WorldWideScience

Sample records for scarce meteorological information

  1. Spatial estimation of mean temperature and precipitation in areas of scarce meteorological information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, J.D. [Universidad Autonoma Chapingo, Chapingo (Mexico)]. E-mail: dgomez@correo.chapingo.mx; Etchevers, J.D. [Instituto de Recursos Naturales, Colegio de Postgraduados, Montecillo, Edo. de Mexico (Mexico); Monterroso, A.I. [departamento de Suelos, Universidad Autonoma Chapingo, Chapingo (Mexico); Gay, G. [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Campo, J. [Instituto de Ecologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Martinez, M. [Instituto de Recursos Naturales, Montecillo, Edo. de Mexico (Mexico)

    2008-01-15

    In regions of complex relief and scarce meteorological information it becomes difficult to implement techniques and models of numerical interpolation to elaborate reliable maps of climatic variables essential for the study of natural resources using the new tools of the geographic information systems. This paper presents a method for estimating annual and monthly mean values of temperature and precipitation, taking elements from simple interpolation methods and complementing them with some characteristics of more sophisticated methods. To determine temperature, simple linear regression equations were generated associating temperature with altitude of weather stations in the study region, which had been previously subdivided in accordance with humidity conditions and then applying such equations to the area's digital elevation model to obtain temperatures. The estimation of precipitation was based on the graphic method through the analysis of the meteorological systems that affect the regions of the study area throughout the year and considering the influence of mountain ridges on the movement of prevailing winds. Weather stations with data in nearby regions were analyzed according to their position in the landscape, exposure to humid winds, and false color associated with vegetation types. Weather station sites were used to reference the amount of rainfall; interpolation was attained using analogies with satellite images of false color to which a model of digital elevation was incorporated to find similar conditions within the study area. [Spanish] En las regiones de relieve complejo y con escasa informacion meteorologica se dificulta la aplicacion de las diferentes tecnicas y modelos de interpolacion numericos para elaborar mapas de variables climaticas confiables, indispensables para realizar estudios de los recursos naturales, con la utilizacion de las nuevas herramientas de los sistemas de informacion geografica. En este trabajo se presenta un metodo para

  2. Recommender system based on scarce information mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wei; Chung, Fu-Lai; Lai, Kunfeng; Zhang, Liang

    2017-09-01

    Guessing what user may like is now a typical interface for video recommendation. Nowadays, the highly popular user generated content sites provide various sources of information such as tags for recommendation tasks. Motivated by a real world online video recommendation problem, this work targets at the long tail phenomena of user behavior and the sparsity of item features. A personalized compound recommendation framework for online video recommendation called Dirichlet mixture probit model for information scarcity (DPIS) is hence proposed. Assuming that each clicking sample is generated from a representation of user preferences, DPIS models the sample level topic proportions as a multinomial item vector, and utilizes topical clustering on the user part for recommendation through a probit classifier. As demonstrated by the real-world application, the proposed DPIS achieves better performance in accuracy, perplexity as well as diversity in coverage than traditional methods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Scarce information about breast cancer screening: An Italian websites analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attena, Francesco; Cancellieri, Mariagrazia; Pelullo, Concetta Paola

    2016-12-01

    Although the public should have complete and correct information about risk/benefit ratio of breast cancer screening, public knowledge appears generally scarce and oriented to overestimate benefits, with little awareness of possible disadvantages of the screening.We evaluated any document specifically addressed to the general female public and posted on internet by Italian public health services. The presence of false positive, false positive after biopsy, false negative, interval cancer, overdiagnosis, lead-time bias, exposure to irradiation, and mortality reduction was analyzed.Of the 255 websites consulted, 136 (53.3%) had sites addressed to the female public. The most commonly reported information points were the false-positive (30.8% of sites) and radiation exposure (29.4%) rates. Only 11 documents mentioned overdiagnosis, 2 mentioned risk of false positive with biopsy, and only 1 mentioned lead-time bias. Moreover, only 15 sites (11.0%) reported quantitative data for any risk variables.Most documents about breast cancer screening published on the web for the female public contained little or no information about risk/benefit ratio and were biased in favor of screening.

  4. Urban Flood Risk Assessment Under Uncertain Conditions and Scarce Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Gaviria, E. M.; Botero-Fernandez, V.

    2015-12-01

    Flood risk management in small urban areas in Colombia has a great degree of uncertainty due to the low availability and quality of data, the non-existent personnel qualified in the collection and processing of data, and the insufficient information to evaluate the risk and vulnerability. It is because of this that two methods are developed: one for the generation of flood threat maps for different return periods combining historical, geomorphological, and hydrological hydraulic methods assisted by remote sensors and SIG through the use of data acquired through field campaigns, official hydrological networks, orthophotos, multitemporal topographic maps, and ASTER, STRM, and LiDAR images. And another method in which categorical variables are established, linking local physical, social, economical, environmental and political-institutional factors that are explored through different media such as reports, news, databases, transects, interviews, community workshops, and surveys conducted at homes. Such variables were included within an analysis of multiple correspondence to conduct a descriptive study of the exposure, susceptibility, and capacity conditions and to create a vulnerability index that was spatially plotted spatially on maps. The uncertainty is reduced in the measure in which local knowledge is used as a source of information acquisition, of validation of what already exists, and of calibration of the proposed methods. This research was applied to the urban centers of Caucasia (Antioquia) and Plato (Magdalena), which have been historically affected by slow flooding of the Magdalena and Cauca river, it being especially useful in the selection of best alternatives for risk management, planning for development, and land use management, with the possibility of replicating it to benefit other municipalities that experience the same reality.

  5. Evaluating Land Information System (LIS) capabilities in simulating the water budget and surface water dynamics over data-scarce areas in the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getirana, A.; Jung, H. C.; McNally, A.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Cretaux, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    Despite recent advances in land surface modeling and remote sensing, estimates of the global water budget are still fairly uncertain. Uncertainties are particularly high in areas where data for model calibration and evaluation are scarce or unavailable. This study presents recent developments in the hydrological modeling over the Tigris-Euphrates River basin. An intercomparison effort is performed in order to determine how models and meteorological forcings represent physical processes. In this sense, multiple experiments are performed using state-of-the-art capabilities implemented in the NASA Land Information System (LIS). The NASA Modern Era Retrospective Reanalysis for Applications (MERRA) and Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS) meteorological datasets are used as main forcings. Additional experiments are performed replacing their precipitation with the Climate Hazards Group Infra-Red Precipitation with Stations (CHIRPS) dataset. Both Catchment and Noah land surface models coupled with the Hydrological Modeling and Analysis Platform (HyMAP) river routing scheme are considered to simulate the water budget and surface water dynamics. Due to the scarce ground-based data availability, satellite-based estimates of the terrestrial water storage, evapotranspiration, water level and floodplain extent are used as complimentary information to evaluate the hydrological behavior in the basin. In particular, the water shortage observed in 2015 in that region is analyzed based on model outputs. Finally, we discuss prospects and challenges in considering anthropogenic impacts (irrigation and dams) on the hydrological modeling of the basin.

  6. Informing the gestalt: an ethical framework for allocating scarce federal public health and medical resources to states during disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knebel, Ann R; Sharpe, Virginia A; Danis, Marion; Toomey, Lauren M; Knickerbocker, Deborah K

    2014-02-01

    During catastrophic disasters, government leaders must decide how to efficiently and effectively allocate scarce public health and medical resources. The literature about triage decision making at the individual patient level is substantial, and the National Response Framework provides guidance about the distribution of responsibilities between federal and state governments. However, little has been written about the decision-making process of federal leaders in disaster situations when resources are not sufficient to meet the needs of several states simultaneously. We offer an ethical framework and logic model for decision making in such circumstances. We adapted medical triage and the federalism principle to the decision-making process for allocating scarce federal public health and medical resources. We believe that the logic model provides a values-based framework that can inform the gestalt during the iterative decision process used by federal leaders as they allocate scarce resources to states during catastrophic disasters.

  7. Bridging the Information Gap: Remote Sensing and Micro Hydropower Feasibility in Data-Scarce Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Marc Francois

    Access to electricity remains an impediment to development in many parts of the world, particularly in rural areas with low population densities and prohibitive grid extension costs. In that context, community-scale run-of-river hydropower---micro-hydropower---is an attractive local power generation option, particularly in mountainous regions, where appropriate slope and runoff conditions occur. Despite their promise, micro hydropower programs have generally failed to have a significant impact on rural electrification in developing nations. In Nepal, despite very favorable conditions and approximately 50 years of experience, the technology supplies only 4% of the 10 million households that do not have access to the central electricity grid. These poor results point towards a major information gap between technical experts, who may lack the incentives or local knowledge needed to design appropriate systems for rural villages, and local users, who have excellent knowledge of the community but lack technical expertise to design and manage infrastructure. Both groups suffer from a limited basis for evidence-based decision making due to sparse environmental data available to support the technical components of infrastructure design. This dissertation draws on recent advances in remote sensing data, stochastic modeling techniques and open source platforms to bridge that information gap. Streamflow is a key environmental driver of hydropower production that is particularly challenging to model due to its stochastic nature and the complexity of the underlying natural processes. The first part of the dissertation addresses the general challenge of Predicting streamflow in Ungauged Basins (PUB). It first develops an algorithm to optimize the use of rain gauge observations to improve the accuracy of remote sensing precipitation measures. It then derives and validates a process-based model to estimate streamflow distribution in seasonally dry climates using the stochastic

  8. Implementation of operational meteorological information service for CARE REMDAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Sung Nam; Nam, Jae Cheol; Choi, Jae Chun [Meteorological Reaearch Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Byong Lyol; Lee, Bo Ram; Shin, Hyun Cheol; Park, Nan Ah [Korea Meteorological Administration, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, Chang Keun; Park, Sang Jong [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-12-15

    The scope of this study consists of : improve of CARE REMDAS - identification of meteorolgical information required for nuclear emergency response and their efficient use on a real-time basis, review of the production and operation of KMA NWP nodels and their applications. Suggestions on the improvements in nuclear emergency response systme from the care studies of both domestic and foreign countries - case study of a domestic model for radioactivity T/D in terms of model dynamics and operation, investigation of promising support systems by reviewing the current status of T/D model in UK. Recommendations on a promising meteorological information sevices based on foreign cases - examinations of DWD system, including EU for nuclear emergency response, review on the meteorogical information support by DWD for NERS.

  9. Meteorological information in GPS-RO reflected signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Boniface

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Vertical profiles of the atmosphere can be obtained globally with the radio-occultation technique. However, the lowest layers of the atmosphere are less accurately extracted. A good description of these layers is important for the good performance of Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP systems, and an improvement of the observational data available for the low troposphere would thus be of great interest for data assimilation. We outline here how supplemental meteorological information close to the surface can be extracted whenever reflected signals are available. We separate the reflected signal through a radioholographic filter, and we interpret it with a ray tracing procedure, analyzing the trajectories of the electromagnetic waves over a 3-D field of refractive index. A perturbation approach is then used to perform an inversion, identifying the relevant contribution of the lowest layers of the atmosphere to the properties of the reflected signal, and extracting some supplemental information to the solution of the inversion of the direct propagation signals. It is found that there is a significant amount of useful information in the reflected signal, which is sufficient to extract a stand-alone profile of the low atmosphere, with a precision of approximately 0.1 %. The methodology is applied to one reflection case.

  10. Why Process-Orientation is Scarce: An Empirical Study of Process-oriented Information Systems in the Automotive Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutschler, B.B.; Bumiller, J.; Reichert, M.U.

    2006-01-01

    Several studies have indicated that existing information systems (IS) often fail to provide adequate business process support. To systematically identify the reasons for this drawback, we conducted a case study in the automotive domain and a survey among 79 IT practitioners. This paper presents the

  11. Prediction model for demands of the health meteorological information using a decision tree method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jina; Kim, Byungsoo

    2010-09-01

    Climate change affects human health and calls for health meteorological services. The purpose of this study is to find the significant predictors for the demands of the health meteorological information. This study used a descriptive design through structured self-report questionnaires. Data from 956 participants who were at least 18 years old and living in Busan, Korea, were collected from June 1 to July 31, 2009. The data was analyzed using a decision tree method, one of the data mining techniques by SAS 9.1 and Enterprise Miner 4.3 program. Two hundred and ninety participants (30.3%) demanded the information, and 505 of them (52.8%) perceived the necessity of health meteorological information. From the decision tree method, the predictors related to the demands of the health meteorological information were determined as "the perception of the necessity of health meteorological information," "the coping to the weather warnings" and "the importance of the weather forecasting in daily life." In Particular, the significant different variables in the perception of the necessity of health meteorological information were "female," "aged over 40" and "environmental diseases." Thus, the model derived in this study is considered for explaining and predicting the demands of health meteorological information. It can be effectively used as a reference model for future studies and is a suggested direction in health meteorological information service and policy development. We suggest health forecasting as a nursing service and a primary health care network for healthier and more comfortable life. Copyright © 2010 Korean Society of Nursing Science. Published by . All rights reserved.

  12. A plan for application system verification tests: The value of improved meteorological information, volume 1. [economic consequences of improved meteorological information

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    The framework within which the Applications Systems Verification Tests (ASVTs) are performed and the economic consequences of improved meteorological information demonstrated is described. This framework considers the impact of improved information on decision processes, the data needs to demonstrate the economic impact of the improved information, the data availability, the methodology for determining and analyzing the collected data and demonstrating the economic impact of the improved information, and the possible methods of data collection. Three ASVTs are considered and program outlines and plans are developed for performing experiments to demonstrate the economic consequences of improved meteorological information. The ASVTs are concerned with the citrus crop in Florida, the cotton crop in Mississippi and a group of diverse crops in Oregon. The program outlines and plans include schedules, manpower estimates and funding requirements.

  13. Academic Librarians in Data Information Literacy Instruction: A Case Study in Meteorology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Emily P.; Pharo, Nils

    2016-01-01

    E-science has reshaped meteorology due to the rate data is generated, collected, analyzed, and stored and brought data skills to a new prominence. Data information literacy--the skills needed to understand, use, manage, share, work with, and produce data--reflects the confluence of data skills with information literacy competencies. This research…

  14. Information Entropy Suggests Stronger Nonlinear Associations between Hydro-Meteorological Variables and ENSO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tue M. Vu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the teleconnections between hydro-meteorological data and the El Niño–Southern Oscillation cycle (ENSO is an important step towards developing flood early warning systems. In this study, the concept of mutual information (MI was applied using marginal and joint information entropy to quantify the linear and non-linear relationship between annual streamflow, extreme precipitation indices over Mekong river basin, and ENSO. We primarily used Pearson correlation as a linear association metric for comparison with mutual information. The analysis was performed at four hydro-meteorological stations located on the mainstream Mekong river basin. It was observed that the nonlinear correlation information is comparatively higher between the large-scale climate index and local hydro-meteorology data in comparison to the traditional linear correlation information. The spatial analysis was carried out using all the grid points in the river basin, which suggests a spatial dependence structure between precipitation extremes and ENSO. Overall, this study suggests that mutual information approach can further detect more meaningful connections between large-scale climate indices and hydro-meteorological variables at different spatio-temporal scales. Application of nonlinear mutual information metric can be an efficient tool to better understand hydro-climatic variables dynamics resulting in improved climate-informed adaptation strategies.

  15. Prediction Model for Demands of the Health Meteorological Information Using a Decision Tree Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jina Oh, RN, PhD

    2010-09-01

    Conclusions: It can be effectively used as a reference model for future studies and is a suggested direction in health meteorological information service and policy development. We suggest health forecasting as a nursing service and a primary health care network for healthier and more comfortable life.

  16. Virtual scarce water in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Kuishuang; Hubacek, Klaus; Pfister, Stephan; Yu, Yang; Sun, Laixiang

    2014-07-15

    Water footprints and virtual water flows have been promoted as important indicators to characterize human-induced water consumption. However, environmental impacts associated with water consumption are largely neglected in these analyses. Incorporating water scarcity into water consumption allows better understanding of what is causing water scarcity and which regions are suffering from it. In this study, we incorporate water scarcity and ecosystem impacts into multiregional input-output analysis to assess virtual water flows and associated impacts among 30 provinces in China. China, in particular its water-scarce regions, are facing a serious water crisis driven by rapid economic growth. Our findings show that inter-regional flows of virtual water reveal additional insights when water scarcity is taken into account. Consumption in highly developed coastal provinces is largely relying on water resources in the water-scarce northern provinces, such as Xinjiang, Hebei, and Inner Mongolia, thus significantly contributing to the water scarcity in these regions. In addition, many highly developed but water scarce regions, such as Shanghai, Beijing, and Tianjin, are already large importers of net virtual water at the expense of water resource depletion in other water scarce provinces. Thus, increasingly importing water-intensive goods from other water-scarce regions may just shift the pressure to other regions, but the overall water problems may still remain. Using the water footprint as a policy tool to alleviate water shortage may only work when water scarcity is taken into account and virtual water flows from water-poor regions are identified.

  17. A pipeline to link meteorological information and TGFs detected by AGILE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursi, A.; Sanò, P.; Casella, D.; Marisaldi, M.; Dietrich, S.; Tavani, M.

    2017-02-01

    Terrestrial gamma ray flashes (TGFs) are brief (approximately hundreds of microseconds) intense gamma ray emissions coming from Earth's atmosphere (˜15 km above sea level), correlated with thunderstorms and atmospheric electric activity. Since their unexpected discovery in the early 1990s by the Burst And Transient Source Experiment/Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, TGFs have been further investigated by several satellites devoted to high-energy astrophysics. The Astrorivelatore Gamma ad Immagini LEggero (AGILE) mission turned out to be particularly suitable to detect these events, due to a very wide energy range (up to 100 MeV), an optimized triggering system, and a unique low-inclination near-equatorial orbit (2.5°). We describe a detection system, developed for the AGILE satellite, whose aim is to provide real-time meteorological information on each detected TGF. We take advantage of data acquired by geostationary satellites to promptly identify the associated storm and follow its evolution in space and time, in order to study its previous onset and development. Data from Low-Earth Orbit meteorological satellites, such as the Global Precipitation Mission, as well as ground measurements from lightning detection networks, can be integrated in the pipeline. This system allows us a prompt characterization of the ground meteorological conditions at TGF time which will provide instrument-independent trigger validation, fill in a database for subsequent statistical analysis, and eventually, on a longer term perspective, serve as a real-time alert service open to the community.

  18. High-resolution urban observation network for user-specific meteorological information service in the Seoul Metropolitan Area, South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Moon-Soo; Park, Sung-Hwa; Chae, Jung-Hoon; Choi, Min-Hyeok; Song, Yunyoung; Kang, Minsoo; Roh, Joon-Woo

    2017-04-01

    To improve our knowledge of urban meteorology, including those processes applicable to high-resolution meteorological models in the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA), the Weather Information Service Engine (WISE) Urban Meteorological Observation System (UMS-Seoul) has been designed and installed. The UMS-Seoul incorporates 14 surface energy balance (EB) systems, 7 surface-based three-dimensional (3-D) meteorological observation systems and applied meteorological (AP) observation systems, and the existing surface-based meteorological observation network. The EB system consists of a radiation balance system, sonic anemometers, infrared CO2/H2O gas analyzers, and many sensors measuring the wind speed and direction, temperature and humidity, precipitation, and air pressure. The EB-produced radiation, meteorological, and turbulence data will be used to quantify the surface EB according to land use and to improve the boundary-layer and surface processes in meteorological models. The 3-D system, composed of a wind lidar, microwave radiometer, aerosol lidar, or ceilometer, produces the cloud height, vertical profiles of backscatter by aerosols, wind speed and direction, temperature, humidity, and liquid water content. It will be used for high-resolution reanalysis data based on observations and for the improvement of the boundary-layer, radiation, and microphysics processes in meteorological models. The AP system includes road weather information, mosquito activity, water quality, and agrometeorological observation instruments. The standardized metadata for networks and stations are documented and renewed periodically to provide a detailed observation environment. The UMS-Seoul data are designed to support real-time acquisition and display and automatically quality check within 10 min from observation. After the quality check, data can be distributed to relevant potential users such as researchers and policy makers. Finally, two case studies demonstrate that the observed data

  19. Archive of Geosample Data and Information from the NOAA Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratories (AOML).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Atlantic Oceanograpic and Meteorological Laboratories (AOML) formerly...

  20. Use of meteorological information in the risk analysis of a mixed wind farm and solar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengelkamp, H.-T.; Bendel, D.

    2010-09-01

    Use of meteorological information in the risk analysis of a mixed wind farm and solar power plant portfolio H.-T. Mengelkamp*,** , D. Bendel** *GKSS Research Center Geesthacht GmbH **anemos Gesellschaft für Umweltmeteorologie mbH The renewable energy industry has rapidly developed during the last two decades and so have the needs for high quality comprehensive meteorological services. It is, however, only recently that international financial institutions bundle wind farms and solar power plants and offer shares in these aggregate portfolios. The monetary value of a mixed wind farm and solar power plant portfolio is determined by legal and technical aspects, the expected annual energy production of each wind farm and solar power plant and the associated uncertainty of the energy yield estimation or the investment risk. Building an aggregate portfolio will reduce the overall uncertainty through diversification in contrast to the single wind farm/solar power plant energy yield uncertainty. This is similar to equity funds based on a variety of companies or products. Meteorological aspects contribute to the diversification in various ways. There is the uncertainty in the estimation of the expected long-term mean energy production of the wind and solar power plants. Different components of uncertainty have to be considered depending on whether the power plant is already in operation or in the planning phase. The uncertainty related to a wind farm in the planning phase comprises the methodology of the wind potential estimation and the uncertainty of the site specific wind turbine power curve as well as the uncertainty of the wind farm effect calculation. The uncertainty related to a solar power plant in the pre-operational phase comprises the uncertainty of the radiation data base and that of the performance curve. The long-term mean annual energy yield of operational wind farms and solar power plants is estimated on the basis of the actual energy production and it

  1. Digital information and communication networks and scientific research substance: An investigation of meteorology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yi

    This study investigated research meteorologists' current usage and evaluation of information and communication technologies (ICT) in performing research tasks and the current relationship between meteorologists' ICT use and content characteristics of their research outputs. It surveyed research meteorologists working in three NOAA funded research institutes based at universities. Follow-up interviews with two selective samples of the survey participants were conducted to provide additional evidence to survey results and make suggestions for future measurement development work. Multiple regression analysis was performed to test the hypothesized relationships between meteorologists' ICT use and two substantive characteristics of their research---data integration and intra-/interdisciplinarity. Descriptive statistics were calculated to discern inferences of the scientists' current state of use and their degree of satisfaction with ICT tools. Follow-up interviews were transcribed and analyzed qualitatively with open coding and axial coding. The study findings contradicted the two assumptions of ICT effects on meteorological research by showing that the greater frequency of networked ICT use is not significantly associated with either greater data integration in research analysis, or greater intra- or interdisciplinary research. The major ICT barrier is the lack of a data and information infrastructure and support system for integrated, standardized, specialized, and easily accessible data and information from distributed servers. Suggestions were provided on the improvements of technical, social, political, and educational settings to promote large-scale date integration and intra-/interdisciplinary research. By moving further from theoretical assumptions to practical examinations, the research findings provide empirical evidence of Bowker's theories on the social shaping and social impact of infrastructure in sciences and affirmed some of Bowker's arguments regarding

  2. Motivational Meteorology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Lee

    1993-01-01

    Describes an introductory meteorology course for nonacademic high school students. The course is made hands-on by the use of an educational software program offered by Accu-Weather. The program contains a meteorology database and instructional modules. (PR)

  3. Impact analysis of traffic-related air pollution based on real-time traffic and basic meteorological information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Long; Yao, Enjian; Yang, Yang

    2016-12-01

    With the rapid development of urbanization and motorization in China, traffic-related air pollution has become a major component of air pollution which constantly jeopardizes public health. This study proposes an integrated framework for estimating the concentration of traffic-related air pollution with real-time traffic and basic meteorological information and also for further evaluating the impact of traffic-related air pollution. First, based on the vehicle emission factor models sensitive to traffic status, traffic emissions are calculated according to the real-time link-based average traffic speed, traffic volume, and vehicular fleet composition. Then, based on differences in meteorological conditions, traffic pollution sources are divided into line sources and point sources, and the corresponding methods to determine the dynamic affecting areas are also proposed. Subsequently, with basic meteorological data, Gaussian dispersion model and puff integration model are applied respectively to estimate the concentration of traffic-related air pollution. Finally, the proposed estimating framework is applied to calculate the distribution of CO concentration in the main area of Beijing, and the population exposure is also calculated to evaluate the impact of traffic-related air pollution on public health. Results show that there is a certain correlation between traffic indicators (i.e., traffic speed and traffic intensity) of the affecting area and traffic-related CO concentration of the target grid, which indicates the methods to determine the affecting areas are reliable. Furthermore, the reliability of the proposed estimating framework is verified by comparing the predicted and the observed ambient CO concentration. In addition, results also show that the traffic-related CO concentration is higher in morning and evening peak hours, and has a heavier impact on public health within the Fourth Ring Road of Beijing due to higher population density and higher CO

  4. Are scarce metals in cars functionally recycled?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Magnus; Ljunggren Söderman, Maria; Sandén, Björn A

    2017-02-01

    Improved recycling of end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) may serve as an important strategy to address resource security risks related to increased global demand for scarce metals. However, in-depth knowledge of the magnitude and fate of such metals entering ELV recycling is lacking. This paper quantifies input of 25 scarce metals to Swedish ELV recycling, and estimates the extent to which they are recycled to material streams where their metal properties are utilised, i.e. are functionally recycled. Methodologically, scarce metals are mapped to main types of applications within newly produced Swedish car models and subsequently, material flow analysis of ELV waste streams is used as basis for identifying pathways of these applications and assessing whether contained metals are functionally recycled. Results indicate that, of the scarce metals, only platinum may be functionally recycled in its main application. Cobalt, gold, manganese, molybdenum, palladium, rhodium and silver may be functionally recycled depending on application and pathways taken. For remaining 17 metals, functional recycling is absent. Consequently, despite high overall ELV recycling rates of materials in general, there is considerable risk of losing ELV scarce metals to carrier metals, construction materials, backfilling materials and landfills. Given differences in the application of metals and identified pathways, prospects for increasing functional recycling are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Estimating regional spatial and temporal variability of PM(2.5) concentrations using satellite data, meteorology, and land use information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Paciorek, Christopher J; Koutrakis, Petros

    2009-06-01

    Studies of chronic health effects due to exposures to particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters meteorologic information to estimate ground-level PM(2.5) concentrations. We developed a two-stage generalized additive model (GAM) for U.S. Environmental Protection Agency PM(2.5) concentrations in a domain centered in Massachusetts. The AOD model represents conditions when AOD retrieval is successful; the non-AOD model represents conditions when AOD is missing in the domain. The AOD model has a higher predicting power judged by adjusted R(2) (0.79) than does the non-AOD model (0.48). The predicted PM(2.5) concentrations by the AOD model are, on average, 0.8-0.9 microg/m(3) higher than the non-AOD model predictions, with a more smooth spatial distribution, higher concentrations in rural areas, and the highest concentrations in areas other than major urban centers. Although AOD is a highly significant predictor of PM(2.5), meteorologic parameters are major contributors to the better performance of the AOD model. GOES aerosol/smoke product (GASP) AOD is able to summarize a set of weather and land use conditions that stratify PM(2.5) concentrations into two different spatial patterns. Even if land use regression models do not include AOD as a predictor variable, two separate models should be fitted to account for different PM(2.5) spatial patterns related to AOD availability.

  6. Improving how meteorological information is used by pastoralists through adequate communication tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Laura Vang; Mertz, Ole; Rasmussen, Kjeld

    2015-01-01

    unreliable with increased climate variability. The phone was used to acquire updated informal information on, for example, the arrival of the rain from friends and family staying in other areas. The findings illuminate how mobile phones have a huge potential to deliver more formal information to pastoralists...

  7. Rhodopsin mutations are scarcely implicated in autosomal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reem Mebed

    2015-04-23

    Apr 23, 2015 ... Rhodopsin mutations are scarcely implicated in autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa: A preliminary study of Egyptian retinitis pigmentosa patients. Reem Mebed a,. *, Yasser B.M. Ali b. , Nahed Solouma c. , Amr Eldib d. ,. Mahmoud Amer e. , Ahmed Osman e,f a National Organization for Research and ...

  8. Estimating spatiotemporal distribution of PM1concentrations in China with satellite remote sensing, meteorology, and land use information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gongbo; Knibbs, Luke D; Zhang, Wenyi; Li, Shanshan; Cao, Wei; Guo, Jianping; Ren, Hongyan; Wang, Boguang; Wang, Hao; Williams, Gail; Hamm, N A S; Guo, Yuming

    2018-02-01

    PM 1 might be more hazardous than PM 2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 1 μm and ≤2.5 μm, respectively). However, studies on PM 1 concentrations and its health effects are limited due to a lack of PM 1 monitoring data. To estimate spatial and temporal variations of PM 1 concentrations in China during 2005-2014 using satellite remote sensing, meteorology, and land use information. Two types of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Collection 6 aerosol optical depth (AOD) data, Dark Target (DT) and Deep Blue (DB), were combined. Generalised additive model (GAM) was developed to link ground-monitored PM 1 data with AOD data and other spatial and temporal predictors (e.g., urban cover, forest cover and calendar month). A 10-fold cross-validation was performed to assess the predictive ability. The results of 10-fold cross-validation showed R 2 and Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) for monthly prediction were 71% and 13.0 μg/m 3 , respectively. For seasonal prediction, the R 2 and RMSE were 77% and 11.4 μg/m 3 , respectively. The predicted annual mean concentration of PM 1 across China was 26.9 μg/m 3 . The PM 1 level was highest in winter while lowest in summer. Generally, the PM 1 levels in entire China did not substantially change during the past decade. Regarding local heavy polluted regions, PM 1 levels increased substantially in the South-Western Hebei and Beijing-Tianjin region. GAM with satellite-retrieved AOD, meteorology, and land use information has high predictive ability to estimate ground-level PM 1 . Ambient PM 1 reached high levels in China during the past decade. The estimated results can be applied to evaluate the health effects of PM 1 . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Meteorological satellite systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Su-Yin

    2014-01-01

    Meteorological Satellite Systems” is a primer on weather satellites and their Earth applications. This book reviews historic developments and recent technological advancements in GEO and polar orbiting meteorological satellites. It explores the evolution of these remote sensing technologies and their capabilities to monitor short- and long-term changes in weather patterns in response to climate change. Satellites developed by various countries, such as U.S. meteorological satellites, EUMETSAT, and Russian, Chinese, Japanese and Indian satellite platforms are reviewed. This book also discusses international efforts to coordinate meteorological remote sensing data collection and sharing. This title provides a ready and quick reference for information about meteorological satellites. It serves as a useful tool for a broad audience that includes students, academics, private consultants, engineers, scientists, and teachers.

  10. A new website with real-time dissemination of information on fire activity and meteorological fire danger in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    DaCamara, Carlos; Trigo, Ricardo; Nunes, Sílvia; Pinto, Miguel; Oliveira, Tiago; Almeida, Rui

    2017-04-01

    In Portugal, like in Mediterranean Europe, fire activity is a natural phenomenon linking climate, humans and vegetation and is therefore conditioned by natural and anthropogenic factors. Natural factors include topography, vegetation cover and prevailing weather conditions whereas anthropogenic factors encompass land management practices and fire prevention policies. Land management practices, in particular the inadequate use of fire, is a crucial anthropogenic factor that accounts for about 90% of fire ignitions. Fire prevention policies require adequate and timely information about wildfire potential assessment, which is usually based on fire danger rating systems that provide indices to be used on an operational and tactical basis in decision support systems. We present a new website designed to provide the user community with relevant real-time information on fire activity and meteorological fire danger that will allow adopting the adequate measures to mitigate fire damage. The fire danger product consists of forecasts of fire danger over Portugal based on a statistical procedure that combines information about fire history derived from the Fire Radiative Power product disseminated by the Land Surface Analysis Satellite Application Facility (LSA SAF) with daily meteorological forecasts provided by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). The aim of the website is fourfold; 1) to concentrate all information available (databases and maps) relevant to fire management in a unique platform so that access by end users becomes easier, faster and friendlier; 2) to supervise the access of users to the different products available; 3) to control and assist the access to the platform and obtain feedbacks from users for further improvements; 4) to outreach the operational community and foster the use of better information that increase efficiency in risk management. The website is sponsored by The Navigator Company, a leading force in the global pulp

  11. 76 FR 54526 - 26th Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 206: Aeronautical Information and Meteorological Data Link

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ...'s comments. Introductions. Approval of previous meeting minutes. Review and approve meeting agenda. Schedule for this week. Action Item Review. Sub Group 1, Work Plan--SG1 Chairmen. Sub Group 2 Work Plan... of MET information on the flight deck (all SG's). OGC Sensor Modeling Language Presentation (SG2 and...

  12. New technology for using meteorological information in forest insect pest forecast and warning systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jiang-Lin; Yang, Xiu-Hao; Yang, Zhong-Wu; Luo, Ji-Tong; Lei, Xiu-Feng

    2017-12-01

    Near surface air temperature and rainfall are major weather factors affecting forest insect dynamics. The recent developments in remote sensing retrieval and geographic information system spatial analysis techniques enable the utilization of weather factors to significantly enhance forest pest forecasting and warning systems. The current study focused on building forest pest digital data structures as a platform of correlation analysis between weather conditions and forest pest dynamics for better pest forecasting and warning systems using the new technologies. The study dataset contained 3 353 425 small polygons with 174 defined attributes covering 95 counties of Guangxi province of China currently registering 292 forest pest species. Field data acquisition and information transfer systems were established with four software licences that provided 15-fold improvement compared to the systems currently used in China. Nine technical specifications were established including codes of forest districts, pest species and host tree species, and standard practices of forest pest monitoring and information management. Attributes can easily be searched using ArcGIS9.3 and/or the free QGIS2.16 software. Small polygons with pest relevant attributes are a new tool of precision farming and detailed forest insect pest management that are technologically advanced. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. AXIOMATICALLY SOUND POVERTY MEASUREMENT WITH SCARCE DATA AND PRICE DISPERSION

    OpenAIRE

    Christophe Muller

    2007-01-01

    We derive a parametric formula of the Watts' poverty index for the bivariate lognormal distribution of price indices and nominal living standards. This enables us to analyze the contributions of price and nominal living standard distributions to poverty, to estimate poverty when only means and variances are known. We also derive a statistical inference framework. Using data from peasants in Rwanda in four quarters, we show that poverty estimates based on scarce information are generally not s...

  14. Meteorology Online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, Jonathan D. W.

    2001-01-01

    Describes an activity to learn about meteorology and weather using the internet. Discusses the National Weather Service (NWS) internet site www.weather.gov. Students examine maximum and minimum daily temperatures, wind speed, and direction. (SAH)

  15. Meteorology (OTTER)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Meteorology data collected on an hourly basis from stations located near the OTTER sites in 1990 and summarized to monthly data--see also: Canopy Chemistry...

  16. Meteorological Summaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multi-year summaries of one or more meteorological elements at a station or in a state. Primarily includes Form 1078, a United States Weather Bureau form designed...

  17. Estimation of Snow Parameters Based on Passive Microwave Remote Sensing and Meteorological Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Leung; Hwang, Jenq-Neng

    1996-01-01

    A method to incorporate passive microwave remote sensing measurements within a spatially distributed snow hydrology model to provide estimates of the spatial distribution of Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) as a function of time is implemented. The passive microwave remote sensing measurements are at 25 km resolution. However, in mountain regions the spatial variability of SWE over a 25 km footprint is large due to topographic influences. On the other hand, the snow hydrology model has built-in topographic information and the capability to estimate SWE at a 1 km resolution. In our work, the snow hydrology SWE estimates are updated and corrected using SSM/I passive microwave remote sensing measurements. The method is applied to the Upper Rio Grande River Basin in the mountains of Colorado. The change in prediction of SWE from hydrology modeling with and without updating is compared with measurements from two SNOTEL sites in and near the basin. The results indicate that the method incorporating the remote sensing measurements into the hydrology model is able to more closely estimate the temporal evolution of the measured values of SWE as a function of time.

  18. Reproducibility in Data-Scarce Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darch, P. T.

    2016-12-01

    Among the usual requirements for reproducibility are large volumes of data and computationally intensive methods. Many fields within earth sciences, however, do not meet these requirements. Data are scarce and data-intensive methods are not well established. How can science be reproducible under these conditions? What changes, both infrastructural and cultural, are needed to advance reproducibility? This paper presents findings from a long-term social scientific case study of an emergent and data scarce field, the deep subseafloor biosphere. This field studies interactions between microbial communities living in the seafloor and the physical environments they inhabit. Factors such as these make reproducibility seem a distant goal for this community: - The relative newness of the field. Serious study began in the late 1990s; - The highly multidisciplinary nature of the field. Researchers come from a range of physical and life science backgrounds; - Data scarcity. Domain researchers produce much of these data in their own onshore laboratories by analyzing cores from international ocean drilling expeditions. Allocation of cores is negotiated between researchers from many fields. These factors interact in multiple ways to inhibit reproducibility: - Incentive structures emphasize producing new data and new knowledge rather than reanalysing extant data; - Only a few steps of laboratory analyses can be reproduced - such as analysis of DNA sequences, but not extraction of DNA from cores -, due to scarcity of cores; - Methodological heterogeneity is a consequence of multidisciplinarity, as researchers bring different techniques from diverse fields. - Few standards for data collection or analysis are available at this early stage of the field; - While datasets from multiple biological and physical phenomena can be integrated into a single workflow, curation tends to be divergent. Each type of dataset may be subject to different disparate policies and contributed to different

  19. Morpheme matching based text tokenization for a scarce resourced language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Zobia; Anwar, Waqas; Bajwa, Usama Ijaz; Xuan, Wang; Chaoying, Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Text tokenization is a fundamental pre-processing step for almost all the information processing applications. This task is nontrivial for the scarce resourced languages such as Urdu, as there is inconsistent use of space between words. In this paper a morpheme matching based approach has been proposed for Urdu text tokenization, along with some other algorithms to solve the additional issues of boundary detection of compound words, affixation, reduplication, names and abbreviations. This study resulted into 97.28% precision, 93.71% recall, and 95.46% F1-measure; while tokenizing a corpus of 57000 words by using a morpheme list with 6400 entries.

  20. Phosphate: are we squandering a scarce commodity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Charles J; Ritz, Eberhard; Townend, Jonathan N

    2015-02-01

    Phosphorus is an essential element for life but is a rare element in the universe. On Earth, it occurs mostly in the form of phosphates that are widespread but predominantly at very low concentration. This relative rarity has resulted in a survival advantage, in evolutionary terms, to organisms that conserve phosphate. When phosphate is made available in excess it becomes a cause for disease, perhaps best recognized as a potential cardiovascular and renal risk factor. As a reaction to the emerging public health issue caused by phosphate additives to food items, there have been calls for a public education programme and regulation to bring about a reduction of phosphate additives to food. During the Paleoproterzoic era, an increase in the bioavailability of phosphate is thought to have contributed significantly to the oxygenation of our atmosphere and a dramatic increase in the evolution of new species. Currently, phosphate is used poorly and often wasted with phosphate fertilizers washing this scarce commodity into water bodies causing eutrophication and algal blooms. Ironically, this is leading to the extinction of hundreds of species. The unchecked exploitation of phosphate rock, which is an increasingly rare natural resource, and our dependence on it for agriculture may lead to a strange situation in which phosphate might become a commodity to be fought over whilst at the same time, health and environmental experts are likely to recommend reductions in its use. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  1. A Meteorological Information Mining-Based Wind Speed Model for Adequacy Assessment of Power Systems With Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Yifei; Gao, Houlei; Wu, Qiuwei

    2017-01-01

    Accurate wind speed simulation is an essential prerequisite to analyze the power systems with wind power. A wind speed model considering meteorological conditions and seasonal variations is proposed in this paper. Firstly, using the path analysis method, the influence weights of meteorological...... in capturing the characteristics of probability distribution, auto-correlation and seasonal variations of wind speed compared with the traditional Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) and autoregressive moving average (ARMA) model. Furthermore, the proposed model was applied to adequacy assessment of generation...... systems with wind power. The assessment results of the modified IEEE-RTS79 and IEEE-RTS96 demonstrated the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed model....

  2. ENEL's (Italian Electricity Board) hydrological/meteorological information network in Alto Piave Basin, Italy. La rete ENEL di rilevamento dei dati idrometeorologici per il bacino dell'alto Piave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomasino, M.; Stojkovic, P.

    1986-09-01

    A performance assessment was made of the Italian Electricity Board's (ENEL) hydrological and meteorological information network which makes use of computerized control and data base management systems for meteorological and basin runoff monitoring and forecasting. Sampling techniques, instrumentation, data acquisition, transmission and storage, as well as, probabilistic estimation techniques are described. The network, proven reliable, monitors twenty-two kilometers of river within a basin of 357 square kilometers.

  3. LANL Meteorology Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewart, Jean Marie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-02-09

    The goal of the Meteorology Program is to provide all routine meteorology measurements for LANL operational requirements. This report discusses the program, its routine operations, and other services.

  4. Exploring deep potential aquifer in water scarce crystalline rocks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Characterization of the shear zone with pole–pole electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) was carried out to explore deep groundwater potential zone in a water scarce granitic area. As existing field conditions does not always allow to plant the remote electrodes at sufficiently far of distance, the effect of insufficient distance ...

  5. Stress modelling and prediction in presence of scarce data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Maxhuni; P. Hernandez-Leal (Pablo); L.E. Sucar (Enrique); V. Osmani (Venet); E.F. Morales (Eduardo); O. Mayora (Oscar)

    2016-01-01

    htmlabstractObjective: Stress at work is a significant occupational health concern. Recent studies have used various sensing modalities to model stress behaviour based on non-obtrusive data obtained from smartphones. However, when the data for a subject is scarce it becomes a challenge to obtain a

  6. ASR corpus design for resource-scarce languages

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Barnard, E

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors investigate the number of speakers and the amount of data that is required for the development of useable speaker-independent speech-recognition systems in resource-scarce languages. Their experiments employ the Lwazi corpus, which...

  7. Exploring deep potential aquifer in water scarce crystalline rocks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Characterization of the shear zone with pole–pole electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) was carried out to explore deep groundwater potential zone in a water scarce granitic area. As existing field condi- tions does not always allow to plant the remote electrodes at sufficiently far of distance, the effect of insufficient distance ...

  8. Correlation Feature Selection and Mutual Information Theory Based Quantitative Research on Meteorological Impact Factors of Module Temperature for Solar Photovoltaic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujing Sun

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The module temperature is the most important parameter influencing the output power of solar photovoltaic (PV systems, aside from solar irradiance. In this paper, we focus on the interdisciplinary research that combines the correlation analysis, mutual information (MI and heat transfer theory, which aims to figure out the correlative relations between different meteorological impact factors (MIFs and PV module temperature from both quality and quantitative aspects. The identification and confirmation of primary MIFs of PV module temperature are investigated as the first step of this research from the perspective of physical meaning and mathematical analysis about electrical performance and thermal characteristic of PV modules based on PV effect and heat transfer theory. Furthermore, the quantitative description of the MIFs influence on PV module temperature is mathematically formulated as several indexes using correlation-based feature selection (CFS and MI theory to explore the specific impact degrees under four different typical weather statuses named general weather classes (GWCs. Case studies for the proposed methods were conducted using actual measurement data of a 500 kW grid-connected solar PV plant in China. The results not only verified the knowledge about the main MIFs of PV module temperatures, more importantly, but also provide the specific ratio of quantitative impact degrees of these three MIFs respectively through CFS and MI based measures under four different GWCs.

  9. Challenges of model transferability to data-scarce regions (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaniego, L. E.

    2013-12-01

    forcing 25x25 km2, FAO soil map 1:5000000) using parameters obtained with high resolution information (REGNIE forcing 1x1 km2, BUEK soil map 1:1000000) in different climatic regions indicate the potential of MPR for prediction in data-scarce regions. In this presentation, we will also discuss how the transferability of global model parameters across scales and locations helps to identify deficiencies in model structure and regionalization functions.

  10. Allocation of scarce resources during mass casualty events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timbie, Justin W; Ringel, Jeanne S; Fox, D Steven; Waxman, Daniel A; Pillemer, Francesca; Carey, Christine; Moore, Melinda; Karir, Veena; Johnson, Tiffani J; Iyer, Neema; Hu, Jianhui; Shanman, Roberta; Larkin, Jody Wozar; Timmer, Martha; Motala, Aneesa; Perry, Tanja R; Newberry, Sydne; Kellermann, Arthur L

    2012-06-01

    This systematic review sought to identify the best available evidence regarding strategies for allocating scarce resources during mass casualty events (MCEs). Specifically, the review addresses the following questions: (1) What strategies are available to policymakers to optimize the allocation of scarce resources during MCEs? (2) What strategies are available to providers to optimize the allocation of scarce resources during MCEs? (3) What are the public's key perceptions and concerns regarding the implementation of strategies to allocate scarce resources during MCEs? (4) What methods are available to engage providers in discussions regarding the development and implementation of strategies to allocate scarce resources during MCEs? We searched Medline, Scopus, Embase, CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature), Global Health, Web of Science®, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from 1990 through 2011. To identify relevant non-peer-reviewed reports, we searched the New York Academy of Medicine's Grey Literature Report. We also reviewed relevant State and Federal plans, peer-reviewed reports and papers by nongovernmental organizations, and consensus statements published by professional societies. We included both English- and foreign-language studies. Our review included studies that evaluated tested strategies in real-world MCEs as well as strategies tested in drills, exercises, or computer simulations, all of which included a comparison group. We reviewed separately studies that lacked a comparison group but nonetheless evaluated promising strategies. We also identified consensus recommendations developed by professional societies or government panels. We reviewed existing State plans to examine the current state of planning for scarce resource allocation during MCEs. Two investigators independently reviewed each article, abstracted data, and assessed study quality. We considered 5,716 reports for this comparative effectiveness

  11. Meteorological Monitoring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hancock, H.A. Jr. [ed.; Parker, M.J.; Addis, R.P.

