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Sample records for scanning fixed breast

  1. Breast MRI scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or breast ultrasound Evaluate for possible rupture of breast implants Find any cancer that remains after surgery or chemotherapy Show blood ... Mean Abnormal results may be due to: Breast cancer Cysts Leaking or ruptured breast implants Abnormal breast tissue that is not cancer Scar ...

  2. Bone scanning in patients with breast carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Y.; Nishi, T.; Hirose, T.; Schichijo, Y.; Ibukuro, K.

    1985-01-01

    Skeletal imaging using radionuclides has proved to be a sensitive method for the detection of early bony metastases from breast carcinoma. Recent studies have found a relatively low rate of abnormal scans in patients with stage I and II breast cancers, and therefore it is open to question whether bone scanning should be part of the preoperative evaluation of any patient prior to breast surgery. We reviewed our experience with bone scans in 329 patients out of 406 histologically proven breast cancer patients to determine if any or all patients should have this procedure done routinely prior to breast surgery. (orig.) [de

  3. PET scan for breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... radioactive substance (called a tracer) to look for breast cancer. This tracer can help identify areas of cancer ... only after a woman has been diagnosed with breast cancer. It is done to see if the cancer ...

  4. Scanning conductance microscopy investigations on fixed human chromosomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Casper Hyttel; Lange, Jacob Moresco; Jensen, Linda Boye

    2008-01-01

    Scanning conductance microscopy investigations were carried out in air on human chromosomes fixed on pre-fabricated SiO2 surfaces with a backgate. The point of the investigation was to estimate the dielectric constant of fixed human chromosomes in order to use it for microfluidic device...... optimization. The phase shift caused by the electrostatic forces, together with geometrical measurements of the atomic force microscopy (AFM) cantilever and the chromosomes were used to estimate a value,for the dielectric constant of different human chromosomes....

  5. Usefulness of Thallium Scan for Differential Diagnosis of Breast Mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Sang Kyun; Yum, Ha Yong; Lee, Chung Han; Choi, Kyung Hyun [Kosin University College of Medicine, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-07-15

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate thallium scanning as a potential test in differentiating malignant from benign lesions of breast. Thirty-one female patients underwent thallium scan of the breast. After intravenous injection of 74-111 MBq(2-3 mCi)of thallium-201, anterior and lateral images were obtained. We compared thallium scans with pathological results. Of 11 patients with breast cancers, 10 cases (90.9%) were detected using thallium scan. Thallium scan obtained in one patient who had breast cancer but received several cycles of chemotherapy did not show thallium uptake. The smallest detectable cancer was 1.5 cm in diameter. In contrast, there is no thallium accumulation in breasts of 17 of 20 patients with benign disease (85%), Three cases of 13 fibrocystic disease show thallium uptake in their breast. In conclusion, thallium scan is an effective test in differentiating benign from malignant lesion.

  6. Usefulness of Thallium Scan for Differential Diagnosis of Breast Mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Sang Kyun; Yum, Ha Yong; Lee, Chung Han; Choi, Kyung Hyun

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate thallium scanning as a potential test in differentiating malignant from benign lesions of breast. Thirty-one female patients underwent thallium scan of the breast. After intravenous injection of 74-111 MBq(2-3 mCi)of thallium-201, anterior and lateral images were obtained. We compared thallium scans with pathological results. Of 11 patients with breast cancers, 10 cases (90.9%) were detected using thallium scan. Thallium scan obtained in one patient who had breast cancer but received several cycles of chemotherapy did not show thallium uptake. The smallest detectable cancer was 1.5 cm in diameter. In contrast, there is no thallium accumulation in breasts of 17 of 20 patients with benign disease (85%), Three cases of 13 fibrocystic disease show thallium uptake in their breast. In conclusion, thallium scan is an effective test in differentiating benign from malignant lesion.

  7. A Genome-Wide Breast Cancer Scan in African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    SNPs from the African American breast cancer scan to COGs , a European collaborative study which is has designed a SNP array with that will be genotyped...Award Number: W81XWH-08-1-0383 TITLE: A Genome-wide Breast Cancer Scan in African Americans PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Christopher A...SUBTITLE A Genome-wide Breast Cancer Scan in African Americans 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-08-1-0383 5c. PROGRAM

  8. CT scanning of the breast in problem cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John, V.; Ewen, K. (Essen Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany, F.R.). Radiologisches Zentrum; Zentralstelle fuer Sicherheitstechnik, Duesseldorf (Germany, F.R.))

    1989-09-01

    This is a report of the experience with 200 patients who during 1981 to 1984 underwent breast scanning on a conventional body scanner. Pre- and post-contrast scans of the breast were obtained. A postcontrast enhancement of 50 HU and more turned out to be specific for malignant lesions. Radiation dose to the breast was in the same range as with high filtration xeromammography and high resolution film-screen mammography with additional grid. Breast scanning is recommended in cases in which mammography alone is of limited value, including dense fibrocystic breasts in women at high risk, follow-up in breast cancer patients after breast conserving therapy, in patients with silastic implants and in the follow-up of breasts with huge scars due to multiple biopsies. (orig.).

  9. Breast dose reduction for chest CT by modifying the scanning parameters based on the pre-scan size-specific dose estimate (SSDE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kidoh, Masafumi; Utsunomiya, Daisuke; Oda, Seitaro; Nakaura, Takeshi; Yuki, Hideaki; Hirata, Kenichiro; Namimoto, Tomohiro; Sakabe, Daisuke; Hatemura, Masahiro; Yamashita, Yasuyuki [Kumamoto University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Honjo, Kumamoto (Japan); Funama, Yoshinori [Kumamoto University, Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Life Sciences, Honjo, Kumamoto (Japan)

    2017-06-15

    To investigate the usefulness of modifying scanning parameters based on the size-specific dose estimate (SSDE) for a breast-dose reduction for chest CT. We scanned 26 women with a fixed volume CT dose index (CTDI{sub vol}) (15 mGy) and another 26 with a fixed SSDE (15 mGy) protocol (protocol 1 and 2, respectively). In protocol 2, tube current was calculated based on the patient habitus obtained on scout images. We compared the mean breast dose and the inter-patient breast dose variability and performed linear regression analysis of the breast dose and the body mass index (BMI) of the two protocols. The mean breast dose was about 35 % lower under protocol 2 than protocol 1 (10.9 mGy vs. 16.8 mGy, p < 0.01). The inter-patient breast dose variability was significantly lower under protocol 2 than 1 (1.2 mGy vs. 2.5 mGy, p < 0.01). We observed a moderate negative correlation between the breast dose and the BMI under protocol 1 (r = 0.43, p < 0.01); there was no significant correlation (r = 0.06, p = 0.35) under protocol 2. The SSDE-based protocol achieved a reduction in breast dose and in inter-patient breast dose variability. (orig.)

  10. Where is the place of bone scan in breast cancer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowferesti, G. H.; Ghavam Nasiri, M. R.; Anvari, K.

    2002-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common female cancer in west and in Iran. The incidence in all over the world in year 2000 was 1050000 cases out of which 370000 were dead. General y bone is the most common site of distant. Metastases in beast cancer. Bone scan has an important place in the bone metastases and extent of bone disease and even in the staging and treatment protocol. In study done during 1 year, breast cancer patients and place of bone scan were studied. Every year more than 2000 new patients with cancer are diagnosed and treated in Khorasan state. And more than half of them are treated in Omid Hospital. In the year 2000 a study was done. 1336 new cases were admitted for treatment out of which 164 persons (13%) were breast cancer patients. 100 patients were selected randomly and different factors were studied. How many patients had bone scan and its place in breast cancer? Where is the most common metastatic place and relation with bone scan? The differential diagnosis in positive bone scans and comparing with radiography and patient's clinic were studied. Bone scan is positive in 35% of patients in stage III. Bone is the most common place for distant metastases in breast cancer in patients admitted in Omid hospital in year 2000. Clinical and para clinical study such as radiography and tumour markers were adjusted with bone scan, more in stages III and IV. 39 patients out of 100 studied patients had bone scan. 28 bone scan were adjusted radiologically. In 20 positive bone scan out of 28 patients with metastases 12 patients had bone metastases. Despite 5% positive bone scan in early stages can suggest that bone scan be taken for all patients with breast cancer as a basic step?

  11. Bone scan in breast cancer patients with mastectomy and breast reconstruction with a myocutaneous TRAM flap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, Rosanna; Cano, Roque; Delgado, Ricardo; Munive, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To report findings in bone scans for breast cancer patients with mastectomy and breast reconstruction with transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap (TRAM). Material and Methods: Inclusion criteria were: confirmed breast cancer, mastectomy, breast reconstruction with TRAM flap and bone scan performed after TRAM. Exclusion criteria were: Absence of bone scan image, breast reconstruction by other approaches. Results: Absence of uptake in TRAM flap in six patients, diminished uptake in skin near TRAM, with peripheral increased uptake in three and increased uptake in TRAM flap, in a patient with cancer recurrence, confirmed by biopsy. Conclusions: Bone scans in breast cancer patients with mastectomy and TRAM flap can have different imaging presentations, procedure details diminish reporting errors. TRAM flap may present fat necrosis areas, which should be differentiated from recurrence in bone scans. Additional imaging and biopsy will be needed to diagnose this finding. (authors).

  12. Assessment of breast tumor size in electrical impedance scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sungwhan

    2012-01-01

    Electrical impedance scanning (EIS) is a newly introduced imaging technique for early breast cancer detection. In EIS, we apply a sinusoidal voltage between a hand-held electrode and a scanning probe placed on the breast skin to make current travel through the breast. We measure induced currents (Neumann data) through the scanning probe. In this paper, we investigate the frequency-dependent behavior of the induced complex potential and show how the frequency differential of the current measurement on the scanning probe reflects the contrast in complex conductivity values between surrounding and cancerous tissues. Furthermore, we develop the formula for breast tumor size using the frequency differential of the current measurement and provide its feasibility. (paper)

  13. Semiautomatic estimation of breast density with DM-Scan software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Gómez, I; Casals El Busto, M; Antón Guirao, J; Ruiz Perales, F; Llobet Azpitarte, R

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the reproducibility of the calculation of breast density with DM-Scan software, which is based on the semiautomatic segmentation of fibroglandular tissue, and to compare it with the reproducibility of estimation by visual inspection. The study included 655 direct digital mammograms acquired using craniocaudal projections. Three experienced radiologists analyzed the density of the mammograms using DM-Scan, and the inter- and intra-observer agreement between pairs of radiologists for the Boyd and BI-RADS® scales were calculated using the intraclass correlation coefficient. The Kappa index was used to compare the inter- and intra-observer agreements with those obtained previously for visual inspection in the same set of images. For visual inspection, the mean interobserver agreement was 0,876 (95% CI: 0,873-0,879) on the Boyd scale and 0,823 (95% CI: 0,818-0,829) on the BI-RADS® scale. The mean intraobserver agreement was 0,813 (95% CI: 0,796-0,829) on the Boyd scale and 0,770 (95% CI: 0,742-0,797) on the BI-RADS® scale. For DM-Scan, the mean inter- and intra-observer agreement was 0,92, considerably higher than the agreement for visual inspection. The semiautomatic calculation of breast density using DM-Scan software is more reliable and reproducible than visual estimation and reduces the subjectivity and variability in determining breast density. Copyright © 2012 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Confocal Microscopy of Unfixed Breast Needle Core Biopsies: A Comparison to Fixed and Stained Sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zavislan James M

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Needle core biopsy, often in conjunction with ultrasonic or stereotactic guided techniques, is frequently used to diagnose breast carcinoma in women. Confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM is a technology that provides real-time digital images of tissues with cellular resolution. This paper reports the progress in developing techniques to rapidly screen needle core breast biopsy and surgical specimens at the point of care. CSLM requires minimal tissue processing and has the potential to reduce the time from excision to diagnosis. Following imaging, specimens can still be submitted for standard histopathological preparation. Methods Needle core breast specimens from 49 patients were imaged at the time of biopsy. These lesions had been characterized under the Breast Imaging Reporting And Data System (BI-RADS as category 3, 4 or 5. The core biopsies were imaged with the CSLM before fixation. Samples were treated with 5% citric acid and glycerin USP to enhance nuclear visibility in the reflectance confocal images. Immediately following imaging, the specimens were fixed in buffered formalin and submitted for histological processing and pathological diagnosis. CSLM images were then compared to the standard histology. Results The pathologic diagnoses by standard histology were 7 invasive ductal carcinomas, 2 invasive lobular carcinomas, 3 ductal carcinomas in-situ (CIS, 21 fibrocystic changes/proliferative conditions, 9 fibroadenomas, and 5 other/benign; two were excluded due to imaging difficulties. Morphologic and cellular features of benign and cancerous lesions were identified in the confocal images and were comparable to standard histologic sections of the same tissue. Conclusion CSLM is a technique with the potential to screen needle core biopsy specimens in real-time. The confocal images contained sufficient information to identify stromal reactions such as fibrosis and cellular proliferations such as intra-ductal and

  15. Confocal Microscopy of Unfixed Breast Needle Core Biopsies: A Comparison to Fixed and Stained Sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background Needle core biopsy, often in conjunction with ultrasonic or stereotactic guided techniques, is frequently used to diagnose breast carcinoma in women. Confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM) is a technology that provides real-time digital images of tissues with cellular resolution. This paper reports the progress in developing techniques to rapidly screen needle core breast biopsy and surgical specimens at the point of care. CSLM requires minimal tissue processing and has the potential to reduce the time from excision to diagnosis. Following imaging, specimens can still be submitted for standard histopathological preparation. Methods Needle core breast specimens from 49 patients were imaged at the time of biopsy. These lesions had been characterized under the Breast Imaging Reporting And Data System (BI-RADS) as category 3, 4 or 5. The core biopsies were imaged with the CSLM before fixation. Samples were treated with 5% citric acid and glycerin USP to enhance nuclear visibility in the reflectance confocal images. Immediately following imaging, the specimens were fixed in buffered formalin and submitted for histological processing and pathological diagnosis. CSLM images were then compared to the standard histology. Results The pathologic diagnoses by standard histology were 7 invasive ductal carcinomas, 2 invasive lobular carcinomas, 3 ductal carcinomas in-situ (CIS), 21 fibrocystic changes/proliferative conditions, 9 fibroadenomas, and 5 other/benign; two were excluded due to imaging difficulties. Morphologic and cellular features of benign and cancerous lesions were identified in the confocal images and were comparable to standard histologic sections of the same tissue. Conclusion CSLM is a technique with the potential to screen needle core biopsy specimens in real-time. The confocal images contained sufficient information to identify stromal reactions such as fibrosis and cellular proliferations such as intra-ductal and infiltrating carcinoma, and

  16. Characterization of human breast cancer by scanning acoustic microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Di; Malyarenko, Eugene; Seviaryn, Fedar; Yuan, Ye; Sherman, Mark; Bandyopadhyay, Sudeshna; Gierach, Gretchen; Greenway, Christopher W.; Maeva, Elena; Strumban, Emil; Duric, Neb; Maev, Roman

    2013-03-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to characterize human breast cancer tissues by the measurement of microacoustic properties. Methods: We investigated eight breast cancer patients using acoustic microscopy. For each patient, seven blocks of tumor tissue were collected from seven different positions around a tumor mass. Frozen sections (10 micrometer, μm) of human breast cancer tissues without staining and fixation were examined in a scanning acoustic microscope with focused transducers at 80 and 200 MHz. Hematoxylin and Eosin (H and E) stained sections from the same frozen breast cancer tissues were imaged by optical microscopy for comparison. Results: The results of acoustic imaging showed that acoustic attenuation and sound speed in cancer cell-rich tissue regions were significantly decreased compared with the surrounding tissue regions, where most components are normal cells/tissues, such as fibroblasts, connective tissue and lymphocytes. Our observation also showed that the ultrasonic properties were influenced by arrangements of cells and tissue patterns. Conclusions: Our data demonstrate that attenuation and sound speed imaging can provide biomechanical information of the tumor and normal tissues. The results also demonstrate the potential of acoustic microscopy as an auxiliary method for operative detection and localization of cancer affected regions.

  17. Tumor markers and bone scan in breast cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ugrinska, A.; Vaskova, O.; Kraleva, S.; Petrova, D.; Smickova, S.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The objective of this study was to compare the levels of CA15-3 and CEA with the bone scan findings in patients with breast cancer. Retrospective analysis of 76 bone scans from 61 patients diagnosed with breast cancer in the last 5 years was performed by two nuclear medicine specialists. All bone scans were performed after surgical treatment of the disease. Patients with loco-regional residual disease or distant metastases in the liver, lung or the brain were excluded from the study. According to the bone scan the patients were divided in 5 groups: normal bone scan (N), equivocal bone scan (E), single metastasis (1MS), three metastases (3MS) and multiple metastases (MMS). Tumor markers were determined within a month before or after the bone scan was performed. Cut-off value for CA 15-3 was 35 U/ml, and for CEA 3 ng/ml. Statistical analysis was performed using descriptive statistic and Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Bone metastases were revealed in 38% of the patients referred for bone scintigraphy out of which 26% had MMS, 7.8% had single MS and 4% had 3MS. The results of 6.5% of the patients were determined as equivocal. The values of CA15-3 were higher in all patient groups compared with the group that had normal bone scan, but this difference reached statistical significance only in groups with 3MS and MMS (p < 0.01). The values of CEA were significantly higher only in patients with multiple metastases when compared with group N (p < 0.01). Values higher than cut-off value for CA 15-3 was found in 9 patients out of 42 in the group with normal bone scan. The highest value of CA 15-3 in this group was 47 U/ml. Only one patient in this group showed elevated levels for CEA. Three patients in the group with single metastasis had normal CA 15-3, while CEA was elevated only in one patient. All patients in the group with 3MS had elevated levels of CA 15-3 while CEA was in the normal range. All patients with MMS had elevated CA 15-3 values while CEA was elevated in

  18. Eighteen cases of small breast cancer: a comparative study of mammography, CT scan and pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yaopan; Lin Haogao; Cai Peiqiang; Ouyang Yi; Zhang Weizhang; Lu Bingui

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To improve the early diagnosis of breast cancer through a study of the mammography and CT findings of small breast cancer. Methods: The mammography and CT findings of 18 cases of small breast cancer (φ≤2.0 cm in diameter) were studied and compared with pathological results. Results: The diagnostic accuracy of CT and mammography was 83% and 61%, respectively. There was a statistical difference between both modalities (P<0.05), CT scan was superior to mammography. However, there was no difference between them when assessing the lesion arising in F-type breast. In detecting breast fine cluster of calcification, the sensitivity of mammography was better than CT scan. Conclusion: The patient suspected of small breast cancer should take mammography as the first evaluation. CT scan is reserved for the further investigation. The mammography combined with CT scan can improve the early diagnostic rate of breast cancer

  19. Optimization of transmission-scan time for the FixER method: a MR-based PET attenuation correction with a weak fixed-position external radiation source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Kershaw, Jeff; Yoshida, Eiji [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Shiraishi, Takahiro [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Suga, Mikio [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Center for Frontier Medical Engineering, Chiba University (Japan); Obata, Takayuki [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Ito, Hiroshi; Yamaya, Taiga [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    2014-07-29

    In recent work, we proposed an MRI-based attenuation-coefficient (μ-value) estimation method that uses a weak fixed-position external radiation source to construct an attenuation map for PET/MRI. In this presentation we refer to this method as FixER, and perform a series of simulations to investigate the duration of the transmission scan required to accurately estimate μ-values.

  20. Optimization of transmission-scan time for the FixER method: a MR-based PET attenuation correction with a weak fixed-position external radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Kershaw, Jeff; Yoshida, Eiji; Shiraishi, Takahiro; Suga, Mikio; Obata, Takayuki; Ito, Hiroshi; Yamaya, Taiga

    2014-01-01

    In recent work, we proposed an MRI-based attenuation-coefficient (μ-value) estimation method that uses a weak fixed-position external radiation source to construct an attenuation map for PET/MRI. In this presentation we refer to this method as FixER, and perform a series of simulations to investigate the duration of the transmission scan required to accurately estimate μ-values.

  1. Comparison of thallium-201 scan and Tc-99m sestamibi scan in the differential diagnosis of breast mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Ihn Ho; Won, Kyu Jang; Lee, Hyung Woo; Lee, Soon Jung [College of Medicine, Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-02-01

    We performed this study to compare Tl-201 and Tc-99m MIBI scans for the differentiation of malignant from benign breast mass. Thirty-eight female patients underwent Tl-201 breast scan and thirty-two of them also underwent Tc-99m MIBI scan of the breast. After intravenous injection of 74-111 MBq of Tl-201, early (10 minutes) and delayed (3 hours) images were obtained. Then, 555-740 MBq of Tc-99m MIBI was injected and images after 30 minutes were obtained. We compared Tl-201 and Tc-99m MIBI scans with pathologic results. Twenty-three patients were confirmed to have infiltrating duct carcinoma and fifteen patients to have benign breast mass by excisonal biopsy. The sensitivity of early and delayed Tl-201 scan and Tc-99m MIBI scan in the detection of malignant breast lesion were 100% (23/23), 82% (18/22), and 90% (18/20), respectively. The sensitivity of early Tl-201 scan was significantly higher than that of delayed Tl-201 scan, (p<0.05). The specificity of early and delayed Tl-201 scan and Tc-99m MIBI scan were 73% (11/15), 73% (11/15) and 83% (10/12), respectively (p: not significant). Three patients out of nine with fibroadenoma and one patient with atypical duct hyperplasia were false positive in both early and delayed Tl-201 scans. The size of fibroadenoma with false positive in early and delayed Tl-201 scan (4 cases) was larger than that of 11 fibroadenoma with true negative scan (p<0.01). Metastatic axillary lymph node involvement was present in fifteen patients. The sensitivity to detect metastatic nodes was 38% (5/13) for early Tl-201 images, 15% (2/13) for delayed Tl-201 images, 58% (7/12) for Tc-99m MIBI planar images and 67% (4/6) for Tc-99m MIBI SPECT. The sensitivity of Tc-99m MIBI planar or SPECT was significantly higher than that of delayed Tl-201 images (p<0.05). Early Tl-201 and Tc-99m MIBI scan are useful noninvasive methods to differentiate malignant from benign mass of breast. Tc-99m MIBI scan was sensitive in detecting axillary lymph node

  2. Parallel-scanning tomosynthesis using a slot scanning technique: Fixed-focus reconstruction and the resulting image quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Koichi; Notohara, Daisuke; Sakai, Takihito

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Parallel-scanning tomosynthesis (PS-TS) is a novel technique that fuses the slot scanning technique and the conventional tomosynthesis (TS) technique. This approach allows one to obtain long-view tomosynthesis images in addition to normally sized tomosynthesis images, even when using a system that has no linear tomographic scanning function. The reconstruction technique and an evaluation of the resulting image quality for PS-TS are described in this paper. Methods: The PS-TS image-reconstruction technique consists of several steps (1) the projection images are divided into strips, (2) the strips are stitched together to construct images corresponding to the reconstruction plane, (3) the stitched images are filtered, and (4) the filtered stitched images are back-projected. In the case of PS-TS using the fixed-focus reconstruction method (PS-TS-F), one set of stitched images is used for the reconstruction planes at all heights, thus avoiding the necessity of repeating steps (1)–(3). A physical evaluation of the image quality of PS-TS-F compared with that of the conventional linear TS was performed using a R/F table (Sonialvision safire, Shimadzu Corp., Kyoto, Japan). The tomographic plane with the best theoretical spatial resolution (the in-focus plane, IFP) was set at a height of 100 mm from the table top by adjusting the reconstruction program. First, the spatial frequency response was evaluated at heights of −100, −50, 0, 50, 100, and 150 mm from the IFP using the edge of a 0.3-mm-thick copper plate. Second, the spatial resolution at each height was visually evaluated using an x-ray test pattern (Model No. 38, PTW Freiburg, Germany). Third, the slice sensitivity at each height was evaluated via the wire method using a 0.1-mm-diameter tungsten wire. Phantom studies using a knee phantom and a whole-body phantom were also performed. Results: The spatial frequency response of PS-TS-F yielded the best results at the IFP and degraded slightly as the

  3. Parallel-scanning tomosynthesis using a slot scanning technique: fixed-focus reconstruction and the resulting image quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Koichi; Notohara, Daisuke; Sakai, Takihito

