Full Text Available Many commentators have seen the growing gap in earnings and income between those with a college education and those without as a major cause of increasing inequality in the United States and elsewhere. In this article we investigate the extent to which increasing the educational attainment of the US population might ameliorate inequality. We use data from NLSY79 and carry out a three-level decomposition of total inequality into within-person, between-person and between-education parts. We find that the between-education contribution to inequality is small, even when we consider only adjusted inequality that omits the within-person component. We carry out a number of simulations to gauge the likely impact on inequality of changes in the distribution of education and of a narrowing of the differences in average incomes between those with different levels of education. We find that any feasible educational policy is likely to have only a minor impact on income inequality.
It is argued that the present propaganda about the global warming with its disastrous consequences is a scare spread by some First World countries, especially the United States, to prevent the rapid industrialization of developing third world countries. (author). 6 refs., 1 tab
Park, Kang Hoon
This study considers how education and globalization affect income inequality in Asia, with unbalanced panel data. The evidence supports the validity of Kuznets' inverted-U hypothesis for the connection between income level and income inequality. However, when more variables are integrated into the model, the consistency of the inverse U-shaped curve becomes weaker. The empirical results suggest that educational variables are highly influential in affecting income distribution. Our analysis i...
Welch, Mary A., Ed.
The economics of the decision to go to college or obtain technical training is discussed in this booklet. To stay competitive in the job market requires constant educational updating. The following questions are discussed: (1) how income inequality is measured; (2) how income is distributed in the United States; (3) why income inequality is…
Buly A Cardak
This paper uses a growth model with public and private education alternatives to investigate the implications of education voucher for economic growth and the evolution of income inequality. The results indicate that introducing education vouchers can increase economic growth. families that switch from public to private education due to vouchers experience higher incomes, leading to growth in the tax base which in turn raises public education expenditures and increases the growth of the whole...
This paper sheds light on how competence assessment takes place in the Danish Vocational and Educational Training System. It discusses how intentions formulated by the government have unintentional effects when implemented in practice. The qualitative methods used in this study consist of participant observations from my field study of dropouts in…
Hill, Catharine B.
This paper demonstrates that increasing income inequality can contribute to the trends we see in American higher education, particularly in the selective, private nonprofit and public sectors. Given these institutions' selective admissions and commitment to socioeconomic diversity, the paper demonstrates how increasing income inequality leads to…
The author's previously developed theory on income distribution, in which two of the explanatory variables are the average level and the distribution of education, is refined and tested on data selected and processed by the author and data from three studies by Americans. The material consists of data on subdivisions of three countries, the United…
In the UK, recent changes to prescribing oral contraceptives (OCs) have contributed to acute difficulties in providing clinical services, interruptions or discontinuations of audit and research projects of the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists' Faculty of Family Planning and Reproductive Health Care, and criticisms of the way its audit unit has handled nationally important information. Professional auditors should consider the problems caused by the sudden change in a long accepted gold standard as an opportunity. The unit has already received audits of the effect of changes concerning the risk of thromboembolism from gestodene and desogestrel containing OCs. Family planning providers need to consider whether their cascade system of information dissemination did not inform them quickly and completely of a necessary change in practice or whether it followed the information system available to clients (i.e., the national press) so that family planning providers are not prepared for consumer reports both qualitatively and quantitatively. Some potentially long-term difficulties have occurred, which probably could not have been avoided regardless. Some clinics had to dispense only a two-months supply of second generation OCs at a time. Problems linked to a large increase in clinic attendances (potentially longer waiting times, counseling time, poorer attendance rates, and possibly more OC discontinuations) will recur at two months and at regular intervals thereafter until new stocks are available to allow staggered follow-up appointments. Thus, the audit unit can refer to its on-going audits for these figures. The most difficult step of the audit cycle is to initiate a change in practice. The audit unit must first acquire data to handle appropriately OC scares from articles in the national press.
Yang, Jun; Huang, Xiao; Li, Xiaoyu
Based on the endogenous growth theory, this paper uses the Gini coefficient to measure educational inequality and studies the empirical relationship between educational inequality and income inequality through a simultaneous equation model. The results show that: (1) Income inequality leads to educational inequality while the reduction of…
Utilising a globalisation framework this study contributes to discussions concerning inequality, education, and development by re-examining the effects of educational and economic variables on income inequality. This research shows that the effects of education on income inequality are affected by the level of economic freedom in a country, and…
Bloome, Deirdre; Western, Bruce
Policy reforms and rising income inequality transformed educational and economic opportunities for Americans approaching midlife in the 1990s. Rising income inequality may have reduced mobility, as income gaps increased between rich and poor children. Against the effects of rising inequality, Civil Rights reforms may have increased mobility, as…
Duncan, Greg J.; Murnane, Richard J.
The first of two articles in consecutive months describes the origins and nature of growing income inequality, and some of its consequences for American children. It documents the increased family income inequality that's occurred over the past 40 years and shows that the increased income disparity has been more than matched by an expanding…
Though extensive research has explored the prevalence of educational assortative mating, what causes its variation across countries and over time is not well understood. Using data from the Luxembourg Income Study Database, I investigate the hypothesis that assortative mating by income is influenced by income inequality between educational strata. I find that in countries with greater returns to education, the odds of any sort of union that crosses educational boundaries is substantially reduced. However, I do not find substantial evidence of an effect of changes in returns to education on marital sorting within countries. Educational and labor market parity between males and females appear to be negatively related to marital sorting. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The article is focused on an analysis of educational attainment of an individual and income situation of their household. At the beginning, a compendious summary of secondary sources is introduced. It resumes data supporting and contradicting the hypothesis about education as a determinant of an income situation. The preliminary theses analysis is performed by results quantification of a project called European Union – Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC. Aim of the paper is to verify the input thesis assumed from secondary resources. The thesis concerns the direct proportion between a level of education achieved and level of financial income. An introduction of a methodology and research summarized data forms a basis for particular analyses which are based on a conjunction of obtained information on household average monthly income and the educational attainment of their leading member. Analyses are sustained by contingency which characterizes social groups, i.e. spheres in which leading members are mostly involved with regard to income.Research results proved the validity of the preliminary thesis about correlation, respectively direct proportionality of educational attainment and monthly income amount. Education is consequently identified as one of income situation determinants. The authors anticipate specificity of the selected point of view. Results are therefore presented only as a partial argument and a possible base for further enquiries.
Konrad, Kai A.
Incomplete information is a commitment device for time consistency problems. In the context of time consistent labour income taxation privacy reduces welfare losses and increases the effectiveness of public education as a second best policy.
An econometric model is formulated that explains income per person in various compartments of the labor market defined by three main levels of education and by education required. The model enables an estimation of the effect of increased access to education on that distribution. The model is based on a production for the economy as a whole; a…
Greg J. Duncan
Full Text Available Increases in family income inequality in the United States have translated into widening gaps in educational achievement and attainments between children from low- and high-income families. We describe the mechanisms that have produced this disturbing trend. We argue that the three dominant policy approaches states and the federal government have used to improve the education of the disadvantaged have had at best modest success in improving education for disadvantaged children. To conclude, we describe the building blocks for an American solution to the problem of growing inequality of educational outcomes.
Duncan, Greg J.; Murnane, Richard J.
Can the nation's schools meet today's challenge of providing all students with the skills they will need to thrive in the rapidly changing economy and society of the 21st century? The authors point out in this article that a large percentage of children, overwhelmingly from low-income families, end their formal schooling without the…
Rasmussen, Jeppe Nørgaard; Rasmussen, Søren; Gislason, Gunnar H
OBJECTIVE: To study how income and educational level influence mortality after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective analysis using individual level linkage of registries in Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: All patients 30-74 years old hospitalised for the first time with AMI i...... that both educational level and income substantially and independently affect mortality after AMI, indicating that each indicator has specific effects on mortality and that these indicators are not interchangeable.......OBJECTIVE: To study how income and educational level influence mortality after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective analysis using individual level linkage of registries in Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: All patients 30-74 years old hospitalised for the first time with AMI...... in Denmark in 1995-2002. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Relative risk (RR) of 30 day mortality and long term mortality (31 days until 31 December 2003) associated with income (adjusted for education) or educational level (adjusted for income) and further adjusted for sex, age, civil status, and comorbidity. RESULTS...
Full Text Available I analyze a long run educational policy as a mechanism to close the income gap among low, median and high-income families. If the choice is made endogenous by the use of the median voter theorem, the results are as follow: i public education system guarantees income convergence, however the income growth rate of the median voter is smaller; ii the combination public and private (hybrid educational system allows faster income growth rate, but income inequality is almost the natural outcome. The ending result is that the combination public and private system will prevail, since the income growth rate of the median voter is higher in this system. This might explain the persistence and differences of income inequality among the economies.O objetivo deste artigo é analisar a utilização da política educacional no longo prazo como mecanismo para a redução da desigualdade de renda entre famílias de renda baixa, mediana e alta. Se a decisão sobre a política for endogeneizada, de acordo com o teorema do eleitor mediano, os resultados são os seguintes: i o sistema educacional público para todos, apesar de garantir convergência de renda, produz uma menor taxa de crescimento da renda do eleitor mediano; ii a combinação público-privado (sistema educacional híbrido permite uma maior taxa de crescimento da renda do eleitor mediano, no entanto a desigualdade de renda é inerente a este sistema. Como resultado final, o eleitor mediano irá escolher o sistema público-privado, pois o crescimento da sua renda é maior, o que pode explicar a persistência e as diferenças na desigualdade de renda das economias.
Full Text Available This study examines the role of education and labour productivity on income inequality in Nigeria by considering both educational attainment and productivity growth over a period of time. A dynamic structure is devised for the analysis using data for the period 1981 to 2013. The cointegration and error correction methodology is adopted in the empirical analysis. It is shown that productivity has a stronger impact on inequality reduction than education. This implies that any policy that promotes education without the productive capacity of labour would not lead to reduction in inequality. It also suggests that policies of reducing income inequality in Nigeria should invariably incorporate productivity growth measures for such policies to be sustainable.
Gonzalo Olcina Vauteren; Luisa Escriche
The aim of this paper is to explain how financial constraints and family background characteristics affect the signalling educational investments of individuals born in low-income families. We show that talented students who are poor are unable to signal their talent, as the maximum level of education they can attain may also be achieved by less talented students who are rich. Under this approach, a de-crease in inequalities across generations cannot be expected. The paper also shows that an ...
Nordlund, Madelene; Bonfanti, Sara; Strandh, Mattias
In this study we examine the long-term impact of second chance education (SCE) on incomes of poorly educated individuals who live in Sweden but were not born in a Nordic country, using data on income changes from 1992 to 2003 compiled by Statistics Sweden. Ordinary Least Squares regression analyses show that participation in SCE increased the work…
Lunetta, Vincent N.; van den Berg, Euwe
Science education graduate programs in high-income countries frequently enroll students from low-income countries. Upon admission these students have profiles of knowledge, skills, and experiences which can be quite different from those of students from the host high-income countries. Upon graduation, they will normally return to work in education systems with conditions which differ greatly from those in high-income countries. This article attempts to clarify some of the differences and similarities between such students. It offers suggestions for making graduate programs more responsive to the special needs of students from low-income countries and to the opportunities they offer for enhancing cross-cultural sensitivity. Many of the suggestions can be incorporated within existing programs through choices of elective courses and topics for papers, projects, and research. Many references are provided to relevant literature on cultural issues and on science education in low-income countries.
Hagues, Rachel; Stotz, Sarah; Childers, Austin; Phua, Joe; Hibbs, Judy; Murray, Deborah; Lee, Jung Sun
As access to healthy food (or lack thereof) could be considered a social justice issue, social workers should be concerned about this issue and willing to collaborate with colleagues of various disciplines to address it. This study was a formative evaluation conducted to understand best practices, recommendations, and feasibility of a social-marketing-based nutrition education program tailored to the needs of adults with limited income. The authors report findings from focus groups conducted with Cooperative Extension Agents (CEAs) and region coordinators (n = 45) and Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Education (SNAP-Ed) (n = 69) eligible participants to inform the development of a social marketing nutrition intervention for SNAP-Ed in Georgia. Barriers to healthy eating included cultural preferences, costs of healthy food, lack of time, and lack of availability. Social marketing has a potential to deliver effective and efficient SNAP-Ed targeted to large, limited-resource Georgians. Segmenting the low-income population based on geographical location as well as best methods for outreach can allow tailored messages to meet identified needs, lifestyles, and other variables that make these individuals most likely to respond to the program. Food security and nutrition education are topics of concern for all health care professionals interested in addressing complex health issues of many low-income adults.
Bromham, D R
Family planning and reproductive health providers are struggling to handle the effect of the latest and second oral contraceptive (OC) scare of 1995. Neither scare is based on significant published data or data in the public domain. Data for the latest scare do exist, which are still unpublished. These data appear to completely contradict the earlier allegation of a differential risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE) between desogestrel- and gestodene-based combined OCs. They show that second generation OCs have a lower excess risk of VTE than desogestrel- or gestodene-based OCs. An October 1995 letter recommended that providers should change women using desogestrel- or gestodene-based OCs to alternative OCs containing levonorgestrel, norethisterone, or ethynodiol. It is impossible to know whether the effect for clients and providers would have been greater or lesser had the information not leaked to the press before publication. Regardless, other OC scares are likely to occur. Providers should not overlook the opportunity to learn lessons that may benefit them and their clients in the future. They can examine the effect of previous OC scares by examining national abortion rates. For example, after each of the OC-related scares in 1977 (thromboembolism), 1983 (breast and cervical cancer), and 1987 (breast cancer), the abortion rate in most age groups (not in those aged less than 16 or 35 and older) increased. Some other ways to examine the effect of and providers' response to such scares are additional attendances to clinic, contraceptive switching, and increase in unplanned pregnancies. Providers should help colleagues, government agencies, and the media understand their impact.
Farmer, Julie; Phillips, Rebecca C; Singhal, Sonica; Quiñonez, Carlos
To quantify the extent to which income and education explain gradients in oral health outcomes. Using data from the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS 2003), binary logistic regression models were constructed to examine the relationship between income and education on self-reported oral health (SROH) and chewing difficulties (CD) while controlling for age, sex, ethnicity, employment status and dental insurance coverage. The relative index of inequality (RII) was utilized to quantify the extent to which income and education explain gradients in poor SROH and CD. Income and education gradients were present for SROH and CD. From fully adjusted models, income inequalities were greater for CD (RIIinc = 2.85) than for SROH (RIIinc = 2.75), with no substantial difference in education inequalities between the two. Income explained 37.4% and 42.4% of the education gradient in SROH and CD respectively, whereas education explained 45.2% and 6.1% of income gradients in SROH and CD respectively. Education appears to play a larger role than income when explaining inequalities in SROH; however, it is the opposite for CD. In this sample of the Canadian adult population, income explained over one third of the education gradient in SROH and CDs, whereas the contribution of education to income gradients varied by choice of self-reported outcome. Results call for stakeholders to improve affordability of dental care in order to reduce inequalities in the Canadian population.
Dalton, Jon C.; Crosby, Pamela C.
Many scholars argue that America is becoming a dangerously divided nation because of increasing inequality, especially in income distribution. This article examines the problem of widening income inequality with particular focus on the role that colleges and universities and their student affairs organizations play in serving low income students…
Mok, Yan Fung
Effects of prose, document, and quantitative literacy and education on the wages of 1,456 young adults who worked full time were analyzed. Literacy and education did not have the same effects on income for all groups; not all groups depended on literacy and education to increase income. Different types of literacy had different effects on gender…
Kanwal, Ayesha; Munir, Kashif
This paper examines the impact of educational and gender inequality in education on income inequality in South Asian countries for the time period of 1980 to 2010. Random effect model (REM) and fixed effect model (FEM) are used for estimation. Using the concept of education Gini the study find that there exist a positive relationship between educational and income inequality. The results also indicate that gender inequality in education at primary and tertiary level has positive and significa...
Drajea, Alice J.; O'Sullivan, Carmel
This article investigates the effect of parents' literacy levels and family income in Uganda on the quality and nature of parents' involvement in their children's primary education. A mixed-methods study with an ethnographic element was employed to explore the views and opinions of 21 participants through a qualitative approach. Methods for data…
Choi, Jae W.
The main purposes of this study are to investigate through national income elasticities the amounts of governmental expenditure in 30 countries on total governmental service and on selected services of education, defense, health, and social welfare over the period from 1950 to 1967. Analysis of data available from various statistical sources, such…
longitudinal data on income, labor market affiliation, educational attainment, and marital and cohabitational status (96,369 patients, 256,619 admissions, and 2727 suicides). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Suicide risks after hospital discharge were depicted using Kaplan-Meier product-limit methods. Hazard ratios (HRs...... is generally associated with low income, unemployment, educational underachievement, and singleness, but this study suggests that the opposite is true among psychiatric patients. However, loss of income, labor market status, and marriage increase the suicide risk....
Prieur, Allison Marie
Children living in poverty often experience lower educational outcomes than the general population. A cycle of poverty can result, where low education levels pass from generation to generation. Up to 65% of the disparity between lower and higher income students is attributable to the Summer Learning Loss (SLL). Low-income students generally score lower in the fall on standardized tests than they did in the spring before. In contrast, middle and higher income students maintain or increase thei...
Qazi, Wasim; Raza, Syed Ali; Jawaid, Syed Tehseen; Karim, Mohd Zaini Abd
This study investigates the impact of development in the higher education sector, on the Income Inequality in Pakistan, by using the annual time series data from 1973 to 2012. The autoregressive distributed lag bound testing co-integration approach confirms the existence of long-run relationship between higher education and income inequality.…
Bramsved, Rebecka; Regber, Susann; Novak, Daniel; Mehlig, Kirsten; Lissner, Lauren; Mårild, Staffan
This study investigated the effects of two parental socio-economic characteristics, education and income, on growth and risk of obesity in children from birth to 8 years of age. Longitudinal growth data and national register-based information on socio-economic characteristics were available for 3,030 Swedish children. The development of body mass index (BMI) and height was compared in groups dichotomised by parental education and income. Low parental education was associated with a higher BMI from 4 years of age, independent of income, immigrant background, maternal BMI and smoking during pregnancy. Low family income was associated with a lower birthweight, but did not independently predict BMI development. At 8 years of age, children from less educated families had a three times higher risk of obesity, independent of parental income. Children whose parents had fewer years of education but high income had significantly higher height than all other children. Parental education protected against childhood obesity, even after adjusting for income and other important parental characteristics. Income-related differences in height, despite similar BMIs, raise questions about body composition and metabolic risk profiles. The dominant role of education underscores the value of health literacy initiatives for the parents of young children. ©2018 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Mohanty, Alekha Chandra
The prevalence of widespread poverty and the increasing inequality in income distribution across nations point to the failure of the trickle-down theory. The long-held faith in the growth of income as the sole policy instrument to achieve the national objective of growth with equity has been put to the test. The increasing numbers of the poor,…
Avian influenza (bird flu) outbreak news scare and its economic implication on poultry enterprises in Adamawa state, Nigeria. MR Ja'afar-Furo, HG Balla, B Yakubu. Abstract. No Abstract. Global Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol. 6 (1) 2007: pp. 61-68. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/gjass.v6i1.2302 · AJOL African Journals ...
Edwards, Ryan D.
There is a large and robust correlation between adult health and education, part of which likely reflects causality running from education into health. Less clear is whether education obtained later in life is as valuable for health as are earlier years of schooling, or whether education raises health directly or through income or wealth. In this…
Katharina E. Pink
Full Text Available From an evolutionary point of view, sex differences in intergenerational transmission of income may be influenced by the Trivers-Willard (T-W effect: Low status parents should invest more in daughters, whereas high status parents are expected to invest more in sons. This bias in parental investment may result in status-dependent sex biased parental support for higher education and educational attainment and should therefore affect the level of intergenerational income transmission for the sons and daughters. We used the data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (WLS to model the effect of parental financial investment on the child's income and educational attainment controlling for the number of siblings. The observed sex differences in intergenerational income transmission demonstrate that sons profited more from parental income and education in terms of their own income than daughters. Furthermore, we showed that fathers with a high socioeconomic index (SEI invest more in their sons' education in terms of completed years of education and financial support during college. In contrast daughters of low SEI fathers completed more years of education and received more financial support than sons of low SEI fathers. However, the pattern in intergenerational income transmission might be better explained as a product of sociological factors and reproductive trade-offs in later life rather than as a consequence of the T-W effect.
Need, Ariana; Jong, Uulkje de
In this article we examine gender differences in income expectations of students in higher education. We found quite large gender differences. Men and women differ significantly in the income they expect to earn at the top of their career. We examined how much personality traits contribute to
Fenske, Mark S.
The correlation between income level and achievement has led some educators to believe that low-income students cannot learn at the same level as can middle-class and affluent peers. This problem is significant because as more families become impoverished, more students may be at risk for failure. Many studies have identified challenges facing…
Nieto, Sandra; Ramos, Raúl
This article analyzes the factors that explain the gap in educational outcomes between the top and bottom quartile of students in different countries, according to their socioeconomic status. To do so, it uses PISA microdata for 10 middle-income and 2 high-income countries, and applies the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition method. Its results show that…
The relationship between population increase, economic growth, education and income inequality was examined in a cross-section study based on data from 26 developing and 2 developed countries. As other studies have noted, high population growth is associated with a less equal income distribution. A 1 percentage point reduction in the rate of population growth tends to raise the income share of the poorest 80% in the less developed world by almost 5 percentage points and is associated with a 1.7 percentage point increase in the income share of the poorest 40%. The relationship between short-run income growth and equality, on the other hand, is strong and positive. Estimates suggest that a 1 percentage point increase in the short-run rate of growth of the gross domestic product (GDP) increases the income share of the bottom 80% by about 2 percentage points and that of the poorest 40% by almost 1 percentage point. Although higher mean schooling appears to be a mild equalizer, educational inequality does not appear to have an adverse effect on income distribution. Overall, these results challenge the widely held belief that there must be a growth-equity trade-off. Moreover, they suggest that the impact of educational inequality on income distribution may be different from that observed in earlier studies, implying a need for caution in using these earlier results as a basis for educational policy development.
Neuenschwander, Lauren M.; Abbott, Angela; Mobley, Amy R.
Objective: The main objective of this study was to investigate access and use of technologies such as the Internet among Indiana's low-income population. The secondary objective was to determine whether access and use of computers significantly differed by age, race, and/or education level. Methods: Data were collected from low-income adult…
With the growing demand for highly skilled workers and declining wages for those who are less skilled, low-income youth with limited education and no work experience have few opportunities for gainful employment. Since the Great Depression, the federal government has been funding programs that provide low-income, out-of-school, and unemployed…
Orstavik, Ragnhild E; Czajkowski, Nikolai; Røysamb, Espen; Knudsen, Gun Peggy; Tambs, Kristian; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted
In many Western countries, women now reach educational levels comparable to men, although their income remains considerably lower. For the past decades, it has become increasingly clear that these measures of socio-economic status are influenced by genetic as well as environmental factors. Less is known about the relationship between education and income, and sex differences. The aim of this study was to explore genetic and environmental factors influencing education and income in a large cohort of young Norwegian twins, with special emphasis on gender differences. National register data on educational level and income were obtained for 7,710 twins (aged 29-41 years). Bivariate Cholesky models were applied to estimate qualitative and quantitative gender differences in genetic and environmental influences, the relative contribution of genetic and environmental factors to the correlation between education and income, and genetic correlations within and between sexes and phenotypes. The phenotypic correlation between educational level and income was 0.34 (0.32-0.39) for men and 0.45 (0.43-0.48) for women. An ACE model with both qualitative and quantitative sex differences fitted the data best. The genetic correlation between men and women (rg) was 0.66 (0.22-1.00) for educational attainment and 0.38 (0.01-0.75) for income, and between the two phenotypes 0.31 (0.08-0.52) for men and 0.72 (0.64-0.85) for women. Our results imply that, in relatively egalitarian societies with state-supported access to higher education and political awareness of gender equality, genetic factors may play an important role in explaining sex differences in the relationship between education and income.
Isik-Ercan, Zeynep; Demir-Dagdas, Tuba; Cakmakci, Huzeyfe; Cava-Tadik, Yasemin; Intepe-Tingir, Seyma
This paper examines the issues surrounding low-income immigrants in the U.S. and the ways they shape the educational experiences of their young children. Using a multidisciplinary lens including sociology, family studies, education, and mental health, the authors analyse multiple perspectives towards the educational experiences of children in…
Zachrisson, Henrik Daae; Dearing, Eric
The sociopolitical context of Norway includes low poverty rates and universal access to subsidized and regulated Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC). In this context, the association between family income dynamics and changes in early child behavior problems was investigated, as well as whether high quality ECEC buffers children from the effects of income dynamics. In a population-based sample (N = 75,296), within-family changes in income-to-needs predicted changes in externalizing and internalizing problems (from age 18 to 36 months), particularly for lower-income children. For internalizing problems, ECEC buffered the effect of income-to-needs changes. These findings lend further support to the potential benefits of ECEC for children from lower-income families. PMID:25345342
Rasmussen, Jeppe Nørgaard; Gislason, Gunnar H; Rasmussen, Søren
OBJECTIVE: To study the initiation of and long-term refill persistency with statins and beta-blockers after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) according to income and education. DESIGN AND SETTING: Linkage of individuals through national registers of hospitalisations, drug dispensation, income...... and education. PARTICIPANTS: 30 078 patients aged 30-74 years surviving first hospitalisation for AMI in Denmark between 1995 and 2001. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Initiation of statin or beta-blocker treatment (out-patient claim of prescriptions within 6 months of discharge) and refill persistency (first break.......66-0.82) and medium (HR 0.82; 95% CI 0.74-0.92) income compared with low income, whereas there was a trend in the opposite direction concerning a break in beta-blocker treatment. There was no gradient in re-initiation of treatment. CONCLUSION: Patients with low compared with high income less frequently initiated...
Lee, Jungeun Olivia; Hill,, Karl G.; Hawkins, J. David
This study investigated one potential mechanism mediating continuity and discontinuity in low-income status across generations: children's educational aspirations and expectations. Data were drawn from a community sample of 808 participants who were followed from age 10 to 30. Four trajectory groups of children's educational aspirations and expectations were identified from ages 10 to 18 (grades five through 12): “stable-high” group, “stable-low” group, “increaser” group, and “decreaser” group. Among participants from low-income families, those in the stable-high group and the increaser group were equally likely to graduate from high school. High school graduation was positively associated with level of total household income at age 30. Findings suggest that social work efforts that support the development of high educational aspirations and expectations in children might serve to reduce the intergenerational continuity of low-income status. PMID:24385713
Foldvari, Peter; van Leeuwen, Bas
In this paper, we revisit the question whether inequality in education and human capital is closely related to income inequality. Using the most popular functional forms describing the relationship between, first, output and human capital and, second, education and human capital, we find that the effect of inequality in schooling on income…
Bauch, Chris T; Bhattacharyya, Samit
Immunization programs have often been impeded by vaccine scares, as evidenced by the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) autism vaccine scare in Britain. A "free rider" effect may be partly responsible: vaccine-generated herd immunity can reduce disease incidence to such low levels that real or imagined vaccine risks appear large in comparison, causing individuals to cease vaccinating. This implies a feedback loop between disease prevalence and strategic individual vaccinating behavior. Here, we analyze a model based on evolutionary game theory that captures this feedback in the context of vaccine scares, and that also includes social learning. Vaccine risk perception evolves over time according to an exogenously imposed curve. We test the model against vaccine coverage data and disease incidence data from two vaccine scares in England & Wales: the whole cell pertussis vaccine scare and the MMR vaccine scare. The model fits vaccine coverage data from both vaccine scares relatively well. Moreover, the model can explain the vaccine coverage data more parsimoniously than most competing models without social learning and/or feedback (hence, adding social learning and feedback to a vaccine scare model improves model fit with little or no parsimony penalty). Under some circumstances, the model can predict future vaccine coverage and disease incidence--up to 10 years in advance in the case of pertussis--including specific qualitative features of the dynamics, such as future incidence peaks and undulations in vaccine coverage due to the population's response to changing disease incidence. Vaccine scares could become more common as eradication goals are approached for more vaccine-preventable diseases. Such models could help us predict how vaccine scares might unfold and assist mitigation efforts.
This Paper explains the causes of the Gender Inequality of education and analyze how the gender inequality in education impacts the economic growth & development, investment and population growth etc. The paper finds that the gender inequality in education is as an endogenous variable and show that it can be explained to a considerable extent by religious preference, regional factors, and civil freedom. For some of these variables, the direction of the effect depends on the particular measure...
Sabanayagam, Charumathi; Shankar, Anoop
Low socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with mortality in several populations. SES measures, such as education and income, may operate through different pathways. However, the independent effect of each measure mutually adjusting for the effect of other SES measures is not clear. The association between poverty-income ratio (PIR) and education and all-cause mortality among 15,646 adults, aged >20 years, who participated in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in the USA, was examined. The lower PIR quartiles and less than high school education were positively associated with all-cause mortality in initial models adjusting for the demographic, lifestyle and clinical risk factors. After additional adjustment for education, the lower PIR quartiles were still significantly associated with all-cause mortality. The multivariable odds ratio (OR) [95% confidence interval (CI)] of all-cause mortality comparing the lowest to the highest quartile of PIR was 2.11 (1.52-2.95, p trend education was no longer associated with all-cause mortality [multivariable OR (95% CI) of all-cause mortality comparing less than high school to more than high school education was 1.05 (0.85-1.31, p trend=0.57)]. The results suggest that income may be a stronger predictor of mortality than education, and narrowing the income differentials may reduce the health disparities.
Lukaš, Mirko; Samardžic, Darko
The aim of this paper is to provide an objective overview of the impact of teacher salaries on the educational achievements of students. It is often debated about teacher salaries and improvement or jeopardizing their standard, but educational consequences that may ensue as a result of these intentions are rarely addressed. Teacher's role in…
Nada Denona Bogović
Full Text Available Contemporary researches on economic inequality and poverty are pointing out that their key causes appear in the field of tax policy, workforce policy, policy of employment and more recently in education and educational quality of population.The authors are therefore examining the level and quality of education of Croatian population as one of the most important terms of poverty. In compliance with findings that submit theoretical and empirical evidence of their connection, they highlight education as the most important influential area of economic and social policy in purpose of long-term downsizing of poverty and economic inequality, as well as reaching the level of development of the most successful CEE and EU countries.
Abellán, Antonio; Rodríguez-Laso, Ángel; Pujol, Rogelio; Barrios, Laura
This paper aims to estimate if the education level modifies the association of income with disability prevalence in the elderly. Education can have a confounding effect on income or interact with it as a health determinant. It is important to analyze the relationship between socio-economic status and disability in older people, because it helps to better understand health inequalities and organize appropriate social policies. The study is based on the Survey on Disability, Personal Autonomy and Dependency Situations (Spanish National Statistics Institute). Binary logistic regression models are adjusted (bivariate, adjusted for gender and age, with all variables and with the interaction between income and education levels). A bad adjustment of the model is detected and a scobit link is added, which helps to differentiate disabled and non-disabled individuals better. People with difficulty in carrying out activities of daily living are much older, frequently women and with low education and income levels. The significant interaction between education level and income means that the odds of being disabled is 43% less in people of high income compared with people of low income if they are well educated, while it is only 21%, among those with low education. A higher education level amplifies significantly the inverse association between income and disability in the Spanish elderly, what suggests that those with higher education will profit more than those with lower education from universal economic benefits policies aimed at the disabled, increasing health inequalities between groups.
Full Text Available Throughout Tunisia, basic education is compulsory. Children are required to enroll for at least 9 years from age 6. This paper examines gender differences in education choice of upper basic education of youths aged 15–24 in Tunisia. To investigate the factors that influence an individual’s choice between vocational education, general education (secondary and high education and leaving school, the paper estimates a multinomial probit model of education choice. We focus on the impact of household income, parental education, sector of economic activity of father, household size, urban location and region of residence on investments in children. These issues are addressed using data from the 2010 National PopulationEmployment Survey that provided information on educational attainment and vocational training of more than 55,000 youths aged 15-24. The findings of this paper suggest that there are gender differences in education choice. Increases in permanent income contribute more to the probabilities of the two types of education of girls than of boys. Parental education has a positive significant effect on their attitudes towards children education and the impact of mother’s higher education was more important for the education of boys than of girls. While, father’s coefficient estimates show the relative benefit to girls general education. Children whose fathers work in agriculture are at disadvantage. The negative effect on girls’ education was larger than on boys’ at the two streams of education. The coefficient estimates on the manufacturing sector increase the probabilities of receiving general education and decrease the probabilities of undertaking vocational education for both girls and boys.
Objective: Nutrition education research recruitment expense and effort are substantial; sample selection is crucial for intervention assessment. Effectiveness and cost of Facebook to recruit low-income women to an online nutrition program were examined, including biopsychosocial characteristics of Facebook responders. Methods: An ad appeared on…
Corcoran, Sean; Evans, William N.
Using a panel of U.S. school districts spanning 1970-2000, we examine the relationship between income inequality and fiscal support for public education. In contrast with recent theoretical and empirical work suggesting a negative relationship between inequality and public spending, we find results consistent with a median voter model, in which…
Shafiq, M. Najeeb; Sinno, Abdulkader H.
The authors examine the effect of educational attainment and income on support for suicide bombing among Muslim publics in six predominantly Muslim countries that have experienced suicide bombings: Indonesia, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Pakistan, and Turkey. The authors make two contributions. First, they present a conceptual model, which has been…
Condon, James V.; Prince, Lori H.
This article describes higher education financial assistance tools designed mainly for students of middle- and upper-income families who may not be eligible for financial aid from other sources. It includes the 2007 legislative updates for these tools, all of which have been devised and offered by either state or federal governments. The authors…
Berry, Hugh G.; Ward, Michael; Caplan, Leslie
Using data from the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2, this article examines the relationships among three of Wehmeyer's components of self-determination (autonomy, empowerment, and self-realization) and subsequent reported access to postsecondary education in transitioning youths receiving Supplemental Security Income benefits. Results of…
Gabbard, Anne V.; Coleman, A. Lee
Changes in the occupational and educational aspirations and expectations of fifth and sixth grade children over a 6-year period were studied. In 1969, a questionnaire was administered to 355 students from 4 rural mountain schools and 3 urban schools in low-income areas in 3 Kentucky counties. In 1975, 199 students from the same rural mountain…
Zachrisson, Henrik D.; Dearing, Eric
The sociopolitical context of Norway includes low poverty rates and universal access to subsidized and regulated Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC). In this context, the association between family income dynamics and changes in early child behavior problems was investigated, as well as whether high-quality ECEC buffers children from the…
Full Text Available According to the theory of human capital improvement of education attainment results in increase of income of human capital’s owner. This issue is interest to majority of wage earners, all the more at the economic crisis. Authors of this paper analyze presence and closeness of connection between worker’s education attainment and amount of salary on data of Kaluga region. In the paper probable reasons and discrepancy of revealed issue.
Ashtiani, Mariam; Feliciano, Cynthia
Youth from advantaged backgrounds have more social relationships that provide access to resources facilitating their educational success than those from low-income families. Does access to and mobilization of social capital also relate to success among the few low-income youth who "overcome the odds" and persist in higher education?…
Chen, Yue; Rennie, Donna C; Karunanayake, Chandima P; Janzen, Bonnie; Hagel, Louise; Pickett, William; Dyck, Roland; Lawson, Joshua; Dosman, James A; Pahwa, Punam
Obesity is prevalent in rural communities in Canada, however little is known about the social determinants of health and obesity in rural populations. Socioeconomic status has been found to be inversely associated with the risk of obesity in developed countries. This study investigated the relationship between income adequacy, education and obesity in a rural setting. The study used data from 5391 adults aged 18-69 who participated in the Saskatchewan Rural Health Study in 2010. Participants completed a survey that included questions about location of residence, body weight, height, and socio-demographic and behavioral factors. Obesity was defined as body mass index being ≥ 30 kg/m(2). Logistic regression using generalized estimating equation was conducted to assess the associations of income adequacy and education level with the prevalence of obesity taking covariates into consideration. Approximately a third of the participants were obese and the prevalence of obesity was similar for men and women. The prevalence of obesity was significantly higher for rural residents not living on farm compared with those living on farm (p education compared with those with > 12 years of education (aOR: 1.18; 95% CI: 1.05-1.34). Low income adequacy was significantly associated with an increased risk of obesity but only among those not living on farm (aOR: 1.80; 95% CI: 1.16-2.79). Home location was associated with obesity prevalence in rural Saskatchewan and modified the influence of income adequacy, but not the influence of education, on obesity. Adults not living on farm had an increased risk of obesity and showed a significant impact of income adequacy on obesity.
Huang, Jidong; Zheng, Rong; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Jiang, Yuan
Background There are few studies that examine the impact of tobacco tax and price policies in China. In addition, very little is known about the differential responses to tax and price increases based on socioeconomic status in China. Objective The goal of this study is to estimate the conditional cigarette consumption price elasticity among adult urban smokers in China using individual level longitudinal survey data. We also examine the differential responses to cigarette price increases among groups with different income and/or educational levels. Methods Multivariate analyses using the general estimating equations (GEE) method were conducted to estimate the conditional cigarette demand price elasticity using data from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) China Survey, a longitudinal survey of adult smokers in seven cities in China. The first three waves of the ITC China Survey data were used in this analysis. Analyses based on subsample by education and income were conducted. Findings Our results show that overall conditional cigarette demand price elasticity ranges from −0.12 to −0.14, implying a 10% increase in cigarette price would result in a reduction in cigarette consumption among adult urban Chinese smokers by 1.2% to 1.4%. No differential responses to cigarette price increase were found across education levels. The price elasticity estimates do not differ between high income smokers and medium income smokers. However, cigarette consumption among low income smokers did not seem to decrease after a price increase, at least among those who continued to smoke. Conclusion Relative to many other low- and middle-income countries, cigarette consumption among Chinese adult smokers is not very sensitive to changes in cigarette prices. The total impact of cigarette price increase would be larger if its impact on smoking initiation and cessation, as well as the price-reducing behaviors such as brand switching and trading down, were taken into account. PMID
Full Text Available This study constructs the network diffusion model of food safety scare behavior under the effect of information transparency and examines the network topology and evolution characteristics of food safety scare behavior in a numerical simulation. The main conclusions of this study are as follows. (1 Under the effect of information transparency, the network degree distribution of food safety scare behavior diffusion demonstrates the decreasing characteristics of diminishing margins. (2 Food safety scare behavior diffusion increases with the information dissemination rate and consumer concern about food safety incidents and shows the characteristics of monotone increasing. And with the increasing of the government food safety supervision information transparency and media food safety supervision information transparency, the whole is declining characteristic of diminishing marginal. In addition, the extinction of food safety scare behavior cannot be achieved gradually given a single regulation of government food safety supervision information transparency and media food safety supervision information transparency. (3 The interaction effects between improving government food safety supervision information transparency or media food safety supervision information transparency and declining consumer concerns about food safety incidents or information transmission rate can engender the suppression of food safety scare behavior diffusion.