    1994-09-01

    The purpose of this technical report is to provide a comprehensive, detailed overview of the meteorological monitoring program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. The principle function of the program is to provide current, accurate meteorological data as input for calculating the transport and diffusion of any unplanned release of an atmospheric pollutant. The report is recommended for meteorologists, technicians, or any personnel who require an in-depth understanding of the meteorological monitoring program.

  12. Modelling the impact of climate change on regional hydrological processes in a data-scarce mountainous region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Fang, Gonghuan

    2017-04-01

    Water resources are essential to the ecosystem and social economy worldwide, especially in the desert and oasis of the Tarim River Basin (with an area of 1,102,000 km2), whose headwater originates from the Tienshan and Kunlun Mountains. This basin is characterized by complicated hydrologic processes while scarce meteorological observations. In this study, we analyzed the impact of climate change in Tarim River Basin through an integrated hydrological model SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool). Important hydrologic processes were identified spatially through a multiple objective (global) sensitivity analysis approach, and the model was calibrated through a multiple objective optimization, with long term observed flow data at 32 stations. The calibrated model was then used to analyze the spatial distributed hydrologic response to climate change through future climate forcing obtained by applying BMA (Bayesian Model Averaging) technique to an ensemble of 21-GCM (General Circulation Model) simulations from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. Results indicate: 1) sub-watersheds in the catchment can be divided into several groups: groundwater dominated, snowmelt controlled, surface-water influenced, or combined; 2) the use of large-scale, physically-based hydrological models together with the multi-objective sensitivity analysis and optimization enables consistent and comprehensive examination of the dominant hydrological processes of each headwater of the Tarim River; 3) runoff shows an overall increasing trend in the near future but will decrease at the end of the 21st century. The integrated models provided robust information for the water resources management in the Tarim River Basin and served as a basis for assessment of the impact of climate change on future water availability.

  13. Lectures in Micro Meteorology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Søren Ejling

    This report contains the notes from my lectures on Micro scale meteorology at the Geophysics Department of the Niels Bohr Institute of Copenhagen University. In the period 1993-2012, I was responsible for this course at the University. At the start of the course, I decided that the text books...... available in meteorology at that time did not include enough of the special flavor of micro meteorology that characterized the work of the meteorology group at Risø (presently of the Institute of wind energy of the Danish Technical University). This work was focused on Boundary layer flows and turbulence...

  14. Fire and forest meteorology

    Science.gov (United States)

    SA Ferguson; T.J. Brown; M. Flannigan

    2005-01-01

    The American Meteorological Society symposia series on Fire and Forest Meteorology provides biennial forums for atmospheric and fire scientists to introduce and discuss the latest and most relevant research on weather, climate and fire. This special issue highlights significant work that was presented at the Fifth Symposium in Orlando, Florida during 16-20 November...

  15. METRODOS: Meteorological preprocessor chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, P.; Mikkelsen, T.; Deme, S.

    2001-01-01

    The METRODOS meteorological preprocessor chain combines measured tower data and coarse grid numerical weather prediction (NWP) data with local scale flow models and similarity scaling to give high resolution approximations of the meteorological situation. Based on available wind velocity and dire......The METRODOS meteorological preprocessor chain combines measured tower data and coarse grid numerical weather prediction (NWP) data with local scale flow models and similarity scaling to give high resolution approximations of the meteorological situation. Based on available wind velocity...... - heat flux related measurement, e.g. a temperature gradient, are used to give local values of friction velocity and Monin-Obukhov length plus an estimate of the mixing height. The METRODOS meteorological preprocessor chain is an integral part of the RODOS - Real Time On Line Decision Support - program...

  16. Wind Power Meteorology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtang Petersen, Erik; Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Landberg, Lars

    Wind power meteorology has evolved as an applied science, firmly founded on boundary-layer meteorology, but with strong links to climatology and geography. It concerns itself with three main areas: siting of wind turbines, regional wind resource assessment, and short-term prediction of the wind...... resource. The history, status and perspectives of wind power meteorology are presented, with emphasis on physical considerations and on its practical application. Following a global view of the wind resource, the elements of boundary layer meteorology which are most important for wind energy are reviewed......: wind profiles and shear, turbulence and gust, and extreme winds. The data used in wind power meteorology stem mainly from three sources: onsite wind measurements, the synoptic networks, and the re-analysis projects. Wind climate analysis, wind resource estimation and siting further require a detailed...

  17. Modeling water and heat balance components of large territory for vegetation season using information from polar-orbital and geostationary meteorological satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzylev, Eugene; Startseva, Zoya; Uspensky, Alexander; Volkova, Elena; Kukharsky, Alexander; Uspensky, Sergey

    2015-04-01

    To date, physical-mathematical modeling processes of land surface-atmosphere interaction is considered to be the most appropriate tool for obtaining reliable estimates of water and heat balance components of large territories. The model of these processes (Land Surface Model, LSM) developed for vegetation period is destined for simulating soil water content W, evapotranspiration Ev, vertical latent LE and heat fluxes from land surface as well as vertically distributed soil temperature and moisture, soil surface Tg and foliage Tf temperatures, and land surface skin temperature (LST) Ts. The model is suitable for utilizing remote sensing data on land surface and meteorological conditions. In the study these data have been obtained from measurements by scanning radiometers AVHRR/NOAA, MODIS/EOS Terra and Aqua, SEVIRI/geostationary satellites Meteosat-9, -10 (MSG-2, -3). The heterogeneity of the land surface and meteorological conditions has been taken into account in the model by using soil and vegetation characteristics as parameters and meteorological characteristics as input variables. Values of these characteristics have been determined from ground observations and remote sensing information. So, AVHRR data have been used to build the estimates of effective land surface temperature (LST) Ts.eff and emissivity E, vegetation-air temperature (temperature at the vegetation level) Ta, normalized vegetation index NDVI, vegetation cover fraction B, the leaf area index LAI, and precipitation. From MODIS data the values of LST Tls, Å, NDVI, LAI have been derived. From SEVIRI data there have been retrieved Tls, E, Ta, NDVI, LAI and precipitation. All named retrievals covered the vast territory of the part of the agricultural Central Black Earth Region located in the steppe-forest zone of European Russia. This territory with coordinates 49°30'-54°N, 31°-43°E and a total area of 227,300 km2 has been chosen for investigation. It has been carried out for years 2009

  18. Improving Flood Predictions in Data-Scarce Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimal, Solomon; Zanardo, Stefano; Rafique, Farhat; Hilberts, Arno

    2017-04-01

    Flood modeling methodology at Risk Management Solutions Ltd. has evolved over several years with the development of continental scale flood risk models spanning most of Europe, the United States and Japan. Pluvial (rain fed) and fluvial (river fed) flood maps represent the basis for the assessment of regional flood risk. These maps are derived by solving the 1D energy balance equation for river routing and 2D shallow water equation (SWE) for overland flow. The models are run with high performance computing and GPU based solvers as the time taken for simulation is large in such continental scale modeling. These results are validated with data from authorities and business partners, and have been used in the insurance industry for many years. While this methodology has been proven extremely effective in regions where the quality and availability of data are high, its application is very challenging in other regions where data are scarce. This is generally the case for low and middle income countries, where simpler approaches are needed for flood risk modeling and assessment. In this study we explore new methods to make use of modeling results obtained in data-rich contexts to improve predictive ability in data-scarce contexts. As an example, based on our modeled flood maps in data-rich countries, we identify statistical relationships between flood characteristics and topographic and climatic indicators, and test their generalization across physical domains. Moreover, we apply the Height Above Nearest Drainage (HAND)approach to estimate "probable" saturated areas for different return period flood events as functions of basin characteristics. This work falls into the well-established research field of Predictions in Ungauged Basins.

  19. Wave Meteorology and Soaring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Scott

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph document reviews some mountain wave turbulence and operational hazards while soaring. Maps, photographs, and satellite images of the meteorological phenomena are included. Additionally, photographs of aircraft that sustained mountain wave damage are provided.

  20. US Marine Meteorological Journals

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This series consists of volumes entitled 'Meteorological Journal' (a regulation Navy-issue publication) which were to be completed by masters of merchant vessels...

  1. Climate and meteorology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoitink, D.J.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the significant activities conducted in 1994 to monitor the meteorology and climatology of the site. Meteorological measurements are taken to support Hanford Site emergency preparedness and response, Hanford Site operations, and atmospheric dispersion calculations. Climatological data are collected to help plan weather-dependent activities and are used as a resource to assess the environmental effects of Hanford Site operations.

  2. NEMEFO: NEural MEteorological FOrecast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasero, E.; Moniaci, W.; Meindl, T.; Montuori, A. [Polytechnic of Turin (Italy). Dept. of Electronics

    2004-07-01

    Artificial Neural Systems are a well-known technique used to classify and recognize objects. Introducing the time dimension they can be used to forecast numerical series. NEMEFO is a ''nowcasting'' tool, which uses both statistical and neural systems to forecast meteorological data in a restricted area close to a meteorological weather station in a short time range (3 hours). Ice, fog, rain are typical events which can be anticipated by NEMEFO. (orig.)

  3. Self-Replication of Localized Vegetation Patches in Scarce Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordeu, Ignacio; Clerc, Marcel G.; Couteron, Piere; Lefever, René; Tlidi, Mustapha

    2016-09-01

    Desertification due to climate change and increasing drought periods is a worldwide problem for both ecology and economy. Our ability to understand how vegetation manages to survive and propagate through arid and semiarid ecosystems may be useful in the development of future strategies to prevent desertification, preserve flora—and fauna within—or even make use of scarce resources soils. In this paper, we study a robust phenomena observed in semi-arid ecosystems, by which localized vegetation patches split in a process called self-replication. Localized patches of vegetation are visible in nature at various spatial scales. Even though they have been described in literature, their growth mechanisms remain largely unexplored. Here, we develop an innovative statistical analysis based on real field observations to show that patches may exhibit deformation and splitting. This growth mechanism is opposite to the desertification since it allows to repopulate territories devoid of vegetation. We investigate these aspects by characterizing quantitatively, with a simple mathematical model, a new class of instabilities that lead to the self-replication phenomenon observed.

  4. Sustainable governance of scarce metals: the case of lithium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Timothy; Wäger, Patrick A; Stamp, Anna; Widmer, Rolf; Giurco, Damien

    2013-09-01

    Minerals and metals are finite resources, and recent evidence suggests that for many, primary production is becoming more difficult and more expensive. Yet these resources are fundamentally important for society--they support many critical services like infrastructure, telecommunications and energy generation. A continued reliance on minerals and metals as service providers in modern society requires dedicated and concerted governance in relation to production, use, reuse and recycling. Lithium provides a good example to explore possible sustainable governance strategies. Lithium is a geochemically scarce metal (being found in a wide range of natural systems, but in low concentrations that are difficult to extract), yet recent studies suggest increasing future demand, particularly to supply the lithium in lithium-ion batteries, which are used in a wide variety of modern personal and commercial technologies. This paper explores interventions for sustainable governance and handling of lithium for two different supply and demand contexts: Australia as a net lithium producer and Switzerland as a net lithium consumer. It focuses particularly on possible nation-specific issues for sustainable governance in these two countries' contexts, and links these to the global lithium supply chain and demand scenarios. The article concludes that innovative business models, like 'servicizing' the lithium value chain, would hold sustainable governance advantages for both producer and consumer countries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Interrogating scarcity: how to think about 'resource-scarce settings'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrecker, Ted

    2013-07-01

    The idea of resource scarcity permeates health ethics and health policy analysis in various contexts. However, health ethics inquiry seldom asks-as it should-why some settings are 'resource-scarce' and others not. In this article I describe interrogating scarcity as a strategy for inquiry into questions of resource allocation within a single political jurisdiction and, in particular, as an approach to the issue of global health justice in an interconnected world. I demonstrate its relevance to the situation of low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) with brief descriptions of four elements of contemporary globalization: trade agreements; the worldwide financial marketplace and capital flight; structural adjustment; imperial geopolitics and foreign policy. This demonstration involves not only health care, but also social determinants of health. Finally, I argue that interrogating scarcity provides the basis for a new, critical approach to health policy at the interface of ethics and the social sciences, with specific reference to market fundamentalism as the value system underlying contemporary globalization.

  6. Sustainable governance of scarce metals: The case of lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prior, Timothy, E-mail: tim.prior@sipo.gess.ethz.ch [Center for Security Studies (CSS), ETH Zürich (Switzerland); Institute for Sustainable Futures, University of Technology, Sydney (Australia); Wäger, Patrick A. [Technology and Society Laboratory, Empa - Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, St. Gallen (Switzerland); Stamp, Anna [Technology and Society Laboratory, Empa - Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, St. Gallen (Switzerland); Institute for Environmental Decisions, ETH Zürich (Switzerland); Widmer, Rolf [Technology and Society Laboratory, Empa - Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, St. Gallen (Switzerland); Giurco, Damien [Institute for Sustainable Futures, University of Technology, Sydney (Australia)

    2013-09-01

    Minerals and metals are finite resources, and recent evidence suggests that for many, primary production is becoming more difficult and more expensive. Yet these resources are fundamentally important for society—they support many critical services like infrastructure, telecommunications and energy generation. A continued reliance on minerals and metals as service providers in modern society requires dedicated and concerted governance in relation to production, use, reuse and recycling. Lithium provides a good example to explore possible sustainable governance strategies. Lithium is a geochemically scarce metal (being found in a wide range of natural systems, but in low concentrations that are difficult to extract), yet recent studies suggest increasing future demand, particularly to supply the lithium in lithium-ion batteries, which are used in a wide variety of modern personal and commercial technologies. This paper explores interventions for sustainable governance and handling of lithium for two different supply and demand contexts: Australia as a net lithium producer and Switzerland as a net lithium consumer. It focuses particularly on possible nation-specific issues for sustainable governance in these two countries' contexts, and links these to the global lithium supply chain and demand scenarios. The article concludes that innovative business models, like ‘servicizing’ the lithium value chain, would hold sustainable governance advantages for both producer and consumer countries. - Highlights: • Lithium is a geochemically scare metal, but demand is forecast to increase in future • We explore sustainable lithium governance implications for Australia and Switzerland • One governance mechanism is the ‘servicization’ of the lithium value chain • We explore one actual, and two hypothetical lithium service business models • ‘Servicizing’ a commodity would require fundamental innovations in minerals policy.

  7. Jesuits' Contribution to Meteorology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udías, Agustín

    1996-10-01

    Starting in the middle of the nineteenth century, as part of their scientific tradition, Jesuits founded a considerable number of meteorological observatories throughout the world. In many countries, Jesuits established and maintained the first meteorological stations during the period from 1860 to 1950. The Jesuits' most important contribution to atmospheric science was their pioneer work related to the study and forecast of tropical hurricanes. That research was carried out at observatories of Belén (Cuba), Manila (Philippines), and Zikawei (China). B. Viñes, M. Decheyrens, J. Aigué, and C.E. Deppermann stood out in this movement.

  8. Event-based nonpoint source pollution prediction in a scarce data catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Sun, Cheng; Wang, Guobo; Xie, Hui; Shen, Zhenyao

    2017-09-01

    Quantifying the rainfall-runoff-pollutant (R-R-P) process is key to regulating non-point source (NPS) pollution; however, the impacts of scarce measured data on R-R-P simulations have not yet been reported. In this study, we conducted a comprehensive study of scarce data that addressed both rainfall-runoff and runoff-pollutant processes, whereby the impacts of data scarcity on two commonly used methods, including Unit Hydrograph (UH) and Loads Estimator (LOADEST), were quantified. A case study was performed in a typical small catchment of the Three Gorges Reservoir Region (TGRR) of China. Based on our results, the classification of rainfall patterns should be carried out first when analyzing modeling results. Compared to data based on a missing rate and a missing location, key information generates more impacts on the simulated flow and NPS loads. When the scarcity rate exceeds a certain threshold (20% in this study), measured data scarcity level has clear impacts on the model's accuracy. As the model of total nitrogen (TN) always performs better under different data scarcity conditions, researchers are encouraged to pay more attention to continuous the monitoring of total phosphorus (TP) for better NPS-TP predictions. The results of this study serve as baseline information for hydrologic forecasting and for the further control of NPS pollutants.

  9. A Spatial Lattice Model Applied for Meteorological Visualization and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyue Lu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Meteorological information has obvious spatial-temporal characteristics. Although it is meaningful to employ a geographic information system (GIS to visualize and analyze the meteorological information for better identification and forecasting of meteorological weather so as to reduce the meteorological disaster loss, modeling meteorological information based on a GIS is still difficult because meteorological elements generally have no stable shape or clear boundary. To date, there are still few GIS models that can satisfy the requirements of both meteorological visualization and analysis. In this article, a spatial lattice model based on sampling particles is proposed to support both the representation and analysis of meteorological information. In this model, a spatial sampling particle is regarded as the basic element that contains the meteorological information, and the location where the particle is placed with the time mark. The location information is generally represented using a point. As these points can be extended to a surface in two dimensions and a voxel in three dimensions, if these surfaces and voxels can occupy a certain space, then this space can be represented using these spatial sampling particles with their point locations and meteorological information. In this case, the full meteorological space can then be represented by arranging numerous particles with their point locations in a certain structure and resolution, i.e., the spatial lattice model, and extended at a higher resolution when necessary. For practical use, the meteorological space is logically classified into three types of spaces, namely the projection surface space, curved surface space, and stereoscopic space, and application-oriented spatial lattice models with different organization forms of spatial sampling particles are designed to support the representation, inquiry, and analysis of meteorological information within the three types of surfaces. Cases

  10. Computer Exercises in Meteorology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapasso, L. Michael; Conner, Glen; Stallins, Keith

    Beginning with Western Kentucky University's (Bowling Green) fall 1999 semester, exercises required for the geography and meteorology course used computers for learning. This course enrolls about 250 students per year, most of whom choose it to fulfill a general education requirement. Of the 185 geography majors, it is required for those who…

  11. Surface Meteorology and Solar Energy

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Surface Meteorology and Solar Energy data - over 200 satellite-derived meteorology and solar energy parameters, monthly averaged from 22 years of data, global solar...

  12. Meteorological Support in Scientific Ballooning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwantes, Chris; Mullenax, Robert

    2017-01-01

    The weather affects every portion of a scientific balloon mission, from payload integration to launch, float, and impact and recovery. Forecasting for these missions is very specialized and unique in many aspects. CSBF Meteorology incorporates data from NWSNCEP, as well as several international meteorological organizations, and NCAR. This presentation will detail the tools used and specifics on how CSBF Meteorology produces its forecasts.

  13. The allocation of scarce resources in miscellaneous cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamsvoort, van der C.P.C.M.

    2006-01-01

    Key words: sustainable development, environmental utilization space (EUS),      auctions, conservation contracting, information asymmetry, agricultural land

  14. Background of the Military Aviation Meteorological Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.I. Zshumatiy

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the birth of aviation and its meteorological service in the early twentieth century. The article details the military aviation meteorological services in Italy, France, Germany, Austria, the USA and Russia. Are described the problems, which arose with the takeoff and landings of flight vehicles with complex weather conditions. It is shown that the information about the actual and forthcoming weather is capable of reducing a quantity of failures of flight vehicles, of increasing safety of pilots and accuracy of the defeat of enemy, of planning the application of aviation.

  15. Women in Meteorology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemone, Margaret A.; Waukau, Patricia L.

    1982-11-01

    The names of 927 women who are or have been active in meteorology or closely related fields have been obtained from various sources. Of these women, at least 500 are presently active. An estimated 4-5% of the total number of Ph.D.s in meteorology are awarded to women. About 10% of those receiving B.S. and M.S. degrees are women.The work patterns, accomplishments, and salaries of employed women meteorologists have been summarized from 330 responses to questionnaires, as functions of age, family status, part- or full-time working status, and employing institutions. It was found that women meteorologists holding Ph.D.s are more likely than their male counterparts to be employed by universities. As increasing number of women were employed in operational meteorology, although few of them were married and fewer still responsible for children. Several women were employed by private industry and some had advanced into managerial positions, although at the present time, such positions remain out of the reach of most women.The subjective and objective effects of several gender-related factors have been summarized from the comments and responses to the questionnaires. The primary obstacles to advancement were found to be part-time work and the responsibility for children. Part-time work was found to have a clearly negative effect on salary increase as a function of age. prejudicated discrimination and rules negatively affecting women remain important, especially to the older women, and affirmative action programs are generally seen as beneficial.Surprisingly, in contrast to the experience of women in other fields of science, women Ph.D.s in meteorology earn salaries comparable of their employment in government or large corporations and universities where there are strong affirmative action programs and above-average salaries. Based on the responses to the questionnaire, the small size of the meteorological community is also a factor, enabling women to become recognized

  16. Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory conducts research to understand the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics and processes of the...

  17. Minicomputer Capabilities Related to Meteorological Aspects of Emergency Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rarnsdell, J. V.; Athey, G. F.; Ballinger, M. Y.

    1982-02-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide the NRC staff involved in reviewing licensee emergency response plans with background information on the capabilities of minicomputer systems that are related to the collection and dissemination of meteorological infonmation. The treatment of meteorological information by organizations with existing emergency response capabilities is described, and the capabilities, reliability and availability of minicomputers and minicomputer systems are discussed.

  18. Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command exhibit entrance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    StenniSphere at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., invites visitors to discover why America comes to Stennis Space Center before going into space. Designed to entertain while educating, StenniSphere includes informative displays and exhibits from NASA and other agencies located at Stennis, such as this one from the Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command. Visitors can 'travel' three-dimensionally under the sea and check on the weather back home in the Weather Center.

  19. Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command exhibit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Designed to entertain while educating, StenniSphere at the John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., includes informative displays and exhibits from NASA and other agencies located at Stennis, such as this one from the Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command. Visitors can 'travel' three-dimensionally under the sea and check on the weather back home in the Weather Center. StenniSphere is open free of charge from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. daily.

  20. Geospatial interpolation of reference evapotranspiration (ETo in areas with scarce data: case study in the South of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Jorge Coelho Simões

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The reference evapotranspiration is an important hydrometeorological variable; its measurement is scarce in large portions of the Brazilian territory, what demands the search for alternative methods and techniques for its quantification. In this sense, the present work investigated a method for the spatialization of the reference evapotranspiration using the geostatistical method of kriging, in regions with limited data and hydrometeorological stations. The monthly average reference evapotranspiration was calculated by the Penman-Monteith-FAO equation, based on data from three weather stations located in southern Minas Gerais (Itajubá, Lavras and Poços de Caldas, and subsequently interpolated by ordinary point kriging using the approach "calculate and interpolate." The meteorological data for a fourth station (Três Corações located within the area of interpolation were used to validate the reference evapotranspiration interpolated spatially. Due to the reduced number of stations and the consequent impossibility of carrying variographic analyzes, correlation coefficient (r, index of agreement (d, medium bias error (MBE, root mean square error (RMSE and t-test were used for comparison between the calculated and interpolated reference evapotranspiration for the Três Corações station. The results of this comparison indicated that the spatial kriging procedure, even using a few stations, allows to interpolate satisfactorily the reference evapotranspiration, therefore, it is an important tool for agricultural and hydrological applications in regions with lack of data.

  1. Systematic review of strategies to manage and allocate scarce resources during mass casualty events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timbie, Justin W; Ringel, Jeanne S; Fox, D Steven; Pillemer, Francesca; Waxman, Daniel A; Moore, Melinda; Hansen, Cynthia K; Knebel, Ann R; Ricciardi, Richard; Kellermann, Arthur L

    2013-06-01

    distribution. Second, as a strategy to optimize use of existing resources, commonly used field triage systems do not perform consistently during actual mass casualty events. The number of high-quality studies addressing other strategies was insufficient to support conclusions about their effectiveness because of differences in study context, comparison groups, and outcome measures. Our literature search may have missed key resource management and allocation strategies because of their extreme heterogeneity. Interrater reliability was not assessed for quality assessments or strength of evidence ratings. Publication bias is likely, given the large number of studies reporting positive findings. The current evidence base is inadequate to inform providers and policymakers about the most effective strategies for managing or allocating scarce resources during mass casualty events. Consensus on methodological standards that encompass a range of study designs is needed to guide future research and strengthen the evidence base. Evidentiary standards should be developed to promote consensus interpretations of the evidence supporting individual strategies. Copyright © 2013 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Day-Ahead Wind Power Forecasting Using a Two-Stage Hybrid Modeling Approach Based on SCADA and Meteorological Information, and Evaluating the Impact of Input-Data Dependency on Forecasting Accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dehua Zheng

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The power generated by wind generators is usually associated with uncertainties, due to the intermittency of wind speed and other weather variables. This creates a big challenge for transmission system operators (TSOs and distribution system operators (DSOs in terms of connecting, controlling and managing power networks with high-penetration wind energy. Hence, in these power networks, accurate wind power forecasts are essential for their reliable and efficient operation. They support TSOs and DSOs in enhancing the control and management of the power network. In this paper, a novel two-stage hybrid approach based on the combination of the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT, genetic algorithm (GA and artificial neural network (ANN is proposed for day-ahead wind power forecasting. The approach is composed of two stages. The first stage utilizes numerical weather prediction (NWP meteorological information to predict wind speed at the exact site of the wind farm. The second stage maps actual wind speed vs. power characteristics recorded by SCADA. Then, the wind speed forecast in the first stage for the future day is fed to the second stage to predict the future day’s wind power. Comparative selection of input-data parameter sets for the forecasting model and impact analysis of input-data dependency on forecasting accuracy have also been studied. The proposed approach achieves significant forecasting accuracy improvement compared with three other artificial intelligence-based forecasting approaches and a benchmark model using the smart persistence method.

  3. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites collect visible and infrared cloud imagery as well as monitoring the atmospheric, oceanographic,...

  4. Meteorological Processors and Accessory Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surface and upper air data, provided by NWS, are important inputs for air quality models. Before these data are used in some of the EPA dispersion models, meteorological processors are used to manipulate the data.

  5. Mathematical problems in meteorological modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Csomós, Petra; Faragó, István; Horányi, András; Szépszó, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    This book deals with mathematical problems arising in the context of meteorological modelling. It gathers and presents some of the most interesting and important issues from the interaction of mathematics and meteorology. It is unique in that it features contributions on topics like data assimilation, ensemble prediction, numerical methods, and transport modelling, from both mathematical and meteorological perspectives. The derivation and solution of all kinds of numerical prediction models require the application of results from various mathematical fields. The present volume is divided into three parts, moving from mathematical and numerical problems through air quality modelling, to advanced applications in data assimilation and probabilistic forecasting. The book arose from the workshop “Mathematical Problems in Meteorological Modelling” held in Budapest in May 2014 and organized by the ECMI Special Interest Group on Numerical Weather Prediction. Its main objective is to highlight the beauty of the de...

  6. Trans-African Hydro-Meteorological Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Giesen, N.; Andreini, M.; Selker, J.

    2009-04-01

    Our computing capacity to model hydrological processes is such that we can readily model every hectare of the globe's surface in real time. Satellites provide us with important state observations that allow us to calibrate our models and estimate model errors. Still, ground observations will remain necessary to obtain data that can not readily be observed from space. Hydro-Meteorological data availability is particularly scarce in Africa. This presentation launches a simple idea by which Africa can leapfrog into a new era of closely knit environmental observation networks. The basic idea is the design of a robust measurement station, based on the smart use of new sensors without moving parts. For example, instead of using a Eu 5000 long-wave pyrgeometer, a factory calibrated IR microwave oven sensor is used that costs less than Eu 10. In total, each station should cost Eu 200 or less. Every 30 km, one station will be installed, being equivalent to 20,000 stations for all of sub-Saharan Africa. The roll-out will follow the XO project ("100 computer") and focus on high schools. The stations will be accompanied by an educational package that allows high school children to learn about their environment, measurements, electronics, and mathematical modeling. Total program costs lie around MEu 18.

  7. Proceedings of the USAEC Meteorological Information Meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mawson, C.A. (ed.)

    1967-07-01

    This has been the third of a series of conferences sponsored by the United States Atomic Energy Commission held at National Laboratories. The two previous ones, held at Hanford and Brookhaven, were in 1960 and 1964. An evolutionary trend can be discerned at each meeting. This conference is the first to have been held outside the United States and this time a large number of Canadians participated as well as meteorologists from overseas. Papers describing site programmes have been omitted from these proceedings which consequently are now entirely devoted to original research contributions and the discussion they provoked. (author)

  8. Crisis Team Management in a Scarce Resource Setting: Angkor Hospital for Children in Siem Reap, Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Alynn Henker

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionA crisis team management (CTM simulation course was developed by volunteers from Health Volunteers Overseas for physicians and nurses at Angkor Hospital for Children (AHC in Siem Reap, Cambodia. The framework for the course was adapted from crisis resource management (1, 2, crisis team training (3, and TeamSTEPPs© models (4. The CTM course focused on teaching physicians and nurses on the development of team performance knowledge, skills, and attitudes. Challenges to providing this course at AHC included availability of simulation equipment, cultural differences in learning, and language barriers. The purpose of this project was to evaluate the impact of a CTM simulation course at AHC on attitudes and perceptions of participants on concepts related to team performance.MethodsEach of the CTM courses consisted of three lectures, including team performance concepts, communication, and debriefing followed by rotation through four simulation scenarios. The evaluation instrument used to evaluate the AHC CTM course was developed for Cambodian staff at AHC based on TeamSTEPPs© instruments evaluating attitude and perceptions of team performance (5. CTM team performance concepts included in lectures, debriefing sessions, and the evaluation instrument were: team structure, leadership, situation monitoring, mutual support, and communication. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to analyze pre- and post-test paired data from participants in the course.ResultsOf the 54 participants completing the three CTM courses at AHC, 27 were nurses, 6 were anesthetists, and 21 were physicians. Attitude and perception scores were found to significantly improve (p < 0.05 for team structure, leadership, situation monitoring, and communication. Team performance areas that improved the most were: discussion of team performance, communication, and exchange of information.ConclusionTeaching of non-technical skills can be effective in a setting with scarce

  9. Crisis Team Management in a Scarce Resource Setting: Angkor Hospital for Children in Siem Reap, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henker, Richard Alynn; Henker, Hiroko; Eng, Hor; O'Donnell, John; Jirativanont, Tachawan

    2017-01-01

    A crisis team management (CTM) simulation course was developed by volunteers from Health Volunteers Overseas for physicians and nurses at Angkor Hospital for Children (AHC) in Siem Reap, Cambodia. The framework for the course was adapted from crisis resource management (1, 2), crisis team training (3), and TeamSTEPPs© models (4). The CTM course focused on teaching physicians and nurses on the development of team performance knowledge, skills, and attitudes. Challenges to providing this course at AHC included availability of simulation equipment, cultural differences in learning, and language barriers. The purpose of this project was to evaluate the impact of a CTM simulation course at AHC on attitudes and perceptions of participants on concepts related to team performance. Each of the CTM courses consisted of three lectures, including team performance concepts, communication, and debriefing followed by rotation through four simulation scenarios. The evaluation instrument used to evaluate the AHC CTM course was developed for Cambodian staff at AHC based on TeamSTEPPs© instruments evaluating attitude and perceptions of team performance (5). CTM team performance concepts included in lectures, debriefing sessions, and the evaluation instrument were: team structure, leadership, situation monitoring, mutual support, and communication. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to analyze pre- and post-test paired data from participants in the course. Of the 54 participants completing the three CTM courses at AHC, 27 were nurses, 6 were anesthetists, and 21 were physicians. Attitude and perception scores were found to significantly improve (p communication. Team performance areas that improved the most were: discussion of team performance, communication, and exchange of information. Teaching of non-technical skills can be effective in a setting with scarce resources in a Southeastern Asian country.

  10. A Discretization Algorithm for Meteorological Data and its Parallelization Based on Hadoop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao; Jin, Wen; Yu, Yuting; Qiu, Taorong; Bai, Xiaoming; Zou, Shuilong

    2017-10-01

    In view of the large amount of meteorological observation data, the property is more and the attribute values are continuous values, the correlation between the elements is the need for the application of meteorological data, this paper is devoted to solving the problem of how to better discretize large meteorological data to more effectively dig out the hidden knowledge in meteorological data and research on the improvement of discretization algorithm for large scale data, in order to achieve data in the large meteorological data discretization for the follow-up to better provide knowledge to provide protection, a discretization algorithm based on information entropy and inconsistency of meteorological attributes is proposed and the algorithm is parallelized under Hadoop platform. Finally, the comparison test validates the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm for discretization in the area of meteorological large data.

  11. Glacier changes and climate trends derived from multiple sources in the data scarce Cordillera Vilcanota region, southern Peruvian Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Salzmann

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of glaciers as temporal water reservoirs is particularly pronounced in the (outer tropics because of the very distinct wet/dry seasons. Rapid glacier retreat caused by climatic changes is thus a major concern, and decision makers demand urgently for regional/local glacier evolution trends, ice mass estimates and runoff assessments. However, in remote mountain areas, spatial and temporal data coverage is typically very scarce and this is further complicated by a high spatial and temporal variability in regions with complex topography. Here, we present an approach on how to deal with these constraints. For the Cordillera Vilcanota (southern Peruvian Andes, which is the second largest glacierized cordillera in Peru (after the Cordillera Blanca and also comprises the Quelccaya Ice Cap, we assimilate a comprehensive multi-decadal collection of available glacier and climate data from multiple sources (satellite images, meteorological station data and climate reanalysis, and analyze them for respective changes in glacier area and volume and related trends in air temperature, precipitation and in a more general manner for specific humidity. While we found only marginal glacier changes between 1962 and 1985, there has been a massive ice loss since 1985 (about 30% of area and about 45% of volume. These high numbers corroborate studies from other glacierized cordilleras in Peru. The climate data show overall a moderate increase in air temperature, mostly weak and not significant trends for precipitation sums and probably cannot in full explain the observed substantial ice loss. Therefore, the likely increase of specific humidity in the upper troposphere, where the glaciers are located, is further discussed and we conclude that it played a major role in the observed massive ice loss of the Cordillera Vilcanota over the past decades.

  12. Darwinian transformation of a ‘scarcely nutritious fluid’ into milk

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    HOLT, C; CARVER, J. A

    2012-01-01

    ... evolved ‘from a scarcely nutritious fluid from an accidentally hypertrophied cutaneous gland’. The evolutionary change from a gland secretion to milk involves an increase in calcium and protein concentrations by up to 100‐ and 1000‐fold, respectively...

  13. Spatial data standards meet meteorological data - pushing the boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagemann, Julia; Siemen, Stephan; Lamy-Thepaut, Sylvie

    2017-04-01

    The data archive of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) holds around 120 PB of data and is world's largest archive of meteorological data. This information is of great value for many Earth Science disciplines, but the complexity of the data (up to five dimensions and different time axis domains) and its native data format GRIB, while being an efficient archive format, limits the overall data uptake especially from users outside the MetOcean domain. ECMWF's MARS WebAPI is a very efficient and flexible system for expert users to access and retrieve meteorological data, though challenging for users outside the MetOcean domain. With the help of web-based standards for data access and processing, ECMWF wants to make more than 1 PB of meteorological and climate data easier accessible to users across different Earth Science disciplines. As climate data provider for the H2020 project EarthServer-2, ECMWF explores the feasibility to give on-demand access to it's MARS archive via the OGC standard interface Web Coverage Service (WCS). Despite the potential a WCS for climate and meteorological data offers, the standards-based modelling of meteorological and climate data entails many challenges and reveals the boundaries of the current Web Coverage Service 2.0 standard. Challenges range from valid semantic data models for meteorological data to optimal and efficient data structures for a scalable web service. The presentation reviews the applicability of the current Web Coverage Service 2.0 standard to meteorological and climate data and discusses challenges that are necessary to overcome in order to achieve real interoperability and to ensure the conformant sharing and exchange of meteorological data.

  14. Surface Meteorological Instrumentation for BOBMEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wherever possible, Woods Hole's IMET recommendations for meteorological sensors for applications in the marine environment have been followed to keep our measurements in par with international standards. The sensors were tested during the BOBMEX-Pilot experiment and all sensors worked well. Velocity, humidity ...

  15. `X meteograph and MO.D.A.`: two information systems for processing meteorological data for air quality assessment; X{sub M}eteograph e MO.D.A.: due sistemi informativi per la visualizzazione ed elaborazione interattiva di dati meteorologici e di qualita` dell`aria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caiaffa, Emanuela; Pellegrini, Andrea [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Roma (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1997-03-01

    This paper introduces the Information System named `X{sub M}eteograph`, which enables an interactive processing of meteorological data stored in the `Meteodata` database, which is housed at the `Research Centre Casaccia` of ENEA, on a VAX computer. The `MO.D.A.` Information System is also described; this system allows the user to visualize and to apply some statistical processing to the a.m. meteorological data, and to air quality data. Both systems have been developed in co-operation between AMB/INF and AMB/SAF Sectors of ENEA - Environment Department. Co-operation included software design (concerning MO.D.A.) and sharing of costs. As a result of this activity, we provide the user with software packages easy to use, which enable retrieval, processing and rendering of meteorological data from the Meteodata database and air quality data from external sources; rendering is done in the form of tables, graphs and plotting of contours and symbols on geographical maps.

  16. Spatially shifting temporal points: estimating pooled within-time series variograms for scarce hydrological data

    OpenAIRE

    Bhowmik, A. K.; Cabral, P.

    2015-01-01

    Estimation of pooled within-time series (PTS) variograms is a frequently used technique for geostatistical interpolation of continuous hydrological variables in spatial data-scarce regions conditional that time series are available. The only available method for estimating PTS variograms averages semivariances, which are computed for individual time steps, over each spatial lag within a pooled time series. However, semivariances computed by a few paired comp...

  17. Effects of Scarcely Dressed Models in Advertising on Body Esteem for Belgian Men and Women

    OpenAIRE

    Dens, Nathalie; Pelsmacker, Patrick De; Janssens, Wim

    2009-01-01

    We explore how more revealing displays of models' bodies in advertising impact individuals' body esteem. The first study exposed a snowball sample of 215 Belgian men and women starting from a research department's database to an advertisement containing a male or female model in pajamas or underwear. Scarcely dressed models had a negative effect on individuals' body esteem compared to dressed models, especially for opposite-sex models. The second study replicated the results of the first wit...

  18. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Film

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The United States Air Force Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS) is a polar orbiting meteorological sensor with two...

  19. National Environmental Meteorological Services in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiming Kang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The environmental meteorological services in China are concerned with atmospheric environmental quality, which is directly related to human activities and affects human health. In recent years, air pollution and other environmental problems have attracted nationwide attention in China, so the environmental meteorological services have been developed rapidly. To provide better meteorological monitoring and forecasting services, the Environmental Meteorological Centre of China Meteorological Administration was established in March 2014 by integrating the resources of various national service units. We review the development of China’s national environmental meteorological services and highlight their current status including major technological capabilities. We also explore future trends of the national environmental meteorological services by analysing deficiencies, gaps in supply and demand, and capabilities of the current environmental meteorological services.

  20. Syllabi for Instruction in Agricultural Meteorology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Villiers, G. D. B.; And Others

    A working group of the Commission for Agricultural Meteorology has prepared this report to fill a need for detailed syllabi for instruction in agricultural meteorology required by different levels of personnel. Agrometeorological personnel are classified in three categories: (1) professional meteorological personnel (graduates with basic training…

  1. Technology and Meteorology. An Action Research Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taggart, Raymond F.

    Meteorology, the science of weather and weather conditions, has traditionally been taught via textbook and rote demonstration. This study was intended to determine to what degree utilizing technology in the study of meteorology improves students' attitudes towards science and to measure to what extent technology in meteorology increases…

  2. Journal of Meteorology and Climate Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Journal of Meteorology and Climate Science publishes rigorous theoretical reasoning and advanced empirical research in all areas of Meteorology and Climate Sciences. We welcome articles or proposals from all perspectives and on all subjects pertaining to Meteorology, Agriculture, Humanity, Physics, Geography, ...

  3. Stochastic models for some meteorological outcomes in Niger Delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, stochastic models based on autoregressive integrated moving average models of various orders and its seasonalized versions are presented, with a view to identifying the optimal model for some meteorological outcomes in some cities in Niger Delta region of Nigeria, using Normalized Bayesian Information ...

  4. A Method for Evaluation of Model-Generated Vertical Profiles of Meteorological Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    southern hemisphere . Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. 4 A sea surface temperature product with higher resolution than the... Meteorological Variables by J L Cogan Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. NOTICES Disclaimers The...of Model Generated Vertical Profiles of Meteorological Variables by J L Cogan Computational and Information Sciences Directorate, ARL

  5. Using high resolution GPS tracking data of bird flight for meteorological observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Treep, Jelle|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/380256762; Bohrer, Gil; Shamoun-baranes, Judy; Duriez, Olivier; Prata De Moraes Frasson, Renato; Bouten, Willem

    2016-01-01

    Bird flight is strongly influenced by local meteorological conditions. With increasing amounts of high-frequency GPS data of bird movement becoming available, as tags become cheaper and lighter, opportunities are created to obtain large datasets of quantitative meteorological information from

  6. Meteorological buoy measurements in the Iceland Sea, 2007-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nína Petersen, Guðrún

    2017-10-01

    The Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO) conducted meteorological buoy measurements in the central Iceland Sea in the time period 2007-2009, specifically in the northern Dreki area on the southern segment of the Jan Mayen Ridge. Due to difficulties in deployment and operations, in situ measurements in this region are sparse. Here the buoy, deployment and measurements are described with the aim of giving a future user of the data set information that is as comprehensive as possible. The data set has been quality-checked, suspect data removed and the data set made publicly available from PANGAEA Data Publisher (https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.876206).

  7. A Merging Framework for Rainfall Estimation at High Spatiotemporal Resolution for Distributed Hydrological Modeling in a Data-Scarce Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinping Long

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Merging satellite and rain gauge data by combining accurate quantitative rainfall from stations with spatial continuous information from remote sensing observations provides a practical method of estimating rainfall. However, generating high spatiotemporal rainfall fields for catchment-distributed hydrological modeling is a problem when only a sparse rain gauge network and coarse spatial resolution of satellite data are available. The objective of the study is to present a satellite and rain gauge data-merging framework adapting for coarse resolution and data-sparse designs. In the framework, a statistical spatial downscaling method based on the relationships among precipitation, topographical features, and weather conditions was used to downscale the 0.25° daily rainfall field derived from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM Multisatellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA precipitation product version 7. The nonparametric merging technique of double kernel smoothing, adapting for data-sparse design, was combined with the global optimization method of shuffled complex evolution, to merge the downscaled TRMM and gauged rainfall with minimum cross-validation error. An indicator field representing the presence and absence of rainfall was generated using the indicator kriging technique and applied to the previously merged result to consider the spatial intermittency of daily rainfall. The framework was applied to estimate daily precipitation at a 1 km resolution in the Qinghai Lake Basin, a data-scarce area in the northeast of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. The final estimates not only captured the spatial pattern of daily and annual precipitation with a relatively small estimation error, but also performed very well in stream flow simulation when applied to force the geomorphology-based hydrological model (GBHM. The proposed framework thus appears feasible for rainfall estimation at high spatiotemporal resolution in data-scarce areas.

  8. Principles of scarce medical resource allocation in natural disaster relief: a simulation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hui; Huang, Simin

    2012-01-01

    A variety of triage principles have been proposed. The authors sought to evaluate their effects on how many lives can be saved in a hypothetical disaster. To determine an optimal scarce resource-rationing principle in the emergency response domain, considering the trade-off between lifesaving efficiency and ethical issues. A discrete event simulation model is developed to examine the efficiency of four resource-rationing principles: first come-first served, random, most serious first, and least serious first. Seven combinations of available resources are examined in the simulations to evaluate the performance of the principles under different levels of resource scarcity. The simulation results indicate that the performance of the medical resource allocation principles is related to the level of the resource scarcity. When the level of the scarcity is high, the performances of the four principles differ significantly. The least serious first principle performs best, followed by the random principle; the most serious first principle acts worst. However, when the scarcity is relieved, there are no significant differences among the random, first come-first served, and least serious first principles, yet the most serious first principle still performs worst. Although the least serious first principle exhibits the highest efficiency, it is not ethically flawless. Considering the trade off between the lifesaving efficiency and the ethical issues, random selection is a relatively fair and efficient principle for allocating scarce medical resources in natural disaster responses.

  9. Spatially shifting temporal points: estimating pooled within-time series variograms for scarce hydrological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmik, A. K.; Cabral, P.

    2015-02-01

    Estimation of pooled within-time series (PTS) variograms is a frequently used technique for geostatistical interpolation of continuous hydrological variables in spatial data-scarce regions conditional that time series are available. The only available method for estimating PTS variograms averages semivariances, which are computed for individual time steps, over each spatial lag within a pooled time series. However, semivariances computed by a~few paired comparisons for individual time steps are erratic and hence they may hamper precision of PTS variogram estimation. Here, we outlined an alternative method for estimating PTS variograms by spatializing temporal data points and shifting them. The data were pooled by ensuring consistency of spatial structure and stationarity within a time series, while pooling sufficient number of data points for reliable variogram estimation. The pooled spatial data point sets from different time steps were assigned to different coordinate sets on the same space. Then a semivariance was computed for each spatial lag within a pooled time series by comparing all point pairs separable by that spatial lag, and a PTS variogram was estimated by controlling the lower and upper boundary of spatial lags. Our method showed higher precision than the available method for PTS variogram estimation and was developed by using the freely available R open source software environment. The method will reduce uncertainty for spatial variability modeling while preserving spatiotemporal properties of data for geostatistical interpolation of hydrological variables in spatial data-scarce developing countries.

  10. Expected increase in staple crop imports in water-scarce countries in 2050

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouchane, Hatem; Krol, Maarten; Hoekstra, Arjen

    2017-04-01

    Water scarcity is a major challenge in the coming decades. The increasing population and the changing pattern of water availability that results from global warming reduce the potential of sufficient food production in many countries over the world. Today, two thirds of the global population are already living under conditions of severe water scarcity at least one month of the year. This rises the importance of addressing the present and future relationship between water availability and food import in water-scarce countries. The net import of staple crops (barley, cassava, maize, millet and products, oats, potatoes, rice, rye, sorghum, soybeans, sweet potatoes, wheat and yams) is analysed in relation to water availability per capita for the period 1961-2010, considering five decadal averages. The relation found is used together with the low, medium and high population growth scenarios from the United Nations to project the staple crops import in water-scarce countries for the year 2050. Additionally, we investigate the uncertainties related to the three population scenarios. Results will help countries to better understand the impact of population growth and limited water resources on their future food trade. This study will provide a valuable supporting tool for policy makers towards more sustainable and water-efficient food production as targeted with the Sustainable Development Goals. Keywords: Water Availability, Food Import, Staple Crops, Water Scarcity, Water-Use Efficiency, Sustainable Development Goals.

