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Sample records for scapularis acari ixodidae

  1. Efficacy of Plant-Derived and Synthetic Compounds on Clothing as Repellents Against Ixodes scapularis and Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    scapularis and Amblyomma americanum ( Acari : Ixodidae) ROBERT A. JORDAN,1,2 TERRY L. SCHULZE,1,3 AND MARC C. DOLAN4 J. Med. Entomol. 49(1): 101Ð106 (2012...repellents against adult Ixodes scapularis Say and Amblyomma americanum (L.) ( Acari : Ixodidae) by using treated coveralls. One day after treatment...permethrin-based (Repel Permanone) repellents against adult Ixodes scapularis Say and Amblyomma americanum (L.) ( Acari : Ixodidae) by using treated

  2. Ability of Two Natural Products, Nootkatone and Carvacrol, to Suppress Ixodes Scapularis and Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae) in a Lyme Disease Endemic Area of New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    MEDICAL ENTOMOLOGY Ability of Two Natural Products, Nootkatone and Carvacrol, to Suppress Ixodes scapularis and Amblyomma americanum ( Acari : Ixodidae...the ability of the natural, plant-derived acaricides nootkatone and carvacrol to suppress Ixodes scapularis Say and Amblyomma americanum (L.) ( Acari ...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ability of Two Natural Products, Nootkatone and Carvacrol, to Suppress Ixodes scapularis and Amblyomma americanum ( Acari

  3. Repellent efficacy of DEET, Icaridin, and EBAAP against Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes scapularis nymphs (Acari, Ixodidae).

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    Büchel, Kerstin; Bendin, Juliane; Gharbi, Amina; Rahlenbeck, Sibylle; Dautel, Hans

    2015-06-01

    Repellent efficacy of 10% EBAAP (3-[N-butyl-N-acetyl]-aminopropionic acid, ethyl ester) and 10% Icaridin ((2-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperidinecarboxylic acid 1-methylpropyl ester)) were evaluated against 20% DEET (N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide) in human subject trials against ticks. Responses of host-seeking nymphs of the European castor bean tick (Ixodes ricinus L.; Acari: Ixodidae) and the North American blacklegged tick (I. scapularis Say; Acari: Ixodidae) were compared. Tests were carried out according to the US-EPA standard protocol with ethanolic solutions of the active ingredients of repellents being applied to the forearm of 10 volunteers. The upward movement of ticks was monitored until repellent failure taking up to 12.5 h. Application of 20% DEET resulted in median complete protection times (CPT; Kaplan-Meier median) between 4 and 4.5 h, while 10% EBAAP yielded CPTs of 3.5-4h. No significant differences were found between the efficacies of two repellents nor between the two species tested. The median of the CPT of a 10% Icaridin solution was 5h in nymphs of I. scapularis, but 8h in those of I. ricinus (PIxodes ticks with Icaridin demonstrating particularly promising results against I. ricinus. Future research should investigate whether similar results occur when adult Ixodes ticks or other tick species are tested. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Flagging versus dragging as sampling methods for nymphal Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae).

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    Rulison, Eric L; Kuczaj, Isis; Pang, Genevieve; Hickling, Graham J; Tsao, Jean I; Ginsberg, Howard S

    2013-06-01

    The nymphal stage of the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae), is responsible for most transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of Lyme disease, to humans in North America. From 2010 to fall of 2012, we compared two commonly used techniques, flagging and dragging, as sampling methods for nymphal I. scapularis at three sites, each with multiple sampling arrays (grids), in the eastern and central United States. Flagging and dragging collected comparable numbers of nymphs, with no consistent differences between methods. Dragging collected more nymphs than flagging in some samples, but these differences were not consistent among sites or sampling years. The ratio of nymphs collected by flagging vs dragging was not significantly related to shrub density, so habitat type did not have a strong effect on the relative efficacy of these methods. Therefore, although dragging collected more ticks in a few cases, the numbers collected by each method were so variable that neither technique had a clear advantage for sampling nymphal I. scapularis. © 2013 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  5. Flagging versus dragging as sampling methods for nymphal Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae)

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    Rulison, Eric L.; Kuczaj, Isis; Pang, Genevieve; Hickling, Graham J.; Tsao, Jean I.; Ginsberg, Howard S.

    2013-01-01

    The nymphal stage of the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae), is responsible for most transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of Lyme disease, to humans in North America. From 2010 to fall of 2012, we compared two commonly used techniques, flagging and dragging, as sampling methods for nymphal I. scapularis at three sites, each with multiple sampling arrays (grids), in the eastern and central United States. Flagging and dragging collected comparable numbers of nymphs, with no consistent differences between methods. Dragging collected more nymphs than flagging in some samples, but these differences were not consistent among sites or sampling years. The ratio of nymphs collected by flagging vs dragging was not significantly related to shrub density, so habitat type did not have a strong effect on the relative efficacy of these methods. Therefore, although dragging collected more ticks in a few cases, the numbers collected by each method were so variable that neither technique had a clear advantage for sampling nymphal I. scapularis.

  6. Relative humidity and activity patterns of Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae)

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    Berger, K.A.; Ginsberg, Howard S.; Gonzalez, L.; Mather, T.N.

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory studies have shown clear relationships between relative humidity (RH) and the activity and survival of Ixodes scapularis Say (blacklegged tick). However, field studies have produced conflicting results. We examined this relationship using weekly tick count totals and hourly RH observations at three field sites, stratified by latitude, within the state of Rhode Island. Records of nymphal tick abundance were compared with several RH-related variables (e.g., RH at time of sampling and mean weekly daytime RH). In total, 825 nymphs were sampled in 2009, a year of greater precipitation, with a weighted average leaf litter RH recorded at time of sampling of 85.22%. Alternatively, 649 nymphs were collected in 2010, a year of relatively low precipitation, and a weighted average RH recorded at time of sampling was 75.51%. Negative binomial regression analysis of tick count totals identified cumulative hours <82% RH threshold as a significant factor observed in both years (2009: P = 0.0037; 2010: P < 0.0001). Mean weekly daytime RH did not significantly predict tick activity in either year. However, mean weekly daytime RH recorded with 1-wk lag before sample date was a significant variable (P = 0.0016) in 2010. These results suggest a lag effect between moisture availability and patterns of tick activity and abundance. Differences in the relative importance of each RH variable between years may have been due to abnormally wet summer conditions in 2009.

  7. Prevalence and Diversity of Tick-Borne Pathogens in Nymphal Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) in Eastern National Parks.

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    Johnson, Tammi L; Graham, Christine B; Boegler, Karen A; Cherry, Cara C; Maes, Sarah E; Pilgard, Mark A; Hojgaard, Andrias; Buttke, Danielle E; Eisen, Rebecca J

    2017-05-01

    Tick-borne pathogens transmitted by Ixodes scapularis Say (Acari: Ixodidae), also known as the deer tick or blacklegged tick, are increasing in incidence and geographic distribution in the United States. We examined the risk of tick-borne disease exposure in 9 national parks across six Northeastern and Mid-Atlantic States and the District of Columbia in 2014 and 2015. To assess the recreational risk to park visitors, we sampled for ticks along frequently used trails and calculated the density of I. scapularis nymphs (DON) and the density of infected nymphs (DIN). We determined the nymphal infection prevalence of I. scapularis with a suite of tick-borne pathogens including Borrelia burgdorferi, Borrelia miyamotoi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Babesia microti. Ixodes scapularis nymphs were found in all national park units; DON ranged from 0.40 to 13.73 nymphs per 100 m2. Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, was found at all sites where I. scapularis was documented; DIN with B. burgdorferi ranged from 0.06 to 5.71 nymphs per 100 m2. Borrelia miyamotoi and A. phagocytophilum were documented at 60% and 70% of the parks, respectively, while Ba. microti occurred at just 20% of the parks. Ixodes scapularis is well established across much of the Northeastern and Mid-Atlantic States, and our results are generally consistent with previous studies conducted near the areas we sampled. Newly established I. scapularis populations were documented in two locations: Washington, D.C. (Rock Creek Park) and Greene County, Virginia (Shenandoah National Park). This research demonstrates the potential risk of tick-borne pathogen exposure in national parks and can be used to educate park visitors about the importance of preventative actions to minimize tick exposure. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2016. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  8. Biocidal activity of three wood essential oils against Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae), Xenopsylla cheopis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae), and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

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    Dolan, Marc C; Dietrich, Gabrielle; Panella, Nicholas A; Montenieri, John A; Karchesy, Joseph J

    2007-04-01

    The biocidal activity of three steam distilled wood essential oils-incense cedar, Calocedrus decurrens (Torr.) Florin; Port-Orford-cedar, Chamaecyparis lawsoniana (A. Murr.) Parl.; and western juniper, Juniperus occidentalis (Hook)--were evaluated against adult Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) and Xenopsylla cheopis (Rothchild) (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) and nymphal Ixodes scapularis Say (Acari: Ixodidae). In vitro laboratory bioassays were conducted to establish baseline dose-mortality data through 24 h. Incense cedar heartwood was the most toxic to all three vector species followed in order of activity by western juniper and Port-Orford-cedar based on LC50 and LC90 values. Ae. aegypti were substantially more susceptible to the oils than either I. scapularis or X. cheopis.

  9. Acquisition of Borrelia burgdorferi infection by larval Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) associated with engorgement measures

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    Couret, Janelle; Dyer, M.C.; Mather, T.N.; Han, S.; Tsao, J.I.; LeBrun, R.A.; Ginsberg, Howard

    2017-01-01

    Measuring rates of acquisition of the Lyme disease pathogen, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato Johnson, Schmid, Hyde, Steigerwalt & Brenner, by the larval stage of Ixodes scapularis Say is a useful tool for xenodiagnoses of B. burgdorferi in vertebrate hosts. In the nymphal and adult stages of I. scapularis, the duration of attachment to hosts has been shown to predict both body engorgement during blood feeding and the timing of infection with B. burgdorferi. However, these relationships have not been established for the larval stage of I. scapularis. We sought to establish the relationship between body size during engorgement of larval I. scapularis placed on B. burgdorferi-infected, white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus Rafinesque) and the presence or absence of infection in larvae sampled from hosts over time. Body size, time, and their interaction were the best predictors of larval infection with B. burgdorferi. We found that infected larvae showed significantly greater engorgement than uninfected larvae as early as 24 h after placement on a host. These findings may suggest that infection with B. burgdorferi affects the larval feeding process. Alternatively, larvae that engorge more rapidly on hosts may acquire infections faster. Knowledge of these relationships can be applied to improve effective xenodiagnosis of B. burgdorferi in white-footed mice. Further, these findings shed light on vector–pathogen–host interactions during an understudied part of the Lyme disease transmission cycle.

  10. Isolation of entomopathogenic fungi from soils and Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) ticks: prevalence and methods.

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    Tuininga, Amy R; Miller, Jessica L; Morath, Shannon U; Daniels, Thomas J; Falco, Richard C; Marchese, Michael; Sahabi, Sadia; Rosa, Dieshia; Stafford, Kirby C

    2009-05-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi are commonly found in forested soils that provide tick habitat, and many species are pathogenic to Ixodes scapularis Say, the blacklegged tick. As a first step to developing effective biocontrol strategies, the objective of this study was to determine the best methods to isolate entomopathogenic fungal species from field-collected samples of soils and ticks from an Eastern deciduous forest where I. scapularis is common. Several methods were assessed: (1) soils, leaf litter, and ticks were plated on two types of media; (2) soils were assayed for entomopathogenic fungi using the Galleria bait method; (3) DNA from internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of the nuclear ribosomal repeat was extracted from pure cultures obtained from soils, Galleria, and ticks and was amplified and sequenced; and (4) DNA was extracted directly from ticks, amplified, and sequenced. We conclude that (1) ticks encounter potentially entomopathogenic fungi more often in soil than in leaf litter, (2) many species of potentially entomopathogenic fungi found in the soil can readily be cultured, (3) the Galleria bait method is a sufficiently efficient method for isolation of these fungi from soils, and (4) although DNA extraction from ticks was not possible in this study because of small sample size, DNA extraction from fungi isolated from soils and from ticks was successful and provided clean sequences in 100 and 73% of samples, respectively. A combination of the above methods is clearly necessary for optimal characterization of entomopathogenic fungi associated with ticks in the environment.

  11. The Geographic Distribution of Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) Revisited: The Importance of Assumptions About Error Balance.

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    Peterson, A Townsend; Raghavan, Ram K

    2017-07-01

    The black-legged tick, Ixodes scapularis Say, is the primary vector of Borrelia burgdorferi, a spirochete that causes Lyme disease, in eastern North America. Lyme disease risk has generally been considered to be focused in the Northeast and the northern Midwest in the United States, yet the distribution of the vector extends considerably more broadly. A recent analysis of the distribution of the species using ecological niche modeling approaches painted an odd biogeographic picture, in which the species is distributed in a "rimming" distribution across the northern Midwest and Northeast, and along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the eastern United States, but not broadly in the interior of eastern North America. Here, we reanalyze the situation for this species, and demonstrate that the distribution estimated in the previous study was a consequence of assumptions about relative weights applied to different error types. A more appropriate error weighting scheme for niche modeling analyses, in which omission error is prioritized over commission error, shows a simpler distribution, in which the species ranges continuously across eastern North America; this distributional pattern is supported by independent occurrence data from the eastern Great Plains, in Kansas. We discuss implications for public health planning and intervention across the region, as well as for developing effective and predictive maps of vector distributions and pathogen transmission risk. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Recent Discovery of Widespread Ixodes affinis (Acari: Ixodidae) Distribution in North Carolina With Implications for Lyme Disease Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    174 Journal of Vector Ecology June 2010 Recent discovery of widespread Ixodes affinis ( Acari : Ixodidae) distribution in North Carolina with...NOV 2009 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2009 to 00-00-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Recent discovery of widespread Ixodes affinis ( Acari ...reptiles and rodents as hosts by immature Ixodes scapularis ( Acari : Ixodidae) in the coastal plain of North Carolina, USA. Exp. Appl. Acarol. 17: 719

  13. Different activities and footwear influence exposure to host-seeking nymphs of Ixodes scapularis and Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae).

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    Carroll, J F; Kramer, M

    2001-07-01

    The relative potential for a person accidentally acquiring host-seeking nymphs of the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis Say, and lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum (L.), while wearing either of two types of footwear, walking, crawling on hands and knees, and sitting on large fallen logs in deciduous woods, was evaluated. Although flag samples indicated substantial populations of I. scapularis nymphs and low to moderate numbers of A. americanum at the study sites, relatively few I. scapularis and fewer still A. americanum nymphs were acquired during 30-s and 5-min walks. Significantly fewer I. scapularis were picked up when boots were, worn with ankles taped (an anti-tick precaution) than when sneakers were worn with socks exposed during 5-min walks, but when thus attired, there was no significant difference between the number of nymphs acquired during 30-s walks. Nymphs of I. scapularis did not appear to accumulate incrementally on footwear or clothing during walks when boots were worn and ankles taped. Crawling for 30 s (approximately 3 m distance) yielded significantly more I. scapularis nymphs than walking for 30 s. During crawling, I. scapularis nymphs were picked up on 58% of the 30-s samples. Most ticks picked up during crawls were on pant legs. When a flannel flag cloth (0.5 by 0.5 m) was appressed to the upper surface of logs suitable to be sat upon by tired hikers, I. scapularis nymphs were found on 87% of the logs and in 36% of the samples. These data indicate that the potential for contact with host-seeking nymphs of I. scapularis occurring at these densities is greatly elevated by engaging in activities that involve contact with fallen logs and close contact of hands and knees with leaf litter.

  14. A Risk Model for the Lyme Disease Vector Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) in the Prairie Provinces of Canada.

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    Gabriele-Rivet, Vanessa; Koffi, Jules K; Pelcat, Yann; Arsenault, Julie; Cheng, Angela; Lindsay, L Robbin; Lysyk, Timothy J; Rochon, Kateryn; Ogden, Nicholas H

    2017-07-01

    Lyme disease is emerging in Canada due to geographic range expansion of the tick vector Ixodes scapularis Say. Recent areas of emergence include parts of the southeastern Canadian Prairie region. We developed a map of potential risk areas for future I. scapularis establishment in the Canadian Prairie Provinces. Six I. scapularis risk algorithms were developed using different formulations of three indices for environmental suitability: temperature using annual cumulative degree-days > 0 °C (DD > 0 °C; obtained from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer satellite data as an index of conditions that allow I. scapularis to complete its life cycle), habitat as a combined geolayer of forest cover and agricultural land use, and rainfall. The relative performance of these risk algorithms was assessed using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) area under the curve (AUC) analysis with data on presence-absence of I. scapularis obtained from recent field surveillance in the Prairie Provinces accumulated from a number of sources. The ROC AUC values for the risk algorithms were significantly different (P  0 °C, habitat as a simple dichotomous variable of presence or absence of forest, and normalized rainfall had the highest AUC of 0.74, representing "fair to good" performance of the risk algorithm. This algorithm had good (>80%) sensitivity in predicting positive I. scapularis surveillance sites, but low (50%) specificity as expected in this region where not all environmentally suitable habitats are expected to be occupied. Further prospective studies are needed to validate and perhaps improve the risk algorithm. © Crown copyright 2017.

  15. Modeling the geographic distribution of Ixodes scapularis and Ixodes pacificus (Acari: Ixodidae) in the contiguous United States

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    Hahn, Micah; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Monaghan, Andrew J.; Eisen, Rebecca J.

    2016-01-01

    In addition to serving as vectors of several other human pathogens, the black-legged tick, Ixodes scapularis Say, and western black-legged tick, Ixodes pacificus Cooley and Kohls, are the primary vectors of the spirochete (Borrelia burgdorferi ) that causes Lyme disease, the most common vector-borne disease in the United States. Over the past two decades, the geographic range of I. pacificus has changed modestly while, in contrast, the I. scapularis range has expanded substantially, which likely contributes to the concurrent expansion in the distribution of human Lyme disease cases in the Northeastern, North-Central and Mid-Atlantic states. Identifying counties that contain suitable habitat for these ticks that have not yet reported established vector populations can aid in targeting limited vector surveillance resources to areas where tick invasion and potential human risk are likely to occur. We used county-level vector distribution information and ensemble modeling to map the potential distribution of I. scapularis and I. pacificus in the contiguous United States as a function of climate, elevation, and forest cover. Results show that I. pacificus is currently present within much of the range classified by our model as suitable for establishment. In contrast, environmental conditions are suitable for I. scapularis to continue expanding its range into northwestern Minnesota, central and northern Michigan, within the Ohio River Valley, and inland from the southeastern and Gulf coasts. Overall, our ensemble models show suitable habitat for I. scapularis in 441 eastern counties and for I. pacificus in 11 western counties where surveillance records have not yet supported classification of the counties as established.

  16. Transmission of the Lyme Disease Spirochete Borrelia mayonii in Relation to Duration of Attachment by Nymphal Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae).

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    Dolan, Marc C; Breuner, Nicole E; Hojgaard, Andrias; Boegler, Karen A; Hoxmeier, J Charles; Replogle, Adam J; Eisen, Lars

    2017-09-01

    The recently recognized Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia mayonii, has been detected in host-seeking Ixodes scapularis Say ticks and is associated with human disease in the Upper Midwest. Although experimentally shown to be vector competent, studies have been lacking to determine the duration of time from attachment of a single B. mayonii-infected I. scapularis nymph to transmission of spirochetes to a host. If B. mayonii spirochetes were found to be transmitted within the first 24 h after tick attachment, in contrast to Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes (>24 h), then current recommendations for tick checks and prompt tick removal as a way to prevent transmission of Lyme disease spirochetes would need to be amended. We therefore conducted a study to determine the probability of transmission of B. mayonii spirochetes from single infected nymphal I. scapularis ticks to susceptible experimental mouse hosts at three time points postattachment (24, 48, and 72 h) and for a complete feed (>72-96 h). No evidence of infection with or exposure to B. mayonii occurred in mice that were fed upon by a single infected nymph for 24 or 48 h. The probability of transmission by a single infected nymphal tick was 31% after 72 h of attachment and 57% for a complete feed. In addition, due to unintended simultaneous feeding upon some mice by two B. mayonii-infected nymphs, we recorded a single occasion in which feeding for 48 h by two infected nymphs resulted in transmission and viable infection in the mouse. We conclude that the duration of attachment of a single infected nymphal I. scapularis tick required for transmission of B. mayonii appears to be similar to that for B. burgdorferi: transmission is minimal for the first 24 h of attachment, rare up to 48 h, but then increases distinctly by 72 h postattachment. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public

  17. Effectiveness of Garlic for the Control of Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) on Residential Properties in Western Connecticut.

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    Bharadwaj, Anuja; Hayes, Laura E; Stafford, Kirby C

    2015-07-01

    We conducted field trials to evaluate the ability of a garlic juice-based product to control or suppress nymphal activity of the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis Say, at residential properties in Connecticut in 2009, 2010, and 2011. The product was applied at a rate of 0.2 g AI/m2. Percent control of nymphal densities achieved by the spray treatment at 6, 11, and 18 d postspray for the 3 yr was 37.0, 59.0, and 47.4%, respectively. Differences between nymphal densities were greatest during the first post-spray sampling period. While garlic may require multiple applications for the suppression of tick activity, this product could provide a minimal-risk option for the short-term control of nymphal I. scapularis in the residential landscape. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Relationships between maternal engorgement weight and the number, size, and fat content of larval Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae)

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    Ginsberg, Howard; Lee, Chong; Volson, Barry; Dyer, Megan C.; LeBrun, Roger A.

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between engorgement weight of female Ixodes scapularis Say and characteristics of offspring was studied using field-collected females fed on rabbits in the laboratory. The number of eggs laid was positively related to maternal engorgement weight in one trial, and larval size (estimated by scutal area) was positively related to maternal engorgement weight in the other. These results suggest a trade-off in number of eggs produced versus average size of offspring, possibly determined during late engorgement. The adults for the two trials were collected from different sites in southern Rhode Island and in different seasons (the fall adults were newly emerged, while the spring adults had presumably lived through the winter), so it is not clear whether these results reflect genetic differences or subtle environmental differences between trials. Percent egg hatch and average fat content of larvae were not related to female engorgement weight. We present a modified method to measure lipid content of pooled larval ticks.

  19. Preliminary survey for entomopathogenic fungi associated with Ixodes scapularis>/i> (Acari: Ixodidae) in southern New York and New England, USA

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    Zhioua, Elyes; Ginsberg, Howard S.; Humber, Richard A.; LeBrun, Roger A.

    1999-01-01

    Free-living larval, nymphal, and adult Ixodes scapularis Say were collected from scattered locales in southern New England and New York to determine infection rates with entomopathogenic fungi. Infection rates of larvae, nymphs, males, and females were 0% (571), 0% (272), 0% (57), and 4.3% (47), respectively. Two entomopathogenic fungi were isolated from field-collected I. scapularis females from Fire Island, NY. Isolates were identified as Verticillium lecanii (Zimmermann) Viegas and Verticillium sp. (a member of the Verticillium lecanii species complex).Ixodes scapularis Say is the principal vector of Borrelia burgdorferi Johnson, Schmid, Hyde, Steigerwalt & Brenner (Burgdorfer et al. 1982, Johnson et al. 1984), the etiologic agent of Lyme disease in the northeastern and upper-midwestern United States. Control of I. scapularis is based on chemical treatment (Mather et al. 1987b; Schulze et al. 1987, 1991), environmental management (Wilson et al. 1988, Schulze et al. 1995), and habitat modification (Wilson 1986). These methods have shown variable success, and some potentially have negative environmental effects (Wilson and Deblinger 1993, Ginsberg 1994).Studies concerning natural predators, parasitoids, and pathogens of I. scapularis are rare. The use of ground-dwelling birds as tick predators has had only limited success (Duffy et al. 1992). Nymphal I. scapularis are often infected with the parasitic wasp Ixodiphagus hookeri (Howard) (Mather et al. 1987a, Hu et al. 1993, Stafford et al. 1996, Hu and Hyland 1997), but this wasp does not effectively control I. scapularis populations (Stafford et al. 1996). The entomopathogenic nematodes Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser) and S. glaseri (Steiner) are pathogenic only to engorged female I. scapularis, and thus have limited applicability (Zhioua et al. 1995). In contrast, the entomogenous fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin is highly pathogenic to all stages of I. scapularis, unfed as well as engorged

  20. The ticks (Acari: Ixodida: Argasidae, Ixodidae) of Paraguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    de Importancia Veterinaria . São Paulo, Brazil: Pleiade–FAPESP. Hoogstraal, H. (1985). Argasid and nuttalliellid ticks as parasites and vectors...Parasitologı́a Veterinaria . Jakowska, S. (1972). Lesions produced by ticks, Amblyomma dissimile, in Bufo marinus toads from the Dominican Republic. American...A. A. (1990). La distribución geográfica de Amblyomma cajennense Fabricius, 1787 (Acari: Ixodoidea: Ixodidae) en Argentina. Veterinaria Argentina, 7

  1. Potential of Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) as a bioassay probe for Metarhizium brunneum (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) activity against Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharadwaj, Anuja; Stafford, Kirby C

    2011-12-01

    The yellow mealworm, Tenebrio molitor L., has been used to indicate qualitatively the presence of entomopathogenic fungi in the soil or as a model for evaluating stress and other factors on fungal activity. Although this beetle appears highly susceptible to many of these fungi, little quantitative information is available on the sensitivity of T. molitor to a specific fungus and, therefore, fungal presence or as an indicator for pathogenicity to other species. The purpose of this study was to establish the suitability of T. molitor larvae as a bioassay probe for Metarhizium brunneum for comparison against the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis. Nine concentrations of M. brunneum strain F52 ranging from 1.0 x 10(1) to 8.4 x 10(8) conidial/ml were simultaneously tested against T. molitor larvae and I. scapularis adults. Larvae of yellow mealworm were less sensitive to M. brunneum than I. scapularis adults (LC50's 4.4 x 10(7) and 1.7 x 10(5) conidia/ml, respectively, 4-wk post-treatment). The greater sensitivity of I. scapularis to the fungus suggests that the detection of fungal mycosis in mealworms would indicate sufficient inoculum to be pathogenic to I. scapularis and make this insect a suitable probe for evaluation of the presence and activity of M. brunneum against the blacklegged tick in field applications.

  2. Comparison of Vector Efficiency of Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) From the Northeast and Upper Midwest of the United States for the Lyme Disease Spirochete Borrelia mayonii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, Lars; Breuner, Nicole E; Hojgaard, Andrias; Hoxmeier, J Charles; Pilgard, Mark A; Replogle, Adam J; Biggerstaff, Brad J; Dolan, Marc C

    2017-01-01

    Borrelia mayonii, a recently recognized species within the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex, has been detected in host-seeking Ixodes scapularis Say ticks and found to be associated with Lyme disease in the Upper Midwest. This spirochete has, to date, not been documented from the Northeast, but we previously demonstrated that I. scapularis ticks originating from Connecticut are capable of serving as a vector of B. mayonii In this follow-up study, we compared the vector efficiency for B. mayonii (strain MN14-1420) of I. scapularis ticks originating from Minnesota in the Upper Midwest and Connecticut in the Northeast. CD-1 outbred white mice previously infected with B. mayonii via tick bite were exposed to simultaneous feeding by Minnesota and Connecticut larvae contained within separate feeding capsules. We found no difference in the ability of Minnesota and Connecticut larvae to acquire B. mayonii from infected mice and pass spirochetes to the nymphal stage (overall nymphal infection rates of 11.6 and 13.3%, respectively). Moreover, the efficiency of transmission of B. mayonii by single infected nymphs was similar for the Minnesota and Connecticut ticks (33 and 44%, respectively). We conclude that the examined I. scapularis ticks from the Upper Midwest and Northeast did not differ in their efficiency as vectors for B. mayonii. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2016 This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  3. Comparison of survival patterns of northern and southern genotypes of the North American tick Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) under northern and southern conditions.

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    Ginsberg, Howard S; Rulison, Eric L; Azevedo, Alexandra; Pang, Genevieve C; Kuczaj, Isis M; Tsao, Jean I; LeBrun, Roger A

    2014-08-26

    Several investigators have reported genetic differences between northern and southern populations of Ixodes scapularis in North America, as well as differences in patterns of disease transmission. Ecological and behavioral correlates of these genetic differences, which might have implications for disease transmission, have not been reported. We compared survival of northern with that of southern genotypes under both northern and southern environmental conditions in laboratory trials. Subadult I. scapularis from laboratory colonies that originated from adults collected from deer from several sites in the northeastern, north central, and southern U.S. were exposed to controlled conditions in environmental chambers. Northern and southern genotypes were exposed to light:dark and temperature conditions of northern and southern sites with controlled relative humidities, and mortality through time was recorded. Ticks from different geographical locations differed in survival patterns, with larvae from Wisconsin surviving longer than larvae from Massachusetts, South Carolina or Georgia, when held under the same conditions. In another experiment, larvae from Florida survived longer than larvae from Michigan. Therefore, survival patterns of regional genotypes did not follow a simple north-south gradient. The most consistent result was that larvae from all locations generally survived longer under northern conditions than under southern conditions. Our results suggest that conditions in southern North America are less hospitable than in the north to populations of I. scapularis. Southern conditions might have resulted in ecological or behavioral adaptations that contribute to the relative rarity of I. scapularis borne diseases, such as Lyme borreliosis, in the southern compared to the northern United States.

  4. Comparison of survival patterns of northern and southern genotypes of the North American tick Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) under northern and southern conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, Howard S.; Rulison, Eric L.; Azevedo, Alexandra; Pang, Genevieve C.; Kuczaj, Isis M.; Tsao, Jean I.; LeBrun, Roger A.

    2014-01-01

    BackgroundSeveral investigators have reported genetic differences between northern and southern populations of Ixodes scapularis in North America, as well as differences in patterns of disease transmission. Ecological and behavioral correlates of these genetic differences, which might have implications for disease transmission, have not been reported. We compared survival of northern with that of southern genotypes under both northern and southern environmental conditions in laboratory trials.MethodsSubadult I. scapularis from laboratory colonies that originated from adults collected from deer from several sites in the northeastern, north central, and southern U.S. were exposed to controlled conditions in environmental chambers. Northern and southern genotypes were exposed to light:dark and temperature conditions of northern and southern sites with controlled relative humidities, and mortality through time was recorded.ResultsTicks from different geographical locations differed in survival patterns, with larvae from Wisconsin surviving longer than larvae from Massachusetts, South Carolina or Georgia, when held under the same conditions. In another experiment, larvae from Florida survived longer than larvae from Michigan. Therefore, survival patterns of regional genotypes did not follow a simple north–south gradient. The most consistent result was that larvae from all locations generally survived longer under northern conditions than under southern conditions.ConclusionsOur results suggest that conditions in southern North America are less hospitable than in the north to populations of I. scapularis. Southern conditions might have resulted in ecological or behavioral adaptations that contribute to the relative rarity of I. scapularis borne diseases, such as Lyme borreliosis, in the southern compared to the northern United States.

  5. Paired real-time PCR assays for detection of Borrelia miyamotoi in North American Ixodes scapularis and Ixodes pacificus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Christine B; Pilgard, Mark A; Maes, Sarah E; Hojgaard, Andrias; Eisen, Rebecca J

    2016-10-01

    Borrelia miyamotoi is an emerging, tick-borne human pathogen. In North America, it is primarily associated with Ixodes scapularis and Ixodes pacificus, two species known to bite humans. Here we describe the development and evaluation of a pair of real-time TaqMan PCR assays designed to detect B. miyamotoi in North American ticks. We sought to achieve sensitivity to B. miyamotoi strains associated with ticks throughout North America, the full genetic diversity of which is unknown, by targeting sequences that are largely conserved between B. miyamotoi strains from the eastern United States and genetically distinct B. miyamotoi strains from Japan. The two assays target different loci on the B. miyamotoi chromosome and can be run side by side under identical cycling conditions. One of the assays also includes a tick DNA target that can be used to verify the integrity of tick-derived samples. Using both recombinant plasmid controls and genomic DNA from North American and Japanese strains, we determined that both assays reliably detect as few as 5 copies of the B. miyamotoi genome. We verified that neither detects B. burgdorferi, B. lonestari or B. turicatae. This sensitive and specific pair of assays successfully detected B. miyamotoi in naturally-infected, colony-reared nymphs and in field-collected I. scapularis and I. pacificus from the Northeast and the Pacific Northwest respectively. These assays will be useful in screening field-collected Ixodes spp. from varied regions of North America to assess the risk of human exposure to this emerging pathogen. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  6. Linkages of Weather and Climate With Ixodes scapularis and Ixodes pacificus (Acari: Ixodidae), Enzootic Transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi, and Lyme Disease in North America

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    Eisen, Rebecca J.; Eisen, Lars; Ogden, Nicholas H.; Beard, Charles B.

    2016-01-01

    Lyme disease has increased both in incidence and geographic extent in the United States and Canada over the past two decades. One of the underlying causes is changes during the same time period in the distribution and abundance of the primary vectors: Ixodes scapularis Say and Ixodes pacificus Cooley and Kohls in eastern and western North America, respectively. Aside from short periods of time when they are feeding on hosts, these ticks exist in the environment where temperature and relative humidity directly affect their development, survival, and host-seeking behavior. Other important factors that strongly influence tick abundance as well as the proportion of ticks infected with the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, include the abundance of hosts for the ticks and the capacity of tick hosts to serve as B. burgdorferi reservoirs. Here, we explore the linkages between climate variation and: 1) duration of the seasonal period and the timing of peak activity; 2) geographic tick distributions and local abundance; 3) enzootic B. burgdorferi transmission cycles; and 4) Lyme disease cases. We conclude that meteorological variables are most influential in determining host-seeking phenology and development, but, while remaining important cofactors, additional variables become critical when exploring geographic distribution and local abundance of ticks, enzootic transmission of B. burgdorferi, and Lyme disease case occurrence. Finally, we review climate change-driven projections for future impact on vector ticks and Lyme disease and discuss knowledge gaps and research needs. PMID:26681789

  7. Linkages of Weather and Climate With Ixodes scapularis and Ixodes pacificus (Acari: Ixodidae), Enzootic Transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi, and Lyme Disease in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, Rebecca J; Eisen, Lars; Ogden, Nicholas H; Beard, Charles B

    2016-03-01

    Lyme disease has increased both in incidence and geographic extent in the United States and Canada over the past two decades. One of the underlying causes is changes during the same time period in the distribution and abundance of the primary vectors: Ixodes scapularis Say and Ixodes pacificus Cooley and Kohls in eastern and western North America, respectively. Aside from short periods of time when they are feeding on hosts, these ticks exist in the environment where temperature and relative humidity directly affect their development, survival, and host-seeking behavior. Other important factors that strongly influence tick abundance as well as the proportion of ticks infected with the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, include the abundance of hosts for the ticks and the capacity of tick hosts to serve as B. burgdorferi reservoirs. Here, we explore the linkages between climate variation and: 1) duration of the seasonal period and the timing of peak activity; 2) geographic tick distributions and local abundance; 3) enzootic B. burgdorferi transmission cycles; and 4) Lyme disease cases. We conclude that meteorological variables are most influential in determining host-seeking phenology and development, but, while remaining important cofactors, additional variables become critical when exploring geographic distribution and local abundance of ticks, enzootic transmission of B. burgdorferi, and Lyme disease case occurrence. Finally, we review climate change-driven projections for future impact on vector ticks and Lyme disease and discuss knowledge gaps and research needs.

  8. Records of Ixodes Pomeranzevi Serdyukova, 1941 (Acari: Ixodidae) from Small Mammals in Northern Gyeonggi and Gangwon Provinces, Republic of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    Serdyukova, 1941 ( Acari : Ixodidae) from small mammals in northern Gyeonggi and Gangwon Provinces, Republic of Korea HEUNG CHUL KIM1, JIN...pomeranzevi Serdyukova, 1941 ( Acari : Ixodidae) from small mammals in northern Gyeonggi and Gangwon Provinces, Republic of Korea 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...2002) The Argasidae, Ixodidae and Nuttalliellidae ( Acari : Ixo- dida): a world list of valid tick names. Experimental and Applied Acarology, 28, 27–54

  9. Evaluation of the SELECT Tick Control System (TCS), a Host-Targeted Bait Box, to Reduce Exposure to Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) in a Lyme Disease Endemic Area of New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Terry L; Jordan, Robert A; Williams, Martin; Dolan, Marc C

    2017-07-01

    We describe a 2-yr trial to evaluate the ability of SELECT Tick Control System (TCS) host-targeted bait boxes to reduce numbers of host-seeking Ixodes scapularis nymphs in a residential neighborhood. After four successive 9-wk deployments, nymphal and larval I. scapularis infestation prevalence and intensity were significantly reduced on target small mammals. In addition, these deployments resulted in 87.9% and 97.3% control of host-seeking nymphs in treatment sites at 1 yr and 2 yr postintervention, respectively. Installation of a protective metal cover around the SELECT TCS bait boxes eliminated nontarget wildlife damage to bait boxes that resulted in failure of previous bait box types. The results are discussed in the context of the residential environment and future research needs. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Haemaphysalis (Ornithophysalis) phasiana (Acari: Ixodidae) in the Republic of Korea: Two province records and habitat descriptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    Systematic & Applied Acarology (2008) 13, 43–50. ISSN 1362-1971 Haemaphysalis (Ornithophysalis) phasiana ( Acari : Ixodidae) in the Republic of Korea...DATE 2008 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2008 to 00-00-2008 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Haemaphysalis (Ornithophysalis) phasiana ( Acari ...ticks ( Acari : Ixo- dida) published from 1973-1997. Journal of Vector Ecology, 24, 115–129. Lee, D.K. & Lee, Y.K. (2002) Roles of Saemaul Undong in

  11. The ticks (Acari: Ixodida: Argasidae, Ixodidae) of Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastropaolo, Mariano; Beltrán-Saavedra, L Fabián; Guglielmone, Alberto A

    2014-03-01

    The tick species reported in Bolivia are reviewed here as (1) endemic or established: Ornithodoros echimys, O. guaporensis, O. hasei, O. kohlsi, O. mimon, O. peropteryx, O. rostratus, Otobius megnini, Amblyomma auricularium, A. cajennense, A. calcaratum, A. coelebs, A. dubitatum, A. humerale, A. incisum, A. longirostre, A. naponense, A. nodosum, A. oblongoguttatum, A. ovale, A. parvitarsum, A. parvum, A. pecarium, A. pseudoconcolor, A. rotundatum, A. scalpturatum, A. tigrinum, A. triste, Dermacentor nitens, Haemaphysalis juxtakochi, H. leporispalustris, I. boliviensis, I. cooleyi, I. luciae, Rhipicephalus microplus, R. sanguineus, and (2) erroneously reported: Ornithodoros puertoricensis, O. talaje, O. turicata, Amblyomma americanum, A. maculatum, A. multipunctum, Ixodes ricinus, I. scapularis, Rhipicephalus annulatus. Many of these records are lacking locality and/or host, and some of them need new findings for confirmation. Some of the species recorded may represent a threat for human and animal health, therefore would be of great value to make a countrywide survey of ticks in order to update the information presented in this work. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Infection of the Gulf Coast Tick, Amblyomma Maculatum (Acari: Ixodidae), with Rickettsia Parkeri: First Report from the State of Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-31

    0279276E-D761-4A27-BFF7-7329E05E0F66 Infection of the Gulf Coast tick, Amblyomma maculatum ( Acari : Ixodidae), with Rickettsia parkeri: first report from...currently valid OMB control number. I. REPORT DATE 2013 2. REPORT TYPE 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Infection of the Gulf Coast tick, Amblyomma macula tum ( Acari

  13. Rhipicephalus sanguineus (ACARI: IXODIDAE) BITING A HUMAN BEING IN PORTOALEGRE CITY, RIO GRANDE DO SUL, BRAZIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    MENTZ, Márcia Bohrer; TROMBKA, Marcelo; da SILVA, Guilherme Liberato; SILVA, Carlos Eugênio

    2016-01-01

    We report the finding of a female brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) on the scalp of a male patient in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Human parasitism by this tick is rare and has seldomly been reported in the literature, despite its recognized importance since it can act as a vector of Rickettsia rickettsii, the agent of spotted fever. PMID:27074329

  14. A new species of Rhipicephalus (Acari: Ixodidae), a parasite of giraffes in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horak, Ivan G; Apanaskevich, Dmitry A; Kariuki, Edward K

    2013-07-01

    A new tick species belonging to the genus Rhipicephalus Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae), namely, Rhipicephalus walkerae n. sp., is described. The male and female of this species are similar to those of several species in the Rhipicephalus appendiculatus group but can be distinguished from them by the very dense pattern of medium-sized punctations covering the conscutum and scutum, long and narrow dorsal prolongation of the spiracular plate, and relatively short dorsal cornua; in addition, the male has long and narrow adanal plates without a posterolateral angle. R. walkerae is known only from Kenya, where the adults were collected from giraffes, Giraffa camelopardalis (L.).

  15. Infestação de Amblyomma rotundatum (Koch (Acari, Ixodidae em sapos Bufo ictericus (Spix (Amphibia, Bufonidae: novo registro de hospedeiro Infestation of Amblyomma rotundatum (Koch (Acari, Ixodidae ticks on Bufo ictericus (Spix (Amphibia, Bufonidae: new host record

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    Germano Woehl Jr.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Bufo ictericus Spix, 1824 toad population (N = 125 foraging in lighted areas in the Corupá Municipality, Santa Catarina State, was surveyed to evaluate the prevalence (percentage of infestation and the mean infestation intensity of Amblyomma rotundatum Koch, 1844 (Acari, Ixodidae ticks. The prevalence was of 19.2% and the mean infestation intensity was 7.4 ticks per infested toad. For the first time B. ictericus as host of A. rotundatum is reported.

  16. A study of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae in Danube Delta and Tulcea district in 2005

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    VLADIMIRESCU Alexandru Filip

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A survey was carried out to investigate the occurrence of hard tick species (Acari: Ixodidae infesting different vertebrate species in the Danube Delta in 2005. Ticks were collected from ten locations (Babadag, Crisan, Grindul Lupilor, Luncavita, Macin, Mila 26, Periteasca, Portita, Sfantu-Gheorghe, Tulcea. The study was meant to assess which places have a high tick infestation, in view of future distribution studies, which will be conducted in the next three years. In total, 314 ticks were collected from 15 different species. Six species were found: Boophilus calcaratus (7.64%, Dermacentor marginatus (11.47%, Hyalomma plumbeum (16.57%, Ixodes ricinus (6.69%, Rhipicephalus bursa (0.63%, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (57%.

  17. A new genus of hard ticks in Cretaceous Burmese amber (Acari: Ixodida: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poinar, George; Brown, Alex E

    2003-03-01

    A hard tick larva in Cretaceous Burmese amber is described as Cornupalpatum burmanicum n. g., n. sp. Diagnostic characters include a subcircular body with a marginal groove, 11 festoons, elongate four-segmented palpi with the fourth segment distinct and apical, the absence of an anal groove and eyes, and the presence of claws on palpal segment 3. The last character is unique for all members of the Ixodida, both fossil and extant. Aside from the palpal claws and marginal groove, features of the tick larva closely resemble those of members of the genus Aponomma Neumann 1899, considered one of the most primitive tick lineages today, whose hosts are primarily reptiles.

  18. Development of a DNA barcoding system for the Ixodida (Acari: Ixodida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Jizhou; Wu, Shaoqiang; Zhang, Yongning; Zhang, Tianyi; Feng, Chunyan; Jia, Guangle; Lin, Xiangmei

    2014-04-01

    To control the spread of tick-borne diseases, there is an urgent need to develop a reliable technique that can distinguish different species of ticks. DNA barcoding has been proved to be a powerful tool to identify species of arthropods, but this technique has not yet been developed for identifying ticks. Here, we screened and analyzed 1082 sequences of ticks from BOLD system and GenBank, consisting of 647 16S, 325 COI, and 110 18S. These sequences are reported in previous studies and considered to be correctly identified at the species level. Through the analyses of genetic divergences and neighbor-joining (NJ) phylogenetic relationships between the species of ticks, our results show that COI and 16S are reliable in discriminating species of ticks and the 18S could discriminate ticks at the genera level. New universal primers for 16S, 18S, and COI of ticks were designed and a DNA barcoding system for the Ixodida was developed. To assess the performance of this system, 57 specimens of ticks were collected within China. Our results show that DNA barcoding system could correctly identify the species of specimens in adult and subadult stages. This system would assist non-taxonomists to conveniently identify the species of Ixodida based on DNA sequences rather than morphological traits. However, there are still serious deficiencies in the information of 16S and COI of some species of ticks, and additional research is needed to resolve this problem.

  19. Ixodid Ticks (Acari, Ixodidae in Urban Landscapes. A review

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    Akimov I. А.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the results of content analysis of published works on ixodid ticks in urban conditions in order to determine the species diversity, the vectors of research interests at various stages. Information about ticks in the cities up to the 1980s is incidental, to the point of exclusive, after this point there is targeted research in urban landscapes. There are 106 or 15 % of hard ticks of the world fauna registered in the urban territory, 26 species or 3.7 % being the most abundant. Of the urban hard tick species, 23 (88.5 % can attack humans, and 12 species are the most adapted to the urban landscape: Ixodes ricinus, I. persulcatus, Dermacentor reticulatus, D. marginatus, I. pavlovskyi, I. scapularis (dammini, Amblyomma cajennense, Haemaphysalis longicornis, I. hexagonus, Hyalomma marginatum, Am. americanum, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus. It was determined that the most likely causes of the growing number of publications on ixodids urban landscapes are: global accelerating urbanization, the development of recreational areas, the development of green tourism, the growth of the prestige of outdoor recreation, the creation of new, especially of the landscape parks and a tendency to preserve the native landscape in the cities, a significant increase in the density of populations of common species of hard ticks adapted to living in urban environment. The vectors of further work in urban landscapes will be directed to exact planning of monitoring studies of ixodids and associated tick-borne infections.

  20. Acaricidal activity of the essential oils from three Lamiaceae plant species on Rhipicephalus turanicus Pom. (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koc, Samed; Oz, Emre; Aydın, Levent; Cetin, Huseyin

    2012-10-01

    Acaricidal effects of three Labiatae essential oils extracted from ariel parts of Thymus sipyleus Boiss. subsp. sipyleus, Mentha longifolia L., and Dorystoechas hastata Boiss. & Heldr. ex Bentham on 10-day-old Rhipicephalus turanicus Pom. (Acari: Ixodidae) larvae were evaluated by using the larval packet test bioassay. Serial dilutions of the three essential oils were tested from a starting concentration of 1-0.1% (1.0, 0.5, 0.25, and 0.1% w/v). Results showed that all essential oils had very similar activity, producing complete mortality (100%) in all tested concentrations on 10-day-old R. turanicus tick larvae.

  1. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae of livestock and their seasonal activities, northwest of Iran

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    Zahra Ramezani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the ticks (Acari: Ixodidae of livestock and their seasonal activities, in northwest of Iran, including the combination of two of the geographical regions of Iran (Caspian and mountain plateau where the majority of the domestic ruminants in Iran exist. Methods: Fifteen villages of Meshkin-Shahr County were selected randomly from different areas of the county. The animal dwellings were visited and the whole body of sheep, cows, goats and dogs were examined for their probable infestation. Samples were identified at the level of species according to the standard morphological key. Results: In this study 1 208 specimen were collected and totally nine species (Dermacentor marginatus, Dermacentor niveus, Haemaphysalis erinacei, Haemaphysalis punctata, Hyalomma anatolicum, Hyalomma asiaticum, Hyalomma marginatum, Rhipicephalus bursa and Rhipicephalus sanguineus were identified in this study. Also 569 host including 40 cows, 450 sheep, 70 goats and 9 dogs were examined for infestation and among them 255 were infested which showed a 44% of infestation among examined livestock. The infestation rate among sheep (46% was higher than other hosts. The infestation rates among the rest of hosts were as: cows (40%, goat (37% and dogs (33%. Conclusions: The results of this study and other studies of the region showed the probability of the establishment and development of the burden of several tick-borne diseases.

  2. Feeding by Amblyomma maculatum (Acari: Ixodidae) Enhances Rickettsia parkeri (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae) Infection in the Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Timothy W.; Paddock, Christopher D.; Peterson, Karin E.; Macaluso, Kevin R.

    2014-01-01

    Rickettsia parkeri Luckman (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae), a member of the spotted fever group of Rickettsia, is the tick-borne causative agent of a newly recognized, eschar-associated rickettsiosis. Because of its relatively recent designation as a pathogen, few studies have examined the pathogenesis of transmission of R. parkeri to the vertebrate host. To further elucidate the role of tick feeding in rickettsial infection of vertebrates, nymphal Amblyomma maculatum Koch (Acari: Ixodidae) were fed on C3H/HeJ mice intradermally inoculated with R. parkeri (Portsmouth strain). The ticks were allowed to feed to repletion, at which time samples were taken for histopathology, immunohistochemistry (IHC), quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for rickettsial quantification, and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR)for expression of Itgax, Mcp1, and Il1β. The group of mice that received intradermal inoculation of R. parkeri with tick feeding displayed significant increases in rickettsial load and IHC staining, but not in cytokine expression, when compared with the group of mice that received intradermal inoculation of R. parkeri without tick feeding. Tick feeding alone was associated with histopathologic changes in the skin, but these changes, and particularly vascular pathology, were more pronounced in the skin of mice inoculated previously with R. parkeri and followed by tick feeding. The marked differences in IHC staining and qPCR for the R. parkeri with tick feeding group strongly suggest an important role for tick feeding in the early establishment of rickettsial infection in the skin. PMID:25118419

  3. A survey of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) of companion animals in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greay, Telleasha L; Oskam, Charlotte L; Gofton, Alexander W; Rees, Robert L; Ryan, Una M; Irwin, Peter J

    2016-05-10

    Ticks are among the most important vectors of pathogens affecting companion animals, and also cause health problems such as tick paralysis, anaemia, dermatitis, and secondary infections. Twenty ixodid species have previously been recorded on dogs, cats, and horses in Australia, including Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Ixodes holocyclus and Haemaphysalis longicornis, which transmit tick-borne diseases. A survey of hard ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) was conducted during 2012-2015 to investigate tick species that infest dogs, cats, and horses in Australia. Individual tick specimens were collected from dogs, cats and horses across Australia and sample collection locations were mapped using QGIS software. Ticks were morphologically examined to determine species, instar and sex. The companion animal owners responded to questionnaires and data collected were summarised with SPSS software. A total of 4765 individual ticks were identified in this study from 7/8 states and territories in Australia. Overall, 220 larvae, 805 nymphs, 1404 males, and 2336 females of 11 tick species were identified from 837 companion animal hosts. One novel host record was obtained during this study for Ixodes myrmecobii, which was found on Felis catus (domestic cat) in the town of Esperance, Western Australia. The most common tick species identified included R. sanguineus on dogs (73 %), I. holocyclus on cats (81 %) and H. longicornis on horses (60 %). This study is the first of its kind to be conducted in Australia and our results contribute to the understanding of the species and distribution of ticks that parasitise dogs, cats, and horses in Australia. Records of R. sanguineus outside of the recorded distribution range emphasise the need for a systematic study of the habitat range of this species. Several incomplete descriptions of ixodid species encountered in this study hindered morphological identification.

  4. Prevalence of Ehrlichia, Borrelia, and Rickettsial agents in Amblyomma americanum (Acari : Ixodidae) collected from nine states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mixson, T.R.; Campbell, S.R.; Gill, J.S.; Ginsberg, H.S.; Reichard, M.V.; Schultz, T.L.; Dasch, G.A.

    2006-01-01

    Ambyomma antericanum (L.) (Acari: Ixodidae) is an aggressive tick that feeds on humans during all postembryonic life stages. In many regions of the United States, it is the tick most commonly found attached to humans. Public health interest has grown recently, due to the recognition of new human pathogens transmitted by A. antericanum and the expanding distribution of the tick. A. americanum is a vector of several bacteria pathogenic to humans. Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Ehrlichia ewingii cause moderate-to-severe febrile illness. 'Rickettsia amblyommii,' a member of the spotted fever group Rickettsia, also has recently been implicated as a possible human pathogen based on serologic evidence from persons recovering from illness after a tick bite. We have determined the prevalence of infection of Ehrlichia chaffeensis, E. ewingii, 'Borrelia lonestari,' and R. amblyommii within A. americanum ticks from 29 sites in nine states. Overall infection prevalences were 4.7% for E. chaffeensis (range, 0-27%), 3.5% for E. ewingii (range, 0-18.6%), 2.5% for B. lonestari (range, 0-12.2%), and 41.2% for R. amblyommii (range, 0-84.0%). In addition, 87 ticks (4.3%) were infected with two or more bacteria. This report documents new distribution records for E. ewingii, B. lonestari, and R. amblyommii and underscores the nonhomogeneous distribution of pathogen foci of infection. Additional surveillance throughout the range of A. antericanum is warranted to increase physician and public awareness of the risk of disease to humans from exposure to the agents transmitted by this tick.

  5. Efficacy of dry ice-baited traps for sampling Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae) varies with life stage but not habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kensinger, B J; Allan, B F

    2011-05-01

    The carbon dioxide-baited trap is the most common and effective method for sampling vector life-stage Amblyomma americanum (L.) (Acari: Ixodidae), although confounding environmental variables are rarely considered. A mark-recapture experiment was designed to compare recapture proportions of A. americanum nymphs and adults between two habitat types: old field and oak-hickory forest. Powdered fluorescent dye was used to mark A. americanum ticks released in 1-m increments from carbon dioxide-baited traps. Adults were recaptured in significantly higher proportion than nymphs, but habitat type had no significant effect on recapture proportions. Tick abundance is an important parameter in the estimation of human risk of exposure to tick-borne disease and the influence of life stage on capture rates should be considered when calculating entomological risk.

  6. Genetics and mechanisms of permethrin resistance in the Santa Luiza strain of Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Andrew Y; Davey, Ronald B; Miller, Robert J; Guerrero, Felix D; George, John E

    2008-05-01

    The Santa Luiza strain of the southern cattle tick, Boophilus microplus (Canestrini) (Acari: Ixodidae), is resistant to both permethrin and amitraz. A study was conducted at the USDA Cattle Fever Tick Research Laboratory in Texas to investigate the genetic basis of permethrin resistance with cross-mating experiments, and to determine the mechanisms of permethrin resistance through synergist bioassays and biochemical analysis of esterase profiles. The Muñoz strain, an acaricide-susceptible reference strain, was used as the susceptible parent and the Santa Luiza strain, originating in Brazil, was used as the resistant parent. The Food and Agriculture Organization larval packet test was used to measure the levels of susceptibility of larvae of the parental strains, F1, backcross, F2, and F3 generations to permethrin. Results of reciprocal crossing experiments suggested that permethrin resistance was inherited as an incomplete recessive trait. There was no significant maternal effect on larval progeny's susceptibility to permethrin in the F1 and subsequent generations. The values of the degree of dominance were estimated at -0.700 and -0.522 for the F1 larvae with resistant and susceptible female parents, respectively. Results of bioassays on larval progeny of the F1 backcrossed with the resistant parent strain and of the F2 generations suggested that one major gene was responsible for permethrin resistance in the Santa Luiza strain. Selection of F3 larvae with either permethrin or amitraz led to significantly increased resistance to both permethrin and amitraz, indicating a close linkage between genes responsible for permethrin and amitraz resistance. The possible involvement of metabolic enzymes in permethrin resistance in the Santa Luiza strain of B. microplus was dismissed by the lack of enhanced synergism by TPP or PBO, as observed in synergist bioassays, as well as by the lack of enhanced esterase activity in the Santa Luiza strain relative to the susceptible

  7. Diagnóstico de Ixodes woodi Bishopp, 1911 (Acari: Ixodidae no Brazil: imigração em Homo sapiens - Relato de caso.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolau Maués Serra Freire

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Serra-Freire N.M., Amorim M. & Gazêta G.S. Diagnostic of Ixodes woodi Bishopp, 1911 (Acari: Ixodidae in Brazil: immigration on Homo sapiens - Case report. [Diagnóstico de Ixodes woodi Bishopp, 1911 (Acari: Ixodidae no Brazil: imigração em Homo sapiens - Relato de caso.] Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(1:97-99, 2015. Laboratório de Referência Nacional para Vetores das Riquetsioses, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz/FIOCRUZ, Av. Brasil, 4365, Manguinhos, RJ 21045-900, Brasil. E-mail: nmsf@ioc.fiocruz.br One nymph of Ixodes wood (Ixodidae: Ixodinae was self-collected from a woman that had just arrived in Rio de Janeiro after a holiday period in Norway, Europe. She traveled by plane presenting a skin irritation on right leg and preserved the parasite that was in her skin. This is the first brazilian record of I. woodi. Also, in South America Ixodes wood hadn’t been previously reported. In United State of America, rodents appear to be the main hosts for immature stages, although there are other records from members of Mammalia class. I. woodi doesn’t seem to be a threat to men and domestic mammals, from which has seldom been reported, but there is quoting of his relationship between trophic and rickettsiae bacteria, but no transmission.

  8. Primer registro de Didelphis albiventris Lund, 1841 (Didelphiomorphia: Didelphidae) como hospedador para adultos y ninfas de Amblyomma ovale Koch,1844 (Acari: Ixodidae) en Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Di Benedetto, Ingrid María Desireé; Nava, Santiago; Oscherov, Elena Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    El objetivo de esta publicación es dar a conocer nuevos registros de una asociación parásito- hospedador entre garrapatas (Acari: Ixodidae) y el marsupial Didelphis albiventris (Didelphimorphia: Didelphidae), en Argentina. Los muestreos fueron realizados en la Estación Biológica de Corrientes (EBCo), perteneciente a la localidad de San Cayetano (Corrientes, Argentina). Las garrapatas colectadas sobre una hembra de D. albiventris fueron determinadas como una hembra y tres ninfas de Amblyomma o...

  9. The Ixodes (Acari: Ixodidae) of Mexico: Parasite-Host and Host-Parasite Checklists

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-20

    NUEVO LEON: 2&, 2%, El Potosí (24° 49’ 42”N; 100° 20’ 26”W), 22-V-1963, Sylvilagus sp. (CNAC002366). Ixodes eadsi Kohls and Clifford New record PUEBLA : 1...la Sociedad Mexi- cana de Historia Natural, 4, 21–24. Cooley, R.A. (1945) Ixodes tovari, a new species from Mexico (Ixodidae). Pan-Pacific...Ixodidae). Revista de la Sociedad Mexicana de Historia Natural, 3, 149–154. Cooley, R.A. & Kohls, G.M. (1945) The genus Ixodes in North America. National

  10. The international trade in reptiles (Reptilia)--the cause of the transfer of exotic ticks (Acari: Ixodida) to Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Magdalena

    2010-05-11

    The problem of the unnatural transfer of exotic ticks (Acari: Ixodida) on reptiles (Reptilia) imported to Poland is presented. In the period from 2003 to 2007, 382 specimens of reptiles belonging to the following genera were investigated: Testudo, Iguana, Varanus, Gongylophis, Python, Spalerosophis, Psammophis. The reptiles most infested with ticks are imported to Poland from Ghana in Africa, and are the commonly bred terrarium reptiles: Varanus exanthematicus and Python regius. As a result of the investigations, the transfer of exotic ticks on reptiles to Poland was confirmed. There were 2104 specimens of the genera Amblyomma and Hyalomma. The following species were found: Amblyomma exornatum Koch, 1844, Amblyomma flavomaculatum (Lucas, 1846), Amblyomma latum Koch, 1844, Amblyomma nuttalli Donitz, 1909, Amblyomma quadricavum (Schulze, 1941), Amblyomma transversale (Lucas, 1844), Amblyomma varanense (Supino, 1897), Amblyomma sp. Koch, 1844, Hyalomma aegyptium (Linnaeus, 1758). All the species of ticks of genus Amblyomma revealed have been discovered in Poland for the first time. During the research, 13 cases of anomalies of morphological structure were confirmed in the ticks A. flavomaculatum, A. latum and H. aegyptium. The expanding phenomenon of the import of exotic reptiles in Poland and Central Europe is important for parasitological and epidemiological considerations, and therefore requires monitoring and wide-ranging prophylactic activities to prevent the inflow of exotic parasites to Poland. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Acaricidal effects of cardiac glycosides, azadirachtin and neem oil against the camel tick, Hyalomma dromedarii (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rajhy, DiefAlla H; Alahmed, Azzam M; Hussein, Hamdy I; Kheir, Salah M

    2003-11-01

    The cardiac glycoside, digitoxin, from Digitalis purpurea L (Scrophulariaceae), a cardiac glycosidal (cardenolide) extract from Calotropis procera (Ait) R Br (Asclepiadaceae), azadirachtin and neem oil from Azadirachta indica A Juss (Meliaceae) were tested for their effects against larvae and adult stages of the camel tick, Hyalomma dromedarii Koch (Acari: Ixodidae). The contact LC50 values of the first three materials against adults were 4.08, 9.63 and >40.7 microg cm(-2), respectively, whereas the dipping LC50 values of the four materials were 409.9, 1096, >5000 and >5000 mg litre(-1), respectively. Contact and dipping LC50 values of the extract and azadirachtin against larvae were 6.16, >20.3 microg cm(-2) and 587.7 and >2500 mg litre(-1), respectively. Azadirachtin had no effects on egg production or feeding of adults up to 5000 mg litre(-1); however at 2500 mg litre(-1), it caused significant reduction in feeding activity of larve, prolonged the period for moulting to nymphal stage, and caused 60% reduction in moultability. Results of the two cardiac glycoside materials are comparable with those of several commercial acaricides. The risks and benefits associated with the use of cardiac glycosides are considered.

  12. Birds as the Feeders of Ticks (Acari, Ixodida in Megalopolis of Kyiv

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nebogatkin I. V.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Птицы как прокормители иксодовых клещей (Acari, Ixodida на территории Киевского мегапо- лиса. Небогаткин И. В. - Обобщены данные об иксодовых клещах, паразитирующих на птицах в условиях мегаполиса на примере г. Киева. Осмотрено 117 птиц и 27 гнёзд. Иксодовые клещи обна- ружены на 6 массовых видах птиц, собирающих корм в приземном ярусе: большая синица (Parus major, белая трясогузка (Motacilla alba, грач (Corvus frugilegus, чёрный дрозд (Turdus merula и поползень (Sitta europaea. Снято с птиц или добыто из их гнёзд 56 иксодид четырёх видов двух родов: Ixodes ricinus (Linnaeus, 1758; I. arboricola Schulze et Schlottke, 1930; I. lividus (Koch, 1844; Haemaphysalis concinna Koch, 1844. Роль птиц, как прокормителей всех фаз развития иксодовых клещей, не только более значительна в условиях урбанизированных ландшафтов, но становится ведущей в местах с низким количеством мелких млекопитающих. В поддержании циркуляции воз- будителей различной этиологии в урболандшафтах кроме иксодовых клещей, возможно, важную роль играют эктопаразиты птиц других систематических групп.

  13. Experimental infestation with the immatures of Amblyomma dissimile Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae on Tropidurus torquatus (Lacertilia: Iguanidae and Oryctolagus cuniculus Infestação experimental com as fases imaturas de Amblyomma dissimile Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae em Tropidurus torquatus (Lacertilia: Iguanidae e Oryctolagus cuniculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.H.T. Freitas

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Larvas provenientes de duas fêmeas de Amblyomma dissimile Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae, naturalmente ingurgitadas em uma iguana (Iguana iguana e provenientes do Estado do Mato Grosso, foram utilizadas na infestação experimental de lagartos da espécie Tropidurus torquatus e coelhos domésticos. As larvas alimentadas em ambos os hospedeiros realizaram ecdise para ninfas. As ninfas apenas ingurgitaram no lagarto e mudaram para machos e fêmeas. Este é o primeiro registro do parasitismo de larvas e ninfas de A. dissimile em T. torquatus e de larvas em coelhos.

  14. Laboratory Study on Biological Control of Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae by Entomopathogenic Indigenous Fungi (Beauveria bassiana

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    M Abdigoudarzi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chemical control method using different acaricides as spray, dipping solution or pour-on is routinely used for controlling ticks. Biological control agents are favorable due to their safety for animals and environment. Entomopathogenic fungi such as Beauveria bassiana are well known for controlling ticks. In this study, two Iranian indigenous strains of B. bassiana (B. bassiana 5197 and B. bassiana Evin were selected and grown on specific me­dia. The pathogenic effects of these strains were evaluated on adult stages of two Iranian Ixodidae members (H. anatolicum anatolicum Koch 1844, and H. marginatum Koch 1844 by dipping method.Methods: Two Iranian strains of Beauveria bassiana (Beauveria bassiana 5197 and Beauveria bassiana Evin were selected and were grown successfully on specific media. The pathogenic effects of these strains were evaluated on adult stages of Iranian Ixodidae members such as, Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum and H. marginatum by dipping method (these ticks were grown up at laboratory conditions during 2002 up to 2003 and still it is continued .Results: There was no effect of strain 5197 on mortality or fecundity rates for ticks. There was acute phase sign of paralysis in test group after dipping ticks in suspension made from Evin strain of B. bassiana. In addition, the test groups were totally died after four months, but the control groups survived for six months.Conclusion: High concentration of fungal spores is needed for inducing fungal infection. Additional study using different strains and fungi on Iranian ticks is proposed. 

  15. Canis familiaris, UN NUEVO HOSPEDERO DE Ornithodoros (A. puertoricensis FOX, 1947 (ACARI: IXODIDA EN COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIS E. PATERNINA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Las garrapatas revisten gran importancia en el campo biomédico por sus hábitos hematófagos y asociación con la transmisión de agentes patógenos a humanos y animales. El objetivo de esta investigación fue establecer las especies de garrapatas que parasitan perros en tres poblaciones del área rural del Caribe colombiano. Durante los meses de agosto y diciembre del año 2006 se realizó búsqueda activa de garrapatas sobre caninos domésticos de las localidades de El Campín, Sabanas del Potrero y Escobar Arriba, departamento de Sucre. Las garrapatas recolectadas fueron almacenadas en viales con etanol al 70% e identificadas empleando claves morfológicas de referencia para cada familia. Para la determinación de especie en la familia Argasidae se realizaron estimaciones morfométricas de estructuras externas. Se recolectaron 420 garrapatas a partir de 50 caninos infestados, de un total de 134 perros examinados, que corresponde a una tasa de infestación del 37,3%. Las garrapatas fueron identificadas como Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus y Amblyomma ovale pertenecientes a la familia Ixodidae, y Ornithodoros (Alectorobius puertoricensis de la familia Argasidae. La especie predominante fue R. sanguineus (92,1% en los estados de larva, ninfa y adulto, seguida por larvas de O. puertoricensis, que fueron halladas en menor número sobre caninos de las tres localidades. Se registra, por primera vez en América, el parasitismo de O. puertoricensis sobre caninos domésticos y se confirma su presencia en Colombia. Palabras clave: garrapatas, perros, Ornithodoros puertoricensis, Ixodida, Colombia. ABSTRACT Ticks are very important from the biomedical point of view, by their hematophagic activity and their role in the transmission of pathogenic microorganisms to man and animals. The main goal of this work was to establish the tick species parasiting dogs in three rural localities of the Colombian Caribbean. From

  16. Effect of Temperature on Feeding Period of Larval Blacklegged Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) on Eastern Fence Lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rulison, Eric L; Lebrun, Roger A; Ginsberg, Howard S

    2014-11-01

    Ambient temperature can influence tick development time, and can potentially affect tick interactions with pathogens and with vertebrate hosts. We studied the effect of ambient temperature on duration of attachment of larval blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis Say, to eastern fence lizards, Sceloporus undulatus (Bosc & Daudin). Feeding periods of larvae that attached to lizards under preferred temperature conditions for the lizards (WARM treatment: temperatures averaged 36.6°C at the top of the cage and 25.8°C at the bottom, allowing behavioral thermoregulation) were shorter than for larvae on lizards held under cool conditions (COOL treatment temperatures averaged 28.4°C at top of cage and 24.9°C at the bottom). The lizards were infested with larvae four times at roughly monthly intervals. Larval numbers successfully engorging and dropping declined and feeding period was longer after the first infestation. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.

  17. Effect of temperature on feeding period of larval blacklegged ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) on eastern fence lizards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rulison, Eric L.; LeBrun, Roger A.; Ginsberg, Howard S.

    2014-01-01

    Ambient temperature can influence tick development time, and can potentially affect tick interactions with pathogens and with vertebrate hosts. We studied the effect of ambient temperature on duration of attachment of larval blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis Say, to eastern fence lizards, Sceloporus undulatus (Bose & Daudin). Feeding periods of larvae that attached to lizards under preferred temperature conditions for the lizards (WARM treatment: temperatures averaged 36.6°C at the top of the cage and 25.8°C at the bottom, allowing behavioral thermoregulation) were shorter than for larvae on lizards held under cool conditions (COOL treatment temperatures averaged 28.4°C at top of cage and 24.9°C at the bottom). The lizards were infested with larvae four times at roughly monthly intervals. Larval numbers successfully engorging and dropping declined and feeding period was longer after the first infestation.

  18. Canis familiaris, UN NUEVO HOSPEDERO DE Ornithodoros (A. puertoricensis FOX, 1947 (ACARI: IXODIDA EN COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BEJARANO EDUAR E. E.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available

    RESUMEN

    Las garrapatas revisten gran importancia en el campo biomédico por sus hábitos hematófagos y asociación con la transmisión de agentes patógenos a humanos y animales. El objetivo de esta investigación fue establecer las especies de garrapatas que parasitan perros en tres poblaciones del área rural del Caribe colombiano. Durante los meses de agosto y diciembre del año 2006 se realizó búsqueda activa de garrapatas sobre caninos domésticos de las localidades de El Campín, Sabanas del Potrero y Escobar Arriba, departamento de Sucre. Las garrapatas recolectadas fueron almacenadas en viales con etanol al 70% e identificadas empleando claves morfológicas de referencia para cada familia. Para la determinación de especie en la familia Argasidae se realizaron estimaciones morfométricas de estructuras externas. Se recolectaron 420 garrapatas a partir de 50 caninos infestados, de un total de 134 perros examinados, que corresponde a una tasa de infestación del 37,3%. Las garrapatas fueron identificadas como Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus y Amblyomma ovale pertenecientes a la familia Ixodidae, y Ornithodoros (Alectorobius puertoricensis de la familia Argasidae. La especie predominante fue R. sanguineus (92,1% en los estados de larva, ninfa y adulto, seguida por larvas de O. puertoricensis, que fueron halladas en menor número sobre caninos de las tres localidades. Se registra, por primera vez en América, el parasitismo de O. puertoricensis sobre caninos domésticos y se confirma su presencia en Colombia.

    Palabras clave

  19. Survey of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae infesting cattle in two districts of Somali Regional State, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmeto Abebe

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study aimed at determining the common tick species and their abundance in cattle was conducted in two districts of Somali regional state from October 2008 to March 2009. During the period, a total of 10,055 adult ticks (Ixodidae were collected from 496 indigenous cattle. Out of the total tick count, 4304 were males and 5751 were females. Eight similar species of ticks that belong to four genera (Amblyomma, Boophilus, Rhipicephalus and Hyalomma were identified in the two districts covered by the study with a significant (P<0.001 difference in the relative abundance of most tick species between the districts. R. pulchellus was the most abundant tick species in Fafem district (25.41%, followed by B. decoloratus (24.83% with H. m. rufipes being the least abundant (2.28%. Conversely, the most abundant tick species in Awubere district was B. decoloratus (21.43% and A. variegatum (4.2% was the least. A significantly higher (P<0.0001 overall mean tick burden was seen in Awubere than Fafem district. The mean tick burden was found to be independent of age and sex of the animals (P>0.05. An overall male to female ratio of 0.75:1 was also determined showing the dominance of females. In conclusion, eight different species of ticks were found infesting cattle in the study area. Limited scope of awareness regarding the impact of ticks, lack of adequate veterinary infrastructures and absence of tick control strategy are the major factors accountable for the widespread existence of tick species in the area. For that reason, educating pastoral society on appropriate animal husbandry especially regarding to tick control and creating awareness on tick epidemiology would be imperative to minimize the effect of ticks and ultimately to improve the living standards of the pastoral society. [Veterinary World 2010; 3(12.000: 539-543

  20. Canis familiaris, UN NUEVO HOSPEDERO DE Ornithodoros (A. puertoricensis FOX, 1947 (ACARI: IXODIDA EN COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIS E. PATERNINA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Las garrapatas revisten gran importancia en el campo biomédico por sus hábitos hematófagos y asociación con la transmisión de agentes patógenos a humanos y animales. El objetivo de esta investigación fue establecer las especies de garrapatas que parasitan perros en tres poblaciones del área rural del Caribe colombiano. Durante los meses de agosto y diciembre del año 2006 se realizó búsqueda activa de garrapatas sobre caninos domésticos de las localidades de El Campín, Sabanas del Potrero y Escobar Arriba, departamento de Sucre. Las garrapatas recolectadas fueron almacenadas en viales con etanol al 70% e identificadas empleando claves morfoló- gicas de referencia para cada familia. Para la determinación de especie en la familia Argasidae se realizaron estimaciones morfométricas de estructuras externas. Se reco- lectaron 420 garrapatas a partir de 50 caninos infestados, de un total de 134 perros examinados, que corresponde a una tasa de infestación del 37,3%. Las garrapatas fueron identificadas como Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus y Amblyomma ovale pertenecientes a la familia Ixodidae, y Ornithodoros (Alectorobius puertoricensis de la familia Argasidae. La especie predominante fue R. sanguineus (92,1% en los estados de larva, ninfa y adulto, seguida por larvas de O. puertoricensis, que fue- ron halladas en menor número sobre caninos de las tres localidades. Se registra, por primera vez en América, el parasitismo de O. puertoricensis sobre caninos domésticos y se confirma su presencia en Colombia.

