glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Daniela Valença; Lima, Verônica Castro; Castro, Dinorah P; Castro, Leonardo C; Pacheco, Maria Angélica; Lee, Jae Min; Dimantas, Marcelo I; Prata, Tiago Santos

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the influence of optic disc size on the diagnostic accuracy of macular ganglion cell complex (GCC) and conventional peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) analyses provided by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in glaucoma. Eighty-two glaucoma patients and 30 healthy subjects were included. All patients underwent GCC (7 × 7 mm macular grid, consisting of RNFL, ganglion cell and inner plexiform layers) and pRNFL thickness measurement (3.45 mm circular scan) by SD-OCT. One eye was randomly selected for analysis. Initially, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated for different GCC and pRNFL parameters. The effect of disc area on the diagnostic accuracy of these parameters was evaluated using a logistic ROC regression model. Subsequently, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 mm(2) disc sizes were arbitrarily chosen (based on data distribution) and the predicted areas under the ROC curves (AUCs) and sensitivities were compared at fixed specificities for each. Average mean deviation index for glaucomatous eyes was -5.3 ± 5.2 dB. Similar AUCs were found for the best pRNFL (average thickness = 0.872) and GCC parameters (average thickness = 0.824; P = 0.19). The coefficient representing disc area in the ROC regression model was not statistically significant for average pRNFL thickness (-0.176) or average GCC thickness (0.088; P ≥ 0.56). AUCs for fixed disc areas (1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 mm(2)) were 0.904, 0.891, and 0.875 for average pRNFL thickness and 0.834, 0.842, and 0.851 for average GCC thickness, respectively. The highest sensitivities - at 80% specificity for average pRNFL (84.5%) and GCC thicknesses (74.5%) - were found with disc sizes fixed at 1.5 mm(2) and 2.5 mm(2). Diagnostic accuracy was similar between pRNFL and GCC thickness parameters. Although not statistically significant, there was a trend for a better diagnostic accuracy of pRNFL thickness measurement in cases of smaller discs. For GCC analysis, an inverse effect

  5. Incoherent Thomson scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donne, A. J. H.

    1996-01-01

    Thomson scattering is a very powerful diagnostic which is applied at nearly every magnetic confinement device. Depending on the experimental conditions different plasma parameters can be diagnosed. When the wave vector is much larger than the plasma Debye length, the total scattered power is

  6. Influence of optic disc size on the diagnostic performance of macular ganglion cell complex and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer analyses in glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cordeiro DV

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Daniela Valença Cordeiro1, Verônica Castro Lima1,2, Dinorah P Castro1,3, Leonardo C Castro1,3, Maria Angélica Pacheco2, Jae Min Lee2, Marcelo I Dimantas2, Tiago Santos Prata1,21Department of Ophthalmology, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, 2Hospital Medicina dos Olhos, São Paulo, 3Centro Brasileiro de Especialidades Oftalmológicas, Araraquara, BrazilAim: To evaluate the influence of optic disc size on the diagnostic accuracy of macular ganglion cell complex (GCC and conventional peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL analyses provided by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT in glaucoma.Methods: Eighty-two glaucoma patients and 30 healthy subjects were included. All patients underwent GCC (7 × 7 mm macular grid, consisting of RNFL, ganglion cell and inner plexiform layers and pRNFL thickness measurement (3.45 mm circular scan by SD-OCT. One eye was randomly selected for analysis. Initially, receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves were generated for different GCC and pRNFL parameters. The effect of disc area on the diagnostic accuracy of these parameters was evaluated using a logistic ROC regression model. Subsequently, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 mm2 disc sizes were arbitrarily chosen (based on data distribution and the predicted areas under the ROC curves (AUCs and sensitivities were compared at fixed specificities for each.Results: Average mean deviation index for glaucomatous eyes was -5.3 ± 5.2 dB. Similar AUCs were found for the best pRNFL (average thickness = 0.872 and GCC parameters (average thickness = 0.824; P = 0.19.The coefficient representing disc area in the ROC regression model was not statistically significant for average pRNFL thickness (-0.176 or average GCC thickness (0.088; P ≥ 0.56. AUCs for fixed disc areas (1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 mm2 were 0.904, 0.891, and 0.875 for average pRNFL thickness and 0.834, 0.842, and 0.851 for average GCC thickness, respectively. The highest sensitivities – at

  7. Evaluation of the diagnostic accuracy of four-view radiography and conventional computed tomography analysing sacral and pelvic fractures in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieger-Vanegas, S M; Senthirajah, S K J; Nemanic, S; Baltzer, W; Warnock, J; Bobe, G

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of our study was (1) to determine whether four-view radiography of the pelvis is as reliable and accurate as computed tomography (CT) in diagnosing sacral and pelvic fractures, in addition to coxofemoral and sacroiliac joint subluxation or luxation, and (2) to evaluate the effect of the amount of training in reading diagnostic imaging studies on the accuracy of diagnosing sacral and pelvic fractures in dogs. Sacral and pelvic fractures were created in 11 canine cadavers using a lateral impactor. In all cadavers, frog-legged ventro-dorsal, lateral, right and left ventro-45°-medial to dorsolateral oblique frog leg ("rollover 45-degree view") radiographs and a CT of the pelvis were obtained. Two radiologists, two surgeons and two veterinary students classified fractures using a confidence scale and noted the duration of evaluation for each imaging modality and case. The imaging results were compared to gross dissection. All evaluators required significantly more time to analyse CT images compared to radiographic images. Sacral and pelvic fractures, specifically those of the sacral body, ischiatic table, and the pubic bone, were more accurately diagnosed using CT compared to radiography. Fractures of the acetabulum and iliac body were diagnosed with similar accuracy (at least 86%) using either modality. Computed tomography is a better method for detecting canine sacral and some pelvic fractures compared to radiography. Computed tomography provided an accuracy of close to 100% in persons trained in evaluating CT images.

  8. Folding model analyses of 12C-12C and 16O-16O elastic scattering using the density-dependent LOCV-averaged effective interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmat, M.; Modarres, M.

    2018-03-01

    The averaged effective two-body interaction (AEI), which can be generated through the lowest order constrained variational (LOCV) method for symmetric nuclear matter (SNM) with the input [Reid68, Ann. Phys. 50, 411 (1968), 10.1016/0003-4916(68)90126-7] nucleon-nucleon potential, is used as the effective nucleon-nucleon potential in the folding model to describe the heavy-ion (HI) elastic scattering cross sections. The elastic scattering cross sections of 12C-12C and 16O-16O systems are calculated in the above framework. The results are compared with the corresponding calculations coming from the fitting procedures with the input finite range D D M 3 Y 1 -Reid potential and the available experimental data at different incident energies. It is shown that a reasonable description of the elastic 12C-12C and 16O-16O scattering data at the low and medium energies can be obtained by using the above LOCV AEI, without any need to define a parametrized density-dependent function in the effective nucleon-nucleon potential, which is formally considered in the typical D D M 3 Y 1 -Reid interactions.

  9. 5 A study analysing the diagnostic performance of ECG interpretation for 30-day major cardiac events in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Niall; Body, Rick

    2017-12-01

    . In this study a clinician's overall judgement of ischaemia has a better diagnostic performance compared to simple STD and ATWI. This may be due to an appreciation of morphology and the amount of deviation; future work should explore the effect of measuring deviation and analysing morphology. © 2017, Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. Improving validation methods for molecular diagnostics: application of Bland-Altman, Deming and simple linear regression analyses in assay comparison and evaluation for next-generation sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misyura, Maksym; Sukhai, Mahadeo A; Kulasignam, Vathany; Zhang, Tong; Kamel-Reid, Suzanne; Stockley, Tracy L

    2018-02-01

    A standard approach in test evaluation is to compare results of the assay in validation to results from previously validated methods. For quantitative molecular diagnostic assays, comparison of test values is often performed using simple linear regression and the coefficient of determination (R 2 ), using R 2 as the primary metric of assay agreement. However, the use of R 2 alone does not adequately quantify constant or proportional errors required for optimal test evaluation. More extensive statistical approaches, such as Bland-Altman and expanded interpretation of linear regression methods, can be used to more thoroughly compare data from quantitative molecular assays. We present the application of Bland-Altman and linear regression statistical methods to evaluate quantitative outputs from next-generation sequencing assays (NGS). NGS-derived data sets from assay validation experiments were used to demonstrate the utility of the statistical methods. Both Bland-Altman and linear regression were able to detect the presence and magnitude of constant and proportional error in quantitative values of NGS data. Deming linear regression was used in the context of assay comparison studies, while simple linear regression was used to analyse serial dilution data. Bland-Altman statistical approach was also adapted to quantify assay accuracy, including constant and proportional errors, and precision where theoretical and empirical values were known. The complementary application of the statistical methods described in this manuscript enables more extensive evaluation of performance characteristics of quantitative molecular assays, prior to implementation in the clinical molecular laboratory. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. Diagnostic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, C.F.; Brisson, D.A.; Greco, S.E.

    1978-01-01

    During the past year the far-infrared or submillimeter diagnostic research program resulted in three major developments: (1) an optically pumped 0.385-μm D 2 O-laser oscillator-amplifier system was operated at a power level of 1 MW with a line width of less than 50 MHz; (2) a conical Pyrex submillimeter laser beam dump with a retention efficiency greater than 10 4 was developed for the ion temperature Thompson scattering experiment; and (3) a new diagnostic technique was developed that makes use of the Faraday rotation of a modulated submillimeter laser beam to determine plasma current profile. Measurements of the asymmetric distortion of the H/sub α/ (6563 A) spectral line profile show that the effective toroidal drift velocity, dv/sub two vertical bars i/dT/sub i/, may be used as an indicator of plasma quality and as a complement to other ion temperature diagnostics

  12. Laser-aided plasma diagnostics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donne, A. J. H.; Barth, C. J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper will focus on two types of laser-aided diagnostics: Thomson scattering and laser-induced fluorescence. Thomson scattering is a very powerful diagnostic, which is applied at nearly every magnetic confinement device. Depending on the experimental conditions different plasma parameters can

  13. Pion-pion scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehnelt, H.

    1975-01-01

    We discuss a few properties of scattering amplitudes proved within the framework of the field theory and their significance in the derivation of quantitative statements. The state of the boundaries for the scattering lengths is to be especially discussed as well as the question as to how far it is possible to exclude various solutions from phase displacement analyses. (orig./LH) [de

  14. Neutron scattering from 28Si and 32S from 8.0 to 18.9 MeV, dispersive optical model analyses, and ground-state correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Ohali, M.A.; Nagadi, M.M.; Naqvi, A.A.; Delaroche, J.P.; Howell, C.R.; Tornow, W.; Walter, R.L.; Weisel, G.J.; Howell, C.R.; Tornow, W.; Walter, R.L.; Weisel, G.J.; Weisel, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The nucleon-nucleus dispersive optical model (DOM) has been successful in providing good fits to scattering data and in making valuable predictions for bound-state properties in single-and double-closed shell nuclei. However, the generalizability of the DOM remains an ongoing issue. Purpose: We investigate the DOM in the continuum and bound-state regions of the open-shell, self-conjugate nuclei 28 Si and 32 S. We collect new differential cross section and analyzing power data for elastic scattering at incident neutron energies between 8.0 and 18.9 MeV. Methods: The measurements were conducted using a pulsed deuteron beam, the 2 He(d,n) 3 He source reaction, and time-of-flight techniques. All data were corrected for finite-geometry effects. Phenomenological DOM potentials were tailored to fit the differential and total cross section data, and then extrapolated to the bound-state regions. The DOM bound-state predictions were then compared to experimental data available for single-particle energies, occupation probabilities, root-mean-square radii, and spectroscopic factors. Results: The DOM bound-state predictions are in only fair agreement with experimental data and with USD shell-model predictions. Similar results are found after converting our neutron DOMs into proton DOMs. We investigate the separate effects of the dispersive surface and volume potential components on occupation probability and find that the volume component leads to a uniform depletion of the hole states, while the surface component acts mainly to deplete the valence orbitals. We compare these results to those of a variational multiparticle multi-hole configuration mixing (mp-mh CM) calculation using the Gogny D1S effective force. Conclusions: We find that the phenomenological DOM, which was originally designed for spherical nuclei, show certain deficiencies when applied to open-shell nuclei and suggest possible avenues of improvement. We also find that the predictions of occupation

  15. Analyses of historical development, soil moisture regime and scattered vegetation in the landscape area of UAE Žabčice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markéta Flekalová

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the project was to evaluate developmental changes in land use (using the method of retrospective time profiles and their effects on the function and stability of rural landscape in the mo­del area of the University Agriculture Enterprise in Žabčice. The former states of landscape have been evaluated according to archival aerial photographs and maps of selected area. The present situation was examined on orthophotomaps and by field survey. Another aim was taking of the soil samples from the model area and their physical analysis for determination of soil moisture. Soil drying out disposition on particular parts of model area has been found out by analysis of soil samples and climatic characteristics. The third aim was to evaluate the “green structure” of the model area and to propose its regeneration. The results of the two previous aims have been used as a basis for the proposal, together with evaluation of the pre­sent condition. The bad condition of the scattered vegetation has been found out by the field survey, especially by the lack of maintenance and spreading of invasive plants.

  16. Alpha particle collective Thomson scattering in TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machuzak, J.S.; Woskov, P.P.; Rhee, D.Y.; Gilmore, J.; Bindslev, H.

    1993-01-01

    A collective Thomson scattering diagnostic is being implemented on TFTR to measure alpha particle, energetic and thermal ion densities and velocity distributions. A 60 GHz, 0.1-1 kW gyrotron will be used as the transmitter source, and the scattering geometry will be perpendicular to the magnetic field in the extraordinary mode polarization. An enhanced scattered signal is anticipated from fluctuations in the lower hybrid frequency range with this scattering geometry. Millimeter wave collective Thomson scattering diagnostics have the advantage of larger scattering angles to decrease the amount of stray light, and long, high power, modulated pulses to obtain improved signal to noise through synchronous detection techniques

  17. Phase-shift analysis of pion-nucleon elastic scattering below 1.6 GeV; Analyse en ondes partielles de la diffusion elastique meson {pi} - nucleon au-dessous de 1.6 GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bareyre, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-06-01

    Experimental results of pion-nucleon elastic scattering below 1.6 GeV (total cross sections, angular distributions of elastic scattering and recoil nucleon polarizations) have been described by a partial wave analysis. This analysis has been developed, one energy at a time, with a method of least squares fits. A single solution is extracted by continuity with energy of the different solutions. Resonating behaviour has been clearly established for several partial waves. In addition to these important effects some phase shifts show rapid variations with energy. Present experimental situation does not permit to say whether these variations are due to experimental biases or to physical effects. (author) [French] Les resultats experimentaux de la diffusion elastique meson {pi} - nucleon au-dessous de 1.6 GeV (sections efficaces totales, distributions angulaires de diffusion elastique et de polarisation du nucleon de recul) sont decrits a l'aide d'une analyse en ondes partielles. Cette analyse est developpee energie par energie au moyen d'une methode d'ajustement en moindres carres. Un critere empirique de continuite des solutions en fonction de l'energie a permis d'isoler une solution unique. Des resonances sont clairement etablies pour plusieurs ondes partielles, ainsi que certains petits effets moins caracteristiques. Pour ceux-ci, la situation experimentale presente ne permet pas d'affirmer s'ils sont dus a des effets physiques ou a des biais experimentaux. (auteur)

  18. [THE VIRTUAL CYTOLOGIC SLIDES FOR EXTERNAL EVALUATION OF QUALITY OF IMPLEMENTATION OF CYTOLOGIC ANALYSES IN CLINICAL DIAGNOSTIC LABORATORIES: POSSIBILITIES AND PERSPECTIVES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djangirova, T V; Shabalova, I P; Pronichev, A N; Polyakov, E V

    2015-08-01

    The article considers application of technology of analysis of cytological slides in external quality control of clinical diagnostic laboratories. The advantages of virtual slides are demonstrated against other applied technologies of external evaluation of quality i.e. slide plate and digital micro-photography. The conditions of formation of virtual slides for external evaluation of quality of clinical diagnostic laboratories. The technology of their application is described. The success of practical application of considered technology in the Federal system of external evaluation of quality is emphasized.

  19. Depolarization Rayleigh scattering as a means of molecular concentration determination in plasmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenbroeks, R.F.G.; Schram, D.C.; Jaegers, L.J.M.; Sanden, van de M.C.M.

    1992-01-01

    The difference in polarization for Rayleigh scattered radiation on spherically and nonspherically symmetric scattering objects has been used to obtain molecular species concentrations in plasmas of simple composition. Using a Rayleigh scattering diagnostic, the depolarized component of the scattered

  20. Plasma diagnostics for tokamaks and stellarators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stott, P E; Sanchez, J

    1994-07-01

    A collection of papers on plasma diagnostics is presented. The papers show the state of the art developments in a series of techniques: Magnetic diagnostics, Edge diagnostics, Langmuir probes, Spectroscopy, Microwave and FIR diagnostics as well as Thomson Scattering. Special interest was focused on those diagnostics oriented to fluctuations measurements in the plasma. (Author) 451 refs.

  1. Evaluation of the optical design of laser Thomson scattering diagnostics for high-temperature EAST tokamak and low-temperature MAP-II divertor simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kado, Shinichiro; Scotti, Filippo; Xi Xiaoqi; Zhao Junyu

    2009-01-01

    The optical design of the laser Thomson scattering (LTS) system for EAST tokamak is now on-going. Based on the Visible YAG laser TVTS system developed in the MAP-II (material and plasma) steady-state linear divertor/edge plasma simulator at the University of Tokyo, the required specification and the applicability of the VIS-YAG-TVTS system was evaluated in terms of the photon number to be collected by the fiber light-guide to a spectrometer and the reciprocal linear dispersion of the spectrometer. Then, the possible design of the optical system was proposed. (author)

  2. Upgrade of the Automatic Analysis System in the TJ-II Thomson Scattering Diagnostic: New Image Recognition Classifier and Fault Condition Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makili, L.; Dormido-Canto, S. [UNED, Madrid (Spain); Vega, J.; Pastor, I.; Pereira, A.; Portas, A.; Perez-Risco, D.; Rodriguez-Fernandez, M. [Association EuratomCIEMAT para Fusion, Madrid (Spain); Busch, P. [FOM Instituut voor PlasmaFysica Rijnhuizen, Nieuwegein (Netherlands)

    2009-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: An automatic image classification system has been in operation for years in the TJ-II Thomson diagnostic. It recognizes five different types of images: CCD camera background, measurement of stray light without plasma or in a collapsed discharge, image during ECH phase, image during NBI phase and image after reaching the cut o density during ECH heating. Each kind of image implies the execution of different application software. Therefore, the classification system was developed to launch the corresponding software in an automatic way. The method to recognize the several classes was based on a learning system, in particular Support Vector Machines (SVM). Since the first implementation of the classifier, a relevant improvement has been accomplished in the diagnostic: a new notch filter is in operation, having a larger stray-light rejection at the ruby wavelength than the previous filter. On the other hand, its location in the optical system has been modified. As a consequence, the stray light pattern in the CCD image is located in a different position. In addition to these transformations, the power of neutral beams injected in the TJ-II plasma has been increased about a factor of 2. Due to the fact that the recognition system is based on a learning system and major modifications have been carried out in both the diagnostic (optics) and TJ-II plasmas (injected power), the classifier model is no longer valid. The creation of a new model (also based on SVM) under the present conditions has been necessary. Finally, specific error conditions in the data acquisition process can automatically be detected now. The recovering process can be automated, thereby avoiding the loss of data in ensuing discharges. (authors)

  3. Infrared laser diagnostics for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchinson, D.P.; Richards, R.K.; Ma, C.H.

    1995-01-01

    Two infrared laser-based diagnostics are under development at ORNL for measurements on burning plasmas such as ITER. The primary effort is the development of a CO 2 laser Thomson scattering diagnostic for the measurement of the velocity distribution of confined fusion-product alpha particles. Key components of the system include a high-power, single-mode CO 2 pulsed laser, an efficient optics system for beam transport and a multichannel low-noise infrared heterodyne receiver. A successful proof-of-principle experiment has been performed on the Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF) stellerator at ORNL utilizing scattering from electron plasma frequency satellites. The diagnostic system is currently being installed on Alcator C-Mod at MIT for measurements of the fast ion tail produced by ICRH heating. A second diagnostic under development at ORNL is an infrared polarimeter for Faraday rotation measurements in future fusion experiments. A preliminary feasibility study of a CO 2 laser tangential viewing polarimeter for measuring electron density profiles in ITER has been completed. For ITER plasma parameters and a polarimeter wavelength of 10.6 microm, a Faraday rotation of up to 26 degree is predicted. An electro-optic polarization modulation technique has been developed at ORNL. Laboratory tests of this polarimeter demonstrated a sensitivity of ≤ 0.01 degree. Because of the similarity in the expected Faraday rotation in ITER and Alcator C-Mod, a collaboration between ORNL and the MIT Plasma Fusion Center has been undertaken to test this polarimeter system on Alcator C-Mod. A 10.6 microm polarimeter for this measurement has been constructed and integrated into the existing C-Mod multichannel two-color interferometer. With present experimental parameters for C-Mod, the predicted Faraday rotation was on the order of 0.1 degree. Significant output signals were observed during preliminary tests. Further experiment and detailed analyses are under way

  4. Vulnerability analysis of DT fusion diagnostics for laser Megajoule facility. A new tool: Diacad; Analyse de vulnerabilite de chaines de diagnostic pour la fusion DT dans le cadre du laser megajoule. Un nouvel outil: diacad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' hose, C.; Baggio, J.; Musseau, O. [CEA Bruyeres-le-Chatel, 91 (France)

    1999-07-01

    The Megajoule laser (LMJ) project is a major component of the French simulation program to study inertial confinement. This new facility will provide an energy 60 times greater than the largest lasers presently available (Phebus, Nova, Omega). Many diagnostic links will have to be developed in order to acquire complementary knowledge in this domain. A computer based tool has been defined. This paper presents the most recent developments of this new CAD (computer assisted diagnosis) tool. We first describe LMJ context, and then the analysis methodology developed to address the sensitivity to transient radiation of nuclear diagnosis links. This tool takes into account the vulnerability of individual parts and the global structure of the link. (A.C.)

  5. [Results transferability on RXL, ARX, X-Pand, BN2 (Dade Behring) and modular DP (Roche Diagnostics) analysers: application to component assays of fibrotest and Actitest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbert-Bismut, F; Messous, D; Raoult, A; Poynard, T; Bertrand, J J; Marie, P A; Louis, V; Audy, C; Thouy, J M; Hainque, B; Piton, A

    2005-01-01

    The follow up of patients with chronic liver diseases and the data from multicentric clinical studies are affected by the variability of assay results for the same parameter between the different laboratories. Today, the main objective in clinical chemistry throughout the world is to harmonise the assay results between the laboratories after the confirmation of their traceability, in relation to defined reference systems. In this context, the purpose of our study was to verify the homogeneity of haptoglobin, apolipoprotein A1, total bilirubin, GGT activity, ALAT activity results, which are combined in Fibrotest and Actitest, between Dimension Analysers RXL, ARX and X-PAND (Dade Behring Society). Moreover, we verified the transferability of Fibrotest and Actitest results between the RXL, and either the BN2 (haptoglobin and apolipoprotein A1) or the Modular DP (total bilirubin, GGT and ALAT activity concentrations). The serum samples from 150 hospitalised patients were analysed on the different analysers. Specific protein assays were calibrated using solutions standardised against reference material on Dimension and BN2 analysers. Total bilirubin assays were performed by a diazoreaction on Dimension and Modular DP analysers. The GGT and ALAT activity measurements on the Dimension analysers were performed in accordance with the reference methods defined by the International Federation of Clinical Chemisty and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC). On the Modular, enzyme activity measurements were performed according to the Szasz method (L-gamma- glutamyl-4-nitroanilide as substrate) modified by Persijn and van der Slik (L-gamma- glutamyl-3-carboxy- 4-nitroanilide as substrat) for GGT and according to the IFCC specifications for ALAT. The methods of enzymatic activity measurement were calibrated on the Modular only. Liver fibrosis and necroinflammatory activity indices were determined using calculation algorithms, after having adjusted each component's result of Fibrotest and

  6. Diagnostic dilemma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Dobrovolny, Robert; Nazarenko, Irina

    2011-01-01

    Fabry disease, an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder, results from the deficient activity of a-galactosidase A (a-Gal A). In affected males, the clinical diagnosis is confirmed by the markedly decreased a-Gal A activity. However, in female heterozygotes, the a-Gal A activity can range from low t...... on enzyme replacement therapy. Thus, gene dosage analyses can detect large deletions (>50bp) in suspect heterozygotes for X-linked and autosomal dominant diseases that are "sequencing cryptic," resolving molecular diagnostic dilemmas....... to normal due to random X-chromosomal inactivation, and diagnostic confirmation requires identification of the family's a-Gal A gene mutation. In a young female who had occasional acroparesthesias, corneal opacities, and 15 to 50% of the lower limit of normal leukocyte a-Gal A activity, a-Gal A sequencing...... in two expert laboratories did not identify a confirmatory mutation, presenting a diagnostic dilemma. A renal biopsy proved diagnostic and renewed efforts to detect an a-Gal A mutation. Subsequent gene dosage analyses identified a large a-Gal A deletion confirming her heterozygosity, and she was started...

  7. Bronchoalveolar lavage cellular analyses in conjunction with high-resolution computed tomography imaging as a diagnostic intervention for patients with suspected interstitial lung disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammaiyappan Chockalingam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL has gained acceptance for diagnosis of Interstitial lung disease (ILD. The advent of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT has reduced the clinical utility of BAL. This work has utilized the recommendations of the American Thoracic Society (ATS to optimize BAL and the findings have been associated with clinical examination and HRCT to precisely narrow down the cause of ILD. Materials and Methods: BAL was performed on ILD suspects at the target site chosen based on HRCT. The procedure, transport, processing, and analysis of BAL fluid were performed as per the ATS guidelines. The clinical data, HRCT findings and BAL report were used to narrow down the diagnosis of ILD. The statistical analysis was performed to assess the significance. Results: The BAL procedure was optimized as per the recommendations of the ATS. In a cohort of 50 patients, Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, (8 hypersensitivity pneumonitis, (17 connective tissue disorder, (9 sarcoidosis, (3 pneumoconiosis, (5 acute respiratory distress syndrome, (2 eosinophilic lung disease (2 and lymphangitic carcinomatosa, (2 aspiration bronchiolitis (1 and pulmonary histiocytosis (1 were diagnosed. Statistically significant variation in differential counts was found in different ILDs. The different ILDs were classified based on the criteria described by the ATS. Clinical Significance: BAL along with clinical and HRCT findings improved the diagnostic accuracy by incorporating, the acute or chronic nature of the disease and the cause for acute exacerbation, which helped in the better management of ILDs.

  8. [Have Case Loads of Radical Surgery for Prostate Cancer Been Concentrated in Hospitals with Robotic Equipment ?--Analyses with Questionnaire Survey and Diagnostic Procedure Combination (DPC) Data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Taiji; Tanaka, Shigeru

    2016-04-01

    We investigated whether installation of robot-assisted surgical equipment in hospitals resulted in concentration of the case loads of radical prostatectomy. We selected 11 areas with populations of around 1 million or more where there were one or more hospitals with robotic equipment and 4 or more without it. In addition, annual changes of case loads for prostatectomy over 4 years from 2010 to 2013 were clearly determined in these areas. The case loads were determined based on the results of a questionnaire survey for the hospitals with robots and on the Diagnostic Procedures Combination data provided by the Ministry of Health, Labor and Wealth for those without such equipment. The concentration of the case loads was principally defined as when hospitals with robots had more predominant proportion of cases than those without them in the comparison between case loads prior to instillation of robots (or in the initial year of the study) and those in the final years. The 11 selected areas included 44 hospitals with robots and 156 without them. Concentration of case loads was found in 5 areas. In 4 areas, installation of robots did not have a specific relation to the distribution pattern s of case loads in hospitals with or without the equipment. The remaining 2 areas tended to have a weak but not definite concentration of case loads. In the areas in which installation did not influence case loads the further analysis revealed that their case loads had already been concentrated in the initial year (2010) of the study. Although the current results were found in a single department of the hospital, robotic installation may result in concentration of prostatectomy case loads for such hospitals in some areas. The current results are intriguing when we consider the future roles of acute care hospitals and beds in our country where the number of aged patients having chronic diseases will increase. In conclusion, installation of robotic equipment may result in concentration

  9. Measurement of the analysing power T20 in the backward elastic scattering d-vector.p in the region of Δ-excitation and theoretical analysis of this reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudard, A.

    1984-03-01

    We have measured the analysing power T 20 in the backward elastic scattering d.p for 16 energies of the deuteron from 300 MeV to 2300 MeV. This is the region of the observed bump in the backward excitation function of the cross section. This bump is usually thought to be a signature of a Δ(3/2,3/2 + ) dynamically excited in the intermediate state. We have also measured Ay and Ayy from 70 0 to 180 0 for Tsub(d) = 1200 MeV. We have compared both T 20 and the backward cross section with a coherent sum between direct neutron exchange (ONT) and Δ excitation by intermediate exchange of π and rho mesons (TME). The overall shape of the cross section is reproduced. Unlike the earlier measurement from Argonne, there is a deep minimum in T 20 at Tsub(d) = 600 MeV, in agreement with the predictions of direct exchange models. However, an additional structure producing a second minimum at Tsub(d) = 1400 MeV (√S = 3240 MeV) is never reproduced by our calculations. This suggests either that refinements in the Δ treatment are needed or that a new reaction mechanism (resonance) takes place in that region [fr

  10. Quasiresonant scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hategan, Cornel; Comisel, Horia; Ionescu, Remus A.