  11. Effects of integrated watershed management on livestock water productivity in water scarce areas in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descheemaeker, Katrien; Mapedza, Everisto; Amede, Tilahun; Ayalneh, Wagnew

    In the water scarce Lenche Dima watershed in the northern Ethiopian highlands community based integrated watershed management was implemented to fight land degradation, raise agricultural productivity and improve farmers’ livelihoods. The effects of two interventions, namely exclosures and water harvesting structures, were assessed based on data from farmers’ interviews, measurements of feed biomass production, and estimates of energy production and requirements. Water used for livestock feed production was obtained through simple soil water balance modelling. By protecting 40% of the rangelands, the water productivity of the feed increased by about 20%. This indicated that exclosure establishment could lead to similar improvements in livestock water productivity (LWP, defined as the ratio of livestock benefits over the water used in producing these). Water harvesting structures ensured year-round water availability in the homestead, which resulted in less energy used for walking to drinking points. A considerable amount of energy was thus saved, which could be used for livestock production and improved animal health without additional water use. Besides restoring regulating and supporting ecosystem services, both interventions led to a more efficient use of the scarce water resources for biomass and livestock production.

  12. Meteorología y clima

    OpenAIRE

    Alarcón Jordán, Marta; Casas Castillo, M. del Carmen

    1999-01-01

    Este libro constituye una introducción al estudio de la atmósfera en los campos de la meteorología y la climatología. Se ha concebido especialmente como herramienta de apoyo para los estudiantes de ciencias y tecnología que inician los estudios de estos temas. El libro incorpora un programa informático de simulación del cambio climático. En él se exponen las características generales de la atmósfera, su estructura física y la composición química y también se hace una introducción al proble...

  13. Treatment technology for brewery wastewater in a water-scarce country: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adesoji T. Jaiyeola

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Water is a scarce resource in many parts of the world; consequently the application of innovative strategies to treat wastewater for reuse is a priority. The brewery industry is one of the largest industrial users of water, but its effluent is characterised by high levels of organic contaminants which require remediation before reuse. Various conventional treatment methods such as anaerobic and aerobic systems, which are effective options because of their high removal efficiencies, are discussed in this study. Other methods such as membrane based technologies, carbon nanotubes, activated carbon, electrochemical methods, algal ponds and constructed wetlands are also analysed. Their efficiency as well as advantages and disadvantages are highlighted and evaluated. Combinations of various treatment processes to improve the quality of the final effluent are discussed.

  14. Modeling landslide susceptibility in data-scarce environments using optimized data mining and statistical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Hyun; Sameen, Maher Ibrahim; Pradhan, Biswajeet; Park, Hyuck-Jin

    2018-02-01

    This study evaluated the generalizability of five models to select a suitable approach for landslide susceptibility modeling in data-scarce environments. In total, 418 landslide inventories and 18 landslide conditioning factors were analyzed. Multicollinearity and factor optimization were investigated before data modeling, and two experiments were then conducted. In each experiment, five susceptibility maps were produced based on support vector machine (SVM), random forest (RF), weight-of-evidence (WoE), ridge regression (Rid_R), and robust regression (RR) models. The highest accuracy (AUC = 0.85) was achieved with the SVM model when either the full or limited landslide inventories were used. Furthermore, the RF and WoE models were severely affected when less landslide samples were used for training. The other models were affected slightly when the training samples were limited.

  15. Diagnostic accuracy of induced sputum LAM ELISA for tuberculosis diagnosis in sputum-scarce patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, J. G.; Cashmore, T. J.; Meldau, R.; Theron, G.; van Zyl-Smit, R.; Dheda, K.

    2017-01-01

    SUMMARY OBJECTIVE To examine whether a lipoarabinomannan (LAM) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that offers diagnostic utility using urine in patients with tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection can be used in induced sputum to diagnose sputum-scarce patients with suspected TB. DESIGN LAM was measured in induced sputum samples obtained from 61 consecutively recruited sputum-scarce TB suspects in a tertiary hospital respiratory clinic in South Africa. Liquid culture positivity for Mycobacterium tuberculosis was used as the reference standard. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to assess alternative LAM concentration cut-offs. RESULTS A total of 87% (53/61) of study patients had a valid M. tuberculosis culture result; 49% (23/53) were HIV-infected and 17% (9/53) were culture-positive for M. tuberculosis. Induced sputum smear microscopy and LAM ELISA had an overall sensitivity of 56% (95%CI 27–81); however, the specificity of LAM ELISA was 48% (95%CI 34–62), while the positive and negative predictive values were respectively 18% (95%CI 8–36) and 84% (95%CI 65–94). An optimal rule-in cut-off selected by receiver operating characteristic (LAM concentration > 5.73 ng/ml) increased test specificity to 98% and reduced sensitivity to 22%. Normalisation of the assay for sample total protein or cell count did not improve diagnostic accuracy. CONCLUSIONS In this proof-of-concept study, the ELISA was not clinically useful for TB diagnosis using induced sputum. PMID:22710609

  16. Integrated hydrologic and hydrodynamic modeling to assess water exchange in a data-scarce reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Binbin; Wang, Guoqiang; Wang, Zhonggen; Liu, Changming; Ma, Jianming

    2017-12-01

    Integrated hydrologic and hydrodynamic modeling is useful in evaluating hydrodynamic characteristics (e.g. water exchange processes) in data-scarce water bodies, however, most studies lack verification of the hydrologic model. Here, water exchange (represented by water age) was investigated through integrated hydrologic and hydrodynamic modeling of the Hongfeng Reservoir, a poorly gauged reservoir in southwest China. The performance of the hydrologic model and parameter replacement among sub-basins with hydrological similarity was verified by historical data. Results showed that hydrological similarity based on the hierarchical cluster analysis and topographic index probability density distribution was reliable with satisfactory performance of parameter replacement. The hydrodynamic model was verified using daily water levels and water temperatures from 2009 and 2010. The water exchange processes in the Hongfeng Reservoir are very complex with temporal, vertical, and spatial variations. The temporal water age was primarily controlled by the variable inflow and outflow, and the maximum and minimum ages for the site near the dam were 406.10 d (15th June) and 90.74 d (3rd August), respectively, in 2010. Distinct vertical differences in water age showed that surface flow, interflow, and underflow appeared alternately, depending on the season and water depth. The worst water exchange situation was found in the central areas of the North Lake with the highest water ages in the bottom on both 15th June and 3rd August, in 2010. Comparison of the spatial water ages revealed that the more favorable hydraulic conditions on 3rd August mainly improved the water exchange in the dam areas and most areas of the South Lake, but had little effect on the bottom layers of the other deepest areas in the South and North Lakes. The presented framework can be applied in other data-scarce waterbodies worldwide to provide better understanding of water exchange processes.

  17. One and done? Equality of opportunity and repeated access to scarce, indivisible medical resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huesch Marco D

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Existing ethical guidelines recommend that, all else equal, past receipt of a medical resource (e.g. a scarce organ should not be considered in current allocation decisions (e.g. a repeat transplantation. Discussion One stated reason for this ethical consensus is that formal theories of ethics and justice do not persuasively accept or reject repeated access to the same medical resources. Another is that restricting attention to past receipt of a particular medical resource seems arbitrary: why couldn’t one just as well, it is argued, consider receipt of other goods such as income or education? In consequence, simple allocation by lottery or first-come-first-served without consideration of any past receipt is thought to best afford equal opportunity, conditional on equal medical need. There are three issues with this view that need to be addressed. First, public views and patient preferences are less ambiguous than formal theories of ethics. Empirical work shows strong preferences for fairness in health care that have not been taken into account: repeated access to resources has been perceived as unfair. Second, while difficult to consider receipt of many other prior resources including non-medical resources, this should not be used a motive for ignoring the receipt of any and all goods including the focal resource in question. Third, when all claimants to a scarce resource are equally deserving, then use of random allocation seems warranted. However, the converse is not true: mere use of a randomizer does not by itself make the merits of all claimants equal. Summary My conclusion is that not ignoring prior receipt of the same medical resource, and prioritizing those who have not previously had access to the medical resource in question, may be perceived as fairer and more equitable by society.

  18. ECOCLIMAP-II/Europe: a twofold database of ecosystems and surface parameters at 1 km resolution based on satellite information for use in land surface, meteorological and climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faroux, S.; Kaptué Tchuenté, A. T.; Roujean, J.-L.; Masson, V.; Martin, E.; Le Moigne, P.

    2013-04-01

    The overall objective of the present study is to introduce the new ECOCLIMAP-II database for Europe, which is an upgrade for this region of the former initiative, ECOCLIMAP-I, already implemented at global scale. The ECOCLIMAP programme is a dual database at 1 km resolution that includes an ecosystem classification and a coherent set of land surface parameters that are primarily mandatory in meteorological modelling (notably leaf area index and albedo). Hence, the aim of this innovative physiography is to enhance the quality of initialisation and impose some surface attributes within the scope of weather forecasting and climate related studies. The strategy for implementing ECOCLIMAP-II is to depart from prevalent land cover products such as CLC2000 (Corine Land Cover) and GLC2000 (Global Land Cover) by splitting existing classes into new classes that possess a better regional character by virtue of the climatic environment (latitude, proximity to the sea, topography). The leaf area index (LAI) from MODIS and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) from SPOT/Vegetation (a global monitoring system of vegetation) yield the two proxy variables that were considered here in order to perform a multi-year trimmed analysis between 1999 and 2005 using the K-means method. Further, meteorological applications require each land cover type to appear as a partition of fractions of 4 main surface types or tiles (nature, water bodies, sea, urban areas) and, inside the nature tile, fractions of 12 plant functional types (PFTs) representing generic vegetation types - principally broadleaf forest, needleleaf forest, C3 and C4 crops, grassland and bare land - as incorporated by the SVAT model ISBA (Interactions Surface Biosphere Atmosphere) developed at Météo France. This landscape division also forms the cornerstone of a validation exercise. The new ECOCLIMAP-II can be verified with auxiliary land cover products at very fine and coarse resolutions by means of versatile land

  19. ECOCLIMAP-II/Europe: a twofold database of ecosystems and surface parameters at 1 km resolution based on satellite information for use in land surface, meteorological and climate models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Faroux

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The overall objective of the present study is to introduce the new ECOCLIMAP-II database for Europe, which is an upgrade for this region of the former initiative, ECOCLIMAP-I, already implemented at global scale. The ECOCLIMAP programme is a dual database at 1 km resolution that includes an ecosystem classification and a coherent set of land surface parameters that are primarily mandatory in meteorological modelling (notably leaf area index and albedo. Hence, the aim of this innovative physiography is to enhance the quality of initialisation and impose some surface attributes within the scope of weather forecasting and climate related studies. The strategy for implementing ECOCLIMAP-II is to depart from prevalent land cover products such as CLC2000 (Corine Land Cover and GLC2000 (Global Land Cover by splitting existing classes into new classes that possess a better regional character by virtue of the climatic environment (latitude, proximity to the sea, topography. The leaf area index (LAI from MODIS and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI from SPOT/Vegetation (a global monitoring system of vegetation yield the two proxy variables that were considered here in order to perform a multi-year trimmed analysis between 1999 and 2005 using the K-means method. Further, meteorological applications require each land cover type to appear as a partition of fractions of 4 main surface types or tiles (nature, water bodies, sea, urban areas and, inside the nature tile, fractions of 12 plant functional types (PFTs representing generic vegetation types – principally broadleaf forest, needleleaf forest, C3 and C4 crops, grassland and bare land – as incorporated by the SVAT model ISBA (Interactions Surface Biosphere Atmosphere developed at Météo France. This landscape division also forms the cornerstone of a validation exercise. The new ECOCLIMAP-II can be verified with auxiliary land cover products at very fine and coarse resolutions by means of

  20. WDC-A Meteorological and Oceanographic Data from Chernobyl for 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — WDCA Chernobyl Data consists of digital data set DSI-9681, archived at the National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI). World Data Center for Meteorology...

  1. Multifractal Conceptualisation of Hydro-Meteorological Extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchiguirinskaia, I.; Schertzer, D.; Lovejoy, S.

    2009-04-01

    Hydrology and more generally sciences involved in water resources management, technological or operational developments face a fundamental difficulty: the extreme variability of hydro-meteorological fields. It clearly appears today that this variability is a function of the observation scale and yield hydro-meteorological hazards. Throughout the world, the development of multifractal theory offers new techniques for handling such non-classical variability over wide ranges of time and space scales. The resulting stochastic simulations with a very limited number of parameters well reproduce the long range dependencies and the clustering of rainfall extremes often yielding fat tailed (i.e., an algebraic type) probability distributions. The goal of this work was to investigate the ability of using very short or incomplete data records for reliable statistical predictions of the extremes. In particular we discuss how to evaluate the uncertainty in the empirical or semi-analytical multifractal outcomes. We consider three main aspects of the evaluation, such as the scaling adequacy, the multifractal parameter estimation error and the quantile estimation error. We first use the multiplicative cascade model to generate long series of multifractal data. The simulated samples had to cover the range of the universal multifractal parameters widely available in the scientific literature for the rainfall and river discharges. Using these long multifractal series and their sub-samples, we defined a metric for parameter estimation error. Then using the sets of estimated parameters, we obtained the quantile values for a range of excedance probabilities from 5% to 0.01%. Plotting the error bars on a quantile plot enable an approximation of confidence intervals that would be particularly important for the predictions of multifractal extremes. We finally illustrate the efficiency of such concept on its application to a large database (more than 16000 selected stations over USA and

  2. 38 CFR 17.142 - Authority to approve sharing agreements, contracts for scarce medical specialist services and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... MEDICAL Delegations of Authority § 17.142 Authority to approve sharing agreements, contracts for scarce...) Contracts with schools and colleges of medicine, osteopathy, dentistry, podiatry, optometry, and nursing...

  3. Using routine meteorological data to derive sky conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Pagès

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Sky condition is a matter of interest for public and weather predictors as part of weather analyses. In this study, we apply a method that uses total solar radiation and other meteorological data recorded by an automatic station for deriving an estimation of the sky condition. The impetus of this work is the intention of the Catalan Meteorological Service (SMC to provide the public with real-time information about the sky condition. The methodology for deriving sky conditions from meteorological records is based on a supervised classification technique called maximum likelihood method. In this technique we first need to define features which are derived from measured variables. Second, we must decide which sky conditions are intended to be distinguished. Some analyses have led us to use four sky conditions: (a cloudless or almost cloudless sky, (b scattered clouds, (c mostly cloudy – high clouds, (d overcast – low clouds. An additional case, which may be treated separately, corresponds to precipitation (rain or snow. The main features for estimating sky conditions are, as expected, solar radiation and its temporal variability. The accuracy of this method of guessing sky conditions compared with human observations is around 70% when applied to four sites in Catalonia (NE Iberian Peninsula. The agreement increases if we take into account the uncertainty both in the automatic classifier and in visual observations.Key words. Meteorological and atmospheric dynamics (instruments and techniques; radiative processes – Atmospheric composition and structure (cloud physics and chemistry

  4. Impacts of meteorological and environmental factors on allergic rhinitis in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shan; Mou, Zhe; Peng, Li; Chen, Jie

    2017-05-01

    Meteorological and environmental factors influence the pathogenesis of allergic rhinitis (AR). An understanding of the risk factors will facilitate the development of diagnostic and preventative tools for AR children and improve their quality of life. However, research on the impact of these factors on subjective symptoms in AR children remains scarce. This study explored the relationships between subjective symptoms in pollen and dust mite positive AR children, and meteorological and environmental factors. Using a linear mixed effect model, we analyzed the correlations between monthly data on the subjective symptoms of 351 AR children (from the Shanghai Children's Medical Center) and meteorological and environmental factors during 2013. The monthly meteorological and environmental data were provided by the Shanghai Meteorological Service and Shanghai Environmental Protection Bureau. Temperature and humidity were negatively correlated with the subjective symptom score, with a 0.04 point increase observed for every 1 °C decrease in temperature ( P < 0.0001) or 10 % decline in humidity ( P = 0.0412). The particulate matter (PM) 10 and PM2.5 concentrations were positively correlated with the subjective symptom score, with a 10 μg/m3 increase in PM10 and PM2.5 yielding a 0.02 ( P = 0.0235) and 0.03 ( P = 0.0281) increase in the subjective symptom score, respectively. In conclusion, meteorological and environmental factors were correlated with subjective symptoms in AR children. Low temperatures, lower humidity, and high PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations aggravated subjective symptoms in AR children.

  5. Overview of meteorological measurements for aerial spray modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafferty, J E; Biltoft, C A; Bowers, J F

    1996-06-01

    The routine meteorological observations made by the National Weather Service have a spatial resolution on the order of 1,000 km, whereas the resolution needed to conduct or model aerial spray applications is on the order of 1-10 km. Routinely available observations also do not include the detailed information on the turbulence and thermal structure of the boundary layer that is needed to predict the transport, dispersion, and deposition of aerial spray releases. This paper provides an overview of the information needed to develop the meteorological inputs for an aerial spray model such as the FSCBG and discusses the different types of instruments that are available to make the necessary measurements.

  6. The Experience Of The Meteorological Support By The National Institute Of Meteorology During The XV Pan-american Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabra, M.; Gonçalves, P.; Braga, A.; Raposo, R.; Ito, E.; Gadelha, A.; Dallantonia, A.

    2008-05-01

    The XV Pan-American Games were organized in Rio de Janeiro city during 13 to 29 July, 2007 with a participation of 5.662 athletes of 42 countries . The Ministry of Sports requested INMET to provide meteorological support to the games, with the exception of the water sports only, which fell under the responsibility of the Brazilian Navy. The meteorological activities should follow the same pattern experienced during the Olympic Games of Sydney in Australia in the year of 2000, and of Athens in Greece in 2004, with a forecast center entirely dedicated to the event. NMET developed a website with detailed information oriented to the athletes and organizing committee and to the general public. The homepage had 3 different option of idioms (Portuguese, English and Spanish). After choosing the idiom, the user could consult the meteorological data, to each competition place, and to the Pan- American Village, every 15 minutes, containing weather forecast bulletin, daily synoptic analysis, the last 10 satellite image and meteograms. Besides observed data verified "in situ" INMET supplied forecast generated by High Resolution Model (MBAR) with 7km grid resolution especially set up for the games. INMET installed 7 automatic meteorological stations near the competition places, which supplied temperature , relative humidity , atmospheric pressure, wind (direction and intensity), radiation and precipitation every 15 minutes. Those information were relayed by satellite to INMET headquarters located in Brasília and soon after they were published in the website. To help the Brazilian Olympic Committee - COB, the athletes, their technical commission and the public in general, meteorological bulletins were emitted daily. The forecast was done together with the Navy and also with INMET's 6th District located in Rio de Janeiro, and responsible for the forecast statewide. This forecast was then placed at the INMET's website. Both the 3 days weather forecast and Meteorological Alert were

  7. An efficient and sensitive method for preparing cDNA libraries from scarce biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Catherine H; Veksler-Lublinsky, Isana; Ambros, Victor

    2015-01-01

    The preparation and high-throughput sequencing of cDNA libraries from samples of small RNA is a powerful tool to quantify known small RNAs (such as microRNAs) and to discover novel RNA species. Interest in identifying the small RNA repertoire present in tissues and in biofluids has grown substantially with the findings that small RNAs can serve as indicators of biological conditions and disease states. Here we describe a novel and straightforward method to clone cDNA libraries from small quantities of input RNA. This method permits the generation of cDNA libraries from sub-picogram quantities of RNA robustly, efficiently and reproducibly. We demonstrate that the method provides a significant improvement in sensitivity compared to previous cloning methods while maintaining reproducible identification of diverse small RNA species. This method should have widespread applications in a variety of contexts, including biomarker discovery from scarce samples of human tissue or body fluids. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  8. Rationalization of Altitudinal Precipitation Profiles in a Data-Scarce Glacierized Watershed Simulation in the Karakoram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolei Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to the scarcity of field observations and geodetic measurements in catchments in the Karakoram Mountains in Western China, obtaining precipitation data for the high mountains involves large uncertainties and difficulties. In this study, we used a functional relationship between the annual glacier accumulation and summer temperature at the equilibrium line altitude (ELA to derive precipitation lapse rates (PLAPSs in a data-scarce watershed. These data were used in a modified Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT model with a glacier module to simulate glacio-hydrological processes in the Yarkant River basin in the Karakoram. The PLAPS based on the widely-used grid datasets considerably underestimated precipitation, yielding an unreasonable watershed water balance and inaccurate glacier changes. However, the ELA-based PLAPS improved the simulation significantly. In the Yarkant River basin, the annual precipitation reached a peak of 800–1000 mm at approximately 5300 m a.s.l. The model simulations indicated that the contributions of glacier melt and ice melt to total runoff were 52% and 31%, respectively. Moreover, a significant precipitation increase and a non-significant temperature increase during the melt season may be the major reasons for the decreased ice melt and slower glacier shrinkage on the northern slope of the Karakoram during the period of 1968–2007.

  9. Forest fire occurrence increases the distribution of a scarce forest type in the Mediterranean Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnan, Xavier; Quevedo, Lídia; Rodrigo, Anselm

    2013-01-01

    Here we report how fire recurrence increases the distribution of a scarce forest type in NE Spain that is dominated by the resprouter tree species Arbutus unedo. We used a combination of GIS and field surveys to determine the effect of fire and pre-fire vegetation on the appearance of A. unedo forests. In the field, we also analyzed the factors that promote fire and lead to the appearance of A. unedo forests. Our results reveal an increased occurrence of A. unedo forests in NE Spain in recent years; this phenomenon was strongly related to fire recurrence and the vegetation type present prior to fire. Most Pinus halepensis forests that burned more than once gave rise to A. unedo forests. Our results indicate that these conversions were related to a reduction in pine density coupled with increases in the density and size of A. unedo trees due to recurrent fires. Given that fires are increasing in number and magnitude in the Mediterranean, we predict a major change in landscape structure and composition at the regional scale.

  10. Molecular Paleoparasitological Hybridization Approach as Effective Tool for Diagnosing Human Intestinal Parasites from Scarce Archaeological Remains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Lauren Hubert; Iñiguez, Alena Mayo

    2014-01-01

    Paleoparasitology is the science that uses parasitological techniques for diagnosing parasitic diseases in the past. Advances in molecular biology brought new insights into this field allowing the study of archaeological material. However, due to technical limitations a proper diagnosis and confirmation of the presence of parasites is not always possible, especially in scarce and degraded archaeological remains. In this study, we developed a Molecular Paleoparasitological Hybridization (MPH) approach using ancient DNA (aDNA) hybridization to confirm and complement paleoparasitological diagnosis. Eight molecular targets from four helminth parasites were included: Ascaris sp., Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis, and Strongyloides stercoralis. The MPH analysis using 18th century human remains from Praça XV cemetery (CPXV), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, revealed for the first time the presence E. vermicularis aDNA (50%) in archaeological sites of Brazil. Besides, the results confirmed T. trichiura and Ascaris sp. infections. The prevalence of infection by Ascaris sp. and E. vermicularis increased considerably when MPH was applied. However, a lower aDNA detection of T. trichiura (40%) was observed when compared to the diagnosis by paleoparasitological analysis (70%). Therefore, based on these data, we suggest a combination of Paleoparasitological and MPH approaches to verify the real panorama of intestinal parasite infection in human archeological samples. PMID:25162694

  11. Material flow analysis of scarce metals: sources, functions, end-uses and aspects for future supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiró, Laura Talens; Méndez, Gara Villalba; Ayres, Robert U

    2013-03-19

    A number of metals that are now important to the electronic industry (and others) will become much more important in the future if current trends in technology continue. Most of these metals are byproducts (or hitch-hikers) of a small number of important industrial metals (attractors). By definition, the metals in the hitch-hiker group are not mined by themselves, and thus their production is limited by the demand for the major attractors. This article presents a material flow analysis (MFA) of the complex inter-relationships between these groups of metals. First, it surveys the main sources of geologically scarce (byproduct) metals currently considered critical by one or other of several recent studies. This is followed by a detailed survey of their major functions and the quantities contained in intermediate and end-products. The purpose is to identify the sectors and products where those metals are used and stocked and thus potentially available for future recycling. It concludes with a discussion of the limitations of possible substitution and barriers to recycling.

  12. The H,G_1,G_2 photometric system with scarce observational data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penttilä, A.; Granvik, M.; Muinonen, K.; Wilkman, O.

    2014-07-01

    The H,G_1,G_2 photometric system was officially adopted at the IAU General Assembly in Beijing, 2012. The system replaced the H,G system from 1985. The 'photometric system' is a parametrized model V(α; params) for the magnitude-phase relation of small Solar System bodies, and the main purpose is to predict the magnitude at backscattering, H := V(0°), i.e., the (absolute) magnitude of the object. The original H,G system was designed using the best available data in 1985, but since then new observations have been made showing certain features, especially near backscattering, to which the H,G function has troubles adjusting to. The H,G_1,G_2 system was developed especially to address these issues [1]. With a sufficient number of high-accuracy observations and with a wide phase-angle coverage, the H,G_1,G_2 system performs well. However, with scarce low-accuracy data the system has troubles producing a reliable fit, as would any other three-parameter nonlinear function. Therefore, simultaneously with the H,G_1,G_2 system, a two-parameter version of the model, the H,G_{12} system, was introduced [1]. The two-parameter version ties the parameters G_1,G_2 into a single parameter G_{12} by a linear relation, and still uses the H,G_1,G_2 system in the background. This version dramatically improves the possibility to receive a reliable phase-curve fit to scarce data. The amount of observed small bodies is increasing all the time, and so is the need to produce estimates for the absolute magnitude/diameter/albedo and other size/composition related parameters. The lack of small-phase-angle observations is especially topical for near-Earth objects (NEOs). With these, even the two- parameter version faces problems. The previous procedure with the H,G system in such circumstances has been that the G-parameter has been fixed to some constant value, thus only fitting a single-parameter function. In conclusion, there is a definitive need for a reliable procedure to produce

  13. Geomorphic classifiers for flood-prone areas delineation for data-scarce environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samela, Caterina; Troy, Tara J.; Manfreda, Salvatore

    2017-04-01

    Knowing the location and the extent of the areas exposed to flood hazards is essential to any strategy for minimizing the risk. Unfortunately, in ungauged basins the use of traditional floodplain mapping techniques is prevented by the lack of the extensive data required. The present work aims to overcome this limitation by defining an alternative simplified procedure for a preliminary floodplain delineation based on the use of geomorphic classifiers. To validate the method in a data-rich environment, eleven flood-related morphological descriptors derived from remotely sensed elevation data have been used as linear binary classifiers over the Ohio River basin and its sub-catchments. Their performances have been measured at the change of the topography and the size of the calibration area, allowing to explore the transferability of the calibrated parameters, and to define the minimum extent of the calibration area. The best performing classifiers among those analysed have been applied and validated across the continental U.S. The results suggest that the classifier based on the Geomorphic Flood Index (GFI), is the most suitable to detect the flood-prone areas in data-scarce regions and for large-scale applications, providing good accuracies with low requirements in terms of data and computational costs. This index is defined as the logarithm of the ratio between the water depth in the element of the river network closest to the point under exam (estimated using a hydraulic scaling function based on contributing area) and the elevation difference between these two points.

  14. Modelling groundwater over-extraction in the southern Jordan Valley with scarce data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaro, Paulina; Liesch, Tanja; Goldscheider, Nico

    2017-08-01

    To deal with the challenge of groundwater over-extraction in arid and semi-arid environments, it is necessary to establish management strategies based on the knowledge of hydrogeological conditions, which can be difficult in places where hydrogeological data are dispersed, scarce or present potential misinformation. Groundwater levels in the southern Jordan Valley (Jordan) have decreased drastically in the last three decades, caused by over-extraction of groundwater for irrigation purposes. This study presents a local, two-dimensional and transient numerical groundwater model, using MODFLOW, to characterise the groundwater system and the water balance in the southern Jordan Valley. Furthermore, scenarios are simulated regarding hydrological conditions and management options, like extension of arable land and closure of illegal wells, influencing the projection of groundwater extraction. A limited dataset, literature values, field surveys, and the `crop water-requirement method' are combined to determine boundary conditions, aquifer parameters, and sources and sinks. The model results show good agreement between predicted and observed values; groundwater-level contours agree with the conceptual model and expected flow direction, and, in terms of water balance, flow volumes are in accordance with literature values. Average annual water consumption for irrigation is estimated to be 29 million m3 and simulation results show that a reduction of groundwater pumping by 40% could recover groundwater heads, reducing the water taken from storage. This study presents an example of how to develop a local numerical groundwater model to support management strategies under the condition of data scarcity.

  15. Do Scarce Precious Metals Equate to Safe Harbor Investments? The Case of Platinum and Palladium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Francis T. Diaz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This research establishes the predictability and safe harbor properties of two scarce precious metals, namely, platinum and palladium. Utilizing their spot prices, the study concludes intermediate memory in the return structures of both precious metals, which implies the instability of platinum and palladium returns’ persistency in the long run. However, both the ARFIMA-FIGARCH and the ARFIMA-FIAPARCH models confirm long-memory properties in the volatility of the two spot prices. The leverage effects phenomenon is not also present based on the ARFIMA-APARCH and ARFIMA-FIAPARCH models, which may possibly conclude the resilience of both precious metals against increased volatility. However, further tests proved that only platinum has a symmetric volatility response to shocks with the presence of negative gamma parameter, which proves that only platinum can be considered a safe harbor investment, because negative and positive shocks have equal effects on their returns and volatilities. Comparing the four models utilized in this study, the combined ARFIMA-FIAPARCH models are the best fitting model to characterize both precious metals’ spot prices.

  16. Phantosmia as a meteorological forecaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello, S. R.; Hirsch, A. R.

    2013-09-01

    In normosmics, olfactory ability has been found to vary with ambient humidity, barometric pressure, and season. While hallucinated sensations of phantom pain associated with changes in weather have been described, a linkage to chemosensory hallucinations has heretofore not been reported. A 64-year-old white male with Parkinson's disease presents with 5 years of phantosmia of a smoky burnt wood which changed to onion-gas and then to a noxious skunk-onion excrement odor. Absent upon waking it increases over the day and persists for hours. When severe, there appears a phantom taste with the same qualities as the odor. It is exacerbated by factors that manipulate intranasal pressure, such as coughing. When eating or sniffing, the actual flavors replace the phantosmia. Since onset, he noted the intensity and frequency of the phantosmia forecasted the weather. Two to 3 h before a storm, the phantosmia intensifies from a level 0 to a 7-10, which persists through the entire thunderstorm. Twenty years prior, he reported the ability to forecast the weather, based on pain in a torn meniscus, which vanished after surgical repair. Extensive olfactory testing demonstrates underlying hyposmia. Possible mechanisms for such chemosensory-meteorological linkage includes: air pressure induced synesthesia, disinhibition of spontaneous olfactory discharge, exacerbation of ectopic discharge, affect mediated somatic sensory amplification, and misattribution error with expectation and recall bias. This is the first reported case of weather-induced exacerbation of phantosmia. Further investigation of the connection between chemosensory complaints and ambient weather is warranted.

  17. Crop evapotranspiration estimation using remote sensing and the existing network of meteorological stations in Cyprus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadavid, G.; Hadjimitsis, D.; Michaelides, S.; Nisantzi, A.

    2011-05-01

    Cyprus is frequently confronted with severe droughts and the need for accurate and systematic data on crop evapotranspiration (ETc) is essential for decision making, regarding water irrigation management and scheduling. The aim of this paper is to highlight how data from meteorological stations in Cyprus can be used for monitoring and determining the country's irrigation demands. This paper shows how daily ETc can be estimated using FAO Penman-Monteith method adapted to satellite data and auxiliary meteorological parameters. This method is widely used in many countries for estimating crop evapotranspiration using auxiliary meteorological data (maximum and minimum temperatures, relative humidity, wind speed) as inputs. Two case studies were selected in order to determine evapotranspiration using meteorological and low resolution satellite data (MODIS - TERRA) and to compare it with the results of the reference method (FAO-56) which estimates the reference evapotranspiration (ETo) by using only meteorological data. The first approach corresponds to the FAO Penman-Monteith method adapted for using both meteorological and remotely sensed data. Furthermore, main automatic meteorological stations in Cyprus were mapped using Geographical Information System (GIS). All the agricultural areas of the island were categorized according to the nearest meteorological station which is considered as "representative" of the area. Thiessen polygons methodology was used for this purpose. The intended goal was to illustrate what can happen to a crop, in terms of water requirements, if meteorological data are retrieved from other than the representative stations. The use of inaccurate data can result in low yields or excessive irrigation which both lead to profit reduction. The results have shown that if inappropriate meteorological data are utilized, then deviations from correct ETc might be obtained, leading to water losses or crop water stress.

  18. An Alternative Flight Software Trigger Paradigm: Applying Multivariate Logistic Regression to Sense Trigger Conditions Using Inaccurate or Scarce Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kelly M.; Gay, Robert S.; Stachowiak, Susan J.

    2013-01-01

    In late 2014, NASA will fly the Orion capsule on a Delta IV-Heavy rocket for the Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1) mission. For EFT-1, the Orion capsule will be flying with a new GPS receiver and new navigation software. Given the experimental nature of the flight, the flight software must be robust to the loss of GPS measurements. Once the high-speed entry is complete, the drogue parachutes must be deployed within the proper conditions to stabilize the vehicle prior to deploying the main parachutes. When GPS is available in nominal operations, the vehicle will deploy the drogue parachutes based on an altitude trigger. However, when GPS is unavailable, the navigated altitude errors become excessively large, driving the need for a backup barometric altimeter to improve altitude knowledge. In order to increase overall robustness, the vehicle also has an alternate method of triggering the parachute deployment sequence based on planet-relative velocity if both the GPS and the barometric altimeter fail. However, this backup trigger results in large altitude errors relative to the targeted altitude. Motivated by this challenge, this paper demonstrates how logistic regression may be employed to semi-automatically generate robust triggers based on statistical analysis. Logistic regression is used as a ground processor pre-flight to develop a statistical classifier. The classifier would then be implemented in flight software and executed in real-time. This technique offers improved performance even in the face of highly inaccurate measurements. Although the logistic regression-based trigger approach will not be implemented within EFT-1 flight software, the methodology can be carried forward for future missions and vehicles.

  19. An Alternative Flight Software Paradigm: Applying Multivariate Logistic Regression to Sense Trigger Conditions using Inaccurate or Scarce Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kelly; Gay, Robert; Stachowiak, Susan

    2013-01-01

    In late 2014, NASA will fly the Orion capsule on a Delta IV-Heavy rocket for the Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1) mission. For EFT-1, the Orion capsule will be flying with a new GPS receiver and new navigation software. Given the experimental nature of the flight, the flight software must be robust to the loss of GPS measurements. Once the high-speed entry is complete, the drogue parachutes must be deployed within the proper conditions to stabilize the vehicle prior to deploying the main parachutes. When GPS is available in nominal operations, the vehicle will deploy the drogue parachutes based on an altitude trigger. However, when GPS is unavailable, the navigated altitude errors become excessively large, driving the need for a backup barometric altimeter to improve altitude knowledge. In order to increase overall robustness, the vehicle also has an alternate method of triggering the parachute deployment sequence based on planet-relative velocity if both the GPS and the barometric altimeter fail. However, this backup trigger results in large altitude errors relative to the targeted altitude. Motivated by this challenge, this paper demonstrates how logistic regression may be employed to semi-automatically generate robust triggers based on statistical analysis. Logistic regression is used as a ground processor pre-flight to develop a statistical classifier. The classifier would then be implemented in flight software and executed in real-time. This technique offers improved performance even in the face of highly inaccurate measurements. Although the logistic regression-based trigger approach will not be implemented within EFT-1 flight software, the methodology can be carried forward for future missions and vehicles

  20. LEADER: fast estimates of asteroid shape elongation and spin latitude distributions from scarce photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nortunen, H.; Kaasalainen, M.

    2017-12-01

    Context. Many asteroid databases with lightcurve brightness measurements (e.g. WISE, Pan-STARRS1) contain enormous amounts of data for asteroid shape and spin modelling. While lightcurve inversion is not plausible for individual targets with scarce data, it is possible for large populations with thousands of asteroids, where the distributions of the shape and spin characteristics of the populations are obtainable. Aims: We aim to introduce a software implementation of a method that computes the joint shape elongation p and spin latitude β distributions for a population, with the brightness observations given in an asteroid database. Other main goals are to include a method for performing validity checks of the algorithm, and a tool for a statistical comparison of populations. Methods: The LEADER software package read the brightness measurement data for a user-defined subpopulation from a given database. The observations were used to compute estimates of the brightness variations of the population members. A cumulative distribution function (CDF) was constructed of these estimates. A superposition of known analytical basis functions yielded this CDF as a function of the (shape, spin) distribution. The joint distribution can be reconstructed by solving a linear constrained inverse problem. To test the validity of the method, the algorithm can be run with synthetic asteroid models, where the shape and spin characteristics are known, and by using the geometries taken from the examined database. Results: LEADER is a fast and robust software package for solving shape and spin distributions for large populations. There are major differences in the quality and coverage of measurements depending on the database used, so synthetic simulations are always necessary before a database can be reliably used. We show examples of differences in the results when switching to another database.

  1. BOREAS AES MARSII Surface Meteorological Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, G. Barrie; Funk, Barry; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David E. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    Canadian AES personnel collected several data sets related to surface and atmospheric meteorological conditions over the BOREAS region. This data set contains 15-minute meteorological data from six MARSII meteorology stations in the BOREAS region in Canada. Parameters include site, time, temperature, dewpoint, visibility, wind speed, wind gust, wind direction, two cloud groups, precipitation, and station pressure. Temporally, the data cover the period of May to September 1994. Geo-graphically, the stations are spread across the provinces of Saskatchewan and Manitoba. The data are provided in tabular ASCII files, and are classified as AFM-Staff data.

  2. BOREAS AES READAC Surface Meteorological Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, G. Barrie; Funk, Barry; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David E. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    Canadian AES personnel collected and processed data related to surface atmospheric meteorological conditions over the BOREAS region. This data set contains 15-minute meteorological data from one READAC meteorology station in Hudson Bay, Saskatchewan. Parameters include day, time, type of report, sky condition, visibility, mean sea level pressure, temperature, dewpoint, wind, altimeter, opacity, minimum and maximum visibility, station pressure, minimum and maximum air temperature, a wind group, precipitation, and precipitation in the last hour. The data were collected non-continuously from 24-May-1994 to 20-Sep-1994. The data are provided in tabular ASCII files, and are classified as AFM-Staff data.

  3. Description of the RDCDS Meteorological Component

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pekour, Mikhail S.; Berg, Larry K.

    2007-10-01

    This report provides a detailed description of the Rapidly Deployable Chemical Defense System (RDCDS) Meteorological Component. The Meteorological Component includes four surface meteorological stations, miniSODAR, laptop computers, and communications equipment. This report describes the equipment that is used, explains the operation of the network, and gives instructions for setting up the Component and replacing defective parts. A detailed description of operation and use of the individual sensors, including the data loggers is not covered in the current document, and the interested reader should refer to the manufacturer’s documentation.

  4. Reference crop evapotranspiration estimate using high-resolution meteorological network's data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Lussana

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Water management authorities need detailed information about each component of the hydrological balance. This document presents a method to estimate the evapotranspiration rate, initialized in order to obtain the reference crop evapotranspiration rate (ET0. By using an Optimal Interpolation (OI scheme, the hourly observations of several meteorological variables, measured by a high-resolution local meteorological network, are interpolated over a regular grid. The analysed meteorological fields, containing detailed meteorological information, enter a model for turbulent heat fluxes estimation based on Monin-Obukhov surface layer similarity theory. The obtained ET0 fields are then post-processed and disseminated to the users.

  5. Communicating meteorology through popular music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sally; Aplin, Karen; Jenkins, Katie; Mander, Sarah; Walsh, Claire; Williams, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies of weather-inspired classical music showed that all forms of music (as well as visual arts and literature) reflect the significance of the environment in society. Here we quantify the extent to which weather has inspired popular musicians, and how weather is represented in English-language pop music. Our work is in press at Weather. Over 750 songs have been identified which were found to refer to meteorological phenomena, mainly in their lyrics, but also in the title of the song, name of the band or songwriter and occasionally in the song's music or sound effects. Over one third of the songs analysed referred to either sun or rain, out of a possible 20 weather categories. It was found that artists use weather to describe emotion, for example, to mirror the changes in a relationship. In this context, rain was broadly seen negatively, and might be used to signify the end of a relationship. Rain could also be perceived in a positive way, such as in songs from more agricultural communities. Wind was the next most common weather phenomenon, but did not represent emotions as much as sun or rain. However, it was the most frequently represented weather type in the music itself, such as in instrumental effects, or non-verbally in choruses. From the limited evidence available, we found that artists were often inspired by a single weather event in writing lyrics, whereas the outcomes were less clearly identifiable from longer periods of good or bad weather. Some artists were influenced more by their environment than others, but they were often inspired to write many songs about their surroundings as part of every-day life, rather than weather in particular. Popular singers and songwriters can therefore emotionally connect their listeners to the environment; this could be exploited to communicate environmental science to a broad audience.

  6. Inversion of GPS meteorology data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hocke

    Full Text Available The GPS meteorology (GPS/MET experiment, led by the Universities Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR, consists of a GPS receiver aboard a low earth orbit (LEO satellite which was launched on 3 April 1995. During a radio occultation the LEO satellite rises or sets relative to one of the 24 GPS satellites at the Earth's horizon. Thereby the atmospheric layers are successively sounded by radio waves which propagate from the GPS satellite to the LEO satellite. From the observed phase path increases, which are due to refraction of the radio waves by the ionosphere and the neutral atmosphere, the atmospheric parameter refractivity, density, pressure and temperature are calculated with high accuracy and resolution (0.5–1.5 km. In the present study, practical aspects of the GPS/MET data analysis are discussed. The retrieval is based on the Abelian integral inversion of the atmospheric bending angle profile into the refractivity index profile. The problem of the upper boundary condition of the Abelian integral is described by examples. The statistical optimization approach which is applied to the data above 40 km and the use of topside bending angle profiles from model atmospheres stabilize the inversion. The retrieved temperature profiles are compared with corresponding profiles which have already been calculated by scientists of UCAR and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL, using Abelian integral inversion too. The comparison shows that in some cases large differences occur (5 K and more. This is probably due to different treatment of the upper boundary condition, data runaways and noise. Several temperature profiles with wavelike structures at tropospheric and stratospheric heights are shown. While the periodic structures at upper stratospheric heights could be caused by residual errors of the ionospheric correction method, the periodic temperature fluctuations at heights below 30 km are most likely caused by atmospheric waves (vertically

  7. Preparation of Meteorological Data for Increasing Renewable Energy Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vygantas Žėkas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Along with a growth in the spread of renewable energy (RE use, the demand of reliable and more detailed data about the disposable RE source is increasing. The paper presents the initial stage of processing meteorological data as baseline information for describing the RE potential. The analysis method of descriptive statistics has been applied for data processing. Research was performed to illustrate the benefit of the applied analysis. Using meteorological data collected in the Laboratory of Building Energy and Microclimate Systems of Civil Engineering Research Centre, the analysis of received findings and statistical processing was performed. The research showed that statistical characteristics gave additional valuable information about dominant RE streams in a particular location. It was determined that the chaotic nature of stream variation and occurred outliers of values influence the values of RE streams greatly when average magnitudes are calculated. Having the limits of values to RE stream variation and the weighted centre of distribution without outliers creates a possibility of selecting a RE transformer or their combination more objectively and choosing equipment operation parameters to use local conditions better. The evaluation of local meteorological conditions applying statistical methods may help both the energy user and the creator of a technological solution to developing sustainable RE expansion.Article in Lithuanian

  8. Effect of Meteorology on the Atmospheric Concentrations of Traffic-Related Pollutants in Erzurum, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    , Sevda Ocak; , F. Sezer Turalioglu

    2016-01-01

    The studies of the relationship between air pollutants and meteorological factors can provide important information about air pollution. According to proposed statistical model in this study, daily traffic-related pollutant concentrations are not only inşuenced by daily meteorological parameters but also by the pollutant concentration of previous day. In this study, the relationship between daily CO (carbon monoxide), NOX (nitrogen oxides), O3 (ozone) concentration with the pollutant concentr...

  9. Planetary meteorology - A new perspective on the earth's weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joels, K.

    1976-01-01

    Meteorological observations of other planets which may contribute to an understanding of the meteorological processes on the earth are discussed. The high solar input and extremely low rotation rate of Venus simplify the analysis of the interaction of solar energy with the atmosphere. The dust present in the atmosphere of Mars may provide a useful model for studying the effects of anthropogenic aerosols in the atmosphere of earth. Observations of Mars may also be expected to yield information on the evolution of severe storms and on atmospheric tides. The belts and zones in the Jovian atmosphere bear some similarities to cyclones on earth, although they are produced differently; careful modeling of Jupiter's atmosphere may cast light on terrestrial cyclonic activity.

  10. Understanding meteorology for pollution transport over Bhutan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, Shreta; Adhikary, Bhupesh; Praveen, Ps; Panday, Arnico

    2016-04-01

    The country of Bhutan spans over complex terrain in the Eastern Himalayan region. Several studies in the past have reported about transport of air pollution into the Himalayas from Indo-Gangetic plains. However, there is a lack of studies focusing over eastern Himalaya and particularly over Bhutan. Understanding air pollutant flows over this region requires good understanding of weather and atmospheric circulation pattern. We have used decadal data from ground based meteorological stations made available from the Department of Hydro-Meteorological Service (DHMS), Government of Bhutan to study rainfall and temperature patterns over different elevation. We also present preliminary results from few automatic weather stations that are analyzed for diurnal and seasonal variability. Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model was run to understand meteorological flows over the region. Preliminary results from WRF model will also be presented. Keywords: Bhutan, Meteorology, Air Pollution, Eastern Himalayas.