Stotz, Sarah; Lee, Jung Sun; Rong, Hui; Murray, Deborah
Online eLearning may be an innovative, efficient, and cost-effective method of providing nutrition education to a diverse low-income audience. The intent of this project is to examine perceptions of nutrition educators regarding the feasibility of an eLearning nutrition education program tailored to low-income Georgians. Semistructured individual interviews were conducted, guided by the constructivist theory. The interview guide focused on three themes: accessibility, literacy, and content. A prototype of the program also served as a talking point. Interviews were conducted in two urban Georgian counties in a location chosen by each participant. We recruited a convenience sample of Georgian nutrition educators (n = 10, 100% female, 50% Black). Interviews were transcribed and analyzed using constant comparative method. Motivation is considered the primary barrier to program feasibility. Neither access to the Internet nor literacy are considered significant barriers. Inclusion of skill-based, visual education methods such as cooking videos, recipes, and step-by-step teaching tools was highlighted. Nutrition educators perceived this program would be a feasible form of nutrition education for the priority audience. Findings from this study will inform the user-centered development of the program. © 2016 Society for Public Health Education.
Formicola, Allan J
The cost for students of a dental education has become an issue of concern. This article explores the return on investment and the debt to income ratio of studying dentistry. These two measures are monitored to gain perspective on whether the cost of education pays off in earnings. The factors underlying these measures and a discussion of them are included. The purpose of this article is to focus attention on one of the current issues facing dental schools in the United States. This article was written as part of the project "Advancing Dental Education in the 21 st Century."
Miyake, Y; Tanaka, K; Sasaki, S; Hirota, Y
Epidemiological evidence on the relationship between socio-economic status and allergic disorders has been inconsistent. We examined the associations between maternal employment, maternal job type, household income, and paternal and maternal educational levels and the risk of allergic disorders in Japanese children aged 4.5 years. Subjects were 480 mother-child pairs. Definitions of wheeze and eczema symptoms were based on criteria of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood. Data on self-reported doctor-diagnosed asthma and atopic eczema were available. Compared with children whose mothers had received less than 13 years of education, those with mothers with ≥15 years of education had a significantly increased risk of wheeze and doctor-diagnosed asthma: the adjusted ORs were respectively 2.41 (95%CI 1.18-5.17) and 2.70 (95%CI 1.03-8.08). Fifteen years or more of paternal education was independently associated with an increased risk of eczema, but not of doctor-diagnosed atopic eczema (adjusted OR 1.89, 95%CI 1.07-3.42). Mother's employment, mother's job type and household income were not related to any of the outcomes. Higher maternal educational level may increase the risk of wheeze and asthma, while higher paternal educational level may increase the risk of eczema.
In the case of oil spills which have the potential of affecting wild birds, it is useful to be able to scare these birds away from the oil spill area in order to reduce the risks of oil contamination. Two sites in the Saint Lawrence River estuary were selected for a study of the effectiveness of various techniques for scaring away birds. The two sites have promontories which are attractive landing sites for birds and also are noted for regularly attracting aquatic birds. The techniques tested included the use of boats, explosive charges, propane cannons, and helicopters. For dispersing birds from water, helicopter overflights at least every half hour were the most effective. In case an aircraft is unavailable, it is recommended to use a motorboat containing at least 2 persons, one of which has the duty of throwing explosive charges to scare the birds. It is also recommended, when possible, to always scare away the birds in the same direction, preferably in the direction of the wind. A low-level helicopter flight every hour is also effective for scaring away birds from swampy areas. If a helicopter is not available, an all-terrain vehicle systematically patrolling a 100-200 hectare area and using explosive charges can effectively keep birds away; at night, propane cannons should be used, one for every 25-50 hectares, and should be fired every 2 minutes. 12 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs
Kurt, Anita; Kincaid, Hope; Semler, Lauren; Jacoby, Jeanne L; Johnson, Melanie B; Careyva, Beth A; Stello, Brian; Friel, Timothy; Smulian, John C; Knouse, Mark C
Our study investigates whether levels of motivation and barriers to participation in clinical trials vary with patients' education and income. A self-administered survey asked outpatients to rank potential influential factors on a "0" to "4" significance scale for their motivation to participate in clinical trials. Principal component analysis (PCA), analysis of variance (ANOVA), Kruskal-Wallis, and Mann-Whitney U tests analyzed the impact of race, education, and income on their motivation to participate. Analysis included 1841 surveys; most respondents had a high school education or some college, and listed annual income motivation scale 1 scores (p = .0261). Compared with their counterparts, subjects with less education/lower income ranked monetary compensation (p = .0420 and p motivator. Minorities and patients with less education and lower income appear to be more influenced by their desire to please the doctor, the race and sex of the doctor, and the language spoken by the doctor being the same as theirs. For all races, education appeared to have a direct relationship with motivation to participate, except for African-Americans, whose motivation appeared to decline with more education. Income appeared to have an inverse relationship with motivation to participate for all races.
Lightner, Nancy J
Preferences for certain characteristics of an online shopping experience may be related to demographic data. This paper discusses the characteristics of that experience, demographic data and preferences by demographic group. The results of an online survey of 488 individuals in the United States indicate that respondents are generally satisfied with their online shopping experiences, with security, information quality and information quantity ranking first in importance overall. The sensory impact of a site ranked last overall of the seven characteristics measured. Preferences for these characteristics in e-commerce sites were differentiated by age, education and income. The sensory impact of sites became less important as respondents increased in age, income or education. As the income of respondents increased, the importance of the reputation of the vendor rose. Web site designers may incorporate these findings into the design of e-commerce sites in an attempt to increase the shopping satisfaction of their users. Results from the customer relationship management portion of the survey suggest that current push technologies and site personalization are not an effective means of achieving user satisfaction.
This paper is a macro study on higher education R&D and its impact on productivity growth. I measure the social rate of return on higher education R&D in 17 high-income OECD countries using country level data on the percentage of gross expenditure on R&D performed by higher education, business, and government sectors over the period…
Williams, Lauren K; Andrianopoulos, Nick; Cleland, Verity; Crawford, David; Ball, Kylie
The aims of the current study were to (1) determine the association between personal income and body mass index (BMI) and between individual education and BMI, and (2) examine the association between education and BMI across strata of personal income among women. The design of the study was a quantitative analysis of data from self-report questionnaires. The study setting was socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods in Victoria, Australia. The study included 4065 nonpregnant women (ages 18-45 years) living in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas. The study used a self-report questionnaire measuring sociodemographic characteristics known to be associated with BMI. Multiple linear regressions with imputation were used to assess the association between education level, personal income, and BMI, while controlling for covariates. Mean (SD) observed BMI was 26.0 (6.1) kg/m2. Compared with women with low education, women with medium (b = -0.81; 95% confidence interval, -1.30 to -0.27; p = .004) and high (b = -1.71; 95% confidence interval, -2.34 to -1.09; p education had statistically significantly lower BMI values. No differences in BMI were observed between income categories. Stratified analyses suggested that the education-BMI association may be stronger in low-income than higher-income women. Our data show that among women living in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas, high education level rather than personal income may be protective against overweight/obesity. High personal income, however, may buffer the effects of low education on BMI. Obesity prevention efforts should target women with amplified disadvantage.
Adamsen, Collette; Schroeder, Shawnda; LeMire, Steven; Carter, Paula
Chronic disease studies have omitted analyses of the American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) population, relied on small samples of AI/ANs, or focused on a single disease among AI/ANs. We measured the influence of income, employment status, and education level on the prevalence of chronic disease among 14,632 AI/AN elders from 2011 through 2014. We conducted a national survey of AI/AN elders (≥55 y) to identify health and social needs. Using these data, we computed cross-tabulations for each independent variable (annual personal income, employment status, education level), 2 covariates (age, sex), and presence of any chronic disease. We also compared differences in values and used a binary logistic regression model to control for age and sex. Most AI/AN elders (89.7%) had been diagnosed with at least one chronic disease. AI/AN elders were also more than twice as likely to have diabetes and more likely to have arthritis. AI/AN elders with middle-to-low income levels and who were unemployed were more likely to have a chronic disease than were high-income and employed AI/AN elders. Addressing disparities in chronic disease prevalence requires focus on more than access to and cost of health care. Economic development and job creation for all age cohorts in tribal communities may decrease the prevalence of long-term chronic diseases and may improve the financial status of the tribe. An opportunity exists to address health disparities through social and economic equity among tribal populations.
Full Text Available Alexandre Faisal-Cury,1 Karen M Tabb,2 Guilherme Niciunovas,3 Carrie Cunningham,4 Paulo R Menezes,1 Hsiang Huang4,5 1Department of Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; 2School of Social Work, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, USA; 3School of Medicine, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; 4Department of Psychiatry, Cambridge Health Alliance, Harvard Medical School, Cambridge, MA, USA; 5Department of Psychiatry, Laboratory of Psychopathology and Psychiatric Therapeutics (LIM-23, Faculty of Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Abstract: Adolescent pregnancy has social, economic, and educational consequences and is also linked to adverse perinatal outcomes. However, studies show a positive relationship between pregnancy and increased social status among low-income adolescents. This study aims to assess the association between planned pregnancy and years of schooling among low-income Brazilian adolescents. This is a secondary analysis of a cohort study conducted from May 2005 to March 2007 in public primary care clinics in São Paulo, Brazil. Participants (n=168 completed a detailed structured questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between years of schooling and planned pregnancy. After adjusting for the covariates income, wealth score, crowding, age, marital status, and race, planned pregnancy was independently associated with lower years of education (odds ratio: 1.82; 95% confidence interval: 1.02–3.23. Although this finding may be related to these adolescents having less access to information and health services, another possible explanation is that they have a greater desire to have children during adolescence. Keywords: adolescent pregnancy, planned pregnancy, Brazil, low-income population, women
Hoffmann, Rasmus; Hu, Yannan; de Gelder, Rianne; Menvielle, Gwenn; Bopp, Matthias; Mackenbach, Johan P
Over the past decades, both health inequalities and income inequalities have been increasing in many European countries, but it is unknown whether and how these trends are related. We test the hypothesis that trends in health inequalities and trends in income inequalities are related, i.e. that countries with a stronger increase in income inequalities have also experienced a stronger increase in health inequalities. We collected trend data on all-cause and cause-specific mortality, as well as on the household income of people aged 35-79, for Belgium, Denmark, England & Wales, France, Slovenia, and Switzerland. We calculated absolute and relative differences in mortality and income between low- and high-educated people for several time points in the 1990s and 2000s. We used fixed-effects panel regression models to see if changes in income inequality predicted changes in mortality inequality. The general trend in income inequality between high- and low-educated people in the six countries is increasing, while the mortality differences between educational groups show diverse trends, with absolute differences mostly decreasing and relative differences increasing in some countries but not in others. We found no association between trends in income inequalities and trends in inequalities in all-cause mortality, and trends in mortality inequalities did not improve when adjusted for rising income inequalities. This result held for absolute as well as for relative inequalities. A cause-specific analysis revealed some association between income inequality and mortality inequality for deaths from external causes, and to some extent also from cardiovascular diseases, but without statistical significance. We find no support for the hypothesis that increasing income inequality explains increasing health inequalities. Possible explanations are that other factors are more important mediators of the effect of education on health, or more simply that income is not an important
Lin, Chun-Hung A.
The expansion of higher education in Taiwan starting from the late 1980s has successfully raised the average level of education. Using the concept of the education Gini, we find that the educational inequality declined as average schooling rose during the period of 1976-2003. The impacts of a rising average schooling and a declining educational…
Khaing, Win; Vallibhakara, Sakda A; Attia, John; McEvoy, Mark; Thakkinstian, Ammarin
Objective Previous studies have reported discrepancy effects of education and income on cardiovascular diseases. This systematic review and meta-analysis was therefore conducted which aimed to summarize effects of education and income on cardiovascular diseases. Methods Studies were identified from Medline and Scopus until July 2016. Cohorts were eligible if they assessed associations between education/income and cardiovascular diseases, had at least one outcome including coronary artery diseases, cardiovascular events, strokes and cardiovascular deaths. A multivariate meta-analysis was applied to pool risk effects of these social determinants. Results Among 72 included cohorts, 39, 19, and 14 were studied in Europe, USA, and Asia. Pooled risk ratios of low and medium versus high education were 1.36 (95% confidence interval: 1.11-1.66) and 1.21 (1.06-1.40) for coronary artery diseases, 1.50 (1.17-1.92) and 1.27 (1.09-1.48) for cardiovascular events, 1.23 (1.06-1.43) and 1.17 (1.01-1.35) for strokes, and 1.39 (1.26-1.54) and 1.21 (1.12-1.30) for cardiovascular deaths. The effects of education on all cardiovascular diseases were still present in US and Europe settings, except in Asia this was present only for cardiovascular deaths. Effects of low and medium income versus high on these corresponding cardiovascular diseases were 1.49 (1.16-1.91) and 1.27 (1.10-1.47) for coronary artery diseases, 1.17 (0.96-1.44) and 1.05 (0.98-1.13) for cardiovascular events, 1.30 (0.99-1.72) and 1.24 (1.00-1.53) for strokes, and 1.76 (1.45-2.14) and 1.34 (1.17-1.54) for cardiovascular deaths. Conclusion Social determinants are risk factors of cardiovascular diseases in developed countries, although high heterogeneity in pooling. Data in Asia countries are still needed to update pooling.
Jeong, Joshua; Kim, Rockli; Subramanian, S V
Maternal and paternal education are associated with improved early child outcomes. However, less is known about how these relative associations compare for preschool children's growth versus development outcomes; and across country contexts. We analysed data from 89 663 children aged 36 to 59 months in 39 low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). We used linear regression models with country fixed effects to estimate the joint associations between maternal and paternal education and children's growth and development outcomes. Additionally, we examined the variability in these relationships by each country and within subgroups of countries. In the pooled sample, maternal and paternal education were independently associated with 0.37 (95% CI 0.33 to 0.41) and 0.20 (95% CI 0.16 to 0.24) higher height-for-age z-scores, and 0.31 (95% CI 0.29 to 0.34) and 0.16 (95% CI 0.14 to 0.18) higher Early Childhood Development Index z-scores, respectively (comparing secondary or higher to no education). Associations were stronger for maternal education than paternal education but comparable between child outcomes. In country-specific regressions, we found the most heterogeneity in the associations between maternal education and children's growth; and between paternal education and children's development. Subgroup analyses suggested that these associations may be systematically patterned by country-level adult illiteracy, infant mortality and food insecurity. Our findings highlight variability in the statistical significance and magnitude of the associations between caregivers' education and children's outcomes. Further research is needed to understand the sources of variation that may promote or constrain the benefits of caregivers' education for children's early health and development in LMICs. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly
OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2012
How pronounced is income inequality around the world--and how can education help reduce it? This paper reports the following: (1) Across OECD (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development) countries, the average income of the richest 10% of the population was about nine times that of the poorest 10% before the onset of the global economic…
Horrell, Lindsey N; Kneipp, Shawn M; Ahn, SangNam; Towne, Samuel D; Mingo, Chivon A; Ory, Marcia G; Smith, Matthew Lee
Individuals living in lower-income areas face an increased prevalence of chronic disease and, oftentimes, greater barriers to optimal self-management. Disparities in disease management are seen across the lifespan, but are particularly notable among middle-aged adults. Although evidence-based Chronic Disease Self-management Education courses are available to enhance self-management among members of this at-risk population, little information is available to determine the extent to which these courses are reaching those at greatest risk. The purpose of this study is to compare the extent to which middle-aged adults from lower- and higher-income areas have engaged in CDSME courses, and to identify the sociodemographic characteristics of lower-income, middle aged participants. The results of this study were produced through analysis of secondary data collected during the Communities Putting Prevention to Work: Chronic Disease Self-Management Program initiative. During this initiative, data was collected from 100,000 CDSME participants across 45 states within the United States, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. Of the entire sample included in this analysis (19,365 participants), 55 people lived in the most impoverished counties. While these 55 participants represented just 0.3% of the total study sample, researchers found this group completed courses more frequently than participants from less impoverished counties once enrolled. These results signal a need to enhance participation of middle-aged adults from lower-income areas in CDSME courses. The results also provide evidence that can be used to inform future program delivery choices, including decisions regarding recruitment materials, program leaders, and program delivery sites, to better engage this population.
Alegria, Margarita; Drake, Robert E; Kang, Hyeon-Ah; Metcalfe, Justin; Liu, Jingchen; DiMarzio, Karissa; Ali, Naomi
Social determinants of health, such as poverty and minority background, severely disadvantage many people with mental disorders. A variety of innovative federal, state, and local programs have combined social services with mental health interventions. To explore the potential effects of such supports for addressing poverty and disadvantage on mental health outcomes, we simulated improvements in three social determinants-education, employment, and income. We used two large data sets: one from the National Institute of Mental Health that contained information about people with common mental disorders such as anxiety and depression, and another from the Social Security Administration that contained information about people who were disabled due to severe mental disorders such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Our simulations showed that increasing employment was significantly correlated with improvements in mental health outcomes, while increasing education and income produced weak or nonsignificant correlations. In general, minority groups as well as the majority group of non-Latino whites improved in the desired outcomes. We recommend that health policy leaders, state and federal agencies, and insurers provide evidence-based employment services as a standard treatment for people with mental disorders. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.
Welker, Kristen; Nabors, Laura; Lang, Myia; Bernstein, Jonathan
This review examined the impact of environmental change and educational interventions targeting young children from minority groups living in urban environments and who were from low-income families. A scoping methodology was used to find research across six databases, including CINAHL, ERIC, PsycINFO, PubMed, MEDLINE, and EMBASE. 299 studies were identified. Duplicates were removed leaving 159 studies. After reviewing for inclusion and exclusion criteria, 23 manuscripts were identified for this study: 11 featured home-environment change interventions and 12 emphasized education of children. Studies were reviewed to determine key interventions and outcomes for children. Both environmental interventions and educational programs had positive outcomes. Interventions did not always impact health outcomes, such as emergency department visits. Results indicated many of the environmental change and education interventions improved asthma management and some symptoms. A multipronged approach may be a good method for targeting both education and change in the home and school environment to promote the well-being of young children in urban areas. New research with careful documentation of information about study participants, dose of intervention (i.e., number and duration of sessions, booster sessions) and specific intervention components also will provide guidance for future research.
ABSTRACT “I was less scared to bungy jump than to speak this language” - A qualitative research of adult learners’ motivation for learning Danish Motivation has primarily been investigated within a specific sociopsychology school of thought (Gardner & Lambert 1972, Deci & Ryan 2002, Dörnyei 2009...
Reports of swine flu have led some colleges to pull students and faculty members out of Mexico, the epicenter of the outbreak, and to cancel study-abroad programs there. But even as the number of new cases appears to be falling, the health scare offers some lasting lessons for colleges, says Gary Rhodes, director of the Center for Global Education…
Nolet, B.A.; Kölzsch, A.; Elderenbosch, M.; Van Noordwijk, A.J.
1.With increasing numbers of many herbivorous waterfowl species, often foraging on farmland, the conflict with agriculture has intensified. One popular management tool is to scare birds off the land, often in association with shooting. However, the energy costs of flying are considerably higher than
Nolet, B.A.; Kölzsch, A.; Elderenbosch, M.; van Noordwijk, A.J.
With increasing numbers of many herbivorous waterfowl species, often foraging on farmland, the conflict with agriculture has intensified. One popular management tool is to scare birds off the land, often in association with shooting. However, the energy costs of flying are considerably higher than
Full Text Available The association between socioeconomic status (SES and smoking behaviors may differ across countries. This study aimed to estimate the association between socioeconomic status (income, occupation and education and multiple measures of smoking behaviors among the Chinese elderly population.Using data from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study in 2013, we examined the relationship between socioeconomic status and smoking behaviors through multivariate regression analysis. Sample selection models were applied to correct for sample selection bias. Smoking behaviors were measured by four indicators: smoking status, cigarette consumption, health risks related to smoking, and smoking dependence. Analyses were stratified by gender and urban-rural residence.Among Chinese people aged 45 years or older, smokers accounted for 40% of the population in 2013, smoking 19 cigarettes per day. It was also found that 79% of smokers were at an increased health risk. Overall, although the influence of income on smoking behaviors was small and even insignificant, occupation and education levels were significantly associated with smoking behaviors. Managers or professionals were more likely to smoke, however there was no significant relationship with smoking dependence. Individuals with higher educational attainment were less likely to be associated with smoking behaviors. In addition, gender and urban-rural differences existed in the relationship between SES and smoking behaviors.Smoking disparities among diverse levels of socioeconomic status existed but varied greatly by SES indicators and population characteristics. Tobacco control policies in China should be increasingly focused on populations with low socioeconomic status in order to break the link between socioeconomic disadvantage and smoking behaviors. Further actions should mitigate inequalities in education, improve the social culture of cigarette use, and tailor interventions based on
Wang, Qing; Shen, Jay J; Sotero, Michelle; Li, Casey A; Hou, Zhiyuan
The association between socioeconomic status (SES) and smoking behaviors may differ across countries. This study aimed to estimate the association between socioeconomic status (income, occupation and education) and multiple measures of smoking behaviors among the Chinese elderly population. Using data from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study in 2013, we examined the relationship between socioeconomic status and smoking behaviors through multivariate regression analysis. Sample selection models were applied to correct for sample selection bias. Smoking behaviors were measured by four indicators: smoking status, cigarette consumption, health risks related to smoking, and smoking dependence. Analyses were stratified by gender and urban-rural residence. Among Chinese people aged 45 years or older, smokers accounted for 40% of the population in 2013, smoking 19 cigarettes per day. It was also found that 79% of smokers were at an increased health risk. Overall, although the influence of income on smoking behaviors was small and even insignificant, occupation and education levels were significantly associated with smoking behaviors. Managers or professionals were more likely to smoke, however there was no significant relationship with smoking dependence. Individuals with higher educational attainment were less likely to be associated with smoking behaviors. In addition, gender and urban-rural differences existed in the relationship between SES and smoking behaviors. Smoking disparities among diverse levels of socioeconomic status existed but varied greatly by SES indicators and population characteristics. Tobacco control policies in China should be increasingly focused on populations with low socioeconomic status in order to break the link between socioeconomic disadvantage and smoking behaviors. Further actions should mitigate inequalities in education, improve the social culture of cigarette use, and tailor interventions based on characteristics of the
Wang, Qing; Shen, Jay J.; Sotero, Michelle; Li, Casey A.
Background The association between socioeconomic status (SES) and smoking behaviors may differ across countries. This study aimed to estimate the association between socioeconomic status (income, occupation and education) and multiple measures of smoking behaviors among the Chinese elderly population. Methods Using data from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study in 2013, we examined the relationship between socioeconomic status and smoking behaviors through multivariate regression analysis. Sample selection models were applied to correct for sample selection bias. Smoking behaviors were measured by four indicators: smoking status, cigarette consumption, health risks related to smoking, and smoking dependence. Analyses were stratified by gender and urban-rural residence. Results Among Chinese people aged 45 years or older, smokers accounted for 40% of the population in 2013, smoking 19 cigarettes per day. It was also found that 79% of smokers were at an increased health risk. Overall, although the influence of income on smoking behaviors was small and even insignificant, occupation and education levels were significantly associated with smoking behaviors. Managers or professionals were more likely to smoke, however there was no significant relationship with smoking dependence. Individuals with higher educational attainment were less likely to be associated with smoking behaviors. In addition, gender and urban-rural differences existed in the relationship between SES and smoking behaviors. Conclusions Smoking disparities among diverse levels of socioeconomic status existed but varied greatly by SES indicators and population characteristics. Tobacco control policies in China should be increasingly focused on populations with low socioeconomic status in order to break the link between socioeconomic disadvantage and smoking behaviors. Further actions should mitigate inequalities in education, improve the social culture of cigarette use, and tailor
Loeb, Susannna; Socias, Miguel
The federal role in education finance is commonly seen as compensatory. The federal government gives large sums of money to low-income schools and school districts through programs such as Title 1. Yet, this view of federal aid is based solely on direct educational expenditures. The federal government and state governments also support schools…
Capshaw, Norman Clark
The disruptive technologies of the Internet and computers are changing our world in myriad ways. These technologies are also increasingly being employed in higher education but to what effect? Are the effects on higher education quality measurable, and if so, what is the effect on the traditional gap between high-income and low- to middle-income…
Othman, Mariam; Muijs, Daniel
Shortcomings of educational quality in rural schools remain a key focus in the literature related to developing countries. This paper studies whether rural primary schools in Malaysia, an upper middle-income developing country, are still experiencing lower levels of educational resources, school climate, school leadership, and parental involvement…
Schiamberg, Lawrence B.; Chin, Chong-Hee
Focusing on the family as a context for the development of life plans by youth, this report summarizes findings of a 14-year longitudinal study on the educational and occupational life plans and achievement of youth in rural low-income areas in six southeastern states. Specific attention is given to (1) how parental educational and occupational…
Andersen, Ingelise; Kolodziejczyk, Christophe; Thielen, Karsten
Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there is an association between stage of incident breast cancer (BC) and personal income three years after diagnosis. The analysis further considered whether the association differed among educational groups. Methods: The study...... was based on information from Danish nationwide registers. A total of 7,372 women aged 30¿60 years diagnosed with BC, 48% with metastasis, were compared to 213,276 controls. Generalised linear models were used to estimate the effect of a cancer diagnosis on personal gross income three years after diagnosis......, stratified by education and stage of cancer. The models were adjusted for income two years prior to cancer diagnosis and demographic, geographic and co-morbidity covariates. Results: Adjusting for income two years prior to cancer diagnosis and other baseline covariates (see above), cancer had a minor effect...
Valente Da Silva
Full Text Available Background: TB treatment dropout is one causes of treatment failure, which could increase drug resistant cases. Drug resistant cases of TB were reported by the Ministry of Health of East Timor in 2008 (3 cases, 2009 (3 cases, and in 2010 (6 cases. With drug resistant emerging, TB will require longer treatment time. According to the WHO report (2013 the results of pulmonary tuberculosis BTA (+ treatment were reported: Year 2010 the number of failure of treatment was (0.53%; Died of TB (3.53%; Drop out of treatment (4.05%; Outmigration (3.98%; In 2011 cases of treatment failure (0.50% Died of TB (3.36%; Drop out of treatment (3.36%; Outmigration (1.92%; In 2012 cases of treatment failure (1.03%; Died of TB (3.49% Drop out of treatment (4.59% and migration, (2.26%. According to the National Statistics Directorate (NSD in 2011, that the East Timorese people still live mostly 70.4% in the rural areas. While access to health services remains a challenge, since the people of Timor Leste proclaimed the restoration of its independence. Objective: This study aimed to determine whether there is a relationship between the variables of education, family income, and job with cases of TB medication discontinuation. Methods: This study was conducted using descriptive correlation method. The sample was determined by Ridwan & Akdon (2010 formula. The total of samples was 100 people who met the inclusion and exclusion criteria, and selected randomly. This research was conducted in District Manatuto and Liquica Timor-Leste on March 28, 2015. Results: The correlation test showed a strong positive relationship level if r = 0.51 until +1. Analysis of significance value of r xy = 0.671 and p = 0.000 indicates that there is a significant relationship between the variables of education, job and income with variable discontinuation of treatment. Conclusion: Based on the results of research and data analysis, it can be concluded that the results of this study are as
Molenaar, I.; Knoop-van Campen, C.A.N.
Even though the recent influx of tablets in primary education goes together with the vision that educational technology empowered with learning analytics will revolutionize education, empirical results supporting this claim are scares. Adaptive educational technology Snappet combines extracted and
Villanti, Andrea C; Johnson, Amanda L; Rath, Jessica M
Young adulthood is defined by transitions in family life, living situations, educational settings, and employment. As a result, education and income may not be appropriate measures of socioeconomic status (SES) in young people. Using a national sample of young adults aged 18-34 (n=3364; collected February 2016), we explored novel socioeconomic correlates of ever cigarette use, past 30-day cigarette use, and daily cigarette use, weighted to account for non-response. Measures of SES assessed current education, household income, employment status, and subjective financial situation (SFS) and childhood SES (maternal and paternal education, SFS during childhood, parental divorce before age 18). Parental smoking during childhood was examined in sensitivity analyses. The highest prevalence of ever cigarette use was in young adults whose parents divorced before age 18 (57% vs. 47% overall). In general, current education, subjective financial status, and parental education were inversely correlated with past 30-day and daily cigarette use in bivariate analyses. In multivariable Poisson regression models controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicity, and other SES measures, lower education and poorer SFS were most strongly correlated with ever and past 30-day cigarette use. Lower maternal education emerged as the strongest correlate of daily smoking, conferring a twofold higher prevalence of daily smoking compared to maternal education of a Bachelor's degree or greater. Current household income was not a strong predictor of any cigarette use outcome. Novel measures like SFS may improve estimates of socioeconomic disadvantage during this developmental stage. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T; Harper, Sam; Ernstsen, Linda
Socioeconomic differentials of tobacco smoking in high-income countries are well described. However, studies to support health policies and place monitoring systems to tackle socioeconomic inequalities in smoking and smokeless tobacco use common in low-and-middle-income countries (LMICs) are seldom reported. We aimed to describe, sex-wise, educational and wealth-related inequalities in tobacco use in LMICs. We analysed Demographic and Health Survey data on tobacco use collected from large nationally representative samples of men and women in 54 LMICs. We estimated the weighted prevalence of any current tobacco use (including smokeless tobacco) in each country for 4 educational groups and 4 wealth groups. We calculated absolute and relative measures of inequality, that is, the slope index of inequality (SII) and relative index of inequality (RII), which take into account the distribution of prevalence across all education and wealth groups and account for population size. We also calculated the aggregate SII and RII for low-income (LIC), lower-middle-income (lMIC) and upper-middle-income (uMIC) countries as per World Bank classification. Male tobacco use was highest in Bangladesh (70.3%) and lowest in Sao Tome (7.4%), whereas female tobacco use was highest in Madagascar (21%) and lowest in Tajikistan (0.22%). Among men, educational inequalities varied widely between countries, but aggregate RII and SII showed an inverse trend by country wealth groups. RII was 3.61 (95% CI 2.83 to 4.61) in LICs, 1.99 (95% CI 1.66 to 2.38) in lMIC and 1.82 (95% CI 1.24 to 2.67) in uMIC. Wealth inequalities among men varied less between countries, but RII and SII showed an inverse pattern where RII was 2.43 (95% CI 2.05 to 2.88) in LICs, 1.84 (95% CI 1.54 to 2.21) in lMICs and 1.67 (95% CI 1.15 to 2.42) in uMICs. For educational inequalities among women, the RII varied much more than SII varied between the countries, and the aggregate RII was 14.49 (95% CI 8.87 to 23.68) in LICs, 3
Pedersen, Jolene Masters; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben; De Roos, Anneclaire; Garcia, Lorena; Lund, Rikke; Rod, Naja Hulvej; Kroenke, Candyce; Chan, Kei Hang Katie; Liu, Simin; Michael, Yvonne
The role of occupational prestige, a direct measure of the perceived status of job and job holder, in inflammation is unknown. To contribute to understanding the pathways by which socioeconomic position (SEP) is associated with inflammation, we aimed to estimate the direct effects of education, income and occupational prestige on C-reactive protein (CRP) and to describe the relationship between these markers and CRP. The study was based on 2026 post-menopausal women enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative-Observational Study. Occupational prestige was determined by linking a text description of longest held occupation with a social status item from the Occupational Information Network. Path analysis was employed to estimate direct and mediated effects. The study suggests that higher levels of education, income, and occupational prestige are associated with 8% (95% CI as percentage change -12, -4), 5% [95% CI (-8, -2) and 4% (95% CI - 7, -1)] lower levels of CRP, respectively. The inverse association between education and CRP was explained by the effect of education on income and occupational prestige. The effect of occupational prestige on CRP was independent of mediators in the model. The findings indicate that education may work to influence CRP primarily through increasing income and occupational prestige and provides evidence that occupational prestige captures a unique aspect of SEP. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.
Nakamura, Saki; Inayama, Takayo; Hata, Kikuko; Matsushita, Munehiro; Takahashi, Masaki; Harada, Kazuhiro; Arao, Takashi
Socioeconomic inequalities as social determinants of health are important issues in public health and health promotion. However, the association between socioeconomic status and eating behaviors has been investigated poorly in Japanese adults. To fill this gap, the present study examines the association of eating behaviors with household income and education. The sample comprised 3,137 Japanese adults (1,580 men and 1,557 women) aged 30 to 59 years who responded to an Internet-based cross-sectional survey in 2014. Data on the following eating behaviors were collected via self-report: "taking care of one's diet for health," "eating vegetables," "frequency of eating breakfast," "frequency of family breakfasts," "frequency of family dinners," "using the information on nutrition labels," and "conversations with family or friends during meals." Self-reported data on socioeconomic status (household income and education) and demographic variables (gender, age, district of residence, marital status, residence status, and employment status) were also collected. The associations between eating behaviors and household income or education were tested using binomial logistic regression analysis with eating behaviors as dependent variables and household income and education as independent variables. A trend P -value was calculated for three categories of household income (less than 3,000,000 JPY, 3,000,000-7,000,000 JPY, and over 7,000,000 JPY) and education (junior high/high school, 2-year college, and 4-year college/graduate school). Higher household income and education were significantly associated with higher rates of eating vegetables, using the information on nutrition labels, and conversation with family or friends during meals in Japanese men and women. Higher household incomes were significantly associated with lower rates of frequency of family breakfasts in Japanese men and lower rates of frequency of family dinners in Japanese men and women. Higher socioeconomic
White, Christine M; St John, Philip D; Cheverie, Madelon R; Iraniparast, Maryam; Tyas, Suzanne L
The beneficial effects of higher education on healthy aging are generally accepted, but the mechanisms are less well understood. Education may influence healthy aging through improved employment opportunities that enhance feelings of personal control and reduce hazardous exposures, or through higher incomes that enable individuals to access better health care or to reside in better neighbourhoods. Income and occupation have not been explored extensively as potential mediators of the effect of education on healthy aging. This study investigates the role of income and occupation in the association between education and healthy aging including potential effect modification by gender. Logistic regression was used to explore the association of education, income (perceived income adequacy, life satisfaction with finances) and occupation (occupational prestige) with healthy aging five years later in 946 community-dwelling adults 65+ years from a population-based, prospective cohort study in Manitoba, Canada. Higher levels of education generally increased the likelihood of healthy aging. After adjusting for education, both income measures, but not occupation, predicted healthy aging among men; furthermore, the association between education and healthy aging was no longer significant. Income and occupation did not explain the significant association between education and healthy aging among women. Perceived income adequacy and life satisfaction with finances explained the beneficial effects of higher education on healthy aging among men, but not women. Identifying predictors of healthy aging and the mechanisms through which these factors exert their effects can inform strategies to maximize the likelihood of healthy aging.
Huang, Jidong; Zheng, Rong; Chaloupka, Frank J; Fong, Geoffrey T; Jiang, Yuan
Few studies have examined the impact of tobacco tax and price policies in China. In addition, very little is known about the differential responses to tax and price increases based on socioeconomic status in China. To estimate the conditional cigarette consumption price elasticity among adult urban smokers in China and to examine the differential responses to cigarette price increases among groups with different income and/or educational levels. Multivariate analyses employing the general estimating equations method were conducted using the first three waves of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) China Survey. Analyses based on subsample by education and income were conducted. Conditional cigarette demand price elasticity ranges from -0.12 to -0.14. No differential responses to cigarette price increase were found across education levels. The price elasticity estimates do not differ between high-income smokers and medium-income smokers. Cigarette consumption among low-income smokers did not decrease after a price increase, at least among those who continued to smoke. Relative to other low-income and middle-income countries, cigarette consumption among Chinese adult smokers is not very sensitive to changes in cigarette prices. The total impact of cigarette price increase would be larger if its impact on smoking initiation and cessation, as well as the price-reducing behaviours such as brand switching and trading down, were taken into account. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Alsan, Marcella; Xing, Anlu; Wise, Paul; Darmstadt, Gary L; Bendavid, Eran
Achieving gender equality in education is an important development goal. We tested the hypothesis that the gender gap in adolescent education is accentuated by illnesses among young children in the household. Using Demographic and Health Surveys on 41 821 households in 38 low- and middle-income countries, we used linear regression to estimate the difference in the probability adolescent girls and boys were in school, and how this gap responded to illness episodes among children gender gap in education, we assessed the relationship between the gender gap and national immunization coverage. In our sample of 120 708 adolescent boys and girls residing in 38 countries, girls were 5.08% less likely to attend school than boys in the absence of a recent illness among young children within the same household (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.50%-4.65%). This gap increased to 7.77% (95% CI, 8.24%-7.30%) and 8.53% (95% CI, 9.32%-7.74%) if the household reported 1 and 2 or more illness episodes, respectively. The gender gap in schooling in response to illness was larger in households with a working mother. Increases in child vaccination rates were associated with a closing of the gender gap in schooling (correlation coefficient = 0.34, P = .02). Illnesses among children strongly predict a widening of the gender gap in education. Investments in early childhood health may have important effects on schooling attainment for adolescent girls. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Frehywot, Seble; Vovides, Yianna; Talib, Zohray; Mikhail, Nadia; Ross, Heather; Wohltjen, Hannah; Bedada, Selam; Korhumel, Kristine; Koumare, Abdel Karim; Scott, James
In the face of severe faculty shortages in resource-constrained countries, medical schools look to e-learning for improved access to medical education. This paper summarizes the literature on e-learning in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), and presents the spectrum of tools and strategies used. Researchers reviewed literature using terms related to e-learning and pre-service education of health professionals in LMIC. Search terms were connected using the Boolean Operators "AND" and "OR" to capture all relevant article suggestions. Using standard decision criteria, reviewers narrowed the article suggestions to a final 124 relevant articles. Of the relevant articles found, most referred to e-learning in Brazil (14 articles), India (14), Egypt (10) and South Africa (10). While e-learning has been used by a variety of health workers in LMICs, the majority (58%) reported on physician training, while 24% focused on nursing, pharmacy and dentistry training. Although reasons for investing in e-learning varied, expanded access to education was at the core of e-learning implementation which included providing supplementary tools to support faculty in their teaching, expanding the pool of faculty by connecting to partner and/or community teaching sites, and sharing of digital resources for use by students. E-learning in medical education takes many forms. Blended learning approaches were the most common methodology presented (49 articles) of which computer-assisted learning (CAL) comprised the majority (45 articles). Other approaches included simulations and the use of multimedia software (20 articles), web-based learning (14 articles), and eTutor/eMentor programs (3 articles). Of the 69 articles that evaluated the effectiveness of e-learning tools, 35 studies compared outcomes between e-learning and other approaches, while 34 studies qualitatively analyzed student and faculty attitudes toward e-learning modalities. E-learning in medical education is a means to an end
Background In the face of severe faculty shortages in resource-constrained countries, medical schools look to e-learning for improved access to medical education. This paper summarizes the literature on e-learning in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), and presents the spectrum of tools and strategies used. Methods Researchers reviewed literature using terms related to e-learning and pre-service education of health professionals in LMIC. Search terms were connected using the Boolean Operators “AND” and “OR” to capture all relevant article suggestions. Using standard decision criteria, reviewers narrowed the article suggestions to a final 124 relevant articles. Results Of the relevant articles found, most referred to e-learning in Brazil (14 articles), India (14), Egypt (10) and South Africa (10). While e-learning has been used by a variety of health workers in LMICs, the majority (58%) reported on physician training, while 24% focused on nursing, pharmacy and dentistry training. Although reasons for investing in e-learning varied, expanded access to education was at the core of e-learning implementation which included providing supplementary tools to support faculty in their teaching, expanding the pool of faculty by connecting to partner and/or community teaching sites, and sharing of digital resources for use by students. E-learning in medical education takes many forms. Blended learning approaches were the most common methodology presented (49 articles) of which computer-assisted learning (CAL) comprised the majority (45 articles). Other approaches included simulations and the use of multimedia software (20 articles), web-based learning (14 articles), and eTutor/eMentor programs (3 articles). Of the 69 articles that evaluated the effectiveness of e-learning tools, 35 studies compared outcomes between e-learning and other approaches, while 34 studies qualitatively analyzed student and faculty attitudes toward e-learning modalities. Conclusions E
Full Text Available Abstract Background In the face of severe faculty shortages in resource-constrained countries, medical schools look to e-learning for improved access to medical education. This paper summarizes the literature on e-learning in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC, and presents the spectrum of tools and strategies used. Methods Researchers reviewed literature using terms related to e-learning and pre-service education of health professionals in LMIC. Search terms were connected using the Boolean Operators “AND” and “OR” to capture all relevant article suggestions. Using standard decision criteria, reviewers narrowed the article suggestions to a final 124 relevant articles. Results Of the relevant articles found, most referred to e-learning in Brazil (14 articles, India (14, Egypt (10 and South Africa (10. While e-learning has been used by a variety of health workers in LMICs, the majority (58% reported on physician training, while 24% focused on nursing, pharmacy and dentistry training. Although reasons for investing in e-learning varied, expanded access to education was at the core of e-learning implementation which included providing supplementary tools to support faculty in their teaching, expanding the pool of faculty by connecting to partner and/or community teaching sites, and sharing of digital resources for use by students. E-learning in medical education takes many forms. Blended learning approaches were the most common methodology presented (49 articles of which computer-assisted learning (CAL comprised the majority (45 articles. Other approaches included simulations and the use of multimedia software (20 articles, web-based learning (14 articles, and eTutor/eMentor programs (3 articles. Of the 69 articles that evaluated the effectiveness of e-learning tools, 35 studies compared outcomes between e-learning and other approaches, while 34 studies qualitatively analyzed student and faculty attitudes toward e-learning modalities
Aitsi-Selmi, Amina; Bell, Ruth; Shipley, Martin J; Marmot, Michael G
Education and wealth may have different associations with female obesity but this has not been investigated in detail outside high-income countries. This study examines the separate and inter-related associations of education and household wealth in relation to obesity in women in a representative sample of low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The seven largest national surveys were selected from a list of Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) ordered by decreasing sample size and resulted in a range of country income levels. These were nationally representative data of women aged 15-49 years collected in the period 2005-2010. The separate and joint effects, unadjusted and adjusted for age group, parity, and urban/rural residence using a multivariate logistic regression model are presented. In the four middle-income countries (Colombia, Peru, Jordan, and Egypt), an interaction was found between education and wealth on obesity (P-value for interaction education the wealth effect was positive whereas in the group with higher education it was either absent or inverted (negative). In the poorer countries (India, Nigeria, Benin), there was no evidence of an interaction. Instead, the associations between each of education and wealth with obesity were independent and positive. There was a statistically significant difference between the average interaction estimates for the low-income and middle-income countries (Peducation may protect against the obesogenic effects of increased household wealth as countries develop. Further research could examine the factors explaining the country differences in education effects.