    2004-01-01

    The quasiresonant scattering consists from a single channel resonance coupled by direct interaction transitions to some competing reaction channels. A description of quasiresonant Scattering, in terms of generalized reduced K-, R- and S- Matrix, is developed in this work. The quasiresonance's decay width is, due to channels coupling, smaller than the width of the ancestral single channel resonance (resonance's direct compression). (author)

  11. Scattering theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitenko, A.

    1991-01-01

    This book emerged out of graduate lectures given by the author at the University of Kiev and is intended as a graduate text. The fundamentals of non-relativistic quantum scattering theory are covered, including some topics, such as the phase-function formalism, separable potentials, and inverse scattering, which are not always coverded in textbooks on scattering theory. Criticisms of the text are minor, but the reviewer feels an inadequate index is provided and the citing of references in the Russian language is a hindrance in a graduate text

  12. Stimulated Raman scattering: old physics, new applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakovlev, Vladislav V; Petrov, Georgi I; Zhang, Hao F; Noojin, Gary D; Denton, Michael L; Thomas, Robert J; Scully, Marlan O

    2009-10-01

    Stimulated Raman scattering as a promising way of expanding the tunability of ultrafast lasers and as an exciting new biomedical imaging modality capable of selective excitation and chemically-specific diagnostics of molecular species.

  13. Critical scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stirling, W.G.; Perry, S.C.

    1996-01-01

    We outline the theoretical and experimental background to neutron scattering studies of critical phenomena at magnetic and structural phase transitions. The displacive phase transition of SrTiO 3 is discussed, along with examples from recent work on magnetic materials from the rare-earth (Ho, Dy) and actinide (NpAs, NpSb, USb) classes. The impact of synchrotron X-ray scattering is discussed in conclusion. (author) 13 figs., 18 refs

  14. Millimeter-wave receiver design for plasma diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leipold, Frank; Hansen, S. K.; Jacobsen, Asger Schou

    2016-01-01

    Scattered millimeter waves entering from the collective Thomson scattering diagnostic at ASDEX Upgrade fusion device are generally elliptically polarized. In order to convert the millimeter waves to linearly polarized waves (required for the detector), birefringent window assemblies (sapphire) ha...

  15. Compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botto, D.J.; Pratt, R.H.

    1979-05-01

    The current status of Compton scattering, both experimental observations and the theoretical predictions, is examined. Classes of experiments are distinguished and the results obtained are summarized. The validity of the incoherent scattering function approximation and the impulse approximation is discussed. These simple theoretical approaches are compared with predictions of the nonrelativistic dipole formula of Gavrila and with the relativistic results of Whittingham. It is noted that the A -2 based approximations fail to predict resonances and an infrared divergence, both of which have been observed. It appears that at present the various available theoretical approaches differ significantly in their predictions and that further and more systematic work is required

  16. Compton scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botto, D.J.; Pratt, R.H.

    1979-05-01

    The current status of Compton scattering, both experimental observations and the theoretical predictions, is examined. Classes of experiments are distinguished and the results obtained are summarized. The validity of the incoherent scattering function approximation and the impulse approximation is discussed. These simple theoretical approaches are compared with predictions of the nonrelativistic dipole formula of Gavrila and with the relativistic results of Whittingham. It is noted that the A/sup -2/ based approximations fail to predict resonances and an infrared divergence, both of which have been observed. It appears that at present the various available theoretical approaches differ significantly in their predictions and that further and more systematic work is required.

  17. Elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leader, Elliot

    1991-01-01

    With very few unexplained results to challenge conventional ideas, physicists have to look hard to search for gaps in understanding. An area of physics which offers a lot more than meets the eye is elastic and diffractive scattering where particles either 'bounce' off each other, emerging unscathed, or just graze past, emerging relatively unscathed. The 'Blois' workshops provide a regular focus for this unspectacular, but compelling physics, attracting highly motivated devotees

  18. Advances in the FTU collective Thomson scattering system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bin, W., E-mail: wbin@ifp.cnr.it; Bruschi, A.; Grosso, G.; Alessi, E.; De Angeli, M.; Figini, L.; Garavaglia, S.; Granucci, G.; Lontano, M.; Mellera, V.; Minelli, D.; Moro, A.; Muraro, A.; Nardone, A.; Simonetto, A.; Tartari, U. [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma “P. Caldirola,” Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Milano (Italy); D’Arcangelo, O.; Castaldo, C.; Centioli, C.; Magagnino, S. [ENEA for EUROfusion, Frascati (Italy); and others

    2016-11-15

    The new collective Thomson scattering diagnostic installed on the Frascati Tokamak Upgrade device started its first operations in 2014. The ongoing experiments investigate the presence of signals synchronous with rotating tearing mode islands, possibly due to parametric decay processes, and phenomena affecting electron cyclotron beam absorption or scattering measurements. The radiometric system, diagnostic layout, and data acquisition system were improved accordingly. The present status and near-term developments of the diagnostic are presented.

  19. Neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    The annual report on hand gives an overview of the research work carried out in the Laboratory for Neutron Scattering (LNS) of the ETH Zuerich in 1990. Using the method of neutron scattering, it is possible to examine in detail the static and dynamic properties of the condensed material. In accordance with the multidisciplined character of the method, the LNS has for years maintained a system of intensive co-operation with numerous institutes in the areas of biology, chemistry, solid-state physics, crystallography and materials research. In 1990 over 100 scientists from more than 40 research groups both at home and abroad took part in the experiments. It was again a pleasure to see the number of graduate students present, who were studying for a doctorate and who could be introduced into the neutron scattering during their stay at the LNS and thus were in the position to touch on central ways of looking at a problem in their dissertation using this modern experimental method of solid-state research. In addition to the numerous and interesting ways of formulating the questions to explain the structure, nowadays the scientific programme increasingly includes particularly topical studies in connection with high temperature-supraconductors and materials research

  20. Scattering theory

    CERN Document Server

    Friedrich, Harald

    2016-01-01

    This corrected and updated second edition of "Scattering Theory" presents a concise and modern coverage of the subject. In the present treatment, special attention is given to the role played by the long-range behaviour of the projectile-target interaction, and a theory is developed, which is well suited to describe near-threshold bound and continuum states in realistic binary systems such as diatomic molecules or molecular ions. It is motivated by the fact that experimental advances have shifted and broadened the scope of applications where concepts from scattering theory are used, e.g. to the field of ultracold atoms and molecules, which has been experiencing enormous growth in recent years, largely triggered by the successful realization of Bose-Einstein condensates of dilute atomic gases in 1995. The book contains sections on special topics such as near-threshold quantization, quantum reflection, Feshbach resonances and the quantum description of scattering in two dimensions. The level of abstraction is k...

  1. Diffractive scattering

    CERN Document Server

    De Wolf, E.A.

    2002-01-01

    We discuss basic concepts and properties of diffractive phenomena in soft hadron collisions and in deep-inelastic scattering at low Bjorken-x. The paper is not a review of the rapidly developing field but presents an attempt to show in simple terms the close inter-relationship between the dynamics of high-energy hadronic and deep-inelastic diffraction. Using the saturation model of Golec-Biernat and Wusthoff as an example, a simple explanation of geometrical scaling is presented. The relation between the QCD anomalous multiplicity dimension and the Pomeron intercept is discussed.

  2. Diffractive Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, E.A. de

    2002-01-01

    We discuss basic concepts and properties of diffractive phenomena in soft hadron collisions and in deep-inelastic scattering at low Bjorken - x. The paper is not a review of the rapidly developing field but presents an attempt to show in simple terms the close inter-relationship between the dynamics of high-energy hadronic and deep-inelastic diffraction. Using the saturation model of Golec-Biernat and Wuesthoff as an example, a simple explanation of geometrical scaling is presented. The relation between the QCD anomalous multiplicity dimension and the Pomeron intercept is discussed. (author)

  3. Evaluation and Comparison of High-Resolution (HR) and High-Light (HL) Phosphors in the Micro-Angiographic Fluoroscope (MAF) using Generalized Linear Systems Analyses (GMTF, GDQE) that include the Effect of Scatter, Magnification and Detector Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sandesh K; Jain, Amit; Bednarek, Daniel R; Rudin, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the imaging characteristics of the high-resolution, high-sensitivity micro-angiographic fluoroscope (MAF) with 35-micron pixel-pitch when used with different commercially-available 300 micron thick phosphors: the high resolution (HR) and high light (HL) from Hamamatsu. The purpose of this evaluation was to see if the HL phosphor with its higher screen efficiency could be replaced with the HR phosphor to achieve improved resolution without an increase in noise resulting from the HR's decreased light-photon yield. We designated the detectors MAF-HR and MAF-HL and compared them with a standard flat panel detector (FPD) (194 micron pixel pitch and 600 micron thick CsI(Tl)). For this comparison, we used the generalized linear-system metrics of GMTF, GNNPS and GDQE which are more realistic measures of total system performance since they include the effect of scattered radiation, focal spot distribution, and geometric un-sharpness. Magnifications (1.05-1.15) and scatter fractions (0.28 and 0.33) characteristic of a standard head phantom were used. The MAF-HR performed significantly better than the MAF-HL at high spatial frequencies. The ratio of GMTF and GDQE of the MAF-HR compared to the MAF-HL at 3(6) cycles/mm was 1.45(2.42) and 1.23(2.89), respectively. Despite significant degradation by inclusion of scatter and object magnification, both MAF-HR and MAF-HL provide superior performance over the FPD at higher spatial frequencies with similar performance up to the FPD's Nyquist frequency of 2.5 cycles/mm. Both substantially higher resolution and improved GDQE can be achieved with the MAF using the HR phosphor instead of the HL phosphor.

  4. Plasma diagnostic reflectometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, B.I.; Afeyan, B.B.; Garrison, J.C.; Kaiser, T.B.; Luhmann, N.C. Jr.; Domier, C.W.; Chou, A.E.; Baang, S.

    1996-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental studies of plasma diagnostic reflectometry have been undertaken as a collaborative research project between the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the University of California Department of Applied Science Plasma Diagnostics Group under the auspices of the Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program at LLNL. Theoretical analyses have explored the basic principles of reflectometry to understand its limitations, to address specific gaps in the understanding of reflectometry measurements in laboratory experiments, and to explore extensions of reflectometry such as ultra-short-pulse reflectometry. The theory has supported basic laboratory reflectometry experiments where reflectometry measurements can be corroborated by independent diagnostic measurements

  5. Surface enhanced Raman scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Furtak, Thomas

    1982-01-01

    In the course of the development of surface science, advances have been identified with the introduction of new diagnostic probes for analytical characterization of the adsorbates and microscopic structure of surfaces and interfaces. Among the most recently de­ veloped techniques, and one around which a storm of controversy has developed, is what has now been earmarked as surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). Within this phenomenon, molecules adsorbed onto metal surfaces under certain conditions exhibit an anomalously large interaction cross section for the Raman effect. This makes it possible to observe the detailed vibrational signature of the adsorbate in the ambient phase with an energy resolution much higher than that which is presently available in electron energy loss spectroscopy and when the surface is in contact with a much larger amount of material than that which can be tolerated in infrared absorption experiments. The ability to perform vibrational spectroscopy under these conditions would l...

  6. Neutron scattering. Lectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner

    2012-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Neutron scattering in contemporary research, neutron sources, symmetry of crystals, diffraction, nanostructures investigated by small-angle neutron scattering, the structure of macromolecules, spin dependent and magnetic scattering, structural analysis, neutron reflectometry, magnetic nanostructures, inelastic scattering, strongly correlated electrons, dynamics of macromolecules, applications of neutron scattering. (HSI)

  7. Inelastic scattering on 100Ru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirota, S.

    1987-01-01

    Aspects of the nuclear structure of 100 Ru whe investigated by means of the scattering of 100 Ru (p,p') 100 Ru* with 16 MeV protons, where 21 states were investigated. The emergent protons were analysed by a magnetic spectrograph, of the enge type with a typical resolution of ≅ 9 KeV. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  8. New developments in the simultaneous measurement system of wide-angle and small-angle x-ray scatterings and vibrational spectra for the static and dynamic analyses of the hierarchical structures of polymer solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashiro, Kohji; Yamamoto, Hiroko; Yoshioka, Taiyo; Ninh, Tran Hai; Shimada, Shigeru; Nakatani, Takeshi; Iwamoto, Hiroyuki; Ohta, Noboru; Masunaga, Hiroyasu

    2012-01-01

    A simultaneous measurement system of wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD), small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and Raman or transmission-type infrared spectroscopy was developed by us. Its purposes is to clarify the static and dynamic structural changes of polymer materials subjected to the various external condition changes. Some examples described here include the study of the stretch-induced reorientation phenomenon of a-axially-oriented polyethylene, the study of structural change in photo-induced solid-state polymerization reaction of muconic acid ester monomer crystal, the study of the two-stage high-temperature phase transitions of aliphatic nylons, the study of stress-induced crystalline phase transition of an oriented poly(tetramethylene terephthalate) sample and its relation to the higher-order structural change, and the study of structural regularization process of poly(L-lactic acid) in the isothermal crystallization of the meso phase. These case studies in the clarification of hierarchical structural changes of polymer materials have proven that the simultaneous measurement systems can be useful to examine the structural changes in polymer systems. (author)

  9. Molecular Diagnostics

    OpenAIRE

    Choe, Hyonmin; Deirmengian, Carl A.; Hickok, Noreen J.; Morrison, Tiffany N.; Tuan, Rocky S.

    2015-01-01

    Orthopaedic infections are complex conditions that require immediate diagnosis and accurate identification of the causative organisms to facilitate appropriate management. Conventional methodologies for diagnosis of these infections sometimes lack accuracy or sufficient rapidity. Current molecular diagnostics are an emerging area of bench-to-bedside research in orthopaedic infections. Examples of promising molecular diagnostics include measurement of a specific biomarker in the synovial fluid...

  10. Bidirectional optical scattering facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Goniometric optical scatter instrument (GOSI)The bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) quantifies the angular distribution of light scattered from a...

  11. On the scattering of composite particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garsevanishvili, V.R.

    1975-01-01

    The ''light front'' form of the quasipotential approach is applied to the study of interactions of relativistic composite objects. The expression for the scattering amplitude of the composite particle on the elementary one is obtained and analysed

  12. High Power Microwave Diagnostic for the Fusion Energy Experiment ITER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsholm, Søren Bang; Leipold, Frank; Gonçalves, B.

    2016-01-01

    Microwave diagnostics will play an increasingly important role in burning plasma fusion energy experiments like ITER and beyond. The Collective Thomson Scattering (CTS) diagnostic to be installed at ITER is an example of such a diagnostic with great potential in present and future experiments...

  13. [Inelastic electron scattering from surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This program uses ab-initio and multiple scattering to study surface dynamical processes; high-resolution electron-energy loss spectroscopy is used in particular. Off-specular excitation cross sections are much larger if electron energies are in the LEED range (50--300 eV). The analyses have been extended to surfaces of ordered alloys. Phonon eigenvectors and eigenfrequencies were used as inputs to electron-energy-loss multiple scattering cross section calculations. Work on low-energy electron and positron holography is mentioned

  14. Shiva optical diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rienecker, F.; Kobierecki, M.; Ozarski, R.; Seppala, L.; Manes, K.; Merritt, B.

    1977-01-01

    In the laser fusion program at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, no target experiment is complete unless it is complemented by careful measurements of the laser pulse that irradiates the target. For this purpose, an incident beam diagnostics (IBD) package has been designed for the Shiva laser. The package will furnish data on items such as the total energy and the focusable energy out of the laser chain, and the spatial and temporal energy and power distribution at the target plane. Understanding laser-plasma interactions requires knowledge of the amount of 1.06 μm light energy that is scattered in various directions from the target. The light energy that is scattered toward the beam focusing lens is analyzed by a reflected beam diagnostic (RBD) package containing a calorimeter, a multiple image camera and a TV camera. This paper describes the detailed design and operation of the IBD and RBD packages as tools to align spatial filters and targets, as well as to diagnose the laser beams and target reflectivity

  15. Reflectometry diagnostics on TCV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina Cabrera, Pedro; Coda, Stefano; Porte, Laurie; Offeddu, Nicola; Tcv Team

    2017-10-01

    Both profile reflectometer and Doppler back-scattering (DBS) diagnostics are being developed for the TCV Tokamak using a steerable quasi-optical launcher and universal polarizers. First results will be presented. A pulse reflectometer is being developed to complement Thomson Scattering measurements of electron density, greatly increasing temporal resolution and also effectively enabling fluctuation measurements. Pulse reflectometry consists of sending short pulses of varying frequency and measuring the roundtrip group-delay with precise chronometers. A fast arbitrary waveform generator is used as a pulse source feeding frequency multipliers that bring the pulses to V-band. A DBS diagnostic is currently operational in TCV. DBS may be used to infer the perpendicular velocity and wave number spectrum of electron density fluctuations in the 3-15 cm-1 wave-number range. Off-the-shelf transceiver modules, originally used for VNA measurements, are being used in a Doppler radar configuration. See author list of S. Coda et al., 2017 Nucl. Fusion 57 102011.

  16. The Thomson scattering system at DANTE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadeberg, M.

    1983-08-01

    The construction and operation of the 90 deg Thomson Scattering diagnostic at DANTE is described. The system is based on a double-pulse ruby laser and a three channel spectrometer. Two single point measurements can be made during each plasma discharge. (Auth.)

  17. Companion diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jan Trøst; Hersom, Maria

    2016-01-01

    of disease mechanisms, things are slowly changing. Within the last few years, we have seen an increasing number of predictive biomarker assays being developed to guide the use of targeted cancer drugs. This type of assay is called companion diagnostics and is developed in parallel to the drug using the drug-diagnostic...... co-development model. The development of companion diagnostics is a relatively new discipline and in this review, different aspects will be discussed including clinical and regulatory issues. Furthermore, examples of drugs, such as the ALK and PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors, that have been approved recently....... Despite having discussed personalized medicine for more than a decade, we still see that most drug prescriptions for severe chronic diseases are largely based on 'trial and error' and not on solid biomarker data. However, with the advance of molecular diagnostics and a subsequent increased understanding...

  18. Neutron scattering. Lectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner [eds.

    2010-07-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Neutron sources, symmetry of crystals, diffraction, nanostructures investigated by small-angle neutron scattering, the structure of macromolecules, spin dependent and magnetic scattering, structural analysis, neutron reflectometry, magnetic nanostructures, inelastic scattering, strongly correlated electrons, dynamics of macromolecules, applications of neutron scattering. (HSI)

  19. Neutron scattering. Lectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner

    2013-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Neutron sources, symmetry of crystals, nanostructures investigated by small-angle neutron scattering, structure of macromolecules, spin dependent and magnetic scattering, structural analysis, neutron reflectometry, magnetic nanostructures, inelastic neutron scattering, strongly correlated electrons, polymer dynamics, applications of neutron scattering. (HSI)

  20. Neutron scattering. Lectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner

    2010-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Neutron sources, symmetry of crystals, diffraction, nanostructures investigated by small-angle neutron scattering, the structure of macromolecules, spin dependent and magnetic scattering, structural analysis, neutron reflectometry, magnetic nanostructures, inelastic scattering, strongly correlated electrons, dynamics of macromolecules, applications of neutron scattering. (HSI)

  1. Tensor analysing power T{sub 2}0 in inelastic (d, d`) X scattering at 0{sup 0} on {sup 1}H and {sup 12}C from 4.5 to 9.0 GeV/c

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azhgirej, L S; Chernykh, E V [Laboratory of High Energies, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Kobushkin, A P [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, Kiev (Ukraine); and others

    1998-12-01

    Tensor analysing power T{sub 20} for inelastic (d, d`) X reaction at deuteron momentum from 4.2 to 9 GeV/c is presented. It is observed that T{sub 20} taken as a function of the four-momentum transfer squared t demonstrates an approximate scaling; its absolute value is small at |t| <{approx_equal} (0.05 - 0.1) GeV{sup 2}/c{sup 2} and has a maximum at -t {approx_equal}0.3 GeV{sup 2}/c{sup 2}. No significant dependence on the type of the target was observed 10 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Neutron scattering. Lectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner (eds.)

    2010-07-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Neutron sources, neutron properties and elastic scattering, correlation functions measured by scattering experiments, symmetry of crystals, applications of neutron scattering, polarized-neutron scattering and polarization analysis, structural analysis, magnetic and lattice excitation studied by inelastic neutron scattering, macromolecules and self-assembly, dynamics of macromolecules, correlated electrons in complex transition-metal oxides, surfaces, interfaces, and thin films investigated by neutron reflectometry, nanomagnetism. (HSI)

  3. Neutron scattering. Lectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner

    2010-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Neutron sources, neutron properties and elastic scattering, correlation functions measured by scattering experiments, symmetry of crystals, applications of neutron scattering, polarized-neutron scattering and polarization analysis, structural analysis, magnetic and lattice excitation studied by inelastic neutron scattering, macromolecules and self-assembly, dynamics of macromolecules, correlated electrons in complex transition-metal oxides, surfaces, interfaces, and thin films investigated by neutron reflectometry, nanomagnetism. (HSI)

  4. First Wall and Operational Diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasnier, C; Allen, S; Boedo, J; Groth, M; Brooks, N; McLean, A; LaBombard, B; Sharpe, J; Skinner, C; Whyte, D; Rudakov, D; West, W; Wong, C

    2006-01-01

    In this chapter we review numerous diagnostics capable of measurements at or near the first wall, many of which contribute information useful for safe operation of a tokamak. There are sections discussing infrared cameras, visible and VUV cameras, pressure gauges and RGAs, Langmuir probes, thermocouples, and erosion and deposition measurements by insertable probes and quartz microbalance. Also discussed are dust measurements by electrostatic detectors, laser scattering, visible and IR cameras, and manual collection of samples after machine opening. In each case the diagnostic is discussed with a view toward application to a burning plasma machine such as ITER

  5. Recent Advancements in Microwave Imaging Plasma Diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, H.; Chang, C.C.; Deng, B.H.; Domier, C.W.; Donni, A.J.H.; Kawahata, K.; Liang, C.; Liang, X.P.; Lu, H.J.; Luhmann, N.C. Jr.; Mase, A.; Matsuura, H.; Mazzucato, E.; Miura, A.; Mizuno, K.; Munsat, T.; Nagayama, K.; Nagayama, Y.; Pol, M.J. van de; Wang, J.; Xia, Z.G.; Zhang, W-K.

    2002-01-01

    Significant advances in microwave and millimeter wave technology over the past decade have enabled the development of a new generation of imaging diagnostics for current and envisioned magnetic fusion devices. Prominent among these are revolutionary microwave electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEI), microwave phase imaging interferometers, imaging microwave scattering and microwave imaging reflectometer (MIR) systems for imaging electron temperature and electron density fluctuations (both turbulent and coherent) and profiles (including transport barriers) on toroidal devices such as tokamaks, spherical tori, and stellarators. The diagnostic technology is reviewed, and typical diagnostic systems are analyzed. Representative experimental results obtained with these novel diagnostic systems are also presented

  6. Plasma Diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaveryaev, V [Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); others, and

    2012-09-15

    The success in achieving peaceful fusion power depends on the ability to control a high temperature plasma, which is an object with unique properties, possibly the most complicated object created by humans. Over years of fusion research a new branch of science has been created, namely plasma diagnostics, which involves knowledge of almost all fields of physics, from electromagnetism to nuclear physics, and up-to-date progress in engineering and technology (materials, electronics, mathematical methods of data treatment). Historically, work on controlled fusion started with pulsed systems and accordingly the methods of plasma parameter measurement were first developed for short lived and dense plasmas. Magnetically confined hot plasmas require the creation of special experimental techniques for diagnostics. The diagnostic set is the most scientifically intensive part of a plasma device. During many years of research operation some scientific tasks have been solved while new ones arose. New tasks often require significant changes in the diagnostic system, which is thus a very flexible part of plasma machines. Diagnostic systems are designed to solve several tasks. As an example here are the diagnostic tasks for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor - ITER: (1) Measurements for machine protection and basic control; (2) Measurements for advanced control; (3) Additional measurements for performance evaluation and physics. Every new plasma machine is a further step along the path to the main goal - controlled fusion - and nobody knows in advance what new phenomena will be met on the way. So in the planning of diagnostic construction we should keep in mind further system upgrading to meet possible new scientific and technical challenges. (author)

  7. Imaging back scattered and near back scattered light in ignition scale plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkwood, R.K.; Back, C.A.; Glenzer, S.H.; Moody, J.D.

    1996-01-01

    Diagnostics have been developed and fielded at the Nova laser facility that image scattered light in the vicinity of the final laser focusing lens. The absolute calibration of optical components exposed to the target debris have been achieved by a combination of routine in situ calibration and maintenance. The scattering observed from plasmas relevant to ignition experiments indicates that light scattered just outside the lens can be larger than that collected by the lens, and is a significant factor in the energy balance when the f number is high

  8. SNS Diagnostics Timing Integration

    CERN Document Server

    Long, Cary D; Murphy, Darryl J; Pogge, James; Purcell, John D; Sundaram, Madhan

    2005-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accelerator systems will deliver a 1.0 GeV, 1.4 MW proton beam to a liquid mercury target for neutron scattering research. The accelerator complex consists of a 1 GeV linear accelerator, an accumulator ring and associated transport lines. The SNS diagnostics platform is PC-based running Windows XP Embedded for its OS and LabVIEW as its programming language. Coordinating timing among the various diagnostics instruments with the generation of the beam pulse is a challenging task that we have chosen to divide into three phases. First, timing was derived from VME based systems. In the second phase, described in this paper, timing pulses are generated by an in house designed PCI timing card installed in ten diagnostics PCs. Using fan-out modules, enough triggers were generated for all instruments. This paper describes how the Timing NAD (Network Attached Device) was rapidly developed using our NAD template, LabVIEW's PCI driver wizard, and LabVIEW Channel Access library. The NAD...

  9. Scattering and multiple scattering in disordered materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, R.L.; Butler, W.H.

    1992-01-01

    The papers in this section were presented at a joint session of symposium V on Applications of Multiple Scattering Theory and of Symposium P on Disordered Systems. They show that the ideas of scattering theory can help us to understand a very broad class of phenomena

  10. Resonant Impulsive Stimulated Raman Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokhtari, A; Chesnoy, J

    1988-03-15

    Using a femtosecond dye laser, we observe in real-time vibrational oscillations excited by impulsive stimulated Raman scattering (ISRS) close to an electronic resonance. We perform single-beam Raman excitation and probe the driven coherence by a polarization-sensitive detection. We demonstrate for the first time impulsively Raman-induced dichroism, birefringence as well as frequency and time delay shifts. We analyse the characteristics of resonant ISRS on a vibrational mode of a dye molecule (malachite green) in solution.

  11. Resonant Impulsive Stimulated Raman Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokhtari, A.; Chesnoy, J.

    1988-01-01

    Using a femtosecond dye laser, we observe in real-time vibrational oscillations excited by impulsive stimulated Raman scattering (ISRS) close to an electronic resonance. We perform single-beam Raman excitation and probe the driven coherence by a polarization-sensitive detection. We demonstrate for the first time impulsively Raman-induced dichroism, birefringence as well as frequency and time delay shifts. We analyse the characteristics of resonant ISRS on a vibrational mode of a dye molecule (malachite green) in solution

  12. Measuring methods for the TFR plasma diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etievant, C.

    1975-02-01

    The measuring methods in operation or still under development for the diagnostics of the TFR plasma parameters (ion and electron temperatures, electron density, current density are reviewed, the diagnostics of the electrical behavior of the discharge, the neutral gas densities, the impurities and the parameters of the plasma turbulence being also investigated. Actual works are principally devoted to: improving ion temperature measurements by the possible use of the Doppler effect or infra-red incoherent scattering; improving n(e) and T(e) measurement by Thomson scattering; measuring the poloidal field and current density; measuring impurities by X and UV spectroscopy and measuring instabilities and turbulence [fr

  13. High power microwave diagnostic for the fusion energy experiment ITER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsholm, Søren Bang; Leipold, Frank; Goncalves, B.

    2016-01-01

    Microwave diagnostics will play an increasingly important role in burning plasma fusion energy experiments like ITER and beyond. The Collective Thomson Scattering (CTS) diagnostic to be installed at ITER is an example of such a diagnostic with great potential in present and future experiments....... The ITER CTS diagnostic will inject a 1 MW 60 GHz gyrotron beam into the ITER plasma and observe the scattering off fluctuations in the plasma — to monitor the dynamics of the fast ions generated in the fusion reactions....

  14. Localization of fluctuation measurement by wave scattering close to a cut off layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, X.L.; Laurent, L.; Rax, J.M.; Lehner, T.

    1990-01-01

    The diagnostic of plasma fluctuations in tokamaks based on the scattering of an electromagnetic wave close to a cut off layer is investigated. A linear density profile is considered. An one-dimensional exact analysis is performed. Spatial and spectral localization of scattering process close to the cut off layer is studied and a modified Bragg rule is derived. The structure of pump and of scattered waves is analyzed. The diagnostic seems to be local and sensitive for low R fluctuations

  15. Vibration control, machine diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Changing vibrations announce damage in the form of wear or cracks on components of, e.g., engine rotors, pumps, power plant turbo sets, rounding-up tools, or marine diesel engines. Therefore, machine diagnostics use frequency analyses, system tests, trend analyses as well as expert systems to localize or estimate the causes of these damages and malfunctions. Data acquisistion, including not only sensors, but also reliable and redundant data processing systems and analyzing systems, play an important role. The lectures pertaining to the data base are covered in detail. (DG) [de

  16. Neutron scattering from fractals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjems, Jørgen; Freltoft, T.; Richter, D.