  11. CLPX-Ground: ISA Main Meteorological Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains meteorological observations at ten sites throughout the Small Regional Study Area (SRSA) of the Cold Land Processes Field Experiment (CLPX) in...

  12. Interim report on the meteorological database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stage, S.A.; Ramsdell, J.V.; Simonen, C.A.; Burk, K.W.

    1993-01-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is estimating radiation doses that individuals may have received from operations at Hanford from 1944 to the present. An independent Technical Steering Panel (TSP) directs the project, which is being conducted by the Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories in Richland, Washington. The goals of HEDR, as approved by the TSP, include dose estimates and determination of confidence ranges for these estimates. This letter report describes the current status of the meteorological database. The report defines the meteorological data available for use in climate model calculations, describes the data collection procedures and the preparation and control of the meteorological database. This report also provides an initial assessment of the data quality. The available meteorological data are adequate for atmospheric calculations. Initial checks of the data indicate the data entry accuracy meets the data quality objectives.

  13. NDBC Standard Meteorological Buoy Data, 1970-present

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) distributes meteorological data from moored buoys maintained by NDBC and others. Moored buoys are the weather sentinels of the...

  14. Surface Meteorological Instruments for TWP (SMET) Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritsche, MT

    2009-01-01

    The TWP Surface Meteorology station (SMET) uses mainly conventional in situ sensors to obtain 1-minute statistics of surface wind speed, wind direction, air temperature, relative humidity, barometric pressure and rainfall amount.

  15. Index of Meteorological Observations Publication (Before 1890)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Index of meteorological observations in the United States made prior to January 1, 1890, organized by state. Includes station name, coordinates, elevation, period of...

  16. Journal of Meteorology and Climate Science: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Dr. K.O Ogunjobi Editor-in-Chief Federal University of Technology, Akure (FUTA) Department of Meteorology Federal University of Technology Akure, Ondo State Nigeria Phone: +234-7031145866. Email: jobik2000@yahoo.com ...

  17. ISLSCP II Cloud and Meteorology Parameters

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains cloud and meteorology data on a 1.0 degree x 1.0 degree spatial resolution. There are eight data files (*.zip) with this data set for several...

  18. Ionospheric irregularities in periods of meteorological disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchevkina, O. P.; Karpov, I. V.

    2017-09-01

    The results of observations of the total electron content (TEC) in periods of storm disturbances of meteorological situation are presented in the paper. The observational results have shown that a passage of a meteorological storm is accompanied by a substantial decrease in values of TEC and critical frequencies of the ionospheric F2 region. The decreases in values of these ionospheric parameters reach 50% and up to 30% in TEC and critical frequency of the F2 layer, respectively, as compared to meteorologically quiet days. Based on qualitative analysis, it is found that the processes related to formation of local regions of thermospheric heating due to a dissipation of AGW coming into the upper atmosphere from the region of the meteorological disturbance in the lower atmosphere are a possible cause of these ionospheric disturbances.

  19. ISLSCP II Cloud and Meteorology Parameters

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set contains cloud and meteorology data on a 1.0 degree x 1.0 degree spatial resolution. There are eight data files (*.zip) with this data set...

  20. A marine meteorological data acquisition system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desai, R.G.P.; Desa, E.; Vithayathil, G.

    A marine meteorological data acquisition system has been developed for long term unattended measurements at remote coastal sites, ocean surface platforms and for use on board research vessels. The system has an open and modular configuration...

  1. Meteorological Error Budget Using Open Source Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Approved for public release; distribuiton unlimited. 4 The sites selected were in both the northern and southern hemispheres , and included...ARL-TR-7831 ● SEP 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Meteorological Error Budget Using Open- Source Data by J Cogan, J Smith, P...needed. Do not return it to the originator. ARL-TR-7831 ● SEP 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Meteorological Error Budget Using

  2. Consumers’ evaluation of allocation policies for scarce health care services: Vested interest activation trumps spatial and temporal distance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.M. Benning (Tim); E. Breugelmans (Els); B.G.C. Dellaert (Benedict)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe allocation of scarce health care service resources often requires trade-offs between individual and collective outcomes (e.g., when some individuals benefit more strongly from a given policy than others). Based on construal level theory, one would expect that consumers cognitively

  3. A comparative analysis of ecosystem services valuation approaches for application at the local scale and in data scarce regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pandeya, B.; Buytaert, W.; Zulkafli, Z.; Karpouzoglou, T.; Mao, F.; Hannah, D.M.

    2016-01-01

    Despite significant advances in the development of the ecosystem services concept across the science and policy arenas, the valuation of ecosystem services to guide sustainable development remains challenging, especially at a local scale and in data scarce regions. In this paper, we review and

  4. Determining paths by which farmers can adapt effectively to scarce freshwater resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, R.; Hornberger, G.; Carrico, A. R.

    2012-12-01

    Stress on freshwater resources is a significant risk associated with climatic change. The risk is even greater given the expected changes in overall resource use as the developing world develops, as the world's population continues to grow, and as land use changes dramatically. Effective water management has implications for food security, health, and political stability worldwide. This is particularly true in developing regions heavily dependent on agriculture, and where agriculture depends on irrigation. Adaptation to water stress requires both managing water allocation among competing users and ensuring that each user is efficient in his or her use of a limited allotment: the problem is a quintessential common-pool resource (CPR) dilemma. In the future even more so than in the past, adaptation will be essential as the world evolves. The problem that we identify—determining paths by which farmers can adapt effectively to increasingly scarce freshwater resources—is one of great scientific and societal importance. The issue lies at the intersection of water-cycle processes and social-psychological processes that influence and are influenced by water availability and use. This intersection harbors intriguing unresolved scientific questions; advances in natural and social sciences will stem from attacks on the overall problem. The issue is societally compelling because the ability of the world to supply adequate food for a population expected to grow to over 9 billion by 2050 may well be determined by how farmers, consumers, and government institutions adapt to changing conditions of water availability. Major strides have been made in recent decades in understanding why Hardin's envisioned "tragedy of the commons" is avoided under certain circumstances, in some cases through self-organization rather than government intervention originally considered a necessity. Furthermore, we now know that the impacts of decisions about allocation and use of water can be

  5. Science-Based IWRM Implementation in a Data-Scarce Central Asian Region: Experiences from a Research and Development Project in the Kharaa River Basin, Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Karthe

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Mongolia is not only a water-scarce but also a data-scarce country with regard to environmental information. At the same time, regional effects of global climate change, major land use changes, a booming mining sector, and growing cities with insufficient and decaying water and wastewater infrastructures result in an increasingly unsustainable exploitation and contamination of ground and surface water resources putting at risk both aquatic ecosystems and human health. For the mesoscale (≈15,000 km2 model region of the Kharaa River Basin (KRB, we investigated (1 the current state of aquatic ecosystems, water availability and quality; (2 past and expected future trends in these fields and their drivers; (3 water governance structures and their recent reforms; and (4 technical and non-technical interventions as potential components of an integrated water resources management (IWRM. By now, the KRB is recognized as one of the most intensively studied river basins of the country, and considered a model region for science-based water resources management by the Mongolian government which recently adopted the IWRM concept in its National Water Program. Based on the scientific results and practical experiences from a six-year project in the KRB, the potentials and limitations of IWRM implementation under the conditions of data-scarcity are discussed.

  6. Predicting the Heat Consumption in District Heating Systems using Meteorological Forecasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg, orlov 31.07.2008; Madsen, Henrik

    that meteorological forecasts are available on-line. Such a service has recently been introduced by the Danish Meteorological Institute. However, actual meteorological forecasts has not been available for the work described here. Assuming the climate to be known the mean absolute relative prediction error for 72 hour...... to which the heat is supplied this transition is smooth. By simulation, combined with theory known from the literature, it is shown that it is crucial to use the actual meteorological forecasts and not the observations of climate when estimating the parameters of the model. To our knowledge...... predictions is 3.8% for data in November, 1995 (17% when no climate information is used). However, at some occasions large deviations occur and in January 1996 a value of 5.5% is obtained. The relative prediction error tends to increase with decreasing heat consumption. Approaches to implementation...

  7. Benefits of meteorological services in South Eastern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hautala, R.; Leviaekangas, P.; Raesaenen, J. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland))

    2008-12-15

    The study evaluated the impacts and potential benefits of meteorological and hydrological information services in Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, FYR Macedonia, Moldova and Montenegro. The services were analysed for the sectors of transport, construction industry, energy production, flood protection and agriculture production. The study was part of a larger project for the development of weather and climate observation networks and meteorological services in South Eastern Europe countries. In Albania advanced meteorological information services would produce annual savings worth 24 to 26 million euro. In Bosnia-Herzegovina the potential annual benefits were estimated to be about 10 to 22 million euro, in the FYR Macedonia 12 to 40 million euro and in Moldova 12 to 19 million euro per year. For Montenegro the data available did not enable the differentiation from Serbia for aviation and agriculture sectors. For road transport, construction industry and flood protection the annual savings resulting from better hydrometeorological information would be 1 to 3 million euro. Due to the lack of source information only part of the approximate potential benefits could be estimated at magnitude level, even though, the results show that hydrometeorological services are beneficial and worth developing further. The benefits are to a large extent due to higher predictability rates and better planning of operations as well as better preparedness for accidents and the reduction of human and material losses caused by these accidents. The realisation of the potential benefits requires comprehensive development of the hydrometeorological service systems. This means further development of observation infrastructure, data and transmission systems as well as service processes, operation models and know-how. Not only should the services be developed, but their availability and usability should be improved. The utilisation of communications technology should be enhanced and the awareness of

  8. The DAURE field campaign: meteorological overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorba, O.; Pandolfi, M.; Spada, M.; Baldasano, J. M.; Pey, J.; Alastuey, A.; Arnold, D.; Sicard, M.; Artiñano, B.; Revuelta, M. A.; Querol, X.

    2011-02-01

    From end of February until March 2009 and July 2009 the experimental campaign named DAURE took place in northeastern Spain in both an urban and rural sites (Barcelona city and Montseny Natural Park) with the main objective of studying the formation and transport processes of particulate matter in the region. Several groups collaborated in an extensive measurement campaign with aerosol monitoring, meteorological measurements, atmospheric vertical structure retrievals from LIDAR and supported by numerical simulations of the meteorological and air quality conditions over the region. In this article, we present a description of the main meteorological conditions that affected the Barcelona geographical area during the campaign. The main synoptic conditions are identified and discussed by means of meteorological observations and numerical weather prediction models. Furthermore, a detailed analysis of the local meteorological conditions during the campaign is also presented. The characteristic surface wind field and the vertical structure of the main flows affecting Barcelona and the Montseny rural site are discussed using high-resolution mesoscale meteorological simulations, vertical profiles of LIDAR measurements, radiosoundings, and analysis of backward dispersion simulations with a Lagrangian model. The analysis permits the identification of three main meteorological regimes for the winter campaign (February and March 2009): a first regime dominated by high-pressure conditions over Barcelona and western Mediterranean Basin, high insolation, and the development of thermally-driven wind flows. A second regime is characterized by a strong northwestern advection that produced a cleansing action over the atmosphere. And a third identified regime is dominated by strong stagnant conditions produced by thermal inversions that decouple the low troposphere of plain and coastal areas from mountainous terrains. On the other hand, the main meteorological regimes identified for

  9. Relating plume spread to meteorology in urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatram, Akula; Isakov, Vlad; Pankratz, David; Yuan, Jing

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines relationships between dispersion and meteorology measured in a field study conducted in Barrio Logan, a suburb of San Diego, during 5 days of the period 21 August 2001-31 August 2001. The mean building height in Barrio Logan is about 4 m. The tracer, SF6, was released at a height of 5 m from a shipyard on the shoreline, and the concentrations of the tracer were sampled on 4 arcs at 200, 500, 1000, and 2000 m from the source during ten hours of the day starting at 10 am. The meteorological conditions that governed dispersion were measured using sonic anemometers and a SODAR with a range of 200 m in the vertical. It turned out that ground-level concentrations at the receptors used in this study were governed by the meteorological variables in the urban boundary layer above the urban roughness sublayer (RSL). In this region between 15 and 150 m above ground-level, the horizontal and vertical turbulent intensities were relatively uniform. This uniformity in turbulent intensities allowed the formulation of simple expressions for horizontal and vertical plume spreads that could be used in a Gaussian dispersion model. These expressions are similar to those proposed by Briggs (ERL, ARL USAEC Report ATDL-106, U.S. Atomic Energy Commission Oak Ridge, Tennessee, 1975) and Hanna et al. (Atmos. Environ. 37 (2003) 5069) to model dispersion in St. Louis and Salt Lake City, respectively. However, the application of these dispersion curves requires information on the meteorology of the boundary layer. It might be possible to use measurements above the average building height (4 m in our case) to infer these boundary layer properties. The dispersion model based on boundary layer meteorological information explained about 63% of the variance of the maximum observed concentrations on each sampling arc, and 60% of these concentrations was within a factor of two of the corresponding model estimates. It was necessary to account for initial plume spread caused by

  10. Microfluidics Enables Small-Scale Tissue-Based Drug Metabolism Studies With Scarce Human Tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Midwoud, Paul M.; Verpoorte, Elisabeth; Groothuis, Geny M. M.; Merema, M.T.

    2011-01-01

    Early information on the metabolism and toxicity properties of new drug candidates is crucial for selecting the right candidates for further development. Preclinical trials rely on cell-based in vitro tests and animal studies to characterize the in vivo behavior of drug candidates, although neither

  11. Optimizing the Quality of Dynamic Context Subscriptions for Scarce Network Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shawky, Ahmed; Olsen, Rasmus Løvenstein; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    2012-01-01

    the opposite effect on information reliability. In order to understand and control this trade-off, this paper develops a model that allows to calculate context reliability, captured by the so-called mismatch probability, in relation to the network load. The model is subsequently used for a real time algorithm...

  12. Meteorological aspects of siting large wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiester, T.R.; Pennell, W.T.

    1981-01-01

    This report, which focuses on the meteorological aspects of siting large wind turbines (turbines with a rated output exceeding 100 kW), has four main goals. The first is to outline the elements of a siting strategy that will identify the most favorable wind energy sites in a region and that will provide sufficient wind data to make responsible economic evaluations of the site wind resource possible. The second is to critique and summarize siting techniques that were studied in the Department of Energy (DOE) Wind Energy Program. The third goal is to educate utility technical personnel, engineering consultants, and meteorological consultants (who may have not yet undertaken wind energy consulting) on meteorological phenomena relevant to wind turbine siting in order to enhance dialogues between these groups. The fourth goal is to minimize the chances of failure of early siting programs due to insufficient understanding of wind behavior.

  13. BOREAS AES Campbell Scientific Surface Meteorological Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, G. Barrie; Funk, Barrie; Knapp. David E. (Editor); Hall, Forrest G. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    Canadian AES personnel collected data related to surface and atmospheric meteorological conditions over the BOREAS region. This data set contains 15-minute meteorological data from 14 automated meteorology stations located across the BOREAS region. Included in this data are parameters of date, time, mean sea level pressure, station pressure, temperature, dew point, wind speed, resultant wind speed, resultant wind direction, peak wind, precipitation, maximum temperature in the last hour, minimum temperature in the last hour, pressure tendency, liquid precipitation in the last hour, relative humidity, precipitation from a weighing gauge, and snow depth. Temporally, the data cover the period of August 1993 to December 1996. The data are provided in tabular ASCII files, and are classified as AFM-Staff data.

  14. A Dual Policy Paradox: Why Have Trade and Immigration Policies Always Differed in Labor-Scarce Economies

    OpenAIRE

    Hatton, Timothy J.; Williamson, Jeffrey G.

    2005-01-01

    Today's labour-scarce economies have open trade and closed immigration policies, while a century ago they had just the opposite, open immigration and closed trade policies. Why the inverse policy correlation, and why has it persisted for almost two centuries? This paper seeks answers to this dual policy paradox by exploring the fundamentals which have influenced the evolution of policy: the decline in the costs of migration and its impact on immigrant selectivity, a secular switch in the net ...

  15. Robust decision making in data scarce contexts: addressing data and model limitations for water infrastructure planning under transient climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortridge, J. E.; Guikema, S.; Zaitchik, B. F.

    2016-12-01

    In the face of deeply uncertain climate change projections, robust decision frameworks are becoming a popular tool for incorporating climate change uncertainty into water infrastructure planning. These methodologies have the potential to be particularly valuable in developing countries where extensive infrastructure development is still needed and uncertainties can be large. However, many applications of these methodologies have relied on a sophisticated process of climate model downscaling and impact modeling that may be unreliable in data-scarce contexts. In this study, we demonstrate a modified application of the robust decision making (RDM) methodology that is specifically tailored for application in data-scarce situations. This modification includes a novel method for generating transient climate change sequences that account for potential variable dependence but do not rely on detailed GCM projections, and an emphasis on identifying the relative importance of data limitations and uncertainty within an integrated modeling framework. We demonstrate this methodology in the Lake Tana basin in Ethiopia, demonstrating how the approach can provide a number of insights regarding the relative vulnerability of development alternatives across different time scales and priorities for additional research and model refinement. We find that infrastructure performance is particularly sensitive to uncertainty in streamflow model accuracy, irrigation efficiency, and evaporation rates, suggesting that additional research in these areas could provide valuable insights for long-term infrastructure planning. This work demonstrates how tailored application of robust decision frameworks using simple modeling approaches can provide decision support in data-scarce regions where more complex modeling and analysis may be impractical.

  16. First application of the meteorological Mini-UAV 'M{sup 2}AV'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiess, T.; Bange, J.; Buschmann, M.; Voersmann, P. [Braunschweig Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik

    2007-04-15

    The limitations of manned airborne meteorological measurements led to a new unmanned system, the Meteorological Mini-UAV (M{sup 2}AV), recently developed by the Institute of Aerospace Systems, Technical University of Braunschweig. The task was to develop, test and verify a meteorological sensor package as payload for an already available carrier aircraft, the UAV 'Carolo T200'. Thereby the limitations in size and mass had to be respected. The M{sup 2}AV is capable of performing turbulence and wind vector measurements within the atmospheric boundary layer and permits very short measurement cycles as an economic supplement during meteorological campaigns. The article gives details on the technical items. Results from meteorological data sets measured by the M{sup 2}AV are used for data quality assessment. In October 2005 the M{sup 2}AV participated in the meteorological field experiment 'LAUNCH 2005' in Lindenberg near Berlin. The M{sup 2}AV data were compared with lidar and sodar/RASS measurements. Furthermore, an in situ comparison of temperature, humidity and wind vector data with the helicopter-borne turbulence probe Helipod was analysed and gave information about the M{sup 2}AV data quality. (orig.)

  17. Accounting for local meteorological effects in the ozone time-series of Lovozero (Kola Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Tarasova

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between local meteorological conditions and the surface ozone variability was studied by means of statistical modeling, using ozone and meteorological parameters measured at Lovozero (250 m a.s.l., 68.5°N, 35.0°E, Kola Peninsula for the period of 1999-2000. The regression model of daily mean ozone concentrations on such meteorological parameters as temperature, relative humidity and wind speed explains up to 70% of day-to-day ozone variability in terms of meteorological condition changes, if the seasonal cycle is also considered. A regression model was created for separated time scales of the variables. Short-term, synoptical and seasonal components are separated by means of Kolmogorov-Zurbenko filtering. The synoptical scale variations were chosen as the most informative from the point of their mutual relation with meteorological parameters. Almost 40% of surface ozone variations in time periods of 11-60 days can be explained by the regression model on separated scales that is 30% more efficient than ozone residuals usage. Quantitative and qualitative estimations of the relations between surface ozone and meteorological predictors let us preliminarily conclude that at the Lovozero site surface ozone variability is governed mainly by dynamical processes of various time scale rather than photochemistry, especially during the cold season.

  18. Meteorological factors for PM10 concentration levels in Northern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santurtún, Ana; Mínguez, Roberto; Villar-Fernández, Alejandro; González Hidalgo, Juan Carlos; Zarrabeitia, María Teresa

    2013-04-01

    models, iii) fitting of a times series model (Autoregressive moving average, ARMA) to the transformed historical values in order to eliminate the temporal autocorrelation structure of each stochastic process, obtaining a white noise for each variable, and finally, iv) the calculation of cross correlations between white noises at different time lags. These cross correlations allow characterization of the true correlation between signals, avoiding the problems induced by data scaling or autocorrelations inherent to each signal. Results provide the relationship and possible contribution to PM10 concentration levels associated with each meteorological variable. This information can be used to improve PM10 concentration levels forecasting using existing meteorological forecasts.

  19. Investigating the interrelations between throughfall, meteorological variables and vegetation structure in a developing hydrological catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Thomas; Pohle, Ina; Oeser, Anne; Sieber, André; Hinz, Christoph

    2017-04-01

    In landscapes with heterogeneous vegetation structure, interception and throughfall patterns produce spatio-temporal variability of soil moisture. This variability is important for eco-hydrological processes, in particular on small spatial scales up to the catchment scale. Throughfall depends on vegetation structure, whereas vegetation development is presumably co-determined by the spatio-temporal distribution of throughfall itself. In addition to vegetation structure, meteorological factors like wind speed and rainfall intensity also have an impact on throughfall. The objective of this study is to quantify the influence of vegetation structure and meteorological variables on spatial (and in the long run the temporal) variability of throughfall. For that purpose, we developed an approach combining field methods, image analysis and multivariate statistics. The 6-ha constructed catchment ‚Hühnerwasser' (aka Chicken Creek, southern Brandenburg, Germany) offers ideal conditions for the investigation of eco-hydrological feedback processes. After more than 10 years of development, vegetation structure on the catchment is spatially heterogeneous and evolves through natural succession. Furthermore, complementary meteorological data are available on-site. Throughfall was measured using 50 tipping-bucket rain gauges, which are aligned along two transects in 0.5 and 1 m heights, covering the dominating vegetation types on the catchment (e.g., robinia, sallow thorn, reed, reedgrass, herbs). The spatial distribution of vegetation structures around each measurement site was recorded with hemispheric photographs, which were subsequently analyzed using image processing techniques. Two weather stations provide reference values for precipitation and relevant meteorological variables for wind speed and direction, air humidity, temperature and irradiation. The amount and distribution of precipitation measured in scarcely vegetated areas of the catchment widely correspond with

  20. Difficulties in work-related activities among migraineurs are scarcely collected: results from a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raggi, A; Covelli, V; Leonardi, M; Grazzi, L; Curone, M; D'Amico, D

    2014-05-01

    Migraine affects work productivity in terms of missed workdays and days with reduced productivity. In this literature review, we looked for papers addressing specific difficulties in work-related activities. Twenty-three papers were included in the review, reporting data on 51,135 patients. Results showed that there is some evidence for limitations in skills such as problem solving, and activities such as speaking and driving. However, the way in which problems with remunerative employment are addressed is limited to concepts such as reduced performance or inability to work as usual. Given the paucity of data, a return to patient-derived data will be needed to develop an assessment instrument that is able to collect information on headache-related problems in work activities.

  1. Reanalysis of the 1893 heat wave in France through offline data assimilation in a downscaled ensemble meteorological reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devers, Alexandre; Vidal, Jean-Philippe; Lauvernet, Claire; Graff, Benjamin

    2017-04-01

    The knowledge of historical French weather has recently been improved through the development of the SCOPE (Spatially COherent Probabilistic Extended) Climate reconstruction, a probabilistic high-resolution daily reconstruction of precipitation and temperature covering the period 1871-2012 and based on the statistical downscaling of the Twentieth Century Reanalysis (Caillouet et al., 2016). However, historical surface observations - even though rather scarce and sparse - do exist from at least the beginning of the period considered, and this information does not currently feed SCOPE Climate reconstructions. The goal of this study is therefore to assimilate these historical observations into SCOPE Climate reconstructions in order to build a 150-year meteorological reanalysis over France. This study considers "offline" data assimilation methods - Kalman filtering methods like the Ensemble Square Root Filter - that have successfully been used in recent paleoclimate studies, i.e. at much larger temporal and spatial scales (see e.g. Bhend et al., 2012). These methods are here applied for reconstructing the 8-24 August 1893 heat wave in France, using all available daily temperature observations from that period. Temperatures reached that summer were indeed compared at the time to those of Senegal (Garnier, 2012). Results show a spatially coherent view of the heat wave at the national scale as well as a reduced uncertainty compared to initial meteorological reconstructions, thus demonstrating the added value of data assimilation. In order to assess the performance of assimilation methods in a more recent context, these methods are also used to reconstruct the well-known 3-14 August 2003 heat wave by using (1) all available stations, and (2) the same station density as in August 1893, the rest of the observations being saved for validation. This analysis allows comparing two heat waves having occurred 100 years apart in France with different associated uncertainties, in

  2. Atmospheric Science: It's More than Meteorology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David R.; Krockover, Gerald H.

    1988-01-01

    Indicates that atmospheric science is not just forcasting the weather. Gives an overview of current topics in meteorology including ozone depletion, acid precipitation, winter cyclones, severe local storms, the greenhouse effect, wind shear and microbursts. Outlines the Atmospheric Sciences Education Program at Purdue University to produce…

  3. How To...Activities in Meteorology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimmer, Donald N.; Sagness, Richard L.

    This series of experiments seeks to provide laboratory exercises which demonstrate concepts in Earth Science, particularly meteorology. Materials used in the experiments are easily obtainable. Examples of experiments include: (1) making a thermometer; (2) air/space relationship; (3) weight of air; (4) barometers; (5) particulates; (6) evaporation;…

  4. Problem-Based Learning Approaches in Meteorology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton-Perez, Andrew James

    2013-01-01

    Problem-Based Learning, despite recent controversies about its effectiveness, is used extensively as a teaching method throughout higher education. In meteorology, there has been little attempt to incorporate Problem-Based Learning techniques into the curriculum. Motivated by a desire to enhance the reflective engagement of students within a…

  5. Integrating meteorology into research on migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamoun-Baranes, Judy; Bouten, Willem; van Loon, E Emiel

    2010-09-01

    Atmospheric dynamics strongly influence the migration of flying organisms. They affect, among others, the onset, duration and cost of migration, migratory routes, stop-over decisions, and flight speeds en-route. Animals move through a heterogeneous environment and have to react to atmospheric dynamics at different spatial and temporal scales. Integrating meteorology into research on migration is not only challenging but it is also important, especially when trying to understand the variability of the various aspects of migratory behavior observed in nature. In this article, we give an overview of some different modeling approaches and we show how these have been incorporated into migration research. We provide a more detailed description of the development and application of two dynamic, individual-based models, one for waders and one for soaring migrants, as examples of how and why to integrate meteorology into research on migration. We use these models to help understand underlying mechanisms of individual response to atmospheric conditions en-route and to explain emergent patterns. This type of models can be used to study the impact of variability in atmospheric dynamics on migration along a migratory trajectory, between seasons and between years. We conclude by providing some basic guidelines to help researchers towards finding the right modeling approach and the meteorological data needed to integrate meteorology into their own research. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved.

  6. The Dynamic Mesoscale Meteorology of Gale Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafkin, Scot; Pla-Garcia, J.

    Gale Crater, in which the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) landed in August 2012, is the most topographically complex area visited to date on Mars. The meteorology within the crater may also be one of the most dynamically complex meteorological environments, because topography is thought to strongly drive the near-surface atmospheric circulations. The Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) has provided some clues on the nature of the local meteorology. As with all single station measurements, the meteorological interpretation is typically hindered by a lack of spatial context in which to place the observations. Numerical modeling results, when properly validated against observations, can provide interpretive context. Simulations with the Mars Regional Atmospheric Modeling System indicate thermal and wind thermal signatures associated with slope flows, katabatic winds, and nocturnal mixing events that are consistent with the rover environment monitored by REMS. Of particular note is evidence for two distinct air masses—one in the bottom of the crater and one on the plateau—that have minimal interaction with one another. If there are indeed two distinct air masses, there are strong implications for dust and water vapor cycling within Gale Crater.

  7. The Dynamic Meteorology of Gale Crater (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafkin, S. C.; Pla-Garcia, J.

    2013-12-01

    Gale Crater, in which the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) landed in August 2012, is the most topographically complex area visited to date on Mars. The meteorology within the crater may also be one of the most dynamically complex meteorological environments, because topography is thought to very strongly drive the near-surface atmospheric circulations. The Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) has provided some clues on the nature of the local meteorology. As with all single station measurements, the meteorological interpretation is typically limited by a lack of spatial context in which to place the observations. Ideally, numerical models properly validated against the observations can be used to provide this context. In the case of REMS, it is a challenge to validate the model directly against the observations. However, there are notable thermal and wind thermal signatures in mesoscale model simulations that are associated with slope flows, katabatic winds, and nocturnal mixing events. These signatures appear to be at least consistent with the rover environment monitored by REMS. Of particular note is evidence for two distinct air masses--one in the bottom of the crater and one on the plateau--that have minimal interaction with one another. If there are indeed two distinct air masses, the implications for dust and water vapor cycling between Gale Crater and the greater atmosphere of Mars are presented.

  8. CHANGES IN SOME METEOROLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    2008-12-18

    Dec 18, 2008 ... Ibom, Bayelsa, Cross River, Delta, Edo, Imo, Ondo and. Rivers States as shown in Fig.1. Fig. 1: Map of Nigeria showing states in the Niger Delta (Adapted from ..... between measured and satellite-estimated solar irradiance in Texas. Journal of Climate and. Applied Meteorology, 24, 751-757. Environmental ...

  9. Guidelines for curricula in agricultural meteorology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural meteorology as an accepted term is only about 80 years old. The first half of this period saw its development in the western world, Japan, India, and China and this was made possible through the evolving possibilities for quantification of the physical aspects of the production environm...

  10. Meteorological features associated with unprecedented precipitation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Naresh Kumar

    2017-06-29

    Jun 29, 2017 ... unprecedented precipitation event over India. It occurred due to the presence of an ... westerlies and easterlies caused unprecedented precipitation over India during the 1st week of March 2015. Keywords. Meteorological ... ies related to WDs that caused extreme weather over the Himalayan region and ...

  11. Data Publication in the Meteorological Sciences: the OJIMS project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, Sarah; Hewer, Fiona; Pepler, Sam; Hardaker, Paul; Gadian, Alan

    2010-05-01

    Historically speaking, scientific publication has mainly focussed on the analysis, interpretation and conclusions drawn from a given dataset, as these are the information that can be easily published in hard copy text format with the aid of diagrams. Examining the raw data that forms the dataset is often difficult to do, as datasets are usually stored in digital media, in a variety of (often proprietary or non-standard) formats. This means that the peer-review process is generally only applied to the methodology and final conclusions of a piece of work, and not the underlying data itself. Yet for the conclusions to stand, the data must be of good quality, and the peer-review process must be used to judge the data quality. Data publication, involving the peer-review of datasets, would be of benefit to many sectors of the academic community. For the data scientists, who often spend considerable time and effort ensuring that their data and metadata is complete, valid and stored in an accredited data repository, this would provide academic credit in the form of extra publications and citations. Data publication would benefit the wider community, allowing discovery and reuse of useful datasets, ensuring their curation and providing the best possible value for money. Overlay journals are a technology which is already being used to facilitate peer review and publication on-line. The Overlay Journal Infrastructure for Meteorological Sciences (OJIMS) Project aimed to develop the mechanisms that could support both a new (overlay) Journal of Meteorological Data and an Open-Access Repository for documents related to the meteorological sciences. The OJIMS project was conducted by a partnership between the UK's Royal Meteorological Society (RMetS) and two members of the National Centre for Atmospheric Science (NCAS), the British Atmospheric Data Centre (BADC) and the University of Leeds. Conference delegates at the NCAS Conference in Bristol of 8-10 December 2008 were invited to

  12. Pulse EPR-enabled interpretation of scarce pseudocontact shifts induced by lanthanide binding tags

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelkader, Elwy H.; Yao, Xuejun [Australian National University, Research School of Chemistry (Australia); Feintuch, Akiva [Weizmann Institute of Science, Department of Chemical Physics (Israel); Adams, Luke A.; Aurelio, Luigi; Graham, Bim [Monash University, Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences (Australia); Goldfarb, Daniella [Weizmann Institute of Science, Department of Chemical Physics (Israel); Otting, Gottfried, E-mail: gottfried.otting@anu.edu.au [Australian National University, Research School of Chemistry (Australia)

    2016-01-15

    Pseudocontact shifts (PCS) induced by tags loaded with paramagnetic lanthanide ions provide powerful long-range structure information, provided the location of the metal ion relative to the target protein is known. Usually, the metal position is determined by fitting the magnetic susceptibility anisotropy (Δχ) tensor to the 3D structure of the protein in an 8-parameter fit, which requires a large set of PCSs to be reliable. In an alternative approach, we used multiple Gd{sup 3+}-Gd{sup 3+} distances measured by double electron–electron resonance (DEER) experiments to define the metal position, allowing Δχ-tensor determinations from more robust 5-parameter fits that can be performed with a relatively sparse set of PCSs. Using this approach with the 32 kDa E. coli aspartate/glutamate binding protein (DEBP), we demonstrate a structural transition between substrate-bound and substrate-free DEBP, supported by PCSs generated by C3-Tm{sup 3+} and C3-Tb{sup 3+} tags attached to a genetically encoded p-azidophenylalanine residue. The significance of small PCSs was magnified by considering the difference between the chemical shifts measured with Tb{sup 3+} and Tm{sup 3+} rather than involving a diamagnetic reference. The integrative sparse data approach developed in this work makes poorly soluble proteins of limited stability amenable to structural studies in solution, without having to rely on cysteine mutations for tag attachment.

  13. Meteorological Message and Test Analysis Software for an Army Meteorological System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cogan, James

    2004-01-01

    ... were derived. This report also provides some sample results using real data. The message generation algorithms have become part of the overall software package for the Meteorological Measuring Set Profiler (MMS-P...

  14. Instrumentation for high-frequency meteorological observations from research vessel

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    VijayKumar, K.; Khalap, S.; Mehra, P.

    Ship provides an attractive platform from which high-frequency meteorological observations (e.g., wind components, water vapor density, and air temperature) can be made accurately. However, accurate observations of meteorological variables depend...

  15. ICON - North Norman's Patch Reef 2004 Meteorological and Oceanographic Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) of OAR is conducting research on the influence of meteorological and oceanographic factors upon coral...

  16. University of Idaho Daily Meteorological data for continental US

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This archive contains daily surface meteorological (METDATA) data for the Continental United States at 4-km (1/24-deg) resolution. The meteorological variables are...

  17. ICON - Port Everglades 2013 Meteorological Observations (NODC Accession 0124002)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) of OAR is conducting research on the influence of meteorological and oceanographic factors upon coral...

  18. ICON - Port Everglades 2012 Meteorological Observations (NODC Accession 0117727)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) of OAR is conducting research on the influence of meteorological and oceanographic factors upon coral...

  19. ICON - Media Luna Reef 2010 Meteorological and Oceanographic Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) of OAR is conducting research on the influence of meteorological and oceanographic factors upon coral...

  20. ICON - Media Luna Reef 2009 Meteorological and Oceanographic Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) of OAR is conducting research on the influence of meteorological and oceanographic factors upon coral...

  1. ICON - Port Everglades 2015 Meteorological Observations (NCEI Accession 0156578)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) of OAR is conducting research on the influence of meteorological and oceanographic factors upon coral...

  2. ICON - Salt River Bay 2010 Meteorological and Oceanographic Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) of OAR is conducting research on the influence of meteorological and oceanographic factors upon coral...

  3. ICON - Little Cayman, Cayman Islands 2010 Meteorological and Oceanographic Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) of OAR is conducting research on the influence of meteorological and oceanographic factors upon coral...

  4. ICON - Port Everglades 2014 Meteorological Observations (NCEI Accession 0137094)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) of OAR is conducting research on the influence of meteorological and oceanographic factors upon coral...

  5. ICON - Salt River Bay 2005 Meteorological and Oceanographic Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) of OAR is conducting research on the influence of meteorological and oceanographic factors upon coral...

  6. ICON - Salt River Bay 2009 Meteorological and Oceanographic Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) of OAR is conducting research on the influence of meteorological and oceanographic factors upon coral...

  7. ICON - Little Cayman, Cayman Islands 2009 Meteorological and Oceanographic Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) of OAR is conducting research on the influence of meteorological and oceanographic factors upon coral...

  8. Journal of Meteorology and Climate Science: Journal Sponsorship

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Meteorology and Climate Science: Journal Sponsorship. Journal Home > About the Journal > Journal of Meteorology and Climate Science: Journal Sponsorship. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  9. Journal of Meteorology and Climate Science: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... areas of Meteorology and Climate Sciences. We welcome articles or proposals from all perspectives and on all subjects pertaining to Meteorology, Agriculture, Humanity, Physics, Geography, Oceanography and Marine science, GIS, Geophysics, Environmental Sciences, Urban and Regional Planning and Architecture.

  10. Research Ship Kilo Moana Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Kilo Moana Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  11. Research Ship Tangaroa Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Tangaroa Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  12. NOAA Ship Gordon Gunter Underway Meteorological Data, Near Real Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Gordon Gunter Underway Meteorological Data (Near Real Time, updated daily) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS)...

  13. NOAA Ship Fairweather Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Fairweather Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  14. Research Ship Aurora Australis Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Aurora Australis Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  15. NOAA Ship Nancy Foster Underway Meteorological Data, Near Real Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Nancy Foster Underway Meteorological Data (Near Real Time, updated daily) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS)...

  16. ICON - North Norman's Patch Reef 2005 Meteorological and Oceanographic Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) of OAR is conducting research on the influence of meteorological and oceanographic factors upon coral...

  17. GRIP DC-8 METEOROLOGICAL MEASUREMENT SYSTEM (MMS) V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GRIP DC-8 Meteorological measurement System (MMS) dataset was collected by the Meteorological Measurement System (MMS), which provides high-resolution, accurate...

  18. NOAA Ship Oscar Dyson Underway Meteorological Data, Near Real Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Oscar Dyson Underway Meteorological Data (Near Real Time, updated daily) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS)...

  19. Research Ship Nathaniel B. Palmer Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Nathaniel B. Palmer Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and...

  20. Research Ship Knorr Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Knorr Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  1. Research Ship T. G. Thompson Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship T. G. Thompson Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  2. NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  3. NOAA Ship Ronald Brown Underway Meteorological Data, Near Real Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Ronald Brown Underway Meteorological Data (Near Real Time, updated daily) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS)...

  4. NOAA Ship Ronald Brown Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Ronald Brown Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  5. NOAA Ship Pisces Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Pisces Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS)...

  6. NOAA Ship Oscar Elton Sette Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Oscar Elton Sette Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  7. Research Ship Melville Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Melville Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  8. Research Ship Robert Gordon Sproul Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Robert Gordon Sproul Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and...

  9. NOAA Ship Fairweather Underway Meteorological Data, Near Real Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Fairweather Underway Meteorological Data (Near Real Time, updated daily) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS)...

  10. NOAA Ship Rainier Underway Meteorological Data, Near Real Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Rainier Underway Meteorological Data (Near Real Time, updated daily) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS)...

  11. Research Ship Oceanus Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Oceanus Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  12. NOAA Ship Oregon II Underway Meteorological Data, Near Real Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Oregon II Underway Meteorological Data (Near Real Time, updated daily) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS)...

  13. Research Ship Healy Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Healy Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  14. NOAA Ship Oregon II Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Oregon II Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  15. NOAA Ship David Starr Jordan Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship David Starr Jordan Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  16. Research Ship Atlantis Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Atlantis Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  17. NOAA Ship Gordon Gunter Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Gordon Gunter Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  18. NOAA Ship Delaware II Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Delaware II Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  19. Research Ship Laurence M. Gould Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Laurence M. Gould Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  20. NOAA Ship Nancy Foster Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Nancy Foster Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  1. Research Ship Atlantic Explorer Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Atlantic Explorer Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  2. Research Ship Southern Surveyor Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Southern Surveyor Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  3. NOAA Ship Hi'ialakai Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Hi'ialakai Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  4. NOAA Ship Miller Freeman Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Miller Freeman Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  5. NOAA Ship Ka'imimoana Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Ka'imimoana Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  6. Research Ship New Horizon Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship New Horizon Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  7. NOAA Ship Rainier Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Rainier Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  8. NOAA Ship Pisces Underway Meteorological Data, Near Real Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Pisces Underway Meteorological Data (Near Real Time, updated daily) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS)...

  9. NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer Underway Meteorological Data, Near Real Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer Underway Meteorological Data (Near Real Time, updated daily) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  10. Research Ship Roger Revelle Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Roger Revelle Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  11. NOAA Ship Henry B. Bigelow Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Henry B. Bigelow Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  12. NOAA Ship Bell M. Shimada Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Bell M. Shimada Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  13. NOAA Ship Oscar Dyson Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Oscar Dyson Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  14. Valuing lives: Allocating scarce medical resources during a public health emergency and the Americans with Disabilities Act (perspective).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Leslie; Hensel, Wendy

    2011-09-21

    Public health emergencies from natural disasters, infection, and man-made threats can present ethically or legally challenging questions about who will receive scarce resources. Federal and state governments have offered little guidance on how to prioritize distribution of limited resources. Several allocation proposals have appeared in the medical literature, but components of the proposed approaches violate federal antidiscrimination laws and ethical principles about fair treatment. Further planning efforts are needed to develop practical allocation guidelines that comport with antidiscrimination laws and the moral commitment to equal access reflected in those laws.

  15. What are the hydro-meteorological controls on flood characteristics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nied, Manuela; Schröter, Kai; Lüdtke, Stefan; Nguyen, Viet Dung; Merz, Bruno

    2017-02-01

    Flood events can be expressed by a variety of characteristics such as flood magnitude and extent, event duration or incurred loss. Flood estimation and management may benefit from understanding how the different flood characteristics relate to the hydrological catchment conditions preceding the event and to the meteorological conditions throughout the event. In this study, we therefore propose a methodology to investigate the hydro-meteorological controls on different flood characteristics, based on the simulation of the complete flood risk chain from the flood triggering precipitation event, through runoff generation in the catchment, flood routing and possible inundation in the river system and floodplains to flood loss. Conditional cumulative distribution functions and regression tree analysis delineate the seasonal varying flood processes and indicate that the effect of the hydrological pre-conditions, i.e. soil moisture patterns, and of the meteorological conditions, i.e. weather patterns, depends on the considered flood characteristic. The methodology is exemplified for the Elbe catchment. In this catchment, the length of the build-up period, the event duration and the number of gauges undergoing at least a 10-year flood are governed by weather patterns. The affected length and the number of gauges undergoing at least a 2-year flood are however governed by soil moisture patterns. In case of flood severity and loss, the controlling factor is less pronounced. Severity is slightly governed by soil moisture patterns whereas loss is slightly governed by weather patterns. The study highlights that flood magnitude and extent arise from different flood generation processes and concludes that soil moisture patterns as well as weather patterns are not only beneficial to inform on possible flood occurrence but also on the involved flood processes and resulting flood characteristics.

  16. Correlation of subglottic laryngitis in children and meteorological parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasumovic, Merima

    2010-01-01

    Considering hospitalization as an indicator of the severity of acute subglottic laryngitis (ASL), the aim of this study was to determine the correlation between meteorological parameters and the incidence of ASL in children from the Tuzla area. The study included fifty-nine boys and girls from the Tuzla area, which were referred and hospitalized due to the ASL at the Clinic for diseases of ear, nose, throat, cervical and maxillofacial Surgery, University Clinical Center in Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina, during the period of March 21st 2006 until March 20th 2007. We formed two databases: 1. the database on each hospitalized child included data on Body Mass Index (BMI), sex and age. 2. Meteorology database which included information on humidity, air temperature, wind direction and atmospheric pressure, sorted by day, month and season. The results of this study indicate that the number of hospitalized boys due to ASL was significantly higher than girls (48 boys and 11 girls). Boys with an average BMI of 34.53 kg/m2 and 6.77 years of age suffered more frequently from the ASL (81.35%) than girls (18.64%) with an average BMI of 21.59 kg/m2 and the age of 3.8 years. The largest number of children with ASL was admitted during the period of lowest temperature (Fall-12.27 degrees C; Winter-0.50 degrees C), and the largest value of relative humidity (fall 77.33 mmHg-winter 82.50 mmHg). Therefore, this study indicates that meteorological factors (temperature, humidity, wind direction, atmospheric pressure) increase the risk of ASL with young children, primarily boys.

  17. Use of a scenario-neutral approach to identify the key hydro-meteorological attributes that impact runoff from a natural catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Danlu; Westra, Seth; Maier, Holger R.

    2017-11-01

    Scenario-neutral approaches are being used increasingly for assessing the potential impact of climate change on water resource systems, as these approaches allow the performance of these systems to be evaluated independently of climate change projections. However, practical implementations of these approaches are still scarce, with a key limitation being the difficulty of generating a range of plausible future time series of hydro-meteorological data. In this study we apply a recently developed inverse stochastic generation approach to support the scenario-neutral analysis, and thus identify the key hydro-meteorological variables to which the system is most sensitive. The stochastic generator simulates synthetic hydro-meteorological time series that represent plausible future changes in (1) the average, extremes and seasonal patterns of rainfall; and (2) the average values of temperature (Ta), relative humidity (RH) and wind speed (uz) as variables that drive PET. These hydro-meteorological time series are then fed through a conceptual rainfall-runoff model to simulate the potential changes in runoff as a function of changes in the hydro-meteorological variables, and runoff sensitivity is assessed with both correlation and Sobol' sensitivity analyses. The method was applied to a case study catchment in South Australia, and the results showed that the most important hydro-meteorological attributes for runoff were winter rainfall followed by the annual average rainfall, while the PET-related meteorological variables had comparatively little impact. The high importance of winter rainfall can be related to the winter-dominated nature of both the rainfall and runoff regimes in this catchment. The approach illustrated in this study can greatly enhance our understanding of the key hydro-meteorological attributes and processes that are likely to drive catchment runoff under a changing climate, thus enabling the design of tailored climate impact assessments to specific

  18. Sorghum yield and associated satellite-derived meteorological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Africa has sparse meteorological stations, hence it is increasingly common to use satellite-derived meteorological parameters, where in-situ measuremnts are not available. The objective of this study was to determine if there is a relationship between sorghum yield and meteorological parameters (measured and ...