  1. Bacteria of the genus Rickettsia in ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) collected from birds in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogrzewalska, Maria; Literák, Ivan; Capek, Miroslav; Sychra, Oldřich; Calderón, Víctor Álvarez; Rodríguez, Bernardo Calvo; Prudencio, Carlos; Martins, Thiago F; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to document the presence of Rickettsia spp. in ticks parasitizing wild birds in Costa Rica. Birds were trapped at seven locations in Costa Rica during 2004, 2009, and 2010; then visually examined for the presence of ticks. Ticks were identified, and part of them was tested individually for the presence of Rickettsia spp. by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers targeting fragments of the rickettsial genes gltA and ompA. PCR products were DNA-sequenced and analyzed in BLAST to determine similarities with previously reported rickettsial agents. A total of 1878 birds were examined, from which 163 birds (9%) were infested with 388 ticks of the genera Amblyomma and Ixodes. The following Amblyomma (in decreasing order of abundance) were found in immature stages (larvae and nymphs): Amblyomma longirostre, Amblyomma calcaratum, Amblyomma coelebs, Amblyomma sabanerae, Amblyomma varium, Amblyomma maculatum, and Amblyomma ovale. Ixodes ticks were represented by Ixodes minor and two unclassified species, designated here as Ixodes sp. genotype I, and Ixodes sp. genotype II. Twelve of 24 tested A. longirostre ticks were found to be infected with 'Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii', and 2 of 4 A. sabanerae were found to be infected with Rickettsia bellii. Eight of 10 larval Ixodes minor were infected with an endosymbiont (a novel Rickettsia sp. agent) genetically related to the Ixodes scapularis endosymbiont. No rickettsial DNA was found in A. calcaratum, A. coelebs, A. maculatum, A. ovale, A. varium, Ixodes sp. I, and Ixodes sp. II. We report the occurrence of I. minor in Costa Rica for the first time and a number of new bird host-tick associations. Moreover, 'Candidatus R. amblyommii' and R. bellii were found in A. longirostre and A. sabanerae, respectively, in Costa Rica for the first time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Transcriptome analysis of the salivary glands of Dermacentor andersoni Stiles (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcon-Chaidez, Francisco J; Sun, Jianxin; Wikel, Stephen K

    2007-01-01

    Amongst blood-feeding arthropods, ticks of the family Ixodidae (hard ticks) are vectors and reservoirs of a greater variety of infectious agents than any other ectoparasite. Salivary glands of ixodid ticks secrete a large number of pharmacologically active molecules that not only facilitate feeding but also promote establishment of infectious agents. Genomic, proteomic and immunologic characterization of bioactive salivary gland molecules are, therefore, important as they offer new insights into molecular events occurring at the tick-host interface and they have implications for development of novel control strategies. The present work uses complementary DNA (cDNA) sequence analysis to identify salivary gland transcripts expressed by the Rocky Mountain wood tick, Dermacentor andersoni, a vector of the human pathogens causing Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Colorado tick fever, tularemia, and Powassan encephalitis as well as the veterinary pathogen Anaplasma marginale. Dermacentor andersoni is also capable of inducing tick paralysis. Automated single-pass DNA sequencing was conducted on 1440 randomly selected cDNA clones from the salivary glands of adult female D. andersoni collected during the early stages of feeding (18-24h). Analysis of the expressed sequence tags (ESTs) resulted in 544 singletons and 218 clusters with more than one quality read and attempts were made to assign putative functions to tick genes based on amino acid identity to published protein databases. Approximately 25.6% (195) of the sequences showed limited or no homology to previously identified gene products. A number of novel sequences were identified which presented significant sequence similarity to mammalian genes normally associated with extracellular matrix (ECM), regulation of immune responses, tumor suppression, and wound healing. Several coding sequences possessed various degrees of homology to previously described proteins from other tick species. Preliminary nucleotide variation

  3. Acaricidal activity of the essential oil from Tetradenia riparia (Lamiaceae) on the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari; Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazim, Zilda Cristiani; Demarchi, Izabel Galhardo; Lonardoni, Maria Valdrinez Campana; Amorim, Ana Carolina L; Hovell, Ana Maria C; Rezende, Claudia Moraes; Ferreira, Gilberto Alves; de Lima, Edson Luiz; de Cosmo, Fábio Antunes; Cortez, Diogenes Aparício Garcia

    2011-10-01

    Tetradenia riparia (Lamiaceae) is a well-known herbal medicine with a variety of useful properties, including its acaricidal effect. This experiment was carried out to study the bioacaricidal activity of T. riparia essential oil (EO) against engorged females of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari; Ixodidae). For this purpose, nine serial concentrations (12.50%, 6.25%, 3.75%, 1.80%, 0.90%, 0.45%, 0.22%, 0.11%, and 0.056% w/v) of T. riparia were used for the adult immersion test (AIT). For the larval packet test (LPT), we used 14 serial concentrations (100.00%, 50.00%, 25.00%, 12.50%, 6.25%, 3.65%, 1.82%, 0.91%, 0.45%, 0.228%, 0.114%, 0.057%, 0.028%, and 0.014% w/v). The results for AIT showed 100.00% and 2.05% mortality, 19.00 and 90.20% for the total number of eggs, egg-laying inhibition of 0.00% and 90.20%, hatchability inhibition of 0.00% and 70.23%, and product effectiveness of 100.00% and 2.89%, respectively. The AIT indicated that the LC(50) and LC(99.9), calculated using the Probit test, were for mortality (%) 0.534g/mL (0.436-0.632) and 1.552g/mL (1.183-1.92); for total number of eggs were 0.449g/mL (0.339-0.558) and 1.76g/mL (1.27-2.248); and for hatchability inhibition were 0.114g/mL (0.0-0.31) and 2.462g/mL (1.501-3.422), respectively. Larvae between 14 and 21days old were fasted and placed in each envelope. Bioassays were performed at 27°±1°C, RH⩾80%. Larval mortality was observed 24h after treatment and showed 10.60-100% mortality in the LPT bioassay. The LPT showed that the LC(50) and LC(99.9) were 1.222g/mL (0.655-1.788) and 11.382g/mL (7.84-14.91), respectively. A positive correlation between T. riparia EO concentration and tick control, was observed by the strong acaricidal effects against R. (B.) microplus, and the mortality rate of ticks was dose-dependent. Our results showed that T. riparia is a promising candidate as an acaricide against resistant strains of R. (B.) microplus. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  4. Acaricidal properties of vetiver essential oil from Chrysopogon zizanioides (Poaceae) against the tick species Amblyomma cajennense and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

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    Campos, Roseane Nunes de Santana; Nascimento Lima, Cecília Beatriz; Passos Oliveira, Alexandre; Albano Araújo, Ana Paula; Fitzgerald Blank, Arie; Barreto Alves, Péricles; Nascimento Lima, Rafaely; Albano Araújo, Vinícius; Santana, Alisson Silva; Bacci, Leandro

    2015-09-15

    Ticks are arthropods widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions, which can transmit infectious agents also responsible for zoonoses. Excessive use of conventional acaricides has resulted in the onset of drug resistance by these parasites, thus the need to use alternative methods for their control. This study evaluated the acaricidal activities of Chrysopogon zizanioides (vetiver) essential oils containing different zizanoic and khuzimol (high and low acidity) acid concentrations on Amblyomma cajennense and Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae). To this aims, toxicity tests of different concentrations of examined essential oils were conducted on adult females and larval stages. Results showed that the essential oils of C. zizanioides with high and low acidity reduced oviposition of females, eggs hatch and larval survival, being more effective than some commercial products widely used to control these ectoparasites. These results indicate that the C. zizanoides essential oils are promising candidates as acaricidal agents and represent also an add value to vetiver oil with high acidity, which is commercially undervalued in the cosmetic industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Antimicrobial activity in the egg wax of the tick Amblyomma hebraeum (Acari: Ixodidae) is associated with free fatty acids C16:1 and C18:2.

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    Yu, Zhijun; Thomson, Euan L S; Liu, Jingze; Dennis, Jonathan J; Jacobs, René L; Kaufman, W Reuben

    2012-12-01

    Untreated eggs of the tick Amblyomma hebraeum Koch (Acari: Ixodidae) exhibited antimicrobial activity (AMA) against Gram-negative but not Gram-positive bacteria; eggs denuded of wax by solvent extraction showed no AMA. The unfractionated egg wax extract, however, showed AMA against Gram-positive but not Gram-negative bacteria, as also shown by Arrieta et al. (Exp Appl Acarol 39: 297-313, 2006). In this study we partitioned the egg wax into various fractions, using a variety of techniques, analyzed their compositions, and tested them for AMA. The crude aqueous extract exhibited AMA. However, although more than 30 metabolites were identified in this extract by nuclear magnetic resonance analysis, none of them seemed likely to be responsible for the observed AMA. In the crude organic extract, cholesterol esters were the most abundant lipids, but were devoid of AMA. Fatty acids (FAs), with chain lengths between C13 and C26 were the next most abundant lipids. After lipid fractionation and gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy, free FAs, especially C16:1 and C18:2, accounted for most of the AMA in the organic extract. The material responsible for AMA in the crude aqueous extract remains unidentified. No AMA was detected in the intracellular contents of untreated eggs.

  6. Effect of Amblyomma maculatum (Acari: Ixodidae) Saliva on the Acute Cutaneous Immune Response to Rickettsia parkeri Infection in a Murine Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banajee, K. H.; Verhoeve, V. I.; Harris, E. K.; Macaluso, K. R.

    2016-01-01

    Rickettsia parkeri Luckman (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae) is a pathogenic spotted fever group Rickettsia transmitted by Amblyomma maculatum Koch (Acari: Ixodidae) in the United States. The acute innate immune response to this pathogen and the effect of tick feeding or salivary components on this response is largely unknown. We hypothesized that A. maculatum saliva enhances R. parkeri infection via downregulation of the acute cellular and cytokine immune response. C3H/HeN mice were intradermally inoculated with R. parkeri both with and without A. maculatum saliva. Flow cytometry and microscopic evaluation of inoculation site skin suspensions revealed that neutrophils and macrophages predominated at 6 and 24 h post R. parkeri inoculation, respectively. This cellular influx was significantly downregulated when A. maculatum saliva was inoculated along with R. parkeri. Inflammatory cytokines (interferon γ and interleukins 6 and 10) were significantly elevated after R. parkeri inoculation. However, cytokine concentration and rickettsial load were not significantly modified by A. maculatum saliva during the acute phase of infection. These results revealed that tick saliva inhibits the cutaneous cellular influx during the acute phase of rickettsial infection. Further study is needed to determine the overall impact of this effect on the establishment of rickettsiosis in the host and development of disease. PMID:27521760

  7. A review of the ticks (Acari, Ixodida of Brazil, their hosts and geographic distribution - 1. The State of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil

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    Evans DE

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of the ticks (Acari, Ixodida of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, was completed as a step towards a definitive list (currently indicated as 12 of such species, their hosts and distribution. The ticks: Argas miniatus (poultry, Ixodes loricatus (opossums, Amblyomma aureolatum (dogs, A. calcaratum (anteaters, A. cooperi (capybaras, A. nodosum (anteaters, A. tigrinum (dogs (Neotropical and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (dogs (introduced, cosmopolitan, Afrotropical were confirmed as present, in addition to the predominant, Boophilus microplus (cattle (introduced, pan-tropical, Oriental. Of the further 18 species thus far reported in the literature as present in the state, but unavailable for examination: only Ornithodoros brasiliensis (humans and their habitations (Neotropical, Ixodes affinis (deer (Nearctic/Neotropical and I. auritulus (birds (Nearctic/Neotropical/Afrotropical/ Australasian are considered likely; 13 species would benefit from corroborative local data but the majority appear unlikely; reports of A. maculatum (Nearctic/Neotropical, but circum-Caribbean are considered erroneous; the validity of A. fuscum is in doubt. The very recent, first known report of the tropical Anocentor nitens (horses(Nearctic/Neotropical, but still apparent absence of the tropical A. cajennense (catholic (Nearctic/Neotropical and the sub-tropical/temperate Ixodes pararicinus (cattle (Neotropical in Rio Grande do Sul are important for considerations on their current biogeographical distribution and its dynamics in South America. The state has relatively long established, introduced ("exotic", Old World tick species (B. microplus, R. sanguineus that continue to represent significant pests and disease vectors to their traditional, introduced domestic animal hosts, cattle and urban dogs. There are also indigenous, New World ticks (A. miniatus, O. brasiliensis, A. aureolatum, A. nitens, as both long established and possibly newly locally

  8. First description of the male and redescription of the female of Ixodes tapirus Kohls, 1956 (Acari: Ixodidae), a parasite of tapirs (Perissodactyla: Tapiridae) from the mountains of Colombia, Costa Rica and Panama.

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    Apanaskevich, Dmitry A; Domínguez, Lillian G; Torres, Sugeys S; Bernal, Juan A; Montenegro, Victor M; Bermúdez, Sergio E

    2017-03-01

    The male of Ixodes tapirus Kohls, 1956 (Acari: Ixodidae) is described for the first time and the female is redescribed in greater detail. Adults of I. tapirus are similar to those of Ixodes guatemalensis Kohls, 1956, Ixodes lasallei Méndez & Ortiz, 1958, Ixodes montoyanus Cooley, 1944 and Ixodes venezuelensis Kohls, 1953 but can be distinguished by their overall size, the amount of sclerotisation of the conscutum and accessory plates, the shape of the scutum, the number of punctations and their pattern on the conscutum and scutum, the depth of the punctations on the basis capituli dorsally, the shape and size of the porose areas and the size and shape of the auriculae. Adults of I. tapirus were collected from tapirs and vegetation in the mountains of Colombia, Panama and recorded from Costa Rica for the first time.

  9. Molecular Phylogeny of a tick, Ixodes granulatus (Acari: Ixodidae) based on cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) marker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lah, Ernieenor Faraliana Che; Yaakop, Salmah; Ahamad, Mariana; George, Ernna; Nor, Shukor Md

    2014-09-01

    Identification of a local species of tick, Ixodes granulatus from the family Ixodidae is essential because it has potential to be vector for spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsia and tick thypus. The aim of this study is to portray the relationships among several populations of I. granulatus collected from different species of animal hosts and localities in Peninsular Malaysia. Polymerase Chain Reaction was conducted by amplifying mitochondrial DNA marker, namely cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) sequences from 15 individual ticks that attached to five different hosts caught from three different localities. Confirmation of the species identity was accomplished using BLAST program. Neighbor-joining (NJ) and Maximum Parsimony (MP) tree based on COI sequences were constructed by using PAUP 4.0b10 to identify the relationship among species. The result of this study showed a high genetic heterogeneity between I. granulatus and other species of the same genus (7.2-23.7%). Furthermore, a low intraspecific variation was observed among the species of I. granulatus collected from different localities (0-3.7%). This study produced the first establishment of molecular marker for clarifying genetic species variation and diversity of local I. granulatus tick which contribute to the control of tick-borne infections.

  10. Canis familiaris, UN NUEVO HOSPEDERO DE Ornithodoros (A. puertoricensis FOX, 1947 (ACARI: IXODIDA EN COLOMBIA Canis familiaris, a New Host of Ornithodoros (A. puertoricensis Fox, 1947 (Acari: Ixodida in Colombia

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    LUIS E PATERNINA

    Full Text Available Las garrapatas revisten gran importancia en el campo biomédico por sus hábitos hematófagos y asociación con la transmisión de agentes patógenos a humanos y animales. El objetivo de esta investigación fue establecer las especies de garrapatas que parasitan perros en tres poblaciones del área rural del Caribe colombiano. Durante los meses de agosto y diciembre del año 2006 se realizó búsqueda activa de garrapatas sobre caninos domésticos de las localidades de El Campín, Sabanas del Potrero y Escobar Arriba, departamento de Sucre. Las garrapatas recolectadas fueron almacenadas en viales con etanol al 70% e identificadas empleando claves morfológicas de referencia para cada familia. Para la determinación de especie en la familia Argasidae se realizaron estimaciones morfométricas de estructuras externas. Se recolectaron 420 garrapatas a partir de 50 caninos infestados, de un total de 134 perros examinados, que corresponde a una tasa de infestación del 37,3%. Las garrapatas fueron identificadas como Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus y Amblyomma ovale pertenecientes a la familia Ixodidae, y Ornithodoros (Alectorobius puertoricensis de la familia Argasidae. La especie predominante fue R. sanguineus (92,1% en los estados de larva, ninfa y adulto, seguida por larvas de O. puertoricensis, que fueron halladas en menor número sobre caninos de las tres localidades. Se registra, por primera vez en América, el parasitismo de O. puertoricensis sobre caninos domésticos y se confirma su presencia en Colombia.Ticks are very important from the biomedical point of view, by their hematophagic activity and their role in the transmission of pathogenic microorganisms to man and animals. The main goal of this work was to establish the tick species parasiting dogs in three rural localities of the Colombian Caribbean. From August to December 2006, an active search of ticks on dogs was carried out in the localities of El Camp

  11. Acaricidal Treatment of White-Tailed Deer to Control Ixodes Scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) in a New York Lyme Disease-Endemic Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 4-Poster device for the topical treatment of white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann) against ticks using the acaricide amitraz was evaluated in a Lyme borreliosis endemic community in Connecticut. As part of a 5-year project from 1997 to 2002, 21–24 of the 4-Posters were distribut...

  12. Names for Ixodidae (Acari: Ixodoidea): valid, synonyms, incertae sedis, nomina dubia, nomina nuda, lapsus, incorrect and suppressed names--with notes on confusions and misidentifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmone, Alberto A; Nava, Santiago

    2014-02-24

    A major, but not exhaustive, literature revision has been made to compile the names of Ixodidae from Linnaeus to present. Names are classified as valid, synonyms, lapsus, incertae sedis, nomina dubia, nomina nuda, incorrect and suppressed. Notes are included for confusions and misidentifications among different tick species. The lists included in this study are neither aimed to be consensual nor focusing to stabilize nomenclature, but rather part of a discussion on the species forming Ixodidae and a potential aid for research on tick taxonomy and phylogeny.

  13. In vitro activity of 3β-O-tigloylmelianol from Guarea kunthiana A. Juss (Meliaceae) on oogenesis and ecdysis of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini) (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Carolina da Silva; Borges, Lígia Miranda Ferreira; Louly, Carla Cristina Braz; Rocha, Thiago Lopes; de Sabóia-Morais, Simone Maria Teixeira; Miguita, Carlos Henrique; Garcez, Walmir Silva; Garcez, Fernanda Rodriguez

    2016-05-01

    We evaluated the effects of 3β-O-tigloylmelianol from Guarea kunthiana A. Juss (Meliaceae) on oogenesis, as a larvicide and on ecdysis of the larvae and the nymphs of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini) (Acari: Ixodidae). On the oogenesis' test, 48 engorged females were divided into three groups, evaluated at 24, 48 and 72 h post-treatment. Half of the females were treated with 0.01% 3β-O-tigloylmelianol diluted in distilled water and 5% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), while the other half (controls) were exposed to distilled water and 5% DMSO. After treatment, the ovaries were weighed in order to measure the gonadosomatic index (GSI) and were also subjected to standard histological technical tests. On the larvicide and ecdysis' tests, 3β-O-tigloylmelianol was tested at concentrations of 0.01, 0.005, 0.0025 and 0.00125%. Compared with the controls, there was a reduction of GSI of approximately 50% on the treated group, which started at 48 h post treatment. Overall, the protolimonoid 3β-O-tigloylmelianol has caused a significant reduction in the number of oocytes. It has also caused alteration of the cytoplasmic and germinal vesicle diameters. Morphological changes, such as vacuolization, chorion irregularity which has modified the oocytes' morphology as well as alterations on the yolk's granules were also observed. The compound was not larvicide, however, interfered in the ecdysis of the larvae and the nymphs. This study shows that the protolimonoid 3β-O-tigloylmelianol from G. kunthiana acts on oogenesis and ecdysis of R. (B.) microplus, but not as larvicide, indicating that it acts on the endocrine system of the tick. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Detection of protozoans Babesia microti and [i]Toxoplasma gondii[/i] and their co-existence in ticks (Acari: Ixodida collected in Tarnogórski district (Upper Silesia, Poland

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    Marek Asman

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available [b]Introduction[/b]. Ticks (Acari: Ixodida are vectors of many pathogens i. a: [i]Babesia microti [/i][Bm] and [i]Toxoplasma gondii[/i] [Tg]. In Poland, Ixodes ricinus [Ir] is the main vector of both pathogens. This tick species and pathogens transmitted by them are a significant threat to human and animal health. objectives of the study. Detection of the protozoans Bm and Tg in ticks collected in the Tarnogórski district area. [b]Material and methods[/b]. The ticks were collected from vegetation and pets in the spring period of their activity on the territory of the Tarnogórski district. The parasites were preserved in 70% ethanol. DNA was isolated by ammonia method. Bm was detected by nested-PCR using specific primers for the 18S rRNA sequence. To detect the Tg a commercial kit was used. The PCR products were separated on 2% ethidium bromide stained agarose gels and visualised under UV light. [b]Results[/b]. It was showed that all collected ticks belonged to the species Ir. Bm was detected in 50.87% and Tg in 64.91% of all examined ticks. Co-existence of these both protozoans in 36.84% of total examined ticks was noted. [b]Conclusions[/b]. The study showed a high risk of exposure to Bm and Tg in the studied area. Ticks Ir play an important role in the transmission of Bm in this region. Demonstrating a high percentage of ticks collected from animals infected with Tg may indicate their important role in the transmission of this pathogen, but it requires a further studies.

  15. Estudo comparativo do aspecto da hemolinfa de algumas espécies de carrapatos (Acari, Ixodidae: descrição da variação hemocitária de adultos de Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius Koch Comparative study of the hemolymph aspect from a few ticks species (Acari, Ixodidae: description of the hemocyte variation of adults of Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius Koch

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    Maria Elisa Carneiro

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The hemocyte composition of adults of Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius, 1787 Koch, 1844 adults consisted of three basic cellular types: prahemocyte I (PR I, plasmatocyte (PL and spherulocyte (ES II. Among the ixodids observed (A. cajennense; A. dissimile Koch, 1844; Rhipicephalus sanguineus Latreille, 1806; Anocentor nitens (Neumann, 1897 Schulze, 1937; Boophilus microplus Canestrini, 1887 and Haemaphysalis sp. only A. cajennense was different in the adult hemolymph colour. It changed from amber to deep blue as the ixodid age advanced. This fact could be associated with the presence of hemocyanin in the hemolymph and points out the need to develop further investigations about the Ixodidae hemolymph pratein composition as well as the function of all the types found in it. This information could aid the studies on ticks control.

  16. Amblyomma rotundatum (Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae two-host life-cycle on Viperidae snakes Ciclo dioxênico em Amblyomma rotundatum (Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidaeparasitando serpentes da família Viperidae

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    Daniel Sobreira Rodrigues

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Amblyomma rotundatum is an ixodid tick that infests ectothermic animals and reproduces exclusively by parthenogenesis. This tick has been frequently reported to infest reptiles and amphibians, under natural conditions and sometimes in captivity. It was described in Brazil and several other countries of South, Central and North America. Although many studies have reported aspects of its biology, none of them has used regularly either ophidian as hosts, or controlled temperature, humidity and luminosity for parasitic stages. The objective of this experiment was to study the life cycle of A. rotundatum feeding on Viperidae snakes under room controlled conditions at 27 ± 1 ºC temperature, 85 ± 10% relative humidity and 12:12 hours photoperiod for parasitic stages, and under B.O.D incubator conditions at 27 ± 1 ºC temperature, 85 ± 10% relative humidity and scotophase for non-parasitic stages. The total duration of the life cycle ranged from 56 to 163 days (mean of 105 days. Two-host life cycle was observed for most of the ixodid population studied.Amblyomma rotundatum é um carrapato da família Ixodidae, parasito de animais pecilotérmicos, e que se reproduz exclusivamente por partenogênese. Este carrapato é frequentemente relatado infestando répteis e anfíbios em condições naturais e, às vezes, em animais de cativeiro. Ele já foi relatado no Brasil e em vários outros países das Américas do Sul, Central e do Norte. Embora muitos estudos sobre sua biologia tenham sido publicados, nunca foram utilizados ofídios como hospedeiros e, tão pouco, foram realizados ensaios com os estádios parasitários sob condições controladas de temperatura, umidade e iluminação. O objetivo deste experimento foi estudar o ciclo biológico de A. rotundatum se alimentando em serpentes da família Viperidae sob condições ambientais controladas a 27 ± 1 ºC de temperatura, 85 ± 10% de umidade relativa do ar e 12:12 horas de fotoperíodo para est

  17. Catalogue of the tick collection (Acari, Ixodida of the Museu de História Natural Capão da Imbuia, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil Catálogo da coleção de carrapatos (Acari: Ixodida do Museu de História Natural Capão da Imbuia, Curitiba, Paraná, Brasil

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    Márcia Arzua

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The tick collection of the Museu de Historia Natural Capão da Imbuia was first sorted in the end of the 80's, and a list of specimens was published in 1992. During the last ten years, the collection has grown substantially and became the depository collection for type-specimens. The collection is the most regional representative depository of ticks from the State of Paraná, and it is one of the four largest Brazilian collections in number of specimens. All material was revised, and the data were computerized and catalogued in cards. To date, the collection includes 504 vials, with 2,073 specimens, belonging to 25 species and six genera of the families Argasidae and Ixodidae. The ticks were collected in regional and state parks and in green areas from 60 municipalities distributed within eight Brazilian states. This catalogue corrects some of the records published in 1992 for the state of Paraná and records new host species for Amblyomma aureolatum (Pallas, 1772, A. cajennense (Fabricius, 1787, A. longirostre (Koch, 1844, A. tigrinum Koch, 1844, Ixodes aragaoi Fonseca, 1935, I. auritulus Neumann, 1904, I. fuscipes Koch, 1844 and I. paranaensis Barros-Battesti, Arzua, Pichorim & Keirans, 2003. Amblyomma brasiliense Aragão, 1908, A. coelebs Neumann, 1899, A. nodosum Neumann, 1899 and I. fuscipes are recorded, for the first time, from the state of Paraná; A. longirostre from Rio Grande do Sul; I. fuscipes from Santa Catarina; I. schulzei Aragão & Fonseca, 1951 from Rondônia; and A. rotundatum Koch, 1844 from Bahia. In addition Haemaphysalis juxtakochi Cooley, 1946 and I. fuscipes are recorded for the first time, infesting birds.O acervo de carrapatos do Museu de História Natural Capão da Imbuia começou a ser organizado no final dos anos 80, tendo sua primeira listagem publicada em 1992. Nos últimos dez anos a coleção cresceu substancialmente e passou a conter tipos. Sua importância está na representatividade da ixodofauna regional do

  18. Notas de Ixodologia: II - uma nova espécie do gênero Amblyomma e uma nova espécie do gênero Ixodes (Acari Ixodidae

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    Flavio da Fonseca

    1952-03-01

    Full Text Available A new tick, Amblyomma parkeri, n. sp., is described as a parasite of Coendu sp. from S. Paulo, Brazil. Female holotype, nymph and larva are described (Figs. 2 e 3. The n. sp. differs completly from Koch's species Amblyomma longirostre, the common parasite of the Erethizotidae. Standard data for measures of the female dorsal scutum ixodidae are proposed as follows (fig. 1: PA = Antero-posterior; PB = Postero-basal; PM = Postero-median; TT = Transversal; OO = Inter-ocular; OT= Occulo-transversal; SS = Inter-scapular; CC = Cervical; PT = Postero-transversal; ST = Scapulo-transversal; NPT = Normal to the postero-transversal; NST = Normal to the scapulo-transversal. In the female holotype the standard data are as follows: PA = 2.00 mm; PB = 2.26 mm; PM = 1.10 mm; TT = 2.20 mm; OO = 2.26 mm; SS = 0,84 mm; CC = 0.63 mm; SC = 0.12 mm; NPT = 0.20mm; STN = 0.1 mm. Peritrema 0.80 x 0.42 mm with a narrow postero-internal angle and a large, elongated macula. Coxa I with two short spines and all other coxae with only one shorter spine, shortest in coxa IV. Hypostoma spatulated with formula 3/3. Gnathosoma 1.42 mm long and basis 0.63 mm long by 0.84 greatest wide. Palpi with smoth external surface, 1.00 mm long. Type lot No. 4458 from Cotia, S. Paulo, Brazil; in the acarological collection of the Escola Paulista de Medicina, S. Paulo. Ixodes didelphidis, n. sp., differing from Ixodes loricatus Neumann by the shape of the peritremata (figs. 4 a 5 of the male and female and by the number of the punctations in this organ is described form Didelphidae, Muridae and Cavidae. Twenty eight lots were obtained from Anápolis, Goiás, Brasil, where I. loricatus is subtituded by the n. sp. under description. Comparison with NEUMANN'S types of I. loricatus was possible through the courtesy of Prof. A. BRIZARD from Toulouse, who kindly loaned NEUMANN'S material. Female cotypes N° 40 and male allotype N° 531 in the Collection of Ixodidae of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute.

  19. Parasitismo de Amblyomma fuscum (Acari: Ixodidae em humanos Parasitism of Amblyomma fuscum (Acari: Ixodidae on humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Marques

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Amblyomma fuscum é uma espécie rara de carrapato, recentemente revalidada, com poucos registros de ocorrência na literatura. Neste trabalho, são informados dois registros de parasitismo de A. fuscum em seres humanos: um no Estado de São Paulo (SP e outro possivelmente oriundo do Estado de Santa Catarina (SC, Brasil. Tratam-se dos primeiros registros de parasitismo em humano por esta espécie de carrapato. Um espécime adulto fêmea de A. fuscum foi coletado quando encontrava-se fixado à palma da mão de um dos autores deste trabalho, no município de Guarujá, SP. O segundo espécime, também adulto fêmea, foi coletado quando se encontrava fixado ao tornozelo de uma cidadã da cidade de São Paulo, que havia retornado de Lagoa da Conceição, em Florianópolis, SC, três dias antes. O presente registro de A. fuscum no município de Guarujá, SP, e outro possivelmente oriundo de Florianópolis, SC, reforça os achados prévios deste carrapato nesses dois Estados, especialmente em região costeira. Embora o estágio adulto de A. fuscum tenha sido associado primariamente com répteis, os vários registros em mamíferos (Carnivora e Edentata e o presente registro em seres humanos sugerem uma baixa especificidade parasitária.Amblyomma fuscum is a rare, recently revalidated tick species, with few records in the literature. The present study reports two records of human parasitism by A. fuscum, one in the state of São Paulo (SP, and the other possibly from the state of Santa Catarina (SC, Brazil. These are the first reports of A. fuscum on humans. An adult female specimen of A. fuscum was collected while attached to the palmar area of the hand of one of the authors of the present study, in Guarujá, SP. The second specimen, also an adult female, was collected while attached to the ankle of a resident of São Paulo city, who had returned three days before from Lagoa da Conceição, Florianópolis Municipality, SC. The present report of A. fuscum in Guarujá, SP and another one, possibly from Florianópolis, SC, reinforce previous reports of this tick species in these two Brazilian states. Although the adult stage of A. fuscum has been primarily associated with reptiles, other reports on mammals (Carnivora and Edentata and the present report on humans suggest low host specificity.

  20. [Ixodidae ticks in Bishkek].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorova, S Zh

    2005-01-01

    The fauna of Ixodidae ticks was studied in Bishkek in 1998-2004. The city is situated in the center of the Chuisk valley, at the foot of the Kirghiz ridge, at the boundary of a submountain-plain-arid region and a plain-piedmont-semiarid one with steppe fragments. The ticks were gathered on a flag from small mammalians caught by Gero traps, from birds, domestic and agricultural animals. A total of 648 animals of 13 species were examined. The bites of ticks were registered in 98 persons in the city. A total of 1085 ticks of all developmental phases were gathered. The faunal complex of Ixodidae ticks was represented by the following species: Ixodes persulcatus Sch (domination index (DI) = 0.45), Haemaphysalis punctata Can. Et Fanz (DI = 21.93), Haemaphysalis erinacei Paves (DI = 1.0), Dermacentor marginatus Sulter (DI = 0.27), Rhipicephaluspumilio Sch. (DI = 0.84), Rhipicephalus sanguineus Latr. (DI = 0.56), Rhipicephalus turanicus Pom (DI = 74.85), Hyalomma anatolicum Koch (DI = 0.87). The regional and climatic conditions of Bishkek and the presence of profeeders in the private sector (domestic and agricultural animals, synanthropic rodents, and birds) favor the existence of the R. turanicus population. The mosaic pattern of a cultural region in the center of the city permits small populations of several species of ticks to exist.

  1. Comparative analysis of spermatids of Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (Ixodidae) and Ornithodoros rostratus ticks (Argasidae): morphophysiology aimed at systematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampieri, Bruno Rodrigues; Calligaris, Izabela Bragião; Matos, Renata da Silva; Páez, Fredy Arvey Rivera; Bueno, Odair Corrêa; Camargo-Mathias, Maria Izabel

    2016-02-01

    The phylogenetic relationships among tick species (Acari: Ixodida) have been revisited by several researchers over the last decades. Two subfamilies, Rhipicephalinae (Ixodidae) and Ornithodorinae (Argasidae), deserve special attention. The male reproductive system morphology, as well as the ultrastructure of the germ cells, may provide important information for phylogeny and systematics of metazoan groups, with spermatozoa exhibiting characters that can be used for this purpose. With that information in mind, this study aimed at evaluating, through a comparative analysis, the morphology of the male reproductive systems and germ cells of ticks species Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Ornithodoros rostratus. In order to do that, histology and scanning electron microscopy techniques were used. The results have shown that despite the similarities in the general morphology of the male reproductive system among studied Ixodida so far, there are morphological differences among the species studied herein, mainly the U-shaped testis (ancestral character) in O. rostratus and the pair testes (derived character) in R. sanguineus, and the general morphology of germ cells (spermatids V). Besides that, the morphological changes observed during the spermiogenesis appear to be different between the species studied here, probably characterizing the two families considered. The data generated in this study showed the importance of comparative internal morphology studies, mainly in regard to spermatology, despite the morphological data obtained herein not being enough to product a cladogram (sperm cladistics), it was already possible to observe clear differences among families Argasidae and Ixodidae in regard to the organization of their male reproductive systems and concerning the external morphology of spermatids. Data yet to be obtained through transmission electron microscopy techniques will allow the application of spermiocladistics and spermiotaxonomy as tools for tick systematics.

  2. Surveillance of Ixodes ricinus ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfredsson, Matthias; Olafsson, Erling; Eydal, Matthias; Unnsteinsdottir, Ester Rut; Hansford, Kayleigh; Wint, William; Alexander, Neil; Medlock, Jolyon M

    2017-10-10

    Ixodes ricinus is a three-host tick, a principal vector of Borrelia burgdorferi (s.l.) and one of the main vectors of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus. Iceland is located in the North Atlantic Ocean with subpolar oceanic climate. During the past 3-4 decades, average temperature has increased, supporting more favourable conditions for ticks. Reports of I. ricinus have increased in recent years. If these ticks were able to establish in a changing climate, Iceland may face new threats posed by tick-borne diseases. Active field surveillance by tick flagging was conducted at 111 sites around Iceland from August 2015 to September 2016. Longworth mammal traps were used to trap Apodemus sylvaticus in southwestern and southern Iceland. Surveillance on tick importation by migratory birds was conducted in southeastern Iceland, using bird nets and a Heligoland trap. Vulpes lagopus carcasses from all regions of the country were inspected for ticks. In addition, existing and new passive surveillance data from two institutes have been merged and are presented. Continental probability of presence models were produced. Boosted Regression Trees spatial modelling methods and its predictions were assessed against reported presence. By field sampling 26 questing I. ricinus ticks (7 males, 3 females and 16 nymphs) were collected from vegetation from three locations in southern and southeastern Iceland. Four ticks were found on migratory birds at their arrival in May 2016. A total of 52 A. sylvaticus were live-trapped but no ticks were found nor on 315 V. lagopus carcasses. Passive surveillance data collected since 1976, reports further 214 I. ricinus ticks from 202 records, with an increase of submissions in recent years. The continental probability of presence model correctly predicts approximately 75% of the recorded presences, but fails to predict a fairly specific category of recorded presence in areas where the records are probably opportunistic and not likely to lead to establishment. To the best of our knowledge, this study represents the first finding of questing I. ricinus ticks in Iceland. The species could possibly be established locally in Iceland in low abundance, although no questing larvae have yet been detected to confirm established populations. Submitted tick records have increased recently, which may reflect an increase in exposure, or in interest in ticks. Furthermore, the amount of records on dogs, cats and humans indicate that ticks were acquired locally, presenting a local biting risk. Tick findings on migratory birds highlight a possible route of importation. Obtaining questing larvae is now a priority to confirm that I. ricinus populations are established in Iceland. Further surveys on wild mammals (e.g. Rangifer tarandus), livestock and migratory birds are recommended to better understand their role as potential hosts for I. ricinus.

  3. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) of the state of Amazonas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianizella, Sergio L; Martins, Thiago F; Onofrio, Valeria C; Aguiar, Nair O; Gravena, Waleska; do Nascimento, Carlos A R; Neto, Laérzio C; Faria, Diogo L; Lima, Natália A S; Solorio, Monica R; Maranhão, Louise; Lima, Ivan J; Cobra, Iury V D; Santos, Tamily; Lopes, Gerson P; Ramalho, Emiliano E; Luz, Hermes R; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2018-02-01

    The tick fauna of Brazil is currently composed by 72 species. The state of Amazonas is the largest of Brazil, with an area of ≈ 19% of the Brazilian land. Besides its vast geographic area, only 19 tick species have been reported for Amazonas. Herein, lots containing ticks from the state of Amazonas were examined in three major tick collections from Brazil. A total of 5933 tick specimens were examined and recorded, comprising 2693 males, 1247 females, 1509 nymphs, and 484 larvae. These ticks were identified into the following 22 species: Amblyomma cajennense sensu lato, Amblyomma calcaratum, Amblyomma coelebs, Amblyomma dissimile, Amblyomma dubitatum, Amblyomma geayi, Amblyomma goeldii, Amblyomma humerale, Amblyomma latepunctatun, Amblyomma longirostre, Amblyomma naponense, Amblyomma oblongoguttatum, Amblyomma ovale, Amblyomma rotundatum, Amblyomma scalpturatum, Amblyomma varium, Dermacentor nitens, Haemaphysalis juxtakochi, Ixodes cf. Ixodes fuscipes, Ixodes luciae, Rhipicephalus microplus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato. Ticks were collected from 17 (27.4%) out of the 62 municipalities that currently compose the state of Amazonas. The following four species are reported for the first time in the state of Amazonas: A. coelebs, A. dubitatum, H. juxtakochi, and Ixodes cf. I. fuscipes. The only tick species previously reported for Amazonas and not found in the present study is Amblyomma parvum. This study provides a great expansion of geographical and host records of ticks for the state of Amazonas, which is now considered to have a tick fauna composed by 23 species. It is noteworthy that we report 1391 Amblyomma nymphs that were identified to 13 different species.

  4. Current status of Amblyomma ovale (Acari: Ixodidae) in Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgas, Ingrid L; Castro, Angélica M; Bermúdez, Sergio E

    2013-02-01

    The genus Amblyomma is the most diverse and relevant among the Neotropical ticks. In Panama, this genus contains 19 species, including Amblyomma ovale. There is a lack of knowledge of the ecology of A. ovale in Panama, and thus the aim of this work is to report on its geographical distribution and its spectrum of vertebrate hosts. We reviewed data of ticks collected in different areas of Panama from 2007 to 2012 and found parasitism of A. ovale in 625 vertebrates, corresponding to 21 species (2 species of birds and 19 mammal species). A. ovale is present in different environments of Panama, from lowlands to places with 800m altitude, including rural towns, disturbed forests, and wilderness areas. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Parasitismo de Amblyomma fuscum (Acari: Ixodidae) em humanos

    OpenAIRE

    Marques Sandro; Dal Col Rogério; Matos Júnior Marco Otávio de; Gonçalves Elisabeth Fernandes Bertoletti; Pinter Adriano; Labruna Marcelo Bahia

    2006-01-01

    Amblyomma fuscum é uma espécie rara de carrapato, recentemente revalidada, com poucos registros de ocorrência na literatura. Neste trabalho, são informados dois registros de parasitismo de A. fuscum em seres humanos: um no Estado de São Paulo (SP) e outro possivelmente oriundo do Estado de Santa Catarina (SC), Brasil. Tratam-se dos primeiros registros de parasitismo em humano por esta espécie de carrapato. Um espécime adulto fêmea de A. fuscum foi coletado quando encontrava-se fixado à palma ...

  6. Biology and life cycle of Amblyomma incisum (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Matias Pablo J; Pereira, Lucas de F; Castro, Márcio B; Garcia, Marcos V; Sanches, Gustavo S; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2009-07-01

    Amblyomma incisum Neumann is a major tick species in the Atlantic Forest of Brazil. Tapir is the main host for adult ticks and a high aggressiveness of nymphs to humans has been reported. In this work data on the biology and life cycle of this tick species is presented for the first time. It was shown that horse is a suitable host for A. incisum adults and rabbit for larvae and nymphs. It was also shown that A. incisum is a big tick species (mean engorged female weight of 1.96 g) with a long life cycle which lasts 262.3 days when maintained at 27 degrees C and 85% RH. These laboratory conditions were, however, inappropriate and egg hatching rate (1.2%) was very low. Nevertheless egg hatching of ticks in a forest patch increased considerably (72.2%) indicating that this A. incisum population is highly dependent on a forest-like environment.

  7. The tick (Acari: Ixodidae) fauna of Herald's Beacon Islet, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Mackenzie L; Mintram, Kate

    2017-01-01

    A rare opportunity to travel to Herald's Beacon Islet with permission from the Australian government to collect ticks allowed for a survey of the tick fauna of the island to be undertaken for the first time. The avian fauna of the island, which serve as hosts, was also recorded and includes one new species record for the island. The seabird soft tick Ornithodoros capensis Neumann and the seabird hard tick Amblyomma loculosum Neumann were found to be present on the island. Images of the ticks present on the island are presented along with morphological characters for their identification.

  8. Biology of Dermacentor marginatus (Acari: Ixodidae under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Darvishi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate and survey the biology of Dermacentor marginatus (D. marginatus under laboratory conditions. Methods: In this investigation, D. marginatus adult ticks were collected from sheep in Semnan province. Then various developmental stages of D. marginatus including larvae, nymphs and adult males and females under laboratory condition were bred and their biology was scrutinized. Results: The requisite time to complete the life cycle of D. marginatus under controlled laboratory conditions for larvae (26 °C, 75% relative humidity and nymph (26 °C, 95% relative humidity moulting, was on average 92 d (range 75-104 d, including preoviposition and egg incubation (22.5 d, larvae incubation (20.5 d, nymphal stage (28 d along with male maturation (21 d. The index of conversion efficiency and the index of reproduction efficiency in females were 0.397 and 8.300, respectively. Conclusions: Although in this investigation, there was no meaningful correlation between preoviposition period and the weight of female ticks which were laid successfully. The significant linear relationship was fully observed between the weight of engorged female of D. marginatus and the number of eggs laid. The mean of preoviposition period from 5.4 d in autumn to 34.2 d in spring increased. The minimum weight of ticks with laying capacity was 69 mg and lighter ticks (21 mg either did not lay or if they did their eggs did not hatch.

  9. Climate change and the genus Rhipicephalus (Acari: Ixodidae) in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olwoch, J M; Van Jaarsveld, A S; Scholtz, C H; Horak, I G

    2007-03-01

    The suitability of present and future climates for 30 Rhipicephalus species in Africa are predicted using a simple climate envelope model as well as a Division of Atmospheric Research Limited-Area Model (DARLAM). DARLAM's predictions are compared with the mean outcome from two global circulation models. East Africa and South Africa are considered the most vulnerable regions on the continent to climate-induced changes in tick distributions and tick-borne diseases. More than 50% of the species examined show potential range expansion and more than 70% of this range expansion is found in economically important tick species. More than 20% of the species experienced range shifts of between 50 and 100%. There is also an increase in tick species richness in the south-western regions of the sub-continent. Actual range alterations due to climate change may be even greater since factors like land degradation and human population increase have not been included in this modelling process. However, these predictions are also subject to the effect that climate change may have on the hosts of the ticks, particularly those that favour a restricted range of hosts. Where possible, the anticipated biological implications of the predicted changes are explored.

  10. Acaricidal activity of hydroethanolic formulations of thymol against Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) and Dermacentor nitens (Acari: Ixodidae) larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daemon, Erik; Maturano, Ralph; Monteiro, Caio Márcio de Oliveira; Goldner, Márcio Scoralik; Massoni, Tainara

    2012-05-25

    The aim of this study was to assess the acaricidal activity of hydroethanolic formulations of thymol at varying concentrations on Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Dermacentor nitens larvae. The larval packet test was used and the thymol concentrations tested were 2.5, 5.0, 10.0, 15.0 and 20.0 mg/ml. The control group was exposed only to water and ethanol (50/50%) and there were 10 repetitions for each treatment. The mortality was evaluated after 24 h. For the R. sanguineus larvae, the mortality rates were 47.5, 50.2, 96.7, 95.9 and 98.1%, while for D. nitens the rates were 14.1, 75.0, 90.2, 90.3 and 99.5%, at respective thymol concentrations of 2.5, 5.0, 10.0, 15.0 and 20.0 mg/ml. The results indicate that the hydroethanolic formulations of thymol tested have acaricidal activity on R. sanguineus and D. nitens larvae exposed topically, causing mortality greater than 90% 24 h post-treatment starting at the concentration of 10 mg/ml. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Acari in archaeology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Anne S

    2009-10-01

    Mites and ticks (Acari) have been found in a variety of archaeological situations. Their identification has enabled data on habitat and dietary preferences to be obtained, and these have been used to interpret study sites. Despite this, Acari are not routinely considered in analyses in the way that other environmental components are. Like forensic science, archaeology draws on biological material to rebuild past human activity, and acarology has the potential to provide a much greater amount of evidence to both than is currently the case. As an aid to workers in these fields, an overview is presented of the Acari that have been extracted from archaeological samples, the situations in which they were found and the contribution their presence can make to the interpretation of sites.

  12. The complete mitochondrial genome of the scab mite Psoroptes cuniculi (Arthropoda: Arachnida) provides insights into Acari phylogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Limited available sequence information has greatly impeded population genetics, phylogenetics and systematics studies in the subclass Acari (mites and ticks). Mitochondrial (mt) DNA is well known to provide genetic markers for investigations in these areas, but complete mt genomic data have been lacking for many Acari species. Herein, we present the complete mt genome of the scab mite Psoroptes cuniculi. Methods P. cuniculi was collected from a naturally infected New Zealand white rabbit from China and identified by morphological criteria. The complete mt genome of P. cuniculi was amplified by PCR and then sequenced. The relationships of this scab mite with selected members of the Acari were assessed by phylogenetic analysis of concatenated amino acid sequence datasets by Bayesian inference (BI), maximum likelihood (ML) and maximum parsimony (MP). Results This mt genome (14,247 bp) is circular and consists of 37 genes, including 13 genes for proteins, 22 genes for tRNA, 2 genes for rRNA. The gene arrangement in mt genome of P. cuniculi is the same as those of Dermatophagoides farinae (Pyroglyphidae) and Aleuroglyphus ovatus (Acaridae), but distinct from those of Steganacarus magnus (Steganacaridae) and Panonychus citri (Tetranychidae). Phylogenetic analyses using concatenated amino acid sequences of 12 protein-coding genes, with three different computational algorithms (BI, ML and MP), showed the division of subclass Acari into two superorders, supported the monophylies of the both superorders Parasitiformes and Acariformes; and the three orders Ixodida and Mesostigmata and Astigmata, but rejected the monophyly of the order Prostigmata. Conclusions The mt genome of P. cuniculi represents the first mt genome of any member of the family Psoroptidae. Analysis of mt genome sequences in the present study has provided new insights into the phylogenetic relationships among several major lineages of Acari species. PMID:25052180

  13. The complete mitochondrial genome of the scab mite Psoroptes cuniculi (Arthropoda: Arachnida) provides insights into Acari phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiao-Bin; Liu, Guo-Hua; Song, Hui-Qun; Liu, Tian-Yu; Yang, Guang-You; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2014-07-22

    Limited available sequence information has greatly impeded population genetics, phylogenetics and systematics studies in the subclass Acari (mites and ticks). Mitochondrial (mt) DNA is well known to provide genetic markers for investigations in these areas, but complete mt genomic data have been lacking for many Acari species. Herein, we present the complete mt genome of the scab mite Psoroptes cuniculi. P. cuniculi was collected from a naturally infected New Zealand white rabbit from China and identified by morphological criteria. The complete mt genome of P. cuniculi was amplified by PCR and then sequenced. The relationships of this scab mite with selected members of the Acari were assessed by phylogenetic analysis of concatenated amino acid sequence datasets by Bayesian inference (BI), maximum likelihood (ML) and maximum parsimony (MP). This mt genome (14,247 bp) is circular and consists of 37 genes, including 13 genes for proteins, 22 genes for tRNA, 2 genes for rRNA. The gene arrangement in mt genome of P. cuniculi is the same as those of Dermatophagoides farinae (Pyroglyphidae) and Aleuroglyphus ovatus (Acaridae), but distinct from those of Steganacarus magnus (Steganacaridae) and Panonychus citri (Tetranychidae). Phylogenetic analyses using concatenated amino acid sequences of 12 protein-coding genes, with three different computational algorithms (BI, ML and MP), showed the division of subclass Acari into two superorders, supported the monophylies of the both superorders Parasitiformes and Acariformes; and the three orders Ixodida and Mesostigmata and Astigmata, but rejected the monophyly of the order Prostigmata. The mt genome of P. cuniculi represents the first mt genome of any member of the family Psoroptidae. Analysis of mt genome sequences in the present study has provided new insights into the phylogenetic relationships among several major lineages of Acari species.

  14. Secondary structure of expansion segment D1 in LSU rDNA from Arachnida and its phylogenetic application in Eriophyoid mites and in Acari.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng-Hang; Zhao, Ya-E; Xu, Yang; Hu, Li; Chen, Yi-Meng

    2015-12-01

    An increasing number of researchers have applied secondary-structure based multiple alignments of rDNA genes in phylogeny. These studies mostly depended on a few valuable divergent domains in LSU and SSU rDNA. Yet other divergent domains, e.g. D1, were poorly investigated and rarely used. However, these domains might contain additional evolutionary data and play a vital role in DNA-based phylogenetic study. Here, we investigated all available D1 sequences of Arachnida taxa and predicted corresponding secondary structures to help identify homologous positions in the D1 region. Long insertions were found exclusive to Eriophyoidea and folded into three newly proposed helices. Non-Acari taxa were all GC rich. In Acari, most Trombidiformes and all Mesostigmata (Parasitiformes) taxa were AT rich and Ixodida (Parasitiformes) GC rich; however there was no consistent base bias in Sarcoptiformes sequences. For Eriophyoid mites, genera Cecidophyopsis and Aceria were both well supported in MP, NJ, ME and ML tress based on D1 sequences, and clusters of Cecidophyopsis species were identical with former study. This demonstrated that the D1 region could act as a valuable molecular marker in phylogenetic reconstruction of Eriophyoidea. Additionally, D1 has been proven suitable in phylogenetic analysis at the family and genus level in Acari, but not in Opiliones. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Insights Into the Evolution of Chemoreceptor Genes Superfamily in Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Acari: Acaridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, S X; Li, H P; Ma, L; Song, J D

    2016-07-01

    All living organisms, including animals, plants, fungi, and bacteria, use the olfactory system to recognize chemicals or pheromone from their environment. Insects detect a volatile substance using odorant receptors (ORs) or gustatory receptors (GRs) and ionotropic receptors (IRs). The gene families of the olfactory system in Acari are still not clear. In this study, we identified seven ORs, one GR, and five IRs from the transcriptome of the storage mite, Tyrophagus putrescentiae Schrank. No olfactory coreceptor was found in this transcriptome. Phylogenetic analysis of these gene families with other Arthropoda species revealed the conservation of carbon dioxide receptors in all tested flying insects and T. putrescentiae Most of these ORs and GRs were unique to three mosquitoes (Anopheles gambiae Giles, Culex quinquefasciatus Say, and Aedes aegypti L.), Ixodes scapularis Say and Pediculus humanus L., indicating their involvement in specific aspects of both gustatory and olfactory perception. Some clades contained receptors obtained from all tested insect vector species, indicating a degree of conservation among some vector-dependent OR lineages. IRs family was a highly dynamic and independent original of the chemoreceptor genes subfamily. Our findings would make it possible for future research on the chemosensory recognition mechanism in Acari. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Ixodes scapularis saliva mitigates inflammatory cytokine secretion during Anaplasma phagocytophilum stimulation of immune cells

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    Chen Gang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ixodes scapularis saliva enables the transmission of infectious agents to the mammalian host due to its immunomodulatory, anesthetic and anti-coagulant properties. However, how I. scapularis saliva influences host cytokine secretion in the presence of the obligate intracellular rickettsial pathogen Anaplasma phagocytophilum remains elusive. Methods Bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDMs were stimulated with pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs and A. phagocytophilum. Cytokine secretion was measured in the presence and absence of I. scapularis saliva. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs were also stimulated with Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF-α in the presence and absence of I. scapularis saliva and interleukin (IL-8 was measured. Results I. scapularis saliva inhibits inflammatory cytokine secretion by macrophages during stimulation of Toll-like (TLR and Nod-like receptor (NLR signaling pathways. The effect of I. scapularis saliva on immune cells is not restricted to murine macrophages because decreasing levels of interleukin (IL-8 were observed after TNF-α stimulation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. I. scapularis saliva also mitigates pro-inflammatory cytokine response by murine macrophages during challenge with A. phagocytophilum. Conclusions These findings suggest that I. scapularis may inhibit inflammatory cytokine secretion during rickettsial transmission at the vector-host interface.

  17. Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus as experimental hosts for Amblyomma dubitatum Neumann (Acari: Ixodidae Coelhos (Oryctolagus cuniculus como hospedeiros experimentais de Amblyomma dubitatum Neumann (Acari: Ixodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L.H. Faccini

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O ciclo biológico do Amblyomma dubitatum, que se alimentava experimentalmente em coelhos domésticos, foi avaliado em condições laboratoriais e comparado com dados recentemente obtidos de infestações experimentais em capivaras (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris, hospedeiros naturais para essa espécie. Os coelhos foram considerados hospedeiros experimentais adequados para larvas e ninfas porque quatro dos cinco parâmetros avaliados (número de carrapatos que ingurgitaram, período de alimentação, percentagem de carrapatos que realizaram muda e período de pré-muda foram semelhantes aos resultados obtidos com capivaras. As percentagens diárias de desprendimento e de muda das larvas e ninfas confirmam os coelhos como hospedeiros experimentais adequados para esses estágios de A. dubitatum. Os resultados do experimento indicam que os coelhos são hospedeiros inadequados para os adultos.

  18. Larvicidal potencial of Sapindus saponaria (Sapindaceae against Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806 (Acari: Ixodidae Potencial larvicida de Sapindus saponaria (Sapindaceae sobre Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806 (Acari: Ixodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.F. Fernandes

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The larvicidal potential of the crude ethanolic extracts (CEE of the stem peel of Sapindus saponaria was evaluated against Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Lethal concentrations (LC, were calculated by preparing CEE solutions at different concentrations in distilled water. Larvae fasted for 14-21 days were utilized in the bioassays, after incubation of engorged females collected from infested environments frequented by dogs in several neighborhoods of Goiânia, GO. Bioassays were performed in a specially constructed biological chamber for testing botanical acaricides, acclimatized to 27±1ºC, RH>80%. The larvae were counted on filter paper envelopes impregnated with the solutions or distilled water and larval mortality observed after 48h. S. saponaria showed good larvicidal activity (LC50 and LC99 of 1994 and 3922ppm, respectively and the results demonstrated its potential as a botanical acaricide and an alternative control measure for R. sanguineus.Avaliou-se a potencialidade larvicida do extrato-bruto etanólico (EBE da casca do caule de Sapindus saponaria sobre Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Para o cálculo das concentrações letais (CL foram preparadas soluções com diferentes concentrações do EBE dissolvido em água destilada. Foram utilizadas larvas em jejum com 14 a 21 dias, obtidas pela incubação de teleóginas, coletadas em ambientes infestados, freqüentados por cães de vários bairros de Goiânia. Os bioensaios foram realizados em uma câmara biológica para testes com acaricidas botânicos, climatizada a 27±1ºC e UR>80%. As larvas foram contidas em envelopes de papel filtro impregnados com as soluções (grupo teste ou com água destilada (grupo-controle e a mortalidade larval foi observada após 48h. S. saponaria demonstrou atividade larvicida satisfatória (CL50 e CL99 respectivamente de 1994 e 3922ppm e os resultados demonstraram seu potencial como acaricida botânico e medida alternativa para o controle de R. sanguineus.

  19. Environmentally associated ticks (Acari: Ixodidae in Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil Carrapatos (Acari: Ixodidae associados com o ambiente em Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil

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    Marcos Valério Garcia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we report tick species found on wild and domestic animals and in the environment during a one-year sampling period at the Brazilian Farming Research Company beef cattle unit (Embrapa Beef Cattle, which is located within the urban area of Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. From 55 wild hosts including six different species (Nasua nasua, Cebus spp., Cerdocyon thous, Myrmecophaga tridactyla, Tamandua tetradactyla and Dasyprocta aguti, 323 ticks were collected. Amblyomma ovale ticks were found solely on coatis, and Amblyomma nodosum was identified solely on anteaters. No ticks were found on capuchin monkeys. However, Amblyomma cajennense was found on all parasitized host species with the exception of capuchin monkeys. Giant anteaters displayed the highest infestation abundance, with a mean of 53 ticks∕animal. Environmental sampling yielded 166 adult A. cajennense ticks. The tick species found on domestic animals (Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus, R. sanguineus, Dermacentor nitens and A. cajennense were those typically found on these hosts in Brazil. The most prevalent tick species, A. cajennense, was found on both wild and domestic animals and was also prevalent in the environment. Thus, this tick species is the primary vector that allows pathogens to bridge wild and domestic animals in the Cerrado.Neste trabalho são descritas as espécies de carrapatos de animais selvagens e domésticos e do ambiente coletados por um ano na EMBRAPA Gado de Corte localizado na área urbana de Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil. Dos 55 hospedeiros selvagens de seis espécies diferentes (Nasua nasua, Cebus spp., Cerdocyon thous, Myrmecophaga tridactyla, Tamandua tetradactyla e Dasyprocta aguti foram coletados 323 carrapatos. Amblyomma ovale foi encontrado apenas em quatis e Amblyomma nodosum apenas sobre tamanduás. Nenhum carrapato foi encontrado sobre macacos-prego. Por outro lado, Amblyomma cajennense foi encontrado em todos os hospedeiros com exceção dos macacos-pregos. A maior abundancia de infestação foi aquela em tamanduás-bandeira com média de 53 carrapatos∕animal. No ambiente foram capturados 166 carrapatos, todos da espécie A. cajennense. As espécies de carrapatos em animais domésticos (Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Dermacentor nitens e A. cajennense foram aquelas características nestes hospedeiros no Brasil. De forma geral a espécie de carrapato A. cajennense foi a mais prevalente sendo encontrada em animais domésticos e selvagens bem como no ambiente. Portanto, esta é a principal espécie de vetor a estabelecer uma ponte para bioagentes patogênicos entre animais domésticos e selvagens.

  20. Evaluation of the combined effect of thymol, carvacrol and (E)-cinnamaldehyde on Amblyomma sculptum (Acari: Ixodidae) and Dermacentor nitens (Acari: Ixodidae) larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novato, Tatiane Pinheiro Lopes; Araújo, Laryssa Xavier; de Monteiro, Caio Márcio Oliveira; Maturano, Ralph; Senra, Tatiane de Oliveira Souza; da Silva Matos, Renata; Gomes, Geovany Amorim; de Carvalho, Mario Geraldo; Daemon, Erik

    2015-09-15

    This study aimed at assessing the combined effect of thymol, carvacrol and (E)-cinnamaldehyde on Amblyomma sculptum and Dermacentor nitens larvae. The effects resulting from treatments were evaluated by means of the modified larval packet test. In order to determine the LC50, components of essential oils, the monoterpenes thymol, carvacrol and phenylpropanoid (E)-cinnamaldehyde were individually tested at different concentrations. After determining the LC50, each essential oil component was separately evaluated and then combined with another substance at a 1:1 proportion at the LC50 concentration and at 1/2 and 1/4 of the LC50. For A. sculptum, the lowest LC50 value was obtained for (E)-cinnamaldehyde (1.40 mg/ml), followed by thymol (2.04 mg/ml) and carvacrol (3.49 mg/ml). The same order of effectiveness was observed for D. nitens, with values of 1.68, 2.17 and 3.33 mg/ml, respectively. In the evaluation of component associations of essential oils against A. sculptum larvae, only the combinations between carvacrol and thymol (LC50) and carvacrol and (E)-cinnamaldehyde (1/4 LC50) presented a moderate synergetic effect. In turn, for D. nitens larvae, the combinations between thymol and carvacrol (LC50 and 1/2 LC50) presented a synergetic effect, while the others presented an additive or antagonistic effect. Therefore, it can be concluded that the combination of thymol and carvacrol (LC50) has a moderate synergetic effect against A. sculptum larvae, while thymol, combined with carvacrol (LC50 and 1/2 LC50), has a synergetic effect against D. nitens larvae. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae, the brown dog tick, parasitizing humans in Brazil Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae, o carrapato vermelho do cão, parasitando humanos no Brasil

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    Filipe Dantas-Torres

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to describe four cases of human parasitism by Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latrielle in Brazil. During an investigation regarding the species of ectoparasites of domestic dogs from the metropolitan region of Recife, Pernambuco state, four dog owners were found to be parasitized by ticks. The ticks were collected from these individuals and their dogs. All the ticks were identified as Rhipicephalus sanguineus . These are, to our knowledge, the first four cases of human parasitism by this tick species in Brazil. The possible implications of this finding are discussed here.O objetivo deste artigo é descrever quatro casos de parasitismo humano por Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latrielle no Brasil. Durante uma investigação sobre as espécies de ectoparasitas de cães domésticos provenientes da Região Metropolitana de Recife, Pernambuco, quatro proprietários de cães foram encontrados parasitados por carrapatos. Foram coletados carrapatos dos indivíduos e de seus cães. Todos os carrapatos foram identificados como Rhipicephalus sanguineus, sendo, portanto, descritos os primeiros quatro casos de parasitismo humano por esta espécie de carrapato, no Brasil. Neste trabalho, são discutidas as possíveis implicações epidemiológicas deste achado.

  2. Northward range expansion of Ixodes scapularis evident over a short timescale in Ontario, Canada.

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    Katie M Clow

    Full Text Available The invasion of the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis into Ontario, Canada poses a significant risk to public health because it is a vector for numerous pathogens, including Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, the causative agent of Lyme disease. Baseline field sampling in 2014 and 2015 detected I. scapularis and B. burgdorferi at sites across southern, eastern and central Ontario, including a hot spot in eastern Ontario. A "speed of spread" model for I. scapularis developed by Leighton and colleagues (2012 estimated that the tick's range was expanding northward at 46 km/year. In 2016, we revisited a subset of sites sampled in 2014 and 2015 to understand the changing nature of risk, and assess whether the rate of tick invasion is consistent with the speed of spread estimate. Ticks were collected via tick dragging at 17 out of 36 sites, 5 of which were new sites for I. scapularis. Samples were positive for B. burgdorferi at 8 sites. No other I. scapularis-borne pathogens were detected. Centrographic statistics revealed an increase in the dispersion of I. scapularis positive sites in eastern Ontario. Field data for each site were then compared to the model's predicted year of establishment for each census subdivision. Our findings illustrate that the range expansion of I. scapularis and the emergence of B. burgdorferi is ongoing, and provide short timescale evidence of the processes associated with I. scapularis spread. The range front appears to be moving at a rate of ~46 km/year, with colonization of the tick behind this range front occurring at a slower and heterogeneous rate. Assessment of site-level ecological factors did not provide any insight into the underlying processes that may be influencing the colonization of I. scapularis in specific areas. Ongoing field sampling is needed to monitor this dynamic process. This study highlights the current geographic risk associated with Lyme disease, which can be used to target public health

  3. Molecular characterization of novel sulfotransferases from the tick, Ixodes scapularis

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    King Roberta S

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ixodes scapularis, commonly known as the blacklegged or deer tick, is the main vector of Lyme disease in the United States. Recent progress in transcriptome research has uncovered hundreds of different proteins expressed in the salivary glands of hard ticks, the majority of which have no known function, and include many novel protein families. We recently identified transcripts coding for two putative cytosolic sulfotransferases in these ticks which recognized phenolic monoamines as their substrates. In this current study, we characterize the genetic expression of these two cytosolic sulfotransferases throughout the tick life cycle as well as the enzymatic properties of the corresponding recombinant proteins. Interestingly, the resultant recombinant proteins showed sulfotransferase activity against both neurotransmitters dopamine and octopamine. Results The two sulfotransferase genes were coded as Ixosc SULT 1 & 2 and corresponding proteins were referred as Ixosc Sult 1 and 2. Using gene-specific primers, the sulfotransferase transcripts were detected throughout the blacklegged tick life cycle, including eggs, larvae, nymphs, adult salivary glands and adult midgut. Notably, the mRNA and protein levels were altered upon feeding during both the larval and nymphal life stages. Quantitative PCR results confirm that Ixosc SULT1 was statistically increased upon blood feeding while Ixosc SULT 2 was decreased. This altered expression led us to further characterize the function of these proteins in the Ixodid tick. The sulfotransferase genes were cloned and expressed in a bacterial expression system, and purified recombinant proteins Ixosc Sult 1(R and 2(R showed sulfotransferase activity against neurotransmitters dopamine and octopamine as well as the common sulfotransferase substrate p-nitrophenol. Thus, dopamine- or octopamine-sulfonation may be involved in altering the biological signal for salivary secretion in I. scapularis

  4. New and little known feather mites (Acari)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feather mites (Acari: Astigmata) were analyzed with low temperature scanning electron microscopy (LT-SEM), including the description of three new species: Plicatalloptes atrichogynus sp. nov. (Analgoidea: Alloptidae) from the Neotropical cormorant Phalacrocorax brasilianus (Gmelin, 1789) (Pelecanifo...

  5. Some observations on ticks (Acari : Ixodidae infesting sheep in River Nile Province of Northern Sudan

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    B.M. Ahmed

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Five species of ixodid ticks were found in a cross-sectional survey in which 200 sheep were examined for ticks in River Nile Province, Sudan. Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum was the predominant species (73.6 %, whereas ticks belonging to the Rhipicephalus sanguineus group (14.7 %, Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (9.1 %, Rhipicephalus simus (2 % and Hyalomma dromedarii (0.5 % were also found. The mean tick load was 11.2 per animal. In a subsequent longitudinal survey ticks were collected on a monthly basis from eight sentinel sheep that were introduced into the area. It was found that H. a. anatolicum almost disappeared during the hot period between April and August, whereas it's highest numbers were present in winter between November and February. It is concluded that there is only one generation of H. a. anatolicum per year, which may explain the yearround appearance of clinical cases of malignant ovine theileriosis indicating endemic instability of this disease in River Nile Province.

  6. Nymphs of the genus Amblyomma (Acari: Ixodidae) of Brazil: descriptions, redescriptions, and identification key.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Thiago F; Onofrio, Valeria C; Barros-Battesti, Darci M; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2010-06-01

    Together with the larval stage, the nymphal stage of ticks of the genus Amblyomma are the most aggressive ticks for humans entering areas inhabited by wildlife and some domestic animals in Brazil. However, due to the absence of morphological descriptions of the nymphal stage of most Brazilian Amblyomma species, plus the lack of an identification key, little or nothing is known about the life history of Amblyomma spp. nymphs in the country. In the present study, morphological description of the nymphal stage, illustrating important external characters through scanning electron microscopy, is provided for nymphs of 15 Amblyomma species that occur in Brazil, for which the nymphal stage had never been described: A. aureolatum, A. auricularium, A. calcaratum, A. coelebs, A. fuscum, A. humerale, A. incisum, A. latepunctatum, A. naponense, A. nodosum, A. ovale, A. pacae, A. pseudoconcolor, A. scalpturatum, A. varium. In addition, the nymphal stage of 12 Amblyomma species, which had been previously described, are redescribed: A. brasiliense, A. cajennense, A. dissimile, A. dubitatum, A. longirostre, A. oblongoguttatum, A. parkeri, A. parvum, A. romitii, A. rotundatum, A. tigrinum, A. triste. The descriptions and redescriptions totalized 27 species. Only 2 species (A. geayi, A. goeldii) out of the 29 Amblyomma species established in Brazil are not included in the present study. A dichotomous identification key is included to support taxonomic identification of the nymphal stage of 27 Amblyomma species established in Brazil. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Eficacia del hongo entomopatogeno Metharrizium anisopliae en el control de Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arguedas, Miguel; Alvarez, Victor; Bonilla, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    Con el objetivo de evaluar la eficacia del hongo entomopatogeno Metharrizium anisopliae en el control de Boophilus microplus, se realizo el presente ensayo, que comprendio tanto una fase in vivo como una in vitro...

  8. A review of Hyalomma scupense (Acari, Ixodidae in the Maghreb region: from biology to control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyalomma scupense (syn. Hyalomma detritum is a two-host domestic endophilic tick of cattle and secondarily other ungulates in the Maghreb region (Africa. This species transmits several pathogens, among which two are major livestock diseases: Theileria annulata and Theileria equi. Various other pathogens are also transmitted by this tick species, such as Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Ehrlichia bovis. Hyalomma scupense is common in sub-humid and semi-arid areas of several regions in the world, mainly in the Maghreb region. In this region, adults attach to animals during the summer season; larvae and nymphs attach to their hosts during autumn, but there is a regional difference in H. scupense phenology. There is an overlap between immature and adult ticks, leading in some contexts to a dramatic modification of the epidemiology of tick-borne diseases. This tick species attaches preferentially to the posterior udder quarters and thighs. Tick burdens can reach 130 ticks per animal, with a mean of 60 ticks. Calves are 70 times less infested than adult cattle. The control can be implemented through six options: (i rehabilitation of the farm buildings by roughcasting and smoothing the outer and inner surfaces of the enclosures and walls. This control option should be recommended to be combined with a thorough cleaning of the farm and its surrounding area. With regard to Theileria annulata infection, this control option is the most beneficial. (ii Acaricide application to animals during the summer season, targeting adults. (iii Acaricide application during the autumn period for the control of the immature stages. (iv Acaricide application to the walls: many field veterinarians have suggested this option but it is only partially efficient since nymphs enter deep into the cracks and crevices. It should be used if there is a very high tick burden or if there is a high risk of tick-borne diseases. (v Manual tick removal: this method is not efficient since the ticks can feed on several other animal species in the farm. This control option can lead to a reduction of the tick population, but not a decrease in tick-borne disease incidence. (vi Vaccination: this control option consists of injecting the protein Hd86; trials have shown a partial effect on nymphs, with no effect on adult ticks. Combination of two of these control options is recommended in regions where there are high burdens of important tick vectors. Further studies are needed to improve our knowledge on this tick species in the Maghreb region, since the number of published studies on Hyalomma scupense in this region is very limited.

  9. Experimental infection of the bat tick Carios fonsecai (Acari: Ixodidae with the rabies virus

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    Silvana Regina Favoretto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction This study assessed the viability of the rabies virus in the argasid tick Carios fonsecai following experimental infection. Methods The mouse inoculation test (MIT, fluorescent antibody test (FAT and polymerase chain reaction (PCR were used. The rabies virus was administered to ticks via the intra-coelomic route, and the ticks were sacrificed at different time points. Results The inoculated ticks were negative for rabies according to the MIT. Ticks macerated with rabies virus were positive according to the MIT and FAT. All of the tick lots tested by PCR were positive. Conclusions The rabies virus became unviable shortly after its inoculation into tick bodies. Ticks are not likely to play an important role in the epidemiology of rabies.

  10. [Interrelatio of acari Ixodidae and hosts of Edentata of the Serra da Canastra, Minas Gerais, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botelho, J R; Linardi, P M; da Encarnação, C D

    1989-01-01

    We received for examination a small colection of ticks captured in the National Park of the Serra da Canastra (MG), between 1979 and 1980. The authors demonstrated the existence of a broad co-accomodation of Amblyomma pseudoconcolor on Edentata of the family Dasypodidae, being Dasypodini the tribe more adjusted to this infestation. In conformity to the Figs 1 and 2, Dasypodini are probably the real hosts of A. pseudoconcolor and also the oldest hosts. For the first time, A. pseudoconcolor is also recorded on Cabassous tatouay, C. unicinctus, Priodontes maximus and Euphractus sexcincuts. Also for the first time A. pseudoconcolor and Amblyomma calcaratum were recorded in the State of Minas Gerais. The ectoparasites are deposited in the "Departamento de Parasitologia da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Brasil".

  11. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) on wild birds in north-central Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Fernando S; Nava, Santiago; Batallán, Gonzalo; Tauro, Laura B; Contigiani, Marta S; Diaz, Luis A; Guglielmone, Alberto A

    2014-10-01

    Ixodid ticks were collected from wild birds in five ecoregions in north-central Argentina, namely: Selva de las Yungas, Esteros del Iberá, Delta e Islas del Paraná, Selva Paranaense and Chaco Seco. A total of 2199 birds belonging to 139 species, 106 genera, 31 families and 11 orders were captured, but ticks were collected only from 121 birds (prevalence=5.5%) belonging to 39 species (28.1%) and three Orders: Tinamiformes (Tinamidae) and Falconiformes (Falconidae) in Selva de las Yungas and Passeriformes (Conopophagidae, Corvidae, Emberizidae, Furnariidae, Icteridae, Parulidae, Thamnophilidae, Thraupidae, Troglodytidae, Turdidae) for all ecoregions. The following tick species were found: Haemaphysalis juxtakochi, Haemaphysalis leporispalustris, Ixodes pararicinus plus Amblyomma sp. and Haemaphysalis sp. in Selva de las Yungas; Amblyomma triste and Ixodes auritulus in Delta e Islas del Paraná; Amblyomma dubitatum, A. triste and Amblyomma sp. in Esteros del Iberá; Amblyomma ovale and Amblyomma sp. in Selva Paranaense, and Amblyomma tigrinum in Chaco Seco. Amblyomma dubitatum was found for the first time on Passeriformes, while the records of A. ovale on avian hosts are the first for Argentina. Birds are also new hosts for I. pararicinus females. Besides 2 larvae and 1 nymph, and 1 larvae found on Tinamidae (Tinamiformes) and Falconidae (Falconiformes), respectively, all other ticks (691 larvae, 74 nymphs and 2 females) were found on Passeriformes with a relevant contribution of the family Turdidae. Birds are important hosts for I. pararicinus as shown by a prevalence of 45% while all others prevalence were below 15%. All the species of Amblyomma and Haemaphysalis found on birds in Argentina have been also detected on humans and are proven or potential vectors for human diseases. Therefore, their avian hosts are probable reservoirs of human pathogens in Argentina. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae infesting cattle and African buffaloes in the Tsavo conservation area, Kenya

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    Edward K. Kariuki

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Several ixodid tick species are shared between domestic cattle and African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer. So too, are a number of tick-borne diseases. The aim of the study was to compare the species composition of ticks that infest cattle and buffaloes utilising the same habitat within the Tsavo Conservation Area, Kenya. To this end, 25 cattle and 62 buffaloes were each opportunistically sampled for ticks on a single occasion in February 2010. Eight species, namely Amblyomma gemma, Amblyomma lepidum, Hyalomma albiparmatum, Hyalomma rufipes, Hyalomma truncatum, Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, Rhipicephalus pravus and Rhipicephalus pulchellus infested both cattle and buffaloes. Three species, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus sp., Rhipicephalus kochi, and Rhipicephalus muehlensi were collected only from cattle, and three species, Hyalomma impeltatum, Rhipicephalus humeralis and Rhipicephalus praetextatus were present only on buffaloes. The attachment sites of the various tick species were also recorded. New locality records for H. impeltatum and H. truncatum and the first confirmed locality record for Rhipicephalus praetextatus sensu stricto in Kenya were documented.