    1986-01-01

    The scattering formalism for fractal structures is presented. Volume fractals are exemplified by silica particle clusters formed either from colloidal suspensions or by flame hydrolysis. The determination of the fractional dimensionality through scattering experiments is reviewed, and recent small...

  17. Scatter from optical components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stover, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    This book is covered under the following topics: measurement and analysis techniques; BRDF standards, comparisons, and anomalies; scatter measurement of several materials; scatter from contaminations; and optical system contamination: effects, measurement, and control

  18. Characterization of Diesel Soot Aggregates by Scattering and Extinction Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimoto, Takeyuki

    2006-07-01

    Characteristics of diesel soot particles sampled from diesel exhaust of a common-rail turbo-charged diesel engine are quantified by scattering and extinction diagnostics using newly build two laser-based instruments. The radius of gyration representing the aggregates size is measured by the angular distribution of scattering intensity, while the soot mass concentration is measured by a two-wavelength extinction method. An approach to estimate the refractive index of diesel soot by an analysis of the extinction and scattering data using an aggregates scattering theory is proposed.

  19. Characterization of Diesel Soot Aggregates by Scattering and Extinction Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamimoto, Takeyuki

    2006-01-01

    Characteristics of diesel soot particles sampled from diesel exhaust of a common-rail turbo-charged diesel engine are quantified by scattering and extinction diagnostics using newly build two laser-based instruments. The radius of gyration representing the aggregates size is measured by the angular distribution of scattering intensity, while the soot mass concentration is measured by a two-wavelength extinction method. An approach to estimate the refractive index of diesel soot by an analysis of the extinction and scattering data using an aggregates scattering theory is proposed

  20. Collective scattering of electromagnetic waves from a relativistic magnetized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Quankang

    1998-01-01

    Recently, laser and microwave scattering has become one of the important diagnostic means for plasma. Laser and microwave correlative scattering spectrum is determined by particle-density fluctuations in a weak turbulent plasma. In a relativistic plasma, on the basis of complete electromagnetic-interaction between particles, a general expression for particle density fluctuations and spectrums of laser and microwave scattering from a magnetized plasma are derived. The laser and microwave scattering spectrums provide informations on electron density and temperature, ion temperature, resonance and nonresonance effects. (author)

  1. Advancements of microwave diagnostics in magnetically confined plasmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mase, A.; Kogi, Y.; Ito, N.; Yokota, Y.; Akaki, K.; Kawahata, K.; Nagayama, Y.; Tokuzawa, T.; Yamaguchi, S.; Hojo, H.; Oyama, N.; N C Luhmann Jr.,; Park, H. K.; Donne, A. J. H.

    2009-01-01

    Microwave to millimeter-wave diagnostic techniques such as interferometry, reflectometry, scattering and radiometry have been powerful tools for diagnosing magnetically confined plasmas. Recent advances in electronic devices and components together with computer technology have enabled the

  2. Electron scattering from tetrahydrofuran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuss, M C; Sanz, A G; García, G; Muñoz, A; Oller, J C; Blanco, F; Do, T P T; Brunger, M J; Almeida, D; Limão-Vieira, P

    2012-01-01

    Electron scattering from Tetrahydrofuran (C 4 H 8 O) was investigated over a wide range of energies. Following a mixed experimental and theoretical approach, total scattering, elastic scattering and ionization cross sections as well as electron energy loss distributions were obtained.

  3. Neutron-proton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doll, P.

    1990-02-01

    Neutron-proton scattering as fundamental interaction process below and above hundred MeV is discussed. Quark model inspired interactions and phenomenological potential models are described. The seminar also indicates the experimental improvements for achieving new precise scattering data. Concluding remarks indicate the relevance of nucleon-nucleon scattering results to finite nuclei. (orig.) [de

  4. Neutron Scattering Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Home Page | Facilities | Reference | Software | Conferences | Announcements | Mailing Lists Neutron Scattering Banner Neutron Scattering Software A new portal for neutron scattering has just been established sets KUPLOT: data plotting and fitting software ILL/TAS: Matlab probrams for analyzing triple axis data

  5. Magnetic photon scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovesey, S.W.

    1987-05-01

    The report reviews, at an introductory level, the theory of photon scattering from condensed matter. Magnetic scattering, which arises from first-order relativistic corrections to the Thomson scattering amplitude, is treated in detail and related to the corresponding interaction in the magnetic neutron diffraction amplitude. (author)

  6. Polarized Neutron Scattering

    OpenAIRE

    Roessli, B.; Böni, P.

    2000-01-01

    The technique of polarized neutron scattering is reviewed with emphasis on applications. Many examples of the usefulness of the method in various fields of physics are given like the determination of spin density maps, measurement of complex magnetic structures with spherical neutron polarimetry, inelastic neutron scattering and separation of coherent and incoherent scattering with help of the generalized XYZ method.

  7. Elastic scattering and quasi-elastic transfers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mermaz, M.C.

    1978-01-01

    Experiments are presented which it will be possible to carry out at GANIL on the elastic scattering of heavy ions: diffraction phenomena if the absorption is great, refraction phenomena if absorption is low. The determination of the optical parameters can be performed. The study of the quasi-elastic transfer reactions will make it possible to know the dynamics of the nuclear reactions, form exotic nuclei and study their energy excitation spectrum, and analyse the scattering and reaction cross sections [fr

  8. Neutron scattering science in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knott, Robert [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Menai, NSW (Australia)

    1999-10-01

    Neutron scattering science in Australia is making an impact on a number of fields in the scientific and industrial research communities. The unique properties of the neutron are being used to investigate problems in chemistry, materials science, physics, engineering and biology. The reactor HIFAR at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation research laboratories is the only neutron source in Australia suitable for neutron scattering science. A suite of instruments provides a wide range of opportunities for the neutron scattering community that extends throughout universities, government and industrial research laboratories. Plans are in progress to replace the present research reactor with a modern multi-purpose research reactor to offer the most advanced neutron scattering facilities. The experimental and analysis equipment associated with a modern research reactor will permit the establishment of a national centre for world class neutron science research focussed on the structure and functioning of materials, industrial irradiations and analyses in support of Australian manufacturing, minerals, petrochemical, pharmaceuticals and information science industries. (author)

  9. Neutron scattering science in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knott, Robert

    1999-01-01

    Neutron scattering science in Australia is making an impact on a number of fields in the scientific and industrial research communities. The unique properties of the neutron are being used to investigate problems in chemistry, materials science, physics, engineering and biology. The reactor HIFAR at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation research laboratories is the only neutron source in Australia suitable for neutron scattering science. A suite of instruments provides a wide range of opportunities for the neutron scattering community that extends throughout universities, government and industrial research laboratories. Plans are in progress to replace the present research reactor with a modern multi-purpose research reactor to offer the most advanced neutron scattering facilities. The experimental and analysis equipment associated with a modern research reactor will permit the establishment of a national centre for world class neutron science research focussed on the structure and functioning of materials, industrial irradiations and analyses in support of Australian manufacturing, minerals, petrochemical, pharmaceuticals and information science industries. (author)

  10. Scattering of high energy electrons on deuteron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossetete, B.

    1964-12-01

    The aim of this work is to obtain information on the neutron form factor from the study of the scattering of electrons on deuterium. The first part is dedicated to the theoretical study of the elastic and inelastic scattering. We introduce different form factors: Sachs form factor, the Pauli and Dirac form factors, they appear in the analytic expression of the scattering cross-section. We show how the deuteron form factors can be deduced from neutron's and proton's form factors. In the case of the inelastic scattering we show how the cross section can be broken into components associated to partial waves and we obtain different formulas for the inelastic cross-section based on the Breit formula or the Durand formalism. The second part is dedicated to the experiment setting of electron scattering on deuterium. The elastic scattering experiment has been made on solid or liquid CD 2 targets while inelastic scattering has been studied on a liquid target. We have used an electron beam produced by the Orsay linear accelerator and the scattered electrons have been analysed by a magnetic spectrometer and a Cerenkov detector. The results give a very low value (slightly positive)for the charge form factor of the neutron and a magnetic form factor for the neutron slightly below that of the proton [fr

  11. Analysing neutron scattering data using McStas virtual experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Udby, L.; Willendrup, Peter Kjær; Bergbäck Knudsen, Erik

    2011-01-01

    With the intention of developing a new data analysis method using virtual experiments we have built a detailed virtual model of the cold triple-axis spectrometer RITA-II at PSI, Switzerland, using the McStas neutron ray-tracing package. The parameters characterising the virtual instrument were...... carefully tuned against real experiments. In the present paper we show that virtual experiments reproduce experimentally observed linewidths within 1–3% for a variety of samples. Furthermore we show that the detailed knowledge of the instrumental resolution found from virtual experiments, including sample...

  12. A Center for the Analyses of Electromagnetic and Hadronic Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briscoe, William [George Washington University, Washington, DC (United States)

    2017-05-24

    The GWU Institute for Nuclear Studies (GWINS) continued activities, and began new initiatives, within the context of a program of Hadronic Physics. The intense program of meson photoproduction measurements has resulted in an extensive set of observables that includes not only cross sections, but also polarization and double-polarization observables. Analysis of these new data contributes toward a resolution of a long-standing issue in baryon spectroscopy, namely, the “missing resonance" problem. The study of baryons containing two and three strange quarks (the Ξ and Ω states, respectively) has begun in order to solve this problem.

  13. Millimeter wave scattering off a whistler wave in a tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawhney, B.K.; Singh, S.V.; Tripathi, V.K.

    1994-01-01

    Obliquely propagating whistler waves through a plasma cause density perturbations. A high frequency electromagnetic wave sent into such a perturbed region suffers scattering. The process can be used as a diagnostics for whistler. We have developed a theory of electromagnetic wave scattering in a tokamak where density profile is taken a parabolic. Numerical calculations have been carried out to evaluate the ratio of the power of the scattered electromagnetic wave to that of the incident electromagnetic wave. The scattered power decreases with the frequency of the incident electromagnetic wave. For typical parameters, the ratio of the power of the scattered to the incident electromagnetic wave comes out to be of the order of 10 -4 at a scattering angle of 3 which can be detected. (author). 2 refs, 1 fig

  14. ITER Fast Ion Collective Thomson Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bindslev, Henrik; Larsen, Axel Wright; Meo, Fernando

    2005-01-01

    The EFDA Contract 04-1213 with Risø National Laboratory concerning a detailed integrated design of a Fast Ion Collective Thomson Scattering (CTS) diagnostic for ITER was signed on 31 December 2004. In 2003 the Risø CTS group finished a feasibility study and a conceptual design of an ITER Fast Ion...... Collective Thomson Scattering System (Contract 01.654) [1, 2]. The purpose of the CTS diagnostic is to measure the distribution function of fast ions in the plasma. The feasibility study demonstrated that the only system that can fully meet the ITER measurement requirements for confined fusion alphas is a 60...... the blanket gap, and calculations of diagnosing fuel ion ratio and rotation velocity by CTS....

  15. New Techniques in Neutron Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birk, Jonas Okkels

    potential performance than any existing facility, however in order to use this pulse structure optimally many existing neutron scattering instruments will need to be redesigned. This defense will concentrate on the design and optimization of the inverse time-of-flight cold neutron spectrometer CAMEA......, simulations and prototyping to optimize the instrument and ensure that it will deliver the predicted performance when constructed. During the design a new prismatic analyser concept that can be of interest to many other neutron spectrometers was developed. The design work was compiled into an instrument......Neutron scattering is an important experimental technique in amongst others solid state physics, biophysics, and engineering. This year construction of European Spallation Source (ESS) was commenced in Lund, Sweeden. The facility will use a new long pulsed source principle to obtain higher...

  16. Theory of Thomson scattering in inhomogeneous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowski, P M; Crowley, B J B; Gericke, D O; Regan, S P; Gregori, G

    2016-04-12

    Thomson scattering of laser light is one of the most fundamental diagnostics of plasma density, temperature and magnetic fields. It relies on the assumption that the properties in the probed volume are homogeneous and constant during the probing time. On the other hand, laboratory plasmas are seldom uniform and homogeneous on the temporal and spatial dimensions over which data is collected. This is particularly true for laser-produced high-energy-density matter, which often exhibits steep gradients in temperature, density and pressure, on a scale determined by the laser focus. Here, we discuss the modification of the cross section for Thomson scattering in fully-ionized media exhibiting steep spatial inhomogeneities and/or fast temporal fluctuations. We show that the predicted Thomson scattering spectra are greatly altered compared to the uniform case, and may lead to violations of detailed balance. Therefore, careful interpretation of the spectra is necessary for spatially or temporally inhomogeneous systems.

  17. Thyroid diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scriba, P C; Boerner, W; Emrich, S; Gutekunst, R; Herrmann, J; Horn, K; Klett, M; Krueskemper, H L; Pfannenstiel, P; Pickardt, C R

    1985-03-01

    None of the in-vitro and in-vivo methods listed permits on unambiguous diagnosis when applied alone, owing to the fact that similar or even identical findings are obtained for various individual parameters in different thyroid diseases. Further, especially the in-vitro tests are also subject to extrathyroidal effects which may mask the typical findings. The limited and varying specificity and sensitivity of the tests applied, as well as the falsification of results caused by the patients' idiosyncracies and the methodology, make it necessary to interpret and evaluate the in-vivo and in-vitro findings only if the clinical situation (anamnesis and physical examination) is known. For maximum diagnostic quality of the tests, the initial probability of the assumed type of thyroid disease must be increased (formulation of the clinical problem). The concepts of exclusion diagnosis and identification must be distinguished as well as the diagnosis of functional disturbances on the one hand and of thyroid diseases on the other. Both of this requires a qualified, specific and detailed anamnesis and examination procedure, and the clinical examination remains the obligatory basis of clinical diagnostics. In case of inexplicable discrepancies between the clinical manifestations and the findings obtained with specific methods, or between the findings obtained with a specific method, the patient should be referred to an expert institution, or the expert institution should be consulted.

  18. Thyroid diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scriba, P.C.; Boerner, W.; Emrich, S.; Gutekunst, R.; Herrmann, J.; Horn, K.; Klett, M.; Krueskemper, H.L.; Pfannenstiel, P.; Pickardt, C.R.; Reiners, C.; Reinwein, D.; Schleusener, H.

    1985-01-01

    None of the in-vitro and in-vivo methods listed permits on unambiguous diagnosis when applied alone, owing to the fact that similar or even identical findings are obtained for various individual parameters in different thyroid diseases. Further, especially the in-vitro tests are also subject to extrathyroidal effects which may mask the typical findings. The limited and varying specificity and sensitivity of the tests applied, as well as the falsification of results caused by the patients' idiosyncracies and the methodology, make it necessary to interpret and evaluate the in-vivo and in-vitro findings only if the clinical situation (anamnesis and physical examination) is known. For maximum diagnostic quality of the tests, the initial probability of the assumed type of thyroid disease must be increased (formulation of the clinical problem). The concepts of exclusion diagnosis and identification must be distinguished as well as the diagnosis of functional disturbances on the one hand and of thyroid diseases on the other. Both of this requires a qualified, specific and detailed anamnesis and examination procedure, and the clinical examination remains the obligatory basis of clinical diagnostics. In case of inexplicable discrepancies between the clinical manifestations and the findings obtained with specific methods, or between the findings obtained with a specific method, the patient should be referred to an expert institution, or the expert institution should be consulted. (orig./MG) [de

  19. Ambient diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Cai, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Part I. FundamentalsIntroductionWhat is Ambient Diagnostics?Diagnostic ModelsMultimedia IntelligenceCrowd SourcingSoft SensorsScience of SimplicityPersonal DiagnosesBasic AlgorithmsBasic ToolsSummaryProblemsTransformationEarly Discoveries of Heartbeat PatternsTransforms, Features, and AttributesSequential FeaturesSpatiotemporal FeaturesShape FeaturesImagery FeaturesFrequency Domain FeaturesMulti-Resolution FeaturesSummaryProblemsPattern RecognitionSimilarities and DistancesClustering MethodsClassification MethodsClassifier Accuracy MeasuresSummaryProblemsPart II. Multimedia IntelligenceSound RecognitionMicrophone AppsModern Acoustic Transducers (Microphones)Frequency Response CharacteristicsDigital Audio File FormatsHeart Sound SensingLung Sound SensingSnore MeterSpectrogram (STFT)Ambient Sound AnalysisSound RecognitionRecognizing Asthma SoundPeak ShiftFeature CompressionRegroupingNoise IssuesFuture ApplicationsSummaryProblemsColor SensorsColor SensingHuman Color VisionColor SensorsColor Matching ExperimentsC...

  20. Thomson scattering on COMPASS – commissioning and first data

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aftanas, Milan; Böhm, Petr; Scannell, R.; Tripsky, M.; Weinzettl, Vladimír; Hron, Martin; Pánek, Radomír; Stöckel, Jan; Walsh, M.; Bílková, Petra

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 1 (2012), C01074-C01074 ISSN 1748-0221. [INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON LASER AIDED PLASMA DIAGNOSTICS/15./. Jeju, 13.10.2011-19.10.2011] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/09/1467 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Thomson scattering * electron temperature * laser diagnostic * Plasma diagnostics - charged-particle spectroscopy * Plasma diagnostics - interferometry * spectroscopy and imaging * tokamak Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.869, year: 2011 http://iopscience.iop.org/1748-0221/7/01/C01074/pdf/1748-0221_7_01_C01074.pdf

  1. Scattering with polarized neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweizer, J.

    2007-01-01

    In the history of neutron scattering, it was shown very soon that the use of polarized neutron beams brings much more information than usual scattering with unpolarized neutrons. We shall develop here the different scattering methods that imply polarized neutrons: 1) polarized beams without polarization analysis, the flipping ratio method; 2) polarized beams with a uniaxial polarization analysis; 3) polarized beams with a spherical polarization analysis. For all these scattering methods, we shall give examples of the physical problems which can been solved by these methods, particularly in the field of magnetism: investigation of complex magnetic structures, investigation of spin or magnetization densities in metals, insulators and molecular compounds, separation of magnetic and nuclear scattering, investigation of magnetic properties of liquids and amorphous materials and even, for non magnetic material, separation between coherent and incoherent scattering. (author)

  2. Neutron scattering and magnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackintosh, A.R.

    1983-01-01

    Those properties of the neutron which make it a unique tool for the study of magnetism are described. The scattering of neutrons by magnetic solids is briefly reviewed, with emphasis on the information on the magnetic structure and dynamics which is inherent in the scattering cross-section. The contribution of neutron scattering to our understanding of magnetic ordering, excitations and phase transitions is illustrated by experimental results on a variety of magnetic crystals. (author)

  3. Stationary theory of scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, T.

    1977-01-01

    A variant of the stationary methods is described, and it is shown that it is useful in a wide range of problems, including scattering, by long-range potentials, two-space scattering, and multichannel scattering. The method is based on the notion of spectral forms. The paper is restricted to the simplest case of continuous spectral forms defined on a Banach space embedded in the basic Hilbert space. (P.D.)

  4. Introduction to neutron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, W E [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1996-11-01

    We give here an introduction to the theoretical principles of neutron scattering. The relationship between scattering- and correlation-functions is particularly emphasized. Within the framework of linear response theory (justified by the weakness of the basic interaction) the relation between fluctuation and dissipation is discussed. This general framework explains the particular power of neutron scattering as an experimental method. (author) 4 figs., 4 refs.

  5. Medium energy ion scattering (MEIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dittmann, K.; Markwitz, A.

    2009-01-01

    This report gives an overview about the technique and experimental study of medium energy ion scattering (MEIS) as a quantitative technique to determine and analyse the composition and geometrical structure of crystalline surfaces and near surface-layers by measuring the energy and yield of the backscattered ions. The use of a lower energy range of 50 to 500 keV accelerated ions impinging onto the target surface and the application of a high-resolution electrostatic energy analyser (ESA) makes medium energy ion scattering spectroscopy into a high depth resolution and surface-sensitive version of RBS with less resulting damage effects. This report details the first steps of research in that field of measurement technology using medium energetic backscattered ions detected by means of a semiconductor radiation detector instead of an ESA. The study of medium energy ion scattering (MEIS) has been performed using the 40 keV industrial ion implanter established at GNS Sciences remodelled with supplementary high voltage insulation for the ion source in order to apply voltages up to 45 kV, extra apertures installed in the beamline and sample chamber in order to set the beam diameter accurately, and a semiconductor radiation detector. For measurement purposes a beam of positive charged helium ions accelerated to an energy of about 80 keV has been used impinging onto target surfaces of lead implanted into silicon (PbSi), scandium implanted into aluminium (ScAl), aluminium foil (Al) and glassy carbon (C). First results show that it is possible to use the upgraded industrial implanter for medium energy ion scattering. The beam of 4 He 2+ with an energy up to 88 keV has been focussed to 1 mm in diameter. The 5 nA ion beam hit the samples under 2 x 10 -8 mbar. The results using the surface barrier detector show scattering events from the samples. Cooling of the detector to liquid nitrogen temperatures reduced the electronic noise in the backscattering spectrum close to zero. A

  6. Spectroscopic study of {sup 206,207,208}Pb isotopes by high resolution analysis of 24.5 MeV proton scattering; Etude spectroscopique des isotopes 206, 207 et 208 du plomb par analyse a haute resolution de la diffusion de protons de 24,5 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallois, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-03-01

    {sup 206,207,208}pb have been studied by 24.5 MeV proton inelastic scattering with a resolution of 20 keV. The angular distributions of the differential cross-sections corresponding to the different excited levels have been measured in a large angular region and analysed with the DWBA.This work shows that it exists between 4 and 5 MeV of excitation energy some strongly excited levels corresponding to transfer momenta l = 2, 4, 6 and 8. The single particle-hole models do not explain these states; so it will probably be necessary to introduce some several particle - hole configurations. (author) [French] Les isotopes 206, 207 et 208 du plomb ont ete etudies par diffusion inelastique de protons de 24,5 MeV avec une resolution de 20 keV. Les distributions angulaires des sections efficaces differentielles correspondant aux differents niveaux excites ont ete mesurees sur un large domaine angulaire et analysees a l'aide de la DWBA. Ce travail met en evidence l'existence, entre 4 et 5 MeV d'excitation, de niveaux fortement excites correspondant a des moments de transfert de 2, 4, 6 et 8. Les modeles a simple particule-trou ne rendant pas compte de ces niveaux, il faudra sans doute recourir a des configurations a plusieurs particules-trous pour les expliquer. (auteur)

  7. Scattering from black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Futterman, J.A.H.; Handler, F.A.; Matzner, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive treatment of the propagation of waves in the presence of black holes. While emphasizing intuitive physical thinking in their treatment of the techniques of analysis of scattering, the authors also include chapters on the rigorous mathematical development of the subject. Introducing the concepts of scattering by considering the simplest, scalar wave case of scattering by a spherical (Schwarzschild) black hole, the book then develops the formalism of spin weighted spheroidal harmonics and of plane wave representations for neutrino, electromagnetic, and gravitational scattering. Details and results of numerical computations are given. The techniques involved have important applications (references are given) in acoustical and radar imaging

  8. Quantum theory of scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Wu Ta You

    1962-01-01

    This volume addresses the broad formal aspects and applications of the quantum theory of scattering in atomic and nuclear collisions. An encyclopedic source of pioneering work, it serves as a text for students and a reference for professionals in the fields of chemistry, physics, and astrophysics. The self-contained treatment begins with the general theory of scattering of a particle by a central field. Subsequent chapters explore particle scattering by a non-central field, collisions between composite particles, the time-dependent theory of scattering, and nuclear reactions. An examinati

  9. Cross plane scattering correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao, L.; Karp, J.S.

    1990-01-01

    Most previous scattering correction techniques for PET are based on assumptions made for a single transaxial plane and are independent of axial variations. These techniques will incorrectly estimate the scattering fraction for volumetric PET imaging systems since they do not take the cross-plane scattering into account. In this paper, the authors propose a new point source scattering deconvolution method (2-D). The cross-plane scattering is incorporated into the algorithm by modeling a scattering point source function. In the model, the scattering dependence both on axial and transaxial directions is reflected in the exponential fitting parameters and these parameters are directly estimated from a limited number of measured point response functions. The authors' results comparing the standard in-plane point source deconvolution to the authors' cross-plane source deconvolution show that for a small source, the former technique overestimates the scatter fraction in the plane of the source and underestimate the scatter fraction in adjacent planes. In addition, the authors also propose a simple approximation technique for deconvolution

  10. Material classification by fast neutron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buffler, A. E-mail: abuffler@physci.uct.ac.za; Brooks, F.D. E-mail: brooks@physci.uct.ac.za; Allie, M.S.; Bharuth-Ram, K.; Nchodu, M.R

    2001-02-01

    The scattering of a beam of fast monoenergetic neutrons is used to determine elemental compositions of bulk samples (0.2-0.8 kg) of materials composed from one or more of the elements H, C, N, O, Al, S, Fe and Pb. Scattered neutrons are detected by liquid scintillators placed at forward and at backward angles. Different elements are identified by their characteristic scattering signatures derived either from a combination of time-of-flight and pulse height measurements, or from pulse height measurements alone. Scattering signatures measured for multi-element samples are analysed to determine atom fractions for H, C, N, O and other elements in the sample. Atom fractions determined from scattering signatures are insensitive to neutron interactions in material surrounding the scattering sample, provided the amount of material is not excessive. The atom fraction data are used to classify scattering material into categories including 'explosives', 'illicit drugs' and 'other materials' for the purpose of contraband detection.

  11. Diagnostic accuracy of organ electrodermal diagnostics | Szopinski ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To estimate the diagnostic accuracy as well as the scope of utilisation of a new bio-electronic method of organ diagnostics. Design. Double-blind comparative study of the diagnostic results obtained by means of organ electrodermal diagnostics (OED) and clinical diagnoses, as a criterion standard. Setting.

  12. Investigation of static and dynamic properties of condensed matter by using neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidovic, M.

    1997-01-01

    Possibilities of using neutron scattering for investigating microscopic properties of materials are analyzed. Basic neutron scattering theory is presented and its use in structure and dynamics analyses of condense systems. (author)

  13. SIMSAS - a window based software package for simulation and analysis of multiple small-angle scattering data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayaswal, B.; Mazumder, S.

    1998-09-01

    Small-angle scattering data from strong scattering systems, e.g. porous materials, cannot be analysed invoking single scattering approximation as specimen needed to replicate the bulk matrix in essential properties are too thick to validate the approximation. The presence of multiple scattering is indicated by invalidity of the functional invariance property of the observed scattering profile with variation of sample thickness and/or wave length of the probing radiation. This article delineates how non accounting of multiple scattering affects the results of analysis and then how to correct the data for its effect. It deals with an algorithm to extract single scattering profile from small-angle scattering data affected by multiple scattering. The algorithm can process the scattering data and deduce single scattering profile in absolute scale. A software package, SIMSAS, is introduced for executing this inversion step. This package is useful both to simulate and to analyse multiple small-angle scattering data. (author)

  14. SNS Diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shea, T.J.; Cameron, P.; Doolittle, L.; Power, J.

    2000-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) Project is a collaborative effort to build the next generation neutron science facility at Oak Ridge, TN. The facility will deliver a 2 MW proton beam to a liquid mercury target. Neutrons from this target will be moderated and sent to several state-of-the-art instruments. Six national laboratories are involved in SNS construction. Berkeley (LBNL) will build the front end that produces a 2.5 MeV, 52 mA H-beam. Los Alamos (LANL) is responsible for the 1 GeV linac with a superconducting section provided by Thomas Jefferson (JLab). Brookhaven (BNL) is building the transfer lines and accumulator ring. Oak Ridge (ORNL) and Argonne (ANL) have responsibility for the target and instruments. All activities are coordinated by the SNS project office at Oak Ridge. The high beam power, a desired availability of 95%, and an aggressive commissioning schedule lead to some interesting challenges in beam diagnostics

  15. Auger vs resonance neutralization in low energy He+ ion scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodruff, D.P.

    1983-01-01

    He + ions incident on a metal surface can neutralize either by an Auger or resonant charge exchange. While the Auger process has always been thought to be dominant, recent theoretical interest in the simpler one-electron resonance process has led to suggestions that this alone can account for the neutralization seen in low energy He + ion scattering. In this paper this assertion is analysed by looking at the wider information available on charge exchange processes for He + ion scattering through comparison with Li + ion scattering, the importance of multiple scattering in both these scattering experiments and the results of ion neutralization spectroscopy. These lead to the conclusion that while resonance neutralization to produce metastable He* may well occur at a substantial rate in He + ion scattering, the dominant process leading to loss of ions from the final scattered signal is Auger neutralization as originally proposed. (author)

  16. Diffractive hard scattering at ep and p antip colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruni, P.; Ingelman, G.; Uppsala Univ.

    1993-12-01

    Models for diffractive scattering based on the exchange of a pomeron with a parton structure are analysed in terms of hard scattering processes and the resulting characteristics of the final state. Diffractive deep inelastic ep scattering is considered in connection with the recently observed rapidity gap events at HERA. Heavy flavour and W, Z production in p anti p interactions are interesting measures of the gluon and quark component, respectively, in the pomeron. (orig.)