  19. Meteorological Automatic Weather Station (MAWS) Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holdridge, Donna J [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kyrouac, Jenni A [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-08-01

    The Meteorological Automatic Weather Station (MAWS) is a surface meteorological station, manufactured by Vaisala, Inc., dedicated to the balloon-borne sounding system (BBSS), providing surface measurements of the thermodynamic state of the atmosphere and the wind speed and direction for each radiosonde profile. These data are automatically provided to the BBSS during the launch procedure and included in the radiosonde profile as the surface measurements of record for the sounding. The MAWS core set of measurements is: Barometric Pressure (hPa), Temperature (°C), Relative Humidity (%), Arithmetic-Averaged Wind Speed (m/s), and Vector-Averaged Wind Direction (deg). The sensors that collect the core variables are mounted at the standard heights defined for each variable.

  20. Grid-based Meteorological and Crisis Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hluchy, Ladislav; Bartok, Juraj; Tran, Viet; Lucny, Andrej; Gazak, Martin

    2010-05-01

    We present several applications from domain of meteorology and crisis management we developed and/or plan to develop. Particularly, we present IMS Model Suite - a complex software system designed to address the needs of accurate forecast of weather and hazardous weather phenomena, environmental pollution assessment, prediction of consequences of nuclear accident and radiological emergency. We discuss requirements on computational means and our experiences how to meet them by grid computing. The process of a pollution assessment and prediction of the consequences in case of radiological emergence results in complex data-flows and work-flows among databases, models and simulation tools (geographical databases, meteorological and dispersion models, etc.). A pollution assessment and prediction requires running of 3D meteorological model (4 nests with resolution from 50 km to 1.8 km centered on nuclear power plant site, 38 vertical levels) as well as running of the dispersion model performing the simulation of the release transport and deposition of the pollutant with respect to the numeric weather prediction data, released material description, topography, land use description and user defined simulation scenario. Several post-processing options can be selected according to particular situation (e.g. doses calculation). Another example is a forecasting of fog as one of the meteorological phenomena hazardous to the aviation as well as road traffic. It requires complicated physical model and high resolution meteorological modeling due to its dependence on local conditions (precise topography, shorelines and land use classes). An installed fog modeling system requires a 4 time nested parallelized 3D meteorological model with 1.8 km horizontal resolution and 42 levels vertically (approx. 1 million points in 3D space) to be run four times daily. The 3D model outputs and multitude of local measurements are utilized by SPMD-parallelized 1D fog model run every hour. The fog

  1. Meteorological Services Annual Data Report for 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiser, John [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Smith, Scott [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-01-21

    This document presents the meteorological data collected at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) by Meteorological Services (Met Services) for the calendar year 2014. The purpose is to publicize the data sets available to emergency personnel, researchers and facility operations. Met services has been collecting data at BNL since 1949. Data from 1994 to the present is available in digital format. Data is presented in monthly plots of one-minute data. This allows the reader the ability to peruse the data for trends or anomalies that may be of interest to them. Full data sets are available to BNL personnel and to a limited degree outside researchers. The full data sets allow plotting the data on expanded time scales to obtain greater details (e.g., daily solar variability, inversions, etc.).

  2. Meteorological services annual data report for 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiser, John [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Environmental Research & Technology Division, Environmental Sciences Dept.; Smith, Scott [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Environmental Research & Technology Division, Environmental Sciences Dept.

    2013-02-01

    This document presents the meteorological data collected at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) by Meteorological Services (Met Services) for the calendar year 2012. The purpose is to publicize the data sets available to emergency personnel, researchers and facility operations. Met services has been collecting data at BNL since 1949. Data from 1994 to the present is available in digital format. Data is presented in monthly plots of one-minute data. This allows the reader the ability to peruse the data for trends or anomalies that may be of interest to them. Full data sets are available to BNL personnel and to a limited degree outside researchers. The full data sets allow plotting the data on expanded time scales to obtain greater details (e.g., daily solar variability, inversions, etc.).

  3. Meteorological services annual data report for 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiser, John [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Smith, S.

    2017-01-18

    This document presents the meteorological data collected at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) by Meteorological Services (Met Services) for the calendar year 2016. The purpose is to publicize the data sets available to emergency personnel, researchers and facility operations. Met services has been collecting data at BNL since 1949. Data from 1994 to the present is available in digital format. Data is presented in monthly plots of one-minute data. This allows the reader the ability to peruse the data for trends or anomalies that may be of interest to them. Full data sets are available to BNL personnel and to a limited degree outside researchers. The full data sets allow plotting the data on expanded time scales to obtain greater details (e.g., daily solar variability, inversions, etc.).

  4. Meteorological services annual data report for 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiser, John [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Smith, Scott [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-01-25

    This document presents the meteorological data collected at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) by Meteorological Services (Met Services) for the calendar year 2015. The purpose is to publicize the data sets available to emergency personnel, researchers and facility operations. Met services has been collecting data at BNL since 1949. Data from 1994 to the present is available in digital format. Data is presented in monthly plots of one-minute data. This allows the reader the ability to peruse the data for trends or anomalies that may be of interest to them. Full data sets are available to BNL personnel and to a limited degree outside researchers. The full data sets allow plotting the data on expanded time scales to obtain greater details (e.g., daily solar variability, inversions, etc.).

  5. Promoting new links between energy and meteorology. Meeting summaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troccoli, Alberto; Coppin, Peter; Gunasekera, Don

    2013-01-01

    The growing body of knowledge and experience in weather and climate risk management in the energy industry has driven a rapidly growing research interest in establishing links between weather, climate, and energy. Weather and climate information is also critical to managing the energy supply from...... other energy sectors along with better understanding and estimation of energy demand, despite increased attention being stimulated by a renewed and fervent interest in renewable energy sources. The International Conference Energy and Meteorology (ICEM) 2011 has been held in Queensland, Australia......, to take advantage of the substantial overlap between these energy activities and their use of weather and climate information. The objective of the event has been to provide a forum where scientists, engineers, economists, policymakers, and other specialists and practitioners involved in research...

  6. Intense Convective Rain Estimation Using Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Wardah; Abu Bakar, Sahol Hamid; Mohamad, Maznorizan

    2009-03-01

    In this study, a quantitative rainfall estimates model is developed using the information from the Geostationary Meteorological Satellite-5 (GMS-5) infrared (IR) image. The model is to estimate intense convective rainfalls which are responsible for the majority of flash flooding in urban areas of Klang River Basin, Malaysia. Information from records of GMS-5 IR images have been retrieved for selected convective cell clouds associated with intense rain to be trained with the radar rain rate in a back-propagation neural network. The model has been validated against the actual convective rainfalls observed over upper Klang River Basin. Results show a satisfactory performance of the model in estimating a real averaged total rainfall with a correlation coefficient of r as 0.91 between the estimated values with the Thiessen areal averaged total rainfall.

  7. Digital Imaging Research for Meteorological Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-19

    from (RDAOO - RDA07) ADVISAR image or enhancement table memory . Timing pulse DCDC initiates data transfer and, subsequently, DCFLAG signal transfer...systems have evolved because of inexpensive solid-state memory . However, the total systems aspects of meteorological image processing still needs...three images (infrared, visible, difference) utilized the complete dynamic range of the ADVISAR video refresh memories . Clouds that were cold and

  8. What is so important about completing lives? A critique of the modified youngest first principle of scarce resource allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamlund, Espen

    2016-04-01

    Ruth Tallman has recently offered a defense of the modified youngest first principle of scarce resource allocation [1]. According to Tallman, this principle calls for prioritizing adolescents and young adults between 15-40 years of age. In this article, I argue that Tallman's defense of the modified youngest first principle is vulnerable to important objections, and that it is thus unsuitable as a basis for allocating resources. Moreover, Tallman makes claims about the badness of death for individuals at different ages, but she lacks an account of the loss involved in dying to support her claims. To fill this gap in Tallman's account, I propose a view on the badness of death that I call 'Deprivationism'. I argue that this view explains why death is bad for those who die, and that it has some advantages over Tallman's complete lives view in the context of scarce resource allocation. Finally, I consider some objections to the relevance of Deprivationism to resource allocation, and offer my responses.

  9. Medical rehabilitation of spinal cord injury following earthquakes in rehabilitation resource-scarce settings: implications for disaster research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosney, J E; Reinhardt, J D; von Groote, P M; Rathore, F A; Melvin, J L

    2013-08-01

    Narrative literature review. To (1) summarize epidemiological and scientific research on spinal cord injury (SCI) populations from three severe earthquakes (EQs) in rehabilitation resource-scarce settings; (2) summarize SCI rehabilitation services by local and foreign providers in response to these EQs and (3) provide implications including research gaps for a supporting global scientific research agenda. International. A literature review was conducted using PubMed to identify epidemiological studies reporting data on SCI survivors of the 2005 Kashmir EQ in Pakistan, the Sichuan EQ of 2008 in China and the 2010 Haiti EQ. A follow-up review on the SCI rehabilitation services provided by local and foreign providers in response to these EQs was also performed. Review of the scientific literature revealed the qualitative trends in focused EQ victim epidemiological data, including SCI classification and types of medical complications. Selected EQ country narratives showed that post-disaster SCI rehabilitation services were expanded by adapting local resources with international assistance to manage the significant numbers of SCI survivors. The resulting SCI research was limited. A global disaster research agenda for SCI in EQs in rehabilitation resource-scarce settings is needed to strengthen the evidence base for improvement of clinical management and outcomes for SCI EQ survivors. Expansion of this limited narrative review into a systematic review to identify additional research gaps is a proposed next step. Effective disaster setting data management and research collaborations of foreign and local SCI disability and rehabilitation stakeholders will be required for agenda implementation.

  10. Quantitative cloud analysis using meteorological satellites = [Kwantitatieve analyse van wolken met meteorologische satellieten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feijt, A.J.

    2000-01-01

    This thesis is about observations of clouds from satellite and ground based instruments. The aim is to reconstruct the three dimensional cloud distributions. This information is used both in climate research and operational meteorological applications. In climate research, cloud

  11. Meteorological risks as drivers of innovation for agroecosystem management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobin, Anne; Van de Vyver, Hans; Zamani, Sepideh; Curnel, Yannick; Planchon, Viviane; Verspecht, Ann; Van Huylenbroeck, Guido

    2015-04-01

    season. A methodology for identifying agro-ecosystem vulnerability was developed using spatially explicit information and was tested for arable crop production in Belgium. The different components of vulnerability for a region include spatial information on meteorology, soil available water content, soil erosion, the degree of waterlogging, crop share and the diversity of potato varieties. The level of vulnerability and resilience of an agro-ecosystem is also determined by risk management. The types of agricultural risk and their relative importance differ across sectors and farm types. Risk types are further distinguished according to production, market, institutional, financial and liability risks. Strategies are often combined in the risk management strategy of a farmer and include reduction and prevention, mitigation, coping and impact reduction. Based on an extensive literature review, a portfolio of potential strategies was identified at farm, market and policy level. Research hypotheses were tested using an on-line questionnaire on knowledge of agricultural risk, measuring the general risk aversion of the farmer and risk management strategies. The "chain of risk" approach adopted as a research methodology allows for investigating the hypothesis that meteorological risks act as drivers for agricultural innovation. Risks related to extreme weather events in Belgium are mainly caused by heat, frost, excess rainfall, drought and storms, and their impact is predominantly felt by arable, horticultural and extensive dairy farmers. Quantification of the risk is evaluated in terms of probability of occurrence, magnitude, frequency and extent of impact on several agro-ecosystems services. The spatial extent of vulnerability is developed by integrating different layers of geo-information, while risk management is analysed using questionnaires and economic modelling methods. Future work will concentrate on the further development and testing of the currently developed

  12. Analysis of Geographic Coordinates of the Meteorological Post at Zrinjevac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drago Špoljarić

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Meteorological Post at Zrinjevac built in 1884 is a public meteorological station where many citizens and visitors can obtain information about temperature, humidity and air pressure in the centre of the town. Based on the available documentation, the paper presents the analysis of geographic coordinates of the post, their reliability (accuracy – referring to whether they determine the real position of the post and who and when determined them. There are also the analysed coordinates given that were established by Ivan Stožir in 1884, then the coordinates read by Guro Pila in 1890 from the new special map of Austro-Hungarian Monarchy and converted in 1941 by Nikolaj Abakumov from rectangular coordinates from the cadastral plan, and finally, the coordinates determined by means of modern GNSS measuring systems. There are also the changes of the form and the contents of the post show window described that took place on the occasion of two great restorations in 1959 and 1993 and were done in accordance with its modernisation. The clock with the 24-hour dial is also described. The times of sunrise and sunset in Zagreb have been checked and recalculated.

  13. Climatological summary of wind and temperature data for the Hanford Meteorology Monitoring Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glantz, C.S.; Schwartz, M.N.; Burk, K.W.; Kasper, R.B.; Ligotke, M.W.; Perrault, P.J.

    1990-09-01

    This document presents climatological summaries of wind and temperature data collected at the twenty-five monitoring stations operated by the Hanford Meteorology Monitoring Network. The climatological analyses presented here involve hourly averaged wind data collected over an 8-year period beginning in 1982 (fewer wind data are available for the several monitoring stations that began full-time operation after 1982) and hourly averaged air temperature data collected over 2-year period beginning in mid-1988. The tables and figures presented in this document illustrate the spatial and temporal variation of meteorological parameters across the Hanford Site and the surrounding areas. This information is useful for emergency response applications, routine meteorological forecasting, planning and scheduling operations, facility design, and environmental impact studies.

  14. Predictive statistical models linking antecedent meteorological conditions and waterway bacterial contamination in urban waterways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnham, David J; Lall, Upmanu

    2015-06-01

    Although the relationships between meteorological conditions and waterway bacterial contamination are being better understood, statistical models capable of fully leveraging these links have not been developed for highly urbanized settings. We present a hierarchical Bayesian regression model for predicting transient fecal indicator bacteria contamination episodes in urban waterways. Canals, creeks, and rivers of the New York City harbor system are used to examine the model. The model configuration facilitates the hierarchical structure of the underlying system with weekly observations nested within sampling sites, which in turn were nested inside of the harbor network. Models are compared using cross-validation and a variety of Bayesian and classical model fit statistics. The uncertainty of predicted enterococci concentration values is reflected by sampling from the posterior predictive distribution. Issuing predictions with the uncertainty reasonably reflected allows a water manager or a monitoring agency to issue warnings that better reflect the underlying risk of exposure. A model using only antecedent meteorological conditions is shown to correctly classify safe and unsafe levels of enterococci with good accuracy. The hierarchical Bayesian regression approach is most valuable where transient fecal indicator bacteria contamination is problematic and drainage network data are scarce. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Data validation procedures in agricultural meteorology - a prerequisite for their use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez, J.; Gavilán, P.; García-Marín, A. P.

    2011-05-01

    Quality meteorological data sources are critical to scientists, engineers, climate assessments and to make climate related decisions. Accurate quantification of reference evapotranspiration (ET0) in irrigated agriculture is crucial for optimizing crop production, planning and managing irrigation, and for using water resources efficiently. Validation of data insures that the information needed is been properly generated, identifies incorrect values and detects problems that require immediate maintenance attention. The Agroclimatic Information Network of Andalusia at present provides daily estimations of ET0 using meteorological information collected by nearly of one hundred automatic weather stations. It is currently used for technicians and farmers to generate irrigation schedules. Data validation is essential in this context and then, diverse quality control procedures have been applied for each station. Daily average of several meteorological variables were analysed (air temperature, relative humidity and rainfall). The main objective of this study was to develop a quality control system for daily meteorological data which could be applied on any platform and using open source code. Each procedure will either accept the datum as being true or reject the datum and label it as an outlier. The number of outliers for each variable is related to a dynamic range used on each test. Finally, geographical distribution of the outliers was analysed. The study underscores the fact that it is necessary to use different ranges for each station, variable and test to keep the rate of error uniform across the region.

  16. Autonomous Operation of Mars Meteorological Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, W.; Harri, A.-M.; Vázquez, L.; Linkin, V.; Alexashkin, S.

    2012-09-01

    In the next years a series of small landing vehicles concentrating on Martian meteorology should be deployed to the surface of Mars. As commanding from Earth will not be possible most of the time, the station software has to be capable of adapting to any foreseeable conditions and optimize the science return as much as feasible. In this paper we outline the constraints and strategies implemented into the control system of the MetNet Landers. For details to the mission and its instruments see the mission home page [1].

  17. Autonomous Aerial Sensors for Wind Power Meteorology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giebel, Gregor; la Cour-Harbo, Anders; Bange, Jens

    2012-01-01

    measurements of the wake and wake structure are not easy to come by, especially offshore. Very few measurement masts exist to verify our knowledge of atmospheric physics, and most of them are situated in quite homogeneous and gentle terrain. Here, automated Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) could be used...... as either an extension of current masts or to build a network of very high 'masts' in a region of complex terrain or coastal flow conditions. In order to test the potential and limits of UAVs for wind power meteorology, this project assembles four different UAVs from four participating groups. Risø has...

  18. Autonomous Aerial Sensors for Wind Power Meteorology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giebel, Gregor; la Cour-Harbo, Anders; Bange, Jens

    2011-01-01

    of them are situated in quite homogeneous and gentle terrain. Here, automated Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) could be used as either an extension of current masts or to build a network of very high 'masts' in a region of complex terrain or coastal flow conditions. In comparison to a multitude of masts......, UAVs could be quite cost-effective. In order to test this assumption and to test the limits of UAVs for wind power meteorology, this project assembles four different UAVs from four participating groups. Risø has built a lighter-than-air kite with a long tether, Bergen University flies a derivative...

  19. Bringing meteorology ``alive`` through the use of immersion-based learning activities that emphasize role playing and problem solving

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glantz, C.S.; Estes, J.C.; Andrews, G.L.

    1993-07-01

    Current research and emerging standards in teaching and learning say that students learning best when information is presented in a meaningful context and when the students are involved in things they care about. At the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), science education programs have been developed that incorporate these concepts. To help students and teachers understand the process of ``doing`` science, we provide immersion-based programs in such technical areas as meteorology, marine sciences, wetland ecology, groundwater hydrology, robotics, lasers materials science, biology, and archaeology. This paper focuses on a meteorology program the authors developed in recent years to support this immersion experience approach. We will discuss how we link meteorology with other subject matter, how we show the relevance of meteorology to real-world problems, and how we immerse student`s and teachers in activities that help them understand how scientists uncover knowledge and solve problems.

  20. Volcanic ash and meteorological clouds detection by neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picchiani, Matteo; Del Frate, Fabio; Stefano, Corradini; Piscini, Alessandro; Merucci, Luca; Chini, Marco

    2014-05-01

    The recent eruptions of the Icelandic Eyjafjallajokull and Grímsvötn volcanoes occurred in 2010 and 2011 respectively have been highlighted the necessity to increase the accuracy of the ash detection and retrieval. Follow the evolution of the ash plume is crucial for aviation security. Indeed from the accuracy of the algorithms applied to identify the ash presence may depend the safety of the passengers. The difference between the brightness temperatures (BTD) of thermal infrared channels, centered around 11 µm and 12 µm, is suitable to distinguish the ash plume from the meteorological clouds [Prata, 1989] on satellite images. Anyway in some condition an accurate interpretation is essential to avoid false alarms. In particular Corradini et al. (2008) have developed a correction procedure aimed to avoid the atmospheric water vapour effect that tends to mask, or cancel-out, the ash plume effects on the BTD. Another relevant issue is due to the height of the meteorological clouds since their brightness temperatures is affected by this parameter. Moreover the overlapping of ash plume and meteorological clouds may affects the retrieval result since this latter is dependent by the physical temperature of the surface below the ash cloud. For this reason the correct identification of such condition, that can require a proper interpretation by the analyst, is crucial to address properly the inversion of ash parameters. In this work a fast and automatic procedure based on multispectral data from MODIS and a neural network algorithm is applied to the recent eruptions of Eyjafjallajokull and Grímsvötn volcanoes. A similar approach has been already tested with encouraging results in a previous work [Picchiani et al., 2011]. The algorithm is now improved in order to distinguish the meteorological clouds from the ash plume, dividing the latter between ash above sea and ash overlapped to meteorological clouds. The results have been compared to the BTD ones, properly

  1. Effect of meteorological factors on clinical malaria risk among children: an assessment using village-based meteorological stations and community-based parasitological survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simboro Séraphin

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Temperature, rainfall and humidity have been widely associated with the dynamics of malaria vector population and, therefore, with spread of the disease. However, at the local scale, there is a lack of a systematic quantification of the effect of these factors on malaria transmission. Further, most attempts to quantify this effect are based on proxy meteorological data acquired from satellites or interpolated from a different scale. This has led to controversies about the contribution of climate change to malaria transmission risk among others. Our study addresses the original question of relating meteorological factors measured at the local scale with malaria infection, using data collected at the same time and scale. Methods 676 children (6–59 months were selected randomly from three ecologically different sites (urban and rural. During weekly home visits between December 1, 2003, and November 30, 2004, fieldworkers tested children with fever for clinical malaria. They also collected data on possible confounders monthly. Digital meteorological stations measured ambient temperature, humidity, and rainfall in each site. Logistic regression was used to estimate the risk of clinical malaria given the previous month's meteorological conditions. Results The overall incidence of clinical malaria over the study period was 1.07 episodes per child. Meteorological factors were associated with clinical malaria with mean temperature having the largest effect. Conclusion Temperature was the best predictor for clinical malaria among children under five. A systematic measurement of local temperature through ground stations and integration of such data in the routine health information system could support assessment of malaria transmission risk at the district level for well-targeted control efforts.

  2. The Potential Role of Neglected and Underutilised Crop Species as Future Crops under Water Scarce Conditions in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Chivenge

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Modern agricultural systems that promote cultivation of a very limited number of crop species have relegated indigenous crops to the status of neglected and underutilised crop species (NUCS. The complex interactions of water scarcity associated with climate change and variability in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA, and population pressure require innovative strategies to address food insecurity and undernourishment. Current research efforts have identified NUCS as having potential to reduce food and nutrition insecurity, particularly for resource poor households in SSA. This is because of their adaptability to low input agricultural systems and nutritional composition. However, what is required to promote NUCS is scientific research including agronomy, breeding, post-harvest handling and value addition, and linking farmers to markets. Among the essential knowledge base is reliable information about water utilisation by NUCS with potential for commercialisation. This commentary identifies and characterises NUCS with agronomic potential in SSA, especially in the semi-arid areas taking into consideration inter alia: (i what can grow under water-scarce conditions, (ii water requirements, and (iii water productivity. Several representative leafy vegetables, tuber crops, cereal crops and grain legumes were identified as fitting the NUCS category. Agro-biodiversity remains essential for sustainable agriculture.

  3. Estimation of reservoir inflow in data scarce region by using Sacramento rainfall runoff model - A case study for Sittaung River Basin, Myanmar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myo Lin, Nay; Rutten, Martine

    2017-04-01

    The Sittaung River is one of four major rivers in Myanmar. This river basin is developing fast and facing problems with flood, sedimentation, river bank erosion and salt intrusion. At present, more than 20 numbers of reservoirs have already been constructed for multiple purposes such as irrigation, domestic water supply, hydro-power generation, and flood control. The rainfall runoff models are required for the operational management of this reservoir system. In this study, the river basin is divided into (64) sub-catchments and the Sacramento Soil Moisture Accounting (SAC-SMA) models are developed by using satellite rainfall and Geographic Information System (GIS) data. The SAC-SMA model has sixteen calibration parameters, and also uses a unit hydrograph for surface flow routing. The Sobek software package is used for SAC-SMA modelling and simulation of river system. The models are calibrated and tested by using observed discharge and water level data. The statistical results show that the model is applicable to use for data scarce region. Keywords: Sacramento, Sobek, rainfall runoff, reservoir

  4. The solar eclipse: a natural meteorological experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, R Giles; Hanna, Edward

    2016-09-28

    A solar eclipse provides a well-characterized reduction in solar radiation, of calculable amount and duration. This captivating natural astronomical phenomenon is ideally suited to science outreach activities, but the predictability of the change in solar radiation also provides unusual conditions for assessing the atmospheric response to a known stimulus. Modern automatic observing networks used for weather forecasting and atmospheric research have dense spatial coverage, so the quantitative meteorological responses to an eclipse can now be evaluated with excellent space and time resolution. Numerical models representing the atmosphere at high spatial resolution can also be used to predict eclipse-related changes and interpret the observations. Combining the models with measurements yields the elements of a controlled atmospheric experiment on a regional scale (10-1000 km), which is almost impossible to achieve by other means. This modern approach to 'eclipse meteorology' as identified here can ultimately improve weather prediction models and be used to plan for transient reductions in renewable electricity generation. During the 20 March 2015 eclipse, UK electrical energy demand increased by about 3 GWh (11 TJ) or about 4%, alongside reductions in the wind and photovoltaic electrical energy generation of 1.5 GWh (5.5 TJ).This article is part of the themed issue 'Atmospheric effects of solar eclipses stimulated by the 2015 UK eclipse'. © 2016 The Authors.

  5. Analysis of traffic and meteorology on airborne particulate matter in Münster, northwest Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gietl, Johanna K; Klemm, Otto

    2009-07-01

    The importance of street traffic and meteorological conditions on the concentrations of particulate matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10 microm (PM10) was studied in the city of Münster in northwest Germany. The database consisted of meteorological data, data of PM10 mass concentrations and fine particle number (6-225 nm diameter) concentrations, and traffic intensity data as counted with tally hand counters at a four- to six-lane road. On working days, a significant correlation could be found between the diurnal mean PM10 mass concentration and vehicle number. The lower number of heavy-duty vehicles compared with passenger cars contributed more to the particle number concentration on working days than on weekend days. On weekends, when the vehicle number was very low, the correlation between PM10 mass concentration and vehicle number changed completely. Other sources of PM and the meteorology dominated the PM concentration. Independent of the weekday, by decreasing the traffic by approximately 99% during late-night hours, the PM10 concentration was reduced by 12% of the daily mean value. A correlation between PM10 and the particle number concentration was found for each weekday. In this study, meteorological parameters, including the atmospheric stability of the boundary layer, were also accounted for. The authors deployed artificial neural networks to achieve more information on the influence of various meteorological parameters, traffic, and the day of the week. A multilayer perceptron network showed the best results for predicting the PM10 concentration, with the correlation coefficient being 0.72. The influence of relative humidity, temperature, and wind was strong, whereas the influence of atmospheric stability and the traffic parameters was weak. Although traffic contributes a constant amount of particles in a daily and weekly cycle, it is the meteorology that drives most of the variability.

  6. DETERMINING SURFACE TEMPERATURE AND CLOUD TEMPERATURE FROM METEOROLOGICAL EARTH SATELLITES,

    Science.gov (United States)

    ATMOSPHERIC TEMPERATURE, *METEOROLOGICAL SATELLITES), SURFACE TEMPERATURE , CLOUDS, BLACKBODY RADIATION, PERIODIC VARIATIONS, INTEGRALS, BOUNDARY LAYER, INTENSITY, ERRORS, CORRECTIONS, FUNCTIONS(MATHEMATICS), USSR

  7. GPM GROUND VALIDATION METEOROLOGICAL TOWER ENVIRONMENT CANADA GCPEX V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Meteorological Tower Environment Canada GCPEx dataset provides temperature, relative humidity, 10 m winds, pressure and solar radiation...

  8. Monitoring Forsmark. Meteorological monitoring at Forsmark, January-December 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Cari; Jones, Joergen (Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI), Norrkoeping (Sweden))

    2011-01-15

    In the Forsmark area, SKB's meteorological monitoring started in 2003 at the sites Storskaeret and Hoegmasten. However, since July 1, 2007 measurements are only performed at Hoegmasten. Measured and calculated parameters at Hoegmasten are precipitation and corrected precipitation, air temperature, barometric pressure, wind speed and direction, air humidity, global radiation and potential evapotranspiration. The Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, SMHI, has been responsible for planning and design, as well as for the operation of the stations used for meteorological monitoring. In general, the quality of the meteorological measurements during the period concerned, starting January 1, 2010, and ending December 31, 2010, has shown to be good

  9. How useful are meteorological drought indicators to assess agricultural drought impacts across Europe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmair, Sophie; Tanguy, Maliko; Hannaford, Jamie; Stahl, Kerstin

    2016-04-01

    Drought monitoring and early warning (M&EW) is an important component of agricultural and silvicultural risk management. Meteorological indicators such as the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) are widely used in operational M&EW systems and for drought hazard assessment. Meteorological drought yet does not necessarily equate to agricultural drought given differences in drought susceptibility, e.g. crop-specific vulnerability, soil water holding capacity, irrigation and other management practices. How useful are meteorological indicators such as SPI to assess agricultural drought? Would the inclusion of vegetation indicators into drought M&EW systems add value for the agricultural sector? To answer these questions, it is necessary to investigate the link between meteorological indicators and agricultural impacts of drought. Crop yield or loss data is one source of information for drought impacts, yet mostly available as aggregated data at the annual scale. Remotely sensed vegetation stress data offer another possibility to directly assess agricultural impacts with high spatial and temporal resolution and are already used by some M&EW systems. At the same time, reduced crop yield and satellite-based vegetation stress potentially suffer from multi-causality. The aim of this study is therefore to investigate the relation between meteorological drought indicators and agricultural drought impacts for Europe, and to intercompare different agricultural impact variables. As drought indicators we used SPI and the Standardized Precipitation Evaporation Index (SPEI) for different accumulation periods. The focus regarding drought impact variables was on remotely sensed vegetation stress derived from MODIS NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) and LST (Land Surface Temperature) data, but the analysis was complemented with crop yield data and text-based information from the European Drought Impact report Inventory (EDII) for selected countries. A correlation analysis

  10. The Science Behind Moravian Meteorological Observations for Late-18th Century Labrador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Dianne; Lüdecke, Cornelia; Matiu, Michael; Menzel, Annette

    2017-04-01

    From the time they established their first shelter among the Inuit population of the northern coast of Labrador in 1771, the brethren of the Moravian Church began producing series of daily instrumental and qualitative meteorological observations of significance to science networks of the day (Macpherson, 1987, Demarée & Ogilvie, 2008). Contrary to what is understood, missionaries did not make these observations for their own purposes. Rather, they responded to requests from scientists who commissioned the data. Scientists also equipped these undertakings. The enlightened observers provided handwritten copies that were publicized in England and continental Europe by individuals and their philosophical and scientific institutions. This pattern of producing reliable records specifically for scientists was true for the 15-year span of Moravian meteorological observations for all 3 Labrador stations in the late 18th century; the 40-year span of records for 10 Moravian stations in Labrador and Greenland in the mid-19th century; and the observations from 5 Labrador stations commissioned for the 1st international Polar Year, 1882, and continuing for several decades afterward, and longer in the case of Nain. When Nain data is combined with that from the Canadian meteorological service, we have a relatively straight run from 1882 to 2015. In this paper, we examine the late-18th century Moravian meteorological observations for qualitative information of interest to modern scientific research. The daily entries comprise not only measurements of temperature and air pressure, but also other weather observations, such as wind direction, estimated wind speed, cloudiness, information which has already allowed us to begin tracking polar lows travelling from Labrador to Greenland across the Labrador Sea. The annual missionary reports of Moravians provide critical supplementary data identifying recurring local phenological events in nature, which offer an integrated signal of weather

  11. Hydrogeological investigation of shallow aquifers in an arid data-scarce coastal region (El Daba'a, northwestern Egypt)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousif, Mohamed; van Geldern, Robert; Bubenzer, Olaf

    2016-02-01

    Hydrogeological investigations in arid regions are particularly important to support sustainable development. The study area, El Daba'a in northwestern Egypt, faces scarce water resources as a result of reported climate change that particularly affects the southern Mediterranean coast and increases stress on the local groundwater reserves. This change in climate affects the area in terms of drought, over-pumping and unregulated exploration of groundwater for irrigation purposes. The hydrogeological investigation is based on a multidisciplinary data-layer analysis that includes geomorphology, geology, slope, drainage lines, soil type, structural lineaments, subsurface data, stable isotopes, and chemical analyses. The study area contains Pleistocene and middle Miocene marine limestone aquifers. Based on lithology and microfacies analysis, the middle Miocene aquifer is subdivided into two water-bearing zones. The area is affected by sets of faults and anticline folds, and these structures are associated with fractures and joints that increase permeability and facilitate the recharge of groundwater. Stable isotope data indicate that groundwater of both the Pleistocene and middle Miocene aquifers is recharged by modern precipitation. The high salinity values observed in some groundwater wells that tap both aquifers could be attributed to leaching and dissolution processes of marine salts from the aquifers' marine limestone matrix. In addition, human activities can also contribute to an increase in groundwater salinity. A future water exploration strategy, based on the results from the multidisciplinary data-layer analysis, is proposed for the area. The derived scientific approach is transferable to other arid coastal areas with comparable conditions.

  12. Valuing lives and allocating resources: a defense of the modified youngest first principle of scarce resource distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallman, Ruth

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, I argue that the 'modified youngest first' principle provides a morally appropriate criterion for making decisions regarding the distribution of scarce medical resources, and that it is morally preferable to the simple 'youngest first' principle. Based on the complete lives system's goal of maximizing complete lives rather than individual life episodes, I argue that essential to the value we see in complete lives is the first person value attributed by the experiencer of that life. For a life to be 'complete' or 'incomplete,' the subject of that life must be able to understand the concept of a complete life, to have started goals and projects, and to know what it would be for that life to be complete. As the very young are not able to do this, it can reasonably be said that their characteristically human lives have not yet begun, giving those accepting a complete lives approach good reason to accept the modified youngest first principle over a simple 'youngest first' approach. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. An Ethical Framework for Allocating Scarce Life-Saving Chemotherapy and Supportive Care Drugs for Childhood Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unguru, Yoram; Fernandez, Conrad V; Bernhardt, Brooke; Berg, Stacey; Pyke-Grimm, Kim; Woodman, Catherine; Joffe, Steven

    2016-06-01

    Shortages of life-saving chemotherapy and supportive care agents for children with cancer are frequent. These shortages directly affect patients' lives, compromise both standard of care therapies and clinical research, and create substantial ethical challenges. Efforts to prevent drug shortages have yet to gain traction, and existing prioritization frameworks lack concrete guidance clinicians need when faced with difficult prioritization decisions among equally deserving children with cancer. The ethical framework proposed in this Commentary is based upon multidisciplinary expert opinion, further strengthened by an independent panel of peer consultants. The two-step allocation process includes strategies to mitigate existing shortages by minimizing waste and addresses actual prioritization across and within diseases according to a modified utilitarian model that maximizes total benefit while respecting limited constraints on differential treatment of individuals. The framework provides reasoning for explicit decision-making in the face of an actual drug shortage. Moreover, it minimizes bias that might occur when individual clinicians or institutions are forced to make bedside rationing and prioritization decisions and addresses the challenge that individual clinicians face when confronted with bedside decisions regarding allocation. Whenever possible, allocation decisions should be supported by evidence-based recommendations. "Curability," prognosis, and the incremental importance of a particular drug to a given patient's outcome are the critical factors to consider when deciding how to allocate scarce life-saving cancer drugs. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Forecasting rain events - Meteorological models or collective intelligence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arazy, Ofer; Halfon, Noam; Malkinson, Dan

    2015-04-01

    Collective intelligence is shared (or group) intelligence that emerges from the collective efforts of many individuals. Collective intelligence is the aggregate of individual contributions: from simple collective decision making to more sophisticated aggregations such as in crowdsourcing and peer-production systems. In particular, collective intelligence could be used in making predictions about future events, for example by using prediction markets to forecast election results, stock prices, or the outcomes of sport events. To date, there is little research regarding the use of collective intelligence for prediction of weather forecasting. The objective of this study is to investigate the extent to which collective intelligence could be utilized to accurately predict weather events, and in particular rainfall. Our analyses employ metrics of group intelligence, as well as compare the accuracy of groups' predictions against the predictions of the standard model used by the National Meteorological Services. We report on preliminary results from a study conducted over the 2013-2014 and 2014-2015 winters. We have built a web site that allows people to make predictions on precipitation levels on certain locations. During each competition participants were allowed to enter their precipitation forecasts (i.e. 'bets') at three locations and these locations changed between competitions. A precipitation competition was defined as a 48-96 hour period (depending on the expected weather conditions), bets were open 24-48 hours prior to the competition, and during betting period participants were allowed to change their bets with no limitation. In order to explore the effect of transparency, betting mechanisms varied across study's sites: full transparency (participants able to see each other's bets); partial transparency (participants see the group's average bet); and no transparency (no information of others' bets is made available). Several interesting findings emerged from

  15. 60 years of UK visibility measurements: impact of meteorology and atmospheric pollutants on visibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajit; Bloss, William J.; Pope, Francis D.

    2017-02-01

    Reduced visibility is an indicator of poor air quality. Moreover, degradation in visibility can be hazardous to human safety; for example, low visibility can lead to road, rail, sea and air accidents. In this paper, we explore the combined influence of atmospheric aerosol particle and gas characteristics, and meteorology, on long-term visibility. We use visibility data from eight meteorological stations, situated in the UK, which have been running since the 1950s. The site locations include urban, rural and marine environments. Most stations show a long-term trend of increasing visibility, which is indicative of reductions in air pollution, especially in urban areas. Additionally, the visibility at all sites shows a very clear dependence on relative humidity, indicating the importance of aerosol hygroscopicity on the ability of aerosol particles to scatter radiation. The dependence of visibility on other meteorological parameters, such as wind speed and wind direction, is also investigated. Most stations show long-term increases in temperature which can be ascribed to climate change, land-use changes (e.g. urban heat island effects) or a combination of both; the observed effect is greatest in urban areas. The impact of this temperature change upon local relative humidity is discussed. To explain the long-term visibility trends and their dependence on meteorological conditions, the measured data were fitted to a newly developed light-extinction model to generate predictions of historic aerosol and gas scattering and absorbing properties. In general, an excellent fit was achieved between measured and modelled visibility for all eight sites. The model incorporates parameterizations of aerosol hygroscopicity, particle concentration, particle scattering, and particle and gas absorption. This new model should be applicable and is easily transferrable to other data sets worldwide. Hence, historical visibility data can be used to assess trends in aerosol particle

  16. Bureau of Meteorology solar exposure monitoring system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forgan, B.W. [Bureau of Meteorology, Melbourne, VIC (Australia). Global Atmosphere Watch Section

    1996-12-31

    Concern about the solar network in the Australian Bureau of Meteorology lead to a study being commissioned to look at the network and its reason for existence. The final report highlighted the importance of climate record of the basic radiation quantities. As a consequence of the study, a project plan was developed for a new radiation network with the primary objective being to produce quality proven solar and terrestrial exposure data products worthy of customer use in the areas of research and community activity. The objectives, benchmarks and methodology for the new solar and terrestrial exposure measurement system are presented. The system comprises a three tier system including basic and research quantity surface stations and satellite derived solar exposure products. The current status of the new system and the old network are described, including data status, quality control, quality assurance, and instrumentation. Future plans for data dissemination, including satellite derived data are also outlined. (author). 1 tab., 2 figs., 8 refs.

  17. Meteorology in keywords; Meteorologie in Stichworten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emeis, S. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Atmosphaerische Umweltforschung (IFU), Garmisch-Partenkirchen (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    This book presents the fundamentals and current fields of application of meteorology without requiring detailed mathematical knowledge of its readers. It has an index for ready access and many illustrations and tables. It addresses pupils and teachers in higher education, interested layments, and students in their first years. [German] Ozonloch, Luftverschmutzung und Treibhauseffekt sind neben der klassischen Wettervorhersage drei aktuelle Problemkreise, mit denen sich die Meteorologen heute beschaeftigen. In der bewaehrten Form von Hirts Stichwortbuechern werden hier in konzentrierter Form die Grundlagen und die heutigen Anwendungsbereiche der Meteorologie dargestellt. Detaillierte mathematische oder physikalische Kenntnisse werden nicht vorausgesetzt. Uebersichtliche Gliederung, zahlreiche Illustrationen und Tabellen und ein sehr ausfuehrliches Register ermoeglichen ein leichtes Nachschlagen von Informationen zu den oben genannten Fragestellungen und bieten die Grundlage fuer eine weitere Beschaeftigung mit dieser hoch interessanten und aktuellen naturwissenschaftlichen Disziplin. Der angesprochene Leserkreis reicht von Schuelern und Lehrern an den hoeheren Schulen ueber interessierte Laien bis hin zu den Anfangssemestern natur- und umweltwissenschaftlicher Hochschulstudiengaenge. (orig.)

  18. Medical Meteorology: the Relationship between Meteorological Parameters (Humidity, Rainfall, Wind, and Temperature and Brucellosis in Zanjan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousefali Abedini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brucellosis (Malta fever is a major contagious zoonotic disease, with economic and public health importance. Methods To assess the effect of meteorological (temperature, rainfall, humidity, and wind and climate parameters on incidence of brucellosis, brucellosis distribution and meteorological zoning maps of Zanjan Province were prepared using Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW and Kriging technique in Arc GIS medium. Zoning maps of mean temperature, rainfall, humidity, and wind were compared to brucellosis distribution maps. Results: Correlation test showed no relationship between the mean number of patients with brucellosis and any of the four meteorological parameters. Conclusion: It seems that in Zanjan province there is no correlation between brucellosis and meteorological parameters.

  19. Causes of death and demographic characteristics of victims of meteorological disasters in Korea from 1990 to 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jang Jae-Yeon

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Meteorological disasters are an important component when considering climate change issues that impact morbidity and mortality rates. However, there are few epidemiological studies assessing the causes and characteristics of deaths from meteorological disasters. The present study aimed to analyze the causes of death associated with meteorological disasters in Korea, as well as demographic and geographic vulnerabilities and their changing trends, to establish effective measures for the adaptation to meteorological disasters. Methods Deaths associated with meteorological disasters were examined from 2,045 cases in Victim Survey Reports prepared by 16 local governments from 1990 to 2008. Specific causes of death were categorized as drowning, structural collapse, electrocution, lightning, fall, collision, landslide, avalanche, deterioration of disease by disaster, and others. Death rates were analyzed according to the meteorological type, specific causes of death, and demographic and geographic characteristics. Results Drowning (60.3% caused the greatest number of deaths in total, followed by landslide (19.7% and structural collapse (10.1%. However, the causes of deaths differed between disaster types. The meteorological disaster associated with the greatest number of deaths has changed from flood to typhoon. Factors that raised vulnerability included living in coastal provinces (11.3 times higher than inland metropolitan, male gender (1.9 times higher than female, and older age. Conclusions Epidemiological analyses of the causes of death and vulnerability associated with meteorological disasters can provide the necessary information for establishing future adaptation measures against climate change. A more comprehensive system for assessing disaster epidemiology needs to be established.

  20. Statistical analysis of aerosol species, trace gasses, and meteorology in Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binaku, Katrina; O'Brien, Timothy; Schmeling, Martina; Fosco, Tinamarie

    2013-09-01

    Both canonical correlation analysis (CCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were applied to atmospheric aerosol and trace gas concentrations and meteorological data collected in Chicago during the summer months of 2002, 2003, and 2004. Concentrations of ammonium, calcium, nitrate, sulfate, and oxalate particulate matter, as well as, meteorological parameters temperature, wind speed, wind direction, and humidity were subjected to CCA and PCA. Ozone and nitrogen oxide mixing ratios were also included in the data set. The purpose of statistical analysis was to determine the extent of existing linear relationship(s), or lack thereof, between meteorological parameters and pollutant concentrations in addition to reducing dimensionality of the original data to determine sources of pollutants. In CCA, the first three canonical variate pairs derived were statistically significant at the 0.05 level. Canonical correlation between the first canonical variate pair was 0.821, while correlations of the second and third canonical variate pairs were 0.562 and 0.461, respectively. The first canonical variate pair indicated that increasing temperatures resulted in high ozone mixing ratios, while the second canonical variate pair showed wind speed and humidity's influence on local ammonium concentrations. No new information was uncovered in the third variate pair. Canonical loadings were also interpreted for information regarding relationships between data sets. Four principal components (PCs), expressing 77.0 % of original data variance, were derived in PCA. Interpretation of PCs suggested significant production and/or transport of secondary aerosols in the region (PC1). Furthermore, photochemical production of ozone and wind speed's influence on pollutants were expressed (PC2) along with overall measure of local meteorology (PC3). In summary, CCA and PCA results combined were successful in uncovering linear relationships between meteorology and air pollutants in Chicago and

  1. CHALLENGES FOR METEOROLOGY IN THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS (2015-2030

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. MIKA

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In September 2015 the General Assembly of the United Nations (UN accepted the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development including 17 Sustainable Development Goals including 169 more detailed targets. These goals spread over all natural, societal and economical aspects of sustainability all over the world. The aim of our study is to specify those goals and detailed targets in which meteorology can and must play an important role. As concerns the complete Goals, this is only “Goal 13. Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts”. At the level of detailed targets they are many ones in fulfilment of which meteorology should play a role. Having classified the meteorological contributions to the targets, there are four classes defined: air pollution (AP, climate information (CI, climate change (CC and weather prediction. Altogether 26 targets of 16 Goals are found to be relevant to the meteorological activities. The possible contributions are all explained in the five groups in which the Goals are classified.

  2. Spatiotemporal Characteristics of Groundwater Drought and Its Response to Meteorological Drought in Jiangsu Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Liu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the temporal and spatial variations of groundwater drought using a Standardized Groundwater Level Index (SGI were analyzed based on 40 monthly groundwater level observation wells from 1989 to 2012 in Jiangsu Province, China. Meteorological drought, calculated by the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI, was also included to reveal its propagation and impact on the groundwater drought process. Results showed that the southern region of Jiangsu faced more frequent groundwater droughts and lower intensity, while the northern region faced less frequent groundwater drought with higher intensity. Furthermore, the cross-correlation between the spatial average of SGI and SPI for SPI accumulation periods of q = 1 to 12 was computed. The relationship between SGI and SPI varied in different regions. Detailed analysis of the characteristics of groundwater and meteorological drought for each region showed that meteorological droughts happened more frequently than groundwater drought in Jiangsu Province during the study period, while the mean duration and mean magnitude of groundwater droughts were longer and larger than those of meteorological droughts. It is expected that this study will provide useful information for drought monitoring and mitigation in Jiangsu and similar areas.