  13. The Genus Ixodes (Acari: Ixodidae) in Mexico: Adult Identification Keys, Diagnoses, Hosts, and Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    spur; coxa II with a small internal spur; all coxae with moderate external spurs. Distribution in Mexico. Puebla . Hosts in Mexico. Heteromyidae...1962. Monografía de los Ixodoidea de México. I Parte. Revista de la Sociedad Mexicana de Historia Natural 23:191-307. Hoffmann, A. 1969. Un caso de

  14. Characterization of pyrethroid resistance and susceptibility to coumaphos in Mexican Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R J; Davey, R B; George, J E

    1999-09-01

    Two patterns of pyrethroid resistance were characterized from Boophilus microplus (Canestrini) collected in Mexico. One was characteristic of a kdr mutation and the other involved esterase and cytochrome P450 enzyme systems. Very high resistance to permethrin, cypermethrin, and flumethrin, not synergized by TPP and PBO and high resistance to DDT, characterized the kdr-like pattern found in the Corrales and San Felipe strains. Esterase and cytochrome P450-dependent resistance was found in the Coatzacoalcos strain. It was characterized by resistance to permethrin, cypermethrin, and flumethrin, synergized by TPP and PBO, but no resistance to DDT. The Coatzacoalcos strain also showed 3.6-fold resistance to the organophosphate coumaphos. This factor appeared to be independent of pyrethroid resistance. Pyrethroid resistance patterns found in Mexico were similar to those found earlier in Australia. The significance of pyrethroid and coumaphos resistance to the U.S. cattle fever tick quarantine is discussed.

  15. Fenvalerate resistance status in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) from Punjab, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyoti; Nandi, Abhijit; Singh, Harkirat; Singh, N K; Rath, S S

    2016-09-01

    Larval packet test was used for evaluating the resistance levels in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus collected from different districts of central plain zone of Punjab state, India against fenvalerate. The regression graphs of probit mortality of larvae plotted against log values of progressively increasing concentrations of fenvalerate were utilized for the estimation of lethal concentration for 50 % (LC50) and 95 % (LC95) values against various field isolates of R. (B.) microplus. The slope of mortality (95 % confidence levels) varied from 0.730 ± 0.097 (0.419-1.043) to 1.455 ± 0.281 (0.558-2.352) and the value of R(2) varied from 0.881 to 0.997. From the regression equation the values of LC50 and LC95 were recorded in range of 184.39-1,338.01 and 3,253.33-112,706.26 ppm, respectively. Among the various tick isolates resistance factors in range of 1.56-54.34 were determined and all field isolates studied were found resistant against fenvalerate. Two field isolates (Jalandhar and Ludhiana) showed level I resistance; three (Patiala, Fatehgarh Sahib and Amritsar) showed level II and Kapurthala isolate showed level IV resistance. The data generated on fenvalerate resistant status will help in judicious use of the drug and formulation of effective tick control strategy for the region.

  16. Artificial Feeding of Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius, 1787 (Acari: Ixodidae through Silicone Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo Teixeira de Moura

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available An artificial feeding system was used where citrated bovine blood was offerred to male and female Amblyomma cajennense. Vestiges of blood, sweat, hair and exfoliated skin were used as phago-stimulants placed on the surface of the silicone membrane. The ticks were collected, as engorged nymphs, from naturally infested equines, with the ecdysis occurring in the laboratory. Four hundred ticks were used, 50% being female, at three to four weeks post-ecdysis. Vestiges of blood on the silicone membrane were the most efficient phago-stimulant and the association of vestiges of blood and sweat residue smears yielded better results compared to the other phago-stimulants used

  17. Using plastic tips in artificial feeding of Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (Acari: Ixodidae) females

    OpenAIRE

    Jaqueline Rodrigues de Almeida Valim; Charles Passos Rangel; Bruna de Azevedo Baêta; Carla Carolina Dias Uzedo Ribeiro; Matheus Dias Cordeiro; Rafaella Câmara Teixeira; Patrícia Barizon Cepeda; Adivaldo Henrique da Fonseca

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This study evaluated the influence of the initial weight, feeding period and temperature on weight gain and biological parameters of the non-parasitic phase of partially engorged Rhipicephalus sanguineus females that were artificially fed using plastic tips as feeding devices. The device did not alter the oviposition of the females or any other parameters evaluated. Furthermore, it was observed that the temperature of the feeding the group did not affect the weight gain and biology o...

  18. Using plastic tips in artificial feeding of Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (Acari: Ixodidae) females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valim, Jaqueline Rodrigues de Almeida; Rangel, Charles Passos; Baêta, Bruna de Azevedo; Ribeiro, Carla Carolina Dias Uzedo; Cordeiro, Matheus Dias; Teixeira, Rafaella Câmara; Cepeda, Patrícia Barizon; Fonseca, Adivaldo Henrique da

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of the initial weight, feeding period and temperature on weight gain and biological parameters of the non-parasitic phase of partially engorged Rhipicephalus sanguineus females that were artificially fed using plastic tips as feeding devices. The device did not alter the oviposition of the females or any other parameters evaluated. Furthermore, it was observed that the temperature of the feeding the group did not affect the weight gain and biology of ticks. This device has great potential for the development of studies on bioagent transmission because it provides higher intake of blood by ixodid ticks.

  19. Using plastic tips in artificial feeding of Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (Acari: Ixodidae females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Rodrigues de Almeida Valim

    Full Text Available Abstract This study evaluated the influence of the initial weight, feeding period and temperature on weight gain and biological parameters of the non-parasitic phase of partially engorged Rhipicephalus sanguineus females that were artificially fed using plastic tips as feeding devices. The device did not alter the oviposition of the females or any other parameters evaluated. Furthermore, it was observed that the temperature of the feeding the group did not affect the weight gain and biology of ticks. This device has great potential for the development of studies on bioagent transmission because it provides higher intake of blood by ixodid ticks.

  20. Use of plastic tips in artificial feeding of Dermacentor (Anocentor) nitens females Neumann, 1897 (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Carla Carolina Dias Uzedo; Baêta, Bruna de Azevedo; Valim, Jaqueline Rodrigues de Almeida; Teixeira, Rafaella Câmara; Cepeda, Patrícia Barizon; da Silva, Jenevaldo Barbosa; da Fonseca, Adivaldo Henrique

    2014-10-01

    The establishment of laboratory colonies of ticks is often hampered by their lack of adaptation to alternative hosts. The aim of this study was to artificially feed partially engorged Dermacentor (Anocentor) nitens females through plastic tips, and to identify what are the optimal conditions of application of this technique to get as much as possible close to the natural conditions. The technique of artificial feeding through plastic tips allowed the engorgement of D. nitens ticks to a final weight within the normal range for the species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. [Morphofunctional changes in the midgut of the Ixodes females (Acari: Ixodidae) during the immunizing feedings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigor'eva, L A

    2006-01-01

    The changes of the midgut in the females of the tick species Ixodes persulcatus and I. ricinus during the second and third immunizing feeding on rabbits were studied by the histological technics. The alternation of one generation of the digestive cells of nymphal stage and two generations of the digestive cells of adult stage was observed. The generation of secretory cells is absent. The tick completes feeding and drop off when the last generation of the digestive cells is on the initial activity stages. The amount of the blood consumed is not enough for the rhythmical functioning of the midgut. The feeding of tick is broken on the second phase and full satiation does not take place. It is apparently an effect of the interruption of the blood entrance into the midgut cavity of feeding tick as a probable result of anti-ticks resistance of unnatural hosts.

  2. [Transfer of exotic ticks (Acari: ixodida) on reptiles (Reptilia) imported to Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    In the of period 2003-2007, a total of 382 specimens of reptiles belonging to the following genera were investigated: Testudo, Iguana, Varanus, Gongylophis, Python, Spalerosophis, Psammophis. The material for the present study was a collection of reptiles owned by the "Animals" Ltd from Swietochłowice (Upper Silesia, Poland), specialising in import of exotic animals to Poland, as well as the reptile collections of private breeders. The reptiles that turned out to be the most heavily infected with ticks were the commonly bred terrarium reptiles: Varanus exanthematicus and Python regius and they were imported to Poland from Ghana, Africa. Exotic reptiles are also imported from Southern Europe, Asia and Central America. The presently reported study helped to confirm the fact of transfer of exotic ticks on reptiles to Poland. A total of 2104 tick specimens, representing all stages of development (males, females, nymphs, larvae), were collected. They represented species of the genera Amblyomma and Hyalomma. The following species were found: Amblyomma exornatum Koch, 1844, Amblyomma flavomaculatum (Lucas, 1846), Amblyomma latum Koch, 1844, Amblyomma nuttalli Dönitz, 1909, Amblyomma quadricavum Schulze, 1941, Amblyomma transversale (Lucas, 1844), Amblyomma varanense (Supino, 1897), Amblyomma spp. Koch, 1844, Hyalomma aegyptium (Linnaeus, 1758). All the species of ticks of genus Ambylomma revealed have been discovered in Poland for the first time. The overall prevalence of infection was 77.6%. The highest prevalence value (81.2%) was observed on pythons (Python regius) and (78.7%) on monitor lizards (Varanus exanthematicus). The highest number of ticks was collected from Python regius and Varanus exanthematicus. The mean infection intensity for V. exanthematicus was 7.6 ticks per host, while for P. regius the intensity reached 4.7 ticks. The most abundant tick transferred to Poland on a host was an African tick, Amblyomma latum. Fifty eight specimens of monitor lizards (V. salvator and V. exanthematicus) and 92 specimens pythons (P. regius) were examined, with detailed descriptions of where the parasite was feeding on the body of the host. Among the 434 specimens of ticks collected from the monitor lizards, the majority were attached on the host's legs (40.5%), on the trunk (29.3%), on the head (20.3%), with fewest on the tail (9.9%). Also, 430 specimens of ticks were collected from the bodies of pythons. They mostly parasitized along the whole length of the back (54.4%) and on the stomach side of the trunk (29.8%), less frequently in the area of the cloaca (5.6%), around the eyes (3.7%), in the nostril openings (0.9%) and on the remainder of the head (5.6%). On the hosts, ticks were found at different development stages, but adult development stages dominated. The most frequent were males (999 specimens), then adult females (552 specimens), nymphs (508 specimens) and larvae (45 specimens). During the research, 13 cases of anomalies of morphological structure were confirmed for ticks Amblyomma flavomaculatum, Amblyomma latum and Hyalomma aegyptium. Asymmetries and deformations of the general body shape were observed, as were anomalies concerning structures on the surface of the body and anomalies of the legs. For the first time in Poland, epidemiological tests were carried out in the direction of the infection of exotic ticks gathered from reptiles with micro-organisms which pose a threat for the health of people and animals. For this purpose, molecular techniques - polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing were used. The isolates from 345 ticks, were examined for the presence of DNA of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, which is the etiological factor in human granulocytic anaplasmosis, and Rickettsia spp. from the spotted fever group, causing human rickettsiosis. This study confirmed the presence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in two ticks of Amblyomma flavomaculatum (constituting 0.6% of all the ticks investigated) feeding on Varanus exanthematicus. None of the tick specimens, however, contained Rickettsia spp. DNA. The expanding phenomenon of the import of exotic reptiles in Poland and Central Europe is important for parasitological and epidemiological reasons and therefore requires monitoring and wide-ranging prophylactic activities to prevent the inflow of exotic parasites to Poland.

  3. Biology, ecology and distribution of the tick, Haemaphysalis longicornis Neumann (Acari: Ixodidae) in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Acg

    2016-01-01

    Haemaphysalis longicornis is the only tick in New Zealand that infests livestock. Throughout its range H. longicornis is exposed to and exhibits tolerance to a wide range of environmental conditions, although it flourishes more in moist, warm-temperate environments. This review examines aspects of the biology, physiology and ecology of H. longicornis that determine its distribution and seasonal activity in New Zealand, based on laboratory and field studies. Examples are also drawn from studies outside New Zealand for comparative purposes, especially in the context of seasonal activity as seen in less temperate latitudes. The tick is able to withstand a wide range of temperature, from its developmental threshold of ∼12°C to nearly 40°C at its lethal limit, but its tolerance of dehydration is less wide, especially in the larva and adult, the former especially being the stage that largely determines suitable biotopes for the tick and its present distributional limits. The importance of H. longicornis to the New Zealand livestock industry has recently increased through the establishment and spread of Theileria orientalis Ikeda among dairy and beef cattle, although the tick has always posed production-limiting problems for cattle, deer and to a lesser extent, sheep. The tick's role as a vector of theileriosis and how aspects of the tick's biology affect the spread and maintenance of this disease are discussed. It is proposed that, of available wildlife hosts, the brown hare with its wide-ranging habits, is an important disseminator of ticks. Currently control of ticks is difficult partly because of their wide host range, overlapping activity periods of stadia, and also because the greater part of their annual cycle is spent on pasture. This means that acaricides alone do not satisfactorily reduce tick populations or provide comprehensive protection to stock, so integrated management combining pasture management with good husbandry and chemical prophylaxis is advocated.

  4. Morphometric Study on Male Specimens of Hyalomma Anatolicum (Acari: Ixodidae in West of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Abdigoudarzi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hyalomma anatolicum is the well-known hard tick, which is one of the most important livestock and hu­man pathogens vector, wide range in host and distributed in all over the Hyalomma geographic fauna as well as in Iran. Taxonomy of the Hyalomma ssp. is debatable whereas their identification is a problematic work. The reasons for this claim is time consuming Delpy’s researches in Iran also Schulze School, Feldman-Muhsam and the Russian tick workers. We would like to understand morphometric variation in the field collected H. anatolicum in Iran also validat­ing some morphologic quantitative and qualitative characters.Methods: A total 247 field-collected tick specimens from different geographical regions in west of Iran includes Khuzestan and Lorestan Provinces were studied. The morphologic characters of the ticks were measured by the cali­brated stereomicroscope ‎armed scaled lens. The measurements were analyzed using SPSS ‎for windows, version 16 on an IBM PC, ‎so varied shapes of species in different geographic ‎regions were drawn by the ‎aid of a drawing tube con­nected to a light stereomicroscope.‎Results: One way ANOVA test revealed significant differences among the quantitative parameters in five zones (P<‎‎ 0.‎‎00‎‎1‎ also each zone to other zone by Post Hoc Tests e.g. LSD. No significant differences in the lateral grooves length/conscutum length ratio parameter were found.Conclusion: Morphometric variation in Hyalomma spp is poorly studied. The variation in range and quantity of the mor­phometric parameters of H.anatolicum ‎underlies that the correct recognition and key construction for Hyalomma spe­cies dependes ‎on a complement morphometric study on the other species.

  5. Biological Parameters of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) Fed on Rabbits, Sheep, and Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Miling; Chen, Ze; Liu, Aihong; Ren, Qiaoyun; Liu, Junlong; Liu, Zhijie; Li, Youquan; Yin, Hong; Guan, Guiquan; Luo, Jianxun

    2016-06-01

    In order to determine the effect of various hosts on feeding performance of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, we used 3 mammalian species as hosts, cattle (Qinchuan), sheep (T an), and rabbits (Japanese white rabbit) for infest-ing ticks. Five hundreds of R. microplus larvae were exposed to each animal (3 animals/host species). Tick recoveries were 11.0%, 0.47%, and 5.5% from cattle, sheep, and rabbits, respectively. The averages of tick feeding periods were not significantly different on cattle, sheep, and rabbits, 28.8, 25.3, and 26.7 days, respectively. The average weights of individual engorged female from cattle, sheep, and rabbits were 312.5, 219.1, and 130.2 mg, respectively and those of egg mass weights each to 85.0, 96.6, and 17.8 mg. The highest egg hatching rate was in the ticks from cattle (96.0%), fol-lowed by those from rabbits (83.0%) and sheep (19.2%). These data suggest that rabbits could be as an alternative host to cultivate R. microplus for evaluating vaccines and chemical and biological medicines against the tick in the laboratory, although the biological parameters of ticks were less than those from cattle.

  6. Permethrin-induced morphological changes in oocytes of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) semi-engorged females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roma, Gislaine Cristina; Furquim, Karim Christina Scopinho; Bechara, Gervásio Henrique; Camargo-Mathias, Maria Izabel

    2010-03-01

    The permethrin, active ingredient of the Advantage(R) Max3--Bayer, has been widely used in the chemical control of ticks. These ectoparasites are one of the most important animal groups that cause serious damage to their hosts. This study evaluated the toxic effects of permethrin in oocytes of Rhipicephalus sanguineus semi-engorged females subjected to four treatments: group I (control--distilled water), group II (206 ppm of permethrin), group III (1031 ppm of permethrin) and group IV (2062 ppm of permethrin). Results demonstrated that permethrin is a potent chemical agent causing major structural changes in oocytes, such as emergence of large vacuolated cytoplasm regions, reducing the amount of yolk granules and decreasing the size of oocytes, culminating with cell death. As reported in the literature, these oocytes changes, besides affect the tick nervous system, also drastically reduce or prevent the reproduction process in females of R. sanguineus ticks subjected to this compound. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. First documentation of ivermectin resistance in Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Vivas, R I; Ojeda-Chi, M M; Trinidad-Martinez, I; Pérez de León, A A

    2017-01-15

    The brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (Latreille, 1806), is an ectoparasite and disease vector of significant veterinary and public health importance that is distributed widely around the world. The intensive use of synthetic acaricides for tick control exerts a strong selective pressure for brown dog ticks to become resistant to them. Here, we investigated claims from the field regarding treatment failure associated with the use of veterinary products containing ivermectin (IVM) to control brown dog ticks infesting dogs in Yucatan state, Mexico. Dogs in six state municipalities were inspected to sample 15 R. sanguineus s.l. Interviews were conducted with dog owners to gather information on the history of dog treatment with conventional acaricides and IVM. The larval immersion test was used on the progeny of adult female ticks infesting dogs to test for susceptibility to IVM. Dose-mortality regressions, lethal concentrations (LC), their confidence intervals, and slope were estimated by probit analysis. Ten tick populations (66.7%) were classified as resistant compared with the most susceptible population. A high inter-population variation in the phenotypic level of IVM resistance was evident (resistance ratio at LC 50% and LC 99% ranged from 1.0 to 30.5, and from 1.0 to 458.8, respectively). Tick populations classified as resistant were collected from dogs known to have been treated with IVM. To our knowledge, this is the first report of IVM resistance in R. sanguineus s.l. worldwide. Veterinary and pet owner education on integrated tick management practices is required to avoid widespread resistance and increased treatment failure with products containing IVM and other macrocyclic lactones used to control endo- and ectoparasites affecting dogs. Integrated tick management will also help mitigate the burden of brown dog tick-borne diseases on human and animal populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Mitotic and meiotic chromosomes of a southern Brazilian population of Boophilus microplus (Acari, Ixodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane Nunes Garcia

    Full Text Available Using conventional staining with acetic orcein and C-banding techniques it was investigated constitutive heterochromatin chromosomal polymorphisms and the mitotic and the meiotic behavior of male and female chromosomes of Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887. Some differences were detected in the population of southern Brazil as compared to the data of other authors for populations in other latitudes. The differences being mainly concerned with the distribution of constitutive centromeric heterochromatin and variation in the length of heterochromatic blocks in the pericentromeric regions of some chromosome pairs.

  9. An Annotated List of Tick (Acari: Ixodida) Common Names Authored by Harry Hoogstraal (1917-1986)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    to the comparatively recent rules promulgated by the American Arachnological Society Committee on Common Names of Arachnids (2003), most of...Arachnological Society Committee on Common Names of Arachnids (2003) Common Names of Arachnids , Fifth Edition. American Tarantula Society, accessible online

  10. Ehrlichia chaffeensis (Rickettsiales: Ehrlichieae) infection in Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae) at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromdahl, E Y; Randolph, M P; O'Brien, J J; Gutierrez, A G

    2000-05-01

    Human monocytic ehrlichiosis (HME) is a sometimes fatal, emerging tick-borne disease caused by the bacterium Ehrlichia chaffeensis. It is frequently misdiagnosed because its symptoms mimic those of the flu. Current evidence indicates that Amblyomma americanum (L.), the lone star tick, is the major vector of HME. To determine if E. chaffeensis is present in ticks at Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD, questing A. americanum ticks were collected from 33 sites. Nucleic acid was extracted from 34 adult and 81 nymphal pools. Sequences diagnostic for E. chaffeensis from three different loci (16S rRNA, 120-kDa protein, and a variable-length polymerase chain reaction [PCR] target, or VLPT) were targeted for amplification by the PCR. Fifty-two percent of the collection sites yielded pools infected with E. chaffeensis, confirming the presence and widespread distribution of E. chaffeensis at Aberdeen Proving Ground. Analysis with the both the 120-kDa protein primers and the VLPT primers showed that genetic variance exists. A novel combination of variance for the two loci was detected in two tick pools. The pathogenic implications of genetic variation in E. chaffeensis are as yet unknown.

  11. Hard ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) of livestock in Nicaragua, with notes about distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Düttmann, Christiane; Flores, Byron; Kadoch Z, Nathaniel; Bermúdez C, Sergio

    2016-09-01

    We document the species of ticks that parasitize livestock in Nicaragua. The study was based on tick collection on cattle and horses from 437 farms in nine departments. Of 4841 animals examined (4481 cows and 360 horses), 3299 were parasitized, which represent 68 % of the bovines and 67 % of the equines in study: 59 cows and 25 horses were parasitized by more than one species. In addition, 280 specimens of the entomological museum in León were examined. The ticks found on cattle were Rhipicephalus microplus (75.2 % of the ticks collected), Amblyomma mixtum (20.8 %), A. parvum (2.6 %), A. tenellum (0.7 %), A. maculatum (0.7 %). While the ticks collected from the horses were: Dermacentor nitens (41.5 %), A. mixtum (31.7 %), R. microplus (13.8 %), A. parvum (6.5 %), A. tenellum (3.3 %), D. dissimilis (2.4 %) and A. maculatum (0.8 %).

  12. Distribution of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) infesting domestic ruminants in mountainous areas of Golestan province, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarani, Moslem; Telmadarraiy, Zakkyeh; Moghaddam, Abdolreza Salahi; Azam, Kamal; Sedaghat, Mohammad Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of ticks on cattle in the mountainous areas of Golestan province and their geographical distribution. Methods In total, 498 animals from 25 herds were selected to search for ticks in 2009-2010. Tick collection was carried out during four seasons, twice per season over a period of 12 month from March 2009 through February 2010 in two districts, Azadshahr and Ramian. Meteorological data were obtained from Iran Meteorological Organization. The geographical points recorded using a Garmin eTrex®H GPS. Results A total of 255 ticks were collected from a total of 219 ruminants including 44 sheep, 63 goats, 99 cows and 13 camels in two districts of the mountainous area of Golestan province, including Azadshahr and Ramian. Five species of ixodid ticks were identified: Rhipicephalus sanguineus (66.5%), Rhipicephalus bursa (4.6%), Hyalomma marginatum (19.9%), Hyalomma anatolicum (6%) and Hyalomma asiaticum (4%). The densities of infestations were calculated for sheep, goats, cows and camels 0.9, 0.79, 0.16 and 0.43 respectively. Seasonal activity of each ixodid tick infesting domestic ruminants was determined. The distribution maps showed ixodid ticks on domestic ruminants, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus were dominant species in the area. Conclusions Such research provides necessary information for human and animal health service mangers to have a better understanding of prevention and control of vector borne diseases especially during the outbreaks. PMID:25183090

  13. Distribution of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) infesting domestic ruminants in mountainous areas of Golestan province, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Sarani, Moslem; Telmadarraiy, Zakkyeh; Moghaddam, Abdolreza Salahi; Azam, Kamal; Sedaghat, Mohammad Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of ticks on cattle in the mountainous areas of Golestan province and their geographical distribution. Methods: In total, 498 animals from 25 herds were selected to search for ticks in 2009–2010. Tick collection was carried out during four seasons, twice per season over a period of 12 month from March 2009 through February 2010 in two districts, Azadshahr and Ramian. Meteorological data were obtained from Iran Meteorological Organization. The geographi...

  14. Preliminary survey of ticks (Acari : Ixodidae on cattle in northern Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.A. Salih

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available In a cross sectional survey conducted during the period June 2001 to July 2002, the geographical distribution of ticks on cattle in the Sudan was determined. Seventeen locations were surveyed from Northern, Central, Eastern, Western, Blue Nile and White Nile Provinces. Total body collections of ticks were made from 20 cattle at each location. Four tick genera and 11 species were identified. The tick species collected included Amblyomma lepidum, Amblyomma variegatum, Boophilus decoloratus, Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum, Hyalomma dromedarii, Hyalomma impeltatum, Hyalomma marginatum rufipes, Hyalomma truncatum, Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, Rhipicephalus sanguineus group and Rhipicephalus simus simus. Major ecological changes have occurred due to extensive animal movement, deforestation, desertification and establishment of large mechanized agricultural schemes. These factors have certainly affected the distribution of ticks and tick-borne diseases in the Sudan. The absence of A. variegatum and A. lepidum in northern Sudan was not surprising, since these tick species are known to survive in humid areas and not in the desert and semi-desert areas of northern Sudan. The absence of B. annulatus in northern and central Sudan is in accordance with the finding that this tick species is restricted to the southern parts of the central Sudan. The presence of H. anatolicum anatolicum in Um Benin in relatively high abundance is an interesting finding. The present finding may indicate that the southern limit of this species has changed and moved southwards to latitude 13o N. It is concluded that major changes in tick distribution have taken place in the Sudan

  15. Molecular Diagnosis of Ehrlichia canis in Dogs and Ticks Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) in Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pat-Nah, Henry; Rodriguez-Vivas, Roger Ivan; Bolio-Gonzalez, Manuel Emilio; Villegas-Perez, Sandra Luz; Reyes-Novelo, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Ehrlichia canis is the etiological agent behind canine monocytic ehrlichiosis, and the tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille) is its main vector. Blood smear and nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques were used to identify E. canis infection in dogs and R. sanguineus, and explore factors possibly associated with infection in dogs in Yucatan, Mexico. Blood samples were taken and ticks R. sanguineus collected from 50 dogs (10 house dogs and 40 in an animal control center). Data were collected on dog age, sex, body condition, and signs associated with platelet deficiencies (epistaxis). Blood smears were analyzed to identify E. canis morulae and generate platelet counts. Nested PCR analysis was done on blood samples and 200 ticks. A χ(2) test was done to identify factors associated with the E. canis infection in the tested dogs. The overall prevalence for infection, as determined by PCR, was 36% (18 out of 50). All positive dogs were from samples collected from the animal shelter, representing prevalence, for this sampling site, of 45% (18 out of 40). Morulae in monocytes were identified in only 4% of samples. Dog origin (i.e. animal control center) was the only variable associated with E. canis infection (P Yucatan, Mexico. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Acaricidal activity of thymol on larvae and nymphs of Amblyomma cajennense (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Andressa da Silva; Daemon, Erik; Monteiro, Caio Márcio de Oliveira; Maturano, Ralph; Brito, Fernanda Calmon; Massoni, Tainara

    2011-12-29

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the acaricidal efficacy of thymol on unengorged and engorged larvae and engorged nymphs of Amblyomma cajennense. To perform the test for unengorged larvae, the larval packet technique was employed and mortality was evaluated 24h after the test, while for engorged larvae and engorged nymphs the immersion technique was employed and mortality was evaluated after 15 days. In all the experiments, the following concentrations of thymol were tested: 2.5, 5.0, 10.0, 15.0 and 20.0mg the thymol/ml. The control group was exposed to water and 1% DMSO and there were 10 repetitions for each treatment. The values found for mortality of unengorged larvae were 18.2%, 51.8%, 97.6%, 93.5% and 94.5%, and for engorged nymphs the values were 26.0%, 92.2%, 100.0%, 100.0%, 100.0%, in concentrations of 2.5, 5.0, 10.0, 15.0 and 20.0mg of thymol/ml, respectively. In the test with engorged larvae, mortality was 100.0% in all treatments. Based on the results, it is possible to conclude that thymol has acaricidal activity against immature stages of A. cajennense. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Life cycle of Amblyomma mixtum (Acari: Ixodidae) parasitizing different hosts under laboratory conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amblyomma mixtum is a tick species in the Amblyomma cajennense complex. The known geographic range of A. mixtum extends from Texas in the USA to western Ecuador and some islands in the Caribbean. Amblyomma mixtum is a vector of disease agents of veterinary and public health importance. The objective...

  18. Biology of Amblyomma aureolatum (Pallas, 1772 (Acari: Ixodidae on some laboratory hosts in Brazil

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    Daniel Sobreira Rodrigues

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The ixodid Amblyomma aureolatum is suspected to play a role in the epidemiology of wild life-cycle hemoparasites, which frequently infect dogs in rural and hunting areas in Brazil. Little is known about its bionomics. The objective of the present study was to evaluate some bionomic aspects of A. aureolatum ticks in Brazil. One engorged female, collected from a dog (Canis familiaris in São Sebastião das Águas Claras, State of Minas Gerais, was used to establish a colony in the laboratory. Subsequently its parasitic stage progeny were fed on domestic dogs and laboratory animals. The free-living stages were incubated at 27ºC ± 2°C and minimum 70% relative humidity in a BOD incubator. The egg incubation period ranged from 31 to 34 days; the parasitic period of larvae ranged from 4 to 6 days and ecdysis to nymphs occurred from day 19 up to day 22. The parasitic period of nymphs ranged from 5 to 8 days and the period of ecdysis to adults from 31 to 33 days. The parasitic period of adults ranged from 11 to 15 days, the pre-oviposition period from 6 to 12 days, and the oviposition period from 9 to 38 days. The total duration of the life cycle ranged from 116 to 168 days.

  19. First documentation of ivermectin resistance in Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (Acari: Ixodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (Latreille, 1806), is an ectoparasite and disease vector of significant veterinary and public health importance that is distributed widely around the world. The indiscriminate use of chemicals for tick control exerts a strong selective pressure...

  20. Amblyomma dissimile (Acari: Ixodidae PARÁSITO DE Boa constrictor EN COLOMBIA

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    Ana Torres M

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Describir algunas garrapatas encontradas en dos ejemplares de Boa constrictor, llevados al Centro de Atención y Valoración de Fauna Silvestre en Montería, Córdoba, Colombia. Materiales y métodos. Se recolectaron 37 garrapatas provenientes de dos individuos adultos de Boa constrictor, los parásitos fueron conservados en alcohol al 70% y posteriormente identificados mediante diversas claves taxonómicas. Resultados. Todas las garrapatas fueron identificadas como Amblyomma dissimile, de las cuales, 9 fueron hembras, 24 machos y 4 ninfas. Conclusiones. La identificación de ectoparásitos en especies de Boa c. constrictor contribuye a mantener adecuadamente esta especie en cautiverio y provee datos para establecer medidas profilácticas y tratamiento, igualmente, ayuda en el conocimiento de los agentes parasitarios de la fauna silvestre.

  1. Histopathological study of ovaries of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) exposed to different thymol concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Matos, Renata; Daemon, Erik; Camargo-Mathias, Maria Izabel; Furquim, Karim Christina Scopinho; Sampieri, Bruno Rodrigues; Remédio, Rafael Neodini; Araújo, Laryssa Xavier; Novato, Tatiane Pinheiro Lopes

    2014-12-01

    Thymol is a monoterpene with proven acaricide action for several tick species. In addition to killing these ectoparasites, thymol can also reduce oviposition and egg hatch rate. However, the effects of thymol on the morphophysiology of tick ovaries are still unknown. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the morphophysiological changes caused by this active principle in ovaries of Rhipicephalus sanguineus after a 6-day feeding period, through the application of morphohistochemical techniques. After the feeding period, a total of 50 females were divided into five groups and immersed in the following solutions: (I) distilled water (control), (II) 30% ethanol (control), (III) 1.25 mg/mL thymol, (IV) 2.5 mg/mL thymol, and (V) 5.0 mg/mL thymol. The experimental groups were kept in a climatic chamber (27 ± 1 °C; RH 80 ± 10%) for 5 days. After this period, morphological (hematoxylin/eosin) and histochemical (von Kossa) techniques were applied after remotion of the ovaries. The morphological results revealed large vacuoles in germ cells at different developmental stages and invaginations that represent deformations in the chorionic membrane. From the results obtained in this study, it was concluded that thymol interfered with the development of oocytes, which showed degeneration signs. The treatment containing 5.0 mg/mL thymol affected more accentuately the morphological development. Moreover, thymol also altered the calcium content of yolk granules, which generally showed an intense staining for this element.

  2. Acaricidal activity of thymol against larvae of Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) under semi-natural conditions.

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    Araújo, Laryssa Xavier; Novato, Tatiane Pinheiro Lopes; Zeringota, Viviane; Matos, Renata Silva; Senra, Tatiane Oliveira Souza; Maturano, Ralph; Prata, Márcia Cristina Azevedo; Daemon, Erik; Monteiro, Caio Márcio Oliveira

    2015-09-01

    This is the first study to investigate the activity of thymol on Rhipicephalus microplus larvae under semi-natural conditions. For this purpose, tests were conducted in pots with Brachiaria decumbens seedlings containing cattle tick larvae. Thymol, diluted in ethanol 50° GL, was tested at concentrations of 2.5, 5.0, 10.0, 15.0, and 20.0 mg/mL, along with the control group treated with the solvent alone. Each treatment was composed of five pots (1 pot = a repetition). The experiment was performed in three steps. On the first day, the larvae were applied at the base of the signalgrass. Twenty-four hours later, approximately 25 mL of the solution was applied with thymol on the top of the vegetation in each pot. The survival of the larvae was measured 24 h after application of the solutions. Each pot was analyzed individually, and the grass fillets contained larvae were cut with scissors, placed in Petri dishes, and taken to the laboratory to count the number of living larvae. At the highest concentrations (10, 15, and 20 mg /mL), the number of live larvae declined by more than 95 % in relation to the control group. The lethal concentration 50 % (LC50) and LC90 values were 3.45 and 9.25 mg/ml, respectively. The application of thymol in semi-natural conditions starting concentration of 10 mg/mL significantly reduced the number of living R. microplus larvae.

  3. Amblyomma auricularium (Acari: Ixodidae: underwater survival of the non-parasitic phase of feeding females

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    Iwine Joyce Barbosa de Sá-Hungaro

    Full Text Available To determine the effects of immersion in water on the biological parameters of engorged females of the tick species Amblyomma auricularium, 60 females were distributed in six groups, each comprising 10 individuals. The control group – G1 (not immersed was fixed dorsally in a Petri dish and incubated at 27 ± 1°C and 80% RH. The other groups were subjected to immersion periods of 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours, and the sixth group to continuous immersion. After the immersion period, the females were placed in Petri dishes to begin laying. Eggs were collected every 72 hours and kept in biological chambers. All the groups showed significant differences (p <0.05 during the pre-oviposition period. The laying period and the average weight of overall posture did not change. The egg incubation period also did not differ significantly, but the hatching rate in the group immersed for 96h showed a significant difference. Thus, immersion for up to 96 hours does not impair the survival of A. auricularium females, although it may delay egg laying and reduce the number of offspring.

  4. Characterization of a Sodium Channel Mutation in Permethrin-Resistant Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae).

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    Tucker, Nicholas S G; Kaufman, Phillip E; Weeks, Emma N I; Rowland, Jessica; Tidwell, Jason; Miller, Robert J

    2017-11-07

    The brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latrielle) sensu lato, is an important ectoparasite of dogs and occasionally humans, capable of transmitting several pathogens, such as Rickettsia and Ehrlichia, which are of veterinary and medical importance. The brown dog tick is distributed worldwide and has an affinity for human habitations in much of its range. In some populations, lack of integrated pest management plans and overuse of pyrethroid pesticides and other sodium channel inhibitors has resulted in high levels of resistance to permethrin. Recently, a highly conserved region of the R. sanguineus sodium channel was sequenced, indicating that a single nucleotide polymorphism of thymine to cytosine on domain III segment VI of the sodium channel could confer resistance. A molecular assay targeting a point mutation in the sodium channel was developed and optimized to separate ticks expressing permethrin resistance from those from a susceptible colony. Thereafter, multiple field-collected phenotypically permethrin-resistant populations were evaluated using this molecular assay to determine genotype. As confirmed by DNA sequencing, a point mutation was present at a high rate in phenotypically resistant tick populations that was not present in the susceptible strain. These data suggest an additional permethrin resistance mechanism to metabolic resistance, which has been reported for this tick species, and confirm its association with phenotypic resistance. The results of this study further emphasize the need to preserve acaricide chemistry through rotation of active ingredients used to control ectoparasites. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Detection of Permethrin Resistance and Fipronil Tolerance in Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) in the United States.

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    Eiden, Amanda L; Kaufman, Phillip E; Oi, Faith M; Allan, Sandra A; Miller, Robert J

    2015-05-01

    Permethrin is a commonly used acaricide for tick control on domestic animals and in residential environments, while fipronil use is restricted to on-animal treatment. Following widespread reports of permethrin and fipronil application failures to control indoor infestations of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille), the brown dog tick, 31 tick populations were obtained from Florida and Texas for acaricide resistance screening. These field-collected ticks from kennels and residential facilities were challenged with technical grade permethrin and fipronil to create dose response curves that were compared with an acaricide-susceptible strain. Permethrin resistance was successfully screened in nine populations, all of which were resistant or highly resistant. Tick susceptibility to fipronil was conducted on four populations, which were found to be tolerant, with resistance ratios below 10. This is the first documentation of R. sanguineus permethrin resistance and fipronil tolerance in the United States. Potential causes of resistance development and recommendations on future brown dog tick control management plans are discussed. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Saliva of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) inhibits classical and alternative complement pathways.

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    Silva, Naylene C S; Vale, Vladimir F; Franco, Paula F; Gontijo, Nelder F; Valenzuela, Jesus G; Pereira, Marcos H; Sant'Anna, Mauricio R V; Rodrigues, Daniel S; Lima, Walter S; Fux, Blima; Araujo, Ricardo N

    2016-08-11

    Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is the main ectoparasite affecting livestock worldwide. For a successful parasitism, ticks need to evade several immune responses of their hosts, including the activation of the complement system. In spite of the importance of R. microplus, previous work only identified one salivary molecule that blocks the complement system. The current study describes complement inhibitory activities induced by R. microplus salivary components and mechanisms elicited by putative salivary proteins on both classical and alternative complement pathways. We found that R. microplus saliva from fully- and partially engorged females was able to inhibit both pathways. Saliva acts strongly at the initial steps of both complement activation pathways. In the classical pathway, the saliva blocked C4 cleavage, and hence, deposition of C4b on the activation surface, suggesting that the inhibition occurs at some point between C1q and C4. In the alternative pathway, saliva acts by binding to initial components of the cascade (C3b and properdin) thereby preventing the C3 convertase formation and reducing C3b production and deposition as well as cleavage of factor B. Saliva has no effect on formation or decay of the C6 to C8 components of the membrane attack complex. The saliva of R. microplus is able to inhibit the early steps of classical and alternative pathways of the complement system. Saliva acts by blocking C4 cleavage and deposition of C4b on the classical pathway activation surface and, in the alternative pathway, saliva bind to initial components of the cascade (C3b and properdin) thereby preventing the C3 convertase formation and the production and deposition of additional C3b.

  7. Ivermectin resistance status and factors associated in Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) populations from Veracruz, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Salas, A; Rodríguez-Vivas, R I; Alonso-Díaz, M A; Basurto-Camberos, H

    2012-11-23

    The objectives of the present study were to (1) determine the status of resistance or susceptibility to ivermectin (IVM) in Rhipicephalus microplus tick populations in Veracruz, Mexico, (2) determine the level of resistance (resistance ratios [RR] and lethal concentrations for 50% [LC(50)] and 99% [LC(99)]) mortality in each R. microplus population, and (3) identify factors associated with resistance. Populations of R. microplus were sampled from 53 cattle farms to evaluate their resistance using the larval immersion test. Mortality data were subjected to probit analysis to calculate LC(50) and LC(99). Resistance ratios were calculated in relation to a susceptible reference strain. A logistic regression model was used to evaluate the relation between resistance and possible associated factors. Thirteen tick populations were susceptible to ivermectin, eighteen had incipient resistance and twenty-two had significant resistance. RR(50) of the susceptible tick populations varied from 0.59 to 1.07. The populations that showed the highest level of resistance were: ANTE (RR(50)=8.21; RR(99)=46.0), PALO (RR(50)=6.25; RR(99)=35.47), P.VIE (RR(50)=5.89; RR(99)=180.3), AURO (RR(50)=5.36; RR(99)=13.82 and CEDR (RR(50)=4.11; RR(99)=26.47). Cattle farms that used macrocyclic lactones ≥ 4 times per year were more likely to develop R. microplus resistant to ivermectin (OR=13.0; p=0.0028). In conclusion, more than two-thirds of the farms sampled in Veracruz, Mexico, showed some level of ivermectin-resistant R. microplus populations and the number of ML applications per year is factor associated with the resistance of R. microplus to IVM. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Hosts, distribution and genetic divergence (16S rDNA) of Amblyomma dubitatum (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, Santiago; Venzal, José M; Labruna, Marcelo B; Mastropaolo, Mariano; González, Enrique M; Mangold, Atilio J; Guglielmone, Alberto A

    2010-08-01

    We supply information about hosts and distribution of Amblyomma dubitatum. In addition, we carry out an analysis of genetic divergence among specimens of A. dubitatum from different localities and with respect to other Neotropical Amblyomma species, using sequences of 16S rDNA gene. Although specimens of A. dubitatum were collected on several mammal species as cattle horse, Tapirus terrestris, Mazama gouazoubira, Tayassu pecari, Sus scrofa, Cerdocyon thous, Myocastor coypus, Allouata caraya, Glossophaga soricina and man, most records of immature and adult stages of A. dubitatum were made on Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris, making this rodent the principal host for all parasitic stages of this ticks. Cricetidae rodents (Lundomys molitor, Scapteromys tumidus), opossums (Didelphis albiventris) and vizcacha (Lagostomus maximus) also were recorded as hosts for immature stages. All findings of A. dubitatum correspond to localities of Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay, and they were concentrated in the Biogeographical provinces of Pampa, Chaco, Cerrado, Brazilian Atlantic Forest, Parana Forest and Araucaria angustifolia Forest. The distribution of A. dubitatum is narrower than that of its principal host, therefore environmental variables rather than hosts determine the distributional ranges of this tick. The intraspecific genetic divergence among 16S rDNA sequences of A. dubitatum ticks collected in different localities from Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay was in all cases lower than 0.8%, whereas the differences with the remaining Amblyomma species included in the analysis were always bigger than 6.8%. Thus, the taxonomic status of A. dubitatum along its distribution appears to be certain at the specific level.

  9. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae on wild animals from the Porto-Primavera Hydroelectric power station area, Brazil

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    Marcelo B Labruna

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available From June 2000 to June 2001, a total of 741 ticks were collected from 51 free-living wild animals captured at the Porto-Primavera Hydroelectric power station area, located alongside an approximately 180 km course of the Paraná river, between the states of São Paulo and Mato Grosso do Sul, comprising 9 species of 3 genera: Ambly-omma (7 species, Boophilus (1 and Anocentor (1. A total of 421 immature Amblyomma ticks were reared in laboratory until the adult stage, allowing identification of the species. A. cajennense was the most frequent tick species (mostly immature stages collected on 9 host species: Myrmecophaga tridactyla, Tamandua tetradactyla,Cerdocyon thous, Puma concolor,Tayassu tajacu, Mazama gouazoubira,Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris,Alouatta caraya, Cebus apella. Other tick species were less common, generally restricted to certain host taxa.

  10. Amblyomma rotundatum (Koch, 1844) (Acari: Ixodidae) two-host life-cycle on Viperidae snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Daniel Sobreira; Maciel, Ricardo; Cunha, Lucas Maciel; Leite, Romário Cerqueira; de Oliveira, Paulo Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Amblyomma rotundatum is an ixodid tick that infests ectothermic animals and reproduces exclusively by parthenogenesis. This tick has been frequently reported to infest reptiles and amphibians, under natural conditions and sometimes in captivity. It was described in Brazil and several other countries of South, Central and North America. Although many studies have reported aspects of its biology, none of them has used regularly either ophidian as hosts, or controlled temperature, humidity and luminosity for parasitic stages. The objective of this experiment was to study the life cycle of A. rotundatum feeding on Viperidae snakes under room controlled conditions at 27 ± 1 °C temperature, 85 ± 10% relative humidity and 12:12 hours photoperiod for parasitic stages, and under B.O.D incubator conditions at 27 ± 1 °C temperature, 85 ± 10% relative humidity and scotophase for non-parasitic stages. The total duration of the life cycle ranged from 56 to 163 days (mean of 105 days). Two-host life cycle was observed for most of the ixodid population studied.

  11. Abundance of adult ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) in the Chernobyl nuclear power plant exclusion zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movila, A; Deriabina, T; Morozov, A; Sitnicova, N; Toderas, I; Uspenskaia, I; Alekhnovici, A

    2012-08-01

    The Chernobyl nuclear disaster resulted in contamination of vast areas in Europe. To date, there is little knowledge about the effects of radioactive contamination on tick species. We sampled ticks from vegetation and large-sized wild mammals belonging to orders Carnivora and Artiodactyla at sites with 0.76, 1.91, and 4.50 mSv/hr ionizing radiation background values in the Polesky State Radio-Ecological Reserve of the Chernobyl nuclear disaster zone in spring 2010. Altogether, 122 questing ticks were collected from vegetation. Among collected ticks, Dermacentor reticulatus (Fabricius) was, by far, the most abundant species (99.2%), followed by Ixodes ricnus (L.) (0.8%), which was collected only at the 0.76 mSv/hr site. The average sex ratio female∶male was 2.9∶1.0. In parallel with the present study, we examined 3 Sus scrofa (L.), 2 Nyctereutes procyonoides (Gray), and 1 Alces alces (L.) at the 4.50 mSv/hr site; 96 D. reticulatus ticks were found on 2 N. procyonoides specimens. The mean density and the intensity of infestation were 16 ticks per animal and 48 ticks per infested animal, respectively. Future investigations are warranted to further characterize the role of various tick vectors, vertebrate reservoirs, and diversity of tick-borne pathogens in the Chernobyl exclusion zone.

  12. Survival rates of immature Ixodes pacificus (Acari: Ixodidae) ticks estimated using field-placed enclosures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Nathan C; Holmes, Elizabeth A; Foley, Janet E

    2010-06-01

    Granulocytic anaplasmosis (GA) and Lyme borreliosis are emerging tick-borne diseases caused by infection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi, respectively, and maintained in rodent-Ixodes spp. tick cycles, including I. pacificus in the western U.S. Ixodes pacificus has a multiple-year life cycle and B. burgdorferi and A. phagocytophilum are transstadially, but not transovarially, transmitted within ticks, thus ticks function importantly in maintaining infection in nature. In this study, the survival of larval and nymphal I. pacificus was determined using ticks placed in tubes in leaf litter from June 2005 to September 2006 at two field sites in the California northern coast range mountains and a laboratory control. In all three sites, nymphal and larval survival ranged from 90-400 d, with differences in mean survival among sites. Fewer ticks died in the autumn in the moister field sites compared with the drier incubator control treatment. The first large die-off event in late autumn occurred at all sites shortly before relative humidity increased from 80-100% and temperature declined from approximately 22-15 degrees C. The concurrent die-off in the incubator population, subject to relative humidity and temperature regimes that were invariant, suggests that survival time was dependent on other factors in addition to environmental conditions. These results suggested that many ticks exhausted resources or tolerance for relatively low humidity within six months of questing, and that higher humidity prolonged survival. Based on observed longevity, humans and other animals could acquire A. phagocytophilum infection from adult I. pacificus that were infected up to three years earlier.

  13. Unveiling the oxidative metabolism of Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) experimentally exposed to entomopathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunholi-Alves, Vinícius Menezes; Tunholi Alves, Victor Menezes; da Silva, Jairo Pinheiro; Nora Castro, Rosane; Salgueiro, Fernanda Barbosa; Perinotto, Wendell Marcelo de Souza; Gôlo, Patrícia Silva; Camargo, Mariana Guedes; Angelo, Isabele da Costa; Bittencourt, Vânia Rita Elias Pinheiro

    2016-10-01

    Rhipicephalus microplus is an important tick in tropical regions due to the high economic losses caused by its parasitism. Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana are well-known entomopathogenic fungi that can afflict R. microplus ticks. The development of new targets and strategies to control this parasite can be driven by studies of this tick's physiology. Recently, it was reported that when exposed to adverse physiological conditions, ticks can activate fermentative pathways, indicating transition from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism. Nevertheless, the precise mechanism by which entomopathogenic fungi influence R. microplus metabolism has not been clarified, limiting understanding of the tick-fungus association. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the effect of infection of ticks by M. anisopliae and B. bassiana on the amount of selected carboxylic acids present in the hemolymph, enabling increased understanding of changes previously reported. The results showed preservation in the concentrations of oxalic, lactic, and pyruvic acids in the hemolymph 24 and 48 h after dropping from cattle; while there were variations in the concentration of these carboxylic acids after infection of female ticks to M. anisopliae and B. bassiana. Significant increases were observed in the concentration of oxalic and lactic acids and significant reduction of pyruvic acid for both observation times (24 and 48 h) after infection by entomopathogenic fungi. These results indicate that B. bassiana and M. anisopliae infection alters the basal metabolism of R. microplus females, resulting in the activation of fermentative pathways.

  14. Physiological changes in Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) experimentally infected with entomopathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelo, Isabele C; Tunholi-Alves, Vinícius M; Tunholi, Victor M; Perinotto, Wendell M S; Gôlo, Patrícia S; Camargo, Mariana G; Quinelato, Simone; Pinheiro, Jairo; Bittencourt, Vânia R E P

    2015-01-01

    Carbohydrate metabolism plays an important role in the physiology and maintenance of energy stores within living organisms. However, when organisms are exposed to adverse physiological conditions, such as during pathogenic infection, these organisms begin to use alternative substrates (proteins and lipids) for energy production. This paper studied the carbohydrate metabolism of Rhipicephalus microplus after infection with Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae. The parameters evaluated were glucose concentration, enzymatic activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alanine aminostransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminostransferase (AST), amounts of uric acid and urea in the hemolymph, and amount of glycogen in the fat body. The results showed changes in nitrogenous products, including an increase in the amount of urea detected 48 h after infection with both fungi. The enzymatic activities of LDH, ALT, and AST were increased after infection. The amount of glucose was increased 24 h after infection with B. bassiana and was reduced 48 h after infection with both fungi. The amount of glycogen in the fat body was reduced at different times of infection with both fungi. These results demonstrate, for the first time, the changes in carbohydrate metabolism of R. microplus after infection with M. anisopliae and B. bassiana and contribute to a better understanding of this host-parasite relationship. Together with knowledge of diseases that affect these ticks and their susceptibility to entomopathogens, an understanding of tick physiology will be necessary for the effective implementation of current biological control methods and will assist in the discovery of new methods to control this ectoparasite.

  15. Association between entomopathogenic nematodes and fungi for control of Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Caio Márcio Oliveira; Araújo, Laryssa Xavier; Matos, Renata Silva; da Silva Golo, Patrícia; Angelo, Isabele Costa; de Souza Perinotto, Wendell Marcelo; Coelho Rodrigues, Camila Aparecida; Furlong, John; Bittencourt, Vânia Rita Elias Pinheiro; Prata, Márcia Cristina Azevedo

    2013-10-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the effect of the association of entomopathogenic nematodes and fungi on Rhipicephalus microplus. The nematodes used were Heterorhabditis bacteriophora HP88 and Heterorhabditis indica LPP1 and the fungi were Metarhizium anisopliae IBCB 116 and Beauveria bassiana ESALQ 986. In the groups treated with the fungi, the females were immersed for 3 min in a conidial suspension, while in the groups treated with the nematodes, the ticks were exposed to infective juveniles. To evaluate the interaction between entomopathogens, the females were first immersed in a conidial suspension and then exposed to the nematodes. The egg mass weight and hatching percentage values of the groups treated with M. anisopliae IBCB 116 and B. bassiana ESALQ 986 in the two experiments were statistically similar (p > 0.05) to the values of the control group. In the groups treated only with nematodes, there was a significant reduction (p fungi, there was a significant reduction (p fungi alone varied from 31 to 55%. In the groups treated with nematodes associated or not with fungi, the control percentage was always greater than 90% and reached 100% in the group treated with H. bacteriophora HP88 associated with the fungus M. anisopliae IBCB 116.

  16. Analyses of hemolymph from Amblyomma cajennense (Acari: ixodidae) using neutron activation analysis (NAA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simons, Simone M.; Oliveira, Daniella G.L.; Chudzinski-Tavassi, Ana M., E-mail: daniellaoliveira@butantan.gov.b, E-mail: amchudzinki@butantan.gov.b [Instituto Butantan, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Zamboni, Cibele B., E-mail: czamboni@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis technique (INAA) was applied to determine the elemental composition of hemolymph from Amblyomma cajennense tick. This biological material came from Butantan Institute (Sao Paulo city, Brazil) and it was investigated using the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor (4MW, pool type) at IPEN/CNEN-SP - Brazil. The concentration values for: Br (0.0032 {+-} 0.0005gL{sup -1}), Ca (0.104 {+-} 0.029gL{sup -1}), Cl (4.41 {+-} 0.25gL{sup -1}), I (76 {+-} 27{mu}gL{sup -1}), K (0.38 {+-} 0.09gL{sup -1}), Mg (0.038 {+-} 0.011gL{sup -1}), Na (4.30 {+-} 0.26gL{sup -1}) and S (1.35 {+-} 0.37gL{sup -1}) were determined for the first time. These data were compared with the concentration values established for Americanum and Anatolicum Excavatum tick species to clarify the ion balance in this biological material (hemolymph). This comparison suggests that Na concentration, majority in these species, has a similar behavior. These data also contribute to the understanding of hemolymph composition complementing its characterization as well as for the understanding of several physiological processes, especially those related to salivary secretion. (author)

  17. Factors affecting patterns of Amblyomma triste (Acari: Ixodidae) parasitism in a rodent host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Valeria C; Nava, Santiago; Antoniazzi, Leandro R; Monje, Lucas D; Racca, Andrea L; Guglielmone, Alberto A; Beldomenico, Pablo M

    2015-07-30

    Here we offer a multivariable analysis that explores associations of different factors (i.e., environmental, host parameters, presence of other ectoparasites) with the interaction of Amblyomma triste immature stages and one of its main hosts in Argentina, the rodent Akodon azarae. Monthly and for two years, we captured and sampled rodents at 16 points located at 4 different sites in the Parana River Delta region. The analyses were conducted with Generalized Linear Mixed Models with a negative binomial response (counts of larvae or nymphs). The independent variables assessed were: (a) environmental: trapping year, season, presence of cattle; type of vegetation (natural grassland or implanted forest); rodent abundance; (b) host parameters: body length; sex; body condition; blood cell counts; natural antibody titres; and (c) co-infestation with other ectoparasites: other stage of A. triste; Ixodes loricatus; lice; mites; and fleas. Two-way interaction terms deemed a priori as relevant were also included in the analysis. Larvae were affected by all environmental variables assessed and by the presence of other ectoparasites (lice, fleas and other tick species). Host factors significantly associated with larval count were sex and levels of natural antibodies. Nymphs were associated with season, presence of cattle, body condition, body length and with burdens of I. loricatus. In most cases, the direction and magnitude of the associations were context-dependent (many interaction terms were significant). The findings of greater significance and implications of our study are two. Firstly, as burdens of A. triste larvae and nymphs were greater where cattle were present, and larval tick burdens were higher in implanted forests, silvopastoral practices developing in the region may affect the population dynamics of A. triste, and consequently the eco-epidemiology of Rickettsia parkeri. Secondly, strong associations and numerous interactions with other ectoparasites suggest that co-infestations may be more important for tick dynamics than has so far been appreciated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Tick (Acari: Ixodidae) infestations in cattle along Geba River basin in Guinea-Bissau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zúquete, Sara Tudela; Coelho, João; Rosa, Fernanda; Vaz, Yolanda; Cassamá, Bernardo; Padre, Ludovina; Santos, Dulce; Basto, Afonso P; Leitão, Alexandre

    2017-01-01

    Tick infestations are a major problem for animal production in tropical areas where prevention and control remain deficient. The present study sought to assess the awareness of traditional cattle producers towards the importance of ticks and aimed at the identification of tick species infesting bovines within the Geba River basin, Guinea-Bissau. Interviews with producers revealed that the majority directly correlates the presence of ticks with the occurrence of diseases in cattle. However, insufficient or inadequate control approaches prevail. A total of 337 ticks were collected on bovines at 18 different villages (10 during dry season, and 8 during rainy season). The tick species collected during the dry season were Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) geigyi (56.5%), followed by Amblyomma variegatum (23.3%), Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus (17.6%) and Hyalomma truncatum (1%). In the rainy season A. variegatum was the most collected (88.9%), followed by R. (Boophilus) geigyi (4.2%), R. (Boophilus) annulatus (3.4%), Rhipicephalus sanguineus group (2.8%) and H. truncatum (0.7%). To support species identification, segments of both cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) and 12S ribosomal RNA (12S) genes were sequenced and the data gathered were analysed by maximum likelihood and parsimony. Morphological and genetic data of individual specimens gathered in this study provide relevant information for future studies on tick population dynamics in the region. In addition, it led to a deeper characterization of R. sulcatus and a R. sanguineus-like specimen, exploring their genetic relationship with other R. sanguineus, which supports their classification as distinct species within R. sanguineus group. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Hyalomma impeltatum (Acari: Ixodidae) as a potential vector of malignant theileriosis in sheep in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Azazy, O M; El-Metenawy, T M; Wassef, H Y

    2001-08-31

    Little is known about tick-borne diseases in Saudi Arabia, particularly regarding the prevalence of theileriosis in small ruminants. This survey studied the potential vectors of malignant theileriosis in Saudi Arabian sheep. Blood, lymph node and tick samples were collected from animals being treated or necropsied at the Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory in Jeddah, Makkah (western region), and Bureida, Al-Qasim (central region). Blood and lymph node smears were prepared and examined for Theileria species. Theileria hirci (=T. lestoquardi) was found in lymph node smears of one out of 36 sheep (2.8%) in Jeddah and six of 25 sheep (24%) in Bureida. The erythrocytic forms were detected in 5-8% of RBCs. Ticks were found in relatively less number of sheep in Bureida and Jeddah, 17/180 and 26/125, respectively. All Theileria-infected sheep were infested with Hyalomma impeltatum except the one that carried Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum. This suggests that H. impeltatum is a potential vector of malignant theileriosis in Saudi Arabia.

  20. Parasitism of immature stages of Haemaphysalis sulcata (Acari: Ixodidae) on some reptiles in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Adem; Bursali, Ahmet; Kumlutas, Yusuf; Ilgaz, Cetin; Tekin, Saban

    2013-10-01

    Reptiles may contribute to maintaining tick populations by feeding larvae, nymphs, and adults. The life cycles and tick-host associations of many Turkish ticks are still poorly known, and only 3 ixodid tick species have been reported on 7 reptile species in Turkey. In this study, we performed a tick survey on reptiles in the Southeastern Anatolia Region of Turkey. In 2005, 57 reptiles (52 lizards and 5 snakes) comprising 10 species from 5 families were captured and examined for tick infestation. A total of 427 ticks was collected. The majority of ticks found on lizards was the immature stages of Haemaphysalis sulcata, 420 larvae and 4 nymphs. The only adult ticks recorded on the agamid lizard, Laudakia stellio, were Hyalomma aegyptium (1 ♂, 2 ♀). The highest tick infestation rate was recorded on specimens of Timon princeps. This study is the first detailed investigation on ticks infesting reptiles in Turkey. To the best of our knowledge, these tick-host associations have never been documented in the literature.

  1. Infection of Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in North Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhioua, E.; Bouattour, A.; Hu, C.M.; Gharbi, M.; Aeschliman, A.; Ginsberg, H.S.; Gern, L.

    1999-01-01

    Free-living adult Ixodes ricinus L. were collected in Amdoun, situated in the Kroumiry mountains in northwestern Tunisia (North Africa). Using direct fluorescence antibody assay, the infection rate of field-collected I. ricinus by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato was 30.5% (n = 72). No difference in infection rate was observed between male and female ticks. Spirochetes that had been isolated from I. ricinus from Ain Drahim (Kroumiry Mountains) in 1988 were identified as Borrelia lusitaniae (formerly genospecies PotiB2). This is the first identification of a genospecies of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato from the continent of Africa.

  2. Genetic diversity of Salp15 in the Ixodes ricinus complex (Acari: Ixodidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wang

    Full Text Available Salp15, a 15-kDa tick salivary gland protein, is both essential for ticks to successfully obtain host blood and also facilitates transmission of Lyme borreliosis. To determine whether the Salp15 gene is expressed in Ixodes persulcatus and Ixodes sinensis, principle vectors of Lyme borreliosis in China, we studied transcriptions of this gene in semi-engorged larvae, nymph and adults of these two species. A total of eight Salp15 homologues, five in I. persulcatus and three in I. sinensis, were identified by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Interestingly, the intra-species similarity of Salp15 is approximately equal to its interspecies similarity and more than one Salp15 protein is expressed in a certain tick developmental stage. Comparison of DNA and proteins with other available tick Salp15 homologues suggests that the Salp15 superfamily is genetically conserved and diverse in the Ixodes ricinus complex. These findings indicate that Salp15 proteins in the I. ricinus complex may play an essential role in interacting with the host immune system and transmission of Borrelia genospecies.

  3. Genetic Diversity of Salp15 in the Ixodes ricinus Complex (Acari: Ixodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Huang, Yong; Niu, Si-bo; Jiang, Bao-Gui; Jia, Na; van der Geest, Leo; Ni, Xue-bing; Sun, Yi; Cao, Wu-Chun

    2014-01-01

    Salp15, a 15-kDa tick salivary gland protein, is both essential for ticks to successfully obtain host blood and also facilitates transmission of Lyme borreliosis. To determine whether the Salp15 gene is expressed in Ixodes persulcatus and Ixodes sinensis, principle vectors of Lyme borreliosis in China, we studied transcriptions of this gene in semi-engorged larvae, nymph and adults of these two species. A total of eight Salp15 homologues, five in I. persulcatus and three in I. sinensis, were identified by reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Interestingly, the intra-species similarity of Salp15 is approximately equal to its interspecies similarity and more than one Salp15 protein is expressed in a certain tick developmental stage. Comparison of DNA and proteins with other available tick Salp15 homologues suggests that the Salp15 superfamily is genetically conserved and diverse in the Ixodes ricinus complex. These findings indicate that Salp15 proteins in the I. ricinus complex may play an essential role in interacting with the host immune system and transmission of Borrelia genospecies. PMID:24714063

  4. Seasonal changes in the fatty acid profile of the tick Ixodes ricinus (Acari, Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuber, Piotr; Urbanek, Aleksandra; Naczk, Aleksandra; Stepnowski, Piotr; Gołębiowski, Marek

    2016-06-01

    Fatty acids (FAs) from nymphs, females and males of Ixodes ricinus were analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Ticks were collected from May to October 2013. The most abundant FAs were 18:1, 18:0, 16:0 and 18:2 which are also dominant FAs of insects. Adults contained higher concentrations of FAs in general than nymphs because they contain more fat body and probably a thicker layer of epicuticular lipids. Larger quantities of FAs > 20 carbon atoms in the carboxylic chain were present in females, which generally show higher content of lipids essential for oogenesis, whereas there were similar amounts of 14-18 in both sexes. In September and October, ticks contained large concentrations of the majority of FAs except for 18:1, the most abundant one in ticks collected from May through August. Thus, most FAs, especially those with more than 20 C atoms, tend to increase at lower temperatures.

  5. Potential nontarget effects of Metarhizium anisopliae (Deuteromycetes) used for biological control of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, Howard S.; LeBrun, Roger A.; Heyer, Klaus; Zhioua, Elyes

    2002-01-01

    The potential for nontarget effects of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin, when used for biological control of ticks, was assessed in laboratory trials. Fungal pathogenicity was studied against convergent ladybird beetles, Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville, house crickets, Acheta domesticus (L.), and the milkweed bugs Oncopeltus fasciatus (Dallas). Fungal spores applied with a spray tower produced significant mortality in H. convergens and A. domesticus, but effects on O. fasciatus were marginal. Placing treated insects with untreated individuals resulted in mortality from horizontal transmission to untreated beetles and crickets, but not milkweed bugs. Spread of fungal infection in the beetles resulted in mortality on days 4–10 after treatment, while in crickets mortality was on day 2 after treatment, suggesting different levels of pathogenicity and possibly different modes of transmission. Therefore, M. anisopliae varies in pathogenicity to different insects. Inundative applications can potentially affect nontarget species, but M. anisopliae is already widely distributed in North America, so applications for tick control generally would not introduce a novel pathogen into the environment. Pathogenicity in lab trials does not, by itself, demonstrate activity under natural conditions, so field trials are needed to confirm these results and to assess methods to minimize nontarget exposure.

  6. Precise identification of different stages of a tick, Ixodes granulatus Supino, 1897 (Acari: Ixodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernieenor Faraliana Che Lah

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions: These findings demonstrated for the first time the establishment of COI gene for identifying I. granulatus nymphal tick which is of paramount importance to the control of potential tick-borne infections in Malaysia. Moreover, this study provides evidence that a combination of morphology and molecular data was corroborated as an accurate tool for tick identification.

  7. Distribution of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) infesting domestic ruminants in mountainous areas of Golestan province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarani, Moslem; Telmadarraiy, Zakkyeh; Moghaddam, Abdolreza Salahi; Azam, Kamal; Sedaghat, Mohammad Mehdi

    2014-05-01

    To determine the prevalence of ticks on cattle in the mountainous areas of Golestan province and their geographical distribution. In total, 498 animals from 25 herds were selected to search for ticks in 2009-2010. Tick collection was carried out during four seasons, twice per season over a period of 12 month from March 2009 through February 2010 in two districts, Azadshahr and Ramian. Meteorological data were obtained from Iran Meteorological Organization. The geographical points recorded using a Garmin eTrex®H GPS. A total of 255 ticks were collected from a total of 219 ruminants including 44 sheep, 63 goats, 99 cows and 13 camels in two districts of the mountainous area of Golestan province, including Azadshahr and Ramian. Five species of ixodid ticks were identified: Rhipicephalus sanguineus (66.5%), Rhipicephalus bursa (4.6%), Hyalomma marginatum (19.9%), Hyalomma anatolicum (6%) and Hyalomma asiaticum (4%). The densities of infestations were calculated for sheep, goats, cows and camels 0.9, 0.79, 0.16 and 0.43 respectively. Seasonal activity of each ixodid tick infesting domestic ruminants was determined. The distribution maps showed ixodid ticks on domestic ruminants, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus were dominant species in the area. Such research provides necessary information for human and animal health service mangers to have a better understanding of prevention and control of vector borne diseases especially during the outbreaks.

  8. Distribution of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae infesting domestic ruminants in mountainous areas of Golestan province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moslem Sarani

    2014-05-01

    Conclusions: Such research provides necessary information for human and animal health service mangers to have a better understanding of prevention and control of vector borne diseases especially during the outbreaks.

  9. New host records of Haemaphysalis leporispalustris (Acari: Ixodidae) on birds in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeringóta, Viviane; Maturano, Ralph; Santolin, Ísis Daniele Alves Costa; McIntosh, Douglas; Famadas, Kátia Maria; Daemon, Erik; Faccini, João Luiz Horacio

    2016-05-01

    Birds are an important component of the life histories and bioecology of a number of tick species and of some tick associated pathogens. An examination of the data concerning bird/tick associations in the Neotropics, showed that the tick Haemaphysalis leporispalustrisis (Packard, 1869) was rarely recorded infesting birds. The current study reports parasitism by H. leporispalustris in wild birds collected from Atlantic rain forest environments in the states of Rio de Janeiro (4LL) and Minas Gerais (17LL, 1NN), Brazil. All ticks were identified morphologically to the genus level; total DNA was extracted from each Haemaphysalis tick and examined by PCR and nucleotide sequencing of fragments of the eukaryotic genes encoding 16S rRNA and 12S rRNA. The bird species Arremon semitorquatus, Corythopis delalandi, Fluvicola nengeta, Troglodytes musculus, and Volatinia jacarina were recorded as hosts for H. leporispalustris for the first time in South America, and Turdus rufiventris represented a new record for Brazil.

  10. Levels of natural resistance to Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae in Carora breed bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy D. Meléndez

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Boophilus microplus infestation is one of the most serious limitations to cattle industry in tropical regions, even though bovines show natural resistance to ticks. This resistance was evaluated in Cross-bred Carora Bulls (CCB a tropicalized dairy breed from Venezuela. Seven CCB were experimentally infested with B. microplus larvae, "Mozo" strain, they were considered tick-naive because they had never been infested with ticks. The mean inoculum size applied on each bull was 6 477 larvae. After life cycle was completed adult female body weight (BW, egg mass weight (EW, egg hatching rate (%EH, and reproductive index (RI were recorded. Results revealed a high variability in the levels of resistance to B. microplus. Thus, one animal showed greater resistance (Dunnett, p< 0.05 for the analyzed parameters in contrast with three non-resistant bulls. The others had moderate resistance. The trait "resistance" should be included togheter with other traits often used in genetic selection of cattle.

  11. Ambush behavior of the tick Amblyomma sculptum (Amblyomma cajennense complex) (Acari: Ixodidae) in the Brazilian Pantanal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Vanessa do Nascimento; Osava, Carolina Fonseca; Piovezan, Ubiratan; Szabó, Matias Pablo Juan

    2017-06-01

    We herein describe the ambush behavior of Amblyomma sculptum (Berlese 1888), a widespread and epidemiologically important tick in Brazil. Along two years of sampling by visual search in the Brazilian Pantanal, A. sculptum ticks were observed on the vegetation and in the leaf litter. Most of the ticks were observed between 10 and 50cm above ground level and less than five percent of the total were positioned below 10cm, indicating that they are seeking for middle or large-sized hosts. In both seasons, vapor saturation deficit was low during the morning. No significant relationship was found between questing ticks and daytime interval of observation or saturation deficit. However, questing tick numbers seem be higher in the end of the morning, when saturation deficit reaches its peak. Behavioral patterns of A. sculptum ticks observed in Pantanal underscore the occurrence of this tick and human contact at green anthropogenic sites. Considering A. sculptum questing behavior, inferences on human behavioral patterns that enhance or avoid contact with ticks are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Birds as the Feeders of Ticks (Acari, Ixodida) in Megalopolis of Kyiv

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nebogatkin I. V

    2014-01-01

    ... приземном ярусе: большая синица (Parus major), белая трясогузка (Motacilla alba), грач (Corvus frugilegus), чёрный дрозд (Turdus merula) и поползень (Sitta europaea...

  13. Evaluation of Four Bed Bug Traps for Surveillance of the Brown Dog Tick (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnohan, Lucas P; Kaufman, Phillip E; Allan, Sandra A; Gezan, Salvador A; Weeks, Emma N I

    2015-03-01

    The brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latrielle), can be a serious residential pest due to its unique ability, among ticks, to complete its lifecycle indoors. A single engorged and fertilized female tick can oviposit around 4,000 eggs, allowing indoor establishment to be rapid and easy to miss in early-stage infestations. Acaricide treatment is currently the primary method of control, but can be costly and can lead to the development of acaricide resistance in tick populations. Traps of various designs can be used to help monitor and manage populations of indoor pests, such as cockroaches and bed bugs, but there are currently no commercially available traps for use with brown dog tick infestations. This study included a comparison of four commercially available bed bug traps (NightWatch [BioSensory Inc., Putnam, CT], Bed Bug Beacon [PackTite, Fort Collins, CO], ClimbUp [Susan McKnight Inc., Memphis, TN], and Verify [FMC Corporation, Philadelphia, PA]) with regard to their efficacy in capturing brown dog ticks, and also compared tick attraction to ClimbUp traps baited with several stimuli including CO2. Significantly more ticks were captured and attracted to the NightWatch and CO2-baited ClimbUp traps than the other two trap models. The results suggest that bed bug traps may be useful in brown dog tick monitoring, and CO2 will likely be an important component of a trapping system employed in the future. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  14. Ixodidae ticks in the megapolis of Kyiv, Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Ixodidae include the most common tick species encountered in Europe. The ticks transmit a variety of bacterial and protozoan agents of medical and veterinary significance. The aim of the current work was to investigate distribution of Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus ticks in Kyiv, the...

  15. Comportamento de Aedes albopictus e de Ae. scapularis adultos (Diptera: Culicidae no Sudeste do Brasil Adults Aedes albopictus and Ae. scapularis behavior (Diptera: Culidae in Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Observar e comparar o comportamento das espécies de Aedes albopictus e de Ae. scapularis, na localidade de Pedrinhas, litoral sul do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. MÉTODOS: As observações foram feitas de outubro de 1996 a janeiro de 2000. Foram realizadas coletas sistemáticas de formas adultas mediante a utilização de isca humana, aspirações ambientais e armadilha tipo Shannon. A domiciliação foi estimada pelo índice de Nuorteva e pela razão de sinantropia. RESULTADOS: Foram feitas 87 coletas diurnas, com a obtenção de 872 adultos fêmeas. As médias de Williams', multiplicadas por 100, foram de 118 e 21 para Ae. albopictus nos horários de 7h às 18h e de 18h às 20h, respectivamente. Quanto a Ae. scapularis, foram de 100 e 106 nos mesmos períodos. Esse último revelou pico de atividade crepuscular vespertina. Na aspiração de abrigos, obteve-se o total de 1.124 espécimens, dos quais 226 Ae. albopictus e 898 Ae. scapularis. O período de janeiro a maio correspondeu ao de maior rendimento para ambos os mosquitos. Quanto à armadilha de Shannon, as coletas realizadas na mata revelaram a ausência de Ae. albopictus. No que concerne à domiciliação, esse último mostrou os maiores valores de índices, enquanto Ae. scapularis revelou comportamento de tipo ubiquista. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados confirmam outras observações, permitindo levantar hipóteses. Em relação a Ae. scapularis, sugere-se que possa existir fenômeno de diapausa das fêmeas no período verão-outono, a qual cessaria no inverno-primavera quando então a atividade seria retomada. Quanto a Ae. albopictus, os dados sugerem que se trata de população em processo adaptativo ao novo ambiente.OBJECTIVE: Aedes albopictus and Ae. scapularis were found living together in the Pedrinhas Village, Southeastern of São Paulo State, Brazil. This finding was a good opportunity to make observations about the mosquitoes' behavior. METHODS: From October 1996 to

  16. Risk maps for range expansion of the Lyme disease vector, Ixodes scapularis, in Canada now and with climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Nicholas H; St-Onge, Laurie; Barker, Ian K; Brazeau, Stéphanie; Bigras-Poulin, Michel; Charron, Dominique F; Francis, Charles M; Heagy, Audrey; Lindsay, L Robbin; Maarouf, Abdel; Michel, Pascal; Milord, François; O'Callaghan, Christopher J; Trudel, Louise; Thompson, R Alex

    2008-05-22

    Lyme disease is the commonest vector-borne zoonosis in the temperate world, and an emerging infectious disease in Canada due to expansion of the geographic range of the tick vector Ixodes scapularis. Studies suggest that climate change will accelerate Lyme disease emergence by enhancing climatic suitability for I. scapularis. Risk maps will help to meet the public health challenge of Lyme disease by allowing targeting of surveillance and intervention activities. A risk map for possible Lyme endemicity was created using a simple risk algorithm for occurrence of I. scapularis populations. The algorithm was calculated for each census sub-division in central and eastern Canada from interpolated output of a temperature-driven simulation model of I. scapularis populations and an index of tick immigration. The latter was calculated from estimates of tick dispersion distances by migratory birds and recent knowledge of the current geographic range of endemic I. scapularis populations. The index of tick immigration closely predicted passive surveillance data on I. scapularis occurrence, and the risk algorithm was a significant predictor of the occurrence of I. scapularis populations in a prospective field study. Risk maps for I. scapularis occurrence in Canada under future projected climate (in the 2020s, 2050s and 2080s) were produced using temperature output from the Canadian Coupled Global Climate Model 2 with greenhouse gas emission scenario enforcing 'A2' of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. We have prepared risk maps for the occurrence of I. scapularis in eastern and central Canada under current and future projected climate. Validation of the risk maps provides some confidence that they provide a useful first step in predicting the occurrence of I. scapularis populations, and directing public health objectives in minimizing risk from Lyme disease. Further field studies are needed, however, to continue validation and refinement of the risk maps.