    2014-11-01

    Parallel-scanning tomosynthesis (PS-TS) is a novel technique that fuses the slot scanning technique and the conventional tomosynthesis (TS) technique. This approach allows one to obtain long-view tomosynthesis images in addition to normally sized tomosynthesis images, even when using a system that has no linear tomographic scanning function. The reconstruction technique and an evaluation of the resulting image quality for PS-TS are described in this paper. The PS-TS image-reconstruction technique consists of several steps (1) the projection images are divided into strips, (2) the strips are stitched together to construct images corresponding to the reconstruction plane, (3) the stitched images are filtered, and (4) the filtered stitched images are back-projected. In the case of PS-TS using the fixed-focus reconstruction method (PS-TS-F), one set of stitched images is used for the reconstruction planes at all heights, thus avoiding the necessity of repeating steps (1)-(3). A physical evaluation of the image quality of PS-TS-F compared with that of the conventional linear TS was performed using a R/F table (Sonialvision safire, Shimadzu Corp., Kyoto, Japan). The tomographic plane with the best theoretical spatial resolution (the in-focus plane, IFP) was set at a height of 100 mm from the table top by adjusting the reconstruction program. First, the spatial frequency response was evaluated at heights of -100, -50, 0, 50, 100, and 150 mm from the IFP using the edge of a 0.3-mm-thick copper plate. Second, the spatial resolution at each height was visually evaluated using an x-ray test pattern (Model No. 38, PTW Freiburg, Germany). Third, the slice sensitivity at each height was evaluated via the wire method using a 0.1-mm-diameter tungsten wire. Phantom studies using a knee phantom and a whole-body phantom were also performed. The spatial frequency response of PS-TS-F yielded the best results at the IFP and degraded slightly as the distance from the IFP increased. A

  4. Parallel-scanning tomosynthesis using a slot scanning technique: Fixed-focus reconstruction and the resulting image quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, Koichi, E-mail: shibatak@suzuka-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiological Technology, Faculty of Health Science, Suzuka University of Medical Science 1001-1, Kishioka-cho, Suzuka 510-0293 (Japan); Notohara, Daisuke; Sakai, Takihito [R and D Department, Medical Systems Division, Shimadzu Corporation 1, Nishinokyo-Kuwabara-cho, Nakagyo-ku, Kyoto 604-8511 (Japan)

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: Parallel-scanning tomosynthesis (PS-TS) is a novel technique that fuses the slot scanning technique and the conventional tomosynthesis (TS) technique. This approach allows one to obtain long-view tomosynthesis images in addition to normally sized tomosynthesis images, even when using a system that has no linear tomographic scanning function. The reconstruction technique and an evaluation of the resulting image quality for PS-TS are described in this paper. Methods: The PS-TS image-reconstruction technique consists of several steps (1) the projection images are divided into strips, (2) the strips are stitched together to construct images corresponding to the reconstruction plane, (3) the stitched images are filtered, and (4) the filtered stitched images are back-projected. In the case of PS-TS using the fixed-focus reconstruction method (PS-TS-F), one set of stitched images is used for the reconstruction planes at all heights, thus avoiding the necessity of repeating steps (1)–(3). A physical evaluation of the image quality of PS-TS-F compared with that of the conventional linear TS was performed using a R/F table (Sonialvision safire, Shimadzu Corp., Kyoto, Japan). The tomographic plane with the best theoretical spatial resolution (the in-focus plane, IFP) was set at a height of 100 mm from the table top by adjusting the reconstruction program. First, the spatial frequency response was evaluated at heights of −100, −50, 0, 50, 100, and 150 mm from the IFP using the edge of a 0.3-mm-thick copper plate. Second, the spatial resolution at each height was visually evaluated using an x-ray test pattern (Model No. 38, PTW Freiburg, Germany). Third, the slice sensitivity at each height was evaluated via the wire method using a 0.1-mm-diameter tungsten wire. Phantom studies using a knee phantom and a whole-body phantom were also performed. Results: The spatial frequency response of PS-TS-F yielded the best results at the IFP and degraded slightly as the

  5. What Can Computed Tomography Scans of the Thorax Show after Breast Surgery?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsaneh Alikhassi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Postoperative breast abnormalities after breast conserving surgery or modified radical mastectomy are frequently overlooked and inaccurately assessed or reported using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT. These inaccurate results may have legal ramifications for the clinicians, cause patients avoidable anxiety, and lead to additional unnecessary diagnostic follow-up testing and costs.Methods: The patients with a history of breast cancer who had undergone breast-conserving surgery or modified radical mastectomy up to 6 months prior to undergoing a thoracic MDCT scan consented and enrolled in this study. These patients underwent a thoracic MDCT scan either because of respiratory or cardiac clinical symptoms or as part of breast cancer staging.Results: Forty women were included in this study. Different postoperative breast changes observed on thoracic MDCT scans including fibrous scar tissue, fat necrosis, seroma, abscess, hematoma, and recurrent and residual tumor were described.Conclusions: MDCT scans offer sufficient evidence in many postoperative cases to allow a confident diagnosis. General radiologists who review thoracic MDCT scans should know how to characterize breast lesions incidentally found on MDCT scans after breast surgeries. This information would enhance the value of the radiologist’s report for appropriate case management.

  6. Initial experience of automated breast volume scanning (ABVS) and ultrasound elastography in predicting breast cancer subtypes and staging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Lei; Tao, Lin; Zhou, Xian-Li; Wei, Hong; Sun, Jia-Wei

    2016-12-01

    Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease consisting of distinct histopathological subtypes with different clinical outcomes. In this article, we identified the automated breast volume scanning (ABVS) and shear wave velocity (SWV) characteristics of different pathological types of breast carcinoma. A retrospective review of both ABVS and SWV imaging of 118 consecutive breast masses was performed. The imaging features of both techniques were assessed with reference to histopathological results. Echo heterogeneity with a smooth and lobulated margin was a significant feature more frequently found in mucinous carcinoma groups (100%, P breast carcinoma stages. The central and tumor margin areas of ductal carcinomas were much harder than in tubular carcinoma and micro-carcinoma, respectively (P breast carcinoma types and stages, ABVS and SWV imaging has the potential to give clues about breast carcinoma differentiation in a non-invasive manner. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Left-sided breast cancer irradiation using rotational and fixed-field radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, X. Sharon; Liu, Tian X.; Liu, Arthur K.; Newman, Francis; Rabinovitch, Rachel; Kavanagh, Brian; Hu, Y. Angie

    2014-01-01

    The 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) technique is the standard for breast cancer radiotherapy. During treatment planning, not only the coverage of the planning target volume (PTV) but also the minimization of the dose to critical structures, such as the lung, heart, and contralateral breast tissue, need to be considered. Because of the complexity and variations of patient anatomy, more advanced radiotherapy techniques are sometimes desired to better meet the planning goals. In this study, we evaluated external-beam radiation treatment techniques for left breast cancer using various delivery platforms: fixed-field including TomoDirect (TD), static intensity-modulated radiotherapy (sIMRT), and rotational radiotherapy including Elekta volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and tomotherapy helical (TH). A total of 10 patients with left-sided breast cancer who did or did not have positive lymph nodes and were previously treated with 3DCRT/sIMRT to the entire breast were selected, their treatment was planned with Monaco VMAT, TD, and TH. Dosimetric parameters including PTV coverage, organ-at-risk (OAR) sparing, dose-volume histograms, and target minimum/maximum/mean doses were evaluated. It is found that for plans providing comparable PTV coverage, the Elekta VMAT plans were generally more inhomogeneous than the TH and TD plans. For the cases with regional node involvement, the average mean doses administered to the heart were 9.2 (± 5.2) and 8.8 (± 3.0) Gy in the VMAT and TH plans compared with 11.9 (± 6.4) and 11.8 (± 9.2) Gy for the 3DCRT and TD plans, respectively, with slightly higher doses given to the contralateral lung or breast or both. On average, the total monitor units for VMAT plans are 11.6% of those TH plans. Our studies have shown that VMAT and TH plans offer certain dosimetric advantages over fixed-field IMRT plans for advanced breast cancer requiring regional nodal treatment. However, for early-stage breast cancer fixed

  8. Dosimetric study comparing volumetric arc modulation with RapidArc and fixed dynamic intensity-modulated radiation therapy for breast cancer radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tie Jian; Sun Yan; Gong Jian; Han Shukui; Jiang Fan; Wu Hao

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To compare the dosimetric difference between volumetric are modulation with RapidArc and fixed field dynamic IMRT for breast cancer radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery. Methods: Twenty patients with early left-sided breast cancer received radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery. After target definition, treatment planning was performed by RapidArc and two fixed fields dynamic IMRT respectively on the same CT scan. The target dose distribution, homogeneity of the breast, and the irradiation dose and volume for the lungs, heart, and contralateral breast were read in the dose-volume histogram (DVH) and compared between RapidArc and IMRT. The treatment delivery time and monitor units were also compared. Results: In comparison with the IMRT planning,the homogeneity of clinical target volume (CTV), the volume proportion of 95% prescribed dose (V 95% ) was significantly higher by 0.65% in RapidArc (t=5.16, P=0.001), and the V 105% and V 110% were lower by 10.96% and 1.48 % respectively, however, without statistical significance (t=-2.05, P=0.055 and t=-1.33, P=0.197). The conformal index of planning target volume (PTV) by the RapidArc planning was (0.88±0.02), significantly higher than that by the IMRT planning [(0.74±0.03), t=18.54, P<0.001]. The homogeneity index (HI) of PTV by the RapidArc planning was 1.11±0.01, significantly lower than that by the IMRT planning (1.12±0.02, t=-2.44, P=0.02). There were no significant differences in the maximum dose (D max ) and V 20 for the ipsilateral lung between the RapidArc and IMRT planning, but the values of V 10 , V 5 , D min and D mean by RapidArc planning were all significantly higher than those by the IMRT planning (all P<0.01). The values of max dose and V 30 for the heart were similar by both techniques, but the values of V 10 and V 5 by the RapidArc planning were significantly higher (by 18% and 50%, respectively). The V 5 of the contralateral breast and lung by the RapidArc planning were

  9. Scatter radiation breast exposure during head CT: impact of scanning conditions and anthropometric parameters on shielded and unshielded breast dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klasic, B. [Hospital for pulmonary diseases, Zagreb (Croatia); Knezevic, Z.; Vekic, B. [Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Zagreb (Croatia); Brnic, Z.; Novacic, K. [Merkur Univ. Hospital, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2006-07-01

    Constantly increasing clinical requests for CT scanning of the head on our facility continue to raise concern regarding radiation exposure of patients, especially radiosensitive tissues positioned close to the scanning plane. The aim of our prospective study was to estimate scatter radiation doses to the breast from routine head CT scans, both with and without use of lead shielding, and to establish influence of various technical and anthropometric factors on doses using statistical data analysis. In 85 patient referred to head CT for objective medical reasons, one breast was covered with lead apron during CT scanning. Radiation doses were measured at skin of both breasts and over the apron simultaneously, by the use of thermo luminescent dosimeters. The doses showed a mean reduction by 37% due to lead shielding. After we statistically analyzed our data, we observed significant correlation between under-the-shield dose and values of technical parameters. We used multiple linear regression model to describe the relationships of doses to unshielded and shielded breast respectively, with anthropometric and technical factors. Our study proved lead shielding of the breast to be effective, easy to use and leading to a significant reduction in scatter dose. (author)

  10. Scatter radiation breast exposure during head CT: impact of scanning conditions and anthropometric parameters on shielded and unshielded breast dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klasic, B.; Knezevic, Z.; Vekic, B.; Brnic, Z.; Novacic, K.

    2006-01-01

    Constantly increasing clinical requests for CT scanning of the head on our facility continue to raise concern regarding radiation exposure of patients, especially radiosensitive tissues positioned close to the scanning plane. The aim of our prospective study was to estimate scatter radiation doses to the breast from routine head CT scans, both with and without use of lead shielding, and to establish influence of various technical and anthropometric factors on doses using statistical data analysis. In 85 patient referred to head CT for objective medical reasons, one breast was covered with lead apron during CT scanning. Radiation doses were measured at skin of both breasts and over the apron simultaneously, by the use of thermo luminescent dosimeters. The doses showed a mean reduction by 37% due to lead shielding. After we statistically analyzed our data, we observed significant correlation between under-the-shield dose and values of technical parameters. We used multiple linear regression model to describe the relationships of doses to unshielded and shielded breast respectively, with anthropometric and technical factors. Our study proved lead shielding of the breast to be effective, easy to use and leading to a significant reduction in scatter dose. (author)

  11. Intensity modulated radiotherapy with fixed collimator jaws for locoregional left-sided breast cancer irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juanqi; Yang, Zhaozhi; Hu, Weigang; Chen, Zhi; Yu, Xiaoli; Guo, Xiaomao

    2017-05-16

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with the fixed collimator jaws technique (FJT) for the left breast and regional lymph node. The targeted breast tissue and the lymph nodes, and the normal tissues were contoured for 16 left-sided breast cancer patients previously treated with radiotherapy after lumpectomy. For each patient, treatment plans using different planning techniques, i.e., volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), tangential IMRT (tangential-IMRT), and IMRT with FJT (FJT-IMRT) were developed for dosimetric comparisons. A dose of 50Gy was prescribed to the planning target volume. The dose-volume histograms were generated, and the paired t-test was used to analyze the dose differences. FJT-IMRT had similar mean heart volume receiving 30Gy (V30 Gy) with tangential-IMRT (1.5% and 1.6%, p = 0.41), but inferior to the VMAT (0.8%, p < 0.001). In the average heart mean dose comparison, FJT-IMRT had the lowest value, and it was 0.6Gy lower than that for the VMAT plans (p < 0.01). A significant dose increase in the contralateral breast and lung was observed in VMAT plans. Compared with tangential-IMRT and VMAT plans, FJT-IMRT reduced the mean dose of thyroid, humeral head and cervical esophageal by 47.6% (p < 0.01) and 45.7% (p < 0.01), 74.3% (p =< 0.01) and 73% (p =< 0.01), and 26.7% (p =< 0.01) and 29.2% (p =< 0.01). In conclusion, compared with tangential-IMRT and VMAT, FJT-IMRT plan has the lowest thyroid, humeral head and cervical esophageal mean dose and it can be a reasonable treatment option for a certain subgroup of patients, such as young left-breast cancer patients and/or patients with previous thyroid disease.

  12. A Method for Preparing Spaceflight RNAlater-Fixed Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicaceae Tissue for Scanning Electron Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric R. Schultz

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: In spaceflight experiments, tissues for morphologic study are fixed in 3% glutaraldehyde, while tissues for molecular study are fixed in RNAlater; thus, an experiment containing both study components requires multiple fixation strategies. The possibility of using RNAlater-fixed materials for standard SEM-based morphometric investigation was explored to expand the library of tissues available for analysis and maximize usage of samples returned from spaceflight, but these technologies have wide application to any situation where recovery of biological resources is limited. Methods and Results: RNAlater-fixed samples were desalinated in distilled water, dehydrated through graded methanol, plunged into liquid ethane, and transferred to cryovials for freeze-substitution. Sample tissues were critical point dried, mounted, sputter-coated, and imaged. Conclusions: The protocol resulted in acceptable SEM images from RNAlater-fixed Arabidopsis thaliana tissue. The majority of the tissues remained intact, including general morphology and finer details such as root hairs and trichomes.

  13. Chest wall segmentation in automated 3D breast ultrasound scans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Tao; Platel, Bram; Mann, Ritse M; Huisman, Henkjan; Karssemeijer, Nico

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, we present an automatic method to segment the chest wall in automated 3D breast ultrasound images. Determining the location of the chest wall in automated 3D breast ultrasound images is necessary in computer-aided detection systems to remove automatically detected cancer candidates beyond the chest wall and it can be of great help for inter- and intra-modal image registration. We show that the visible part of the chest wall in an automated 3D breast ultrasound image can be accurately modeled by a cylinder. We fit the surface of our cylinder model to a set of automatically detected rib-surface points. The detection of the rib-surface points is done by a classifier using features representing local image intensity patterns and presence of rib shadows. Due to attenuation of the ultrasound signal, a clear shadow is visible behind the ribs. Evaluation of our segmentation method is done by computing the distance of manually annotated rib points to the surface of the automatically detected chest wall. We examined the performance on images obtained with the two most common 3D breast ultrasound devices in the market. In a dataset of 142 images, the average mean distance of the annotated points to the segmented chest wall was 5.59 ± 3.08 mm. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Scanning usefulness for bone metastases diagnosis in the breast cancer follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillen, G.; Martinez, P.; Garcia, F.; Tres, A.

    1988-01-01

    It is studied the incidence of osseus metastases and the usefulness of 179 bone scanning realized in the diagnosis and follow-up (average: 23,6 months) of 87 patients operated by breast cancer. It is obvious the scan sensitivity and its unspecificity (15,08% phase-positives). In 13 (14,9%) patients who showed them, during the follow-up, scan was pathological at the moment of the osseus metastases diagnosis or a bit later; there were other clinical data or abnormal analytical ones of suspicion in 77% of them. The time average of appearance is 27 months after surgery. We concluded that the bone scan in the follow-up of breast cancer will be realized only when clinical or analytical suspicion of bone metastases. (Author)

  15. Positive indium-III bone marrow scan in metastatic breast carcinoma. Case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaManna, M.M.; Hyzinski, M.; Swami, V.K.; Parker, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    Indium is generally presumed to localize in the bone marrow within the erythroid cell line. Fibrosis, inflammation, lymphoma, extended field radiation, chemotherapy, or combinations of both treatment modalities generally depress the uptake of indium by the marrow in a complex fashion. We report a case of metastatic breast carcinoma and pancytopenia in which the In-111 scan appeared qualitatively similar to a Tc-99m MDP bone scan. Findings were confirmed by bone marrow biopsy

  16. Evaluation of sestamibi scanning as a predictor of risk of development of breast cancer and as a non-invasive biomarker for breast cancer chemoprevention trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimler, B.F.; Preston, D.; McMillin, C.H.; Dusing, R.; Zalles, C.M.; Fabian, C.J.

    2003-01-01

    Sestamibi scintimammography is becoming increasingly accepted as an adjunct to conventional breast imaging by mammography and ultrasound. We sought to determine whether it might serve to detect/quantify pre-cancerous breast lesions, specifically hyperplasia with atypia which, when detected by random periareolar fine needle aspiration (FNA), is known to be associated with increased risk for subsequent development of breast cancer. If a parameter derived from sestamibi scanning could be shown to correlate with and predict for atypia, then this could serve 1) to refine estimates of risk of development of breast cancer; and 2) as a surrogate endpoint biomarker in clinical breast cancer chemoprevention trials. To this end, we performed sestamibi scanning on both breasts of 65 women at high risk for development of breast cancer who also underwent FNA. Seventeen women (26%) exhibited non-proliferative cytology; 30 (46%) had hyperplasia; and 18 (28%) had hyperplasia with atypia in the FNA specimen. Since the fine needle aspiration specimens from both breasts are pooled to provide a single result, we likewise pooled the sestamibi results from both breasts so as to consider the most abnormal finding. Twenty-five women (39%) were characterized as having an abnormal sestamibi scan with heterogenous, focal, intense uptake. There was no correlation between an abnormal scan and cytologic evidence of hyperplasia with atypia. Neither was there a correlation between any of a variety of quantitative measures of the sestamibi scans and the cytological classification. At this time, there is no indication for the use of sestamibi scanning for the prediction of risk of subsequent development of breast cancer, or as a surrogate endpoint biomarker in clinical breast cancer chemoprevention trials

  17. Bone scan and serum CA 15-3 in bone metastasis in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza, G.; Cano, R.; Morales, R.; Guzman, C.

    1996-01-01

    CA 15-3 is a tumor marker useful in evolution control of breast cancer, being the serum levels trend the most important parameter. The purpose of this study was to report our experience and show the concordance of bone scan and CA 15-3 in patients with breast cancer attending the Breast and Bone Department of INEN from June to December 1993. One hundred patients had serum CA 15-3 quantification between June and December of 1993 in Nuclear Medicine Center (Peruvian Institute of Nuclear Energy and National Institute of Neoplasic Diseases). We selected 52 patients which simultaneously had a bone scan performed. Patients age ranged from 21 to 67 years (media of 44,57 years). 99m Tc methylenediphosphonate produced by IPEN was the radiopharmaceutical employed. A GE AZS-400 gamma camera was utilized to obtain the bone scans. Ca 15-5 quantification was performed with ELSA-CA 15-3 (CIS bio France) IRMA kit. Bone scan and CA 15-3 media of 17,06 U/ml (DS 15,4). Eight patients had a positive bone scan with a CA 15-3 media of 41,6 U/ml (SD 23,0). CA 15-3 levels ranged between 4,6 and 96,0 U/ml in the first group and 10,1 U/ml to 75,0 U/ml in the second group. Using a cut-off point of 30 U/ml the sensitivity of CA 15-3 was 62,5% and the specificity 93,2% respectively. Mean CA 15-3 values of the negative and positive bone scan groups were significantly different (p=0,0361). The high negative predictive value of CA 15-3 may help to establish which patients will benefit from bone scan procedure. (authors) 42 refs., 2 tabs

  18. Radiation Induced Rib Fractures on Bone Scan after Breast Cancer Surgery and Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hae Won; Won, Kyoung Sook; Zeon, Seok Kil; Kim, Jin Hee

    2009-01-01

    This study is to evaluate rib fractures on bone scan in breast cancer patients treated with breast cancer surgery and radiation therapy and to evaluate its relation with radiation therapy and operation modality. Two hundred seventy cases that underwent serial bone scan after breast cancer surgery and radiation therapy were enrolled. Bone scan and chest CT findings of rib fracture were analyzed. The rib uptake was seen in 74 of 270 cases (27.4%) on bone scan and 50 cases (18.5%) were confirmed to have rib fracture by chest CT. The rate of modified radical mastectomy in patients with rib fracture was significantly higher than that in patients without rib fracture (66.0% vs. 27.0%, p=0.000). The rate of additional radiation therapy to axillar or supraclavicular regions in patients with rib fracture was significantly higher than that in patients without rib fracture (62.0% vs. 28.6%, p=0.000). Rib fracture was seen most frequently at 1-2 years after radiation therapy (51.9%) and single rib fracture was seen most frequently (55.2%). Of total 106 rib fractures, focal rib uptake was seen in 94 ribs (88.7%) and diffuse rib uptake was seen in 12 ribs (11.3%). On one year follow-up bone scan, complete resolution of rib uptake was seen in 15 ribs (14.2%). On chest CT, the rate of fracture line in ribs with intense uptake was significantly higher than that in ribs with mild or moderate uptake (p=0.000). The rate of presence of fracture line in ribs with focal uptake was significantly higher than that in ribs with diffuse uptake (p=0.001). Rib fracture in breast cancer patients after radiation therapy was related to radiation portal and operation modality. It should be interpreted carefully as a differential diagnosis of bone metastasis

  19. Radiation Induced Rib Fractures on Bone Scan after Breast Cancer Surgery and Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hae Won; Won, Kyoung Sook; Zeon, Seok Kil; Kim, Jin Hee [Keimyung University, School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-08-15

    This study is to evaluate rib fractures on bone scan in breast cancer patients treated with breast cancer surgery and radiation therapy and to evaluate its relation with radiation therapy and operation modality. Two hundred seventy cases that underwent serial bone scan after breast cancer surgery and radiation therapy were enrolled. Bone scan and chest CT findings of rib fracture were analyzed. The rib uptake was seen in 74 of 270 cases (27.4%) on bone scan and 50 cases (18.5%) were confirmed to have rib fracture by chest CT. The rate of modified radical mastectomy in patients with rib fracture was significantly higher than that in patients without rib fracture (66.0% vs. 27.0%, p=0.000). The rate of additional radiation therapy to axillar or supraclavicular regions in patients with rib fracture was significantly higher than that in patients without rib fracture (62.0% vs. 28.6%, p=0.000). Rib fracture was seen most frequently at 1-2 years after radiation therapy (51.9%) and single rib fracture was seen most frequently (55.2%). Of total 106 rib fractures, focal rib uptake was seen in 94 ribs (88.7%) and diffuse rib uptake was seen in 12 ribs (11.3%). On one year follow-up bone scan, complete resolution of rib uptake was seen in 15 ribs (14.2%). On chest CT, the rate of fracture line in ribs with intense uptake was significantly higher than that in ribs with mild or moderate uptake (p=0.000). The rate of presence of fracture line in ribs with focal uptake was significantly higher than that in ribs with diffuse uptake (p=0.001). Rib fracture in breast cancer patients after radiation therapy was related to radiation portal and operation modality. It should be interpreted carefully as a differential diagnosis of bone metastasis.