  17. Modelling Hyperboloid Sound Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burry, Jane; Davis, Daniel; Peters, Brady

    2011-01-01

    The Responsive Acoustic Surfaces workshop project described here sought new understandings about the interaction between geometry and sound in the arena of sound scattering. This paper reports on the challenges associated with modelling, simulating, fabricating and measuring this phenomenon using...... both physical and digital models at three distinct scales. The results suggest hyperboloid geometry, while difficult to fabricate, facilitates sound scattering....

  18. Concentric layered Hermite scatterers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astheimer, Jeffrey P.; Parker, Kevin J.

    2018-05-01

    The long wavelength limit of scattering from spheres has a rich history in optics, electromagnetics, and acoustics. Recently it was shown that a common integral kernel pertains to formulations of weak spherical scatterers in both acoustics and electromagnetic regimes. Furthermore, the relationship between backscattered amplitude and wavenumber k was shown to follow power laws higher than the Rayleigh scattering k2 power law, when the inhomogeneity had a material composition that conformed to a Gaussian weighted Hermite polynomial. Although this class of scatterers, called Hermite scatterers, are plausible, it may be simpler to manufacture scatterers with a core surrounded by one or more layers. In this case the inhomogeneous material property conforms to a piecewise continuous constant function. We demonstrate that the necessary and sufficient conditions for supra-Rayleigh scattering power laws in this case can be stated simply by considering moments of the inhomogeneous function and its spatial transform. This development opens an additional path for construction of, and use of scatterers with unique power law behavior.

  19. X-ray scatter removal by deconvolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seibert, J.A.; Boone, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    The distribution of scattered x rays detected in a two-dimensional projection radiograph at diagnostic x-ray energies is measured as a function of field size and object thickness at a fixed x-ray potential and air gap. An image intensifier-TV based imaging system is used for image acquisition, manipulation, and analysis. A scatter point spread function (PSF) with an assumed linear, spatially invariant response is modeled as a modified Gaussian distribution, and is characterized by two parameters describing the width of the distribution and the fraction of scattered events detected. The PSF parameters are determined from analysis of images obtained with radio-opaque lead disks centrally placed on the source side of a homogeneous phantom. Analytical methods are used to convert the PSF into the frequency domain. Numerical inversion provides an inverse filter that operates on frequency transformed, scatter degraded images. Resultant inverse transformed images demonstrate the nonarbitrary removal of scatter, increased radiographic contrast, and improved quantitative accuracy. The use of the deconvolution method appears to be clinically applicable to a variety of digital projection images

  20. Introductory theory of neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunn, J.M.F.

    1986-12-01

    The paper comprises a set of six lecture notes which were delivered to the summer school on 'Neutron Scattering at a pulsed source', Rutherford Laboratory, United Kingdom, 1986. The lectures concern the physical principles of neutron scattering. The topics of the lectures include: diffraction, incoherent inelastic scattering, connection with the Schroedinger equation, magnetic scattering, coherent inelastic scattering, and surfaces and neutron optics. (UK)

  1. Plasma diagnostics for tokamaks and stellarators. Proceedings of the IV Course and Workshop on Magnetic Confinement Fusion. UIMP Santander (Spain), June 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stott, P. E.; Sanchez, J.

    1994-01-01

    A collection of papers on plasma diagnostics is presented. The papers show the state of the art developments in a series of techniques: Magnetic diagnostics, Edge diagnostics, Langmuir probes, Spectroscopy, Microwave and FIR diagnostics as well as Thomson Scattering. Special interest was focused on those diagnostics oriented to fluctuations measurements in the plasma. (Author) 451 refs

  2. Diffuse scattering of neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novion, C.H. de.

    1981-02-01

    The use of neutron scattering to study atomic disorder in metals and alloys is described. The diffuse elastic scattering of neutrons by a perfect crystal lattice leads to a diffraction spectrum with only Bragg spreads. the existence of disorder in the crystal results in intensity and position modifications to these spreads, and above all, to the appearance of a low intensity scatter between Bragg peaks. The elastic scattering of neutrons is treated in this text, i.e. by measuring the number of scattered neutrons having the same energy as the incident neutrons. Such measurements yield information on the static disorder in the crystal and time average fluctuations in composition and atomic displacements [fr

  3. Inelastic Light Scattering Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouche, Daniel G.; Chang, Richard K.

    1973-01-01

    Five different inelastic light scattering processes will be denoted by, ordinary Raman scattering (ORS), resonance Raman scattering (RRS), off-resonance fluorescence (ORF), resonance fluorescence (RF), and broad fluorescence (BF). A distinction between fluorescence (including ORF and RF) and Raman scattering (including ORS and RRS) will be made in terms of the number of intermediate molecular states which contribute significantly to the scattered amplitude, and not in terms of excited state lifetimes or virtual versus real processes. The theory of these processes will be reviewed, including the effects of pressure, laser wavelength, and laser spectral distribution on the scattered intensity. The application of these processes to the remote sensing of atmospheric pollutants will be discussed briefly. It will be pointed out that the poor sensitivity of the ORS technique cannot be increased by going toward resonance without also compromising the advantages it has over the RF technique. Experimental results on inelastic light scattering from I(sub 2) vapor will be presented. As a single longitudinal mode 5145 A argon-ion laser line was tuned away from an I(sub 2) absorption line, the scattering was observed to change from RF to ORF. The basis, of the distinction is the different pressure dependence of the scattered intensity. Nearly three orders of magnitude enhancement of the scattered intensity was measured in going from ORF to RF. Forty-seven overtones were observed and their relative intensities measured. The ORF cross section of I(sub 2) compared to the ORS cross section of N2 was found to be 3 x 10(exp 6), with I(sub 2) at its room temperature vapor pressure.

  4. Diagnostic thoracoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plavec Goran

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnostic thoracoscopy in patients with pleural effusion of unclear origin mostly provides the correct diagnosis. Results from published reports of previous researches are not uniform. In 47 male and 20 female patients with pleural effusion of unknown etiology, after receiving negative results obtained from cytological finding of pleural effusion and percutaneous needle biopsy, thoracoscopy with biopsy of one or both pleurae was performed. Procedure was done in local anesthesia using Stortz rigid thoracoscope. In 37 patients with malignant disease (primary or metastatic diagnosis was confirmed histopathologically in 31 patient (81.12%. In 27 patients with inflammatory pleural disease diagnosis was confirmed histopathologically in 22 patients (81.4%. Among 11 patients with specific pleural effusions, tuberculosis was confirmed in 10 (90.91%. Normal finding in cases of spontaneous pneumothorax and pulmonary embolism was taken as a positive result. Total number of positive findings was 55 (82.10%. In one patient, the third spontaneous pneumothorax was the indication for thoracoscopy, and after numerous bullae were seen during the procedure, talcum powder pleurodesis was done. In four patients low intensity subcutaneous emphysema occurred one day after thoracoscopy. It can be concluded that thoracoscopy in local anesthesia out of the operating room is good and practical method for solving the unclear pleural effusions, with neglectable rate of complications.

  5. Mitigation diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, S.T.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that experience in the remediation of schools and other large buildings has shown the importance of the effects of both the location of geologic sources and HVAC-induced distribution of indoor radon. In general, elevated radon in areas of schools with evenly distributed HVAC pressures are correlated with maximum soil radon emanations. However, strong or unequal HVAC effects can redistribute indoor radon to areas away from the direct source. Effective remediation required a complete understanding of both contributions. In some schools, highest indoor radon levels were located near large return ducts and were attributed to proximity to negative HVAC pressure. Successful sub-slab depressurization systems were installed, however, in rooms with lower indoor but greatest sub-slab radon levels, closest to the source. This shows the inadequacy of using indoor radon levels alone as a basis for remediation. Wings of two other schools with radon problems have equivalent window fan coil units in rooms of equal size and no central HVAC system. Highest indoor radon levels correlated well with highest sub-slab radon levels due to the equivalent effects of the window units. Diagnostic tests in other schools have revealed: blockwall radon transport to upper floors; high blockwall radon adjacent to sub-slab sources; and elevated indoor radon over crawlspace being drawn upward by HVAC-induced negative pressure, determined from indoor to outdoor micromanometer measurements

  6. Precise relative cross sections for np scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetz, J.; Brogli-Gysin, C.; Hammans, M.; Haffter, P.; Henneck, R.; Jourdan, J.; Masson, G.; Qin, L.M.; Robinson, S.; Sick, I.; Tuccillo, M.

    1994-01-01

    We present data on the differential cross section for neutron-proton scattering for an incident neutron energy of 67 MeV. These data allow a precise determination of the 1 P 1 phase which, in phase-shift analyses, is strongly correlated with the S-D amplitude which we are measuring via different observables. ((orig.))

  7. Characterization of Materials by Raman Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozielski, M.

    2007-03-01

    The paper reports on the use of phonon spectra obtained with the Raman spectroscopy for characterization of different materials. The Raman scattering spectra obtained for zinc selenide crystals, mixed crystals zinc selenide admixtured with magnesium or beryllium, oxide crystals including strontium lanthanum gallate, molecular crystals of triammonium hydrogen diseleniate and a homologous series of polyoxyethylene glycols are analysed.

  8. Research on the influence of the scattering laser on implosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Meng; Li Yunsheng; Fu Shangwu

    2003-01-01

    In the indirect driven implosion, the scattering laser from the hohlraum wall will partially irradiate on the capsule and influence its implosion. Based on the research of one-dimensional and two-dimensional numerical simulations, detailed analyses are pursued to give the influence of the scattering laser on the implosion and the explanation of the influence. (authors)

  9. Progress in small angle neutron scattering activities in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed, Abudl Aziz Bin [Industrial Technology Division, Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT) (Indonesia)

    2000-10-01

    Research activities by use of small angle neutron scattering in Malaysia are briefly reported. Scattered neutron data are displayed in two or three-dimensional isometric view by the data acquisition system. Visual Basic is utilized for data acquisition and MathCad for data processing and analyses. (Y. Kazumata)

  10. Progress in small angle neutron scattering activities in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, Abudl Aziz Bin

    2000-01-01

    Research activities by use of small angle neutron scattering in Malaysia are briefly reported. Scattered neutron data are displayed in two or three-dimensional isometric view by the data acquisition system. Visual Basic is utilized for data acquisition and MathCad for data processing and analyses. (Y. Kazumata)

  11. Proton-proton elastic scattering at ultrahigh energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleem, M.; Shaukat, M.A.; Fazal-e-Aleem (University of the Punjab, Lahore (Pakistan). Dept. of Physics)

    1981-05-30

    The authors use a geometrical model of high-energy pp elastic scattering as proposed by Chou and Yong to analyse experimental data available at present and consider the predictions of the dipole pomeron model for pp elastic scattering at ultrahigh energies. Theoretical results for differential cross sections are compared with experimental data.

  12. Calibration issues for neutron diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadler, G.J.; Adams, J.M.; Barnes, C.W.

    1997-01-01

    The performance of diagnostic systems are limited by their weakest constituents, including their calibration issues. Neutron diagnostics are notorious for problems encountered while determining their absolute calibrations, due mainly to the nature of the neutron transport problem. In order to facilitate the determination of an accurate and precise calibration, the diagnostic design should be such as to minimize the scattered neutron flux. ITER will use a comprehensive set of neutron diagnostics--comprising radial and vertical neutron cameras, neutron spectrometers, a neutron activation system and internal and external fission chambers--to provide accurate measurements of fusion power and power densities as a function of time. The calibration of such an important diagnostic system merits careful consideration. Some thoughts have already been given to this subject during the conceptual design phase in relation to the time-integrated neutron activation and time-dependent neutron yield monitors. However, no overall calibration strategy has been worked out so far. This paper represents a first attempt to address this vital issue. Experience gained from present large tokamaks (JET, TFTR and JT60U) and proposals for ITER are reviewed. The need to use a 14-MeV neutron generator as opposed to radioactive sources for in-situ calibration of D-T diagnostics will be stressed. It is clear that the overall absolute determination of fusion power will have to rely on a combination of nuclear measuring techniques, for which the provision of accurate and independent calibrations will constitute an ongoing process as ITER moves from one phase of operation to the next

  13. Climate Model Diagnostic Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seungwon; Pan, Lei; Zhai, Chengxing; Tang, Benyang; Kubar, Terry; Zhang, Zia; Wang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The comprehensive and innovative evaluation of climate models with newly available global observations is critically needed for the improvement of climate model current-state representation and future-state predictability. A climate model diagnostic evaluation process requires physics-based multi-variable analyses that typically involve large-volume and heterogeneous datasets, making them both computation- and data-intensive. With an exploratory nature of climate data analyses and an explosive growth of datasets and service tools, scientists are struggling to keep track of their datasets, tools, and execution/study history, let alone sharing them with others. In response, we have developed a cloud-enabled, provenance-supported, web-service system called Climate Model Diagnostic Analyzer (CMDA). CMDA enables the physics-based, multivariable model performance evaluations and diagnoses through the comprehensive and synergistic use of multiple observational data, reanalysis data, and model outputs. At the same time, CMDA provides a crowd-sourcing space where scientists can organize their work efficiently and share their work with others. CMDA is empowered by many current state-of-the-art software packages in web service, provenance, and semantic search.

  14. Preliminary Examination of X-ray Scattering from Human Tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desouky, O.S.; Wilkinson, S.; Hall, C.; Rogers, K.; Round, A.

    2008-01-01

    Small Angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) and wide angle x-ray scattering (WAXS) patterns have been recorded from different human soft tissues using x-ray synchrotron radiation.Pathological breast, normal kidney and lung tissues show SAXS peaks at q-values equal to 0.291 nm -1 and 0.481 nm -1 (d 21.6 nm and d =13. nm) which are the 3 r d and 5 t h order of the well known axial D-spacing of collagen fibrils. The diffraction is particularly intense in the meridional direction indicating some febrile alignment. In contrast, the normal tissue of brain, liver and heart shows diffuse scatter.The wide-angle coherent scattering from normal human tissues of brain, liver, heart, lung, and kidney is typical of that for amorphous materials. The scatter of the healthy adipose breast tissue shows a sharp peak at momentum transfer 1.24 nm -1 (d= 0.417 nm). The data of the other tissues appears to consist of a broad scattering peak. The two scattering regimes succeed in differentiating between the two major components of breast tissue, collagen and adipose tissue. The results of this study suggest that the soft tissues may have scattering patterns that are characteristics for the particular tissue types and tissue disease state. These results indicate that it may be possible use the coherent scattering as a diagnostic tool

  15. Light scattering studies at UNICAMP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luzzi, R.; Cerdeira, H.A.; Salzberg, J.; Vasconcellos, A.R.; Frota Pessoa, S.; Reis, F.G. dos; Ferrari, C.A.; Algarte, C.A.S.; Tenan, M.A.

    1975-01-01

    Current theoretical studies on light scattering spectroscopy at UNICAMP is presented briefly, such as: inelastic scattering of radiation from a solid state plasma; resonant Ramman scattering; high excitation effects; saturated semiconductors and glasses

  16. Ion diagnostics for the tokamak boundary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, G.F.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, recent developments in ion diagnostic probes for tokamak boundary plasmas are discussed. Three areas are covered: retarding field analysers, sniffer probes and plasma ion mass spectrometers. The contribution of these diagnostics to our understanding of plasma surface interactions is summarised. (author)

  17. Fast Ion Collective Thomson Scattering Diagnostic for ITER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsholm, Søren Bang; Bindslev, Henrik; Furtula, Vedran

    2008-01-01

    In the era of high power and burning plasma fusion experiments with significant populations of fast particles, the diagnosis of fast ion dynamics becomes an important topic. In ITER, populations of fast ions due to ICRH and NBI, as well as fusion born alphas will carry a significant fraction...... of mock-up measurements have brought the design towards a four mirror quasi-optical solution. The development as well as the present design will be presented....

  18. Fast ion collective Thomson scattering diagnostic for ITER: Design elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsakadze, Erekle; Bindslev, Henrik; Korsholm, Søren Bang

    2008-01-01

    perpendicular, and the other measures the component near parallel to the magnetic field. Each system has a high-power probe beam at an operating frequency of 60 GHz and a receiver unit. In order to prevent neutron damage to moveable parts, the geometry of the probes and receivers is fixed An array of receivers...

  19. Virtual neutron scattering experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Julie Hougaard; Bruun, Jesper; May, Michael

    2017-01-01

    . In the last week of the course, students travel to a large-scale neutron scattering facility to perform real neutron scattering experiments. Through student interviews and survey answers, we argue, that the virtual training prepares the students to engage more fruitfully with experiments by letting them focus......We describe how virtual experiments can be utilized in a learning design that prepares students for hands-on experiments at large-scale facilities. We illustrate the design by showing how virtual experiments are used at the Niels Bohr Institute in a master level course on neutron scattering...

  20. Scattering on magnetic monopoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petry, H.R.

    1980-01-01

    The time-dependent scattering theory of charged particles on magnetic monopoles is investigated within a mathematical frame-work, which duely pays attention to the fact that the wavefunctions of the scattered particles are sections in a non-trivial complex line-bundle. It is found that Moeller operators have to be defined in a way which takes into account the peculiar long-range behaviour of the monopole field. Formulas for the scattering matrix and the differential cross-section are derived, and, as a by-product, a momentum space picture for particles, which are described by sections in the underlying complex line-bundle, is presented. (orig.)

  1. Deep inelastic neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayers, J.

    1989-03-01

    The report is based on an invited talk given at a conference on ''Neutron Scattering at ISIS: Recent Highlights in Condensed Matter Research'', which was held in Rome, 1988, and is intended as an introduction to the techniques of Deep Inelastic Neutron Scattering. The subject is discussed under the following topic headings:- the impulse approximation I.A., scaling behaviour, kinematical consequences of energy and momentum conservation, examples of measurements, derivation of the I.A., the I.A. in a harmonic system, and validity of the I.A. in neutron scattering. (U.K.)

  2. Towards diagnostic tools for analysing Swarm data through model retrievals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotsiaros, Stavros; Plank, Gernot; Haagmans, R.

    polar orbits between 300 and 550 km altitude. Goal of the current study is to build tools and to analyze datasets, in order to allow a fast diagnosis of the Swarm system performance in orbit during the commission phase and operations of the spacecraft. The effects on the reconstruction of the magnetic...... field resulting from various error sources are investigated. By using a specially developed software package closed loop simulations are performed aiming at different scenarios. We start from the simple noise-free case and move on to more complex and realistic situations which include attitude errors...

  3. Slow extraction from the IHEP accelerator by internal target scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maksimov, A.V.

    1994-01-01

    The existing slow extraction system is not able to satisfy the required quality of the beam time structure in the intensity region 10 10 - 10 11 ppp. Calculations on simulation of slow extraction by internal target scattering are presented. Two regime of slow extraction are analysed: nonresonant and resonant extraction by target scattering. Resonant extraction by target scattering is able to ensure intensity of extracted beam up to 10 11 . The agreement between calculations and experimental data is good enough. The calculation of extraction possibility by thin W-target scattering are also presented. In this case the extraction efficiency is about 85%. 15 refs., 6 figs

  4. Electron scattering from pyrimidine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colmenares, Rafael; Fuss, Martina C; García, Gustavo; Oller, Juan C; Muñoz, Antonio; Blanco, Francisco; Almeida, Diogo; Limão-Vieira, Paulo

    2014-01-01

    Electron scattering from pyrimidine (C 4 H 4 N 2 ) was investigated over a wide range of energies. Following different experimental and theoretical approaches, total, elastic and ionization cross sections as well as electron energy loss distributions were obtained.

  5. Gravitational Bhabha scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, A F; Khanna, Faqir C

    2017-01-01

    Gravitoelectromagnetism (GEM) as a theory for gravity has been developed similar to the electromagnetic field theory. A weak field approximation of Einstein theory of relativity is similar to GEM. This theory has been quantized. Traditional Bhabha scattering, electron–positron scattering, is based on quantized electrodynamics theory. Usually the amplitude is written in terms of one photon exchange process. With the development of quantized GEM theory, the scattering amplitude will have an additional component based on an exchange of one graviton at the lowest order of perturbation theory. An analysis will provide the relative importance of the two amplitudes for Bhabha scattering. This will allow an analysis of the relative importance of the two amplitudes as the energy of the exchanged particles increases. (paper)

  6. Applied electromagnetic scattering theory

    CERN Document Server

    Osipov, Andrey A

    2017-01-01

    Besides classical applications (radar and stealth, antennas, microwave engineering), scattering and diffraction are enabling phenomena for some emerging research fields (artificial electromagnetic materials or metamaterials, terahertz technologies, electromagnetic aspects of nano-science). This book is a tutorial for advanced students who need to study diffraction theory. The textbook gives fundamental knowledge about scattering and diffraction of electromagnetic waves and provides some working examples of solutions for practical high-frequency scattering and diffraction problems. The book focuses on the most important diffraction effects and mechanisms influencing the scattering process and describes efficient and physically justified simulation methods - physical optics (PO) and the physical theory of diffraction (PTD) - applicable in typical remote sensing scenarios. The material is presented in a comprehensible and logical form, which relates the presented results to the basic principles of electromag...

  7. Scattering by bound nucleons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tezuka, Hirokazu.

    1984-10-01

    Scattering of a particle by bound nucleons is discussed. Effects of nucleons that are bound in a nucleus are taken as a structure function. The way how to calculate the structure function is given. (author)

  8. LIDAR Thomson scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    This collection contains 21 papers on the application and development of LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) Thomson scattering techniques for the determination of spatially resolved electron temperature and density in magnetic confinement experiments, particularly tokamaks. Refs, figs and tabs

  9. Magnetic electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, G.A.

    1989-01-01

    We briefly review some of the motivations, early results, and techniques of magnetic elastic and inelastic electron-nucleus scattering. We then discuss recent results, especially those acquired at high momentum transfers. 50 refs., 19 figs

  10. Deep inelastic lepton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nachtmann, O.

    1977-01-01

    Deep inelastic electron (muon) nucleon and neutrino nucleon scattering as well as electron positron annihilation into hadrons are reviewed from a theoretical point of view. The emphasis is placed on comparisons of quantum chromodynamics with the data. (orig.) [de

  11. Transmission grid requirements with scattered and flutuating renewable electricity sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2002-01-01

    Denmark is in a situation with many scattered sources of electricity, that are not controlled by the central load dispatch. At the same time, Denmark is being used as an electricity transit corridor between Norway/Sweden and Germany. Through energy systems analyses and load-flow analyses......, it is determined that if scattered load balancing is introduced, electricity transit is enabled to a higher degree than if central load balancing is maintained....

  12. Small angle neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardini, G.; Cherubini, G.; Fioravanti, A.; Olivi, A.

    1976-09-01

    A method for the analysis of the data derived from neutron small angle scattering measurements has been accomplished in the case of homogeneous particles, starting from the basic theory without making any assumption on the form of particle size distribution function. The experimental scattering curves are interpreted with the aid the computer by means of a proper routine. The parameters obtained are compared with the corresponding ones derived from observations at the transmission electron microscope

  13. Pp scattering at SIN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aprile-Giboni, E.; Cantale, G.; Hausammann, R.

    1983-01-01

    Using the PM1 polarized proton beam at SIN and a polarized target, the elastic pp scattering as well as the inelastic channel pp → π + d have been studied between 400 and 600 MeV. For the elastic reaction, a sufficient number of spin dependent parameters has been measured in order to do a direct reconstruction of the scattering matrix between 38 0 /sub cm/ and 90 0 /sub cm/. 10 references, 6 figures

  14. Radiation shielding for TFTR DT diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ku, L.P.; Johnson, D.W.; Liew, S.L.

    1994-01-01

    The authors illustrate the designs of radiation shielding for the TFTR DT diagnostics using the ACX and TVTS systems as specific examples. The main emphasis here is on the radiation transport analyses carried out in support of the designs. Initial results from the DT operation indicate that the diagnostics have been functioning as anticipated and the shielding designs are satisfactory. The experience accumulated in the shielding design for the TFTR DT diagnostics should be useful and applicable to future devices, such as TPX and ITER, where many similar diagnostic systems are expected to be used

  15. Preliminary project of s Thomson scattering system for the ETE tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berni, Luiz Angelo

    1997-01-01

    This report presents the preliminary project of the injection and laser light block system for the Thomson (ET) scattering diagnostic to be implanted at the ETE spheric tokamak of the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE/LAP). Also, a scanning system for the optics of scattered light

  16. Note on some quasielastic neutron scattering analysis programs on the Rutherford Laboratory IBM 360/195

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, R.M.

    1979-12-01

    A suite of programs for analysing neutron scattering data from time-of-flight spectrometers has been implemented on the Rutherford Laboratory IBM 360/195 computer system. The programs are intended for near inelastic and quasielastic data and operate by convoluting the measured instrumental resolution function with a model scattering function before fitting to the measured sample scattering law. (author)

  17. FIR laser scattering and heterodyne receiver measurements on Alcator C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woskoboinikow, P.; Praddaude, H.C.; Mulligan, W.J.; Cohn, D.R.; Lax, B.

    1982-01-01

    The MIT program to develop high power collective Thomson scattering diagnostics is presented. The D 2 O laser Thomson scattering system is operational on Alcator C tokamak. The major components include a 0.5 MW, 150 ns D 2 O laser, a heterodyne receiver mixer, a 25 MW, 381 μ DCOOD laser local oscillator and X-band I.F. electronics including a 32 channel multiplexer filter centered at 9.4 GHz with 80 MHz wide channels. Initial scattering measurement showed high level of stray D 2 O laser power. The spectrum was obtained by operating the Thomson scattering diagnostics with no plasma in the tokamak. An X-band notch filter was placed after the Schottky diode mixer to reject a 240 MHz band centered at 9.4 GHz. The stray light level was reduced by 16 to 20 db. Other sources of background noise such as strong non-thermal scattering and ECE did not appear to be a problem. A gas filled cell was placed on the Alcator C scattering system to reduce the level of stray light. Work is underway to improve the transverse mode quality of the laser and receiver to improve matching to the beam and viewing dumps. (Kato, T.)

  18. Design of practical alignment device in KSTAR Thomson diagnostic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. H., E-mail: jhlee@nfri.re.kr [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); University of Science and Technology (UST), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, S. H. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yamada, I. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki (Japan)

    2016-11-15

    The precise alignment of the laser path and collection optics in Thomson scattering measurements is essential for accurately determining electron temperature and density in tokamak experiments. For the last five years, during the development stage, the KSTAR tokamak’s Thomson diagnostic system has had alignment fibers installed in its optical collection modules, but these lacked a proper alignment detection system. In order to address these difficulties, an alignment verifying detection device between lasers and an object field of collection optics is developed. The alignment detection device utilizes two types of filters: a narrow laser band wavelength for laser, and a broad wavelength filter for Thomson scattering signal. Four such alignment detection devices have been successfully developed for the KSTAR Thomson scattering system in this year, and these will be tested in KSTAR experiments in 2016. In this paper, we present the newly developed alignment detection device for KSTAR’s Thomson scattering diagnostics.

  19. CW Laser radar for combustion diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malmqvist Elin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A CW-laser radar system developed for combustion diagnostics is described. The system is based on triangulation to attain range information. A portable system has been constructed and here we show some result from measurements in various flames, for example Rayleigh scattering thermometry and monitoring of particle distributions with high temporal and spatial resolution. The concept can equally well be based on pulsed lasers, allowing suppression of background emission through gated detection.

  20. Didactical And Ethics Demands For Automated Pedagogical Diagnostics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Kolgatin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Didactical demands for pedagogical diagnostics and its realisation specific characters under conditions of active using of ICT in instruction process of universities are analysed. The ethics questions of pedagogical diagnostics are considered. Ethic aspects, connected with using of the automated pedagogical diagnostic systems, are underlined.

  1. Structure analyses of swollen rubber-carbon black systems by contrast variation SANS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takenaka, Mikihito; Nishitsuji, Shotaro; Fujii, Sumiaki; Amino, Naoya; Ishikawa, Yasuhiro; Yamaguchi, Daisuke; Koizumi, Satoshi

    2010-01-01

    The polymer layers adsorbed on carbon black (CB) aggregates in rubber/CB systems have been investigated with contrast variation small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) method. Specimens were swollen by toluene/deuterated toluene solvents having various scattering length densities and their scattering intensities were measured with SANS. The contrast variation SANS for the specimens yielded partial scattering functions: the scattering function for polymer-polymer correlation S pp (q), the scattering function for CB- CB correlation S cc (q), and the scattering function for polymer- CB correlation S pc (q). The analyses of the partial scattering functions explored the existence of dense polymer layers around CB aggregates. Several characteristic parameters are estimated from the analyses, such as the size of aggregates, the thickness of layers, and the volume fractions of polymer of layers and matrix. (author)

  2. Virtual neutron scattering experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Julie Hougaard; Bruun, Jesper; May, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We describe how virtual experiments can be utilized in a learning design that prepares students for hands-on experiments at large-scale facilities. We illustrate the design by showing how virtual experiments are used at the Niels Bohr Institute in a master level course on neutron scattering....... In the last week of the course, students travel to a large-scale neutron scattering facility to perform real neutron scattering experiments. Through student interviews and survey answers, we argue, that the virtual training prepares the students to engage more fruitfully with experiments by letting them focus...... on physics and data rather than the overwhelming instrumentation. We argue that this is because they can transfer their virtual experimental experience to the real-life situation. However, we also find that learning is still situated in the sense that only knowledge of particular experiments is transferred...