  17. Immunity-related genes in Ixodes scapularis – perspectives from genome information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis A. Smith

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ixodes scapularis, commonly known as the deer tick, transmits a wide array of human and animal pathogens including Borrelia burgdorferi. Despite substantial advances in our understanding of immunity in model arthropods, including other disease vectors, precisely how I. scapularis immunity functions and influences persistence of invading pathogens remains largely unknown. This review provides a comprehensive analysis of the recently sequenced I. scapularis genome for the occurrence of immune-related genes and related pathways. We will also discuss the potential influence of immunity-related genes on the persistence of tick-borne pathogens with an emphasis on the Lyme disease pathogen B. burgdorferi. Further enhancement of our knowledge of tick immune responses is critical to understanding the molecular basis of the persistence of tick-borne pathogens and development of novel interventions against the relevant infections.

  18. Repellent activities of dichloromethane extract of Allium sativum (garlic (Liliaceae against Hyalomma rufipes (Acari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Nchu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Dichloromethane (DCM extract of garlic (Allium sativum Linn. bulbs was assessed for its repellent effect against the hard tick, Hyalomma rufipes (Acari: Ixodidae using two tick behavioural bioassays; Type A and Type B repellency bioassays, under laboratory conditions. These bioassays exploit the questing behaviour of H. rufipes, a tick that in nature displays ambush strategy, seeking its host by climbing up on vegetation and attaching to a passing host. One hundred microlitres (100 µL of the test solution containing DCM extract of garlic bulbs and DCM at concentrations of 0.35%, 0.7% or 1.4% w/v were evaluated. DCM only was used for control. Tick repellency increased significantly (R2 = 0.98 with increasing concentration (40.03% – 86.96% yielding an EC50 of 0.45% w/v in Type B repellency bioassay. At concentration of 1.4% w/v, the DCM extract of garlic bulbs produced high repellency index of 87% (male ticks and 87.5% (female ticks in the Type A repellency bioassay. Only 4% avoidance of male ticks or female ticks was recorded in the Type B repellency bioassay. In the corresponding controls, the mean numbers of non-repelled male or female ticks were 80% and 41 males or 38 females of 50 ticks in the Type A and Type B repellency bioassays, respectively. The variations in the results could be attributed to the difference in tick repellent behaviours that were assessed by the two repellency bioassays; the Type A repellency bioassay assessed repellent effect of garlic extracts without discriminating between deterrence and avoidance whereas the Type B repellency bioassay only assessed avoidance response. Generally, DCM extract of garlic was repellent against H. rufipes, albeit weak tick repellency was obtained in the Type B repellency bioassay. Furthermore, this study established that the tick repellent activity of garlic extracts is predominantly by deterrence.

  19. Repellent activities of dichloromethane extract of Allium sativum (garlic) (Liliaceae) against Hyalomma rufipes (Acari).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nchu, Felix; Magano, Solomon R; Eloff, Jacobus N

    2016-12-02

    Dichloromethane (DCM) extract of garlic (Allium sativum Linn.) bulbs was assessed for its repellent effect against the hard tick, Hyalomma rufipes (Acari: Ixodidae) using two tick behavioural bioassays; Type A and Type B repellency bioassays, under laboratory conditions. These bioassays exploit the questing behaviour of H. rufipes, a tick that in nature displays ambush strategy, seeking its host by climbing up on vegetation and attaching to a passing host. One hundred microlitres (100 µL) of the test solution containing DCM extract of garlic bulbs and DCM at concentrations of 0.35%, 0.7% or 1.4% w/v were evaluated. DCM only was used for control. Tick repellency increased significantly (R2 = 0.98) with increasing concentration (40.03% - 86.96%) yielding an EC50 of 0.45% w/v in Type B repellency bioassay. At concentration of 1.4% w/v, the DCM extract of garlic bulbs produced high repellency index of 87% (male ticks) and 87.5% (female ticks) in the Type A repellency bioassay. Only 4% avoidance of male ticks or female ticks was recorded in the Type B repellency bioassay. In the corresponding controls, the mean numbers of non-repelled male or female ticks were 80% and 41 males or 38 females of 50 ticks in the Type A and Type B repellency bioassays, respectively. The variations in the results could be attributed to the difference in tick repellent behaviours that were assessed by the two repellency bioassays; the Type A repellency bioassay assessed repellent effect of garlic extracts without discriminating between deterrence and avoidance whereas the Type B repellency bioassay only assessed avoidance response. Generally, DCM extract of garlic was repellent against H. rufipes, albeit weak tick repellency was obtained in the Type B repellency bioassay. Furthermore, this study established that the tick repellent activity of garlic extracts is predominantly by deterrence.

  20. Anaplasma phagocytophilum Infection Subverts Carbohydrate Metabolic Pathways in the Tick Vector, Ixodes scapularis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cabezas Cruz, Alejandro; Alberdi, P.; Valdés, James J.; Villar, M.; de la Fuente, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, 7 February (2017), č. článku 23. ISSN 2235-2988 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 278976 - ANTIGONE Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : proteomics * transcriptomics * glucose metabolism * Ixodes scapularis * Anaplasma phagocytophilum Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.300, year: 2016

  1. Ixodes scapularis Tick Cells Control Anaplasma phagocytophilum Infection by Increasing the Synthesis of Phosphoenolpyruvate from Tyrosine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cabezas Cruz, Alejandro; Espinosa, P. J.; Obregon, D. A.; Alberdi, P.; de la Fuente, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, AUG 17 (2017), č. článku 375. ISSN 2235-2988 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : proteomics * transcriptomics * phosphoenolpyruvate * glycerol-3-phosphate * Ixodes scapularis * Anaplasma phagocytophilum Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.300, year: 2016

  2. Anaplasma phagocytophilum Infection Subverts Carbohydrate Metabolic Pathways in the Tick Vector, Ixodes scapularis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cabezas Cruz, Alejandro; Alberdi, P.; Valdés, James J.; Villar, M.; de la Fuente, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, FEB 7 (2017), č. článku 23. ISSN 2235-2988 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 278976 - ANTIGONE Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : proteomics * transcriptomics * glucose metabolism * Ixodes scapularis * Anaplasma phagocytophilum Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.300, year: 2016

  3. Impact of Spring Bird Migration on the Range Expansion of Ixodes scapularis Tick Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaotian; Röst, Gergely; Zou, Xingfu

    2016-01-01

    Many observational studies suggest that seasonal migratory birds play an important role in spreading Ixodes scapularis, a vector of Lyme disease, along their migratory flyways, and they are believed to be responsible for geographic range expansion of I. scapularis in Canada. However, the interplay between the dynamics of I. scapularis on land and migratory birds in the air is not well understood. In this study, we develop a periodic delay meta-population model which takes into consideration the local landscape for tick reproduction within patches and the times needed for ticks to be transported by birds between patches. Assuming that the tick population is endemic in the source region, we find that bird migration may boost an already established tick population at the subsequent region and thus increase the risk to humans, or bird migration may help ticks to establish in a region where the local landscape is not appropriate for ticks to survive in the absence of bird migration, imposing risks to public health. This theoretical study reveals that bird migration plays an important role in the geographic range expansion of I. scapularis, and therefore our findings may suggest some strategies for Lyme disease prevention and control.

  4. Genomic insights into the Ixodes scapularis tick vector of Lyme disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulia-Nuss, Monika; Nuss, Andrew B.; Meyer, Jason M.

    2016-01-01

    Ticks transmit more pathogens to humans and animals than any other arthropod. We describe the 2.1 Gbp nuclear genome of the tick, Ixodes scapularis (Say), which vectors pathogens that cause Lyme disease, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, babesiosis and other diseases. The large genome reflects acc...

  5. Population and demographic structure of Ixodes scapularis Say in the eastern United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce M Sakamoto

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The most significant vector of tick-borne pathogens in the United States is Ixodes scapularis Say (the blacklegged tick. Previous studies have identified significant genetic, behavioral and morphological differences between northern vs. southern populations of this tick. Because tick-borne pathogens are dependent on their vectors for transmission, a baseline understanding of the vector population structure is crucial to determining the risks and epidemiology of pathogen transmission. METHODS: We investigated population genetic variation of I. scapularis populations in the eastern United States using a multilocus approach. We sequenced and analyzed the mitochondrial COI and 16S genes and three nuclear genes (serpin2, ixoderin B and lysozyme from wild specimens. RESULTS: We identified a deep divergence (3-7% in I. scapularis COI gene sequences from some southern specimens, suggesting we had sampled a different Ixodes species. Analysis of mitochondrial 16S rRNA sequences did not support this hypothesis and indicated that all specimens were I. scapularis. Phylogenetic analysis and analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA supported significant differences between northern vs. southern populations. Demographic analysis suggested that northern populations had experienced a bottleneck/expansion event sometime in the past, possibly associated with Pleistocene glaciation events. CONCLUSIONS: Similar to other studies, our data support the division of northern vs. southern I. scapularis genetic lineages, likely due to differences in the demographic histories between these geographic regions. The deep divergence identified in some COI gene sequences highlights a potential hazard of relying solely on COI for species identification ("barcoding" and population genetics in this important vector arthropod.

  6. Atlas van de Nederlandse watermijten (Acari: Hydrachnidia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, H.; Hammen, van der H.

    2000-01-01

    Atlas of the Dutch water mites (Acari: Hydrachnidia) Few biogeographic studies have been published on water mites. Only Lundblad (1962) has published an atlas of the Swedish water mites. So far, there are no complete publications on the distribution of Dutch water mites. Acarologists who worked on

  7. Two new species of ptyctimous mites (Acari: Oribatida) from Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twelve species of ptyctimous mites (Acari: Oribatida) are recorded from Ghana for the first time. Two new species are described and illustrated: Phthiracarus bicarinatus sp. nov. and Austrophthiracarus lacunosus sp. nov. Three species are recorded fromWest Africa for the first time. Key words: Acari, Oribatida, ...

  8. Expansion of the Lyme Disease Vector Ixodes scapularis in Canada inferred from CMIP5 Climate Projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Michelle Yvonne; García-García, Almudena; José Cuesta-Valero, Francisco; Beltrami, Hugo; Hansen-Ketchum, Patti; MacDougall, Donna; Hume Ogden, Nicholas

    2017-04-01

    A number of studies have assessed possible climate change impacts on the Lyme disease vector, Ixodes scapularis. However, most have used surface air temperature from only one climate model simulation and/or one emission scenario, representing only one possible climate future. We quantified effects of different Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) and climate model outputs on the projected future changes in the basic reproduction number (R0) of I. scapularis to explore uncertainties in future R0 estimates. We used surface air temperature generated by a complete set of General Circulation Models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) to hindcast historical and forecast future effects of climate change on the R0 of I. scapularis. As in previous studies, R0 of I. scapularis increased with a warming climate under future projected climate. Increases in the multi-model mean R0 values showed significant changes over time under all RCP scenarios, however; only the estimated R0 mean values between RCP6.0 and RCP8.5 showed statistically significant differences. Our results highlight the potential for climate change to have an effect on future Lyme disease risk in Canada even if the Paris Agreement's goal to keep global warming below 2°C is achieved, although mitigation reducing emissions from RCP8.5 levels to those of RCP6.0 or less would be expected to slow tick invasion after the 2030s. On-going planning is needed to inform and guide adaptation in light of the projected range of possible futures.

  9. Statistical Measures of Association Between Amblyomma sabanerae Stoll (Acari: Ixodida: Ixodidae) and the Furrowed Wood Turtle, Rhinoclemmys areolata (Dumeril and Bibron) (Testudines: Emydidae), in Northern Belize

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robbins, RG; Platt, SG; Rainwater, TR; Weisman, W

    2001-01-01

    .... Male ticks were collected from more turtles (94) than were females (48) or immatures (82). However, despite the likelihood that male turtles have greater home ranges, significantly more ticks parasitized female turtles than males...

  10. Assessment of four DNA fragments (COI, 16S rDNA, ITS2, 12S rDNA) for species identification of the Ixodida (Acari: Ixodida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Jizhou; Wu, Shaoqiang; Zhang, Yongning; Chen, Yan; Feng, Chunyan; Yuan, Xiangfen; Jia, Guangle; Deng, Junhua; Wang, Caixia; Wang, Qin; Mei, Lin; Lin, Xiangmei

    2014-03-03

    The 5' region of cytochrome oxidase I (COI) is the standard marker for DNA barcoding. However, COI has proved to be of limited use in identifying some species, and for some taxa, the coding sequence is not efficiently amplified by PCR. These deficiencies lead to uncertainty as to whether COI is the most suitable barcoding fragment for species identification of ticks. In this study, we directly compared the relative effectiveness of COI, 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA), nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) and 12S rDNA for tick species identification. A total of 307 sequences from 84 specimens representing eight tick species were acquired by PCR. Besides the 1,834 published sequences of 189 tick species from GenBank and the Barcode of Life Database, 430 unpublished sequences representing 59 tick species were also successfully screened by Bayesian analyses. Thereafter, the performance of the four DNA markers to identify tick species was evaluated by identification success rates given by these markers using nearest neighbour (NN), BLASTn, liberal tree-based or liberal tree-based (+threshold) methods. Genetic divergence analyses showed that the intra-specific divergence of each marker was much lower than the inter-specific divergence. Our results indicated that the rates of correct sequence identification for all four markers (COI, 16S rDNA, ITS2, 12S rDNA) were very high (> 96%) when using the NN methodology. We also found that COI was not significantly better than the other markers in terms of its rate of correct sequence identification. Overall, BLASTn and NN methods produced higher rates of correct species identification than that produced by the liberal tree-based methods (+threshold or otherwise). As the standard DNA barcode, COI should be the first choice for tick species identification, while 16S rDNA, ITS2, and 12S rDNA could be used when COI does not produce reliable results. Besides, NN and BLASTn are efficient methods for species identification of ticks.

  11. Water absorption through salivary gland type I acini in the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghun Kim

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Tick salivary glands play critical roles in maintaining water balance for survival, as they eliminate excess water and ions during blood feeding on hosts. In the long duration of fasting in the off-host period, ticks secrete hygroscopic saliva into the mouth cavity to uptake atmospheric water vapor. Type I acini of tick salivary glands are speculated to be involved in secretion of hygroscopic saliva based on ultrastructure studies. However, we recently proposed that type I acini play a role in resorption of water/ions from the primary saliva produced by other salivary acini (i.e., types II and III during the tick blood feeding phase. In this study, we tested the function of type I acini in unfed female Ixodes scapularis. The route of ingested water was tracked after forced feeding of water with fluorescent dye rhodamine123. We found that type-I acini of the salivary glands, but not type II and III, are responsible for water uptake. In addition, the ingestion of water through the midgut was also observed. Injection or feeding of ouabain, a Na/K-ATPase inhibitor, suppressed water absorption in type I acini. When I. scapularis was offered a droplet of water, ticks rarely imbibed water directly (5%, while some approached the water droplet to use the high humidity formed in the vicinity of the droplet (23%. We conclude that during both on- and off-host stages, type I acini in salivary glands of female Ixodes scapularis absorb water and ions.

  12. Ixodidas brasileiros e de alguns paizes limitrophes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique de Beaurepaire Aragão

    1936-01-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of the Ixodidae becomes every day, more and more important owing to the fact of the increasing number of diseases of man and animals they can transmit. In Brasil besides transmitting treponemosis, piroplasmosis and anaplasmosis to several domestic animals, the ticks are also responsible fo the transmission of the brazilian rocky mountain spotted fever (A. cajennense and Amblyomma striatum and they can also harbour the virus of the yellow fever and even to transmit it in laboratory experiments (A. cajennense, O. rostratus. The Brazilian fauna of ticks is a small one and has no more than 45 well-established species belonging to the genus Argas, Ornithodoros, Ixodes, Haemaphysalis, Rhipicephalus, Boophilus, Amblyomma and Spaelaeorhynchus. The genus Amblyomma is the best represented one, with 67% of all species of ticks known in Brazil. One of the most important species in the Amblyomma cajennense owing to its abundance and its wide parasitism in many vertebrates: reptiles, birds and mammals, incluing man, who is much attacked by the larva, the nymph and the adult of this species. The other ticks who attack the man are the Amblyomma brasiliense (the pecari tick, in the forests, and the Ornithodoros, especially the species. O. rostratus and brasiliensis. Other species can bite the man, but only occasionally, like Amblyomma fossum, striatum, oblongogutatum etc. Argas persicus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Boophilus are very important species not only as parasites but specially because they transmit several diseases to animals. Some of the ticks of the brazilian wild animals are now also parasites of the domestic ones and vice-versa. Arga persicus var. dissimilis is very common among the poultry and transmits the Treponema anserinum (gallinarum. Boophilus microplus is very abundant on our domestic and wild ruminants (Bos, Cervus, Mazama etc. and can also ben found on horse, dogs, Felis onca, Felis concolor etc., and it transmits to cattle

  13. Cryptic speciation in the Acari: a function of species lifestyles or our ability to separate species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are approximately 55,000 described Acari species, accounting for almost half of all known Arachnida species, but total estimated Acari diversity is reckoned to be far greater. One important source of currently hidden Acari diversity is cryptic speciation, which poses challenges to taxonomists ...

  14. Comportamento de Aedes albopictus e de Ae. scapularis adultos (Diptera: Culicidae no Sudeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Observar e comparar o comportamento das espécies de Aedes albopictus e de Ae. scapularis, na localidade de Pedrinhas, litoral sul do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. MÉTODOS: As observações foram feitas de outubro de 1996 a janeiro de 2000. Foram realizadas coletas sistemáticas de formas adultas mediante a utilização de isca humana, aspirações ambientais e armadilha tipo Shannon. A domiciliação foi estimada pelo índice de Nuorteva e pela razão de sinantropia. RESULTADOS: Foram feitas 87 coletas diurnas, com a obtenção de 872 adultos fêmeas. As médias de Williams', multiplicadas por 100, foram de 118 e 21 para Ae. albopictus nos horários de 7h às 18h e de 18h às 20h, respectivamente. Quanto a Ae. scapularis, foram de 100 e 106 nos mesmos períodos. Esse último revelou pico de atividade crepuscular vespertina. Na aspiração de abrigos, obteve-se o total de 1.124 espécimens, dos quais 226 Ae. albopictus e 898 Ae. scapularis. O período de janeiro a maio correspondeu ao de maior rendimento para ambos os mosquitos. Quanto à armadilha de Shannon, as coletas realizadas na mata revelaram a ausência de Ae. albopictus. No que concerne à domiciliação, esse último mostrou os maiores valores de índices, enquanto Ae. scapularis revelou comportamento de tipo ubiquista. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados confirmam outras observações, permitindo levantar hipóteses. Em relação a Ae. scapularis, sugere-se que possa existir fenômeno de diapausa das fêmeas no período verão-outono, a qual cessaria no inverno-primavera quando então a atividade seria retomada. Quanto a Ae. albopictus, os dados sugerem que se trata de população em processo adaptativo ao novo ambiente.

  15. Distribution and Seasonal Activity of Hard Ticks (Acari: Ixododae Infesting Domestic Ruminants in Famenin County, Hamadan Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Fayazkhoo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Hard ticks (Acari: Ixodidae are one of the most important obligate ectoparasites of vertebrates, belonging to class Arachnida, which transmit a wide range of pathological agents such as viruses, bacteria, and parasites to humans and animals in Iran and around the world. Identifying the distribution of hard ticks in a region is important to monitor their control program, and thereby prevent disease transmission. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive study, sampling was carried out from different parts of the livestock body during four seasons in four geographical directions and five villages of Famenin County, Hamadan Province, Iran, during 2015-2016. The ticks were initially stimulated by using chloroform solution and then separated from domestic ruminants by forceps. The collected ticks were sent to a laboratory, and then their sex and species were identified by using valid diagnostic keys. Results: We studied 800 domestic ruminants, including cattle, sheep, and goats, and found 150 (18.7% cases of infestation. A total of 274 ticks were collected, 259 of which were hard ticks including four genera of Hyalomma, Dermacentor, Repicephlus, and Haemaphysalis. The greatest diversity of species, including Hyalomma scopens (Hy. deteritum, Hyalomma asiaticum, Hyalomma marginatum, and Hyalomma anatolicum belonged to the genus Hyalomma. The frequency rates of Hyalomma, Dermacentor, Rhipicephalus, and Hemaphysalis genera were 73.74%, 15.05%, 10.03%, and 1.15 %, respectively. The highest abundance of ticks was observed in spring (152. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate the diversity of hard ticks in the region and the highest abundance of ticks in spring. Considering the importance of ticks in disease transmission among humans and domestic ruminants, health authorities and respective organizations should take appropriate health measures to control and combat these external parasites.

  16. Cytokine responses of C3H/HeN mice infested with Ixodes scapularis or Ixodes pacificus nymphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeler, G B; Manweiler, S A; Wikel, S K

    2000-01-01

    Lyme borreliosis, caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, is transmitted by Ixodes scapularis in the eastern and midwestern United States and by Ixodes pacificus in the far-Western United States. Studies have shown that infestation with I. scapularis nymphs modulates host cytokine production; however, the influence of I. pacificus infestation on host cytokines remains uninvestigated. This study demonstrated how repeated infestations with pathogen-free I. scapularis or I. pacificus nymphs affects the production of the macrophage cytokines IL-1beta, IL-6 and tumour necrosis factor-alpha and the T lymphocyte cytokines IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10 and IFN-gamma by C3H/HeN mice. Female mice were infested once or twice with pathogen-free I. scapularis or I. pacificus nymphs, with a 14-day tick-free period between exposures. After each infestation, tick biology parameters were assessed and macrophage and T lymphocyte cytokine production measured by antigen capture ELISA. Acquired resistance to tick feeding did not develop after infestation with either tick species. Differences in cytokine production were observed between infested and noninfested mice, and between mice infested with either I. scapularis or I. pacificus nymphs. Infestations polarized cytokine production towards a Th2 cytokine profile, with suppression of pro-inflammatory Th1 cytokines. This pattern of cytokine production is more pronounced for I. pacificus infested mice.

  17. Two new species of Armascirus (Acari: Prostigmata: Cunaxidae) from Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalúz, Stanislav; Vrabec, Michal

    2013-11-06

    Two new mite species from Central Europe, viz. Armascirus fendai sp. nov. and Armascirus masani sp. nov. (Acari: Prostigmata, Cunaxidae) are described and figured. The keys to the known species (females and males) of the genus Armascirus are given.

  18. New species of Uropodina from Madagascar (Acari: Mesostigmata)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kontschán, J.; Starý, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 3895, č. 4 (2014), s. 547-569 ISSN 1175-5326 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Acari * Mesostigmata * Uropodina * new genus * new species * Madagascar Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.906, year: 2014

  19. Capillary feeding of specific dsRNA induces silencing of the isac gene in nymphal Ixodes scapularis ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, C A G; Lima, C M R; Dolan, M C; Piesman, J; Beard, C B; Zeidner, N S

    2005-08-01

    Ixodes scapularis transmits several pathogens including Borrelia burgdorferi. Bioactive compounds in tick saliva support tick feeding and influence pathogen transmission to the mammalian host. These studies utilized oral delivery of dsRNA to silence an anticomplement gene (isac) in I. scapularis nymphs. Silencing of isac significantly reduced fed-tick weight compared to delivery of control lacZ dsRNA, and immunoblots specific for FlaB protein indicated a reduction in spirochete load in isac-silenced infected nymphs. SDS-PAGE demonstrated that isac gene silencing affected expression of a number of salivary and non-salivary gland proteins in ticks. Finally, multiple isac cDNA homologues were cloned, and these may represent a new gene family coexpressed during tick feeding. This work presents a novel oral delivery approach for specific gene silencing in I. scapularis nymphs and characterizes the effect of isac on blood-feeding in an attempt to block transmission of B. burgdorferi.

  20. Lyme Borreliosis in Canada: Biological Diversity and Diagnostic Complexity from an Entomological Perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Janet L.H. Sperling; Felix A.H. Sperling

    2009-01-01

    .... The primary vectors of LB are ticks of various Ixodes Latreille species (Acari: Ixodida: Ixodidae), but questions linger concerning the status of a number of other arthropods that may be infected with B...

  1. Expansion of the Lyme Disease Vector Ixodes Scapularis in Canada Inferred from CMIP5 Climate Projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Michelle; García-García, Almudena; Cuesta-Valero, Francisco José; Beltrami, Hugo; Hansen-Ketchum, Patti; MacDougall, Donna; Ogden, Nicholas Hume

    2017-05-31

    A number of studies have assessed possible climate change impacts on the Lyme disease vector, Ixodes scapularis. However, most have used surface air temperature from only one climate model simulation and/or one emission scenario, representing only one possible climate future. We quantified effects of different Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) and climate model outputs on the projected future changes in the basic reproduction number (R0) of I. scapularis to explore uncertainties in future R0 estimates. We used surface air temperature generated by a complete set of General Circulation Models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) to hindcast historical (1971-2000), and to forecast future effects of climate change on the R0 of I. scapularis for the periods 2011-2040 and 2041-2070. Increases in the multimodel mean values estimated for both future periods, relative to 1971-2000, were statistically significant under all RCP scenarios for all of Nova Scotia, areas of New Brunswick and Quebec, Ontario south of 47°N, and Manitoba south of 52°N. When comparing RCP scenarios, only the estimated R0 mean values between RCP6.0 and RCP8.5 showed statistically significant differences for any future time period. Our results highlight the potential for climate change to have an effect on future Lyme disease risk in Canada even if the Paris Agreement's goal to keep global warming below 2°C is achieved, although mitigation reducing emissions from RCP8.5 levels to those of RCP6.0 or less would be expected to slow tick invasion after the 2030s. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP57.

  2. The Genus Ixodes (Acari: Ixodidae) in Mexico: Adult Identification Keys, Diagnoses, Hosts, and Distribution (El genero Ixodes (Acari: Ixodidae) en Mexico: claves de identificacion para adultos, diagnosis, huespedes y distribucion)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Distribution in Mexico. Puebla . Hosts in Mexico. Heteromyidae (Mammalia). Ixodes guatemalensis Kohls, 1956 Ixodes guatemalensis Kohls, 1956: 636...de Historia Natural 23:191-307. Hoffmann, A. 1969. Un caso de parálisis por picadura de garrapata. Revista Latinoamericana de Microbiología y

  3. Artificial feeding of Amblyomma cajennense (Acari: Ixodidae fasting females through capillary tube technique Alimentação artificial de fêmeas de Amblyomma cajennense (Acari: Ixodidae em jejum por meio da técnica de tubos capilares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isis Abel

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to adjust the artificial feeding technique through capillaries and to verify its influence over the biology of Amblyomma cajennense females. Five groups of 20 female ticks were formed. Females were starved for 45 days and then fed with citrated bovine blood using capillary tubes in different periods of time. Females were divided in five experimental groups with 20 individuals each and fed as follows: groups uninterruptedly fed for 12, 24, and 48 hours and groups fed 2 and 6 h a day, for a period of 8 days. Subsequently, ticks were exposed to rabbits for complementary feeding and their biological parameters were analyzed. TIcks were capable of feeding, showing rounded idiosoma, visible even to naked eyes, following the feeding period. The groups fed for 24 hours, 2 hours/day for eight consecutive days or 6h/day for eight consecutive days presented greater weight gain, without statistically significant differences. These results suggested that 24 hours of artificial feeding were enough for fasting females to increase weight by 2.43 mg. Artificial feeding through capillaries did not interfere with parasitic and non-parasitic phases of A. cajennense females.O presente trabalho teve como objetivos adaptar a técnica de alimentação artificial por meio de tubos capilares para fêmeas de Amblyomma cajennense e verificar a sua influência sobre os parâmetros biológicos da espécie. Fêmeas em jejum por 45 dias foram alimentadas com sangue bovino citratado usando tubos capilares por diferentes períodos de tempo: 12, 24 e 48 horas, 2 horas/dia e 6 horas/dia por 8 dias consecutivos, sendo que cada grupo foi composto por 20 carrapatos. Em seguida, os carrapatos foram expostos a coelhos para completar a alimentação e seus parâmetros biológicos foram analisados. Após alimentação artificial, os carrapatos apresentaram idiossoma arredondado mesmo à vista desarmada. Os grupos 24 horas, 8 dias/2 horas/dia e 8 dias/6 horas/dia tiveram maior ganho de peso, não havendo diferença estatística entre eles. Desta forma, nas condições do presente trabalho, 24 horas de alimentação artificial foram suficientes para que fêmeas em jejum aumentassem seu peso em 2,43mg. A alimentação artificial utilizando tubos capilares não interferiu nos parâmetros relativos às fases parasitária e não-parasitária de fêmeas A. cajennense.

  4. Extratos de plantas no controle de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887 (Acari: Ixodidae em laboratório Plant extracts in control of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887 (Acari: Ixodidae in laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Maria Forti Broglio-Micheletti

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Extratos vegetais foram estudados com o objetivo de avaliar suas eficiências no controle de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887 em laboratório. Fêmeas ingurgitadas de carrapato foram coletadas de bovinos e mantidas em placas de Petri. Foram utilizados extratos orgânicos alcoólicos 2% (peso/volume de sementes de Annona muricata L. (Annonaceae (graviola; flores de Syzygium malaccensis (L. (Myrtaceae (jambo; folhas de Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Stapf (Poaceae (capim-santo; folhas de Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae (nim; e extrato hexânico na mesma concentração de A. indica (sementes. Os grupos-controle foram compostos por fêmeas sem tratamento e fêmeas tratadas com água destilada e esterilizada e dimetilsulfóxido (DMSO a uma concentração de 1%. O extrato de A. muricata apresentou o maior poder acaricida, com eficácia de 100%, seguido dos extratos de S. malaccensis (75 e 59,24% e A. indica (65 e 38,49%. Houve 100% de redução na eclosão das larvas quando se utilizou o extrato de sementes de A. muricata.Plant extracts were studied to evaluate its efficiency in the control of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887 in laboratory. Engorged female ticks were collected from the cattle, kept in Petri dishes. Organic alcoholic extracts 2% (weight/volume were used: seeds of Annona muricata L. (Annonaceae (soursop; flowers of Syzygium malaccensis (L. (Myrtaceae (iamb, leaves of Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Stapf (Poaceae (holy grass, leaves of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae (neem and hexane extract 2% (weight/volume of A. indica (seeds. The control groups consisted of untreated females and females treated with distilled water and sterile and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO a concentration of 1%. The extract of A. muricata (seed had the highest mortality with acaricide activity and 100% efficacy followed by extracts of S. malaccensis (75 and 59.24% and A. indica (65 and 38.49%. The seed extract of A. muricata reduced 100% larvae hatch.

  5. First records of the ticks Amblyomma calcaratum and A. pacae (Acari: Ixodidae parasitizing mammals of Mexico Primeros registros de las garrapatas Amblyomma calcaratum y A. pacae (Acari: Ixodidae parasitando mamíferos de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Guzmán-Cornejo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on study of ticks deposited in the Colección Nacional de Ácaros, Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, we report the first records in Mexico for two species of Amblyomma: Amblyomma calcaratum ex Tamandua mexicana, and Amblyomma pacae ex Tapirus bairdii. These new records increase the number of species recorded for the genus Amblyomma in Mexico to 26.Basado en la revisión de garrapatas depositadas en la Colección Nacional de Ácaros, Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, establecemos los primeros registros en México para 2 especies del género Amblyomma: Amblyomma calcaratum ex Tamandua mexicana y Amblyomma pacae ex Tapirus bairdii. Estos nuevos registros incrementan a 26 el número de especies del género Amblyomma distribuidas en México.

  6. Parasitismo em humano por Amblyomma sp (Acari: Ixodidae, na cidade de Recife, estado de Pernambuco Parasitism by Amblyomma sp (Acari: Ixodidae in humans in the city of Recife, state of Pernambuco, Brazil

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    Rafael Antonio do Nascimento Ramos

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Os ixodídeos pertencentes ao gênero Amblyomma são encontrados no Brasil, sendo de grande importância em Saúde Pública por representarem risco na transmissão de patógenos. MÉTODOS: Este trabalho relata um caso de parasitismo em humano por Amblyomma sp, ocorrido na Cidade de Recife, Pernambuco. RESULTADOS: O parasitismo foi observado em uma senhora onde os ectoparasitos encontravam-se fixados em suas pernas e pés. CONCLUSÕES: Este tipo de achado é incomum e constitui o primeiro relato do parasitismo em humano por Amblyomma sp, no Estado de Pernambuco.INTRODUCTION: The Amblyomma genus is widely distribution in Brazil and is important regarding the public health risk represented by the transmission of pathogens. METHODS: This paper reports a case of parasitism in humans by Amblyomma sp that occurred in the City of Recife, State of Pernambuco. RESULTS: Parasitism was observed in a woman where the ticks were attached to her legs and feet. CONCLUSIONS: This finding is unusual and is the first report of parasitism in humans by Amblyomma sp in State of Pernambuco.

  7. Eficácia de diferentes formulações de acaricidas sobre larvas de Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806 (Acari: Ixodidae e Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887 (Acari: Ixodidae

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    Luciano Melo Souza

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2017v30n1p65 O parasitismo por ácaros sempre foi objeto de preocupações e perdas relacionadas à produção animal, assim como à transmissibilidade de agentes etiológicos de importantes doenças; e aproximadamente 95% das formas evolutivas dos carrapatos em fase não parasitária encontram-se no ambiente. Com base na importância de se controlar estágios larvares dos ixodídeos no ambiente, este estudo avaliou a eficácia de acaricidas in vitro sobre larvas de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus e Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Foram testadas: Cipermetrina 15% (T1; Deltametrina 25% (T2; associação de Cipermetrina 5% + Diclorvós 45% + Butóxido de piperolina 25% (T3; associação de Cipermetrina 15% + Clorpiriphos 25% + Citronela 1% (T4 e Amitraz 12,5% (T5. Para cada tratamento foram realizadas nove repetições contendo 20 larvas. As observações de motilidade foram realizadas: 1, 5, 10, 20 e 30 minutos após o tratamento (MPT; 1, 2, 6, 12 e 24 h após o tratamento (HPT; 5 dias após o tratamento (DPT. Os testes das larvas de R. (B. microplus e R. sanguineus com deltametrina 25% serviram de controle positivo e demonstraram perda de motilidade de 100% das larvas com duas HPT para ambas de ixodídeos. O R. (B. microplus apresentou maior sensibilidade aos desafios contendo a cipermetrina 15% e 5% associada ao diclorvós e butóxido de piperonila. Larvas de R. sanguineus apresentaram maior sensibilidade em menor tempo ao tratamento com amitraz a 12,5%. Contudo, apesar das diferenças no efeito acaricida observadas no decorrer dos tempos, obteve-se eficácia de 100% para todos os compostos inseticidas sobre os instares das duas espécies 12 HPT, demonstrando que, quando utilizados nas doses recomendadas pelos fabricantes, os produtos comerciais podem ser eficazes em estratégias de controle ambiental das larvas.

  8. Occurrence of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae on human hosts, in three municipalities in the State of Pará, Brazil Parasitismo por carrapatos (Acari: Ixodidae em humanos, em três municípios do Estado do Pará

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    Nicolau Maués Serra-Freire

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Assuming the existence of tick parasitism in humans in the State of Pará, an aggregate observational study was developed along a transversal line in three cities of the State, during two years. Interviews and examinations of 2,160 townspeople and tourists were carried out, without discrimination of ethnic, sex, age, or social status, and classified for effects analyzed for four bands of age, six types of activities in the society, and two sexes. Larvae, nymphs, and adults of ticks had been identified with cases of parasitism involving six species, of the genus Amblyomma, the genus Ixodes, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Anocentor nitens, and Ornithodorus talaje (the first case registered in Pará, infecting human beings. Adults and agricultural workers were most frequently attacked, followed by students. A. cajennense and R. sanguineus are the species most frequent in the parasitism affecting humans, and A. cajennense is the dominant species. The statistical prevalence was largest in Cachoeira do Arari, Ilha do Marajó. In Santarém the greatest average intensity of parasitism was for R. sanguineus, and in the other locations it wasfor A. cajennense. Agricultural workers faced the greatest risk from parasitism, and to place in practice elementary measures of prevention would reduce by 25% the number of cases.Com a hipótese de parasitismo por carrapatos em humanos no Estado do Pará, foi desenvolvido estudo observacional, agregado, transversal em três mesoregiões do Estado, durante dois anos. Foram entrevistados e examinados 2.160 munícipes, e turistas, sem discriminação étnica, de sexo, idade, e social, classificados para efeito de análises em quatro faixas de idade, seis tipos de atividades na sociedade, e dois sexos. Houve casos de parasitismo por larvas, ninfas, e adultos de carrapatos, envolvendo seis espécies do gênero Amblyomma, o gênero Ixodes, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Anocentor nitens e Ornithodorus talaje (primeiro registo para o Estado. Adultos e os trabalhadores rurais são os mais atacados, seguidos dos estudantes. A. cajennense e R. sanguineus são as espécies mais freqüentes no parasitismo de humano, e A. cajennense é a espécie dominante. A prevalência foi superior a 40% nos três municípios, e estatisticamente maior em Cachoeira do Arari, Ilha de Marajó. Em Santarém R. sanguineus teve a maior intensidade média de parasitismo, nos outros municípios foi por A. cajennense. Estar em atividade rural dobra o risco do parasitismo, e o esclarecimento da população, para colocar em prática medidas elementares de prevenção reduziria em 25% o número de casos.

  9. New Oppioidea taxa from Madagascar (Acari: Oribatida

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    Mahunka, S.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of the continuous survey of the Madagascan Oribatida Fauna some newly surveyed Oppioidea (Acari: Oribatida species are discussed. Altogether 15 species are listed of the recently studied, identified and described taxa originating from several sites of the island (Malagasy Republic. Seven species of them are new to science and some other known only from few localities. One species represents also a new genus, Interbelba gen. nov. Three species, Berniniella bicarinata (Paoli, 1908, Quadroppia circumita (Hammer, 1961 and Discosuctobelba variosetosa (Hammer, 1961are recorded from Madagascar for the first time. With 22 figures.

  10. Amblyomma aureolatum and Ixodes auritulus (Acari: Ixodidae) on birds in southern Brazil, with notes on their ecology.

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    Arzua, Márcia; Navarro Da Silva, Mário Antonio; Famadas, Kátia Maria; Beati, Lorenza; Barros-Battesti, Darci Moraes

    2003-01-01

    Between January 1999 and December 2000, 876 bird specimens were captured in three different ecological environments from the Reinhard Maack Park, Curitiba, State of Paraná, southern Brazil. A total of 142 birds (16.2%) were infested with Amblyomma aureolatum (Pallas 1772) (N=699) and/or Ixodes auritulus Neumann, 1904 (N=18) ticks. Questing A. aureolatum nymphs (N=2) and adults (N=5) were also collected from the soil and the vegetation. None of the I. auritulus were collected off-host. We collected only immatures of A. aureolatum on birds, but all life stages of I. auritulus. The latter species was collected on Turdus rufiventris and on Synallaxis ruficapilla, which is herein recognized as a host of I. auritulus for the first time. Moreover, this is also the first report of A. aureolatum infesting birds, and 16 different bird species were found infested. It was observed that larval infestation was positively correlated with the dry and cold season, while nymphal infestation was positively correlated with the warm and rainy season. Although only 2-years worth of data is provided, our results suggest the infestation of birds by ticks was significantly higher at the biotopes formed by forest at its first stage of regeneration 'capoeira' and the original Araucaria forest habitat 'mata' than the ecotone between forest and urban areas 'peripheral area'.

  11. Abundancia relativa de Amblyomma spp. (Acari: Ixodidae en bovinos (Bos taurus y B. indicus de Costa Rica

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    V. Alvarez

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available El estudio describe la abundancia de garrapatas del género Amblyomma encontradas sobre bovino a través de muestreos mensuales llevados a cabo en diez fincas pertenecientes a ocho zonas ecológicas (ZE de Costa Rica. Durante la visita se recolectaban garrapatas >4 mm del lado derecho de los bovinos. El estudio recopiló información meteorológica para algunas de las fincas ubicadas en el ensayo, mostrando que la variable que más fluctúa es la de precipitación. La principal especie de Amblyomma encontrada fue A. cajennense. La presencia de ninfas del género Amblyomma se localizan solo en los meses de enero a mayo, coincidente con la época de menor humedad en la zona de estacionalidad de lluvias, por lo que es esperable solo una generación por año. En el trabajo de laboratorio se mantienen ninfas de Amblyomma a las cuales se les mide el tiempo de muda y de sobrevivencia bajo condiciones controladas, sin encontrar mayores diferencias entre sexo. Los períodos de sobrevivencia muestran la imposibilidad de efectuar un manejo de potreros con el fin de controlar a las especies de este género. La presencia de adultos del género Amblyomma es a lo largo del año sin presentar una preferencia particular por alguna época. El estudio dividió las zonas de estudio en régimen lluvioso estacional y régimen sin patrón de estacionalidad. La mayor presencia de adultos de Amblyomma se da precisamente en el de estacionalidad, o de influencia Pacífico. Se reporta la presencia de A. maculatum solo en la ZE correspondiente al Bosque húmedo Tropical transición a premontano. Igualmente, se informa de la presencia de Ixodes boliviensis en la ZE denominada Bosque muy húmedo Montano bajo.The research describe the big amount of ticks of the Amblyomma genus, found on bovines through monthly samplings carried out in ten farms in eight ecological zones (EZ of Costa Rica. Ticks larger than 4 mm were picked up from the right side of the animals during the visit. The study compiled meteorological information for some farms located in the experiment, showing that the most fluctuant variable is rainfall. The most important Amblyomma species found was A. cajennense. Amblyomma nymphs were found only from January to May, which coincides with the lower humidity season in the rain seasonality area; as for it is expected only one generation per year. In the lab work Amblyomma nymphs are kept to measure the moulting season and the surviving time under controlled conditions, but no major differences were found between both sexes. The surviving periods show that it is not possible to do a grazing land handling, in order to control this genus species. Adults of the genus Amblyomma are present through all the year, not showing any specific preference for a season. The research divided the investigation areas in rain seasonality and not-seasonality systems. The highest amount of Amblyomma is found given in the rain seasonality system or of Pacific influence. A. maculatum is present only in the EZ of Tropical Humid Forest transition to pre-montainous. Likewise, Ixodes boliviensis is found in the EZ of low mountainous Very Humid Forest.

  12. In vitro acaricidal efficacy of plant extracts from Brazilian flora and isolated substances against Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

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    Valente, Paula Pimentel; Amorim, Juliana Mendes; Castilho, Rachel Oliveira; Leite, Romário Cerqueira; Ribeiro, Múcio Flávio Barbosa

    2014-01-01

    The tick Rhipicephalus microplus causes significant losses in livestock cattle and has developed increasing resistance to the primary acaricides that are used to treat these infections. The objective of this study was to identify new biomolecules or isolated substances showing acaricidal activity from plants. Larval packet tests were conducted to evaluate the effects of 11 species of plants and three isolated substances (betulinic acid, eugenol, and nerolidol) on R. microplus. An adult female immersion test was performed with the substance that showed the highest larvicidal activity, which was evaluated for inhibition of reproduction. Tests using Licania tomentosa, Hymenaea stigonocarpa, Hymenaea courbaril, Stryphnodendron obovatum, Jacaranda cuspidifolia, Jacaranda ulei, Struthanthus polyrhizus, Chrysobalanus icaco, Vernonia phosphorea, Duguetia furfuracea, and Simarouba versicolor extracts as well as the isolated substance betulinic acid indicated lower acaricidal effects on R. microplus larvae. The extract displaying the best larvicidal activity was the ethanolic extract from L. tomentosa at a concentration of 60%, resulting in a mortality rate of 40.3%. However, nerolidol and eugenol showed larvicidal activity, which was highest for eugenol. Nerolidol caused a 96.5% mortality rate in the R. microplus larvae at a high concentration of 30%, and eugenol caused 100% mortality at a concentration of 0.3%. In the adult immersion test, 5% eugenol was identified as a good biomolecule for controlling R. microplus, as demonstrated by its high acaricidal activity and inhibition of oviposition.

  13. Ticks, Amblyomma rotundatum (Acari: ixodidae), on toads, Chaunus schneideri and Chaunus granulosus (Anura: bufonidae), in northern Argentina.

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    Smith, Robert L; Schnack, Juan A; Schaefer, Eduardo F; Kehr, Arturo I

    2008-04-01

    This communication provides notes on 2 species of toads, Chaunus schneideri and Chaunus granulosus, infested with ixodid ticks, Amblyomma rotundatum, from the provinces of Corrientes and Formosa in northern Argentina. Chaunus schneideri is a new amphibian host record for A. rotundatum, a species previously reported to parasitize other anurans and also reptiles. We examined 74 ticks on 5 toads. All ticks were A. rotundatum; all adults were females, and all developmental stages were randomly attached to host body parts. Ticks remained attached to one of the toads for from 7 to 17 days after the host was captured. One toad, encumbered with 33 ticks, was moribund when found and died shortly thereafter.

  14. Evaluation of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae resistance to different acaricide formulations using samples from Brazilian properties

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    Leandro de Oliveira Souza Higa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus tick is responsible for considerable economic losses in Brazil, causing leather damage, weight loss and reduced milk production in cattle and results in the transmission of pathogens. Currently, the main method for controlling this tick is using acaricides, but their indiscriminate use is one of the major causes of resistance dissemination. In this study, the adult immersion test (AIT was used to evaluate resistance in ticks from 28 properties located in five different states (Mato Grosso do Sul, Mato Grosso, Ceará, São Paulo, e Minas Gerais and the Distrito Federal (DF of Brazil. The resistance was found in 47.64% of the repetitions demonstrating an efficacy of less than 90% in various locations throughout the country. The larvae packet test was used to evaluate samples from ten properties in four states (Mato Grosso do Sul, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais and Espírito Santo. Spray products belonging to the main classes of acaricides, including combination formulations, were used in both types of test. New cases of resistance were found on properties within the states of Ceará, Espírito Santo and Mato Grosso, where such resistance was not previously reported.

  15. Desempenho do programa BABSIM no estudo epidemiológico de Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1889 (Acari: Ixodidae

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    Fonseca A.H.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Os modelos de simulação são ferramentas úteis na análise das inter-relações bioecológicas dos carrapatos. Partindo dessa premissa, objetivou-se avaliar o desempenho do programa BABSIM como auxiliar no estudo epidemiológico de B. microplus para o Estado de Minas Gerais, validando-se os ajustes no programa pela análise comparativa das curvas populacionais observadas e simuladas em Pedro Leopoldo e São Miguel do Anta, MG. As simulações foram realizadas com o programa BABSIM utilizando-se os parâmetros biológicos originais do programa e com ajustes nas temperaturas mínimas para oviposição e incubação dos ovos, no índice de encontro do hospedeiro pelas larvas, e no índice de sobrevivência dos estádios de vida livre. Os ajustes nos parâmetros biológicos propiciaram aumento na intensidade da carga parasitária, porém não foram suficientes para representar com maior precisão a dinâmica populacional no ecossistema em São Miguel do Anta. As simulações procedidas com os parâmetros biológicos originais e ajustados apresentaram comportamento variável para os diferentes anos em relação aos observados no estudo experimental de Pedro Leopoldo. Apesar de os resultados das simulações terem contribuído para a análise do conjunto de variáveis que interagem para determinar as variações do tamanho das populações de carrapatos nos ecossistemas estudados, eles indicaram, também, a necessidade de introduzir modificações nos submodelos que representam as inter-relações parasito-ambiente antrópico, assim como a necessidade de modificar o programa para permitir alterações de manejo dos animais, dentro de um mesmo ano de simulação, e, dessa maneira, justificar com maior precisão a dinâmica populacional em diferentes tipos de ecossistemas.

  16. Two new species of African Haemaphysalis ticks (Acari: Ixodidae), carnivore parasites of the H. (Rhipistoma) leachi group.

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    Apanaskevich, Dmitry A; Horak, Ivan G

    2008-06-01

    Two new tick species belonging to the African Haemaphysalis (Rhipistoma) leachi subgroup, namely H. (R.) colesbergensis n. sp. and H. (R.) oliveri n. sp., are described. Haemaphysalis (R.) colesbergensis adults are easily differentiated from the other species of the H. (R.) leachi subgroup, including H. (R.) oliveri, by the spur on coxa IV, which is considerably longer than that on coxa III. The adults of the 2 new species are equal in size, but the dental formula of the hypostome of H. (R.) colesbergensis is 4/4 compared to 5/5 for H. (R.) oliveri. The dental formula of H. (R.) oliveri also distinguishes it from other ticks in the subgroup, namely H. (R.) leachi, H. (R.) elliptica, H. (R.) moreli, and H. (R.) punctaleachi (4/4 in these species), but not from H. (R.) paraleachi, which has a 5/5 dental arrangement. However, the average total length and width of H. (R.) oliveri males (2.47 x 1.20 mm) are considerably shorter and narrower than those of H. (R.) paraleachi males (3.81 x 1.79 mm). Similar differences in size apply to the females. Nymphs and larvae of H. (R.) colesbergensis and H. (R.) oliveri can be distinguished from those of other members of the H. (R.) leachi subgroup, as well as from each other, by a combination of the following characters: size and measurement ratios, length of posterodorsal and posteroventral spurs on palpal segment II, and number of denticles per file on the hypostome. Haemaphysalis (R.) colesbergensis is known only from South Africa, where it has been collected from domestic cats and dogs and medium-sized wild felids. Haemaphysalis (R.) oliveri is recorded only from Sudan, where it has been collected from small- to medium-sized wild felids and canids and an antelope. The hosts of the immature stages of H. (R.) colesbergensis are unknown, while nymphs of H. (R.) oliveri have been collected from rodents.

  17. SELECCIÓN DE AISLADOS DE HONGOS ENTOMOPATÓGENOS PARA EL CONTROL DE Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae

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    Ana Martha Cruz-Avalos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar la susceptibilidad in vitro de larvas no alimentadas de Rhipicephalus microplus a diferentes aislados de hongos entomopatógenos nativos de suelo de unidades ganaderas y conocer las características de crecimiento y potencial de inóculo de los aislados que mostraran ser más patógenos. Se evaluó la patogenicidad y virulencia de aislados de Metarhizium anisopliae sensu lato (Ma, Beauveria bassiana (Bb e, Isaria fumorosea (Ifr, en larvas de R. microplus de 7 días de edad, expuestas mediante inmersión en una solución acuosa a la concentración 1x108 conidios/ml. Los aislados Ma135 y Ma133, presentaron alta patogenicidad con 100 y 94% de mortalidad, con valores CL50 de 5.2x104 y 2.5x104 conidios/ml, respectivamente. En estos aislados, la producción de esporas fue de 1.0x10¹º conidios/ml, y el crecimiento radial de micelio fue de 3.07 y 3.60 mm/día, respectivamente. Estos resultados demuestran que los aislados Ma135 y Ma133, pueden ser considerados potenciales agentes de control biológico en larvas de R. microplus. Â

  18. Esterase profile in a pyrethroid-resistant Brazilian strain of the cattle tick Boophilus microplus (Acari, Ixodidae

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    Milla Alves Baffi

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The cattle tick Boophilus microplus causes great damage in livestock and is considered one of the most important tropical ectoparasites. The traditional method of control is based on the intensive use of pesticides, however the indiscriminate use of these compounds over the years has led to the selection of resistant ticks. Hydrolases, particularly esterases (EST, have been reported to be associated with acaricide resistance in B. microplus. We compared the esterase profile of susceptible and cypermethrin-resistant strains of adult B. microplus and a pyrethroid susceptible reference strain (the Mozzo strain using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and specific staining. The electrophoretic profiles of protein extracts revealed the presence of four regions with esterase activity in the cypermethrin-resistant strain and three of these regions in the susceptible strains. The bands were numbered EST-1 to EST-4 in sequence (starting from the anode according to their decrease in negative charge. The EST-1A and EST-1B enzymes were detected only in the resistant strain. The inhibition studies with eserine sulfate, copper sulfate, p- p-chloromercuribenzoate (pCMB, malathion and phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF indicated that the EST-1A and EST-1B enzymes belong to the acetylcholinesterase class and are probably associated with resistance to acaricides in this Brazilian resistant strain of B. microplus.

  19. Resistance to coumaphos and diazinon in Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) and evidence for the involvement of an oxidative detoxification mechanism.

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    Li, Andrew Y; Davey, Ronald B; Miller, Robert J; George, John E

    2003-07-01

    The levels of resistance to two organophosphate acaricides, coumaphos and diazinon, in several Mexican strains of Boophilus microplus (Canestrini) were evaluated using the FAO larval packet test. Regression analysis of LC50 data revealed a significant cross-resistance pattern between those two acaricides. Metabolic mechanisms of resistance were investigated with synergist bioassays. Piperonyl butoxide (PBO) reduced coumaphos toxicity in susceptible strains, but synergized coumaphos toxicity in resistant strains. There was a significant correlation between PBO synergism ratios and the coumaphos resistance ratios. The results suggest that an enhanced cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (cytP450)-mediated detoxification mechanism may exist in the resistant strains, in addition to the cytP450-mediated metabolic pathway that activates coumaphos. PBO failed to synergize diazinon toxicity in resistant strains, suggesting the cytP450 involved in detoxification were specific. Triphenylphosphate (TPP) synergized toxicity of both acaricides in both susceptible and resistant strains, and there was no correlation between TPP synergism ratios and the LC50 estimates for either acaricide. Esterases may not play a major role in resistance to coumaphos and diazinon in those strains. Bioassays with diethyl maleate (DEM) revealed a significant correlation between DEM synergism ratios and LC50 estimates for diazinon, suggesting a possible role for glutathione S-transferases in diazinon detoxification. Resistance to coumaphos in the Mexican strains of B. microplus was likely to be conferred by both a cytP450-mediated detoxification mechanism described here and the mechanism of insensitive acetylcholinesterases reported elsewhere. The results of this study also underscore the potential risk of coumaphos resistance in B. microplus from Mexico to the U.S. cattle fever tick eradication program.

  20. First report of ivermectin resistance in field populations of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) in Punjab districts of India.

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    Singh, Nirbhay Kumar; Singh, Harkirat; Jyoti; Prerna, Mranalini; Rath, Shitanshu S

    2015-11-30

    The larval immersion test (LIT) was used on the progenies of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus collected from four districts of the Punjab state, India to test the resistance to ivermectin. The regression graphs of probit mortality of larval ticks plotted against log values of increasing concentrations of ivermectin were utilized for the determination of slope of mortality, lethal concentration for 50%(LC50), 95%(LC95), resistance ratios (RR50, RR95) and the resistance levels (RL). Values of the coefficient of determination (R(2)) for LIT ranged from 0.900 to 0.978, and the RR50 and RR95 values against ivermectin ranged from 2.97 to 8.85 and 2.42 to 8.47, respectively, indicating resistance status in all field isolates. On the basis of RR values, three field isolates (BAT, GUR, HOS) showed level II, whereas PTK isolate showed presence of level I resistance status against ivermectin. This appears to be the first report of ivermectin resistance in R. (B.) microplus from Punjab, India. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Prospects of using DNA barcoding for species identification and evaluation of the accuracy of sequence databases for ticks (Acari: Ixodida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui L; Zhang, Bin

    2014-04-01

    Ticks are important vectors of disease and parasites of livestock. Species identification of ticks has been traditionally based on morphological characters, which is usually limited by the condition of samples and little variation among specimens, so a rapid and reliable identification method is needed. DNA barcoding uses a standard fragment of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase c subunit I (COI) to identify species and has been successfully used in many taxa. In this study, we applied DNA barcoding to tick species. K2P distances showed that most interspecific divergences exceed 8%, while intraspecific distances were usually lower than 2%. However, intraspecific distances of 12 species were unexpectedly high. ABGD grouping results demonstrated that sequences of these species should be divided into 2 or more groups. And some exceptional clustering occurred among sequences of Hyalomma marginatum, Hy. truncatum, and Hy. dromedarii, Amblyomma testudinarium and A. pattoni, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and R. pumilio, Haemaphysalis parva and Ha. concinna, Ixodes asanumai and I. nipponensis. Additionally, 226 unnamed sequences were assigned to known species or constituted different groups, and K2P distances of all these groups were less than 2%. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that DNA barcoding is a useful tool for the identification of tick species, and further work is needed to reveal ambiguous species delimitation in some problematic genera. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Fluazuron-induced morphophysiological changes in the cuticle formation and midgut of Rhipicephalus sanguineus Latreille, 1806 (Acari: Ixodidae) nymphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Patrícia Rosa; Calligaris, Izabela Braggião; Roma, Gislaine Cristina; Bechara, Gervásio Henrique; Camargo-Mathias, Maria Izabel

    2013-01-01

    The present study demonstrated the effects of the arthropod growth regulator, fluazuron (Acatak®), in the formation of the integument and digestive processes of Rhipicephalus sanguineus nymphs fed on rabbits treated with different doses of this chemical acaricide. For this, three different doses of fluazuron (20, 40, or 80 mg/kg) were applied "pour on" to the hosts (groups II, III, and IV), as well as distilled water to the control group. On the first day after treatment (24 h), the hosts were artificially infested with R. sanguineus nymphs. After full engorgement (7 days), the nymphs were removed, placed on labeled Petri dishes, and kept in biochemical oxygen demand incubator for 7 days. The engorged nymphs were then taken for morphological, histochemical, and histological analyses. The results showed the occurrence of cytological, morphohistological, and histochemical alterations in the integument and midgut of nymphs from all the different treated groups. These alterations occurred at cuticular level in the subdivisions of the cuticle, related to the size of the digestive cells, amount of accumulated blood elements, and digestive residues, as well as the presence of vacuoles in the cytoplasm of the digestive cells. Thus, this study demonstrated that fluazuron acts on the integument and midgut cells of R. sanguineus nymphs fed on treated rabbits and pointed out the possibility of the use of this chemical-which is more specific, less toxic, and less harmful to the environment and nontarget organisms-in the control of R. sanguineus, at least in the nymphal stage of its biological cycle.

  3. Chemical composition and repellency of essential oils from four medicinal plants against Ixodes ricinus nymphs (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Seedi, Hesham R; Khalil, Nasr S; Azeem, Muhammad; Taher, Eman A; Göransson, Ulf; Pålsson, Katinka; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin

    2012-09-01

    In our search for effective tick repellents from plant origin, we investigated the effect of essential oils of four medicinal and culinary plants belonging to the family Lamiaceae on nymphs of the tick Ixodes ricinus (L.). The essential oils of the dry leaves of Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary) (L.), Mentha spicata (Spearmint) (L.), Origanum majorana (Majoram) (L.), and Ocimum basilicum (Basil) (L.) were isolated by steam distillation and 15 microg/cm2 concentration of oils was tested against ticks in a laboratory bioassay. The oils of R. officinalis, M. spicata, and O. majorana showed strong repellency against the ticks 100, 93.2, and 84.3%, respectively, whereas O. basilicum only showed 64.5% repellency. When tested in the field, the oils of R. officinalis and M. spicata showed 68.3 and 59.4% repellency at a concentration of 6.5 microg/cm2 on the test cloths. The oils were analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry and the major compounds from the most repellent oils were 1,8-cineole, camphor, linalool, 4-terpineol, borneol, and carvone.

  4. Primer registro de infestación en un reptil por larvas de Amblyomma parvitarsum (Acari: Ixodidae en Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Natalio Castillo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Amblyomma parvitarsum es una garrapata endémica del Altiplano Andino de Argentina, Bolivia, Chile y Perú. En la provincia de San Juan adultos de esta garrapata fueron encontrados en el Parque Nacional San Guillermo sobre Vicugna vicugna. En Argentina también existen citas de adultos de A. parvitarsum sobre bovinos, ovinos y el ñandú . El primer caso de parasitismo de larvas de A. parvitarsum en Liolaemus fue realizado en Chile. El presente trabajo menciona por primera vez para Argentina la presencia de larvas de A. parvitarsum parasitando al lagarto Liolaemus eleodori.

  5. Chemical composition and efficacy of dichloromethane extract of Croton sphaerogynus Baill. (Euphorbiaceae) against the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Righi, Adne A; Motta, Lucimar B; Klafke, Guilherme M; Pohl, Paula C; Furlan, Claudia M; Santos, Deborah YAC; Salatino, Maria LF; Negri, Giuseppina; Labruna, Marcelo B; Salatino, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    .... The present study reports the analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry of the constituents of leaf extracts of Croton sphaerogynus and results of acaricidal activity against the cattle tick R. microplus...

  6. Establishing the discriminating concentration for permethrin and fipronil resistance in Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille) (Acari: Ixodidae), the brown dog tick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiden, Amanda L; Kaufman, Phillip E; Allan, Sandra A; Oi, Faith

    2016-07-01

    Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille), the brown dog tick, is a veterinary canine and urban pest. These ticks have been found to develop resistance and tolerance to the two commonly used acaricides permethrin and fipronil respectively. We have developed a discriminating concentration that can be used for rapid detection of permethrin and fipronil resistance in brown dog tick populations. The availability of a discriminating concentration for the brown dog tick provides an inexpensive and rapid resistance diagnostic technique that can be used to guide tick management plans for companion animals and aid in the selection of environmental treatment options. Establishing the discriminating concentration for permethrin and fipronil in brown dog ticks enables a resistant:susceptible screening. For permethrin the discriminating concentration was set at 0.19%, and for fipronil at 0.15%. Three additional diagnostic concentrations were chosen to evaluate resistance levels when larval tick numbers were available for screening. Future tick submissions from residences and kennel facilities can be subjected to a single chemical concentration to diagnose resistance, which minimizes time, costs and tick rearing requirements and guides effective control plans. With the standardized use of larval ticks, a client-submission quantity of ideally five engorged females would provide sufficient larval numbers to utilize this technique. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Tests to determine LC50 and discriminating concentrations for fipronil against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) and their standardization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratory test were carried out on larvae and adults of the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, to determine fipronil toxicity. Adult immersion test (AIT), larval immersion test (LIT) and larval packet test (LPT) were standardized using susceptible strain (Mozo). Curves dose-response ...

  8. [Evaluation of efficacy of ripe and unripe fruit oil extracts of Melia azedarach against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: ixodidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Lorena A Dias; Soares, Sara F; Pires, Hélio B

    2008-01-01

    Hexanic extracts gotten of the fruits of cinamomo (Melia azedarach) were tested on engorged females and larvae of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. Four extracts were produced: one of unripe fruits and three of ripe fruits, being one with the fruits immediately processed, another one with fruits stored for five months and one tested after storage of the extract for 2 (two) years at 4 degrees C. The tests were made in triplicate, in 0.25% - 0.0156% dilutions. The effectiveness of extracts was evaluated through the comparison of the Reproduction Estimate of the groups "controlled and treated" for females, of mortality for the larvae, and of the calculation of the DL50 and the relative power for larvae and females. The extract of unripe fruits presented the effectiveness varying the 3.6% - 100% for females, and of ripe fruits it varied of 5.2% - 99.7%. The two extracts caused a mortality of 100% of the larvae in the highest concentrations. The extract of stored fruits presented effectiveness of 14% - 83% on females, while the extract stored in refrigerator presented effectiveness of 8.4% 100% and both did not present larvicidal effect. The results demonstrate a superiority of the unripe extract, with a minor DL50 and superior power 1.497 times to the extract of ripe fruits.

  9. Soil quality influences efficacy of Melia azedarach (Sapindales: Meliaceae), fruit extracts against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hexane extract of chinaberry, Melia azedarach L., unripe fruits obtained from different municipalities of Goias state in Brazil were evaluated on the southern cattle fever tick, Rhipicephalus microplus (Canestrini), engorged females. Hexanic extracts were assayed in decreasing concentrations from 0....

  10. In vitro activities of plant extracts from the Brazilian Cerrado and Pantanal against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Carolina da Silva; Borges, Ligia Miranda Ferreira; Nicácio, José; Alves, Reginaldo Dias; Miguita, Carlos Henrique; Violante, Ivana Maria Póvoa; Hamerski, Lidilhone; Garcez, Walmir Silva; Garcez, Fernanda Rodrigues

    2013-07-01

    A total of 73 ethanol extracts from different anatomical parts of 44 plant species belonging to 24 families, native to the Mid-Western region of Brazil, were assessed in vitro for their effect on the reproductive cycle of engorged females of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, using the adult immersion test. All extracts were evaluated at the concentration of 0.2 % and, among the extracts tested, the one obtained from the fruits of Guarea kunthiana (Meliaceae) proved to be highly efficacious, showing 99.1 % of product effectiveness. Extracts from other three species were shown to be moderately active, namely Nymphaea amazonum trunk (Nymphaeaceae) [51.7 %], Strychnos pseudoquina trunk (Loganiaceae) [48 %] [corrected] and Ocotea lancifolia leaves (Lauraceae) [34.5 %], while the remaining extracts were shown to be weakly active or inactive. This is the first report on the bioactivity of these species on egg production by engorged females of R. microplus.

  11. Host Specificity of Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius, 1787 (Acari: Ixodidae with Comments on the Drop-off Rhythm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Marques Lisbôa Lopes

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available The parasitic specificity of larval, nymph and adult Amblyomma cajennense on six different host species: Oryctolagus cuniculus, Rattus norvegicus, Gallus gallus domesticus, Anas platyrhynchus, Coturnix coturnix and Streptopelia decorata is described. In terms of the numbers of larvae and nymphs recovered, O. cuniculus was the best host species. The modal day for drop-off of larvae and nymphs was day three for the mammal hosts, but variable in the birds. We conclude that adult A. cajennense have a strong degree of specificity due to the fact that the tick failed to complete its life cycle on any of the evaluated hosts. The immature stages, on the other hand, showed a low level of specificity, most especially in the larval stage, indicating the existence of secondary hosts which probably serve as dispersers in the wild. The results also indicated a variable drop-off rhythm for larvae and nymphs in two periods, diurnal (6-18 hr and nocturnal (18-6 hr, which differed depending upon the host.

  12. Parasitismo humano por Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (ACARI: IXODIDAE no Mato Grosso do Sul, Centro-Oeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Cunha Lima Acosta

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available O parasitismo humano pelo carrapato marrom do cão, Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (s. l., um importante parasita para a saúde pública e veterinária, é raramente relatado no continente americano. Este trabalho relata o registro de um macho de R. sanguineus s. l. parasitando um humano na cidade de Campo Grande, estado do Mato Grosso do Sul, no Centro-Oeste do Brasil. Essa observação é relevante para a saúde pública, uma vez que os carrapatos desse complexo são conhecidos como vetores de riquétsias do grupo da febre maculosa para cães e humanos.

  13. Acaricidal activity of extracts from Petiveria alliacea (Phytolaccaceae) against the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado-Aguilar, J A; Aguilar-Caballero, A; Rodriguez-Vivas, R I; Borges-Argaez, R; Garcia-Vazquez, Z; Mendez-Gonzalez, M

    2010-03-25

    The acaricidal activity of crude extracts and fractions from stems and leaves of Petiveria alliacea (Phytolaccaceae) was carried out on larvae and adults of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus using the larval immersion test (LIT) and adult immersion test (AIT), respectively. Methanolic extracts of stems and leaves of P. alliacea showed 100% mortality on the LIT bioassay. On the other hand, methanolic extracts of leaves and stem on the AIT test showed 26% and 86% of mortality, respectively, egg laying inhibition of 40% and 91%, respectively and hatchability inhibition of 26% and 17%, respectively. Purification of the active stem methanolic extract showed that the activity was present in the n-hexane non-polar fraction. Bioassay-guided purification of the n-hexane fraction produced 10 semi-purified fractions; fraction B had the highest activity against tick larvae (100% mortality). Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry demonstrated that the chemical composition of the active fraction B samples were mainly composed of benzyltrisulfide (BTS) and benzyldisulfide (BDS). These metabolites might be responsible for the acaricidal activity of stem extract of P. alliacea. However, further experiments to evaluate the acaricidal activity of BTS and BDS on larvae and adults of R. (B.) microplus are needed. Our results showed that P. alliacea is a promising biocontrol candidate as acaricide against R. (B.) microplus resistant strains.

  14. Further studies on South African plants: Acaricidal activity of organic plant extracts against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wellington, Kevin W

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of our research is to develop a lower cost eco-friendly tick control method because acaricides that are commonly used to control ticks are often toxic, harmful to the environment or too expensive for resource-limited farmers. Acetone...

  15. Mutation in the Sodium Channel Gene Corresponds With Phenotypic Resistance of Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (Acari: Ixodidae) to Pyrethroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klafke, G M; Miller, R J; Tidwell, J; Barreto, R; Guerrero, F D; Kaufman, P E; Pérez de León, A A

    2017-07-13

    The brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (Latreille), is a cosmopolitan ectoparasite and vector of pathogens that kill humans and animals. Pyrethroids represent a class of synthetic acaricides that have been used intensely to try to control the brown dog tick and mitigate the risk of tick-borne disease transmission. However, acaricide resistance is an emerging problem in the management of the brown dog tick. Understanding the mechanism of resistance to acaricides, including pyrethroids, is important to adapt brown dog tick control strategies. The main objective of this study was to determine if target-site mutations associated with pyrethroid resistance in other pests could be associated with phenotypic resistance detected in a brown dog tick population from Florida. We amplified segment 6 of the domain III of the voltage-sensitive sodium channel protein, using cDNAs synthesized from pyrethroid-susceptible and pyrethroid-resistant tick strains. A single nucleotide point mutation (SNP) identified in a highly conserved region of domain III S6 in the resistant ticks resulted in an amino acid change from phenylalanine to leucine. This mutation is characteristic of resistance phenotypes in other tick species, and is the first report of this mutation in R. sanguineus. Molecular assays based on this knowledge could be developed to diagnose the risk for pyrethroid resistance, and to inform decisions on integrated brown dog tick management practices. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Liolaemus lizards (Squamata: Liolaemidae) as hosts for the nymph of Amblyomma parvitarsum (Acari: Ixodidae), with notes on Rickettsia infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Leal, Sebastián; Tarragona, Evelina L; Martins, Thiago F; Martín, Claudia M; Burgos-Gallardo, Freddy; Nava, Santiago; Labruna, Marcelo B; González-Acuña, Daniel

    2016-10-01

    Adults of Amblyomma parvitarsum are common ectoparasites of South American camelids of the genera Lama and Vicugna, occuring in highlands of Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Peru and also in Argentinean Patagonia. Whereas larval stages of this tick are known to feed on small lizards, host records for the nymphal instar have remained unreported. Supported by morphological and molecular analyses, herein we report A. parvitarsum nymphs parasitizing two Liolaemus species (Reptilia: Squamata) in the Andean Plateau of Argentina and Chile. Additionally, by a PCR screening targetting gltA and ompA genes, DNA of Rickettsia was detected in one of the collected nymphs. Obtained sequences of this agent were identical to a recent Rickettsia sp. described infecting adults of this tick species in Chile and Argentina.

  17. Efficacy of Tagetes minuta (Asteraceae) essential oil against Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) on infested dogs and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Elis Maressa Gonçalves; Rodrigues, Vinicius da Silva; Jorge, Jaciara de Oliveira; Osava, Carolina Fonseca; Szabó, Matias Pablo Juan; Garcia, Marcos Valério; Andreotti, Renato

    2016-12-01

    Ticks from Rhipicephalus sanguineus complex are widely distributed in the world and one species from this complex is the most common tick on dogs in Brazil, notably in urban areas. This tick is a vector of several diseases. Among others it transmits the agent of canine Ehrlichiosis, a major dog infectious disease and the agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever. This tick can spread rapidly and develop intolerable infestations within no time. Currently tick control is done with acaricides and demand for such drugs has grown fast. However, R. sanguineus has already developed resistance to the main active compounds and the development of new acaricides is necessary. Many essential oils of plants have acaricidal effect and may be an important source of molecules for the synthesis of new acaricide products. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of a new herbal phytotherapic, consisting of the essential oil of Tagetes minuta L., against R. sanguineus in vitro and on dogs undergoing experimental infestations. The product displayed 100% efficacy against larvae, nymphs and adults of the tick on all tested conditions.

  18. In vitro anti-tick properties of the essential oil of Tagetes minuta L. (Asteraceae) on Hyalomma rufipes (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nchu, Felix; Magano, Solomon R; Eloff, Jacobus N

    2012-03-30

    In this study we examined the anti-tick properties of the essential oil of Tagetes minuta L. (Asteraceae: Asterales) against Hyalomma rufipes ticks. We obtained the essential oil of T. minuta by hydro-distillation of a combination of fresh flowers, leaves and soft stems, and analysed these by using gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-linked mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The oil had a high percentage of monoterpenes and the major compounds identified were cis-ocimene (28.5%), beta-ocimene (16.83%) and 3-methyl-2-(2-methyl-2-butenyl)-furan (11.94%). Hyalomma rufipes adults displayed a significant (P < 0.05) dose repellent response to the essential oil of T. minuta. Probit analysis indicated a repellent EC50 of T. minuta essential oil for male ticks to be 0.072 mL/mL (CI 0.053 mL/mL to 0.086 mL/mL) and 0.070 mL/mL (CI 0.052 mL/mL to 0.084 mL/mL) for female ticks. There were no significant differences in repellent responses between male and female ticks. The oil also significantly (P < 0.05) delayed moulting of 60% of H. rufipes engorged nymphs. These results suggest that T. minuta may be a potential source of anti-tick agents.

  19. In vitro anti-tick properties of the essential oil of Tagetes minuta L. (Asteraceae on Hyalomma rufipes (Acari: Ixodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Nchu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study we examined the anti-tick properties of the essential oil of Tagetes minuta L. (Asteraceae: Asterales against Hyalomma rufipes ticks. We obtained the essential oil of T. minuta by hydro-distillation of a combination of fresh flowers, leaves and soft stems, and analysed these by using gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography-linked mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The oil had a high percentage of monoterpenes and the major compounds identified were cis-ocimene (28.5%, beta-ocimene (16.83% and 3-methyl-2-(2-methyl-2-butenyl-furan (11.94%. Hyalomma rufipes adults displayed a significant (P < 0.05 dose repellent response to the essential oil of T. minuta. Probit analysis indicated a repellent EC50 of T. minuta essential oil for male ticks to be 0.072 mL/mL (CI 0.053 mL/mL to 0.086 mL/mL and 0.070 mL/mL (CI 0.052 mL/mL to 0.084 mL/mL for female ticks. There were no significant differences in repellent responses between male and female ticks. The oil also significantly (P < 0.05 delayed moulting of 60% of H. rufipes engorged nymphs. These results suggest that T. minuta may be a potential source of anti-tick agents.