  20. A False Positive {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT Scan Caused by Breast Silicone Injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chao Jung; Lee, Bi Fang; Yao, Wei Jen; Wu, Pei Shan; Chen, Wen Chung; Peng, Shu Lin; Chiu, Nan Tsing [Cheng Kung University Medical College and Hospital, Tainan (Turkmenistan)

    2009-04-15

    We present here the case of a 40-year-old woman with a greater than 10 year prior history of bilateral breast silicone injection and saline bag implantation. Bilateral palpable breast nodules were observed, but the ultrasound scan was suboptimal and the magnetic resonance imaging showed no gadolinium enhanced tumor. The {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT scan showed a hypermetabolic nodule in the left breast with a 30% increase of {sup 18}F-FDG uptake on the delayed imaging, and this mimicked breast cancer. She underwent a left partial mastectomy and the pathology demonstrated a siliconoma.

  1. Diagnostic performance of shear wave elastography of the breast according to scanning orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Solip; Choi, SeonHyeong; Choi, Yoonjung; Kook, Shin-Ho; Park, Hee Jin; Chung, Eun Chul

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate the influence of the scanning orientation on diagnostic performance measured by the mean elasticity, maximum elasticity, and fat-to-lesion elasticity ratio on ultrasound-based shear wave elastography in differentiating breast cancers from benign lesions. In this study, a total of 260 breast masses from 235 consecutive patients were observed from March 2012 to November 2012. For each lesion, the mean elasticity value, maximum elasticity value, and fat-to-lesion ratio were measured along two orthogonal directions, and all values were compared with pathologic results. There were 59 malignant and 201 benign lesions. Malignant masses showed higher mean elasticity, maximum elasticity, and fat-to-lesion ratio values than benign lesions (P masses; and mean elasticity, 0.392, for anterior mammary fat. Mean elasticity, maximum elasticity, and fat-to-lesion elasticity ratio values were helpful in differentiating benign and malignant breast masses. The scanning orientation did not significantly affect the diagnostic performance of shear wave elastography for breast masses. © 2014 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  2. Detection and characterization of Budd-Chiari syndrome with inferior vena cava obstruction: Comparison of fixed and flexible delayed scan time of computed tomography venography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Peng-Li; Wu, Gang; Han, Xin-Wei; Bi, Yong-Hua; Zhang, Wen-Guang; Wu, Zheng-Yang

    2017-06-01

    To compare the results of computed tomography venography (CTV) with a fixed and a flexible delayed scan time for Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS) with inferior vena cava (IVC) obstruction. A total of 209 consecutive BCS patients with IVC obstruction underwent either a CTV with a fixed delayed scan time of 180s (n=87) or a flexible delayed scan time for good image quality according to IVC blood flow in color Doppler ultrasonography (n=122). The IVC blood flow velocity was measured using a color Doppler ultrasound prior to CT scan. Image quality was classified as either good, moderate, or poor. Image quality, surrounding structures and the morphology of the IVC obstruction were compared between the two groups using a χ 2 -test or paired or unpaired t-tests as appropriate. Inter-observer agreement was assessed using Kappa statistics. There was no significant difference in IVC blood flow velocity between the two groups. Overall image quality, surrounding structures and IVC obstruction morphology delineation on the flexible delayed scan time of CTV images were rated better relative to those obtained by fixed delayed scan time of CTV images (ptime of CTV. There were no significant differences in Kappa statistics between Group A and Group B. The flexible delayed scan time of CTV was associated with better detection and more reliable characterization of BCS with IVC obstruction compared to a fixed delayed scan time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Optical redox imaging of fixed unstained tissue slides to identify biomarkers for breast cancer diagnosis/prognosis: feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, He N.; Tchou, Julia; Li, Yusheng; Feng, Min; Zhang, Paul; Quinn, William J.; Baur, Joseph A.; Li, Lin Z.

    2018-02-01

    We previously showed that optical redox imaging (ORI) of snap-frozen breast biopsies by the Chance redox scanner readily discriminates cancer from normal tissue. Moreover, indices of redox heterogeneity differentiate among tumor xenografts with different metastatic potential. These observations suggest that ORI of fluorescence of NADH and oxidized flavoproteins (Fp) may provide diagnostic/prognostic value for clinical applications. In this work, we investigate whether ORI of formalin-fixed-paraffin-embedded (FFPE) unstained clinical tissue slides of breast tumors is feasible and comparable to ORI of snap-frozen tumors. If ORI of FFPE is validated, it will enhance the versatility of ORI as a novel diagnostic/prognostic assay as FFPE samples are readily available. ORI of fixed tissue slides was performed using a fluorescence microscope equipped with a precision automated stage and appropriate optical filters. We developed a vignette correction algorithm to remove the tiling effect of stitched-images. The preliminary data from imaging fixed slides of breast tumor xenografts showed intratumor redox heterogeneity patterns similar to that of the frozen tissues imaged by the Chance redox scanner. From ORI of human breast tissue slides we identified certain redox differences among normal, ductal carcinoma in situ, and invasive carcinoma. We found paraformaldehyde fixation causes no change in NADH signals but enhances Fp signals of fresh muscle fibers. We also investigated the stability of the fluorescence microscope and reproducibility of tissue slide fluorescence signals. We plan to validate the diagnostic/prognostic value of ORI using clinically annotated breast cancer sample set from patients with long-term follow-up data.

  4. A new tool for an old job: Using fixed cell scanning calorimetry to investigate dilute aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woolley, E.M.

    2007-01-01

    The development of fixed twin cell temperature scanning calorimeters has enabled the more efficient determination of heat capacities of dilute aqueous solutions with a precision comparable to that of the Picker flow heat capacity calorimeters developed nearly 40 years ago. Experiments require less than 0.5 cm 3 of solution, and results can be obtained routinely over the temperature range (278 to 395) K at pressures up to a few bars. Multiple scanning of samples by both increasing and decreasing temperature allows assessment of instrument drift, solute stability, and reproducibility of results. Chemical calibration is essential to take full advantage of the precision and sensitivity of the calorimeters. The calorimetric output is a direct measure of the difference in heat capacity per unit volume of a solution and of a reference liquid, usually water. Thus, densities of the solution and reference liquid are needed to transform the results into heat capacities per unit mass of solution. Examples of solutes that have been investigated include a variety of inorganic and organic compounds that dissolve to give simple ionic or neutral species, or that produce complexes or species that exist in equilibrium distributions that can change as the temperature is scanned. Appropriate selection of the results from experiments on combinations of solutes allows calculation of standard state (zero concentration) thermodynamic quantities for chemical processes and reactions over the ranges of temperature scanned at the solution compositions investigated. Results for a few specific systems are presented and discussed for some representative classes of solutes that have been investigated in our laboratory since 1998

  5. Current role of bone scan with phosphonates in the follow-up of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maffioli, Lorenzo; Florimonte, Luigia; Pagani, Luca; Butti, Ivana; Roca, Isabel

    2004-01-01

    A number of studies have demonstrated that bone scintigraphy has high sensitivity and efficacy in the early detection of bone metastases from several tumours, including breast cancer. Bone scintigraphy is the most definitive tool for diagnosing and monitoring metastatic spread of breast cancer. However, in the past decade there has been a wide debate on its impact on survival time, morbidity and quality of life. Worldwide economic restrictions and these studies have led to the adoption of an almost minimalist policy for breast cancer follow-up using evidence-based guidelines. The recommended breast cancer surveillance testing includes only a few procedures (history, physical and breast self-examination, patient education on symptoms, pelvic examination). The routine use of additional tests, such as blood cell count, tumour markers, liver ultrasonography, bone scan and chest X-rays, is not recommended. Accordingly, scintigraphy should be reserved for a limited number of patients. On the other hand, early diagnosis of bone involvement may reduce the risk of skeletal related events, thus leading to a significant improvement in quality of life. Furthermore, new drugs (e.g. bisphosphonates) can now delay the onset of bone metastasis and reduce the number of patients who experience skeletal complications. In conclusion, the evidence of the clinical usefulness of bone scintigraphy (to allow early planning of new treatments in advanced disease) has to be re-evaluated, possibly by large randomised prospective trials. (orig.)

  6. Can tumour marker assays be a guide in the prescription of bone scan for breast and lung cancers?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buffaz, P.-D.; Gauchez, A.S.; Caravel, J.P.; Vuillez, J.P.; Cura, C.; Agnius-Delord, C.; Fagret, D. [Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Grenoble (France)

    1999-01-01

    Considering the current need to improve cost-effectiveness in cancer patient management, a prospective study was undertaken in order to define the optimal combination of bone scan and tumour marker assays in breast and lung cancer strategies, as has been done in the case of prostate cancer. All patients with breast or lung cancer referred to the Nuclear Medicine Department of the Grenoble Teaching Hospital between December 1995 and April 1997 were included. A blood sample was drawn in each case for marker assay (CA15-3 or CEA and CYFRA 21-1) on the same day as the bone scan. Two hundred and seventy-five patients were included: 118 with lung cancer and 157 with breast cancer. With regard to lung cancer, no information useful for guiding bone scan prescription was obtained through CEA and CYFRA 21-1 assays. For breast cancer, the results suggest that in asymptomatic patients, a CA15-3 level of less than 25 U/ml (upper normal value chosen as the threshold) is strongly predictive of a negative bone scan; by contrast, high tumour marker levels are predictive of neoplastic bone involvement. When a doubtful bone scan is obtained in a patient with breast cancer, a normal marker level makes it highly probable that bone scan abnormalities are not related to malignancy. (orig.) With 3 figs., 21 refs.

  7. Surface scanning through a cylindrical tank of coupling fluid for clinical microwave breast imaging exams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pallone, Matthew J.; Meaney, Paul M.; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Microwave tomographic image quality can be improved significantly with prior knowledge of the breast surface geometry. The authors have developed a novel laser scanning system capable of accurately recovering surface renderings of breast-shaped phantoms immersed within a cylindrical tank of coupling fluid which resides completely external to the tank (and the aqueous environment) and overcomes the challenges associated with the optical distortions caused by refraction from the air, tank wall, and liquid bath interfaces. Methods: The scanner utilizes two laser line generators and a small CCD camera mounted concentrically on a rotating gantry about the microwave imaging tank. Various calibration methods were considered for optimizing the accuracy of the scanner in the presence of the optical distortions including traditional ray tracing and image registration approaches. In this paper, the authors describe the construction and operation of the laser scanner, compare the efficacy of several calibration methods—including analytical ray tracing and piecewise linear, polynomial, locally weighted mean, and thin-plate-spline (TPS) image registrations—and report outcomes from preliminary phantom experiments. Results: The results show that errors in calibrating camera angles and position prevented analytical ray tracing from achieving submillimeter accuracy in the surface renderings obtained from our scanner configuration. Conversely, calibration by image registration reliably attained mean surface errors of less than 0.5 mm depending on the geometric complexity of the object scanned. While each of the image registration approaches outperformed the ray tracing strategy, the authors found global polynomial methods produced the best compromise between average surface error and scanner robustness. Conclusions: The laser scanning system provides a fast and accurate method of three dimensional surface capture in the aqueous environment commonly found in microwave

  8. Can continuous scans in orthogonal planes improve diagnostic performance of shear wave elastography for breast lesions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Pan; Peng, Yulan; Zhao, Haina; Luo, Honghao; Jin, Ya; He, Yushuang

    2015-01-01

    Static shear wave elastography (SWE) is used to detect breast lesions, but slice and plane selections result in discrepancies. To evaluate the intraobserver reproducibility of continuous SWE, and whether quantitative elasticities in orthogonal planes perform better in the differential diagnosis of breast lesions. One hundred and twenty-two breast lesions scheduled for ultrasound-guided biopsy were recruited. Continuous SWE scans were conducted in orthogonal planes separately. Quantitative elasticities and histopathology results were collected. Reproducibility in the same plane and diagnostic performance in different planes were evaluated. The maximum and mean elasticities of the hardest portion, and standard deviation of whole lesion, had high inter-class correlation coefficients (0.87 to 0.95) and large areas under receiver operation characteristic curve (0.887 to 0.899). Without loss of accuracy, sensitivities had increased in orthogonal planes compared with single plane (from 73.17% up to 82.93% at most). Mean elasticity of whole lesion and lesion-to-parenchyma ratio were significantly less reproducible and less accurate. Continuous SWE is highly reproducible for the same observer. The maximum and mean elasticities of the hardest portion and standard deviation of whole lesion are most reliable. Furthermore, the sensitivities of the three parameters are improved in orthogonal planes without loss of accuracies.

  9. Scan Quality and Entrance Skin Dose in Thoracic CT: A Comparison between Bismuth Breast Shield and Posteriorly Centered Partial CT Scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tappouni, Rafel; Mathers, Bradley

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To compare the effectiveness of the bismuth breast shield and partial CT scan in reducing entrance skin dose and to evaluate the effect of the breast shield on image quality (IQ). Methods. Nanodots were placed on an adult anthropomorphic phantom. Standard chest CT, CT with shield, and partial CT were performed. Nanodot readings and effective doses were recorded. 50 patients with chest CTs obtained both with and without breast shields were reviewed. IQ was evaluated by two radiologists and by measuring Hounsfield units (HUs) and standard deviation (SD) of HU in anterior subcutaneous region. Results. Breast shield and the partial CT scans reduced radiation to the anterior chest by 38% and 16%, respectively. Partial CT increased dose to the posterior chest by 37% and effective dose by 8%. Change in IQ in shield CT was observed in the anterior chest wall. Significant change in IQ was observed in 5/50 cases. The shield caused an increase of 20 HU (P = 0.021) and a 1.86 reduction in SD of HU (P = 0.027) in the anterior compared to posterior subcutaneous regions. Summary. Bismuth breast shield is more effective than the partial CT in reducing entrance skin dose while maintaining image quality

  10. Developmental memory capacity resources of typical children retrieving picture communication symbols using direct selection and visual linear scanning with fixed communication displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Barry T; Jackson, Heather M

    2006-02-01

    This study examined the cognitive demands of 2 selection techniques in augmentative and alternative communication (AAC), direct selection, and visual linear scanning, by determining the memory retrieval abilities of typically developing children when presented with fixed communication displays. One hundred twenty typical children from kindergarten, 1st, and 3rd grades were randomly assigned to either a direct selection or visual linear scanning group. Memory retrieval was assessed through word span using Picture Communication Symbols (PCSs). Participants were presented various numbers and arrays of PCSs and asked to retrieve them by placing identical graphic symbols on fixed communication displays with grid layouts. The results revealed that participants were able to retrieve more PCSs during direct selection than scanning. Additionally, 3rd-grade children retrieved more PCSs than kindergarten and 1st-grade children. An analysis on the type of errors during retrieval indicated that children were more successful at retrieving the correct PCSs than the designated location of those symbols on fixed communication displays. AAC practitioners should consider using direct selection over scanning whenever possible and account for anticipatory monitoring and pulses when scanning is used in the service delivery of children with little or no functional speech. Also, researchers should continue to investigate AAC selection techniques in relationship to working memory resources.

  11. Value of whole body bone scan in the pre-operative assessment in carcinoma of the breast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, P [Oerebro Regional Hospital (Sweden). Dept. of Oncology; Vikterloef, K J; Beckman, K W [Oerebro Regional Hospital (Sweden). Dept. of Radiation Physics; Rydman, H; Blom, O [Oerebro Regional Hospital (Sweden). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology

    1979-01-01

    In 126 patients with primary breast cancer a patient moving whole-body bone scan was performed when they first presented. None of the patients in stage I had an evidence of skeletal metastases. Two patients (3%) of 62 in stage II and 4 patients (17%) in stage III had evidence of skeletal metastases. It appears that whole-body scanning is the most accurate, sensitive and convenient method of detecting osseous metastases and of staging breast cancer. This investigation should be carried out pre-operatively. Detection of early asymptomatic bony metastases will provide a better planning of treatment with rational approach.

  12. Digital breast tomosynthesis: observer performance of clustered microcalcification detection on breast phantom images acquired with an experimental system using variable scan angles, angular increments, and number of projection views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Heang-Ping; Goodsitt, Mitchell M; Helvie, Mark A; Zelakiewicz, Scott; Schmitz, Andrea; Noroozian, Mitra; Paramagul, Chintana; Roubidoux, Marilyn A; Nees, Alexis V; Neal, Colleen H; Carson, Paul; Lu, Yao; Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Wei, Jun

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the dependence of microcalcification cluster detectability on tomographic scan angle, angular increment, and number of projection views acquired at digital breast tomosynthesis ( DBT digital breast tomosynthesis ). A prototype DBT digital breast tomosynthesis system operated in step-and-shoot mode was used to image breast phantoms. Four 5-cm-thick phantoms embedded with 81 simulated microcalcification clusters of three speck sizes (subtle, medium, and obvious) were imaged by using a rhodium target and rhodium filter with 29 kV, 50 mAs, and seven acquisition protocols. Fixed angular increments were used in four protocols (denoted as scan angle, angular increment, and number of projection views, respectively: 16°, 1°, and 17; 24°, 3°, and nine; 30°, 3°, and 11; and 60°, 3°, and 21), and variable increments were used in three (40°, variable, and 13; 40°, variable, and 15; and 60°, variable, and 21). The reconstructed DBT digital breast tomosynthesis images were interpreted by six radiologists who located the microcalcification clusters and rated their conspicuity. The mean sensitivity for detection of subtle clusters ranged from 80% (22.5 of 28) to 96% (26.8 of 28) for the seven DBT digital breast tomosynthesis protocols; the highest sensitivity was achieved with the 16°, 1°, and 17 protocol (96%), but the difference was significant only for the 60°, 3°, and 21 protocol (80%, P .99). The conspicuity of subtle and medium clusters with the 16°, 1°, and 17 protocol was rated higher than those with other protocols; the differences were significant for subtle clusters with the 24°, 3°, and nine protocol and for medium clusters with 24°, 3°, and nine; 30°, 3°, and 11; 60°, 3° and 21; and 60°, variable, and 21 protocols (P tomosynthesis provided higher sensitivity and conspicuity than wide-angle DBT digital breast tomosynthesis for subtle microcalcification clusters. © RSNA, 2014.

  13. Impact of dose engine algorithm in pencil beam scanning proton therapy for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommasino, Francesco; Fellin, Francesco; Lorentini, Stefano; Farace, Paolo

    2018-06-01

    Proton therapy for the treatment of breast cancer is acquiring increasing interest, due to the potential reduction of radiation-induced side effects such as cardiac and pulmonary toxicity. While several in silico studies demonstrated the gain in plan quality offered by pencil beam scanning (PBS) compared to passive scattering techniques, the related dosimetric uncertainties have been poorly investigated so far. Five breast cancer patients were planned with Raystation 6 analytical pencil beam (APB) and Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculation algorithms. Plans were optimized with APB and then MC was used to recalculate dose distribution. Movable snout and beam splitting techniques (i.e. using two sub-fields for the same beam entrance, one with and the other without the use of a range shifter) were considered. PTV dose statistics were recorded. The same planning configurations were adopted for the experimental benchmark. Dose distributions were measured with a 2D array of ionization chambers and compared to APB and MC calculated ones by means of a γ analysis (agreement criteria 3%, 3 mm). Our results indicate that, when using proton PBS for breast cancer treatment, the Raystation 6 APB algorithm does not allow obtaining sufficient accuracy, especially with large air gaps. On the contrary, the MC algorithm resulted into much higher accuracy in all beam configurations tested and has to be recommended. Centers where a MC algorithm is not yet available should consider a careful use of APB, possibly combined with a movable snout system or in any case with strategies aimed at minimizing air gaps. Copyright © 2018 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Clinical relevance of DNA microarray analyses using archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded breast cancer specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadi, Al Muktafi; Wang, Dong-Yu; Youngson, Bruce J; Miller, Naomi; Boerner, Scott; Done, Susan J; Leong, Wey L

    2011-01-01

    The ability of gene profiling to predict treatment response and prognosis in breast cancers has been demonstrated in many studies using DNA microarray analyses on RNA from fresh frozen tumor specimens. In certain clinical and research situations, performing such analyses on archival formalin fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) surgical specimens would be advantageous as large libraries of such specimens with long-term follow-up data are widely available. However, FFPE tissue processing can cause fragmentation and chemical modifications of the RNA. A number of recent technical advances have been reported to overcome these issues. Our current study evaluates whether or not the technology is ready for clinical applications. A modified RNA extraction method and a recent DNA microarray technique, cDNA-mediated annealing, selection, extension and ligation (DASL, Illumina Inc) were evaluated. The gene profiles generated from FFPE specimens were compared to those obtained from paired fresh fine needle aspiration biopsies (FNAB) of 25 breast cancers of different clinical subtypes (based on ER and Her2/neu status). Selected RNA levels were validated using RT-qPCR, and two public databases were used to demonstrate the prognostic significance of the gene profiles generated from FFPE specimens. Compared to FNAB, RNA isolated from FFPE samples was relatively more degraded, nonetheless, over 80% of the RNA samples were deemed suitable for subsequent DASL assay. Despite a higher noise level, a set of genes from FFPE specimens correlated very well with the gene profiles obtained from FNAB, and could differentiate breast cancer subtypes. Expression levels of these genes were validated using RT-qPCR. Finally, for the first time we correlated gene expression profiles from FFPE samples to survival using two independent microarray databases. Specifically, over-expression of ANLN and KIF2C, and under-expression of MAPT strongly correlated with poor outcomes in breast cancer patients. We

  15. Droplet digital polymerase chain reaction detection of HER2 amplification in formalin fixed paraffin embedded breast and gastric carcinoma samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yazhen; Lu, Dan; Lira, Maruja E; Xu, Qing; Du, Yunzhi; Xiong, Jianghong; Mao, Mao; Chung, Hyun Cheol; Zheng, Guangjuan

    2016-04-01

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is a key driver of tumorigenesis, and over-expression as a result of HER2 gene amplification has been observed in a number of solid tumors. Recently HER2 has become an important biomarker for the monoclonal antibody treatment of HER2-positive metastatic breast and advanced gastric cancer. The HER2 targeting antibody trastuzumab treatment requires accurate measurement of HER2 levels for proper diagnosis. Droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) with highly direct, precise and absolute nucleic acid quantification could be used to detect HER2 amplification levels. Our objective was to evaluate a robust, accurate and less subjective application of ddPCR for HER2 amplification levels and test the assay performance in clinical formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) breast and gastric carcinoma samples. Genomic DNA from HER2 amplified cell line SK-BR-3 was used to set up the ddPCR assays. The copy number of HER2 was compared to the chromosome 17 centromere reference gene (CEP17), expressed as HER2:CEP17 ratio. Genomic DNAs of FFPE specimens from 145 Asian patients with breast and gastric carcinomas were assayed using both standard methods, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and/or fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and ddPCR. Based on 145 clinical breast and gastric carcinoma cases, our study demonstrated a high concordance of ddPCR results to FISH and IHC. In breast cancer specimens, the ddPCR results had high concordance with FISH and IHC defined HER2 status with a sensitivity of 90.9% (30/33) and a specificity of 100% (77/77). In gastric cancer specimens that were concordant in both FISH and IHC, our assay was 95.5% concordant with FISH and IHC (21/22). ddPCR has the advantage of automation and also allows levels of HER2 amplification to be easily evaluated in large numbers of samples, and presents a potential option to define HER2 status. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Separation of breast cancer cells from peripherally circulating blood using antibodies fixed in microchannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Juan; Soper, Steven A.; McCarley, Robin L.; Murphy, Michael C.

    2004-07-01

    Bio-Micro Electro Mechanical System (Bio-MEMS) technology was applied to the problem of early breast cancer detection and diagnosis. A micro-device is being developed to identify and specifically collect tumor cells of low abundance (1 tumor cell among 107 normal blood cells) from circulating whole blood. By immobilizing anti-EpCAM (Epithelial Cell Adhesion Molecule) antibodies on polymer micro-channel walls by chemically modifying the surface of the PMMA, breast cancer cells from the MCF-7 cell line, which over-express EpCAM, were selected from a sample volume by the strong binding affinity between the antibody and antigen. To validate the capture of the breast cancer cells, three fluorochrome markers, each identified by a separate color, were used to reliably identify the cancer cells. The cancer cells were defined by DAPI+ (blue), CD45- and the FITC-cell membrane linker+ (green). White blood cells, which may interfere in the detection of the cancer cells, were identified by DAPI+ (blue), CD45+ (red), and the FITC-cell membrane linker+ (green). EpCAM/anti-EpCAM binding models from the literature were used to estimate an optimal velocity, 2mm/sec, for maximizing the number of cells binding and the critical binding force. At higher velocities, shear forces (> 0.48 dyne) will break existing bonds and prevent the formation of new ones. This detection micro-device can be assembled with other lab-on-a-chip components for follow-up gene and protein analysis.