  3. THE NEW YORK MIDTOWN DISPERSION STUDY (MID-05) METEOROLOGICAL DATA REPORT.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    REYNOLDS,R.M.; SULLIVAN, T.M.; SMITH, S.; CASSELLA, V.

    2007-01-01

    The New York City midtown dispersion program, MID05, examined atmospheric transport in the deep urban canyons near Rockefeller Center. Little is known about air flow and hazardous gas dispersion under such conditions, since previous urban field experiments have focused on small to medium sized cities with much smaller street canyons and examined response over a much larger area. During August, 2005, a series of six gas tracer tests were conducted and sampling was conducted over a 2 km grid. A critical component of understanding gas movement in these studies is detailed wind and meteorological information in the study zone. To support data interpretation and modeling, several meteorological stations were installed at street level and on roof tops in Manhattan. In addition, meteorological data from airports and other weather instrumentation around New York City were collected. This document describes the meteorological component of the project and provides an outline of data file formats for the different instruments. These data provide enough detail to support highly-resolved computational simulations of gas transport in the study zone.

  4. Development of a hydrogeological conceptual wetland model in the data-scarce north-eastern region of Kilombero Valley, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burghof, Sonja; Gabiri, Geofrey; Stumpp, Christine; Chesnaux, Romain; Reichert, Barbara

    2018-02-01

    Understanding groundwater/surface-water interactions in wetlands is crucial because wetlands provide not only a high potential for agricultural production, but also sensitive and valuable ecosystems. This is especially true for the Kilombero floodplain wetland in Tanzania, which represents a data-scarce region in terms of hydrological and hydrogeological data. A comprehensive approach combining hydrogeological with tracer-based assessments was conducted, in order to develop a conceptual hydrogeological wetland model of the area around the city of Ifakara in the north-eastern region of Kilombero catchment. Within the study site, a heterogeneous porous aquifer, with a range of hydraulic conductivities, is underlain by a fractured-rock aquifer. Groundwater chemistry is mainly influenced by silicate weathering and depends on groundwater residence times related to the hydraulic conductivities of the porous aquifer. Groundwater flows from the hillside to the river during most of the year. While floodwater close to the river is mainly derived from overbank flow of the river, floodwater at a greater distance from the river mainly originates from precipitation and groundwater discharge. Evaporation effects in floodwater increase with increasing distance from the river. In general, the contribution of flood and stream water to groundwater recharge is negligible. In terms of an intensification of agricultural activities in the wetland, several conclusions can be drawn from the conceptual model. Results of this study are valuable as a base for further research related to groundwater/surface-water interactions and the conceptual model can be used in the future to set up numerical flow and transport models.

  5. Development of a hydrogeological conceptual wetland model in the data-scarce north-eastern region of Kilombero Valley, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burghof, Sonja; Gabiri, Geofrey; Stumpp, Christine; Chesnaux, Romain; Reichert, Barbara

    2017-08-01

    Understanding groundwater/surface-water interactions in wetlands is crucial because wetlands provide not only a high potential for agricultural production, but also sensitive and valuable ecosystems. This is especially true for the Kilombero floodplain wetland in Tanzania, which represents a data-scarce region in terms of hydrological and hydrogeological data. A comprehensive approach combining hydrogeological with tracer-based assessments was conducted, in order to develop a conceptual hydrogeological wetland model of the area around the city of Ifakara in the north-eastern region of Kilombero catchment. Within the study site, a heterogeneous porous aquifer, with a range of hydraulic conductivities, is underlain by a fractured-rock aquifer. Groundwater chemistry is mainly influenced by silicate weathering and depends on groundwater residence times related to the hydraulic conductivities of the porous aquifer. Groundwater flows from the hillside to the river during most of the year. While floodwater close to the river is mainly derived from overbank flow of the river, floodwater at a greater distance from the river mainly originates from precipitation and groundwater discharge. Evaporation effects in floodwater increase with increasing distance from the river. In general, the contribution of flood and stream water to groundwater recharge is negligible. In terms of an intensification of agricultural activities in the wetland, several conclusions can be drawn from the conceptual model. Results of this study are valuable as a base for further research related to groundwater/surface-water interactions and the conceptual model can be used in the future to set up numerical flow and transport models.

  6. Assessing food security in water scarce regions by Life Cycle Analysis: a case study in the Gaza strip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recanati, Francesca; Castelletti, Andrea; Melià, Paco; Dotelli, Giovanni

    2013-04-01

    Food security is a major issue in Palestine for both political and physical reasons, with direct effects on the local population living conditions: the nutritional level of people in Gaza is classified by FAO as "insecure". As most of the protein supply comes from irrigated agricultural production and aquaculture, freshwater availability is a limiting factor to food security, and the primary reason for frequent conflicts among food production processes (e.g. aquaculture, land livestock or different types of crops). In this study we use Life Cycle Analysis to assess the environmental impacts associated to all the stages of water-based protein production (from agriculture and aquaculture) in the Gaza strip under different agricultural scenarios and hydroclimatic variability. As reported in several recent studies, LCA seems to be an appropriate methodology to analyze agricultural systems and assess associated food security in different socio-economic contexts. However, we argue that the inherently linear and static nature of LCA might prove inadequate to tackle with the complex interaction between water cycle variability and the food production system in water-scarce regions of underdeveloped countries. Lack of sufficient and reliable data to characterize the water cycle is a further source of uncertainty affecting the robustness of the analysis. We investigate pros and cons of LCA and LCA-based option planning in an average size farm in Gaza strip, where farming and aquaculture are family-based and integrated by reuse of fish breeding water for irrigation. Different technological solutions (drip irrigation system, greenhouses etc.) are evaluated to improve protein supply and reduce the pressure on freshwater, particularly during droughts. But this use of technology represent also a contribution in increasing sustainability in agricultural processes, and therefore in economy, of Gaza Strip (reduction in chemical fertilizers and pesticides etc.).

  7. Meteorological Observations Available for the State of Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wharton, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-09-12

    The National Weather Service’s Meteorological Assimilation Data Ingest System (MADIS) contains a large number of station networks of surface and upper air meteorological observations for the state of Utah. In addition to MADIS, observations from individual station networks may also be available. It has been confirmed that LLNL has access to the data sources listed below.

  8. 10 CFR 960.5-2-3 - Meteorology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meteorology. 960.5-2-3 Section 960.5-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Preclosure Radiological Safety § 960.5-2-3 Meteorology. (a) Qualifying...

  9. Formative Evaluation of a Web-Based Course in Meteorology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, Julia; Reynolds, Ross

    1999-01-01

    Describes the formative-evaluation process for the EuroMET (European Meteorological Education and Training) project, Web-Based university courses in meteorology that were created to address the education and training needs of professional meteorologists and students throughout Europe. Usability and interactive and multimedia elements are…

  10. Similarities In Periods Of Meteorological Variables Over Kenya And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using the fast Fourier transform (FFT) method, we determined the spectral characteristics of some meteorological variables over Kenya and identified the prominent periodicities associated with the variables. The meteorological variables studied are the maximum temperature, mini-mum temperature, average temperature, ...

  11. Changes in some meteorological parameters in the Niger delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Changes in some climatic factors in five locations in the Niger delta region of Nigeria (long. 30E-90E and lat.4030'N-5020'N) have been examined with a view to identify the effect of climate change. Data from 1989 to 1996, used for the study were provided by the Meteorological records of the Nigerian meteorological ...

  12. similarities in periods of meteorological variables over kenya and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DEPT OF AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING

    ABSTRACT. Using the fast Fourier transform (FFT) method, we determined the spectral characteristics of some meteorological variables over Kenya and identified the prominent periodicities associated with the variables. The meteorological variables studied are the maximum temperature, mini- mum temperature, average ...

  13. Climatic condition of Calabar as typified by some meteorological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aims at analysing some meteorological data collected by the meteorological department of the Margaret Ekpo International Airport, Calabar between 1985 and 2003. The main objectives were to provide average figures and curves of Calabar climate, and to identify possible trends since 1985. Results show that ...

  14. Sensitivity of meteorological input and soil properties in simulating ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    can be listed as: uncertainties/errors in emission inventories, meteorological input data, boundary conditions, orographical impact on meteorological parameters, aerosol dynamical processes (e.g., dependency of aerosol formation on the meteoro- logical parameters), and especially precursor gases contribution (Easter and ...

  15. Brookhaven National Laboratory meteorological services instrument calibration plan and procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiser, John [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2013-02-16

    This document describes the Meteorological Services (Met Services) Calibration and Maintenance Schedule and Procedures, The purpose is to establish the frequency and mechanism for the calibration and maintenance of the network of meteorological instrumentation operated by Met Services. The goal is to maintain the network in a manner that will result in accurate, precise and reliable readings from the instrumentation.

  16. PROMET - The Journal of Meteorological Education issued by DWD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, J.

    2009-09-01

    Promet is published by the German Meteorological Service (DWD) since 1971 to improve meteorologists and weather forecasters skills. The journal comprises mainly contributions to topics like biometeorology, the NAO, or meteorology and insurance business. The science-based articles should illustrate the special issue in an understandable and transparent way. In addition, the journal contains portraits of other national meteorological services and university departments, book reviews, list of university degrees, and other individual papers. Promet is published only in German language, but included English titles and abstracts. The journal is peer-reviewed by renowned external scientists. It is distributed free of charge by DWD to the own meteorological staff. On the other hand, DMG (the German Meteorological Society) hand it out to all members of the society. The current issues deal with "Modern procedures of weather forecasting in DWD” and "E-Learning in Meteorology”.

  17. The data collection component of the Hanford Meteorology Monitoring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glantz, C.S.; Islam, M.M.

    1988-09-01

    An intensive program of meteorological monitoring is in place at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site. The Hanford Meteorology Monitoring Program involves the measurement, observation, and storage of various meteorological data; continuous monitoring of regional weather conditions by a staff of professional meteorologists; and around-the-clock forecasting of weather conditions for the Hanford Site. The objective of this report is to document the data collection component of the program. In this report, each meteorological monitoring site is discussed in detail. Each site's location and instrumentation are described and photographs are presented. The methods for processing and communicating data to the Hanford Meteorology Station are also discussed. Finally, the procedures followed to maintain and calibrate these instruments are presented. 2 refs., 83 figs., 15 tabs.

  18. Meteorological Uncertainty of atmospheric Dispersion model results (MUD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havskov Sørensen, Jens; Amstrup, Bjarne; Feddersen, Henrik

    uncertainties of the meteorological model results. These uncertainties stem from e.g. limits in meteorological observations used to initialise meteorological forecast series. By perturbing e.g. the initial state of an NWP model run in agreement with the available observational data, an ensemble......The MUD project addresses assessment of uncertainties of atmospheric dispersion model predictions, as well as possibilities for optimum presentation to decision makers. Previously, it has not been possible to estimate such uncertainties quantitatively, but merely to calculate the ‘most likely...... of meteorological forecasts is produced from which uncertainties in the various meteorological parameters are estimated, e.g. probabilities for rain. Corresponding ensembles of atmospheric dispersion can now be computed from which uncertainties of predicted radionuclide concentration and deposition patterns can...

  19. Reactor operation environmental information document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, L.R.; Hayes, D.W.; Hunter, C.H.; Marter, W.L.; Moyer, R.A.

    1989-12-01

    This volume is a reactor operation environmental information document for the Savannah River Plant. Topics include meteorology, surface hydrology, transport, environmental impacts, and radiation effects. 48 figs., 56 tabs. (KD)

  20. Candidate wind-turbine-generator site summarized meteorological data for December 1976-December 1981. [Program WIND listed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandusky, W.F.; Renne, D.S.; Hadley, D.L.

    1982-09-01

    Summarized hourly meteorological data for 16 of the original 17 candidate and wind turbine generator sites collected during the period from December 1976 through December 1981 are presented. The data collection program at some individual sites may not span this entire period, but will be contained within the reporting period. The purpose of providing the summarized data is to document the data collection program and provide data that could be considered representative of long-term meteorological conditions at each site. For each site, data are given in eight tables and a topographic map showing the location of the meteorological tower and turbine, if applicable. Use of information from these tables, along with information about specific wind turbines, should allow the user to estimate the potential for long-term average wind energy production at each site.

  1. Meteorological and snow distribution data in the Izas Experimental Catchment (Spanish Pyrenees) from 2011 to 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revuelto, Jesús; Azorin-Molina, Cesar; Alonso-González, Esteban; Sanmiguel-Vallelado, Alba; Navarro-Serrano, Francisco; Rico, Ibai; López-Moreno, Juan Ignacio

    2017-12-01

    This work describes the snow and meteorological data set available for the Izas Experimental Catchment in the Central Spanish Pyrenees, from the 2011 to 2017 snow seasons. The experimental site is located on the southern side of the Pyrenees between 2000 and 2300 m above sea level, covering an area of 55 ha. The site is a good example of a subalpine environment in which the evolution of snow accumulation and melt are of major importance in many mountain processes. The climatic data set consists of (i) continuous meteorological variables acquired from an automatic weather station (AWS), (ii) detailed information on snow depth distribution collected with a terrestrial laser scanner (TLS, lidar technology) for certain dates across the snow season (between three and six TLS surveys per snow season) and (iii) time-lapse images showing the evolution of the snow-covered area (SCA). The meteorological variables acquired at the AWS are precipitation, air temperature, incoming and reflected solar radiation, infrared surface temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction, atmospheric air pressure, surface temperature (snow or soil surface), and soil temperature; all were taken at 10 min intervals. Snow depth distribution was measured during 23 field campaigns using a TLS, and daily information on the SCA was also retrieved from time-lapse photography. The data set (https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.848277" target="_blank">https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.848277) is valuable since it provides high-spatial-resolution information on the snow depth and snow cover, which is particularly useful when combined with meteorological variables to simulate snow energy and mass balance. This information has already been analyzed in various scientific studies on snow pack dynamics and its interaction with the local climatology or topographical characteristics. However, the database generated has great potential for understanding other environmental processes from a hydrometeorological

  2. Round table discussion " Development of qualification framework in meteorology (TEMPUS QUALIMET)"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashmakova, I.; Belotserkovsky, A.; Karlin, L.; Petrosyan, A.; Serditova, N.; Zilitinkevich, S.

    2010-09-01

    The international consortium has started implementing a project aimed at the development of unified framework of qualifications in meteorology (QualiMet), setting a system of recognition and award of qualifications up to Doctoral level based on standards of knowledge, skill and competence acquired by learners is underway. The QualiMet has the following specific objectives: 1. To develop standards of knowledge, skills and competence for all qualifications up to Doctoral level needed in all possible occupations meteorology learner can undertake, by July 2011 2. To develop reciprocally recognized rubrics, criteria, methods and tools for assessing the compliance with the developed standards (quality assurance), by July 2012 3. To set the network of Centers of Excellence as the primary designer of sample education programs and learning experiences, both in brick-and-mortar and distant setting of delivery, leading to achievement of the developed standards, by December 2012 4. To set a system of mutual international recognition and award of qualifications in meteorology based on the developed procedures and establishment of self-regulatory public organization, by December 2012 The main beneficiaries of the project are: 1. Meteorology learners from the consortium countries. They will be able to make informed decisions about available qualification choices and progression options and provided an opportunity for students and graduates to participate in the system of international continuous education. 2. Meteorology employers from the consortium countries, They will be able to specify the level of knowledge, skill and competence required for occupational roles, evaluate qualifications presented, connect training and development with business needs. 3. Students and academic staff of all the consortium members, who will gain the increased mobility and exchange the fluxes of culturally and institutionally diversified lecturers and qualified specialists

  3. Six- and three-hourly meteorological observations from 223 USSR stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razuvaev, V.N.; Apasova, E.B.; Martuganov, R.A. [All-Russian Research Inst. of Hydrometeorologicl Information, Obninsk (Russia). World Data Centre; Kaiser, D.P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-04-01

    This document describes a database containing 6- and 3-hourly meteorological observations from a 223-station network of the former Soviet Union. These data have been made available through cooperation between the two principal climate data centers of the United States and Russia: the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC), in Asheville, North Carolina, and the All-Russian Research Institute of Hydrometeorological Information -- World Data Centre (RIHMI-WDC) in Obninsk. Station records consist of 6- and 3-hourly observations of some 24 meteorological variables including temperature, weather type, precipitation amount, cloud amount and type, sea level pressure, relative humidity, and wind direction and speed. The 6-hourly observations extend from 1936 to 1965; the 3-hourly observations extend from 1966 through the mid-1980s (1983, 1984, 1985, or 1986; depending on the station). These data have undergone extensive quality assurance checks by RIHMI-WDC, NCDC, and the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC). The database represents a wealth of meteorological information for a large and climatologically important portion of the earth`s land area, and should prove extremely useful for a wide variety of regional climate change studies. These data are available free of charge as a numeric data package (NDP) from CDIAC. The NDP consists of this document and 40 data files that are available via the Internet or on 8mm tape. The total size of the database is {approximately}2.6 gigabytes.

  4. Real-time application of meteorological ensembles for Danube flood forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csík, A.; Gauzer, B.; Gnandt, B.; Balint, G.

    2009-04-01

    demonstration experiment was that the NHFS (VITUKI National Hydrological Forecasting Service of Hungary) system can be used for such a purpose like real-time usage. The relative large number of model runs could be performed within reasonable time. Suggestions are given to adjust appropriate decision support rules to utilise the array of flood forecasts for flood management and warning purposes. The proper estimation of the contribution to forecast error by different modules of the system may help to better understand expected current uncertainty of the forecast. The given research has been partly supported by EC under INTEGRATED PROJECT PREVIEW PREVention, Information and Early Warning Proposal/Contract: 516172. Keywords: real time flood forecast, hydrological ensembles, meteorological ensembles, River Danube, quantitative precipitation forecast, gridded fields, semi-distributed.

  5. BOREAS AES Canadian Hourly and Daily Surface Meteorological Data, R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains hourly and daily meteorological data from 23 meteorological stations across Canada from January 1975 to January 1997. The surface meteorology...

  6. On the early history of the Finnish Meteorological Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevanlinna, H.

    2014-03-01

    This article is a review of the foundation (in 1838) and later developments of the Helsinki (Finland) magnetic and meteorological observatory, today the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI). The main focus of the study is in the early history of the FMI up to the beginning of the 20th century. The first director of the observatory was Physics Professor Johan Jakob Nervander (1805-1848). He was a famous person of the Finnish scientific, academic and cultural community in the early decades of the 19th century. Finland was an autonomously part of the Russian Empire from 1809 to 1917, but the observatory remained organizationally under the University of Helsinki, independent of Russian scientific institutions, and funded by the Finnish Government. Throughout the late-19th century the Meteorological Institute was responsible of nationwide meteorological, hydrological and marine observations and research. The observatory was transferred to the Finnish Society of Sciences and Letters under the name the Central Meteorological Institute in 1881. The focus of the work carried out in the Institute was changed gradually towards meteorology. Magnetic measurements were still continued but in a lower level of importance. The culmination of Finnish geophysical achievements in the 19th century was the participation to the International Polar Year programme in 1882-1883 by setting up a full-scale meteorological and magnetic observatory in Sodankylä, Lapland.

  7. Lightning Jump Algorithm and Relation to Thunderstorm Cell Tracking, GLM Proxy and Other Meteorological Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Christopher J.; Carey, Lawrence D.; Cecil, Daniel J.; Bateman, Monte

    2012-01-01

    The lightning jump algorithm has a robust history in correlating upward trends in lightning to severe and hazardous weather occurrence. The algorithm uses the correlation between the physical principles that govern an updraft's ability to produce microphysical and kinematic conditions conducive for electrification and its role in the development of severe weather conditions. Recent work has demonstrated that the lightning jump algorithm concept holds significant promise in the operational realm, aiding in the identification of thunderstorms that have potential to produce severe or hazardous weather. However, a large amount of work still needs to be completed in spite of these positive results. The total lightning jump algorithm is not a stand-alone concept that can be used independent of other meteorological measurements, parameters, and techniques. For example, the algorithm is highly dependent upon thunderstorm tracking to build lightning histories on convective cells. Current tracking methods show that thunderstorm cell tracking is most reliable and cell histories are most accurate when radar information is incorporated with lightning data. In the absence of radar data, the cell tracking is a bit less reliable but the value added by the lightning information is much greater. For optimal application, the algorithm should be integrated with other measurements that assess storm scale properties (e.g., satellite, radar). Therefore, the recent focus of this research effort has been assessing the lightning jump's relation to thunderstorm tracking, meteorological parameters, and its potential uses in operational meteorology. Furthermore, the algorithm must be tailored for the optically-based GOES-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM), as what has been observed using Very High Frequency Lightning Mapping Array (VHF LMA) measurements will not exactly translate to what will be observed by GLM due to resolution and other instrument differences. Herein, we present some of

  8. Saskatchewan Forest Fire Control Centre Surface Meteorological Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Newcomer, Jeffrey A. (Editor); Funk, Barry; Strub, Richard

    2000-01-01

    The Saskatchewan Forest Fire Control Centre (SFFCC) provided surface meteorological data to BOREAS from its archive. This data set contains hourly surface meteorological data from 18 of the Meteorological stations located across Saskatchewan. Included in these data are parameters of date, time, temperature, relative humidity, wind direction, wind speed, and precipitation. Temporally, the data cover the period of May through September of 1994 and 1995. The data are provided in comma-delimited ASCII files, and are classified as AFM-Staff data. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  9. Application of WRF/Chem-MADRID and WRF/Polyphemus in Europe – Part 1: Model description, evaluation of meteorological predictions, and aerosol–meteorology interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Comprehensive model evaluation and comparison of two 3-D air quality modeling systems (i.e., the Weather Research and Forecast model (WRF/Polyphemus and WRF with chemistry and the Model of Aerosol Dynamics, Reaction, Ionization, and Dissolution (MADRID (WRF/Chem-MADRID are conducted over Western Europe. Part 1 describes the background information for the model comparison and simulation design, the application of WRF for January and July 2001 over triple-nested domains in Western Europe at three horizontal grid resolutions: 0.5°, 0.125°, and 0.025°, and the effect of aerosol/meteorology interactions on meteorological predictions. Nine simulated meteorological variables (i.e., downward shortwave and longwave radiation fluxes (SWDOWN and LWDOWN, outgoing longwave radiation flux (OLR, temperature at 2 m (T2, specific humidity at 2 m (Q2, relative humidity at 2 m (RH2, wind speed at 10 m (WS10, wind direction at 10 m (WD10, and precipitation (Precip are evaluated using available observations in terms of spatial distribution, domainwide daily and site-specific hourly variations, and domainwide performance statistics. The vertical profiles of temperature, dew points, and wind speed/direction are also evaluated using sounding data. WRF demonstrates its capability in capturing diurnal/seasonal variations and spatial gradients and vertical profiles of major meteorological variables. While the domainwide performance of LWDOWN, OLR, T2, Q2, and RH2 at all three grid resolutions is satisfactory overall, large positive or negative biases occur in SWDOWN, WS10, and Precip even at 0.125° or 0.025° in both months and in WD10 in January. In addition, discrepancies between simulations and observations exist in T2, Q2, WS10, and Precip at mountain/high altitude sites and large urban center sites in both months, in particular, during snow events or thunderstorms. These results indicate the model's difficulty in capturing meteorological variables in complex

  10. Monitoring common and scarce breeding birds in the Netherlands : applying a post-hoc stratification and weighting procedure to obtain less biased population trends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turnhout, C. van; Willems, F.; Plate, C.; Strien, A. van; Teunissen, W.; Dijk, Arend van; Foppen, R.

    2008-01-01

    The main objective of the Dutch Breeding Bird Monitoring Program (BMP) is to assess changes in population sizes of common and scarce breeding birds. Despite the large number of study plots, trends might be biased because plots are not equally distributed over the country. In this paper we present

  11. Uncovering genes and ploidy involved in the high diversity in root hair density, length and response to local scarce phosphate in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus G Stetter

    Full Text Available Plant root hairs increase the root surface to enhance the uptake of sparingly soluble and immobile nutrients, such as the essential nutrient phosphorus, from the soil. Here, root hair traits and the response to scarce local phosphorus concentration were studied in 166 accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana using split plates. Root hair density and length were correlated, but highly variable among accessions. Surprisingly, the well-known increase in root hair density under low phosphorus was mostly restricted to genotypes that had less and shorter root hairs under P sufficient conditions. By contrast, several accessions with dense and long root hairs even had lower hair density or shorter hairs in local scarce phosphorus. Furthermore, accessions with whole-genome duplications developed more dense but phosphorus-insensitive root hairs. The impact of genome duplication on root hair density was confirmed by comparing tetraploid accessions with their diploid ancestors. Genome-wide association mapping identified candidate genes potentially involved in root hair responses tp scarce local phosphate. Knock-out mutants in identified candidate genes (CYR1, At1g32360 and RLP48 were isolated and differences in root hair traits in the mutants were confirmed. The large diversity in root hair traits among accessions and the diverse response when local phosphorus is scarce is a rich resource for further functional analyses.

  12. BOREAS/AES MARS-II 15-minute Surface Meteorological Data: 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Contains 15 minute surface meteorology data collected during the 1994 field campaigns by the Atmospheric Environment Service Meteorological Automatic Reporting...

  13. Meteorological phenomena in Western classical orchestral music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, P. D.; Aplin, K. L.

    2012-12-01

    The creative output of composers, writers, and artists is often influenced by their surroundings. To give a literary example, it has been claimed recently that some of the characters in Oliver Twist and A Christmas Carol were based on real-life people who lived near Charles Dickens in London. Of course, an important part of what we see and hear is not only the people with whom we interact, but also our geophysical surroundings. Of all the geophysical phenomena to influence us, the weather is arguably the most significant, because we are exposed to it directly and daily. The weather was a great source of inspiration for Monet, Constable, and Turner, who are known for their scientifically accurate paintings of the skies. But to what extent does weather inspire composers? The authors of this presentation, who are atmospheric scientists by day but amateur classical musicians by night, have been contemplating this question. We have built a systematic musical database, which has allowed us to catalogue and analyze the frequencies with which weather is depicted in a sample of classical orchestral music. The depictions vary from explicit mimicry using traditional and specialized orchestral instruments, through to subtle suggestions. We have found that composers are generally influenced by their own environment in the type of weather they choose to represent. As befits the national stereotype, British composers seem disproportionately keen to depict the UK's variable weather patterns and stormy coastline. Reference: Aplin KL and Williams PD (2011) Meteorological phenomena in Western classical orchestral music. Weather, 66(11), pp 300-306. doi:10.1002/wea.765

  14. Literary Fiction or Ancient Astronomical and Meteorological Observations in the Work of Maria Valtorta?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Matricciani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In The Gospel as revealed to me, Maria Valtorta reports a lot of information on the Holy Land at the time of Jesus: historical, archaeological, astronomical, geographical, meteorological. She states she has written what seen “in vision”. By a detailed astronomical analysis of explicit and implicit calendar information reported while she narrates detailed episodes concerning the three years of Jesus’ public life—possible because of many references to lunar phases, constellations, planets visible in the night sky in her writings—it is ascertained that every event described implies a precise date—day, month, year—without being explicitly reported by her. For example, Jesus’ crucifixion should have occurred on Friday April 23 of the year 34, a date proposed by Isaac Newton. She has also recorded the occurrence of rain so that the number of rainy days reported can be compared to the current meteorological data, supposing random observations and no important changes in rainfall daily frequency in the last 2000 years, the latter issue discussed in the paper. Unexpectedly, both the annual and monthly averages of rainy days deduced from the data available from the Israel Meteorological Service and similar averages deduced from her writings agree very well.

  15. Data validation procedures in Agricultural Meteorology. A prerequisite for their use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez, J.; Gavilán, P.; García-Marín, A.

    2010-09-01

    Quality meteorological data sources are critical to scientists, engineers, climate assessments and to make climate-related decisions. Accurate quantification of reference evapotranspiration (ET0) in irrigated agriculture is crucial for optimizing crop production, planning and managing irrigation and for using water resources efficiently. Validation of data insures that the information needed is been properly generated, identifies incorrect values and detects problems that require immediate maintenance attention. In this work, several validation procedures are described and applied to data from Meteorological Information Network of Andalusia (Southern Spain) for assessing their integrity and quality. This network consists nearly of one hundred automatic weather stations, the aim of which is to provide ET0 and other meteorological data to improve irrigation water management. The procedures include validations of record structure data, range/limits, time and internal consistency, persistence and spatial consistency tests. The system is capable of identifying several types of errors and it is used as a tool that allows to take decisions as sensor replacement, and to remove data prior to their application. Quality assurance tests consist of procedures or rules against which data are tested, setting data flags to provide guidance to end users. Results from validation of air temperature and relative humidity, solar radiation, wind speed and precipitation data are reported in this work.

  16. Mesoscale atmospheric modelling technology as a tool for creating a long-term meteorological dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platonov, Vladimir; Kislov, Alexander; Rivin, Gdaly; Varentsov, Mikhail; Rozinkina, Inna; Nikitin, Mikhail; Chumakov, Mikhail

    2017-11-01

    A detailed hydrodynamic simulation of major meteorological parameters for the last 30 years (1985 – 2014) has been performed for the Sea of Okhotsk and the Sakhalin Island. The regional non-hydrostatic atmospheric model COSMO-CLM was used for this long-term simulation with horizontal resolutions of ~13.2, ~6.6 and ~2.2 km. This dataset was created to help in the investigation of statistical characteristics and physical mechanisms of formation of extreme weather events (primarily wind speed extremes) on small spatio-temporal scales. The detailed meteorological information thus obtained could be used to take into account the coast configuration, mountain systems, and other important mesoscale features of the terrain. This paper describes a proposed downscaling technology for long-term simulations with three “nested domains”. The results of verification of the dataset and estimation of extreme wind velocities are presented.

  17. Arctic Sea Ice Charts from Danish Meteorological Institute, 1893 - 1956

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — From 1893 to 1956, the Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI) created charts of observed and inferred sea ice extent for each summer month. These charts are based on...

  18. Seasonal, meteorological and geophysical factors influence on acute cardiovascular events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ya. Dotsenko

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of research was to explore the influence of seasonal, meteorological and geophysical factors on acute cardiovascular events in the practice of emergency. Methods and results. 11285 cards of emergency visits were analyzed in 2014. The seasonal fluctuations in the frequency of acute cardiovascular events had acrophase in winter months and a mini-phase in summer months (amplitude oscillation was 1.45 times. A close relationship between such fluctuations and meteorologically unfavorable days (III and IV types of weather was found. Such days number was significantly higher in winter months and less during summer months The maximum frequency of acute cardiovascular events increased more than 4-fold when meteorologically unfavorable days and negative influence of geophysical factors (magnetic storms and lunar phase were detected. Conclusion. Influence of seasonal, meteorological and geophysical factors on the acute cardiovascular events needs to be taken into account in the preventive and treatment schemes.

  19. A ship-borne meteorological station for ground truth measurements

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desai, R.G.P.; Desa, B.A.E.

    Oceanographic upwelling studies required ground truth measurements of meteorological parameters and sea surface temperature to be made from a research vessel which did not have the necessary facilities. A ship-borne station was therefore designed...

  20. CLPX-Ground: ISA Corner Site Meteorological Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains meteorological observations at 36 sites throughout the Small Regional Study Area (SRSA) of the NASA Cold Land Processes Field Experiment...

  1. Predicting Ozone Uptake from Meteorological and Environmental Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredericksen, T S; Skelly, J M; Snyder, K R; Steiner, K C; Kolb, T E

    1996-05-01

    Predictions of foliar ozone uptake rates of seedling and canopy black cherry trees (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) were made using concurrent measurements of ambient ozone concentration and other environmental and meteorological data during two growing seasons in north-central Pennsylvania.

  2. Meteorological Data from the Russian Arctic, 1961-2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains monthly means of meteorological observation data from Russian stations from 1961-2000 (for most stations). The Russian station observations...

  3. ISLSCP II ECMWF Near-Surface Meteorology Parameters

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set for the ISLSCP Initiative II data collection provides meteorology data with fixed, monthly, monthly-6-hourly, 6-hourly, and 3-hourly temporal...

  4. ISLSCP II ECMWF Near-Surface Meteorology Parameters

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set for the ISLSCP Initiative II data collection provides meteorology data with fixed, monthly, monthly-6-hourly, 6-hourly, and 3-hourly temporal...

  5. CLPX-Ground: ISA Corner Site Meteorological Data, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains meteorological observations at 36 sites throughout the Small Regional Study Area (SRSA) of the NASA Cold Land Processes Field Experiment...

  6. CLPX-Ground: ISA Main Meteorological Data, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains meteorological observations at ten sites throughout the Small Regional Study Area (SRSA) of the Cold Land Processes Field Experiment (CLPX) in...

  7. ISLSCP II Reanalysis Near-Surface Meteorology Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set for the ISLSCP Initiative II data collection provides near surface meteorological variables, fluxes of heat, moisture and momentum at the...

  8. ISLSCP II Reanalysis Near-Surface Meteorology Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set for the ISLSCP Initiative II data collection provides near surface meteorological variables, fluxes of heat, moisture and momentum at the surface, and...

  9. Environmental Working Group Arctic Meteorology and Climate Atlas, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Arctic Meteorology and Climate Atlas was developed by specialists from the Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute (AARI), St. Petersburg, Russia, the University...

  10. Meteorology and electric power demand; Variabili meteorologici e fabbisogno elettrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonelli, P. [CESI Rubattino, Milan (Italy); Starita, S. [Associazione Ingegneri per l' Ambiente e il Territorio, Partecipazione a iniziative di terzi, Milan (Italy)

    2001-06-01

    A predictable correlation between electric power demand and meteorology variation is analyzed. [Italian] Esiste una correlazione prevedibile tra l'anadamento del fabbisogno elettrico e le variabili meteorologiche.

  11. The meteorological advisor in a nuclear generation station emergency plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caiazza, R.

    1985-01-01

    Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation (NMPC) has developed an extensive emergency response plan for the Nine Mile Point Nuclear Generating Station, located near Oswego, New York, in response to requirements of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). If an emergency involving actual or potential release of radioactivity occurs, meteorological conditions in the vicinity of the plant are an extremely important factor in the emergency response. In recognition of this, NMPC has included a Meteorological Advisor position in its Technical Support Center (TSC)/Emergency Operations Facility (HOF) support staffing plans. The Meteorological Advisor is responsible for verification of meteorological measurements, interpretation and dissemination of weather forecasts, dose projection verification, and monitoring team direction. This paper describes those responsibilities as they are integrated into the emergency plan.

  12. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) - Space Weather Sensors

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) maintains a constellation of sun-synchronous, near-polar orbiting satellites. The orbital period is 101 minutes...

  13. NAMMA DC-8 METEOROLOGICAL MEASUREMENT SYSTEM (MMS) V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NAMMA DC-8 Meteorological Measurement System (MMS) dataset used the MMS, which consists of three major systems: an air-motion sensing system to measure air...

  14. CCAA Learning Paper 1 Integrating meteorological and indigenous ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    based seasonal climate forecasts for the agricultural sector ... forecasts developed by national meteorological services (SCFs) might be better integrated into agricultural and pastoral decision-making to strengthen livelihoods and food security.

  15. A Comprehensive Estimation of the Economic Effects of Meteorological Services Based on the Input-Output Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianhua Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Concentrating on consuming coefficient, partition coefficient, and Leontief inverse matrix, relevant concepts and algorithms are developed for estimating the impact of meteorological services including the associated (indirect, complete economic effect. Subsequently, quantitative estimations are particularly obtained for the meteorological services in Jiangxi province by utilizing the input-output method. It is found that the economic effects are noticeably rescued by the preventive strategies developed from both the meteorological information and internal relevance (interdependency in the industrial economic system. Another finding is that the ratio range of input in the complete economic effect on meteorological services is about 1 : 108.27–1 : 183.06, remarkably different from a previous estimation based on the Delphi method (1 : 30–1 : 51. Particularly, economic effects of meteorological services are higher for nontraditional users of manufacturing, wholesale and retail trades, services sector, tourism and culture, and art and lower for traditional users of agriculture, forestry, livestock, fishery, and construction industries.

  16. Meteorological fluid dynamics asymptotic modelling, stability and chaotic atmospheric motion

    CERN Document Server

    Zeytounian, Radyadour K

    1991-01-01

    The author considers meteorology as a part of fluid dynamics. He tries to derive the properties of atmospheric flows from a rational analysis of the Navier-Stokes equations, at the same time analyzing various types of initial and boundary problems. This approach to simulate nature by models from fluid dynamics will be of interest to both scientists and students of physics and theoretical meteorology.

  17. Linking meteorology, air pollution, and health in Melbourne, Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Pearce, John Lanier

    2017-01-01

    The importance of meteorology in air pollution processes and its influence on human health is understood; however, these relationships and their interactions are expected to be different under a changing climate. Thus, a considerable challenge is presented to those charged with air quality management because alterations in meteorological conditions stemming from a changing climate will vary from one geographic region to the next. To further complicate matters, the influence of weather on air ...

  18. Modeling conditional covariance between meteorological and hydrological drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modarres, R.

    2012-12-01

    This study introduces a bivariate Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity (GARCH) approach to model the time varying second order moment or conditional variance-covariance link of hydrologic and meteorological drought. The standardized streamflow and rainfall time series are selected as drought indices and the bivariate diagonal BEKK model is applied to estimate the conditional variance-covariance structure between hydrologic and meteorological drought. Results of diagonal BEKK(1,1) model indicated that the conditional variance of meteorological drought is weak and much smaller than that for hydrological drought which shows a strong volatility effect. However both drought indices show a weak memory in the conditional variance. It is also observed that the conditional covariance between two drought indices is also weak and only shows a slight short run volatility effect. This may suggest the effect of basin features such as groundwater storage and physical characteristics which attenuate and modify the effect of meteorological drought on hydrologic drought in the basin scale. conditional correlation time series between meteorological and hydrologic drought at two selected stations monthly variation of conditional correlation between meteorological and hydrologic drought at two selected stations

  19. The influence of meteorology on the spread of influenza: survival analysis of an equine influenza (A/H3N8) outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firestone, Simon M; Cogger, Naomi; Ward, Michael P; Toribio, Jenny-Ann L M L; Moloney, Barbara J; Dhand, Navneet K

    2012-01-01

    The influences of relative humidity and ambient temperature on the transmission of influenza A viruses have recently been established under controlled laboratory conditions. The interplay of meteorological factors during an actual influenza epidemic is less clear, and research into the contribution of wind to epidemic spread is scarce. By applying geostatistics and survival analysis to data from a large outbreak of equine influenza (A/H3N8), we quantified the association between hazard of infection and air temperature, relative humidity, rainfall, and wind velocity, whilst controlling for premises-level covariates. The pattern of disease spread in space and time was described using extraction mapping and instantaneous hazard curves. Meteorological conditions at each premises location were estimated by kriging daily meteorological data and analysed as time-lagged time-varying predictors using generalised Cox regression. Meteorological covariates time-lagged by three days were strongly associated with hazard of influenza infection, corresponding closely with the incubation period of equine influenza. Hazard of equine influenza infection was higher when relative humidity was 30 km hour(-1) from the direction of nearby infected premises were associated with increased hazard of infection. Through combining detailed influenza outbreak and meteorological data, we provide empirical evidence for the underlying environmental mechanisms that influenced the local spread of an outbreak of influenza A. Our analysis supports, and extends, the findings of studies into influenza A transmission conducted under laboratory conditions. The relationships described are of direct importance for managing disease risk during influenza outbreaks in horses, and more generally, advance our understanding of the transmission of influenza A viruses under field conditions.

  20. Potential Analysis of Thunderstorm Occurrence Using SWEAT Method at Meteorology Station Sultan Iskandar Muda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulfah Kurnia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Salah satu hal penting dalam mengutamakan keselamatan penerbangan ialah informasi meteorologi yang tepat dan akurat terutama mengenai kondisi cuaca buruk seperti thunderstorm. Oleh karena itu, perlu dilakukan prakiraan potensi terjadinya thunderstorm, sehingga pihak maskapai penerbangan dapat menyesuaikan prosedur keselamatan baik pada saat take off, on the route, maupun landing. Pada penelitian ini dilakukan analisis data radiosonde pada 2 (dua musim, yaitu musim kemarau dan musim hujan untuk memprakirakan potensi terjadinya thunderstorm selama periode April-Desember 2016 dan Januari-Maret 2017. Data radiosonde tersebut diperoleh dari Stasiun Meteorologi Sultan Iskandar Muda yang telah diukur setiap dua kali dalam satu hari. Waktu pengukurannya ialah pada pukul 00Z dan pukul 12Z. Dengan menggunakan Software Rawinsonde Observation (RAOB versi 5.7, dilakukan pengolahan data radiosonde sehingga diperoleh informasi parameter atmosfer seperti temperatur, titik embun, dan kecepatan angin. Parameter atmosfer tersebut dapat digunakan untuk memprakirakan potensi terjadinya thunderstorm selama dua belas jam kedepan, yaitu dengan menggunakan metode SWEAT (Severe Weather Threat sehingga diperoleh SWEAT Indeks untuk setiap pengukuran radiosonde. Berdasarkan penelitian yang telah dilakukan, diketahui SWEAT Indeks untuk wilayah Stasiun Meteorologi Sultan Iskandar Muda berkisar antara 39,8 - 355,4. Hasil analisis metode SWEAT diverifikasi dengan data aktual (data synop yang diamati di Stasiun Meteorologi Sultan Iskandar Muda dan diketahui persentase kesesuaian antara data prakiraan dengan kondisi aktual yaitu 58,62-66,67%.   One of the most important things in aviation safety is the accurate information of meteorology especially on bad weather conditions as thunderstorm. Therefore, need to forecast about potential occurrence of thunderstorm, so the airlines can adjust safety aviation when take of, an the route, and landing. In this research was analysis of

  1. Assessment of the Casualty Risk of Multiple Meteorological Hazards in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A study of the frequency, intensity, and risk of extreme climatic events or natural hazards is important for assessing the impacts of climate change. Many models have been developed to assess the risk of multiple hazards, however, most of the existing approaches can only model the relative levels of risk. This paper reports the development of a method for the quantitative assessment of the risk of multiple hazards based on information diffusion. This method was used to assess the risks of loss of human lives from 11 types of meteorological hazards in China at the prefectural and provincial levels. Risk curves of multiple hazards were obtained for each province and the risks of 10-year, 20-year, 50-year, and 100-year return periods were mapped. The results show that the provinces (municipalities, autonomous regions in southeastern China are at higher risk of multiple meteorological hazards as a result of their geographical location and topography. The results of this study can be used as references for the management of meteorological disasters in China. The model can be used to quantitatively calculate the risks of casualty, direct economic losses, building collapse, and agricultural losses for any hazards at different spatial scales.

  2. Effects of Water Management Strategies on Water Balance in a Water Scarce Region: A Case Study in Beijing by a Holistic Model

    OpenAIRE

    Zhigong Peng; Baozhong Zhang; Xueliang Cai; Lei Wang

    2016-01-01

    Irrigation is facing increasing pressure from other competitive water users to reduce water consumption in a water scarce region. Based on the Basin-wide Holistic Integrated Water Assessment (BHIWA) model, the effects of water management strategies on water balance in the dry regions of North China were analyzed. The results show that, with the decrease of irrigation water supply reliability (IWSR) and the increase of irrigation water use efficiency (WUE), irrigation water use decreased signi...

  3. Hydro-meteorological extreme events in the 18th century in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragoso, Marcelo; João Alcoforado, Maria; Taborda, João Paulo

    2013-04-01

    The present work is carried out in the frame of the KLIMHIST PROJECT ("Reconstruction and model simulations of past climate in Portugal using documentary and early instrumental sources, 17th-19th century)", and is devoted to the study of hydro-meteorological extreme events during the last 350 years, in order to understand how they have changed in time and compare them with current analogues. More specifically, the results selected to this presentation will focus on some hydro-meteorological extreme events of the 18th century, like severe droughts, heavy precipitation episodes and windstorms. One of the most noteworthy events was the winterstorm Bárbara (3rd to 6th December 1739), already studied in prior investigations (Taborda et al, 2004; Pfister et al, 2010), a devastating storm with strong impacts in Portugal caused by violent winds and heavy rainfall. Several other extreme events were detected by searching different documentary archives, including individual, administrative and ecclesiastic sources. Moreover, a more detailed insight to the 1783-1787 period will be made with regard the Lisbon region, taking into consideration the availability of information for daily meteorological observations as well as documentary evidences, like descriptions from Gazeta de Lisboa, the periodic with more continuous publication in the 18thcentury. Key-words: Instrumental data, Documentary data, Extreme events, Klimhist Project, Portugal References Pfister, C., Garnier, E., Alcoforado, M.J., Wheeler, D. Luterbacher, J. Nunes, M.F., Taborda, J.P. (2010) The meteorological framework and the cultural memory of three severe winter-storms in early eighteenth-century Europe, Climatic Change, 101, 1-2, 281-310 Taborda, JP; Alcoforado, MJ and Garcia, JC (2004) O Clima do Sul de Portugal no Séc.XVIII, Centro de Estudos Geográficos, Área de de Investigação de Geo-Ecologia, relatório no 2

  4. Online training delivery in meteorological continued education and training: Eumetcal experiences & plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siili, Tero; Haga, Lisa; Neitiniemi-Upola, Leena

    2013-04-01

    Eumetcal is the Education and Training (E & T) project of EUMETNET - the collaboration organ­isation of European National Meteorological and Hydrological Services (NMHSs) - with emphasis on Computer Assisted Learning (CAL) from the project's inception in 2002. Finnish Meteorological Institute has been assigned to manage the Eumetcal project since the onset of the project's pilot phase. Participat­ing NMHSs cover most of Europe, their number exceeds 20 and the scales and scopes of their in-house E & T activities vary widely. Eumetcal also collaborates with a number of E & T organisations in Europe and worldwide. Eumetcal's target group includes the meteorological staff and E & T personnel of the participant NMHSs; the target group is hence geographically widely distributed. The subject matters covered include not only scientific and technical skills and competencies, but also other types of competen­cies relevant to NMHSs' staff. Eumetcal's goal and task is to supplement the E & T activities of the participants through collabora­tion and networking, both between project participants and with other E & T organisations. The project also utilises Information and Communications Technologies extensively in delivery of E & T events and materials: Eumetcal is a Virtual Training Organisation and emphasises online and blended E & T events. In the last five years the project has organised or contributed to at least 2-4 E & T events per year. This presentation a) gives an overview of the Eumetcal project and its place among meteorological E & T organisations in Europe and globally, as well as b) describes the E & T events the project has delivered or contributed to in the last years and plans to deliver in 2013. Emphasis will be on the online and blended events and lessons learned from designing and implementing these events and the benefits of using online training.