  20. Partial characterization of a novel anti-inflammatory protein from salivary gland extract of Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum (Acari: Ixodidae ticks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayukh Ghosh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum ticks transmit Theileria annulata, causative agent of tropical theileriosis to cattle and buffaloes causing a major economic loss in terms of production and mortality in tropical countries. Ticks have evolved several immune evading strategies to circumvent hosts’ rejection and achieve engorgement. Successful feeding of ticks relies on a pharmacy of chemicals located in their complex salivary glands and secreted saliva. These chemicals in saliva could inhibit host inflammatory responses through modulating cytokine secretion and detoxifying reactive oxygen species. Therefore, the present study was aimed to characterize anti-inflammatory peptides from salivary gland extract (SGE of H. a. anatolicum ticks with a view that this information could be utilized in raising vaccines, designing synthetic peptides or peptidomimetics which can further be developed as novel therapeutics. Materials and Methods: Salivary glands were dissected out from partially fed adult female H. a. anatolicum ticks and homogenized under the ice to prepare SGE. Gel filtration chromatography was performed using Sephadex G-50 column to fractionate the crude extract. Protein was estimated in each fraction and analyzed for identification of anti-inflammatory activity. Sodium dodecyl sulfate - polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE was run for further characterization of protein in desired fractions. Results: A novel 28 kDa protein was identified in H. a. anatolicum SGE with pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. Conclusion: Purification and partial characterization of H. a. anatolicum SGE by size-exclusion chromatography and SDSPAGE depicted a 28 kDa protein with prominent anti-inflammatory activity.

  1. Mutation in the sodium channel gene corresponds with phenotypic resistance of Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (Acari: Ixodidae) to pyrethroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    The brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato, is a cosmopolitan ectoparasite and vector of pathogens that kill humans and animals. Pyrethroids represent a class of synthetic acaricides that have been used intensely to try to control the brown dog tick and mitigate the risk of tick-borne d...

  2. The chemosensory appendage proteome of Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae) reveals putative odorant-binding and other chemoreception-related proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proteomic analyses were done on 2 chemosensory appendages of the lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum. Proteins in the fore tarsi, which contain the olfactory Haller's organ, and in the palps, that include gustatory sensilla, were compared with proteins in the third tarsi. Also, male and female tick...

  3. [Selection of isolates of entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycetes: Clavicipitaceae) for control of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barci, Leila A G; de Almeida, José Eduardo M; de Campos Nogueira, Adriana H; Zappelini, Luciano O; do Prado, Angelo P

    2009-12-01

    This study was carried out to select isolates of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana with pathogenic potential to control the Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus tick. The effectiveness of thirty isolates was first tested at a concentration of 5 x 108 conidia.mL(-1). Of these, eight were evaluated (IBCB01, IBCB02, IBCB07, IBCB17, IBCB21, IBCB74, IBCB149, IBCB165) and showed an effectiveness between 90 and 99%; thirteen (IBCB03, IBCB14, IBCB16, IBCB24, IBCB95, IBCB97, IBCB102, IBCB141, IBCB146, IBCB147, IBCB150, IBCB154, IBCB157) between 80 and 89,5%; six (IBCB47, IBCB75, IBCB84, IBCB145, IBCB161, IBCB164) between 70 and 79%, and only two (IBCB13 and IBCB143) had lower pathogenicity (70% or below). In the second step of the study, the five more effective strains in the first phase of the experiment (IBCB01, IBCB07, IBCB21, IBCB66, IBCB165) were analyzed comparatively. Based on in vitro results, it can be concluded that IBCB66 and IBCB21 are the isolates with higher potential for field control of R. (B.) microplus. IBCB01, IBCB07, IBCB21, IBCB66 e IBCB165 isolates were submitted to a conidial production test using a rice-based substrate. The best mass production of the entomopathogenic fungus was obtained with the IBCB66 strain.

  4. Effects of permethrin and amitraz on gas exchange and water loss in unfed adult females of Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effects of permethrin and amitraz on metabolism of the lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum, were examined using a flow-through carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor analyzer. Untreated adult female ticks exhibited a distinct discontinuous gas exchange pattern (DGEP) with no measurable water loss. Si...

  5. Changes in the synganglion of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806) (Acari: Ixodidae) female ticks exposed to permethrin: an ultrastructural overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roma, Gislaine Cristina; Camargo Mathias, Maria Izabel; Nunes, Pablo Henrique; Bechara, Gervásio Henrique

    2014-08-01

    This study performed the ultra-structural analysis of the changes caused by permethrin in the synganglion of semi-engorged Rhipicephalus sanguineus females, aiming to understand the toxic action of this substance at cellular level. The results showed that the neural lamella had its structure changed, allowing the influx of the toxic agent into the nervous tissue. The glial cells of the perineurium, as well as the neural cells of the cortex showed great changes, such as: irregular nuclei with chromatin margination, cytoplasmic vacuolation and degenerating mitochondria. These changes showed that the permethrin would be able to induce the degeneration of the synganglion through an atypical death process, involving apoptosis and autophagy. In addition, a dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum was observed in the neural cells, suggesting an intense synthesis of the hydrolytic enzymes that would be used in the processes of degradation of the damaged cellular structures (formation of lysosomes). The subperineurium and the neuropile also showed changes in their structures. Thus, it is suggested that permethrin is a dose-dependent compound able to impair the metabolism of the organism as a whole, once all the other organs and body structures are directly dependent of the neural control. The information obtained in this study can be used in the improvement of the control methods which use permethrin as active substance, helping in the creation of a really efficient acaricide product to fight this important urban plague. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Cattle Fever Tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, (Acari: Ixodidae): potential control on pastures by the application of urea fertilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    The southern cattle fever tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, spends as much as 80–90% of its life cycle as a larva questing for a host. Standard control methods are limited to on-host applications, leaving a need for methods directed at the pasture infesting stages. Reports from Brazil indic...

  7. Evaluation of DEET and eight essential oils for repellency against nymphs of the lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eight commercially available essential oils (oregano, clove, thyme, vetiver, sandalwood, cinnamon, cedarwood, and peppermint) were evaluated for repellency against host-seeking nymphs of the lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum. Concentration- repellency response was established using the vertical ...

  8. Effect of deer exclusion by fencing on abundance of Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae) on Fire Island, New York, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, Howard S; Butler, Mari; Zhioua, Elyes

    2002-12-01

    The effects of deer exclusion on northern populations of lone star ticks, Amblyomma americanum, were tested at the Lighthouse Tract, Fire Island, NY, USA, where densities of this species have increased recently. Game fencing was erected to exclude deer from two sites of roughly one ha each, and populations of nymphal and adult A. americanum within were compared with those at control sites outside the exclosures. Percent control of nymphs within vs. outside the exclosures averaged 48.4% in the four years post-treatment, compared to pretreatment values. Percent control varied markedly in different years, suggesting that factors in addition to deer densities had strong effects on population densities of A. americanum. Exclosures of this size did not control adult A. americanum. Effects of deer exclusion in this recently expanded northern population of A. americanum were similar to those that have been reported for southern populations of this species.

  9. Choice of a stable set of reference genes for qRT-PCR analysis in Amblyomma maculatum (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, Rebecca; Adamson, Steven; Karim, Shahid

    2012-11-01

    Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is a widely used laboratory tool to quantify mRNA levels of target genes involved in various biological processes. The most commonly used method for analyzing qRT-PCR data are the normalizing technique where a housekeeping gene is used to determine the transcriptional regulation of the target gene. The choice of a reliable internal standard is pivotal for relative gene expression analysis to obtain reproducible results, especially when measuring small differences in transcriptional expression. In this study, we used geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper programs to analyze the gene expression results using qRT-PCR. Five candidate reference genes, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), beta-actin, alpha-tubulin, elongation factor 1-alpha, and glutathione s-transferase, were used to evaluate the expression stability during prolonged blood-feeding on the vertebrate host. These five genes were evaluated in all life stages of Amblyomma maculatum (Koch) as well as in the salivary gland and midgut tissues of adult females to determine which are the most stably expressed gene for use in qRT-PCR studies. Beta-actin is the most stably expressed gene in salivary glands and midguts ofA. maculatum, and throughout all developmental stages both Actin and GAPDH were found to have the most stable expression with the lowest degree of variance. We recommend the use of beta-actin and/ or GAPDH as reference genes for qRT-PCR analysis of gene expression in A. maculatum.

  10. Cattle fever tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae): Potential control on pastures by the application of urea fertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Brenda; Thomas, Donald B; Dearth, Robert

    2017-07-15

    The southern cattle fever tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, spends as much as 80-90% of its life cycle as a larva questing for a host. Standard control methods are limited to on-host applications, leaving a need for methods directed at the pasture infesting stages. Reports from Brazil indicate that pasture fertilization can reduce tick numbers. Granular urea was tested using standard pesticide efficacy methods in both the laboratory and field trials to determine if there was a significant impact on adult reproduction and larval survival. Under the conditions of this present study, there was no detectable effect on either female adults or larval stages. Ammonification in the soil may be a key factor limiting the impact of fertilizer treatments. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. A Density Map of the Tick-Borne Encephalitis and Lyme Borreliosis Vector Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) for Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugger, Katharina; Boehnke, Denise; Petney, Trevor; Dobler, Gerhard; Pfeffer, Martin; Silaghi, Cornelia; Schaub, Günter A; Pinior, Beate; Dautel, Hans; Kahl, Olaf; Pfister, Kurt; Süss, Jochen; Rubel, Franz

    2016-11-01

    The castor bean tick Ixodes ricinus (L.) is the principal vector for a variety of viral, bacterial, and protozoan pathogens causing a growing public-health issue over the past decades. However, a national density map of I. ricinus is still missing. Here, I. ricinus nymphs in Germany were investigated by compiling a high-resolution map depicting the mean annually accumulated nymphal density, as observed by monthly flagging an area of 100 m(2) Input data comprise ticks collected at 69 sampling sites. The model domain covers an area of about 357,000 km(2) (regional scale). Two negative binomial regression models were fitted to the data to interpolate the tick densities to unsampled locations using bioclimatic variables and land cover, which were selected according to their significance by the Akaike information criterion (AIC). The default model was fitted to the complete dataset resulting in AIC = 842. An optimized model resulted in a significantly better value of AIC = 732. Tick densities are very low in urban (green) areas. Maximum annual densities up to 1,000 nymphs per 100 m(2) are observed in broad-leaved forests. The tick maps were verified by leave-one-out cross-validation. Root mean square errors of RMSE = 137 and RMSE = 126 nymphs per 100 m(2) were estimated for the two models, respectively. These errors are of the order of the interannual variation of the tick densities. The compilation of a high-resolution density map of unfed nymphal I. ricinus for Germany provides a novel, nationwide insight into the distribution of an important disease vector. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Survival of Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) nymphs under cold conditions is negatively influenced by frequent temperature variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Coralie; Gern, Lise

    2013-09-01

    In this study, we tested the survival of Ixodes ricinus under cold conditions in the laboratory. We investigated how the frequency of temperature variations (from -5 °C or -10 °C to 13 °C), and infection with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) influenced survival of questing nymphs collected in spring and autumn 2011. In experiment 1, survival of 1760 nymphs was tested at -10 °C over a short period of time to simulate very cold winter conditions. In experiment 2, survival of 1600 nymphs was tested under cold condition (-5 °C) over a long period of time to simulate common winter conditions. Ticks used for survival tests at -5 °C were screened for Borrelia by quantitative PCR, and genospecies identification was achieved by reverse line blotting. Tick age and frequency of temperature variations had a highly significant effect on I. ricinus survival while Borrelia infection was marginally significant. Hence, survival rate was higher in younger (autumn) than older (spring) nymphs and in nymphs exposed to low rather than high-frequency temperature variations. Borrelia-infected ticks tended to survive better than their uninfected counterparts. These findings suggest that in nature (i) frequent temperature changes in winter threaten tick survival more importantly than very low temperatures, (ii) older (spring) ticks are less resistant to cold than younger (autumn) individuals, and (iii) Borrelia infection plays a marginal role in I. ricinus survival during winter conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Solvent, drying time, and substrate affect the responses of lone star ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) to the repellents deet and picaridin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, J F; Carroll, J F; Kramer, M; Bedoukian, R H

    2014-05-01

    Behavioral bioassays remain a standard tool in the discovery, development, and registration of arthropod repellents. Tick repellent bioassays are generally uncomplicated, but their results can be affected by basic variables (e.g., dimensions of testing materials, substrate, timing, temperature) of the assay. Using lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum (L.), nymphs in climbing bioassays, we tested for the effects of substrate, solvent, and drying time on tick responses. In dose-response tests, the widely used repellents N,N-diethyl-3-methyl benzamide (deet) and 1-methyl-propyl-2-(hydroxyethyl)-1-piperidinecarboxylate (picaridin) were applied to filter paper strips and challenged by ticks at 10, 20, 30, 40, and 120 min after application. At 10-min drying time, repellency at the intermediate concentration 500 nmol repellent/cm2 filter paper was significantly lower for ethanol solutions of deet and picaridin (0 and 10% ticks repelled, respectively) than for solutions of deet and picaridin in acetone (96.7 and 76.7% ticks repelled, respectively). Repellency was greatest for both the acetone and ethanol solutions of deet and picaridin when challenged 120 min after application, and at shorter drying times at the highest concentration tested (2,000 nmol compound/ cm2). The repellency of picaridin relative to deet differed at some combinations of solvent and drying time but not others. In dose-response tests using different paper substrates and a drying time of 10 min, both ethanol and acetone solutions of deet differed in repellency, depending on both the paper substrate and the solvent. However, there were no differences in repellency between ethanol and acetone solutions of deet applied to nylon organdy in an in vitro and in an in vivo (fingertip) bioassay. When deet in solution with various proportions of ethanol:water was applied at 2,000 nmol deet/cm2 filter paper, the proportion of ticks repelled decreased as the proportion of water in the test solutions increased. Somewhat similar results were seen for solutions of deet in an acetone solvent. Water absorbed from the atmosphere may affect the efficacy of repellents in solution with anhydrous ethanol. Overall, results obtained from bioassays that differ in seemingly minor ways can be surprisingly different, diminishing the value of comparing studies that used similar, but not identical, methods. Nylon organdy or another similar thin cloth may be preferable to filter papers and copier paper for minimizing solvent-related differences. When a paper substrate is used, acetone may be the more suitable solvent if the solubility of the test compound and other factors allow.

  14. Feral pigs as hosts for Amblyomma sculptum (Acari: Ixodidae) populations in the Pantanal, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Vanessa do Nascimento; Piovezan, Ubiratan; Franco, Ana Helena Alves; Osava, Carolina Fonseca; Herrera, Heitor Miragaia; Szabó, Matias Pablo Juan

    2014-11-01

    The Pantanal in Brazil is the largest floodplain of the world. This ecosystem, rich in wildlife, has a large feral pig population. Such a large host biomass must have a strong influence on the parasite fauna. In this work, we evaluated the role of feral pigs in the maintenance of Amblyomma sculptum (formerly Amblyomma cajennense), the most prevalent tick species in the Pantanal. Tick infestations were evaluated on 243 feral pigs and their environment. The suitability of domestic pigs, representing their feral relatives, to A. sculptum adults and nymphs was assessed experimentally. Tick infestation of feral pigs was strongly associated with that of the environment: 96 and 97 % of the ticks, respectively, were A. sculptum. The infestation prevalence on this host species was close to 90 % in the dry season and 100 % in the wet season and mean infestation intensity was above 30 ticks in both seasons. Suitability of pigs as hosts for A. sculptum was shown by the high proportion of nymphs and female ticks found engorging on captured feral pigs and adequate biological parameters displayed by ticks from experimental infestations of domestic pigs. Other tick species on feral pigs, albeit in much lower numbers, were Amblyomma parvum and Ornithodorus rostratus. Results show that feral pigs feed a high proportion of the A. sculptum adults and nymphs in their territories and should be a target for tick-borne diseases studies. This is particularly relevant to public health because all the main tick species found on feral pigs are aggressive to humans as well.

  15. [Action of extract and oil neem in the control of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini, 1887) (Acari: Ixodidae) in laboratory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broglio-Micheletti, Sônia Maria Forti; Dias, Nivia da Silva; Valente, Ellen Carine Neves; de Souza, Leilianne Alves; Lopes, Diego Olympio Peixoto; Dos Santos, Jakeline Maria

    2010-01-01

    Organic plant extracts and emulsified oil of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae) (neem) were studied to evaluate its effects in control of engorged females of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini, 1887) in the laboratory. Hexane and alcoholic organic extracts, 2% (weight/volume) were used in tests of immersion for 5 minutes, prepared with seeds, solubilized in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) to 1%. The experiment was entirely randomized, consisting of 6 treatments and 5 replicates, each represented by 5 ticks. Control groups consisted of untreated females. Based on the results of this work, we can indicate that the seed extract (hexanic fraction) and óleo emulsionável I¹ concentration to 2% have significant adjuvant potential to control the cattle tick, because, cause the mortality in the first days after the treatment and interfere in the reproduction, showing to be an alternative to acaricides normally used.

  16. Further studies on South African plants: Acaricidal activity of organic plant extracts against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellington, Kevin W; Leboho, Tlabo; Sakong, Bellonah M; Adenubi, Olubukola T; Eloff, Jacobus N; Fouche, Gerda

    2017-01-30

    The goal of our research is to develop a lower cost eco-friendly tick control method because acaricides that are commonly used to control ticks are often toxic, harmful to the environment or too expensive for resource-limited farmers. Acetone and ethanol extracts were prepared and their acaricidal activities determined against the southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. A 1% solution of each of the plant extracts was prepared for efficacy testing using the adapted Shaw Larval Immersion Test (SLIT). The acetone stem extract from Cissus quadrangularis (Vitaceae) and the ethanol leaf and flower extract from Calpurnia aurea (Fabaceae) had potent activity like that of the commercial acaricide, chlorfenvinphos [corrected mortality (CM)=100.0%]. The ethanol extracts of the stem of C. quadrangularis (CM=98.9%) and that of the roots, leaves and fruit of Senna italica subsp arachoides (CM=96.7%) also had good acaricidal activity. There is potential for the development of botanicals as natural acaricides against R. (B.) microplus that can be used commercially to protect animals against tick infestation. Further studies to isolate the acaricidal active compounds and to determine the environmental fate, species toxicity and skin toxicity of these plants species are, however, required before they can be considered as a treatment against ticks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Azadirachta indica A. Juss (neem) induced morphological changes on oocytes of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806) (Acari: Ixodidae) tick females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denardi, Sandra Eloisi; Bechara, Gervásio Henrique; Oliveira, Patrícia Rosa de; Camargo-Mathias, Maria Izabel

    2010-12-01

    Many studies have been conducted with plants whose extracts have the potential to be used for pest control. One of these plants is Azadirachta indica (neem), whose main active ingredient is azadirachtin, a compound shown to have acaricide and insecticide activity. Rhipicephalus sanguineus (brown dog tick) is currently considered to be an "urban pest," because of its high levels of infestation and its ability to attack humans. In the present study partially and fully engorged R. sanguineus females were exposed to aqueous extracts of neem at concentrations of 10% and 20%, and to a control treatment. The results showed that differently from what was observed in the control, the pedicel cells of females exposed to neem at both concentrations lost their original shape. In the latter cases, the cytoplasm of the cells became fully vacuolated, especially near the germinal vesicle (oocyte nuclei) and in the oocyte pole, which is in contact with the cells of the pedicel. Oocytes in early stages of development (I and II) of ticks treated with both concentrations had irregular germinal vesicle, including the presence of two nucleoli as well as fragments of these. Oocytes in stages IV and V of exposed individuals showed full granular cytoplasm with bigger yolk granules when compared to the early stages. Chorion of mature oocytes was also altered, showing folds and deformations along their entire extension. The observed changes in cells of the reproductive system of R. sanguineus, especially in the oocytes, indicated the potential of neem as a new alternative method to control these ectoparasites.

  18. In vitro acaricidal effect of tannin-rich plants against the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Salas, A; Alonso-Díaz, M A; Acosta-Rodríguez, R; Torres-Acosta, J F J; Sandoval-Castro, C A; Rodríguez-Vivas, R I

    2011-01-10

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the in vitro acaricidal effects of lyophilized extracts of four tannin rich plants (Acacia pennatula, Piscidia piscipula, Leucaena leucocephala and Lysiloma latisiliquum) against diverse stages of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, and to asses whether tannins were involved in the acaricidal effect using polyethylene glycol (PEG) to block tannins. Larval immersion (LIT) and adult immersion (AIT) tests were used to evaluate the acaricidal effect of each of the lyophilized extracts against larval and adult stages of R. microplus respectively. Larvae and adult ticks were exposed to increasing concentrations of each plant extract (0, 1200, 2400, 4800, 9600 and 19,200 μg ml(-1)) for 10 min. Larval mortality was recorded at 48 h post-incubation. Adult mortality was recorded daily over 14 days, at which point their reproductive efficiency was evaluated. PEG was added to the extracts to verify whether tannins were involved in the acaricidal effect. The effect on egg laying inhibition and larval mortality was analyzed using the GLM procedure in SAS. A Kruskal-Wallis test was used to assess the effect of PEG on LIT results. Calculation of the lethal concentration 50 (LC50) was performed using a probit analysis. All extracts reduced the viability of R. microplus larval stages (Pacaricidal effect (Pplant extracts were 6.402 and 2.466 μg ml(-1). None of the tannin-rich plant extracts affected adult mortality (P>0.05). Lysiloma latisiliquum extract inhibited egg hatching of R. microplus (Pplant extracts from A. pennatula, P. piscipula, L. leucocephala and L. latisiliquum showed potential acaricidal activity. Further in vivo studies are needed to confirm this finding. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Identification of potential plant extracts for anti-tick activity against acaricide resistant cattle ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Srikanta; Tiwari, Shashi Shankar; Kumar, Bhanu; Srivastava, Sharad; Sharma, Anil Kumar; Kumar, Sachin; Bandyopadhyay, A; Julliet, Sanis; Kumar, Rajesh; Rawat, A K S

    2015-05-01

    To develop an eco-friendly tick control method, seven plant extracts were prepared using 50 and 95% ethanol and evaluated for acaricidal activity against cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. The adult immersion test was adopted for testing different extracts. Based on 72 h screening criterion, 95% ethanolic extracts of Datura metel fruits and Argemone mexicana whole plant were found effective showing more than 50% mortality of treated ticks. The 95% ethanolic extracts of D. metel fruits and A. mexicana whole plant exhibited acaricidal and reproductive inhibitory effects on treated ticks. The LC90 values of D. metel and A. mexicana extracts were determined as 7.13 and 11.3%, respectively. However, although both the extracts were found efficacious against deltamethrin-resistant IVRI-4 and multi-acaricide resistant IVRI-5 lines of R. (B.) microplus, they caused less mortality than treated ticks of the reference IVRI-I line. Phytochemical studies indicated the presence of alkaloids and glucosides in D. metel fruits and alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids and phenolics in A. mexicana whole plant extracts. The results indicated that these botanicals may play an important role in reducing the use of chemicals for tick control and possibly to manage resistant tick population in environment friendly manner.

  20. Acaricidal activity of the organic extracts of thirteen South African plants against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouche, Gerda; Ramafuthula, Mary; Maselela, Vusi; Mokoena, Moses; Senabe, Jeremiah; Leboho, Tlabo; Sakong, Bellonah M; Adenubi, Olubukola T; Eloff, Jacobus N; Wellington, Kevin W

    2016-07-15

    The African blue tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus, is a common tick species found in South Africa and affects cattle production as well as vectoring pathogens in regions of Africa and Asia. In an attempt to develop a non-toxic, lower cost and environmentally friendly tick control method, twenty-six plant extracts were prepared from thirteen plant species using 99.5% acetone and 99% ethanol. The adapted Shaw Larval Immersion Test (SLIT) was used to test the efficacy of the extracts. A 1% solution of each of the plant extracts was prepared for efficacy testing and the ethanol extracts were found to have better acaricidal activity than the acetone extracts. The ethanol extract from the leaves and flowers of Calpurnia aurea had the best activity [corrected mortality (CM)=82.9%] which was followed by the stem extract of Cissus quadrangularis (CM=80.4%). The plant species were screened against Vero cells and were found to have low toxicity. From this study it is apparent that there is potential for the development of botanicals as natural acaricides against R. (B.) decoloratus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A Preliminary Investigation on Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) Infesting Birds in Kızılırmak Delta, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Adem; Erciyas-Yavuz, Kiraz

    2016-01-01

    Ticks are mandatory blood-feeding ectoparasites of mammals, birds, reptiles, and even amphibians. Turkey has a rich bird fauna and is located on the main migration route for many birds. However, information on ticks infesting birds is very limited. In the present study, we aimed to determine ticks infesting birds in Kızılırmak Delta, Turkey. In 2014 autumn bird migration season, a total of 7,452 birds belonging to 79 species, 52 genera, 35 families, and 14 orders were examined for tick infestation. In total, 287 (234 larvae, 47 nymphs, 6♀) ticks were collected from 54 passerine birds (prevalence = 0.72%) belonging to 12 species. Ticks were identified as Amblyomma sp., Dermacentor marginatus (Sulzer), Haemaphysalis concinna Koch, Haemaphysalis punctata Canestrini and Fanzago, Hyalomma sp., Ixodes frontalis (Panzer), and Ixodes ricinus (L). The most common tick species were I. frontalis (223 larvae, 23 nymphs, 6♀) followed by I. ricinus (3 larvae, 12 nymphs) and H. concinna (4 larvae, 6 nymphs). Based on our results, it can be said that Erithacus rubecula (L.) is the main host of immature I. frontalis, whereas Turdus merula L. is the most important carrier of immature stages of some ticks in Kızılırmak Delta, Turkey. To the best of our knowledge, most of the tick-host associations found in this study have never been documented in the literature. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Exploring the mialome of ticks: an annotated catalogue of midgut transcripts from the hard tick, Dermacentor variabilis (Acari: Ixodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valenzuela Jesus G

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ticks are obligate blood feeders. The midgut is the first major region of the body where blood and microbes ingested with the blood meal come in contact with the tick's internal tissues. Little is known about protein expression in the digestive tract of ticks. In this study, for analysis of global gene expression during tick attachment and feeding, we generated and sequenced 1,679 random transcripts (ESTs from cDNA libraries from the midguts of female ticks at varying stages of feeding. Results Sequence analysis of the 1,679 ESTs resulted in the identification of 835 distinct transcripts, from these, a total of 82 transcripts were identified as proteins putatively directly involved in blood meal digestion, including enzymes involved in oxidative stress reduction/antimicrobial activity/detoxification, peptidase inhibitors, protein digestion (cysteine-, aspartic-, serine-, and metallo-peptidases, cell, protein and lipid binding including mucins and iron/heme metabolism and transport. A lectin-like protein with a high match to lectins in other tick species, allergen-like proteins and surface antigens important in pathogen recognition and/or antimicrobial activity were also found. Furthermore, midguts collected from the 6-day-fed ticks expressed twice as many transcripts involved in bloodmeal processing as midguts from unfed/2-day-fed ticks. Conclusion This tissue-specific transcriptome analysis provides an opportunity to examine the global expression of transcripts in the tick midgut and to compare the gut response to host attachment versus blood feeding and digestion. In contrast to those in salivary glands of other Ixodid ticks, most proteins in the D. variabilis midgut cDNA library were intracellular. Of the total ESTs associated with a function, an unusually large number of transcripts were associated with peptidases, cell, lipid and protein binding, and oxidative stress or detoxification. Presumably, this is consistent with their role in intracellular processing of the blood meal and response to microbial infections. The presence of many proteins with similar functions is consistent with the hypothesis that gene duplication contributed to the successful adaptation of ticks to hematophagy. Furthermore, these transcripts may be useful to scientists investigating the role of the tick midgut in blood-meal digestion, antimicrobial activity or the transmission of tick-borne pathogens.

  3. The international trade in reptiles (Reptilia)—The cause of the transfer of exotic ticks (Acari: Ixodida) to Poland

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nowak, Magdalena

    2010-01-01

    ...: Testudo, Iguana, Varanus, Gongylophis, Python, Spalerosophis, Psammophis. The reptiles most infested with ticks are imported to Poland from Ghana in Africa, and are the commonly bred terrarium reptiles...

  4. Transmission differentials for multible pathogens as inferred from their prevalence in larva, nymph and sult of Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per M.; Christoffersen, Christian S.; Moutailler, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Ixodes ricinus serves as vector for a range of microorganisms capable of causing clinical illness in humans. The microorganisms occur in the same vector populations and are generally affected by the same tick-host interactions. Still, the instars have different host preferences which should manif...

  5. Toxicity and repellency of plant essential oils against the arthropod disease vectors Phlebotomus papatasi and Ixodes scapularis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sand fly Phlebotomus papatasi is an important blood feeder and the main vector of the trypanosomatid protozoa Leishmania major, which causes leishmaniasis in parts of the Afro-Eurasian region. The black- legged tick Ixodes scapularis is the primary tick vector of the bacterium Borrelia burgdorfe...

  6. Defensins from the tick Ixodes scapularis are effective against phytopathogenic fungi and the human bacterial pathogen Listeria grayi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonk, Miray; Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; Valdés, James J; Rego, Ryan O M; Chrudimská, Tereza; Strnad, Martin; Šíma, Radek; Bell-Sakyi, Lesley; Franta, Zdeněk; Vilcinskas, Andreas; Grubhoffer, Libor; Rahnamaeian, Mohammad

    2014-12-03

    Ixodes scapularis is the most common tick species in North America and a vector of important pathogens that cause diseases in humans and animals including Lyme disease, anaplasmosis and babesiosis. Tick defensins have been identified as a new source of antimicrobial agents with putative medical applications due to their wide-ranging antimicrobial activities. Two multigene families of defensins were previously reported in I. scapularis. The objective of the present study was to characterise the potential antimicrobial activity of two defensins from I. scapularis with emphasis on human pathogenic bacterial strains and important phytopathogenic fungi. Scapularisin-3 and Scapularisin-6 mature peptides were chemically synthesised. In vitro antimicrobial assays were performed to test the activity of these two defensins against species of different bacterial genera including Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Listeria spp. as well as Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa along with two plant-pathogenic fungi from the genus Fusarium. In addition, the tissue-specific expression patterns of Scapularisin-3 and Scapularisin-6 in I. scapularis midgut, salivary glands and embryo-derived cell lines were determined using PCR. Finally, tertiary structures of the two defensins were predicted and structural analyses were conducted. Scapularisin-6 efficiently killed L. grayi, and both Scapularisin-3 and Scapularisin-6 caused strong inhibition (IC50 value: ~1 μM) of the germination of plant-pathogenic fungi Fusarium culmorum and Fusarium graminearum. Scapularisin-6 gene expression was observed in I. scapularis salivary glands and midgut. However, Scapularisin-3 gene expression was only detected in the salivary glands. Transcripts from the two defensins were not found in the I. scapularis tick cell lines ISE6 and ISE18. Our results have two main implications. Firstly, the anti-Listeria and antifungal activities of

  7. Combining public participatory surveillance and occupancy modelling to predict the distributional response of Ixodes scapularis to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieske, David J; Lloyd, Vett K

    2018-02-16

    Ixodes scapularis, a known vector of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (Bbss), is undergoing range expansion in many parts of Canada. The province of New Brunswick, which borders jurisdictions with established populations of I. scapularis, constitutes a range expansion zone for this species. To better understand the current and potential future distribution of this tick under climate change projections, this study applied occupancy modelling to distributional records of adult ticks that successfully overwintered, obtained through passive surveillance. This study indicates that I. scapularis occurs throughout the southern-most portion of the province, in close proximity to coastlines and major waterways. Milder winter conditions, as indicated by the number of degree days <0 °C, was determined to be a strong predictor of tick occurrence, as was, to a lesser degree, rising levels of annual precipitation, leading to a final model with a predictive accuracy of 0.845 (range: 0.828-0.893). Both RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 climate projections predict that a significant proportion of the province (roughly a quarter to a third) will be highly suitable for I. scapularis by the 2080s. Comparison with cases of canine infection show good spatial agreement with baseline model predictions, but the presence of canine Borrelia infections beyond the climate envelope, defined by the highest probabilities of tick occurrence, suggest the presence of Bbss-carrying ticks distributed by long-range dispersal events. This research demonstrates that predictive statistical modelling of multi-year surveillance information is an efficient way to identify areas where I. scapularis is most likely to occur, and can be used to guide subsequent active sampling efforts in order to better understand fine scale species distributional patterns. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  8. Transcriptional profiling of the murine cutaneous response during initial and subsequent infestations with Ixodes scapularis nymphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinze Dar M

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ixodes scapularis ticks are hematophagous arthropods capable of transmitting many infectious agents to humans. The process of blood feeding is an extended and continuous interplay between tick and host responses. While this process has been studied extensively in vitro, no global understanding of the host response to ticks has emerged. Methods To address this issue, we used PCR-arrays to measure skin-specific expression of 233 discrete genes at 8 time points during primary and secondary infestations of mice with pathogen-free I. scapularis nymphs. Selected results were then validated at the mRNA and protein levels by additional real-time PCR and bioplex assay. Results Primary infestation was characterized by the late induction of an innate immune response. Lectin pattern recognition receptors, cytokines, and chemokines were upregulated consistent with increased neutrophil and macrophage migration. Gene ontology and pathway analyses of downregulated genes suggested inhibition of gene transcription and Th17 immunity. During the secondary infestation, additional genes were modulated suggesting a broader involvement of immune cells including CD8 and CD4 positive T lymphocytes. The cytokine response showed a mixed Th1/Th2 profile with a potential for T regulatory cell activity. Key gene ontology clusters observed during the secondary infestation were cell migration and activation. Matrix metalloproteinases were upregulated, apoptosis-related genes were differentially modulated, and immunoreceptor signaling molecules were upregulated. In contrast, transcripts related to mitogenic, WNT, Hedgehog, and stress pathways were downregulated. Conclusions Our results support a model of tick feeding where lectin pattern recognition receptors orchestrate an innate inflammatory response during primary infestation that primes a mixed Th1/Th2 response upon secondary exposure. Tick feeding inhibits gene transcription and Th17 immunity. Salivary

  9. Integrating ecology and genetics to address Acari invasions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navajas, Maria; Ochoa, Ronald

    2013-02-01

    Because of their small size and tolerance to many of the control procedures used for a wide variety of commodities, Acari species have become one of the fastest, unwanted pest travelers since the beginning of this century. This special issue includes eleven studies on adventive and invasive Acari species affecting major crops and livestock around the world. The nucleus for this special issue is formed by the presentations in the symposium on invasive mites and ticks organized at the International Congress of Acarology in Recife, Brazil (ICA-13), in the summer of 2010. This special issue illustrates the increased concerns about domestic and international invasive mites and ticks worldwide.

  10. Functional genomics tool: Gene silencing in Ixodes scapularis eggs and nymphs by electroporated dsRNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troiano Emily

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ticks are blood-sucking arthropods responsible for transmitting a wide variety of disease-causing agents, and constitute important public health threats globally. Ixodes scapularis is the primary vector of the Lyme disease agent in the eastern and central U.S. RNAi is a mechanism by which gene-specific double-stranded RNA (dsRNA triggers degradation of homologous mRNA transcripts. Here, we describe an optimized protocol for effectively suppressing gene expression in the egg and nymphal stages of I. scapularis by electroporation. Results The genes encoding the putative Phospholipase A2 (PLA2, cytoplasmic Cystatin, Syntaxin-5, β-Actin and Calreticulin were targeted by delivering the dsRNA encoding the specific gene coding regions in the unfed nymphs. Silencing was measured using real time qRT-PCR. Electroporation as a mode of dsRNA delivery appears to be substantially efficient and less traumatic to the tick than dsRNA microinjection in the unfed nymphs. Using Cy3-labeled dsRNA to monitor the movement, electroporated dsRNA entered the nymphs and spread to salivary glands and other tissues. The significant disruption of β-actin and cytoplasmic Cystatin transcripts in tick eggs demonstrate the applicability of this technique. The PLA2, cytoplasmic Cystatin, Syntaxin-5, β-Actin and Calreticulin genes were also significantly silenced, suggesting that this method has the potential to introduce dsRNA in eggs and unfed nymphs. Conclusions Our study demonstrates that electroporation can be used as a simple dsRNA delivery tool in assessing the functional role of tick genes in the vector-host interactions. This technique represents a novel approach for specific gene suppression in immature stages of ticks.

  11. Primer registro de Amblyseius swirskii (Acari: Phytoseiidae en Argentina First record of Amblyseius swirskii (Acari: Phytoseiidae from Argentina

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    Claudia Cédola

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Amblyseius swirskii Athias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae es un depredador generalista de origen mediterráneo, empleado en planes de control biológico para trips y moscas blancas. Se registra, por vez primera en la Argentina, esta especie en el cinturón hortícola del gran Buenos Aires.Amblyseius swirskii Athias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae is a Mediterranean generalist predator used in biological control for thrips and whiteflies. This species is reported for the first time in Argentina in horticultural areas surrounding Buenos Aires city.

  12. Primer registro de Amblyseius swirskii (Acari: Phytoseiidae en Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia CÉDOLA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Amblyseius swirskii Athias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae es un depredador generalista de origen mediterráneo, empleado en planes de control biológico para trips y moscas blancas. Se registra, por vez primera en la Argentina, esta especie en el cinturón hortícola del gran Buenos Aires.

  13. Nieuwe vondsten van watermijten in Nederland (Acari: Hydrachnidia).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, H.; Hoek, van den T.-H.; Wiggers, R.

    2006-01-01

    New records of water mites in the Netherlands (Acari: Hydrachnidia) Three species of water mite new to the fauna of the Netherlands are reported, i.e. Hydryphantes flexuosus, Panisus michaeli and Nilotonia borneri. Moreover, a number of new records of rare species is given. Re-identification of

  14. A list of oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida) of Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermilov, Sergey G.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A species list of identified oribatid mite taxa (Acari, Oribatida) in the fauna of Vietnam is provided. During 1967–2015, a total of 535 species/subspecies from 222 genera and 81 families was registered. Of these, 194 species/subspecies were described as new for science from Vietnam. PMID:26798306

  15. Adverse moisture events predict seasonal abundance of Lyme disease vector ticks (Ixodes scapularis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Kathryn A.; Ginsberg, Howard S.; Dugas, Katherine D.; Hamel, Lutz H.; Mather, Thomas N.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Lyme borreliosis (LB) is the most commonly reported vector-borne disease in north temperate regions worldwide, affecting an estimated 300,000 people annually in the United States alone. The incidence of LB is correlated with human exposure to its vector, the blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis). To date, attempts to model tick encounter risk based on environmental parameters have been equivocal. Previous studies have not considered (1) the differences between relative humidity (RH) in leaf litter and at weather stations, (2) the RH threshold that affects nymphal blacklegged tick survival, and (3) the time required below the threshold to induce mortality. We clarify the association between environmental moisture and tick survival by presenting a significant relationship between the total number of tick adverse moisture events (TAMEs - calculated as microclimatic periods below a RH threshold) and tick abundance each year.Methods: We used a 14-year continuous statewide tick surveillance database and corresponding weather data from Rhode Island (RI), USA, to assess the effects of TAMEs on nymphal populations of I. scapularis. These TAMEs were defined as extended periods of time (>8 h below 82% RH in leaf litter). We fit a sigmoid curve comparing weather station data to those collected by loggers placed in tick habitats to estimate RH experienced by nymphal ticks, and compiled the number of historical TAMEs during the 14-year record.Results: The total number of TAMEs in June of each year was negatively related to total seasonal nymphal tick densities, suggesting that sub-threshold humidity episodes >8 h in duration naturally lowered nymphal blacklegged tick abundance. Furthermore, TAMEs were positively related to the ratio of tick abundance early in the season when compared to late season, suggesting that lower than average tick abundance for a given year resulted from tick mortality and not from other factors.Conclusions: Our results clarify the mechanism

  16. Human pathogens associated with the blacklegged tick Ixodes scapularis: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelder, Mark P; Russell, Curtis B; Sheehan, Nina Jain; Sander, Beate; Moore, Stephen; Li, Ye; Johnson, Steven; Patel, Samir N; Sider, Doug

    2016-05-05

    The blacklegged tick Ixodes scapularis transmits Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu stricto) in eastern North America; however, the agent of Lyme disease is not the sole pathogen harbored by the blacklegged tick. The blacklegged tick is expanding its range into areas of southern Canada such as Ontario, an area where exposure to blacklegged tick bites and tick-borne pathogens is increasing. We performed a systematic review to evaluate the public health risks posed by expanding blacklegged tick populations and their associated pathogens. We followed PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines for conducting our systematic review. We searched Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, BIOSIS, Scopus and Environment Complete databases for studies published from 2000 through 2015, using subject headings and keywords that included "Ixodes scapularis", "Rickettsia", "Borrelia", "Anaplasma", "Babesia" and "pathogen." Two reviewers screened titles and abstracts against eligibility criteria (i.e. studies that included field-collected blacklegged ticks and studies that did not focus solely on B. burgdorferi) and performed quality assessments on eligible studies. Seventy-eight studies were included in the final review, 72 were from the US and eight were from Canada (two studies included blacklegged ticks from both countries). Sixty-four (82%) studies met ≥ 75% of the quality assessment criteria. Blacklegged ticks harbored 91 distinct taxa, 16 of these are tick-transmitted human pathogens, including species of Anaplasma, Babesia, Bartonella, Borrelia, Ehrlichia, Rickettsia, Theileria and Flavivirus. Organism richness was highest in the Northeast (Connecticut, New York) and Upper Midwest US (Wisconsin); however, organism richness was dependent on sampling effort. The primary tick-borne pathogens of public health concern in Ontario, due to the geographic proximity or historical detection in Ontario, are Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Babesia microti, B. burgdorferi

  17. Isolation of "Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae" (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae) in embryonic cells of naturally infected Amblyomma maculatum (Ixodida: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, F A G; Goddard, J; Moraru, G M; Smith, W E C; Varela-Stokes, A S

    2013-09-01

    The Gulf Coast tick, Amblyomma maculatum Koch, has become increasingly important in public health for its role as a vector of the recently recognized human pathogen, Rickettsia parkeri. More recently, these ticks were also found to harbor a novel spotted fever group rickettsia, "Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae." First identified in Peru, and subsequently reported in ticks collected in the United States, Chile, and Argentina, "Ca. R. andeanae" remains largely uncharacterized, in part because of the lack of a stable isolate. Although the isolation of "Ca. R. andeanae" was recently described in DH82, Vero, and Drosophila S2 cells, its stability in these cell lines was not shown. To evaluate "Ca. R. andeanae" transmission and pathogenicity in vertebrates, as well as further describe biological characteristics of this candidate species to fulfill criteria for its establishment as a new species, availability of a stable isolate is essential. Here we describe the propagation of "Ca. R. andeanae" by using a primary culture derived from naturally infected A. maculatum embryos. Subsequent passage of the "Ca. R. andeanae" isolate to ISE6 (Ixodes scapularis embryonic) and Vero (African green monkey kidney epithelial) cell lines demonstrated limited propagation of the rickettsiae. Treatment of the infected primary cells with tetracycline resulted in cultures negative for "Ca. R. andeanae" by polymerase chain reaction and microscopy. Establishment of an isolate of "Ca. R. andeanae" will promote further investigation into the significance of this tick-associated rickettsia, including its role in spotted fever and interactions with the sympatric species, R. parkeri in A.

  18. Influences of weather on Ixodes scapularis nymphal densities at long-term study sites in Connecticut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Laura E; Scott, Jennifer A; Stafford, Kirby C

    2015-04-01

    Tick species worldwide are implicated in transmission of pathogens that cause mild to severe diseases in humans and livestock. Although tick population densities are often highly correlated with tick-borne disease rates, we currently know little about which factors underlie annual changes in those tick population densities. We used a 25-year dataset of Ixodes scapularis drag-sampling surveys at two locations in CT, USA, to investigate the relationship between average nymphal density from mid-May to mid-August and monthly, lagged regional weather variables. The dataset was randomly split into two data subsets, one for hypothesis development and one for hypothesis testing. Nymphal density showed the strongest association with the Standardized Precipitation Index for January of the same year that density data were collected in the analysis based on the hypothesis development data subset. This association was positive; nymphal tick density increased with regional winter precipitation. Nymphal density was positively associated with this same weather variable in the hypothesis testing data subset. Weather conditions during the coldest months of the year may serve as a bottleneck to tick populations, thereby functioning as an important correlate of not only annual blacklegged tick nymphal densities the following summer, but also entomological risk associated with tick-borne pathogens transmitted by this species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Genomic insights into the Ixodes scapularis tick vector of Lyme disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulia-Nuss, Monika; Nuss, Andrew B; Meyer, Jason M; Sonenshine, Daniel E; Roe, R Michael; Waterhouse, Robert M; Sattelle, David B; de la Fuente, José; Ribeiro, Jose M; Megy, Karine; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Miller, Jason R; Walenz, Brian P; Koren, Sergey; Hostetler, Jessica B; Thiagarajan, Mathangi; Joardar, Vinita S; Hannick, Linda I; Bidwell, Shelby; Hammond, Martin P; Young, Sarah; Zeng, Qiandong; Abrudan, Jenica L; Almeida, Francisca C; Ayllón, Nieves; Bhide, Ketaki; Bissinger, Brooke W; Bonzon-Kulichenko, Elena; Buckingham, Steven D; Caffrey, Daniel R; Caimano, Melissa J; Croset, Vincent; Driscoll, Timothy; Gilbert, Don; Gillespie, Joseph J; Giraldo-Calderón, Gloria I; Grabowski, Jeffrey M; Jiang, David; Khalil, Sayed M S; Kim, Donghun; Kocan, Katherine M; Koči, Juraj; Kuhn, Richard J; Kurtti, Timothy J; Lees, Kristin; Lang, Emma G; Kennedy, Ryan C; Kwon, Hyeogsun; Perera, Rushika; Qi, Yumin; Radolf, Justin D; Sakamoto, Joyce M; Sánchez-Gracia, Alejandro; Severo, Maiara S; Silverman, Neal; Šimo, Ladislav; Tojo, Marta; Tornador, Cristian; Van Zee, Janice P; Vázquez, Jesús; Vieira, Filipe G; Villar, Margarita; Wespiser, Adam R; Yang, Yunlong; Zhu, Jiwei; Arensburger, Peter; Pietrantonio, Patricia V; Barker, Stephen C; Shao, Renfu; Zdobnov, Evgeny M; Hauser, Frank; Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J P; Park, Yoonseong; Rozas, Julio; Benton, Richard; Pedra, Joao H F; Nelson, David R; Unger, Maria F; Tubio, Jose M C; Tu, Zhijian; Robertson, Hugh M; Shumway, Martin; Sutton, Granger; Wortman, Jennifer R; Lawson, Daniel; Wikel, Stephen K; Nene, Vishvanath M; Fraser, Claire M; Collins, Frank H; Birren, Bruce; Nelson, Karen E; Caler, Elisabet; Hill, Catherine A

    2016-02-09

    Ticks transmit more pathogens to humans and animals than any other arthropod. We describe the 2.1 Gbp nuclear genome of the tick, Ixodes scapularis (Say), which vectors pathogens that cause Lyme disease, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, babesiosis and other diseases. The large genome reflects accumulation of repetitive DNA, new lineages of retro-transposons, and gene architecture patterns resembling ancient metazoans rather than pancrustaceans. Annotation of scaffolds representing ∼57% of the genome, reveals 20,486 protein-coding genes and expansions of gene families associated with tick-host interactions. We report insights from genome analyses into parasitic processes unique to ticks, including host 'questing', prolonged feeding, cuticle synthesis, blood meal concentration, novel methods of haemoglobin digestion, haem detoxification, vitellogenesis and prolonged off-host survival. We identify proteins associated with the agent of human granulocytic anaplasmosis, an emerging disease, and the encephalitis-causing Langat virus, and a population structure correlated to life-history traits and transmission of the Lyme disease agent.

  20. Biting activity of Aedes scapularis (Rondani and Haemagogus mosquitoes in Southern Brazil (Diptera: Culicidae Atividade hematófaga de mosquitos Aedes scapularis (Rondani e Haemagogus no sul do Brasil (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini

    1988-04-01

    Full Text Available The biting activity of a population of Aedes scapularis (Rondani, Haemagogus capricornii Lutz and Hg. leucocelaenus (Dyar and Shannon in Southern Brazil was studied between March 1980 and April 1983. Data were obtained with 25-hour human bait catches in three areas with patchy residual forests, named "Jacaré-Pepira", "Lupo" Farm, and "Sta. Helena" Farm, in the highland region of S. Paulo State (Brazil. Data obtained on Ae. scapularis were compared with those formerly gathered in the "Ribeira'' Valley lowlands, and were similar, except in the "Lupo" Farm study area, where a precrepuscular peak was observed, not recorded at the "Jacaré-Pepira" site or in the "Ribeira" Valley. In all the areas this mosquito showed diurnal and nocturnal activity, but was most active during the evening crepuscular period. These observations support the hypothesis about the successful adaptation of Ae. scapularis to man-made environments and have epidemiological implications that arise from it. As for Haemagogus, results obtained on the "Lupo" and "Sta. Helena" regions agree with previous data obtained in several other regions and show its diurnal activity. The proximity of "Lupo" Farm, where Hg. capricornii and Hg. leucocelaenus showed considerable activity, to "Araraquara" city where Aedes aegypti was recently found, raises some epidemiological considerations about the possibility of urban yellow fever resurgence.No período de março de 1980 a abril de 1983 foi estudada a atividade hematófaga de uma população de Aedes scapularis (Rondani, Haemagogus capricornii Lutz, Hg. leucocelaenus (Dyar e Shannon, na região sul do Brasil. Os dados foram obtidos com o emprego de isca humana, mediante captura de 25 horas de duração e correspondente a três áreas, contendo manchas de floresta residual, denominadas Jacaré-Pepira, Fazenda Lupo e Fazenda Santa Helena. Os resultados relativos a Ae. scapularis foram comparados com as coletas anteriormente feitas em áreas de

  1. Cloning of a salivary gland metalloprotease and characterization of gelatinase and fibrin(ogen)lytic activities in the saliva of the Lyme Disease tick vector Ixodes scapularis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francischetti, Ivo M. B.; Mather, Thomas N.; Ribeiro, José M. C.

    2010-01-01

    The full-length sequence of tick salivary gland cDNA coding for a protein similar to metalloproteases (MP) of the reprolysin family is reported. The Ixodes scapularis MP is a 488 aminoacid (aa) protein containing pre- and pro-enzyme domains, the zinc-binding motif HExxHxxGxxH common to metalloproteases and a cysteine-rich region. In addition, the predicted amino-terminal sequences of I. scapularis MPs were found by Edman degradation of PVDF-transferred SDS/PAGE-separated tick saliva proteins, indicating these putative enzymes are secreted. Furthermore, saliva has a metal-dependent proteolytic activity towards gelatin, fibrin(ogen) and fibronectin, but not collagen or laminin. Accordingly, I. scapularis saliva has a rather specific metalloprotease similar to the hemorrhagic proteases of snake venoms. This is the first description of such activity in tick saliva and its role in tick feeding and Borrelia transmission are discussed. PMID:12767911

  2. How much pilocarpine contaminates pilocarpine-induced tick saliva?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, J M C; Zeidner, N S; Ledin, K; Dolan, M C; Mather, T N

    2004-03-01

    Pilocarpine is often applied or injected into ticks to induce salivation, and the resulting saliva used to test for various pharmacological, biochemical and immunological activities. To measure the amount of pilocarpine in pilocarpine-induced tick saliva, an HPLC-MS/MS method, based on capillary strong cation exchange chromatography online with an ion trap mass spectrometer, was used to measure pilocarpine in the pg to ng range. Results indicate large concentrations of pilocarpine in Ixodes scapularis Say and Amblyomma americanum (Linnaeus) (Acari: Ixodidae) saliva, ranging from 3 to 50 mm. Due to the known effects of pilocarpine on smooth muscle and immune cells, appropriate controls are proposed and discussed for proper interpretation of results using this saliva preparation.

  3. Cloning of a salivary gland metalloprotease and characterization of gelatinase and fibrin(ogen)lytic activities in the saliva of the Lyme Disease tick vector Ixodes scapularis

    OpenAIRE

    Francischetti, Ivo M. B.; Mather, Thomas N.; Ribeiro, José M. C.

    2003-01-01

    The full-length sequence of tick salivary gland cDNA coding for a protein similar to metalloproteases (MP) of the reprolysin family is reported. The Ixodes scapularis MP is a 488 aminoacid (aa) protein containing pre- and pro-enzyme domains, the zinc-binding motif HExxHxxGxxH common to metalloproteases and a cysteine-rich region. In addition, the predicted amino-terminal sequences of I. scapularis MPs were found by Edman degradation of PVDF-transferred SDS/PAGE-separated tick saliva proteins,...

  4. Ability of an oral formulation of afoxolaner to protect dogs from Borrelia burgdorferi infection transmitted by wild Ixodes scapularis ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, C F; McCall, J W; McCall, S D; Drag, M D; Mitchell, E B; Chester, S T; Larsen, D

    2016-12-01

    A randomized, blinded, negative controlled study was conducted to determine whether treatment with afoxolaner (NexGard(®), Merial, Inc.) would prevent the transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi to dogs by wild caught Ixodes scapularis ticks. Twenty healthy dogs were randomly assigned to two groups of ten dogs each. Ten dogs were treated orally on Day 0 at a dose near the minimum recommended dose of afoxolaner of 2.5mg/kg (actual doses 2.5-3.1mg/kg) and ten control dogs were not treated. On Day 28, each dog was infested with approximately 50 adult unfed wild caught I. scapularis that had a 67% B. burgdorferi infection rate (determined by polymerase chain reaction). On Day 33, live ticks were counted and removed. No ticks were found on treated dogs while control dogs had an average of 21.4 ticks. To detect infection, the B. burgdorferi-specific C6 antibody SNAP(®) 4Dx(®) test (IDEXX) was performed on serum collected before infestation (all dogs seronegative on Days -6 and 27) and on Days 48, 63, 77 and 92. The ten treated dogs remained seronegative through the end of the study (Day 92), while nine out of the ten control dogs were infected, as demonstrated by their seroconversion to being positive for the presence of the B. burgdorferi-specific C6 antibody starting on Day 48. In this study, all dogs treated with NexGard(®) 28days prior to challenge with wild caught I. scapularis ticks were protected from B. burgdorferi infection, while nine out of the ten untreated control dogs were infected. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparative speed of kill of sarolaner (Simparica) and afoxolaner (NexGard against induced infestations of Ixodes scapularis on dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six, Robert H; Young, David R; Myers, Melanie R; Mahabir, Sean P

    2016-02-15

    The black-legged (or deer) tick, Ixodes scapularis, commonly infests dogs and cats in North America and is the main vector for the pathogen that causes Lyme disease in dogs and humans. The speed of kill of a parasiticide is critical to minimize the direct and deleterious effects of tick infestation and especially to reduce the risk of tick-borne pathogen transmission. In this study, speed of kill of a novel orally administered isoxazoline parasiticide, sarolaner chewable tablets (Simparica), against I. scapularis on dogs was evaluated and compared with afoxolaner (NexGard) for five weeks after a single oral dose. Twenty four dogs were randomly allocated to treatment with either placebo, sarolaner (2 to 4 mg/kg), or afoxolaner (2.5 to 6.8 mg/kg) based on pretreatment tick counts. Dogs were examined and live ticks counted at 8, 12, and 24 h after treatment and subsequent re-infestations on Days 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35. Efficacy was determined at each time point relative to counts for placebo dogs. A single oral dose of sarolaner provided >99% efficacy within 24 h of treatment and >95% against subsequent weekly re-infestations of ticks consistently to Day 35. For the earlier time points, sarolaner significantly reduced tick counts versus placebo from Day 0 to Day 21 at 8 and 12 h, and on Day 35 at 12 h (P ≤ 0.0174), while afoxolaner was only significantly lower at 8 h on Days 0 and 14 (P ≤ 0.0309), and at 12 h on Day 0 only (P sarolaner-treated dogs at 24 h after infestation from Day 14 to Day 35 (P ≤ 0.0278). At 24 h, efficacy (based on geometric mean counts) of afoxolaner declined to less than 80% from Day 21 through the end of the study, while efficacy for sarolaner was >95% for 35 days. There were no adverse reactions to treatments. In this controlled laboratory evaluation, sarolaner had a faster speed of kill against I. scapularis than afoxolaner. This was noticeably more pronounced towards the end of the monthly treatment period. The rapid and

  6. Astigmata and Prostigmata Acari of Medical Importance in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Guillén, Zoila; Instituto de Medicina Tropical "Daniel Alcides Carrión", Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú; Romero, Giuliana; Departamento de Microbiología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú; Pareja, Elizabeth; Departamento de Microbiología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú; Valencia, Miguel; Departamento de Microbiología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú; López, Martha; Universidad Nacional del Cuzco "San Antonio Abad", Cuzco, Perú; Suárez, Roxana; Universidad Particular Ricardo Palma, Lima, Perú

    2014-01-01

    This article present species of Astigmata and Prostigmata acari that produce human pathology in Peru. Patients who were seen at Instituto de Medicina Tropical Daniel A. Carrion, Huinco, and domestic dust of Lima, Lambayeque, Trujillo and Ucayali, were evaluated, as well as related articles published up to now. In this work, we found the follow Astigmata: Tyrophagus putrescentiae, Acarus siro, Suidasia sp., Dermatophagoides pteromyssinus, Glycyphagus domesticus and Sarcoptes scabiei, and Prost...

  7. Phylogeny of a relapsing fever Borrelia species transmitted by the hard tick Ixodes scapularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, Alan G

    2014-10-01

    The discovery of Borrelia species that were related to the agents of relapsing fever but were transmitted by hard ticks rather than soft ticks challenged previous taxonomies based largely on microbe-host specificities and geographic considerations. One of these newly-identified organisms is the Borrelia miyamotoi sensu lato strain LB-2001 from North America and transmitted by Ixodes scapularis. This or related strains have been identified as the cause of human disease, but comparatively little is known about their biology or genetics. Using recently acquired chromosome sequence of LB-2001 together with database sequences and additional sequences determined here, I carried out comparisons of the several species of Borrelia, including those in the two major clades: the relapsing fever group of species and the Lyme disease group of species. Phylogenetic inference at the species level was based on four data sets: whole chromosomes of ∼1Mb each, and concatenated sequences of 19 ribosomal protein genes, 3 conserved nucleic acid enzymes (rpoC, recC, and dnaE), and 4 contiguous genes for nucleotide salvage on a large plasmid. Analyses using neighbor-joining, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian methods were largely concordant for each of the trees. They showed that LB-2001 and related hard tick-associated organisms, like Borrelia lonestari, are deeply positioned within the RF group of species and that these organisms did not, as some earlier estimations had suggested, constitute a paraphyletic group. The analyses also provided further evidence that major changes in host ranges and life cycles, such as hard to soft ticks or vice versa, may not correlate well with overall sequence differences. The genetic differences between LB-2001 and B. miyamotoi sensu stricto justify provisional use of the "sensu lato" designation for LB-2001. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Growth of Coxiella burnetii in the Ixodes scapularis-derived IDE8 tick cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrin, Brian; Mahapatra, Saugata; Blouin, Edmour F; Shaw, Edward I

    2011-07-01

    Q fever, a zoonotic disease, is caused by a gram-negative intracellular bacterium, Coxiella burnetii. Although normally transmitted during exposure to infectious aerosols, C. burnetii is also found in arthropod vectors. In the environment, ticks are thought to play a crucial role in bacterial maintenance and transmission by infecting various mammalian species. However, the nature of the pathogen-tick relationship is not well defined. To determine C. burnetii's interactions with a cultured tick cell line, we introduced purified C. burnetii NMII into Ixodes scapularis-derived IDE8 cells and assayed for bacterial presence, replication, gene expression, and subsequent infectivity for mammalian cells. Tick cells were harvested at 24 h, 72 h, 7 days, and 11 days postinfection (PI). C. burnetii uptake and subsequent replication was demonstrated by indirect immunofluorescence assay, electron microscopy, and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). When a genome equivalent multiplicity of infection of 30 was used, 30%-40% of exposed cells were seen to have small, rounded, vacuoles at 72 h PI, whereas at 7 and 11 days PI, 60%-70% of cells contained enlarged vacuoles harboring large numbers of bacteria. Quantitative PCR analysis of total genomic DNA confirmed that C. burnetii genome numbers increased significantly from 24 h to 11 days PI. Expression of C. burnetii type four secretion system homologs at 7 days PI was demonstrated by reverse transcriptase PCR. Finally, indirect immunofluorescence assay demonstrated that C. burnetii propagated within IDE8 cells were infectious for mammalian cells. These studies demonstrate the utility of cultured tick cell lines as a model to investigate C. burnetii's molecular interactions with its arthropod vectors.

  9. Potential species distribution and richness of ixodidae ticks associated with wild vertebrates from Michoacán, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vargas-Sandoval, Margarita; Priego-Santander, Angel G.; Larrazabal de la Via, Alejandra Patricia; Sosa-Gutiérrez, Carolina G.; Lara-Chávez, Blanca; Avila-Val, Teresita

    2014-01-01

    Ticks are regarded as the most relevant vectors of disease-causing pathogens in domestic and wild animals. The diversity of Ixodidae is known for a very small number of genera. Ixodes are repre- sented by 26 species, and in 2007 the first reported ticks vectors in Mexico for the causal agent of Lyme

  10. Biological control of Eotetranychus lewisi and Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) on strawberry by four phytoseiids (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Anna D; Daugovish, Oleg

    2013-02-01

    The spider mite, Eotetranychus lewisi (McGregor) (Acari: Tetranychidae), is a new emerging pest in California commercial strawberries. The predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis (Athias-Henriot) (Acari: Phytoseiidae), typically used for biocontrol of Tetranychus urticae (Koch) (Acari: Tetranychidae), provided growers little to no control of E. lewisi. Four commonly used phytoseiid predatory mites: P. persimilis, Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor), N. fallacis (Garman), and Amblyseius andersoni (Chant), were used in lab studies to investigate which is best at managing E. lewisi populations. We als o investigated t he interactions between T. urticae and E. lewisi and in relation to phytoseiid efficiency given the potential for indirect effects of biocontrol. When E. lewisi and T. urticae are present on the same leaf, T. urticae populations increase and begin displacing E. lewisi. P. persimilis did not feed on E. lewisi, but the other three predatory mites consumed the spider mites and lowered their populations. When both E. lewisi and T. urticae are present on the same leaf, N. fallacis and A. andersoni fed on both types of mites equally and were capable of decreasing both populations. N. californicus fed on E. lewisi first and decreased its population, but allowed T. urticae populations to increase. P. persimilis may be insufficient at controlling E. lewisi and its use may instead enhance E. lewisi populations.

  11. Validation of droplet digital PCR for the detection and absolute quantification of Borrelia DNA in Ixodes scapularis ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Jenny L; Smith, Ashley D; Mitchell, Elizabeth A; Allen, Michael S

    2017-04-01

    We evaluated the QX200 Droplet Digital PCR (ddPCR™, Bio-Rad) system and protocols for the detection of the tick-borne pathogens Borrelia burgdorferi and Borrelia miyamotoi in Ixodes scapularis nymphs and adults collected from North Truro, Massachusetts. Preliminary screening by nested PCR determined positive infection levels of 60% for B. burgdorferi in these ticks. To investigate the utility of ddPCR as a screening tool and to calculate the absolute number of bacterial genome copies in an infected tick, we adapted previously reported TaqMan®-based qPCR assays for ddPCR. ddPCR proved to be a reliable means for detection and absolute quantification of control bacterial DNA with precision as low as ten spirochetes in an individual sample. Application of this method revealed the average carriage level of B. burgdorferi in infected I. scapularis nymphs to be 2291 spirochetes per nymph (range: 230-5268 spirochetes) and 51 179 spirochetes on average in infected adults (range: 5647-115 797). No ticks naturally infected with B. miyamotoi were detected. The ddPCR protocols were at least as sensitive to conventional qPCR assays but required fewer overall reactions and are potentially less subject to inhibition. Moreover, the approach can provide insight on carriage levels of parasites within vectors.

  12. Efficacy of a novel topical combination of fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin, and praziquantel, against the ticks, Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes scapularis, on cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tielemans, E; Prullage, J; Knaus, M; Visser, M; Manavella, C; Chester, S T; Young, David; Everett, William R; Rosentel, J

    2014-04-28

    Five controlled, blinded and randomized studies were conducted to examine the efficacy of a single topical application of a combination of fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin, and praziquantel (BROADLINE(®), Merial) against induced infestations with Ixodes ticks on cats. Three studies investigated the efficacy against Ixodes ricinus and two against Ixodes scapularis. In each study, purpose-bred cats were assigned at random to an untreated group or to a treated group. For the studies using I. ricinus, cats were infested with 50 female ticks and a similar number of males 2 days before treatment application, and weekly afterwards on between four and six occasions. For the studies using I. scapularis, cats were infested with a total of 50 ticks (approximately 25 females and 25 males) according to the same schedule as for I. ricinus. Tick counts for the evaluation of efficacy were performed 48 h after treatment and 48 h after the subsequent weekly infestations. Weekly attachment rates to untreated cats of at least 29% for I. ricinus and at least 30% for I. scapularis demonstrated consistently that the ticks were vigorous and that the attachment rates were adequate for efficacy evaluation. In the I. ricinus studies, an efficacy of at least 93% was demonstrated for up to 37 days after the treatment. In the I. scapularis studies, the efficacy level was at least 95% 30 days after the treatment. The product was well tolerated and caused no adverse reaction. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A new genus and species Mangalaus krishianusandhanus (Acari: Eriophyidae) from India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangalaus ikrishianusandhanus n. gen., n. sp., (Acari: Prostigmata: Eriophyoidea), collected from erineum on the underside of leaves of Cordia dichotoma (Boraginaceae) is described and illustrated from specimens collected at the Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI) in New Delhi, India....

  14. Temperature-dependent development and reproductive traits of Tetranychus macfarlanei (Acari: Tetranychidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullah, Mohammad Shaef; Haque, Md. Ahsanul; Nachman, Gösta

    2012-01-01

    Development and reproductive traits of Tetranychus macfarlanei Baker & Pritchard (Acari: Tetranychidae) were investigated on kidney bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L., at eleven constant temperatures. Tetranychus macfarlanei was able to develop and complete its life cycle at temperatures ranging from 17...

  15. A new species of Brevipalpus Donnadieu (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) and key to the Egyptian species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halawa, Alaa M; Fawzy, Magdy M

    2014-01-20

    A new species, Brevipalpus noranae sp. nov. (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) is described and illustrated from females collected on Malus domestica Borkh and Citrus aurantium L. A key to the species of the genus Brevipalpus present in Egypt is provided.

  16. Three new .i.Trachyuropoda./i. (Acari: Uropodina: Trachyuropodidae) species from the Neotropical region

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kontschán, J.; Starý, Josef

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 1 (2013), s. 7-14 ISSN 1300-0179 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Acari * Uropodina * Trachyuropoda * Galápagos Islands Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.585, year: 2013

  17. Reproductive parameters of Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks) fed with Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Phytoseiidae, Tetranychidae) in laboratory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Souza-Pimentel, G C; Reis, P R; Bonatto, C R; Alves, J P; Siqueira, M F

    2016-01-01

    .... Tetranychus urticae Koch, 1836 (Acari: Tetranychidae) is considered to be one of the most important species of mite pests and has been described as attacking over 1,100 species of plants in 140 families with economic value...

  18. Tissue-specific signatures in the transcriptional response to Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection of Ixodes scapularis and Ixodes ricinus tick cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar eAlberdi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Anaplasma phagocytophilum are transmitted by Ixodes spp. ticks and have become one of the most common and relevant tick-borne pathogens due to their impact on human and animal health. Recent results have increased our understanding of the molecular interactions between Ixodes scapularis and A. phagocytophilum through the demonstration of tissue-specific molecular pathways that ensure pathogen infection, development and transmission by ticks. However, little is known about the Ixodes ricinus genes and proteins involved in the response to A. phagocytophilum infection. The tick species I. scapularis and I. ricinus are evolutionarily closely related and therefore similar responses are expected in A. phagocytophilum-infected cells. However, differences may exist between I. scapularis ISE6 and I. ricinus IRE/CTVM20 tick cells associated with tissue-specific signatures of these cell lines. To address this hypothesis, the transcriptional response to A. phagocytophilum infection was characterized by RNA sequencing and compared between I. scapularis ISE6 and I. ricinus IRE/CTVM20 tick cell lines. The transcriptional response to infection of I. scapularis ISE6 cells resembled that of tick hemocytes while the response in I. ricinus IRE/CTVM20 cells was more closely related to that reported previously in infected tick midguts. The inhibition of cell apoptosis by A. phagocytophilum appears to be a key adaptation mechanism to facilitate infection of both vertebrate and tick cells and was used to investigate further the tissue-specific response of tick cell lines to pathogen infection. The results supported a role for the intrinsic pathway in the inhibition of cell apoptosis by A. phagocytophilum infection of I. scapularis ISE6 cells. In contrast, the results in I. ricinus IRE/CTVM20 cells were similar to those obtained in tick midguts and suggested a role for the JAK/STAT pathway in the inhibition of apoptosis in tick cells infected with A. phagocytophilum

  19. Tissue-Specific Signatures in the Transcriptional Response to Anaplasma phagocytophilum Infection of Ixodes scapularis and Ixodes ricinus Tick Cell Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberdi, Pilar; Mansfield, Karen L; Manzano-Román, Raúl; Cook, Charlotte; Ayllón, Nieves; Villar, Margarita; Johnson, Nicholas; Fooks, Anthony R; de la Fuente, José

    2016-01-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum are transmitted by Ixodes spp. ticks and have become one of the most common and relevant tick-borne pathogens due to their impact on human and animal health. Recent results have increased our understanding of the molecular interactions between Ixodes scapularis and A. phagocytophilum through the demonstration of tissue-specific molecular pathways that ensure pathogen infection, development and transmission by ticks. However, little is known about the Ixodes ricinus genes and proteins involved in the response to A. phagocytophilum infection. The tick species I. scapularis and I. ricinus are evolutionarily closely related and therefore similar responses are expected in A. phagocytophilum-infected cells. However, differences may exist between I. scapularis ISE6 and I. ricinus IRE/CTVM20 tick cells associated with tissue-specific signatures of these cell lines. To address this hypothesis, the transcriptional response to A. phagocytophilum infection was characterized by RNA sequencing and compared between I. scapularis ISE6 and I. ricinus IRE/CTVM20 tick cell lines. The transcriptional response to infection of I. scapularis ISE6 cells resembled that of tick hemocytes while the response in I. ricinus IRE/CTVM20 cells was more closely related to that reported previously in infected tick midguts. The inhibition of cell apoptosis by A. phagocytophilum appears to be a key adaptation mechanism to facilitate infection of both vertebrate and tick cells and was used to investigate further the tissue-specific response of tick cell lines to pathogen infection. The results supported a role for the intrinsic pathway in the inhibition of cell apoptosis by A. phagocytophilum infection of I. scapularis ISE6 cells. In contrast, the results in I. ricinus IRE/CTVM20 cells were similar to those obtained in tick midguts and suggested a role for the JAK/STAT pathway in the inhibition of apoptosis in tick cells infected with A. phagocytophilum. Nevertheless, tick

  20. Cryptic speciation in the Acari: a function of species lifestyles or our ability to separate species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoracka, Anna; Magalhães, Sara; Rector, Brian G; Kuczyński, Lechosław

    2015-10-01

    There are approximately 55,000 described Acari species, accounting for almost half of all known Arachnida species, but total estimated Acari diversity is reckoned to be far greater. One important source of currently hidden Acari diversity is cryptic speciation, which poses challenges to taxonomists documenting biodiversity assessment as well as to researchers in medicine and agriculture. In this review, we revisit the subject of biodiversity in the Acari and investigate what is currently known about cryptic species within this group. Based on a thorough literature search, we show that the probability of occurrence of cryptic species is mainly related to the number of attempts made to detect them. The use of, both, DNA tools and bioassays significantly increased the probability of cryptic species detection. We did not confirm the generally-accepted idea that species lifestyle (i.e. free-living vs. symbiotic) affects the number of cryptic species. To increase detection of cryptic lineages and to understand the processes leading to cryptic speciation in Acari, integrative approaches including multivariate morphometrics, molecular tools, crossing, ecological assays, intensive sampling, and experimental evolution are recommended. We conclude that there is a demonstrable need for future investigations focusing on potentially hidden mite and tick species and addressing evolutionary mechanisms behind cryptic speciation within Acari.