  17. Technical Note: A treatment plan comparison between dynamic collimation and a fixed aperture during spot scanning proton therapy for brain treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Blake, E-mail: bsmith34@wisc.edu; Gelover, Edgar; Moignier, Alexandra; Wang, Dongxu; Flynn, Ryan T.; Hyer, Daniel E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa, 200 Hawkins Drive, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Lin, Liyong; Kirk, Maura; Solberg, Tim [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, TRC 2 West, 3400 Civic Center Boulevard, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States)

    2016-08-15

    Purpose: To quantitatively assess the advantages of energy-layer specific dynamic collimation system (DCS) versus a per-field fixed aperture for spot scanning proton therapy (SSPT). Methods: Five brain cancer patients previously planned and treated with SSPT were replanned using an in-house treatment planning system capable of modeling collimated and uncollimated proton beamlets. The uncollimated plans, which served as a baseline for comparison, reproduced the target coverage and organ-at-risk sparing of the clinically delivered plans. The collimator opening for the fixed aperture-based plans was determined from the combined cross sections of the target in the beam’s eye view over all energy layers which included an additional margin equivalent to the maximum beamlet displacement for the respective energy of that energy layer. The DCS-based plans were created by selecting appropriate collimator positions for each row of beam spots during a Raster-style scanning pattern which were optimized to maximize the dose contributions to the target and limited the dose delivered to adjacent normal tissue. Results: The reduction of mean dose to normal tissue adjacent to the target, as defined by a 10 mm ring surrounding the target, averaged 13.65% (range: 11.8%–16.9%) and 5.18% (2.9%–7.1%) for the DCS and fixed aperture plans, respectively. The conformity index, as defined by the ratio of the volume of the 50% isodose line to the target volume, yielded an average improvement of 21.35% (19.4%–22.6%) and 8.38% (4.7%–12.0%) for the DCS and fixed aperture plans, respectively. Conclusions: The ability of the DCS to provide collimation to each energy layer yielded better conformity in comparison to fixed aperture plans.

  18. Technical Note: A treatment plan comparison between dynamic collimation and a fixed aperture during spot scanning proton therapy for brain treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Blake; Gelover, Edgar; Moignier, Alexandra; Wang, Dongxu; Flynn, Ryan T.; Hyer, Daniel E.; Lin, Liyong; Kirk, Maura; Solberg, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To quantitatively assess the advantages of energy-layer specific dynamic collimation system (DCS) versus a per-field fixed aperture for spot scanning proton therapy (SSPT). Methods: Five brain cancer patients previously planned and treated with SSPT were replanned using an in-house treatment planning system capable of modeling collimated and uncollimated proton beamlets. The uncollimated plans, which served as a baseline for comparison, reproduced the target coverage and organ-at-risk sparing of the clinically delivered plans. The collimator opening for the fixed aperture-based plans was determined from the combined cross sections of the target in the beam’s eye view over all energy layers which included an additional margin equivalent to the maximum beamlet displacement for the respective energy of that energy layer. The DCS-based plans were created by selecting appropriate collimator positions for each row of beam spots during a Raster-style scanning pattern which were optimized to maximize the dose contributions to the target and limited the dose delivered to adjacent normal tissue. Results: The reduction of mean dose to normal tissue adjacent to the target, as defined by a 10 mm ring surrounding the target, averaged 13.65% (range: 11.8%–16.9%) and 5.18% (2.9%–7.1%) for the DCS and fixed aperture plans, respectively. The conformity index, as defined by the ratio of the volume of the 50% isodose line to the target volume, yielded an average improvement of 21.35% (19.4%–22.6%) and 8.38% (4.7%–12.0%) for the DCS and fixed aperture plans, respectively. Conclusions: The ability of the DCS to provide collimation to each energy layer yielded better conformity in comparison to fixed aperture plans.

  19. Technical Note: A treatment plan comparison between dynamic collimation and a fixed aperture during spot scanning proton therapy for brain treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Blake; Gelover, Edgar; Moignier, Alexandra; Wang, Dongxu; Flynn, Ryan T.; Lin, Liyong; Kirk, Maura; Solberg, Tim; Hyer, Daniel E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To quantitatively assess the advantages of energy-layer specific dynamic collimation system (DCS) versus a per-field fixed aperture for spot scanning proton therapy (SSPT). Methods: Five brain cancer patients previously planned and treated with SSPT were replanned using an in-house treatment planning system capable of modeling collimated and uncollimated proton beamlets. The uncollimated plans, which served as a baseline for comparison, reproduced the target coverage and organ-at-risk sparing of the clinically delivered plans. The collimator opening for the fixed aperture-based plans was determined from the combined cross sections of the target in the beam’s eye view over all energy layers which included an additional margin equivalent to the maximum beamlet displacement for the respective energy of that energy layer. The DCS-based plans were created by selecting appropriate collimator positions for each row of beam spots during a Raster-style scanning pattern which were optimized to maximize the dose contributions to the target and limited the dose delivered to adjacent normal tissue. Results: The reduction of mean dose to normal tissue adjacent to the target, as defined by a 10 mm ring surrounding the target, averaged 13.65% (range: 11.8%–16.9%) and 5.18% (2.9%–7.1%) for the DCS and fixed aperture plans, respectively. The conformity index, as defined by the ratio of the volume of the 50% isodose line to the target volume, yielded an average improvement of 21.35% (19.4%–22.6%) and 8.38% (4.7%–12.0%) for the DCS and fixed aperture plans, respectively. Conclusions: The ability of the DCS to provide collimation to each energy layer yielded better conformity in comparison to fixed aperture plans. PMID:27487886

  20. Comparison radiation dose of Z-axis automatic tube current modulation technique with fixed tube current multi-detector row CT scanning of lower extremity venography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Beong Gyu; Kweon, Dae Cheol; Lee, Jong Seok; Jang, Keun Jo; Jeon, Sang Hwan; Kim, Yong Soo

    2007-01-01

    Z-axis automatic tube current modulation technique automatically adjusts tube current based on size of body region scanned. The purpose of the current study was to compare noise, and radiation dose of Multi-Detector row CT (MDCT) of lower extremity performed with Z-axis modulation technique of automatic tube current modulation with manual selection fixed tube current. Fifty consecutive underwent MDCT venography of lower extremity with use of a MDCT scanner fixed tube current and Z-axis automatic tube current modulation technique (10, 11 and 12 HU noise index, 70∼450 mA). Scanning parameters included 120 kVp, 0.5 second gantry rotation time, 1.35:1 beam pitch, and 1 mm reconstructed section thickness. For each subject, images obtained with Z-axis modulation were compared with previous images obtained with fixed tube current (200, 250, 300 mA) and with other parameters identical. Images were compared for noise at five levels: iliac, femoral, popliteal, tibial, and peroneal vein of lower extremity. Tube current and gantry rotation time used for acquisitions at these levels were recorded. All CT examinations of study and control groups were diagnostically acceptable, though objective noise was significantly more with Z-axis automatic tube current modulation. Compared with fixed tube current, Z-axis modulation resulted in reduction of CTDIvol (range, -6.5%∼-35.6%) and DLP (range,-0.2%∼-20.2%). Compared with manually selected fixed tube current, Z-axis automatic tube current modulation resulted in reduced radiation dose at MDCT of lower extremity venography

  1. Combination of three-dimensional laser scanning and digital photogrammetric shoot for fixing and measurement of architectural monuments

    OpenAIRE

    S.V. Tiurin; S.G. Tihonov

    2010-01-01

    Several variants of architectural monument fixing using photogrammetric method are considered: black-and-white and colour three-dimensional point models; black-and-white and colour orthophotomaps in format SPO; black-and-white and colour orthophotomaps in standard raster formats. For different aims authors recommend corresponding data formats.

  2. A generalized mean-squared displacement from inelastic fixed window scans of incoherent neutron scattering as a model-free indicator of anomalous diffusion confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roosen-Runge, F.; Seydel, T.

    2015-01-01

    Elastic fixed window scans of incoherent neutron scattering are an established and frequently employed method to study dynamical changes, usually over a broad temperature range or during a process such as a conformational change in the sample. In particular, the apparent mean-squared displacement can be extracted via a model-free analysis based on a solid physical interpretation as an effective amplitude of molecular motions. Here, we provide a new account of elastic and inelastic fixed window scans, defining a generalized mean-squared displacement for all fixed energy transfers. We show that this generalized mean-squared displacement in principle contains all information on the real mean-square displacement accessible in the instrumental time window. The derived formula provides a clear understanding of the effects of instrumental resolution on the apparent mean-squared displacement. Finally, we show that the generalized mean-square displacement can be used as a model-free indicator on confinement effects within the instrumental time window. (authors)

  3. Bone metastases from breast cancer at the time or radical mastectomy as detected by bone scan. Eight-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklaroff, R B; Sklaroff, D M

    1976-07-01

    Sixty-four women with Stage II breast cancer who had Sr85 bone scans at the time of radical mastectomy were followed for 8 years in a prospective study. Those women with positive scans had a slight, but statistically significant, increased incidence of metastic disease, particularly for metastases to bone.However, 40% of those women with positive bone scans and negative roentgenograms survived 8 years without evidence of any metastatic disease. Therefore, it has not been shown at this time that bone scans should be obtained in order to exclude bone metastasis before regional therapy for breast cancer is instituted. Also, a significant percentage of women with negative bone scans developed both bone and soft tissue metastases. As many as 30% of asymptomatic women with a history of breast cancer and positive bone scans and negative bone roentgenograms may still harbor disease in bone after 8 years.

  4. Thermal therapy for breast tumors by using a cylindrical ultrasound phased array with multifocus pattern scanning: a preliminary numerical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, C-S; Ju, K-C; Cheng, T-Y; Chen, Y-Y; Lin, W-L

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the feasibility of using a 1 MHz cylindrical ultrasound phased array with multifocus pattern scanning to produce uniform heating for breast tumor thermal therapy. The breast was submerged in water and surrounded by the cylindrical ultrasound phased array. A multifocus pattern was generated and electrically scanned by the phased array to enlarge the treatment lesion in single heating. To prevent overheating normal tissues, a large planning target volume (PTV) would be divided into several planes with several subunits on each plane and sequentially treated with a cooling phase between two successive heatings of the subunit. Heating results for different target temperatures (T tgt ), blood perfusion rates and sizes of the PTV have been studied. Furthermore, a superficial breast tumor with different water temperatures was also studied. Results indicated that a higher target temperature would produce a slightly larger thermal lesion, and a higher blood perfusion rate would not affect the heating lesion size but increase the heating time significantly. The acoustic power deposition and temperature elevations in ribs can be minimized by orienting the acoustic beam from the ultrasound phased array approximately parallel to the ribs. In addition, a large acoustic window on the convex-shaped breast surface for the proposed ultrasound phased array and the cooling effect of water would prevent the skin overheating for the production of a lesion at any desired location. This study demonstrated that the proposed cylindrical ultrasound phased array can provide effective heating for breast tumor thermal therapy without overheating the skin and ribs within a reasonable treatment time

  5. SU-F-T-208: An Efficient Planning Approach to Posterior Fossa Tumor Bed Boosts Using Proton Pencil Beam Scanning in Fixed-Beam Room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, N; Chen, C; Gans, S; Hug, E; Cahlon, O; Chon, B; Tsai, H; Sine, K; Mah, D; Wolden, S; Yeh, B

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: A fixed-beam room could be underutilized in a multi-room proton center. We investigated the use of proton pencil beam scanning (PBS) on a fixed-beam as an alternative for posterior fossa tumor bed (PF-TB) boost treatments which were usually treating on a gantry with uniform scanning. Methods: Five patients were treated with craniospinal irradiation (CSI, 23.4 or 36.0 Gy(RBE)) followed by a PF-TB boost to 54 Gy(RBE) with proton beams. Three PF-TB boost plans were generated for each patient: (1) a uniform scanning (US) gantry plan with 4–7 posterior fields shaped with apertures and compensators (2) a PBS plan using bi-lateral and vertex fields with a 3-mm planning organ-at-risk volume (PRV) expansion around the brainstem and (3) PBS fields using same beam arrangement but replacing the PRV with robust optimization considering a 3-mm setup uncertainty. Results: A concave 54-Gy(RBE) isodose line surrounding the brainstem could be achieved using all three techniques. The mean V95% of the PTV was 99.7% (range: 97.6% to 100%) while the V100% of the PTV ranged from 56.3% to 93.1% depending on the involvement of the brainstem with the PTV. The mean doses received by 0.05 cm"3 of the brainstem were effectively identical: 54.0 Gy(RBE), 53.4 Gy(RBE) and 53.3 Gy(RBE) for US, PBS optimized with PRV, and PBS optimized with robustness plans respectively. The cochlea mean dose increased by 23% of the prescribed boost dose in average from the bi-lateral fields used in the PBS plan. Planning time for the PBS plan with PRV was 5–10 times less than the US plan and the robustly optimized PBS plan. Conclusion: We have demonstrated that a fixed-beam with PBS can deliver a dose distribution comparable to a gantry plan using uniform scanning. Planning time can be reduced substantially using a PRV around the brainstem instead of robust optimization.

  6. SU-F-T-208: An Efficient Planning Approach to Posterior Fossa Tumor Bed Boosts Using Proton Pencil Beam Scanning in Fixed-Beam Room

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ju, N; Chen, C; Gans, S; Hug, E; Cahlon, O; Chon, B; Tsai, H; Sine, K; Mah, D [Procure Treatment Center, Somerset, New Jersey (United States); Wolden, S [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Yeh, B [Mount Sinai Hospital, New York, NY (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: A fixed-beam room could be underutilized in a multi-room proton center. We investigated the use of proton pencil beam scanning (PBS) on a fixed-beam as an alternative for posterior fossa tumor bed (PF-TB) boost treatments which were usually treating on a gantry with uniform scanning. Methods: Five patients were treated with craniospinal irradiation (CSI, 23.4 or 36.0 Gy(RBE)) followed by a PF-TB boost to 54 Gy(RBE) with proton beams. Three PF-TB boost plans were generated for each patient: (1) a uniform scanning (US) gantry plan with 4–7 posterior fields shaped with apertures and compensators (2) a PBS plan using bi-lateral and vertex fields with a 3-mm planning organ-at-risk volume (PRV) expansion around the brainstem and (3) PBS fields using same beam arrangement but replacing the PRV with robust optimization considering a 3-mm setup uncertainty. Results: A concave 54-Gy(RBE) isodose line surrounding the brainstem could be achieved using all three techniques. The mean V95% of the PTV was 99.7% (range: 97.6% to 100%) while the V100% of the PTV ranged from 56.3% to 93.1% depending on the involvement of the brainstem with the PTV. The mean doses received by 0.05 cm{sup 3} of the brainstem were effectively identical: 54.0 Gy(RBE), 53.4 Gy(RBE) and 53.3 Gy(RBE) for US, PBS optimized with PRV, and PBS optimized with robustness plans respectively. The cochlea mean dose increased by 23% of the prescribed boost dose in average from the bi-lateral fields used in the PBS plan. Planning time for the PBS plan with PRV was 5–10 times less than the US plan and the robustly optimized PBS plan. Conclusion: We have demonstrated that a fixed-beam with PBS can deliver a dose distribution comparable to a gantry plan using uniform scanning. Planning time can be reduced substantially using a PRV around the brainstem instead of robust optimization.

  7. Eradication of breast cancer with bone metastasis by autologous formalin-fixed tumor vaccine (AFTV) combined with palliative radiation therapy and adjuvant chemotherapy: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuranishi, Fumito; Ohno, Tadao

    2013-06-04

    Skeletal metastasis of breast carcinoma is refractory to intensive chemo-radiation therapy and therefore is assumed impossible to cure. Here, we report an advanced case of breast cancer with vertebra-Th7 metastasis that showed complete response to combined treatments with formalin-fixed autologous tumor vaccine (AFTV), palliative radiation therapy with 36 Gy, and adjuvant chemotherapy with standardized CEF (cyclophosphamide, epirubicin, and 5FU), zoledronic acid, and aromatase inhibitors following mastectomy for the breast tumor. The patient has been disease-free for more than 4 years after the mammary surgery and remains well with no evidence of metastasis or local recurrence. Thus, a combination of AFTV, palliative radiation therapy, and adjuvant chemotherapy may be an effective treatment for this devastating disease.

  8. Investigation of Epstein-Barr virus DNA in formalin-fixed and paraffin- embedded breast cancer tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, Ahmet; Ozdarendeli, Aykut; Bulut, Yasemin; Yekeler, Hayrettin; Cobanoglu, Bengu; Doymaz, Mehmet Z

    2005-01-01

    To investigate etiological role of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA in breast cancer. The presence of EBV DNA in 57 breast cancer tissues was investigated with a sensitive PCR assay. The breast cancer tissues were from invasive ductular (n=28), lobular (n=20) and other miscellaneous carcinomas (n=9). Tissues from normal breasts and patients with various benign breast diseases (n=55): fibrocystic disease (n=34), fibroadenoma (n=16), hyperplasia, and granulomatous mastitis (n=5), were used as control samples. EBV DNA was detected in 13 (23%) cancerous tissues (7 ductular, 4 lobular, 2 other carcinoma) and 19 (35%) in the control tissues. The difference between EBV presence in malignant and benign tissues was not statistically significant (p>0.05). The presence of EBV DNA was detected almost equally in both breast cancer and normal tissues, which indicates no etiological role for EBV in breast cancer. We suggest further etiological studies. Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Rate of Clinical Complete Response for 1 Year or More in Bone-Metastatic Breast Cancer after Comprehensive Treatments including Autologous Formalin-Fixed Tumor Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuranishi, Fumito; Imaoka, Yuki; Sumi, Yuusuke; Uemae, Yoji; Yasuda-Kurihara, Hiroko; Ishihara, Takeshi; Miyazaki, Tsubasa; Ohno, Tadao

    2018-01-01

    No effective treatment has been developed for bone-metastatic breast cancer. We found 3 cases with clinical complete response (cCR) of the bone metastasis and longer overall survival of the retrospectively examined cohort treated comprehensively including autologous formalin-fixed tumor vaccine (AFTV). AFTV was prepared individually for each patient from their own formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded breast cancer tissues. Three patients maintained cCR status of the bone metastasis for 17 months or more. Rate of cCR for 1 year or more appeared to be 15% (3/20) after comprehensive treatments including AFTV. The median overall survival time (60.0 months) and the 3- to 8-year survival rates after diagnosis of bone metastasis were greater than those of historical control cohorts in Japan (1988-2002) and in the nationwide population-based cohort study of Denmark (1999-2007). Bone-metastatic breast cancer may be curable after comprehensive treatments including AFTV, although larger scale clinical trial is required.

  10. Rate of Clinical Complete Response for 1 Year or More in Bone-Metastatic Breast Cancer after Comprehensive Treatments including Autologous Formalin-Fixed Tumor Vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumito Kuranishi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. No effective treatment has been developed for bone-metastatic breast cancer. We found 3 cases with clinical complete response (cCR of the bone metastasis and longer overall survival of the retrospectively examined cohort treated comprehensively including autologous formalin-fixed tumor vaccine (AFTV. Patients and Methods. AFTV was prepared individually for each patient from their own formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded breast cancer tissues. Results. Three patients maintained cCR status of the bone metastasis for 17 months or more. Rate of cCR for 1 year or more appeared to be 15% (3/20 after comprehensive treatments including AFTV. The median overall survival time (60.0 months and the 3- to 8-year survival rates after diagnosis of bone metastasis were greater than those of historical control cohorts in Japan (1988–2002 and in the nationwide population-based cohort study of Denmark (1999–2007. Conclusion. Bone-metastatic breast cancer may be curable after comprehensive treatments including AFTV, although larger scale clinical trial is required.

  11. Evaluation of bismuth shielding effectiveness in reducing breast absorbed dose during thoracic CT scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, T. C.; Mourao, A. P.; Santana, P. C.; Silva, T. A. [Federal University of Minas Gerais, Program of Nuclear Science and Techniques, Av. Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    2015-10-15

    Computed Tomography (CT) is an essential method for tracking neoplasia and efficiently diagnosing a wide variety of thoracic diseases. CT is generally considered the most accurate choice for lung examination. Due to the growing use of CT, breast and other superficial and radiosensitive organs are unnecessarily irradiated during radiological procedures, thus requiring the development of strategies appropriate to optimize and, if possible, to reduce the radiation dose. The use of bismuth shielding to reduce radiation dose absorbed by breast during thoracic CT examinations has been the subject of many studies recently published by Brazilian and foreign authors of various fields. The purpose of this paper is both to accurately determine the glandular dose when breast is exposed to radiation and to assess the reduction in absorbed dose during thoracic CT examinations, using a set of Thermoluminescent Dosimeters, an anthropomorphic phantom and bismuth shielding. (Author)

  12. Evaluation of bismuth shielding effectiveness in reducing breast absorbed dose during thoracic CT scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, T. C.; Mourao, A. P.; Santana, P. C.; Silva, T. A.

    2015-10-01

    Computed Tomography (CT) is an essential method for tracking neoplasia and efficiently diagnosing a wide variety of thoracic diseases. CT is generally considered the most accurate choice for lung examination. Due to the growing use of CT, breast and other superficial and radiosensitive organs are unnecessarily irradiated during radiological procedures, thus requiring the development of strategies appropriate to optimize and, if possible, to reduce the radiation dose. The use of bismuth shielding to reduce radiation dose absorbed by breast during thoracic CT examinations has been the subject of many studies recently published by Brazilian and foreign authors of various fields. The purpose of this paper is both to accurately determine the glandular dose when breast is exposed to radiation and to assess the reduction in absorbed dose during thoracic CT examinations, using a set of Thermoluminescent Dosimeters, an anthropomorphic phantom and bismuth shielding. (Author)

  13. Technique for evaluation of spatial resolution and microcalcifications in digital and scanned images of a standard breast phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santana, Priscila do C.; Gomes, Danielle S.; Oliveira, Marcio A.; Oliveira, Paulo Marcio C. de; Meira-Belo, Luiz C.; Nogueira-Tavares, Maria S.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, an automated methodology to evaluate digital and scanned images of a standard phantom (Phantom Mama) was studied. The Phantom Mama was used as an important tool to check the quality of mammographs. The scanned images were digitized using a ScanMaker 9800XL, with resolution of 900 dpi. The aim of this work is to test an automatic methodology for evaluation of spatial resolution and microcalcifications group of phantom mama images acquired with the same parameters in the same equipment. In order to analyze the images we have used the ImageJ software (in Java) which is public domain. We have used the Fast Fourier transform technique to evaluate the spatial resolution and used the ImageJ function Subtract Background and the Light Background plus Sliding Paraboloid on the evaluation of the five groups of microcalcifications on the breast phantom to assess the viability of using automated methods for both types of images. The methodology was adequate for evaluated the microcalcifications group and the spatial resolution in scanned and digital images, but the Phantom Mama doesn't provide sufficient parameters to evaluate the spatial resolution in this images. (author)

  14. Classification of breast masses in ultrasonic B scans using Nakagami and K distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shankar, P M; Dumane, Vishruta A; George, Thomas; Piccoli, Catherine W; Reid, John M; Forsberg, Flemming; Goldberg, Barry B

    2003-01-01

    Classification of breast masses in greyscale ultrasound images is undertaken using a multiparameter approach. Five parameters reflecting the non-Rayleigh nature of the backscattered echo were used. These parameters, based mostly on the Nakagami and K distributions, were extracted from the envelope of the echoes at the site, boundary, spiculated region and shadow of the mass. They were combined to create a linear discriminant. The performance of this discriminant for the classification of breast masses was studied using a data set consisting of 70 benign and 29 malignant cases. The A z value for the discriminant was 0.96 ± 0.02, showing great promise in the classification of masses into benign and malignant ones. The discriminant was combined with the level of suspicion values of the radiologist leading to an A z value of 0.97 ± 0.014. The parameters used here can be calculated with minimal clinical intervention, so the method proposed here may therefore be easily implemented in an automated fashion. These results also support the recent reports suggesting that ultrasound may help as an adjunct to mammography in breast cancer diagnostics to enhance the classification of breast masses

  15. Liver metastases of breast carcinoma detected on /sup 99m/Tc-methylene diphosphonate bone scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumert, J.E.; Lantieri, R.L.; Horning, S.; McDougall, I.R.