Ye Seul Choi
Full Text Available This paper examines the relationship of migration between capital regions and non-capital regions and the level of human capital in Korea using the method of multinomial logistic regression. This paper aims to show whether the high level of human capital of migrants who move to capital regions statistically differs from the other migrants. For analysis, this paper uses the 2006, 2008, 2010 and 2012 panel data from Korean Labor and Income Panel Study (KLIPS. The analysis is divided into two parts of migration based on the region of origin: the migration of individuals who live in non-capital regions and the migration of individuals who live in capital region. In this paper, we consider personal characteristics such as educational attainment and occupations as an indicator of human capital of individual, gender, age, and marriage status as explanatory variables. Our empirical finding is that the educational attainment of individual representing a level of human capital significantly affects the migration behavior moving from non-capital regions to capital regions. According to analysis of migration from Gyeonggi and Incheon to Seoul, the migration within capital regions, individuals who engage in occupation with high skilled and non-manual are more likely to move to Seoul capital regions where favorable conditions for workers in terms of higher wage and better job opportunities can provide. Those results can be understood in the context of human capital theory to maximize personal socioeconomic utilities by migrating to capital regions.
Regional differences in IQ are presented for 12 regions of Italy showing that IQs are highest in the north and lowest in the south. Regional IQs obtained in 2006 are highly correlated with average incomes at r = 0.937, and with stature, infant mortality, literacy and education. The lower IQ in southern Italy may be attributable to genetic…
Silva, Monica; Ross, Ines
Evaluated a 1-year sex education program for low income male high school students in Chile. Findings for 92 students in the baseline year, 1993, and 196 students in the 1998 cohort show a reduction in the percentage of students reporting having had sexual intercourse, changes attitudes toward abstinence, and differences in communication about…
Blake, Helen L; Mcleod, Sharynne; Verdon, Sarah; Fuller, Gail
Proficiency in the language of the country of residence has implications for an individual's level of education, employability, income and social integration. This paper explores the relationship between the spoken English proficiency of residents of Australia on census day and their educational level, employment and income to provide insight into multilingual speakers' ability to participate in Australia as an English-dominant society. Data presented are derived from two Australian censuses i.e. 2006 and 2011 of over 19 million people. The proportion of Australians who reported speaking a language other than English at home was 21.5% in the 2006 census and 23.2% in the 2011 census. Multilingual speakers who also spoke English very well were more likely to have post-graduate qualifications, full-time employment and high income than monolingual English-speaking Australians. However, multilingual speakers who reported speaking English not well were much less likely to have post-graduate qualifications or full-time employment than monolingual English-speaking Australians. These findings provide insight into the socioeconomic and educational profiles of multilingual speakers, which will inform the understanding of people such as speech-language pathologists who provide them with support. The results indicate spoken English proficiency may impact participation in Australian society. These findings challenge the "monolingual mindset" by demonstrating that outcomes for multilingual speakers in education, employment and income are higher than for monolingual speakers.
This study aims to determine: (1) the intercorrelation between income, experience, and academic qualification with the early childhood education teachers' teaching creativity; (2) to find out the dominant factors that affect the ability of teachers' Creativity in Semarang. This research uses an experimental design with four variables, including…
Ogden, Cynthia L; Carroll, Margaret D; Fakhouri, Tala H; Hales, Craig M; Fryar, Cheryl D; Li, Xianfen; Freedman, David S
Obesity prevalence varies by income and education level, although patterns might differ among adults and youths (1-3). Previous analyses of national data showed that the prevalence of childhood obesity by income and education of household head varied across race/Hispanic origin groups (4). CDC analyzed 2011-2014 data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to obtain estimates of childhood obesity prevalence by household income (≤130%, >130% to ≤350%, and >350% of the federal poverty level [FPL]) and head of household education level (high school graduate or less, some college, and college graduate). During 2011-2014 the prevalence of obesity among U.S. youths (persons aged 2-19 years) was 17.0%, and was lower in the highest income group (10.9%) than in the other groups (19.9% and 18.9%) and also lower in the highest education group (9.6%) than in the other groups (18.3% and 21.6%). Continued progress is needed to reduce disparities, a goal of Healthy People 2020. The overall Healthy People 2020 target for childhood obesity prevalence is <14.5% (5).
Hiza, Hazel A B; Casavale, Kellie O; Guenther, Patricia M; Davis, Carole A
An index that assesses the multidimensional components of the diet across the lifecycle is useful in describing diet quality. The purpose of this study was to use the Healthy Eating Index-2005, a measure of diet quality in terms of conformance to the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, to describe the diet quality of Americans by varying sociodemographic characteristics in order to provide insight as to where diets need to improve. The Healthy Eating Index-2005 scores were estimated using 1 day of dietary intake data provided by participants in the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Mean daily intakes of foods and nutrients, expressed per 1,000 kilocalories, were estimated using the population ratio method and compared with standards that reflect the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Participants included 3,286 children (2 to 17 years), 3,690 young and middle-aged adults (18 to 64 years), and 1,296 older adults (65+ years). Results are reported as percentages of maximum scores and tested for significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) by age, sex, race/ethnicity, income, and education levels. Children and older adults had better-quality diets than younger and middle-aged adults; women had better-quality diets than men; Hispanics had better-quality diets than blacks and whites; and diet quality of adults, but not children, generally improved with income level, except for sodium. The diets of Americans, regardless of socioeconomic status, are far from optimal. Problematic dietary patterns were found among all sociodemographic groups. Major improvements in the nutritional health of the American public can be made by improving eating patterns. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Wu, Linhai; Zhong, Yingqi; Shan, Lijie; Qin, Wei
This study examined the factors affecting public risk perception of food additive safety and possible resulting food scares using a survey conducted in Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, China. The model was proposed based on literature relating to the role of risk perception and information perception of public purchase intention under food scares. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used for data analysis. The results showed that attitude towards behavior, subjective norm and information perception exerted moderate to high effect on food scares, and the effects were also mediated by risk perceptions of additive safety. Significant covariance was observed between attitudes toward behavior, subjective norm and information perception. Establishing an effective mechanism of food safety risk communication, releasing information of government supervision on food safety in a timely manner, curbing misleading media reports on public food safety risk, and enhancing public knowledge of the food additives are key to the development and implementation of food safety risk management policies by the Chinese government. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ratna Juwita; Nurlina Tarmizi; Didik Susetyo; Bambang Bemby Soebyakto
This research investigated the effects of income, gender, age, education, working period, insurance, training and workers’ status (outsourcing or permanent) on performance. The result showed that gender, education, insurance, training and status had positive and significant effect on performace. Income had significant and negative effect on performance, the increased income would decrease performance. Age had positive but not significant effect, the increased age would decrease...
Aitsi-Selmi, Amina; Bell, Ruth; Shipley, Martin J.; Marmot, Michael G.
Background Education and wealth may have different associations with female obesity but this has not been investigated in detail outside high-income countries. This study examines the separate and inter-related associations of education and household wealth in relation to obesity in women in a representative sample of low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Methods The seven largest national surveys were selected from a list of Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) ordered by decreasing sample size and resulted in a range of country income levels. These were nationally representative data of women aged 15–49 years collected in the period 2005–2010. The separate and joint effects, unadjusted and adjusted for age group, parity, and urban/rural residence using a multivariate logistic regression model are presented Results In the four middle-income countries (Colombia, Peru, Jordan, and Egypt), an interaction was found between education and wealth on obesity (P-value for interaction wealth effect was positive whereas in the group with higher education it was either absent or inverted (negative). In the poorer countries (India, Nigeria, Benin), there was no evidence of an interaction. Instead, the associations between each of education and wealth with obesity were independent and positive. There was a statistically significant difference between the average interaction estimates for the low-income and middle-income countries (Pwealth as countries develop. Further research could examine the factors explaining the country differences in education effects. PMID:24608086
Santelli, John S; Song, Xiaoyu; Garbers, Samantha; Sharma, Vinit; Viner, Russell M
National wealth, income inequalities, and expenditures on education can profoundly influence the health of a nation's women, children, and adolescents. We explored the association of trends in national socioeconomic status (SES) indicators with trends in adolescent birth rates (ABRs), by nation and region. An ecologic research design was employed using national-level data from the World Bank on birth rates per 1,000 women aged 15-19 years, national wealth (per capita gross domestic product or GDP), income inequality (Gini index), and expenditures on education as a percentage of GDP (EduExp). Data were available for 142 countries and seven regions for 1990-2012. Multiple linear regression for repeated measures with generalized estimating equations was used to examine independent associations. ABRs in 2012 varied >200-fold-with the highest rates in Sub-Saharan Africa and lowest rates in the Western Europe/Central Asia region. The median national ABR fell 40% from 72.4/1,000 in 1990 to 43.6/1,000 in 2012. The largest regional declines in ABR occurred in South Asia (70%), Europe/Central Asia (63%), and the Middle East/North Africa (53%)-regions with lower income inequality. In multivariable analyses considering change over time, ABRs were negatively associated with GDP and EduExp and positively associated with greater income inequality. ABRs have declined globally since 1990. Declines closely followed rising socioeconomic status and were greater where income inequalities were lower in 1990. Reducing poverty and income inequalities and increasing investments in education should be essential components of national policies to prevent adolescent childbearing. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Keir Elmslie James Philip
Full Text Available Background: Affordable, online public health education could assist health and development in low and middle-income countries. The Peoples-uni (www.Peoples-uni.org aims to provide this through a fully accredited, low cost, online Masters in Public Health. Although literature exists relating to online learners in general, we lack research regarding the characteristics of successful learners in this new student group. This study assessed which readily available information on learners could predict success in course modules. Methods: A descriptive survey method was used to assess correlations between pass rates with students’ personal characteristics (gender, nationality etc and indicators of course engagement (discussion contributions, online profile etc. We sampled all students starting modules between September 2009 and March 2010 (n=218. Results: All indicators of engagement correlated strongly with pass rates, particularly online presence (photo/personal information on profile. Paying for modules correlated with higher pass rates than not. Interestingly, waiving fees correlated with lower pass rates than those who had not paid. Personal characteristics were not related to pass rates. Conclusion: Engagement is important for success, and indicators of which can predict pass rates, the personal characteristics investigated were not related to success. Further research is required to understand the nature of associations this study highlights.
Koonce, Joan; Scarrow, Andrea; Palmer, Lance
Free tax programs, such as Volunteer Income Tax Assistance (VITA), allow recipients of the earned income tax credit (EITC) to have their returns filed for free. VITA and other free tax programs are nationwide. However, each program is distinct, and the services provided by these programs differ. This article discusses a successful and unique…
This paper examines the trends in income diversity in Singapore at the total and disaggregated level using Labour Force Survey data. The income inequality in Singapore is found to be significantly high. One reason is the selective migration policy of the government of Singapore. The government has made conscious efforts to bring equality in…
Magnuson, Katherine; Waldfogel, Jane
The academic achievement gap between children from the lowest- and highest-income families appears to have risen in recent decades in the United States. Such income-related disparities in academic skills are already present when children enter elementary school, suggesting that the explanation for changing gaps can be traced to changing…
Full Text Available Education and wealth may have different associations with female obesity but this has not been investigated in detail outside high-income countries. This study examines the separate and inter-related associations of education and household wealth in relation to obesity in women in a representative sample of low- and middle-income countries (LMICs.The seven largest national surveys were selected from a list of Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS ordered by decreasing sample size and resulted in a range of country income levels. These were nationally representative data of women aged 15-49 years collected in the period 2005-2010. The separate and joint effects, unadjusted and adjusted for age group, parity, and urban/rural residence using a multivariate logistic regression model are presented.In the four middle-income countries (Colombia, Peru, Jordan, and Egypt, an interaction was found between education and wealth on obesity (P-value for interaction <0.001. Among women with no/primary education the wealth effect was positive whereas in the group with higher education it was either absent or inverted (negative. In the poorer countries (India, Nigeria, Benin, there was no evidence of an interaction. Instead, the associations between each of education and wealth with obesity were independent and positive. There was a statistically significant difference between the average interaction estimates for the low-income and middle-income countries (P<0.001.The findings suggest that education may protect against the obesogenic effects of increased household wealth as countries develop. Further research could examine the factors explaining the country differences in education effects.
Wahid Md. Murad
Full Text Available This study analyzes the relationship between knowledge, attitude, and behaviour of the urban poor householders concerning solid waste management systems and monthly household income and education. To attain the objective, the study employed statistical techniques such as t-tests of equality of means, one-way ANOVA, chi-squared „likelihood ratio“ test and simple descriptive statistics. The findings show that the urban poor communities with low income and education have been proven to behave in ways matching with and conducive to environment-friendly solid waste management, for instance, by practicing recycling and waste source reduction. This study also proves that the urban low-income communities generally have a very proactive role from a sound environmental management perspective, as they are the main recyclers and source-reducers of solid waste. The study suggests that policies should be formulated to focus on promoting knowledge, education, skills, and empowerment of the urban poor as means of promoting their living conditions.
Randall, Ed J.
This book is about the risk politics of food safety. Food-related risks regularly grab the headlines in ways that threaten reasoned debate and obstruct sensible policy making. The author explains why this is the case. He goes on to make the case for a properly informed and fully open public debate about food safety issues. He argues that this is the true antidote to the politics of scare, scandal and crisis.\\ud \\ud The book skilfully weaves together the many different threads of food safety a...
Using a sample of 156 Chinese children aged 2-3 years and their parents, this study examined the effects of socio-economic status, specifically family income and parental education, on the children's internalizing and externalizing psychopathology and whether these effects were mediated by mother-child and father-child conflict. Results indicated that family income, maternal education and paternal education all negatively predicted externalizing symptoms. Income also negatively predicted internalizing symptoms among boys but not girls. Maternal education negatively predicted internalizing symptoms among girls but not boys. The effects of income on psychopathology were fully mediated by mother-child and father-child conflict. In contrast, the effects of education were not mediated or only partially mediated by conflict. Findings are discussed in the framework of the family stress model. © 2013 International Union of Psychological Science.
Full Text Available The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Education (SNAP-Ed program aims to improve nutritional intakes of low-income individuals (<185% poverty threshold. The objective of this study was to describe the compliance with Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA recommendations for fruits, vegetables, and whole grains among SNAP-Ed eligible (n = 3142 and ineligible (n = 3168 adult women (19–70 years nationwide and SNAP-Ed participating women in Indiana (n = 2623, using the NHANES 2007–2012 and Indiana SNAP-Ed survey data, respectively. Sensitivity analysis further stratified women by race/ethnicity and by current SNAP participation (<130% poverty threshold. Nationally, lower-income women were less likely to meet the fruit (21% vs. 25% and vegetable (11% vs. 19% guidelines than higher-income women, but did not differ on whole grains, which were ~5% regardless of income. The income differences in fruit and vegetable intakes were driven by non-Hispanic whites. Fewer SNAP-Ed-eligible U.S. women met fruit (21% vs. 55% and whole grain (4% vs. 18% but did not differ for vegetable recommendations (11% vs. 9% when compared to Indiana SNAP-Ed women. This same trend was observed among current SNAP participants. Different racial/ethnic group relationships with DGA compliance were found in Indiana compared to the nation. Nevertheless, most low-income women in the U.S. are at risk of not meeting DGA recommendations for fruits (79%, vegetables (89%, and whole grains (96%; SNAP-Ed participants in Indiana had higher compliance with DGA recommendations. Increased consumption of these three critical food groups would improve nutrient density, likely reduce calorie consumption by replacing high calorie choices, and improve fiber intakes.
Chuang, L; Berek, J; Randall, T; McCormack, M; Schmeler, K; Manchanda, R; Rebbeck, T; Jeng, C J; Pyle, D; Quinn, M; Trimble, E; Naik, R; Lai, C H; Ochiai, K; Denny, L; Bhatla, N
Eighty-five percent of the incidents and deaths from cervical cancer occur in low and middle income countries. In many of these countries, this is the most common cancer in women. The survivals of the women with gynecologic cancers are hampered by the paucity of prevention, screening, treatment facilities and gynecologic oncology providers. Increasing efforts dedicated to improving education and research in these countries have been provided by international organizations. We describe here the existing educational and research programs that are offered by major international organizations, the barriers and opportunities provided by these collaborations and hope to improve the outcomes of cervical cancer through these efforts.
Hubbard, Lea; Datnow, Amanda
Single-sex public schools are seen as a vehicle for improving the educational experiences of low-income and minority students. Our two-year ethnographic study of low-income and minority students who attended experimental single-sex academies in California indicates that improving achievement involves more than separating students by gender. Using…
Atkinson, Nancy L; Billing, Amy S; Desmond, Sharon M; Gold, Robert S; Tournas-Hardt, Amy
The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of low-income, rural mothers regarding their need for nutrition and physical activity education and the role of technology in addressing those needs. Quantitative and qualitative research was combined to examine the nature and scope of the issues faced by this target population. Women who were currently receiving food stamps and had children in nursery school to eighth grade were recruited through a state database to participate in a telephone survey (N = 146) and focus groups (N = 56). Low-income, rural mothers were aware of and practiced many health behaviors related to nutrition and physical activity, but they faced additional barriers due to their income level, rural place of residence, and having children. They reported controlling the fat content in the food they cooked and integrating fruits and vegetables but showed less interest in increasing fiber consumption. They reported knowing little about physical activity recommendations, and their reported activity patterns were likely inflated because of seeing housework and child care as exercise. To stretch their food budget, the majority reported practicing typical shopping and budgeting skills, and many reported skills particularly useful in rural areas: hunting, fishing, and canning. Over two-thirds of the survey respondents reported computer access and previous Internet use, and most of those not yet online intended to use the Internet in the future. Those working in rural communities need to consider technology as a way to reach traditionally underserved populations like low-income mothers.
Stotz, Sarah; Lee, Jung Sun
The objective of this report was to describe the development process of an innovative smartphone-based electronic learning (eLearning) nutrition education program targeted to Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Education-eligible individuals, entitled Food eTalk. Lessons learned from the Food eTalk development process suggest that it is critical to include all key team members from the program's inception using effective inter-team communication systems, understand the unique resources needed, budget ample time for development, and employ an iterative development and evaluation model. These lessons have implications for researchers and funding agencies in developing an innovative evidence-based eLearning nutrition education program to an increasingly technology-savvy, low-income audience. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dal Sie, Marco; Josiassen, Alexander
In light of the burgeoning growth of long-haul LCCs in Southeast Asia, the study constructs a model aimed at comprehending which factors lead passengers to choose full-service rather than no-frills carriers on long-range flights. In particular, the research aims at determining to what extent...
Mortensen, Laust H; Lauridsen, Jørgen T; Diderichsen, Finn
In this paper, we examine income- and education-related inequality in small-for-gestational age (SGA) and preterm birth in Denmark and Finland from 1987 to 2003 using concentration indexes (CIXs).......In this paper, we examine income- and education-related inequality in small-for-gestational age (SGA) and preterm birth in Denmark and Finland from 1987 to 2003 using concentration indexes (CIXs)....
Mortensen, Laust H; Lauridsen, Jørgen T; Diderichsen, Finn; Kaplan, George A; Gissler, Mika; Andersen, Anne-Marie N
In this paper, we examine income- and education-related inequality in small-for-gestational age (SGA) and preterm birth in Denmark and Finland from 1987 to 2003 using concentration indexes (CIXs). From the national medical birth registries we gathered information on all births from 1987 to 2003. Information on highest completed maternal education and household income in the year preceding birth of the offspring was obtained for 1,012,400 births in Denmark and 499,390 in Finland. We then calculated CIXs for income- and education-related inequality in SGA and preterm birth. The mean household income-related inequality in SGA was -0.04 (95% confidence interval: -0.05, -0.04) in Denmark and -0.03 (-0.04, -0.02) in Finland. The maternal education-related inequality in SGA was -0.08 (-0.10, -0.06) in Denmark and -0.07 (-0.08, -0.06) in Finland. The income-related inequality in preterm birth was -0.03 (-0.03, -0.02) in Denmark and -0.03 (-0.04, -0.02) in Finland. The education-related inequality in preterm birth was -0.05 (-0.07, -0.04) in Denmark and -0.04 (-0.05, -0.03) in Finland. In Denmark, the income-related and education-related inequity in SGA increased over time. In Finland, the income-related inequality in SGA birth increased slightly, while education-related inequalities remained stable. Inequalities in preterm birth decreased over time in both countries. Denmark and Finland are examples of nations with free prenatal care and publicly financed obstetric care of high quality. During the period of study there were macroeconomic shocks affecting both countries. However, only small income- and education-related inequalities in SGA and preterm births during the period were observed.
Taylor, T; Serrano, E; Anderson, J; Kendall, P
A nutrition education program, entitled La Cocina Saludable, was designed according to the Stage of Change Model and implemented in ten southern Colorado counties. The objectives were to improve the nutrition related knowledge, skills, and behaviors that lead to healthy lifestyles in a low-income Hispanic population. The content of the program included nutrition information designed to help mothers of preschool children provide for their children's nutritional needs. Previous studies suggest that low-income Hispanics often demonstrate low intakes of vitamins A and C, calcium, iron, and protein, and high rates of diabetes, obesity, and infections. Additionally, this population presents many obstacles for nutrition educators including limited resources, child care, transportation, time, language, culture, literacy, health beliefs, and, in some cases, the transient nature of the population. The program attempted to overcome these barriers by incorporating a flexible program format carried out by abuela (Hispanic grandmother) educators using the processes described in the Stage of Change Model. The program was evaluated using a knowledge, skills and behavior pre-test, post-test, and six-month follow-up survey on both the abuela educators as well as the actual class participants. Results of the peer education training sessions suggest that this type of training program can be effective in increasing the knowledge, skills, and behavior of peer educators as well as reduce need for retraining for educators who continuously teach classes. Additionally, the results suggest that this type of program can be effective in changing selected nutrition related knowledge, skills, and behaviors leading to healthy lifestyles for low-income Hispanic mothers of preschool children.
Seeman, Teresa; Merkin, Sharon S; Crimmins, Eileen; Koretz, Brandon; Charette, Susan; Karlamangla, Arun
Data from the nationally representative US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III cohort were used to examine the hypothesis that socio-economic status is consistently and negatively associated with levels of biological risk, as measured by nine biological parameters known to predict health risks (diastolic and systolic blood pressure, pulse, HDL and total cholesterol, glycosylated hemoglobin, c-reactive protein, albumin and waist-hip ratio), resulting in greater cumulative burdens of biological risk among those of lower education and/or income. As hypothesized, consistent education and income gradients were seen for biological parameters reflecting cardiovascular, metabolic and inflammatory risk: those with lower education and income exhibiting greater prevalence of high-risk values for each of nine individual biological risk factors. Significant education and income gradients were also seen for summary indices reflecting cumulative burdens of cardiovascular, metabolic and inflammatory risks as well as overall total biological risks. Multivariable cumulative logistic regression models revealed that the education and income effects were each independently and negatively associated with cumulative biological risks, and that these effects remained significant independent of age, gender, ethnicity and lifestyle factors such as smoking and physical activity. There were no significant ethnic differences in the patterns of association between socio-economic status and biological risks, but older age was associated with significantly weaker education and income gradients.
Callahan, Leigh F; Martin, Kathryn Remmes; Shreffler, Jack; Kumar, Deepak; Schoster, Britta; Kaufman, Jay S; Schwartz, Todd A
To examine the independent and combined influence of individual- and community-level socioeconomic status (SES) measures on physical health status outcomes in people with self-reported arthritis. From 2004-2005, 968 participants completed a telephone survey assessing health status, chronic conditions, community characteristics, and sociodemographic variables. Individual-level SES measures used included homeownership, occupation (professional or not), educational attainment (less than high school, high school degree, and more than high school), and income ($45,000). Community poverty (2000 US Census block group percentage of individuals living below the poverty line [low, medium, and high]) was used as a community-level SES measure. Outcomes were physical functioning (Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 12 version 2 physical component summary [PCS]), functional disability (Health Assessment Questionnaire [HAQ]), and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) Healthy Days physical and limited activity days, and were analyzed via multivariable regressions. When entered separately, all individual-level SES variables were significantly (P income, specifically poverty. The magnitude of effect for education is reduced and marginally significant for the PCS and number of physically unhealthy days. No effects were seen for occupation, homeownership, and community poverty. Findings confirm that after adjusting for important covariates, lower individual- and community-level SES measures are associated with poorer physical health outcomes, while household income is the strongest predictor (as measured by both significance and effect) of poorer health status in final models. Studies not having participant-reported income available should make use of other SES measures, as they do independently predict physical health. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Rheumatology.
Full Text Available This research investigated the effects of income, gender, age, education, working period, insurance, training and workers’ status (outsourcing or permanent on performance. The result showed that gender, education, insurance, training and status had positive and significant effect on performace. Income had significant and negative effect on performance, the increased income would decrease performance. Age had positive but not significant effect, the increased age would decrease performance. Working period had negative but not significsnt effect on performance, the short working period would decrease performance.
Mohamed Siala; Nehed Ben Ammar
Throughout Tunisia, basic education is compulsory. Children are required to enroll for at least 9 years from age 6. This paper examines gender differences in education choice of upper basic education of youths aged 15–24 in Tunisia. To investigate the factors that influence an individual’s choice between vocational education, general education (secondary and high education) and leaving school, the paper estimates a multinomial probit model of education choice. We focus on the i...
Dollahite, Jamie S; Pijai, Erika I; Scott-Pierce, Michelle; Parker, Carol; Trochim, William
Assess effectiveness of the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program on nutrition behaviors post-education and longitudinally. Switching replications randomized experimental design. Participants randomly assigned to immediate education (IE) or delayed education (DE). Participants in IE received intervention the first 8 weeks, and those in DE the second 8 weeks, with no intervention during alternate periods. Data were collected in 3 repeated measures. Parents (n = 168 randomized; n = 134 completed) of children in 2 Head Start and 6 low-income schools. Eight weekly workshops, based on Eating Right is Basic-Enhanced adapted to incorporate dialogue approach with experiential learning. Ten-item self-reported behavior checklist on nutrition, food resource management, food safety, and food security; responses on a 5-point scale reporting frequency of behavior. Chi-square, analysis of variance, and multiple regression. Groups were demographically similar. Both groups reported improved behaviors pre- to post-education (P vs T2). Changed IE behavior was retained T2 to T3. A multiple regression model of overall change, controlling for T1 score and educator, showed significant improvement (n = 134, β = 5.72, P < .001). Positive outcomes were supported by this experimental study in a usual program context, with reported behavior changes retained at least 2 months. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. All rights reserved.
Oduoza, Chike F.
In these days of radical contraction of funding and expansion in student numbers, universities are under pressure to prioritise their resources, as well as to achieve effective costing and pricing to support judgement and decision making for funding and any external work undertaken. This study reviews costing, pricing and income measurement in…
Eriksen, J. G.
Radiation therapy is one of the most cost-effective ways to treat cancer patients on both a curative and palliative basis in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Despite this, the gap in radiation oncology capacity is enormous and is even increasing due to a rapid rise in the incidence...
Full Text Available Current US federal dietary guidance recommends regular consumption of seafood (fish + shellfish to promote health; however, little is known about how well Americans meet the guideline, particularly population subgroups that may be at risk for inadequate intake. The purposes of this study were to describe the prevalence of seafood consumption and, among consumers, the amounts of seafood eaten by sex, age group, income and education level, and race-ethnicity. Data from 15,407 adults aged 19+ participating in the 2005–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were analyzed using methods to account for sporadic intake of seafood. Over 80% of Americans reported consuming any seafood over the past 30 days, 74% reported consuming fish, and 54% reported eating shellfish. The percentages varied by socio-demographic group. Younger age and lower income and education levels were associated with lower odds of being a seafood consumer (p < 0.0001. Among those who reported eating seafood, the average amount eaten of any seafood was 158.2 ± 5.6 g/week. Among seafood consumers, women and individuals of lower age and education levels consumed less seafood. Approximately 80%–90% of seafood consumers did not meet seafood recommendations when needs were estimated by energy requirements. A great deal of work remains to move Americans toward seafood consumption at current recommended levels.
Miyake, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Keiko; Arakawa, Masashi
Epidemiological evidence for the association of socioeconomic status with prenatal depression has been inconsistent. The current cross-sectional study examined the association between employment, job type, household income, and educational level and the prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy. Subjects were 1741 Japanese women. Depressive symptoms were defined as present when subjects had a Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale score of 16 or higher. Adjustment was made for age, gestation, region of residence, family structure, personal and family history of depression, smoking, secondhand smoke exposure at home and at work, employment, household income, and education. The prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy was 19.3%. Compared with unemployment, employment, part-time employment, and full-time employment were significantly associated with a lower prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy: the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were 0.65 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.50 - 0.86), 0.66 (95% CI: 0.46 - 0.95), and 0.66 (95% CI: 0.48 - 0.90), respectively. Regarding the job type held, women with a professional or technical job and those with a clerical or related occupation had a significantly lower prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy: the adjusted ORs were 0.67 (95% CI: 0.47 - 0.96) and 0.62 (95% CI: 0.43 - 0.90), respectively. Sales, service, production, and other occupations were not significantly related to the prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy. There were no relationships between household income or education and the prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy. Employment, whether full-time or part-time, and holding a professional or technical job or a clerical or related occupation may be inversely associated with the prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological evidence for the association of socioeconomic status with prenatal depression has been inconsistent. The current cross-sectional study examined the association between employment, job type, household income, and educational level and the prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy. Methods Subjects were 1741 Japanese women. Depressive symptoms were defined as present when subjects had a Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale score of 16 or higher. Adjustment was made for age, gestation, region of residence, family structure, personal and family history of depression, smoking, secondhand smoke exposure at home and at work, employment, household income, and education. Results The prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy was 19.3%. Compared with unemployment, employment, part-time employment, and full-time employment were significantly associated with a lower prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy: the adjusted odds ratios (ORs were 0.65 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.50 − 0.86, 0.66 (95% CI: 0.46 − 0.95, and 0.66 (95% CI: 0.48 − 0.90, respectively. Regarding the job type held, women with a professional or technical job and those with a clerical or related occupation had a significantly lower prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy: the adjusted ORs were 0.67 (95% CI: 0.47 − 0.96 and 0.62 (95% CI: 0.43 − 0.90, respectively. Sales, service, production, and other occupations were not significantly related to the prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy. There were no relationships between household income or education and the prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy. Conclusions Employment, whether full-time or part-time, and holding a professional or technical job or a clerical or related occupation may be inversely associated with the prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy.
Wren, Frances J.; Berg, Eric A.; Heiden, Lynda A.; Kinnamon, Carolyn J.; Ohlson, Lirio A.; Bridge, Jeffrey A.; Birmaher, Boris; Bernal, M. Pilar
Objective: To explore in a multiethnic primary care population the impact of child gender and of race/ethnicity on parent and child reports of school-age anxiety and on the factor structure of the Screen for Childhood Anxiety and Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED). Method: A consecutive sample of 515 children (8 to less than 13 years) and their…
AbstractA transient cancer scare is presented as a rare opportunity to observe the effect of a perceived increase in risk on the price of residential property. The temporary nature of the perceived excess risk allows for the isolation of a risk premium from the change...
Ostgard, Lene Sofie Granfeldt; Norgaard, Mette; Medeiros, Bruno C.
Purpose Previous US studies have shown that socioeconomic status (SES) affects survival in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, no large study has investigated the association between education or income and clinical characteristics, treatment, and outcome in AML. Methods To investigate...... the effects of education and income in a tax-supported health care system, we conducted a population-based study using individual-level SES and clinical data on all Danish patients with AML (2000 to 2014). We compared treatment intensity, allogeneic transplantation, and response rates by education and income...... level using logistic regression (odds ratios). We used Cox regression (hazard ratios [HRs]) to compare survival, adjusting for age, sex, SES, and clinical prognostic markers. Results Of 2,992 patients, 1,588 (53.1%) received intensive chemotherapy. Compared with low-education patients, highly educated...
Green, Emalee T; Venta, Amanda
The purpose of this study was to examine the implementation of eating disorder education and prevention programs in high schools retrospectively, as reported by incoming college freshmen, exploring whether characteristics of the school influenced implementation. The sample, 169 first-year students from a public university, participated in an online survey inquiring about exposure to programs and high school characteristics. Results demonstrated few students exposed to any eating disorder programming (29.0%), with no students reporting exposure to prevention programming. Furthermore, there were no significant differences in the implementation based on school characteristics, suggesting that this is a universal issue across high schools.
West, Florence; Homer, Caroline; Dawson, Angela
midwifery educators play a critical role in strengthening the midwifery workforce in low and lower-middle income countries (LMIC) to ensure that women receive quality midwifery care. However, the most effective approach to building midwifery educator capacity is not always clear. This paper will explore approaches used to build midwifery educator capacity in LMIC and identify evidence to inform improved outcomes for midwifery education. a structured search of bibliographic electronic databases (CINAHL, OVID, MEDLINE, PubMed) and the search engine Google Scholar was performed. It was decided to also review peer reviewed research, grey literature and descriptive papers. Papers were included in the review if they were written in English, published between 2000 and 2014 and addressed building knowledge and/or skills in teaching and/or clinical practice in midwifery educators who work in training institutions in LMIC. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta Analyses (PRISMA) was used to guide the reporting process. The quality of papers was appraised in discussion with all authors. The findings sections of the research papers were analysed to identify successful elements of capacity building approaches. eighteen (six research and 12 discursive) papers were identified as related to the topic, meeting the inclusion criteria and of sufficient quality. The findings were themed according to the key approaches used to build capacity for midwifery education. These approaches are: skill and knowledge updates associated with curriculum review, involvement in leadership, management and research training and, participation in a community of practice within regions to share resources. the study provides evidence to support the benefits of building capacity for midwifery educators. Multilevel approaches that engaged individuals and institutions in building capacity alongside an enabling environment for midwifery educators are needed but more research specific
Full Text Available The principal objective of this study is to provide data on the French version of the SCARED-R. This article investigates the factor structure of the French version of the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders-Revised (SCARED-R and its convergent and divergent validity. 704 normal adolescents aged 10 to 19 years completed the questionnaires in their classrooms. A sub-sample of 595 adolescents also completed an anxiety questionnaire (the French version of the Fear Survey Schedule for Children-Revised, FSSC-R and a depression questionnaire (the French version of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, CES-D. Confirmatory factor analysis of the SCARED-R suggested reasonable fit for the 9-factor model. The comparison of the convergent and divergent validity revealed that the SCARED-R total score and five SCARED-R subscales (SAD, Social Phobia and the three Specific Phobias correlated more strongly with anxiety than depression. The other SCARED-R subscales (GAD, Panic Disorder, OCD and PTSD are positively related to levels of anxiety and depression. Altogether, the French version of the SCARED-R showed reasonable psychometric properties.