  1. Bat ectoparasites (Nycteribiidae, Streblidae, Siphonaptera, Heteroptera, Mesostigmata, Argasidae, and Ixodidae) from Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendjeddou, Mohammed Lamine; Loumassine, Hibat Allah; Scheffler, Ingo; Bouslama, Zihad; Amr, Zuhair

    2017-06-01

    Twenty two species of ectoparasites (Family Nycteribiidae: Nycteribia (Listropoda) schmidlii schmidlii, Nycteribia (Nycteribia) latreillii, Nycteribia (Nycteribia) pedicularia, Penicillidia (Penicillidia) dufourii, and Phthiridium biarticulatum; Family Streblidae: Brachytarsina (Brachytarsina) flavipennis and Raymondia huberi; Order Siphonaptera: Rhinolophopsylla unipectinata arabs, Nycteridopsylla longiceps, Araeopsylla gestroi, Ischnopsyllus intermedius, and Ischnopsyllus octactenus; Order Heteroptera: Cimex pipistrelli, Cimex lectularius, and Cacodmus vicinus; Class Arachnida: Order Mesostigmata: Spinturnix myoti and Eyndhovenia euryalis; Order Ixodida: Family Argasidae: Argas transgariepinus and Argas vespertilionis; Family Ixodidae: Hyalomma dromedarii, Ixodes ricinus, and Ixodes vespertilionis) were recovered from 19 bat species in Algeria. New host records for bats are recorded for the first time: N. schmidlii from Rh. clivosus and R. cystops; N. latreillii from Rh. blasii and P. gaisleri; R. huberi from Rh. clivosus; C. pipistrelli from E. isabellinus and H. savii; C. vicinus from E. isabellinus; S. myoti from P. gaisleri; E. euryalis from P. gaisleri and Rh. blasii; A. vespertilionis from P. gaisleri; I. ricinus from T. teniotis and Rh. hipposideros and H. dromedarii from P. kuhlii. Raymondia huberi is recorded for the first time from Algeria. © 2017 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  2. Analysis of the human population bitten by Ixodes scapularis ticks in Quebec, Canada: Increasing risk of Lyme disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasmi, Salima; Ogden, Nicholas H; Leighton, Patrick A; Lindsay, L Robbin; Thivierge, Karine

    2016-10-01

    Ixodes scapularis, the main vector of Borrelia burgdorferi, the spirochetal agent of Lyme disease, is expanding its range in southern Canada and bringing risk to the public from Lyme disease. The aims of this study were to (i) describe how risk of Lyme disease in Quebec, Canada, has changed from 2008 to 2014 by analysis of the number of tick submissions, the geographic scope of ticks submitted and the prevalence of B. burgdorferi in ticks removed from people and submitted through the Quebec passive tick surveillance program and (ii) explore whether exposure to ticks is influenced by age and sex. Ticks were collected from 2008 to 2014 in a passive surveillance program conducted by the Laboratoire de santé publique du Québec (LSPQ), and tested by PCR for B. burgdorferi at the National Microbiology Laboratory. The number of ticks submitted each year more than quadrupled during the study period (from 174 in 2008 to 962 in 2014), increases in the geographic range and geographic uniformity of submissions amongst municipalities were observed, and infection prevalence in the ticks (mostly adult females) submitted rose from 5.9% in 2008 to 18.1% in 2014. These data are consistent with outcomes from active surveillance for blacklegged ticks. More men (54.4%) than women (45.6%) were bitten by I. scapularis ticks and the frequency of tick submission was highest in children under 15 years of age and in the adults 50-70 years old. These findings demonstrate the utility of conducting passive tick surveillance using humans and provides information on risk groups (i.e., males, children under 15, adults older than 50, and those living in the more southern parts of the province) to which information on personal protection and tick-bite prevention should be most strongly targeted. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of the speed of kill of sarolaner (Simparica™) against induced infestations of three species of ticks (Amblyomma maculatum, Ixodes scapularis, Ixodes ricinus) on dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six, Robert H; Geurden, Thomas; Carter, Lori; Everett, William R; McLoughlin, A; Mahabir, Sean P; Myers, Melanie R; Slootmans, Nathalie

    2016-05-30

    The rapid speed of kill of sarolaner (Simparica™, Zoetis), a novel isoxazoline compound, was demonstrated against three tick species known to infest dogs in Europe or the United States. Efficacy was measured against an existing infestation and against subsequent weekly re-infestations for 35 days after treatment. Dogs were randomly allocated to treatment with a single oral dose of either placebo or sarolaner (2mg/kg) based on pre-treatment host-suitability tick counts. Dogs were infested with approximately 50 unfed adult Ixodes scapularis, Ixodes ricinus or Amblyomma maculatum ticks on Days-2, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35. Tick counts were conducted at 4 (I. scapularis only), 8, 12 and 24h after treatment on Day 0 and after each subsequent re-infestation. No treatment-related adverse reactions occurred during any of these studies. Dogs in the placebo-treated groups maintained adequate tick infestations (recovery of 20-70% of applied ticks) throughout the duration of the studies. Following treatment, live tick counts were significantly reduced relative to placebo at the 8h post treatment counts indicating that sarolaner started killing existing infestations of ticks rapidly after treatment. Efficacy was 90.1% against I. ricinus, 98.8% against I. scapularis, and 99.2% against A. maculatum within 12h, and 100% efficacy was achieved at 24h after treatment against all three tick species. This speed of kill was maintained throughout the month with ≥95.7%, ≥98.7% and ≥89.6% efficacy against I. scapularis, I. ricinus, and A. maculatum, respectively, at 24h after re-infestation at least through Day 28. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of predatory mite (Acari: Phytoseiidae) releases to suppress spruce spider mites, Oligonychus ununguis (Acari: Tetranychidae), on juniper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrewsbury, Paula M; Hardin, Mark R

    2003-12-01

    A laboratory trial evaluated four phytoseiid species for their potential as biological control agents of spruce spider mite, Oligonychus ununguis (Jacobi) (Acari: Tetranychidae). An augmentative biological control approach, using the predatory mites Neoseiulus fallacis Garman and Galendromus occidentalis Nesbitt (Acari: Phytoseiidae), was evaluated for reducing pest mite densities and injury, and economic costs on Juniperus chinensis 'Sargentii' A. Henry (Cupressaceae) in an outdoor nursery. Sequential releases of predator species, individually and in combination, were tested and compared with two commonly used miticides, a low-toxicity miticide, horticultural oil, and a conventional miticide, hexythiazox. Timing of treatments was based on grower-determined need, and predator release rates were based on guidelines in literature received from producers of beneficial organisms. Predator releases were more expensive and provided less effective suppression of spruce spider mites, resulting in greater spider mite injury to plants, compared with conventional pesticides. However, spider mite damage to plants did not differ in an economically meaningful way between treatments. Unsatisfactory levels of control seem related to under estimations of actual spider mite abundance based on grower perceptions and the beat sampling technique used to estimate predator release rates. These data suggest that when initial populations of spruce spider mite are high, it is unlikely that sequential releases of predator species, individually or in combination, will suppress spider mite populations. In this trial, augmentative biological control control was 2.5-7 times more expensive than chemical controls.

  5. Relationship between temperature and development of Galendromus flumenis (Acari: Phytoseiidae), a predator of Banks grass mite (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganjisaffar, Fatemeh; Perring, Thomas M

    2015-12-01

    The Banks grass mite, Oligonychus pratensis (Banks) (Acari: Tetranychidae), is a serious pest of grains, grasses and dates. In order to develop and optimize biological control strategies against the Banks grass mite, the survival and development of the predator, Galendromus flumenis (Chant) (Acari: Phytoseiidae), at eleven constant temperatures between 12 and 44°C were determined. The survival rates of G. flumenis (67.4-89.5 %) were highest between 26 and 38°C although it developed successfully from egg to adult at temperatures ranging from 18 to 42°C. The lower temperature threshold (T 0 ) and thermal constant (K) for total immature development were 13.3°C and 145.3 degree-days, respectively. The upper temperature threshold was 44.3°C, and the optimal temperature for development was calculated to be 37.5°C. These results indicate that G. flumenis is better adapted to high temperatures than most predators in the Phytoseiidae. In addition, the thermal requirements for total development of G. flumenis was found to be very close to those of O. pratensis which indicates that there should be synchrony between the occurrence of the prey and the predator. Therefore, the lack of predation observed in the field is related to other factors, such as the developmental time between O. pratensis and G. flumenis, or the inability of the predator to establish at the same time, and in the same location, as the prey.

  6. [Control of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latrielle, 1806) (Acari: Ixodidae) in the kennel of the UFMG Veterinary School, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, Gustavo F; Leite, Romário C; de Oliveira, Paulo R

    2008-01-01

    The present work was aimed at proposing a control measure for Rhipicephalus sanguineus in a naturally infected kennel of 72 m(2) of the UFMG Veterinary School with 25 dogs of different breeds. A sensitivity test to acaricide products was applied in a sample of R. sanguineus. Out of the acaricide products tested: 12.5% Amitraz (product 1); 2% Alfamethrin and 60% Dichlorvos association (product 2); 5% Deltamethrin (product 3) and the association between 77.6% Trichlorfon, 1.0% Coumaphos and 1.0% Cyfluthrin (product 4); only 1 and 4 products showed 100% efficacy. Amitraz (12.5%) was used for controlling R. sanguineus in the surrounding of the kennel, on which four treatments every seven days were carried out in the facilities. For parasitic R. sanguineus, a single topical treatment was used: Flumetrin 1.0% pour-on on all the 25 dogs. This control measure significantly reduced the population of R. sanguineus within the kennel. A slight infestation was observed in the seventh month after treatment. A new application of 12.5% Amitraz was done in the kennel as well as a new topical treatment with Flumetrin 1.0% pour-on on the dogs. The control procedure proposed in the present study was an emergency measure and its effectiveness was checked through environmental surveys throughout a one-year period.

  7. Identification of non-host semiochemicals for the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (Acari: Ixodidae), from tick-resistant beagles, Canis lupus familiaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Lígia Miranda Ferreira; de Oliveira Filho, Jaires Gomes; Ferreira, Lorena Lopes; Louly, Carla Cristina Braz; Pickett, John A; Birkett, Michael A

    2015-07-01

    Studies have shown that the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato, when fed on the beagle breed of dog, Canis lupus familiaris, development negatively affected in comparison with tick development after feeding on the English cocker spaniel breed. Thus leading to the suggestion that beagle dogs are be tick-resistant dogs. Behavioural studies have demonstrated that more ticks are attracted by extracts from cocker spaniels than from beagles and that the odour of beagles is a repellent. To test the hypothesis that resistant hosts produce repellent compounds, we undertook comparative chemical analysis on beagle odour and cocker spaniel extracts using coupled high-resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and also used Petri-dish and olfactometer behavioural assays to assess the response of ticks to identified non-host compounds. The beagle odour extracts contained almost three times as many chemical compounds as cocker spaniel samples. Several non-host compounds were identified, i.e. 2-hexanone, benzaldehyde, nonane, decane and undecane. In Petri-dish assays, 2-hexanone was repellent at 30 min at concentrations of 0.200 and 0.050 mg cm(-2), whilst at 10 min, the 0.100 mg cm(-2) concentration was repellent. Benzaldehyde repelled ticks at 30 min (0.200 mg cm(-2)) and at 5 min (0.050 mg cm(-2)). Undecane was repellent for R. sanguineus s.l. ticks for the first 5 min at the highest concentration tested. Nonane and decane did not show any significant repellency at any concentration or time evaluated. When 2-hexanone and benzaldehyde were combined, an increase in the repellency rate was observed, with activity comparable or better than N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET). In olfactometer bioassays, a 1:1 mixture of 2-hexanone:benzaldehyde and DEET were repellent for R. sanguineus s.l. adults at the concentration of 0.200 mg cm(-2). This study identified non-host semiochemicals that mediate avoidance of the beagle dog breed by R. sanguineus s.l. This finding may enable development of new approaches to control this tick. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Percepção dos produtores de leite do município de Passos, MG, sobre o carrapato Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae, 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocha Christiane Maria Barcellos Magalhães da

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Entrevistas com 25 proprietários de rebanhos com produção diária acima de 500 litros de leite, sorteados da listagem da cooperativa de Passos/MG/Brasil, foram aplicadas para caracterizar suas percepções sobre a biologia do Boophilus microplus e suas atitudes no controle de carrapatos. A maioria desses produtores tem pelo menos o ensino médio completo e está na atividade há mais de dez anos. Os prejuízos biológicos produzidos pelos carrapatos são bem percebidos por eles; porém, não demonstraram conhecimento sobre a biologia do B. microplus e as desvantagens dos banhos carrapaticidas, principalmente com relação aos riscos toxicológicos. Esses produtores realizam controle de carrapatos sem critérios técnicos e com alta freqüência, baseando-se na avaliação subjetiva da infestação nos animais. Isto favorece o estabelecimento da resistência aos acaricidas e demonstra que a transferência de tecnologia sobre controle de carrapatos para o setor pecuário é falha.

  9. The first assessment of the stress inducible defense of Leucaena leucocephala with acaricidal potential effect against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lêdia Feitosa Wanderley

    Full Text Available Abstract Plants respond to wounding caused by mechanical stress or herbivory by synthesizing defense proteins. There are no studies reporting the action of induced plant proteins against ticks. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of mechanically wounded Leucaena leucocephala leaves against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus. Initially, we carried out time course experiments to evaluate the impact of mechanical wounding on the protein content and the peroxidase, catalase and protease inhibitor activities in L. leucocephala. We then evaluated the acaricidal activity on R. (B. microplus from protein extract collected from L. leucocephala after mechanical wounding. L. leucocephala leaves were artificially wounded, and after 6, 12, 24 and 48h, the leaves were collected for protein extraction. Quantitative and qualitative analyses of the proteins were performed. The protein content and peroxidase and protease activities increased 12h after wounding, and the acaricidal activity of this protein extract was evaluated using engorged R. (B. microplus females. The protein extract obtained after wounding reduced egg production (8.5% compared to those without wounding. Furthermore, the extract reduced egg hatching by 47.7% and showed an overall efficacy of 56.3% at 0.1 mgP/mL of the protein. We demonstrated that L. leucocephala defensive proteins could be effective against R. (B. microplus.

  10. Morphological effects of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) seed oil with known azadirachtin concentrations on the oocytes of semi-engorged Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remedio, R N; Nunes, P H; Anholeto, L A; Oliveira, P R; Camargo-Mathias, M I

    2015-02-01

    The concern about the harmful effects caused by synthetic pesticides has led to the search for safe and ecological alternatives for pest control. In this context, the neem tree (Azadirachta indica) stands out due to its repellent properties and effects on various arthropods, including ticks. For this reason, this study aimed to demonstrate the potential of neem as a control method for Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks, important vectors of diseases in the veterinary point of view. For this, R. sanguineus semi-engorged females were subjected to treatment with neem seed oil enriched with azadirachtin, its main compound, and ovaries were assessed by means of morphological techniques in conventional light microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Neem demonstrated a clear dose-dependent effect in the analyzed samples. The observed oocytes presented, especially in the groups treated with higher concentrations of neem oil, obvious signs of cytoplasmic disorganization, cellular vacuolization, nuclear and nucleolar irregularity, dilation in mitochondrial cristae, alterations in mitochondrial matrix, and swelling of rough endoplasmic reticulum. Intracellular microorganisms were observed in all analyzed groups, reinforcing the importance of ticks in the transmission of pathogens. A greater quantity of microorganisms was noted as the concentration of neem increased, indicating that the damaged oocytes may be more susceptible for their development. Such morphological alterations may promote future damages in reproductive performance of these animals and demonstrate the potential of neem seed oil for the control of R. sanguineus ticks, paving the way for new, cheaper, and safer methods of control.

  11. In Vitro Evaluation of Essential Oils Derived from Piper nigrum (Piperaceae) and Citrus limonum (Rutaceae) against the Tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinturelle, Rafaelle; Mattos, Camila; Meloni, Jéssica; Nogueira, Jeane; Nunes, Maria Júlia; Vaz, Itabajara S; Rocha, Leandro; Lione, Viviane; Castro, Helena C; Chagas, Evelize Folly das

    2017-01-01

    The present research aimed to study the chemical composition and acaricidal activity of Citrus limonum and Piper nigrum essential oils against the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus. GC-MS analysis of C. limonum essential oil showed limonene (50.3%), β-pinene (14.4%), and γ-terpinene (11.7%) as the major components; P. nigrum oil was mainly composed of β-caryophyllene (26.2%), σ-ocymene (5.8%), and α-pinene (5.5%). Acaricide activity was evaluated at concentrations of 2.5, 5.0, and 10.0% (v/v) of each plant oil, as well as 1 : 1 combination of both oils (5% : 5%, 2.5% : 2.5%, and 1.25% : 1.25% each), by immersing engorged R. microplus females for one minute. The LC90 of oils from C. limonum, P. nigrum, and the combination were 4.9%, 14.8%, and 5.1%, respectively. C. limonum essential oil caused 100% mortality of engorged females at the highest concentration (10%). P. nigrum essential oil inhibited egg-laying by up to 96% in a concentration-dependent manner, suggesting it reduces tick fecundity. When combined, the oils presented toxicity as to C. limonum oil alone, but with stronger inhibition of oviposition (5% : 5%), indicating a possible additive effect against R. microplus. The present data provide support for further investigation of novel natural products to control bovine tick infestations.

  12. Parasites of domestic and wild animals in South Africa. XLIX. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) infesting white and black rhinoceroses in southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horak, Ivan G; Boshoff, Christiaan R; Cooper, David V; Foggin, Christoper M; Govender, Danny; Harrison, Alan; Hausler, Guy; Hofmeyr, Markus; Kilian, J Werner; MacFadyen, Duncan N; Nel, Pierre J; Peinke, Dean; Squarre, David; Zimmermann, David

    2017-01-30

    The objectives of the study were to determine the species composition of ticks infesting white and black rhinoceroses in southern Africa as well as the conservation status of those tick species that prefer rhinos as hosts. Ticks were collected opportunistically from rhinos that had been immobilised for management purposes, and 447 white rhinoceroses (Ceratotherium simum) and 164 black rhinoceroses (Diceros bicornis) were sampled in South Africa, 61 black rhinos in Namibia, 18 white and 12 black rhinos in Zimbabwe, and 24 black rhinos in Zambia. Nineteen tick species were recovered, of which two species, Amblyomma rhinocerotis and Dermacentor rhinocerinus, prefer rhinos as hosts. A. rhinocerotis was collected only in the northeastern KwaZulu-Natal reserves of South Africa and is endangered, while D. rhinocerinus is present in these reserves as well as in the Kruger National Park and surrounding conservancies. Eight of the tick species collected from the rhinos are ornate, and seven species are regularly collected from cattle. The species present on rhinos in the eastern, moister reserves of South Africa were amongst others Amblyomma hebraeum, A. rhinocerotis, D. rhinocerinus, Rhipicephalus maculatus, Rhipicephalus simus and Rhipicephalus zumpti, while those on rhinos in the Karoo and the drier western regions, including Namibia, were the drought-tolerant species, Hyalomma glabrum, Hyalomma rufipes, Hyalomma truncatum and Rhipicephalus gertrudae. The species composition of ticks on rhinoceroses in Zambia differed markedly from those of the other southern African countries in that Amblyomma sparsum, Amblyomma tholloni and Amblyomma variegatum accounted for the majority of infestations.

  13. Parasites of domestic and wild animals in South Africa. XLIX. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae infesting white and black rhinoceroses in southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan G. Horak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the study were to determine the species composition of ticks infesting white and black rhinoceroses in southern Africa as well as the conservation status of those tick species that prefer rhinos as hosts. Ticks were collected opportunistically from rhinos that had been immobilised for management purposes, and 447 white rhinoceroses (Ceratotherium simum and 164 black rhinoceroses (Diceros bicornis were sampled in South Africa, 61 black rhinos in Namibia, 18 white and 12 black rhinos in Zimbabwe, and 24 black rhinos in Zambia. Nineteen tick species were recovered, of which two species, Amblyomma rhinocerotis and Dermacentor rhinocerinus, prefer rhinos as hosts. A. rhinocerotis was collected only in the northeastern KwaZulu-Natal reserves of South Africa and is endangered, while D. rhinocerinus is present in these reserves as well as in the Kruger National Park and surrounding conservancies. Eight of the tick species collected from the rhinos are ornate, and seven species are regularly collected from cattle. The species present on rhinos in the eastern, moister reserves of South Africa were amongst others Amblyomma hebraeum, A. rhinocerotis, D. rhinocerinus, Rhipicephalus maculatus, Rhipicephalus simus and Rhipicephalus zumpti, while those on rhinos in the Karoo and the drier western regions, including Namibia, were the drought-tolerant species, Hyalomma glabrum, Hyalomma rufipes, Hyalomma truncatum and Rhipicephalus gertrudae. The species composition of ticks on rhinoceroses in Zambia differed markedly from those of the other southern African countries in that Amblyomma sparsum, Amblyomma tholloni and Amblyomma variegatum accounted for the majority of infestations.

  14. Characterization of Haemaphysalis flava (Acari: Ixodidae from Qingling subspecies of giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca qinlingensis in Qinling Mountains (Central China by morphology and molecular markers.

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    Wen-yu Cheng

    Full Text Available Tick is one of important ectoparasites capable of causing direct damage to their hosts and also acts as vectors of relevant infectious agents. In the present study, the taxa of 10 ticks, collected from Qinling giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca qinlingensis in Qinling Mountains of China in April 2010, were determined using morphology and molecular markers (nucleotide ITS2 rDNA and mitochondrial 16S. Microscopic observation demonstrated that the morphological features of these ticks were similar to Haemaphysalis flava. Compared with other Haemaphysalis species, genetic variations between Haemaphysalis collected from A. m. qinlingensis and H. flava were the lowest in ITS2 rDNA and mitochondrial 16S, with sequence differences of 2.06%-2.40% and 1.30%-4.70%, respectively. Phylogenetic relationships showed that all the Haemaphysalis collected from A. m. qinlingensis were grouped with H. flava, further confirmed that the Haemaphysalis sp. is H. flava. This is the first report of ticks in giant panda by combining with morphology and molecular markers. This study also provided evidence that combining morphology and molecular tools provide a valuable and efficient tool for tick identification.

  15. Lab-on-a-chip and SDS-PAGE analysis of hemolymph protein profile from Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) infected with entomopathogenic nematode and fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golo, Patrícia Silva; Dos Santos, Alessa Siqueira de Oliveira; Monteiro, Caio Marcio Oliveira; Perinotto, Wendell Marcelo de Souza; Quinelato, Simone; Camargo, Mariana Guedes; de Sá, Fillipe Araujo; Angelo, Isabele da Costa; Martins, Marta Fonseca; Prata, Marcia Cristina de Azevedo; Bittencourt, Vânia Rita Elias Pinheiro

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, lab-on-a-chip electrophoresis (LoaC) was suggested as an alternative method to the conventional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under denaturing conditions (SDS-PAGE) to analyze raw cell-free tick hemolymph. Rhipicephalus microplus females were exposed to the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae senso latu IBCB 116 strain and/or to the entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis indica LPP1 strain. Hemolymph from not exposed or exposed ticks was collected 16 and 24 h after exposure and analyze by SDS-PAGE or LoaC. SDS-PAGE yielded 15 bands and LoaC electrophoresis 17 bands. Despite the differences in the number of bands, when the hemolymph protein profiles of exposed or unexposed ticks were compared in the same method, no suppressing or additional bands were detected among the treatments regardless the method (i.e., SDS-PAGE or chip electrophoresis using the Protein 230 Kit®). The potential of LoaC electrophoresis to detect protein bands from tick hemolymph was considered more efficient in comparison to the detection obtained using the traditional SDS-PAGE method, especially when it comes to protein subunits heavier than 100 KDa. LoaC electrophoresis provided a very good reproducibility, and is much faster than the conventional SDS-PAGE method, which requires several hours for one analysis. Despite both methods can be used to analyze tick hemolymph composition, LoaC was considered more suitable for cell-free hemolymph protein separation and detection. LoaC hemolymph band percent data reported changes in key proteins (i.e., HeLp and vitellogenin) exceptionally important for tick embryogenesis. This study reported, for the first time, tick hemolymph protein profile using LoaC.

  16. Acaricide and Ivermectin resistance in a field population of Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) collected from Red Deer (Cervus elaphus) in the Mexican Tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Red deer (Cervus elaphus), taurine (Bos taurus) and zebuine (Bos indicus) breeds of cattle and their crosses, and the southern cattle fever tick (Rhipicephalus microplus) are non-native species that were introduced to Mexico through the livestock trade. Red deer raised in the Neotropics can die from...

  17. Acaricidal effect of essential oils from Lippia graveolens (Lamiales: Verbenaceae), Rosmarinus officinalis (Lamiales: Lamiaceae), and Allium sativum (Liliales: Liliaceae) against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Velazquez, M; Rosario-Cruz, R; Castillo-Herrera, G; Flores-Fernandez, J M; Alvarez, A H; Lugo-Cervantes, E

    2011-07-01

    Acaricidal effects of three essential oils extracted from Mexican oregano leaves (Lippia graveolens Kunth), rosemary leaves (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), and garlic bulbs (Allium sativum L.) on 10-d-old Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini) tick larvae were evaluated by using the larval packet test bioassay. Serial dilutions of the three essential oils were tested from a starting concentration of 20 to 1.25%. Results showed that both Mexican oregano and garlic essential oils had very similar activity, producing high mortality (90-100%) in all tested concentrations on 10-d-old R. microplus tick larvae. Rosemary essential oil produced >85% larval mortality at the higher concentrations (10 and 20%), but the effect decreased noticeably to 40% at an oil concentration of 5%, and mortality was absent at 2.5 and 1.25% of the essential oil concentration. Chemical composition of the essential oils was elucidated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses. Mexican oregano essential oil included thymol (24.59%), carvacrol (24.54%), p-cymene (13.6%), and y-terpinene (7.43%) as its main compounds, whereas rosemary essential oil was rich in a-pinene (31.07%), verbenone (15.26%), and 1,8-cineol (14.2%), and garlic essential oil was rich in diallyl trisulfide (33.57%), diallyl disulfide (30.93%), and methyl allyl trisulfide (11.28%). These results suggest that Mexican oregano and garlic essential oils merit further investigation as components of alternative approaches for R. microplus tick control.

  18. Occurrence of Borrelia spp. in culture of embryonic cells of the tick Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) in the State of the Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Jania de Rezende; Kessler, Raul H; Cleber O. Soares; Martins, Odair P.

    2008-01-01

    O presente trabalho teve como objetivo reportar a ocorrência de Borrelia spp. em culturas de células embrionárias de Boophilus microplus infectados naturalmente. Sete dias após o início de uma nova cultura primária de células embrionárias do carrapato B. microplus, incubadas a 31ºC, notou-se que as células começaram a degenerar. Ao exame em microscópio de contraste de fase detectou-se a presença de microrganismos alongado e com grande mobilidade. Lâminas de microscópio confeccionadas com amos...

  19. Activity studies of sesquiterpene oxides and sulfides from the plant Hyptis suaveolens (Lamiaceae) and its repellency on Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashitani, T; Garboui, S S; Schubert, F; Vongsombath, C; Liblikas, I; Pålsson, K; Borg-Karlson, A-K

    2015-12-01

    Hyptis suaveolens (Lamiaceae), a plant traditionally used as a mosquito repellent, has been investigated for repellent properties against nymphs of the tick Ixodes ricinus. Essential oils and volatile compounds of fresh and dried leaves, from plants originating from Laos and Guinea-Bissau, were identified by GC-MS and tested in a tick repellency bioassay. All the essential oils were strongly repellent against the ticks, even though the main volatile constituents differed in their proportions of potentially tick repellent chemicals. (+)/(-)-sabinene were present in high amounts in all preparations, and dominated the emission from dry and fresh leaves together with 1,8-cineol and α-phellandrene. 1,8-Cineol and sabinene were major compounds in the essential oils from H. suaveolens from Laos. Main compounds in H. suaveolens from Guinea-Bissau were (-)-sabinene, limonene and terpinolene. Among the sesquiterpene hydrocarbons identified, α-humulene exhibited strong tick repellency (96.8 %). Structure activity studies of oxidation or sulfidation products of germacrene D, α-humulene and β-caryophyllene, showed increased tick repellent activity: of mint sulfide (59.4 %), humulene-6,7-oxide (94.5 %) and caryophyllene-6,7-oxide (96.9 %). The substitution of oxygen with sulfur slightly lowered the repellency. The effects of the constituents in the oils can then be regarded as a trade off between the subsequently lower volatility of the sesquiterpene derivatives compared to the monoterpenes and may thus increase their potential usefulness as tick repellents.

  20. Neurotoxic action of permethrin in Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806) (Acari: Ixodidae) female ticks. Morphological and cytochemical evaluation of the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roma, Gislaine Cristina; Camargo-Mathias, Maria Izabel; de Oliveira, Patrícia Rosa; Furquim, Karim Christina Scopinho; Bechara, Gervásio Henrique

    2013-09-23

    Studies on the molecular bases of the neurotoxic action of acaricides are found in the literature; but there are no studies of this action on the nervous system of ticks at the cellular level. The present study describes the morphological and cytochemical changes in the synganglion of Rhipicephalus sanguineus semi-engorged females exposed to different concentrations of permethrin, a pyrethroid with recognized neurotoxic action. Permethrin induced the degeneration of the synganglion through a process of apoptosis involving autophagy, characterized by the condensation and margination of the chromatin, formation of blebs in the nuclear envelope and fragmentation of the nucleus, loss of shape of neural cells and integrity of cellular membrane, cytoplasmic shrinkage, and lower levels of acid phosphatase in the nervous tissue as the concentration of permethrin increased. This study provided further evidence of the neurotoxic action of permethrin, which impairs the metabolism of R. sanguineus nervous systems, and consequently the physiology of other systems, dependent on the neural control. These results provide cytochemical and histological confirmation of the neurotoxic action of permethrin, previously inferred from molecular and tick behavioral evidence. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Cytotoxic effects of permethrin in oocytes of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) fully engorged females: I. Direct or indirect action of the acaricide in germ cells?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roma, Gislaine Cristina; Furquim, Karim Christina Scopinho; Bechara, Gervásio Henrique; Camargo Mathias, Maria Izabel

    2011-03-01

    Given the wide use of synthetic chemicals to control ticks, this study evaluated the effects of the permethrin pyrethroid on oocytes of Rhipicephalus sanguineus fully engorged females in order to examine whether this compound, in addition to the proven neurotoxic effect, also acts directly on germ cells. The results revealed that permethrin effectively inhibits and/or interrupts the reproductive process of R. sanguineus. Exposed oocytes exhibited prominent structural changes such as altered shape of cells and germ vesicle (oocyte nucleus), cytoplasmic vacuolation, and decrease of yolk granules. The composition of the latter, however, was not altered. These findings confirm those already reported by Roma et al. (Food Chem Toxicol 48:825-830, 2010) demonstrating that permethrin acts on germ cells of R. sanguineus via direct absorption from the hemolymph by pedicel cells, or by the oocyte plasmic membrane. On the other hand, these results contradict studies reporting that acaricides act exclusively on the nervous systems of ticks and that all the changes in other organs are a result from the indirect action of these chemical compounds, because blocking of the nervous system would compromise the normal metabolism of other organs (dependent on sensory information).

  2. Differences in the acquired resistance of dogs, hamsters, and guinea pigs to repeated infestations with adult ticks Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae

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    Matias Pablo Juan Szabó

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available Tick-bite naive experimental groups of dogs, hamsters and guinea pigs were infested three times with adult ticks Rhipicephalus sanguineus and the acquired resistance, based on the variation of some biological parameters of the female tick was compared. The results showed that hamsters and mainly guinea pigs develop a very efficient immunity to this tick species as demonstrated by a very significant drop in the efficiency rate of female ticks in converting their food reservoir to eggs and larvae from the first to the second and third infestations. At the same time, dogs were unable to display such a resistance. Female tick performance was similar throughout the infestations in this host; there was even a tendency of improvement of the performance with the succession of infestations. These results underline the need of comparative studies on the acquired resistance to ticks involving natural and unnatural hosts as a way of putting in evidence defence mechanisms which might be altered or hidden in natural host - parasite relationships.

  3. Potential synergistic effect of Melia azedarach fruit extract and Beauveria bassiana in the control of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) in cattle infestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Lorena Alessandra Dias; Pires, Hélio Bernardes; Soares, Sara Fernandes; Ferri, Pedro Henrique; Ribas, Patricia; Lima, Eliane Martins; Furlong, John; Bittencourt, Vânia Rita Elias Pinheiro; Perinotto, Wendell Marcelo de Souza; Borges, Lígia Miranda Ferreira

    2011-02-10

    The use of a concentrate emulsion of Melia azedarach green fruits and a suspension of the fungus Beauveria bassiana was evaluated in the control of Rhipicephalus microplus on artificially infested cattle. The evaluation was conducted following the protocol established by the Brazilian Agriculture Ministry. Five groups of 4 or 5 animals were allocated to one of the following treatments: emulsion concentrate of M. azedarach at 0.25% (T AZED 0.25%), emulsion concentrate of M. azedarach at 0.5% (T AZED 0.5%), B. bassiana at 2.4 × 10(8) conidia (T BASS), association of the concentrate of M. azedarach at 0.25% with B. bassiana at 2.4 × 10(8) conidia (T AZED 0.25%+BASS), and control (untreated). The association of the two compounds provided better results than any one isolated treatment, indicating compatibility or perhaps a synergy between M. azedarach and B. bassiana. This treatment resulted in fewer engorged females (129 ± 70) than in the control group (233 ± 82), showing high performance against all developmental stages of the tick. Results revealed an apparent synergistic effect of M. azedarach and B. bassiana in the control of R. microplus that should be further investigated. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Vector-Borne Diseases in Stray Dogs in Peninsular Malaysia and Molecular Detection of Anaplasma and Ehrlichia spp. from Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) Ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Fui Xian; Panchadcharam, Chandrawathani; Tay, Sun Tee

    2016-01-01

    Little data are available on the prevalence and transmission of vector-borne diseases in stray dogs in Peninsular Malaysia. This study was designed to determine the occurrence of vector-borne pathogens in Malaysian stray dogs using serological and molecular approaches. In total, 48 dog blood samples were subjected to serological analysis using SNAP 4Dx kit (IDEXX Laboratories, Westbrook, ME). The presence of Ehrlichia and Anaplasma DNA in the dog blood samples and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille) ticks was detected using nested polymerase chain reaction assays. Positive serological findings against Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum were obtained in 17 (39.5%) and four (9.3%) of 43 dog samples, respectively. None of the dog blood samples were positive for Borrelia burgdorferi and Dirofilaria immitis. DNA of E. canis and A. phagocytophilum was detected in 12 (25.5%) and two (4.3%) of 47 dog blood samples, and 17 (51.5%) and one (3.0%) of 33 R. sanguineus ticks, respectively. Additionally, DNA of Ehrlichia spp. closely related to Ehrlichia chaffeensis was detected in two (6.1%) R. sanguineus ticks. This study highlights the prevalence of anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis in dogs in Malaysia. Due to the zoonotic potential of Ehrlichia and Anaplasma spp., appropriate measures should be instituted for prevention and control of vector-borne diseases in dogs. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Infestation and seasonal activity of Ixodes vespertilionis Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae) on the Maghreb mouse-eared bat, Myotis punicus Felten, 1977, in northeastern Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendjeddou, Mohammed Lamine; Bouslama, Zihad; Amr, Zuhair S; BaniHani, Rihan

    2016-06-01

    Infestation of Ixodes vespertilionis Koch, 1844 on Myotis punicus Felten, 1977 from two sites (Trios Tunnel and Sidi Trad cave) in northeastern Algeria was studied. An overall infestation of 41.4% for all stages was found among bats collected from both sites. By stage, a total of eight females, 70 nymphs, and 107 larvae were recovered from both populations. The number of females recovered per bat at Sidi Trad ranged from 0-1, for nymphs 0-2, and for larvae 0-2. While no female ticks were collected at Trios Tunnel, the number of nymphs ranged from 0-2 and for larvae 0-2. At Trios Tunnel, the number of nymphs was significantly higher during April and June but not for July and September. On the other hand, the number of larvae increased from July to November, while at Sidi Trad cave, female ticks were recovered during April and May and then disappeared until the end of the study period. Significant differences were noted during all the months when compared with all stages. Nymphs infested bats significantly during April and May, declined in June and July, and then became steady until October. Larvae peaked in July, with low frequency in April, and then fluctuated from August to November. © 2016 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  6. In-vitro efficacy of a botanical acaricide and its active ingredients against larvae of susceptible and acaricide-resistant strains of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus Canestrini (Acari: Ixodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ticks and tick-borne diseases are a major constraint for the sustainable cattle industry in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The developments of resistance to most of the commonly used acaricides lead to an attempt to screen herbal products for their possible acaricidal activity to...

  7. SCREENING OF THE ACARICIDAL EFFICACY OF PHYTOCHEMICAL EXTRACTS ON THE CATTLE TICK Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (Acari: ixodidae BY LARVAL IMMERSION TEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Alberto Rosado-Aguilar

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine the acaricidal efficacy of selected native plants from Yucatán, Mexico on acaricide resistant larvae of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus. Methanolic extracts from roots, leaves, stems, and stem barks of 15 plants were tested using the modified larval immersion test. A final concentration of 10% (100 mg/ml of plant crude-extract was used. The percentage mortality from different plants and extracts were: Petiveria alliacea  leaves (95.7±2.9 % and stems (99.2±0.5 %; Diospyros anisandra leaves (87.9±8.6 % and stem bark (98.8±1.0 %; Havardia albicans leaves (93.0±12.0 %, Caesalpinia gaumeri (90.1±4.8 % and Capraria biflora (86.6±9.9 %, stems of Solanum tridinamum (98.0±1.7 % and Solanum erianthum (97.8±1.8 %, stem bark of Bursera simaruba (99.1±0.7 % and Cassearia corymbosa (99.5±0.5 %; and the root of Ocimum micrantun (87.0±3.2 %. We concluded that plants from Yucatan, Mexico showed a high acaricidal efficacy that could be used to control R. (B. microplus acaricide resistant larvae. P. alliacea, Havardia albicans and Caesalpinia gaumeri were of the most encouraging plants to be used as an acaricide. Further studies are needed to evaluate these plants on adult ticks (in vivo conditions and to identify the active compound(s on R. (B. microplus.

  8. Responses of lone star tick (acari: ixodidae) nymphs to the repellent deet applied in acetone and ethanol solutions in vitro bioassays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behavioral bioassays remain a standard tool in the discovery, development, and registration of repellents. Although tick repellent bioassays tend to be rather uncomplicated, several factors can influence their outcomes. Typically repellent bioassays use a solvent, such as acetone or ethanol, to disp...

  9. Parasites of domestic and wild animals in South Africa. XLVIII . Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae infesting domestic cats and wild felids in southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan G. Horak

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Ticks collected from domestic cats (Felis catus, cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus,caracals (Caracal caracal, African wild cats (Felis lybica, black-footed cats (Felis nigripes, a serval (Leptailurus serval, lions(Panthera leo, and leopards (Panthera pardus were identified and counted. Thirteen species of ixodid ticks and one argasid tick were identified from domestic cats and 17 species of ixodid ticks from wild felids. The domestic cats and wild felids harboured 11 ixodid species in common. The adults of Haemaphysalis elliptica, the most abundant tick species infesting cats and wild felids, were most numerous on a domestic cat in late winter and in mid-summer, during 2 consecutive years. The recorded geographic distribution of the recently described Haemaphysalis colesbergensis, a parasite of cats and caracals, was extended by 2 new locality records in the Northern Cape Province,South Africa.

  10. Frecuencia relativa de Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae en bovinos (Bos taurus y B. indicus en ocho zonas ecológicas de Costa Rica

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    V. Alvarez

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available El estudio sobre la abundancia relativa de Boophilus microplus se realizó en diez fincas, distribuidas en ocho zonas ecológicas (ZE y dos regímenes pluviales de Costa Rica. Se efectuaron visitas mensuales para recolectar garrapatas mayores de 4.5 mm del lado derecho de los animales. El número total de garrapatas se multiplicaba por dos y se dividía entre el total de animales muestreados durante la visita para determinar el promedio de garrapatas por finca. Se trató de adecuar la visita a la finca al baño de los animales para permitir la recuperación de la población de garrapatas. Se detectó B. microplus en todas las fincas muestreadas, a lo largo del año. Se hicieron análisis estadísticos de comparación de medias y no se encontraron diferencias entre ZE, fincas o épocas del año. Por el contrario, si hubo diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre los regímenes pluviales. El régimen pluvial 1, con estacionalidad de lluvias presentó mayores infestaciones de garrapatas (p = 0.03. Se nota una situación de isotermia y de poca variabilidad en cuanto a la humedad relativa en algunas de las zonas en estudio. La intensidad de los baños fue bastante inferior a otros estudios realizados en el pasado. Pese a que no se encontraron diferencias entre sistemas de producción, se hace énfasis en que las intensidades de baño fueron mayores en una finca de ganado europeo, en comparación con otra de la misma ZE, pero de ganado cruzado. Se recomienda el sistema de eliminación manual de garrapatas en las fincas de doble propósito y lechería especializada con cargas no mayores de 30-35 animales, como un sistema alternativo viable para reducir, de manera considerable, la aplicación de ixodicidas y con ello se logran una serie de ventajas importantes.The research on the relative abundancy of Boophilus microplus took place in ten farms, distributed in eight ecological zones (EZ and two rainfall systems of Costa Rica. Monthly visits were made to pick up ticks larger than 4mm from the right side of the animals. The total number of ticks was increased by two and divided between the total of sampled bovines per farm. Farm visits were adjusted to animals bath to allow the recovery of the tick population. B. microplus was detected in all sampled farms throughout the year. Media comparison statistic analyses were made and no differences were found among EZ, farms and seasons. On the contrary, there were important statistical differences between rainfall systems. The rainfall system 1, that included rain seasonality, showed larger tick infestations (p = 0.03. An isothermal and low variability regarding relative humidity situations were present in some of the areas included in this research. Bath intensity was lower to other past studies. Eventhough no differences were found between production systems, it is important to emphasize that bath intensity was higher in european cattle farms, in comparison to others of the same EZ, but of crossbred. A tick manual removable system was recommended in dual-purpose and specialized dairy farms with no more than 30-35 animals, as an alternative feasible system that significantly reduced acaricide use.

  11. Ixodes ricinus ticks (Acari, Ixodidae) as a vector of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Borrelia miyamotoi in Lower Silesia, Poland--preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiewra, Dorota; Stańczak, Joanna; Richter, Magdalena

    2014-10-01

    Ixodes ricinus is the primary vector of Borrelia spirochetes in Europe, including both the Lyme borreliosis (LB) group and the relapsing fever (RF) group. The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of different genospecies from the B. burgdorferi s.l. complex and B. miyamotoi in questing I. ricinus collected in chosen areas in Lower Silesia, SW Poland. A total of 599 I. ricinus ticks were investigated using the PCR-RFLP method. The calculated overall minimum infection rate of ticks with Borrelia spirochetes in Lower Silesia was 15.5%. Five different restriction patterns, characteristic of B. afzelii, B. garinii, B. burgdoreri s.s., B. valaisiana, and B. miyamotoi, were obtained and confirmed by DNA sequencing. At least 14% of ticks were infected with B. burgdorferi s.l. while B.afzelii was the dominant genospecies (68.5%). The MIR for B. miyamotoi was calculated at 2%. Four co-infections in single adult ticks were found: B. miyamotoi/B. afzelii, B. miyamotoi/B. burdorferi s.s., B. miyamotoi/B. garinii, and B. afzelii/B. burgdorferi s.s. The results of this study confirm the risk of LB and RF occuring in both urban and protected areas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Protective action of Tagetes minuta (Asteraceae) essential oil in the control of Rhipicephalus microplus (Canestrini, 1887) (Acari: Ixodidae) in a cattle pen trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreotti, Renato; Garcia, Marcos Valério; Cunha, Rodrigo Casquero; Barros, Jacqueline Cavalcante

    2013-10-18

    The Rhipicephalus microplus tick is globally regarded as the most economically important ectoparasite of livestock, and the evolution of resistance to commercial acaricides among cattle tick populations is of great concern. The essential oil derived from Tagetes minuta may be efficacious against cattle tick infestation, and the results of a cattle pen trial using this essential oil for the control of ticks are reported here. The chemical composition of the essential oil was determined by GC-MS and NMR spectroscopy analyses, which revealed the presence of four major components in the essential oil. These components represent more than 70% of the essential oil: limonene (6.96%), β-ocimene (5.11%), dihydrotagetone (54.10%) and tagetone (6.73%). The results of the cattle pen trial indicated significant differences among the average values of the analyzed biological parameters, including the number of ticks, the average weight of the ticks, the average egg weight per engorged female and larval viability. Treatment with the T. minuta essential oil prepared in this study promoted significant effects on all biological indicators analyzed. Based on the biological indicators, the essential oil showed 99.98% efficacy compared to the control group when used at a 20% concentration. The results obtained in this study suggest that the T. minuta essential oil is a potential R. microplus tick control agent and may be used to mitigate the economic losses caused by tick infestation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Repellency to ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) of extracts of nigella sativa L.(Ranunculaceae) and the anti-inflammatory DogsBestFriend™

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motivated by observations that the canine anti-inflammatory cream DogsBestFriend™ (DBF) appeared to deter flies, mosquitoes, and ticks from treated animals, repellent efficacy bioassays using four species of ticks were conducted with three extracts of Nigella sativa L. (Ranunculaceae), a constituent...

  14. Botanical compound p-anisaldehyde repels larval lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum (L.) (Acari: Ixodidae), and halts reproduction by gravid adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    The lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum (L.), widely distributed across eastern, southeastern, and midwestern regions of the United States and south into Mexico, is an obligate blood feeder that attaches to three hosts during the larval, nymphal, and adult stages. White-tailed deer and wild turkey ...

  15. Effects of two commercial neem-based insecticides on lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum (L.) (Acari: Ixodidae): deterrence, mortality, and reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    The lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum (L.), is a widely distributed three-host obligate blood-feeding parasite in the United States and Mexico. It mostly attaches to white-tailed deer, Odocoilus virginianus (Zimmerman) and wild turkey, Meleagris gallopavo L., as well as a wide variety of other do...

  16. Effect of Metarhizium anisopliae (Ascomycete), Cypermethrin, and D-limonene, alone and combined, on larval mortality of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae Ma14 strain, D-limonene and cypermethrin, alone and combined, on the mortality of Rhipicephalus sanguineus larvae was evaluated. Eight groups with 25 tick larvae were inoculated with the fungus, eight groups were treated with cypermethrin, eight groups...

  17. A dynamic population model to investigate effects of climate and climate-independent factors on the lifecycle of the tick Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Antoinette; Ginsberg, Howard; Hickling, Graham J.; Ogden, Nicholas H.

    2016-01-01

    The lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum, is a disease vector of significance for human and animal health throughout much of the eastern United States. To model the potential effects of climate change on this tick, a better understanding is needed of the relative roles of temperature-dependent and temperature-independent (day-length-dependent behavioral or morphogenetic diapause) processes acting on the tick lifecycle. In this study, we explored the roles of these processes by simulating seasonal activity patterns using models with site-specific temperature and day-length-dependent processes. We first modeled the transitions from engorged larvae to feeding nymphs, engorged nymphs to feeding adults, and engorged adult females to feeding larvae. The simulated seasonal patterns were compared against field observations at three locations in United States. Simulations suggested that 1) during the larva-to-nymph transition, some larvae undergo no diapause while others undergo morphogenetic diapause of engorged larvae; 2) molted adults undergo behavioral diapause during the transition from nymph-to-adult; and 3) there is no diapause during the adult-to-larva transition. A model constructed to simulate the full lifecycle of A. americanum successfully predicted observed tick activity at the three U.S. study locations. Some differences between observed and simulated seasonality patterns were observed, however, identifying the need for research to refine some model parameters. In simulations run using temperature data for Montreal, deterministic die-out of A. americanum populations did not occur, suggesting the possibility that current climate in parts of southern Canada is suitable for survival and reproduction of this tick.

  18. [Determination of LC 90 and LT 90 of IBCB66 Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycetes: Clavicipitaceae) isolate for Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barci, Leila A G; de Almeida, José Eduardo M; de Campos Nogueira, Adriana H; do Prado, Angelo P

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the pathogenicity and the virulence of the IBCB66 isolate of Beauveria bassiana on infected larvae of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. The IBCB66 fungus strain was used as standard isolates of B. bassiana against R. (B.) microplus larvae. The larval bioassay tests using the IBCB66 isolate were carried out to determine the (Lethal Concentration) LC50, LC90, (Lethal Time) LT50 and LT90. The IBCB66 fungus strain was tested at six different concentrations (5x10(6), 10(7), 5x10(7), 10(8), 5x10(8) and 10(9) conidia.mL(-1)) to determine the percentage of larval mortality. In addition, a Probit analysis was also performed. Total larval mortality was observed eighteen days after the beginning of the test in the group treated with 5x10(9) conidia.mL(1). The LC50 and LC90 were 3x10(7) and 5x10(8) respectively and the LT50 and LT90 were 10 and 16 days.

  19. Efeito acaricida in vitro de extratos de Baccharis trimera Vernonia nudiflora, e Eupatorium buniifolium (Asterales: Asteraceae) em larvas e adultos de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Farias, Juliana Antunes

    2014-01-01

    O carrapato Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus é um ectoparasito, hematófago e monóxeno, cujo hospedeiro preferencial é o bovino, sendo um dos grandes entraves para a produção pecuária devido aos prejuízos econômicos decorrentes de seu parasitismo. Em todo o Brasil, e na vasta área onde se estabelece o Bioma Pampa, a pecuária desempenha um papel primordial no desenvolvimento da economia. A realização desse projeto teve como proposta explorar o potencial da flora nativa do Bioma Pampa, invest...

  20. A new approach to characterization of the resistance of populations of Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) to organophosphate and pyrethroid in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faza, Aline Pasqualini; Pinto, Isabella Silvestre Barreto; Fonseca, Isabela; Antunes, Gustavo Resende; Monteiro, Caio Márcio de Oliveira; Daemon, Erik; Muniz, Michelle de Souza; Martins, Marta Fonseca; Furlong, John; Prata, Márcia Cristina de Azevedo

    2013-08-01

    The monitoring of resistance of cattle tick populations in Brazil to the chemical bases in use is largely limited to investigation of the phenotypic profile. There are few studies investigating the role played by the genotypic profile in acaricide resistance in the country. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to carry out molecular characterization and trace out the genetic profile of populations of Rhipicephalus microplus with respect to resistance to the organophosphate and pyrethroid chemical groups. For that purpose, larvae were genotyped belonging to 587 populations for pyrethroids and 306 for organophosphates, using the polymerase chain reaction technique. It was found that 75.49% and 97.44% of the larvae studied showed resistance to the organophosphates and pyrethroids, respectively. Among the populations resistant to pyrethroids, 91.9% were heterozygotes, showing that most of the resistant populations have only one allele responsible for resistance. Therefore, it is possible to conclude that the genotyped populations have high resistance to organophosphates, and even more so to pyrethroids. This information is fundamental for understanding the mechanisms of resistance of R. microplus to acaricides, to enable improvement of control techniques. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [Haemaphysalis juxtakochi Cooley, 1946 (Acari: Ixodidae) parasitizing Mazama nana (Hensel, 1872) (Artiodactyla: Cervidae) in the State of Rio Grande do Sul].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, João Ricardo; Salomão, Edson Luís; Doyle, Rovaina L; Onofrio, Valéria; Barros-Battesti, Darci M; Guglielmone, Alberto A

    2007-01-01

    The record of Haemaphysalis juxtakochi Cooley, an ixodid tick, on the brocket deer, Mazama nana (Hensel), represents a new report after 34 years of its last report in the State of Rio Grande do Sul. The tick specimens (three males and one female) were found in Cachoeira do Sul, RS (30 degrees 02'21''S, 52 degrees 53'38''W). This place is elevated 72 m sea above, with an annual average temperature of 18.8 degrees C, and annual average rainfall of 1.438 mm. This is the first record of this tick species in a Cervidae and it is the second occurrence report for the State of Rio Grande do Sul.

  2. Toxicity of extract of Magonia pubescens (Sapindales: Sapindaceae) St. Hil. to control the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille)(Acari: Ixodidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Fernando F.; D' Alessandro, Walmirton B.; Freitas, Edmeia P.S. [Universidade Federal de Goias (UFG), Goiania, GO (Brazil). Instituto de Patologia Tropical e Saude Publica. Lab. de Artropodologia Medica e Veterinaria]. E-mail: fernandesff@pesquisador.cnpq.br

    2008-03-15

    The action of crude ethanol extract of the stem bark of the soapberry Magonia pubescens St. Hil. was studied upon larvae of the Brown Dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille). Tick larvae were obtained by maintaining gravid females in an incubator, after collecting them from naturally infested kennels. The tick larvae were placed in envelopes of filter paper impregnated with different concentrations of the extract dissolved in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and distilled water. Four tests were repeated with each solution (n {>=} 120). The control was carried out in DMSO and distilled water. The bioassays were performed at 27{+-}1 deg C, RH {>=} 80% and 12:12 light cycle. Mortality was observed after 48h exposure. All motionless larvae were considered to be dead. The extract of M. pubescens showed larvicidal potential against R. sanguineus. The lethal concentrations of 1503 ppm (LC{sub 50}) and 9991 ppm (LC{sub 99}) were obtained. There was no mortality in the control group. Based on the results of the current study, M. pubescens should be recognized as an future alternative acaricide for the control of Brown Dog tick. These results reinforce the importance of the preservation of this soapberry in its natural biome. (author)

  3. La presencia de Ixodes luciae en el noroeste argentino y nuevos huéspedes para Ixodes pararicinus y algunas especies de Amblyomma (Acari: Ixodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analía G. AUTINO

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El análisis de una colección de garrapatas de mamíferos del noroeste argentino, depositados en la Colección de Anexos de la Colección Mamíferos Lillo (CML de la Universidad Nacional de Tucumán, permitió ampliar el área de distribución de Ixodes luciae Sénevet, a las provincias de Salta y Tucumán e incrementar su rango de huéspedes al roedor sigmodontino Calomys callosus (Rengger y a los marsupiales de la familia Didelphidae Micoureus constantiae (Thomas, Thylamys cinderella Thomas y Thylamys venustus (Thomas. Se registró a C. callosus y Oligoryzomys destructor (Tschudi como nuevos huéspedes de Ixodes pararicinus Keirans & Clifford, y a los Carnivora Lycalopex gymnocercus (Fischer y Oncifelis geoffroyi (d ́Orbigny & Gervais como nuevos huéspedes de Amblyomma neumanni Ribaga y Amblyomma parvum Aragão, respectivamente. Adicionalmente, se observó la infestación de Lutreolina crassicaudata (Desmarest (Didelphidae por I. luciae y la presencia de Amblyomma tigrinum Koch, sobre L. gymnocercus. Ninfas de Amblyomma sp. se obtuvieron de Akodon Meyen (Sigmodontinae.

  4. Prevention of infectious tick-borne diseases in humans: Comparative studies of the repellency of different dodecanoic acid-formulations against Ixodes ricinus ticks (Acari: Ixodidae

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    Dautel Hans

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ticks of the species Ixodes ricinus are the main vectors of Lyme Borreliosis and Tick-borne Encephalitis – two rapidly emerging diseases in Europe. Repellents provide a practical means of protection against tick bites and can therefore minimize the transmission of tick-borne diseases. We developed and tested seven different dodecanoic acid (DDA-formulations for their efficacy in repelling host-seeking nymphs of I. ricinus by laboratory screening. The ultimately selected formulation was then used for comparative investigations of commercially available tick repellents in humans. Methods Laboratory screening tests were performed using the Moving-object (MO bioassay. All test formulations contained 10% of the naturally occurring active substance DDA and differed only in terms of the quantitative and qualitative composition of inactive ingredients and fragrances. The test procedure used in the human bioassays is a modification of an assay described by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and recommended for regulatory affairs. Repellency was computed using the equation: R = 100 - NR/N × 100, where NR is the number of non-repelled ticks, and N is the respective number of control ticks. All investigations were conducted in a controlled laboratory environment offering standardized test conditions. Results All test formulations strongly repelled nymphs of I. ricinus (100-81% protection as shown by the MO-bioassay. The majority of ticks dropped off the treated surface of the heated rotating drum that served as the attractant (1 mg/cm2 repellent applied. The 10% DDA-based formulation, that produced the best results in laboratory screening, was as effective as the coconut oil-based reference product. The mean protection time of both preparations was generally similar and averaged 8 hours. Repellency investigations in humans showed that the most effective 10% DDA-based formulation (~1.67 mg/cm2 applied strongly avoided the attachment of I. ricinus nymphs and adults for at least 6 hours. The test repellent always provided protection (83-63% against I. ricinus nymphs equivalent to the natural coconut oil based reference product and a better protection (88-75% against adult ticks than the synthetic Icaridin-containing reference repellent. Conclusion We found that the 10% DDA-based formulation (ContraZeck® is an easily applied and very effective natural repellent against I. ricinus ticks. By reducing the human-vector contact the product minimises the risk of transmission of tick-borne diseases in humans.

  5. Detection of naturally infected vector ticks (acari: ixodidae) by different species of babesia and theileria agents from three different enzootic parts of iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdigoudarzi, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Diagnostic study of vector ticks for different pathogens transmitted specifically have been done by Iranian old scientists working on the basis of biological transmission of pathogens. In this study we decided to confirm natural infection of different collected ticks from three different provinces of Iran. Ticks were collected from livestock (sheep, goats and cattle) during favorable seasons (April to September 2007 and 2008). Slide preparations were stained by Giemsa and Feulgen and were studied searching for any trace of infection. Positive DNA from infected blood or tissue samples was provided and was used as positive control. First, PCR optimization for positive DNA was done, and then tick samples were subjected to specific PCR. Eleven pairs of primers were designed for detection of Theileria, Babesia and Anaplasma spp. Totally 21 tick samples were detected to be infected with protozoa. Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum and Rhipicephalus turanicus from Fars Province were infected with T. lestoquardi at two different places. Hyalomma detritum was infected with T. lestoquardi in Lorestan Province and Rh. turanicus was infected to Ba. ovis from Fars Province. Totally 21 tick samples were detected to be infected with protozoa. Every sample is regarded with host-environment related factors. Since there are complex relations of vectors and their relevant protozoa, different procedures are presented for future studies.

  6. Efficacy of the Bm86 antigen against immature instars and adults of the dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806) (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Perez, D; Bechara, G H; Machado, R Z; Andrade, G M; Del Vecchio, R E M; Pedroso, M S; Hernández, M V; Farnós, O

    2010-02-10

    The Bm86 antigen has been used to control ticks of the Boophilus genera in integrated programs that also include the use of acaricides. Because of recent phylogenetic studies have lead to the inclusion of all Boophilus species within the Rhipicephalus genera, we aimed to investigate the efficacy of the Bm86 antigen on the biotic potential of Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Domestic dogs were vaccinated with Bm86 and challenged with the three instars of R. sanguineus. Male and female mongrel dogs were divided into two groups of four animals each, comprising non-vaccinated and vaccinated animals. Immunized dogs were given two doses of an experimental formulation containing 50mug of recombinant Bm86, at 21 days interval while the other group was given placebo, consisting of the same preparation without Bm86. Each dog was challenged 21 days after the last dose with 250 larvae, 100 nymphs and 55 adults (25 females and 30 males) released inside feeding chambers (one per instar) glued to their shaved flank. The effect of the vaccination was evaluated by determining biological parameters of ticks including the yield rates of larvae, nymphs and adult females. Adult females engorged weight, egg mass weight, efficiency rate of conversion to eggs (ERCE) and hatchability. In addition, sera were collected from dogs at 0, 21, 36, 45 and 75 days after the vaccination and used for the detection of specific antibodies by ELISA. Collection rates of larvae, nymphs and adult females fed on vaccinated dogs were significantly (pERCE, but not in the hatch rate of ticks fed on immunized dogs. ELISA data revealed a marked and significant increase in optical densities of sera from vaccinated animals after the second dose of Bm86. We concluded that the Bm86 antigen used as a vaccine for dogs reduced the viability and biotic potential of the R. sanguineus.

  7. Transmission differentials for multiple pathogens as inferred from their prevalence in larva, nymph and adult of Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Per M; Christoffersen, Christian S; Moutailler, Sara; Michelet, Lorraine; Klitgaard, Kirstine; Bødker, Rene

    2017-02-01

    Ixodes ricinus serves as vector for a range of microorganisms capable of causing clinical illness in humans. The microorganisms occur in the same vector populations and are generally affected by the same tick-host interactions. Still, the instars have different host preferences which should manifest in different transmission patterns for various microorganisms in the tick populations, i.e., most microorganisms increase in prevalence rate from larvae to nymphs because their reservoirs are among small mammals and birds that serve as blood hosts for larvae. Other microorganisms, like Anaplasma phagocytophilum, mainly increase in prevalence rates from nymphs to adults, because their reservoirs are larger ungulates that serve as primary blood hosts for nymphs and adults. We sampled a representative sample of ticks from 12 locations on Zealand and Funen, Denmark, and investigated the differences in prevalence rate of infection in larvae, nymphs and adults for multiple pathogens. Prevalence of infection for larvae, nymphs and adults, respectively, was: 0, 1.5 and 4.5% for Borrelia burgdorferi; 0, 4.2 and 3.9% for Borrelia garinii; 0, 6.6 and 6.1% for Borrelia afzelii; 0, 0 and 0.6% for Borrelia valaisiana; 0, 3.7 and 0.6% for Borrelia spielmanii; 0, 0.7 and 1.2% for Babesia divergens; 0, 0, 0.6% for Babesia venatorum; 0, 1.5 and 6.1% for A. phagocytophilum. The results were in general compatible with the hypothesis i.e., that differences in blood host for larvae and nymphs define differences in transmission of infectious agents, but other factors than differences in blood hosts between larvae and nymphs may also be important to consider.

  8. A Borrelia afzelii Infection Increases Larval Tick Burden on Myodes glareolus (Rodentia: Cricetidae) and Nymphal Body Weight of Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Duijvendijk, Gilian; van Andel, Wouter; Fonville, Manoj; Gort, Gerrit; Hovius, Joppe W; Sprong, Hein; Takken, Willem

    2017-03-01

    Several microorganisms have been shown to manipulate their host or vector to enhance their own transmission. Here we examined whether an infection with Borrelia afzelii affects its transmission between its bank vole (Myodes glareolus, Schreber, 1780) host and tick vector. Captive-bred bank voles were inoculated with B. afzelii or control medium, after which host preference of Ixodes ricinus L. nymphs was determined in a Y-tube olfactometer. Thereafter, infected and uninfected bank voles were placed in a semifield arena containing questing larvae to measure larval tick attachment. Engorged larvae were collected from these bank voles, molted into nymphs, weighed, and analyzed for infection by PCR.Nymphs were attracted to the odors of a bank vole compared to ambient air and preferred the odors of an infected bank vole over that of an uninfected bank vole. In the semifield arena, infected male bank voles had greater larval tick burdens then uninfected males, while similar larval tick burdens were observed on females regardless of infection status. Nymphal ticks that acquired a B. afzelii infection had higher body weight than nymphs that did not acquire an infection regardless of the infection status of the vole. These results show that a B. afzelii infection in bank voles increases larval tick burden and that a B. afzelii infection in larvae increases nymphal body weight. This finding provides novel ecological insights into the enzootic cycle of B. afzelii. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Variations in free radical scavenging activities and antioxidant responses in salivary glands of Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum and Hyalomma dromedarii (Acari: Ixodidae ticks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayukh Ghosh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum and Hyalomma dromedarii ticks are of major economic importance in the livestock sector as the vector of tropical theileriosis causing huge production loss, mostly in tropical countries. The release of different reactive oxygen and nitrogen species by exogenous and endogenous means can potentially induce oxidative damage to the ticks during their prolonged feeding on their vertebrate hosts. Hence, ticks need an effective free radical scavenging and antioxidant defense system for their successful feeding of a blood meal. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the interspecies variations in antioxidant response, free radical scavenging, and anti-inflammatory activities in salivary gland extracts (SGE of the two species as they differ considerably in relation to feeding behavior and host specificity. Materials and Methods: Tick salivary glands were dissected out under ice from semi-fed female ticks of both the species and homogenized at low temperature to prepare SGE. SGE was stored at −40°C for analysis of free radical scavenging activities and antioxidant status. Results: Significant depletion in reduced glutathione concentrations, malondialdehyde level and elevation in free radical scavenging activity, superoxide dismutase, anti-inflammatory activity were found in SGE of engorging female H. dromedarii ticks as compared to H. a. anatolicum. Conclusion: Higher antioxidant status and free radical scavenging activities in H. dromedarii might have enabled these ticks to suck more blood from the host in spite of continuous host’s immune responses. These findings about tick biology will help in improving tick control strategies.

  10. Parasitism of Ixodes (Multidentatus auritulus Neumann (Acari: Ixodidae on birds from the city of Curitiba, state of Paraná, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Arzua

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available The tick-bird relationship of 56 specimens of birds (Passeriformes and Columbiformes collected in the city of Curitiba, State of Paraná, between 1990 and 1995, among which 102 specimens of Ixodes (Multidentatus auritulus were found and analyzed. New host records were also produced including the first report of I. auritulus on a Columbiformes bird in Brazil.

  11. Biological activities of chamomile (Matricaria chamomile) flowers’ extract against the survival and egg laying of the cattle fever tick (Acari Ixodidae)*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirali-Kheirabadi, Khodadad; Razzaghi-Abyaneh, Mehdi

    2007-01-01

    In the present work, the potential of acaricidal activity of chamomile flowers’ extract was studied against engorged Rhipicephalus annulatus tick under laboratory condition. For this purpose, the engorged females of Rhipicephalus annulatus were exposed to two-fold serial dilutions of chamomile flowers’ extract (0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0%, 4.0% and 8.0%) using “dipping method” in vitro. The engorged ticks were immersed in different plant dilutions (five ticks for each dilution) for 1 min and they were immediately incubated in separate Petri dishes for each replicate at 26 °C and 80% relative humidity. Mortality rate for each treatment was recorded 5 d after incubation. The mortality rate caused by different dilutions of chamomile flowers’ extract ranged from 6.67% to 26.7%, whereas no mortality was recorded for non-treated control group. The mass of produced eggs varied from 0.23 g (in 8.0% solution) to 0.58 g (in control), with no statistical differences between the treatments and control (P>0.05). Also the chamomile flowers’ extract in highest concentration used (8.0%) caused 46.67% failure in egg laying in engorged females while no failure was observed for non-treated control group. Macroscopic observations indicated that in effective concentrations of plant (4.0% and 8.0%), patchy hemorrhagic swelling appeared on the skin of treated ticks. The results presented for the first time in this study imply that chamomile may be considered as a promising plant for biocontrol of cattle fever tick disease in the field condition. PMID:17726752

  12. Chemo-profiling and bioassay of phytoextracts from Ageratum conyzoides for acaricidal properties against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) infesting cattle and buffaloes in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, K G Ajith; Tayade, Amol B; Kumar, Rajesh; Gupta, Suman; Sharma, Anil Kumar; Nagar, Gaurav; Tewari, Shashi Shankar; Kumar, Bhanu; Rawat, A K S; Srivastava, Sharad; Kumar, Sachin; Ghosh, Srikant

    2016-03-01

    In India, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus populations have developed a certain level of resistance to most of the acaricides marketed against tick species. To manage the problem, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the acaricidal potential of Ageratum conyzoides plants against acaricides-resistant ticks infesting cattle and buffaloes. The regression analysis of dose-response data of ethanolic extract of A. conyzoides revealed LC90 value of 8.91% against reference susceptible IVRI-1 line of R.(B.) microplus. The ethanolic extract was found efficacious against 76.7-90% acaricides-resistant field ticks and adversely affected oviposition showing 7.04-31.3% reduction in egg laying capacity. The extract was also showed an in vitro efficacy of 52.5 and 76.7% against reference resistant IVRI-4 and 5 lines. The GC/MS/MS profiling of hexane extract, two bioactive sub-fractions and essential oils revealed the presence of 6,7-dimethoxy-2,2-dimethyl-2H-1-benzopyran (precocene II) as a major phyto-compound. The bioactive sub-fractions showed 96.2-97.5% efficacy against larvae of IVRI-1 and 77.1-94.9% against multi-acaricide resistant larvae of IVRI-5 line of R.(B.) microplus. The results of this study provided significant support for the development of a phyto-formulation based on A. conyzoides species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Acaricidal effect and chemical composition of essential oils extracted from Cuminum cyminum, Pimenta dioica and Ocimum basilicum against the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Velazquez, Moises; Castillo-Herrera, Gustavo Adolfo; Rosario-Cruz, Rodrigo; Flores-Fernandez, Jose Miguel; Lopez-Ramirez, Julisa; Hernandez-Gutierrez, Rodolfo; Lugo-Cervantes, Eugenia del Carmen

    2011-02-01

    Acaricidal activity of essential oils extracted from cumin seeds (Cuminum cyminum), allspice berries (Pimenta dioica) and basil leaves (Ocimum basilicum) were tested on 10-day-old Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus tick larvae using the LPT. Two-fold dilutions of the three essential oils were tested from a starting dilution of 20% down to 1.25%. Results showed a high toxicological effect for cumin, producing 100% mortality in all tested concentrations on R. microplus larvae. Similarly, allspice essential oil produced 100% mortality at all concentrations with the exception of a dramatic decrease at 1.25% concentration. Conversely, basil essential oil was not shown to be toxic against R. microplus larvae. The most common compounds detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were as follows: cumin: cuminaldehyde (22.03%), γ-terpinene (15.69%) and 2-caren-10-al (12.89%); allspice: methyl eugenol (62.7%) and eugenol (8.3%); basil: linalool (30.61%) and estragole (20.04%). Results clearly indicate that C. cyminum and P. dioica essential oils can be used as an effective alternative for R. microplus tick control, and there is a high probability they can be used for other ticks affecting cattle in Mexico and throughout the world, thereby reducing the necessity for traditional and unfriendly synthetic acaricides.

  14. Toxicity of extract of Magonia pubescens (Sapindales: Sapindaceae) St. Hil. to control the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille) (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Fernando F; D'alessandro, Walmirton B; Freitas, Edméia P S

    2008-01-01

    The action of crude ethanol extract of the stem bark of the soapberry Magonia pubescens St. Hil. was studied upon larvae of the Brown Dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille). Tick larvae were obtained by maintaining gravid females in an incubator, after collecting them from naturally infested kennels. The tick larvae were placed in envelopes of filter paper impregnated with different concentrations of the extract dissolved in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and distilled water. Four tests were repeated with each solution (n > 120). The control was carried out in DMSO and distilled water. The bioassays were performed at 27 +/- 1 degrees C, RH > 80% and 12:12 light cycle. Mortality was observed after 48 h exposure. All motionless larvae were considered to be dead. The extract of M. pubescens showed larvicidal potential against R. sanguineus. The lethal concentrations of 1503 ppm (LC50) and 9991 ppm (LC99) were obtained. There was no mortality in the control group. Based on the results of the current study, M. pubescens should be recognized as an future alternative acaricide for the control of Brown Dog tick. These results reinforce the importance of the preservation of this soapberry in its natural biome.

  15. Evaluation of activity of the crude ethanolic extract of Magonia pubescens St. Hil (Sapindaceae against larvae of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887 (Acari: Ixodidae

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    Fernando de Freitas Fernandes

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The acaricidal potential of the crude ethanolic extract (c.e.e. of the stem peel of Magonia pubescens was evaluated against larvae of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus. The larvae were placed in filter paper envelopes impregnated with different concentrations of c.e.e., dissolved in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO and distilled water for determination of lethal concentrations (LC. The following treatments were used: 1. Envelopes of dry filter paper; 2. Envelopes of filter paper moistened with distilled water; 3. Envelopes of filter paper moistened with a solution of DMSO in distilled water; and 4. Envelopes moistened with 2 mL of each concentration of the c.e.e. to be tested. The bioassays were carried out in quadruplicate at 27°±1° C and RH e"80% and 12h light. Mortality was observed after 48 h, LC50 and LC99 values of 365 and 4,000 ppm being obtained. There was no significant mortality in larvae exposed to the first three treatments (p Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o potencial acaricida do extrato-bruto etanólico (e.b.e. da casca do caule de Magonia pubescens sobre larvas do carrapato bovino Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus. As larvas foram acondicionadas em B.O.D. climatizada, em envelopes de papel filtro impregnados com diferentes concentrações do e.b.e., solubilizado com dimetilsulfóxido (DMSO e água destilada, para determinação das Concentrações Letais (CL. Foram realizados os seguintes tratamentos: 1. envelopes de papel filtro seco; 2. envelopes de papel filtro umedecidos com água destilada; 3. envelopes de papel filtro umedecidos com solução de DMSO e água destilada; e 4. envelopes umedecidos com 2 mL de cada concentração do e.b.e. testada. Os bioensaios foram feitos em quadruplicata, em uma câmara climatizada a 27°±1° C, URe"80% e fotofase natural de 12 horas. A mortalidade foi observada após 48h. Obtiveram-se as CL50 de 365 e CL99 de 4.000 ppm. Não houve mortalidade significativa para os três primeiros tratamentos (p<0,05.

  16. Evaluation of activity of the crude ethanolic extract of Magonia pubescens St. Hil (Sapindaceae) against larvae of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini, 1887) (Acari: Ixodidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando de Freitas Fernandes; Priscilla Antunes Diógenes Bessa; Edméia de Paula e Souza Freitas

    2008-01-01

    The acaricidal potential of the crude ethanolic extract (c.e.e.) of the stem peel of Magonia pubescens was evaluated against larvae of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. The larvae were placed in filter paper envelopes impregnated with different concentrations of c.e.e., dissolved in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and distilled water for determination of lethal concentrations (LC). The following treatments were used: 1. Envelopes of dry filter paper; 2. Envelopes of filter paper moistened with di...

  17. Tick-Host Range Adaptation: Changes in Protein Profiles in Unfed Adult Ixodes scapularis and Amblyomma americanum Saliva Stimulated to Feed on Different Hosts

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    Lucas Tirloni

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the molecular basis of how ticks adapt to feed on different animal hosts is central to understanding tick and tick-borne disease (TBD epidemiology. There is evidence that ticks differentially express specific sets of genes when stimulated to start feeding. This study was initiated to investigate if ticks such as Ixodes scapularis and Amblyomma americanum that are adapted to feed on multiple hosts utilized the same sets of proteins to prepare for feeding. We exposed I. scapularis and A. americanum to feeding stimuli of different hosts (rabbit, human, and dog by keeping unfed adult ticks enclosed in a perforated microfuge in close contact with host skin, but not allowing ticks to attach on host. Our data suggest that ticks of the same species differentially express tick saliva proteins (TSPs when stimulated to start feeding on different hosts. SDS-PAGE and silver staining analysis revealed unique electrophoretic profiles in saliva of I. scapularis and A. americanum that were stimulated to feed on different hosts: rabbit, human, and dog. LC-MS/MS sequencing and pairwise analysis demonstrated that I. scapularis and A. americanum ticks expressed unique protein profiles in their saliva when stimulated to start feeding on different hosts: rabbit, dog, or human. Specifically, our data revealed TSPs that were unique to each treatment and those that were shared between treatments. Overall, we identified a total of 276 and 340 non-redundant I. scapularis and A. americanum TSPs, which we have classified into 28 functional classes including: secreted conserved proteins (unknown functions, proteinase inhibitors, lipocalins, extracellular matrix/cell adhesion, heme/iron metabolism, signal transduction and immunity-related proteins being the most predominant in saliva of unfed ticks. With exception of research on vaccines against Rhipicephalus microplus, which its natural host, cattle, research on vaccine against other ticks relies feeding ticks

  18. Population Genetic Structure of Tetranychus urticae and Its Sibling Species Tetranychus cinnabaribus (Acari: Tetranychidae) in China as Inferred From Microsatellite Data

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ting Li; Xiao-Lin Chen; Xiao-Yue Hong

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT The population structure of the twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, and its sibling species the carmine spider mite, Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval) (Acari: Tetranychidae...

  19. Reproductive parameters of Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks) fed with Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Phytoseiidae, Tetranychidae) in laboratory/Parâmetros reprodutivos de Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks) predando Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Phytoseiidae, Tetranychidae) em laboratório

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    G C Souza-Pimentel; P R Reis; C R Bonatto; J P Alves; M F Siqueira

    2017-01-01

    .... Tetranychus urticae Koch, 1836 (Acari: Tetranychidae) is considered to be one of the most important species of mite pests and has been described as attacking over 1,100 species of plants in 140 families with economic value...

  20. Phytocystatins: Defense Proteins against Phytophagous Insects and Acari

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    Manuel Martinez

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This review deals with phytocystatins, focussing on their potential role as defence proteins against phytophagous arthropods. Information about the evolutionary, molecular and biochemical features and inhibitory properties of phytocystatins are presented. Cystatin ability to inhibit heterologous cysteine protease activities is commented on as well as some approaches of tailoring cystatin specificity to enhance their defence function towards pests. A general landscape on the digestive proteases of phytophagous insects and acari and the remarkable plasticity of their digestive physiology after feeding on cystatins are highlighted. Biotechnological approaches to produce recombinant cystatins to be added to artificial diets or to be sprayed as insecticide–acaricide compounds and the of use cystatins as transgenes are discussed. Multiple examples and applications are included to end with some conclusions and future perspectives.

  1. Oviposition behaviour of the soil mite Veigaia cerva (Acari: Veigaiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquardt, Tomasz; Faleńczyk-Koziróg, Katarzyna; Kaczmarek, Sławomir

    2013-07-01

    We observed the oviposition behaviour of the soil mite Veigaia cerva (Kramer) (Acari: Veigaiidae) using continuous video-monitoring. Five phases could be recognized. Phase I involved inspection of the substrate. In phase II the female rhythmically moved her gnathosoma and first pair of legs. After an inactive phase III, the soma was raised (IV), and the egg was laid (V). In the actual egg laying three sub-phases could be distinguished: internal egg movement, placing the egg in front of the gnathosoma, and depositing the egg using the chelicerae. The palps and first pair of legs were used to position the egg between the chelicerae. The whole process took on average 333 ± 22 s.