    1980-01-01

    The accumulation of bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals has been reported in liver metastases from colon carcinoma and oat cell carcinoma of the lung. Two patients with breast carcinoma in whom hepatic metastases were visualized on /sup 99m/Tc-methylene diphosphonate bone images are described. This has not been previously reported

  16. The value of combined examination of serum CA15-3, CEA level and whole body bone scan in the diagnosis of bone metastasis in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Baoshi; Gao Yufang

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the value of combined examination of serum tumormarkers carbohydrate antigen 15-3 (CA15-3), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and whole body bone scan in the diagnosis of bone metastasis in breast cancer. Methods: Whole body bone scan and serum CA15-3 and CEA levels with a electrochemical luminescence assay were performed in 97 patients with breast cancer (46 cases with bone metastasis and 51 cases without bone metastasis) and 45 patients with benign breast diseases. As for the negative cases who had significant pains in bones, CT or MRI was performed to make sure. Results: The serum level of CA15-3 and CEA were significantly higher in patients with bone metastasis than those in patients without bone metastasis and the benign lesions. The positive predicting values were 76.09% and 80.43%. Most patients with bone metastasis had positive results in bone scan (95.65%), only 2 cases had negative results (4.35%), which is positive by CT or MRI Seven. Seven patients without bone metastasis and Three patients with the benign lesions had positive results in bone scan, that may be caused by previous operation or injury. The combined determination of CA15-3, CEA and whole body bone scan had a better performance in sensitivity, specificity and accuracy than each single way. Conclusion: The combined determination of CA 15-3, CEA and whole body bone scan were valuable in the diagnosis of bone metastasis in breast cancer. (authors)

  17. Heart position variability during voluntary moderate deep inspiration breath-hold radiotherapy for breast cancer determined by repeat CBCT scans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Haaren, Paul; Claassen-Janssen, Fiere; van de Sande, Ingrid; Boersma, Liesbeth; van der Sangen, Maurice; Hurkmans, Coen

    2017-08-01

    Voluntary moderate deep inspiration breath hold (vmDIBH) in left-sided breast cancer radiotherapy reduces cardiac dose. The aim of this study was to investigate heart position variability in vmDIBH using CBCT and to compare this variability with differences in heart position between vmDIBH and free breathing (FB). For 50 patients initial heart position with respect to the field edge (HP-FE) was measured on a vmDIBH planning CT scan. Breath-hold was monitored using an in-house developed vertical plastic stick. On pre-treatment CBCT scans, heart position variability with respect to the field edge (Δ HP-FE ) was measured, reflecting heart position variability when using an offline correction protocol. After registering the CBCT scan to the planning CT, heart position variability with respect to the chest wall (Δ HP-CW ) was measured, reflecting heart position variability when using an online correction protocol. As a control group, vmDIBH and FB computed tomography (CT) scans were acquired for 30 patients and registering both scans on the chest wall. For 34 out of 50 patients, the average HP-FE and HP-CW increased over the treatment course in comparison to the planning CT. Averaged over all patients and all treatment fractions, the Δ HP-FE and the Δ HP-CW was 0.8±4.2mm (range -9.4-+10.6mm) and 1.0±4.4mm (range -8.3-+10.4mm) respectively. The average gain in heart to chest wall distance was 11.8±4.6mm when using vmDIBH instead of FB. In conclusion, substantial variability in heart position using vmDIBH was observed during the treatment course. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [A scanning electron microscopy study of the surface of porous-textured breast implants and their capsules. Description of the "velcro" effect of porous-textured breast prostheses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danino, A; Rocher, F; Blanchet-Bardon, C; Revol, M; Servant, J M

    2001-02-01

    The efficacy of breast prosthesis texturing in the prevention of capsular contracture has been established for about 20 years. This successful procedure has led to the development and marketing of a number of different models. In the present study, four porous-textured breast prostheses have been examined: the Arion monoblock implant, the CUI (McGahn), the Biocell (Mcgahn), and the Sebbin LS21. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) investigation of the implant surfaces of the different prostheses was carried out on new samples received from the manufacturers. During a prospective study on eight patients, capsule samples corresponding to the four above-mentioned prostheses were taken to determine whether a secondary intervention was necessary for correction of asymmetry or malpositioning. These samples were analyzed by SEM to investigate whether there could be a correlation between prosthesis texturing and the aspect of the corresponding capsules. Significant ultrastructural differences were found between the various prostheses examined: the results showed that only the CUI and Biocell prostheses presented a mirror image of the capsule texturing, with a correspondence between the depressions on the prosthesis and the contacts on the capsule. This finding seems to be linked to the existence of a critical size for the pores that constitute the implant surface. This observation led to the hypothesis of an adhesive "velcro" effect between the prosthesis and its capsule. Although the latter may not be directly linked to the prevention of capsular contracture it can, however, have a major effect on implant stabilization in cases of primary breast reconstruction and in possible secondary adjustments of asymmetry and malpositioning.

  19. Evaluation of optimized magnetic resonance perfusion imaging scanning time window after contrast agent injection for differentiating benign and malignant breast lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jie; Wang, Dawei; Ma, Zhenshen; Deng, Guodong; Wang, Lanhua; Zhang, Jiandong

    2017-03-01

    The aim of the study was evaluate the 3.0 T magnetic resonance (MR) perfusion imaging scanning time window following contrast injection for differentiating benign and malignant breast lesions and to determine the optimum scanning time window for increased scanner usage efficiency and reduced diagnostic adverse risk factors. A total of 52 women with breast abnormalities were selected for conventional MR imaging and T1 dynamic-enhanced imaging. Quantitative parameters [volume transfer constant (K trans ), rate constant (K ep ) and extravascular extracellular volume fraction (V e )] were calculated at phases 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50, which represented time windows at 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 min, respectively, following injection of contrast agent. The association of the parameters at different phases with benign and malignant tumor diagnosis was analyzed. MR perfusion imaging was verified as an effective modality in the diagnosis of breast malignancies and the best scanning time window was identified: i) Values of K trans and K ep at all phases were statistically significant in differentiating benign and malignant tumors (P0.05); ii) values of V e in benign tumors increased with phase number, but achieved no obvious changes at different phases in malignant tumors; iii) the optimum scanning time window of breast perfusion imaging with 3.0 T MR was between phases 10 and 30 (i.e., between 5 and 15 min after contrast agent injection). The variation trend of V e values at different phases may serve as a diagnostic reference for differentiating benign and malignant breast abnormalities. The most efficient scanning time window was indicated to be 5 min after contrast injection, based on the observation that the V e value only had statistical significance in diagnosis at stage 10. However, the optimal scanning time window is from 5 to 15 min following the injection of contrast agent, since that the variation trend of V e is able to serve as a diagnostic reference.

  20. CLINICOPATHOLOGICAL FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH POSITIVE PREOPERATIVE AXILLARY ULTRASOUND SCANNING IN BREAST CANCER PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lona Jalini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Axillary lymph node status is the most important breast cancer prognostic factor. Preoperative axillary ultrasound examination (PAUS is used to triage patients for sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB or axillary lymph node dissection (ALND. We assessed the detection rate of lymph node metastases by PAUS in a screening unit and evaluated associations between clinicopathological factors and PAUS positivity. Patients and Methods: This was a single-centre retrospective analysis of data extracted from a hospital breast cancer database and clinical records. Clinical, radiological, and pathological and prognostic indices were compared between PAUS-positive and PAUS-negative patients subsequently found to have lymph node metastases on histopathological analysis. Results: Two hundred and two patients were eligible for analysis. 50.5% of lymph node-positive patients were correctly identified as PAUS positive. Patients with PAUS-positive lymph nodes had less favorable disease characteristics, namely clinically palpable lymph nodes, higher Nottingham prognostic (NPI index, high lymph node burden according to the European Society of Medical Oncology (ESMO group classification, and larger, grade 3 tumors with lymphovascular invasion and extranodal spread. Moreover, PAUS-positive patients had more macrometastases and lymph node involvement than PAUS-negative patients. Conclusion: PAUS-positive patients and PAUS-negative (SLNB-positive patients have different clinicopathological characteristics. The presence of LVI, extranodal spread, grade 3 histology, or large tumors with poor prognostic indices in PAUS-negative patients should be regarded with caution and perhaps prompt second-look ultrasound examination.

  1. Analysis of light scattering from human breast tissue using a custom dual-optical scanning near-field optical microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, Jennifer Reiber; Kyle, Michael D; Raghavan, Ravi; Budak, Gurer; Ozkan, Cengiz S; Ozkan, Mihrimah

    2011-03-01

    In this paper we introduce a custom scanning near-field optical microscope (SNOM) that simultaneously collects reflection and transmission near-field images along with topography. This dual-optical SNOM uses a bent probe, which allows for axial reflection imaging, accurate surface scanning, and easy identification of topographic artifacts. Using this novel dual-optical SNOM, we image desiccated and non-desiccated human breast epithelial tissue. By comparing the simultaneous SNOM images, we isolate the effects of tissue morphology and variations in refractive indices on the forward- and back-scattering of light from the tissue. We find that the reduction in back-scattering from tissue, relative to the glass slide, is caused by dense packing of the scattering sites in the cytoplasm (morphology) in the desiccated tissue and a thin-film of water adhering to the glass slide (refractive index) in the non-desiccated tissue sample. Our work demonstrates the potential of our customized dual-optical SNOM system for label-free tissue diagnostics. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Bone radioisotope scanning: usefulness in the evaluation and observation of patients with breast cancer in clinical stage II, III, IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cano P, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    The clinical records of 420 patients with diagnosis of breast cancer well documented by the pathological anatomy in clinical stage II, III and IV were reviewed. In each one of them has been done at least a bone scanning during the diagnosis. In 52 cases carried out sericeous dosages of CA 15-3 and in some cases it was necessary to administer Samarium-153 EDTMP as palliative therapy of bone pain. The presence of secondary gamma-graphic focuses was 0/84 cases (0%) in clinical stage II, 54/265 cases (20%) in III and 41/91 cases (45%) in IV. The one focus appeared in 6.7% of the cases. In 7 of the 52 cases that received sericeous dosages of CA 15-3 were detected secondary osseous lesions, and 5 of them presented a marker elevation. The bone scanning has shown in many cases the presence of getters focuses in singular places of skeleton, urinary excretory system or mammary tissue. The gamma rays from Sm-153 allowed us to get some appropriate basal views post-therapy of the secondary lesions. The results show that the great incidence of secondary lesions in the skeleton occurred in cases of stages III and IV unlike other countries. The serial repetition of the radioisotope scanning. The presence of one focus in the skeleton of a patient with a well-known neoplasia makes us to do a careful evaluation of the focus nature. The presence of tracer accumulation in the kidney, ureter and bladder allows us to infer the pathology of excretory system that is the first evidence of its presence in many cases. (author). 71 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs

  3. Second generation stationary digital breast tomosynthesis system with faster scan time and wider angular span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calliste, Jabari; Wu, Gongting; Laganis, Philip E; Spronk, Derrek; Jafari, Houman; Olson, Kyle; Gao, Bo; Lee, Yueh Z; Zhou, Otto; Lu, Jianping

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize a new generation stationary digital breast tomosynthesis system with higher tube flux and increased angular span over a first generation system. The linear CNT x-ray source was designed, built, and evaluated to determine its performance parameters. The second generation system was then constructed using the CNT x-ray source and a Hologic gantry. Upon construction, test objects and phantoms were used to characterize system resolution as measured by the modulation transfer function (MTF), and artifact spread function (ASF). The results indicated that the linear CNT x-ray source was capable of stable operation at a tube potential of 49 kVp, and measured focal spot sizes showed source-to-source consistency with a nominal focal spot size of 1.1 mm. After construction, the second generation (Gen 2) system exhibited entrance surface air kerma rates two times greater the previous s-DBT system. System in-plane resolution as measured by the MTF is 7.7 cycles/mm, compared to 6.7 cycles/mm for the Gen 1 system. As expected, an increase in the z-axis depth resolution was observed, with a decrease in the ASF from 4.30 mm to 2.35 mm moving from the Gen 1 system to the Gen 2 system as result of an increased angular span. The results indicate that the Gen 2 stationary digital breast tomosynthesis system, which has a larger angular span, increased entrance surface air kerma, and faster image acquisition time over the Gen 1 s-DBT system, results in higher resolution images. With the detector operating at full resolution, the Gen 2 s-DBT system can achieve an in-plane resolution of 7.7 cycles per mm, which is better than the current commercial DBT systems today, and may potentially result in better patient diagnosis. © 2017 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  4. Prospective evaluation of fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan (FDG-PET/CT) for axillary staging in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Masahide; Noguchi, Akinori; Tani, Naoki

    2008-01-01

    Seventy-two patients from 2005 October to 2007 February with operative breast cancer underwent fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan (FDG-PET/CT) of chest and body, ultrasound scan (US) and enhanced computed tomography scan (CT) followed by sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) and axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). The results of PET/CT were compared with histopathological diagnosis of SLNB and ALND. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of PET/CT for detection of axillary lymph node metastases were 61%, 96% and 88%, respectively. Seven false-negative and two false-positive of PET/CT results were found. In patients with false-negative of PET/CT results there are two skin-invasive breast cancer patients and axillary lymph node metastases were detected in three patients with US, in one with CT and in four with SLNB. In clinical method for diagnosis of axillary lymph node metastases SLNB should be recommended because sensitivity of PET/CT for early breast cancer patients were low and positive diagnosis of axillary lymph node metastases with PET needs more than 1 cm size of lesion. PET/CT is useful for not-early breast cancer patients. To decide the operation of axillary lymph node disection needs total diagnosis of US, CT, SLNB and clinical findings. (author)

  5. Revealing the Molecular Portrait of Triple Negative Breast Tumors in an Understudied Population through Omics Analysis of Formalin-Fixed and Paraffin-Embedded Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaca-Paniagua, Felipe; Alvarez-Gomez, Rosa María; Maldonado-Martínez, Hector Aquiles; Pérez-Plasencia, Carlos; Fragoso-Ontiveros, Veronica; Lasa-Gonsebatt, Federico; Herrera, Luis Alonso; Cantú, David; Bargallo-Rocha, Enrique; Mohar, Alejandro; Durand, Geoffroy; Forey, Nathalie; Voegele, Catherine; Vallée, Maxime; Le Calvez-Kelm, Florence; McKay, James; Ardin, Maude; Villar, Stéphanie; Zavadil, Jiri; Olivier, Magali

    2015-01-01

    Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), defined by the lack of expression of the estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and human epidermal receptor 2, is an aggressive form of breast cancer that is more prevalent in certain populations, in particular in low- and middle-income regions. The detailed molecular features of TNBC in these regions remain unexplored as samples are mostly accessible as formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) archived tissues, a challenging material for advanced genomic and transcriptomic studies. Using dedicated reagents and analysis pipelines, we performed whole exome sequencing and miRNA and mRNA profiling of 12 FFPE tumor tissues collected from pathological archives in Mexico. Sequencing analyses of the tumor tissues and their blood pairs identified TP53 and RB1 genes as the most frequently mutated genes, with a somatic mutation load of 1.7 mutations/exome Mb on average. Transcriptional analyses revealed an overexpression of growth-promoting signals (EGFR, PDGFR, VEGF, PIK3CA, FOXM1), a repression of cell cycle control pathways (TP53, RB1), a deregulation of DNA-repair pathways, and alterations in epigenetic modifiers through miRNA:mRNA network de-regulation. The molecular programs identified were typical of those described in basal-like tumors in other populations. This work demonstrates the feasibility of using archived clinical samples for advanced integrated genomics analyses. It thus opens up opportunities for investigating molecular features of tumors from regions where only FFPE tissues are available, allowing retrospective studies on the search for treatment strategies or on the exploration of the geographic diversity of breast cancer.

  6. Feasibility of volume-of-interest (VOI) scanning technique in cone beam breast CT - a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Lingyun; Shaw, Chris C.; Altunbas, Mustafa C.; Lai, C.-J.; Liu Xinming; Han Tao; Wang Tianpeng; Yang, Wei T.; Whitman, Gary J.

    2008-01-01

    This work is to demonstrate that high quality cone beam CT images can be generated for a volume of interest (VOI) and to investigate the exposure reduction effect, dose saving, and scatter reduction with the VOI scanning technique. The VOI scanning technique involves inserting a filtering mask between the x-ray source and the breast during image acquisition. The mask has an opening to allow full x-ray exposure to be delivered to a preselected VOI and a lower, filtered exposure to the region outside the VOI. To investigate the effects of increased noise due to reduced exposure outside the VOI on the reconstructed VOI image, we directly extracted the projection data inside the VOI from the full-field projection data and added additional data to the projection outside the VOI to simulate the relative noise increase due to reduced exposure. The nonuniform reference images were simulated in an identical manner to normalize the projection images and measure the x-ray attenuation factor for the object. Regular Feldkamp-Davis-Kress filtered backprojection algorithm was used to reconstruct the 3D images. The noise level inside the VOI was evaluated and compared with that of the full-field higher exposure image. Calcifications phantom and low contrast phantom were imaged. Dose reduction was investigated by estimating the dose distribution in a cylindrical water phantom using Monte Carlo simulation based Geant4 package. Scatter reduction at the detector input was also studied. Our results show that with the exposure level reduced by the VOI mask, the dose levels were significantly reduced both inside and outside the VOI without compromising the accuracy of image reconstruction, allowing for the VOI to be imaged with more clarity and helping to reduce the breast dose. The contrast-to-noise ratio inside the VOI was improved. The VOI images were not adversely affected by noisier projection data outside the VOI. Scatter intensities at the detector input were also shown to

  7. Influence of scan duration on the estimation of pharmacokinetic parameters for breast lesions: a study based on CAIPIRINHA-Dixon-TWIST-VIBE technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Wen; Zhao, Bin; Wang, Guangbin; Wang, Cuiyan [Shandong University, Department of MR Imaging, Shandong Medical Imaging Research Institute, Jinan, Shandong (China); Liu, Hui [Siemens Healthcare, MR Collaborations NE Asia, Shanghai (China)

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the influence of scan duration on pharmacokinetic parameters and their performance in differentiating benign from malignant breast lesions. Dynamic breast imaging was performed on a 3.0-T MR system using a prototype CAIPIRINHA-Dixon-TWISTVIBE (CDT-VIBE) sequence with a temporal resolution of 11.9 s. Enrolled in the study were 53 women with 55 lesions (26 benign and 29 malignant). Pharmacokinetic parameters (Ktrans, ve, kep and iAUC) were calculated for various scan durations from 1 to 7 min after injection of contrast medium using the Tofts model. Ktrans, kep and ve calculated from the 1-min dataset were significantly different from those calculated from the other datasets. In benign lesions, Ktrans, kep and ve were significantly different only between 1 min and 2 min (corrected P > 0.05), but in malignant lesions there were significant differences for any of the comparisons up to 6 min vs. 7 min (corrected P > 0.05). There were no significant differences in AUCs for any of the parameters (P > 0.05). In breast dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI the scan duration has a significant impact on pharmacokinetic parameters, but the diagnostic ability may not be significantly affected. A scan duration of 5 min after injection of contrast medium may be sufficient for calculation of Tofts model pharmacokinetic parameters. (orig.)

  8. Influence of scan duration on the estimation of pharmacokinetic parameters for breast lesions: a study based on CAIPIRINHA-Dixon-TWIST-VIBE technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Wen; Zhao, Bin; Wang, Guangbin; Wang, Cuiyan; Liu, Hui

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the influence of scan duration on pharmacokinetic parameters and their performance in differentiating benign from malignant breast lesions. Dynamic breast imaging was performed on a 3.0-T MR system using a prototype CAIPIRINHA-Dixon-TWISTVIBE (CDT-VIBE) sequence with a temporal resolution of 11.9 s. Enrolled in the study were 53 women with 55 lesions (26 benign and 29 malignant). Pharmacokinetic parameters (Ktrans, ve, kep and iAUC) were calculated for various scan durations from 1 to 7 min after injection of contrast medium using the Tofts model. Ktrans, kep and ve calculated from the 1-min dataset were significantly different from those calculated from the other datasets. In benign lesions, Ktrans, kep and ve were significantly different only between 1 min and 2 min (corrected P > 0.05), but in malignant lesions there were significant differences for any of the comparisons up to 6 min vs. 7 min (corrected P > 0.05). There were no significant differences in AUCs for any of the parameters (P > 0.05). In breast dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI the scan duration has a significant impact on pharmacokinetic parameters, but the diagnostic ability may not be significantly affected. A scan duration of 5 min after injection of contrast medium may be sufficient for calculation of Tofts model pharmacokinetic parameters. (orig.)

  9. Exploring neighborhood inequality in female breast cancer incidence in Tehran using Bayesian spatial models and a spatial scan statistic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erfan Ayubi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to explore the spatial pattern of female breast cancer (BC incidence at the neighborhood level in Tehran, Iran. METHODS The present study included all registered incident cases of female BC from March 2008 to March 2011. The raw standardized incidence ratio (SIR of BC for each neighborhood was estimated by comparing observed cases relative to expected cases. The estimated raw SIRs were smoothed by a Besag, York, and Mollie spatial model and the spatial empirical Bayesian method. The purely spatial scan statistic was used to identify spatial clusters. RESULTS There were 4,175 incident BC cases in the study area from 2008 to 2011, of which 3,080 were successfully geocoded to the neighborhood level. Higher than expected rates of BC were found in neighborhoods located in northern and central Tehran, whereas lower rates appeared in southern areas. The most likely cluster of higher than expected BC incidence involved neighborhoods in districts 3 and 6, with an observed-to-expected ratio of 3.92 (p<0.001, whereas the most likely cluster of lower than expected rates involved neighborhoods in districts 17, 18, and 19, with an observed-to-expected ratio of 0.05 (p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS Neighborhood-level inequality in the incidence of BC exists in Tehran. These findings can serve as a basis for resource allocation and preventive strategies in at-risk areas.

  10. Electrical impedance scanning as a new imaging modality in breast cancer detection - a short review of clinical value on breast application, limitations and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malich, A.; Boehm, T.; Facius, M.; Kleinteich, I.; Fleck, M.; Sauner, D.; Anderson, R.; Kaiser, W.A.