Guerrero, Robin; Tiggeman, Theresa; Edmond, Tracie
The Tax Relief Act of 1997 created an important tax provision which helped taxpayers offset the cost of higher education. This provision was in the form of education tax credits. Because a tax credit is a dollar for dollar reduction in tax liability, these education credits were designed to reduce the amount of tax due for college students or…
Nordlund, Madelene; Stehlik, Tom; Strandh, Mattias
This article investigates the relation between the second chance of increase in formal education amongst low-educated adults in Sweden and long-term wage development. Despite the awareness of the role of education for employability and individuals' overall life chances, surprisingly few studies have investigated the wage effects of Second-Chance…
Full Text Available Abstract Background In all OECD countries, there is a trend to increasing patients' copayments in order to balance rising overall health-care costs. This systematic review focuses on inequalities concerning the amount of out-of-pocket payments (OOPP associated with income, education or gender in the Elderly aged 65+. Methods Based on an online search (PubMed, 29 studies providing information on OOPP of 65+ beneficiaries in relation to income, education and gender were reviewed. Results Low-income individuals pay the highest OOPP in relation to their earnings. Prescription drugs account for the biggest share. A lower educational level is associated with higher OOPP for prescription drugs and a higher probability of insufficient insurance protection. Generally, women face higher OOPP due to their lower income and lower labour participation rate, as well as less employer-sponsored health-care. Conclusions While most studies found educational and gender inequalities to be associated with income, there might also be effects induced solely by education; for example, an unhealthy lifestyle leading to higher payments for lower-educated people, or exclusively gender-induced effects, like sex-specific illnesses. Based on the considered studies, an explanation for inequalities in OOPP by these factors remains ambiguous.
... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Program income. 80.25 Section 80.25 Education Office of... income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees for services performed, from the use or rental of real or personal property...
Rosenheck, Robert; Mueser, Kim T; Sint, Kyaw; Lin, Haiqun; Lynde, David W; Glynn, Shirley M; Robinson, Delbert G; Schooler, Nina R; Marcy, Patricia; Mohamed, Somaia; Kane, John M
Participation in work and school are central objectives for first episode psychosis (FEP) programs, but evidence effectiveness has been mixed in studies not focused exclusively on supported employment and education (SEE). Requirements for current motivation to work or go to school limit the generalizability of such studies. FEP participants (N=404) at thirty-four community treatment clinics participated in a cluster randomized trial that compared usual Community Care (CC) to NAVIGATE, a comprehensive, team-based treatment program that included ≥5h of SEE services per week, , grounded in many of the principles of the Individual Placement and Support model of supported employment combined with supported education services. All study participants were offered SEE regardless of their initial interest in work or school. Monthly assessments over 24months recorded days of employment and attendance at school, days of participation in SEE, and both employment and public support income (including disability income). General Estimation Equation models were used to compare CC and NAVIGATE on work and school participation, employment and public support income, and the mediating effect of receiving ≥3 SEE visits on these outcomes. NAVIGATE treatment was associated with a greater increase in participation in work or school (p=0.0486) and this difference appeared to be mediated by SEE. No group differences were observed in earnings or public support payments. A comprehensive, team-based FEP treatment approach was associated with greater improvement in work or school participation, and this effect appears to be mediated, in part, by participation in SEE. Published by Elsevier B.V.
There is increasing awareness that supply subsidies for health and education services often fail to benefit those that are most vulnerable in a community. This recognition has led to a growing interest in and experimentation with, consumer-led demand side financing systems (CL-DSF). These mechanisms place purchasing power in the hands of consumers to spend on specific services at accredited facilities. International evidence in education and health sectors suggest a limited success of CL-DSF in raising the consumption of key services amongst priority groups. There is also some evidence that vouchers can be used to improve targeting of vulnerable groups. There is very little positive evidence on the effect of CL-DSF on service quality as a consequence of greater competition. Location of services relative to population means that areas with more provider choice, particularly in the private sector, tend to be dominated by higher and middle-income households. Extending CL-DSF in low-income countries requires the development of capacity in administering these financing schemes and also accrediting providers. Schemes could focus primarily on fixed packages of key services aimed at easily identifiable groups. Piloting and robust evaluation is required to fill the evidence gap on the impact of these mechanisms. Extending demand financing to less predictable services, such as hospital coverage for the population, is likely to require the development of a voucher scheme to purchase insurance. This suggests an already developed insurance market and is unlikely to be appropriate in most low-income countries for some time.
Gbre-eyesus, Mulugeta Tsegai
This article analyses the challenges facing secondary education in the context of Ethiopia's Growth and transformation Plan (GtP) for 2010/11-2014/15 and its stated goal of becoming a middle-income country by 2025. It does not aim to provide a definitive set of recommendations for universalising general secondary education to meet the demands of a…
Kim, So-Ra; Han, Kyungdo; Choi, Jin-Young; Ersek, Jennifer; Liu, Junxiu; Jo, Sun-Jin; Lee, Kang-Sook; Yim, Hyeon Woo; Lee, Won-Chul; Park, Yong Gyu; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Park, Yong-Moon
To investigate the effects of age and sex on the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and the prevalence and control status of diabetes mellitus (DM) in Korean adults. Data came from 16,175 adults (6,951 men and 9,227 women) over the age of 30 who participated in the 2008-2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. SES was measured by household income or education level. The adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for the prevalence or control status of diabetes were calculated using multiple logistic regression analyses across household income quartiles and education levels. The household income-DM and education level-DM relationships were significant in younger age groups for both men and women. The adjusted ORs and 95% CI for diabetes were 1.51 (0.97, 2.34) and 2.28 (1.29, 4.02) for the lowest vs. highest quartiles of household income and education level, respectively, in women younger than 65 years of age (both P for linear trend diabetes was 2.28 (1.53, 3.39) for the lowest vs. highest quartile of household income in men younger than 65 (P for linear trend education with the prevalence of DM in Korea. DM preventive care is needed for groups with a low SES, particularly in young or middle-aged populations.
Williamson, Hannah C; Karney, Benjamin R; Bradbury, Thomas N
Government initiatives undertaken to improve the earning potential of disadvantaged unmarried parents assume that job training and additional schooling will strengthen these families, yet alternative models predict that these same interventions could overwhelm couples' limited resources, undermining family stability. We use 3 waves of dyadic data and propensity score analysis to test these competing perspectives by examining the effects of job-related and school-related interventions on 3-year marriage rates. The sample consists of unmarried new parents averaging $20,475 in household income, 52% of whom are African American and 20% of whom are Hispanic/Latino. Marriage rates decreased, from 17% to 10%, for couples in which men participated in school-related interventions. Mediation analyses indicate that school-related interventions reduce the amount of time men spend with their child and the amount of money they contribute to their household, reducing marriage rates in turn. Marriage rates were unaffected by women's participation in school-related interventions, and by men's and women's participation in job-related interventions. Implementing economic interventions that increase income while minimizing demands on the limited resources of economically distressed couples may prove necessary for strengthening society's most vulnerable families. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
For many people, the use of technology in education constitutes a de facto "innovation." Whether or not this belief is actually accurate, or useful, is a legitimate question for discussion. That said, there is no denying that many of the educational innovations celebrated (or at least touted) today are enabled by the use of such…
Saunders, Katherine; Lower-Basch, Elizabeth
Half of all non-loan federal student aid is now offered as tax benefits for educational costs in the form of credits, deductions, and college savings accounts. These benefits help students and families offset the costs of their postsecondary education with tax savings. Yet, as explained in the 2013 report, "Reforming Student Aid: How to…
Viner, Russell M; Hargreaves, Dougal S; Ward, Joseph; Bonell, Chris; Mokdad, Ali H; Patton, George
The health benefits of secondary education have been little studied. We undertook country-level longitudinal analyses of the impact of lengthening secondary education on health outcomes amongst 15-24 year olds. Exposures: average length of secondary and primary education from 1980 to 2013.Data/Outcomes: Country level adolescent fertility rate (AFR), HIV prevalence and mortality rate from 1989/90 to 2013 across 186 low-, middle- and high-income countries.Analysis: Longitudinal mixed effects models, entering secondary and primary education together, adjusted for time varying GDP and country income status. Longitudinal structural marginal models using inverse probability weighting (IPW) to take account of time varying confounding by primary education and GDP. Counterfactual scenarios of no change in secondary education since 1980/1990 were estimated from model coefficients for each outcome. Each additional year of secondary education decreased AFR by 8.4% in mixed effects models and 14.6% in IPW models independent of primary education and GDP. Counterfactual analyses showed the proportion of the reduction in adolescent fertility rate over the study period independently attributable to secondary education was 28% in low income countries. Each additional year of secondary education reduced mortality by 16.9% for 15-19 year and 14.8% for 20-24 year old young women and 11.4% for 15-19 year and 8.8% for 20-24 year old young men. Counterfactual scenarios suggested 12% and 23% of the mortality reduction for 15-19 and 20-24 year old young men was attributable to secondary education in low income countries. Each additional year of secondary education was associated with a 24.5% and 43.1% reduction in HIV prevalence amongst young men and women. The health benefits associated with secondary education were greater than those of primary education and were greatest amongst young women and those from low income countries. Secondary education has the potential to be a social vaccine
Russell M. Viner; Dougal S. Hargreaves; Joseph Ward; Chris Bonell; Ali H. Mokdad; George Patton
Background: The health benefits of secondary education have been little studied. We undertook country-level longitudinal analyses of the impact of lengthening secondary education on health outcomes amongst 15-24 year olds. Methods: Exposures: average length of secondary and primary education from 1980 to 2013. Data/Outcomes: Country level adolescent fertility rate (AFR), HIV prevalence and mortality rate from 1989/90 to 2013 across 186 low-, middle- and high-income countries. Analysi...
Our research highlights the relevance and the problematic of diversifying financing sources of public universities. To this end, it centralizes types of extra-budgetary revenue sources: revenues from educational taxes, from registration and enrolment taxes, from resits taxes, from services taxes, etc. Various policies on educational taxes are also analysed, in the context of the competition among universities, as well as ways of ensuring provisions in the case of a decrease in the attractiveness of programs.
Petrosino, A; Turpin-Petrosino, C; Buehler, J
'Scared Straight' and other programmes involve organised visits to prison by juvenile delinquents or children at risk for criminal behavior. programmes are designed to deter participants from future offending through first-hand observation of prison life and interaction with adult inmates. These programmes remain in use world-wide despite studies and reviews questioning their effectiveness. To assess the effects of programmes comprising organised visits to prisons by juvenile delinquents (officially adjudicated or convicted by a juvenile court) or pre-delinquents (children in trouble but not officially adjudicated as delinquents), aimed at deterring them from criminal activity. Handsearching by the first author in identifying randomised field trials 1945-1993 relevant to criminology was augmented by structured searches of 16 electronic data bases, including the Campbell SPECTR database of trials and the Cochrane CCTR. Experts in the field were consulted and relevant citations were followed up. Studies that tested the effects of any program involving the organised visits of juvenile delinquents or children at-risk for delinquency to penal institutions were included. Studies that included overlapping samples of juvenile and young adults (e.g. ages 14-20) were included. We only considered studies that randomly or quasi-randomly (i.e. alternation) assigned participants to conditions. Each study had to have a no-treatment control condition with at least one outcome measure of "post-visit" criminal behavior. We report narratively on the nine eligible trials. We conducted one meta-analysis of post-intervention offending rates using official data. Information from other sources (e.g. self-report) was either missing from some studies or critical information was omitted (e.g. standard deviations). We examined the immediate post-treatment effects (i.e. "first-effects") by computing Odds Ratios (OR) for data on proportions of each group re-offending, and assumed both fixed and
Lavelle, Anne E; Su, Dejun; Kahesa, Crispin; Soliman, Amr S
Cervical cancer is a significant health problem in many developing countries. Due to limited treatment facilities for cancer in Tanzania, a screening referral program was developed between two urban clinics and Ocean Road Cancer Institute (ORCI), the only cancer treatment center in Tanzania. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the program and to identify opportunities for professional education. The study included 139 patients who were referred to ORCI from the screening clinics of Magomeni and Temeke between January 2015 and May 2016. Abstracted data from the medical records included patient age, screening results, and treatment. Eight nurses performing screening at the three locations were interviewed about their screening experience. Over half of the referrals (51.9%) were false positives. False positive diagnosis was more common among younger patients (35.68 ± 8.6 years) (p education of nurses and improvement in the health systems. Continuous education of nurses may increase the effectiveness of cervical screening. Health system enhancement of screening facilities such as provision of Lugol's iodine, more space for screening, and consistency and completion of screening records are needed to increase the accuracy of cervical screening and referrals in Tanzania and other similar low-income countries.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Vaccine safety scares can undermine public confidence in vaccines and decrease immunisation rates. Understanding and addressing parental concerns arising during such scares can assist in lessening their impact. In Australia in April 2010 there was a temporary suspension of influenza vaccine for children under 5 years of age after reports of an increase in the rate of adverse events following vaccination. This qualitative study aimed to explore the impact of the vaccine suspension on parental knowledge, attitudes, trust, information needs, and intent related to influenza vaccination and broader immunisation programs. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 25 parents of children attending childcare centres in Sydney, Australia, between June 2010 and May 2011. Centres were selected to include parents from a range of socioeconomic backgrounds. Interview transcripts were coded and analysed using an approach informed by grounded theory. Results Findings indicated that, for those who recalled the vaccine suspension, there was a lasting sense of uncertainty and confusion and a perceived lack of information. Parents had distinct information needs following the vaccine suspension, especially in regards to vaccine safety, testing and recommendations. For many, influenza vaccination intent was conditional on receipt of information from a trusted, authoritative source allaying safety concerns. Importantly, the impact of the scare was contained to influenza vaccines only, and not other vaccine programs. Conclusions Parental concerns and information gaps following a vaccine safety scare need to be actively addressed. We provide policy and practice suggestions for proactively managing such incidents, particularly in relation to communication of timely, targeted information to parents and immunisation providers.
Full Text Available Background: 4TThe revised version of the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED-41 is a self-report questionnaire that measures symptoms (panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, separation anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, school phobia, social phobia of DSM-IV linked anxiety disorders in children with aged 8 to 18 years. The aim of the present study was to examine the validation of the (SCARED-41 in a sample of 300 school children. Materials and Methods:4T After the translation of the original version of the mentioned Scale to Farsi and confirming it by two psychology and English language professors, the final version was administered to 300 students (150 males, 150 females of Isfahan who were selected through stratified-cluster sampling. The age range of the participants was between 19 to 35 years. To assess reliability, internal consistency and split half methods were used. Also, concurrent, validity of convergent and divergent and factorial structure were used to determine validity. Results: 4TThe range of Cronbach’s alpha and retest were from 0.52 to 0.93 for subscale. Also, the coefficients of total Cronbach’s alpha reliability and retest were 0.93, and 0.92 respectively. Moreover, results of the concurrent validity, validity of convergent and divergent and factorial structure showed that (SCARED-41 has satisfactory validity. Conclusion: 4TThe revised version of the SCARED-41 has satisfactory reliability and validity in the sample of Iranian students, and could be used for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.
Although absolute levels of mortality have decreased among Swedish men and women in recent decades, educational inequalities in mortality have increased, especially among women. The aim of this study is to disentangle the role of income and family type in educational inequalities in mortality in Sweden during 1990-2009, focusing on gender differences. Data on individuals born in Sweden between the ages of 30 and 74 years were collected from total population registries, covering a total of 529,275 deaths and 729 million person-months. Temporary life expectancies (age 30-74 years) by education were calculated using life tables, and rate ratios were estimated with Poisson regression with robust standard errors. Temporary life expectancy improved among all groups except low educated women. Relative educational inequalities in mortality (RRs) increased from 1.79 to 1.98 among men and from 1.78 to 2.10 among women. Variation in family type explained some of the inequalities among men, but not among women, and did not contribute to the trend. Variation in income explained a larger part of the educational inequalities among men compared to women and also explained the increase in educational inequalities in mortality among men and women. Increasing educational inequalities in mortality in Sweden may be attributed to the increase in income inequalities in mortality. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.
Full Text Available The issue of mixed educational financing is rarely evoked in the literature, although the financial contribution of parents in the public educational system can be significant. This paper presents a comparative analysis of the mixed system and public and private ‘extreme’ systems in terms of economic growth and social disparity. For developing countries and for heterogeneous individuals, the mixed system is widely preferred. For homogeneous agents the public and private systems cannot lead to better economic performance than the mixed system. The public system always reduces social inequality, in contrast to the mixed and private systems, which generate the same level of inequality.
Kant, Ashima K; Graubard, Barry I
Children from ethnic minority and low-income families in the United States have higher rates of poor health and higher mortality rates. Diet, an acknowledged correlate of health, may mediate the known race-ethnic and socioeconomic differentials in the health of US children. The objective was to examine the independent association of race-ethnicity, family income, and education with nutritional and lipid biomarkers in US children. We used data from the NHANES 2003-2006 to examine serum concentrations of vitamins A, D, E, C, B-6, and B-12; serum concentrations of folate, carotenoids, and lipids; and dietary intakes of corresponding nutrients for 2-19-y-old children (n = ~2700-7500). Multiple covariate-adjusted regression methods were used to examine the independent and joint associations of race-ethnicity, family income, and education with biomarker status. Non-Hispanic blacks had lower mean serum concentrations of vitamins A, B-6, and E and α-carotene than did non-Hispanic whites. Both non-Hispanic blacks and Mexican Americans had higher mean serum vitamin C, β-cryptoxanthin, and lutein + zeaxanthin but lower folate and vitamin D concentrations compared with non-Hispanic whites. In comparison with non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks were less likely to have low serum HDL cholesterol or high triglycerides. Family income and education predicted few biomarker or dietary outcomes, and the observed associations were weak. Moreover, modification of race-ethnic differentials by income or education (or vice versa) was noted for very few biomarkers. Race-ethnicity, but not family income or education, was a strong independent predictor of serum nutrient concentrations and dietary micronutrient intakes in US children and adolescents.
Full Text Available To investigate the effects of age and sex on the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES and the prevalence and control status of diabetes mellitus (DM in Korean adults.Data came from 16,175 adults (6,951 men and 9,227 women over the age of 30 who participated in the 2008-2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. SES was measured by household income or education level. The adjusted odds ratios (ORs and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI for the prevalence or control status of diabetes were calculated using multiple logistic regression analyses across household income quartiles and education levels.The household income-DM and education level-DM relationships were significant in younger age groups for both men and women. The adjusted ORs and 95% CI for diabetes were 1.51 (0.97, 2.34 and 2.28 (1.29, 4.02 for the lowest vs. highest quartiles of household income and education level, respectively, in women younger than 65 years of age (both P for linear trend < 0.05 with Bonferroni adjustment. The adjusted OR and 95% CI for diabetes was 2.28 (1.53, 3.39 for the lowest vs. highest quartile of household income in men younger than 65 (P for linear trend < 0.05 with Bonferroni adjustment. However, in men and women older than 65, no associations were found between SES and the prevalence of DM. No significant association between SES and the status of glycemic control was detected.We found age- and sex-specific differences in the relationship of household income and education with the prevalence of DM in Korea. DM preventive care is needed for groups with a low SES, particularly in young or middle-aged populations.
Morton, Rebecca; Tyran, Jean-Robert; Wengström, Erik Roland
We find that cognitive abilities, educational attainment, and some personality traits indirectly affect ideological preferences through changes in income. The effects of changes in personality traits on ideology directly and indirectly through income are in the same direction. However, the indirect...... effects of cognitive abilities and education often offset the direct effects of these variables on ideological preferences. That is, increases in cognitive abilities and education significantly increase income, which reduces the tendency of individuals to express leftist preferences. These indirect...... effects are in some cases sizeable relative to direct effects. The indirect effects of cognitive abilities through income overwhelm the direct effects such that increasing IQ increases rightwing preferences. For ideological preferences over economic policy the indirect effects of advanced education also...
This dissertation is composed of three studies on Thai labor markets using a pseudo-panel data set: The first chapter estimates the rate of return to education in Thailand, while treating the endogeneity bias common to estimates from data on individuals. Pseudo-panel data are constructed from repeated cross sections of Labor Force Surveys…
Hermannsson, Kristinn; Lisenkova, Katerina; McGregor, Peter G.; Swales, J. Kim
This paper analyses the impact of London-based higher education institutions (HEIs) on the English economy. When we treat each of the HEIs as separate sectors in conventional input-output analysis, their expenditure impacts appear rather homogenous, with the apparent heterogeneity of their overall impacts being primarily driven by scale. However,…
Covarrubias, Alejandro; Liou, Daniel D.
Background: Prevailing perceptions of Asian Americans as model minorities have long situated this population within postracial discourse, an assumption that highlights their educational success as evidence of the declining significance of race and racism, placing them as models of success for other people of color. Despite evidence to repudiate…
Miller, W B; Pasta, D J
In this study we develop and then test a couple model of contraceptive method choice decision-making following a pregnancy scare. The central constructs in our model are satisfaction with one's current method and confidence in the use of it. Downstream in the decision sequence, satisfaction and confidence predict desires and intentions to change methods. Upstream they are predicted by childbearing motivations, contraceptive attitudes, and the residual effects of the couples' previous method decisions. We collected data from 175 mostly unmarried and racially/ethnically diverse couples who were seeking pregnancy tests. We used LISREL and its latent variable capacity to estimate a structural equation model of the couple decision-making sequence leading to a change (or not) in contraceptive method. Results confirm most elements in our model and demonstrate a number of important cross-partner effects. Almost one-half of the sample had positive pregnancy tests and the base model fitted to this subsample indicates less accuracy in partner perception and greater influence of the female partner on method change decision-making. The introduction of some hypothesis-generating exogenous variables to our base couple model, together with some unexpected findings for the contraceptive attitude variables, suggest interesting questions that require further exploration.
Ferrer-i-Carbonell, Ada; Praag, Bernard M.S. Van
In this paper, the concept of Income Satisfaction Inequality is operationalized on the basis of individual responses to an Income Satisfaction question posed in the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP). Income satisfaction is the subjective analogue of the objective income concept and includes objective income inequality as a special case. The paper introduces a method to decompose Income Satisfaction Inequality according to the contributions from variables such as income, education, and the n...
Mark, Quentin J
Human height is a heritable trait that is known to be influenced by environmental factors and general standard of living. Individual and population stature is correlated with health, education and economic achievement. Strong sexual selection pressures for stature have been observed in multiple diverse populations, however; there is significant global variance in gender equality and prohibitions on female mate selection. This paper explores the contribution of general standard of living and gender inequality to the variance in global female population heights. Female population heights of 96 nations were culled from previously published sources and public access databases. Factor analysis with United Nations international data on education rates, life expectancy, incomes, maternal and childhood mortality rates, ratios of gender participation in education and politics, the Human Development Index (HDI) and the Gender Inequality Index (GII) was run. Results indicate that population heights vary more closely with gender inequality than with population health, income or education.
Hoyt, DaVina J.
It is often that during their academic pursuits, to become successful, low-income African-American women must learn to navigate an upstream current through higher education, where the established order in the academy is based on Western European values that often conflict with African-American values (Harper, Patton & Wooden, 2009; Phinney,…
Wroten, Kathryn; Reames, Elizabeth S.; Tuuri, Georgianna
The study reported here investigated the effectiveness of the LSU AgCenter Help a Friend, Help Yourself youth diabetes education curriculum to increase knowledge and awareness of diabetes and its symptoms in low-income middle school students participating in the Boys and Girls Club after-school program. The curriculum includes four lessons with…
S.L. López Arana (Sandra Liliana); A. Burdorf (Alex); M. Avendano Pabon (Mauricio)
textabstractThis study examined trends in overweight among women of reproductive age by educational level in 33 low- and middle-income countries, and estimated the contribution of parity, age at first birth and breastfeeding to these trends. We used repeated cross-sectional Demographic Health
Del Razo, Parvati Heliana
The purpose of this study was to find out if the demographic variables of country of origin, generation in the United States (immigration status), income and parental education had an impact on the financial aid packages of Hispanic undergraduate students. This dissertation asked: What is the relation between generation in the United States,…
Using a cross-sectional design with 407 Chinese children aged 3-5 years and their parents, this study examined the effects of socioeconomic status, specifically parents' education and family income, on the children's mother-child relationships, father-child relationships, and the social environment in their families. The results indicated that income negatively predicted conflict in father-child relationships and positively predicted family active-recreational environments. Income also positively predicted family cohesion among girls but not boys. Maternal education negatively predicted conflict in mother-child relationships and positively predicted closeness in mother-child and father-child relationships, family cohesion, and the intellectual-cultural and active-recreational environments in the family. Paternal education positively predicted family cohesion and intellectual-cultural and active-recreational environments. Income was found to partially mediate the effects of both maternal and paternal education on family active-recreational environments. Findings are discussed in the frameworks of the family stress model and the family investment model. © FPI, Inc.
... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Program income. 361.63 Section 361.63 Education... State Vocational Rehabilitation Programs § 361.63 Program income. (a) Definition. For purposes of this section, program income means gross income received by the State that is directly generated by an activity...
Wang, Aolin; Stronks, Karien; Arah, Onyebuchi A.
Despite the well-established link between body mass index (BMI) and diabetes mellitus (DM), it remains unclear whether this association is more pronounced at certain levels of education. This study assessed the modifying effect of educational attainment on the associations between BMI and DM-as well
Full Text Available Intense and enduring psychological distress has been well-documented in numerous studies on bereaved parents including anxious, depressive, and traumatic stress symptoms. A state of poverty is also known to increase the risk of psychological distress in the general population, yet this variable has not yet been sufficiently evaluated in outcomes specifically for bereaved parents. This study is the first to investigate poverty, education, and parental bereavement while examining the relative risk of other variables as informed by the literature. The findings reveal that poverty was the strongest predictor of psychological distress when compared to others factors which have traditionally been considered significant in parental bereavement. Bereaved parents living in poverty may be less likely to seek support and have fewer available resources. Practice and policy implications are discussed. Keywords: Poverty, Deprivation, Bereavement, Trauma, Grief, Anxiety, Depression
Edward D Kleinbard
This paper and its companion, The Lessons of Stateless Income, together comprehensively analyze the tax consequences and policy implications of the phenomenon of “stateless income.” Stateless income comprises income derived for tax purposes by a multinational group from business activities in a country other than the domicile of the group’s ultimate parent company, but which is subject to tax only in a jurisdiction that is not the location of the customers or the factors of production through...
Lewis, Marquita W; Khodneva, Yulia; Redmond, Nicole; Durant, Raegan W; Judd, Suzanne E; Wilkinson, Larrell L; Howard, Virginia J; Safford, Monika M
We investigated the association between income-education groups and incident coronary heart disease (CHD) in a national prospective cohort study. The REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke study recruited 30,239 black and white community-dwelling adults between 2003 and 2007 and collected participant-reported and in-home physiologic variables at baseline, with expert adjudicated CHD endpoints during follow-up. Mutually exclusive income-education groups were: low income (annual household income events through December 31, 2011 (median follow-up 6.0 years; interquartile range 4.5-7.3 years). Those with low income/low education had the highest incidence of CHD (10.1 [95% CI 8.4-12.1]/1000 person-years). After full adjustment, those with low income/low education had higher risk of incident CHD (HR 1.42 [95% CI: 1.14-1.76]) than those with high income/high education, but findings varied by age. Among those aged independent effects of income and education are less pronounced.
Ang, Siewching; Rodgers, Joseph Lee; Wänström, Linda
Although the Flynn Effect has been studied widely across cultural, geographic, and intellectual domains, and many explanatory theories have been proposed, little past research attention has been paid to subgroup differences. Rodgers and Wänström (2007) identified an aggregate-level Flynn Effect (FE) at each age between 5 and 13 in the Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSYC) PIAT-Math data. FE patterns were not obtained for Reading Recognition, Reading Comprehension, or Digit Span, consistent with past FE research suggesting a closer relationship to fluid intelligence measures of problem solving and analytic reasoning than to crystallized measures of verbal comprehension and memory. These prior findings suggest that the NLSYC data can be used as a natural laboratory to study more subtle FE patterns within various demographic subgroups. We test for subgroup Flynn Effect differences by gender, race/ethnicity, maternal education, household income, and urbanization. No subgroups differences emerged for three demographic categories. However, children with more educated (especially college educated) mothers and/or children born into higher income households had an accelerated Flynn effect in their PIAT-M scores compared to cohort peers with lower educated mothers or lower income households. We interpret both the positive and the null findings in relation to previous theoretical explanations.
Torquati, Julia C.; Raikes, Helen H.; Huddleston-Casas, Catherine A.; Bovaird, James A.; Harris, Beatrice A.
Observed child care quality and parent perceptions of child care quality received by children in poor (below Federal Poverty Line, FPL), low-income (between FPL and 200% of FPL), and non-low-income families were examined. Observations were completed in 359 center- and home-based child care programs in four Midwestern states and surveys were…
Kim, Jong In; Kim, Gukbin
The remaining years of healthy life expectancy (RYH) at age 65 years can be calculated as RYH (65) = healthy life expectancy-aged 65 years. This study confirms the associations between socioeconomic indicators and the RYH (65) in 148 countries. The RYH data were obtained from the World Health Organization. Significant positive correlations between RYH (65) in men and women and the socioeconomic indicators national income, education level, and improved drinking water were found. Finally, the predictors of RYH (65) in men and women were used to build a model of the RYH using higher socioeconomic indicators (R(2 )= 0.744, p educational attainment, national income level, and improved water quality influenced the RYH at 65 years. Therefore, policymaking to improve these country-level socioeconomic factors is expected to have latent effects on RYH in older age. © The Author(s) 2016.
Full Text Available The impact of social economic status (SES on children's academic outcomes has been well documented. However, the mechanisms underlying this relationship remain poorly understood. Furthermore, the process by which SES relates to academic achievement needs to be studied separately for boys and girls. Using a sample of 598 Chinese children (299 boys, 299 girls in grades 4 to 6 and their parents, this study examined the process of how family SES, specifically family income and parental education, indirectly relates to children's reading achievement through parental expectation and parental involvement and whether this process differs between boys and girls. The results revealed that parental expectation and specific parental involvement behaviors played critical mediating roles between family SES and reading achievement. Moreover, the exact nature of these links differed by the gender of children. For boys, both the effect of parental education and the effect of family income were partially mediated by parental expectation and parent-child communication orderly. For girls, the effect of parental education was partially mediated by three separate pathways: (1 home monitoring; (2 parent-child communication; and (3 parental expectation followed by parent-child communication, while the effect of family income was fully mediated by parent-child communication. These findings suggest a process through which SES factors are related to children's academic development and identify a context under which these associations may differ. The practical implications of these findings are discussed, along with possible future research directions.
Guo, Xiaolin; Lv, Bo; Zhou, Huan; Liu, Chunhui; Liu, Juan; Jiang, Kexin; Luo, Liang
The impact of social economic status (SES) on children's academic outcomes has been well documented. However, the mechanisms underlying this relationship remain poorly understood. Furthermore, the process by which SES relates to academic achievement needs to be studied separately for boys and girls. Using a sample of 598 Chinese children (299 boys, 299 girls) in grades 4 to 6 and their parents, this study examined the process of how family SES, specifically family income and parental education, indirectly relates to children's reading achievement through parental expectation and parental involvement and whether this process differs between boys and girls. The results revealed that parental expectation and specific parental involvement behaviors played critical mediating roles between family SES and reading achievement. Moreover, the exact nature of these links differed by the gender of children. For boys, both the effect of parental education and the effect of family income were partially mediated by parental expectation and parent-child communication orderly. For girls, the effect of parental education was partially mediated by three separate pathways: (1) home monitoring; (2) parent-child communication; and (3) parental expectation followed by parent-child communication, while the effect of family income was fully mediated by parent-child communication. These findings suggest a process through which SES factors are related to children's academic development and identify a context under which these associations may differ. The practical implications of these findings are discussed, along with possible future research directions.
The aim of this study is to determine the separate effects of social class, income, education and area of residence on psychological distress. The study also assesses whether the association between prevalence of high score on the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ 12) and social class is independent of other variables. Psychological distress was assessed by means of the GHQ 12. The study covered 1,092 adults aged 15 years or more living in two different quarters of Antalya. Social class status was defined by occupational position, with income, education and area of residence treated as confounders. Chi-square and logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the data. Large inequalities in psychological distress by all variables were observed. Psychological distress was significantly associated with class status, after adjusting for income, education, area of residence and other potential confounders (age, sex and marital status). Class inequalities in psychological distress were observed between blue-collar workers/unqualified employees and bourgeoisie. These findings support the view that the recent widening of inequalities among social classes in Turkey pose a substantial threat to health.
Murray, Vicki E.
In 2009, the "East Valley Tribune and the Arizona Republic" alleged that Arizona's individual income tax-credit scholarship program disproportionately serves privileged students from higher-income families over those from lower-income backgrounds. Yet neither paper collected the student-level, scholarship recipient family income data…
Nakamura, Saki; Inayama, Takayo; Harada, Kazuhiro; Arao, Takashi
No existing Web-based nutrition education interventions have been evaluated in light of socioeconomic status just in Japan. The aim was to investigate the effect of a Web-based intervention program on reducing vegetable intake disparities between low- and middle-income Japanese adults. In this randomized controlled trial, participants were assessed at three time points-baseline, postintervention (5 weeks later), and a follow-up after 3 months-from October 2015 to March 2016. We collected data via a Japanese online research service company from 8564 adults aged 30 to 59 years. Participants were stratified according to national population statistics for gender and age, and randomly selected. They were then randomly allocated into intervention (n=900) and control (n=600) groups such that both groups contained an equal number of individuals with low and middle income. The intervention program encouraged behavior change using behavioral theories and techniques tailored to their assumed stage of change. The outcome was vegetable intake servings per day (1 serving being approximately 70 g). Out of 900 participants who started, 450 were from the middle income group (of which 386 or 85.7% completed the intervention), and 450 were from the low income group (of which 371 or 82.4% completed). In the intervention group, vegetable intake increased in the low-income participants from baseline to postintervention (0.42 servings, 95% CI 0.11-0.72). A two-way analysis of variance showed that low-income participants had significant main effects of group (η2=0.04, P=.01) and time (η2=0.01, Pincome participants also had a significant main effect of time (η2=0.01, P=.006) and a significant interaction (η2=0.01, P=.046). This Web-based nutritional education intervention could fill the vegetable intake gap between low- and middle-income adults in Japan, and is expected to prevent noncommunicable and lifestyle-related diseases. Further intervention program improvements are necessary to
Conway, David I; Brenner, Darren R; McMahon, Alex D; Macpherson, Lorna M D; Agudo, Antonio; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Bosetti, Cristina; Brenner, Hermann; Castellsague, Xavier; Chen, Chu; Curado, Maria Paula; Curioni, Otávio A; Dal Maso, Luigino; Daudt, Alexander W; de Gois Filho, José F; D'Souza, Gypsyamber; Edefonti, Valeria; Fabianova, Eleonora; Fernandez, Leticia; Franceschi, Silvia; Gillison, Maura; Hayes, Richard B; Healy, Claire M; Herrero, Rolando; Holcatova, Ivana; Jayaprakash, Vijayvel; Kelsey, Karl; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Koifman, Sergio; La Vecchia, Carlo; Lagiou, Pagona; Lazarus, Philip; Levi, Fabio; Lissowska, Jolanta; Luce, Daniele; Macfarlane, Tatiana V; Mates, Dana; Matos, Elena; McClean, Michael; Menezes, Ana M; Menvielle, Gwenn; Merletti, Franco; Morgenstern, Hal; Moysich, Kirsten; Müller, Heiko; Muscat, Joshua; Olshan, Andrew F; Purdue, Mark P; Ramroth, Heribert; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Rudnai, Peter; Schantz, Stimson; Schwartz, Stephen M; Shangina, Oxana; Simonato, Lorenzo; Smith, Elaine; Stucker, Isabelle; Sturgis, Erich M; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Talamini, Renato; Thomson, Peter; Vaughan, Thomas L; Wei, Qingyi; Winn, Deborah M; Wunsch-Filho, Victor; Yu, Guo-Pei; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Zheng, Tongzhang; Znaor, Ariana; Boffetta, Paolo; Chuang, Shu-Chun; Ghodrat, Marianoosh; Amy Lee, Yuan-Chin; Hashibe, Mia; Brennan, Paul
Low socioeconomic status has been reported to be associated with head and neck cancer risk. However, previous studies have been too small to examine the associations by cancer subsite, age, sex, global region and calendar time and to explain the association in terms of behavioral risk factors. Individual participant data of 23,964 cases with head and neck cancer and 31,954 controls from 31 studies in 27 countries pooled with random effects models. Overall, low education was associated with an increased risk of head and neck cancer (OR = 2.50; 95% CI = 2.02 - 3.09). Overall one-third of the increased risk was not explained by differences in the distribution of cigarette smoking and alcohol behaviors; and it remained elevated among never users of tobacco and nondrinkers (OR = 1.61; 95% CI = 1.13 - 2.31). More of the estimated education effect was not explained by cigarette smoking and alcohol behaviors: in women than in men, in older than younger groups, in the oropharynx than in other sites, in South/Central America than in Europe/North America and was strongest in countries with greater income inequality. Similar findings were observed for the estimated effect of low versus high household income. The lowest levels of income and educational attainment were associated with more than 2-fold increased risk of head and neck cancer, which is not entirely explained by differences in the distributions of behavioral risk factors for these cancers and which varies across cancer sites, sexes, countries and country income inequality levels. © 2014 UICC.
... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Program income. 74.24 Section 74.24 Education Office of... Program Management § 74.24 Program income. (a) The Secretary applies the standards contained in this section in requiring recipient organizations to account for program income related to projects financed in...
Sharma, Shreela; Helfman, Lisa; Albus, Katherine; Pomeroy, Mike; Chuang, Ru-Jye; Markham, Christine
Intake of fruits and vegetables (F&V) continues to be low in children in the United States. The purpose of this study was to conduct a pilot feasibility evaluation of Brighter Bites, a school-based food co-op to provide access to fresh F&V and nutrition education to low-income children and their families. Brighter Bites is a 16-week school-based food co-op consisting of: (1) Weekly distribution of 50-60 servings of fresh F&V; (2) Weekly bilingual parent handouts and recipe demonstrations; and (3) implementing CATCH, a coordinated school health program in schools. Brighter Bites was pilot tested using a pre-post evaluation design in one charter school in Houston, TX, USA (n = 57 3rd grade parent-child dyads; 94.1 % Hispanic, 91 % low-income). Evaluation, at baseline, midpoint, and post-intervention, included self-reported child and parent surveys on psychosocial factors, dietary habits and mealtime practices. Pearson's Chi square test, Fisher's exact-test or paired t test were used to determine changes pre- to post-intervention (at p food, less sugary drinks with meals, more children asking for F&V as snacks. Process data showed 98 % retention rate and high parent acceptability of program components. Brighter Bites is a promising strategy to increase F&V access and education in low-income populations using existing infrastructure of schools and food banks.
Muris, P.; Merckelbach, H.; Kindt, M.; Bögels, S.; Dreessen, L.; van Dorp, C.; Habets, A.; Rosmuller, S.; Snieder, N.