  2. No Observed Effect of Landscape Fragmentation on Pathogen Infection Prevalence in Blacklegged Ticks (Ixodes scapularis in the Northeastern United States.

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    Christine P Zolnik

    Full Text Available Pathogen prevalence within blacklegged ticks (Ixodes scapularis Say, 1821 tends to vary across sites and geographic regions, but the underlying causes of this variation are not well understood. Efforts to understand the ecology of Lyme disease have led to the proposition that sites with higher host diversity will result in lower disease risk due to an increase in the abundance of inefficient reservoir species relative to the abundance of species that are highly competent reservoirs. Although the Lyme disease transmission cycle is often cited as a model for this "dilution effect hypothesis", little empirical evidence exists to support that claim. Here we tested the dilution effect hypothesis for two pathogens transmitted by the blacklegged tick along an urban-to-rural gradient in the northeastern United States using landscape fragmentation as a proxy for host biodiversity. Percent impervious surface and habitat fragment size around each site were determined to assess the effect of landscape fragmentation on nymphal blacklegged tick infection with Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Our results do not support the dilution effect hypothesis for either pathogen and are in agreement with the few studies to date that have tested this idea using either a landscape proxy or direct measures of host biodiversity.

  3. First records of water mites (Acari: Hydrachnidia) from Bhutan, with description of two new species.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pesic, V.; Smit, H.

    2007-01-01

    New records of water mites (Acari: Hydrachnidia) from streams in Bhutan are presented. Two species new to science are described: Sperchon himalayus sp. nov. and Torrenticola bhutana sp. nov. Furthermore, the first records from Bhutan are given for Monatractides tristis (Lundblad), Testudacarus

  4. Preparing soft-bodied arthropods for arthropods for microscope examination: Mites (Arachnida: Acari)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proper identification of mites (Arachnida: Acari) require preparation of the specimen on a microscope slide. This training video provides visual instruction on how to prepare mite specimens on microscope slides for examination and identification. Steps ranging from collection, specimen clearing, use...

  5. De corticole fauna van platanen: i. Arachniden (Arachnida: Araneae, Pseudoscorpiones, Acari)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordijk, J.; Berg, M.P.

    2001-01-01

    The corticolous fauna of plane trees: I. Arachnids (Arachnida: Araneae, Pseudoscorpiones, Acari) From February until September 2000 an inventory was made of the bark-dwelling arthropod fauna of more than 400 plane trees (Platanus hybrida), all over the Netherlands. Arthropods were collected from

  6. Primeiro registro de Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae em mudas de teca no Brasil

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    Alexandre dos Santos

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available O ácaro fitófago Tetranychus urticae (Kock, 1836 (Acari: Tetranychidae foi relatado e suas injúrias caracterizadas pela primeira vez em viveiro de produção mudas de teca (Tectona grandis no Brasil.

  7. New records of Acari from the sub-Antarctic Prince Edward Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marshall, D.J.; Gremmen, N.J.M.; Coetzee, L.; Oconnor, B.M.; Pugh, P.J.A.; Theron, P.D.; Ueckermann, E.A.

    1999-01-01

    Sixty species of Acari are recorded from the sub-Antarctic Marion and Prince Edward Islands (the Prince Edward archipelago). Twenty of the 45 species collected on recent expeditions are new and currently undescribed. Other new taxa include a family of Mesostigmata, four new genera, and the first

  8. A new species of the genus Achaemenothrombium (Acari: Achaemenothrombiidae) from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saboori, Alireza; Wohltmann, Andreas; Hakimitabar, Masoud; Shirvani, Asghar

    2013-01-01

    Achaemenothrombium dariusi Saboori, Wohltmann & Hakimitabar sp. nov. (Acari, Prostigmata: Trombidioidea) is described and illustrated from larvae ectoparasitic on Euxoafallax (Eversmann) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from Sirch and Cheshmeh Bondar, Kerman province, Iran. It is the third species of this genus, which is recorded only from Iran. The status of this small family is discussed and a key to species of A chaemenothrombium (larvae) is presented.

  9. Role of excreta in predator avoidance by the Kanzawa spider mite, Tetranychus kanzawai (Acari: Tetranychidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oku, K.

    2008-01-01

    The Kanzawa spider mite, Tetranychus kanzawai (Acari: Tetranychidae) constructs webs over leaf surfaces and usually lives under these webs. T. kanzawai produces two types of excreta, black and yellow pellets, and uses its webs as a place for excretion. T. kanzawai also uses its webs as a refuge when

  10. Two new species of the genus Anoplocheylus Berlese, 1910 (Acari: Trombidiformes: Pseudocheylidae) from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Mohammad; Zarei, Elham; Ahaniazad, Mansoureh; Gharekhany, Gholamhossein; Navaei-Bonab, Reza

    2013-01-07

    Two new species of the genus Anoplocheylus Berlese, 1910 (Acari: Trombidiformes: Pseudocheylidae), A. sinai Bagheri sp. nov. and A. kazemii Bagheri sp. nov., are described and figured. An updated key to all known species of Anoplocheylus is also provided.

  11. Three new species of the family Phytoseiidae (Acari: Mesostigmata) from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döker, Ismail; Kazak, Cengiz; Karut, Kamil

    2017-03-16

    Three new species of the family Phytoseiidae (Acari: Mesostigmata) are described and illustrated based on female specimens collected from various plants in Turkey-Eharius denizliensis Döker & Kazak sp. nov., Typhlodromus (Anthoseius) karaisaliensis Döker & Kazak sp. nov. and Typhlodromus (Typhlodromus) papadoulisi Döker & Kazak sp. nov.

  12. Water mite species of the genus Hydrodroma Koch (Acari: Hydrachnidia, Hydrodromidae) from Australia. Part II.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pesic, V.; Smit, H.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: Two new water mite species of the genus Hydrodroma Koch (Acari: Hydrachnidia, Hydrodromidae), characterized by single or absence of swimming setae on II-L-5, are reported from Australia: Hydrodroma wilesi sp. nov. and H. cooki sp. nov. New information is provided for H. tonapii Cook from

  13. Ontogenia del sistema digestivo y caracterización de la actividad enzimática de las larvas de chita Anisotremus scapularis (Tschudi, 1846)

    OpenAIRE

    Cota Mamani, Noemí Jackelith

    2016-01-01

    La chita Anisotremus scapularis es un pez marino que habita las costas de Perú, es muy valorado para el consumo humano directo, y, es considerada una especie con potencial acuícola. El cultivo larval en muchas especies de peces marinos se considera como uno de los cuellos de botella para el desarrollo de la tecnología de cultivo a escala comercial, este es el caso de la chita. Como primer alimento y durante los primeros días de vida de las larvas se les suministra presas vivas,...

  14. Effect of pyroligneous extract of Acacia mearnsii on Tetranychus urticae (Koch, 1836 (Acari, Tetranychidae and Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor, 1954 (Acari, Phytoseiidae

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    Adriana de Castro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to determine the effect of decanted pyroligneous extract (DPE of black Acacia mearnsii on the mites Tetranychus urticae (Koch, 1836 (Acari: Tetranychidae and Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor, 1954 (Acari: Phytoseiidae. Six different concentrations were tested, namely, DPE: water 1:600, 1:300, 1:150, 1:75, 1:38 and 1:19 and a control treatment with distilled water. Five females of T. urticae and N. californicus were transferred to arenas, totaling 50 females per treatment, for a period of eight days. DPE caused high mortality in N. californicus, while in T. urticae, high mortality was observed only at high (1:75, 1:38 and 1:19 and intermediate (1:150 concentrations. Notably, DPE was slightly harmful to T. urticae at lower concentrations and harmful to N. californicus at all concentrations, indicating that it would have little efficacy in the control of T. urticae.

  15. Efficacy of sarolaner in the prevention of Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum transmission from infected Ixodes scapularis to dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honsberger, Nicole A; Six, Robert H; Heinz, Thomas J; Weber, Angela; Mahabir, Sean P; Berg, Thomas C

    2016-05-30

    The efficacy of sarolaner (Simparica™, Zoetis) to prevent transmission primarily of Borrelia burgdorferi and secondarily of Anaplasma phagocytophilum from infected wild-caught Ixodes scapularis to dogs was evaluated in a placebo-controlled laboratory study. Twenty-four purpose-bred laboratory Beagles seronegative for B. burgdorferi and A. phagocytophilum antibodies were allocated randomly to one of three treatment groups: placebo administered orally on Days 0 and 7, or sarolaner at 2mg/kg administered orally on Day 0 (28 days prior to tick infestation) or on Day 7 (21 days prior to tick infestation). On Day 28, each dog was infested with approximately 25 female and 25 male wild caught adult I. scapularis that were determined to have prevalence of 57% for B. burgdorferi and 6.7% for A. phagocytophilum by PCR. In situ tick counts were conducted on Days 29 and 30. On Day 33, all ticks were counted and removed. Acaricidal efficacy was calculated based on the reduction of geometric mean live tick counts in the sarolaner-treated groups compared to the placebo-treated group for each tick count. Blood samples collected from each dog on Days 27, 49, 63, 77, 91 and 104 were tested for the presence of B. burgdorferi and A. phagocytophilum antibodies using the SNAP(®) 4Dx(®) Plus Test, and quantitatively assayed for B. burgdorferi antibodies using an ELISA test. Skin biopsies collected on Day 104 were tested for the presence of B. burgdorferi by bacterial culture and PCR. Geometric mean live tick counts for placebo-treated dogs were 14.8, 12.8, and 19.1 on Days 29, 30, and 33, respectively. The percent reductions in mean live tick counts at 1, 2, and 5 days after infestation were 86.3%, 100%, and 100% for the group treated with sarolaner 21 days prior to infestation, and 90.9%, 97.1%, and 100% for the group treated with sarolaner 28 days prior to infestation. Geometric mean live tick counts for both sarolaner-treated groups were significantly lower than those for the

  16. To beat or not to beat a tick: comparison of DNA extraction methods for ticks (Ixodes scapularis

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    Alyssa D. Ammazzalorso

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Blacklegged ticks (Ixodes scapularis are important disease vectors in the United States, known to transmit a variety of pathogens to humans, including bacteria, protozoa, and viruses. Their importance as a disease vector necessitates reliable and comparable methods for extracting microbial DNA from ticks. Furthermore, to explore the population genetics or genomics of this tick, appropriate DNA extraction techniques are needed for both the vector and its microbes. Although a few studies have investigated different methods of DNA isolation from ticks, they are limited in the number and types of DNA extraction and lack species-specific quantification of DNA yield.Methods. Here we determined the most efficient and consistent method of DNA extraction from two different developmental stages of I. scapularis—nymph and adult—that are the most important for disease transmission. We used various methods of physical disruption of the hard, chitinous exoskeleton, as well as commercial and non-commercial DNA isolation kits. To gauge the effectiveness of these methods, we quantified the DNA yield and confirmed the DNA quality via PCR of both tick and microbial genetic material.Results. DNA extraction using the Thermo GeneJET Genomic DNA Purification Kit resulted in the highest DNA yields and the most consistent PCR amplification when combined with either cutting or bead beating with select matrices across life stages. DNA isolation methods using ammonium hydroxide as well as the MoBio PowerSoil kit also produced strong and successful PCR amplification, but only for females.Discussion. We contrasted a variety of readily available methods of DNA extraction from single individual blacklegged ticks and presented the results through a quantitative and qualitative assessment.

  17. New histochemical and morphological findings in the female genital tract of Boophilus microplus (Acari, Ixodidae: an attempt toward the elucidation of fertilization in ticks Novas características histoquímicas e morfológicas no trato genital feminino de Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae: uma tentativa para a elucidação da fertilização nos carrapatos

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    Casimiro García-Fernández

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available At present not only is the site of fertilization in ticks still unknown but it is also unclear as to how this mystery can be solved. Signs of fertilization can be observed throughout the female genital tract and these can be clues for the elucidation of the unsolved questions relating to ticks fertilization. In Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887 the most important signs are the following: the final eversion of the acrosomal canal in females ready for oviposition; the presence of small tubules, resembling the subplasmalemal process of the spermatozoon between the oviduct cells; budding nuclei throughout the female genital tract; and the two Feulgen and DAPI positive areas in the oocyte at vitelogenesis. These morphological characteristics suggest that fertilization takes place in the internal cylinder which extends from the uterus to the ovary itself.Até o momento, não só o lugar da fertilização em carrapatos é desconhecido, mas também não é claro como este mistério possa ser esclarecido. Sinais de fertilização podem ser observados ao longo do trato genital feminino e estes podem ser pistas para a elucidação das questões relacionadas à fertilização em ácaros. Em Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887, os sinais mais importantes são os seguintes: a eversão final do canal acrossômico em fêmeas prestes à oviposição; a presença de pequenos túbulos assemelhando-se a processos subplasmalêmicos dos espermatozóides entre as células do oviduto; brotamentos nucleares ao longo do trato genital feminino e as duas áreas Feulgen e DAPI positivas nos ovócitos em processo de vitelogênese. Estas características morfológicas sugerem que a fertilização ocorra no cilindro interno, o qual se estende desde o útero até o ovário inclusive.

  18. Controle de Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806 (Acari: Ixodidae no canil da Escola de Veterinária da UFMG, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil Control of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806 (Acari: Ixodidae in the kennel of the UFMG Veterinary School, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Gustavo F. Paz

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como proposta controlar uma infestação natural de Rhipicephalus sanguineus em um canil pertencente à Escola de Veterinária da UFMG, com uma área de 72 m² e 25 cães de diversas raças. Um teste de sensibilidade a produtos acaricidas foi aplicado em uma amostra de carrapatos capturados no canil. Dos produtos testados: Amitraz 12,5% (Produto 1; uma associação de Alfametrina 2% e Dichlorvós 60% (produto 2; Deltametrina 5% (produto 3 e uma associação de Trichlorfon 77,6%, Coumaphós 1% e Cyfluthrin 1% (produto 4; somente os produtos 1 e 4 apresentaram 100% de eficácia. O Amitraz 12,5% foi utilizado no controle dos estádios de R. sanguineus presentes no ambiente do canil, com um esquema de 4 aplicações a cada 7 dias de intervalo. Para os estádios parasitários, um único tratamento com Flumetrina 1.0% pour-on foi empregado em todos os animais. A inspeção e o monitoramento do ambiente e dos animais foram realizados durante um período de um ano. Estas medidas de controle reduziram significativamente a população de carrapatos dentro do canil. O canil não apresentou infestação pelo carrapato nos seis meses seguintes aos tratamentos. Uma infestação leve foi observada no 7º mês pós-tratamento, quando foi realizada uma nova aplicação de Amitraz 12,5% no ambiente do canil e um novo tratamento com Flumetrina 1.0% pour-on nos animais, com resultados satisfatórios.The present work was aimed at proposing a control measure for Rhipicephalus sanguineus in a naturally infected kennel of 72 m² of the UFMG Veterinary School with 25 dogs of different breeds. A sensitivity test to acaricide products was applied in a sample of R. sanguineus. Out of the acaricide products tested: 12.5% Amitraz (product 1; 2% Alfamethrin and 60% Dichlorvos association (product 2; 5% Deltamethrin (product 3 and the association between 77.6% Trichlorfon, 1.0% Coumaphos and 1.0% Cyfluthrin (product 4; only 1 and 4 products showed 100% efficacy. Amitraz (12.5% was used for controlling R. sanguineus in the surrounding of the kennel, on which four treatments every seven days were carried out in the facilities. For parasitic R. sanguineus, a single topical treatment was used: Flumetrin 1.0% pour - on on all the 25 dogs. This control measure significantly reduced the population of R. sanguineus within the kennel. A slight infestation was observed in the seventh month after treatment. A new application of 12.5% Amitraz was done in the kennel as well as a new topical treatment with Flumetrin 1.0% pour - on on the dogs. The control procedure proposed in the present study was an emergency measure and its effectiveness was checked through environmental surveys throughout a one-year period.

  19. Carrapatos do gênero amblyomma (acari: ixodidae e suas relações com os hospedeiros em área endêmica para febre maculosa no Estado de São Paulo Ticks of genus Amblyomma (Acari: Ixodidae and their relationship with hosts in endemic area for spotted fever in the state of São Paulo

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    Carlos Alberto Perez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliadas 7 espécies da mastofauna e 36 da avifauna quanto à prevalência e intensidade de infestação por carrapatos na ESALQ/USP, no Município de Piracicaba, SP. Analisaram-se 52 indivíduos da mastofauna e 158 da avifauna, parasitados por 12418 carrapatos. Os exemplares adultos (N= 7343 foram encontrados em parasitismo nas capivaras enquanto que os imaturos foram, na maioria, coletados de pequenos mamíferos e aves. Os principais hospedeiros para as formas imaturas, em ordem decrescente, foram gambás (69,1%, capivaras (24,4% e urubus (3,7%. Entre a avifauna, o urubu apresentou o maior número de carrapatos com 69,9%, seguido por indivíduos das famílias Thamnophilidae e Turdidae. Os carrapatos adultos encontrados em capivaras foram A. cajennense (80,8% e A. dubitatum (19,2%. Ambas as espécies foram também coletadas em gambás, correspondendo a 72,4% e 27,6%, respectivamente. Pela facilidade de captura e atratividade de Amblyomma spp. o gambá pode ser usado como bioindicador de infestação em locais endêmicos para febre maculosa. Considerando os índices de parasitismo e prevalência bem como de abundância de carrapatos, susceptibilidade dos hospedeiros, proliferação e susceptibilidade para infecção por R. rickettsi, capivaras e gambás são potenciais hospedeiros amplificadores desse microrganismo no Campus da ESALQ, enquanto eqüídeos, urubus e gatos atuam como hospedeiros secundários.Seven species of mammals and 36 of birds were investigated to determine the tick prevalence and intensity of infestation. The study was conducted at the Esalq/USP in Piracicaba municipality, State of São Paulo. It was collected 52 mammals and 158 birds parasitized by 12,418 ticks. Adult ticks (N= 7,343 were found on capybaras, while the immature were mainly collected on small mammals and birds. The main hosts for immatures in descending order were opossums (69.1%, capybara (24.4% and black vultures (3.7%. Among the avifauna, the black vulture (Cathartidae had the heaviest infestation (69.9% followed by species of the Thamnophilidae and Turdidae families. Adult ticks collected on capybaras were A. cajennense (80.8% and A. dubitatum (19.2%. Both tick species were also found on opossums corresponding to 72.4% and 27.6%, respectively. Due to easy capture and attractiveness for ticks, opossums could be used as bioindicators in Brazilian zoonotic areas with spotted fever. Considering the prevalence and also abundance of ticks, host attractiveness, proliferation and susceptibly for R. rickettsi infection, capybaras and opossums are the main amplifying hosts for this microorganism at the ESALQ/Campus, while horses, black vultures and stray cats act as secondary hosts.

  20. Avaliação de parâmetros clínicos e hematológicos de eqüinos submetidos a um programa de controle estratégico de Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius, 1787 (Acari: Ixodidae Evaluation of clinical and hematological parameters of equines submitted to a strategic control program of Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius, 1787 (Acari: Ixodidae

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    A.P. Cunha

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se aspectos clínicos e hematológicos em eqüinos submetidos a um programa de controle estratégico de A. cajennense. Os tratamentos carrapaticidas foram realizados a cada sete dias e divididos em dois módulos, o primeiro com início em abril de 2004, e o segundo com início em julho do mesmo ano, utilizando-se a base química piretróide - cipermetrina na concentração de 0,015%. Além do acompanhamento clínico dos animais, foram realizados hemogramas completos antes e após o programa. As dosagens bioquímicas de bilirrubinas, gama-glutamiltransferase (GGT, aspartato aminotransferase (AST, creatina kinase (CK, proteína total, albumina e globulinas, foram realizadas antes, durante e ao final do programa. Os resultados demonstraram que houve uma melhora no quadro hematológico dos animais após o programa de controle. Os tratamentos carrapaticidas, na forma em foram aplicados, não provocaram alterações desfavoráveis nos parâmetros clínicos e hematológicos dos eqüinos. Tais informações podem ser consideradas na busca de alternativas viáveis e seguras para o controle dessa espécie de carrapato.Clinical and hematological parameters were studied in equines submitted to a strategic control program of Amblyomma cajennense. The acaricide treatments were carried to each seven days and divided in two batteries, the first one began in April 2004 and the second in July 2004. A pyrethroid chemical base - 0.015% cypermethrin was used. Clinical examinations of the animals and complete hemograms were carried before and after the control program of the tick. Seric dosages of bilirrubins, gamma-glutamiltransferase (GGT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, creatin kinase (CK, total protein, albumin, and globulins, were carried before and throughout the experiment. The results showed an improvement in the hematological parameters of the animals after the end of control program. The acaricide treatments did not cause undesirable alterations of the clinical and hematological parameters studied. Such information can be considered as viable and safe alternatives for the control of this tick.

  1. Seasonal dynamics of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae in dogs from a police unit in Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil Dinâmica sazonal de Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae em cães de uma unidade da Polícia de Goiânia, Goiás, Brasil

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    Carla Cristina Braz Louly

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The seasonal dynamics of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks was developed in dogs from a Police Unit in Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil, from July 2001 to July 2002. The study was carried out on seven naturally infested dogs (two English Cocker Spaniels and five mongrel dogs, with ages between six months and 10 years. Every two weeks, the numbers of feeding larvae, nymphs, and adults were determined. Dogs showing infestation levels above 500 adult ticks received three acaricide treatments. Considering that the treatments had affected the development of some peaking populations of ticks, it was inferred the occurrence of the following peaks: - larvae (four peaks: from August to November, from November to February, from March to May, and from May to July; - nymphs (five peaks: from July to September, from October to December, from December to February, from March to May, and from June to July; - adults (four peaks: from July to October, from October to January, from January to March, and from April to July. The occurrence of these consecutive peaks of activity of each stage of R. sanguineus may indicate that this tick can develop up to four generations per year in Goiânia. On the other hand, if the acaricide treatment did not interfere with the development of R. sanguineus peaks, more than four peaks of each stage have occurred on the dogs. In this case, it is acceptable to infer that more than one population of R. sanguineus was developing within the kennel concomitantly. The mean numbers of each tick stage was similar in the different seasons. The main attachment sites were located on the neck, chest, forelegs, armpits, ears, between toes and on the head. The number of adult ticks feeding on English Cocker Spaniel dogs was 1.4 to 11.5 times higher than that feeding on mongrel dogs.O estudo de dinâmica sazonal de Rhipicephalus sanguineus foi desenvolvido em cães de uma Unidade da Polícia de Goiânia, Goiás, Brasil, de julho de 2001 a julho de 2002. Sete cães naturalmente infestados com R. sanguineus (dois da raça Cocker Spaniel Inglês, e cinco cães sem raça definida, com idades variando de 6 meses a 10 anos, foram utilizados no monitoramento da infestação. A cada duas semanas, o número de larvas, ninfas e adultos parasitando os animais era contado. Três tratamentos acaricidas foram feitos nos cães que tiveram níveis de infestação de 500 adultos. Considerando que os tratamentos interferiram no desenvolvimento de alguns picos do carrapato, pôde-se inferir que ocorreram nos quatro picos de larvas: de agosto a novembro, de novembro a fevereiro, de março a maio e de maio a julho; cinco picos de ninfas: de julho a setembro, de outubro a dezembro, de dezembro a fevereiro, de março a maio e de junho a julho, e quatro picos de adultos: de julho a outubro, de outubro a janeiro, de janeiro a março e de abril a julho. A ocorrência destes picos consecutivos de cada estágio pode indicar que o R. sanguineus realiza quatro gerações anuais em Goiânia. Por outro lado, se os tratamentos não interferiram no desenvolvimento dos picos de atividade, mais de quatro picos de cada estágio ocorreram nos cães. Então, é aceitável supor que mais de uma população de R. sanguineus estava se desenvolvendo no canil, ao mesmo tempo. O número médio de carrapatos de cada estádio foi similar nas estações do ano. Os sítios preferenciais de fixação foram o pescoço, o peito, as patas, as axilas, as orelhas, os espaços interdigitais e a cabeça. O número de carrapatos contados nos cães da raça Cocker Spainel Inglês foi de 1,4 a 11,5 vezes maior que o número observado nos cães sem raça definida.

  2. Avaliação da atividade repelente do timol, mentol, salicilato de metila e ácido salicilico sobre larvas de Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887 (Acari: Ixodidae Evaluation of repellent activity of thymol, menthol, methyl salicylate and salicylic acid on Boophilus microplus larvae (Canestrini, 1887 (Acari: Ixodidae

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    A.M.S. Novelino

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Verificou-se a atividade repelente do timol, mentol, ácido salicílico e salicilato de metila sobre larvas de Boophilus microplus. Essas substâncias foram usadas em emulsões em dimetilsulfuxido aquoso a 1% ou solução aquosa. Para cada substância foram testadas três concentrações, 1,0%; 0,5% e 0,25%, com cinco repetições cada. Cerca de 100 larvas, com 21 dias de idade, foram inseridas na base de hastes de madeira para avaliação da repelência, a cada duas horas, totalizando 12 horas. As concentrações mais elevadas apontaram que as quatro substâncias causaram alteração no comportamento das larvas. Timol, com mortalidade de 65% e 35% de repelência e mentol e salicilato de metila, ambos com 80% de repelência foram os mais eficientes.The repellent activity of thymol, menthol, salicylic acid and methyl salicylate on Boophilus microplus larvae was studied. These substances were tested according to their solubility: emulsions in 1% aqueous dimethylsulphoxide or in pure water. Three concentrations were tested for each substance, 1.0%, 0.5% and 0.25%, with five repetitions for each. Approximately 100 larvae at 21 days of age were placed on the base of wooden sticks and then observed for repellent action every two hours, during twelve hours. The results obtained from the higher concentrations showed that the four substances caused alterations on the larvae behavior. However, thymol (65% of mortality and 35% of repellency, menthol (80% of repellency and methyl salicylate (80% of repellency were the most efficient.

  3. Ocorrência de Amblyomma fuscum Neumann, 1899 e Amblyomma humerale Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae em Bufo arenalis no estado de São Paulo, Brasil Occurence of Amblyomma fuscum Neumann, 1899 and Amblyomma humerale Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae in Bufo arenalis in the state of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Afonso Lodovico Sinkoc

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é relatar a ocorrência do parasitismo monoespecífico de A. fuscum NEUMANN, 1899 e A. humerale KOCH, 1844 em sapos (Bufo arenalis no Município de Rosana, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Este relato caracteriza um novo hospedeiro e uma nova localização geográfica para estas duas espécies de carrapatos.The objective of this work is to describe the occurence of the monoespecific parasitism of A. fuscum NEUMANN, 1899 and A. humerale KOCH, 1844 in toads (Bufo arenalis from the County of Rosana, State of São Paulo, Brazil. This is the description of a new host and new geographic site for those two species.

  4. Controle do carrapato Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae em sistemas de produção de leite da microrregião fisiográfica fluminense do grande Rio - Rio de Janeiro Control of the cattle tick Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae in dairy farm systems of the physiographic microrregion of grande Rio, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Juracy de Castro Borba Santos Júnior

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi analisar os métodos de controle do carrapato Boophilus microplus realizados em três fazendas representativas dos sistemas de produção de leite da Microrregião Fisiográfica Fluminense do Grande Rio, Rio de Janeiro, levando-se em consideração o manejo das fazendas, o grau de sangue Bos taurus e Bos indicus dos rebanhos, os fatores climáticos e a prevalência estacional do carrapato. Para efeito de avaliação, foi utilizada a contagem periódica de fêmeas ingurgitadas medindo entre 4,5 e 8mm, no antímero direito de 20% das vacas em lactação de cada fazenda, durante um ano. A diferença no manejo das pastagens, a composição genética dos rebanhos e as condições climáticas influenciaram a prevalência estacional de B. microplus. A maior lotação animal por hectare, o elevado "stand" vegetativo das pastagens e o maior grau de sangue B. taurus contribuíram para as maiores infestações de carrapatos nas fazendas. O controle de B. microplus realizado pelos proprietários teve importância secundária em relação as outras atitudes de manejo dos rebanhos. Ficou evidenciado o uso excessivo e ineficiente de produtos químicos para o controle de B. microplus nas fazendas. Para implantação de medidas de controle estratégico do B. Microplus, fazem-se necessários esforços para a transferência e adoção dos resultados de pesquisas disponíveis aos produtores rurais.The objective of the study was to analyse the control methods of the cattle tick, Boophilus microplus. The experiment was carried out on three farms of the dairy production systems of the Fluminense Physiographic Microregion of Grande Rio, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Farm management, the Bos indicus and Bos taurus composition of herds, climatic factors and seasonal variation in tick infestation level of cattle was taken into account. Counts of engorged female ticks, measuring between 4.5 and 8.0mm, in 20% of the lactating cows of each farm, were carried out during one year, June 1996 to May, 1997. Pasture management differences, genetic composition of the herds and climatic conditions, influenced the seasonal incidence of B. microplus. The highest cattle stocking rate per hectare, taller vegetative stand of pasture and greater proportion of B. taurus genes in herds contributed to increase tick infestation on farms. The direct control of B. microplus, carried out by the owners on farms, had a secondary importance compared to other factors of herd management. Excessive and inefficient use of chemical acaricide products was observed. Efforts should be made for the transfer and adoption of research results for rural producers to facilitate the implantation of strategic control measures against B. microplus.

  5. The genus Ixodes (Acari: Ixodidae in Mexico: adult identification keys, diagnoses, hosts, and distribution El género Ixodes (Acari: Ixodidae en México: claves de identificación para adultos, diagnosis, huéspedes y distribución

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    Carmen Guzmán-Cornejo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Identification keys, diagnoses, hosts, and distribution data are provided for adults of the 26 species of Ixodes known from Mexico. Data are from specimens deposited in the Colección Nacional de Ácaros (CNAC, Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, and from the literature.Se presentan claves de identificación, diagnosis, huéspedes y datos sobre la distribución de 26 especies de Ixodes conocidas para México. La información proviene de especímenes depositados en la Colección Nacional de Ácaros (CNAC, Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México y de la literatura.

  6. Life cycle of female ticks of Amblyomma cooperi Nuttal & Warburton, 1908 (Acari: Ixodidae under laboratory conditions Ciclo biológico de fêmeas do carrapato Amblyomma cooperi Nuttal & Warburton, 1908 (Acari:Ixodidae sob condições de laboratório

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    A.T.S. Almeida

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The biological cycle of female ticks of Amblyomma cooperi was studied under controlled conditions. The study has begun with two engorged females collected in a naturally infested wild capybara. The larvae originated from the oviposition of these two females were used for collecting young adults through artificial infestations in rabbits. The female parasitic and free living phases were evaluated using artificial infestation of ticks in a capybara. The average body weight of females was 958.2± 175.6mg, the average pre-egg laying period was 8.5± 1.4 days, the reproductive efficiency index was 59.5± 4.2 and the nutritional efficiency index was 77.3± 4.8. The incubation and eclosion periods were 41.9 and 5.9 days, respectively, and the rate of eclosion was 64%. These figures were obtained under high relative humidity conditions which were necessary for the success of the egg incubation process of this species. The preliminary data obtained with the artificial infestation in rabbits raises the possibility of this and other domestic species be used as an epidemiologic link between the domestic and the wild environment with the potential exposure of human populations to A. cooperi and to the maculosa fever agent.O ciclo biológico de Amblyomma cooperi foi estudado sob condições de laboratório. O estudo iniciou-se com duas fêmeas ingurgitadas coletadas de uma capivara selvagem naturalmente infestada. As larvas provenientes da postura foram utilizadas para obtenção de adultos, por meio de infestação artificial em coelhos. As fases parasitária e de vida livre das fêmeas foram avaliadas utilizando-se infestação artificial em capivara. A média de peso corporal foi de 958,2± 175,6mg, a média do período de pré-postura de 8,5± 1,4 dias e dos índices de eficiência reprodutiva e nutricional de 59,5± 4,2 e 77,3± 4,6, respectivamente. Os períodos de incubação e eclosão foram de 41,9 e 5,9 dias, respectivamente. A taxa de eclosão foi de 64%. Estes dados foram obtidos sob alta umidade relativa, necessária para o sucesso da incubação dos ovos dessa espécie. Os dados preliminares obtidos com a infestação artificial em coelhos levanta a possibilidade dessa e de outras espécies domésticas serem possíveis elos epidemiológicos entre o ambiente doméstico e o silvestre, com potencial risco de exposição humana a A. cooperi e ao agente etiológico da febre maculosa.

  7. Determinação da CL90 e TL90 do isolado IBCB66 de Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycetes: Clavicipitaceae para o controle de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae Determination of LC 90 and LT 90 of IBCB66 Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycetes: Clavicipitaceae isolate for Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae control

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    Barci Leila A. G.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a patogenicidade e a virulência do isolado IBCB66 de Beauveria bassiana para larvas de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus. O isolado IBCB66 foi utilizado como padrão, com a finalidade de determinar a CL50 (Concentração Letal, CL90, TL50 (Tempo Letal e TL90. O isolado IBCB66 foi testado em seis concentrações diferentes (5 × 10(6, 10(7, 5 × 10(7, 10(8, 5 × 10(8 e 10(9 para determinar a porcentagem de mortalidade. A mortalidade total de larvas foi observada 18 dias após o início do teste no grupo tratado com 5 × 10(9 conídios.mL-1. A análise de Probit dos dados consignados apontou a CL50 e CL90 concentrações de 3 × 10(7 e 5 × 10(8 conídios.mL-1 e para TL50 e TL90, foram 10 e 16 dias, respectivamente.The objective of this research was to evaluate the pathogenicity and the virulence of the IBCB66 isolate of Beauveria bassiana on infected larvae of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus. The IBCB66 fungus strain was used as standard isolates of B. bassiana against R. (B. microplus larvae. The larval bioassay tests using the IBCB66 isolate were carried out to determine the (Lethal Concentration LC50, LC90, (Lethal Time LT50 and LT90. The IBCB66 fungus strain was tested at six different concentrations (5 × 10(6, 10(7, 5 × 10(7, 10(8, 5 × 10(8 and 10(9 conidia.mL-1 to determine the percentage of larval mortality. In addition, a Probit analysis was also performed. Total larval mortality was observed eighteen days after the beginning of the test in the group treated with 5 × 10(9 conidia.mL-1. The LC50 and LC90 were 3 × 10(7 and 5 × 10(8 respectively and the LT50 and LT90 were 10 and 16 days.

  8. Haemaphysalis juxtakochi Cooley, 1946 (Acari: Ixodidae parasitando Mazama nana (Hensel, 1872 (Artiodactyla: Cervidae no estado do Rio Grande do Sul Haemaphysalis juxtakochi Cooley, 1946 (Acari: Ixodidae parasitizing Mazama nana (Hensel, 1872 (Artiodactyla: Cervidae in the State of Rio Grande do Sul

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    João Ricardo Martins

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available O encontro de Haemaphysalis juxtakochi Cooley, um carrapato ixodídeo, no veado bororó-do-sul, Mazama nana (Hensel, representa novo relato de ocorrência, após 34 anos de seu registro no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Os exemplares de carrapatos (3 machos e 1 fêmea foram encontrados em Cachoeira do Sul, RS (30º02’21"S, 52º53’38"W. O local está a 72 m acima do nível do mar, com uma média anual de temperatura de 18,8°C, e uma precipitação média anual de 1.438 mm. Este é o primeiro registro de H. juxtakochi nesta espécie de cervídeo e um segundo relato de ocorrência para o Estado do Rio Grande do Sul.The record of Haemaphysalis juxtakochi Cooley, an ixodid tick, on the brocket deer, Mazama nana (Hensel, represents a new report after 34 years of its last report in the State of Rio Grande do Sul. The tick specimens (three males and one female were found in Cachoeira do Sul, RS (30º02’21"S, 52º53’38"W. This place is elevated 72 m sea above, with an annual average temperature of 18.8°C, and annual average rainfall of 1.438 mm. This is the first record of this tick species in a Cervidae and it is the second occurrence report for the State of Rio Grande do Sul.

  9. La presencia de Ixodes luciae en el noroeste argentino y nuevos huéspedes para Ixodes pararicinus y algunas especies de Amblyomma (Acari: Ixodidae Presence of Ixodes luciae in Argentina northwest and new hosts for Ixodes pararicinus and some species of Amblyomma (Acari: Ixodidae

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    Analía G. Autino

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available El análisis de una colección de garrapatas de mamíferos del noroeste argentino, depositados en la Colección de Anexos de la Colección Mamíferos Lillo (CML de la Universidad Nacional de Tucumán, permitió ampliar el área de distribución de Ixodes luciae Sénevet, a las provincias de Salta y Tucumán e incrementar su rango de huéspedes al roedor sigmodontino Calomys callosus (Rengger y a los marsupiales de la familia Didelphidae Micoureus constantiae (Thomas, Thylamys cinderella Thomas y Thylamys venustus (Thomas. Se registró a C . callosus y Oligoryzomys destructor (Tschudi como nuevos huéspedes de Ixodes pararicinus Keirans & Clifford, y a los Carnivora Lycalopex gymnocercus (Fischer y Oncifelis geoffroyi (d´Orbigny & Gervais como nuevos huéspedes de Amblyomma neumanni Ribaga y Amblyomma parvum Aragão, respectivamente. Adicionalmente, se observó la infestación de Lutreolina crassicaudata (Desmarest (Didelphidae por I. luciae y la presencia de Amblyomma tigrinum Koch, sobre L. gymnocercus . Ninfas de Amblyomma sp . se obtuvieron de Akodon Meyen (Sigmodontinae.The analysis of a tick collection of mammals from northwestern Argentina deposited in the Annexes (ACML of Colección Mamíferos Lillo (CML National University of Tucumán, amplified the distribution of Ixodes luciae Sénevet, to Salta and Tucumán provinces and increased the host range to the sigmodontinae rodent Calomys callosus (Rengger and the Didelphidae Micoureus constantiae (Thomas, Thylamys cinderella Thomas and Thylamys venustus (Thomas. Calomys callosus and Oligoryzomys destructor (Tschudi were registered as new hosts of Ixodes pararicinus Keirans & Clifford, and the Carnivora Lycalopex gymnocercus (Fischer and Oncifelis geoffroyi (d´Orbigny & Gervais as new hosts of Amblyomma neumanni Ribaga, and Amblyomma parvum Aragão, respectively . Lutreolina crassicaudata (Desmarest (Didelphidae was also found infested with I. luciae while Amblyomma tigrinum Koch was detected on L. gymnocercus . Nymphs of Amblyomma sp. were found on Akodon Meyen. (Sigmodontinae.

  10. Acaricide resistance in Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) populations from Cyprus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassiliou, Vassilis A; Kitsis, Pavlos

    2013-08-01

    Five field and greenhouse populations of the twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), were collected from five different districts across the island of Cyprus, both in field and greenhouse crops, and tested to determine levels of resistance. Standard leaf-disk spray application bioassay procedures were used to determine the LC50s for five chemicals: abamectin, acrinathrin, fenazaquin, pirimiphos methyl, and bifenazate. Selection of these compounds was based on the widespread use by farmers as well as on the frequent control failures against T. urticae reported in the past. Resistance of T. urticae was detected to abamectin, acrinathrin, fenazaquin, and pirimiphos methyl. The resistance ratios were calculated relative to the German susceptible reference strain. The highest resistance ratios at LC50 value were recorded for abamectin in a greenhouse rose population (RR = 3822), followed by a field bean (RR = 1356) and field tomato population (RR = 1320). Significantly high resistance levels were also found for acrinathrin where the highest resistance ratios at LC50 were recorded in a field bean T. urticae population (RR = 903). For fenazaquin, the highest resistance levels were recorded in a field tomato population (RR = 310). Lower resistance levels were found for pirimiphos methyl (13.3 urticae was observed for bifenazate (2.7 urticae populations in indoor and outdoor environments.

  11. O virus do mixoma no coelho do mato (Sylvilagus minenses, sua transmissão pelos Aedes scapularis e aegypti

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    Henrique Beaurepaire Aragão

    1943-01-01

    Full Text Available The brazilian wild rabbit (Sylvilagus minensis is sensible to the virus of the mixomatosis but the desease takes on it a mild character, lasts for long time and generally do not kill the animal. The tumors are generally smaller and less numerous than those of the domestic rabbit, but sometimes there were noted large and flat lesions (fig. 3. The natural infection of the wild rabbit may be quite common not only because many rabbits caught in the country were found to be immune as also because it was found among the animals caught in the country near Rio, one that was infected with mixomatosis. The experimental infection of the Sylvilagus may be easily obtained by cutan, subcutan or conjuntival way and also when a health wild rabbit is placed in the same cage with a sick domestic animal. It is also possible to obtain the infection of the wild and domestic rabbits by the bite of infected blood sucking insects as fleas and mosquitoes. The infected mosquito can transmit the disease 2 or 3 times til 17 days after an infective meal on a sick rabbit. The transmission is a mecanical one and only the proboscis of the insect contains the virus as it was shown by the inoculation of emulsions of the proboscis, thorax and abdomen of the mosquito. Though mecanical this kind of transmission acts as an important epidemiological mean of dissemination of the deseasse and splains the suddendly outbreaks of mixomatosis in rabbits breedings where no new rabbits were introduced since very long time. The transmition of mixomatosis by fleas (Slenopsylla was at first demonstrated by us, then S. Torres pointed out the capacity of Culex fatigans to transmit the desease and now we have proved that Aedes scapularis and Aedes aegypti were also able to transmit it (Foto 1 and 2. The virus of the mixomatosis (Chlamidozoon mixoma is seen on the smeavs of the tumors of the wild reabbit with the same morphology, as in the material of the domestic animal.

  12. A new record and a new species of the genus Agistemus Summers (Acari: Stigmaeidae) from Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stathakis, Theodoros I; Kapaxidi, Eleftheria V; Papadoulis, Georgios Th

    2014-03-20

    The genus Agistemus Summers (Acari: Stigmaeidae) is reported for the first time in Greece. Agistemus duzgunesae Koç, Çobanoğlu & Madanlar, a new record for the Greek fauna, is re-described and illustrated based on specimens collected from various plants. Furthermore, Agistemus macrosetosus Stathakis & Kapaxidi n. sp. is described and illustrated based on specimens collected on Rubus sp. A list of all species of the genus Agistemus is provided. 

  13. A large parasitengonid mite (Acari, Erythraeoidea from the Early Cretaceous Crato Formation of Brazil

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    J. A. Dunlop

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A new large, fossil mite (Arachnida: Acari, Pararainbowia martilli n. gen. n. sp., is described from the Early Cretaceous (Aptian Crato Formation from Ceará State, Brazil. It is assigned to the Cohort Parasitengona and the superfamily Erythraeoidea, some extant members of which can reach up to seven millimetres in body length. Given that doubts have been raised about the identity of putative Crato feather mite eggs, this new fossil represents the first unequivocal record of Acari from the Crato Formation, the first non-amber record of an erythraeoid mite and the oldest named example of this superfamily. Fossil erythraeoids from Mesozoic and Tertiary ambers are briefly reviewed – including a widely overlooked Late Cretaceous species – with comments on Mesozoic mites in general. Thirteen Baltic amber erythraeoids have been formally described, but much unstudied material from various amber sources remains. Ein neues großes Milbenfossil (Arachnida: Acari, Pararainbowia martilli n. gen. n. sp., wird aus der Crato Formation (Unterkreide, Aptium des Ceará Gebietes in Brasilien beschrieben. Es wird der Kohorte Parasitengona und der Überfamilie Erythraeoidea zugeordnet; die modernen Vertreter erreichen eine Körperlänge bis zu sieben mm. Weil die Identität von Federmilbeneiern aus der Crato Formation in Frage gestellt wurde, ist dieser Neufund der erste klare Hinweis von Acari aus der Crato Formation. Es ist die erste erythraeoide Milbe, die nicht aus dem Bernstein stammt sowie das älteste genannte Beispiel dieser Überfamilie. Fossile erythraeoide Milben aus dem Bernstein des Mesozoikum und des Tertiärs werden kurz zusammengefasst – u. a. eine weitgehend übersehene Art aus der Oberkreide – mit allgemeinen Anmerkungen zu den mesozoischen Milben. Dreizehn erythraeoide Milbenarten sind aus dem baltischen Bernstein genannt und beschrieben worden, aber weiteres unbearbeitetes Material von verschiedenen Bernstein-Fundpunkten liegt noch vor

  14. Amblydromalus limonicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae) as a biocontrol agent: literature review and new findings

    OpenAIRE

    Knapp, M.; van Houten, Y.; Hoogerbrugge, H.; Bolckmans, K.

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Amblydromalus limonicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae) was described in 1956 from citrus in California; its distribution range covers North and South America, Australia and New Zealand. It first caught the attention of biocontrol workers in the 1960s as natural enemy of the spider mites Oligonychus punicae and Tetranychus cinnabarinus in avocados and other fruit trees. In laboratory studies, A. limonicus developed into adults and laid eggs on several species of mites, thrips, w...

  15. Biologia de Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) em Gerbera jamesonii Bolus and Hook (Asteraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    EA. Silva; PR, Reis; TMB. Carvalho; BF. Altoé

    2009-01-01

    Gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii Bolus and Hook,) is an ornamental Asteraceae of great commercial value, and pests can affect adversely its cultivation. More than 20 species of arthropods cause economic damage on gerbera, among them the two spotted mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, 1836 (Acari: Tetranychidae), considered a key pest for this and other ornamental plants. In this work, some life-cycle aspects of T. urticae on gerbera, considered important for the knowledge of its population dynamics and...

  16. SELETIVIDADE DE CHLORFENAPYR E FENBUTATIN-OXIDE SOBRE DUAS ESPÉCIES DE ÁCAROS PREDADORES (ACARI: PHYTOSEIIDAE) EM CITROS SELECTIVITY OF CHLORFENAPYR AND FENBUTATIN-OXIDE ON TWO SPECIES OF PREDACEOUS MITES (ACARI: PHYTOSEIIDAE) IN CITRUS

    OpenAIRE

    REIS PAULO REBELLES; SOUSA ÉLBER OLIVEIRA

    2001-01-01

    Com o uso de bioensaios, verificaram-se os efeitos residual de contato, ovicida e de persistência dos produtos chlorfenapyr e fenbutatin-oxide sobre duas espécies de ácaros predadores, Iphiseiodes zuluagai Denmark & Muma e Euseius alatus DeLeon (Acari: Phytoseiidae), associados ao ácaro da leprose-dos-citros Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes) (Acari: Tenuipalpidae). O efeito total sobre os adultos foi estudado por meio do método residual de contato com pulverização em superfície de vidro, confo...

  17. Population-based passive tick surveillance and detection of expanding foci of blacklegged ticks Ixodes scapularis and the Lyme disease agent Borrelia burgdorferi in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelder, Mark P; Russell, Curtis; Lindsay, L Robbin; Dhar, Badal; Patel, Samir N; Johnson, Steven; Moore, Stephen; Kristjanson, Erik; Li, Ye; Ralevski, Filip

    2014-01-01

    We identified ticks submitted by the public from 2008 through 2012 in Ontario, Canada, and tested blacklegged ticks Ixodes scapularis for Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Among the 18 species of ticks identified, I. scapularis, Dermacentor variabilis, Ixodes cookei and Amblyomma americanum represented 98.1% of the 14,369 ticks submitted. Rates of blacklegged tick submission per 100,000 population were highest in Ontario's Eastern region; D. variabilis in Central West and Eastern regions; I. cookei in Eastern and South West regions; and A. americanum had a scattered distribution. Rates of blacklegged tick submission per 100,000 population were highest from children (0-9 years old) and older adults (55-74 years old). In two health units in the Eastern region (i.e., Leeds, Grenville & Lanark District and Kingston-Frontenac and Lennox & Addington), the rate of submission for engorged and B. burgdorferi-positive blacklegged ticks was 47× higher than the rest of Ontario. Rate of spread for blacklegged ticks was relatively faster and across a larger geographic area along the northern shore of Lake Ontario/St. Lawrence River, compared with slower spread from isolated populations along the northern shore of Lake Erie. The infection prevalence of B. burgdorferi in blacklegged ticks increased in Ontario over the study period from 8.4% in 2008 to 19.1% in 2012. The prevalence of B. burgdorferi-positive blacklegged ticks increased yearly during the surveillance period and, while increases were not uniform across all regions, increases were greatest in the Central West region, followed by Eastern and South West regions. The overall infection prevalence of A. phagocytophilum in blacklegged ticks was 0.3%. This study provides essential information on ticks of medical importance in Ontario, and identifies demographic and geographic areas for focused public education on the prevention of tick bites and tick-borne diseases.

  18. Environmental factors affecting survival of immature Ixodes scapularis and implications for geographical distribution of lyme disease: The climate/behavior hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, Howard; Albert, Marisa; Acevedo, Lixis; Dyer, Megan C.; Arsnoe, Isis M.; Tsao, Jean I.; Mather, Thomas N.; LeBrun, Roger A.

    2017-01-01

    Recent reports suggest that host-seeking nymphs in southern populations of Ixodes scapularis remain below the leaf litter surface, while northern nymphs seek hosts on leaves and twigs above the litter surface. This behavioral difference potentially results in decreased tick contact with humans in the south, and fewer cases of Lyme disease. We studied whether north-south differences in tick survival patterns might contribute to this phenomenon. Four month old larvae resulting from a cross between Wisconsin males and South Carolina females died faster under southern than under northern conditions in the lab, as has previously been reported for ticks from both northern and southern populations. However, newly-emerged larvae from Rhode Island parents did not differ consistently in mortality under northern and southern conditions, possibly because of their younger age. Survival is lower, and so the north-south survival difference might be greater in older ticks. Larval survival was positively related to larval size (as measured by scutal area), while survival was positively related to larval fat content in some, but not all, trials. The difference in larval survival under northern vs. southern conditions might simply result from faster metabolism under warmer southern conditions leading to shorter life spans. However, ticks consistently died faster under southern than under northern conditions in the laboratory when relative humidity was low (75%), but not under moderate (85%) or high (95%) RH. Therefore, mortality due to desiccation stress is greater under southern than under northern conditions. We hypothesize that mortality resulting from the greater desiccation stress under southern conditions acts as a selective pressure resulting in the evolution of host-seeking behavior in which immatures remain below the leaf litter surface in southern I. scapularis populations, so as to avoid the desiccating conditions at the surface. If this hypothesis is correct, it has

  19. Preferências alimentares e domiciliação de mosquitos Culicidae no Vale do Ribeira, São Paulo, Brasil, com especial referência a Aedes scapularis e a Culex (Melanoconion Feeding preferences and domiciliation of Culicidae mosquitoes in the Ribeira Valley, S. Paulo State, Brazil, with particular reference to Aedes scapularis and Culex (Melanoconion

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    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini

    1989-02-01

    Full Text Available Apresentam-se novos dados sobre a identificação do sangue ingerido por culicídeos ingurgitados e coletados em quatro localidades do Vale do Ribeira, Estado de São Paulo (Brasil, no período de fevereiro a novembro de 1986, e que já tinham sido sede de observações anteriores. São fornecidos dados sobre a distribuição de algumas espécies relacionadas ao tipo de ambiente. Focalizam-se Ae. scapularis e representantes de Culex (Melanoconion, principalmente Cx. ribeirensis e Cx. sacchettae. Foi possível a identificação de 651 repastos sangüíneos. Confirmou-se a preferência de Ae. scapularis por mamíferos de grande porte representados por bovinos, eqüinos e o próprio homem, tendo reagido a todos os anti-soros testados, com exceção do correspondente a animais de sangue frio representados por anfíbio. Cx. ribeirensis revelou resultados que sugerem possível preferência por mamíferos. As duas espécies supracitadas mostram tendência nítida para adaptação ao ambiente modificado pelo homem e capacidade de evolução de seus hábitos de possível domiciliação. Quanto aos outros culicídeos, as coletas de An. bellator, An. cruzii e Cq. chrysonotum limitaram-se à isca humana que a segunda dessas espécies rendeu 31,6% do total de fêmeas capturadas.New results on blood-meal identification and the environmental distribution of mosquitoes collected in four different Ribeira Valley (S. Paulo State, Brazil environments, during the period February to November 1986, are presented. Sources of 651 blood-meals were identified. The preference of Ae. scapularis for large mammals, chiefly cattle, horse and even man, was confirmed. Data suggests that a similar behavioral pattern is presented by Cx. ribeirensis. Both mosquitoes seem to be strongly attracted by peridomiciliar blood sources represented by domestic animals sheltered in that environment. Nevertheless, the female of Ae. scapularis females may use the extradomiciliary environment

  20. A new species of Atractides Koch, 1837 (Acari: Hydrachnidia, Hygrobatidae from Ethiopia, with a discussion on the biodiversity of the genus Atractides in the Afrotropical region

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    Vladimir Pesic

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Atractides Koch, 1837 (Acari, Hydrachnidia is described from Ethiopia. The world number of Atractides now tallies 297 species. The diversity of the genus Atractides in the Afrotropical region is briefly discussed.

  1. Effect of pyroligneous extract of Acacia mearnsii on Tetranychus urticae (Koch, 1836 (Acari, Tetranychidae and Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor, 1954 (Acari, Phytoseiidae

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    Adriana de Castro

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2015v28n4p99 This work aimed to determine the effect of decanted pyroligneous extract (DPE of black Acacia mearnsii on the mites Tetranychus urticae (Koch, 1836 (Acari: Tetranychidae and Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor, 1954 (Acari: Phytoseiidae. Six different concentrations were tested, namely, DPE: water 1:600, 1:300, 1:150, 1:75, 1:38 and 1:19 and a control treatment with distilled water. Five females of T. urticae and N. californicus were transferred to arenas, totaling 50 females per treatment, for a period of eight days. DPE caused high mortality in N. californicus, while in T. urticae, high mortality was observed only at high (1:75, 1:38 and 1:19 and intermediate (1:150 concentrations. Notably, DPE was slightly harmful to T. urticae at lower concentrations and harmful to N. californicus at all concentrations, indicating that it would have little efficacy in the control of T. urticae.

  2. Toxicity of Three Acaricides to the Predatory Mite, Neoseiulus bicaudus (Acari: Phytoseiidae) and Their Impact on the Functional Response to Tetranychus turkestani (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiu-Qin; Zhang, Yan-Nan; Li, Ting; Jiang, Jue-Ying-Qi; Zhang, Jian-Ping

    2017-10-01

    The use of chemical pesticides particularly acaricides can reduce the control efficacy of natural enemies. The objectives of this study were 1) to evaluate the toxicity of three acaricides to the phytoseiid mite Neoseiulus bicaudus (Acari: Phytoseiidae) by spraying acaricides on N. bicaudus adult females and 2) to determine the effect of these acaricides on the functional response of different stages of N. bicaudus to the prey Tetranychus turkestani Ugarov & Nikolski (Acari: Tetranychidae). The results indicated that the survivability of N. bicaudus differed among the three acaricides tested. Pyridaben exhibited the highest toxicity to N. bicaudus not only because it caused higher mortality but also because it reduced the peak consumption for adults and increased the peak consumption for deutonymphs of N. bicaudus. The two other acaricides, azocyclotin and bifenazate, also slightly reduced the peak consumption, but not significantly, and the overall functional response was not different from control, untreated predatory mites. Bifenazate (143-4,300 mg a.i./liter) was relatively nontoxic to N. bicaudus (less than 10% mortality) but highly toxic to T. turkestani (more than 95% mortality). Accordingly, bifenazate is the most suitable for maintaining N. bicaudus in the field. Combining bifenazate and azocyclotin with N. bicaudus is a possible strategy for T. turkestani management. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Efficacy of indigenous predatory mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae) against the citrus rust mite Phyllocoptruta oleivora (Acari: Eriophyidae): augmentation and conservation biological control in Israeli citrus orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maoz, Yonatan; Gal, Shira; Argov, Yael; Domeratzky, Sylvie; Melamed, Eti; Gan-Mor, Samuel; Coll, Moshe; Palevsky, Eric

    2014-07-01

    The citrus rust mite (CRM), Phyllocoptruta oleivora (Acari: Eriophyidae) is a cosmopolitan key pest of citrus, inflicting severe economic damage if not controlled. In Israel, CRM damages all citrus cultivars. International regulation and increasing control failures of CRM led growers to seek sustainable biological control solutions such as acarine biological control agents. Laboratory studies conducted in Israel have indicated that the indigenous predator species Amblyseius swirskii, Iphiseius degenerans, Typhlodromus athiasae and Euseius scutalis (all Acari: Phytoseiidae) can potentially control CRM. Our general objective in the present study was to bridge the gap of knowledge between laboratory studies and the lack of control efficacy of these species in commercial orchards. Predator augmentation in the field showed that although predator populations increased immediately following releases they later decreased and did not affect CRM populations. When A. swirskii augmentation was combined with a series of maize pollen applications, A. swirskii populations were enhanced substantially and continuously but again CRM populations were not affected. Growth chamber studies with CRM-infested seedlings, with or without a maize pollen supplement, indicated that pollen provisioning led to population increase of E. scutalis and A. swirskii but only E. scutalis significantly lowered CRM populations. Control with E. scutalis was confirmed in the field on CRM infested seedlings with pollen provisioned by adjacent flowering Rhodes grass. While experiments in mature citrus orchard showed that pollen supplement usually increased predator populations they also indicated that other factors such as intraguild interactions and pesticide treatments should be taken into account when devising CRM biological control programs.

  4. The predatory mite Neoseiulus womersleyi (Acari: Phytoseiidae) follows extracts of trails left by the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinmen, Tsubasa; Yano, Shuichi; Osakabe, Mh

    2010-10-01

    As it walks, the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) spins a trail of silk threads, that is followed by the predatory mite, Neoseiulus womersleyi Schicha (Acari: Phytoseiidae). Starved adult female N. womersleyi followed T. urticae trails laid down by five T. urticae females but did not follow a trail of one T. urticae female, suggesting that the amount of spun threads and their chemical components should correlate positively with the number of T. urticae individuals. To examine whether chemical components of T. urticae trails are responsible for the predatory mite's trail following, we collected separate T. urticae threads from the exuviae and eggs, and then washed the threads with methanol to separate chemical components from physical attributes of the threads. Female N. womersleyi did not follow T. urticae trails that had been washed with methanol but contained physical residues, but they did follow the direction to which the methanol extracts of the T. urticae trails was applied. These results suggest that the predatory mite follows chemical, not physical, attributes of T. urticae trails.

  5. Population dynamics of Aceria guerreronis (Acari: Eriophyidae) and its predatory mite, Neoseiulus baraki (Acari: Phytoseiidae) in two coconut growing areas in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aratchige, N S; Fernando, L C P; Waidyarathne, K P; Chandrasiri, K A S

    2012-04-01

    Densities of coconut mite, Aceria guerreronis Keifer (Acari: Eriophyidae) and its predatory mite, Neoseiulus baraki Athias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae) were monitored on coconut fruits in two coconut mite infested areas, Kalpitiya and Madurankuliya, in Sri Lanka, over a period of 3 years and were compared with local rainfall records. Significant differences in A. guerreronis densities were observed among years and months of the year. Rainfall (amount and frequency, i.e. the total number of days with rainfall of >5 mm) was not significantly correlated with the variation of A. guerreronis densities. But the drought length (i.e. the number of days without rainfall of >5 mm) significantly influenced A. guerreronis densities. Generally, peak densities of A. guerreronis were observed during February-March and June-September in both areas. The differences in the N. baraki densities were significantly different between the two areas and among the 3 years but not among months of the year. Although the amount of rainfall was not significantly correlated with the population densities of N. baraki, frequency of rainfall showed a negative significant correlation and drought length showed a positive significant correlation with the population densities. The results of this experiment indicated that the application of control methods for A. guerreronis may be more advantageous if they are carried out at the onset and during the dry seasons.

  6. Dispersal of Amblyseius swirskii (Acari: Phytoseiidae) on High-Tunnel Bell Peppers in Presence or Absence of Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Acari: Tarsonemidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, L; Smith, H A; Hoy, M A; Cave, R D

    2017-01-01

    Amblyseius swirskiiAthias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae) is a predatory mite used to control thrips (Thysanoptera), whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci Genn., Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), and broad mites (BMs) (Polyphagotarsonemus latus Banks, Acari: Tarsonemidae). Dispersal of A. swirskii, using the ornamental pepper "Explosive Ember" as a banker plant was evaluated for control of BMs in high-tunnel peppers. Open-canopy plants (5 weeks old) versus closed-canopy plants (10-weeks old) were used to evaluate the effect of plant connectedness in A. swirskii dispersal, in the presence (two females per plant) and absence of BMs. Plots consisted of a single central banker plant and four bell peppers extending linearly north and south. Sets of all treatments were destructively sampled 1, 4, and 7 days after releasing A. swirskii Within 24 h, A. swirskii dispersed four plants away from the banker plants (1 m), regardless of the state of the canopy. Canopy connectedness did increase the presence of A. swirskii on the crop plants. Predatory mite numbers on closed-canopy treatments doubled within the 7-day sampling period, whereas no significant increase was observed on open-canopy treatments. The presence of BMs had no significant effect on the movement of A. swirskii The results suggest further experiments with A. swirskii and banker plants for control of BMs is warranted. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  7. Response of forest soil Acari to prescribed fire following stand structure manipulation in the southern Cascade Range.Can

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael A. Camann; Nancy E. Gillette; Karen L. Lamoncha; Sylvia R. Mori

    2008-01-01

    We studied responses of Acari, especially oribatid mites, to prescribed low-intensity fire in an east side pine site in the southern Cascade Range in California. We compared oribatid population and assemblage responses to prescribed fire in stands that had been selectively logged to enhance old growth characteristics, in logged stands to minimize old growth...

  8. A mite (Acari: Erythraeidae) as unusual parasite on an adult caddisfly (Trichoptera: Hydroptilidae) from the Dominican Republic (West Indies)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botosaneanu, L.; Bolland, H.R.

    1997-01-01

    BOTOSANEANU, L. & H.R. BOLLAND, 1997. A mite (Acari: Erythraeidae) as unusual parasite on an adult caddisfly (Trichoptera: Hydroptilidae) from the Dominican Republic (West Indies). Studies Nat. Hist. Caribbean Region 73, Amsterdam 1997: 71-76. First known case of a caddisfly (adult Leucotrichia

  9. Two new species of Pachylaelaps Berlese, 1888 from the Iberian Peninsula, with a key to European species (Acari, Gamasida, Pachylaelapidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mašán, Peter; Özbek, Hasan Hüseyin; Fenďa, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Pachylaelaps (Pachylaelaps) pyrenaicus sp. n. and Pachylaelaps (Longipachylaelaps) brevipilis sp. n. (Acari, Pachylaelapidae) are described and illustrated based on specimens from litter and soil detritus of forest habitats in Spain (Pyrenees Mts) and Portugal (Serra da Labruja Mts), respectively. An identification key to European species of the genus Pachylaelaps Berlese, 1888 is provided. PMID:27551197

  10. A new species of the genus Promacrolaelaps (Acari: Laelapidae) associated with Propomacrus bimucronatus (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joharchi, Omid; Halliday, Bruce; Beyzavi, Gholamreza

    2013-01-01

    We describe a new species of mite from Iran - Pronacrolaelaps propomacrus sp. nov. (Acari: Laelapidae). The new species was collected in association with the beetle Propomacrus bimucronatus (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Euchirinae) in holes in the trunk of oak trees. The genus Promacrolaelaps is redescribed and distinguished from the related genus Hypoaspis Canestrini sells. strict.

  11. Arrenurus boruzkii, a water mite new to the Dutch fauna, with some notes on its morphology (Acari: Hydrachnidia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, H.

    1999-01-01

    Arrenurus boruzkii, een nieuwe watermijt voor Nederland, met opmerkingen over de morfologie (Acari: Hydrachnidia) In 1998 werd de watermijt Arrenurus boruzkii Ssujetow, 1931 voor het eerst in Nederland aangetroffen. Een vrouwtje werd verzameld in een sloot in Overijssel. De morfologische verschillen

  12. A novel disease affecting the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari, Phytoseiidae): 2. disease transmission by adult females

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schütte, C.; Poitevin, O.J.L.; Negash, T.; Dicke, M.

    2006-01-01

    Adult female Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot (Acari, Phytoseiidae) of one of our laboratory populations (=NR-population), show the following set of symptoms: predators shrink several days after mating, cease egg production and die several days after shrinking, show a lower degree of

  13. Water mites (Acari: Hydrachnidia) from the hyporheic waters of the Selwyn River (New Zealand), with descriptions of nine new species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pesic, V.; Smit, H.; Datry, T.

    2010-01-01

    New records of water mite species (Acari: Hydrachnidia) from hyporheic waters of Selwyn River (South Island, New Zealand) are reported. One new genus, Canterburaturus Pesic & Smit n. gen. (Aturidae) and nine new species are described: Taintaturus selwynus Pesic & Smit n. sp., T. rostratus Pesic &

  14. A new genus and species of larval mite (Acari: Prostigmata: Microtrombidiidae) parasitising Orthoptera (Tettigoniidae) from the Sierra Nevada, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayoral, Jaime G; Barranco, Pablo

    2012-09-01

    Nevada capileirarum n. g., n. sp. (Acari: Microtrombidiidae: Microtrombidiinae) is described from ectoparasitic larvae parasitising two endemic species of Orthoptera (Tettigoniidae), Baetica ustulata (Rambur) and Pycnogaster inermis (Rambur) from the Sierra Nevada mountain range, Granada, Spain. A key to the larvae of microtrombidiine genera with three dorsal scuta and a coxal setal formula of 2-1-1 is presented.

  15. Water mites of the family Torrenticolidae (Acari: Hydrachnidia) from Thailand, part II. The genus Monatractides K.Viets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pesic, V.; Smit, H.

    2009-01-01

    New records of water mites of the genus Monatractides K.Viets (Acari: Hydrachnidia, Torrenticolidae) from streams in Thailand are presented. One species, Monatractides gledhilli, new to science is described; a first description of the male is given for M. circuloides (Halík); first records from

  16. A phytoseiid predator from the tropics as potential biological control agent for the spider mites Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliveira, H.; Janssen, A.; Pallini, A.; Venzon, M.; Fadini, M.; Duarte, V.

    2007-01-01

    The two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) is one of the most important pests of many crops in temperate and tropical climates. Chemical control is the main method of combating this mite, but it is less preferred due to the development of resistance as well as

  17. New and little known species of Halolaelaps (Acari: Mesostigmata: Halolaelapidae) from Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trach, Viacheslav A

    2016-08-23

    A new species of the family Halolaelapidae (Acari: Mesostigmata), Halolaelaps euxinus sp. nov. is described from Black Sea coast. Adult mites were found in seaweed, while deutonymphs were collected from the amphipod Talorchestia deshayesii and from seaweed. The adult female of Halolaelaps saproincisus Hirschmann & Götz, 1968 is recorded in new localities of Ukraine for the first time, in soil and bird faeces in chicken coops, and new morphological information is provided. The adult male (collected from chicken coops) and the deutonymph (collected from chicken coops and on dung-beetles) of H. saproincisus are described for the first time.

  18. A rare finding of mites (Arachnida: Acari: Leeuwenhoekiidae) parasitising a whip spider (Arachnida: Amblypygi: Charinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves-Souza, Thiago; Giupponi, Alessandro P L; Hernandes, Fabio A

    2014-04-01

    Twelve larvae of unidentified species of Odontacarus Ewing, 1929 (Acari: Leeuwenhoekiidae) were found parasitising an adult male whip spider Charinus brasilianus Weygoldt (Charinidae) in Santa Teresa, mountainous region of Espirito Santo state, southeastern Brazil. These larvae occurred in the intersegmental membrane of prosoma and legs. This is the first report of ectoparasitic mites infecting a charinid whip spider and the first record of leeuwenhoekiid mites parasitising an invertebrate host. We suggest that future studies are essential to understand the reasons why these events of parasitism are so rare in the order Amblypygi.

  19. The oribatid mite subgenus Galumna (Galumna (Acari, Oribatida, Galumnidae in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Ermilov

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Five species of the subgenus Galumna (Galumna (Acari, Oribatida, Galumnidae are registered in the Philippine oribatid mite fauna. A new species, G. (G. makilingensis sp. n., is described; it is most similar morphologically to G. (G. tokyoensis Aoki, 1966, but differs from the latter by the morphology of porose areas Aa and Ap, rostral setae, and length of interlamellar setae. Three species, G. (G. crenata Deb & Raychaudhuri, 1975, G. (G. cf. exigua Sellnick, 1925 and G. (G. khoii Mahunka, 1989, are recorded in the Philippines for the first time. The species G. (G. crenata is redescribed. An identification key to the Philippine species of Galumna (Galumna is given.

  20. New taxa of the family Syringophilidae (Acari: Prostigmata) from African barbets and woodpeckers (Piciformes: Lybiidae, Picidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorack, Maciej; Klimovičová, Miroslava; Muchai, Muchane; Hromada, Martin

    2014-02-25

    New taxa of quill mites (Acari: Syringophilidae) are described from African barbets and woodpeckers in the Ethiopian region. A new monotypic genus Picineoaulonastus gen. nov. is established for a new species Picineoaulonastus pogoniulus sp. nov., parasitising 2 lybiid species, Pogoniulus bilineatus (Sundevall) (type host) in Kenya and Tanzania and P. pusillus (Dumont) (Piciformes: Lybiidae) in Ethiopia. Additionally, 2 more new syringophilid species are described: Neosyringophilopsis lybidus sp. nov. from P. bilineatus in Kenya, and Syringophiloidus picidus sp. nov. from Dendropicos fuscescens (Vieillot) (Piciformes: Picidae) in Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania.

  1. Mites (Acari Associated with the Desert Seed Harvester Ant, Messor pergandei (Mayr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaitlin A. Uppstrom

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mites (Acari associated with the seed harvester ant Messor pergandei were investigated in the Sonoran desert of Arizona. At least seven representatives of the mite genera Armacarus, Lemanniella, Petalomium, Forcellinia, Histiostoma, Unguidispus, and Cosmoglyphus are phoretically associated with M. pergandei. Most of these morphospecies show preference for specific phoretic attachment sites and primarily use female alates rather than male alates for dispersal. Five mite morphospecies were found in low numbers inhabiting the chaff piles: Tydeidae sp., Procaeculus sp., Anystidae sp., Bakerdania sp., and Tetranychidae sp. The phoretic Petalomium sp. was observed consuming fungus growing on a dead queen, but the roles of the other mite species remain mostly unresolved.

  2. New species, new records and re-description of spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeity, Mahran; Srinivasa, N; Gowda, C Chinnamade

    2016-03-03

    Two species of Tetranychidae (Acari), Oligonychus neotylus sp. nov. from Zea mays and Pennisetum purpureum (Poaceae) and Tetranychus hirsutus sp. nov. from Gymnema sylvestre R. Br. (Apocynaceae) are described from Karnataka state, south India. Tetranychus bambusae Wang and Ma is recorded for the first time from India and re-described. Four other species are reported for the first time from India viz., Oligonychus coniferarum (McGregor), Oligonychus duncombei Meyer, Tetranychus marianae McGregor and Tetranychus okinawanus Ehara from Cupressus sp., an undetermined grass, Centrosema pubescens and Adenium obesum, respectively.

  3. New records of water mites (Acari: Hydrachnidia) from springs and running waters in Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Pešić V.M.

    2005-01-01

    The present paper deals with interesting new records of water mites (Acari; Hydrachnidia) from springs and running waters of the Kožuf and Alšar Mountains (Southern Macedonia). In the paper 12 new species are added to the list of water mites known from Macedonia, and one of them is recorded for the first time for the water mite fauna of the Balkan Peninsula. The water mite fauna of Macedonia is thus represented by 154 species, belonging to 45 genera. Slide-mounted specimens and material pre­s...

  4. Detection of Borrelia miyamotoi and other tick-borne pathogens in human clinical specimens and Ixodes scapularis ticks in New York State, 2012-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wroblewski, Danielle; Gebhardt, Linda; Prusinski, Melissa A; Meehan, Lisa J; Halse, Tanya A; Musser, Kimberlee A

    2017-03-01

    Borrelia miyamotoi (Bm) is a recently emerging bacterial agent transmitted by several species of ixodid ticks. Diagnosis of Bm infection can be challenging, as the organism is not easily cultivable. We have developed and validated a multiplex real-time PCR to simultaneously identify Bm infection and the agents causing human granulocytic anaplasmosis and human monocytic ehrlichiosis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Ehrlichia chaffeensis, respectively. The assay is 100% specific; highly sensitive, detecting 11 gene copies of Bm DNA in both whole blood and cerebral spinal fluid; and provides rapid results in less than two hours. A retrospective study of 796 clinical specimens collected between the years 2012 and 2014 and a prospective study of 366 clinical specimens were performed utilizing this novel assay to evaluate the frequency of Bm infection in New York State (NYS). Eight clinical specimens (1%) were found to be positive for Bm, 216 were positive for A. phagocytophilum, and 10 were positive for E. chaffeensis. Additionally, we tested 411 I. scapularis ticks collected in NYS during 2013 and 2014 in a separate multiplex real-time PCR to determine the prevalence of Bm, A. phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi s.s., and Borrelia species. Our results indicated rates of 1.5%, 27%, 19.7%, and 8.8% respectively. The ability to monitor both the frequency and geographic distribution of Bm cases and the prevalence and geographic distribution of Bm in ticks will help create a better understanding of this emerging tick-borne pathogen. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  5. Reproductive parameters of Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks) fed with Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Phytoseiidae, Tetranychidae) in laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza-Pimentel, G C; Reis, P R; Bonatto, C R; Alves, J P; Siqueira, M F

    2016-07-11

    Predatory mites that belong to the Phytoseiidae family are one of the main natural enemies of phytophagous mites, thus allowing for their use as a biological control. Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks, 1904) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) is among the main species of predatory mites used for this purpose. Tetranychus urticae Koch, 1836 (Acari: Tetranychidae) is considered to be one of the most important species of mite pests and has been described as attacking over 1,100 species of plants in 140 families with economic value. The objective of the present study was to investigate, in the laboratory, the reproductive parameters of the predatory mite P. macropilis when fed T. urticae. Experiments were conducted under laboratory conditions at 25 ± 2 °C of temperature, 70 ± 10% RH and 14 hours of photophase. In addition, biological aspects were evaluated and a fertility life table was established. The results of these experiments demonstrated that the longevity of adult female was 27.5 days and adult male was 29.0 days. The population was estimated to increase approximately 27 times (Ro) in mean generation time (T), which was 17.7 days. Lastly, the mite population grew 1.2 times/day (λ) and doubled every 3.7 days (TD).

  6. Reproductive parameters of Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks fed with Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Phytoseiidae, Tetranychidae in laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. C. Souza-Pimentel

    Full Text Available Abstract Predatory mites that belong to the Phytoseiidae family are one of the main natural enemies of phytophagous mites, thus allowing for their use as a biological control. Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks, 1904 (Acari: Phytoseiidae is among the main species of predatory mites used for this purpose. Tetranychus urticae Koch, 1836 (Acari: Tetranychidae is considered to be one of the most important species of mite pests and has been described as attacking over 1,100 species of plants in 140 families with economic value. The objective of the present study was to investigate, in the laboratory, the reproductive parameters of the predatory mite P. macropilis when fed T. urticae. Experiments were conducted under laboratory conditions at 25 ± 2 °C of temperature, 70 ± 10% RH and 14 hours of photophase. In addition, biological aspects were evaluated and a fertility life table was established. The results of these experiments demonstrated that the longevity of adult female was 27.5 days and adult male was 29.0 days. The population was estimated to increase approximately 27 times (Ro in mean generation time (T, which was 17.7 days. Lastly, the mite population grew 1.2 times/day (λ and doubled every 3.7 days (TD.