    2003-01-01

    Objective. Cancer cells exhibit altered local dielectric properties compared to normal cells, measurable as different electrical conductance and capacitance using electrical impedance scanning (EIS). Therefore, active biocompatible current is applied to the patient for calculation of both parameters taking into account frequency, voltage and current flow. Subjects and methods. 240 women with 280 sonographically and/or mammographically suspicious findings were examined using EIS. All lesions were histologically proven. A lesion was scored as positive, when a focal increased conductance and/or capacitance was measurable using EIS. The lesion was visible as a bright area in a 256 grey-scale computer output. Due to system limitations patients having a pacemaker or pregnant had to be excluded from the study. Results. 91/113 malignant and 108/167 benign lesions were correctly identified using EIS (80.5% sensitivity, 64.7% specificity). NPV and PPV of 83.1% and 60.7% were observed, respectively. Accuracy was 0.73. A wide range of factors can induce false positive results, although by an experienced observer a number of these findings can be detected such as scars, skin alterations, contact artefacts, air bubbles and naevi, hairs and interfering bone. Based upon visibility on ultrasound (194 lesions visible, 86 not visible) significant differences in the detection rate occurred. Histology-dependent detectability rate varied significantly with lowest rate in CIS-cases (50%). Specificity values varied histology-depending, too; probably depending on the rate of proliferation between 75% (inflammatory lesions) and papillomata (50%). Best detectability was observed in malignant lesions with a size between 20 and 30 mm. Further possible applications will be discussed regarding the currently available literature (lymph nodes, salivary glands, mathematical and animal based models). Conclusion. EIS appears to be a promising new additional technology providing a rather high

  11. Clinical value of combined detection of serum tumor markers and whole body bone scan for diagnosis of bone metastases from breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Chao; Zhao Jing; Liu Desheng; Zhang Jingchuan; Ji Xuejing; Hou Xiancun

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical value of serum tumor marker determination and whole body bone scan for diagnosis of bone metastases from breast cancer. Methods: Serum tumor markers (CA15-3, CEA, TSGF)were detected with GLIA and whole body bone scan were investigated by SPECT in 124 breast cancer patients. Results: In 124 patients, 38 patients were diagnosed as positive for bone metastases with whole body bone scan. The positive predicting values of CA15-3, CEA, TSGF were 76.78%, 80% and 82.14%, and the negative predicting values of CA15-3, GEA, TSGF were 82.41%, 86.74% and 84.29% respectively. The levels of CA15-3, CEA, TSGF in patients with bone metastases were significantly higher than those in patients without metastasis and the controls (P<0.01). Conclusion: Determination of levels of serum tumor markers CA15-3, CEA, TSGF is helpful for diagnosis of bone metastases from breast cancer. Combined detection of GA15-3, CEA, TSGF could increase the sensitivity and accuracy of diagnosing bone metastases. (authors)

  12. Four-dimensional measurement of the displacement of internal fiducial and skin markers during 320-multislice computed tomography scanning of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Hideomi; Okuma, Kae; Tada, Keiichiro; Shiraishi, Kenshiro; Takahashi, Wataru; Shibata-Mobayashi, Shino; Sakumi, Akira; Saotome, Naoya; Haga, Akihiro; Onoe, Tsuyoshi; Ino, Kenji; Akahane, Masaaki; Ohtomo, Kuni; Nakagawa, Keiichi

    2012-10-01

    To study the three-dimensional movement of internal tumor bed fiducial and breast skin markers, using 320-multislice computed tomography (CT); and to analyze intrafractional errors for breast cancer patients undergoing breast irradiation. This study examined 280 markers on the skin of the breast (200 markers) and on the primary tumor bed (80 markers) of 20 patients treated by external-beam photon radiotherapy. Motion assessment was analyzed in 41 respiratory phases during 20 s of cine CT in the radiotherapy position. To assess intrafractional errors resulting from respiratory motion, four-dimensional CT scans were acquired for 20 patients. Motion in the anterior-posterior (A/P) and superior-inferior (S/I) directions showed a strong correlation (|r| > 0.7) with the respiratory curve for most markers (79% and 70%, respectively). The average marker displacements between maximum and minimum value during 20 s for the 200 breast skin metal markers were 1.1 ± 0.3 mm, 2.1 ± 0.6 mm, and 1.6 ± 0.4 mm in the left-right, A/P, and S/I directions, respectively. For the 80 tumor bed clips, displacements were 0.9 ± 0.2 mm in left-right, 1.7 ± 0.5 mm in A/P, and 1.1 ± 0.3 mm in S/I. There was no significant difference in the motion between breast quadrant regions or between the primary site and the other regions. Motion in primary breast tumors was evaluated with 320-multislice CT. Very little change was detected during individual radiation treatment fractions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A methodological study of genome-wide DNA methylation analyses using matched archival formalin-fixed paraffin embedded and fresh frozen breast tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinal, Allyson C; Wang, Dan; Yan, Li; Liu, Song; Tang, Li; Hu, Qiang; Morrison, Carl D; Ambrosone, Christine B; Higgins, Michael J; Sucheston-Campbell, Lara E

    2017-02-28

    DNA from archival formalin-fixed and paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue is an invaluable resource for genome-wide methylation studies although concerns about poor quality may limit its use. In this study, we compared DNA methylation profiles of breast tumors using DNA from fresh-frozen (FF) tissues and three types of matched FFPE samples. For 9/10 patients, correlation and unsupervised clustering analysis revealed that the FF and FFPE samples were consistently correlated with each other and clustered into distinct subgroups. Greater than 84% of the top 100 loci previously shown to differentiate ER+ and ER- tumors in FF tissues were also FFPE DML. Weighted Correlation Gene Network Analyses (WCGNA) grouped the DML loci into 16 modules in FF tissue, with ~85% of the module membership preserved across tissue types. Restored FFPE and matched FF samples were profiled using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450K platform. Methylation levels (β-values) across all loci and the top 100 loci previously shown to differentiate tumors by estrogen receptor status (ER+ or ER-) in a larger FF study, were compared between matched FF and FFPE samples using Pearson's correlation, hierarchical clustering and WCGNA. Positive predictive values and sensitivity levels for detecting differentially methylated loci (DML) in FF samples were calculated in an independent FFPE cohort. FFPE breast tumors samples show lower overall detection of DMLs versus FF, however FFPE and FF DMLs compare favorably. These results support the emerging consensus that the 450K platform can be employed to investigate epigenetics in large sets of archival FFPE tissues.

  14. Integrative analysis of copy number and gene expression in breast cancer using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded core biopsy tissue: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iddawela, Mahesh; Rueda, Oscar; Eremin, Jenny; Eremin, Oleg; Cowley, Jed; Earl, Helena M; Caldas, Carlos

    2017-07-11

    An absence of reliable molecular markers has hampered individualised breast cancer treatments, and a major limitation for translational research is the lack of fresh tissue. There are, however, abundant banks of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue. This study evaluated two platforms available for the analysis of DNA copy number and gene expression using FFPE samples. The cDNA-mediated annealing, selection, extension, and ligation assay (DASL™) has been developed for gene expression analysis and the Molecular Inversion Probes assay (Oncoscan™), were used for copy number analysis using FFPE tissues. Gene expression and copy number were evaluated in core-biopsy samples from patients with breast cancer undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). Forty-three core-biopsies were evaluated and characteristic copy number changes in breast cancers, gains in 1q, 8q, 11q, 17q and 20q and losses in 6q, 8p, 13q and 16q, were confirmed. Regions that frequently exhibited gains in tumours showing a pathological complete response (pCR) to NAC were 1q (55%), 8q (40%) and 17q (40%), whereas 11q11 (37%) gain was the most frequent change in non-pCR tumours. Gains associated with poor survival were 11q13 (62%), 8q24 (54%) and 20q (47%). Gene expression assessed by DASL correlated with immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis for oestrogen receptor (ER) [area under the curve (AUC) = 0.95], progesterone receptor (PR)(AUC = 0.90) and human epidermal growth factor type-2 receptor (HER-2) (AUC = 0.96). Differential expression analysis between ER+ and ER- cancers identified over-expression of TTF1, LAF-4 and C-MYB (p ≤ 0.05), and between pCR vs non-pCRs, over-expression of CXCL9, AREG, B-MYB and under-expression of ABCG2. This study was an integrative analysis of copy number and gene expression using FFPE core biopsies and showed that molecular marker data from FFPE tissues were consistent with those in previous studies using fresh-frozen samples. FFPE tissue can provide

  15. Automatic quantification of calcifications in the coronary arteries and thoracic aorta on radiotherapy planning CT scans of Western and Asian breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gernaat, Sofie A M; van Velzen, Sanne G M; Koh, Vicky; Emaus, Marleen J; Išgum, Ivana; Lessmann, Nikolas; Moes, Shinta; Jacobson, Anouk; Tan, Poey W; Grobbee, Diederick E; van den Bongard, Desiree H J; Tang, Johann I; Verkooijen, Helena M

    2018-04-24

    This study automatically quantified calcifications in coronary arteries (CAC) and thoracic aorta (TAC) on breast planning computed tomography (CT) scans and assessed its reproducibility compared to manual scoring. Dutch (n = 1199) and Singaporean (n = 1090) breast cancer patients with radiotherapy planning CT scan were included. CAC and TAC were automatically scored using deep learning algorithm. CVD risk categories were based on Agatson CAC: 0, 1-10, 11-100, 101-400 and >400. Reliability between automatic and manual scoring was assessed in 120 randomly selected CT scans from each population, with linearly weighted kappa for CAC categories and intraclass correlation coefficient for TAC. Median age was higher in Dutch patients than Singaporean patients: 57 versus 52 years. CAC and TAC increased with age and were more present in Dutch patients than Singaporean patients: 24.2% versus 17.3% and 73.0% versus 62.2%, respectively. Reliability of CAC categories and TAC was excellent in the Netherlands (0.85 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.77-0.93) and 0.98 (95% CI = 0.96-0.98) respectively) and Singapore (0.90 (95% CI = 0.84-0.96) and 0.99 (95% CI = 0.98-0.99) respectively). CAC and TAC prevalence was considerable and increased with age. Deep learning software is a reliable method to automatically measure CAC and TAC on radiotherapy breast CT scans. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The impact of postoperative expansion initiation timing on breast expander capsular characteristics: a prospective combined clinical and scanning electron microscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paek, Laurence S; Giot, Jean-Philippe; Tétreault-Paquin, Jean-Olivier; St-Jacques, Samuel; Nelea, Monica; Danino, M Alain

    2015-04-01

    In the first stage of expander-to-implant breast reconstruction, postoperative expansion is classically initiated at 10 to 14 days (conventional approach). The authors hypothesized that it may be beneficial to wait 6 weeks postoperatively before initiating serial expansion (delayed approach). Clinical and ultrastructural periprosthetic capsule analysis is first required before determining whether a delayed approach ultimately improves capsular tissue adherence and expansion process predictability. Patients undergoing two-stage implant-based breast reconstruction were enrolled prospectively in this study. During expander-to-implant exchange, the clinical presence of "Velcro" effect, biofilm, and double capsule was noted. Periprosthetic capsule samples were also sent for scanning electron microscopic observation of three parameters: surface relief, cellularity, and biofilm. Samples were divided into four groups for data analysis (group 1, conventional/Biocell; group 2, delayed/Biocell; group 3, conventional/Siltex; and group 4, delayed/Siltex). Fifty-six breast reconstructions were included. Each group comprised between 13 and 15 breasts. In group 1, no cases exhibited the Velcro effect and there was a 53.8 percent incidence of both biofilm and double capsule. In group 2, all cases demonstrated the Velcro effect and there were no incidences of biofilm or double capsule. Group 3 and group 4 cases did not exhibit a Velcro effect or double-capsule formation; however, biofilm was present in up to 20.0 percent. All group 2 samples revealed more pronounced three-dimensional relief on scanning electron microscopy. Variations in expansion protocols can lead to observable modifications in periprosthetic capsular architecture. There may be real benefits to delaying expander inflation until 6 weeks postoperatively with Biocell expanders.

  17. Stokes shift spectroscopy for breast cancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyasingh, Ebenezar; Prakashrao, Aruna; Singaravelu, Ganesan

    2010-02-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the diagnostic potential of stokes shift (SS) spectroscopy (SSS) for normal and different pathological breast tissues such as fibroadenoma and infiltrating ductal carcinoma. The SS spectra is measured by simultaneously scanning both the excitation and emission wavelengths while keeping a fixed wavelength interval Δλ=20 nm between them. Characteristic, highly resolved peaks and significant spectral differences between normal and different pathological breast tissues were observed. The SS spectra of normal and different pathological breast tissues shows the distinct peaks around 300, 350, 450, 500 and 600 nm may be attributed to tryptophan, collagen, NADH, flavin and porphyrin respectively. Using SSS technique one can obtain all the key fluorophores in a single scan and hence they can be targeted as a tumor markers in this study. In order to quantify the altered spectral differences between normal and different pathological breast tissues are verified by different ratio parameters.

  18. Breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, G.G.

    1985-01-01

    The treatment of malignant disease of the breast arouses more controversy and emotion than that of any other form of malignant disease. Many clinical trials have been carried out and others are still in progress. In addition, research work continues in regard to other aspects of the disease, such as epidemiology, population screening, and endocrine factors; yet little is really known about the true biological nature of carcinoma of the breast. A vast amount of literature has accumulated on the treatment of ''operable'' carcinoma of the breast, but it is not proposed to discuss here the merits or demerits of the various suggested treatments. Instead this chapter will be confined to the practical management of carcinoma of the breast as seen from the point of view of radiotherapist. For this reason greater attention will be paid to the radiotherapy techniques as practised at the Christie Hospital

  19. Toward optimal X-ray flux utilization in breast CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jakob Heide; Hansen, Per Christian; Sidky, Emil Y.

    2011-01-01

    A realistic computer-simulation of a breast computed tomography (CT) system and subject is constructed. The model is used to investigate the optimal number of views for the scan given a fixed total X-ray fluence. The reconstruction algorithm is based on accurate solution to a constrained......, TVminimization problem, which has received much interest recently for sparse-view CT data....

  20. In vivo detection of multidrug-resistant (MDR1) phenotype by technetium-99m sestamibi scan in untreated breast cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Vecchio, S.; Ciarmiello, A.; Potena, M.I.; Carriero, M.V.; Mainolfi, C.; Botti, G.; Thomas, R.; Cerra, M.; D'Aiuto, G.; Tsuruo, T.; Salvatore, M.

    1997-01-01

    Technetium-99m sestamibi is a transport substrate recognised by the multidrug-resistant P-glycoprotein (Pgp). To test whether 99m Tc-sestamibi efflux is enhanced in breast carcinomas overexpressing Pgp, we determined the efflux rates of 99m Tc-sestamibi and Pgp levels in tumours from 30 patients with untreated breast carcinoma. Patients were intravenously injected with 740 MBq of 99m Tc-sestamibi and underwent a 15-min dynamic study followed by the acquisition of static planar images at 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 h. Tumour specimens were obtained from each patient 24 h after 99m Tc-sestamibi scan and Pgp levels were determined using 125 I-MRK16 monoclonal antibody and in vitro quantitative autoradiography. All breast carcinomas showed high uptake of 99m Tc-sestamibi and data from region of interest analysis on sequential images were fitted with a monoexponential function. The efflux rates of 99m Tc-sestamibi, calculated from decay-corrected time-activity curves, ranged between 0.00121 and 0.01690 min -1 and were directly correlated with Pgp levels measured in the same tumours (r=0.62; P 99m Tc-sestamibi efflux from tumours of group A was 2.7 times higher than that observed in tumours of group B (0.00686 ±0.00390 min -1 vs 0.00250 ±0.00090 min -1 , P 99m Tc-sestamibi showed a sensitivity and a specificity of 80% and 95%, respectively. In conclusion, the efflux rate of 99m Tc-sestamibi may be used for the in vivo identification of the multidrug resistant (MDR1) phenotype in untreated breast cancer patients. (orig.). With 7 figs., 3 tabs

  1. Localization of the surgical bed using supine magnetic resonance and computed tomography scan fusion for planification of breast interstitial brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolicoeur, Marjory; Racine, Marie-Lynn; Trop, Isabelle; Hathout, Lara; Nguyen, David; Derashodian, Talar; David, Sandrine

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of supine breast magnetic resonance imaging (MR) for definition and localization of the surgical bed (SB) after breast conservative surgery. To assess the inter-observer variability of surgical bed delineation on computed tomography (CT) and supine MR. Materials and methods: Patients candidate for breast brachytherapy and no contra-indications for MR were eligible for this study. Patients were placed in supine position, with the ipsilateral arm above the head in an immobilization device. All patients underwent CT and MR in the same implant/treatment position. Four points were predefined for CT-MRI image fusion. The surgical cavity was drawn on CT then MRI, by three independent observers. Fusion and analysis of CT and MR images were performed using the ECLIPSE treatment planning software. Results: From September 2005 to November 2008, 70 patients were included in this prospective study. For each patient, we were able to acquire axial T1 and T2 images of good quality. Using the predefined fusion points, the median error following the fusion was 2.7 mm. For each observer, volumes obtained on MR were, respectively, 30%, 38% and 40% smaller than those derived from CT images. A highly significant inter-observer variability in the delineation of the SB on CT was demonstrated (p < 0.0001). On the contrary, all three observers agreed on the volume of the SB drawn on MR. Conclusion: Supine breast MRI yields a more precise definition of the SB with a smaller inter-observer variability than CT and may obviate the need for surgical clips. The volume of the SB is smaller with MRI. In our opinion, CT-MRI fusion should be used for SB delineation, in view of partial breast irradiation.

  2. Fixed Points

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 5. Fixed Points - From Russia with Love - A Primer of Fixed Point Theory. A K Vijaykumar. Book Review Volume 5 Issue 5 May 2000 pp 101-102. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  3. Fix 40!

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Ansambel Fix peab 13. detsembril Tallinnas Saku Suurhallis oma 40. sünnipäeva. Kontserdi erikülaline on ansambel Apelsin, kaastegevad Jassi Zahharov ja HaleBopp Singers. Õhtut juhib Tarmo Leinatamm

  4. Lung perfusion scanning studies on pulmonary radiolesions after /sup 60/Co teletherapy of operated cancer of the breast and on polycythaemia vera following radiophosphorus therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herzog, M

    1973-01-01

    When X-ray and scintigraphic control examinations were carried out on 75 patients with cancer of the breast, the X-ray examinations showed pulmonary radiolesions in 37.3% (28 patients) at an average of 12 weeks after radiotherapy with tele /sup 60/Co. The scintigraphic examination, on the other hand, showed a reduced activity concentration - a sign of disturbed blood flow through the lungs - in only 13.0% (9 patients). A reactive increase in blood flow in the form of a higher particle concentration in the irradiated lobe of the lung immediately after irradiation was scintigraphically detected in 21.3% (16 patients). In 15 patients with polycythaemia vera who had been treated with /sup 32/P, the lung perfusion scan detected 4 cases of stopped blood supply without correlative X-ray findings or episodes of embolism in clinical anamnesis.

  5. The maximum standardized uptake value of 18 F-FDG PET scan to determine prognosis of hormone-receptor positive metastatic breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whether PET scan maximum standard uptake value (SUVmax could differentiate luminal A from luminal B and help predict the survival of metastatic breast cancer (MBC patients with luminal subtype is still unknown and need to be investigated. Methods 305 MBC patients with luminal subtypes were screened with PET/CT. Eligible patients were prospectively followed up. Results In total, 134 patients were eligible for this study. SUVmax was significantly related to the number of metastatic sites and presence of visceral metastasis on univariate analysis. SUVmax could not effectively differentiate patients with luminal A from luminal B subtype. Although luminal subtype at diagnosis could predict the relapse-free interval, it could not predict progression-free survival (PFS or overall survival (OS after developing relapse. In contrast, SUVmax was predictive of both PFS and OS and this effect was maintained in multivariate COX regression model. Conclusions SUVmax of MBC did not correlate with molecular subtypes of primary tumor. While molecular subtype may be a valuable prognostic factor at primary diagnosis of breast cancer, the SUVmax, rather than molecular subtype, does have a potential to predict independently in multivariate analysis for the PFS and OS in patients with metastatic disease of luminal subtype.

  6. The maximum standardized uptake value of 18 F-FDG PET scan to determine prognosis of hormone-receptor positive metastatic breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jian; Hu, Xi-Chun; Jia, Zhen; Ragaz, Joseph; Zhang, Ying-Jian; Zhou, Min; Zhang, Yong-Ping; Li, Gang; Wang, Bi-Yun; Wang, Zhong-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Whether PET scan maximum standard uptake value (SUVmax) could differentiate luminal A from luminal B and help predict the survival of metastatic breast cancer (MBC) patients with luminal subtype is still unknown and need to be investigated. 305 MBC patients with luminal subtypes were screened with PET/CT. Eligible patients were prospectively followed up. In total, 134 patients were eligible for this study. SUVmax was significantly related to the number of metastatic sites and presence of visceral metastasis on univariate analysis. SUVmax could not effectively differentiate patients with luminal A from luminal B subtype. Although luminal subtype at diagnosis could predict the relapse-free interval, it could not predict progression-free survival (PFS) or overall survival (OS) after developing relapse. In contrast, SUVmax was predictive of both PFS and OS and this effect was maintained in multivariate COX regression model. SUVmax of MBC did not correlate with molecular subtypes of primary tumor. While molecular subtype may be a valuable prognostic factor at primary diagnosis of breast cancer, the SUVmax, rather than molecular subtype, does have a potential to predict independently in multivariate analysis for the PFS and OS in patients with metastatic disease of luminal subtype

  7. Diagnostic performance of digital breast tomosynthesis with a wide scan angle compared to full-field digital mammography for the detection and characterization of microcalcifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clauser, Paola; Nagl, Georg; Helbich, Thomas H.; Pinker-Domenig, Katja; Weber, Michael; Kapetas, Panagiotis; Bernathova, Maria; Baltzer, Pascal A.T.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Wide scan-angle DBT alone shows a high detection rate for microcalcifications. • DBT and FFDM can characterize microcalcifications at a comparable level. • Characterization is influenced by reader and by lesion type (benign vs malignant). • DBT might be used as a stand-alone technique for the assessment of microcalcifications. - Abstract: Objectives: To assess the diagnostic performance of digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT), with a wide scan-angle, compared to full-field digital mammography (FFDM), for the detection and characterization of microcalcifications. Methods: IRB approval was obtained for this retrospective study. We selected 150 FFDM and DBT (50 benign and 50 malignant histologically verified microcalcifications, 50 cases classified as BI-RADS 1). Four radiologists evaluated, in separate sessions and blinded to patients’ history and histology, the presence of microcalcifications. Cases with microcalcifications were assessed for visibility, characteristics, and grade of suspicion using BI-RADS categories. Detection rate and diagnostic performance were calculated. Visibility, lesions’ characteristics and reading time were analysed. Results: Detection rate and visibility were good for both FFDM and DBT, without intra-reader differences (P = 0.510). Inter-reader differences were detected (P < 0.018). Only two lesions were not detected by any reader on either FFDM or DBT. Diagnostic performance with DBT was as good as that of FFDM, but a significant inter-reader difference was found (P = 0.041). High inter-reader variability in the use of the descriptors was found. Reading time for DBT was almost twice that for FFDM (44 and 25 s, respectively). Conclusion: Wide scan-angle DBT enabled the detection and characterization of microcalcifications with no significant differences from FFDM. Inter-reader variability was seen.

  8. Diagnostic performance of digital breast tomosynthesis with a wide scan angle compared to full-field digital mammography for the detection and characterization of microcalcifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clauser, Paola, E-mail: paola.clauser@meduniwien.ac.at [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-Guided Therapy, Division of Molecular and Gender Imaging, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Nagl, Georg [Department for Radiology and Interventional Radiology, Landesklinikum Horn, Spitalgasse 10, 3580 Horn (Austria); Helbich, Thomas H., E-mail: thomas.helbich@meduniwien.ac.at [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-Guided Therapy, Division of Molecular and Gender Imaging, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Pinker-Domenig, Katja [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-Guided Therapy, Division of Molecular and Gender Imaging, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Weber, Michael [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-Guided Therapy, Division of General and Pediatric Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Kapetas, Panagiotis; Bernathova, Maria; Baltzer, Pascal A.T. [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-Guided Therapy, Division of Molecular and Gender Imaging, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Wide scan-angle DBT alone shows a high detection rate for microcalcifications. • DBT and FFDM can characterize microcalcifications at a comparable level. • Characterization is influenced by reader and by lesion type (benign vs malignant). • DBT might be used as a stand-alone technique for the assessment of microcalcifications. - Abstract: Objectives: To assess the diagnostic performance of digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT), with a wide scan-angle, compared to full-field digital mammography (FFDM), for the detection and characterization of microcalcifications. Methods: IRB approval was obtained for this retrospective study. We selected 150 FFDM and DBT (50 benign and 50 malignant histologically verified microcalcifications, 50 cases classified as BI-RADS 1). Four radiologists evaluated, in separate sessions and blinded to patients’ history and histology, the presence of microcalcifications. Cases with microcalcifications were assessed for visibility, characteristics, and grade of suspicion using BI-RADS categories. Detection rate and diagnostic performance were calculated. Visibility, lesions’ characteristics and reading time were analysed. Results: Detection rate and visibility were good for both FFDM and DBT, without intra-reader differences (P = 0.510). Inter-reader differences were detected (P < 0.018). Only two lesions were not detected by any reader on either FFDM or DBT. Diagnostic performance with DBT was as good as that of FFDM, but a significant inter-reader difference was found (P = 0.041). High inter-reader variability in the use of the descriptors was found. Reading time for DBT was almost twice that for FFDM (44 and 25 s, respectively). Conclusion: Wide scan-angle DBT enabled the detection and characterization of microcalcifications with no significant differences from FFDM. Inter-reader variability was seen.