The current study examined the utility of the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED) as a screening tool for the identification of children at high risk for prevalent childhood anxiety disorders. The child version of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM (KSCID) was used
Full Text Available Background: The use of over-the-counter (OTC drugs has increased tremendously, however, information on risk perception regarding the use of OTC drugs and their potential toxicity is scarce. Hence, the purpose of this study was to investigate the perception of OTC drug safety and efficacy based on reading product packaging and the effect of race, education, age and income. Methods: We used the HINTS 2012 data set with total sample size of 2,554. Results: OTC drug users having some high school education had a lower chance of frequently reading information included in the product labeling with the OTC medication. OTC drug users less than 50 years of age were always likely to read drug information on the OTC drug labeling. Also, Non-Hispanic blacks were more likely to read OTC drug labeling than Non-Hispanic whites. OTC drug users less than 50 years of age consider OTC drugs safer than prescription drugs. Conversely, OTC drug users with a high school, some college or bachelor’s degree consider OTC drugs less safe than prescription drugs. Non-Hispanic blacks, non-Hispanic whites, and subjects of lower income were less likely to consider OTC drugs safer than prescription drugs. OTC drug users with a high school education and some college perceive OTC drugs to be less effective than prescription drugs.Conclusion: To conclude, age, education, race, and income affect risk perception on OTC drugs. Consumer information programs need to be designed so that meaningful results can be incorporated into public policy. Providing information on the labeling of OTC drugs and likelihood of patients reading this information require further study.
Krasner, Michael Alan; Pierre-Louis, Francois
A college-based program that combines training, direct support, and technical assistance was found to produce significant gains in bonding and bridging social capital and key political attributes among low-income, minority, and immigrant groups organizing to enhance their power to influence public school politics and policies in New York City.…
Nakajima, Hisato; Yano, Kouya; Nagasawa, Kaoko; Katou, Satoka; Yokota, Kuninobu
The objective of this study is to examine the factors that influence the operation income and expenditure balance ratio of school corporations running university hospitals by multiple regression analysis. 1. We conducted cluster analysis of the financial ratio and classified the school corporations into those running colleges and universities.2. We conducted multiple regression analysis using the operation income and expenditure balance ratio of the colleges as the variables and the Diagnosis Procedure Combination data as the explaining variables.3. The predictive expression was used for multiple regression analysis. 1. The school corporations were divided into those running universities (7), colleges (20) and others. The medical income ratio and the debt ratio were high and the student payment ratio was low in the colleges.2. The numbers of emergency care hospitalizations, operations, radiation therapies, and ambulance conveyances, and the complexity index had a positive influence on the operation income and expenditure balance ratio. On the other hand, the number of general anesthesia procedures, the cover rate index, and the emergency care index had a negative influence.3. The predictive expression was as follows.Operation income and expenditure balance ratio = 0.027 × number of emergency care hospitalizations + 0.005 × number of operations + 0.019 × number of radiation therapies + 0.007 × number of ambulance conveyances - 0.003 × number of general anesthesia procedures + 648.344 × complexity index - 5877.210 × cover rate index - 2746.415 × emergency care index - 38.647Conclusion: In colleges, the number of emergency care hospitalizations, the number of operations, the number of radiation therapies, and the number of ambulance conveyances and the complexity index were factors for gaining ordinary profit.
Monica Napoleão Fortes Rego
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: In Brazil, imatinib mesylate is supplied as the first-line therapy for chronic myeloid leukemia in the chronic phase through the public universal healthcare program, Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS. We studied the socio-demographic factors that influenced therapy success in a population in the northeast region of Brazil. METHODS: Patients with chronic myeloid leukemia from the state of Piauí were treated in only one reference center. Diagnosis was based on WHO 2008 criteria. Risk was assessed by Sokal, Hasford and EUTOS scores. Patients received 400 mg imatinib daily. We studied the influence of the following factors on the achievement of complete cytogenetic response within one year of treatment: age, clinical risk category, time interval between diagnosis and the start of imatinib treatment, geographic distance from the patient's home to the hospital, years of formal education and monthly income. RESULTS: Among 103 patients studied, the median age was 42 years; 65% of the patients had 2-9 years of formal education, and the median monthly income was approximately 100 US$. Imatinib was started in the first year after diagnosis (early chronic phase in 69 patients. After 12 months of treatment, 68 patients had a complete cytogenetic response. The Hasford score, delay to start imatinib and years of formal education influenced the attainment of a complete cytogenetic response, whereas income and the distance from the home to the healthcare facility did not. CONCLUSION: Patients require additional healthcare information to better understand the importance of long-term oral anticancer treatment and to improve their compliance with the treatment.
Lopez-Arana, Sandra; Burdorf, Alex; Avendano, Mauricio
Summary This study examined trends in overweight among women of reproductive age by educational level in 33 low- and middle income countries, and estimated the contribution of parity, age at first birth and breastfeeding to these trends. We used repeated cross-sectional demographic health surveys (DHS) of 255,828 women aged 25-49 years interviewed between 1992 and 2009. We applied logistic regression to model overweight (> 25 kg/m2) as a function of education, reproductive variables and time period by country and region. The prevalence of overweight ranged from 3.4% in South and Southeast Asia to 73.7% in North Africa West/Central Asia during the study period. The association between education and overweight differed across regions. In North Africa West/Central Asia and Latin American, lower education was associated with higher overweight prevalence, while the inverse was true in South/Southeast Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. In all regions, there was a consistent pattern of increasing overweight trends across all educational groups. Older age at first birth, longer breastfeeding, and lower parity were associated with less overweight, but these variables did not account for the association or the increasing trends between education and overweight. PMID:23782957
Bean, Kristen F; Sidora-Arcoleo, Kimberly
African American students are overrepresented in special education. Ecological systems theory, social cognitive theory, and a literature review demonstrate that children's environments, particularly school, and self-efficacy impact the educational outcomes of African American children. Interventions have aimed to improve children's environmental resources and efficacy. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of environment, efficacy beliefs, and the Nurse-Family Partnership intervention on the educational achievements of African American children in special education. A secondary data analysis of 126 African American children in special education found that self-efficacy and the number of hours spent in special education were associated with their academic achievement.
Lukusa, Lungeni Auguy; Ndze, Valantine Ngum; Mbeye, Nyanyiwe Masingi; Wiysonge, Charles Shey
Public health benefits of childhood vaccinations risk being derailed by low vaccination coverage in low and middle-income countries. One reason for the low coverage is poor parental knowledge of the importance of completing vaccination schedules. We therefore assessed the effects on childhood vaccination coverage, of educating parents and other persons assuming the parental role. We prospectively registered the systematic review, published the protocol, and used standard Cochrane methods to collect and synthesise the evidence. We found six eligible randomised trials with 4248 participants. Three trials assessed health-facility based education of mothers on the importance of completing vaccination schedules; immediately after birth and three months later (one study) or during the first vaccination visit (two studies). The other trials assessed community-based education, including information campaigns on the importance of vaccines using audiotaped presentations and leaflet distributions (one study); structured group discussions on benefits and costs of childhood vaccination and local action plans for improving vaccine uptake (one study); and home-based information sessions using graphic cards showing benefits and costs of childhood vaccinations and location of vaccination centres (one study). Combining the data shows that these interventions lead to substantial improvements in childhood vaccination coverage (relative increase 36%, 95% confidence interval 14% to 62%). There was no difference between the effects of community-based and facility-based education. Therefore, education in communities and health facilities on the importance of childhood vaccinations should be integrated into all vaccination programmes in low and middle-income countries; accompanied by robust monitoring of impacts and use of data for action.
Lant Pritchett; Martina Viarengo
This paper examines the variation across countries and evolution over time of life expectancy. Using historical data going back to the beginning of the 20th century several basic facts about the relationship between national income and life expectancy are established. The paper shows that even by examining the augmented Preston curve there is no indication that the Preston curve is “breaking down” and no indication from over 100 years of data that a very strong relationship between national i...
Bradford, Angela B; Hawkins, Alan J; Acker, Jennifer
Over the past decade, public funding for Couple and Relationship Education programs has expanded. As program administrators have been able to extend their reach to low-income individuals and couples using this support, it has become apparent that greater numbers of relationally distressed couples are attending classes than previously anticipated. Because psychoeducational programs for couples have traditionally served less distressed couples, this dynamic highlights the need to examine the policy and practice implications of more distressed couples accessing these services. This paper reviews some of the most immediate issues, including screening for domestic violence and couple needs, pedagogical considerations, and the potential integration of therapy and education services. We also make suggestions for future research that can inform policy and practice efforts. © 2015 Family Process Institute.
Østgård, Lene Sofie Granfeldt; Nørgaard, Mette; Medeiros, Bruno C; Friis, Lone Smidstrup; Schoellkopf, Claudia; Severinsen, Marianne Tang; Marcher, Claus Werenberg; Nørgaard, Jan Maxwell
Purpose Previous US studies have shown that socioeconomic status (SES) affects survival in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, no large study has investigated the association between education or income and clinical characteristics, treatment, and outcome in AML. Methods To investigate the effects of education and income in a tax-supported health care system, we conducted a population-based study using individual-level SES and clinical data on all Danish patients with AML (2000 to 2014). We compared treatment intensity, allogeneic transplantation, and response rates by education and income level using logistic regression (odds ratios). We used Cox regression (hazard ratios [HRs]) to compare survival, adjusting for age, sex, SES, and clinical prognostic markers. Results Of 2,992 patients, 1,588 (53.1%) received intensive chemotherapy. Compared with low-education patients, highly educated patients more often received allogeneic transplantation (16.3% v 8.7%). In intensively treated patients younger than 60 years of age, increased mortality was observed in those with lower and medium education (1-year survival, 66.7%; adjusted HR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.11 to 1.93; and 1-year survival, 67.6%; adjusted HR, 1.55; CI, 1.21 to 1.98, respectively) compared with higher education (1-year survival, 76.9%). Over the study period, 5-year survival improvements were limited to high-education patients (from 39% to 58%), increasing the survival gap between groups. In older patients, low-education patients received less intensive therapy (30% v 48%; adjusted odds ratio, 0.65; CI, 0.44 to 0.98) compared with high-education patients; however, remission rates and survival were not affected in those intensively treated. Income was not associated with therapy intensity, likelihood of complete remission, or survival (high income: adjusted HR, 1.0; medium income: adjusted HR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.82 to 1.12; low income: adjusted HR, 1.06; CI, .88 to 1.27). Conclusion In a universal health care
Atkinson, Nancy L; Saperstein, Sandra L; Desmond, Sharon M; Gold, Robert S; Billing, Amy S; Tian, Jing
Adult women living in rural areas have high rates of obesity. Although rural populations have been deemed hard to reach, Internet-based programming is becoming a viable strategy as rural Internet access increases. However, when people are able to get online, they may not find information designed for them and their needs, especially harder to reach populations. This results in a "content gap" for many users. User-centered design is a methodology that can be used to create appropriate online materials. This research was conducted to apply a user-centered approach to the design and development of a health promotion website for low-income mothers living in rural Maryland. Three iterative rounds of concept testing were conducted to (1) identify the name and content needs of the site and assess concerns about registering on a health-related website; (2) determine the tone and look of the website and confirm content and functionality; and (3) determine usability and acceptability. The first two rounds involved focus group and small group discussions, and the third round involved usability testing with individual women as they used the prototype system. The formative research revealed that women with limited incomes were enthusiastic about a website providing nutrition and physical activity information targeted to their incomes and tailored to their personal goals and needs. Other priority content areas identified were budgeting, local resources and information, and content that could be used with their children. Women were able to use the prototype system effectively. This research demonstrated that user-centered design strategies can help close the "content gap" for at-risk audiences.
Quamruzzaman, Amm; Mendoza Rodríguez, José M; Heymann, Jody; Kaufman, Jay S; Nandi, Arijit
Robust evidence from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) suggests that maternal education is associated with better child health outcomes. However, whether or not policies aimed at increasing access to education, including tuition-free education policies, contribute to lower infant and neonatal mortality has not been empirically tested. We joined country-level data on national education policies for 37 LMICs to information on live births to young mothers aged 15-21 years, who were surveyed as part of the population-based Demographic and Health Surveys. We used propensity scores to match births to mothers who were exposed to a tuition-free primary education policy with births to mothers who were not, based on individual-level, household, and country-level characteristics, including GDP per capita, urbanization, and health expenditures per capita. Multilevel logistic regression models, fitted using generalized estimating equations, were used to estimate the effect of exposure to tuition-free primary education policies on the risk of infant and neonatal mortality. We also tested whether this effect was modified by household socioeconomic status. The propensity score matched samples for analyses of infant and neonatal mortality comprised 24,396 and 36,030 births, respectively, from 23 countries. Multilevel regression analyses showed that, on average, exposure to a tuition-free education policy was associated with 15 (95% CI=-32, 1) fewer infant and 5 (95% CI=-13, 4) fewer neonatal deaths per 1000 live births. We found no strong evidence of heterogeneity of this effect by socioeconomic level. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Jessica A Hill
Full Text Available Clinical genetic testing is becoming an integral part of medical care for inherited disorders. While genetic testing and counseling are readily available in high-income countries, in low- and middle-income countries like Kenya genetic testing is limited and genetic counseling is virtually non-existent. Genetic testing is likely to become widespread in Kenya within the next decade, yet there has not been a concomitant increase in genetic counseling resources. To address this gap, we designed an interactive workshop for clinicians in Kenya focused on the genetics of the childhood eye cancer retinoblastoma. The objectives were to increase retinoblastoma genetics knowledge, build genetic counseling skills and increase confidence in those skills.The workshop was conducted at the 2013 Kenyan National Retinoblastoma Strategy meeting. It included a retinoblastoma genetics presentation, small group discussion of case studies and genetic counseling role-play. Knowledge was assessed by standardized test, and genetic counseling skills and confidence by questionnaire.Knowledge increased significantly post-workshop, driven by increased knowledge of retinoblastoma causative genetics. One-year post-workshop, participant knowledge had returned to baseline, indicating that knowledge retention requires more frequent reinforcement. Participants reported feeling more confident discussing genetics with patients, and had integrated more genetic counseling into patient interactions.A comprehensive retinoblastoma genetics workshop can increase the knowledge and skills necessary for effective retinoblastoma genetic counseling.
Hill, Jessica A; Lee, Su Yeon; Njambi, Lucy; Corson, Timothy W; Dimaras, Helen
Clinical genetic testing is becoming an integral part of medical care for inherited disorders. While genetic testing and counseling are readily available in high-income countries, in low- and middle-income countries like Kenya genetic testing is limited and genetic counseling is virtually non-existent. Genetic testing is likely to become widespread in Kenya within the next decade, yet there has not been a concomitant increase in genetic counseling resources. To address this gap, we designed an interactive workshop for clinicians in Kenya focused on the genetics of the childhood eye cancer retinoblastoma. The objectives were to increase retinoblastoma genetics knowledge, build genetic counseling skills and increase confidence in those skills. The workshop was conducted at the 2013 Kenyan National Retinoblastoma Strategy meeting. It included a retinoblastoma genetics presentation, small group discussion of case studies and genetic counseling role-play. Knowledge was assessed by standardized test, and genetic counseling skills and confidence by questionnaire. Knowledge increased significantly post-workshop, driven by increased knowledge of retinoblastoma causative genetics. One-year post-workshop, participant knowledge had returned to baseline, indicating that knowledge retention requires more frequent reinforcement. Participants reported feeling more confident discussing genetics with patients, and had integrated more genetic counseling into patient interactions. A comprehensive retinoblastoma genetics workshop can increase the knowledge and skills necessary for effective retinoblastoma genetic counseling.
Full Text Available This study looks at the equality challenges and opportunities for women with disabilities in low and middle income countries (LMICs to participate and succeed in education, employment and motherhood. It is based on a systematic review of the literature from academic and non-governmental organization databases. The search of these databases yielded 24 articles, which were subsequently passed through open, axial, and selective coding. The resulting review found that women with disabilities in LMICs have severe difficulty participating and succeeding in education, employment and motherhood due to a number of interrelated factors: (i hampered access to education, employment, intimacy and marriage, (ii stigma and cultural practices resulting in discrimination and prejudice, and (iii lack of support from family, teachers and institutions—all of which are exacerbated by poverty. Support from families, communities, the government, and non-governmental organizations improves women’s ability to fulfil their social roles (as students, employees and mothers, resulting in a better quality of life. Strategies that create awareness, minimize poverty and facilitate justice may improve the opportunities for women with disabilities in LMICs to participate in education, employment and motherhood, as well as their ability to succeed in these domains.
Engelberg, Ruth A.; Downey, Lois; Kross, Erin K.; Reinke, Lynn F.; Cecere Feemster, Laura; Dotolo, Danae; Ford, Dee W.; Back, Anthony L.; Curtis, J. Randall
Abstract Background: Minority race and lower socioeconomic status are associated with poorer patient ratings of health care quality and provider communication. Objective: To examine the association of race/ethnicity or socioeconomic status with patients' and families' ratings of end-of-life care and communication about end-of-life care provided by physicians-in-training. Methods: As a component of a randomized trial evaluating a program designed to improve clinician communication about end-of-life care, patients and patients' families completed preintervention survey data regarding care and communication provided by internal medicine residents and medical subspecialty fellows. We examined associations between patient and family race or socioeconomic status and ratings they gave trainees on two questionnaires: the Quality of End-of-Life Care (QEOLC) and Quality of Communication (QOC). Results: Patients from racial/ethnic minority groups, patients with lower income, and patients with lower educational attainment gave trainees higher ratings on the end-of-life care subscale of the QOC (QOCeol). In path models, patient educational attainment and income had a direct effect on outcomes, while race/ethnicity did not. Lower family educational attainment was also associated with higher trainee ratings on the QOCeol, while family non-white race was associated with lower trainee ratings on the QEOLC and general subscale of the QOC. Conclusions: Patient race is associated with perceptions of the quality of communication about end-of-life care provided by physicians-in-training, but the association was opposite to our hypothesis and appears to be mediated by socioeconomic status. Family member predictors of these perceptions differ from those observed for patients. Further investigation of these associations may guide interventions to improve care delivered to patients and families. PMID:24592958
Long, Ann C; Engelberg, Ruth A; Downey, Lois; Kross, Erin K; Reinke, Lynn F; Cecere Feemster, Laura; Dotolo, Danae; Ford, Dee W; Back, Anthony L; Curtis, J Randall
Minority race and lower socioeconomic status are associated with poorer patient ratings of health care quality and provider communication. To examine the association of race/ethnicity or socioeconomic status with patients' and families' ratings of end-of-life care and communication about end-of-life care provided by physicians-in-training. As a component of a randomized trial evaluating a program designed to improve clinician communication about end-of-life care, patients and patients' families completed preintervention survey data regarding care and communication provided by internal medicine residents and medical subspecialty fellows. We examined associations between patient and family race or socioeconomic status and ratings they gave trainees on two questionnaires: the Quality of End-of-Life Care (QEOLC) and Quality of Communication (QOC). Patients from racial/ethnic minority groups, patients with lower income, and patients with lower educational attainment gave trainees higher ratings on the end-of-life care subscale of the QOC (QOCeol). In path models, patient educational attainment and income had a direct effect on outcomes, while race/ethnicity did not. Lower family educational attainment was also associated with higher trainee ratings on the QOCeol, while family non-white race was associated with lower trainee ratings on the QEOLC and general subscale of the QOC. Patient race is associated with perceptions of the quality of communication about end-of-life care provided by physicians-in-training, but the association was opposite to our hypothesis and appears to be mediated by socioeconomic status. Family member predictors of these perceptions differ from those observed for patients. Further investigation of these associations may guide interventions to improve care delivered to patients and families.
Education, human resource training, middle-income trap and the way towards a more knowledge-based economy......Education, human resource training, middle-income trap and the way towards a more knowledge-based economy...
Rappaport, B I; Pagliaccio, D; Pine, D S; Klein, D N; Jarcho, J M
The Screen for Child Anxiety and Related Emotional Disorder (SCARED) may be differentially sensitive to detecting specific or comorbid anxiety diagnoses in treatment-seeking and non-treatment-seeking youth. We assessed the SCARED's discriminant validity, diagnostic utility, and informant agreement using parent- and self-report from healthy and treatment-seeking anxious youth (Study 1, N=585) and from non-treatment-seeking anxious youth (Study 2, N=331) diagnosed with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), social anxiety disorder (SAD), or comorbid GAD+SAD. Among treatment-seeking youth, the SCARED showed good diagnostic utility and specificity, differentiating healthy, comorbid, and non-comorbid anxious youth. Child-parent agreement was modest: healthy child self-reports were higher than parent-reports whereas anxious child self-reports were similar or lower than parent-reports. Less consistent results emerged for diagnostic utility, specificity, and informant agreement among non-treatment-seeking youth. Given the number of non-treatment seeking anxious youth (N=33), generalizability of these findings may be limited. Together, results suggest informants may provide distinct information about children's anxiety symptoms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Income related health inequalities have been estimated for various groups of individuals at local, state, or national levels. Almost all of theses estimates are based on individual data from sample surveys. Lack of consistent individual data worldwide has prevented estimates of international income related health inequalities. This paper uses the (population weighted aggregate data available from many countries around the world to estimate worldwide income related health inequalities. Since the intra-country inequalities are subdued by the aggregate nature of the data, the estimates would be those of the inter-country or international health inequalities. As well, the study estimates the contribution of major socioeconomic variables to the overall health inequalities. The findings of the study strongly support the existence of worldwide income related health inequalities that favor the higher income countries. Decompositions of health inequalities identify inequalities in both the level and distribution of income as the main source of health inequality along with inequalities in education and degree of urbanization as other contributing determinants. Since income related health inequalities are preventable, policies to reduce the income gaps between the poor and rich nations could greatly improve the health of hundreds of millions of people and promote global justice. Keywords: global, income, health inequality, socioeconomic determinants of health
Reigeluth, Christopher S; Pollastri, Alisha R; Cardemil, Esteban V; Addis, Michael E
Decades of masculinity research have concluded that society places higher demands on males to adhere to norms for low emotional expression; yet, countless studies find that emotional expression is integral to well-being. Unfortunately, this contradiction places boys and men in a tenuous position as they must navigate a bombardment of societal messages about the importance of emotional stoicism and invincibility. For urban adolescents, the situation is more complicated as they encounter environmental stressors that place greater emphasis on projecting a tough façade. Thus, our primary aim was to assess to what degree dyads of close adolescent male friends from urban, low-income neighborhoods are able to engage in emotional expression and response and to explore some of the underlying mechanisms and interpersonal processes. Qualitative findings from our sample suggest that urban boys exhibit a wide range of behaviors when participating in dyadic emotional disclosure and response, including being highly emotionally expressive and supportive in the context of close male friendship. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lee, Moon J
This study examined college students' responses to emotional anti-alcohol abuse media messages (i.e., fear vs. humor appeal) aimed at discouraging heavy/binge drinking. An experiment was conducted with 94 college students. As expected, college students generally expressed higher levels of interest in anti-alcohol abuse media messages when watching fear appeal than those watching humor appeal. However, college binge drinkers who watched the fear appeal reported lower levels of readiness to change their drinking behavior than those who watched the humor appeal. This pattern was the opposite among college nonbinge drinkers, in that college nonbinge drinkers were more likely to say they would change their drinking behaviors when exposed to fear appeal than those who were exposed to humor appeal or those who did not watch any media messages. Conventional fear appeal to scare college binge drinkers seems ineffective and even counterproductive while humor appeal, if well designed, could offer alternative ways to communicate with college binge drinkers.
Intimate partner violence is a social and public health problem that is prevalent across the world. In many societies, power differentials in relationships, often supported by social norms that promote gender inequality, lead to incidents of intimate partner violence. Among other factors, both a woman's years of education and educational differences between a woman and her partner have been shown to have an effect on her likelihood of experiencing intimate partner abuse. Using the 2010 Malawian Demographic and Health Survey data to analyze intimate partner violence among 3,893 married Malawian women and their husbands, this article focuses on understanding the effect of educational differences between husband and wife on the likelihood of physical and emotional abuse within a marriage. The results from logistic regression models show that a woman's level of education is a significant predictor of her likelihood of experiencing intimate partner violence by her current husband, but that this effect is contingent on her husband's level of education. This study demonstrates the need to educate men alongside of women in Malawi to help decrease women's risk of physical and emotional intimate partner violence.
Mroczkowski, Alison L; Sánchez, Bernadette
The present study used resilience theory to explore relationships among perceived racial discrimination, ethnic identity, gender, and economic value of education (EVE) among urban, low-income, Latina/o youth. It was expected that racial discrimination would predict poorer perceptions of the EVE among Latina/o adolescents. Ethnic identity was hypothesized to buffer the negative effect of racial discrimination on Latina/o students' EVE. The participants in this study were 396 urban, low-income Latina/o high school students from a large, Midwestern city who completed surveys in both 9th- and 10th-grade. Structural equation modeling was used to test the relationships among racial discrimination, ethnic identity, and EVE. Results supported a protective model of resilience. Specifically, ethnic identity served as a protective factor by buffering the negative effect of perceived racial discrimination on EVE for male participants. The present study is the first to examine ethnic identity as a buffer of racial discrimination on EVE among Latina/o high school students. Future directions and implications are discussed.
Natalie A. DiPietro, PharmD, MPH
Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of an educational intervention on knowledge of cardiovascular disease (CVD and to increase awareness of risk factors among female patients of a community health center with an on-site 340B pharmacy.Methods: The program consisted of a 10-minute educational intervention and brief pre-test, post-test, and participant satisfaction survey. Adult female patients at the clinic for any provider visit or prescription fill were eligible to participate. Participants met individually with a student pharmacist or faculty member and verbally completed the pre-test. The participant received education regarding CVD, risk factors, and symptoms of myocardial infarction and were screened for hypertension and/or hyperlipidemia. The post-test was then verbally administered. Participants answered the satisfaction survey privately. Based on individual needs, educational materials and information on available pharmacy clinical services were provided. The university IRB deemed the study exempt. Results: Eighty-four individuals received educational materials and/or a screening test. Of those, 30 women (mean age 46.9 years completed the educational intervention. Thirteen (43% reported smoking; 22 (73% identified themselves as overweight. Fourteen (47% indicated a preexisting diagnosis of hypertension. Correct responses for 6 of 8 knowledge-based questions were statistically significantly improved from pre-test to post-test (p<0.05. Twenty-nine patients (97% rated the program as “useful” or “very useful”. Conclusion: CVD is the leading cause of death in U.S. women. Data from this program indicate that through screening and education, pharmacists and student pharmacists can impact female patients’ knowledge of CVD risk factors. Continued efforts in this area may help to reduce the public health burden of CVD.
Hennegan, Julie; Montgomery, Paul
Background Unhygienic and ineffective menstrual hygiene management has been documented across low resource contexts and linked to negative consequences for women and girls. Objectives To summarise and critically appraise evidence for the effectiveness of menstruation management interventions in improving women and girls’ education, work and psychosocial wellbeing in low and middle income countries. Methods Structured systematic searches were conducted in peer-reviewed and grey literature to identify studies evaluating education and resource provision interventions for menstruation management. Individual and cluster randomised controlled trials were eligible for inclusion, as were non-randomised controlled trials. Study characteristics, outcomes and risk of bias were extracted using a piloted form. Risk of bias was independently assessed by two researchers. Results Eight studies described in ten citations were eligible for inclusion. Studies were highly heterogeneous in design and context. Six included assessment of education-only interventions, and three provided assessment of the provision of different types of sanitary products (menstrual cups, disposable sanitary pads, and reusable sanitary pads). A moderate but non-significant standardised mean difference was found for the two studies assessing the impact of sanitary pad provision on school attendance: 0.49 (95%CI -0.13, 1.11). Included studies were heterogeneous with considerable risk of bias. Trials of education interventions reported positive impacts on menstrual knowledge and practices, however, many studies failed to assess other relevant outcomes. No trials assessed or reported harms. Conclusions There is insufficient evidence to establish the effectiveness of menstruation management interventions, although current results are promising. Eight trials have been conducted, but a high risk of bias was found and clinical heterogeneity precluded synthesis of most results. Whilst trials provided some
Full Text Available Unhygienic and ineffective menstrual hygiene management has been documented across low resource contexts and linked to negative consequences for women and girls.To summarise and critically appraise evidence for the effectiveness of menstruation management interventions in improving women and girls' education, work and psychosocial wellbeing in low and middle income countries.Structured systematic searches were conducted in peer-reviewed and grey literature to identify studies evaluating education and resource provision interventions for menstruation management. Individual and cluster randomised controlled trials were eligible for inclusion, as were non-randomised controlled trials. Study characteristics, outcomes and risk of bias were extracted using a piloted form. Risk of bias was independently assessed by two researchers.Eight studies described in ten citations were eligible for inclusion. Studies were highly heterogeneous in design and context. Six included assessment of education-only interventions, and three provided assessment of the provision of different types of sanitary products (menstrual cups, disposable sanitary pads, and reusable sanitary pads. A moderate but non-significant standardised mean difference was found for the two studies assessing the impact of sanitary pad provision on school attendance: 0.49 (95%CI -0.13, 1.11. Included studies were heterogeneous with considerable risk of bias. Trials of education interventions reported positive impacts on menstrual knowledge and practices, however, many studies failed to assess other relevant outcomes. No trials assessed or reported harms.There is insufficient evidence to establish the effectiveness of menstruation management interventions, although current results are promising. Eight trials have been conducted, but a high risk of bias was found and clinical heterogeneity precluded synthesis of most results. Whilst trials provided some indication of positive results, further
Hennegan, Julie; Montgomery, Paul
Unhygienic and ineffective menstrual hygiene management has been documented across low resource contexts and linked to negative consequences for women and girls. To summarise and critically appraise evidence for the effectiveness of menstruation management interventions in improving women and girls' education, work and psychosocial wellbeing in low and middle income countries. Structured systematic searches were conducted in peer-reviewed and grey literature to identify studies evaluating education and resource provision interventions for menstruation management. Individual and cluster randomised controlled trials were eligible for inclusion, as were non-randomised controlled trials. Study characteristics, outcomes and risk of bias were extracted using a piloted form. Risk of bias was independently assessed by two researchers. Eight studies described in ten citations were eligible for inclusion. Studies were highly heterogeneous in design and context. Six included assessment of education-only interventions, and three provided assessment of the provision of different types of sanitary products (menstrual cups, disposable sanitary pads, and reusable sanitary pads). A moderate but non-significant standardised mean difference was found for the two studies assessing the impact of sanitary pad provision on school attendance: 0.49 (95%CI -0.13, 1.11). Included studies were heterogeneous with considerable risk of bias. Trials of education interventions reported positive impacts on menstrual knowledge and practices, however, many studies failed to assess other relevant outcomes. No trials assessed or reported harms. There is insufficient evidence to establish the effectiveness of menstruation management interventions, although current results are promising. Eight trials have been conducted, but a high risk of bias was found and clinical heterogeneity precluded synthesis of most results. Whilst trials provided some indication of positive results, further research is needed
Afonso, António; Schuknecht, Ludger; Tanzi, Vito
In this paper we examine the impact of public spending, education, and institutions on income distribution in advanced economies. We also assess the efficiency of public spending in redistributing income by using a DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis) nonparametric approach. We find that public policies significantly affect income distribution, notably via social spending, and indirectly via high quality education/human capital and via sound economic institutions. Moreover, for our set of OECD cou...
Vollmer, Sebastian; Bommer, Christian; Krishna, Aditi; Harttgen, Kenneth; Subramanian, S V
Most existing research on the association of parental education with childhood undernutrition focuses on maternal education and often ignores paternal education. We systematically investigate differences in maternal and paternal education and their association with childhood undernutrition. One hundred and eighty Demographic and Health Surveys from 62 countries performed between 1990 and 2014 were analysed. We used linear-probability models to predict childhood undernutrition prevalences, measured as stunting, underweight and wasting, for all combinations of maternal and paternal attainment in school. Models were adjusted for demographic and socio-economic covariates for the child, mother and household, country-level fixed effects and clustering. Additional specifications adjust for local area characteristics instead of country fixed effects. Both higher maternal and paternal education levels are associated with lower childhood undernutrition. In regressions adjusted for child age and sex as well as country-level fixed effects, the association is stronger for maternal education than for paternal education when their combined level of education is held constant. In the fully adjusted models, the observed differences in predicted undernutrition prevalences are strongly attenuated, suggesting a similar importance of maternal and paternal education. These findings are confirmed by the analysis of composite schooling indicators. We find that paternal education is similarly important for reducing childhood undernutrition as maternal education and should therefore receive increased attention in the literature. © The Author 2016; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association
Waisman, Gisela; Larsen, Birthe
We exploit the regional variation in negative attitudes towards immigrants to Sweden in order to analyse the consequences of negative attitudes on refugees’ utility from labour income and amenities. We find that attitudes towards immigrants are important: while they affect mainly the refugees......’ quality of life, they also affect their income. We estimate the utility effects of negative attitudes for refugees with different levels of education and gender. We also analyse how the size of the refugees’ networks relate to their quality of life and income as well as how negative attitudes towards...
Sharma, Shreela V.; Hedberg, Ann Marie; Skala, Katherine A.; Chuang, Ru-Jye; Lewis, Tamara
Garden-based lessons are gaining popularity as a means of increasing fruit and vegetable intake among children. The study objective was to pilot test a garden-based preschool curriculum for feasibility and acceptability in Harris County Department of Education Head Start using qualitative and quantitative methods. A total of 103, 3- to 5-year-old…
Nichols, Andrew Howard
Improving college degree attainment is essential as the United States seeks to remain economically competitive in a globalized marketplace. As the economy continues to evolve and become increasingly more complex, it is critical that our education system provides our youth with the skills, ingenuity, and critical thinking abilities that can…
Narushima, Miya; Liu, Jian; Diestelkamp, Naomi
The demographic shift towards an older population combined with the increasing demand for self-reliance and community-based care for the elderly calls for a thorough examination of continuing education programs in local communities as a viable means of promoting successful and active aging. This study examined patterns of older adults' motivations…
Wilson-Armour, Carole Cristine
The purpose of this study was to determine how policies regarding remedial education can influence the experiences of students who identify as low socioeconomic (SES) Native American women at a Midwestern community college. This study proposed to use interpretive policy analysis and phenomenological qualitative research to learn more about how low…
Hadd, Alexandria Ree; Rodgers, Joseph Lee
The quality of the home environment, as a predictor, is related to health, education, and emotion outcomes. However, factors influencing the quality of the home environment, as an outcome, have been understudied--particularly how children construct their own environments. Further, most previous research on family processes and outcomes has…
Cooper, Richard A
The availability of sufficient numbers of qualified medical school applicants has been a periodic source of concern. Over the past few years, this concern has emerged again, as fewer men have applied to medical school and as the number of minority applicants has stagnated. This time, however, the cause for concern is greater, because these declining numbers coincide with a growing need for physicians and the possibility that medical school capacity will have to be expanded to avert future physician shortages. Against this background, applications by members of racial and ethnic minorities, who represent an increasing fraction of the college age population, become particularly important. The author reports the trends in education, over several decades, by members of the principal racial-ethnic groups-whites, blacks, Hispanics, and Asians-traces their participation from kindergarten through college, and projects the likelihood of their applying to medical school over the next two decades. (A companion article in this issue reports a parallel study from the standpoint of gender.) One prominent observation is the firm link between academic achievement in the earliest grades and success thereafter. A second is the profound influence of parents' education, income, and expectations at each step along the way. Inadequacies in either sphere erode the potential for children to reach college and to do so in ways that predict interest in and capacity for medical school. Yet, even when that potential emerges, inadequate finances deflect qualified high school and college students from the paths that lead to medical education. These factors weigh most heavily on black and Hispanic children, particularly boys, but are prevalent among whites, as well. Without aggressive education in the earliest years and without adequate financial support in the later years, it is not clear that there will be a sufficiently large pool of qualified applicants for the number of medical school seats
Prado, Andrea M; Pearson, Andy A; Bertelsen, Nathan S
Interprofessional education is increasingly recognized as essential for health education worldwide. Although effective management, innovation, and entrepreneurship are necessary to improve health systems, business schools have been underrepresented in global health education. Central America needs more health professionals trained in health management and innovation to respond to health disparities, especially in rural communities. This paper explores the impact of the Health Innovation Fellowship (HIF), a new training program for practicing health professionals offered jointly by the Central American Healthcare Initiative and INCAE Business School, Costa Rica. Launched in 2014, HIF's goal is to create a network of highly trained interdisciplinary health professionals in competencies to improve health of Central American communities through better health management. The program's fellows carried out innovative healthcare projects in their local regions. The first three annual cohorts (total of 43 fellows) represented all health-related professions and sectors (private, public, and civil society) from six Central American countries. All fellows attended four 1-week, on-site modular training sessions, received ongoing mentorship, and stayed connected through formal and informal networks and webinars through which they exchange knowledge and support each other. CAHI stakeholders supported HIF financially. Impact evaluation of the three-year pilot training program is positive: fellows improved their health management skills and more than 50% of the projects found either financial or political support for their implementation. HIF's strengths include that both program leaders and trainees come from the Global South, and that HIF offers a platform to collaborate with partners in the Global North. By focusing on promoting innovation and management at a top business school in the region, HIF constitutes a novel capacity-building effort within global health education. HIF
Turner, Barbara J; Craig, Kathryn; Makanji, Vidhi S; Flores, Bertha E; Hernandez, Ludivina
To identify support needs of low-income baby boomers recently diagnosed with chronic hepatitis C virus infection. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force has endorsed one-time screening of all baby boomers (born 1945-1965) for hepatitis C because 75% of the estimated 2-3 million persons with chronic infection are in this age range. We hypothesised that persons diagnosed by routine screening would have significant psycho-emotional, cognitive and healthcare challenges that need to be met by collaborative care and services from nurses and other healthcare personnel. Qualitative descriptive study of data from three focus groups with predominantly minority participants (N = 16). Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis, and transcribed data were categorised by three domains in a previously developed model and a new domain identified in this study. Frequencies of unique participants' comments about each theme were calculated. Elucidated domains were as follows: (i) psycho-emotional effects due to social stigma, shame, fear and dealing with risky behaviours; (ii) social effects due to concerns about infecting others; and (iii) cognitive deficits because of poor understanding about hepatitis C virus infection and its care. A new domain related to health care emerged reflecting the following themes: poor access to care, barriers to costly treatment, and navigating complex care for comorbidities. Despite these challenges, participants strongly endorsed universal baby boomer hepatitis C virus screening. This study describes psycho-emotional and social challenges of people dealing with a hepatitis C diagnosis which are compounded by poor knowledge and barriers to supportive care. Nursing and other allied health personnel require structured support programmes to assist older persons diagnosed with hepatitis C with addressing these common challenges with the ultimate goal of achieving a cure. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Feyza BALAN; Seda OZEKICIOGLU; Cuneyt KILIC
The entrepreneurship has been evaluated as playing a central role in explaining economic growth by many economists and policy makers. This role has recently been the subject of a growing literature. However, entrepreneurship literature generally has been focused on evaluating the effect of entrepreneurship on economic growth. This study will evaluate the causal relationships among women’s and men’s entrepreneurship, women’s and men’s educational attainment and per capita GDP in...