  5. Obtaining meteorological data from historical newspapers: La Integridad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-González, Ignacio A.; Añel, Juan A.; Saenz, Guadalupe; Gimeno, Luis; de la Torre, Laura; Polychroniadou, Eleni; Vidal-Mina, Renán

    2017-04-01

    The meteorological data recovery from old documentary sources is of huge significance for meteorological and weather research of our planet. In this work we present the meteorological series from the end of XIX century and the beginning of the XX at the A Guarda's Observatory, pioneer in Galicia in this kind of measurements and located in that time at "Colexio Xesuita Apóstol Santiago". The data series was obtained from meteorological notes of the catholic newspaper "La Integridad" published in that dates in Tui(Galicia). It was revised in total for this study more than 1000 newspapers from this publication and it was manually retrieved about 60000 individual measurements. Recovered variables include temperature, pressure, wind, relative humidity, vapor pressure, evaporation, precipitation and overview weather observations. This enables us to get a general picture of weather for this period of time in the studied region, to validate and to complete others independent data sources and study climate change. Also we prove the reliability of meteorological forecasts published from time to time in the same journal using sea level pressure fields from historical datasets provided by the MetOffice.

  6. Invited perspectives: Hydrological perspectives on precipitation intensity-duration thresholds for landslide initiation: proposing hydro-meteorological thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaard, Thom; Greco, Roberto

    2018-01-01

    Many shallow landslides and debris flows are precipitation initiated. Therefore, regional landslide hazard assessment is often based on empirically derived precipitation intensity-duration (ID) thresholds and landslide inventories. Generally, two features of precipitation events are plotted and labeled with (shallow) landslide occurrence or non-occurrence. Hereafter, a separation line or zone is drawn, mostly in logarithmic space. The practical background of ID is that often only meteorological information is available when analyzing (non-)occurrence of shallow landslides and, at the same time, it could be that precipitation information is a good proxy for both meteorological trigger and hydrological cause. Although applied in many case studies, this approach suffers from many false positives as well as limited physical process understanding. Some first steps towards a more hydrologically based approach have been proposed in the past, but these efforts received limited follow-up.Therefore, the objective of our paper is to (a) critically analyze the concept of precipitation ID thresholds for shallow landslides and debris flows from a hydro-meteorological point of view and (b) propose a trigger-cause conceptual framework for lumped regional hydro-meteorological hazard assessment based on published examples and associated discussion. We discuss the ID thresholds in relation to return periods of precipitation, soil physics, and slope and catchment water balance. With this paper, we aim to contribute to the development of a stronger conceptual model for regional landslide hazard assessment based on physical process understanding and empirical data.

  7. Invited perspectives: Hydrological perspectives on precipitation intensity-duration thresholds for landslide initiation: proposing hydro-meteorological thresholds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Bogaard

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Many shallow landslides and debris flows are precipitation initiated. Therefore, regional landslide hazard assessment is often based on empirically derived precipitation intensity-duration (ID thresholds and landslide inventories. Generally, two features of precipitation events are plotted and labeled with (shallow landslide occurrence or non-occurrence. Hereafter, a separation line or zone is drawn, mostly in logarithmic space. The practical background of ID is that often only meteorological information is available when analyzing (non-occurrence of shallow landslides and, at the same time, it could be that precipitation information is a good proxy for both meteorological trigger and hydrological cause. Although applied in many case studies, this approach suffers from many false positives as well as limited physical process understanding. Some first steps towards a more hydrologically based approach have been proposed in the past, but these efforts received limited follow-up.Therefore, the objective of our paper is to (a critically analyze the concept of precipitation ID thresholds for shallow landslides and debris flows from a hydro-meteorological point of view and (b propose a trigger–cause conceptual framework for lumped regional hydro-meteorological hazard assessment based on published examples and associated discussion. We discuss the ID thresholds in relation to return periods of precipitation, soil physics, and slope and catchment water balance. With this paper, we aim to contribute to the development of a stronger conceptual model for regional landslide hazard assessment based on physical process understanding and empirical data.

  8. An assessment of global meteorological droughts based on HAPPI experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenbin; Sun, Fubao; Lim, Wee Ho; Zhang, Jie

    2017-04-01

    Droughts caused water shortages could lead to serious consequences on the socioeconomic and environmental well-being. In the context of changing climate, droughts monitoring, attributions and impact assessments have been performed using observations (e.g., Sun et al., 2012; Zhang et al., 2016) and climate model projections (e.g., Liu et al., 2016, 2017); with expectation that such scientific knowledge would feed into long-term adaptation and mitigation plans to tackle potentially unfavorable future drought impacts in a warming world. Inspired by the 2015 Paris Agreement, the HAPPI (Half a degree Additional warming, Projections, Prognosis and Impacts) experiments were set up to better inform international policymakers about the socioeconomic and environmental impacts under less severe global warming conditions. This study aims to understand the potential shift in meteorological droughts from the past into the future on a global scale. Based on the HAPPI data, we evaluate the change in drought related indices (i.e., PET/P, PDSI) from the past to the future scenarios (1.5 and 2 degrees Celsius warming). Here we present some early results (MIROC5 as demonstration) on identified hotspots and discuss the differences in severity of droughts between these warming worlds and associated consequences. References: Liu W, and Sun F, 2017. Projecting and attributing future changes of evaporative demand over China in CMIP5 climate models, Journal of Hydrometeorology, doi: 10.1175/JHM-D-16-0204.1 Liu W, and Sun F, 2016. Assessing estimates of evaporative demand in climate models using observed pan evaporation over China. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmosphere 121, 8329-8349 Zhang J, Sun F, Xu J, Chen Y, Sang Y, -F, and Liu C, 2016. Dependence of trends in and sensitivity of drought over China (1961-2013) on potential evaporation model. Geophysical Research Letters 43, 206-213 Sun F, Roderick M, Farquhar G, 2012. Changes in the variability of global land precipitation

  9. Meteorological Implications of the First Voyage of Christopher Columbus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerveny, Randall S.; Hobgood, Jay S.

    1992-02-01

    The log of the first voyage of Christopher Columbus to the New World provides valuable information on the meteorological conditions of September 1492. Comparison and analysis of the descriptive accounts of weather made by Columbus and his pilots to other available Columbian and modern data leads to two distinct perspectives on the Columbian voyage: an examination of the frequency of "calm" events, and an analysis of the lack of tropical storm activity. The major conclusions of the first portion of the study include: 1) The Columbian pilots' descriptions of "cairns" related to travel slower than travel occurring during other portions of the voyage. That rate of travel compares favorably to calm winds and an oceanic current of 0.4 knots, a value close to modern-day values; 2) The frequency of "calm" events experienced by Christopher Columbus in 1492 is significantly higher than the most liberal estimates of calms in the North Atlantic over the last 100 years; and 3) The locations of the Columbian calms are generally in the same region currently experiencing the highest frequency of calms. The main finding of the second portion of the study is that, based on historical hurricane records from 1886 to 1989, the center of a hurricane would have passed within 100 km of Columbus only once in the past 104 years. Inclusion of tropical storms increases this number to four out of 104 years. Therefore, while Columbus may indeed have been fortunate to have avoided severe weather during his voyage, the odds decidedly were in his favor. This Columbian "weather luck" was due to a combination of 1) encountering abnormally strong anticyclonic flow over the eastern North Atlantic, 2) starting late enough in the hurricane season to significantly decrease the probability of experiencing a hurricane, and 3) taking a north and easterly voyage, thereby avoiding the area of maximum hurricane occurrence.

  10. Meteorological Fractionation of Nuclear Bomb Debris

    OpenAIRE

    Storebö, Per B.

    2011-01-01

    Radioactive particles are produced by nuclear bomb explosions which are widely different in size and nature. Systematic differences in properties are expected for particles formed under different conditions. Differences in particle properties may cause sorting during deposition because of systematic differences in weather trends at different geographical locations and thus bring to light information about the particles. Deposits at a mountain station in Norway appear to have contained more s...

  11. Numerical simulation of meteorological conditions for peak pollution in Paris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carissimo, B. [Electricite de France (EDF), 78 - Chatou (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches

    1997-06-01

    Results obtained on the simulation of meteorological conditions during two episodes of peak pollution in Paris are presented, one in the winter, the other in the summer. The A3UR air quality modelling system is first described followed by the MERCURE mesoscale meteorological model. The conditions of simulation are described. The results obtained on these two causes show satisfactory agreement, for example on the magnitude of the urban heat island which is correctly reproduced. In this study, several areas of progress have been identified: improvement of the altitude measurement network around cities, the simulation of light wind conditions and the simulation of formation and dissipation of fog. (author) 24 refs.

  12. Towards A Grid Infrastructure For Hydro-Meteorological Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Schiffers

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Distributed Research Infrastructure for Hydro-Meteorological Study (DRIHMS is a coordinatedaction co-funded by the European Commission. DRIHMS analyzes the main issuesthat arise when designing and setting up a pan-European Grid-based e-Infrastructure for researchactivities in the hydrologic and meteorological fields. The main outcome of the projectis represented first by a set of Grid usage patterns to support innovative hydro-meteorologicalresearch activities, and second by the implications that such patterns define for a dedicatedGrid infrastructure and the respective Grid architecture.

  13. Analysing the correlations of long-term seasonal water quality parameters, suspended solids and total dissolved solids in a shallow reservoir with meteorological factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chen; Zhang, Wenna; Huang, Yixuan; Gao, Xueping

    2017-03-01

    To explore the correlations among water quality parameters, suspended solids (SS) and total dissolved solids (TDS) with meteorological factors in a shallow reservoir in China, the long-term variations of water quality were considered. A non-parametric regression method, generalized additive models (GAM), was used to analyse the correlations among eleven physicochemical and biological parameters as well as three meteorological factors (wind speed, rainfall and solar radiation) which we collected from 2000 to 2011. The results indicate that the three meteorological factors may have positive effects on SS. Moreover, statistically significant correlations between many water quality parameters and SS or TDS were exhibited seasonally. The correlations between electrical conductivity (EC) and SS were opposite to correlations between EC and TDS. This finding reveals that TDS have a positive impact on EC, while EC negatively affects SS. The results indicated that many parameters, such as total nitrogen, total phosphorus, biological oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD), were related to SS due to the adsorption of SS. Moreover, both positive and negative correlations between COD and TDS were observed in this freshwater reservoir. The positive correlation between chlorophyll a and SS suggested that the change of SS concentration in autumn was caused by the growth of algae. Meanwhile, significant correlations between SS and meteorological factors were also observed, indicating that meteorological factors had effects on SS dynamics. This study provides useful information regarding the correlations among water quality parameters, SS and TDS with meteorological factors in a freshwater reservoir.

  14. Merging raster meteorological data with low resolution satellite images for improved estimation of actual evapotranspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherif, Ines; Alexandridis, Thomas; Chambel Leitao, Pedro; Jauch, Eduardo; Stavridou, Domna; Iordanidis, Charalampos; Silleos, Nikolaos; Misopolinos, Nikolaos; Neves, Ramiro; Safara Araujo, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    ). A correlation analysis was performed at the common spatial resolution of 1km using selected homogeneous pixels (from the land cover point of view). A statistically significant correlation factor of 0.6 was found, and the RMSE was 0.92 mm/day. Using raster meteorological data the ITA-MyWater algorithms were able to catch the variability of weather patterns over the river basin and thus improved the spatial distribution of evapotranpiration estimations at low resolution. The work presented is part of the FP7-EU project "Merging hydrological models and Earth observation data for reliable information on water - MyWater".

  15. In search of colonial El Niño events and a brief history of meteorology in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Terneus

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study shows a brief overview of the development of meteorology in Ecuador from historical documentation of climatic events in the Colonial era through to modern data collection. In the colonial era (16th century-1824, historical documents of rogation ceremonies and municipal proceedings, from the Quito area, provide a rich source of climate information, including El Niño events. Our preliminary findings show that very few of the historically documented catastrophes and other marked environmental events in Quito match known El Niño episodes. Independently, the first meteorological data was collected in Ecuador (beginning with La Condamine in 1738, followed by the earliest attempts to build a national meteorological network in the 1860's, linked closely to President Gabriel García Moreno and the Jesuits. The 1925 El Niño phenomenon was the first important meteorological episode recorded with scientific instrumentation in Ecuador, with newspapers providing complementary archives about the extreme impact of this event.

  16. METEOROLOGICAL INFLUENCES ON VAPOR INCIDENTS IN THE 200 EAST & 200 WEST TANK FARMS FROM CY1995 TO CY2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HOCKING, M.J.

    2005-01-31

    Revised for a more comprehensive overview of vapor incidents reported at the Hanford Tank Farms. Investigation into the meteorological influences on vapor incidents in the tank farm to determine what, if any, meteorological influences contribute to the reporting of odors, smells, vapors, and other gases. Weather phenomena, specifically barometric pressure, and wind velocity and direction can potentially cause or exacerbate a vapor release within the farm systems. The purpose of this document is to gather and evaluate the meteorological and weather information for the Tank Farms Shift Log Vapor Incident entries and determine what, if any, meteorological influences contribute to the reporting of odors, smells, vapors, and other gases such as propane. A part of the evaluation will be determining which of the incidents are related to actual ''intrusive'' work, and which are ''transient.'' Transient vapor incidents are herein defined as those vapors encountered during walkdowns, surveys, or other activities that did not require working directly with the tanks, pits, transfer lines, etc. Another part of the investigation will involve determining if there are barometric pressures or other weather related phenomena that might cause or contribute vapors being released when there are no ''intrusive'' activities. A final purpose is to evaluate whether there is any correlation between the 242-A Evaporator operations and Vapor Incidents entered on the Shift Log.

  17. Forecasting skills of the ensemble hydro-meteorological system for the Po river floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciardi, Giuseppe; Montani, Andrea; Paccagnella, Tiziana; Pecora, Silvano; Tonelli, Fabrizio

    2013-04-01

    The Po basin is the largest and most economically important river-basin in Italy. Extreme hydrological events, including floods, flash floods and droughts, are expected to become more severe in the next future due to climate change, and related ground effects are linked both with environmental and social resilience. A Warning Operational Center (WOC) for hydrological event management was created in Emilia Romagna region. In the last years, the WOC faced challenges in legislation, organization, technology and economics, achieving improvements in forecasting skill and information dissemination. Since 2005, an operational forecasting and modelling system for flood modelling and forecasting has been implemented, aimed at supporting and coordinating flood control and emergency management on the whole Po basin. This system, referred to as FEWSPo, has also taken care of environmental aspects of flood forecast. The FEWSPo system has reached a very high level of complexity, due to the combination of three different hydrological-hydraulic chains (HEC-HMS/RAS - MIKE11 NAM/HD, Topkapi/Sobek), with several meteorological inputs (forecasted - COSMOI2, COSMOI7, COSMO-LEPS among others - and observed). In this hydrological and meteorological ensemble the management of the relative predictive uncertainties, which have to be established and communicated to decision makers, is a debated scientific and social challenge. Real time activities face professional, modelling and technological aspects but are also strongly interrelated with organization and human aspects. The authors will report a case study using the operational flood forecast hydro-meteorological ensemble, provided by the MIKE11 chain fed by COSMO_LEPS EQPF. The basic aim of the proposed approach is to analyse limits and opportunities of the long term forecast (with a lead time ranging from 3 to 5 days), for the implementation of low cost actions, also looking for a well informed decision making and the improvement of

  18. Meteorological factors and dengue fever transmission in South Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Lung-Chang; Lin, Yuan-Chien; Cheng, Ming-Hung; Yu, Hwa-Lung

    2013-04-01

    The variations in meteorological conditions induced by climate change causes the diffusion pattern of infectious disease and serious epidemic situation. The objective of this study is to investigate the impact of meteorological variables to the temporal variation of dengue fever epidemic in weekly basis in south Taiwan. Several extreme and average index of meteorological variables, i.e. temperature and humidity, were used for this analysis, including averaged, maximum and minimum temperature, and average rainfall, maximum 1-hr rainfall, and maximum 24-hr rainfall. This study applies the distributed lag nonlinear model (DLNM) to reveal the significant meteorological variables and their temporal lag effects to the dengue fever epidemic by analyzing the dengue fever records from 1998-2011. Results show that the weekly minimum temperature (minT) and 1-hr maximum rainfall (maxR) are significantly important to the dengue fever spread. Among them, once minT is higher than 20°C, the relative risk of dengue fever of nine-fourteen week later will be significantly elevated. On the other hand, the incidences of maxR higher than 80mm can also increase the relative risk of dengue fever occurrences around nine-fourteen weeks afterwards.

  19. Trends and variability of meteorological drought over the districts of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Guhathakurta

    2017-12-02

    Dec 2, 2017 ... Korea (Min et al. 2003; Kim et al. 2009), and. China. Bordi et al. (2004) applied SPI to analyse the spatiotemporal variability of dry and wet peri- ods during the last 50 years in ...... and (b) five meteorological subdivisions of south peninsular India during north east monsoon. Figure 9. Global SST correlation ...

  20. Probabilistic analysis of hydrological drought characteristics using meteorological drought

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wong, G.; Lanen, van H.A.J.; Torfs, P.J.J.F.

    2013-01-01

    Droughts are an inevitable consequence of climate variability and are pervasive across many regions. Their effects can vary on an extensive scale, depending on the type of drought and people’s vulnerability. Crucial characteristics of both hydrological (groundwater, streamflow) and meteorological

  1. sorghum yield and associated satellite-derived meteorological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    VEGETATION, meteorological data obtained from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather. Forecast (ECMWF) model and crop-water status indicators estimated by the Crop Specific Water. Balance model (CSWB). Many studies modeling crop growth and yield forecasting have been carried with mixed results.

  2. Meteorological fields variability over the Indian seas in pre and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this study, the possible linkage between summer monsoon rainfall over India and surface meteorological fields (basic fields and heat budget components) over monsoon region (30° E-120°E, 30°S-30°N) during the pre-monsoon month of May and summer monsoon season (June to September) are examined. For this ...

  3. Weather or Not To Teach Junior High Meteorology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knorr, Thomas P.

    1984-01-01

    Presents a technique for teaching meteorology allowing students to observe and analyze consecutive weather maps and relate local conditions; a model illustrating the three-dimensional nature of the atmosphere is employed. Instructional methods based on studies of daily weather maps to trace systems sweeping across the United States are discussed.…

  4. Meteorological tower design for severe weather and remote locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly Elder; Ilkoo Angutikjuak; Jessica Baker; Matt Belford; Tom Bennett; Karl Birkeland; Daniel Bowker; Doug Chabot; April Cheuvront; Mark Dixon; Dylan Elder; Lee Elder; Shari Gearheard; Greg Giedt; Kim Grant; Sam Green; Ethan Greene; Nick Houfek; Caleb Huntington; Henry Huntington; Thomas Huntington; Daniel Janigian; Crane Johnson; Glen Liston; Rob Maris; Andrea Marsh; Hans-Peter Marshall; Aidan Meiners; Alex Meiners; Theo Meiners; Limakee Palluq; Josh Pope; Esa Qillaq; Joelli Sanguya; Sam Sehnert; Ron Simenhois; Banning Starr; Roger Tyler

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a robust meteorological tower for deployment in locations with extreme conditions and for applications that require relatively maintenance-free structures. The basic design consists of a triangular base with two horizontal rails on each side, and uprights at the triangle vertices for various instrument configurations. The fabrication materials include...

  5. Automatic, Multiple Assessment Options in Undergraduate Meteorology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, Jonathan D. W.

    2017-01-01

    Since 2008, automatic, multiple assessment options have been utilised in selected undergraduate meteorology courses at the University of Wisconsin--Milwaukee. Motivated by a desire to reduce stress among students, the assessment methodology includes examination-heavy and homework-heavy alternatives, differing by an adjustable 15% of the overall…

  6. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) Quarterly Report First Quarter FY-04

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, William; Wheeler, Mark; Labert, Winifred; Jonathan Case; Short, David

    2004-01-01

    This report summarizes the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) activities for the First Quarter of Fiscal Year 2004 (October - December 2003). Tasks reviewed are: (1) Objective Lightning Probability Forecast, (2) Mesonet Temperature and Wind Climatology, (3) Severe Weather Forecast Decision Aid and (4) Anvil Transparency Relationship to Radar Reflectivity

  7. Meteorology--An Interdisciplinary Base for Science Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, David C.

    1980-01-01

    Described is a freshman science program at Deerfield Academy (Deerfield, Mass.) in meteorology, designed as the first part of a three-year unified science sequence. Merits of the course, in which particular emphasis is placed on observation skills and making predictions, are enumerated. (CS)

  8. Impact of inherent meteorology uncertainty on air quality ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is well established that there are a number of different classifications and sources of uncertainties in environmental modeling systems. Air quality models rely on two key inputs, namely, meteorology and emissions. When using air quality models for decision making, it is important to understand how uncertainties in these inputs affect the simulated concentrations. Ensembles are one method to explore how uncertainty in meteorology affects air pollution concentrations. Most studies explore this uncertainty by running different meteorological models or the same model with different physics options and in some cases combinations of different meteorological and air quality models. While these have been shown to be useful techniques in some cases, we present a technique that leverages the initial condition perturbations of a weather forecast ensemble, namely, the Short-Range Ensemble Forecast system to drive the four-dimensional data assimilation in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF)-Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model with a key focus being the response of ozone chemistry and transport. Results confirm that a sizable spread in WRF solutions, including common weather variables of temperature, wind, boundary layer depth, clouds, and radiation, can cause a relatively large range of ozone-mixing ratios. Pollutant transport can be altered by hundreds of kilometers over several days. Ozone-mixing ratios of the ensemble can vary as much as 10–20 ppb

  9. Impact of continental meteorology and atmospheric circulation in the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 121; Issue 2. Impact of continental meteorology and atmospheric circulation in the modulation of Aerosol Optical Depth over the Arabian Sea. Sandhya K Nair S Sijikumar S S Prijith. Volume 121 Issue 2 April 2012 pp 263-272 ...

  10. Effects of meteorological factors on the incidence of meningococcal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-03

    Sep 3, 2017 ... Abstract. Background and Objectives: Substantial climate changes have led to the emergence and re-emergence of various infectious diseases worldwide, presenting an imperative need to explore the effects of meteorological factors on serious contagious disease incidences such as that of meningococcal ...

  11. The impact of meteorology on ozone in Houston

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eder, B.K. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Davis, J.M.; Nychka, D. [National Institute of Statistical Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    This paper compares the results from both a one-stage hierarchical clustering technique (average linkage) and a two-stage technique (average linkage then k-means) as part of an objective meteorological Classification scheme designed to better elucidate ozone`s dependence on meteorology in the Houston, Texas, area. When applied to twelve years of meteorological data (1981-1992), each technique identified seven statistically distinct meteorological regimes, the majority of which exhibited significantly different daily 1-hour maximum ozone (O{sub 3}) concentrations. While both clustering approaches proved successful, the two-stage approach did appear superior in terms of better segregation of the mean O{sub 3}, concentrations. Both approaches indicated that the largest mean daily one-hour maximum concentrations are associated with migrating anticyclones and not with the quasi-permanent Bermuda High that often dominates the southeastern United States during the summer. As a result, maximum ozone concentrations are just as likely during the months of April, May, September and October as they are during the summer months. These findings support and help explain the unique O{sub 3}, climatology experienced by the Houston area.

  12. Effects of meteorological factors on the incidence of meningococcal meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xue; Hu, Bingxue; Yan, Qi; Luo, Ting; Qu, Bo; Jiang, Nan; Liu, Jie; Zhu, Yaxin

    2017-09-01

    Substantial climate changes have led to the emergence and re-emergence of various infectious diseases worldwide, presenting an imperative need to explore the effects of meteorological factors on serious contagious disease incidences such as that of meningococcal meningitis (MCM). The incidences of MCM and meteorology data between 1981 and 2010 were obtained from Chaoyang city. Structure Equation Modeling was used to analyze the relationships between meteorological factors and the incidence of MCM, using the LISREL software. The SEM results showed that Adjusted Goodness of Fit Index (AGFI) = 0.30, Goodness of Fit Index (GFI) = 0.63, and Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA) = 0.31. Humidity and temperature both had negative correlations with MCM incidence, with factor loads of -0.32 and -0.43, while sunshine was positively correlated with a factor load of 0.42. For specific observable variables, average air pressure, average evaporation, average air temperature, and average ground temperature exerted stronger influence, with item loads between observable variables and MCM incidence being -0.42, 0.34, -0.32, and -0.32 respectively. Public health institutions should pay more attention to the meteorological variables of humidity, sunshine, and temperature in prospective MCM control and prevention.

  13. The ClearfLo project - Understanding London's meteorology and composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, Stephen; Bohnenstengel, Sylvia

    2014-05-01

    ClearfLo is a large multi-institutional project funded by the UK Natural Environment Research Council (NERC). ClearfLo established integrated measurements of meteorology, gaseous and particulate composition/loading of London's (UK) urban atmosphere in 2011 and 2012 to understand the processes underlying poor air quality. A new and unique long-term measurement infrastructure was established in London at street level, urban background and elevated sites and contrasted against rural locations to determine the urban increment in meteorology and pollution. This approach enables understanding the seasonal variations in the meteorology and composition together with the controlling processes. In addition two intensive observation periods (IOPs) provide more detail in winter 2012 and during the Olympics in summer 2012 focusing upon the vertical structure and evolution of the urban boundary layer, chemical controls on nitrogen dioxide and ozone production, in particular the role of volatile organic compounds, and processes controlling the evolution, size, distribution and composition of particulate matter. In this talk we present early analysis of the meteorology and air quality measurements within ClearfLo. In particular we show measurements that indicate the dominant regimes of London's boundary layer.

  14. Variability of surface meteorological parameters over the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RameshKumar, M.R.; Fernandes, A.A.

    for the period 1948 to 1972. From the trend analysis, it is observed that in general most of the surface meteorological parameters show a very gradual increase except sea surface winds, which show marked increase. The spectra and coherence of these parameters...

  15. Correlation Of Meteorological Parameters And Dust Particles Using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the spatial distribution of repirable and inhalable suspended particulate matters and the influence of meteorological factors on the pollutants captured in a rural community. The respirable and inhalable suspended particulate matters were captured at five different locations using Portable ...

  16. Utilization of Agro-meteorological Services among Arable Crop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed arable crop farmers' utilization of agro-meteorological services in Oyo State, Nigeria. Multi-stage sampling procedure was employed for this study. Oyo State was stratified into rainforest and savannah. One local government each was randomly selected from each of the vegetation zones, which were ...

  17. Changes in meteorological parameters in Nigeria by different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The annual mean solar indices of MgII core to core wing ratio, solar flux 10.7 cm and sunspot number over an eleven (11) year period, 2000 – 2010, were correlated with the annual mean rainfall, maximum temperature, relati-ve humidity, cloud cover and wind speed of 8 meteorological stations in Nigeria. Correlation ...

  18. Assessment of meteorological drought using SPI in West Azarbaijan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this research is the assessment of the characteristics such as intensity, frequency and duration of meteorological drought using SPI with 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months time scales in West Azarbaijan Province, Iran. The indices have been computed in various time scales for 38 gauging stations with 32 years record ...

  19. Seasonal variation of meteorological factors on air parameters and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The impacts of gas flaring on meteorological factors at Ibeno, Eket, Onna, Esit Eket and Umudike - Nigeria were investigated by measuring air quality parameters. The results show that the mean concentration of air parameters value were below Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA) and United States ...

  20. Effect of season and meteorological conditions on community noise annoyance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miedema, H.M.E.; Fields, J.M.; Vos, H.

    2005-01-01

    More than 80 000 residents' responses to transportation noise from 42 studies conducted at different times of year provide statistical estimates of the effects of season and meteorological conditions on community response to noise. The strongest evidence for a seasonal effect comes from 7 years of

  1. Effects of meteorological factors on the incidence of meningococcal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and Objectives: Substantial climate changes have led to the emergence and re-emergence of various infectious diseases worldwide, presenting an imperative need to explore the effects of meteorological factors on serious contagious disease incidences such as that of meningococcal meningitis (MCM).

  2. Techniques for Improved Retrospective Fine-scale Meteorology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleim-Xiu Land-Surface model (PX LSM) was developed for retrospective meteorological simulations to drive chemical transport models. One of the key features of the PX LSM is the indirect soil moisture and temperature nudging. The idea is to provide a three hourly 2-m temperature ...

  3. Influence of the Meteorology Mast on a Cup Anemometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin O. L.; Pedersen, B.M.

    1999-01-01

    The actuator disc model is applied on lattice-type meteorological masts to estimate the influence of the tower on the accuracy of the measured wind speed. Combining the results with corrections for the boom, on which the anemometer is mounted, good agreement is found for measurements made on the ...

  4. Probability distribution functions of echo signals from meteorological targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilyev, G. V.

    1975-01-01

    Simple expressions are obtained for the laws and moments of the probability distributions of averaged echo signals from meteorological targets at the output of a logarithmic radar receiver. Here, the distribution function is assumed to be represented in the form of an Edgeworth series.

  5. Agro-meteorological early warning to reduce agricultural ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Agro-meteorological early warning to reduce agricultural vulnerability to climate change: The experiences of PARBCC in Benin. 22 avril 2016. Image. In Benin, extreme climate variability has threatened the food security of rural populations, with agricultural yields declining and crop losses increasing due to extreme weather ...

  6. Agro-meteorological early warning to reduce agricultural ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-22

    Agro-meteorological early warning to reduce agricultural vulnerability to climate change: The experiences of PARBCC in Benin. April 22, 2016. Image. In Benin, extreme climate variability has threatened the food security of rural populations, with agricultural yields declining and crop losses increasing due to extreme ...

  7. Meteorology and Wind Energy Department annual report 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauge Madsen, P.; Dannemand Andersen, P.; Skrumsager, B. [eds.

    1997-07-01

    In 1996 the Meteorology and Wind Energy Department has performed research within the programme areas: (1) wind energy and (2) atmospheric processes. The objectives are through research in boundary layer meteorology, fluid dynamics, aerodynamics and structural mechanics to contribute with new knowledge within (1) wind energy in relation to development, manufacturing, operation and export as well as testing and certification of wind turbines, and (2) aspects of boundary-layer meteorology related to environmental and energy problems of society. The work is supported by the research programs of the Ministry of Environment and Energy, the Nordic Council of Ministers, EU as well as by industry. Through our research and development work we develop and provide methodologies including computer models for use by industry, institutions, and governmental authorities. In the long view we are developing facilities and programs enabling us to serve as a national and European centre for wind-energy and boundary-layer meteorological research. A summary of our activities in 1996 is presented. (au) 4 tabs., 5 ills.

  8. Meteorological insights from planetary heat flow measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Ralph D.

    2015-04-01

    Planetary heat flow measurements are made with a series of high-precision temperature sensors deployed in a column of regolith to determine the geothermal gradient. Such sensors may, however, be susceptible to other influences, especially on worlds with atmospheres. First, pressure fluctuations at the surface may pump air in and out of pore space leading to observable, and otherwise unexpected, temperature fluctuations at depth. Such pumping is important in subsurface radon and methane transport on Earth: evidence of such pumping may inform understanding of methane or water vapor transport on Mars. Second, the subsurface profile contains a muted record of surface temperature history, and such measurements on other worlds may help constrain the extent to which Earth's Little Ice Age was directly solar-forced, versus volcanic-driven and/or amplified by climate feedbacks.

  9. Evaluation of meteorological drought indices for streamflow modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslinger, Klaus; Koffler, Daniel; Blöschl, Günter; Parajka, Juraj; Schöner, Wolfgang; Laaha, Gregor

    2013-04-01

    In this paper we present a comprehensive analysis which aims to link various meteorological drought indices to streamflow data in Austria and Central Europe. The motivation arises from the fact that discharge time series are usually shorter (beginning in the middle of the 20th century) than meteorological time series. In the European Greater Alpine Region we are fortunate of having a gridded dataset for temperature and solid/liquid precipitation on a monthly time scale that spans from 1801 to 2003 - the HISTALP database. If there is a link between meteorological drought indices and streamflow, a reconstruction of streamflow, with emphasis on low flows, will be possible for the last 200 years. As meteorological drought indices the self-calibrating Palmer Drought Severity Index (scPDSI), the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) on various time scales as well as the moisture departure value d from the soil moisture modeling procedure of the scPDSI are used. The analysis focuses on three aspects, (i) temporal co-evolution of meteorological drought and streamflow indices, (ii) their at-site correlation at gauges, and (iii) their regional correlation structure depending on different climate and catchment conditions. The whole analysis is stratified by seasons, what allows us to explore the strength of the link for the dominant low flow generating process. In order to show a connection between these indices and streamflow data the drought event of 2003 serves as a reference. We will show the temporal evolution of the drought indices parallel to streamflow indices like MQ, Q95 and MAM(7) for the period from summer 2002, which encompasses a major flood event in the northern parts of Austria, to fall 2003 when the streamflow drought was most severe. This is carried out for different regions in Austria, representing different climatic and soil-specific characteristics. To quantify the link between drought indices and streamflow indices for the whole time series from 1801

  10. Spatial clustering and meteorological drivers of summer ozone in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carro-Calvo, Leopoldo; Ordóñez, Carlos; García-Herrera, Ricardo; Schnell, Jordan L.

    2017-10-01

    We have applied the k-means clustering technique on a maximum daily 8-h running average near-surface ozone (MDA8 O3) gridded dataset over Europe at 1° × 1° resolution for summer 1998-2012. This has resulted in a spatial division of nine regions where ozone presents coherent spatiotemporal patterns. The role of meteorology in the variability of ozone at different time scales has been investigated by using daily meteorological fields from the NCEP-NCAR meteorological reanalysis. In the five regions of central-southern Europe ozone extremes (exceedances of the summer 95th percentile) occur mostly under anticyclonic circulation or weak sea level pressure gradients which trigger elevated temperatures and the recirculation of air masses. In the four northern regions extremes are associated with high-latitude anticyclones that divert the typical westerly flow at those latitudes and cause the advection of aged air masses from the south. The impact of meteorology on the day-to-day variability of ozone has been assessed by means of two different types of multiple linear models. These include as predictors meteorological fields averaged within the regions (;region-based; approach) or synoptic indices indicating the degree of resemblance between the daily meteorological fields over a large domain (25°-70° N, 35° W - 35° E) and their corresponding composites for extreme ozone days (;index-based; approach). With the first approach, a reduced set of variables, always including daily maximum temperature within the region, explains 47-66% of the variability (adjusted R2) in central-southern Europe, while more complex models are needed to explain 27-49% of the variability in the northern regions. The index-based approach yields better results for the regions of northern Europe, with adjusted R2 = 40-57%. Finally, both methodologies have also been applied to reproduce the interannual variability of ozone, with the best models explaining 66-88% of the variance in central

  11. Analysis of the effect of meteorological factors on dewfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Huijie, E-mail: herr_xiao@hotmail.com [College of Soil and Water Conservation, Beijing Forestry University, Qinghua East Road 35, Beijing 100083 (China); Meissner, Ralph; Seeger, Juliane; Rupp, Holger [Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, Department of Soil Physics, Lysimeter Station, Dorfstraße 55, D-39615 Falkenberg (Germany); Borg, Heinz [Faculty of Natural Sciences III, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Julius-Kühn-Straße 23, D-06112 Halle (Saale) (Germany); Zhang, Yuqing [College of Soil and Water Conservation, Beijing Forestry University, Qinghua East Road 35, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2013-05-01

    To get an insight into when dewfall will occur and how much to expect we carried out extensive calculations with the energy balance equation for a crop surface to 1) identify the meteorological factors which determine dewfall, 2) establish the relationship between dewfall and each of them, and 3) analyse how these relationships are influenced by changes in these factors. The meteorological factors which determine dewfall were found to be air temperature (T{sub a}), cloud cover (N), wind speed (u), soil heat flux (G), and relative humidity (h{sub r}). Net radiation is also a relevant factor. We did not consider it explicitly, but indirectly through the effect of temperature on the night-time radiation balance. The temperature of the surface (T{sub s}) where dew forms on is also important. However, it is not a meteorological factor, but determined by the aforementioned parameters. All other conditions being equal our study revealed that dewfall increases linearly with decreasing N or G, and with increasing h{sub r}. The effect of T{sub a} and u on dewfall is non-linear: dewfall initially increases with increasing T{sub a} or u, and then decreases. All five meteorological factors can lead to variations in dewfall between 0 and 25 W m{sup −2} over the range of their values we studied. The magnitude of the variation due to one factor depends on the value of the others. Dewfall is highest at N = 0, G = 0, and h{sub r} = 1. T{sub a} at which dewfall is highest depends on u and vice versa. The change in dewfall for a unit change in N, G or h{sub r} is not affected by the value of N, G or h{sub r}, but increases as T{sub a} or u increase. The change in dewfall for a unit change in T{sub a} or u depends on the value of the other four meteorological factors. - Highlights: • Process of dewfall is examined for a wide range of meteorological conditions. • Effect of meteorological factors on dewfall is individually elucidated. • Interaction between factors and their

  12. Implementation of a GNSS Meteorological model to the estimation of the Haines Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Laura Isabel; Aragon-Paz, Juan Manuel; Mendoza, Luciano Pedro Oscar; Meza, Amalia Margarita

    2017-04-01

    Wildfire indexes evaluate the risk of forest fire occurrences and the dangerousness of its large and erratic propagation. In this context, the widely used Haines Index assesses the potential contribution of the atmosphere in forecasting and monitoring the behavior of the plume-dominated wildfires. The main goal of this study is the analysis of advantages in applying the GPT2w, an empirical model originally developed for Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Meteorology, to the estimation of the Haines Index. To this aim, a statistical analysis of the differences between this estimation and the real values from radiosondes was performed. The selected area comprises a region of South America between latitudes 15° S and 35° S. This area was chosen due to the availability of the radiosonde launches required for validation during the year of study (2011). Previously, for characterizing the expected regional performance of the Haines Index, the Climatology was developed by using data from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) reanalysis model (ERA Interim) for the period 2000-2011. Afterwards a statistical analysis of the differences between the index estimation from the application of the GPT2w with respect to the real index values, that is: Haines index calculated from radiosonde measurements was performed. Moreover, the additional estimation of the Haines Index by using multi-level data from ERA Interim at the same control stations was also provided. Because the GPT2w model is freely available, the analysis of the results discusses the advantages of using this approach where radiosonde launches are scarce. Likewise, strategies for improving the deficiencies of this estimate are also presented.

  13. Probabilistic aspects of meteorological and ozone regional ensemble forecasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monache, L D; Hacker, J; Zhou, Y; Deng, X; Stull, R

    2006-03-20

    This study investigates whether probabilistic ozone forecasts from an ensemble can be made with skill; i.e., high verification resolution and reliability. Twenty-eight ozone forecasts were generated over the Lower Fraser Valley, British Columbia, Canada, for the 5-day period 11-15 August 2004, and compared with 1-hour averaged measurements of ozone concentrations at five stations. The forecasts were obtained by driving the CMAQ model with four meteorological forecasts and seven emission scenarios: a control run, {+-} 50% NO{sub x}, {+-} 50% VOC, and {+-} 50% NO{sub x} combined with VOC. Probabilistic forecast quality is verified using relative operating characteristic curves, Talagrand diagrams, and a new reliability index. Results show that both meteorology and emission perturbations are needed to have a skillful probabilistic forecast system--the meteorology perturbation is important to capture the ozone temporal and spatial distribution, and the emission perturbation is needed to span the range of ozone-concentration magnitudes. Emission perturbations are more important than meteorology perturbations for capturing the likelihood of high ozone concentrations. Perturbations involving NO{sub x} resulted in a more skillful probabilistic forecast for the episode analyzed, and therefore the 50% perturbation values appears to span much of the emission uncertainty for this case. All of the ensembles analyzed show a high ozone concentration bias in the Talagrand diagrams, even when the biases from the unperturbed emissions forecasts are removed from all ensemble members. This result indicates nonlinearity in the ensemble, which arises from both ozone chemistry and its interaction with input from particular meteorological models.

  14. Multi-point meteorological observation for Cross-country skiing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, K.; Tadashi, O.; Kawarabayashi, S.; Iwadate, N.; Kobayashi, Y.; Watanabe, K.; Imai, M.; Watanabe, K.; Naruse, N.; Takahashi, Y.

    2016-12-01

    To select the glide wax in the cross-country skiing competition is important, because it can work as a reduction of the friction between skiing and snow surface. Inherently, we need to select the wax judged from meteorological conditions, such as temperature, humidity, snow surface temperature, and wind speed in the whole course, however, the wax has been decided on the basis of meteorological conditions in one representative place so far. This study aims to develop a meteorological multi-point observation system using wireless network to select the suitable wax for cross-country skiing on the basis of quantitative analysis. The observation points in this study are temperature and illumination sensors connected to a wireless module. These sensors was put within 0.1m apart from the snow surface. We made 40 sets of the above sensors, and set on the actual cross-country skiing course (Hokkaido) in interval of 50-100m. Observed meteorological data were recorded by PC through the sending by wireless communication (XBee pro). We have succeeded in multi-point meteorological observation for the actual of cross-country skiing course. To escape the effect of sunlight for the air temperature, we cunducted to measure in the case of cloudy. As the results, the positional dependence of the air temperature was in the range of less than 2 degrees Celcius. This value is equivalent to the standard deviation of our sensors. Moreover, we observed in the case of occationally cloudy, air temperature by each point was more than 4 degrees Celcius. This indicates that the local difference of temperature can originate from the existence of cloud from the analysis of the data of illumination sensors. In conclusion, we have observed the local difference of temperature to occur under the influence of cloud on the corse of cross-country skiing , which can affect to select the wax.

  15. A gap analysis of meteorological requirements for commercial space operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Nicholas James

    Commercial space companies will soon be the primary method of launching people and supplies into orbit. Among the critical aspects of space launches are the meteorological concerns. Laws and regulations pertaining to meteorological considerations have been created to ensure the safety of the space industry and those living around spaceports; but, are they adequate? Perhaps the commercial space industry can turn to the commercial aviation industry to help answer that question. Throughout its history, the aviation industry has dealt with lessons learned from mishaps due to failures in understanding the significance of weather impacts on operations. Using lessons from the aviation industry, the commercial space industry can preempt such accidents and maintain viability as an industry. Using Lanicci's Strategic Planning Model, this study identified the weather needs of the commercial space industry by conducting three gap analyses. First, a comparative analysis was done between laws and regulations in commercial aviation and those in the commercial space industry pertaining to meteorological support, finding a "legislative gap" between the two industries, as no legal guarantee is in place to ensure weather products remain available to the commercial space industry. A second analysis was conducted between the meteorological services provided for the commercial aviation industry and commercial space industry, finding a gap at facilities not located at an established launch facility or airport. At such facilities, many weather observational technologies would not be present, and would need to be purchased by the company operating the spaceport facility. A third analysis was conducted between the meteorological products and regulations that are currently in existence, and those needed for safe operations within the commercial space industry, finding gaps in predicting lightning, electric field charge, and space weather. Recommendations to address these deficiencies have

  16. Early Portuguese meteorological measurements (18th century)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcoforado, M. J.; Vaquero, J. M.; Trigo, R. M.; Taborda, J. P.

    2012-02-01

    Natural proxies, documentary evidence and instrumental data are the only sources used to reconstruct past climates. In this paper, we present the 18th century meteorologists (either Portuguese or foreigners) who made the first observations at several sites in Continental Portugal, Madeira Island and Rio de Janeiro (Brazil), from 1749 until 1802. Information is given concerning observation site, variables observed, measurement period, methods of measurements and sources (both manuscript and printed). Some examples from the data usefulness are given: rainfall variability in Madeira (1749-1753) and in continental Portugal (1781-1793) was reconstructed, allowing to extend towards the late 18th century the well known negative correlation between the NAO index and seasonal rainfall. Furthermore, previously unpublished data for 1783-1784 have allowed analysing the consequences of the Lakagígar eruption in Portugal: foggy and haze days are referred to in summer 1783, but unlike the hot summer observed in northern and central Europe, temperatures in Portugal were lower than average. Additionally, observations from Rio de Janeiro in Brazil show that the Lakagígar consequences may well have spread to sectors of the Southern Hemisphere. Although the series are short, the data have been used for climate reconstruction studies and may also be useful to improve the quality of large scale reconstruction datasets.

  17. Early Portuguese meteorological records (18th century)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcoforado, M. J.; Vaquero, J. M.; Trigo, R. M.; Taborda, J. P.

    2011-10-01

    Natural proxies, documentary evidence and instrumental data are the main sources used to reconstruct past climates. In this paper, we present the 18th century meteorologists (either Portuguese or foreigners), who made the first observations at several sites in Continental Portugal, Madeira Island and Rio de Janeiro (Brazil), from 1749 until 1802. Information is given concerning observation site, variables observed, measurement period, methodologies and sources (both manuscript and printed). Some examples from the data usefulness are given: rainfall variability in Madeira (1749-1753) and in Continental Portugal (1781-1793) was reconstructed, allowing to extend towards the late 18th century the well known negative correlation between the NAO index and seasonal rainfall. Furthermore, previously unpublished data for 1783-1784 has allowed analysing the consequences of the Laki eruption in Portugal: foggy and haze days are referred to in summer 1783, but unlike the hot summer observed in Northern and Central Europe, temperatures in Portugal were lower than average. Additionally, observations from Rio de Janeiro in Brazil show that the Laki consequences may well have spread to sectors of the Southern Hemisphere. Although the series are short, the data will be used for climate reconstruction studies focused in Southern Portugal and are also useful to improve the quality of large scale reconstruction datasets.

  18. In search of colonial El Niño events and a brief history of meteorology in Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Terneus, A.; Gioda, A.