  9. Study on the serum levels of relevant cytokines IL-β, IL-6, IL-8 and tumor markers CEA, CA15-3, PRL in breast cancer patients with bone metastatic lesions shown on SPECT radio-nuclide bone scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Bao

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore the correlationship between SPECT radionuclide bone scan and serum levels of three tumor markers as well as three cytokines in patients with breast cancer. Methods: Serum levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, CEA, CA15-3(with RIA) and PRL(with CLIA) were determined in 1)20 breast cancer patients with definite bone metastatic lesions shown on radio-nuclide bone scan 2) 20 breast cancer patients without bone metastasis 3) 30 patients with benign breast disorders and 4) 35 controls. Results: The serum tumor markers levels in patients osseous metastasis were significantly higher than those in the other three groups (P 0.05). The serum levels of IL-6, IL-8, IL-1β in patients with osseous metastasis were also significantly higher than those in other groups(P<0.05). Conclusion: Over expression of CEA, CA15-3 and PRL as well as IL-6, IL-8, IL-1β were related with osseous metastasis from breast cancer. Determination of the levels of these six parameters would be helpful for dynamic monitoring of the extent of metastasis. (authors)

  10. Detection of bone metastases in breast cancer patients in the PET/CT era: Do we still need the bone scan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caglar, M; Kupik, O; Karabulut, E; Høilund-Carlsen, P F

    2016-01-01

    To examine the value of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) for the detection of bone metastasis in breast cancer patients and assess whether whole body bone scan (BS) with (99m)Tc-methylene diphosphonate provides any additional information. Study group comprised 150 patients, mean age 52 years (range 27-85) with breast cancer, suspected of having bone metastases. All patients had undergone both FDG-PET/CT and BS with or without single photon emission tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) within a period of 6 weeks. The final diagnosis of bone metastasis was established by histopathological findings, additional imaging, or clinical follow-up longer than 10 months. Cancer antigen 15-3 (CA15-3) and carcinoembryogenic antigen (CEA) were measured in all patients. Histologically 83%, 7% and 10% had infiltrating ductal, lobular and mixed carcinoma respectively. Confirmed bone metastases were present in 86 patients (57.3%) and absent in 64 (42.7%). Mean CA15-3 and CEA values in patients with bone metastases were 74.6ng/mL and 60.4U/mL respectively, compared to 21.3ng/mL and 3.2U/mL without metastases (p<0.001). The sensitivity of FDG-PET/CT for the detection of bone metastases was 97.6% compared to 89.5% with SPECT/CT. In 57 patients, FDG-PET/CT correctly identified additional pulmonary, hepatic, nodal and other soft tissue metastases, not detected by BS. Our findings suggest that FDG-PET/CT is superior to BS with or without SPECT/CT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  11. Interobserver variability in the delineation of the tumour bed using seroma and surgical clips based on 4DCT scan for external-beam partial breast irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Bing; Li, Jianbin; Wang, Wei; Xu, Min; Shao, Qian; Zhang, Yingjie; Liang, Chaoqian; Guo, Yanluan

    2015-01-01

    To explore the interobserver variability in the delineation of the tumour bed using seroma and surgical clips based on the four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) scan for external-beam partial breast irradiation (EB-PBI) during free breathing. Patients with a seroma clarity score (SCS) 3 ~ 5 and ≥5 surgical clips in the lumpectomy cavity after breast-conserving surgery who were recruited for EB-PBI underwent 4DCT simulation. Based on the ten sets of 4DCT images acquired, the tumour bed formed using the clips, the seroma, and both the clips and seroma (defined as TB C , TB S and TB C+S , respectively) were delineated by five radiation oncologists using specific guidelines. The following parameters were calculated to analyse interobserver variability: volume of the tumour bed (TB C , TB S , TB C+S ), coefficient of variation (COV C , COV S , COV C+S ), and matching degree (MD C , MD S , MD C+S ). The interobserver variability for TB C and TB C+S and for COV C and COV C+S were statistically significant (p = 0.021, 0.008, 0.002, 0.015). No significant difference was observed for TB S and COV S (p = 0.867, 0.061). Significant differences in interobserver variability were observed for MD C vs MD S , MD C vs MD C+S , MD S vs MD C+S (p = 0.000, 0.032, 0.008), the interobserver variability of MD S was smaller than that of MD C and MD C+S (MD S > MD C+S > MD C ). When the SCS was 3 ~ 5 points and the number of surgical clips was ≥5, interobserver variability was minimal for the delineation of the tumour bed based on seroma

  12. The implication of hot spots on bone scans within the irradiated field of breast cancer patients treated with mastectomy followed by radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Won; Huh, Seung-Jae; Yang, Jung-Hyun

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the implication of abnormal hot spots in the irradiated field of patients treated with mastectomy followed by radiotherapy for breast cancer. We reviewed 1842 consecutive bone scans performed on 292 patients treated with a modified radical mastectomy and followed by radiotherapy. If abnormal hot spots at the irradiated sites were detected in the bone scans, we evaluated further studies to determine whether bone metastases were present. Radiation was given using 4 or 6 MV X-rays at a dosage of 50.4 Gy during 5.5 weeks with a dosage per fraction of 1.8 Gy. The follow-up period was 25-136 months (median 57 months). Sixty patients (20.6%) developed bone metastasis. Solitary rib metastases were identified in four patients; all were detected outside of the irradiated field. Of 232 patients who did not develop bone metastases, hot spots in the irradiated field were detected in 30 patients (12.9%). A simple rib facture at the site of a hot spot was demonstrated in four patients. The cumulative incidence of hot spots at 5 years was 12.9%. The cumulative incidence of hot spots was more common in postmenopausal women, patients who were less than 60 kg, patients who received adjuvant hormonal therapy and patients who had radiation that included the supraclavicular area. We confirmed that the hot spots within the irradiated fields might be benign, especially in patients who were postmenopause, had a low body weight, received adjuvant hormonal therapy and who had radiation that included the supraclavicular area. (author)

  13. Fractal Analysis of Radiologists Visual Scanning Pattern in Screening Mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alamudun, Folami T [ORNL; Yoon, Hong-Jun [ORNL; Hudson, Kathy [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Morin-Ducote, Garnetta [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Tourassi, Georgia [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Several investigators have investigated radiologists visual scanning patterns with respect to features such as total time examining a case, time to initially hit true lesions, number of hits, etc. The purpose of this study was to examine the complexity of the radiologists visual scanning pattern when viewing 4-view mammographic cases, as they typically do in clinical practice. Gaze data were collected from 10 readers (3 breast imaging experts and 7 radiology residents) while reviewing 100 screening mammograms (24 normal, 26 benign, 50 malignant). The radiologists scanpaths across the 4 mammographic views were mapped to a single 2-D image plane. Then, fractal analysis was applied on the derived scanpaths using the box counting method. For each case, the complexity of each radiologist s scanpath was estimated using fractal dimension. The association between gaze complexity, case pathology, case density, and radiologist experience was evaluated using 3 factor fixed effects ANOVA. ANOVA showed that case pathology, breast density, and experience level are all independent predictors of the visual scanning pattern complexity. Visual scanning patterns are significantly different for benign and malignant cases than for normal cases as well as when breast parenchyma density changes.

  14. Internal fit of three-unit fixed dental prostheses produced by computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing and the lost-wax metal casting technique assessed using the triple-scan protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Bjørn E; Dahl, Jon E; Rønold, Hans J

    2018-02-01

    Suboptimal adaptation of fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) can lead to technical and biological complications. It is unclear if the computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technique improves adaptation of FDPs compared with FDPs made using the lost-wax and metal casting technique. Three-unit FDPs were manufactured by CAD/CAM based on digital impression of a typodont model. The FDPs were made from one of five materials: pre-sintered zirconium dioxide; hot isostatic pressed zirconium dioxide; lithium disilicate glass-ceramic; milled cobalt-chromium; and laser-sintered cobalt-chromium. The FDPs made using the lost-wax and metal casting technique were used as reference. The fit of the FDPs was analysed using the triple-scan method. The fit was evaluated for both single abutments and three-unit FDPs. The average cement space varied between 50 μm and 300 μm. Insignificant differences in internal fit were observed between the CAD/CAM-manufactured FDPs, and none of the FPDs had cement spaces that were statistically significantly different from those of the reference FDP. For all FDPs, the cement space at a marginal band 0.5-1.0 mm from the preparation margin was less than 100 μm. The milled cobalt-chromium FDP had the closest fit. The cement space of FDPs produced using the CAD/CAM technique was similar to that of FDPs produced using the conventional lost-wax and metal casting technique. © 2017 Eur J Oral Sci.

  15. Analytical validation of the PAM50-based Prosigna Breast Cancer Prognostic Gene Signature Assay and nCounter Analysis System using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded breast tumor specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, Torsten; Storhoff, James; Wallden, Brett; Schaper, Carl; Ferree, Sean; Liu, Shuzhen; Gao, Dongxia; Barry, Garrett; Dowidar, Naeem; Maysuria, Malini

    2014-01-01

    NanoString’s Prosigna™ Breast Cancer Prognostic Gene Signature Assay is based on the PAM50 gene expression signature. The test outputs a risk of recurrence (ROR) score, risk category, and intrinsic subtype (Luminal A/B, HER2-enriched, Basal-like). The studies described here were designed to validate the analytical performance of the test on the nCounter Analysis System across multiple laboratories. Analytical precision was measured by testing five breast tumor RNA samples across 3 sites. Reproducibility was measured by testing replicate tissue sections from 43 FFPE breast tumor blocks across 3 sites following independent pathology review at each site. The RNA input range was validated by comparing assay results at the extremes of the specified range to the nominal RNA input level. Interference was evaluated by including non-tumor tissue into the test. The measured standard deviation (SD) was less than 1 ROR unit within the analytical precision study and the measured total SD was 2.9 ROR units within the reproducibility study. The ROR scores for RNA inputs at the extremes of the range were the same as those at the nominal input level. Assay results were stable in the presence of moderate amounts of surrounding non-tumor tissue (<70% by area). The analytical performance of NanoString’s Prosigna assay has been validated using FFPE breast tumor specimens across multiple clinical testing laboratories

  16. Theory of Scanning and Imaging of Radioisotope Distributions; Theorie de la Scintigraphoe a Balayage ou Fixe; Teoriya skennirovaniya i izobrazhenie raspredeleniya radioizotopov; Teoria de la Exploracion y de la Obtencion de Imagenes de Distribuciones Radioisotopicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassen, B. [Department of Biophysics and Nuclear Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1964-10-15

    In a published paper, the author has presented a simplified basic theory of the quantitative performance characteristics of radioisotope imaging and scanning systems. A ''figure of merit'' is derived, depending partly on the instrument characteristics and partly on the methodology utilized. The factors involved in the figure of merit are: the count-rate sensitivity of the detector per unit solid angle, subtended from a resolution element, the solid angle subtended from a resolution element, the number of resolution elements viewed simultaneously, the number of resolution elements in the total field scanned or imaged, the dose concentration, the total time taken to produce an image or scan and the background count-rate. In the present presentation the basic theory is further refined and discussed to take into account factors such as ''depth-of-focus'' resolution, variable speed or variable dwell scanning, possibilities of variable or automatically variable resolution, relative resolvability of ''cold'' and ''hot'' nodules, field size and use of special radioisotopes and types of detectors. Also, a discussion is presented on the handling and processing of data arising from scanning and imaging techniques. The relative merits of background eliminators and contrast enhancement procedures such as photoscanning and colour scanning are analysed. The advantages and possible disadvantages of tape recording original data and the repeated playback through contrast and background processing circuits is discussed. Some experimentally determined figure-of-merit data are presented on a widely used commercialscanner and on some new developments, especially a new high quantum utilization scanner, which is briefly described in the above-mentioned article and has since undergone further development, improvement and testing. (author) [French] Dans une publication, l'auteur a expose une theorie fondamentale simplifiee des caracteristiques quantitatives de rendement des divers systemes

  17. Preoperative bone scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charkes, N.D.; Malmud, L.S.; Caswell, T.; Goldman, L.; Hall, J.; Lauby, V.; Lightfoot, W.; Maier, W.; Rosemond, G.

    1975-01-01

    Strontium nitrate Sr-87m bone scans were made preoperatively in a group of women with suspected breast cancer, 35 of whom subsequently underwent radical mastectomy. In 3 of the 35 (9 percent), the scans were abnormal despite the absence of clinical or roentgenographic evidence of metastatic disease. All three patients had extensive axillary lymph node involvement by tumor, and went on to have additional bone metastases, from which one died. Roentgenograms failed to detect the metastases in all three. Occult bone metastases account in part for the failure of radical mastectomy to cure some patients with breast cancer. It is recommended that all candidates for radical mastectomy have a preoperative bone scan. (U.S.)

  18. Clinical Usefulness of a One-Tube Nested Reverse Transcription Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay for Evaluating Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 mRNA Overexpression in Formalin-Fixed and Paraffin-Embedded Breast Cancer Tissue Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hye-Young; Ahn, Sungwoo; Park, Sunyoung; Kim, SeungIl; Lee, Hyeyoung

    2017-01-01

    Currently, the two main methods used to analyze human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) amplification or overexpression have a limited accuracy and high costs. These limitations can be overcome by the development of complementary quantitative methods. In this study, we analyzed HER2 mRNA expression in clinical formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples using a one-tube nested reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) assay. We measured expression relative to 3 reference genes and compared the results to those obtained by conventional immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assays with 226 FFPE breast cancer tissue samples. The one-tube nested RT-qPCR assay proved to be highly sensitive and specific based on comparisons with IHC (96.9 and 97.7%, respectively) and FISH (92.4 and 92.9%, respectively) obtained with the validation set. Comparisons with clinicopathological data revealed significant associations between HER2 overexpression and TNM stage (p < 0.01), histological type (p < 0.01), ER status (p < 0.001), PR status (p < 0.05), HER2 status (p < 0.001), and molecular subtypes (p < 0.001). Based on these findings, our one-tube nested RT-qPCR assay is a potentially useful and complementary screening tool for the detection of HER2 mRNA overexpression. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Detection of distant metastases in patients with locally advanced breast cancer: role of {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography and conventional imaging with computed tomography scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitencourt, Almir Galvao Vieira; Andrade, Wesley Pereira; Cunha, Rodrigo Rodrigues da; Conrado, Jorge Luis Fonseca de Acioli; Lima, Eduardo Nobrega Pereira; Barbosa, Paula Nicole Vieira Pinto; Chojniak, Rubens, E-mail: rodrigo.rcunha@hotmail.com [A. C. Camargo Cancer Center, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Hospital Beneficincia Portuguesa de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-15

    Objective: To evaluate positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) and conventional imaging tests for the detection of distant metastases in patients with locally advanced breast cancer. Materials and Methods: We included 81 patients with breast cancer who had undergone {sup 18}-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT before treatment. Conventional imaging included the following: bone scintigraphy; chest X-ray (in 14.5%) or CT (in 85.5%); and abdominal ultrasound (in 10.8%), CT (in 87.8%), or magnetic resonance imaging (in 1.4%). Histopathology and clinical/imaging follow-up served as reference. Results: Distant metastases were observed in nine patients (11.1%). On patient-based analysis, conventional imaging identified distant metastases in all 9 patients. In one patient, the initial {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT failed to demonstrate bone metastases that was evident on bone scintigraphy. In two patients, the CT scan failed to show extra-axillary lymph node metastases that were identified on {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT. There was no significant difference between {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT and conventional imaging in terms of their sensitivity for the detection of distant metastases in patients with locally advanced breast cancer. Conclusion: This study showed that {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT and conventional imaging with CT scans had similar sensitivity for the diagnosis of distant metastases in patients with locally advanced breast cancer. {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT can add information about extra-axillary lymph node involvements. (author)

  20. Fixed target beams

    CERN Document Server

    Kain, V; Cettour-Cave, S; Cornelis, K; Fraser, M A; Gatignon, L; Goddard, B; Velotti, F

    2017-01-01

    The CERN SPS (Super Proton Synchrotron) serves asLHC injector and provides beam for the North Area fixedtarget experiments. At low energy, the vertical acceptancebecomes critical with high intensity large emittance fixed tar-get beams. Optimizing the vertical available aperture is a keyingredient to optimize transmission and reduce activationaround the ring. During the 2016 run a tool was developed toprovide an automated local aperture scan around the entirering.The flux of particles slow extracted with the1/3inte-ger resonance from the Super Proton Synchrotron at CERNshould ideally be constant over the length of the extractionplateau, for optimum use of the beam by the fixed target ex-periments in the North Area. The extracted intensity is con-trolled in feed-forward correction of the horizontal tune viathe main SPS quadrupoles. The Mains power supply noiseat 50 Hz and harmonics is also corrected in feed-forwardby small amplitude tune modulation at the respective fre-quencies with a dedicated additional quad...

  1. Discordant Findings of Skeletal Metastasis Between Tc99m MDP Bone Scans and F18 FDG PET/CT Imaging for Advanced Breast and Lung Cancers—Two Case Reports and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Wen Chen

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, Tc99m methyl diphosphate (MDP bone scintigraphy provides high-sensitivity detection of skeletal metastasis from breast and lung cancers in regular follow-up. Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT, based on the glucose metabolism of malignant cells, plays a role in describing rumor growth, proliferation of neoplasm and the extent of metastasis. In general, concordant findings of skeletal metastasis are seen on both types of image, especially in cases of breast and lung cancer. However, there were extremely discordant findings of skeletal metastasis between bone scans and F18 FDG PET/CT imaging in two cases among 300 consecutive F18 FDG PET/CT follow-up exams of patients with malignancies, during the past year, in our center. Both cases, one of breast cancer and one of lung cancer, had negative bone scintigraphic findings, but a diffusely high grade of F18 FDG avid marrow infiltration in the axial spine, leading to the diagnosis of stage IV disease in both cases. Owing to variant genetic aberrance of malignance, F18 FDG PET/CT reveals direct evidence of diffuse, rapid neoplasm metabolism in the bone marrow of the spine, but not of secondary osteoblastic reactions in vivo. F18 FDG PET/CT should always be employed in the follow-up of patients with malignancies.

  2. Nuclear Scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuclear scans use radioactive substances to see structures and functions inside your body. They use a special ... images. Most scans take 20 to 45 minutes. Nuclear scans can help doctors diagnose many conditions, including ...

  3. Technical validation of an RT-qPCR in vitro diagnostic test system for the determination of breast cancer molecular subtypes by quantification of ERBB2, ESR1, PGR and MKI67 mRNA levels from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded breast tumor specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laible, Mark; Schlombs, Kornelia; Kaiser, Katharina; Veltrup, Elke; Herlein, Stefanie; Lakis, Sotiris; Stöhr, Robert; Eidt, Sebastian; Hartmann, Arndt; Wirtz, Ralph M; Sahin, Ugur

    2016-07-07

    MammaTyper is a novel CE-marked in vitro diagnostic RT-qPCR assay which assigns routinely processed breast cancer specimens into the molecular subtypes Luminal A-like, Luminal B-like (HER2 positive or negative), HER2 positive (non-luminal) and Triple negative (ductal) according to the mRNA expression of ERBB2, ESR1, PGR and MKI67 and the St Gallen consensus surrogate clinical definition. Until now and regarding formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded material (FFPE), this has been a task mostly accomplished by immunohistochemistry (IHC). However the discrepancy rates of IHC for the four breast cancer biomarkers are frequently under debate, especially for Ki-67 which carries the highest degree of inter- and even intra-observer variability. Herein we describe a series of studies in FFPE specimens which aim to fully validate the analytical performance of the MammaTyper assay, including the site to site reproducibility of the individual marker measurements. Tumor RNA was extracted with the novel RNXtract RNA extraction kit. Synthetic RNA was used to assess the sensitivity of the RNXtract kit. DNA and RNA specific qPCR assays were used so as to determine analyte specificity of RNXtract. For the assessment of limit of blank, limit of detection, analytical measurement range and PCR efficiency of the MammaTyper kit serial dilutions of samples were used. Analytical precision studies of MammaTyper were built around two different real time PCR platforms and involved breast tumor samples belonging to different subtypes analyzed across multiple sites and under various stipulated conditions. The MammaTyper assay robustness was tested against RNA input variations, alternative extraction methods and tumor cell content. Individual assays were linear up to at least 32.33 and 33.56 Cqs (quantification cycles) for the two qPCR platforms tested. PCR efficiency ranged from 99 to 109 %. In qPCR platform 1, estimates for assay specific inter-site standard deviations (SD) were between 0.14 and

  4. Technical validation of an RT-qPCR in vitro diagnostic test system for the determination of breast cancer molecular subtypes by quantification of ERBB2, ESR1, PGR and MKI67 mRNA levels from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded breast tumor specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laible, Mark; Schlombs, Kornelia; Kaiser, Katharina; Veltrup, Elke; Herlein, Stefanie; Lakis, Sotiris; Stöhr, Robert; Eidt, Sebastian; Hartmann, Arndt; Wirtz, Ralph M.; Sahin, Ugur

    2016-01-01

    MammaTyper is a novel CE-marked in vitro diagnostic RT-qPCR assay which assigns routinely processed breast cancer specimens into the molecular subtypes Luminal A-like, Luminal B-like (HER2 positive or negative), HER2 positive (non-luminal) and Triple negative (ductal) according to the mRNA expression of ERBB2, ESR1, PGR and MKI67 and the St Gallen consensus surrogate clinical definition. Until now and regarding formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded material (FFPE), this has been a task mostly accomplished by immunohistochemistry (IHC). However the discrepancy rates of IHC for the four breast cancer biomarkers are frequently under debate, especially for Ki-67 which carries the highest degree of inter- and even intra-observer variability. Herein we describe a series of studies in FFPE specimens which aim to fully validate the analytical performance of the MammaTyper assay, including the site to site reproducibility of the individual marker measurements. Tumor RNA was extracted with the novel RNXtract RNA extraction kit. Synthetic RNA was used to assess the sensitivity of the RNXtract kit. DNA and RNA specific qPCR assays were used so as to determine analyte specificity of RNXtract. For the assessment of limit of blank, limit of detection, analytical measurement range and PCR efficiency of the MammaTyper kit serial dilutions of samples were used. Analytical precision studies of MammaTyper were built around two different real time PCR platforms and involved breast tumor samples belonging to different subtypes analyzed across multiple sites and under various stipulated conditions. The MammaTyper assay robustness was tested against RNA input variations, alternative extraction methods and tumor cell content. Individual assays were linear up to at least 32.33 and 33.56 Cqs (quantification cycles) for the two qPCR platforms tested. PCR efficiency ranged from 99 to 109 %. In qPCR platform 1, estimates for assay specific inter-site standard deviations (SD) were between 0.14 and 0

  5. Methodology for performing surveys for fixed contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durham, J.S.; Gardner, D.L.

    1994-10-01

    This report describes a methodology for performing instrument surveys for fixed contamination that can be used to support the release of material from radiological areas, including release to controlled areas and release from radiological control. The methodology, which is based on a fast scan survey and a series of statistical, fixed measurements, meets the requirements of the U.S. Department of Energy Radiological Control Manual (RadCon Manual) (DOE 1994) and DOE Order 5400.5 (DOE 1990) for surveys for fixed contamination and requires less time than a conventional scan survey. The confidence interval associated with the new methodology conforms to the draft national standard for surveys. The methodology that is presented applies only to surveys for fixed contamination. Surveys for removable contamination are not discussed, and the new methodology does not affect surveys for removable contamination

  6. Renal scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003790.htm Renal scan To use the sharing features on this ... anaphylaxis . Alternative Names Renogram; Kidney scan Images Kidney anatomy Kidney - blood and urine flow References Chernecky CC, ...

  7. CT Scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease, lung nodules and liver masses Monitor the effectiveness of certain treatments, such as cancer treatment Detect ... scan done in a hospital or an outpatient facility. CT scans are painless and, with newer machines, ...