  3. Electron scattering off nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gattone, A.O.

    1989-01-01

    Two recently developed aspects related to the scattering of electrons off nuclei are presented. On the one hand, a model is introduced which emphasizes the relativistic aspects of the problem in the impulse approximation, by demanding strict maintenance of the algebra of the Poincare group. On the other hand, the second model aims at a more sophisticated description of the nuclear response in the case of collective excitations. Basically, it utilizes the RPA formalism with a new development which enables a more careful treatment of the states in the continuum as is the case for the giant resonances. Applications of both models to the description of elastic scattering, inelastic scattering to discrete levels, giant resonances and the quasi-elastic region are discussed. (Author) [es

  4. Cold moderator scattering kernels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacFarlane, R.E.

    1989-01-01

    New thermal-scattering-law files in ENDF format have been developed for solid methane, liquid methane liquid ortho- and para-hydrogen, and liquid ortho- and para-deuterium using up-to-date models that include such effects as incoherent elastic scattering in the solid, diffusion and hindered vibration and rotations in the liquids, and spin correlations for the hydrogen and deuterium. These files were generated with the new LEAPR module of the NJOY Nuclear Data Processing System. Other modules of this system were used to produce cross sections for these moderators in the correct format for the continuous-energy Monte Carlo code (MCNP) being used for cold-moderator-design calculations at the Los Alamos Neutron Scattering Center (LANSCE). 20 refs., 14 figs

  5. Quantum Optical Multiple Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ott, Johan Raunkjær

    . In the first part we use a scattering-matrix formalism combined with results from random-matrix theory to investigate the interference of quantum optical states on a multiple scattering medium. We investigate a single realization of a scattering medium thereby showing that it is possible to create entangled...... states by interference of squeezed beams. Mixing photon states on the single realization also shows that quantum interference naturally arises by interfering quantum states. We further investigate the ensemble averaged transmission properties of the quantized light and see that the induced quantum...... interference survives even after disorder averaging. The quantum interference manifests itself through increased photon correlations. Furthermore, the theoretical description of a measurement procedure is presented. In this work we relate the noise power spectrum of the total transmitted or reflected light...

  6. MAGNETIC NEUTRON SCATTERING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ZALIZNYAK,I.A.; LEE,S.H.

    2004-07-30

    Much of our understanding of the atomic-scale magnetic structure and the dynamical properties of solids and liquids was gained from neutron-scattering studies. Elastic and inelastic neutron spectroscopy provided physicists with an unprecedented, detailed access to spin structures, magnetic-excitation spectra, soft-modes and critical dynamics at magnetic-phase transitions, which is unrivaled by other experimental techniques. Because the neutron has no electric charge, it is an ideal weakly interacting and highly penetrating probe of matter's inner structure and dynamics. Unlike techniques using photon electric fields or charged particles (e.g., electrons, muons) that significantly modify the local electronic environment, neutron spectroscopy allows determination of a material's intrinsic, unperturbed physical properties. The method is not sensitive to extraneous charges, electric fields, and the imperfection of surface layers. Because the neutron is a highly penetrating and non-destructive probe, neutron spectroscopy can probe the microscopic properties of bulk materials (not just their surface layers) and study samples embedded in complex environments, such as cryostats, magnets, and pressure cells, which are essential for understanding the physical origins of magnetic phenomena. Neutron scattering is arguably the most powerful and versatile experimental tool for studying the microscopic properties of the magnetic materials. The magnitude of the cross-section of the neutron magnetic scattering is similar to the cross-section of nuclear scattering by short-range nuclear forces, and is large enough to provide measurable scattering by the ordered magnetic structures and electron spin fluctuations. In the half-a-century or so that has passed since neutron beams with sufficient intensity for scattering applications became available with the advent of the nuclear reactors, they have became indispensable tools for studying a variety of important areas of modern

  7. Λ scattering equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Humberto

    2016-06-01

    The CHY representation of scattering amplitudes is based on integrals over the moduli space of a punctured sphere. We replace the punctured sphere by a double-cover version. The resulting scattering equations depend on a parameter Λ controlling the opening of a branch cut. The new representation of scattering amplitudes possesses an enhanced redundancy which can be used to fix, modulo branches, the location of four punctures while promoting Λ to a variable. Via residue theorems we show how CHY formulas break up into sums of products of smaller (off-shell) ones times a propagator. This leads to a powerful way of evaluating CHY integrals of generic rational functions, which we call the Λ algorithm.

  8. Electromagnetic scattering theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, J. F.; Farrell, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    Electromagnetic scattering theory is discussed with emphasis on the general stochastic variational principle (SVP) and its applications. The stochastic version of the Schwinger-type variational principle is presented, and explicit expressions for its integrals are considered. Results are summarized for scalar wave scattering from a classic rough-surface model and for vector wave scattering from a random dielectric-body model. Also considered are the selection of trial functions and the variational improvement of the Kirchhoff short-wave approximation appropriate to large size-parameters. Other applications of vector field theory discussed include a general vision theory and the analysis of hydromagnetism induced by ocean motion across the geomagnetic field. Levitational force-torque in the magnetic suspension of the disturbance compensation system (DISCOS), now deployed in NOVA satellites, is also analyzed using the developed theory.

  9. MOLECULAR DIAGNOSTICS OF YERSINIA RUCKERI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. Rud

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The analysis of nucleotide sequences of the 16S rDNA gene of virulent strains of Yersinia ruckeri and to develop the method of molecular diagnostic of enteric redmouth disease. Methodology. By the method of CLUSTALW algorithm in MEGA software version 6.0 the nucleotide sequences of the 16S rDNA gene of virulent strains of Yersinia ruckeri were analysed. For development of molecular diagnostic of Y. ruckeri the method of polymerase chain reaction (PCR was used. Primer selection was carried out in software VectorNTI11 and on-line-service BLAST. The PCR products were investigated by the methods of sequencing and nucleotide analysis. Findings. Based on PCR assay the method of molecular diagnostic of enteric redmouth disease agent, bacterium Y. ruckeri was developed. It was shown that specific oligonucleotide primers generated PCR products in size of 600 base pairs. PCR products were investigated by the sequencing that showed right targeting of primers in reaction. Originality. Among high-conservative gene of 16S rDNA of Y. ruckeri the fragment of DNA was determined to which the specific primers for rapid diagnostic of virulent strains were selected. Practical Value. Rapid diagnostic of yersiniosis will allow to identify an agent of this infectious disease, bacterium Y. ruckeri, and to provide the prophylactic or medical measures in the fish farming of Ukraine.

  10. Neutron scattering. Experiment manuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner (eds.)

    2010-07-01

    The following topics are dealt with: The thermal triple axis spectrometer PUMA, the high-resolution powder diffractometer SPODI, the hot single-crystal diffractometer HEiDi for structure analysis with neutrons, the backscattering spectrometer SPHERES, neutron polarization analysis with tht time-of-flight spectrometer DNS, the neutron spin-echo spectrometer J-NSE, small-angle neutron scattering with the KWS-1 and KWS-2 diffractometers, the very-small-angle neutron scattering diffractrometer with focusing mirror KWS-3, the resonance spin-echo spectrometer RESEDA, the reflectometer TREFF, the time-of-flight spectrometer TOFTOF. (HSI)

  11. Nuclear Compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christillin, P.

    1986-01-01

    The theory of nuclear Compton scattering is reformulated with explicit consideration of both virtual and real pionic degrees of freedom. The effects due to low-lying nuclear states, to seagull terms, to pion condensation and to the Δ dynamics in the nucleus and their interplay in the different energy regions are examined. It is shown that all corrections to the one-body terms, of diffractive behaviour determined by the nuclear form factor, have an effective two-body character. The possibility of using Compton scattering as a complementary source of information about nuclear dynamics is restressed. (author)

  12. Diffraction in nuclear scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojciechowski, H.

    1986-01-01

    The elastic scattering amplitudes for charged and neutral particles have been decomposed into diffractive and refractive parts by splitting the nuclear elastic scattering matrix elements into components responsible for these effects. It has been shown that the pure geometrical diffractive effect which carries no information about the nuclear interaction is always predominant at forward angle of elastic angular distributions. This fact suggests that for strongly absorbed particles only elastic cross section at backward angles, i.e. the refractive cross section, can give us basic information about the central nuclear potential. 12 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab. (author)

  13. Proton nuclear scattering radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saudinos, J.

    1982-04-01

    Nuclear scattering of protons allows to radiograph objects with specific properties: 3-dimensional radiography, different information as compared to X-ray technique, hydrogen radiography. Furthermore the nuclear scattering radiography (NSR) is a well adapted method to gating techniques allowing the radiography of fast periodic moving objects. Results obtained on phantoms, formalin fixed head and moving object are shown and discussed. The dose delivery is compatible with clinical use, but at the moment, the irradiation time is too long between 1 and 4 hours. Perspectives to make the radiograph faster and to get a practical method are discussed

  14. Slow neutron scattering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, R.M.

    1985-01-01

    Neutron scattering is a versatile technique that has been successfully applied to condensed-matter physics, biology, polymer science, chemistry, and materials science. The United States lost its leadership role in this field to Western Europe about 10 years ago. Recently, a modest investment in the United States in new facilities and a positive attitude on the part of the national laboratories toward outside users have resulted in a dramatic increase in the number of US scientists involved in neutron scattering research. Plans are being made for investments in new and improved facilities that could return the leadership role to the United States. 23 references, 4 figures, 3 tables

  15. Neutron scattering. Experiment manuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner

    2014-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: The thermal triple-axis spectrometer PUMA, the high-resolution powder diffractometer SPODI, the hot-single-crystal diffractometer HEiDi, the three-axis spectrometer PANDA, the backscattering spectrometer SPHERES, the DNS neutron-polarization analysis, the neutron spin-echo spectrometer J-NSE, small-angle neutron scattering at KWS-1 and KWS-2, a very-small-angle neutron scattering diffractometer with focusing mirror, the reflectometer TREFF, the time-of-flight spectrometer TOFTOF. (HSI)

  16. Electron-atom scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, I.E.

    1991-07-01

    The coupled-channels-optical method has been implemented using two different approximations to the optical potential. The half-on-shell optical potential involves drastic approximations for numerical feasibility but still gives a good semiquantitative description of the effect of uncoupled channels on electron scattering from hydrogen, helium and sodium. The distorted-wave optical potential makes no approximations other than the weak coupling approximation for uncoupled channels. In applications to hydrogen and sodium it shows promise of describing scattering phenomena excellently at all energies. 27 refs., 5 figs

  17. Neutron scattering. Experiment manuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner

    2010-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: The thermal triple axis spectrometer PUMA, the high-resolution powder diffractometer SPODI, the hot single-crystal diffractometer HEiDi for structure analysis with neutrons, the backscattering spectrometer SPHERES, neutron polarization analysis with tht time-of-flight spectrometer DNS, the neutron spin-echo spectrometer J-NSE, small-angle neutron scattering with the KWS-1 and KWS-2 diffractometers, the very-small-angle neutron scattering diffractrometer with focusing mirror KWS-3, the resonance spin-echo spectrometer RESEDA, the reflectometer TREFF, the time-of-flight spectrometer TOFTOF. (HSI)

  18. Diagnostic reasoning strategies and diagnostic success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coderre, S; Mandin, H; Harasym, P H; Fick, G H

    2003-08-01

    Cognitive psychology research supports the notion that experts use mental frameworks or "schemes", both to organize knowledge in memory and to solve clinical problems. The central purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between problem-solving strategies and the likelihood of diagnostic success. Think-aloud protocols were collected to determine the diagnostic reasoning used by experts and non-experts when attempting to diagnose clinical presentations in gastroenterology. Using logistic regression analysis, the study found that there is a relationship between diagnostic reasoning strategy and the likelihood of diagnostic success. Compared to hypothetico-deductive reasoning, the odds of diagnostic success were significantly greater when subjects used the diagnostic strategies of pattern recognition and scheme-inductive reasoning. Two other factors emerged as independent determinants of diagnostic success: expertise and clinical presentation. Not surprisingly, experts outperformed novices, while the content area of the clinical cases in each of the four clinical presentations demonstrated varying degrees of difficulty and thus diagnostic success. These findings have significant implications for medical educators. It supports the introduction of "schemes" as a means of enhancing memory organization and improving diagnostic success.

  19. Deep inelastic scattering and disquarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anselmino, M.

    1993-01-01

    The most comprehensive and detailed analyses of the existing data on the structure function F 2 (x, Q 2 ) of free nucleons, from the deep inelastic scattering (DIS) of charged leptons on hydrogen and deuterium targets, have proved beyond any doubt that higher twist, 1/Q 2 corrections are needed in order to obtain a perfect agreement between perturbative QCD predictions and the data. These higher twist corrections take into account two quark correlations inside the nucleon; it is then natural to try to model them in the quark-diquark model of the proton. In so doing all interactions between the two quarks inside the diquark, both perturbative and non perturbative, are supposed to be taken into account. (orig./HSI)

  20. Recent development of collective Thomson scattering for magnetically confined fusion plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stefan Kragh; Michelsen, Poul; Hansen, S.K.

    2017-01-01

    Here we review recent experimental developments within the field of collective Thomson scattering with a focus on the progress made on the devices TEXTOR and ASDEX Upgrade. We discuss recently discovered possibilities and limitations of the diagnostic technique. Diagnostic applications with respe...

  1. Markov chain solution of photon multiple scattering through turbid slabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ying; Northrop, William F; Li, Xuesong

    2016-11-14

    This work introduces a Markov Chain solution to model photon multiple scattering through turbid slabs via anisotropic scattering process, i.e., Mie scattering. Results show that the proposed Markov Chain model agree with commonly used Monte Carlo simulation for various mediums such as medium with non-uniform phase functions and absorbing medium. The proposed Markov Chain solution method successfully converts the complex multiple scattering problem with practical phase functions into a matrix form and solves transmitted/reflected photon angular distributions by matrix multiplications. Such characteristics would potentially allow practical inversions by matrix manipulation or stochastic algorithms where widely applied stochastic methods such as Monte Carlo simulations usually fail, and thus enable practical diagnostics reconstructions such as medical diagnosis, spray analysis, and atmosphere sciences.

  2. Analysing Stable Time Series

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adler, Robert

    1997-01-01

    We describe how to take a stable, ARMA, time series through the various stages of model identification, parameter estimation, and diagnostic checking, and accompany the discussion with a goodly number...

  3. Extreme scattering events towards two young pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, M.; Coles, W. A.; Ward, C. A.; Johnston, S.; Tuntsov, A. V.; Shannon, R. M.

    2018-03-01

    We have measured the scintillation properties of 151 young, energetic pulsars with the Parkes radio telescope and have identified two extreme scattering events (ESEs). Towards PSR J1057-5226, we discovered a 3 yr span of strengthened scattering during which the variability in flux density and the scintillation bandwidth decreased markedly. The transverse size of the scattering region is ˜23 au, and strong flux density enhancement before and after the ESE may arise from refractive focusing. Long observations reveal scintillation arcs characteristic of interference between rays scattered at large angles, and the clearest arcs appear during the ESE. The arcs suggest scattering by a screen 100-200 pc from the Earth, perhaps ionized filamentary structure associated with the boundary of the local bubble(s). Towards PSR J1740-3015, we observed a `double dip' in the measured flux density similar to ESEs observed towards compact extragalactic radio sources. The observed shape is consistent with that produced by a many-au scale diverging plasma lens with electron density ˜500 cm-3. The continuing ESE is at least 1500 d long, making it the longest detected event to date. These detections, with materially different observational signatures, indicate that well-calibrated pulsar monitoring is a keen tool for ESE detection and interstellar medium (ISM) diagnostics. They illustrate the strong role au-scale non-Kolmogorov density fluctuations and the local ISM structure play in such events and are key to understanding both their intrinsic physics and their impact on other phenomena, particularly fast radio bursts.

  4. Phonon scattering in graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, P.

    1976-04-01

    Effects on graphite thermal conductivities due to controlled alterations of the graphite structure by impurity addition, porosity, and neutron irradiation are shown to be consistent with the phonon-scattering formulation 1/l = Σ/sub i equals 1/sup/n/ 1/l/sub i/. Observed temperature effects on these doped and irradiated graphites are also explained by this mechanism

  5. High energy hadron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.C.

    1980-01-01

    High energy and small momentum transfer 2 'yields' 2 hadronic scattering processes are described in the physical framework of particle exchange. Particle production in high energy collisions is considered with emphasis on the features of inclusive reactions though with some remarks on exclusive processes. (U.K.)

  6. Critical scattering by bubbles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiedler-Ferrari, N.; Nussenzveig, H.M.

    1986-11-01

    We apply the complex angular momentum theory to the problem of the critical scattering of light by spherical cavities in the high frequency limit (permittivity greater than the external media) (e.g, air bubble in water) (M.W.O.) [pt

  7. Radiation scattering techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edmonds, E.A.

    1986-01-01

    Radiation backscattering techniques are useful when access to an item to be inspected is restricted to one side. These techniques are very sensitive to geometrical effects. Scattering processes and their application to the determination of voids, thickness measuring, well-logging and the use of x-ray fluorescence techniques are discussed. (U.K.)

  8. Scattering theory. 2. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, Harald [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik-Department

    2016-07-01

    This corrected and updated second edition of ''Scattering Theory'' presents a concise and modern coverage of the subject. In the present treatment, special attention is given to the role played by the long-range behaviour of the projectile-target interaction, and a theory is developed, which is well suited to describe near-threshold bound and continuum states in realistic binary systems such as diatomic molecules or molecular ions. It is motivated by the fact that experimental advances have shifted and broadened the scope of applications where concepts from scattering theory are used, e.g. to the field of ultracold atoms and molecules, which has been experiencing enormous growth in recent years, largely triggered by the successful realization of Bose-Einstein condensates of dilute atomic gases in 1995. The book contains sections on special topics such as near-threshold quantization, quantum reflection, Feshbach resonances and the quantum description of scattering in two dimensions. The level of abstraction is kept as low as at all possible and deeper questions related to the mathematical foundations of scattering theory are passed by. It should be understandable for anyone with a basic knowledge of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics. The book is intended for advanced students and researchers, and it is hoped that it will be useful for theorists and experimentalists alike.

  9. Lepton-nucleon scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Windmolders, R.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper the following topics are reviewed: 1. the structure functions measured in deep inelastic e-N, μ-N and ν-N scattering; 2. nuclear effects on the structure functions; 3. nuclear effects on the fragmentation functions; 4. the spin dependent structure functions and their interpretation in terms of nucleon constituents. (orig./HSI)

  10. Deeply Virtual Neutrino Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ales Psaker

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the extension of the deeply virtual Compton scattering process into the weak interaction sector. Standard electromagnetic Compton scattering provides a unique tool for studying hadrons, which is one of the most fascinating frontiers of modern science. In this process the relevant Compton scattering amplitude probes the hadron structure by means of two quark electromagnetic currents. We argue that replacing one of the currents with the weak interaction current can promise a new insight. The paper is organized as follows. In Sec. II we briefly discuss the features of the handbag factorization scheme. We introduce a new set of phenomenological functions, known as generalized parton distributions (GPDs) [1-6], and discuss some of their basic properties in Sec. III. An application of the GPD formalism to the neutrino-induced deeply virtual Compton scattering in the kinematics relevant to future high-intensity neutrino experiments is given in Sec. IV. The cross section results are presented in Sec. V. Finally, in Sec. VI we draw some conclusions and discuss future prospects. Some of the formal results in this paper have appeared in preliminary reports in Refs. [7] and [8], whereas a comprehensive analysis of the weak neutral and weak charged current DVCS reactions in collaboration with W. Melnitchouk and A. Radyushkin has been presented in Ref. [9

  11. Symposium on neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmann, M.S.; Saenger, W.; Hildebrandt, G.; Dachs, H.

    1984-01-01

    Extended abstracts of the named symposium are presented. The first part of this report contains the abstracts of the lectures, the second those of the posters. Topics discussed on the symposium include neutron diffraction and neutron scattering studies in magnetism, solid state chemistry and physics, materials research. Some papers discussing instruments and methods are included too. (GSCH)

  12. Inversion assuming weak scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xenaki, Angeliki; Gerstoft, Peter; Mosegaard, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    due to the complex nature of the field. A method based on linear inversion is employed to infer information about the statistical properties of the scattering field from the obtained cross-spectral matrix. A synthetic example based on an active high-frequency sonar demonstrates that the proposed...

  13. Atom electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santoso, B.

    1976-01-01

    Green Lippmann-Schwinger functions operator representations, derivation of perturbation method using Green function and atom electron scattering, are discussed. It is concluded that by using complex coordinate places where resonances occur, can be accurately identified. The resonance can be processed further for practical purposes, for example for the separation of atom. (RUW)

  14. Electron Scattering on deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platchkov, S.

    1987-01-01

    Selected electron scattering experiments on the deuteron system are discussed. The main advantages of the electromagnetic probe are recalled. The deuteron A(q 2 ) structure function is analyzed and found to be very sensitive to the neutron electric form factor. Electrodisintegration of the deuteron near threshold is presented as evidence for the importance of meson exchange currents in nuclei [fr

  15. Parity violating electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKeown, R.D.

    1990-01-01

    Previous measurements of parity violation in electron scattering are reviewed with particular emphasis on experimental techniques. Significant progress in the attainment of higher precision is evident in these efforts. These pioneering experiments provide a basis for consideration of a future program of such measurements. In this paper some future plans and possibilities in this field are discussed

  16. Heavy ion elastic scatterings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mermaz, M.C.

    1984-01-01

    Diffraction and refraction play an important role in particle elastic scattering. The optical model treats correctly and simultaneously both phenomena but without disentangling them. Semi-classical discussions in terms of trajectories emphasize the refractive aspect due to the real part of the optical potential. The separation due to to R.C. Fuller of the quantal cross section into two components coming from opposite side of the target nucleus allows to understand better the refractive phenomenon and the origin of the observed oscillations in the elastic scattering angular distributions. We shall see that the real part of the potential is responsible of a Coulomb and a nuclear rainbow which allows to determine better the nuclear potential in the interior region near the nuclear surface since the volume absorption eliminates any effect of the real part of the potential for the internal partial scattering waves. Resonance phenomena seen in heavy ion scattering will be discussed in terms of optical model potential and Regge pole analysis. Compound nucleus resonances or quasi-molecular states can be indeed the more correct and fundamental alternative

  17. Multienergy anomalous diffuse scattering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopecký, Miloš; Fábry, Jan; Kub, Jiří; Lausi, A.; Busetto, E.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 100, č. 19 (2008), 195504/1-195504/4 ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100100529 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : diffuse scattering * x-rays * structure determination Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 7.180, year: 2008

  18. Correlation in atomic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    Correlation due to the Coulomb interactions between electrons in many-electron targets colliding with charged particles is formulated, and various approximate probability amplitudes are evaluated. In the limit that the electron-electron, 1/r/sub i//sub j/, correlation interactions are ignored or approximated by central potentials, the independent-electron approximation is obtained. Two types of correlations, or corrections to the independent-electron approximation due to 1/r/sub i//sub j/ terms, are identified: namely, static and scattering correlation. Static correlation is that contained in the asymptotic, e.g., bound-state, wave functions. Scattering correlation, arising from correlation in the scattering operator, is new and is considered in some detail. Expressions for a scattering correlation amplitude, static correlation or rearrangement amplitude, and independent-electron or direct amplitude are derived at high collision velocity and compared. At high velocities the direct and rearrangement amplitudes dominate. At very high velocities, ν, the rearrangement amplitude falls off less rapidly with ν than the direct amplitude which, however, is dominant as electron-electron correlation tends to zero. Comparisons with experimental observations are discussed

  19. Superradiative scattering magnons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrivastava, K.N.

    1980-01-01

    A magnon-photon interaction for the magnetic vector of the electromagnetic wave perpendicular to the direction of magnetization in a ferromagnet is constructed. The magnon part of the interaction is reduced with the use of Bogoliubov transformation. The resulting magnon-photon interaction is found to contain several interesting new radiation effects. The self energy of the magnon is calculated and life times arising from the radiation scattering are predicted. The magnon frequency shift due to the radiation field is found. One of the terms arising from the one-magnon one-photon scattering gives a line width in reasonable agreement with the experimentally measured value of ferromagnetic resonance line width in yttrium iron garnet. Surface magnon scattering is indicated and the contribution of this type of scattering to the radiative line width is discussed. The problem of magnetic superradiance is indicated and it is shown that in anisotropic ferromagnets the emission is proportional to the sqare of the number of magnons and the divergence is considerably minimized. Accordingly the magnetic superradiance emerges as a hyperradiance with much more radiation intensity than in the case of disordered atomic superradiance. (author)

  20. Inelastic magnon scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert de Mello Koch

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We study the worldsheet S-matrix of a string attached to a D-brane in AdS5×S5. The D-brane is either a giant graviton or a dual giant graviton. In the gauge theory, the operators we consider belong to the su(2|3 sector of the theory. Magnon excitations of open strings can exhibit both elastic (when magnons in the bulk of the string scatter and inelastic (when magnons at the endpoint of an open string participate scattering. Both of these S-matrices are determined (up to an overall phase by the su(2|22 global symmetry of the theory. In this note we study the S-matrix for inelastic scattering. We show that it exhibits poles corresponding to boundstates of bulk and boundary magnons. A crossing equation is derived for the overall phase. It reproduces the crossing equation for maximal giant gravitons, in the appropriate limit. Finally, scattering in the su(2 sector is computed to two loops. This two loop result, which determines the overall phase to two loops, will be useful when a unique solution to the crossing equation is to be selected.

  1. Fusion plasma diagnostics with mm-waves an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Hartfuss, Hans-Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Filling a gap in the literature, this introduction to the topic covers the physics of the standard microwave diagnostics established on modern fusion experiments, and the necessary technological background from the field of microwave engineering. Written by well-known mm-wave diagnosticians in the field of fusion physics, the textbook includes such major diagnostic techniques as electron cyclotron emission, interferometry, reflectometry, polarimetry, and scattering.

  2. Development of gyrotrons for plasma diagnostics (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woskoboinikow, P.

    1986-01-01

    Recent advances in high-frequency (>100 GHz) gyrotron technology are reviewed and application to millimeter/submillimeter wave plasma diagnostics is discussed. Gyrotrons have useful capabilities of high-power (>1 kW), long pulse/cw operation, narrow linewidth (<100 kHz), and good spatial mode quality with efficient (--90%) mode converters. These capabilities could be used to significantly improve collective Thomson scattering diagnostics for the study of instabilities, plasma waves, turbulence, and thermal ion fluctuations. Imaging applications with many detector arrays of plasma density, field direction, and microinstabilities may be possible with gyrotons. In a high-field compact ignition tokamak experiment a possible millimeter wave diagnostics window could be exploited by a gyrotron to measure a number of parameters, including alpha particle density and velocity distribution

  3. Small angle neutron scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cousin Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS is a technique that enables to probe the 3-D structure of materials on a typical size range lying from ∼ 1 nm up to ∼ a few 100 nm, the obtained information being statistically averaged on a sample whose volume is ∼ 1 cm3. This very rich technique enables to make a full structural characterization of a given object of nanometric dimensions (radius of gyration, shape, volume or mass, fractal dimension, specific area… through the determination of the form factor as well as the determination of the way objects are organized within in a continuous media, and therefore to describe interactions between them, through the determination of the structure factor. The specific properties of neutrons (possibility of tuning the scattering intensity by using the isotopic substitution, sensitivity to magnetism, negligible absorption, low energy of the incident neutrons make it particularly interesting in the fields of soft matter, biophysics, magnetic materials and metallurgy. In particular, the contrast variation methods allow to extract some informations that cannot be obtained by any other experimental techniques. This course is divided in two parts. The first one is devoted to the description of the principle of SANS: basics (formalism, coherent scattering/incoherent scattering, notion of elementary scatterer, form factor analysis (I(q→0, Guinier regime, intermediate regime, Porod regime, polydisperse system, structure factor analysis (2nd Virial coefficient, integral equations, characterization of aggregates, and contrast variation methods (how to create contrast in an homogeneous system, matching in ternary systems, extrapolation to zero concentration, Zero Averaged Contrast. It is illustrated by some representative examples. The second one describes the experimental aspects of SANS to guide user in its future experiments: description of SANS spectrometer, resolution of the spectrometer, optimization of

  4. Light scattering reviews 8 radiative transfer and light scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Kokhanovsky, Alexander A

    2013-01-01

    Light scattering review (vol 8) is aimed at the presentation of recent advances in radiative transfer and light scattering optics. The topics to be covered include: scattering of light by irregularly shaped particles suspended in atmosphere (dust, ice crystals), light scattering by particles much larger as compared the wavelength of incident radiation, atmospheric radiative forcing, astrophysical radiative transfer, radiative transfer and optical imaging in biological media, radiative transfer of polarized light, numerical aspects of radiative transfer.