    2006-01-01

    This study shows a brief overview of the development of meteorology in Ecuador from historical documentation of climatic events in the Colonial era through to modern data collection. In the colonial era (16th century-1824), historical documents of rogation ceremonies and municipal proceedings, from the Quito area, provide a rich source of climate information, including El Niño events. Our preliminary findings show that very few of the historically documented catastrophes and other marked...

  19. JPL field measurements at the Finney County, Kansas, test site, October 1976: Meteorological variables, surface reflectivity, surface and subsurface temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahle, A. B.; Schieldge, J.; Paley, H. N.

    1977-01-01

    Data collected at the Finney County, Kansas test site as part of the Joint Soil Moisture Experiment (JSME) are presented here, prior to analysis, to provide all JSME investigators with an immediate source of primary information. The ground-truth measurements were taken to verify and complement soil moisture data taken by microwave and infrared sensors during aircraft overflights. Measurements were made of meteorological variables (air speed, temperature, relative humidity, and rainfall), surface reflectivity, and temperatures at and below the surface.

  20. Integrated systems for forecasting urban meteorology, air pollution and population exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baklanov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban air pollution is associated with significant adverse health effects. Model-based abatement strategies are required and developed for the growing urban populations. In the initial development stage, these are focussed on exceedances of air quality standards caused by high short-term pollutant concentrations. Prediction of health effects and implementation of urban air quality information and abatement systems require accurate forecasting of air pollution episodes and population exposure, including modelling of emissions, meteorology, atmospheric dispersion and chemical reaction of pollutants, population mobility, and indoor-outdoor relationship of the pollutants. In the past, these different areas have been treated separately by different models and even institutions. Progress in computer resources and ensuing improvements in numerical weather prediction, air chemistry, and exposure modelling recently allow a unification and integration of the disjunctive models and approaches. The current work presents a novel approach that integrates the latest developments in meteorological, air quality, and population exposure modelling into Urban Air Quality Information and Forecasting Systems (UAQIFS in the context of the European Union FUMAPEX project. The suggested integrated strategy is demonstrated for examples of the systems in three Nordic cities: Helsinki and Oslo for assessment and forecasting of urban air pollution and Copenhagen for urban emergency preparedness.

  1. The DOE Meteorological Coordinating Council Perspective on the Application to Meteorological Software of DOE's Software Quality Assurance Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzola, Carl; Schalk, Walt; Glantz, Clifford S.

    2008-03-12

    Since 1994, the DOE Meteorological Coordinating Council (DMCC) has been addressing meteorological monitoring and meteorological applications program issues at U.S. Department of Energy/National Nuclear Safety Administration (DOE/NNSA) sites and providing solutions to these issues. The fundamental objectives of the DMCC include promoting cost-effective meteorological support and facilitating the use of common meteorological methods, procedures, and standards at all DOE/NNSA sites. In 2005, the DOE established strict software quality assurance (SQA) requirements for safety software, including consequence assessment software used for hazard assessments and safety analyses. These evaluations often utilize meteorological data supplied by DOE/NNSA site-based meteorological programs. However, the DOE has not established SQA guidance for this type of safety-related meteorological software. To address this gap, the DMCC is developing this guidance for the use of both public- and private-sector organizations. The goal for the DMCC is to mimic the SQA requirements for safety software but allow a much greater degree of “grading” in determining exactly what specific activities are needed. The emphasis of the DMCC SQA guidelines is on three key elements: 1) design and implementation documentation, 2) configuration management, and 3) verification and validation testing. These SQA guidelines should provide owners and users of meteorological software with a fair degree of assurance that their software is reliable, documented, and tested without putting an undue burden on meteorological system software developers.

  2. Gap-filling meteorological variables with Empirical Orthogonal Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    Gap-filling or modelling surface-atmosphere fluxes critically depends on an, ideally continuous, availability of their meteorological driver variables, such as e.g. air temperature, humidity, radiation, wind speed and precipitation. Unlike for eddy-covariance-based fluxes, data gaps are not unavoidable for these measurements. Nevertheless, missing or erroneous data can occur in practice due to instrument or power failures, disturbance, and temporary sensor or station dismounting for e.g. agricultural management or maintenance. If stations with similar measurements are available nearby, using their data for imputation (i.e. estimating missing data) either directly, after an elevation correction or via linear regression, is usually preferred over linear interpolation or monthly mean diurnal cycles. The popular implementation of regional networks of (partly low-cost) stations increases both, the need and the potential, for such neighbour-based imputation methods. For repeated satellite imagery, Beckers and Rixen (2003) suggested an imputation method based on empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs). While exploiting the same linear relations between time series at different observation points as regression, it is able to use information from all observation points to simultaneously estimate missing data at all observation points, provided that never all observations are missing at the same time. Briefly, the method uses the ability of the first few EOFs of a data matrix to reconstruct a noise-reduced version of this matrix; iterating missing data points from an initial guess (the column-wise averages) to an optimal version determined by cross-validation. The poster presents and discusses lessons learned from adapting and applying this methodology to station data. Several years of 10-minute averages of air temperature, pressure and humidity, incoming shortwave, longwave and photosynthetically active radiation, wind speed and precipitation, measured by a regional (70 km by

  3. Meteorological risks are drivers of environmental innovation in agro-ecosystem management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobin, Anne; Van de Vijver, Hans; Vanwindekens, Frédéric; de Frutos Cachorro, Julia; Verspecht, Ann; Planchon, Viviane; Buyse, Jeroen

    2017-04-01

    Agricultural crop production is to a great extent determined by weather conditions. The research hypothesis is that meteorological risks act as drivers of environmental innovation in agro-ecosystem management. The methodology comprised five major parts: the hazard, its impact on different agro-ecosystems, vulnerability, risk management and risk communication. Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) theory was used to model annual maxima of meteorological variables based on a location-, scale- and shape-parameter that determine the center of the distribution, the deviation of the location-parameter and the upper tail decay, respectively. Spatial interpolation of GEV-derived return levels resulted in spatial temperature extremes, precipitation deficits and wet periods. The temporal overlap between extreme weather conditions and sensitive periods in the agro-ecosystem was realised using a bio-physically based modelling framework that couples phenology, a soil water balance and crop growth. 20-year return values for drought and waterlogging during different crop stages were related to arable yields. The method helped quantify agricultural production risks and rate both weather and crop-based agricultural insurance. The spatial extent of vulnerability is developed on different layers of geo-information to include meteorology, soil-landscapes, crop cover and management. Vulnerability of agroecosystems was mapped based on rules set by experts' knowledge and implemented by Fuzzy Inference System modelling and Geographical Information System tools. The approach was applied for cropland vulnerability to heavy rain and grassland vulnerability to drought. The level of vulnerability and resilience of an agro-ecosystem was also determined by risk management which differed across sectors and farm types. A calibrated agro-economic model demonstrated a marked influence of climate adapted land allocation and crop management on individual utility. The "chain of risk" approach allowed for

  4. ICON - Media Luna Reef 2011 Meteorological and Oceanographic Observations (NODC Accession 0098078)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) of OAR is conducting research on the influence of meteorological and oceanographic factors upon coral...

  5. ICON - West Fore Reef, Discovery Bay, Jamaica 2008 Meteorological and Oceanographic Observations (NODC Accession 0054499)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) of OAR is conducting research on the influence of meteorological and oceanographic factors upon coral...

  6. ICON - Salt River Bay 2007 Meteorological and Oceanographic Observations (NODC Accession 0049438)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) of OAR is conducting research on the influence of meteorological and oceanographic factors upon coral...

  7. ICON - Media Luna Reef 2013 Meteorological and Oceanographic Observations (NODC Accession 0124000)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) of OAR is conducting research on the influence of meteorological and oceanographic factors upon coral...

  8. ICON - Buccoo Reef 2013 Meteorological and Oceanographic Observations (NODC Accession 0123996)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) of OAR is conducting research on the influence of meteorological and oceanographic factors upon coral...

  9. ICON - Little Cayman 2013 Meteorological and Oceanographic Observations (NODC Accession 0123997)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) of OAR is conducting research on the influence of meteorological and oceanographic factors upon coral...

  10. ICON - Lao Lao Bay 2014 Meteorological and Oceanographic Observations (NCEI Accession 0137094)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) of OAR is conducting research on the influence of meteorological and oceanographic factors upon coral...

  11. ICON - Buccoo Reef 2014 Meteorological and Oceanographic Observations (NCEI Accession 0137094)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) of OAR is conducting research on the influence of meteorological and oceanographic factors upon coral...

  12. ICON - Salt River Bay 2014 Meteorological and Oceanographic Observations (NCEI Accession 0137094)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) of OAR is conducting research on the influence of meteorological and oceanographic factors upon coral...

  13. ICON - Molasses Reef (secondary) 2012 Meteorological and Oceanographic Observations (NODC Accession 0117728)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) of OAR is conducting research on the influence of meteorological and oceanographic factors upon coral...

  14. ICON - Media Luna Reef 2008 Meteorological and Oceanographic Observations (NODC Accession 0039700)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) of OAR is conducting research on the influence of meteorological and oceanographic factors upon coral...

  15. ICON - North Norman's Patch Reef 2007 Meteorological and Oceanographic Observations (NODC Accession 0049875)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) of OAR is conducting research on the influence of meteorological and oceanographic factors upon coral...

  16. ICON - Lao Lao Bay 2013 Meteorological and Oceanographic Observations (NODC Accession 0123998)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) of OAR is conducting research on the influence of meteorological and oceanographic factors upon coral...

  17. ICON - Media Luna Reef 2006 Meteorological and Oceanographic Observations (NODC Accession 0049876)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) of OAR is conducting research on the influence of meteorological and oceanographic factors upon coral...

  18. ICON - Media Luna Reef 2007 Meteorological and Oceanographic Observations (NODC Accession 0049877)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) of OAR is conducting research on the influence of meteorological and oceanographic factors upon coral...

  19. ICON - Salt River Bay 2013 Meteorological and Oceanographic Observations (NODC Accession 0124001)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) of OAR is conducting research on the influence of meteorological and oceanographic factors upon coral...

  20. ICON - Salt River Bay 2011 Meteorological and Oceanographic Observations (NODC Accession 0098077)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) of OAR is conducting research on the influence of meteorological and oceanographic factors upon coral...

  1. ICON - Angel's Reef 2013 Meteorological and Oceanographic Observations (NODC Accession 0123995)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) of OAR is conducting research on the influence of meteorological and oceanographic factors upon coral...

  2. ICON - Salt River Bay 2006 Meteorological and Oceanographic Observations (NODC Accession 0049446)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) of OAR is conducting research on the influence of meteorological and oceanographic factors upon coral...

  3. ICON - Buccoo Reef 2015 Meteorological and Oceanographic Observations (NCEI Accession 0156578)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) of OAR is conducting research on the influence of meteorological and oceanographic factors upon coral...

  4. ICON - Little Cayman 2015 Meteorological and Oceanographic Observations (NCEI Accession 0156578)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) of OAR is conducting research on the influence of meteorological and oceanographic factors upon coral...

  5. ICON - Lao Lao Bay, Saipan 2011 Meteorological and Oceanographic Observations (NODC Accession 0098076)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) of OAR is conducting research on the influence of meteorological and oceanographic factors upon coral...

  6. ICON - Little Cayman 2012 Meteorological and Oceanographic Observations (NODC Accession 0117730)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) of OAR is conducting research on the influence of meteorological and oceanographic factors upon coral...

  7. ICON - Catuan Wreck 2015 Meteorological and Oceanographic Observations (NCEI Accession 0156578)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) of OAR is conducting research on the influence of meteorological and oceanographic factors upon coral...

  8. ICON - Lao Lao Bay 2012 Meteorological and Oceanographic Observations (NODC Accession 0117721)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) of OAR is conducting research on the influence of meteorological and oceanographic factors upon coral...

  9. ICON - Molasses Reef (secondary) 2013 Meteorological and Oceanographic Observations (NODC Accession 0123999)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) of OAR is conducting research on the influence of meteorological and oceanographic factors upon coral...

  10. ICON - Puerto Plata 2015 Meteorological and Oceanographic Observations (NCEI Accession 0156578)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) of OAR is conducting research on the influence of meteorological and oceanographic factors upon coral...

  11. ICON - Angel's Reef 2014 Meteorological and Oceanographic Observations (NCEI Accession 0137094)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) of OAR is conducting research on the influence of meteorological and oceanographic factors upon coral...

  12. ICON - Media Luna Reef 2012 Meteorological and Oceanographic Observations (NODC Accession 0117729)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) of OAR is conducting research on the influence of meteorological and oceanographic factors upon coral...

  13. ICON - Angel's Reef 2015 Meteorological and Oceanographic Observations (NCEI Accession 0156578)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) of OAR is conducting research on the influence of meteorological and oceanographic factors upon coral...

  14. ICON - Little Cayman, Cayman Islands 2011 Meteorological and Oceanographic Observations (NODC Accession 0098079)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) of OAR is conducting research on the influence of meteorological and oceanographic factors upon coral...

  15. ICON - Salt River Bay 2012 Meteorological and Oceanographic Observations (NODC Accession 0117726)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) of OAR is conducting research on the influence of meteorological and oceanographic factors upon coral...

  16. ICON - Salt River Bay 2008 Meteorological and Oceanographic Observations (NODC Accession 0057130)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) of OAR is conducting research on the influence of meteorological and oceanographic factors upon coral...

  17. ICON - West Fore Reef, Discovery Bay, Jamaica 2007 Meteorological and Oceanographic Observations (NODC Accession 0054497)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) of OAR is conducting research on the influence of meteorological and oceanographic factors upon coral...

  18. NOAA Ship Bell M. Shimada Underway Meteorological Data, Near Real Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Bell M. Shimada Underway Meteorological Data (Near Real Time, updated daily) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  19. ICON - Little Cayman 2014 Meteorological and Oceanographic Observations (NCEI Accession 0137094)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) of OAR is conducting research on the influence of meteorological and oceanographic factors upon coral...

  20. ICON - North Norman's Patch Reef 2003 Meteorological and Oceanographic Observations (CMRC2) (NODC Accession 0049873)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) of OAR is conducting research on the influence of meteorological and oceanographic factors upon coral...

  1. ICON - North Norman's Patch Reef 2006 Meteorological and Oceanographic Observations (NODC Accession 0049874)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) of OAR is conducting research on the influence of meteorological and oceanographic factors upon coral...

  2. Quality Assurance Guidance for the Collection of Meteorological Data Using Passive Radiometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document augments the February 2000 guidance entitled Meteorological Monitoring Guidance for Regulatory Modeling Applications and the March 2008 guidance entitled Quality Assurance Handbook for Air Pollution Measurement Systems Volume IV: Meteorological Measurements Version ...

  3. NOAA Ship Henry B. Bigelow Underway Meteorological Data, Near Real Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Henry B. Bigelow Underway Meteorological Data (Near Real Time, updated daily) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  4. NOAA Ship McArthurII Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship McArthur II Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  5. NOAA Ship Oscar Elton Sette Underway Meteorological Data, Near Real Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Oscar Elton Sette Underway Meteorological Data (Near Real Time, updated daily) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  6. NOAA Ship Ka'imimoana Underway Meteorological Data, Near Real Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Ka'imimoana Underway Meteorological Data (Near Real Time, updated daily) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS)...

  7. NOAA Ship Hi'ialakai Underway Meteorological Data, Near Real Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Hi'ialakai Underway Meteorological Data (Near Real Time, updated daily) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS)...

  8. Sensitivity of MODIS evapotranspiration algorithm (MOD16) to the acuracy of meteorological data and land use and land cover parameterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhoff, Anderson; Santini Adamatti, Daniela

    2017-04-01

    MODIS evapotranspiration (MOD16) is currently available with 1 km of spatial resolution over 109.03 Million km2 of vegetated land surface areas and this information is widely used to evaluate the linkages between hydrological, energy and carbon cycles. The algorithm is driven by meteorological reanalysis data and MODIS remotely-sensed data, which include land use and land cover classification (MCD12Q1), leaf area index (LAI) and fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (FPAR) (MOD15A2) and albedo (MOD43b3). For calibration and parameterization, the algorithm uses a Biome Property Look-up Table (BPLUT) based on MCD12Q1 land cover classification. Several studies evaluated MOD16 accuracy using evapotranspiration measurements and water balance analysis, showing that this product can reproduce global evapotranspiration effectively under a variety climate condition, from local to wide-basin scale, with uncertainties up to 25%. In this study, we evaluated the sensitivity of MOD16 algorithm to land use and land cover parameterization and to meteorological data. Considering that MCD12Q1 has an accuracy between 70 and 85% at continental scale, we changed land cover parametererization to understand the influence of land use and land cover classification on MOD16 evapotranspiration estimations. Knowing that meteorological reanalysis data also have uncertainties (mostly related to the coarse spatial resolution), we compared MOD16 evapotranspiration driven by observed meteorological data to those driven by the reanalysis data. Our analysis were carried in South America, with evapotranspiration and meteorological measurements from the Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA) at 8 different sites, including tropical rainforest, tropical dry forest, selective logged forest, seasonal flooded forest and pasture/agriculture. Our results indicate that land use and land cover classification has a strong influence on MOD16 algorithm. The use of

  9. Reformatting Meteorological Data for use in the Hazard Prediction and Assessment Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-11-01

    forecast data from mesoscale model runs. In Australia, this meteorological data is produced by the Bureau of Meteorology (BoM). HPAC was developed in the...be interpreted by HPAC. The Bureau of Meteorology (BoM) collects large amounts of observational data from across the country and uses Numerical Weather...supplied by the Bureau of Meteorology are stored in a binary form and contain the variables shown below in Table 3. Table 3: Current NetCDF format

  10. Using avian radar to examine relationships among avian activity, bird strikes, and meteorological factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Peter S.; Casazza, Michael L.; Halstead, Brian J.; Fleskes, Joseph P.; Laughlin, James A.

    2011-01-01

    Radar systems designed to detect avian activity at airfields are useful in understanding factors that influence the risk of bird and aircraft collisions (bird strikes). We used an avian radar system to measure avian activity at Beale Air Force Base, California, USA, during 2008 and 2009. We conducted a 2-part analysis to examine relationships among avian activity, bird strikes, and meteorological and time-dependent factors. We found that avian activity around the airfield was greater at times when bird strikes occurred than on average using a permutation resampling technique. Second, we developed generalized linear mixed models of an avian activity index (AAI). Variation in AAI was first explained by seasons that were based on average migration dates of birds at the study area. We then modeled AAI by those seasons to further explain variation by meteorological factors and daily light levels within a 24-hour period. In general, avian activity increased with decreased temperature, wind, visibility, precipitation, and increased humidity and cloud cover. These effects differed by season. For example, during the spring bird migration period, most avian activity occurred before sunrise at twilight hours on clear days with low winds, whereas during fall migration, substantial activity occurred after sunrise, and birds generally were more active at lower temperatures. We report parameter estimates (i.e., constants and coefficients) averaged across models and a relatively simple calculation for safety officers and wildlife managers to predict AAI and the relative risk of bird strike based on time, date, and meteorological values. We validated model predictability and assessed model fit. These analyses will be useful for general inference of avian activity and risk assessment efforts. Further investigation and ongoing data collection will refine these inference models and improve our understanding of factors that influence avian activity, which is necessary to inform

  11. Vegetation pattern of Istanbul from the Landsat data and the relationship with meteorological parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Aslan

    1994-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the preliminary results of a study on the vegetation pattern and its relationship with meteorological parameters in and around Istanbul. The study covers an area of over 6800 km2 consisting of urban and suburban centers, and uses the visible and near-infrared bands of Landsat. The spatial variation of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI and meteorological parameters such as sensible heat flux, momentum flux, relative humidity, moist static energy, rainfall rate and temperature have been investigated based on observations in ten stations in the European (Thracian and Anatolian parts of Istanbul. NDVI values have been evaluated from the Landsat data for a single day, viz. 24 October 1986, using ERDAS in ten different classes. The simultaneous spatial variations of sensible heat and momentum fluxes have been computed from the wind and temperature profiles using the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. The static energy variations are based on the surface meteorological observations. There is very good correlation between NDVI and rainfall rate. Good correlation also exists between: NDVI and relative humidity; NDVI, sensible heat flux and relative humidity; NDVI, momentum flux and emissivity; and NDVI, sensible heat flux and emissivity. The study suggests that the momentum flux has only marginal impact on NDVI. Due to rapid urbanization,the coastal belt is characterized by reduced NDVI compared to the interior areas, suggesting that thermodynamic discontinuities considerably influence the vegetation pattern. This study is useful for the investigation of small-scale circulation models, especially in urban and suburban areas where differential heating leads to the formation of heat islands. In the long run, such studies on a global scale are vital to gain accurate, timely information on the distribution of vegetation on the earth's surface. This may lead to an understanding of how changes in land cover affect phenomena as

  12. Meteorological risks, impacts on crop production systems and agricultural insurances in Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobin, A.; Piccard, I.

    2012-04-01

    Devastating weather-related events recorded in recent years have captured the interest of the general public in Belgium. Extreme weather events such as droughts, heat stress, rain storms and floods are projected to increase both in frequency and magnitude with climate change. Since more than half of the Belgian territory is managed by the agricultural sector, extreme events have significant impacts on agro-ecosystem services and pose severe limitations to sustainable agricultural land management. The perspective of rising risk-exposure is exacerbated further by more limits to aid received for agricultural damage (amendments to EC Regulation 1857/2006) and an overall reduction of direct income support to farmers. Current knowledge gaps related to the occurrence of extreme events and the response of agro-ecosystems need to be addressed in conjunction with their vulnerability, resilience and adaptive possibilities. A chain of risks approach starts with assessing the likely frequency and magnitude of extreme meteorological events by means of probability density functions. Impacts are subsequently based on physically based models that provide information on the state of the damage at any given time and assist in understanding the links between different factors causing damage and in determining bio-physical vulnerability. The output of regional bio-physical models is compared with remote sensing based algorithms applied on SPOT-VGT temporal data. Crop damage and risk indicators are derived from remote sensing, meteorological records, crop modelling and agricultural statistics and compared to damage statistics obtained from the government-based agricultural disaster funds. Damages due to adverse meteorological events are strongly dependent on crop type, crop stage and soil type. Spatio-temporal indicators of drought during the growing season and waterlogging at harvest showed the highest agreement with damage, followed by hail and frost. In general potatoes, flax and

  13. Exploring Meteorology Education in Community College: Lecture-based Instruction and Dialogue-based Group Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, Jason Paul

    This study examined the impact of dialogue-based group instruction on student learning and engagement in community college meteorology education. A quasi-experimental design was used to compare lecture-based instruction with dialogue-based group instruction during two class sessions at one community college in southern California. Pre- and post-tests were used to measure learning and interest, while surveys were conducted two days after the learning events to assess engagement, perceived learning, and application of content. The results indicated that the dialogue-based group instruction was more successful in helping students learn than the lecture-based instruction. Each question that assessed learning had a higher score for the dialogue group that was statistically significant (alpha students were able to remember more concepts and apply these concepts to their lives. Dialogue students were also more engaged, as three out of the five engagement-related survey questions revealed statistically significantly higher scores for them. The qualitative data also supported increased engagement for the dialogue students. Interest in specific meteorological topics did not change significantly for either group of students; however, interest in learning about severe weather was higher for the dialogue group. Neither group found the learning events markedly meaningful, although more students from the dialogue group found pronounced meaning centered on applying severe weather knowledge to their lives. Active engagement in the dialogue approach kept these students from becoming distracted and allowed them to become absorbed in the learning event. This higher engagement most likely contributed to the resulting higher learning. Together, these results indicate that dialogue education, especially compared to lecture methods, has a great potential for helping students learn meteorology. Dialogue education can also help students engage in weather-related concepts and potentially

  14. Assimilating Tropospheric Airborne Meteorological Data Reporting (TAMDAR) Observations and the Relative Value of Other Observation Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Assimilating Tropospheric Airborne Meteorological Data Reporting (TAMDAR) Observations and the Relative Value of Other Observation Types by...Army Research Laboratory Adelphi, MD 20783-1197 ARL-TR-7022 August 2014 Assimilating Tropospheric Airborne Meteorological Data...From - To) 15 August 2012–30 September 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Assimilating Tropospheric Airborne Meteorological Data Reporting (TAMDAR

  15. A METEOROLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT METHOD FOR POWER LINES BASED ON GIS AND MULTI-SENSOR INTEGRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Lin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Power lines, exposed in the natural environment, are vulnerable to various kinds of meteorological factors. Traditional research mainly deals with the influence of a single meteorological condition on the power line, which lacks of comprehensive effects evaluation and analysis of the multiple meteorological factors. In this paper, we use multiple meteorological monitoring data obtained by multi-sensors to implement the meteorological risk assessment and early warning of power lines. Firstly, we generate meteorological raster map from discrete meteorological monitoring data using spatial interpolation. Secondly, the expert scoring based analytic hierarchy process is used to compute the power line risk index of all kinds of meteorological conditions and establish the mathematical model of meteorological risk. By adopting this model in raster calculator of ArcGIS, we will have a raster map showing overall meteorological risks for power line. Finally, by overlaying the power line buffer layer to that raster map, we will get to know the exact risk index around a certain part of power line, which will provide significant guidance for power line risk management. In the experiment, based on five kinds of observation data gathered from meteorological stations in Guizhou Province of China, including wind, lightning, rain, ice, temperature, we carry on the meteorological risk analysis for the real power lines, and experimental results have proved the feasibility and validity of our proposed method.

  16. Meteorology and lidar data from the URAHFREP field trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ott, Søren; Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans

    2002-01-01

    influence of HF thermodynamics on the dispersion of atmospheric HF clouds. In order to test if the lift-off or enhanced mixing created by the HF release was strong enough compared to the naturally fluctuationsthe HF releases were accompanied by passive smoke release, made shortly after to obtain a reference...... downwind of the source. A comparison ofplume characteristics for HF clouds and passive smoke clouds has been made. The analysis shows no sign of any difference between the dispersion of HF and passive smoke except for one release, where a positive buoyancy effect cannot be excluded. Anenhanced mixing...... to the HF release. The instrumentation included various types of HF sensors, thermocouple arrays, a fully instrumented release rig, a passive smokemachine, a meteorological mast and a lidar backscatter system. This report deals exclusively with the meteorological data and the lidar data. The trials cover...

  17. Meteorological observations in support of a hill cap cloud experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Morten

    1998-06-01

    Humid air flows form a hill cap cloud over the Agana mountain ridge in the north-east of Tenerife. The HILLCLOUD project utilised this cloud formation to investigate the chemical and physical properties of cloud aerosols by land based observations. The project was part of the second Aerosol characterisation Experiment (ACE-2) of the International Global Atmospheric chemistry project (IGAC). The present report describes meteorological observations in support of the hill cap cloud experiment. Time-series of wind speed, wind direction, temperature and humidity were collected at ground-based meteorological stations during a period starting one year in advance of the main campaign. A series of radiosonde detecting the upstream stability and wind profile were launched during the main campaign. (au) 5 tabs., 32 ills., 6 refs.

  18. Meteorological and air pollution modeling for an urban airport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, P. R.; Lee, I. Y.

    1980-01-01

    Results are presented of numerical experiments modeling meteorology, multiple pollutant sources, and nonlinear photochemical reactions for the case of an airport in a large urban area with complex terrain. A planetary boundary-layer model which predicts the mixing depth and generates wind, moisture, and temperature fields was used; it utilizes only surface and synoptic boundary conditions as input data. A version of the Hecht-Seinfeld-Dodge chemical kinetics model is integrated with a new, rapid numerical technique; both the San Francisco Bay Area Air Quality Management District source inventory and the San Jose Airport aircraft inventory are utilized. The air quality model results are presented in contour plots; the combined results illustrate that the highly nonlinear interactions which are present require that the chemistry and meteorology be considered simultaneously to make a valid assessment of the effects of individual sources on regional air quality.

  19. [Relationships between horqin meadow NDVI and meteorological factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Cui-ping; Guan, De-xin; Wang, An-zhi; Jin, Chang-jie; Wu, Jia-bing; Wang, Ji-jun; Ni, Pan; Yuan, Feng-hui

    2009-01-01

    Based on the 2000-2006 MODIS 8-day composite NDVI and day-by-day meteorological data, the seasonal and inter-annual variations of Horqin meadow NDVI as well as the relationships between the NDVI and relevant meteorological factors were studied. The results showed that as for the seasonal variation, Horqin meadow NDVI was more related to water vapor pressure than to precipitation. Cumulated temperature and cumulated precipitation together affected the inter-annual turning-green period significantly, and the precipitation in growth season (June and July), compared with that in whole year, had more obvious effects on the annual maximal NDVI. The analysis of time lag effect indicated that water vapor pressure had a persistent (about 12 days) prominent effect on the NDVI. The time lag effect of mean air temperature was 11-15 days, and the cumulated dual effect of the temperature and precipitation was 36-52 days.

  20. Effects of Meteorological Conditions on Reactions to Noise Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Kevin P. (Technical Monitor); Fields, James M.

    2004-01-01

    More than 80,000 residents' responses to transportation noise at different times of year provide the best, but imprecise, statistical estimates of the effects of season and meteorological conditions on community response to noise. Annoyance with noise is found to be slightly statistically significantly higher in the summer than in the winter in a seven-year study in the Netherlands. Analyses of 41 other surveys drawn from diverse countries, climates, and times of year find noise annoyance is increased by temperature, and may be increased by more sunshine, less precipitation, and reduced wind speeds. Meteorological conditions on the day of the interview or the immediately preceding days do not appear to have any more effect on reactions than do the conditions over the immediately preceding weeks or months.

  1. Assessing uncertainty in radar measurements on simplified meteorological scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Molini

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A three-dimensional radar simulator model (RSM developed by Haase (1998 is coupled with the nonhydrostatic mesoscale weather forecast model Lokal-Modell (LM. The radar simulator is able to model reflectivity measurements by using the following meteorological fields, generated by Lokal Modell, as inputs: temperature, pressure, water vapour content, cloud water content, cloud ice content, rain sedimentation flux and snow sedimentation flux. This work focuses on the assessment of some uncertainty sources associated with radar measurements: absorption by the atmospheric gases, e.g., molecular oxygen, water vapour, and nitrogen; attenuation due to the presence of a highly reflecting structure between the radar and a "target structure". RSM results for a simplified meteorological scenario, consisting of a humid updraft on a flat surface and four cells placed around it, are presented.

  2. Architecture of scalability file system for meteorological observation data storing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botygin, I. A.; Popov, V. N.; Tartakovsky, V. A.; Sherstnev, V. S.

    2015-11-01

    The approach allows to organize distributed storage of large amounts of diverse data in order to further their parallel processing in high performance cluster systems for problems of climatic processes analysis and forecasting. For different classes of data was used the practice of using meta descriptions - like formalism associated with certain categories of resources. Development of a metadata component was made based on an analysis of data of surface meteorological observations, atmosphere vertical sounding, atmosphere wind sounding, weather radar observing, observations from satellites and others. A common set of metadata components was formed for their general description. The structure and content of the main components of a generalized meta descriptions are presented in detail on the example of reporting meteorological observations from land and sea stations.

  3. Commercialisation in the provision of meteorological services in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, J. Thomas; Martin, John R.; Gordon, Neil D.; Grant, Malcolm A.

    1997-09-01

    There have been significant reforms in New Zealand of government management in general and of the science and transport sectors in particular. The impact of the reforms on the provision of meteorological services is discussed as an example of the application of the general reform thrust to a specialist technical area. The eventual outcome was the establishment of Meteorological Service of New Zealand Ltd (MetService) as a commercial company, trading in the weather forecasting market but remaining under Crown ownership. At the same time the National Institute of Water and Atmosphere (NIWA) was established. It includes the climatic responsibilities and much of the scientific research component of the former NZMS. It too operates commercially and is Crown owned. Unlike MetService, NIWA is not required to return a dividend to its owners. The procedures leading to the establishment of these new organisations, their mode of operation and their initial successful performance are described.

  4. GENERATION OF A TYPICAL METEOROLOGICAL YEAR FOR PORT HARCOURT ZONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OGOLOMA O.B.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents data for the typical meteorological year (TMY for the Port Harcourt climatic zone based on the hourly meteorological data recorded during the period 1983–2002, using the Finkelstein-Schafer statistical method. The data are the global solar radiation, wind velocity, dry bulb temperature, relative humidity, and others. The HVAC outside design conditions for the Port Harcourt climatic zone (latitude 4.44oN, longitude 7.1oE, elevation 20 m were found to be 26.7oC, 78.6% and 3.5 m/s for the dry bulb temperature, relative humidity and wind speed, respectively, and 13.5 MJ/m2/day for the global solar radiation. The TMY data for the zone are shown to be sufficiently reliable for engineering practice.

  5. Modeling Current Transfer from PV Modules Based on Meteorological Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hacke, Peter; Smith, Ryan; Kurtz, Sarah; Jordan, Dirk; Wohlgemuth, John

    2016-11-21

    Current transferred from the active cell circuit to ground in modules undergoing potential-induced degradation (PID) stress is analyzed with respect to meteorological data. Duration and coulombs transferred as a function of whether the module is wet (from dew or rain) or the extent of uncondensed surface humidity are quantified based on meteorological indicators. With this, functions predicting the mode and rate of coulomb transfer are developed for use in estimating the relative PID stress associated with temperature, moisture, and system voltage in any climate. Current transfer in a framed crystalline silicon module is relatively high when there is no condensed water on the module, whereas current transfer in a thin-film module held by edge clips is not, and displays a greater fraction of coulombs transferred when wet compared to the framed module in the natural environment.

  6. Relationship between particle matter and meteorological data in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Azad; Memarian Fard, Mahsa; Bahrami, Ala

    2017-04-01

    The fine particulate matter (PM2.5) has a strong influence on the hydrological cycle, cloud formation, visibility, global climate, and human health. The meteorological conditions have important effects on PM2.5 mass concentration. Canada's National Air Pollution Surveillance (NAPS) network measures air pollutants at urban, suburban and rural locations in Canada. In this study, the point monthly relationships between meteorological data provided by Environment of Canada and PM2.5 mass concentration from January 1st, 2010 to December 31st, 2015 of fifteen speciation stations in Canada were analyzed. The correlation analysis results between PM2.5 concentrations and precipitation as well as surface pressure demonstrated a negative correlation. It should be noted that the correlation between temperature and special humidity with PM2.5 in cold seasons and warm seasons were negative and positive respectively. Moreover, the weak correlation between wind speed and PM2.5 were obtained.

  7. An Ecological Paradox: The African Wild Dog (Lycaon Pictus Is Not Attracted to Water Points When Water Is Scarce in Hwange National Park, Zimbabwe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Ndaimani

    Full Text Available In dry biomes, spatio-temporal variation in surface water resource stocks is pervasive, with unknown effects on the ranging behaviour of large predators. This study assessed the effect of spatial variation in surface water resources on the ranging behaviour of the African wild dog (Lycaon pictus. We analyzed data for 1992 (dry year with 20 water points and 2000 (wet year with 30 water points against presence-only data for five packs of L. pictus in a part of Hwange National Park and adjacent smallholder communal farming areas in western Zimbabwe. Modelling the potential habitat for L. pictus using Maxent with distance from water points (Dw and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI as predictor variables was successful for 2000 (AUC = 0.793 but not successful for 1992 (AUC = 0.423, with L. pictus probability of occurrence near water points being more for year 2000 than for year 1992. The predicted L. pictus range was wider in 1992 (~13888.1 km2 than in 2000 (~958.4 km2 (Test of Proportions, χ2 = 124.52, df = 1, P = 0.00. Using the 2nd order Multitype Nearest Neighbour Distance Function (Gcross, we also observed significant attraction between L. pictus and water points within only ~1km radius for 1992 but up to ~8km radius for 2000. Our study reinforced the notion that surface water resources attract wild dogs in the savannahs but paradoxically less so when water resources are scarce. In particular, our study furthers current understanding of the effects of changing water availability regimes on the endangered L. pictus, providing evidence that the endangered predator's home range encroaches into potential ecological traps (i.e., smallholder communal farming areas when water resources are scarce.

  8. An Ecological Paradox: The African Wild Dog (Lycaon Pictus) Is Not Attracted to Water Points When Water Is Scarce in Hwange National Park, Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndaimani, Henry; Tagwireyi, Paradzayi; Sebele, Lovelater; Madzikanda, Hillary

    2016-01-01

    In dry biomes, spatio-temporal variation in surface water resource stocks is pervasive, with unknown effects on the ranging behaviour of large predators. This study assessed the effect of spatial variation in surface water resources on the ranging behaviour of the African wild dog (Lycaon pictus). We analyzed data for 1992 (dry year with 20 water points) and 2000 (wet year with 30 water points) against presence-only data for five packs of L. pictus in a part of Hwange National Park and adjacent smallholder communal farming areas in western Zimbabwe. Modelling the potential habitat for L. pictus using Maxent with distance from water points (Dw) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) as predictor variables was successful for 2000 (AUC = 0.793) but not successful for 1992 (AUC = 0.423), with L. pictus probability of occurrence near water points being more for year 2000 than for year 1992. The predicted L. pictus range was wider in 1992 (~13888.1 km2) than in 2000 (~958.4 km2) (Test of Proportions, χ2 = 124.52, df = 1, P = 0.00). Using the 2nd order Multitype Nearest Neighbour Distance Function (Gcross), we also observed significant attraction between L. pictus and water points within only ~1km radius for 1992 but up to ~8km radius for 2000. Our study reinforced the notion that surface water resources attract wild dogs in the savannahs but paradoxically less so when water resources are scarce. In particular, our study furthers current understanding of the effects of changing water availability regimes on the endangered L. pictus, providing evidence that the endangered predator's home range encroaches into potential ecological traps (i.e., smallholder communal farming areas) when water resources are scarce.

  9. A step-wise semi-distributed simulation approach to characterize a karst aquifer and to support dam construction in a data-scarce environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adinehvand, R.; Raeisi, E.; Hartmann, A.

    2017-11-01

    Karst systems provide significant volumes of drinking water for large parts of the world population. Due to chemical weathering, karst systems are characterized by strong heterogeneity resulting in a complex flow and storage behaviour. Presently available karst modelling strategies account for the karstic heterogeneity but often a lack of data limits their applicability in data-scarce regions. In this study, a step-wise simulation approach with a semi-distributed karst model is proposed to characterize a karst aquifer at a data-scarce region in Southwest Iran and to evaluate the leakage potential related to a future dam construction project at a river that cuts through the aquifer. Observed groundwater level time series were applied to calibrate and validate the model. In order to avoid over-parameterization, the karst aquifer was split into three sections down the hydraulic gradient. At each section, groundwater level observations were used to iteratively calibrate the model from the first to the last section. A spatial split-sample test and sensitivity analysis served to evaluate the prediction performance and the identifiability of the model parameters. Finally, simple scenarios of the river infiltration into the aquifer were applied to evaluate the leakage potential of the aquifer for future dam constructions. The spatial split-sample test showed that the semi-distributed model provided reliable predictions but prediction performance and parameter identifiability decreased from the first towards the last aquifer section, most probably due to increased aquifer complexity and propagation of uncertainty from the up-gradient model section. Using sensitivity analysis, we also show that parameter sensitivities increase significantly if parameter estimation was applied simultaneously to all three aquifer subsections. Using the model to assess the leakage potential indicated that, without further technical measures, the all river flow would be able infiltrate into the

  10. The Role of Kenya Meteorological Service in Weather Early Warning in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zablon W. Shilenje

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Early warning in weather forecasting entails provision of timely and effective weather information that allows individuals, organisations, or communities exposed to likely weather hazards to take action that avoids or reduces their exposure to risks. Various sectors have developed different ways to mitigate the effects of climate anomalies. The study reviews the existing monitoring and response structures, and communications flow channels of weather data at different levels, focusing on the role of Kenya Meteorological Service (KMS. The methodology employed was literature review of various documents. The study argues that early warning and weather information communication are essential elements for effective governance of weather risks through a well-developed warning system. At the end, the study recommends strengthening the existing structures with respect to weather monitoring, processing, and dissemination of weather products to end users.

  11. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) Quarterly Report Fourth Quarter FY-04

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, William; Wheeler, Mark; Lambert, Winifred; Case, Jonathan; Short, David

    2004-01-01

    This report summarizes the Applied Meteorology Unit (A MU) activities for the fourth quarter of Fiscal Year 2004 (July -Sept 2004). Tasks covered are: (1) Objective Lightning Probability Forecast: Phase I, (2) Severe Weather Forecast Decision Aid, (3) Hail Index, (4) Shuttle Ascent Camera Cloud Obstruction Forecast, (5) Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) Optimization and Training Extension and (5) User Control Interface for ARPS Data Analysis System (ADAS) Data Ingest.

  12. [Meteorology and the human body: two hundred years of history].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrai, Judit

    2010-07-04

    Modern meteorology was started in the 18th century, with the establishment of observer networks through countries. Since then, temperature, pressure and purity of air, quantity of powder have been measured and the effects of changes on the human body have been studied. New theories have been set relating to the atmospheric properties of microorganisms. Changes of pathogens in the context of climatic changes have been also studied.

  13. Meteorological field measurements at potential and actual wind turbine sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renne, D.S.; Sandusky, W.F.; Hadley, D.L.

    1982-09-01

    An overview of experiences gained in a meteorological measurement program conducted at a number of locations around the United States for the purpose of site evaluation for wind energy utilization is provided. The evolution of the measurement program from its inception in 1976 to the present day is discussed. Some of the major accomplishments and areas for improvement are outlined. Some conclusions on research using data from this program are presented.

  14. Dialectic Atmosphere of Architecture: on Aesthetic Experience and Meteorology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Vignjević

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to trace the genealogy between two different terms of ‘atmosphere’. On the one hand, the term is primarily understood as a meteorological phenomenon. On the other hand, the word ‘atmosphere’ has found its way into the field of aesthetics, as the spatial diffusion of a certain mood. But, as Tim Ignold remarks, current aesthetic approach to atmosphere is mostly all about sensory experience, with no mention of meteorology at all. Similar to this exclusion, current attitudes to climate change often reduce nature-culture relations to a merely technical concern. The purpose of this paper is to permeate these two divergent positions through three different architectural concepts. The first one – Flying refers to Derek McCormack’s theoretical concept of balloon flight, combining the imaginative force of flying with balloon’s technical ability to enable this desire. This position is further reviewed through balloon-like architecture of 1960s, as in its contemporary revival. The second concept – Sensitivity starts from the premise that our imaginative and perceptual activities are forced – not in the static beauty of ideal weather conditions, but in their constant oscillation and contingency. This state is elaborated in the work of architect Philippe Rahm. Finally, the third concept Breathing is a critical response to a meteorological idealization, which is manifested in technical perfection of Le Corbusier’s exact air. As opposed to such intellectual air control, postmodern approach explores imaginative force of an anti air – dust, pollution, fog.   Article received: December 14, 2016; Article accepted: January 18, 2017; Published online: April 20, 2017 Original scholarly paper How to cite this article: Vignjević, Ana. "Dialectic Atmosphere of Architecture: on Aesthetic Experience and Meteorology." AM Journal of Art and Media Studies 12 (2017: 41-54. doi: 10.25038/am.v0i12.166

  15. Aerosol Observing System Surface Meteorology (AOSMET) Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyrouac, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility Aerosol Observing System (AOS) surface meteorology instrument is an ancillary sensor that provides temperature, relative humidity, pressure, wind speed and direction, and precipitation data relevant to the AOS. It consists of a Vaisala WXT520 Weather Transmitter mounted on top of the AOS aerosol inlet, at a height of approximately 10 meters.

  16. Dynamical behaviors of multifractal strengths in meteorological factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Cheol-Hwan; Seo, Seong Kyu; Chang, Ki-Ho; Jeong, Jin-Yim; Na, Sungjoon; Kim, Kyungsik

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we study the multifractal properties of cloud observation time-series data in Daegwanryung, Korea, containing two meteorological factors, the effective radius of a cloud droplet and the average particle size of a raindrop. We simulate and analyze the generalized Hurst exponent, the Renyi exponent, the spectrum, and the multifractal strength by using the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis method. The result obtained may have a useful and effective influences on determining the observation location.

  17. Meteorological Conditions Experienced During the Orion Pad Abort Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teets, Edward H., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Presentation describes the atmosphere at launch minus one day and a forecast associated for launch. Also presented is the day of launch observations from weather balloons, the 924 MHz wind profiler, and four Surface Automatic Meteorological System (SAMS) from nearby locations. Details will be provided illustrating the terrain and atmosphere interactions that produced strong winds at the launch site and calm winds at the balloon launch facility just 3 miles away.

  18. Modeling the Effects of Meteorological Conditions on the Neutron Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-22

    statistical package. New York: Springer Science Business Mediar, 2010. Print. Page 96. [21] www.nndc.bnl.gov; ENDF/B-VII.1 data. 63 Chapter 11...a statistical model that predicts environmental neutron background as a function of five meteorological variables: inverse barometric pressure...my calming voice of reason and keeping expectations realistic during the busy periods of the project. And Assistant Professor VanDerwerken for your

  19. Comparison between meteorological data from the New Zealand National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA) and data from independent meteorological stations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mason, Euan G; Salekin, Serajis; Morgenroth, Justin A

    2017-01-01

    .... Data collected from nine independent meteorological stations were compared with estimates from the nearest grid points of the Virtual Climate Station Network created by the New Zealand National...

  20. Applied Meteorology Unit - Operational Contributions to Spaceport Canaveral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, William H., III; Roeder, William P.; Lafosse, Richard A.; Sharp, David W.; Merceret, Francis J.

    2004-01-01

    The Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) provides technology development, evaluation and transition services to improve operational weather support to the Space Shuttle and the National Space Program. It is established under a Memorandum of Understanding among NASA, the Air Force and the National .Weather Service (NWS). The AMU is funded and managed by NASA and operated by ENSCO, Inc. through a competitively awarded NASA contract. The primary customers are the 45th Weather Squadron (45WS) at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS), FL; the Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) at Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston, TX; and the NWS office in Melbourne, FL (NWS MLB). This paper will briefly review the AMU's history and describe the three processes through which its work is assigned. Since its inception in 1991 the AMU has completed 72 projects, all of which are listed at the end of this paper. At least one project that highlights each of the three tasking processes will be briefly reviewed. Some of the projects that have been especially beneficial to the space program will also be discussed in more detail, as will projects that developed significant new techniques or science in applied meteorology.