Integrating Postsecondary Education Interventions to Help Low-Income Students Succeed. Testimony of Alexander Mayer, Deputy Director, Postsecondary Education, MDRC, Before the California State Assembly Higher Education Committee and the Budget Subcommittee on Education Finance
This document presents the testimony of MDRC's Alex Mayer, the Deputy Director for Postsecondary Education at MDRC. The three points that Alex Mayer emphasizes in this testimony before the California State Assembly Higher Education Committee and the Budget Subcommittee on Education Finance on integrating postsecondary education interventions to…
Borgonovi, Francesca; Pokropek, Artur
The paper examines between-country differences in the mechanisms through which education could promote generalised trust using data from 29 countries participating in the OECD's Survey of Adult Skills (PIAAC). Results indicate that education is strongly associated with generalised trust and that a large part of this association is mediated by…
This article discusses Health Canada's research that radon in homes is causing unnecessary lung cancer deaths. Health Canada has carried out a cross-Canada survey of radon-concentrations in homes (Health Canada 2012). The aims of their study were to obtain an estimate of the proportion of the Canadian population living in homes, with radon gas levels above the guideline of 200 Bq/m to identify new areas of this health risk. Their results indicate that 6.9% of Canadians are in 3 such homes (similar to their 1970 results). The authors state that their results can be used by governments and health professionals to help prioritize radon outreach and education efforts, and testing and remediation. Their next step is to correlate radon level and home characteristics, and also develop radon mapping methods. Several sentences in the introduction link radon with lung cancer, based on early studies of uranium miners and later studies in homes. It is estimated that about 10% of all lung cancers worldwide are related to radon exposure.
Hadd, Alexandria Ree; Rodgers, Joseph Lee
The quality of the home environment, as a predictor, is related to health, education, and emotion outcomes. However, factors influencing the quality of the home environment, as an outcome, have been understudied-particularly how children construct their own environments. Further, most previous research on family processes and outcomes has implemented between-family designs, which limit claims of causality. The present study uses kinship data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to construct a maternal sibling-comparison design to investigate how maternal and child traits predict the quality of home environment. Using a standard between-family analysis, we first replicate previous research showing a relationship between maternal intelligence and the quality of the home environment. Then, we reevaluate the link between maternal intelligence and the home environment using differences between maternal sisters on several characteristics to explain differences between home environments for their children. Following, we evaluate whether child intelligence differences are related to home environment differences in the presence of maternal characteristics. Results are compared with those from the between-family analysis. Past causal interpretations are challenged by our findings, and the role of child intelligence in the construction of the home environment emerges as a critical contributor that increases in importance with development. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Rebell, Michael A.; Wolff, Jessica R.
This fifth in a five part series, states that, if comprehensive educational opportunity is conceived as a right, then the state must commit to providing it and must develop a policy infrastructure to assure broad access, uniform quality, regularized funding, and firm accountability strictures to ensure all students a meaningful opportunity to…
Bediang, Georges; Perrin, Caroline; Ruiz de Castañeda, Rafael; Kamga, Yannick; Sawadogo, Alexandre; Bagayoko, Cheick Oumar; Geissbuhler, Antoine
The objectives of this paper are to (i) provide an overview of the educational and clinical experiences of the Réseau en Afrique Francophone pour la Télémédecine (RAFT) network, (ii) analyze key challenges and lessons learnt throughout a decade of activity, and (iii) draw a vision and perspectives of its sustainability. The study was carried out following three main stages: (i) a literature review, (ii) the analysis of key documents, and (iii) discussions with key collaborators of the RAFT. Réseau en Afrique Francophone pour la Télémédecine has been offering an important quantity of educational, clinical, and public health activities during the last decade. The educational activities include the weekly delivery of video-lectures for continuing and post-graduate medical education, the use of virtual patients for training in clinical decision making, research training activities using ICTs and other e-learning activities. The clinical and public health activities include tele-expertise to support health professionals in the management of difficult clinical cases, the implementation of clinical information systems in African hospitals, the deployment of mHealth projects, etc. Since 2010, the RAFT has been extended to the Altiplano in Bolivia and Nepal (in progress). Lessons Learnt and Perspectives: Important lessons have been learnt from the accumulated experiences throughout these years. These lessons concern: social and organization, human resources, technologies and data security, policy and legislation, and economy and financing. Also, given the increase of the activities and the integration of eHealth and telemedicine in the health system of most of the countries, the RAFT network faces many other challenges and perspectives such as learning throughout life, recognition, and valorization of teaching or learning activities, the impact evaluation of interventions, and the scaling up and transferability out of Africa of RAFT activities. Based on the RAFT
Is there a relationship between family income inequality and income mobility across generations in the United States? As family income inequality rose in the United States, parental resources available for improving children’s health, education, and care diverged. The amount and rate of divergence also varied across US states. Researchers and policy analysts have expressed concern that relatively high inequality might be accompanied by relatively low mobility, tightening the connection between individuals’ incomes during childhood and adulthood. Using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, and various government sources, this paper exploits state and cohort variation to estimate the relationship between inequality and mobility. Results provide very little support for the hypothesis that inequality shapes mobility in the United States. The inequality children experienced during youth had no robust association with their economic mobility as adults. Formal analysis reveals that offsetting effects could underlie this result. In theory, mobility-enhancing forces may counterbalance mobility-reducing effects. In practice, the results suggest that in the US context, the intergenerational transmission of income may not be very responsive to changes in inequality. PMID:26388653
Swope, Darcy M.
One way art teachers can motivate emotionally disturbed 5- to 12-year-old children who suffer from fear of failure and poor self-concepts is through the sharing of a book or record. A relaxed, safe atmosphere established through readings or songs allows children with special needs to experiment and express themselves through art. (RM)
Global Education Review is a publication of The School of Education at Mercy College, New York. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 3.0 Unported License, permitting all non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.Citation: Drajea, Alice J.& O’Sullivan, Carmel (2014. Influence of parental education and family income on children’s education in rural Uganda, 1 (3. 149-166. Influence of Parental Education and Family Income on Children’s Education in Rural Uganda
Alice J. Drajea
Full Text Available This article investigates the effect of parents’ literacy levels and family income in Uganda on the quality and nature of parents’ involvement in their children’s primary education. A mixed-methods study with an ethnographic element was employed to explore the views and opinions of 21 participants through a qualitative approach. Methods for data collection included observation of family routines and practices, semi-structured interviews with parents and children, and review of relevant documents. Vygotsky’s socio-cultural historical theory and the Feinsteinian concept of intergenerational transmission of educational success offer the basis for the investigation. Findings indicated a significant relationship between parents’ income and literacy levels and the quality of support to their children’s education. Household poverty emerged as a major obstacle to educational success for children across the three socio-economic categories of family studied. Compromised lack of time for parent-child interaction proved to be the main obstacle as parents spent significant hours in non-academic matters for the day-to-day survival of their families. Parental illiteracy showed negative associations with children’s literacy competence and subsequent success in primary school.
Masso-Calderón, A M; Meneses-Echávez, J F; Correa-Bautista, J E; Tovar-Cifuentes, A; Alba-Ramírez, P A; Charry-Ángel, C E
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of an educational intervention on breast self-examination, cancer prevention-related knowledge, practices, and behavior change in scholars from a low-income area in Bogota, Colombia. Uncontrolled trial was conducted in 155 scholars. Two educational sessions, 90 min each, were carried out in March 2015 according to the Colombian guidelines for educational communication in the framework of cancer control. All participants completed a self-reported questionnaire at pre- and post-intervention, as well as 1, 3, and 6 months after the intervention. Breast self-examination was practiced by 78.1% of the scholars, and the overall knowledge of breast cancer risk factors was poor. The educational intervention resulted in significant improvements on breast self-examination practice, the knowledge of the technique, and the knowledge of the main risk factors for breast cancer as well as the practice of physical activity and vegetable intake at 6 months follow-up. An educational intervention according to the Colombian guidelines for educational communication in the framework of cancer control improved the practice of breast self-examination, cancer prevention-related knowledge, as well as the practice of physical activity and vegetable consumption in scholars from a low-income area in Bogota, Colombia. Further randomized controlled studies are warranted.
Full Text Available The subject of this paper are bank accounts for public finance agencies income. The article describes characteristics of accounts for all three kinds of agencies: government and municipal units working in regards to statue of education and units with headquarters in foreign countries. The author presents a detailed directory of income for particular accounts and the allocation of said income. This paper also deals with the optionality of those dedicated bank accounts and the competence for erecting them. In a smaller scope there are presented the controversies of establishing bank accounts for public finance agencies income in the past, before the current statue of public finance.
There is growing evidence that early childhood education (ECE) interventions can reduce the loss of developmental potential of disadvantaged children in low- and middle-income countries (LAMIC). Less attention has been paid to the potential of these programmes to prevent child mental health problems and promote child well-being. Peer-reviewed journal articles describing controlled evaluations of ECE interventions in LAMIC were reviewed to identify studies with child mental health outcomes. Studies with proximal outcomes for child mental health including caregiver practices and caregiver mental health were also reviewed. Of 63 studies identified, 21 (33.33%) included child mental health outcomes; 12 of 16 studies with short-term measures showed benefits; 6 studies included a longer-term follow-up and all found benefits; 25 studies included caregiver outcomes: consistent benefits were found for caregiver practices (21 studies) and 6 of 9 studies that measured caregiver mental health reported benefits. Gains to child mental health may be most likely when ECE interventions include three main elements: (i) activities to increase child skills including cognition, language, self-regulation and social-emotional competence; (ii) training caregivers in the skills required to provide a cognitively stimulating and emotionally supportive environment; and (iii) attention to the caregivers' mental health, motivation and self-efficacy. Recommendations for the design and implementation of programmes are provided. ECE interventions are an important component of mental health prevention and promotion in LAMIC, and promoting child and caregiver well-being is a fundamental aspect of interventions to improve child development.
Sara E. Dahill-Brown
Full Text Available Has access to selective postsecondary schools expanded or contracted? Evaluating this question has proven a difficult task because data are limited, particularly with regard to family income. We complement previous work and provide a replicable model of institutional analysis. This paper presents a detailed, quantitative assessment of admissions at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, an elite flagship public university—the type that is supposed to offer excellent opportunities to students from all backgrounds. We use an innovative measure of family income to compare applicant, admissions, and enrollment trends for low-income and minority students from 1972 to 2007. The unique aspects of this study include the more reliable measure of income and the ability to look at the full process from applications, admissions, and matriculations (demand and supply, not generally available in national datasets.
Exploring the differences in general practitioner and health care specialist utilization according to education, occupation, income and social networks across Europe: findings from the European social survey (2014) special module on the social determinants of health.
Fjær, Erlend L; Balaj, Mirza; Stornes, Per; Todd, Adam; McNamara, Courtney L; Eikemo, Terje A
Low socioeconomic position (SEP) tends to be linked to higher use of general practitioners (GPs), while the use of health care specialists is more common in higher SEPs. Despite extensive literature in this area, previous studies have, however, only studied health care use by income or education. The aim of this study is, therefore, to examine inequalities in GP and health care specialist use by four social markers that may be linked to health care utilization (educational level, occupational status, level of financial strain and size and frequency of social networks) across 20 European countries and Israel. Logistic regression models were employed using data from the seventh round of the European Social Survey; this study focused upon people aged 25–75 years, across 21 countries. Health care utilization was measured according to self-reported use of GP or specialist care within 12 months. Analyses tested four social markers: income (financial strain), occupational status, education and social networks. We observed a cross-national tendency that countries with higher or equal probability of GP utilization by lower SEP groups had a more consistent probability of specialist use among high SEP groups. Moreover, countries with inequalities in GP use in favour of high SEP groups had comparable levels of inequalities in specialist care utilization. This was the case for three social markers (education, occupational class and social networks), while the pattern was less pronounced for income (financial strain). There are significant inequalities associated with GP and specialist health care use across Europe—with higher SEP groups more likely to use health care specialists, compared with lower SEP groups. In the context of health care specialist use, education and occupation appear to be particularly important factors. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.
Department of Housing and Urban Development — Income limits used to determine the income eligibility of applicants for assistance under three programs authorized by the National Housing Act. These programs are...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Information for those with limited income and resources (those who may qualify for or already have the Low Income Subsidy to lower their prescription drug coverage...
Department of Housing and Urban Development — HOME Income Limits are calculated using the same methodology that HUD uses for calculating the income limits for the Section 8 program. These limits are based on HUD...
Hayhoe, Celia Ray; Smith, Mike, CPF
The purpose of disability income insurance is to partially replace your income if you are unable to work because of sickness or an accident. This guide reviews the types of disability insurance, important terms and concepts and employer provided benefits.
Munk, Martin D.; Bonke, Jens; Hussain, M. Azhar
In this paper, we investigate intergenerational top earnings and top income mobility in Denmark. Access to administrative registers allowed us to look at very small fractions of the population. We find that intergenerational mobility is lower in the top when including capital income in the income...... measure— for the rich top 0.1% fathers and sons the elasticity is 0.466. Compared with Sweden, however, the intergenerational top income persistence is about half the size in Denmark....
Séguin, Louise; Xu, Qian; Potvin, Louise; Zunzunegui, Maria-Victoria; Frohlich, Katherine L
Few population-based studies have analyzed the link between poverty and infant morbidity. In this study, we wanted to determine whether inadequate income itself has an impact on infant health. We interviewed 2223 mothers of 5-month-old children participating in the 1998 phase of the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development to determine their infant's health and the sociodemographic characteristics of the household (including household income, breast-feeding and the smoking habits of the mother). Data on the health of the infants at birth were taken from medical records. We examined the effects of household income using Statistics Canada definitions of sufficient (above the low-income threshold), moderately inadequate (between 60% and 99% of the low-income threshold) and inadequate (below 60% of the low-income threshold) income on the mother's assessment of her child's overall health, her report of her infant's chronic health problems and her report of the number of times, if any, her child had been admitted to hospital since birth. In the analysis, we controlled for factors known to affect infant health: infant characteristics and neonatal health problems, the mother's level of education, the presence or absence of a partner, the duration of breast-feeding and the mother's smoking status. Compared with infants in households with sufficient incomes, those in households with lower incomes were more likely to be judged by their mothers to be in less than excellent health (moderately inadequate incomes: adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-2.1; very inadequate incomes: adjusted OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.3-2.6). Infants in households with moderately inadequate incomes were more likely to have been admitted to hospital (adjusted OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.2-2.6) than those in households with sufficient incomes, but the same was not true of infants in households with very inadequate incomes (adjusted OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.4-1.2). Household income did not
Nilsson, Nils J.
Artificial intelligence (AI) will have profound societal effects. It promises potential benefits (and may also pose risks) in education, defense, business, law and science. In this article we explore how AI is likely to affect employment and the distribution of income. We argue that AI will indeed reduce drastically the need of human toil. We also note that some people fear the automation of work by machines and the resulting of unemployment. Yet, since the majority of us probably would rathe...
Kim, Jae-Hyun; Yoo, Ki-Bong; Park, Eun-Cheol; Lee, Sang Gyu; Kim, Tae Hyun
To examine the combined effects of education level and perceived social class on self-rated health and life satisfaction in South Korea. We used data drawn from the 8 to 15th wave of the Korean Labor and Income Panel Study (KLIPS). Using wave 8 at baseline, data included 11,175 individuals. We performed a longitudinal analysis at baseline estimating the prevalence of self-rated health and life satisfaction among individuals by education level (high, middle, and low education level) and perceived social class (high, middle, and low social class). For self-rated health, odds ratio (OR) of individuals with low education and low perceived social class was 0.604 times lower (95% CI: 0.555-0.656) and the OR of individuals with low education and middle perceived social class was 0.853 time lower (95% CI: 0.790-0.922) when compared to individuals with high education and high perceived social class. For life satisfaction, OR of individuals with low education and low perceived social class was 0.068 times lower (95% CI: 0.063-0.074) and the OR of individuals with middle education and middle perceived social class was 0.235 time lower (95% CI: 0.221-0.251) compared to individuals with high education and high perceived social class. This study shows that the combined effects of education level and perceived social class associated with self-rated health and life satisfaction. Our study suggests increasing education level and perceived social class. Additionally, it will be important to develop multi-dimensional measurement tools including education level and subjective social class.
Sørensen, Peter Birch
This paper discusses the principles and practices of dual income taxation in the Nordic countries. The first part of the paper explains the rationale and the historical background for the introduction of the dual income tax and describes the current Nordic tax practices. The second part...... of the paper focuses on the problems of taxing income from small businesses and the issue of corporate-personal tax integration under the dual income tax, considering alternative ways of dealing with these challenges. In the third and final part of the paper, I briefly discuss whether introducing a dual income...
Jarrett, Robin L.; Coba-Rodriguez, Sarai
Researchers have examined the impact of family on child literacy among low-income African American families and preschoolers considered to be at risk for not being ready for kindergarten. Quantitative studies identify family-parental variables associated with poorer literacy outcomes, whereas qualitative studies detail family practices that…
Chacon, Justin Akers
Budget cuts have reduced courses and student services within California community colleges. This coincides with the growth of low-income Latino male (Latinos) and Latina female (Latinas) student enrollment. Budget cuts have been implemented throughout the system, including in the Extended Opportunity Programs and Services (EOPS), which…
Income-share agreements (ISAs) are an emerging idea for helping students pay for college. Under an ISA, investors provide upfront sums of money toward students' college tuition and other associated costs in exchange for a fixed percentage of the recipients' earnings after graduation. This paper--the first in a series examining private financing in…
Ahmad, Abd Rahman; Soon, Ng Kim; Ting, Ngeoh Pei
Income generation activities have been acquainted among public higher education institutions (HEIs) in Malaysia. Various factors that brought to insufficient of funding caused Higher Education Institutions(HEIs) to seek for additional income as to support the operation expenses. Financial sustainability issues made up the significant impact…
Shore-Sheppard, Lara D
To examine the sources of family income dynamics leading to movement into and out of Medicaid expansion and subsidy eligibility under the Affordable Care Act. Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP): 1996, 2001, 2004, 2008 panels. Considering four broad subsidy eligibility categories for monthly Modified Adjusted Gross Income (MAGI) (400 percent FPL), I use duration analysis to examine determinants of movements between categories over the course of a year. Using detailed monthly data, I determine the members of tax-filing units and calculate an approximation of MAGI at the monthly level. The analysis sample is adults ages 22-64 years. Incomes are highly variable within a year, particularly at the lower end of the income distribution. Employment transitions, including transitions not involving a period of nonemployment, and family structure changes strongly predict sufficient income volatility to trigger a change in subsidy category. Income volatility arising from employment and family structure changes is likely to trigger changes in subsidy eligibility within the year, but the sources and effects of the volatility differ substantially depending on the individual's position in the income distribution. © Health Research and Educational Trust.
Eugenia Troncoso Leone
Full Text Available Este artigo faz uma análise das diferenças de rendimento entre homens e mulheres ocupados, com nível superior de escolaridade, no conjunto das regiões metropolitanas do país, partindo-se de duas constatações: a as diferenças de rendimento entre homens e mulheres, apesar de terem diminuído na última década, continuam grandes e fazem parte de um contexto de enorme diferenciação de remunerações, em que sobressaem as diferenças de escolaridade, destacando-se os altos rendimentos do nível superior, cujas diferenças em relação aos outros níveis de escolaridade ampliaram-se ainda mais nesta década e b as maiores diferenças de rendimento entre homens e mulheres ocorrem exatamente no nível superior de escolaridade, justamente naqueles em que as mulheres têm maior participação. O artigo analisa as mudanças ocorridas na década de 90, no nível e dispersão dos rendimentos dos ocupados, mostrando as diferenças segundo sexo, escolaridade e posição na ocupação. Também é feito um estudo específico, para o ano de 2004, das diferenças de rendimento entre homens mulheres com curso superior, conforme posição na ocupação e setor de atividade. É considerado, ainda,o tipo de ocupação (dirigentes em geral, profissionais das ciências e artes, técnicos de nível médio, trabalhadores de serviços administrativos, outras ocupações como "proxy" da hierarquia dos cargos. A fonte de dados utilizada é a Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios - PNAD.This article presents an analysis of the difference in income between working men and women with college degrees in the various metropolitan regions in Brazil. The study is based on two factors: a although the difference between men's and women's incomes has fallen over the last decade, they are nevertheless still considerable, and are part of the context of enormous variations in income, where the differences in schooling carry considerable weight. In this respect, college-educated
Frederiksen, Anders; Poulsen, Odile
In recent decades most developed countries have experienced an increase in income inequality. In this paper, we use an equilibrium search framework to shed additional light on what is causing an income distribution to change. The major benefit of the model is that it can accommodate shocks...... that shocks to the employees' relative productivity, i.e., skill-biased technological change, are unlikely to have caused the increase in income inequality....
Afandi, Akhsyim; Rantung, Vebryna Permatasari; Marashdeh, Hazem
This study examines whether changing economic structure, social conditions, and financialization are responsible for increased income inequality in Indonesia. By employing panel data of 32 provinces in Indonesia that spans from 2007 to 2013, it finds that structural change affects income inequality, increased share of finance reduces inequality, which is against the financialization hypothesis, and social conditions have expected effects on income inequality. While an increased share of both ...
Detollenaere, Jens; Willems, Sara; Baert, Stijn
Separate literatures have related volunteering to health gains and income gains. We study the association between volunteering, income and health within one statistical framework. A state-of-the-art mediation analysis is conducted on data concerning the health, volunteering and sociodemographic characteristics of 42926 individuals within 29 European countries. We find that volunteering is positively associated to self-rated health. This association is partially mediated by household income.
1 RESUMÉ Corporate Income Tax The aim of this diploma thesis on "Corporate Income Tax" is to outline the current legal background of the corporate income tax and asses and evaluate the most substantial changes regarding the Act no. 586/1992 Coll., Income Tax Act, as amended that have become effective as of January 1, 2014. The changes discussed in this thesis include especially, but are not limited to, the changes adopted in connection with the recodification of Czech Civil Law. This thesis c...
Full Text Available El presente estudio instrumental pretende analizar la estructura factorial del Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED en una muestra española utilizando tanto análisis factorial exploratorio como confirmatorio. Como objetivo secundario se pretende desarrollar una version reducida utilizable como instrumento de cribaje y, finalmente, analizar las propiedades psicométricas de ambos cuestionarios. El SCARED fue administrado a una muestra comunitaria de 1.508 niños de entre 8 y 12 años. Dicha muestra fue subdividida de forma aleatoria utilizando la primera mitad para el análisis exploratorio y la segunda para el confirmatorio. Además se desarrolló una versión reducida utilizando el procedimiento de Schmid-Leiman. El análisis factorial exploratorio reveló una estructura de 4 factores: Somático/pánico, Ansiedad generalizada, Ansiedad de separación y Fobia social. Esta estructura fue confirmada mediante al análisis factorial confirmatorio. Los cuatro factores, la escala completa y la escala reducida mostraron fiabilidades satisfactorias. Los resultados obtenidos parecen indicar que la version española del SCARED, al igual que algunos estudios recientes, presenta una estructura de cuatro factores relacionados que replican las dimensiones propuestas para los transtornos de ansiedad del DSM-IV-TR.
Following advice from the SAB Council, when estimating the economic value of reductions in air pollution-related mortality and morbidity risk, EPA accounts for the effect of personal income on the willingness to pay to reduce the risk of adverse health outcomes. These income grow...
Lof, Matthijs; Mekasha, Tseday Jemaneh; Tarp, Finn
to nonrandom omission of a large proportion of observations. Furthermore, we show that NDHKM’s use of co-integrated regressions is not a suitable empirical strategy for estimating the causal effect of aid on income. Evidence from a Panel VAR model estimated on the dataset of NDHKM, suggests a positive...... and statistically significant long-run effect of aid on income....
Bonke, Jens; Uldall-Poulsen, Hans
This paper analyses the phenomenon of income-pooling by applying the Danish household expenditure survey, merged with authoritative register information. Responses to additional questions on income sharing among 1696 couples also allows us to analyses whether the intra-household distribution...
F.M. van Oers; R.A. de Mooij (Ruud)
textabstractIn recent policy discussions in the Netherlands, the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) has been put forward as an effective instrument to reduce the unemployment rate among low-skilled workers. Using the MIMIC model, this article shows that a targeted EITC at low incomes indeed seems
Humlum, Maria Knoth
to many earlier studies, the results suggest that the timing of income does not matter for long-term child outcomes. This is a reasonable result given the setting in a Scandinavian welfare state with generous child and education subsidies. Actually, later family income (age 12–15) is a more important......I investigate the effects of the timing of family income on child achievement production. Detailed administrative data augmented with Programme for International Student Assessment test scores at age 15 are used to analyze the effects of the timing of family income on child achievement. Contrary...... determinant of child achievement than earlier income....
A safe environment is a prerequisite for productive learning. This paper represents the first large-scale analysis of how feelings of safety at school affect educational outcomes. Using a unique longitudinal dataset of survey responses from New York City middle school students, the paper provides insight into the causal relationship between…
Unrealistic as they may have been, television shows like Leave it to Beaver and Ozzie and Harriet served important social purposes during an age of tumult and anxiety. The domestic sit-coms of the 1950s played an educative function by reinforcing and disseminating traditional values at a time when forces of change were becoming quite disruptive.…
Dahlgren, Robert L.
Academic freedom has long been a sacrosanct principle in higher education; however, the same rights to intellectual autonomy have rarely been afforded K-12 practitioners. In times of national political crisis, the abilities of teachers to engage students in the crucial debates about contemporary public policy issues have been stretched to the…
... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Distribution and use of income from vending machines on... use of income from vending machines on Federal property. (a) Vending machine income from vending... the basis of each prior year's operation, except that vending machine income shall not accrue to any...
Hariri, Jacob Gerner; Lassen, David Dreyer
Much empirical work in the social sciences relies on the accuracy of survey responses. Of all the questions answered by survey respondents, few are as common as those concerning income: Income is a crucial determinant of an individual’s attitudes and behaviors and a standard correlate in political...... science survey research. This paper uses Danish administrative records to identify systematic error in survey respondents’ self-reported income. We show that income overreporting is most pronounced among individuals who share the characteristics of high-income individuals, in ways that suggest...... the presence of social desirability bias. Further, this leads to biased estimates and distorted conclusions in a number of common applications in political science, but a simple logarithmic transformation eliminates the bias. More broadly, our results indicate that to understand the income–attitudes nexus...
Jagger, Pamela; Luckert, Martin K.; Duchelle, Amy E.
We explore the relationship between tenure and forest income in 271 villages throughout the tropics. We find that state-owned forests generate more forest income than private and community-owned forests both per household and per hectare. We explore whether forest income varies according...... to the extent of rule enforcement, and congruence (i.e., overlap of user rights between owners and users). We find negative associations between enforcement and smallholder forest income for state-owned and community forests, and positive associations for privately owned forests. Where user rights are limited...... to formal owners we find negative associations for state-owned forests. Overlapping user rights are positively associated with forest income for community forests. Our findings suggest that policy reforms emphasizing enforcement and reducing overlapping claims to forest resources should consider possible...
Andrade, Stefan Bastholm
Sibling correlations have gained increasing prominence in inequality studies as a Measurement of the total impact of family background on individual outcomes. Whilst previous studies have tended to use traditional socio-economic measures such as parent’s income or education, this paper introduces......’ education and income – include modifications of the Erikson–Goldthorpe–Portocarero schemes ranging from 3 to 15 classes and Grusky’s microclass scheme of 72 classes. The results show that although class adds to explanations of the family influence on children’s income, most of the sibling similarities...... are not explained by parental education, income or class. Depending on gender, the class schemes explain between 8 and 13 per cent of the sibling similarities and 15 to 20 per cent when parents’ income and educations are also included. Models with different class schemes demonstrate that elaborated versions...
McKay, Jade; Devlin, Marcia
The discourse around students from low socio-economic backgrounds often adopts a deficit conception in which these students are seen as a "problem" in higher education. In light of recent figures pointing to an increase in the number and proportion of these students participating in higher education [Pitman, T. 2014. "More Students…
Hayes, Anne M.; Bulat, Jennae
Having a disability can be one of the most marginalizing factors in a child's life. In education, finding ways to meet the learning needs of students with disabilities can be challenging, especially in schools, districts, regions, and countries with severely limited resources. Inclusive education--which fully engages all students, including…
Raluca Andreea MIHALACHE
Taxpayers who carried out individually or in a form of association income from self-employment, income from the lease of property, income from agricultural activities determined in real system are required to file a statement of income received from the competent tax authority for each fiscal year no later than 15 May of the year following that of income. The statement of income (tax declaration) must be completed for each source and category of income. For the income obtained in a form of As...
The relationship between speed and income is established in a microeconomic model focusing on the trade-off between travel time and the risk of receiving a penalty for exceeding the speed limit. This is used to determine when a rational driver will choose to exceed the speed limit. The relationship...... between speed and income is found again in the empirical analysis of a cross-sectional dataset comprising 60,000 observations of car trips. This is used to perform regressions of speed on income, distance travelled, and a number of controls. The results are clearly statistically significant and indicate...... an average income elasticity of speed of 0.02; it is smaller at short distances and about twice as large at the longest distance investigated of 200 km....
Thomas J. Kniesner; James P. Ziliak
October 2001 (Revised from July 2001). Abstract: By supplementing income explicitly through payments or implicitly through taxes collected, income-based taxes and transfers make disposable income less variable. Because disposable income determines consumption, policies that smooth disposable income also create welfare improving consumption insurance. With data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics we find that annual consumption variation is reduced by almost 20 percent due to explicit and ...
Elgar, Frank J; Aitken, Nicole
Theories of why income inequality correlates with violence suggest that inequality erodes social capital and trust, or inhibits investment into public services and infrastructure. Past research sensed the importance of these causal paths but few have examined them using tests of statistical mediation. We explored links between income inequality and rates of homicide in 33 countries and then tested whether this association is mediated by an indicator of social capital (interpersonal trust) or by public spending on health and education. Survey data on trust were collected from 48 641 adults and matched to country data on per capita income, income inequality, public expenditures on health and education and rate of homicides. Between countries, income inequality correlated with trust (r = -0.64) and homicide (r = 0.80) but not with public expenditures. Trust also correlated with homicides (r = -0.58) and partly mediated the association between income inequality and homicide, whilst public expenditures did not. Multilevel analysis showed that income inequality related to less trust after differences in per capita income and sample characteristics were taken into account. Results were consistent with psychosocial explanations of links between income inequality and homicide; however, the causal relationship between inequality, trust and homicide remains unclear given the cross-sectional design of this study. Societies with large income differences and low levels of trust may lack the social capacity to create safe communities.
Osler, Merete; Prescott, Eva; Grønbaek, Morten
To analyse the association between area income inequality and mortality after adjustment for individual income and other established risk factors.......To analyse the association between area income inequality and mortality after adjustment for individual income and other established risk factors....
Koffarnus, Mikhail N.; DeFulio, Anthony; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur O.; Silverman, Kenneth
Advancing the education of low-income adults could increase employment and income, but adult education programs have not successfully engaged low-income adults. Monetary reinforcement may be effective in promoting progress in adult education. This experiment evaluated the benefits of providing incentives for performance in a job-skills training…
Seo, Dong-Chul; Torabi, Mohammad
Background: Inconsistent findings exist regarding correlates of physical activity (PA) in the literature. Leisure-time physical activity among U.S. adults has declined for the last decade. Purpose: This article examines differences in vigorous-intensity and moderate-intensity physical activity by gender, race/ethnicity, age, education, and income…
Everett-Murphy, K.; De Villiers, A.; Ketterer, E.; Steyn, K.
As part of a comprehensive programme to prevent non-communicable disease in South Africa, there is a need to develop public education campaigns on healthy eating. Urban populations of lower socioeconomic status are a priority target population. This study involved formative research to guide the development of a nutrition resource appropriate to…
Mayer, Susan E.
Children of affluent parents get more schooling than children of poor parents, which seems to imply that reducing income inequality would reduce inequality in schooling. Similarly, one of the best predictors of an individual's income is his educational attainment, which seems to imply that reducing inequality in schooling will reduce income…
Zhang, Haiyan; Washington, Rodney; Yin, Jianjun
This article discussed the significance of improving low-income family children's information literacy, which could improve educational quality, enhance children's self-esteem, adapt children to the future competitive world market, as well as the problems in improving low-income family children's information literacy, such as no home computer and…
To analyze income inequality in 32 nations, the research tested hypotheses based upon eight socioeconomic variables. The first seven variables, often tested in income research, were: political participation, industrial development, population growth, educational level, inflation rate, economic growth, and technological complexity. The eighth…
Salverda, W.; Haas, C.; Salverda, W.; Nolan, B.; Checchi, D.; Marx, I.; McKnight, A.; Tóth, I.G.; van de Werfhorst, H.
This chapter demonstrates the importance of labour earnings for income and income inequality -also among top incomes. With a focus on employees and Europe, the chapter elaborates on the relationship between the household income distribution and the individual earnings distribution. On the one hand,
Full Text Available Th e paper deals with the development of wage distribution by the educational attainment in the Czech Republicin the years 2003–2010, examining forty wage distributions as the object of research and the grossmonthly wage in CZK as the research variable. It analyses the development of the wage distribution in timeand the gross monthly wage in relation to the level of educational attainment. It also pursues the developmentof a minimum wage in the monitored period. Th e author gives special attention to the lowest guaranteed wagelevels classifi ed according to wage classes and work capability assessment, comparing the minimum wage tothat of subsistence. Th e forecasts of future wage distribution are an integral component of the research, the fi -nancial standing of Czech households being evaluated in an international context within the European Union
Badger, Terry A.; Curran, Melissa A.; Koerner, Susan Silverberg; Larkey, Linda K.; Weihs, Karen L.; Verdugo, Lorena; García, Francisco A. R.
Objective Un Abrazo Para La Familia [A Hug for the Family] is an intervention designed to increase the accessibility of cancer information to low-income and medically underserved co-survivors of cancer. Co-survivors are family members or friends of an individual diagnosed with cancer. Our goal was to increase socio-emotional support for co-survivors, and improve skills in coping with cancer. The purpose of our pilot study was to explore the effectiveness of the intervention in increasing cancer knowledge and self-efficacy among co-survivors. Methods Un Abrazo consisted of three one-hour sessions, in either Spanish or English. Sessions were delivered by a trained promotora [community health worker], in partnership with a counselor. Sixty participants completed measures of cancer knowledge and self-efficacy preceding (pre-test) and following the intervention (post-test). Results From pre- to post-test, the percentage of questions answered correctly about cancer knowledge increased (p < .001), as did ratings of self-efficacy (p < .001). Decreases were seen in “Do not know” responses for cancer knowledge (p < .01), with a negative correlation between number of “Do not knows” on cancer knowledge at pre-test and ratings of self-efficacy at pre-test (r = −.47, p < .01). Conclusions When provided an accessible format, co-survivors of cancer from underserved populations increase their cancer knowledge and self-efficacy. This is notable because research indicates that family members and friends with increased cancer knowledge assume more active involvement in the cancer care of their loved ones. PMID:22140003
Marshall, Catherine A; Badger, Terry A; Curran, Melissa A; Koerner, Susan Silverberg; Larkey, Linda K; Weihs, Karen L; Verdugo, Lorena; García, Francisco A R
Un Abrazo Para La Familia (A Hug for the Family) is an intervention designed to increase the accessibility of cancer information to low-income and medically underserved co-survivors of cancer. Co-survivors are family members or friends of an individual diagnosed with cancer. Our goal was to increase socio-emotional support for these co-survivors and improve skills in coping with cancer. The purpose of our pilot study was to explore the effectiveness of the intervention in increasing cancer knowledge and self-efficacy among co-survivors. Un Abrazo consisted of three one-hour sessions, in either Spanish or English. Sessions were delivered by a trained promotora (community health worker), in partnership with a counselor. Sixty participants completed measures of cancer knowledge and self-efficacy preceding (pre-test) and following the intervention (post-test). From pre-test to post-test, the percentage of questions answered correctly about cancer knowledge increased (p < 0.001), as did ratings of self-efficacy (p < 0.001). Decreases were seen in 'Do not know' responses for cancer knowledge (p < 0.01), with a negative correlation between number of 'Do not knows' on cancer knowledge at pre-test and ratings of self-efficacy at pre-test (r = -0.47, p < 0.01). When provided an accessible format, co-survivors of cancer from underserved populations increase their cancer knowledge and self-efficacy. This is notable because research indicates that family members and friends with increased cancer knowledge assume more active involvement in the cancer care of their loved ones. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Windsor, Liliane Cambraia; Dunlap, Eloise; Armour, Marilyn
Drawing on standpoint and intersectionality theories, this study explores the degree to which interactions among New York State’s Rockefeller Drug Laws, educational and welfare policies have contributed to the maintenance of a culture of surveillance in which the lives of impoverished African Americans are overseen and influenced by oppressive policies and governmental institutions. Qualitative secondary analysis of longitudinal ethnographic data was conducted. Findings demonstrate multiple d...
Branis, Martin; Linhartova, Martina
We analyzed differentials in exposure to SO(2), PM(10) and NO(2) among Czech urban populations categorized according to education level, unemployment rate, population size and average annual salary. Altogether 39 cities were included in the analysis. The principal component analysis revealed two factors explaining 72.8% of the data variability. The first factor explaining 44.7% of the data variability included SO(2), PM(10), low education level and high unemployment, documenting that inhabitants with unfavorable socioeconomic status mainly reside in smaller cities with higher concentration levels of combustion-related air pollutants. The second factor explaining 28.1% of the data variability included NO(2), high salary, high education level and large population, suggesting that large cities with residents with higher socioeconomic status are exposed to higher levels of traffic-related air pollution. We conclude that, after more than a decade of free-market economy, the Czech Republic, a former Soviet satellite with a centrally planned economy, displays signs of a certain kind of environmental inequality, since environmental hazards are unevenly distributed among the Czech urban populations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Deding, Mette; Jakobsen, Vibeke; Azhar, Hussain
Four income inequality measures (Gini-coefficient, 90/10-decile ratio, and two generalized entropy indices) are applied to analyse immigrants’ income position relative to natives in a comparative perspective. Administrative data is used for Denmark, while survey data is used for Germany. We find...... higher inequality among immigrants than natives in Denmark, but vice versa for Germany. Over the period 1984-2003, this inequality gap has narrowed in both countries. At the same time, the contribution of immigrants to overall inequality has increased systematically, primarily caused by the increased...... share of immigrants in the population....
HOUNGBONON , Georges Vivien; Liang , Julienne
Policy makers are aiming for a large coverage of high-speed broadband Internet. However , there is still a lack of evidence about its effects on income distribution. In this paper, we investigate the effects of fixed broadband Internet on mean income and income inequality using a unique town-level data on broadband adoption and quality in France. We find that broadband adoption and quality raise mean income and lower income inequality. These results are robust to initial conditions, and yield...