  5. Thermal-neutron multiple scattering: critical double scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, W.A.

    1976-01-01

    A quantum mechanical formulation for multiple scattering of thermal-neutrons from macroscopic targets is presented and applied to single and double scattering. Critical nuclear scattering from liquids and critical magnetic scattering from ferromagnets are treated in detail in the quasielastic approximation for target systems slightly above their critical points. Numerical estimates are made of the double scattering contribution to the critical magnetic cross section using relevant parameters from actual experiments performed on various ferromagnets. The effect is to alter the usual Lorentzian line shape dependence on neutron wave vector transfer. Comparison with corresponding deviations in line shape resulting from the use of Fisher's modified form of the Ornstein-Zernike spin correlations within the framework of single scattering theory leads to values for the critical exponent eta of the modified correlations which reproduce the effect of double scattering. In addition, it is shown that by restricting the range of applicability of the multiple scattering theory from the outset to critical scattering, Glauber's high energy approximation can be used to provide a much simpler and more powerful description of multiple scattering effects. When sufficiently close to the critical point, it provides a closed form expression for the differential cross section which includes all orders of scattering and has the same form as the single scattering cross section with a modified exponent for the wave vector transfer

  6. FDTD scattered field formulation for scatterers in stratified dispersive media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olkkonen, Juuso

    2010-03-01

    We introduce a simple scattered field (SF) technique that enables finite difference time domain (FDTD) modeling of light scattering from dispersive objects residing in stratified dispersive media. The introduced SF technique is verified against the total field scattered field (TFSF) technique. As an application example, we study surface plasmon polariton enhanced light transmission through a 100 nm wide slit in a silver film.

  7. Topical Conference on High Temperature Plasma Diagnostics, 7th, Napa, CA, Mar. 13-17, 1988, Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luhmann, N.C. Jr.; Peebles, W.A.

    1988-01-01

    Various papers concerning scientific instruments are presented. The general topics addressed include: laser scattering and optical diagnostics, collective scattering and interferometry, millimeter wave and current profile measurements, particle-based diagnostics, data acquisition and analysis, X-ray diagnostics, and particle- and photon-based diagnostics. Individual subjects discussed include: atomic hydrogen density measurements in an ion source plasma using VUV absorption spectrometer, resonant diagnostics of laser-produced Ba plasmas, radiative and diffusional effects to the population densities of the excited-state atoms in hydrogen plasma, and Watt-level millimeter-wave monolithic diode-grid frequency multipliers

  8. Coupling between scattering channels with SUSY transformations for equal thresholds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pupasov, Andrey M; Samsonov, Boris F; Sparenberg, Jean-Marc; Baye, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Supersymmetric (SUSY) transformations of the multichannel Schroedinger equation with equal thresholds and arbitrary partial waves in all channels are studied. The structures of the transformation function and the superpotential are analysed. Relations between Jost and scattering matrices of superpartner potentials are obtained. In particular, we show that a special type of SUSY transformation allows us to introduce a coupling between scattering channels starting from a potential with an uncoupled scattering matrix. The possibility for this coupling to be trivial is discussed. We show that the transformation introduces bound and virtual states with a definite degeneracy at the factorization energy. A detailed study of the potential and scattering matrices is given for the 2 x 2 case. The possibility of inverting coupled-channel scattering data by such a SUSY transformation is demonstrated by several examples (s-s, s-p and s-d partial waves)

  9. Electroweak physics and electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henley, E.M.; Hwang, W.Y.P.

    1988-01-01

    The electroweak theory is developed and applied to electron scattering from nucleons and light nuclei. It is shown that these scatterings can be used to test the standard theory and probe structure effects. 33 refs., 5 figs

  10. Regge poles and alpha scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceuleneer, R.

    1974-01-01

    The direct Regge pole model as a means of describing resonances in elastic particle scattering has been used for the analysis of the so-called ''anormalous large angle scattering'' of alpha particles by spinless nuclei. (Z.M.)

  11. Electromagnetic scattering from random media

    CERN Document Server

    Field, Timothy R

    2009-01-01

    - ;The book develops the dynamical theory of scattering from random media from first principles. Its key findings are to characterize the time evolution of the scattered field in terms of stochastic differential equations, and to illustrate this framework

  12. Procedures in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, T.; Hare, W.S.C.; Thomson, K.; Tess, B.

    1989-01-01

    This book outlines the various procedures necessary for the successful practice of diagnostic radiology. Topics covered are: general principles, imaging of the urinary and gastrointestinal tracts, vascular radiology, arthrography, and miscellaneous diagnostic radiologic procedures

  13. Diagnostic Algorithm Benchmarking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poll, Scott

    2011-01-01

    A poster for the NASA Aviation Safety Program Annual Technical Meeting. It describes empirical benchmarking on diagnostic algorithms using data from the ADAPT Electrical Power System testbed and a diagnostic software framework.

  14. NIF total neutron yield diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, Gary W.; Ruiz, Carlos L.

    2001-01-01

    We have designed a total neutron yield diagnostic for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) which is based on the activation of In and Cu samples. The particular approach that we have chosen is one in which we calibrate the entire counting system and which we call the ''F factor'' method. In this method, In and/or Cu samples are exposed to known sources of DD and DT neutrons. The activated samples are then counted with an appropriate system: a high purity Ge detector for In and a NaI coincidence system for Cu. We can then calculate a calibration factor, which relates measured activity to total neutron yield. The advantage of this approach is that specific knowledge of such quantities as cross sections and detector efficiencies is not needed. Unless the actual scattering environment of the NIF can be mocked up in the calibration experiment, the F factor will have to be modified using the results of a numerical simulation of the NIF scattering environment. In this article, the calibration factor methodology will be discussed and experimental results for the calibration factors will be presented. Total NIF neutron yields of 10 9 --10 19 can be measured with this method assuming a 50 cm stand-off distance can be employed for the lower yields

  15. CONFERENCE: Elastic and diffractive scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Alan

    1989-09-15

    Elastic scattering, when particles appear to 'bounce' off each other, and the related phenomena of diffractive scattering are currently less fashionable than the study of hard scattering processes. However this could change rapidly if unexpected results from the UA4 experiment at the CERN Collider are confirmed and their implications tested. These questions were highlighted at the third 'Blois Workshop' on Elastic and Diffractive Scattering, held early in May on the Evanston campus of Northwestern University, near Chicago.

  16. Theoretical treatments of stimulated Raman scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uehara, Youichi; Sasaki, Wataru

    1981-01-01

    Stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) is a phenomenon, in which the coherent light (Stokes emission) with a shifted wavelength specific to a kind of material mixes in scattered monochromatic light, when the intense monochromatic light (laser light) is scattered by projecting it to the above material. According to the theoretical researches together with the experiments on SRS, it is qualitatively understood to be the phenomenon, in which laser energy is transferred to Stokes emission by the interaction through the optical non-linearity of a material between incident laser beam and the Stokes emission generated by spontaneous emission. The authors have been interested in the application of SRS to plasma diagnostics, and have studied it theoretically for the purpose of investigating its feasibility. Here, the theories reported so far are introduced arranging them. First, the derivation of SRS fundamental equations is explained, though it is limited to the SRS theory for ultrashort pulse laser (TSRS), and Raman media were assumed to be gas or liquid phase. Next, the solution of the equations and the basic properties of TSRS are described. Then, the extension of the TSRS to the cases when the several assumptions, which were set in the solution of the equations, were removed is explained. The extension includes the cases for phase fluctuation, dispersion, existence of anti-Stokes emission, and the presence of laser beam attenuation. Finally, the SRS by the broad band laser is introduced. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  17. Electron scattering on molecular hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wingerden, B. van.

    1980-01-01

    The author considers scattering phenomena which occur when a beam of electrons interacts with a molecular hydrogen gas of low density. Depending on the energy loss of the scattered electrons one can distinguish elastic scattering, excitation and (auto)ionization of the H 2 -molecule. The latter processes may also lead to dissociation. These processes are investigated in four experiments in increasing detail. (Auth.)

  18. Scattering Of Nonplanar Acoustic Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillman, Judith M.; Farassat, F.; Myers, M. K.

    1995-01-01

    Report presents theoretical study of scattering of nonplanar acoustic waves by rigid bodies. Study performed as part of effort to develop means of predicting scattering, from aircraft fuselages, of noise made by rotating blades. Basic approach was to model acoustic scattering by use of boundary integral equation to solve equation by the Galerkin method.

  19. Electron scattering for exotic nuclei

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-11-04

    Nov 4, 2014 ... A brand-new electron scattering facility, the SCRIT Electron Scattering Facility, will soon start its operation at RIKEN RI Beam Factory, Japan. This is the world's first electron scattering facility dedicated to the structure studies of short-lived nuclei. The goal of this facility is to determine the charge density ...

  20. Scattering theory and chemical reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuppermann, A.

    1988-01-01

    In this course, scattering theory and chemical reactions are presented including scattering of one particle by a potential, n-particle systems, colinear triatomic molecules and the study of reactive scattering for 3-dimensional triatomic systems. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  1. Internal magnetic turbulence measurement in plasma by cross polarization scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, X L; Colas, L; Paume, M; Chareau, J M; Laurent, L; Devynck, P; Gresillon, D

    1994-09-01

    For the first time, the internal magnetic turbulence is measured by a new cross polarization scattering diagnostic in Tore Supra tokamak. The principle of this experiment is presented. It is based on the polarization change or mode conversion of the e.m. wave scattering by magnetic fluctuations. The role of different physical processes on the signal formation are investigated. From the Observation, a rough estimate for the relative magnetic fluctuations of about 10{sup -4} is obtained. A strong correlation of the measured signal with additional heating is observed. (author). 14 refs., 4 figs.

  2. Veterinary Molecular Diagnostics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roest, H.I.J.; Engelsma, M.Y.; Weesendorp, E.; Bossers, A.; Elbers, A.R.W.

    2017-01-01

    In veterinary molecular diagnostics, samples originating from animals are tested. Developments in the farm animals sector and in our societal attitude towards pet animals have resulted in an increased demand for fast and reliable diagnostic techniques. Molecular diagnostics perfectly matches this

  3. Deep inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakharov, V.I.

    1977-01-01

    The present status of the quark-parton-gluon picture of deep inelastic scattering is reviewed. The general framework is mostly theoretical and covers investigations since 1970. Predictions of the parton model and of the asymptotically free field theories are compared with experimental data available. The valence quark approximation is concluded to be valid in most cases, but fails to account for the data on the total momentum transfer. On the basis of gluon corrections introduced to the parton model certain predictions concerning both the deep inelastic structure functions and form factors are made. The contributions of gluon exchanges and gluon bremsstrahlung are highlighted. Asymptotic freedom is concluded to be very attractive and provide qualitative explanation to some experimental observations (scaling violations, breaking of the Drell-Yan-West type relations). Lepton-nuclear scattering is pointed out to be helpful in probing the nature of nuclear forces and studying the space-time picture of the parton model

  4. Semiclassical scattering theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Salvo, A.

    1985-01-01

    It is intended to write the semiclassical scattering amplitude as a sum of terms, each of them being associated to trajectory. First of all the classical equations of motion are studied, considering both the analytical (real and complex) solutions and a certain type of singular solutions, which behave similary to the difracted rays in optics; in particular, in the case of a central nuclear potential, classical effects like rainbow and orbiting and also wave effects like diffraction and direct reflection are singled out. Successively, considering the Debye expansion of the scattering amplitude relative to a central nuclear potential, and evaluating asymptotically each term by means of the saddle point technique, the decay exponents and difraction coefficients relative to such a potential are determined

  5. Stationary scattering theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combes, J.M.

    1980-10-01

    A complementary approach to the time dependent scattering theory for one-body Schroedinger operators is presented. The stationary theory is concerned with objects of quantum theory like scattering waves and amplitudes. In the more recent abstract stationary theory some generalized form of the Lippman-Schwinger equation plays the basic role. Solving this equation leads to a linear map between generalized eigenfunctions of the perturbed and unperturbed operators. This map is the section at fixed energy of the wave-operator from the time dependent theory. Although the radiation condition does not appears explicitely in this formulation it can be shown to hold a posteriori in a variety of situations thus restoring the link with physical theories

  6. Pion nucleus scattering lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, W.T.; Levinson, C.A.; Banerjee, M.K.

    1971-09-01

    Soft pion theory and the Fubini-Furlan mass dispersion relations have been used to analyze the pion nucleon scattering lengths and obtain a value for the sigma commutator term. With this value and using the same principles, scattering lengths have been predicted for nuclei with mass number ranging from 6 to 23. Agreement with experiment is very good. For those who believe in the Gell-Mann-Levy sigma model, the evaluation of the commutator yields the value 0.26(m/sub σ//m/sub π/) 2 for the sigma nucleon coupling constant. The large dispersive corrections for the isosymmetric case implies that the basic idea behind many of the soft pion calculations, namely, slow variation of matrix elements from the soft pion limit to the physical pion mass, is not correct. 11 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  7. Magnetic diffuse scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cable, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    The diffuse scattering of neutrons from magnetic materials provides unique and important information regarding the spatial correlations of the atoms and the spins. Such measurements have been extensively applied to magnetically ordered systems, such as the ferromagnetic binary alloys, for which the observed correlations describe the magnetic moment fluctuations associated with local environment effects. With the advent of polarization analysis, these techniques are increasingly being applied to study disordered paramagnetic systems such as the spin-glasses and the diluted magnetic semiconductors. The spin-pair correlations obtained are essential in understanding the exchange interactions of such systems. In this paper, we describe recent neutron diffuse scattering results on the atom-pair and spin-pair correlations in some of these disordered magnetic systems. 56 refs

  8. Scattering of charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrachina, R.O.; Macek, J.H.

    1989-01-01

    Different methods of avoiding the known difficulties of the Coulomb potential scattering theory are reviewed. Mulherin and Zinnes' [J. Math. Phys. 11, 1402 (1976)] ''distorted'' free waves and van Haeringen's [J. Math. Phys. 17, 995 (1976)] Coulomb asymptotic states are considered. The equivalence of both approaches on the energy shell is shown. Actually the possibility of deriving the first method within van Haeringen's formalism by means of a distorted wave procedure is demonstrated

  9. Molecular-beam scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vernon, M.F.

    1983-07-01

    The molecular-beam technique has been used in three different experimental arrangements to study a wide range of inter-atomic and molecular forces. Chapter 1 reports results of a low-energy (0.2 kcal/mole) elastic-scattering study of the He-Ar pair potential. The purpose of the study was to accurately characterize the shape of the potential in the well region, by scattering slow He atoms produced by expanding a mixture of He in N 2 from a cooled nozzle. Chapter 2 contains measurements of the vibrational predissociation spectra and product translational energy for clusters of water, benzene, and ammonia. The experiments show that most of the product energy remains in the internal molecular motions. Chapter 3 presents measurements of the reaction Na + HCl → NaCl + H at collision energies of 5.38 and 19.4 kcal/mole. This is the first study to resolve both scattering angle and velocity for the reaction of a short lived (16 nsec) electronic excited state. Descriptions are given of computer programs written to analyze molecular-beam expansions to extract information characterizing their velocity distributions, and to calculate accurate laboratory elastic-scattering differential cross sections accounting for the finite apparatus resolution. Experimental results which attempted to determine the efficiency of optically pumping the Li(2 2 P/sub 3/2/) and Na(3 2 P/sub 3/2/) excited states are given. A simple three-level model for predicting the steady-state fraction of atoms in the excited state is included

  10. Analytic nuclear scattering theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Marzio, F.; University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC

    1999-01-01

    A wide range of nuclear reactions are examined in an analytical version of the usual distorted wave Born approximation. This new approach provides either semi analytic or fully analytic descriptions of the nuclear scattering processes. The resulting computational simplifications, when used within the limits of validity, allow very detailed tests of both nuclear interaction models as well as large basis models of nuclear structure to be performed

  11. Polarimetric neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasset, F.

    2001-01-01

    Polarimetric Neutron Scattering in introduced, both by, explaining methodological issues and the corresponding instrumental developments. After a short overview of neutron spin polarization and the neutron polarization 3d-vector a pictorial approach of the microscopic theory is used to show how a polarized beam interacts with lattice and magnetic Fourier components in a crystal. Examples are given of using Spherical Neutron Polarimetry (SNP) and the corresponding Cryopad polarimeter for the investigation of non-collinear magnetic structures. (R.P.)

  12. Means on scattered compacta

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Banakh, T.; Bonnet, R.; Kubiś, Wieslaw

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 1 (2014), s. 5-10 ISSN 2299-3231 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP201/12/0290 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : scattered compact space * mean operation Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/taa.2014.2.issue-1/taa-2014-0002/taa-2014-0002.xml

  13. On the thermal scattering law data for reactor lattice calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trkov, A.; Mattes, M.

    2004-01-01

    Thermal scattering law data for hydrogen bound in water, hydrogen bound in zirconium hydride and deuterium bound in heavy water have been re-evaluated. The influence of the thermal scattering law data on critical lattices has been studied with detailed Monte Carlo calculations and a summary of results is presented for a numerical benchmark and for the TRIGA reactor benchmark. Systematics for a large sequence of benchmarks analysed with the WIMS-D lattice code are also presented. (author)

  14. Green functions and scattering amplitudes in many-dimensional space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabre de la Ripelle, M.

    1993-01-01

    Methods for solving scattering are studied in many-dimensional space. Green function and scattering amplitudes are given in terms of the required asymptotic behaviour of the wave function. The Born approximation and the optical theorem are derived in many-dimensional space. Phase-shift analyses are performed for hypercentral potentials and for non-hypercentral potentials by use of the hyperspherical adiabatic approximation. (author)

  15. Progress in diagnostics of the COMPASS tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinzettl, V.; Adamek, J.; Berta, M.; Bilkova, P.; Bogar, O.; Bohm, P.; Cavalier, J.; Dejarnac, R.; Dimitrova, M.; Ficker, O.; Fridrich, D.; Grover, O.; Hacek, P.; Havlicek, J.; Havranek, A.; Horacek, J.; Hron, M.; Imrisek, M.; Komm, M.; Kovarik, K.; Krbec, J.; Markovic, T.; Matveeva, E.; Mitosinkova, K.; Mlynar, J.; Naydenkova, D.; Panek, R.; Paprok, R.; Peterka, M.; Podolnik, A.; Seidl, J.; Sos, M.; Stockel, J.; Tomes, M.; Varavin, M.; Varju, J.; Vlainic, M.; Vondracek, P.; Zajac, J.; Zacek, F.; Stano, M.; Anda, G.; Dunai, D.; Krizsanoczi, T.; Refy, D.; Zoletnik, S.; Silva, A.; Gomes, R.; Pereira, T.; Popov, Tsv.; Sarychev, D.; Ermak, G. P.; Zebrowski, J.; Jakubowski, M.; Rabinski, M.; Malinowski, K.; Nanobashvili, S.; Spolaore, M.; Vianello, N.; Gauthier, E.; Gunn, J. P.; Devitre, A.

    2017-12-01

    The COMPASS tokamak at IPP Prague is a small-size device with an ITER-relevant plasma geometry and operating in both the Ohmic as well as neutral beam assisted H-modes since 2012. A basic set of diagnostics installed at the beginning of the COMPASS operation has been gradually broadened in type of diagnostics, extended in number of detectors and collected channels and improved by an increased data acquisition speed. In recent years, a significant progress in diagnostic development has been motivated by the improved COMPASS plasma performance and broadening of its scientific programme (L-H transition and pedestal scaling studies, magnetic perturbations, runaway electron control and mitigation, plasma-surface interaction and corresponding heat fluxes, Alfvenic and edge localized mode observations, disruptions, etc.). In this contribution, we describe major upgrades of a broad spectrum of the COMPASS diagnostics and discuss their potential for physical studies. In particular, scrape-off layer plasma diagnostics will be represented by a new concept for microsecond electron temperature and heat flux measurements - we introduce a new set of divertor Langmuir and ball-pen probe arrays, newly constructed probe heads for reciprocating manipulators as well as several types of standalone probes. Among optical tools, an upgraded high-resolution edge Thomson scattering diagnostic for pedestal studies and a set of new visible light and infrared (plasma-surface interaction investigations) cameras will be described. Particle and beam diagnostics will be covered by a neutral particle analyzer, diagnostics on a lithium beam, Cherenkov detectors (for a direct detection of runaway electrons) and neutron detectors. We also present new modifications of the microwave reflectometer for fast edge density profile measurements.

  16. Neutron scattering in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knott, R.B.

    1994-01-01

    Neutron scattering techniques have been part of the Australian scientific research community for the past three decades. The High Flux Australian Reactor (HIFAR) is a multi-use facility of modest performance that provides the only neutron source in the country suitable for neutron scattering. The limitations of HIFAR have been recognized and recently a Government initiated inquiry sought to evaluate the future needs of a neutron source. In essence, the inquiry suggested that a delay of several years would enable a number of key issues to be resolved, and therefore a more appropriate decision made. In the meantime, use of the present source is being optimized, and where necessary research is being undertaken at major overseas neutron facilities either on a formal or informal basis. Australia has, at present, a formal agreement with the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (UK) for access to the spallation source ISIS. Various aspects of neutron scattering have been implemented on HIFAR, including investigations of the structure of biological relevant molecules. One aspect of these investigations will be presented. Preliminary results from a study of the interaction of the immunosuppressant drug, cyclosporin-A, with reconstituted membranes suggest that the hydrophobic drug interdigitated with lipid chains

  17. Neutron scattering in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knott, R.B. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Menai (Australia)

    1994-12-31

    Neutron scattering techniques have been part of the Australian scientific research community for the past three decades. The High Flux Australian Reactor (HIFAR) is a multi-use facility of modest performance that provides the only neutron source in the country suitable for neutron scattering. The limitations of HIFAR have been recognized and recently a Government initiated inquiry sought to evaluate the future needs of a neutron source. In essence, the inquiry suggested that a delay of several years would enable a number of key issues to be resolved, and therefore a more appropriate decision made. In the meantime, use of the present source is being optimized, and where necessary research is being undertaken at major overseas neutron facilities either on a formal or informal basis. Australia has, at present, a formal agreement with the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (UK) for access to the spallation source ISIS. Various aspects of neutron scattering have been implemented on HIFAR, including investigations of the structure of biological relevant molecules. One aspect of these investigations will be presented. Preliminary results from a study of the interaction of the immunosuppressant drug, cyclosporin-A, with reconstituted membranes suggest that the hydrophobic drug interdigitated with lipid chains.

  18. Basic scattering theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queen, N.M.

    1978-01-01

    This series of lectures on basic scattering theory were given as part of a course for postgraduate high energy physicists and were designed to acquaint the student with some of the basic language and formalism used for the phenomenological description of nuclear reactions and decay processes used for the study of elementary particle interactions. Well established and model independent aspects of scattering theory, which are the basis of S-matrix theory, are considered. The subject is considered under the following headings; the S-matrix, cross sections and decay rates, phase space, relativistic kinematics, the Mandelstam variables, the flux factor, two-body phase space, Dalitz plots, other kinematic plots, two-particle reactions, unitarity, the partial-wave expansion, resonances (single-channel case), multi-channel resonances, analyticity and crossing, dispersion relations, the one-particle exchange model, the density matrix, mathematical properties of the density matrix, the density matrix in scattering processes, the density matrix in decay processes, and the helicity formalism. Some exercises for the students are included. (U.K.)

  19. pp-elastic scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aprile, E; Cantale, G; Degli-Agosti, S; Hausammann, R; Heer, E; Hess, R; Lechanoine-LeLuc, C; Leo, W; Morenzoni, S; Onel, Y [Geneva Univ. (Switzerland). Dept. de Physique Nucleaire et Corpusculaire

    1983-01-01

    The aim of the elastic pp experimental program at SIN was to measure enough spin dependent parameters in order to do a direct experimental reconstruction of the elastic scattering amplitudes at a few energies between 400 and 600 MeV and at several angles between 38/sup 0/ cm and 90/sup 0/ cm. This reconstruction was not possible until recently due to lack of experimental data. Information instead has come mainly from phase shift analysis (PSA). The only way to extract the elastic scattering amplitudes without any hypotheses except those of basic symmetries, is to measure a sufficient set of spin dependent parameters at a given angle and energy. With this in view, the authors have measured at 448, 494, 515, 536 and 579 MeV, the polarization, the spin correlation parameters Asub(00nn), Asub(00ss), Asub(00kk), Asub(00ks), the 2-spin parameters Dsub(n0n0), Ksub(n00n), Dsub(s'0s0), Dsub(s'0k0) and the 3-spin parameters Msub(s'0sn), Msub(s'0kn) between 34/sup 0/ cm and 118/sup 0/ cm. A few of these parameters have also been measured at 560 and 470 MeV and at a few energies below 448 MeV. The indices refer to the polarization orientation of the scattered, recoil, beam and target particle respectively.

  20. Problems in the links between scattering data and interaction potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amos, K.

    1995-01-01

    The scattering function is of paramount importance in any approaches by which quantitative information on the interaction between colliding quantal systems of nuclear, atomic or molecular type, may be sought from measured, elastic scattering data. Therein there are two possible spectral parameters, the energy and the angular momentum. Most experimental results suggest use of fixed energy and variable angular momentum schemes. Such fixed energy data and their analyses are the subject of this report, with particular emphasis placed upon the problems of the link between data and the scattering function. 18 figs

  1. Problems in the links between scattering data and interaction potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amos, K.

    1995-10-01

    The scattering function is of paramount importance in any approaches by which quantitative information on the interaction between colliding quantal systems of nuclear, atomic or molecular type, may be sought from measured, elastic scattering data. Therein there are two possible spectral parameters, the energy and the angular momentum. Most experimental results suggest use of fixed energy and variable angular momentum schemes. Such fixed energy data and their analyses are the subject of this report, with particular emphasis placed upon the problems of the link between data and the scattering function. 18 figs.

  2. Scattering phase shift for elastic two pion scattering and the rho resonance in lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutzwiller, Simone

    2012-10-08

    In this thesis we use lattice QCD to compute scattering phase shifts for elastic two-pion scattering in the isospin I=1 channel. Using Luescher's formalism, we derive the scattering phase shifts for different total momenta of the two-pion system in a non-rest frame. Furthermore we analyse the symmetries of the non-rest frame lattices and construct 2-pion and rho operators transforming in accordance with these symmetries. The data was collected for a 32{sup 3} x 64 and a 40{sup 3} x 64 lattice with N{sub f}=2 clover improved Wilson fermions at a pion mass around 290 MeV and a lattice spacing of about 0.072 fm.

  3. Scattering phase shift for elastic two pion scattering and the rho resonance in lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutzwiller, Simone

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis we use lattice QCD to compute scattering phase shifts for elastic two-pion scattering in the isospin I=1 channel. Using Luescher's formalism, we derive the scattering phase shifts for different total momenta of the two-pion system in a non-rest frame. Furthermore we analyse the symmetries of the non-rest frame lattices and construct 2-pion and rho operators transforming in accordance with these symmetries. The data was collected for a 32 3 x 64 and a 40 3 x 64 lattice with N f =2 clover improved Wilson fermions at a pion mass around 290 MeV and a lattice spacing of about 0.072 fm.

  4. Diffuse scattering in Ih ice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehinger, Björn; Krisch, Michael; Bosak, Alexeï; Chernyshov, Dmitry; Bulat, Sergey; Ezhov, Victor

    2014-01-01

    Single crystals of ice Ih, extracted from the subglacial Lake Vostok accretion ice layer (3621 m depth) were investigated by means of diffuse x-ray scattering and inelastic x-ray scattering. The diffuse scattering was identified as mainly inelastic and rationalized in the frame of ab initio calculations for the ordered ice XI approximant. Together with Monte-Carlo modelling, our data allowed reconsidering previously available neutron diffuse scattering data of heavy ice as the sum of thermal diffuse scattering and static disorder contribution. (paper)

  5. Scattering of intermediate energy protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaumeaux, Alain.

    1980-06-01

    The scattering of 1 GeV protons appears to be a powerful means of investigating nuclear matter. We worked with SPESI and the formalism of Kerman-Mc Manus and Thaler. The amplitude of nucleon-nucleon scattering was studied as were the aspects of 1 GeV proton scattering (multiple scattering, absorption, spin-orbit coupling, N-N amplitude, KMT-Glauber comparison, second order effects). The results of proton scattering on 16 O, the isotopes of calcium, 58 Ni, 90 Zr and 208 Pb are given [fr

  6. Compton scattering revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, R.H., E-mail: rpratt@pitt.ed [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); LaJohn, L.A., E-mail: lal18@pitt.ed [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Florescu, V., E-mail: flor@barutu.fizica.unibuc.r [Centre for Advanced Quantum Physics, University of Bucharest, MG-11 Bucharest-Magurele, 077125 Magurele (Romania); Suric, T., E-mail: suric@irb.h [R. Boskovic Institute, Bijenicka 54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Chatterjee, B.K., E-mail: barun_k_chatterjee@yahoo.co [Department of Physics, Bose Institute, Kolkata 700009 (India); Roy, S.C., E-mail: suprakash.roy@gmail.co [Department of Physics, Bose Institute, Kolkata 700009 (India)

    2010-02-15

    We review the standard theory of Compton scattering from bound electrons, and we describe recent findings that require modification of the usual understanding, noting the nature of consequences for experiment. The subject began with Compton and scattering from free electrons. Experiment actually involved bound electrons, and this was accommodated with the use of impulse approximation (IA), which described inelastic scattering from bound electrons in terms of scattering from free electrons. This was good for the Compton peak but failed for soft final photons. The standard theory was formalized by Eisenberger and Platzman (EP) [1970. Phys. Rev. A 2, 415], whose work also suggested why impulse approximation was better than one would expect, for doubly differential cross sections (DDCS), but not for triply differential cross sections (TDCS). A relativistic version of IA (RIA) was worked out by Ribberfors [1975. Phys. Rev. B 12, 2067]. And Suric et al. [1991. Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 189] and Bergstrom et al. [1993. Phys. Rev. A 48, 1134] developed a full relativistic second order S-matrix treatment, not making impulse approximation, but within independent particle approximation (IPA). Newer developments in the theory of Compton scattering include: (1) Demonstration that the EP estimates of the validity of IA are incorrect, although the qualitative conclusion remains unchanged; IA is not to be understood as the first term in a standard series expansion. (2) The greater validity of IA for DDCS than for the TDCS, which when integrated give DDCS, is related to the existence of a sum rule, only valid for DDCS. (3) The so-called 'asymmetry' of a Compton profile is primarily to be understood as simply the shift of the peak position in the profile; symmetric and anti-symmetric deviations from a shifted Compton profile are very small, except for high Z inner shells where further p{sup -}>.A{sup -}> effects come into play. (4) Most relativistic effects, except at low

  7. Compton scattering revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratt, R.H.; LaJohn, L.A.; Florescu, V.; Suric, T.; Chatterjee, B.K.; Roy, S.C.