  7. A new species and new host records of the quill mites (Acari: Syringophilidae) associated with sunbirds (Passeriformes: Nectariniidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimovičová, Miroslava; Smoľák, Radoslav; Njoroge, Peter; Hromada, Martin

    2014-06-01

    Neoaulonastus cinnyris sp. nov. (Acari: Prostigmata: Syringophilidae) parasitising Cinnyris mediocris (Passeriformes: Nectariniidae) from Tanzania is described. Additionally, Picobia oritis Skoracki et al. 2009 was recorded on four new hosts belonging to the family Nectariniidae from Ethiopian region: Cinnyris oustaleti (Bocage) from Angola, Cinnyris venustus (Shaw) from West Somalia, Cinnyris talatala Smith from Botswana and Zambia and Cinnyris erythrocercus (Hartlaub) from Uganda. All known quill mite species from family Nectariniidae are summarized in table.

  8. A new genus and species of Discozerconidae (Acari: Mesostigmata) from carabid beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in New Zealand .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeman, Owen D; Baker, Michelle R

    2013-12-18

    Berzercon ferdinandi gen. nov., sp. nov. (Acari: Mesostigmata: Discozerconidae) is described from carabid beetles in New Zealand. As in all Discozerconidae, Berzercon has large ventrally-directed opisthogastric suckers. However it is distinctive in its long marginal setae, tripartite gnathotectum, fused palp tibia and tarsus, the female's large dome-shaped genital shield and the male's highly modified hypostomal seta h1. This new species also represents the first Heterozerconina from an insect host. 

  9. A new species of the genus Halolaelaps Berlese & Trouessart, 1889 (Acari, Gamasida, Halolaelapidae from the Spanish mediterranean coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehrnsberger, R.

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The new species Halolaelaps (Saprogamasellus hispanicus sp. nov. of Halolaelapidae mites (Acari, Gamasida is described and determination keys to the males and females of the subgenus Saprogamasellus are given.Se describe una nueva especie de ácaro de la familia Halolaelapidae, Halolaelaps (Saprogamasellus hispanicus sp. nov., y se proporcionan claves de identificación de machos y hembras del subgénero Saprogamasellus.

  10. Screening of spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) for reproductive endosymbionts reveals links between co-infection and evolutionary history

    OpenAIRE

    Yan-Kai Zhang; Ya-Ting Chen; Kun Yang; Ge-Xia Qiao; Xiao-Yue Hong

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive endosymbionts have been shown to have wide-ranging effects on many aspects of their hosts? biology. A first step to understanding how these endosymbionts interact with their hosts is to determine their incidences. Here, we screened for four reproductive endosymbionts (Wolbachia, Cardinium, Spiroplasma and Rickettsia) in 28 populations of spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) representing 12 species. Each of the four endosymbionts were identified in at least some of the tested speci...

  11. Two new quill mites of the family Syringophilidae (Acari: Prostigmata) parasitising the tapaculos (Passeriformes: Rhinocryptidae) in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikora, Bozena; Kaszewska, Katarzyna; Skoracki, Maciej

    2014-12-16

    Two new species of syringophilid mites (Acari: Prostigmata: Syringophilidae) associated with passeriform birds of the family Rhinocryptidae in South America are described: Syringophiloidus teledromas sp. nov. from Teledromas fuscus (Sclater and Salvin) in Argentina and Aulonastus pteroptochos sp. nov. from Pteroptochos tarnii (King) in Chile. The genus Aulonastus Kethley, 1970 is recorded from the tapaculos for the first time, and the new species of Syringophiloidus Kethley, 1970 described here is the second record of this genus on rhinocryptid birds.

  12. Prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia microti in Ixodes scapularis from a Newly Established Lyme Disease Endemic Area, the Thousand Islands Region of Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werden, Lisa; Lindsay, L Robbin; Barker, Ian K; Bowman, Jeff; Gonzales, Emily K; Jardine, Claire M

    2015-10-01

    Blacklegged ticks (Ixodes scapularis) are vectors for several important human diseases, including Lyme disease, human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA), and human babesiosis, caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Babesia microti, respectively. The continued northward range expansion of blacklegged ticks and associated pathogens is an increasing public health concern in Canada. The Thousand Islands region of eastern Ontario has recently been identified as a new endemic area for Lyme disease in Canada, but the occurrence of other pathogens in ticks in this area has not been fully described. Our objectives were to determine the prevalence of A. phagocytophilum and B. microti in small mammals and questing ticks in the Thousand Islands area and identify the strains of A. phagocytophilum circulating in ticks in the area. Serum and larval ticks were collected from trapped small mammals, and questing ticks were collected via drag sampling from up to 12 island and mainland sites in 2006, 2009, and 2010. A. phagocytophilum was identified by PCR in 3.4% (47/1388) ticks from eight of 12 sites; the prevalence ranged from 8.9% in 2006 to 3% in 2009. All 365 ticks tested for B. microti were negative. Antibodies to A. phagocytophilum were detected in 2.8% (17/611) of white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) at two of 11 sites in 2006, 2009, or 2010. All 34 A. phagocytophilum-positive ticks submitted for strain identification using single-nucleotide polymorphism genotyping assays targeting the 16S rRNA gene were identified as a variant strain (Ap variant-1), which is not commonly associated with human disease. Our findings suggest that people are at low risk of contracting HGA or human babesiosis due to locally acquired tick bites in the Thousand Islands area. However, continued surveillance is warranted as these pathogens continue to expand their ranges in North America.

  13. Acaricide resistance mechanisms in the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae and other important Acari: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Leeuwen, Thomas; Vontas, John; Tsagkarakou, Anastasia; Dermauw, Wannes; Tirry, Luc

    2010-08-01

    The two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch is one of the economically most important pests in a wide range of outdoor and protected crops worldwide. Its control has been and still is largely based on the use of insecticides and acaricides. However, due to its short life cycle, abundant progeny and arrhenotokous reproduction, it is able to develop resistance to these compounds very rapidly. As a consequence, it has the dubious reputation to be the"most resistant species" in terms of the total number of pesticides to which populations have become resistant, and its control has become problematic in many areas worldwide. Insecticide and acaricide resistance has also been reported in the ectoparasite Sarcoptes scabiei, the causative organism of scabies, and other economically important Acari, such as the Southern cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus, one of the biggest arthropod threats to livestock, and the parasitic mite Varroa destructor, a major economic burden for beekeepers worldwide. Although resistance research in Acari has not kept pace with that in insects, a number of studies on the molecular mechanisms responsible for the resistant phenotype has been conducted recently. In this review, state-of-the-art information on T. urticae resistance, supplemented with data on other important Acari has been brought together. Considerable attention is given to the underlying resistance mechanisms that have been elucidated at the molecular level. The incidence of bifenazate resistance in T. urticae is expanded as an insecticide resistance evolutionary paradigm in arthropods. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Notas de ixodologia: VII - Otocentor nitens Neuman, 1897 versus Anocentor columbianus Schulze, 1937 e comentários sôbre a rápida disseminação desse ixodideo no Brasil (Acari: Ixodidae

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    Henrique B. Aragão

    1953-12-01

    Full Text Available Anocentor columbianus Schulze, 1937 is a synonym of Otocentor nitens (Neumann, 1897. Otocentor Cooley, 1938 becomes a synonym of Anocentor Schulze 1937. The correct name of the species is now Anocentor nitens (Neumann, 1897. In Brazil this species was first recorderd by ARAGÃO (in FLOCH and ABONNENC, 1945 in Belém do Pará and by FONSECA (1948 in Goyaz. New records from Minas Gerais and Matto Grosso are presented and a new host, the jaguar, Panthera onca, is added.

  15. Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae as a parasite of pampas deer (Ozoctoceros bezoarticus and cattle in Brazil's Central Pantanal Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus como parasita de veado-campeiro (Ozoctoceros bezoarticus e do gado bovino no Pantanal Central do Brasil

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    Paulo Henrique Duarte Cançado

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In the Pantanal, domestic and wild animals share the same habitats; their parasites and environment interact in a complex and dynamic way. The Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus is the most important cattle tick in Brazil. In the past two decades, some traditional management practices are being replaced with the aim of intensifying cattle production. Forested areas are being replaced by exotic pasture and ranch owners are replacing Nelore for European breeds. The pampas deer (Ozoctoceros bezoarticus is a medium-sized cervid that occurs in grasslands of South America. Between December 2005 and January 2007, we captured and collected ticks from 15 pampas deer and 172 bovines. The abundance, intensity, and prevalence of ticks found in cattle were lower than those in pampas deer (p No Pantanal Brasileiro, onde animais domésticos e selvagens compartilham os mesmos habitats; hospedeiros, parasitas e ambientes encontram-se em interação complexa e dinâmica. Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus é o carrapato bovino mais importante no Brasil. Nas últimas duas décadas práticas de manejo vem sendo substituídas com objetivo de aumentar a produtividade. Áreas de florestas estão sendo substituídas por pastagens exóticas e os produtores começam a utilizar raças européias no lugar do Nelore. O veado-campeiro é um cervídeo que ocorre em áreas de campo na América do sul. Entre dezembro de 2005 e janeiro de 2007, foram coletados carrapatos de 20 veados-campeiros e 172 bovinos. Os valores de abundância, intensidade parasitária e prevalência de carrapatos no gado foram menores que os valores encontrados no veado-campeiro (p < 0,05, indicando que o veado-campeiro é mais susceptível que o bovino. O elevado número de fêmeas ingurgitadas coletadas, sua capacidade de ovipor e o percentual de eclosão indicam que a população veado-campeiro na região de estudo é suficiente para manter o R. (B. microplus, desta maneira participando na epidemiologia dos carrapatos e das doenças por eles transmitidas. O recente desmatamento, a introdução de Brachiaria sp. e do gado europeu precisam ser cuidadosamente avaliados, para prevenir perdas na industria do gado e vida selvagem.

  16. Avaliação in vitro da eficácia de acaricidas sobre Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887 (Acari: Ixodidae de bovinos no município de Ilhéus, Bahia, Brasil

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    Campos Júnior Dunezeu Alves

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available O carrapato Boophilus microplus é a espécie de maior distribuição geográfica e importância econômica para os países produtores de bovinos em áreas tropicais e sub-tropicais do planeta. No Brasil, a Região Nordeste apresenta algumas áreas mais favoráveis para as infestações do gado. O controle químico ainda é a forma mais eficaz de combate deste ectoparasita, mas o manejo inadequado dos acaricidas tem contribuído com o aparecimento de resistência de populações aos produtos disponíveis no mercado. O município de Ilhéus, na Região Cacaueira da Bahia, vem incrementando sua atividade pecuária em substituição à lavoura cacaueira devastada. Foram realizados 30 testes de imersão in vitro (biocarrapaticidogramas com fêmeas ingurgitadas de B. microplus colhidas em propriedades rurais aleatoriamente selecionadas num grupo de 96 entrevistadas na região. O estudo revelou a existência de resistência ou sensibilidade de populações de B. microplus frente aos carrapaticidas de contato mais utilizados nas propriedades de exploração pecuária da região de Ilhéus. Os quatro carrapaticidas testados apresentaram as seguintes eficiências médias: Amitraz - 30,95%; Deltametrina - 65,04%; Cipermetrina / diclorvos - 75,73%; e Triclorfon / coumaphos / cyfluthrin - 75,13%.

  17. Comparación y utilidad de las regiones mitocondriales de los genes 16S y COX1 para los análisis genéticos en garrapatas (Acari: Ixodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Enrique Paternina

    2016-06-01

    Conclusión. Los resultados indicaron que el gen 16S parece tener mejores características para los análisis filogenéticos interespecíficos dada su alta divergencia genética y baja saturación de transiciones, mientras que el gen COX1 parece ser más útil para estudios de variabilidad genética intraespecífica. Sin embargo, dado que el estudio se hizo a escala local, se requieren más investigaciones en diferentes escalas biogeográficas para establecer su utilidad en circunstancias más amplias y complejas.

  18. Ocorrência de Borrelia spp. em cultura de células embrionárias do carrapato Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) no Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil.

    OpenAIRE

    REZENDE, J. de; Kessler, R. H.; SOARES, C. O.; MARTINS, O. P.

    2008-01-01

    O presente trabalho teve como objetivo reportar a ocorrência de Borrelia spp. em culturas de células embrionárias de Boophilus microplus infectados naturalmente. Sete dias após o início de uma nova cultura primária de células embrionárias do carrapato B. microplus, incubadas a 31ºC, notou-se que as células começaram a degenerar. Ao exame em microscópio de contraste de fase detectou-se a presença de microrganismos alongado e com grande mobilidade. Lâminas de microscópio confeccionadas com amos...

  19. AVALIAÇÃO IN VITRO DA AÇÃO DE ACARICIDAS SOBRE Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus CANESTRINI, 1887 (ACARI: IXODIDAE DE BOVINOS LEITEIROS NO MUNICÍPIO DE ITAMARAJU, BAHIA, BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Henrique Spagnol

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available As many tick populations of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus can be resistant to drugs in the municipality of Itamaraju,Bahia, Brazil, an in vitro immersion test was carried out, from January to November 2008, in ticks from 22 dairy farms using the nine most used acaricides in the market. Fipronil had 99% efficacy, Chlorpyriphos+Cypermethrin high-cis 92%, Amitraz+Chlorpyriphos 90.7%, Diclorvos+Chlorpyriphos 81.4%, Cypermethrin+Chlorpyriphos+Citronelol 49.2%, Amitraz 49.0%, Cypermethrin+Ethion 39.9%, Deltamethrin 33.9%, Cypermethrin 21.1%. There was a range from one to five efficient acaricides (≥ 95% in each property. The results show that there is a wrong use of acaricides by the farmers and a high degree of resistance by ticks.

  20. Role and movement of nilgai antelope, Boselaphus tragocamelus, in the epizootiology of cattle fever ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) in re-infestations along the Texas/Mexico border in south Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilgai antelope are the largest Asian antelope and are originally endemic to the Indian subcontinent. Nilgai were introduced into Texas in the 1940s for hunting purposes and are now the most abundant free-ranging ungulate in south Texas with population estimates in the early 1990s of more than 36,0...

  1. INFLUÊNCIA DO PESO INICIAL E DA ESTAÇÃO DO ANO NA CONVERSÃO EM OVOS DE FÊMEAS DE Boophilus microplus (ACARI: IXODIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraão Garcia Gomes

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a influência do peso inicial da fêmea e da estação do ano na conversão em ovos de Boophilus microplus. O índice de eficiência reprodutiva (IER de 411 fêmeas pesando entre 31 e 360 mg foi correlacionado com seu peso inicial. Para avaliar a influência das diferentes estações do ano neste parâmetro biológico, dez fêmeas ingurgitadas de B. microplus pesando acima de 150 mg foram colhidas, a cada duas semanas, e mantidas em condições climáticas controladas até a determinação do IER. Uma relação curvilinear foi observada entre o peso das fêmeas e o IER. Fêmeas pesando entre 151 e 360 mg tiveram IER’s mais altos (variando de 44,9% a 51,4% do que aquelas mais leves, as quais apresentaram uma menor capacidade de conversão em ovos (variando de 31,4% a 39,0%. Foi observado que a capacidade de as fêmeas converterem o peso em ovos variou sazonalmente. Os mais altos IER foram observados no período seco, de abril a setembro (47,6% a 58,3%, do que no período chuvoso, de outubro a março (40,2% a 43,6% (P<0,05. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Boophilus microplus, biologia, conversão em ovos, bovinos.

  2. Local-scale spatio-temporal distribution of questing Ixodes ricinus L. (Acari: Ixodidae)-A case study from a riparian urban forest in Wrocław, SW Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiewra, Dorota; Stefańska-Krzaczek, Ewa; Szymanowski, Mariusz; Szczepańska, Anna

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents the distribution of questing Ixodes ricinus ticks in suburban forest intensively visited by people. The local-scale observations conducted during a 4-year study at 99 plots (of 100m2 each) located throughout the entire area of a riparian urban forest, showed a high variation in the density of ticks from year to year. Although I. ricinus is generally permanent in the study area, spatial distribution of sample plots harbouring I. ricinus is variable, i.e. mainly random for adults and larvae, and random or clustered for nymphs. Among the most common plant species in the herb layer, there were not any species which had a statistically significant and constant impact on the occurrence of any of the development stages of I. ricinus. Also relations between the density of tick development stages and vegetation variables, including cover of the herb layer, total species number, species number of the herb layer, and percentage coverage of particular species, as well as ecological indices for light, soil moisture, reaction, and nutrients, did not show any constant and predictable pattern in subsequent years of the study. Only tree and shrub layers were found as variables positively affecting the density of ticks. Although small, suburban forests can be considered as tick-borne risk areas, it is impossible to determine in details areas of tick-borne risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Notas de ixodologia: III - conformação de Ixodes aragãoi Fonseca, 1935, de Ixodes amarali Fonseca, 1935, e lista das espécies do gênero Ixodes que ocorrem no Brasil (Acari, Ixodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Aragão

    1952-03-01

    Full Text Available After comparison of the types of Ixodes ricinus aragãoi Fonseca, 1935, with a lot of Ixodes affinis Neumann, 1899, kindly loaned by Dr. Kohls, it was observed that both species differ by the aspect of the dorsal scutm, no large punctations being in the posterior border in the Brazilian material. Therefore is FONSECA'S species maintened as Ixodes aragãoi Fonseca, 1935. Ixodes amarali Fonseca, 1935 was reexamined and confirmed as a valid species. A list of Brazilian species of the genus Ixodes studied by the authors is presented.

  4. The genus Hyalomma Koch, 1844. I. Reinstatement of Hyalomma (Euhyalomma glabrum Delpy, 1949 (Acari, Ixodidae as a valid species with a redescription of the adults, the first description of its immature stages and notes on its biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.A. Apanaskevich

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available For nearly 50 years the ixodid tick Hyalomma marginatum turanicum, reputedly introduced into South Africa on imported Persian sheep, has been considered identical to the Asian Hyalomma (Euhyalomma marginatum turanicum Pomerantzev, 1946. Comparisons of this tick with the Asian H. (E. m. turanicum and other subspecies of Hyalomma (Euhyalomma marginatum, however, reveal that it is an old taxon, namely Hyalomma rufipes glabrum Delpy, 1949. It is hereby reinstated as Hyalomma (Euhyalomma glabrum, and its adults are redescribed and its immature stages described for the first time. The preferred hosts of its adults are large herbivores such as zebras, gems bok and eland, on which it occurs during summer. The preferred hosts of its immature stages are scrub hares and ground-frequenting birds, on which it is present during autumn and winter. Data on its distribution and possible disease relationships are also provided.

  5. Host-Parasite Relationship of Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae and Argasidae) and Feral Pigs (Sus scrofa) in the Nhecolândia Region of the Pantanal Wetlands in Mato Grosso do Sul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cançado, P H D; Faccini, J L H; Herrera, H M; Tavares, L E R; Mourão, G M; Piranda, E M; Paes, R C S; Ribeiro, C C D U; Borghesan, T C; Piacenti, A K; Kinas, M A; Santos, C C; Ono, T M; Paiva, F

    2013-01-01

    Feral pigs (S. scrofa) were introduced to the Pantanal region around 200 years ago and the population appears to be in expansion. Its eradication is considered to be impossible. The population of feral pigs in the Pantanal wetlands is currently estimated at one million. Two scientific excursions were organized. The first was conducted during the dry season, when 21 feral pigs were captured and the second was during the wet season, when 23 feral pigs were captured. Ticks were collected and the oviposition and hatching process were studied to confirm the biological success of each tick species. Three tick species were found to be feeding on feral pigs: Amblyomma cajennense, A. parvum, and Ornithodoros rostratus. During the dry season, 178 adult A. cajennense were collected, contrasting with 127 A. cajennense specimens in the wet season. This suggests that the seasonality of these ticks in the Brazilian Pantanal wetlands could be different from other regions. The results indicate that A. parvum and A. cajennense are biologically successful parasites in relation to feral pigs. A. cajennense appears to have adapted to this tick-host relationship, as well as the areas where feral pigs are abundant, and could play a role in the amplification of this tick population.

  6. The complete mitochondrial genome of the citrus red mite Panonychus citri (Acari: Tetranychidae): high genome rearrangement and extremely truncated tRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ming-Long; Wei, Dan-Dan; Wang, Bao-Jun; Dou, Wei; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2010-10-23

    The family Tetranychidae (Chelicerata: Acari) includes ~1200 species, many of which are of agronomic importance. To date, mitochondrial genomes of only two Tetranychidae species have been sequenced, and it has been found that these two mitochondrial genomes are characterized by many unusual features in genome organization and structure such as gene order and nucleotide frequency. The scarcity of available sequence data has greatly impeded evolutionary studies in Acari (mites and ticks). Information on Tetranychidae mitochondrial genomes is quite important for phylogenetic evaluation and population genetics, as well as the molecular evolution of functional genes such as acaricide-resistance genes. In this study, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of Panonychus citri (Family Tetranychidae), a worldwide citrus pest, and provide a comparison to other Acari. The mitochondrial genome of P. citri is a typical circular molecule of 13,077 bp, and contains the complete set of 37 genes that are usually found in metazoans. This is the smallest mitochondrial genome within all sequenced Acari and other Chelicerata, primarily due to the significant size reduction of protein coding genes (PCGs), a large rRNA gene, and the A + T-rich region. The mitochondrial gene order for P. citri is the same as those for P. ulmi and Tetranychus urticae, but distinctly different from other Acari by a series of gene translocations and/or inversions. The majority of the P. citri mitochondrial genome has a high A + T content (85.28%), which is also reflected by AT-rich codons being used more frequently, but exhibits a positive GC-skew (0.03). The Acari mitochondrial nad1 exhibits a faster amino acid substitution rate than other genes, and the variation of nucleotide substitution patterns of PCGs is significantly correlated with the G + C content. Most tRNA genes of P. citri are extremely truncated and atypical (44-65, 54.1 ± 4.1 bp), lacking either the T- or D-arm, as found in P. ulmi

  7. The complete mitochondrial genome of the citrus red mite Panonychus citri (Acari: Tetranychidae: high genome rearrangement and extremely truncated tRNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dou Wei

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The family Tetranychidae (Chelicerata: Acari includes ~1200 species, many of which are of agronomic importance. To date, mitochondrial genomes of only two Tetranychidae species have been sequenced, and it has been found that these two mitochondrial genomes are characterized by many unusual features in genome organization and structure such as gene order and nucleotide frequency. The scarcity of available sequence data has greatly impeded evolutionary studies in Acari (mites and ticks. Information on Tetranychidae mitochondrial genomes is quite important for phylogenetic evaluation and population genetics, as well as the molecular evolution of functional genes such as acaricide-resistance genes. In this study, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of Panonychus citri (Family Tetranychidae, a worldwide citrus pest, and provide a comparison to other Acari. Results The mitochondrial genome of P. citri is a typical circular molecule of 13,077 bp, and contains the complete set of 37 genes that are usually found in metazoans. This is the smallest mitochondrial genome within all sequenced Acari and other Chelicerata, primarily due to the significant size reduction of protein coding genes (PCGs, a large rRNA gene, and the A + T-rich region. The mitochondrial gene order for P. citri is the same as those for P. ulmi and Tetranychus urticae, but distinctly different from other Acari by a series of gene translocations and/or inversions. The majority of the P. citri mitochondrial genome has a high A + T content (85.28%, which is also reflected by AT-rich codons being used more frequently, but exhibits a positive GC-skew (0.03. The Acari mitochondrial nad1 exhibits a faster amino acid substitution rate than other genes, and the variation of nucleotide substitution patterns of PCGs is significantly correlated with the G + C content. Most tRNA genes of P. citri are extremely truncated and atypical (44-65, 54.1 ± 4.1 bp, lacking

  8. Mutual interference between adult females of Galendromus flumenis (Acari: Phytoseiidae) feeding on eggs of Banks grass mite decreases predation efficiency and increases emigration rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ganjisaffar, Fatemeh; Nachman, Gøsta Støger; Perring, Thomas M.

    2017-01-01

    : Phytoseiidae). In California date gardens, this predator is found in low numbers that are insufficient for the economic suppression of Banks grass mites, and our research aims to understand why it fails to keep up with prey densities. The hypothesis that prey density and predator interference interactively......The Banks grass mite, Oligonychus pratensis (Banks) (Acari: Tetranychidae) causes significant damage to dates in California (USA), if not controlled. Studies are underway to develop biological control strategies against this pest in dates using the predatory mite Galendromus flumenis (Chant) (Acari...

  9. New records of water mites (Acari: Hydrachnidia and Halacaroidea from Bosnia and Herzegovina, with description of a new species, Aturus gordani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pešić Vladimir M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A presented faunistic catalogue of water mites (Acari: Hydrachnidia and Halacaroidea from Republic of Srpska (Bosnia and Herzegovina is based on all published data and numerous new records from the investigated area. Twenty two species were identified, 12 of which new to Bosnia and Herzegovina and one species Mideopsis roztoczensis was recorded for the first time in the Balkans. The species Aturus gordani was described as new to science; halacarid mites were recorded (Acari: Halacaroidea for the first time in the fauna of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The ecological significance of the new records was briefly discussed.

  10. The complete mitochondrial genome of the citrus red mite Panonychus citri (Acari: Tetranychidae): high genome rearrangement and extremely truncated tRNAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background The family Tetranychidae (Chelicerata: Acari) includes ~1200 species, many of which are of agronomic importance. To date, mitochondrial genomes of only two Tetranychidae species have been sequenced, and it has been found that these two mitochondrial genomes are characterized by many unusual features in genome organization and structure such as gene order and nucleotide frequency. The scarcity of available sequence data has greatly impeded evolutionary studies in Acari (mites and ticks). Information on Tetranychidae mitochondrial genomes is quite important for phylogenetic evaluation and population genetics, as well as the molecular evolution of functional genes such as acaricide-resistance genes. In this study, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of Panonychus citri (Family Tetranychidae), a worldwide citrus pest, and provide a comparison to other Acari. Results The mitochondrial genome of P. citri is a typical circular molecule of 13,077 bp, and contains the complete set of 37 genes that are usually found in metazoans. This is the smallest mitochondrial genome within all sequenced Acari and other Chelicerata, primarily due to the significant size reduction of protein coding genes (PCGs), a large rRNA gene, and the A + T-rich region. The mitochondrial gene order for P. citri is the same as those for P. ulmi and Tetranychus urticae, but distinctly different from other Acari by a series of gene translocations and/or inversions. The majority of the P. citri mitochondrial genome has a high A + T content (85.28%), which is also reflected by AT-rich codons being used more frequently, but exhibits a positive GC-skew (0.03). The Acari mitochondrial nad1 exhibits a faster amino acid substitution rate than other genes, and the variation of nucleotide substitution patterns of PCGs is significantly correlated with the G + C content. Most tRNA genes of P. citri are extremely truncated and atypical (44-65, 54.1 ± 4.1 bp), lacking either the T- or D-arm, as

  11. Biology, Predation, and Life Table of Cydnoseius negevi and Neoseiulus barkeri (Acari: Phytoseiidae) on the Old World Date Mite, Oligonychus afrasiaticus (Acari: Tetranychidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negm, Mohamed W.; Alatawi, Fahad J.; Aldryhim, Yousif N.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The old world date mite, Oligonychus afrasiaticus (McGregor) (Acari: Tetranychidae) is a severe spider mite pest of date palm in most of the Middle East and North Africa. Considering that nothing is known about the performance of phytoseiid predators against O. afrasiaticus , biology, predation, and life table parameters of Cydnoseius negevi (Swirski and Amitai) and Neoseiulus barkeri Hughes (Acari: Phytoseiidae), collected from date palm orchards, were studied under laboratory conditions (25, 35°C and 35 ± 10% RH) as a first step to understand their effectiveness against all mobile life stages of O. afrasiaticus . For both predators, oviposition period was significantly shorter at 35°C than at 25°C. The following parameters were obtained for C. negevi and N. barkeri at 25 and 35°C, respectively: female longevity, 31.8, 20.1, 35.7, 27.4 d; fecundity, 21.6, 38.0, 18.8, 34.8 eggs per female; oviposition period, 23.9, 13.7, 25.9, 18.1 d. Total predation of C. negevi and N. barkeri female was 246.0, 270.0, 227.6, 205.3 prey at 25 and 35°C, respectively. Rectal plugs were observed attached to the opisthosoma of some adult females of N. barkeri , which often cause the mite to stick to the surface. Life table parameters were estimated as net reproductive rate ( R0 ) 10.44, 17.35, 10.19, 13.84, intrinsic rate of increase ( rm ) 0.14, 0.19, 0.13, 0.16 d −1 , finite rate of increase (λ) 1.15, 1.21, 1.12, 1.17 d −1 , generation time ( T ) 17.03, 15.17, 17.83, 16.61 d, doubling time (DT) 04.95, 03.64, 05.33, 04.33 d for C. negevi and N. barkeri at 25 and 35°C, respectively. The values of intrinsic rate of increase and net reproductive rate were higher in C. negevi than N. barkeri at both temperature regimes. Therefore, it could be concluded that C. negevi performance was better than N. barkeri against O. afrasiaticus and can be considered as a valuable addition to the existing methods for spider mites control. PMID:25368087

  12. Biology, predation, and life table of Cydnoseius negevi and Neoseiulus barkeri (Acari: Phytoseiidae) on the old world date mite, Oligonychus afrasiaticus (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negm, Mohamed W; Alatawi, Fahad J; Aldryhim, Yousif N

    2014-01-01

    The old world date mite, Oligonychus afrasiaticus (McGregor) (Acari: Tetranychidae) is a severe spider mite pest of date palm in most of the Middle East and North Africa. Considering that nothing is known about the performance of phytoseiid predators against O. afrasiaticus, biology, predation, and life table parameters of Cydnoseius negevi (Swirski and Amitai) and Neoseiulus barkeri Hughes (Acari: Phytoseiidae), collected from date palm orchards, were studied under laboratory conditions (25, 35°C and 35 ± 10% RH) as a first step to understand their effectiveness against all mobile life stages of O. afrasiaticus. For both predators, oviposition period was significantly shorter at 35°C than at 25°C. The following parameters were obtained for C. negevi and N. barkeri at 25 and 35°C, respectively: female longevity, 31.8, 20.1, 35.7, 27.4 d; fecundity, 21.6, 38.0, 18.8, 34.8 eggs per female; oviposition period, 23.9, 13.7, 25.9, 18.1 d. Total predation of C. negevi and N. barkeri female was 246.0, 270.0, 227.6, 205.3 prey at 25 and 35°C, respectively. Rectal plugs were observed attached to the opisthosoma of some adult females of N. barkeri, which often cause the mite to stick to the surface. Life table parameters were estimated as net reproductive rate (R0) 10.44, 17.35, 10.19, 13.84, intrinsic rate of increase (rm) 0.14, 0.19, 0.13, 0.16 d(-1), finite rate of increase (λ) 1.15, 1.21, 1.12, 1.17 d(-1), generation time (T) 17.03, 15.17, 17.83, 16.61 d, doubling time (DT) 04.95, 03.64, 05.33, 04.33 d for C. negevi and N. barkeri at 25 and 35°C, respectively. The values of intrinsic rate of increase and net reproductive rate were higher in C. negevi than N. barkeri at both temperature regimes. Therefore, it could be concluded that C. negevi performance was better than N. barkeri against O. afrasiaticus and can be considered as a valuable addition to the existing methods for spider mites control. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf

  13. A new Paraleius species (Acari, Oribatida, Scheloribatidae associated with bark beetles (Curculionidae, Scolytinae in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne Knee

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Bark beetles (Scolytinae are hosts to a broad diversity of mites (Acari, including several genera of Oribatida (Sarcoptiformes. Of these, Paraleius (Scheloribatidae species are the most frequently collected oribatid mites associated with bark beetles. A new species was discovered while surveying the acarofauna of bark beetles in Eastern Canada and is described as Paraleius leahae sp. n. (Oribatida, Scheloribatidae. This species was collected from two host beetle species, Hylastes porculus Erickson and Dendroctonus valens LeConte, in Ontario, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. The genus Paraleius is rediagnosed, Metaleius is considered a synonym of Paraleius, and the proposed synonymy of Paraleius with Siculobata is rejected. The three known species are Paraleius leontonycha (Berlese, P. leahae sp. n., and P. strenzkei (Travé, comb. n. The barcode region of cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI was amplified from P. leahae sp. n.

  14. A New Species of Chigger Mite (Acari: Trombiculidae) from Rodents in Southwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Tian-Guang; Wu, Dian; Fletcher, Quinn E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a new species of chigger mite (Acari: Trombiculidae), Gahrliepia cangshanensis n. sp., from rodents in southwest China. The specimens were collected from Yunnan red-backed voles, Eothenomys miletus (Thomas, 1914), and a Chinese white-bellied rat, Niviventer confucianus (Milne-Edwards, 1871) in Yunnan Province. The new species is unique mainly in its number of dorsal setae (n=21), and it has the following features: fT (formula of palpotarsus)=4B (B=branched), fp (formula of palpal seta)=B/N/N/N/B (N=naked), a broad tongue-shaped scutum with an almost straight posterior margin, and 17 PPLs (posterior posterolateral seta) with a length of 36-43 µm. This chigger mite may also infect other rodent hosts and may be distributed in other localities. PMID:24623884

  15. A new Paraleius species (Acari, Oribatida, Scheloribatidae) associated with bark beetles (Curculionidae, Scolytinae) in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knee, Wayne

    2017-01-01

    Bark beetles (Scolytinae) are hosts to a broad diversity of mites (Acari), including several genera of Oribatida (Sarcoptiformes). Of these, Paraleius (Scheloribatidae) species are the most frequently collected oribatid mites associated with bark beetles. A new species was discovered while surveying the acarofauna of bark beetles in Eastern Canada and is described as Paraleius leahaesp. n. (Oribatida, Scheloribatidae). This species was collected from two host beetle species, Hylastes porculus Erickson and Dendroctonus valens LeConte, in Ontario, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. The genus Paraleius is rediagnosed, Metaleius is considered a synonym of Paraleius, and the proposed synonymy of Paraleius with Siculobata is rejected. The three known species are Paraleius leontonycha (Berlese), P. leahaesp. n., and P. strenzkei (Travé), comb. n. The barcode region of cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) was amplified from P. leahaesp. n.

  16. Quill mites of the subfamily Picobiinae (Acari: Syringophilidae) associated with woodpeckers (Aves: Piciformes: Picidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoracki, Maciej; Unsoeld, Markus; Kavetska, Katarzyna; Kaszewska, Katarzyna

    2014-03-01

    The paper contains a review of quill mites of the subfamily Picobiinae (Acari: Prostigmata: Syringophilidae) associated with woodpeckers (Aves: Piciformes: Picidae). Three new species are described: Picobia mentalis Skoracki et Unsoeld sp. nov. from Picus mentalis Temminck, Neopicobia ea Skoracki et Unsoeld sp. nov. from Celeus flavus (St. Mueller) (type host), C. elegans (St. Mueller), C. torquatus (Boddaert), and Neopicobia freya Skoracki et Unsoeld sp. nov. from Dryocopus galeatus (Temminck) (type host) and Piculus rubiginosus (Swainson). Additionally, six new host species for Picobia heeri Haller, 1878 and 12 new host species for Picobia dryobatis (Fritsch, 1956) are reported. A complete list of the picobiines parasitising birds of the family Picidae is presented in the tabular form.

  17. [Taxonomic status of the Burana virus (BURV) (Bunyaviridae, Nairovirus, Tamdy group) isolated from the ticks Haemaphysalis punctata Canestrini et Fanzago, 1877 and Haem. concinna Koch, 1844 (Ixodidae, Haemaphysalinae) in Kyrgyzstan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'vov, D K; Al'khovskiĭ, S V; Shchelkanov, M Iu; Shchetinin, A M; Deriabin, P G; Gitel'man, A K; Aristova, V A; Botikov, A G

    2014-01-01

    Complete genome sequence of the Burana virus (BURV) was determined using the next-generation sequencing approach (ID GenBank KF801651). The prototype strain of BURV LEIV-Krg760 was originally isolated from the ticks Haemaphysalis punctata Canestrini et Fanzago, 1877 (Ixodidae, Haemaphysalinae), collected from cows in Tokmak wildlife sanctuary, eastern part of the Chu valley (43 degrees 10' N, 74 degrees 40' E) near Burana village, Kirgizia, in April 1971. Molecular genetics and phylogenetic analyses showed that the BURV belonged to the Nairovirus genus, Bunyaviridae and is related to Tamdy virus (TAMV) that is also associated with the ixodidae ticks of pasture biocenosis in Central Asia. Previous studies showed that TAMV is the prototypic virus of new phylogenetic Tamdy group in the Nairovirus genus. Thus, BURV was classified as a new virus of the Tamdy group, Nairovirus, Bunyaviridae.

  18. Benefits and risks of the subcutaneous immunotherapy with acari extracts in allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and bronchial asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olimpio Rodríguez-Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The records of patients from the Allergology Service in the Previsora Policlinic, Camagüey were revised to evaluate benefits and risks of the subcutaneous immunotherapy (ITSC with extracts of acari. The study was observational, analytic and retrospective of cases and controls in allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and bronchial asthma. A total of 160 subjects, older than 18 years old, were chosen. Eighty out of them had already received ITSC with dose increase during 13 weeks and maintenance with monthly injections during 18 months. A total of 80 patients who only received prevention measures and medications during the crises were paired. Questionnaires were applied for quality of rhinoconjunctivitis life and asthma, about the consumption of medications and the frequency of the crises. The adverse events were measured, as they were local and systemic to the cutaneous tests, to the ITSC and the different pharmacological treatments. There was a significant increase of the punctuation of life quality questionnaires, (p=0.011. The consumption of medications decreased in both the cases and the controls, without significant differences (p=0.083. The frequency of the rhinitis and asthma crises decrease in the group of ITSC (p=0.029. Slight local and systemic reactions were reported in both groups with Odds ratio (OR=2.029 in the ITSC group, with a 95% confidence interval of 1.114–3.967 (p=0.019. The results show that the subcutaneous immunotherapy with acari offers benefits and few risks to patients with allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma.

  19. História de vida de Neoseiulus californicus(McGregor, 1954) (Acari: Phytoseiidae), alimentado com pólen de mamoneira (Ricinus communis L.) em condição de laboratório

    OpenAIRE

    PP Marafeli; PR, Reis; EC. da Silveira; GC Souza-Pimentel; MA. de Toledo

    2014-01-01

    The predatory mite, Neoseiulus californicus(McGregor, 1954) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) is one of the principal natural enemies of tetranychid mites in several countries, promoting efficient control of those mites in several food and ornamental crops. Pest attacks such as that of the spider mite, Tetranychus urticaeKoch, 1836 (Acari: Tetranychidae), is one of the problems faced by farmers, especially in the greenhouse, due to the difficulty of its control with the use of chemicals because of the de...

  20. Ixodes scapularis and Ixodes ricinus tick cell lines respond to infection with tick-borne encephalitis virus: transcriptomic and proteomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisheit, Sabine; Villar, Margarita; Tykalová, Hana; Popara, Marina; Loecherbach, Julia; Watson, Mick; Růžek, Daniel; Grubhoffer, Libor; de la Fuente, José; Fazakerley, John K; Bell-Sakyi, Lesley

    2015-11-18

    Ixodid ticks are important vectors of a wide variety of viral, bacterial and protozoan pathogens of medical and veterinary importance. Although several studies have elucidated tick responses to bacteria, little is known about the tick response to viruses. To gain insight into the response of tick cells to flavivirus infection, the transcriptomes and proteomes of two Ixodes spp cell lines infected with the flavivirus tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) were analysed. RNA and proteins were isolated from the Ixodes scapularis-derived cell line IDE8 and the Ixodes ricinus-derived cell line IRE/CTVM19, mock-infected or infected with TBEV, on day 2 post-infection (p.i.) when virus production was increasing, and on day 6 p.i. when virus production was decreasing. RNA-Seq and mass spectrometric technologies were used to identify changes in abundance of, respectively, transcripts and proteins. Functional analyses were conducted on selected transcripts using RNA interference (RNAi) for gene knockdown in tick cells infected with the closely-related but less pathogenic flavivirus Langat virus (LGTV). Differential expression analysis using DESeq resulted in totals of 43 and 83 statistically significantly differentially-expressed transcripts in IDE8 and IRE/CTVM19 cells, respectively. Mass spectrometry detected 76 and 129 statistically significantly differentially-represented proteins in IDE8 and IRE/CTVM19 cells, respectively. Differentially-expressed transcripts and differentially-represented proteins included some that may be involved in innate immune and cell stress responses. Knockdown of the heat-shock proteins HSP90, HSP70 and gp96, the complement-associated protein Factor H and the protease trypsin resulted in increased LGTV replication and production in at least one tick cell line, indicating a possible antiviral role for these proteins. Knockdown of RNAi-associated proteins Argonaute and Dicer, which were included as positive controls, also resulted in increased LGTV

  1. Evaluation of corn plant as potential banker plant for supporting predatory gall Midge, Feltiella acarisuga (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) against Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) in greenhouse vegetable production

    Science.gov (United States)

    The twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), is one of the most important and highly polyphagous pests of vegetables and other crops worldwide. In this study, several experiments were conducted under laboratory and greenhouse conditions to evaluate whether corn plant ...

  2. Effects of Powdery Mildew Fungicide Programs on Twospotted Spider Mite (Acari: Tetranychidae), Hop Aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae), and Their Natural Enemies in Hop Yards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari:Tetranychidae), and hop aphid, Phorodon humuli (Schrank) (Homoptera:Aphidiae), are the most important arthropod pests of hop (Humulus lupulus L.) in the Northern Hemisphere. A potential barrier for greater adoption of conservation biological c...

  3. Two new species and one new record of larvae of the family Johnstonianidae (Acari: Prostigmata) from Iran with a key to species of the genus Diplothrombium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noei, Javad; Saboori, Alireza; Hajizadeh, Jalil

    2014-04-03

    Diplothrombium sahragardi sp. nov. and Diplothrombium ostovani sp. nov. (Acari: Johnstonianidae) collected from soil samples (off host) in a forest near Asalem city (Iran) are described. Another species of this family Johnstoniana parva Wendt, Wohltmann, Eggers and Otto, 1994 is reported for the first time from Iran. A larva-based key to Diplothrombium is provided.

  4. Pyemotes tritici (Acari: Pyemotidae): a parasitoid of Agrilus auroguttatus and Agrilus coxalis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in the southwestern United States of America and southern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom W. Coleman; Michael I. Jones; Mark S. Hoddle; Laurel J. Haavik; John C. Moser; Mary L. Flint; Steven J. Seybold

    2015-01-01

    The straw itch mite, Pyemotes tritici Lagrèze-Fossat andMontané (Acari: Pyemotidae), was discovered parasitising the goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus Schaeffer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive exotic species to California, United States of America, and the Mexican goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus coxalis Waterhouse (Coleoptera:...

  5. A new species of Aculops (Acari: Prostigmata: Eriophyidae) from Serbia on Dipsacus laciniatus L. (Dipsacaceae), a weed target of classical biological control in the United States of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    The new eriophyid mite species Aculops dipsaci n. sp. (Acari: Prostigmata: Eriophyidae) collected from Dipsacus laciniatus L. (Dipsacaceae) in northern Serbia is described and illustrated. Differential diagnosis is provided in comparison with Aculops salixis Xue, Song and Hong. This is the first e...

  6. A new species of eriophyoid mite, Aceria tripuraensis sp. n. (Acari: Eriophyoidea), on Hibiscus macrophyllus from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Pratibha; Joshi, Sushila; Ramamurthy, Vilayanoor Venkataraman

    2014-02-04

    A new species of Eriophyidae (Acari: Prostigmata: E riophyoidea) mite, Aceria tripuraensis n. sp., is described from the closed bud galls of Hibiscus macrophyllus Roxb. ex Hornem. (Malvaceae) in India. Aceria tripuraensis n. sp. is distinguished by having a prodorsal shield with distinct rounded lobes on the postero-lateral margins and two pairs of submedian lines. The tarsal solenidia with unusual transverse sculptures, are 2.5x longer than the empodia. Twenty Aceria species are now known to inhabit malvaceous plant hosts and those are listed here along with type localities and host plant details. A key to all known species of Aceria recorded from Hibiscus spp. is also provided.

  7. A new species of Litarachna (Acari, Hydrachnidia, Pontarachnidae from a Caribbean mesophotic coral ecosystem

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    Vladimir Pesic

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available New records of pontarachnid mites (Acari: Hydrachnidia from the Caribbean island of Puerto Rico are presented. Litarachna lopezae sp. n., from substrata collected from Bajo de Sico, a mesophotic coral reef ecosystem in Mona Passage off Puerto Rico, is described as new to science. The new species was collected from nearly 70 m depth, the greatest depth from which pontarachnid mites have been found until now. In addition, a Litarachna sp. was also found in association with the tube of the polychaete Sabellastarte magnifica (Shaw, 1800 at the shallow waters of north Puerto Rico.

  8. Estructura genética de poblaciones de Oligonychus perseae y Oligonychus punicae (Acari: Tetranychidae) en huertos de aguacate.

    OpenAIRE

    Guzmán Valencia, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    La identidad y estructura genética de poblaciones de Oligonychus punicae y O. perseae (Acari: Tetranychidae) fue estudiada en siete localidades productoras de aguacate Persea americana var. Hass. La identidad de los ácaros fue determinada morfológica y molecularmente mediante la secuenciación de una fracción del gen Citocromo Oxidasa subunidad I (COI). La variación genética intraespecífica de diferentes poblaciones de ambas especies de ácaros fue estudiada mediante la secuenciación de las reg...

  9. Primeiro registro de Oligonychus yothersi (McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae em Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden no Brasil First record of Oligonychus yothersi (McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae on Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden in Brazil

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    Fabrício Fagundes Pereira

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se a infestação de um ácaro-vermelho em mudas clonais de Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden, mantidas em casa de vegetação no município de Martinho Campos, Minas Gerais. O ácaro foi observado na parte superior das folhas que exibiam sinais de sucção de seiva e bronzeamento. Essas injúrias causaram desenvolvimento anormal e morte de plantas. O ácaro foi identificado como Oligonychus yothersi (McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae, e isso representa o primeiro registro dessa espécie em mudas clonais de E. grandis no Brasil.An infestation of the red spider mite was reported in clone seedlings of Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden under greenhouse conditions, in the municipality of Martinho Campos, Minas Gerais State. The spider mite was found on the leaf upper faces with signs of sap suction and bronzing. Such injuries caused abnormal development and plant death. The spider mite was identified as Oligonychus yothersi (McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae. This is the first record of O. yothersi on E. grandis seedlings in Brazil.

  10. Primeiro registro no Brasil de Erythrina velutina Willd. como hospedeira de Tetranychus neocaledonicus (Acari: Tetranychidae First Brazilian report of Erythrina velutina Willd. as host of Tetranychus neocaledonicus (Acari: Tetranychidae

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    J.C.M. Poderoso

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Os ácaros tetraniquídeos representam importantes pragas para diversas culturas agrícolas em todo o mundo. Durante a prospecção em mudas de Erytrina velutina no distrito de São Cristovão, Estado de Sergipe, Brasil, a ocorrência destes foi observada em 15% das mudas que foram levadas ao laboratório para a caracterização dos danos. As mudas apresentavam sintomas de redução e encarquilhamento do limbo. Foram coletados 100 indivíduos destas plantas, os quais foram montados em lâminas de microscopia para a identificação taxonômica. Os ácaros foram identificados como pertencentes à espécie Tetranychus neocaledonicus (Acari: Tetranychidae. Este é o primeiro relato em E. velutina, como hospedeira para T. neocaledonicus no Brasil.Spider mites are important pests to several crops worldwide. During prospecting in Erytrina velutina specimens from São Cristovão District, Sergipe State, Brazil, their occurrence was observed in 15% seedlings, which were taken to the laboratory for description of damages. The seedlings presented leaf blade reduction and crumpling symptoms. One hundred mites were collected from these seedlings and mounted on microscope slides for taxonomic identification. The identified mites belonged to the species Tetranychus neocaledonicus (Acari: Tetranychidae. This is the first report of E. velutina as host for T. neocaledonicus in Brazil.

  11. Preliminary assays for efficiency avaliation of neem oil for control of Oligonychus yothersi (Acari: Tetranychidae / Ensaios preliminares para avaliação da eficiência de óleo de neem no controle de Oligonychus yothersi (Acari: Tetranychidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato C. Oliveira

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of a commercial formulation of the neem oil (azadirachtina was evaluated in different stages of the biological cycle of the red mite of the paraguay tea Oligonychus yothersi (Acari: Tetranychidae. The formulation was shown efficient in the adults control, as well as it affected the fecundity of the females of the mite, however it didn’t inhabited oviposition, when the leaves were treated with the product.Avaliou-se o efeito de uma formulação comercial a base de neem (azadirachtina em diferentes etapas do ciclo biológico do ácaro vermelho da erva-mate Oligonychus yothersi (Acari: Tetranychidae. A formulação mostrou-se eficiente no controle de adultos, bem como afetou a fecundidade das fêmeas do ácaro, contudo não ocasionou inibição na oviposição, quando as folhas foram tratadas com o produto.

  12. Practical sampling plans for Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) in Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies and apiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K V; Moon, R D; Burkness, E C; Hutchison, W D; Spivak, M

    2010-08-01

    The parasitic mite Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman (Acari: Varroidae) is arguably the most detrimental pest of the European-derived honey bee, Apis mellifera L. Unfortunately, beekeepers lack a standardized sampling plan to make informed treatment decisions. Based on data from 31 commercial apiaries, we developed sampling plans for use by beekeepers and researchers to estimate the density of mites in individual colonies or whole apiaries. Beekeepers can estimate a colony's mite density with chosen level of precision by dislodging mites from approximately to 300 adult bees taken from one brood box frame in the colony, and they can extrapolate to mite density on a colony's adults and pupae combined by doubling the number of mites on adults. For sampling whole apiaries, beekeepers can repeat the process in each of n = 8 colonies, regardless of apiary size. Researchers desiring greater precision can estimate mite density in an individual colony by examining three, 300-bee sample units. Extrapolation to density on adults and pupae may require independent estimates of numbers of adults, of pupae, and of their respective mite densities. Researchers can estimate apiary-level mite density by taking one 300-bee sample unit per colony, but should do so from a variable number of colonies, depending on apiary size. These practical sampling plans will allow beekeepers and researchers to quantify mite infestation levels and enhance understanding and management of V. destructor.

  13. Factors determining species displacement of related predatory mite species (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotoh, Tetsuo; Hanawa, Masumi; Shimazaki, Sayaka; Yokoyama, Natsuki; Fu, Chun-Qing; Sugawara, Reo; Yano, Shuichi

    2014-06-01

    Neoseiulus womersleyi (Acari: Phytoseiidae) used to be the dominant species in fruit-tree orchards throughout Japan, but starting in the 1990s, N. womersleyi began to be displaced by Neoseiulus californicus in central and southwestern Japan. The present study was conducted to examine factors explaining the displacement of N. womersleyi by N. californicus. First, we confirmed under laboratory conditions that N. californicus could exclude N. womersleyi if they initially coexisted in a 1:1 ratio. During a 2-h continuous observation period, none of the heterospecific pairs had copulated and after 5 days together with heterospecific males, none of the females had laid eggs. When these females were placed with conspecific males, normal numbers of offspring were produced. Moreover, conspecific matings were not substantially disturbed in the presence of heterospecific males or females. Total fecundity was significantly lower in N. womersleyi than in N. californicus, but their r m values did not differ from each other. On the other hand, the frequency of intraguild predation by N. californicus on N. womersleyi was significantly higher than vice versa. From these results, we concluded that not reproductive interference nor differential female fecundity but asymmetrical intraguild predation seemed to explain the competitive exclusion of N. womersleyi by N. californicus.

  14. Residual bioassay to assess the toxicity of Acaricides against Aceria guerreronis (Acari: Eriophyidae) under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Vaneska B; Lima, Debora B; Gondim, Manoel G C; Siqueira, Herbert A A

    2012-08-01

    Aceria guerreronis Keifer (Acari: Eriophyidae) is considered a major pest of the coconut (Cocos nucifera L.), and the use of pesticides is the current method to control it. However, no standard toxicological tests exist to select and assess the efficiency of molecules against the coconut mite. The aim of this study was to develop a methodology that allows for the evaluation of the relative toxicity of acaricides to A. guerreronis through rapid laboratory procedures. We confined A. guerreronis on arenas made out of coconut leaflets and tested two application methods: immersing the leaf fragments in acaricides and spraying acaricides on the leaf fragments under a Potter spray tower. In the latter application method, we sprayed leaf fragments both populated with and devoid of mites. We evaluated the comparative toxicity of two populations (Itamaracá and Petrolina, Pernambuco, Brazil) by spraying on leaflets without mites and submitted the mortality data to probit analysis after 24 h of exposure. No difference was observed in the LC50, regardless of whether the leaflets were immersed or sprayed with acaricide (abamectin, chlorfenapyr or fenpyroximate). The toxicity of chlorfenapyr and fenpyroximate did not differ, irrespective of whether it was applied directly to the leaflet or to the mite; however, the toxicity of abamectin was higher when applied directly to the mite. Chlorpyrifos and abamectin toxicities were lower for the Petrolina population than for the Itamaracá population. Immersing and spraying coconut leaflets can be used to assess the mortality of A. guerreronis under laboratory conditions.

  15. Approaches for sampling the twospotted spider mite (Acari: Tetranychidae) on clementines in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Ferrer, M T; Jacas, J A; Ripollés-Moles, J L; Aucejo-Romero, S

    2006-08-01

    Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) is an important pest of clementine mandarins, Citrus reticulata Blanco, in Spain. As a first step toward the development of an integrated crop management program for clementines, dispersion patterns of T. urticae females were determined for different types of leaves and fruit. The study was carried out between 2001 and 2003 in different commercial clementine orchards in the provinces of Castelló and Tarragona (northeastern Spain). We found that symptomatic leaves (those exhibiting typical chlorotic spots) harbored 57.1% of the total mite counts. Furthermore, these leaves were representative of mite dynamics on other leaf types. Therefore, symptomatic leaves were selected as a sampling unit. Dispersion patterns generated by Taylor's power law demonstrated the occurrence of aggregated patterns of spatial distribution (b > 1.21) on both leaves and fruit. Based on these results, the incidence (proportion of infested samples) and mean density relationship were developed. We found that optimal binomial sample sizes for estimating low populations of T. urticae on leaves (up to 0.2 female per leaf) were very large. Therefore, enumerative sampling would be more reliable within this range of T. urticae densities. However, binomial sampling was the only valid method for estimating mite density on fruit.

  16. Study of Acari and Collembola Populations in Four Cultivation Systems in Dourados - MS

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    Rosilda Mara Mussury

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The impact four cultivation systems on the soil fauna was studied, using Oribatida and Gamasida acarids as bioindicators and collembolan. The research was carried out in experimental fields, located in EMBRAPA - CPAO in Dourados, Centerwest of Brazil from July 1997 to December 1999. The constant pasture system presented smaller impact on the soil fauna followed by agricultural cattle rotation and a direct plantation system. In the conventional plantation series, the populational density of the mesofauna organisms was low, especially collembolan families.O impacto de quatro sistemas de cultivo sobre a fauna de solo foram estudados, utilizando-se como bioindicadores os acari Oribatida e Gamasida e os Collembola. A pesquisa foi conduzida em campos experimentais, localizados na EMBRAPA - CPAO no município de Dourados, MS, no período de julho de 1997 à dezembro de 1999. O sistema de pastagem contínua apresentou menor impacto sobre a fauna de solo seguido da rotação agricultura pecuária e do sistema de plantio direto. Nas sucessões do plantio convencional, a densidade populacional dos organismos da mesofauna foi baixa, em especial as famílias de colembolos.

  17. Subfamily Coleoscirinae (Acari: Trombidiformes: Cunaxidae), with Description of One New Species from Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Muhammad Hamid; Afzal, Muhammad; Ashfaq, Muhammad; Ali, Shaukat; Kamran, Muhammad; Honey, Sabyan Faris

    2014-01-01

    The Coleoscirinae (Acari: Trombidiformes: Cunaxidae) from Pakistan are summarized in this paper. Two species of Scutascirus Den Heyer (S. pirgus Chaudhri and Akbar and S. tactus Chaudhri and Akbar), ten species of Coleoscirus Berlese (C. baptos (Chaudhri and Akbar), C. carex (Inayatullah and Shahid), C. carnus Muhammad and Chaudhri, C. comis Muhammad and Chaudhri, C. disparis Muhammad and Chaudhri, C. irroratus Muhammad and Chaudhri, C. mardi (Inatullah and Shahid), C. raviensis Afzal, Ashfaq and Khan, C. tobaensis Bashir, Afzal, Ashfaq, and Khan, and C. trudus Bashir, Afzal and Akbar), and three species of Pseudobonzia Smiley (P. ashfaqi Bashir, Afzal and Akbar, P. numida Chaudhri and Akbar, and P. parilus Chaudhri) have been previously reported. One new species of Pseudobonzia, Pseudobonzia bakeri sp. n., is herein described and illustrated. A key to the genera of the subfamily and keys to the species in each genus are given to incorporate the new species from Pakistan. Distribution records of all known species in Pakistan are also given.

  18. Acaricidal and repellent activities of essential oil of Eucalyptus globulus against Dermanyssus gallinae (Acari: Mesostigmata

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    Dehghani-Samani Amir

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: By considering an increase in drug resistance against red mites, finding the nonchemical herbal acaricide against Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer (Acari: Mesostigmata is necessary to kill them and to reduce the chemical resistance against chemical acaricides in this specie. Dermanyssus gallinae is a potential vector of the causal agent of several viral diseases such as Equine encephalitis and St. Louis encephalitis. It can be a vector of bacteria such as Salmonella spp., Mycobacterium spp. and Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae. It is also known to cause itching dermatosis in humans. In this study acaricidal and repellent activities of essential oil of Eucalyptus globulus against Dermanyssus gallinae were studied. Methods: After extracting the essential oil, different concentrations of the plant extract were prepared. Then, acaricidal effect of different concentrations was tested on poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae, by dropping 3-4 drops of essential oil on mites. Repellent activity of essential oil was tested by Y-tube olfactometer bioassay. After the test, total number of killed and repellent mites reported. Results: Concentration of 1:2 or 50% had more acaricidal effect on mites. Also essential oil of Eucalyptus globulus had repellent activity against red mites. Conclusion: This study showed that essential oil of Eucalyptus globulus had acaricidal and repellent activities against red mites. Hence it might be used as a herbal acaricide against it to kill and to reduce the chemical resistance in this specie.

  19. UM OLHAR SOBRE A CIDADE DE ACARI: DO APOGEU AO ANONIMATO

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    Maria Luiza Medeiros Galvão

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Consta do presente trabalho uma análise do quadro de desaceleração socioeconômica da cidade de Acari, causada pelo fim das atividades das agroindústrias algodoeiras. Para a compreensão da cidade, adotamos como metodologia uma abordagem geohistórica, privilegiando, ainda que em breve, a importância do gado e do algodão para origem e expansão, respectivamente do seu sítio urbano. Como discussão teórica, trabalhamos o conceito de cidade, com duplo objetivo: refletir sobre ela como lugar de reprodução do capital e das relações de trabalho; e compreendê-la como lugar da memória e da história. Por fim, discorremos sobre aspectos do cotidiano da cidade, objeto de estudo, na qual coexistem, como pares contraditórios, a crise, deflagrada desde o fechamento das indústrias, e o harmonioso cotidiano, embora anônimo, demonstrado pelos seus moradores. Por ter ocupado posição de destaque no cenário econômico e histórico do Rio Grande do Norte, abordamos a história e memória, para justificar a cidade como espaço de referência.

  20. Morphometric variations of laelapine mite (Acari: Mesostigmata populations infesting small mammals (Mammalia in Brazil

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    F. Martins-Hatano

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to evaluate the morphometric variation of laelapine populations (Acari, Mesostigmata associated with neotropical oryzomyine rodents at different geographic localities in Brazil. Three nominal mite species were selected for study, all infesting the pelage of small mammals at different localities in Rio de Janeiro, Espírito Santo, Bahia, and the Federal District, Brazil. To analyse morphometric characteristics, thirty-seven morphological characters distributed across the whole body of each specimen were measured. We use the Analysis of Principal Components, extracting the three first axes and projecting each mite in these axes. Major species level changes in the taxonomy of the host mammals allows an independent examination of morphometric variation of mites infesting a set of distinctly different host species at different geographic localities. Gigantolaelaps vitzthumi and Laelaps differens are associated with oryzomyine rodents of the genus Cerradomys, and consistently showed a tendency to cluster by host phylogeny. Laelaps manguinhosi associated with Nectomys rattus in central Brazil is morphometrically distinct from mites infesting N. squamipes in the coastal restingas of Rio de Janeiro and Espírito Santo. The results obtained here indicate that laelapine mite populations can vary among geographic areas and among phylogenetically related host species. Clearly, the study of these mites at the population level can be an important tool for clarifying the taxonomy of both mites and hosts.

  1. Desiccation tolerance in diapausing spider mites Tetranychus urticae and T. kanzawai (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazy, Noureldin Abuelfadl; Suzuki, Takeshi

    2014-05-01

    We investigated the effects of changes in vapor pressure deficit (VPD) on the survival of diapausing (winter form) and non-diapausing (summer form) spider mites Tetranychus urticae Koch and Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida (Acari: Tetranychidae). Adult females of both species were kept without food at VPDs of 0.0, 0.4, 0.7, 1.5, 1.9, or 2.7 kPa for 3, 6, 9, 12, or 15 days at 25 °C. Diapausing females of both species kept at a VPD of ≥0.4 kPa for ≥6 days clearly tolerated desiccation. Under water-saturated conditions (VPD = 0.0 kPa), in which no desiccation occurred, diapausing females showed high starvation tolerance: 90 % survived for up to 15 days. No interspecific differences in tolerance to desiccation or starvation were observed under most conditions. These results indicate that diapause functions increase tolerance to desiccation and starvation. Such multiple tolerances to harsh environments might support winter survival in spider mites.

  2. Deoxidant-induced anoxia as a physical measure for controlling spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Takeshi; Wang, Chih-Hung; Gotoh, Tetsuo; Amano, Hiroshi; Ohyama, Katsumi

    2015-03-01

    Tiny agricultural pests such as spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) attached to seedlings grown outdoors often invade greenhouses, thereby triggering pest outbreaks. To solve the problem, we examined whether differences in anoxia tolerance between animals and plants would permit the application of an anoxic environment to control spider mites without the aid of acaricides. Under an anoxic environment created by using a commercial deoxidant at 25 °C, the time for 50 % mortality of eggs, non-diapausing adults (summer form), and diapausing adults (winter form) were 6.1, 5.5, and 23.6 h, respectively, for Tetranychus urticae Koch and 5.4, 3.9, and 23.2 h, respectively, for Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida. With anoxia for 12 h, no eggs and non-diapausing adults survived in either species, whereas most diapausing adults (98 % for T. urticae and 88 % for T. kanzawai) survived. Under this treatment, host Phaseolus vulgaris L. seedlings showed serious physiological disorders in their primary leaves and apical buds, and unusual lateral buds developed in the cotyledon axils. The spider mites acquire anoxia tolerance during diapause, but anoxia can potentially control them during the summer if no negative effects are observed in the treated seedlings.

  3. Development and reproduction of spider mites Tetranychus turkestani (Acari: Tetranychidae under water deficit condition in soybeans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivelina Nikolova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the major pests of soybeans in Bulgaria is the spider mite Tetranychus turkestani Ug et Nik (Acari: Tetranychidae and different results have been reported about the impact of water stress on its development and reproduction. Soybean plants exposed to natural infestation by spider mites, water deficit and treatment with imidacloprid were examined under greenhouse conditions at the Institute of Forage Crops, Pleven, Bulgaria, over the period 2011-2012. The development of mites and their eggs was faster when plants were exposed to water deficit, which created favorable conditions for high density and reproduction of T. turkestani. There was a vertical distribution of protonymphs, deutonymphs and adults as their numbers and egg counts were significantly higher under conditions of water deficit on the upper and middle plant parts, compared with their bottom parts, and imidacloprid treatment had a stronger and more prolonged activity against mites, compared to its influence on well-watered plants. Spider mites on water-stressed plants caused a 24.8% reduction in the contents of plastid pigments, and carotenoids, and 21.5% decrease on well-watered plants.

  4. Beat sampling accuracy in estimating spruce spider mite (Acari: Tetranychidae) populations and injury on juniper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrewsbury, Paula M; Hardin, Mark R

    2004-08-01

    The use of a standardized beat sampling method for estimating spruce spider mite, Oligonychus ununguis (Jacobi) (Acari: Tetranychidae), densities on a widely used evergreen ornamental plant species, Juniperus chinensis variety 'Sargentii' A. Henry (Cupressaceae), was examined. There was a significant positive relationship between total spruce spider mite densities and spider mite densities from beat sampling on juniper. The slope and intercept of the relationship may be used by pest managers to predict total spider mite densities on plants from beat sample counts. Beat sampling dramatically underestimates the total number of spider mites on a foliage sample. The relationships between spruce spider mite feeding injury and spider mite density estimates from beat sampling juniper foliage and total spider mite counts on foliage were also examined. There was a significant positive relationship between spruce spider mite density as estimated from beat sampling and injury to the plants. There was a similar positive relationship between the total number of spruce spider mites and injury to the plants, suggesting that a pest manager could use beat sampling counts to estimate plant injury and related thresholds. These findings have important implications to decision-making for spruce spider mite control, especially as it relates to threshold levels and determining rates of predator releases. Further assessment of the effectiveness of beat and other sampling methods across multiple spider mite- host plant associations needs to be examined to enable pest managers to select sampling plans that are feasible and reliable.

  5. Molecular detection of spotted fever group Rickettsia in Dermacentor silvarum from a forest area of northeastern China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.-C. Cao (Wuchun); L. Zhan (Lin); S.J. de Vlas (Sake); B.-H. Wen (Bo-Hai); H. Yang (Honghui); J.H. Richardus (Jan Hendrik); J.D.F. Habbema (Dik)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractIn total, 676 Dermacentor silvarum Olenev (Acari: Ixodidae) from a forest area of Jilin Province in northeastern China were examined by polymerase chain reaction for the presence of spotted fever group (SFG) Rickettsia. The overall positive rate was 10.7%, with a 95% confidence interval

  6. 5 Development of a resistance management.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    (Koch), R. senegalensisKoch, R. annulatus. (Say) and Hyalomma marginatum rufipes. (Koch) (Walker and Koney, 1999). Diseases of economic importance of domestic ruminants associated with the ticks in Ghana include dermatophilosis,. Development of a resistance management strategy for ixodid ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) ...

  7. Prevalence of equine Piroplasmosis and its association with tick infestation in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serum samples were collected from 582 horses from 40 stud farms in the State of São Paulo and tick (Acari: Ixodidae) infestations were evaluated on them. Serum samples were subjected to the complement fixation test (CFT) and a competitive inhibition ELISA (cELISA) for Babesia caballi and Theileria e...

  8. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cristina, RT. Vol 11, No 3 (2014) - Articles Effect Of Euphorbia Cyparissias Ointments On Acanthosis Abstract PDF · Vol 11, No 4 (2014) - Articles Phytotherapeutic activity of Euphorbia cyparissias extracts on Ixodidae (Acari) female ticks. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 0189-6016. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

  9. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Akinboade, OA. Vol 14, No 1 (2011) - Articles Effect of Temperature on the Oviposition Capacity of Engorged Adult Females and Hatchability of Eggs of Dog Ticks: Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Heamaphysalis leachi leachi (Acari: Ixodidae) Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1119-5096. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE ...

  10. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Samuel, W.M.. Vol 3, No 1 (2001): - Articles Questing behaviour and orientation of larval winter ticks, Dermacentor albipictus (Packard) (Acari: Ixodidae) on vegetation in Central Alberta, Canada Details. ISSN: 0855-3823. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors ...

  11. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    variegatum (Acari: Ixodidae) Ticks from Nigeria. Ogo, N. I.. 1. ; Okubanjo, O. O.. 2. ; Inuwa, H. M.. 3 and Agbede, R. I. S.. 4. 1National Veterinary Research Institute, Vom, Plateau State. 2Department of Veterinary Parasitology and. Entomology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria. 3Department of Biochemistry, Ahmadu ...

  12. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Muselin, F. Vol 11, No 3 (2014) - Articles Effect Of Euphorbia Cyparissias Ointments On Acanthosis Abstract PDF · Vol 11, No 4 (2014) - Articles Phytotherapeutic activity of Euphorbia cyparissias extracts on Ixodidae (Acari) female ticks. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 0189-6016. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

  13. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aalangdong, O.I.. Vol 3, No 1 (2001): - Articles Questing behaviour and orientation of larval winter ticks, Dermacentor albipictus (Packard) (Acari: Ixodidae) on vegetation in Central Alberta, Canada Details · Vol 3, No 1 (2001): - Articles Food habits of the African elephant (Loxodonta africana) in Mole National Park, Damongo ...

  14. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cumpanasoiu, C. Vol 11, No 4 (2014) - Articles Phytotherapeutic activity of Euphorbia cyparissias extracts on Ixodidae (Acari) female ticks. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 0189-6016. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms ...

  15. Ahmed Shoukry“, Gama] A El-Kadyl and Fathi M Diabz

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bionomics of ticks collected from Sinai Peninsula, Egypt. 1. Biology of Hyalomma schulzei (Olenev) (Acari: Ixodidae) under laboratory conditions. Ahmed Shoukry“, Gama] A El-Kadyl and Fathi M Diabz. 1. Faculty of Agriculture, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt. 2. Research Institute of Medical Entomology, Cairo, Egypt.

  16. Effects of exposing adults of Amblyomma variegatum to neem cake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The efficacy of a trap baited with an attractant blend comprising of attraction aggregation- attachment pheromone (AAAP), 1-octen-3-ol and CO2 and treated with Neem (Azadirachta indica) cake extracts (0.6% of azadirachtin) to attract and expose the ticks, Amblyomma variegatum (Fabricius) (Acari: Ixodidae) to the active ...

  17. Evaluation of biological control of Russian knapweed (Acroptilon repens L.) by applying flower-eater mite (Aceria acroptiloni Shevchenko & Kacalev) (Acari: Eriophyidae)

    OpenAIRE

    G.A. Asadi; R. Ghorbani; S. Khorramdel

    2016-01-01

    Russian knapweed (Acroptilon repens L.) is a perennial weed of Aceraceae that is becoming a dominant weed in suitable conditions. In order to find an ecological non-chemical approach for controlling Russian knapweed and studying the possibility of using flower-eater mite (Aceria acroptiloni Shevchenko & Kacalev) (Acari: Eriophyidae), a series of studies including field survey and field experiments were conducted in North Khorasan province, Agricultural Research Station of Shirvan College duri...

  18. Two new families (Acari: Alicorhagiidae and Platyhelminthes: Prorhynchidae reported for the Hungarian fauna From leaf litter in the Bükk Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pfliegler, W.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Two new members of the Hungarian fauna are reported, both of them were collected in beech forest leaf litter in the Bükk Mountains, North-East Hungary: Alicorhagia fragilis Berlese, 1910 (Arthropoda: Arachnida: Acari: Sarcoptiformes: Endeostigmata: Alicorhagiidae and Geocentrophora baltica (Kennel, 1883 (Platyhelminthes: Rhabditophora: Trepaxonemata: Amplimatricata: 'Lecithoepitheliata': Prorhynchida: Prorhynchidae. The families Alicorhagiidae and Prorhynchidae both represent new taxa in the fauna of the country.

  19. A quantitative evaluation of the extent of fluralaner uptake by ticks (Ixodes ricinus, Ixodes scapularis) in fluralaner (Bravecto) treated vs. untreated dogs using the parameters tick weight and coxal index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Heike; Demeler, Janina; Taenzler, Janina; Roepke, Rainer K A; Zschiesche, Eva; Heckeroth, Anja R

    2015-06-30

    Fluralaner is a new antiparasitic drug that was recently introduced as Bravecto chewable tablets for the treatment of tick and flea infestations in dogs. Most marketed tick products exert their effect via topical application and contact exposure to the parasite. In contrast, Bravecto delivers its acaricidal activity through systemic exposure. Tick exposure to fluralaner occurs after attachment to orally treated dogs, which induces a tick-killing effect within 12 h. The fast onset of killing lasts over the entire treatment interval (12 weeks) and suggests that only marginal uptake by ticks is required to induce efficacy. Three laboratory studies were conducted to quantify the extent of uptake by comparison of ticks' weight and coxal index obtained from Bravecto-treated and negative-control dogs. Three studies were conducted using experimental tick infestation with either Ixodes ricinus or Ixodes scapularis after oral administration of fluralaner to dogs. All studies included a treated (Bravecto chewable tablets, MSD Animal Health) and a negative control group. Each study had a similar design for assessing vitality and weighing of ticks collected from dogs of both groups. Additionally, in one study the coxal index (I. ricinus) was calculated as a ratio of tick's ventral coxal gap and dorsal width of scutum. Tick weight data and coxal indices from Bravecto-treated and negative-control groups were compared via statistical analysis. Ticks collected from Bravecto-treated dogs weighed significantly less (p ≤ 0.0108) than ticks collected from negative-control dogs, and their coxal index was also significantly lower (p < 0.0001). The difference in tick weights was demonstrated irrespective of the tick species investigated (I. ricinus, I. scapularis). At some assessments the mean tick weights of Bravecto-treated dogs were significantly lower than those of unfed pre-infestation (baseline) ticks. The demonstrated tick-killing efficacy was in the range of 94.6 - 100

  20. Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae on Gerbera jamesonii Bolus and Hook (Asteraceae

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    EA. Silva

    Full Text Available Gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii Bolus and Hook, is an ornamental Asteraceae of great commercial value, and pests can affect adversely its cultivation. More than 20 species of arthropods cause economic damage on gerbera, among them the two spotted mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, 1836 (Acari: Tetranychidae, considered a key pest for this and other ornamental plants. In this work, some life-cycle aspects of T. urticae on gerbera, considered important for the knowledge of its population dynamics and for pest management programs, were studied. Mites were reared on 3-cm diameter arenas of gerbera leaf discs maintained on distilled water in Petri dishes, under laboratory conditions of 25 ºC, 70 ± 10% RU and 14-hour photophase, with only one egg left per arena, in a total of 262 arenas. Egg viability was 96.5% and 97.1% for unmated and mated females, respectively. Unmated females originated larvae which lived for 3.2 days and the stages of protonymph and deutonymph, 1.9 and 1.6 days, respectively; those from mated females lived 3.5 days and for protonymphs and deutonymphs, 2.0 and 1.6 days, respectively. Except for the duration of one generation (T, with similar values, 18.6 and 19.7 days, respectively for unmated and mated females, the net reproductive rate of increase (Rº, the innate capacity to increase in number (r m and the finite rate of growth (λ were different for mated and unmated females, respectively 11.5 and 24.6 for R0; 0.12 and 0.17 for r m and 1.13 and 1.19 for λ.