This study looks at polarization and its components' sensitivity to assumptions about equivalence scales, income definition, ethical income distribution parameters, and the income accounting period. A representative sample of Danish individual incomes from 1984 to 2002 is utilised. Results show....... Increasing the accounting period confirms the reduction in inequality found for shorter periods, but polarization is virtually unchanged, because income group identification increases. Applying different equivalence scales does not change polarization ranking for different years, but identification ranks...
Latin American societies continue to struggle with high income inequality as a source of ... and earnings by age, gender, level of education and other characteristics. Researchers will analyze the effects of labour market regulation, particularly ...
-operated bases, which produce about 80% of total ... opportunities make the income status and access to services such as education, health .... The study revealed that social factors such as belonging to higher caste, poverty.
Full Text Available Abstract: The well-known socioeconomic gradient in health does not imply that income inequality by itself has any effect on well-being. However, there is evidence of a positive association between income inequality and adolescent fertility across countries. Nevertheless, this key finding is not focused on low-income countries. This study applies a multilevel logistic regression of country-level adolescent fertility on country-level income inequality plus individual-level income and controls to the Demographic and Health Surveys data. A negative association between income inequality and adolescent fertility was found among low-income countries, controlling for income (OR = 0.981; 95%CI: 0.963-0.999. Different measures and different subsamples of countries show the same results. Therefore, the international association between income inequality and adolescent fertility seems more complex than previously thought.
Castro, Ruben; Fajnzylber, Eduardo
: The well-known socioeconomic gradient in health does not imply that income inequality by itself has any effect on well-being. However, there is evidence of a positive association between income inequality and adolescent fertility across countries. Nevertheless, this key finding is not focused on low-income countries. This study applies a multilevel logistic regression of country-level adolescent fertility on country-level income inequality plus individual-level income and controls to the Demographic and Health Surveys data. A negative association between income inequality and adolescent fertility was found among low-income countries, controlling for income (OR = 0.981; 95%CI: 0.963-0.999). Different measures and different subsamples of countries show the same results. Therefore, the international association between income inequality and adolescent fertility seems more complex than previously thought.
Jenkins, Stephen P.; Van Kerm, Philippe
We provide an analytical framework within which changes in income inequality over time are related to the pattern of income growth across the income range, and the reshuffling of individuals in the income pecking order. We use it to explain how it was possible both for ?the poor? to have fared badly relatively to ?the rich? in the USA during the 1980s (when income inequality grew substantially), and also for income growth to have been pro-poor. Income growth was also pro-poor in Western Germa...
Bhattacharjee, Ayona; Shin, Jong Kook; Subramanian, Chetan; Swaminathan, Shailender
This paper examines how the relative shares of public and private health expenditures impact income inequality. We study a two period overlapping generation's growth model in which longevity is determined by both private and public health expenditure and human capital is the engine of growth. Increased investment in health, reduces mortality, raises return to education and affects income inequality. In such a framework we show that the cross-section earnings inequality is non-decreasing in the private share of health expenditure. We test this prediction empirically using a variable that proxies for the relative intensity of investments (private versus public) using vaccination data from the National Sample Survey Organization for 76 regions in India in the year 1986-87. We link this with region-specific expenditure inequality data for the period 1987-2012. Our empirical findings, though focused on a specific health investment (vaccines), suggest that an increase in the share of the privately provided health care results in higher inequality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Complaints about a middle income family's hardships in sending their children to private colleges and universities are examined. The difficulty may be attributable to a progressive College Scholarship Service (CSS) taxation rate schedule that causes larger proportionate reductions in the standard of living for some families than others.…
Azhar, Hussain; Jonassen, Anders Bruun
inter municipal income inequality. Counter factual simulations show that rising property prices to a large part explain the rise in polarization. One side-effect of polarization is tendencies towards a parallel polarization of residence location patterns, where low skilled individuals tend to live...
Alvarez, Francisco N; El-Sayed, Abdulrahman M
Global health policy efforts to improve health and reduce financial burden of disease in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) has fuelled interest in expanding access to health insurance coverage to all, a movement known as Universal Health Coverage (UHC). Ineffective insurance is a measure of failure to achieve the intended outcomes of health insurance among those who nominally have insurance. This study aimed to evaluate the relation between national-level income inequality and the prevalence of ineffective insurance. We used Standardized World Income Inequality Database (SWIID) Gini coefficients for 35 LMICs and World Health Survey (WHS) data about insurance from 2002 to 2004 to fit multivariable regression models of the prevalence of ineffective insurance on national Gini coefficients, adjusting for GDP per capita. Greater inequality predicted higher prevalence of ineffective insurance. When stratifying by individual-level covariates, higher inequality was associated with greater ineffective insurance among sub-groups traditionally considered more privileged: youth, men, higher education, urban residence and the wealthiest quintile. Stratifying by World Bank country income classification, higher inequality was associated with ineffective insurance among upper-middle income countries but not low- or lower-middle income countries. We hypothesize that these associations may be due to the imprint of underlying social inequalities as countries approach decreasing marginal returns on improved health insurance by income. Our findings suggest that beyond national income, income inequality may predict differences in the quality of insurance, with implications for efforts to achieve UHC. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Windsor, Liliane Cambraia; Dunlap, Eloise; Armour, Marilyn
Drawing on standpoint and intersectionality theories, this study explores the degree to which interactions among New York State’s Rockefeller Drug Laws, educational and welfare policies have contributed to the maintenance of a culture of surveillance in which the lives of impoverished African Americans are overseen and influenced by oppressive policies and governmental institutions. Qualitative secondary analysis of longitudinal ethnographic data was conducted. Findings demonstrate multiple disadvantages that impoverished African American families struggling with substance use and/or sale experience. These disadvantages accumulated intergenerationally, in a snowball effect making it difficult for participants to maintain stable lives. Findings explored the tension between participants’ experiences with oppression and the multiple ways they either assimilated or resisted their oppression. New sensitive policies informed by standpoint, intersectionality, and Afrocentric perspectives must be developed to increase the availability of meaningful employment and strengthening impoverished African American communities. PMID:23216440
Windsor, Liliane Cambraia; Dunlap, Eloise; Armour, Marilyn
Drawing on standpoint and intersectionality theories, this study explores the degree to which interactions among New York State's Rockefeller Drug Laws and educational and welfare policies have contributed to the maintenance of a culture of surveillance in which the lives of impoverished African Americans are overseen and influenced by oppressive policies and governmental institutions. Qualitative secondary analysis of longitudinal ethnographic data was conducted. Findings demonstrate multiple disadvantages that impoverished African American families struggling with substance use or sale experience. These disadvantages accumulated intergenerationally, in a snowball effect, making it difficult for participants to maintain stable lives. Findings explored the tension between participants' lived experiences and the multiple ways they either assimilated or resisted their oppression. New sensitive policies informed by standpoint, intersectionality, and Afrocentric perspectives must be developed to increase the availability of meaningful employment and strengthening impoverished African American communities.
To determine whether, in the context of a face to face interview, socioeconomic groups differ in their propensity to provide details about the amount of their personal income, and to discuss the likely consequences of any differences for studies that use income based measures of socioeconomic position. The study used data from the 1995 Australian Health Survey. The sample was selected using a stratified multi-stage area design that covered urban and rural areas across all States and Territories and included non-institutionalised residents of private and non-private dwellings. The response rate was 91.5% for selected dwellings and 97.0% for persons within dwellings. Data were collected using face to face interviews. Income response, the dependent measure, was binary coded (0 if income was reported and 1 for refusals, "don't knows" and insufficient information). Socioeconomic position was measured using employment status, occupation, education and main income source. The socioeconomic characteristics of income non-reporters were initially examined using sex specific age adjusted proportions with 95% confidence intervals. Multivariate analysis was performed using logistic regression. Persons aged 15-64 (n = 33,434) who were reportedly in receipt of an income from one or more sources during the data collection reference period. The overall rate of income non-response was 9.8%. Propensity to not report income increased with age (15-29 years 5.8%, 30-49 10.6%, 50-64 13.8%). No gender differences were found (men 10.2%, women 9.3%). Income non-response was not strongly nor consistently related to education or occupation for men, although there was a suggested association among these variables for women, with highly educated women and those in professional occupations being less likely to report their income. Strong associations were evident between income non-response, labour force status and main income source. Rates were highest among the employed and those in receipt of
Deding, Mette; Hussain, Azhar; Jakobsen, Vibeke
During the last two decades most Western countries have experienced increased net immigration as well as increased income inequality. This article analyzes the effects on income inequality of an increased number of immigrants in Denmark and Germany for the 20- year period 1984-2003 and how...... the impact of the increased number of immigrants differs between the two countries. We find higher inequality for immigrants than natives in Denmark but vice versa for Germany. Over the period 1984-2003, this particular inequality gap has narrowed in both countries. At the same time, the contribution...... of immigrants to overall inequality has increased, primarily caused by increased between-group inequality. The share of immigrants in the population is more important for the change in overall inequality in Denmark than in Germany, while the opposite is the case for inequality among immigrants....
Memorandum from the HR and FP Departments and the Legal Service concerning the annual internal taxation certificate and the declaration of income for 2008 You are reminded that each year the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits it pays to the members of the personnel (see Chapter V, Section 2 of the Staff Rules and Regulations) and that members of the personnel are thus exempt from external taxation on salaries and emoluments paid by CERN. This memorandum is intended to provide members of the personnel residing in France with information on how salaries and emoluments paid by CERN should be indicated in the 2008 income declaration form. For any other income, they are invited to comply with the instructions attached to the form. I - Annual internal taxation certificate for 2008 The annual certificate of internal taxation for 2008, issued by the FP Department, has been available since 1st March 2009 (see Bulletin No. 11-12/2009). It is int...
Memorandum from the HR and FP Departments and the Legal Service concerning the annual internal taxation certificate and the declaration of income for 2008 You are reminded that each year the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits it pays to the members of the personnel (see Chapter V, Section 2 of the Staff Rules and Regulations) and that members of the personnel are thus exempt from external taxation on salaries and emoluments paid by CERN. This memorandum is intended to provide members of the personnel residing in France with information on how salaries and emoluments paid by CERN should be indicated in the 2008 income declaration form. For any other income, they are invited to comply with the instructions attached to the form. I - Annual internal taxation certificate for 2008 The annual certificate of internal taxation for 2008, issued by the FP Department, has been available since 1st March 2009 (see Bulletin No. 11-12/2009). It is int...
Full Text Available The net financial income of households plays a crucial role in assessing their living standard. It determines of which social class they are members and, thus, their social status as well. In order to monitor their income situation, this paper uses survey data of the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU SILC. An abundance of identification data, such as economic activity, industrial classification or sector of economic activity, level of education, age, number of household members, place of residence, household type and others, makes it possible to identify factors that demonstrably influence the household income level. On this basis, it is possible not only to determine the commonly available social class definitions using income intervals, but also to identify specific causes affecting household income and, thus, link a particular household to a given social class. The goal of this article is to establish which factors influence the income level of households. The authors of this paper focused on four factors: social group membership, occupation classified according to the national economy sectors, the highest level of education attained by the household leader and their age. To analyse the influence of selected factors including their interaction and impact on the income situation of households, the authors applied the method of analysing variance between groups (ANOVA using STATA statistical software. The Scheffe’s method of contrasts was used to determine specific differences between factor levels.
Angelsen, Arild; Jagger, Pamela; Babigumira, Ronnie
This paper presents results from a comparative analysis of environmental income from approximately 8000 households in 24 developing countries collected by research partners in CIFOR’s Poverty Environment Network (PEN). Environmental income accounts for 28% of total household income, 77% of which ...
Reardon, Sean F.
Has the academic achievement gap between high-income and low-income students changed over the last few decades? If so, why? And what can schools do about it? Researcher Sean F. Reardon conducted a comprehensive analysis of research to answer these questions and came up with some striking findings. In this article, he shows that income-related…
Yu, Zonghuo; Chen, Li
Whether relative income or absolute income could affect subjective well-being has been a bone of contention for years. Life satisfaction and the relative frequency of positive and negative emotions are parts of subjective well-being. According to the prospect theory, hedonic adaptation helps to explain why positive emotion is often so hard to be maintained, and negative emotion wouldn't be easy to be eliminated. So we expect the relationship between income and positive emotion is different from that between income and negative emotion. Given that regional reference is the main comparison mechanism, effects of regional average income on regional average subjective well-being should be potentially zero if only relative income matters. Using multilevel analysis, we tested the hypotheses with a dataset of 30,144 individuals from 162 counties in China. The results suggested that household income at the individual level is associated with life satisfaction, happiness and negative emotions. On the contrary, at a county level, household income is only associated with negative emotion. In other words, happiness and life satisfaction was only associated with relative income, but negative emotion was associated with relative income and absolute income. Without social comparison, income doesn't improve happiness, but it could weaken negative emotion. Therefore, it is possible for economic growth to weaken negative emotion without improving happiness. These findings also contribute to the current debate about the "Esterling paradox."
This paper demonstrates that high and rising corruption increases income inequality and poverty by reducing economic growth, the progressivity of the tax system, the level and effectiveness of social spending, and the formation of human capital, and by perpetuating an unequal distribution of asset ownership and unequal access to education. These findings hold for countries with different growth experiences, at different stages of development, and using various indices of corruption. An import...
Huizinga, Harry; Nielsen, Søren Bo
in the mix of capital and labor taxes brought on by capital income tax coordination can potentially be welfare reducing. This reflects that in a non-cooperative equilibrium capital income taxes may be more distorting from an international perspective than are labor income taxes. Simulations with a simple...... model calibrated to EU public finance data suggest that countries indeed lower their labor taxes in response to higher coordinated capital income taxes. The overall welfare effects of capital income tax coordination, however, are estimated to remain positive.JEL Classification: F20, H87......Europe has seen several proposals for tax coordination only in the area of capital income taxation, leaving countries free to adjust their labor taxes. The expectation is that highercapital income tax revenues would cause countries to reduce their labor taxes. This paper shows that such changes...
Tan, Zhijun; Shi, Fuyan; Zhang, Haiyue; Li, Ning; Xu, Yongyong; Liang, Ying
In advanced economies, economic factors have been found to be associated with many health outcomes, including health-related quality of life (HRQL), and people's health is affected more by income inequality than by absolute income. However, few studies have examined the association of income inequality and absolute income with HRQL in transitional economies using individual data. This paper focuses on the effects of county or district income inequality and absolute income on the HRQL measured by EQ-5D and the differences between rural and urban regions in Shaanxi province, China. Data were collected from the 2008 National Health Service Survey conducted in Shaanxi, China. The EQ-5D index based on Japanese weights was employed as a health indicator. The income inequality was calculated on the basis of self-reported income. The special requirements for complex survey data analysis were considered in the bivariate analysis and linear regression models. The mean of the EQ-5D index was 94.6. The EQ-5D index of people with low income was lower than that in the high-income group (for people in the rural region: 93.2 v 96.1, P gender, education, marital status, employment, medical insurance, and chronic disease, all the coefficients of the low-income group and high income inequality were significantly negative. After stratifying by income group, all the effects of high income inequality remained negative in both income groups. However, the coefficients of the models in the high income group were not statistically significant. Income inequality has damaging effects on HRQL in Shaanxi, China, especially for people with low income. In addition, people living in rural regions were more vulnerable to economic factors.
Weeks, William B; Wallace, Tanner A
We wanted to determine whether the type of medical school attended--private US, public US, or foreign medical school--is associated with practice characteristics or incomes of physicians. Therefore, we used survey responses obtained during the 1990s from 10,436 actively practicing white male physicians who worked in one of 13 medical specialties and who graduated from a public US (5,702), private US (3,797), or international (937) medical school. We used linear regression modeling to determine the association between type of medical school attended and physicians' annual incomes after controlling for specialty, work hours, provider characteristics, and practice characteristics. We found that, for most specialties, international medical school graduates worked longer hours, were less likely to be board certified, had practiced medicine for fewer years, and were less likely to work in rural settings than US medical school graduates. After controlling for key variables, international medical school graduates' annual incomes were 2.6 percent higher (95% CI: 0.1%, 4.4%, p = .043) and public US medical school graduates' were 2.2 percent higher (95% CI: -0.9% -6.1%, p = 0.2) than private US medical school graduates' incomes. Because of their lower tuition expenses, international and public US medical school graduates may experience higher returns on educational investment than their counterparts who graduated from private US medical schools.
Li, David X; Guindon, G Emmanuel
To examine the relationships between income, income inequality and current smoking among youth in low- and middle-income countries. Pooled cross-sectional data from the Global Youth Tobacco Surveys, conducted in low- and middle-income countries, were used to conduct multi-level logistic analyses that accounted for the nesting of students in schools and of schools in countries. A total of 169 283 students aged 13-15 from 63 low- and middle-income countries. Current smoking was defined as having smoked at least one cigarette in the past 30 days. Gross domestic product (GDP) per capita was our measure of absolute income. Contemporaneous and lagged (10-year) Gini coefficients, as well as the income share ratio of the top decile of incomes to the bottom decile, were our measures of income inequality. Our analyses reveal a significant positive association between levels of income and youth smoking. We find that a 10% increase in GDP per capita increases the odds of being a current smoker by at least 2.5%, and potentially considerably more. Our analyses also suggest a relationship between the distribution of incomes and youth smoking: youth from countries with more unequal distributions of income tend to have higher odds of currently smoking. There is a positive association between gross domestic product and the odds of a young person in a low- and middle-income country being a current smoker. Given the causal links between smoking and a wide range of youth morbidities, the association between smoking and income inequality may underlie a substantial portion of the health disparities observed that are currently experiencing rapid economic growth. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Accounting for the Gender Income Gap in Urban China Zizhuo Sun (ABSTRACT) Using data from the China Housing Survey, that was conducted in 1993, the present study attempts to learn whether and how specific factors--human capital (including education and health), guanxi (social connections), housework, and employment in different sectors of the economy influence the income gap between men and women in urban China when traditional, soc...
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... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Program income. 277.10 Section 277.10 Agriculture... § 277.10 Program income. (a) Program income is gross income resulting from activities financed with program funds. Such earnings exclude interest income but include income from service fees, usage or rental...
Bobbitt, Erica; Bowen, Cathy F.; Kuleck, Robin L.; Taverno, Ronald
The income tax-filing process creates teachable moments for learning about taxes and other financial matters. Educators and volunteers from Penn State Cooperative Extension helped taxpayers file 2008 returns under Volunteer Income Tax Assistance Program (VITA). Nearly 600 filers (588) completed and simultaneously received educational information…
Hamilton, Tod G; Kawachi, Ichiro
Research suggests that income inequality is inversely associated with health. This association has been documented in studies that utilize variation in income inequality across countries or across time from a single country. The primary criticism of these approaches is their inability to account for potential confounders that are associated with income inequality. This paper uses variation in individual experiences of income inequality among immigrants within the United States (U.S.) to evaluate whether individuals who moved from countries with greater income inequality than the U.S. have better health than those who migrated from countries with less income in equality than the U.S. Utilizing individual-level (March Current Population Survey) and country-level data (the United Nations Human Development Reports), we show that among immigrants who have resided in the U.S. between 6 and 20 years, self-reported health is more favorable for the immigrants in the former category (i.e., greater income inequality) than those in the latter (i.e., lower income inequality). Results also show that self-reported health is better among immigrants from more developed countries and those who have more years of education, are male, and are married. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Hamilton, Tod G.; Kawachi, Ichiro
Research suggests that income inequality is inversely associated with health. This association has been documented in studies that utilize variation in income inequality across countries or across time from a single country. The primary criticism of these approaches is their inability to account for potential confounders that are associated with income inequality. This paper uses variation in individual experiences of income inequality among immigrants within the United States (U.S.) to evaluate whether individuals who moved from countries with greater income inequality than the U.S. have better health than those who migrated from countries with less income in equality than the U.S. Utilizing individual-level (March Current Population Survey) and country-level data (the United Nations Human Development Reports), we show that among immigrants who have resided in the U.S. between 6 and 20 years, self-reported health is more favorable for the immigrants in the former category (i.e., greater income inequality) than those in the latter (i.e., lower income inequality). Results also show that self-reported health is better among immigrants from more developed countries and those who have more years of education, are male, and are married. PMID:23352417
Wolpert, David H.
A major factor affecting a person s happiness is the gap between their income and their neighbors , independent of their own income. This effect is strongest when the neighbor has moderately higher income. In addition a person s lifetime happiness often follows a "U" shape. Previous models have explained subsets of these phenomena, typically assuming the person has limited ability to assess their own (hedonic) utility. Here I present a model that explains all the phenomena, without such assumptions. In this model greater income of your neighbor is statistical data that, if carefully analyzed, would recommend that you explore for a new income-generating strategy. This explains unhappiness that your neighbor has greater income, as an emotional "prod" that induces you to explore, in accord with careful statistical analysis. It explains the "U" shape of happiness similarly. Another benefit of this model is that it makes many falsifiable predictions.
Maria Cecília Sobral
Full Text Available At affluent markets, the literature on product development management tells us to aggregate value and technology, to differentiate products and to launch fast. And at the low-income markets? This exploratory research defines a popular product, characterizes and measures their markets in Brazil, and identifies innovation strategies for them. The results suggest that the effective strategic orientation differs from affluent markets. It includes: to enhance the auto service component; to identify and service the key functionalities to the targeted public; to standardize products and increase the production scale; to extend the product life cycle; to use convenient distribution and marketing channels; to build product images that have appeal in the popular market; to offer longer financing horizons with befittingly lower installments. Data came from market researches and general demographic census. General media published stories were used to identify companies and their strategies. And a few case studies allowed the authors a deeper exploration of the relevant themes.
This paper examines the effect of counterfeit goods in a world where consumers are differentiated by level of income and innovation is quality enhancing. Counterfeit goods are defined as products with the same characteristics as “originals”, but of lower quality. The effect of imitation on firms’ profits and consumer welfare depends on the distribution of income within the country. In particular, the greater the level of income inequality the larger the increase in consumer welfare due to the...
Bouffard, Léandre; Dubé, Micheline
problems and unhappiness are presented. In reality, this income inequality is like a "virus" which affects the well-being of the entire population. Even if the increase of mental problems may be explained by many factors - historical, cultural, ethnic, social, and societal - these factors do not eliminate the effect of income inequality. In order to counter the effects of income inequality and to promote a "flourishing" mental health, the professionals of human sciences are invited to take into account this reality in the implementation of their interventions and to participate to the elaboration of social politics as well as in the education process of the general population.
Mehtabul Azam; Abusaleh Shariff
This paper examines income inequality in rural India in 1993 and 2005. It attempts to ascertain the contribution of different income sources to overall income inequality, and change in their relative importance between 1993 and 2005 through decomposition of Gini coefficient. The paper finds that income inequality has increased between 1993 and 2005. Agriculture income continues to contribute majorly in total income and income inequality; however its share in total income and total income ineq...
Waters, Jennifer A.
As college enrollments continue to increase, the disparity between middle-income white students and low-income students of color enrolling in private higher educational institutions continues to widen. Previous research has identified barriers such as access and equity in education, the high cost of education, and limited knowledge regarding…
This author provided a conceptual overview of income trusts and limited partnerships that are designed to pass operating cash flow directly to investors without the imposition of corporate taxes, discussed the evolution of the market, the mechanism used to price income funds, past and present performance of the sector, and made some predictions concerning the sector's future performance. 13 figs
This study addresses the question whether participation of the poor in microfinance contributes to reducing a country’s level of income inequality. Using data from 70 developing countries, we show that higher levels of microfinance participation are indeed associated with a reduction of the income
Memorandum from the HR and FI Departments and the Legal Service concerning the new internal taxation provisions of the Staff Rules and Regulations, the annual internal taxation certificate for 2007 and the declaration of income for 2007. I - New provisions of the Staff Rules and Regulations concerning internal taxation Following the revision of the Staff Rules and Regulations (see CERN Bulletin Nos. 16 and 17 of 16 and 23 April 2007), the provisions relating to internal taxation are now set out in Articles S V 2.01 of the Staff Rules and in Articles R V 2.01 to R V 2.05 of the Staff Regulations, in force since 1st January 2007 (11th edition). Pursuant to Article S V 2.01 of the Staff Rules, each year the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits it pays to the members of the personnel. The Finance Committee has laid down the provisions governing the application of internal taxation in the Staff Regulations (see Articles R V 2.01 to R V 2.05). ...
Xie, Yu; Zhou, Xiang
Using multiple data sources, we establish that China's income inequality since 2005 has reached very high levels, with the Gini coefficient in the range of 0.53-0.55. Analyzing comparable survey data collected in 2010 in China and the United States, we examine social determinants that help explain China's high income inequality. Our results indicate that a substantial part of China's high income inequality is due to regional disparities and the rural-urban gap. The contributions of these two structural forces are particularly strong in China, but they play a negligible role in generating the overall income inequality in the United States, where individual-level and family-level income determinants, such as family structure and race/ethnicity, play a much larger role.
Sherman, Arloc; DeBot, Brandon; Huang, Chye-Ching
Direct income supports have long been known to substantially reduce the extent and depth of poverty. Evidence suggests that they can also bolster children's opportunities to succeed and enhance long-term mobility. A growing body of research, for example, links income from 2 related tax credits for working families-the Earned Income Tax Credit and the Child Tax Credit-to benefits for children in those families, such as improved birth weight, better school outcomes, and increased rates of employment in adulthood. Similarly, the introduction of food stamps has been found to improve not only the birth weight of infants given access to the program but also their educational achievement, as well as indicators of health, well-being, and self-sufficiency decades later. These are striking research results for income support that is not typically thought of as improving children's health or education. The mechanisms through which these income supports lead to such benefits are likely varied and complex, but emerging research suggests that helping families with children afford basic necessities can reduce the added stress of financial difficulties, preventing downstream neuroendocrine and biochemical changes that affect children's longer-term outcomes. These findings have important implications for policy makers. Research suggests that potential weakening of the safety net would not only substantially increase poverty, but also have damaging long-term effects on children. Policy makers should reject funding cuts and instead strengthen the safety net, which this analysis suggests could reduce poverty further and also enhance children's opportunities to succeed. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Treatment fidelity of brief motivational interviewing and health education in a randomized clinical trial to promote dental attendance of low-income mothers and children: Community-Based Intergenerational Oral Health Study "Baby Smiles".
Weinstein, Philip; Milgrom, Peter; Riedy, Christine A; Mancl, Lloyd A; Garson, Gayle; Huebner, Colleen E; Smolen, Darlene; Sutherland, Marilynn; Nykamp, Ann
Fidelity assessments are integral to intervention research but few published trials report these processes in detail. We included plans for fidelity monitoring in the design of a community-based intervention trial. The study design was a randomized clinical trial of an intervention provided to low-income women to increase utilization of dental care during pregnancy (mother) or the postpartum (child) period. Group assignment followed a 2 × 2 factorial design in which participants were randomly assigned to receive either brief Motivational Interviewing (MI) or Health Education (HE) during pregnancy (prenatal) and then randomly reassigned to one of these groups for the postpartum intervention. The study setting was four county health departments in rural Oregon State, USA. Counseling was standardized using a step-by-step manual. Counselors were trained to criteria prior to delivering the intervention and fidelity monitoring continued throughout the implementation period based on audio recordings of counselor-participant sessions. The Yale Adherence and Competence Scale (YACS), modified for this study, was used to code the audio recordings of the counselors' delivery of both the MI and HE interventions. Using Interclass Correlation Coefficients totaling the occurrences of specific MI counseling behaviors, ICC for prenatal was .93, for postpartum the ICC was .75. Participants provided a second source of fidelity data. As a second source of fidelity data, the participants completed the Feedback Questionnaire that included ratings of their satisfaction with the counselors at the completion of the prenatal and post-partum interventions. Coding indicated counselor adherence to MI protocol and variation among counselors in the use of MI skills in the MI condition. Almost no MI behaviors were found in the HE condition. Differences in the length of time to deliver intervention were found; as expected, the HE intervention took less time. There were no differences between the
Prado Córdova, José Pablo; Wunder, Sven; Smith-Hall, Carsten; Börner, Jan
This paper estimates rural household-level forest reliance in the western highlands of Guatemala using quantitative methods. Data were generated by the way of an in-depth household income survey, repeated quarterly between November 2005 and November 2006, in 11 villages ( n = 149 randomly selected households). The main sources of income proved to be small-scale agriculture (53 % of total household income), wages (19 %) and environmental resources (14 %). The latter came primarily from forests (11 % on average). In the poorest quintile the forest income share was as high as 28 %. All households harvest and consume environmental products. In absolute terms, environmental income in the top quintile was 24 times higher than in the lowest. Timber and poles, seeds, firewood and leaf litter were the most important forest products. Households can be described as `regular subsistence users': the share of subsistence income is high, with correspondingly weak integration into regional markets. Agricultural systems furthermore use important inputs from surrounding forests, although forests and agricultural uses compete in household specialization strategies. We find the main household determinants of forest income to be household size, education and asset values, as well as closeness to markets and agricultural productivity. Understanding these common but spatially differentiated patterns of environmental reliance may inform policies aimed at improving livelihoods and conserving forests.
Esmaeili, A; Mansouri, S; Moshavash, M
To undertake a fresh examination of the relationship between income inequality and population health for a group of Islamic countries using recent information derived from data resource sites from the World Bank and Islamic countries. Cross-sectional data on different measures of income distribution (prosperity, health care, women's role and environment) and indicators of population health were used to illuminate this issue. The relationship between income inequality and population health for a group of Islamic countries was tested using recent information derived from data resource sites from the World Bank and Islamic countries. After consideration of previous studies, seven dependent variables were determined and tested in six equation formats. According to the equations, the urban population percentage and gross domestic product are the most important significant variables that affect life expectancy and the infant mortality rate in Islamic countries. The income distribution coefficient, regardless of the type of measure, was almost insignificant in all equations. In selected Islamic countries, income level has a positive effect on population health, but the level of income distribution is not significant. Among the other dependent variables (e.g. different measures of income distribution, health care, role of women and environment), only environment and education had significant effects. Most of the Islamic countries studied are considered to be poorly developed. Copyright © 2011 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Humlum, Maria Knoth
In this paper, I investigate the effects of the timing of family income on child achievement production. Detailed administrative data augmented with PISA test scores at age 15 are used to analyze the effects of the timing of family income on child achievement. Contrary to many earlier studies, te...... with generous child and education subsidies. Actually, later family income (age 12-15) is a more important determinant of child achievement than earlier income.......In this paper, I investigate the effects of the timing of family income on child achievement production. Detailed administrative data augmented with PISA test scores at age 15 are used to analyze the effects of the timing of family income on child achievement. Contrary to many earlier studies......, tests for early borrowing constraints suggest that parents are not constrained in early investments in their children's achievement, and thus that the timing of income does not matter for long-term child outcomes. This is a reasonable result given the setting in a Scandinavian welfare state...
... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false FMNP income. 248.13 Section 248.13 Agriculture... FMNP income. Program income means gross income the State agency earns from grant supported activities... property. The State agency shall retain Program income earned during the agreement period and use it for...
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Excess Income. 236.60 Section 236... § 236.60 Excess Income. (a) Definition. Excess Income consists of cash collected as rent from the... Rent. The unit-by-unit requirement necessitates that, if a unit has Excess Income, the Excess Income...
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Program income. 66.25 Section 66.25... Administration § 66.25 Program income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees for services performed, from the use or rental of real...
... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Program income. 1174.25 Section 1174.25 Public....25 Program income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees for services performed, from the use or rental of real or...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Program income. 437.25 Section 437.25....25 Program income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees for services performed, from the use or rental of real or...
... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Program income. 18.25 Section 18.25 Transportation... income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees for services performed, from the use or rental of real or personal property...
... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Program income. 13.25 Section... LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 13.25 Program income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees...
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Program income. 135.25 Section 135.25 Foreign... income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees for services performed, from the use or rental of real or personal property...
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Program income. 2541.250 Section 2541.250 Public... Post-Award Requirements § 2541.250 Program income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees for services performed, from the...
... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Program income. 1207.25... GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 1207.25 Program income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees for...
... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Program income. 31.25 Section 31.25... Requirements Financial Administration § 31.25 Program income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees for services performed, from the...
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Program income. 43.25... Requirements Financial Administration § 43.25 Program income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees for services performed, from the...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Community income. 404.1086 Section 404.1086...- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Self-Employment Income § 404.1086 Community income. If community property laws apply to income that an individual derives from a trade or business...
... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Program income. 1470.25 Section 1470.25 Labor Regulations... Financial Administration § 1470.25 Program income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees for services performed, from the use or...
... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Program income. 97.25 Section 97.25 Labor Office of the... LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 97.25 Program income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees...
... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Program income. 1183.25 Section 1183.25 Public....25 Program income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees for services performed, from the use or rental of real or...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Program income. 627.450 Section 627.450... PROGRAMS UNDER TITLES I, II, AND III OF THE ACT Administrative Standards § 627.450 Program income. (a) Definition of program income. (1) Program income means income received by the recipient or subrecipient that...
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Program income. 85.25 Section 85.25... TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 85.25 Program income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees...
... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Program income. 249.13 Section 249.13 Agriculture....13 Program income. Program income means gross income the State agency earns from grant supported... property. The State agency must retain Program income earned during the agreement period and use it for...
... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Program income. 1403.25 Section 1403.25 Food and....25 Program income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees for services performed, from the use of rental of real or...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Program income. 1273.25 Section 1273.25... Administration § 1273.25 Program income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees for services performed, from the use or rental of real...
... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Program income. 600.225 Section 600.225 Energy DEPARTMENT....225 Program income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees for services performed, from the use or rental of real or...
... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Program income. 602.25 Section 602.25 Public... Requirements § 602.25 Program income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees for services performed, from the use or rental of real...
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Program income. 1003.503 Section....503 Program income. (a) Program income requirements for ICDBG grantees are set forth in 24 CFR 85.25, as modified by this section. (b) Program income means gross income received by the grantee or a...
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Program income. 12.65 Section 12.65 Public... to State and Local Governments Post-Award Requirements § 12.65 Program income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees for...
... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Program income. 92.25 Section 92.25 Public Welfare... Administration § 92.25 Program income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees for services performed, from the use or rental of real...
... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Program income. 33.25 Section 33.25 National... Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 33.25 Program income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees for services...
... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Program income. 24.25 Section 24.25... Administration § 24.25 Program income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees for services performed, from the use or rental of real...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Miscellaneous income. 322.8 Section 322.8... REMUNERATION § 322.8 Miscellaneous income. (a) Income from self-employment. In determining whether income from... shall be given to whether, and to what extent, (1) such income can be related to services performed on...
... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Program income. 3016.25 Section 3016.25 Agriculture... GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 3016.25 Program income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees for...
... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Program income. 1157.25 Section 1157.25 Public... income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees for services performed, from the use or rental of real or personal property...
Candidate Ionuţ Constantin
Full Text Available Over time have been addressed many possible effects arising from inequalities of income. Criticism for each of these effects were immediate, most of them claiming that the selection of samples used to demonstrate the assumptions made were „carefully” selected in order to achieve the target and that there is not a direct relationship between income inequality (their increment and these effects. Of the many effects that income inequalities have, identified in the literature, this paper will analyze three of them, namely: economic growth, human capital and social cohesion.
Peter J. Stauvermann
Full Text Available Technological change causes three consequences: it guarantees economic growth, it requires employees to acquire more skills and human capital, and it increases inequality if employees are not capable adapting to new technologies. The second consequence makes it almost necessary for employees to learn during their whole working life, thereby accelerating technological change. Accordingly, the OECD (the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development and many governments supports the idea of lifelong learning, but it remains unclear how to finance the education of adult students who are working efficiently. In this paper, we use an overlapping generation model with human capital accumulation and inequality to derive a mechanism which reduces income inequality and provides an incentive for all adults to invest more in education. As a consequence, the growth rate of per capita income will increase and income inequality will be reduced.
Full Text Available Income inequality has gained considerable prominence worldwide in recent years. The growing discontent among the lower-income segment of industrialized societies is limited largely to resentment because of economic wealth being perceived to be steadily concentrating among fewer people. Quantified economic inequality does not necessarily mean the extreme deprivation of people, especially in Europe and North America. There will be no revolutionary-scale social unrest among the middle class if their expectation of satisfactory wellbeing is continually met. The connection between income inequality and poverty is uncertain because of the variable definition of poverty. The classical characterization of poverty is largely deficient as the actual economic hardships encountered by the lowest-income segment of society are never fully described in the socio-geographic context. What is deprivation in Europe and North America may be considered to be “luxurious” in economically poorer countries.
Department of Housing and Urban Development — Multifamily Tax Subsidy Projects (MTSP) Income Limits were developed to meet the requirements established by the Housing and Economic Recovery Act of 2008 (Public...
This paper uses inequality decomposition techniques in order to analyse the consequences of entrepreneurial activities to household income inequality in southern Ethiopia. A uniform increase in entrepreneurial income reduces per capita household income inequality. This implies that encouraging rural entrepreneurship may be favourable for both income growth and income distribution. Such policies could be particularly successful if directed at the low-income, low-wealth, and relatively uneducat...
..., FEDERAL POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT Income Statement Chart of Accounts Service Company Operating Income § 367.4081 Account 408.1, Taxes other than income taxes, operating income. This account must include... other than income taxes, operating income. 367.4081 Section 367.4081 Conservation of Power and Water...
..., FEDERAL POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT Income Statement Chart of Accounts Service Company Operating Income § 367.4101 Account 410.1, Provision for deferred income taxes, operating income. This account must..., Provision for deferred income taxes, operating income. 367.4101 Section 367.4101 Conservation of Power and...
... 2009 Estimated Income Tax Payments for Individuals With Small Business Income AGENCY: Internal Revenue... estimated income tax payments for qualified individuals with small business income for any taxable year... with small business income to certify that they satisfy the statutory gross income requirement for...
Callander, Emily J; Schofield, Deborah J
Longitudinal analysis of Wave 5 to 10 of the nationally representative Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia dataset was undertaken to assess whether multidimensional poverty status can predict chronic income poverty. Of those who were multidimensionally poor (low income plus poor health or poor health and insufficient education attainment) in 2007, and those who were in income poverty only (no other forms of disadvantage) in 2007, a greater proportion of those in multidimensional poverty continued to be in income poverty for the subsequent 5 years through to 2012. People who were multidimensionally poor in 2007 had 2.17 times the odds of being in income poverty each year through to 2012 than those who were in income poverty only in 2005 (95% CI: 1.23-3.83). Multidimensional poverty measures are a useful tool for policymakers to identify target populations for policies aiming to improve equity and reduce chronic disadvantage. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Dorn, Florian; Fuest, Clemens; Potrafke, Niklas
This paper re-examines the link between globalization and income inequality. We use data for 140 countries over the period 1970-2014 and employ an IV approach to deal with the endogeneity of globalization measures. We find that the link between globalization and income inequality differs across different groups of countries. There is a robust positive relationship between globalization and inequality in the transition countries including China and most countries of Middle and Eastern Europe. ...