    2010-01-01

    We review the standard theory of Compton scattering from bound electrons, and we describe recent findings that require modification of the usual understanding, noting the nature of consequences for experiment. The subject began with Compton and scattering from free electrons. Experiment actually involved bound electrons, and this was accommodated with the use of impulse approximation (IA), which described inelastic scattering from bound electrons in terms of scattering from free electrons. This was good for the Compton peak but failed for soft final photons. The standard theory was formalized by Eisenberger and Platzman (EP) [1970. Phys. Rev. A 2, 415], whose work also suggested why impulse approximation was better than one would expect, for doubly differential cross sections (DDCS), but not for triply differential cross sections (TDCS). A relativistic version of IA (RIA) was worked out by Ribberfors [1975. Phys. Rev. B 12, 2067]. And Suric et al. [1991. Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 189] and Bergstrom et al. [1993. Phys. Rev. A 48, 1134] developed a full relativistic second order S-matrix treatment, not making impulse approximation, but within independent particle approximation (IPA). Newer developments in the theory of Compton scattering include: (1) Demonstration that the EP estimates of the validity of IA are incorrect, although the qualitative conclusion remains unchanged; IA is not to be understood as the first term in a standard series expansion. (2) The greater validity of IA for DDCS than for the TDCS, which when integrated give DDCS, is related to the existence of a sum rule, only valid for DDCS. (3) The so-called 'asymmetry' of a Compton profile is primarily to be understood as simply the shift of the peak position in the profile; symmetric and anti-symmetric deviations from a shifted Compton profile are very small, except for high Z inner shells where further p → .A → effects come into play. (4) Most relativistic effects, except at low energies, are to be

  8. Multiple scattering of polarized light: comparison of Maxwell theory and radiative transfer theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voit, Florian; Hohmann, Ansgar; Schäfer, Jan; Kienle, Alwin

    2012-04-01

    For many research areas in biomedical optics, information about scattering of polarized light in turbid media is of increasing importance. Scattering simulations within this field are mainly performed on the basis of radiative transfer theory. In this study a polarization sensitive Monte Carlo solution of radiative transfer theory is compared to exact Maxwell solutions for all elements of the scattering Müller matrix. Different scatterer volume concentrations are modeled as a multitude of monodisperse nonabsorbing spheres randomly positioned in a cubic simulation volume which is irradiated with monochromatic incident light. For all Müller matrix elements effects due to dependent scattering and multiple scattering are analysed. The results are in overall good agreement between the two methods with deviations related to dependent scattering being prominent for high volume concentrations and high scattering angles.

  9. Some aspects of transition radiation and scattering theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginzburg, V.L.; Tsytovich, V.N.

    1978-01-01

    Some aspects of transition radiation and transition scattering theory are considered. The transition radiation in vacuum is analysed in the presence of a strong magnetic field. It is shown, that the constant electro-magnetic field makes vacuum similar to the uniaxial ferrodielectric. The appearance of the transition radiation in the nonstationary medium is discussed when its properties in the medium change abruptly in time. It is obtained, that both types of the transition radiation for nonrelativistic particles (on an abrupt boundary of the two media interface and under an abrupt change in time of the medium properties) differ quantitatively (on the order of the value). The role of the radiation transition and scattering in plasma physics has been elucidated from different points. Four most important features of these processes are pointed out. Particularly, essential is shown to be the type of the transition scattering when one plasma wave, being the dielectric constant wave transforms into another one also a plasma wave. In the processes of the transition scattering an essential part is played by the effects of the space dispersion, particularly when the scattering takes place on the small velocity particles. Finally besides transition scattering there exists in plasma or in some cases prevails a Thomson scattering. In this case an important role in plasma is played by the interference between the Thomson and the transition scattering

  10. Polarizer design for millimeter-wave plasma diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leipold, Frank; Salewski, Mirko; Jacobsen, Asger Schou

    2013-01-01

    Radiation from magnetized plasmas is in general elliptically polarized. In order to convert the elliptical polarization to linear polarization, mirrors with grooved surfaces are currently employed in our collective Thomson scattering diagnostic at ASDEX Upgrade. If these mirrors can be substituted...

  11. Gravitational scattering of electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooker, J. T.; Janis, A. I.

    1980-01-01

    The scattering of electromagnetic radiation by linearized gravitational fields is studied to second order in a perturbation expansion. The incoming electromagnetic radiation can be of arbitrary multipole structure, and the gravitational fields are also taken to be advanced fields of arbitrary multipole structure. All electromagnetic multipole radiation is found to be scattered by gravitational monopole and time-varying dipole fields. No case has been found, however, in which any electromagnetic multipole radiation is scattered by gravitational fields of quadrupole or higher-order multipole structure. This lack of scattering is established for infinite classes of special cases, and is conjectured to hold in general. The results of the scattering analysis are applied to the case of electromagnetic radiation scattered by a moving mass. It is shown how the mass and velocity may be determined by a knowledge of the incident and scattered radiation.

  12. Some results on inverse scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramm, A.G.

    2008-01-01

    A review of some of the author's results in the area of inverse scattering is given. The following topics are discussed: (1) Property C and applications, (2) Stable inversion of fixed-energy 3D scattering data and its error estimate, (3) Inverse scattering with 'incomplete' data, (4) Inverse scattering for inhomogeneous Schroedinger equation, (5) Krein's inverse scattering method, (6) Invertibility of the steps in Gel'fand-Levitan, Marchenko, and Krein inversion methods, (7) The Newton-Sabatier and Cox-Thompson procedures are not inversion methods, (8) Resonances: existence, location, perturbation theory, (9) Born inversion as an ill-posed problem, (10) Inverse obstacle scattering with fixed-frequency data, (11) Inverse scattering with data at a fixed energy and a fixed incident direction, (12) Creating materials with a desired refraction coefficient and wave-focusing properties. (author)

  13. DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSTICS OF PROSTATE TUBERCULOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Brizhatyuk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate tuberculosis is difficult to be diagnosed, especially if lesions are limited only by this organ. The article analyses the experience of differential diagnostics of prostate tuberculosis based on the data of examination of 84 patients. 45 of them were diagnosed with prostate tuberculosis, and 39 patients were diagnosed with chronic bacterial prostatitis. Pathognomonic diagnostics criteria of prostate tuberculosis were the following: detection of tuberculous mycobacteria in the prostatic fluid or ejaculate, signs of granulomatous prostatitis with areas of cavernous necrosis in prostate biopsy samples, and prostate cavities visualized by X-ray or ultrasound examinations. Should the above criteria be absent, the disease can be diagnosed based on the combination of indirect signs: symptoms of prostate inflammation with active tuberculosis of the other localization; large prostate calcification, extensive hyperechoic area of the prostate, spermatocystic lesions, leucospermia and hemospermia, failure of the adequate non-specific anti-bacterial therapy.

  14. Nuclear power plant diagnostic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokop, K.; Volavy, J.

    1982-01-01

    Basic information is presented on diagnostic systems used at nuclear power plants with PWR reactors. They include systems used at the Novovoronezh nuclear power plant in the USSR, at the Nord power plant in the GDR, the system developed at the Hungarian VEIKI institute, the system used at the V-1 nuclear power plant at Jaslovske Bohunice in Czechoslovakia and systems of the Rockwell International company used in US nuclear power plants. These diagnostic systems are basically founded on monitoring vibrations and noise, loose parts, pressure pulsations, neutron noise, coolant leaks and acoustic emissions. The Rockwell International system represents a complex unit whose advantage is the on-line evaluation of signals which gives certain instructions for the given situation directly to the operator. The other described systems process signals using similar methods. Digitized signals only serve off-line computer analyses. (Z.M.)

  15. Analyticity and unitarity as constraints to obtain scattering phase shifts and applications to e-He scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, H.; Lun, D.R.; Allen, L.J.; Amos, K.

    1997-01-01

    The requirements that the scattering functions for quantal scattering at energies below the first inelastic threshold be unitary and analytic have been used to establish a process that gives the complex scattering amplitudes from differential cross sections. From those amplitudes scattering phase shifts have been deduced by Legendre integration. The effects of the natural ambiguity of the phase of the scattering phase shifts have been deduced by Legendre integration. The effects of the natural ambiguity of the phase of the scattering amplitude, under conditions for which uniqueness and (numerical) stability of solutions are not assured, also have been developed to specify the scattering phase shifts can give stable nonspurious results. The scattering of electrons from He atoms for incident energies ranging from 1.5 to 19 eV are considered as an example of the procedure. Phase shift analyses of that data have been made with a variety of other techniques to allow a comparative study of these results and of sets with which are associated fits to cross sections that are statistically significant. 18 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs

  16. Collective Thomson scattering data analysis for Wendelstein 7-X

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abramovic, I.; Pavone, A.; Svensson, J.

    2017-01-01

    Collective Thomson scattering (CTS) diagnostic is being installed on the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator to measure the bulk ion temperature in the upcoming experimental campaign. In order to prepare for the data analysis, a forward model of the diagnostic (eCTS) has been developed and integrated...... into the Bayesian data analysis framework Minerva. Synthetic spectra have been calculated with the forward model and inverted using Minerva in order to demonstrate the feasibility to measure the ion temperature in the presence of nuisance parameters that also influence CTS spectra. In this paper we report...... on the results of this anlysis and discuss the main sources of uncertainty in the CTS data analysis....

  17. Collective Thomson scattering measurements with high frequency resolution at TEXTOR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stejner Pedersen, Morten; Nielsen, Stefan Kragh; Korsholm, Søren Bang

    2010-01-01

    We discuss the development and first results of a receiver system for the collective Thomson scattering (CTS) diagnostic at TEXTOR with frequency resolution in the megahertz range or better. The improved frequency resolution expands the diagnostic range and utility of CTS measurements in general ...... and is a prerequisite for measurements of ion Bernstein wave signatures in CTS spectra. The first results from the new acquisition system are shown to be consistent with theory and with simultaneous measurements by the standard receiver system. © 2010 EURATOM...

  18. Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giebink, Noel C. [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States)

    2015-01-31

    This program set out to explore a scattering-based approach to concentrate sunlight with the aim of improving collector field reliability and of eliminating wind loading and gross mechanical movement through the use of a stationary collection optic. The approach is based on scattering sunlight from the focal point of a fixed collection optic into the confined modes of a sliding planar waveguide, where it is transported to stationary tubular heat transfer elements located at the edges. Optical design for the first stage of solar concentration, which entails focusing sunlight within a plane over a wide range of incidence angles (>120 degree full field of view) at fixed tilt, led to the development of a new, folded-path collection optic that dramatically out-performs the current state-of-the-art in scattering concentration. Rigorous optical simulation and experimental testing of this collection optic have validated its performance. In the course of this work, we also identified an opportunity for concentrating photovoltaics involving the use of high efficiency microcells made in collaboration with partners at the University of Illinois. This opportunity exploited the same collection optic design as used for the scattering solar thermal concentrator and was therefore pursued in parallel. This system was experimentally demonstrated to achieve >200x optical concentration with >70% optical efficiency over a full day by tracking with <1 cm of lateral movement at fixed latitude tilt. The entire scattering concentrator waveguide optical system has been simulated, tested, and assembled at small scale to verify ray tracing models. These models were subsequently used to predict the full system optical performance at larger, deployment scale ranging up to >1 meter aperture width. Simulations at an aperture widths less than approximately 0.5 m with geometric gains ~100x predict an overall optical efficiency in the range 60-70% for angles up to 50 degrees from normal. However, the

  19. Effects of Raman scattering in quantum state-preserving frequency conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Søren Michael Mørk; Andersen, Lasse Mejling; Castaneda, Mario A. Usuga

    2014-01-01

    We analyse frequency conversion by Bragg scattering numerically including Raman scattering. The frequency configuration that performs the best under influence of Raman noise results in 95% conversion over a 3.25 THz bandwidth with a 2.5-dB noise figure.......We analyse frequency conversion by Bragg scattering numerically including Raman scattering. The frequency configuration that performs the best under influence of Raman noise results in 95% conversion over a 3.25 THz bandwidth with a 2.5-dB noise figure....

  20. Inelastic scattering of neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sal'nikov, O.A.

    1984-06-01

    The paper reviews the main problems concerning the mechanism of the inelastic scatterings of neutrons by nuclei, concentrating on the different models which calculate the angular distributions. In the region of overlapping levels, both the compound nucleus mechanism and the preequilibrium Griffin (exciton) model are discussed, and their contribution relative to that of a direct mechanism is considered. The parametrization of the level density and of the nuclear moment of inertia are also discussed. The excitation functions of discrete levels are also presented, and the importance of elucidating their five structure (for practical calculations, such as for shielding) is pointed out

  1. Proton nuclear scattering radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchazeaubeneix, J.C.; Faivre, J.C.; Garreta, D.

    1982-10-01

    Nuclear scattering of protons allows to radiograph objects with specific properties: direct 3- dimensional radiography, different information as compared to X-ray technique, hydrogen radiography. Furthermore, it is a well adapted method to gating techniques allowing the radiography of fast periodic moving systems. Results obtained on different objects (light and heavy materials) are shown and discussed. The dose delivery is compatible with clinical use, but at the moment, the irradiation time is too long between 1 and 4 hours. Perspectives to make the radiography faster and to get a practical method are discussed

  2. Quasi-elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pizzi, J.R.

    1975-01-01

    In a first part, the kinematical conditions which are chosen to study quasi free scattering reactions are presented, as well as the impulse approximation which is used to interpret the experimental data. Then, the evolution of the study of these reactions in the last few years is analyzed. Three recent experiments are presented and discussed. Two of them deal with α-clusters studied by (p,pα) reaction at 157 and 600MeV. The third is concerned with d, t and 3 He clusters studied by (p,px) reaction at 75MeV [fr

  3. Low-energy pion-nucleon scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbs, W.R.; Ai, L.; Kaufmann, W.B.

    1998-01-01

    An analysis of low-energy charged pion-nucleon data from recent π ± p experiments is presented. From the scattering lengths and the Goldberger-Miyazawa-Oehme (GMO) sum rule we find a value of the pion-nucleon coupling constant of f 2 =0.0756±0.0007. We also find, contrary to most previous analyses, that the scattering volumes for the P 31 and P 13 partial waves are equal, within errors, corresponding to a symmetry found in the Hamiltonian of many theories. For the potential models used, the amplitudes are extrapolated into the subthreshold region to estimate the value of the Σ term. Off-shell amplitudes are also provided. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  4. 3D Diagnostic Of Complex Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, Edward; Samsonov, Dmitry

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the development of a three-dimensional(3D) dust particle position diagnostic for complex plasmas. A beam produce by Light Emitting Diodes(LEDs) is formed into horizontal sheet, for the illumination of the particles. The light sheet has a vertical colour gradient across its width, from two opposing colours. The light scattered from the particles is imaged with the camera from above. The horizontal coordinates are measured from the positions on the image. The third coordinate is determined from the colour which represents a position on the gradient of the light sheet. The use of LEDs as a light source reduces a variation in Mie scattered intensity from the particles due to the particle size distribution. The variation would induce a large vertical positional error.

  5. Distance factor on reducing scattered radiation risk during interventional fluoroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husaini Salleh; Mohd Khalid Matori; Muhammad Jamal Mat Isa; Zainal Jamaluddin; Mohd Firdaus Abdul Rahman; Mohd Khairusalih Mohd Zin

    2012-01-01

    Interventional Radiology (IR) is subspecialty of diagnostic radiology where minimally invasive procedures are performed using an x-ray as a guidance. This procedure can deliver high radiation doses to patient and medical staff compared with other radiological method due to long screening time. The use of proper shielding, shorten the exposure time and keep the distance are the practices to reduce scattered radiation risks to staff involve in this procedure. This project is to study the distance factor on reducing the scattered radiation effect to the medical staff. It also may provide the useful information which can be use to establish the scattered radiation profile during the IR for the sake of radiation protection and safety to the medical staff involved. (author)

  6. Diagnostic Development on NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A.L. Roquemore; D. Johnson; R. Kaita; et al

    1999-01-01

    Diagnostics are described which are currently installed or under active development for the newly commissioned NSTX device. The low aspect ratio (R/a less than or equal to 1.3) and low toroidal field (0.1-0.3T) used in this device dictate adaptations in many standard diagnostic techniques. Technical summaries of each diagnostic are given, and adaptations, where significant, are highlighted

  7. TFTR diagnostic vacuum controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, D.; Persons, R.

    1981-01-01

    The TFTR diagnostic vacuum controller (DVC) provides in conjunction with the Central Instrumentation Control and Data Acquisition System (CICADA), control and monitoring for the pumps, valves and gauges associated with each individual diagnostic vacuum system. There will be approximately 50 systems on TFTR. Two standard versions of the controller (A and B) wil be provided in order to meet the requirements of two diagnostic manifold arrangements. All pump and valve sequencing, as well as protection features, will be implemented by the controller

  8. Single Crystal Diffuse Neutron Scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Welberry

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Diffuse neutron scattering has become a valuable tool for investigating local structure in materials ranging from organic molecular crystals containing only light atoms to piezo-ceramics that frequently contain heavy elements. Although neutron sources will never be able to compete with X-rays in terms of the available flux the special properties of neutrons, viz. the ability to explore inelastic scattering events, the fact that scattering lengths do not vary systematically with atomic number and their ability to scatter from magnetic moments, provides strong motivation for developing neutron diffuse scattering methods. In this paper, we compare three different instruments that have been used by us to collect neutron diffuse scattering data. Two of these are on a spallation source and one on a reactor source.

  9. [Inelastic electron scattering from surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This program is aimed at the quantitative study of surface dynamical processes (vibrational, magnetic excitations) in crystalline slabs, ultrathin-layered materials, and chemisorbed systems on substrates, and of the geometric structure connected to these dynamical excitations. High-resolution electron-energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) is a powerful probe. Off-specular excitation cross sections are much larger if electron energies are in the LEED range (50-300 eV). The analyses has been used to study surfaces of ordered alloys (NiAl). Ab-initio surface lattice dynamical results were combined with phonon-loss cross sections to achieve a more accurate microscopic description. First-principles phonon eigenvectors and eigenfrequencies were used as inputs to electron-energy-loss multiple scattering cross-section calculations. The combined microscopic approach was used to analyze EELS data of Cu(0001) and Ag(001) at two points. Positron diffraction is discussed as a structural and imaging tool. The relation between geometric structure of a film and its local magnetic properties will be studied in the future, along with other things

  10. Brillouin scattering at high pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimsditch, M.; Polian, A.

    1988-02-01

    Technical advances which have made Brillouin scattering a useful tool in high pressure diamond anvil cell (DAC) studies, viz. multipassing and tandem operation of Fabry-Perot interferometers, are reviewed. Experimental aspects, such as allowed scattering geometries, are outlined and the data analysis required to transform Brillouin spectra into sound velocities and elastic constants is presented. Experimental results on H 2 , N 2 , Ar, and He are presented, and the close relationship between the Brillouin scattering results and equations of state is highlighted

  11. Inelastic scattering and deformation parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, J.L.C. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    In recent years there has been extensive study of nuclear shape parameters by electron scattering, μ meson atomic transitions, Coulomb excitation and direct nuclear inelastic scattering. Inelastic scattering of strongly absorbed particles, e.g., alpha-particles and heavy ions, at energies below and above the Coulomb barrier probe the charge and mass distributions within the nucleus. This paper summarizes measurements in this field performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

  12. Weak Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ales Psaker; Wolodymyr Melnitchouk; Anatoly Radyushkin

    2006-01-01

    We extend the analysis of the deeply virtual Compton scattering process to the weak interaction sector in the generalized Bjorken limit. The virtual Compton scattering amplitudes for the weak neutral and charged currents are calculated at the leading twist within the framework of the nonlocal light-cone expansion via coordinate space QCD string operators. Using a simple model, we estimate cross sections for neutrino scattering off the nucleon, relevant for future high intensity neutrino beam facilities

  13. Scattering theory for Stark Hamiltonians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, Arne

    1994-01-01

    An introduction to the spectral and scattering theory for Schroedinger operators is given. An abstract short range scattering theory is developed. It is applied to perturbations of the Laplacian. Particular attention is paid to the study of Stark Hamiltonians. The main result is an explanation of the discrepancy between the classical and the quantum scattering theory for one-dimensional Stark Hamiltonians. (author). 47 refs

  14. Nd:YAG Laser-Based Dual-Line Detection Rayleigh Scattering and Current Efforts on UV, Filtered Rayleigh Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otugen, M. Volkan; Popovic, Svetozar

    1996-01-01

    Ongoing research in Rayleigh scattering diagnostics for variable density low speed flow applications and for supersonic flow measurements are described. During the past several years, the focus has been on the development and use of a Nd:YAG-based Rayleigh scattering system with improved signal-to-noise characteristics and with applicability to complex, confined flows. This activity serves other research projects in the Aerodynamics Laboratory which require the non-contact, accurate, time-frozen measurement of gas density, pressure, and temperature (each separately), in a fairly wide dynamic range of each parameter. Recently, with the acquisition of a new seed-injected Nd:YAG laser, effort also has been directed to the development of a high-speed velocity probe based on a spectrally resolved Rayleigh scattering technique.

  15. CONFERENCE: Elastic and diffractive scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, Alan

    1989-01-01

    Elastic scattering, when particles appear to 'bounce' off each other, and the related phenomena of diffractive scattering are currently less fashionable than the study of hard scattering processes. However this could change rapidly if unexpected results from the UA4 experiment at the CERN Collider are confirmed and their implications tested. These questions were highlighted at the third 'Blois Workshop' on Elastic and Diffractive Scattering, held early in May on the Evanston campus of Northwestern University, near Chicago

  16. Light scattering by small particles

    CERN Document Server

    Hulst, H C van de

    1981-01-01

    ""A must for researchers using the techniques of light scattering."" ? S. C. Snowdon, Journal of the Franklin InstituteThe measurement of light scattering of independent, homogeneous particles has many useful applications in physical chemistry, meteorology and astronomy. There is, however, a sizeable gap between the abstract formulae related to electromagnetic-wave-scattering phenomena, and the computation of reliable figures and curves. Dr. van de Hulst's book enables researchers to bridge that gap. The product of twelve years of work, it is an exhaustive study of light-scattering properties

  17. Light Scattering at Various Angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latimer, Paul; Pyle, B. E.

    1972-01-01

    The Mie theory of scattering is used to provide new information on how changes in particle volume, with no change in dry weight, should influence light scattering for various scattering angles and particle sizes. Many biological cells (e.g., algal cells, erythrocytes) and large subcellular structures (e.g., chloroplasts, mitochondria) in suspension undergo this type of reversible volume change, a change which is related to changes in the rates of cellular processes. A previous study examined the effects of such volume changes on total scattering. In this paper scattering at 10° is found to follow total scattering closely, but scattering at 45°, 90°, 135°, and 170° behaves differently. Small volume changes can cause very large observable changes in large angle scattering if the sample particles are uniform in size; however, the natural particle size heterogeneity of most samples would mask this effect. For heterogeneous samples of most particle size ranges, particle shrink-age is found to increase large angle scattering. PMID:4556610

  18. Dispersion Decay and Scattering Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Komech, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    A simplified, yet rigorous treatment of scattering theory methods and their applications Dispersion Decay and Scattering Theory provides thorough, easy-to-understand guidance on the application of scattering theory methods to modern problems in mathematics, quantum physics, and mathematical physics. Introducing spectral methods with applications to dispersion time-decay and scattering theory, this book presents, for the first time, the Agmon-Jensen-Kato spectral theory for the Schr?dinger equation, extending the theory to the Klein-Gordon equation. The dispersion decay plays a crucial role i

  19. Introduction to Schroedinger inverse scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, T.M.

    1991-01-01

    Schroedinger inverse scattering uses scattering coefficients and bound state data to compute underlying potentials. Inverse scattering has been studied extensively for isolated potentials q(x), which tend to zero as vertical strokexvertical stroke→∞. Inverse scattering for isolated impurities in backgrounds p(x) that are periodic, are Heaviside steps, are constant for x>0 and periodic for x<0, or that tend to zero as x→∞ and tend to ∞ as x→-∞, have also been studied. This paper identifies literature for the five inverse problems just mentioned, and for four other inverse problems. Heaviside-step backgrounds are discussed at length. (orig.)

  20. Diagnostics for high-brightness beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafer, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    Special techniques are required for beam diagnostics on high-brightness particle beams. Examples of high-brightness beams include low-emittance proton linacs (either pulsed or CW), electron linacs suitable for free-electron-laser applications, and future linear colliders. Non-interceptive and minimally-interceptive techniques for measuring beam current, position, profile, and transverse and longitudinal emittance will be reviewed. Included will be stripline, wire scanner, laser neutralization, beam-beam scattering, interceptive microgratings, spontaneous emission, optical transition radiation, and other techniques. 24 refs

  1. Iterative noise removal from temperature and density profiles in the TJ-II Thomson scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farias, G.; Dormido-Canto, S.; Vega, J.; Santos, M.; Pastor, I.; Fingerhuth, S.; Ascencio, J.

    2014-01-01

    TJ-II Thomson Scattering diagnostic provides temperature and density profiles of plasma. The CCD camera acquires images that are corrupted with some kind of noise called stray-light. This noise degrades both image contrast and measurement accuracy, which could produce unreliable profiles of the diagnostic. So far, several approaches have been applied in order to decrease the noise in the TJ-II Thomson scattering images. Since the presence of the noise is not global but located in some particular regions of the image, advanced processing techniques are needed. However such methods require of manual fine-tuning of parameters to reach a good performance. In this contribution, an iterative image processing approach is applied in order to reduce the stray light effects in the images of the TJ-II Thomson scattering diagnostic. The proposed solution describes how the noise can be iteratively reduced in the images when a key parameter is automatically adjusted during the iterative process

  2. Iterative noise removal from temperature and density profiles in the TJ-II Thomson scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farias, G., E-mail: gonzalo.farias@ucv.cl [Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Av. Brasil 2147, Valparaíso (Chile); Dormido-Canto, S., E-mail: sebas@dia.uned.es [Departamento de Informática y Automática, UNED, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Vega, J., E-mail: jesus.vega@ciemat.es [Asociación EURATOM/CIEMAT para Fusión, Avd. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Santos, M., E-mail: msantos@ucm.es [Departamento de Arquitectura de Computadores y Automática, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Pastor, I., E-mail: ignacio.pastor@ciemat.es [Asociación EURATOM/CIEMAT para Fusión, Avd. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Fingerhuth, S., E-mail: sebastian.fingerhuth@ucv.cl [Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Av. Brasil 2147, Valparaíso (Chile); Ascencio, J., E-mail: j_ascencio21@hotmail.com [Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Av. Brasil 2147, Valparaíso (Chile)

    2014-05-15

    TJ-II Thomson Scattering diagnostic provides temperature and density profiles of plasma. The CCD camera acquires images that are corrupted with some kind of noise called stray-light. This noise degrades both image contrast and measurement accuracy, which could produce unreliable profiles of the diagnostic. So far, several approaches have been applied in order to decrease the noise in the TJ-II Thomson scattering images. Since the presence of the noise is not global but located in some particular regions of the image, advanced processing techniques are needed. However such methods require of manual fine-tuning of parameters to reach a good performance. In this contribution, an iterative image processing approach is applied in order to reduce the stray light effects in the images of the TJ-II Thomson scattering diagnostic. The proposed solution describes how the noise can be iteratively reduced in the images when a key parameter is automatically adjusted during the iterative process.

  3. High-energy expansion for nuclear multiple scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, S.J.

    1975-01-01

    The Watson multiple scattering series is expanded to develop the Glauber approximation plus systematic corrections arising from three (1) deviations from eikonal propagation between scatterings, (2) Fermi motion of struck nucleons, and (3) the kinematic transformation which relates the many-body scattering operators of the Watson series to the physical two-body scattering amplitude. Operators which express effects ignored at the outset to obtain the Glauber approximation are subsequently reintroduced via perturbation expansions. Hence a particular set of approximations is developed which renders the sum of the Watson series to the Glauber form in the center of mass system, and an expansion is carried out to find leading order corrections to that summation. Although their physical origins are quite distinct, the eikonal, Fermi motion, and kinematic corrections produce strikingly similar contributions to the scattering amplitude. It is shown that there is substantial cancellation between their effects and hence the Glauber approximation is more accurate than the individual approximations used in its derivation. It is shown that the leading corrections produce effects of order (2kR/subc/) -1 relative to the double scattering term in the uncorrected Glauber amplitude, hk being momentum and R/subc/ the nuclear char []e radius. The leading order corrections are found to be small enough to validate quatitative analyses of experimental data for many intermediate to high energy cases and for scattering angles not limited to the very forward region. In a Gaussian model, the leading corrections to the Glauber amplitude are given as convenient analytic expressions

  4. Quantal inversion of cross-section for the elastic scattering of 200 MeV protons from 12C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, L.J.; Amos, K.; Dortmans, P.J.