Optimal taxation under income uncertainty has been extensively developed in expected utility theory, but it is still open for inseparable utility function between income and effort. As an alternative of decision-making under uncertainty, prospect theory (Kahneman and Tversky (1979), Tversky and Kahneman (1992)) has been obtained empirical support, for example, Kahneman and Tversky (1979), and Camerer and Lowenstein (2003). It is beginning to explore optimal taxation in the context of prospect...
Measurment and Reporting of Comprehensive Income: Search, Challenges, ... of periods of stable and unstable economic situation and satisfies varied users' ... Keywords: Historical accounting; comprehensive income; asset valuation model.
Abstract The development of a country usually determined by the human development index HDI. Per capita income education and health are the three most important components of human development index. The purpose of this research is to understand the relationship among human development index to income per capita growth and poverty alleviation in Indonesia with cross-section data from 30 provinces period 2002 2011 year. The result of this research were a income per capita growth was not sign...
Socioeconomic diversity in tertiary education has come under heightened scrutiny in the past few years. This paper estimates the relationship between prices (both sticker price and net price), financial aid policies, and selectivity on the variation of low-income students across postsecondary institutions. All three factors are significant in…
Curran, F. Chris
This study documents gaps in kindergarten and first-grade science achievement by family income and explores the degree to which such gaps can be accounted for by student race/ethnicity, out-of-school activities, parental education, and school fixed effects. In doing so, it expands on prior research that documents disparate rates of science…
Studies real household income after the birth of a baby reporting median child care expenses were zero in first and $6 in fourth quarter; mean expenses in fourth quarter were $210. Fertility rate of women aged 18-44 without high school education who had baby in 1988 was 87, compared to 63 for women with college degree. (LB)
Ponton de Dutton, Scarlett
This qualitative study shares the complex stories of two low-income business students who attend a flagship, public university as out-of-state students with the purpose of understanding, describing, giving voice to, and discovering insight from their experiences. Throughout U.S. Higher Education history, there is a pattern of limited participation…
It focuses on the need for adopting or strengthening corporate principles of financial management, corporate methods of raising capital, establishment of income generating activities, strategic acquisitions, institutional mergers, establishment of commercial projects, treating higher education as an export and involving ...
Fujiwara, Takeo; Ito, Jun; Kawachi, Ichiro
The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of income inequality and parental socioeconomic status on several birth outcomes in Japan. Data were collected on birth outcomes and parental socioeconomic status by questionnaire from Japanese parents nationwide (n = 41,499) and then linked to Gini coefficients at the prefectural level in 2001. In multilevel analysis, z scores of birth weight for gestational age decreased by 0.018 (95% confidence interval (CI): -0.029, -0.006) per 1-standard-deviation (0.018-unit) increase in the Gini coefficient, while gestational age at delivery was not associated with the Gini coefficient. For dichotomous outcomes, mothers living in prefectures with middle and high Gini coefficients were 1.24 (95% CI: 1.05, 1.47) and 1.23 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.48) times more likely, respectively, to deliver a small-for-gestational-age infant than mothers living in more egalitarian prefectures (low Gini coefficients), although preterm births were not significantly associated with income distribution. Parental educational level, but not household income, was significantly associated with the z score of birth weight for gestational age and small-for-gestational-age status. Higher income inequality at the prefectural level and parental educational level, rather than household income, were associated with intrauterine growth but not with shorter gestational age at delivery.
Call, Lindsay Larson; Dyer, W. Justin; Wiley, Angela R.; Day, Randal D.
Recently, national attention has turned to the need for increased financial education, particularly for low-income populations. Incarcerated individuals represent a growing low-income group with unique needs that could likely benefit from financial education. However, few studies have examined the specific financial education needs of inmates,…
Tine, Michele T.; Butler, Allison G.
Educational research suggests that lower-income children exhibit poor general executive functioning relative to their higher-income peers. Meanwhile, sports psychology research suggests that an acute bout of aerobic exercise improves executive functioning in children. Yet, it has never been determined if such exercise (1) specifically improves the…
Southern Education Foundation, 2015
For the first time in recent history, a majority of the schoolchildren attending the nation's public schools come from low income families. The latest data collected from the states by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), evidence that 51 percent of the students across the nation's public schools were low income in 2013. The…
... Package and Guidelines (Publication 3319) for organizations interested in applying for a Low Income... nominal fee to low income taxpayers involved in tax disputes with the IRS, or educate individuals for whom... Grant Application Package and Guidelines, IRS Publication 3319 (Rev. 5-2013), can be downloaded from the...
Since their introduction in 2006, for the two years for which figures are available, variable tuition fees have brought 1.3 billion British pounds new income into the higher education sector. This report provides an insight into how this income has been used by English universities. It is based on national data and responses from 62% of English…
Chauvel, Louis; Leist, Anja K
Health inequalities reflect multidimensional inequality (income, education, and other indicators of socioeconomic position) and vary across countries and welfare regimes. To which extent there is intergenerational transmission of health via parental socioeconomic status has rarely been investigated in comparative perspective. The study sought to explore if different measures of stratification produce the same health gradient and to which extent health gradients of income and of social origins vary with level of living and income inequality. A total of 299,770 observations were available from 18 countries assessed in EU-SILC 2005 and 2011 data, which contain information on social origins. Income inequality (Gini) and level of living were calculated from EU-SILC. Logit rank transformation provided normalized inequalities and distributions of income and social origins up to the extremes of the distribution and was used to investigate net comparable health gradients in detail. Multilevel random-slope models were run to post-estimate best linear unbiased predictors (BLUPs) and related standard deviations of residual intercepts (median health) and slopes (income-health gradients) per country and survey year. Health gradients varied across different measures of stratification, with origins and income producing significant slopes after controls. Income inequality was associated with worse average health, but income inequality and steepness of the health gradient were only marginally associated. Linear health gradients suggest gains in health per rank of income and of origins even at the very extremes of the distribution. Intergenerational transmission of status gains in importance in countries with higher income inequality. Countries differ in the association of income inequality and income-related health gradient, and low income inequality may mask health problems of vulnerable individuals with low status. Not only income inequality, but other country characteristics such
... accordance with § 92.252(h): (i) Examine the source documents evidencing annual income (e.g., wage statement... annual income; or alternatively, the statement must indicate the current dollar limit for very low- or low-income families for the family size of the tenant and state that the tenant's annual income does...
... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Program income. 600.314 Section 600.314 Energy DEPARTMENT... Program income. (a) DOE must apply the standards in this section to the disposition of program income from... program income earned: (1) From license fees and royalties for copyrighted material, patents, patent...
... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Program income. 603.1305 Section 603.1305 Energy... Used in this Part § 603.1305 Program income. Gross income earned by the recipient or a participant that is generated by a supported activity or earned as a direct result of a TIA. Program income includes...
... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Program income. 130.480 Section... CENTERS § 130.480 Program income. (a) Program income for recipient organizations or SBDC service providers... A-110). Program income for recipient organizations or SBDC service providers based in State or local...
... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Income report. 3060.21 Section 3060.21 Postal... COMPETITIVE PRODUCTS ENTERPRISE § 3060.21 Income report. The Postal Service shall file an Income Report in the form and content of Table 1, below. Table 1—Competitive Products Income Statement—PRC Form CP-01 [$ in...
... Net Investment Income Tax AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Withdrawal of... computation of net investment income. The regulations affect individuals, estates, and trusts whose incomes meet certain income thresholds. DATES: The proposed rule published December 5, 2012 (77 FR 72612), is...
... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Project income. 1944.670 Section 1944.670 Agriculture... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) HOUSING Housing Preservation Grants § 1944.670 Project income. (a) Project income... governed by 7 CFR parts 3015 and 3016. All income during the grant period, including amounts recovered by...
... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Program income. 1200.24 Section 1200.24 Highways... Implementation and Management of the Highway Safety Program § 1200.24 Program income. (a) Inclusions. Program income includes income from fees for services performed, from the use or rental of real or personal...
... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Income taxes. 256.409 Section... COMPANY ACT OF 1935 Income and Expense Accounts § 256.409 Income taxes. (a) This account shall include the amount of local, State and Federal taxes on income properly accruable during the period covered by the...
Dixon-Roman, Ezekiel J.; Everson, Howard T.; McArdle, John J.
Background: Educational policy makers and test critics often assert that standardized test scores are strongly influenced by factors beyond individual differences in academic achievement such as family income and wealth. Unfortunately, few empirical studies consider the simultaneous and related influences of family income, parental education, and…
Kawakami, Norito; Abdulghani, Emad Abdulrazaq; Alonso, Jordi; Bromet, Evelyn; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Almeida, Jose Miguel Caldas; Chiu, Wai Tat; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Graaf, Ron; Fayyad, John; Ferry, Finola; Florescu, Silvia; Gureje, Oye; Hu, Chiyi; Lakoma, Matthew D.; LeBlanc, William; Lee, Sing; Levinson, Daphna; Malhotra, Savita; Matschinger, Herbert; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Browne, Mark A. Oakley; Okoliyski, Michail; Posada-Villa, Jose; Sampson, Nancy A.; Viana, Maria Carmen; Kessler, Ronald C.
Background Better information on the human capital costs of early-onset mental disorders could increase sensitivity of policy-makers to the value of expanding initiatives for early detection-treatment. Data are presented on one important aspect of these costs: the associations of early-onset mental disorders with adult household income. Methods Data come from the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys in eleven high income, five upper-middle income, and six low/lower-middle income countries. Information about 15 lifetime DSM-IV mental disorders as of age of completing education, retrospectively assessed with the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview, was used to predict current household income among respondents ages 18-64 (n = 37,741) controlling for level of education. Gross associations were decomposed to evaluate mediating effects through major components of household income. Results Early-onset mental disorders are associated with significantly reduced household income in high and upper-middle income countries but not low/lower-middle income countries, with associations consistently stronger among women than men. Total associations are largely due to low personal earnings (increased unemployment, decreased earnings among the employed) and spouse earnings (decreased probabilities of marriage and, if married, spouse employment and low earnings of employed spouses). Individual-level effect sizes are equivalent to 16-33% of median within-country household income, while population-level effect sizes are in the range 1.0-1.4% of Gross Household Income. Conclusions Early mental disorders are associated with substantial decrements in income net of education at both individual and societal levels. Policy-makers should take these associations into consideration in making healthcare research and treatment resource allocation decisions. PMID:22521149
Full Text Available This paper analyzes agency costs and the moral hazard problem in the presence of income taxation. As basic framework, income taxes are integrated in the hidden action model of agency theory. In the case of symmetric information no agency costs occur, i.e. optimal risk-sharing can be achieved, if and only if the tax is proportional. It is well-known that asymmetric information causes a welfare loss, termed agency costs, even if no taxes are imposed. Introducing a proportional income tax now increases (decreases these agency costs if the agent exhibits decreasing (increasing absolute risk aversion. Additionally, we show that non-proportional taxes cause higher (lower agency costs than a proportional tax if the agent’s marginal tax rate exceeds (is smaller than the marginal tax rate of the principal.
.... Unequal access to quality education leaves millions ill equipped for today's workplace. The "No Child Left Behind Act" is an effective point of departure, yet it too fails to adequately address the myriad issues affecting quality education...
Full Text Available The aim of our paper is to identify explanatory variables for income disparities between women and men across different regional types. Using data from the BA Employment Panel (BEP descriptive statistics show that the gender pay gap grows wider from core regions to periphery. The main explanatory variables for the income differentials are vocational education in the men's case and size of enterprise in the women's case. Whereas in the case of women the importance of vocational status increases and the importance of size of enterprise decreases from rural areas to urban areas.
1 EDUCATION ABSTRACT United States schools are better than ever, but they are not assuring competitive advantage . Unequal access to quality...Development Network, Washington, DC Defense Logistics Agency, Corporate Planning (J-1), Ft Belvoir, VA International : Department for Education and...influencing all aspects of the US education system in an effort to improve student achievement, enhance national competitive advantage , and promote
Blackburn, McKinley L.
Uses LIS data to study the sensitivity of cross-national income poverty comparisons to the method in which poverty is measured. Examined are the differences between using absolute and relative poverty comparisons as well as the consequence of lowering the real value of the poverty line to examine extreme poverty.
Ravallion, M.; Heil, M.; Jalan, J.
We find that the distribution of income matters to aggregate carbon dioxide emissions and hence global warming. Higher inequality, both between and within countries is associated with lower carbon emissions at given average incomes. We also confirm that economic growth generally comes with higher emissions. Thus our results suggest that trade-offs exist between climate control (on the one hand) and both social equity and economic growth (on the other). However, economic growth improves the trade off with equity, and lower inequality improves the trade off with growth. By combining growth with equity, more pro-poor growth processes yield better longer-term trajectories of carbon emissions. (Author)
This paper examines the allocative implications of progressive income taxation when individuals care about their relative income. It shows that tax progressivity might improve efficiency, and the more so in egalitarian economies. Introducing a progressive income tax can yield a Pareto improvement if pre-tax income is evenly distributed. Implementing undistorted choices of working hours requires a progressive tax schedule, and the optimal degree of progressivity decreases with pre-tax income i...
Welfare Reform. States' Implementation and Effects on the Workforce Development System. Statement of Cynthia M. Fagnoni, Director, Education, Workforce, and Income Security Issues, Health, Education, and Human Services Division. Testimony before the Subcommittee on Postsecondary Education, Training, and Life-Long Learning, Committee on Education and the Workforce, House of Representatives.
General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Health, Education, and Human Services Div.
Research on effectiveness of welfare-to-work approaches shows programs that combine approaches--job search assistance and education and training--have better employment and earnings outcomes than either approach alone. Consistent with findings and the work focus of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act, states have…
... 2009 Estimated Income Tax Payments for Individuals With Small Business Income AGENCY: Internal Revenue... reduced estimated income tax payments for qualified individuals with small business income for any taxable... of 2009. The final regulations provide guidance for qualified individuals with small business income...
Webb, Jenny; Morris, Melanie Hall; Thomas, Sandra P; Combs-Orme, Terri
The purpose of this descriptive qualitative study was to gain understanding of perceptions of low-income pregnant women and mothers about parenting. Participants were 65 low-income, primarily African American, women in their 20s and 30s who were recruited from a faith-based social service center in Memphis, Tennessee. Interviews were conducted by nursing, social work, and psychology students. The existential phenomenological method was used to analyze verbatim responses of participants to vignettes depicting parenting behaviors of hypothetical mothers. Five global themes were identified: (a) Focus on baby's development: "Because I'm the Mother, I'm the First Teacher"; (b) Focus on baby's safety/security: "The Baby Could Be Hurt"; (c) Focus on conveying love: "She Just Wants the Baby to Feel Her Love"; (d) Focus on learning the rules of good childcare: "It's Important to Know the Do's and Don'ts"; and (e) Focus on doing it differently (better) than parents did: "When You Know Better, You Do Better." Findings suggest that these mothers care deeply about providing a better life for their children than the life they have had. They desire to learn about being the best parents they can be. As nurses, we can help to provide educational opportunities for mothers through a variety of evidence-based interventions delivered across the childbearing years.
Fasang, Anette Eva
How do social policies shape life courses, and which consequences do different life course patterns hold for individuals? This article engages the example of retirement in Germany and Britain to analyze life course patterns and their consequences for income inequality. Sequence analysis is used to measure retirement trajectories. The liberal…
Beekman, Gonne; Gatto, Marcel; Nillesen, Eleonora
This study investigates the relationship between family network density and income hiding in rural Liberia. We link people's behaviour in a modified lottery experiment and a time preference game to detailed information about their family networks. We find that individuals with a dense family
Research indicates that hospitals manage their earnings. However, these findings might be influenced by methodological issues. In this study, I exploit specific features of Dutch hospitals to study income smoothing while limiting these methodological issues. The managers of Dutch hospitals have the
J. Tinbergen (Jan)
textabstractThe fact that consumption outlay of individuals as well as of groups of individuals depends on their income is well known. Although this statement will hardly be doubted, it may be tested statistically from family budget statistics, as has been done by various investigators. These
Christensen, Erik; Birnbaum, Simon
In the 1930s Danish author and painter Johannes Hohlenberg (1881-1960) published several essays in defense of an unconditional income for all. These original writings, strongly influenced by Rudolf Steiner's anthroposophy, are not widely known. This article makes two of Hohlenberg's essays...
J. Tinbergen (Jan)
textabstractIn this essay in honour of Professor P. Hennipman the latter's clarity and precision of expression are chosen as an example of how to avoid misunderstanding of his publications. As counterexamples some twenty-odd misunderstandings are set out by the essay's author in the field of income
Climate change impacts may drive affected populations to migrate. However, migration decisions in response to climate change could have broader effects on population dynamics in affected regions. Here, I model the effect of climate change on fertility rates, income inequality, and human capital accumulation in developing countries, focusing on the instrumental role of migration as a key adaptation mechanism. In particular, I investigate how climate-induced migration in developing countries will affect those who do not migrate. I find that holding all else constant, climate change raises the return on acquiring skills, because skilled individuals have greater migration opportunities than unskilled individuals. In response to this change in incentives, parents may choose to invest more in education and have fewer children. This may ultimately reduce local income inequality, partially offsetting some of the damages of climate change for low-income individuals who do not migrate.
Full Text Available Household has an extremely important place in the division of income for the economies. It plays a decisive role in personal consumption, investment, and savings. This study aims to identify the determinants of household savings except for income. In this study, "Household Budget Survey" conducted by Turkish Statistical Institute for the years 2002-2013 is used. Survey data has been analyzed by logistic regression models. The results of the study show that house ownership, having an extra house, having annual disposable income of over 10.000 ₺, education level also have a positive effect on household savings. On the other hand, the number of family members, car ownership, temporary or seasonal employment, and living in rural areas affect household savings in a negative way.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The association between area characteristics and birth outcomes is modified by race. Whether such associations vary according to social class indicators beyond race has not been assessed. Methods This study evaluated effect modification by maternal birthplace and education of the relationship between neighbourhood characteristics and birth outcomes of newborns from 1999–2003 in the province of Québec, Canada (N = 353,120 births. Areas (N = 143 were defined as administrative local health service delivery districts. Multi-level logistic regression was used to model the association between three area characteristics (median household income, immigrant density and income inequality and the two outcomes preterm birth (PTB and small-for-gestational age (SGA birth. Effect modification by social class indicators was evaluated in analyses stratified according to maternal birthplace and education. Results Relative to the lowest tertile, high median household income was associated with SGA birth among Canadian-born mothers (odds ratio (OR 1.13, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.06, 1.20 and mothers with high school education or less (OR 1.13, 95% CI 1.02, 1.24. Associations between median household income and PTB were weaker. Relative to the highest tertile, low immigrant density was associated with a lower odds of PTB among foreign-born mothers (OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.63, 1.00 but a higher odds of PTB among Canadian-born mothers (OR 1.14, 95% CI 1.07, 1.21. Associations with income inequality were weak or absent. Conclusion The association between area factors and birth outcomes is modified by maternal birthplace and education. Studies have found that race interacts in a similar manner. Public health policies focussed on perinatal health must consider the interaction between individual and area characteristics.
James B. Davies
Full Text Available Poverty and rising income inequality in Canada have brought demands for improved government action on redistribution. Unfortunately, such pleas risk being overshadowed by a looming fiscal crunch as the baby boomers retire. An expanding population of seniors will add at least one percent annually to both growing health and OAS/GIS costs so that, absent meaningful change, other spending will have to be slashed by an average of 20.2 percent by 2032 if total spending and revenues are not to rise relative to GDP. For Canada’s tax-transfer system to keep fulfilling its redistributive role, a fundamental rethink is required. With non-seniors spending being squeezed, some changes in tax mix, moderate revenue increases and refined targeting of transfers will be needed to protect the system’s progressive nature. Increasing personal income tax and reducing property tax by an offsetting amount would improve redistribution without raising taxes. More revenue could be obtained without severe distortions via a capital transfer tax, the elimination of boutique credits aimed at niche beneficiaries, or perhaps a dual income tax which exacts more from labor than capital income. Improvements to existing transfer programs are another way forward. The conversion of EI to a purely insurance basis, freeing up funds to support redistribution via refundable credits is a possibility. Another cost-saver involves removing the indexation of the OAS/GIS income threshold and allowing its real value to decline, making more recipients subject to clawbacks. Whichever course governments pursue, revamping Canada’s taxtransfer system will be a delicate and difficult task. This paper explores the policy choices available, and makes it clear that time is not on our side.
Bendorf, David C; Helmer, Stephen D; Osland, Jacqueline S; Tenofsky, Patty L
The purpose of this study was to assess how the practice patterns of breast surgeons affect their income and job satisfaction. A 19-question survey regarding practice patterns and income and job satisfaction was mailed to all active US members of the American Society of Breast Surgeons. There were 772 responses. An increasing percentage of breast care was associated with lower incomes (P=.0001) and similar income satisfaction (P=.4517) but higher job satisfaction (P=.0001). The increasing proportion of breast care was also associated with fewer hours worked per week (P=.0001). Although incomes were lower in surgeons with a higher proportion of their practice in breast care, income satisfaction was not affected. Although cause and effect relationships between income and breast surgery are difficult to establish, several trends do emerge. Most significantly, we found that dedicated breast surgeons have higher job satisfaction ratings and similar income satisfaction despite lower incomes. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sandra Rodríguez Acosta
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, to examine independent of the individual socioeconomic status, the effect of the contextual economic conditions on the self-rated health and, second, to explore region-level mechanisms that could explain the influence of the structural economic conditions on the low self-rated health status. For this, we use a multilevel analysis that allows us to distinguish between the individual and the contextual factors influencing the self-rated health. The results show that the socioeconomic status is an important determinant of the self-rated health of population in Colombia. However, significant differences remain in the health perception, even after controlling for individual wealth, education level and ethnicity. These differences only disappear when controlling for income inequality in the analysis.
Jamie L Hanson
Full Text Available Facets of the post-natal environment including the type and complexity of environmental stimuli, the quality of parenting behaviors, and the amount and type of stress experienced by a child affects brain and behavioral functioning. Poverty is a type of pervasive experience that is likely to influence biobehavioral processes because children developing in such environments often encounter high levels of stress and reduced environmental stimulation. This study explores the association between socioeconomic status and the hippocampus, a brain region involved in learning and memory that is known to be affected by stress. We employ a voxel-based morphometry analytic framework with region of interest drawing for structural brain images acquired from participants across the socioeconomic spectrum (n = 317. Children from lower income backgrounds had lower hippocampal gray matter density, a measure of volume. This finding is discussed in terms of disparities in education and health that are observed across the socioeconomic spectrum.
Peres, Marco Aurelio; Liu, Pingzhou; Demarco, Flavio Fernando; Silva, Alexandre Emidio Ribeiro; Wehrmeister, Fernando Cesar; Menezes, Ana Maria; Peres, Karen Glazer
We aimed to analyze the effects of family income trajectories on the increase in dental caries from childhood to young adulthood. Data from the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study, in which dental caries was measured at ages 6, 12, and 18 years, were analyzed. Family income of 302 participants was assessed at birth, and at 4, 11, 15, and 18 years of age. Mother's education, toothbrushing frequency, dental visiting, dental caries in primary dentition, and birth weight were covariates. A latent class growth analysis was conducted to characterize trajectories of time-varying variables. The influence of income trajectories on the increase in dental caries from age 6 to age 18 was evaluated by a generalized linear mixed model. After adjustment, the increases in numbers of decayed and missing teeth (DMT) from age 6 to age 18 were associated with family income trajectory. The incident rate ratios (IRR) of DMT compared with the group of stable high incomes were 2.36 for stable low incomes, 1.71 for downward, and 1.64 for upward. The IRR of teeth being filled in stable low-income groups compared with stable high-income groups was 0.55. Family income mobility affected treatment patterns of dental caries. Differences across income trajectory groups were found in the components of dental caries indices rather than in the experience of disease.
This report provides a survey of assistance programs that public utility commissions have approved in most states to assist the low-income customers of utilities within their states. Surveys find that there is no single model of low-income assistance; rather, each state has adopted a program that meets its particular circumstances. However, while the details of programs vary considerably, they all fall within four broad categories: (1) Affordability programs, which provide direct assistance in paying energy bills; (2) Consumer protections, such as collection practices and installment billing requirements, which make it easier to pay energy bills on time; (3) Education programs, which teach consumers about prudent energy use and counsel them about budgeting; and (4) Efficiency and weatherization programs, which make investments to help consumers control their energy bills by reducing their need for energy. Programs usually include more than one of these components. All programs also include outreach and evaluation components. This report describes these options, the advantages and disadvantages of each, and the economic and other benefits of utility assistance programs for low-income customers. Low-income programs help participants by lowering the fraction of their incomes devoted to energy bills (the energy burden) from a very high level. In the United States, the median household devotes only 3.8 percent of its income to electricity while a family depending on a minimum-wage earner must devote 12.1 percent to energy while facing housing cost increases all over the nation. Low-income families unable to keep up with these pressures find themselves forced to go without power at times, to move, or to forgo other necessities such as food or medicine in order to pay their electricity bills
program) steadily declined from 15% in 1970 to 10.7% in 2001.16 Data from the National Center for Education Statistics show that the number of...academic institutions, and corporate education and training institutions. By size, it’s defined in terms of distribution of funds, facilities , and...of students entering four-year colleges and universities require some remedial education .”9 Given statistics such as these, concerns for the US
This study uses data from tax declarations for 40,000 French households for 1975 to propose a model that permits quantification of the effects of certain significant factors on the economic activity of married women. The PROBIT model of analysis of variance was used to determine the specific effect of several variables, including age of the woman, number of children under 25 years of age in the household, the age of the youngest child, husband's income and socioprofessional status, wife's level and type of education, size of community of residence and region of residence. The principal factors influencing activity rates were found to be educational level, age, and to those of childless women, but activity rates dropped by about 30% for mothers of 2 and even more for mothers of 3 or more children. Influence of the place of residence and the husband's income were associated with lesser disparities. The reasons for variations in female labor force participation can be viewed as analogous to a balance. Underlying factors can increase or decrease the income the woman hopes to earn (offered income) as well as the minimum income for which she will work (required salary). A TOBIT model was constructed in which income was a function of age, education, geographic location, and number of children, and salary required was a function of the variables related to the husband including income and socioprofessional status. For most of the effects considered, the observed variation in activity rates resulted from variations in offered income. The husband's income influences only the desired salary. The offered income decreases and the required salary increases when the number of children is 2 or more, reducing the rate of activity. More educated women have slightly greater salary expectations, but command much higher salaries, resulting in an increased rate of professional activity.
Bimonte, Salvatore [Department of Political Economy, University of Siena, Piazza S. Francesco 7, 53100 Siena (Italy)
Recent empirical studies have tested the hypothesis of an Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) focusing primarily on the relationship between per capita income and certain types of pollutant emissions. Given the stock-nature of many pollution problems, emissions only partially account for the environmental impacts. Moreover, almost all of the studies have given consideration to little more than income levels as explanatory variables. This paper empirically tests the hypothesis of the EKC existence for a stock-sensitive indicator, that is, the percentage of protected area (PA) within national territory. It does theorize that economic growth is a necessary condition in order to better address environmental issues. But it also stresses that other variables (income distribution, education, information accessibility) may play a fundamental role in determining environmental quality. Contrary to other studies that mainly focus on the calculation of the income level corresponding to the transition point, this paper is more concerned with the calculation of environmental quality corresponding to that transition point, that is, the minimum level of environmental quality that a country is willing to accept. This paper highlights the idea that if the transition point is determined primarily by income level, social policies determine the level of environmental quality corresponding to that point.
Recent empirical studies have tested the hypothesis of an Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) focusing primarily on the relationship between per capita income and certain types of pollutant emissions. Given the stock-nature of many pollution problems, emissions only partially account for the environmental impacts. Moreover, almost all of the studies have given consideration to little more than income levels as explanatory variables. This paper empirically tests the hypothesis of the EKC existence for a stock-sensitive indicator, that is, the percentage of protected area (PA) within national territory. It does theorize that economic growth is a necessary condition in order to better address environmental issues. But it also stresses that other variables (income distribution, education, information accessibility) may play a fundamental role in determining environmental quality. Contrary to other studies that mainly focus on the calculation of the income level corresponding to the transition point, this paper is more concerned with the calculation of environmental quality corresponding to that transition point, that is, the minimum level of environmental quality that a country is willing to accept. This paper highlights the idea that if the transition point is determined primarily by income level, social policies determine the level of environmental quality corresponding to that point
Tomasz Wo³owiec; Tomasz Skica; Anna Nedyalkova
Taking rational decisions in a company, both current and strategic, requires knowing and taking into consideration the external conditions of the conducted activity. The accuracy of decisions made, as well as the ability to adjust to a changing external environment determines not only the effectiveness of the enterprise’s operations, but also its ability to conduct further activity. The paper aims at demonstrating the influence of income tax on the activity of economic entities and also on th...
Wołowiec, Tomasz; Skica, Tomasz; Nedyalkova, Anna
Taking rational decisions in a company, both current and strategic, requires knowing and taking into consideration the external conditions of the conducted activity. The accuracy of decisions made, as well as the ability to adjust to a changing external environment determines not only the effectiveness of the enterprise's operations, but also its ability to conduct further activity. The paper aims at demonstrating the influence of income tax on the activity of economic entities and also on th...
Daniel Miles; Andrés Pereyra; Máximo Rossi
In this paper we are concerned with the estimation of income elasticities of environmental amenities. The novelty is the application of econometric methods that take into account the problem of measurement errors when estimating these elasticities, which are common in microeconomic data and are not usually considered in the applied literature related with this issue. Our aim is to discuss whether the measurement error has signi…cant e¤ects on the elasticities. Data from the Expenditure Budget...
This paper develops the view that employer-sponsored pension plans are best understood as retirement income insurance for employees and from that perspective addresses a number of questions regarding the reasons for their existence, their design, and their funding and investment policies. The most important of these questions are: - Why do employers provide pension plans for their employees and why is participation usually mandatory? - Why is the defined benefit form of pension plan the domin...
to explore what perfect competition would do to income distribution in China. The research analyzes this question by determining personal income distribution under hypothetical, perfectly competitive conditions, where factors are rewarded according to their marginal productivities. Comparison with
Department of Housing and Urban Development — This dataset and map service provides information on the U.S. Housing and Urban Development's (HUD) low to moderate income areas. The term Low to Moderate Income,...
Full Text Available Taking rational decisions in a company, both current and strategic, requires knowing and taking into consideration the external conditions of the conducted activity. The accuracy of decisions made, as well as the ability to adjust to a changing external environment determines not only the effectiveness of the enterprise’s operations, but also its ability to conduct further activity. The paper aims at demonstrating the influence of income tax on the activity of economic entities and also on the decisions taken by management. The article is composed of three complementary sections. The first one – the introduction – is an attempt at outlining the subject framework for the article and demonstrating potential areas in which the tax system affects the economy and the associated consequences. The second part provides an empirical analysis presenting possible variants (simulations of declaring income and related management decisions taken in various time horizons and boundary conditions, reflecting the criteria of a resident. The third part of the paper comprises conclusions based on the results of conducted simulations, related to the influence of the income tax construction on financial decisions taken by enterprises and related consequences.
Information from the Legal Service and the HR Department Information for members of the personnel residing in France Following the introduction of the internal taxation of salaries and emoluments of members of the CERN personnel on 1st January 2005 (cf. Bulletin No. 48-49/2005), the French Finance Ministry has communicated the following information on the procedure for completing the 2005 declaration of income form, which must be returned by 31 May 2006 at the latest. All members of the personnel*) residing in France, whether or not they are of French nationality, are required to complete a declaration of income for 2005 according to the following instructions and to return a signed copy to their local tax office by 31 May 2006 at the latest. Members of the personnel should receive an income declaration form for 2005 at the beginning of May. Those who do not receive a form directly should obtain one from their local 'Centre des Impôts', Trésorerie' or 'Mairie', or download one from the Finance Ministry...
Gepherson Macêdo Espínola
Full Text Available This text discusses the implementation of conditional income transfer programs in Latin America as a strategy to confront poverty in the region. It synthetically contextualizes Latin American development over time, using statistical data to reveal not only the high levels of poverty, but also educational and health conditions. These programs, as a rule, seek to alleviate and overcome poverty through monetary disbursements and fulfillment of health and educational agendas that, in thesis, increase the human capital of the poor and allow overcoming poverty in the long term. It concludes that despite the benefits for the families, the conditional income transfer programs of Latin America, on their own, are still not capable of confronting the structural poverty that marks the region, and are promoting palliatives for the poor living conditions, without overcoming them.
NGUYEN, Tien Dung
In this paper, we have analyzed the recent trends in income inequality, internal and international migrations and investigated the impact of migration on income distribution in Vietnam. Our analysis shows that the effects of migration on income inequality vary with different types of migration, depending on who migrate and where they migrate. Foreign remittances tend to flow toward more affluent households, and they increase income inequality. By contrast, domestic remittances accrue more to ...
The paper focuses on the change in household income composition and the factors that determine it. The results bring additional knowledge about household poverty dynamics. Based on the collective approach to the family and the cooperative game theory it is constructed theoretical model of household income composition change. The change in income composition is a result from bargaining between household members in attempt to defend the most suitable for them income source. Decisive influence i...
How does income affect religiousness? Using self-collected survey data, we estimate the effects of income on religious behavior. As a source of exogenous income variation we use a change in the eligibility criteria for a government cash transfer in Ecuador and apply a regression discontinuity
In this article compares the rise in inequality concerning net household incomes in a number of European countries and Canada, the USA and Australia. Two important factors are used to explain this worrying trend: a growing of unequal market incomes and/or a declining redistribution of income through
... of Article 23 (Relief from Double Taxation) of the 2006 United States Model Income Tax Convention... taxation of ANSTs at the lowest individual tax rate. Furthermore, section 646 treats all distributions, to... of Net Investment Income. The regulations affect individuals, estates, and trusts whose incomes meet...
We use a panel dataset from the SHIW survey to study the features of household income in Italy. Income is described as a combination of deterministic and random components. In aggregate deterministic income grows at an average annual rate of 1.8% net of inflation, shocks feature stationarity, and
M.C. Berg (Maarten); R. Veenhoven (Ruut)
textabstractINCOME INEQUALITY AND HAPPINESS IN 119 NATIONS All modern nations reduce income differences to some extent, and as a result there is an ongoing discussion about what degree of income inequality is acceptable. In this discussion libertarians oppose egalitarians and a principled consensus
... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Program income. 74.24 Section 74.24 Public Welfare... COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 74.24 Program income. (a) The standards set forth in this section shall be used to account for program income related to...
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Program income. 145.24 Section 145.24 Foreign....24 Program income. (a) The Department shall apply the standards set forth in this section in requiring recipient organizations to account for program income related to projects financed in whole or in...
... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Program income. 3019.24 Section 3019.24 Agriculture... Management § 3019.24 Program income. (a) Federal awarding agencies shall apply the standards set forth in this section in requiring recipient organizations to account for program income related to projects...
... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Program income. 34.14 Section 34.14 National... Financial and Program Management § 34.14 Program income. (a) DoD Components shall apply the standards in this section to the disposition of program income from projects financed in whole or in part with...
... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Program income. 19.24 Section 19.24 Transportation... Requirements § 19.24 Program income. (a) Federal awarding agencies shall apply the standards set forth in this section in requiring recipient organizations to account for program income related to projects financed in...
... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Program income. 518.24 Section 518.24 Foreign... Financial and Program Management § 518.24 Program income. (a) Federal awarding agencies shall apply the standards set forth in this section in requiring recipient organizations to account for program income...
... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Program income. 276.6 Section 276.6 Indians BUREAU OF... UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS § 276.6 Program income. (a) No grantee receiving a grant.... (d) All other program income earned during the grant period shall be retained by the grantee and, in...
... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Program income. 14.24 Section 14.24... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 14.24 Program income. (a) The standards... income related to projects financed in whole or in part with Federal funds. (b) Except as provided in...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Program income. 632.34 Section 632.34... EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAMS Administrative Standards and Procedures § 632.34 Program income. (a) General. The provisions of 41 CFR 29-70.205, program income and interest earned, shall apply to Native American...
... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Program income. 215.24 Section 215.24 Grants... income. (a) Federal awarding agencies shall apply the standards set forth in this section in requiring recipient organizations to account for program income related to projects financed in whole or in part with...
Owens, Ann; Reardon, Sean F.; Jencks, Christopher
Although trends in the racial segregation of schools are well documented, less is known about trends in income segregation. We use multiple data sources to document trends in income segregation between schools and school districts. Between-district income segregation of families with children enrolled in public school increased by over 15% from…
... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Program income. 95.24 Section 95.24 Labor Office of the... Program Management § 95.24 Program income. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (e) of this section, program income earned during the project period shall be retained by the recipient and added to funds...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Program income. 435.24 Section 435.24... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 435.24 Program income. (a) Introduction... for program income related to projects financed in whole or in part with Federal funds. (b) Use of...
... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Program income. 37.1335 Section 37.1335 National... TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in This Part § 37.1335 Program income. Gross income earned by the recipient or a participant that is generated by a supported activity or earned as a...
... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Program income. 32.24 Section 32.24 National... income. (a) DoD Components shall apply the standards set forth in this section in requiring recipient organizations to account for program income related to projects financed in whole or in part with Federal funds...
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Program income. 70.24 Section 70.24...-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 70.24 Program income. (a... income related to projects financed in whole or in part with Department funds. (b) Except as provided in...
... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Program income. 600.124 Section 600.124 Energy DEPARTMENT... Nonprofit Organizations Post-Award Requirements § 600.124 Program income. (a) The standards set forth in this section shall be used to account for program income related to projects financed in whole or in...
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Program income. 511.76 Section 511... Program income. (a) General. Grantees and State recipients are neither encouraged to earn nor discouraged from earning program income in using rental rehabilitation grant amounts under this part. (b...
... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net income. 65.500 Section 65.500... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Interexchange Carriers § 65.500 Net income. The net income methodology specified in § 65.450 shall be utilized by all interexchange carriers that are...
... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net income. 65.450 Section 65.450... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Exchange Carriers § 65.450 Net income. (a) Net income shall consist of all revenues derived from the provision of interstate telecommunications services...
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Program income. 12.924 Section 12.924... Requirements § 12.924 Program income. (a) Federal awarding agencies shall apply the standards set forth in this section in requiring recipient organizations to account for program income related to projects financed in...
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Program income. 49.24... income. (a) Federal awarding agencies shall apply the standards set forth in this section in requiring recipient organizations to account for program income related to projects financed in whole or in part with...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Income taxes. 638.529 Section 638.529... TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Center Operations § 638.529 Income taxes. The Act... of student income and provide this to center operators and to the finance center. ...
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Program income. 2543.24 Section 2543.24 Public... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 2543.24 Program income. (a) Federal... to account for program income related to projects financed in whole or in part with Federal funds. (b...