    1994-01-01

    Fixed energy quantal inverse scattering theory has been used to analyse the differential cross-section from the elastic scattering of 200 MeV protons from 12 C. Ambiguities in obtaining the scattering function from the differential cross-section are discussed and by means of example it is illustrated that not all scattering functions lead to physically reasonable potentials. 8 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs

  5. Spectroscopy and optical diagnostics for gases

    CERN Document Server

    Hanson, Ronald K; Goldenstein, Christopher S

    2016-01-01

    This text provides an introduction to the science that governs the interaction of light and matter (in the gas phase). It provides readers with the basic knowledge to exploit the light-matter interaction to develop quantitative tools for gas analysis (i.e. optical diagnostics) and understand and interpret the results of spectroscopic measurements. The authors pair the basics of gas‐phase spectroscopy with coverage of key optical diagnostic techniques utilized by practicing engineers and scientists to measure fundamental flow‐field properties. The text is organized to cover three sub‐topics of gas‐phase spectroscopy: (1) spectral line positions, (2) spectral line strengths, and (3) spectral lineshapes by way of absorption, emission, and scattering interactions. The latter part of the book describes optical measurement techniques and equipment. Key subspecialties include laser induced fluorescence, tunable laser absorption spectroscopy, and wavelength modulation spectroscopy. It is ideal for students an...

  6. Diagnostic radiation and chromosome aberrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, S.R.; Hecht, F.; Lubs, H.A.; Kimberling, W.; Brown, J.; Gerald, P.S.; Summitt, R.L.

    1977-01-01

    Some evidence is presented suggesting that diagnostic X-rays may be important in the origin of a new chromosomal abnormality other than Down syndrome. Chromosome analyses have been carried out on 4342 children, seven or eight years old. Maternal diagnostic irradiation in the year before conception and up to third lunar month of the index pregnancy was recorded, before the chromosome study began, together with a large amount of family and clinical data. Information on X-ray exposure was supplied by the mothers, s o radiation dosage could not be estimated. 21 children (including a pair of twins and a pair of siblings) born to 19 mothers had chromosomal aberrations. The mothers of six children with inherited translocations, rearrangements and XYY karyotypes were excluded, and 3 (23%) of the remaining 13 mothers had received abdominal and pelvic X-ray exposures. In the whole sample, however, only 6% of the mothers had diagnostic irradiation. Two of these mothers, aged sixteen and twenty, gave birth to a child each with de-novo autosomal translocations, and the third mother, aged thirty-two, had a child with a complex mosaicism involving one X chromosome. Although the sample size of the mothers with chromosomally abnormal children is small, the results are significant. (U.K.)

  7. Diagnostic radiation and chromosome aberrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, S R; Hecht, F [Dept. of Pediatrics, Child Development and Rehabilitation Center, Univ. of Oregon Health Sciences Center, Portland, Oregon (USA); Lubs, H A; Kimberling, W; Brown, J; Gerald, P S; Summitt, R L

    1977-01-15

    Some evidence is presented suggesting that diagnostic X-rays may be important in the origin of a new chromosomal abnormality other than Down syndrome. Chromosome analyses have been carried out on 4342 children, seven or eight years old. Maternal diagnostic irradiation in the year before conception and up to third lunar month of the index pregnancy was recorded, before the chromosome study began, together with a large amount of family and clinical data. Information on X-ray exposure was supplied by the mothers, so radiation dosage could not be estimated. 21 children (including a pair of twins and a pair of siblings) born to 19 mothers had chromosomal aberrations. The mothers of six children with inherited translocations, rearrangements and XYY karyotypes were excluded, and 3 (23%) of the remaining 13 mothers had received abdominal and pelvic X-ray exposures. In the whole sample, however, only 6% of the mothers had diagnostic irradiation. Two of these mothers, aged sixteen and twenty, gave birth to a child each with de-novo autosomal translocations, and the third mother, aged thirty-two, had a child with a complex mosaicism involving one X chromosome. Although the sample size of the mothers with chromosomally abnormal children is small, the results are significant.

  8. Radiation exposure in diagnostic medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haehnel, S.; Michalczak, H.; Reinoehl-Kompa, S.

    1995-01-01

    This volume includes the manuscripts of the papers read at the conference as well as a summary and assessment of its results. The scientific discussions were centred upon the following issues: - International surveys and comparisons of rdiation exposures in diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine, frequency of the individual diagnostic procedures and age distribution of patients examined; - policies and regulations for the radiation protection of patients, charcteristic dosimetric values and practical usefulness of the effective dose concept during medical examinations; - assessments of the relative benefits and risks and measures to reduce the radiation exposure in the light of quality assurance aspects. The main objective of this conference not only was to evaluate the risks from diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine but also to encourgage a critical analysis and adjustment of examination routines followed in everyday practice. Among the measures recommended were quality assurance, maintenace of international standards, development of guidelines, introduction of standard doses, improved training and professional education of personnel as well as surveys and analyses of certain examination procedures associated with substantial radiation exposure. (orig./MG) [de

  9. Digital filter polychromator for Thomson scattering applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solokha, V.; Kurskiev, G.; Mukhin, E.; Tolstyakov, S.; Babinov, N.; Bazhenov, A.; Bukreev, I.; Dmitriev, A.; Kochergin, M.; Koval, A.; Litvinov, A.; Masyukevich, S.; Razdobarin, A.; Samsonov, D.; Semenov, V.; Solovey, V.; Chernakov, P.; Chernakov, Al; Chernakov, An

    2018-02-01

    Incoherent Thomson scattering diagnostics (TS) is a proven technique capable of reliable and robust instantaneous measurement of electron temperature (T e) and density (n e) local values in wide area of plasma physics experiments: from hall-effect thrusters to tokamaks and stellarators. The TS cross section is very low (˜ 6.7 × 10-30 m2), and the corresponding TS signals, measured in fusion experiments, are usually of ˜10-15 of incident power. This paper represents 6 (7) channel filter polychromator equipped with avalanche photodiodes and low-noise preamplifiers. The incorporated ADC system (5 GS/s, 12 bit) provides digital optical output preventing acquisition system from electromagnetic interferences. The calibration techniques and T e, n e with corresponding errors measured in Globus-M plasma are given for the digital polychromator test-bench.

  10. A Discrete Scatterer Technique for Evaluating Electromagnetic Scattering from Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Trees by DaHan Liao Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. NOTICES Disclaimers The findings...for Evaluating Electromagnetic Scattering from Trees by DaHan Liao Sensors and Electron Devices Directorate, ARL...Technique for Evaluating Electromagnetic Scattering from Trees 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S

  11. Psychologists' diagnostic processes during a diagnostic interview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenier, Marleen; Beerthuis, Vos R.J.; Pieters, Julius Marie; Witteman, C.L.M.; Witteman, Cilia L.M.; Swinkels, Jan A.

    2011-01-01

    In mental health care, psychologists assess clients’ complaints, analyze underlying problems, and identify causes for these problems, to make treatment decisions. We present a study on psychologists’ diagnostic processes, in which a mixed-method approach was employed. We aimed to identify a common

  12. Stimulated Thomson scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, R.L.

    1979-03-01

    The theory of stimulated Thomson scattering is investigated both quantum mechanically and classically. Two monochromatic electromagnetic waves of like polarization travelling in opposite directions are allowed to interact for a time tau with the electrons in a collisionless plasma. The electromagnetic waves have frequencies well above the plasma frequency, and their difference frequency is allowed to range upward from the plasma frequency. With the difference frequency well above the plasma frequency, the rate at which energy is transferred from one wave to the other is calculated quantum mechanically, classically from a fluid theory, and classically from an independent electron theory. The rate is calculated in both the homogeneously broadened limit, and in the inhomogeneously broadened limit

  13. Multichannel Thomson scattering apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bretz, N.; Dimock, D.; Foote, V.; Johnson, D.; Long, D.; Tolnas, E.

    1977-07-01

    A Thomson scattering apparatus for measuring the electron temperature and density along a 90 cm diameter of the PLT plasma has been built. A wide angle objective images the 3 mm x 900 mm ruby laser beam onto an image dissector which rearranges the 300 : 1 image to 20 : 1 forming the input slit of a spectrometer. The stigmatic spectrometer provides 20 wavelength elements of approximately 70 A each. A micro-channel-plate image intensifier optically coupled to a cooled SIT tube provides detection with single frame linearity and 1000 : 1 dynamic range. Spatial profiles of N/sub e/ and T/sub e/ in the range 10 13 - 10 14 cm -3 and 0.05 - 3 keV have an accuracy of 30 √10 13 /N/sub e/ (cm -3 ) percent per 1.2 cm element

  14. Diagnostic nerve ultrasonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeumer, T.; Grimm, A.; Schelle, T.

    2017-01-01

    For the diagnostics of nerve lesions an imaging method is necessary to visualize peripheral nerves and their surrounding structures for an etiological classification. Clinical neurological and electrophysiological investigations provide functional information about nerve lesions. The information provided by a standard magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination is inadequate for peripheral nerve diagnostics; however, MRI neurography is suitable but on the other hand a resource and time-consuming method. Using ultrasonography for peripheral nerve diagnostics. With ultrasonography reliable diagnostics of entrapment neuropathies and traumatic nerve lesions are possible. The use of ultrasonography for neuropathies shows that a differentiation between different forms is possible. Nerve ultrasonography is an established diagnostic tool. In addition to the clinical examination and clinical electrophysiology, structural information can be obtained, which results in a clear improvement in the diagnostics. Ultrasonography has become an integral part of the diagnostic work-up of peripheral nerve lesions in neurophysiological departments. Nerve ultrasonography is recommended for the diagnostic work-up of peripheral nerve lesions in addition to clinical and electrophysiological investigations. It should be used in the clinical work-up of entrapment neuropathies, traumatic nerve lesions and spacy-occupying lesions of nerves. (orig.) [de

  15. Ongoing experiments: diagnostics requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickerman, C.E.

    1976-01-01

    The paper reviews the fuel motion diagnostics needs for ongoing LMFBR safety experiments over approximately the next five years, with the discussion centered on TREAT. Brief comments on the direction in which clad motion diagnostics requirements are expected to develop are also presented

  16. Clinical diagnostic ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, E.; Morley, P.

    1986-01-01

    This textbook on diagnostic ultrasound covers the main systems, with emphasis being placed on the clinical application of diagnostic ultrasound in everyday practice. It provides not only a textbook for postgraduates (particularly FRCR candidates), but also a reference work for practitioners of clinical ultrasound and clinicians generally

  17. Gearbox vibration diagnostic analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This report describes the Gearbox Vibration Diagnostic Analyzer installed in the NASA Lewis Research Center's 500 HP Helicopter Transmission Test Stand to monitor gearbox testing. The vibration of the gearbox is analyzed using diagnostic algorithms to calculate a parameter indicating damaged components.

  18. Pseudo colour visualization of fused multispectral laser scattering images for optical diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabarylo, U.; Minet, O.

    2010-01-01

    Investigations on the application of optical procedures for the diagnosis of rheumatism using scattered light images are only at the beginning both in terms of new image-processing methods and subsequent clinical application. For semi-automatic diagnosis using laser light, the multispectral scattered light images are registered and overlapped to pseudo-coloured images, which depict diagnostically essential contents by visually highlighting pathological changes.

  19. Molecular dynamics using quasielastic neutron scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Mitra, S

    2003-01-01

    Quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) technique is well suited to study the molecular motions (rotations and translations) in solids or liquids. It offers a unique possibility of analysing spatial dimensions of atomic or molecular processes in their development over time. We describe here some of the systems studied using the QENS spectrometer, designed, developed and commissioned at Dhruva reactor in Trombay. We have studied a variety of systems to investigate the molecular motion, for example, simple molecular solids, molecules adsorbed in confined medium like porous systems or zeolites, monolayer-protected nano-sized metal clusters, water in Portland cement as it cures with time, etc. (author)

  20. Discerning the neutron density distribution of 208Pb from nucleon elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karataglidis, S.; Amos, K.; University of Melbourne, VIC; Brown, B.A.; Deb, P.K.

    2001-01-01

    We seek a measure of the neutron density of 208 Pb from analyses of intermediate energy nucleon elastic scattering. The pertinent model for such analyses is based on coordinate space nonlocal optical potentials obtained from model nuclear ground state densities. As a calibration of the use of Skyrme-Hartree-Fock models the elastic scattering from 40 Cawas considered as well. Those potentials give predictions of integral observables and of angular distributions which show sensitivity to the neutron density. When compared with experiment, and correlated with analyses of electron scattering data, the results suggest that 208 Pb has a neutron skin thickness ∼ 0.17 fm

  1. Thomson scattering upgrade on Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leroux, F., E-mail: fabrice.leroux@cea.f [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Manenc, L.; Moreau, M. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2010-07-15

    The Thomson scattering diagnostic supplies the electron temperature and density of Tore Supra plasmas from the spectrum analysis of scattered light of a very short laser pulse. A new spectrometer has been realized to improve the signal to noise ratio. In order to obtain an efficient noise reduction, a real time calculation is necessary. The current analogue integration of the signal is inadequate. A fast digitalization must be used with a sampling rate of 1 GSamples/s, a bandwidth of 150 MHz and a 12 bits dynamic range. In a first step, fast analogue data acquisition boards for 4 channels were added in 2009 to the VME acquisition system in place. A MATACQ (Matrix for acquisition) board was chosen for sampling analogue data up to 2 GSamples/s over 4 channels with a large bandwidth of 300 MHz and a 14 bits dynamic range. This solution offers a low cost acquisition system that is not available in any other commercial board with this dynamic range. The first results will be obtained on calibration period with a light emitted diode before the summer 2009. This article will present the new data acquisition system and the coming first results.

  2. 154 GHz collective Thomson scattering in LHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K.; Nishiura, M.; Kubo, S.; Shimozuma, T.; Saito, T.; Moseev, D.; Abramovic, I.

    2018-01-01

    Collective Thomson scattering (CTS) was developed by using a 154 GHz gyrotron, and the first data has been obtained. Already, 77 GHz CTS has worked successfully. However, in order to access higher density region, 154 GHz option enhances the usability that reduces the refraction effect, which deteriorates in the local measurements. The system in the down converted frequency was almost identical to the system for 77 GHz. Probing beam, a notch filter, a mixer, and a local oscillator in the receiver system for 77 GHz option were replaced to those for the 154 GHz option. 154 GHz gyrotron was originally prepared for the second harmonic electron cyclotron heating (ECRH) at 2.75 T. However, scattering signal was masked by the second harmonic electron cyclotron emission (ECE) at 2.75 T. Therefore, 154 GHz CTS was operated at 1.375 T with fourth harmonic ECE, and an acceptable signal to noise ratio was obtained. There is a signature of fast ion components with neutral beam (NB) injection. In addition, the CTS spectrum became broader in hydrogen discharge than in deuterium discharge, as the theoretical CTS spectrum expects. This observation indicates a possibility to identify ion species ratio by the 154 GHz CTS diagnostic.

  3. Edge Thomson scattering on RFX-mod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfier, A.; Pasqualotto, R.

    2006-01-01

    Electron temperature and density profiles of the RFX-mod experiment are characterized by edge gradients typically steeper than the flatter central region. The main Thomson scattering (TS) diagnostic which measures 84-point profiles along a diameter is mainly devoted to cover the core region. A second TS system has been developed to measure 12-point profiles in the external region 0.8< r/a<1, with a spatial resolution of 1 cm. It uses a single shot ruby laser. Input and collection optics share the same vacuum port and they are mounted on one optical bench, which allows offline aligning the system before connecting it to the vessel. The scattered signal is collected by a row of 12 fibers, while 4 fibers on the sides are used to check the alignment and measure the plasma light. The fibers, arranged in a 4x4 pattern, are fed into a four channel filter spectrometer and the spectrum is detected by a GaAs intensified charge-coupled device camera. The filters are arranged in a zigzag geometry, such that only one detector is needed

  4. Scattering of low-energy pions by p-shell nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khankhasaev, M.Kh.

    1987-01-01

    Low-energy pion-carbon scattering (up to 50 MeV) is analysed in the framework of the unitary approach based on the method of evolution in the coupling constant. It is shown that at pion energy ∼ 50 MeV the differential cross section arises as a result of the strong interference between the pure potential scattering and absorption channels. In this energy region the scattering data are very sensitive to the dynamics of the pion-nucleus interaction

  5. An evaluation of diverse methods of obtaining effective Schroedinger interaction potentials for elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amos, K.; Allen, L.J.; Steward, C.; Hodgson, P.E.; Sofianos, S.A.

    1995-01-01

    Direct solution of the Schroedinger equation and inversion methods of analysis of elastic scattering data are considered to evaluate the information that they can provide about the physical interaction between colliding nuclear particles. It was found that both optical model and inversion methods based upon inverse scattering theories are subject to ambiguities. Therefore, it is essential that elastic scattering data analyses are consistent with microscopic calculations of the potential. 25 refs

  6. An evaluation of diverse methods of obtaining effective Schroedinger interaction potentials for elastic scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amos, K.; Allen, L.J.; Steward, C. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics; Hodgson, P.E. [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics; Sofianos, S.A. [University of South Africa (UNISA), Pretoria (South Africa). Dept. of Physics

    1995-10-01

    Direct solution of the Schroedinger equation and inversion methods of analysis of elastic scattering data are considered to evaluate the information that they can provide about the physical interaction between colliding nuclear particles. It was found that both optical model and inversion methods based upon inverse scattering theories are subject to ambiguities. Therefore, it is essential that elastic scattering data analyses are consistent with microscopic calculations of the potential. 25 refs.

  7. Multiple sclerosis - etiology and diagnostic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamińska, Joanna; Koper, Olga M; Piechal, Kinga; Kemona, Halina

    2017-06-30

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory and demyelinating disease of autoimmune originate. The main agents responsible for the MS development include exogenous, environmental, and genetic factors. MS is characterized by multifocal and temporally scattered central nervous system (CNS) damage which lead to the axonal damage. Among clinical courses of MS it can be distinguish relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPSM), primary progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS), and progressive-relapsing multiple sclerosis (RPMS). Depending on the severity of signs and symptoms MS can be described as benign MS or malignant MS. MS diagnosis is based on McDonald's diagnostic criteria, which link clinical manifestation with characteristic lesions demonstrated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis, and visual evoked potentials. Among CSF laboratory tests used to the MS diagnosis are applied: Tibbling & Link IgG index, reinbegrams, and CSF isoelectrofocusing for oligoclonal bands detection. It should be emphasized, that despite huge progress regarding MS as well as the availability of different diagnostics methods this disease is still a diagnostic challenge. It may result from fact that MS has diverse clinical course and there is a lack of single test, which would be of appropriate diagnostic sensitivity and specificity for quick and accurate diagnosis.

  8. Light scattering by soap films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrij, A.

    A theory is constructed describing the scattering from a liquid film (e.g., a soap film) of a light beam polarized normal to the plane of incidence. This scattering is due to the small irregular corrugations caused by thermal motion. The interference of the reflected incident beam with its multiple

  9. Dynamic measurement of forward scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appel-Hansen, Jørgen; Rusch, W.

    1975-01-01

    A dynamic method for the measurement of forward scattering in a radio anechoic chamber is described. The quantity determined is the induced-field-ratio (IFR) of conducting cylinders. The determination of the IFR is highly sensitive to 1) multiple scattering between the cylinder and the obpring...

  10. Polarization phenomena in inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhaar, B.J.

    1974-01-01

    An attempt is made to clarify the principles of inelastic scattering using the distorted wave Born approximation, concentrating on inelastic proton scattering. The principle aspects and merits of the microscopic description and the necessity of including the N-N spin orbit force are discussed. (7 figures) (U.S.)

  11. Phaseless tomographic inverse scattering in Banach spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estatico, C.; Fedeli, A.; Pastorino, M.; Randazzo, A.; Tavanti, E.

    2016-01-01

    In conventional microwave imaging, a hidden dielectric object under test is illuminated by microwave incident waves and the field it scatters is measured in magnitude and phase in order to retrieve the dielectric properties by solving the related non-homogenous Helmholtz equation or its Lippmann-Schwinger integral formulation. Since the measurement of the phase of electromagnetic waves can be still considered expensive in real applications, in this paper only the magnitude of the scattering wave fields is measured in order to allow a reduction of the cost of the measurement apparatus. In this respect, we firstly analyse the properties of the phaseless scattering nonlinear forward modelling operator in its integral form and we provide an analytical expression for computing its Fréchet derivative. Then, we propose an inexact Newton method to solve the associated nonlinear inverse problems, where any linearized step is solved by a L p Banach space iterative regularization method which acts on the dual space L p* . Indeed, it is well known that regularization in special Banach spaces, such us L p with 1 < p < 2, allows to promote sparsity and to reduce Gibbs phenomena and over-smoothness. Preliminary results concerning numerically computed field data are shown. (paper)

  12. Graphite analyser upgrade for the IRIS spectrometer at ISIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, S.I.; Telling, M.T.F.; Carlile, C.J.

    1999-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The pyrolytic graphite (PG) analyser bank on the IRIS high resolution inelastic spectrometer [1] at ISIS is to be upgraded. At present the analyser consists of 1350 graphite pieces (6 rows by 225 columns) cooled to 25K [2]. The new analyser array, however, will provide a three-fold increase in area and employ 4212 crystal pieces (18 rows by 234 columns). In addition, the graphite crystals will be cooled close to liquid helium temperature to further reduce thermal diffuse scattering (TDS) and improve the sensitivity of the spectrometer [2]. For an instrument such as IRIS, with its analyser in near back-scattering geometry, optical aberration and variation in the time-of-flight of the analysed neutrons is introduced as one moves out from the horizontal scattering plane. To minimise such effects, the profile of the analyser array has been redesigned. The concept behind the design of the new analyser bank and factors that effect the overall resolution of the instrument are discussed. Results of Monte Carlo simulations of the expected resolution and intensity of the complete instrument are presented and compared to the current instrument performance. (author) [1] C.J. Carlile et al, Physica B 182 (1992) 431-440.; [2] C.J. Carlile et al, Nuclear Instruments and Methods In Physics Research A 338 (1994) 78-82

  13. Heavy ion scattering; a fixed energy inverse problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amos, K.

    1993-01-01

    Heavy ion scattering has been studied quite intensively in the last decade and central in most analyses of data from such experiments be they on fusion, particle transfer or internal state excitations of the colliding pair, is the inter-ion interaction affecting their relative motion. It is customary to use the elastic scattering data to constrain solutions of the (nonrelativistic) Schroedinger equation to ascertain the character of that (central and complex) heavy ion potential. These matters for projectiles ranging from the lightest 'heavy' ion, a proton, to Oxygen nuclei are considered in brief herein. The targets range from 12 C to 208 Pb. The central entity in the analyses to be discussed will be the S-function, and so for completeness, the simple potential scattering theory details are presented that specify the S-function and relate it to measured cross-sections. 20 refs., 18 figs

  14. Delbrueck scattering of monoenergetic photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahane, S.

    1978-05-01

    The Delbrueck effect was experimentally investigated in high Z nuclei with monoenergetic photons in the range 6.8-11.4 MeV. Two different methods were used for measurements of the differential scattering cross-section, in the 25-140 deg range and in the forward direction (theta = 1.5 deg), respectively. The known Compton scattering cross-section was used in a new and unique way for the determination of the elastic scattering cross-section. Isolation of the contribution of the real Delbrueck amplitudes to the cross-section was crried out successfully. Experimental confirmation of the theoretical calculations of Papatzacos and Mork and measurement, for the first time, of the Rayleigh scattering in the 10 MeV region are also reported. One of the most interesting findings is the presence of Coulomb corrections in Delbrueck scattering at these energies. More theoretical effort is needed in this last direction. (author)

  15. Assessing variability in results in systematic reviews of diagnostic studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naaktgeboren, Christiana A; Ochodo, Eleanor A; Van Enst, Wynanda A; de Groot, Joris A H; Hooft, Lotty; Leeflang, Mariska M G; Bossuyt, Patrick M; Moons, Karel G M; Reitsma, Johannes B

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To describe approaches used in systematic reviews of diagnostic test accuracy studies for assessing variability in estimates of accuracy between studies and to provide guidance in this area. METHODS: Meta-analyses of diagnostic test accuracy studies published between May and September

  16. Diagnostics on Z (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, T. J.; Derzon, M. S.; Chandler, G. A.; Fehl, D. L.; Leeper, R. J.; Porter, J. L.; Spielman, R. B.; Ruiz, C.; Cooper, G.; McGurn, J.

    2001-01-01

    The 100 ns, 20 MA pinch-driver Z is surrounded by an extensive set of diagnostics. There are nine radial lines of sight set at 12 o above horizontal and each of these may be equipped with up to five diagnostic ports. Instruments routinely fielded viewing the pinch from the side with these ports include x-ray diode arrays, photoconducting detector arrays, bolometers, transmission grating spectrometers, time-resolved x-ray pinhole cameras, x-ray crystal spectrometers, calorimeters, silicon photodiodes, and neutron detectors. A diagnostic package fielded on axis for viewing internal pinch radiation consists of nine lines of sight. This package accommodates virtually the same diagnostics as the radial ports. Other diagnostics not fielded on the axial or radial ports include current B-dot monitors, filtered x-ray scintillators coupled by fiber optics to streak cameras, streaked visible spectroscopy, velocity interferometric system for any reflector, bremsstrahlung cameras, and active shock breakout measurement of hohlraum temperature. The data acquisition system is capable of recording up to 500 channels and the data from each shot is available on the Internet. A major new diagnostic presently under construction is the BEAMLET backlighter. We will briefly describe each of these diagnostics and present some of the highest-quality data from them

  17. Cable Diagnostic Focused Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartlein, R.A.; Hampton, R.N.

    2010-12-30

    This report summarizes an extensive effort made to understand how to effectively use the various diagnostic technologies to establish the condition of medium voltage underground cable circuits. These circuits make up an extensive portion of the electric delivery infrastructure in the United States. Much of this infrastructure is old and experiencing unacceptable failure rates. By deploying efficient diagnostic testing programs, electric utilities can replace or repair circuits that are about to fail, providing an optimal approach to improving electric system reliability. This is an intrinsically complex topic. Underground cable systems are not homogeneous. Cable circuits often contain multiple branches with different cable designs and a range of insulation materials. In addition, each insulation material ages differently as a function of time, temperature and operating environment. To complicate matters further, there are a wide variety of diagnostic technologies available for assessing the condition of cable circuits with a diversity of claims about the effectiveness of each approach. As a result, the benefits of deploying cable diagnostic testing programs have been difficult to establish, leading many utilities to avoid the their use altogether. This project was designed to help address these issues. The information provided is the result of a collaborative effort between Georgia Tech NEETRAC staff, Georgia Tech academic faculty, electric utility industry participants, as well as cable system diagnostic testing service providers and test equipment providers. Report topics include: •How cable systems age and fail, •The various technologies available for detecting potential failure sites, •The advantages and disadvantages of different diagnostic technologies, •Different approaches for utilities to employ cable system diagnostics. The primary deliverables of this project are this report, a Cable Diagnostic Handbook (a subset of this report) and an online

  18. Laser Beam Focus Analyser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Carøe; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Olsen, Flemming Ove

    2007-01-01

    the obtainable features in direct laser machining as well as heat affected zones in welding processes. This paper describes the development of a measuring unit capable of analysing beam shape and diameter of lasers to be used in manufacturing processes. The analyser is based on the principle of a rotating......The quantitative and qualitative description of laser beam characteristics is important for process implementation and optimisation. In particular, a need for quantitative characterisation of beam diameter was identified when using fibre lasers for micro manufacturing. Here the beam diameter limits...... mechanical wire being swept through the laser beam at varying Z-heights. The reflected signal is analysed and the resulting beam profile determined. The development comprised the design of a flexible fixture capable of providing both rotation and Z-axis movement, control software including data capture...

  19. ITER Fast Ion Collective Thomson Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bindslev, Henrik; Meo, Fernando; Korsholm, Søren Bang

    In this report we investigate the feasibility of diagnosing the fast ions in ITER by collective Thomson scattering (CTS), exploring and comparing the diagnostic potentials of CTS systems base on a range of different probe frequencies. In the first section we first recall the requirements for meas...... the diagnostic potentials uncovered in the preceding four sections. A number of more detailed discussions are placed in appendices along with supporting material....... for measurements of the confined fusion alpha particles in ITER set by the ITER team. Then we outline the considerations, which enter into the selection and evaluation of CTS systems. System definition includes choice of probe frequency, geometry of probe and receiver beam patterns and probe power, but ultimately...... covers many more details. Here we introduce terms and methods used in the more detailed system evaluations later in the report. In Sections 2 through 5 we consider four different types of CTS systems, which differ by the ranges in which their probe frequencies lie. In Section 6 we summarize and compare...

  20. Neutron scattering in applied research: possibilities for medium-flux research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reijonen, H.

    1977-01-01

    The possibilities for neutron scattering techniques in applied research are reviewed. The areas covered are magnetism, determination of hydrogen self-diffusion constants and ionic mobility in superionic conductors, liquid crystals, molecular solids, polymers, surface chemistry and catalysts, colloids biology, physical metallurgy and neutron diagnostics. Established applications and new proposals for research projects are presented in various degrees of detail. Small angle scattering techniques, physical metallurgy and biology were identified as having particular potential. Prospective users should be realistically informed of the possibilities of neutron scattering techniques. (author)