  8. Multichannel scanning spectrophotometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagutin, A.F.

    1979-01-01

    A spectrophotometer designed in the Crimea astrophysical observatory is described. The spectrophotometer is intended for the installation at the telescope to measure energy distribution in the star spectra in the 3100-8550 A range. The device is made according to the scheme with a fixed diffraction lattice. The choice of the optical kinematic scheme is explained. The main design elements are shown. Some singularities of the scanning drive kinematics are considered. The device performance is given

  9. Bone radioisotope scanning: usefulness in the evaluation and observation of patients with breast cancer in clinical stage II, III, IV; Gammagrafia osea: utilidad en la evaluacion y seguimiento de pacientes con cancer de mama en estadio clinico II, III, IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cano P, R A

    1996-12-31

    The clinical records of 420 patients with diagnosis of breast cancer well documented by the pathological anatomy in clinical stage II, III and IV were reviewed. In each one of them has been done at least a bone scanning during the diagnosis. In 52 cases carried out sericeous dosages of CA 15-3 and in some cases it was necessary to administer Samarium-153 EDTMP as palliative therapy of bone pain. The presence of secondary gamma-graphic focuses was 0/84 cases (0%) in clinical stage II, 54/265 cases (20%) in III and 41/91 cases (45%) in IV. The one focus appeared in 6.7% of the cases. In 7 of the 52 cases that received sericeous dosages of CA 15-3 were detected secondary osseous lesions, and 5 of them presented a marker elevation. The bone scanning has shown in many cases the presence of getters focuses in singular places of skeleton, urinary excretory system or mammary tissue. The gamma rays from Sm-153 allowed us to get some appropriate basal views post-therapy of the secondary lesions. The results show that the great incidence of secondary lesions in the skeleton occurred in cases of stages III and IV unlike other countries. The serial repetition of the radioisotope scanning. The presence of one focus in the skeleton of a patient with a well-known neoplasia makes us to do a careful evaluation of the focus nature. The presence of tracer accumulation in the kidney, ureter and bladder allows us to infer the pathology of excretory system that is the first evidence of its presence in many cases. (author). 71 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. A comparative study on the volume and localization of the internal gross target volume defined using the seroma and surgical clips based on 4DCT scan for external-beam partial breast irradiation after breast conserving surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Yun; Li, Jianbin; Wang, Wei; Wang, Suzhen; Wang, Jinzhi; Ma, Zhifang; Shao, Qian; Xu, Min

    2014-01-01

    To explore the volume and localization of the internal gross target volume defined using the seroma and/or surgical clips based on the four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) during free-breathing. Fifteen breast cancer patients after breast-conserving surgery (BCS) were recruited for EB-PBI. On the ten sets CT images, the gross target volume formed by the clips, the seroma, both the clips and seroma delineated by one radiation oncologist and defined as GTVc, GTVs and GTVc + s, respectively. The ten GTVc, GTVs and GTVc + s on the ten sets CT images produced the IGTVc, IGTVs, IGTVc + s, respectively. The IGTV volume and the distance between the center of IGTVc, IGTVs, IGTVc + s were all recorded. Conformity index (CI), degree of inclusion (DI) were calculated for IGTV/IGTV, respectively. The volume of IGTVc + s were significantly larger than the IGTVc and IGTVs (p < 0.05). There was significant difference between the DIs of IGTVc vs IGTVc + s, the DIs of IGTVs vs IGTVc + s. There was significant difference among the CIs of IGTV/IGTV. The DIs and CIs of IGTV/IGTV were negatively correlated with their centroid distance (r < 0, p < 0.05). There were volume difference and spatial mismatch between the IGTVs delineated based on the surgical clips and seroma. The IGTV defined as the seroma and surgical clips provided the best overall representation of the ‘true’ moving GTV

  11. A feasibility study of a hybrid breast-immobilization system for early breast cancer in proton beam therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arimura, Takeshi; Ogino, Takashi; Yoshiura, Takashi; Matsuyama, Mitsugi; Kondo, Naoaki; Miyazaki, Hideki; Sakuragi, Akari; Ohara, Takayuki; Ogo, Etsuyo; Hishikawa, Yoshio

    2017-04-01

    We aimed to develop a new breast-immobilizing system for proton beam therapy (PBT) of early breast cancer (EBC) that would provide the optimum breast shape during the treatment as well as increased fixation reliability by reducing the influence of respiratory movement. The breast-immobilizing system (HyBIS; hybrid breast-immobilizing system) consists of a whole body immobilization system (WBIS), position-converting device (to change patient position), photo-scanning system, breast cup (made using a three-dimensional printer), breast cup-fitting apparatus, breast cup-holding device (to ensure the breast remains lifted in the supine position), and dedicated stretcher fixed to the WBIS (to carry the patient). We conducted a phantom experiment to evaluate the effect of the HyBIS on breast immobilization during the respiratory cycle. Thirteen markers were embedded in the right breast of a female phantom that simulated respiratory thoracic movement at an amplitude of 15 mm, and their displacements on four-dimensional computed tomography were compared between conditions with and without immobilization by HyBIS. When immobilization was applied with the HyBIS, breast protrusion was maintained in the phantom in the supine treatment position. The mean values of the anteroposterior, superoinferior, lateral, and three-dimensional (3D) displacement of the markers were 2.7 ± 1.7, 0.3 ± 0.5, 0.9 ± 0.8, and 3.1 ± 1.6 mm with HyBIS, and 5.5 ± 2.9, 0.6 ± 0.8, 0.5 ± 0.4, and 5.6 ± 2.9 mm without HyBIS, respectively; thus, the anteroposterior (P = 0.014) and 3D (P = 0.007) displacements significantly improved with HyBIS. We demonstrated that the HyBIS can help retain the protruded breast shape in the supine position during treatment and can reduce the influence of respiratory movement. Thus, the HyBIS can help to reliably and precisely perform PBT for EBC. © 2017 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  12. Cooperative scans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Zukowski (Marcin); P.A. Boncz (Peter); M.L. Kersten (Martin)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractData mining, information retrieval and other application areas exhibit a query load with multiple concurrent queries touching a large fraction of a relation. This leads to individual query plans based on a table scan or large index scan. The implementation of this access path in most

  13. Raman imaging using fixed bandpass filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landström, L.; Kullander, F.; Lundén, H.; Wästerby, P.

    2017-05-01

    By using fixed narrow band pass optical filtering and scanning the laser excitation wavelength, hyperspectral Raman imaging could be achieved. Experimental, proof-of-principle results from the Chemical Warfare Agent (CWA) tabun (GA) as well as the common CWA simulant tributyl phosphate (TBP) on different surfaces/substrates are presented and discussed.

  14. Computer-Aided Diagnosis with Deep Learning Architecture: Applications to Breast Lesions in US Images and Pulmonary Nodules in CT Scans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jie-Zhi; Ni, Dong; Chou, Yi-Hong; Qin, Jing; Tiu, Chui-Mei; Chang, Yeun-Chung; Huang, Chiun-Sheng; Shen, Dinggang; Chen, Chung-Ming

    2016-04-15

    This paper performs a comprehensive study on the deep-learning-based computer-aided diagnosis (CADx) for the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant nodules/lesions by avoiding the potential errors caused by inaccurate image processing results (e.g., boundary segmentation), as well as the classification bias resulting from a less robust feature set, as involved in most conventional CADx algorithms. Specifically, the stacked denoising auto-encoder (SDAE) is exploited on the two CADx applications for the differentiation of breast ultrasound lesions and lung CT nodules. The SDAE architecture is well equipped with the automatic feature exploration mechanism and noise tolerance advantage, and hence may be suitable to deal with the intrinsically noisy property of medical image data from various imaging modalities. To show the outperformance of SDAE-based CADx over the conventional scheme, two latest conventional CADx algorithms are implemented for comparison. 10 times of 10-fold cross-validations are conducted to illustrate the efficacy of the SDAE-based CADx algorithm. The experimental results show the significant performance boost by the SDAE-based CADx algorithm over the two conventional methods, suggesting that deep learning techniques can potentially change the design paradigm of the CADx systems without the need of explicit design and selection of problem-oriented features.

  15. Radionuclide scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, B.

    1986-01-01

    Radionuclide scanning is the production of images of normal and diseased tissues and organs by means of the gamma-ray emissions from radiopharmaceutical agents having specific distributions in the body. The gamma rays are detected at the body surface by a variety of instruments that convert the invisible rays into visible patterns representing the distribution of the radionuclide in the body. The patterns, or images, obtained can be interpreted to provide or to aid diagnoses, to follow the course of disease, and to monitor the management of various illnesses. Scanning is a sensitive technique, but its specificity may be low when interpreted alone. To be used most successfully, radionuclide scanning must be interpreted in conjunction with other techniques, such as bone radiographs with bone scans, chest radiographs with lung scans, and ultrasonic studies with thyroid scans. Interpretation is also enhanced by providing pertinent clinical information because the distribution of radiopharmaceutical agents can be altered by drugs and by various procedures besides physiologic and pathologic conditions. Discussion of the patient with the radionuclide scanning specialist prior to the study and review of the results with that specialist after the study are beneficial

  16. Evaluation of Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 (HER2) Gene Status in Human Breast Cancer Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded (FFPE) Tissue Specimens by Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Harry C; Gown, Allen M

    2016-01-01

    Current standard of care requires that HER2 gene testing be performed on all newly diagnosed invasive breast cancers in order to determine eligibility for anti-HER2 antibody therapy and should be performed in accordance with current ASCO-CAP guidelines (Hammond et al., J Clin Oncol 29(15):e458, 2011; Wolff et al., J Clin Oncol 31(31):3997-4013, 2013). Here we describe a HER2 FISH methodology to evaluate HER2 gene status in FFPE breast tumor specimens.

  17. Prognostic value of metabolic tumour volume and total lesion glycolysis in 18F-FDG PET/CT scans in locally advanced breast cancer staging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Ballvé, A; García García-Esquinas, M; Salsidua-Arroyo, O; Serrano-Palacio, A; García-Sáenz, J A; Ortega Candil, A; Fuentes Ferrer, M E; Rodríguez Rey, C; Román-Santamaría, J M; Moreno, F; Carreras-Delgado, J L

    To determine whether metabolic tumour volume (MTV) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) are able to predict recurrence risk in locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) patients. Retrospective study of LABC patients who undertook neoadjuvant, local and adjuvant treatment and follow up. A 18 F-FDG PET/CT study for initial staging was performed analysing in this study different metabolic parameters (MTV, TLG, SUVmax and SUVmed) both in the primary tumour (T) as well as in axillary nodes (N) and whole-body (WB). Forty females were included between January 2010-2011; follow up until January 2015 was completed. The average follow-up was 46 months. Twenty percent presented recurrence: local disease (n=2) and distant metastasis (n=6); 3 patients died (38% of the patients which recurred and 7.5% from the total). SUVmax, MTV and TLG, in T, N and WB, were higher in those patients with recurrence. The MTV and TLG parameters in the tumour (T) were related to the recurrence rate (P=.020 and P=.028, respectively); whereas SUVmax in the lymph nodes (N) was significantly related (P=.008) to the recurrence rate. The best cut-off points to predict recurrence where: MTV T ≥19.3cm 3 , TLG T≥74.4g and SUVmax N≥13.8, being 10-12 times more likely to recidivate when these thresholds where exceeded. Tumour grade was the only clinical-pathological variable which was related to recurrence probability (p=.035). In this study of LABC patients the metabolic parameters which have a better relationship with recurrence rate are: MTV and TLG in the primary tumour, SUVmax in the regional lymph node disease and whole-body PET data. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  18. 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/CT Scan Findings for Ductal Carcinomas of Breast: Association of Standardized Uptake Value and Histological Findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, So Young; Lee, Eun Hye [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jung Mi [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of); Kwak, Jeong Ja [Dept. of Pathology, Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-02-15

    To evaluate the factors associated with variations in 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/CT (18F-FDG PET/CT) uptake in ductal carcinomas of the breast. We enrolled 216 ductal carcinoma cases that underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT. We evaluated the positivity and measured peak standardized uptake value (pSUV) of lesions that underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT. We analyzed the correlation between pSUV and invasiveness, lesion size, and the histologic factors of invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). In the 18F-FDG PET/CT of ductal carcinomas, sensitivity was 90.2%, positive and negative predictive values were 99.5% and 25.0%, respectively. In ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and IDC, the sensitivities were 68.8% and 92.0%, respectively. The mean pSUV of true positive (TP) DCIS and IDC were 2.6 and 5.1 (p < 0.05), respectively, whereas the false negative (FN) were 1.3 and 1.2 (p > 0.05), respectively, and that of false positive (FP) and true negative (TN) lesions were 2.2 and 0.9, respectively. The mean size of TP DCIS and IDC were 4.5 cm and 2.7 cm (p < 0.05), respectively, whereas the mean size of FN DCIS and IDC were 1.5 cm and 1.4 cm (p > 0.05), respectively, and that of FP and TN lesions were 1.8 cm and 1.2 cm respectively. Among the histological factors affecting IDC, mitosis showed the best correlation with pSUV (rho = 0.5). For 18F-FDG PET/CT of ductal carcinomas, the positive predictive value was 99.5% and the FN rate was 9.7%. False negative factors included DCIS and an IDC < 1.5 cm, whereas mitosis was the TP factor.

  19. Fuel rod fixing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christiansen, D.W.

    1982-01-01

    This is a reusable system for fixing a nuclear reactor fuel rod to a support. An interlock cap is fixed to the fuel rod and an interlock strip is fixed to the support. The interlock cap has two opposed fingers, which are shaped so that a base is formed with a body part. The interlock strip has an extension, which is shaped so that this is rigidly fixed to the body part of the base. The fingers of the interlock cap are elastic in bending. To fix it, the interlock cap is pushed longitudinally on to the interlock strip, which causes the extension to bend the fingers open in order to engage with the body part of the base. To remove it, the procedure is reversed. (orig.) [de

  20. Breast Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... result in the development of breast cysts. Breast trauma, prior breast surgery or other factors localized to the breast can lead to breast pain. Breast pain may also start outside the breast — in the chest wall, muscles, joints or heart, for example — and ...

  1. PET scanning in plastic and reconstructive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liodaki, Eirini; Eirini, Liodaki; Liodakis, Emmanouil; Emmanouil, Liodakis; Papadopoulos, Othonas; Othonas, Papadopoulos; Machens, Hans-Günther; Hans-Günther, Machens; Papadopulos, Nikolaos A; Nikolaos, Papadopulos A

    2012-02-01

    In this report we highlight the use of PET scan in plastic and reconstructive surgery. PET scanning is a very important tool in plastic surgery oncology (melanoma, soft-tissue sarcomas and bone sarcomas, head and neck cancer, peripheral nerve sheath tumors of the extremities and breast cancer after breast esthetic surgery), as diagnosis, staging, treatment planning and follow-up of cancer patients is based on imaging. PET scanning seems also to be useful as a flap monitoring system as well as an infection's imaging tool, for example in the management of diabetic foot ulcer. PET also contributes to the understanding of pathophysiology of keloids which remain a therapeutic challenge.

  2. An anatomically oriented breast model for MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutra, Dominik; Bergtholdt, Martin; Sabczynski, Jörg; Dössel, Olaf; Buelow, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women in the western world. In the breast cancer care-cycle, MRIis e.g. employed in lesion characterization and therapy assessment. Reading of a single three dimensional image or comparing a multitude of such images in a time series is a time consuming task. Radiological reporting is done manually by translating the spatial position of a finding in an image to a generic representation in the form of a breast diagram, outlining quadrants or clock positions. Currently, registration algorithms are employed to aid with the reading and interpretation of longitudinal studies by providing positional correspondence. To aid with the reporting of findings, knowledge about the breast anatomy has to be introduced to translate from patient specific positions to a generic representation. In our approach we fit a geometric primitive, the semi-super-ellipsoid to patient data. Anatomical knowledge is incorporated by fixing the tip of the super-ellipsoid to the mammilla position and constraining its center-point to a reference plane defined by landmarks on the sternum. A coordinate system is then constructed by linearly scaling the fitted super-ellipsoid, defining a unique set of parameters to each point in the image volume. By fitting such a coordinate system to a different image of the same patient, positional correspondence can be generated. We have validated our method on eight pairs of baseline and follow-up scans (16 breasts) that were acquired for the assessment of neo-adjuvant chemotherapy. On average, the location predicted and the actual location of manually set landmarks are within a distance of 5.6 mm. Our proposed method allows for automatic reporting simply by uniformly dividing the super-ellipsoid around its main axis.

  3. Fixed automated spray technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-19

    This research project evaluated the construction and performance of Boschungs Fixed Automated : Spray Technology (FAST) system. The FAST system automatically sprays de-icing material on : the bridge when icing conditions are about to occur. The FA...

  4. Fixed mobile convergence handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Ahson, Syed A

    2010-01-01

    From basic concepts to future directions, this handbook provides technical information on all aspects of fixed-mobile convergence (FMC). The book examines such topics as integrated management architecture, business trends and strategic implications for service providers, personal area networks, mobile controlled handover methods, SIP-based session mobility, and supervisory and notification aggregator service. Case studies are used to illustrate technical and systematic implementation of unified and rationalized internet access by fixed-mobile network convergence. The text examines the technolo

  5. Scanning table

    CERN Multimedia

    1960-01-01

    Before the invention of wire chambers, particles tracks were analysed on scanning tables like this one. Today, the process is electronic and much faster. Bubble chamber film - currently available - (links can be found below) was used for this analysis of the particle tracks.

  6. Scan Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Glaz, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Suitable for graduate students and researchers in applied probability and statistics, as well as for scientists in biology, computer science, pharmaceutical science and medicine, this title brings together a collection of chapters illustrating the depth and diversity of theory, methods and applications in the area of scan statistics.

  7. System geometry optimization for molecular breast tomosynthesis with focusing multi-pinhole collimators

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Roosmalen, Jarno; Beekman, Freek J.; Goorden, Marlies C.

    2018-01-01

    Imaging of 99mTc-labelled tracers is gaining popularity for detecting breast tumours. Recently, we proposed a novel design for molecular breast tomosynthesis (MBT) based on two sliding focusing multi-pinhole collimators that scan a modestly compressed breast. Simulation studies indicate that MBT has the potential to improve the tumour-to-background contrast-to-noise ratio significantly over state-of-the-art planar molecular breast imaging. The aim of the present paper is to optimize the collimator-detector geometry of MBT. Using analytical models, we first optimized sensitivity at different fixed system resolutions (ranging from 5 to 12 mm) by tuning the pinhole diameters and the distance between breast and detector for a whole series of automatically generated multi-pinhole designs. We evaluated both MBT with a conventional continuous crystal detector with 3.2 mm intrinsic resolution and with a pixelated detector with 1.6 mm pixels. Subsequently, full system simulations of a breast phantom containing several lesions were performed for the optimized geometry at each system resolution for both types of detector. From these simulations, we found that tumour-to-background contrast-to-noise ratio was highest for systems in the 7 mm-10 mm system resolution range over which it hardly varied. No significant differences between the two detector types were found.

  8. Usefulness of injecting local anesthetic before compression in stereotactic vacuum-assisted breast biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, Akiko; Urashima, Masaki; Nishihara, Reisuke

    2009-01-01

    Stereotactic vacuum-assisted breast biopsy is a useful method of breast biopsy. However, some patients feel unbearable breast pain due to compression. Breast pain due to compression caused the fact that the breast cannot be compressed sufficiently. Sufficient compression is important to fix the breast in this method. Breast pain during this procedure is problematic from the perspectives of both stress and fixing the breast. We performed biopsy in the original manner by injecting local anesthetic before compression, in order to relieve breast pain due to compression. This was only slightly different in order from the standard method, and there was no need for any special technique or device. This way allowed for even higher breast compression, and all of the most recent 30 cases were compressed at levels greater than 120N. This approach is useful not only for relieving pain, but also for fixing the breast. (author)

  9. Fixed Target Collisions at STAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meehan, Kathryn C.

    2016-12-15

    The RHIC Beam Energy Scan (BES) program was proposed to look for the turn-off of signatures of the quark gluon plasma (QGP), search for a possible QCD critical point, and study the nature of the phase transition between hadronic and partonic matter. Previous results have been used to claim that the onset of deconfinement occurs at a center-of-mass energy of 7 GeV. Data from lower energies are needed to test if this onset occurs. The goal of the STAR Fixed-Target Program is to extend the collision energy range in BES II to energies that are likely below the onset of deconfinement. Currently, STAR has inserted a gold target into the beam pipe and conducted test runs at center-of-mass energies of 3.9 and 4.5 GeV. Tests have been done with both Au and Al beams. First physics results from a Coulomb potential analysis of Au + Au fixed-target collisions are presented and are found to be consistent with results from previous experiments. Furthermore, the Coulomb potential, which is sensitive to the Z of the projectile and degree of baryonic stopping, will be compared to published results from the AGS.

  10. Monte Carlo simulations to assess the effects of tube current modulation on breast dose for multidetector CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angel, Erin; Yaghmai, Nazanin; Jude, Cecilia Matilda; DeMarco, John J; Cagnon, Christopher H; Goldin, Jonathan G; McNitt-Gray, Michael F; Primak, Andrew N; McCollough, Cynthia H; Stevens, Donna M; Cody, Dianna D

    2009-01-01

    Tube current modulation was designed to reduce radiation dose in CT imaging while maintaining overall image quality. This study aims to develop a method for evaluating the effects of tube current modulation (TCM) on organ dose in CT exams of actual patient anatomy. This method was validated by simulating a TCM and a fixed tube current chest CT exam on 30 voxelized patient models and estimating the radiation dose to each patient's glandular breast tissue. This new method for estimating organ dose was compared with other conventional estimates of dose reduction. Thirty detailed voxelized models of patient anatomy were created based on image data from female patients who had previously undergone clinically indicated CT scans including the chest area. As an indicator of patient size, the perimeter of the patient was measured on the image containing at least one nipple using a semi-automated technique. The breasts were contoured on each image set by a radiologist and glandular tissue was semi-automatically segmented from this region. Previously validated Monte Carlo models of two multidetector CT scanners were used, taking into account details about the source spectra, filtration, collimation and geometry of the scanner. TCM data were obtained from each patient's clinical scan and factored into the model to simulate the effects of TCM. For each patient model, two exams were simulated: a fixed tube current chest CT and a tube current modulated chest CT. X-ray photons were transported through the anatomy of the voxelized patient models, and radiation dose was tallied in the glandular breast tissue. The resulting doses from the tube current modulated simulations were compared to the results obtained from simulations performed using a fixed mA value. The average radiation dose to the glandular breast tissue from a fixed tube current scan across all patient models was 19 mGy. The average reduction in breast dose using the tube current modulated scan was 17%. Results were

  11. FAST MRI breast screening revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Manish; Jain, Arushi; Hyzy, Marek D.; Werth, Graziella

    2017-01-01

    Screening for breast cancer in high-risk women takes about 40 minutes to acquire an MRI scan and is time-intensive to report. There is recent interest in the performance of an abbreviated MRI protocol (FAST) in the screening setting. FAST scans have a reported negative predictive value of 99.8%. This study evaluates the false positive rates (FPR) and recall rates for FAST scans as compared to full diagnostic studies (FD). A database of all screening breast MRI scans performed at our institution between 30 June 2013 and 1 July 2014 (n = 591) was created by one of the researchers, who did not subsequently analyse the MRI scans. The T1W and first post-contrast and subtracted images from each of these scans (FAST protocol) were assessed by experienced breast MRI radiologists, blinded to the final diagnosis. The findings were then compared with the FD result. The recall rates were 6.6% for FAST scans and 5.8% for FD scans. FPR rates were 4.7% and 3.9% respectively. There is no statistically significant difference in the recall rates or FPR of FAST scans in comparison with full diagnostic studies. Given the absence of statistically significant difference in the FPR and recall rates in comparison with FD, FAST scans can replace FD for screening of breast cancer.

  12. Scanning holograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natali, S.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter reports on the scanning of 1000 holograms taken in HOBC at CERN. Each hologram is triggered by an interaction in the chamber, the primary particles being pions at 340 GeV/c. The aim of the experiment is the study of charm production. The holograms, recorded on 50 mm film with the ''in line'' technique, can be analyzed by shining a parallel expanded laser beam through the film, obtaining immediately above it the real image of the chamber which can then be scanned and measured with a technique half way between emulsions and bubble chambers. The results indicate that holograms can be analyzed as quickly and reliably as in other visual techniques and that to them is open the same order of magnitude of large scale experiments

  13. Bone scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hetherington, V.J.

    1989-01-01

    Oftentimes, in managing podiatric complaints, clinical and conventional radiographic techniques are insufficient in determining a patient's problem. This is especially true in the early stages of bone infection. Bone scanning or imaging can provide additional information in the diagnosis of the disorder. However, bone scans are not specific and must be correlated with clinical, radiographic, and laboratory evaluation. In other words, bone scanning does not provide the diagnosis but is an important bit of information aiding in the process of diagnosis. The more useful radionuclides in skeletal imaging are technetium phosphate complexes and gallium citrate. These compounds are administered intravenously and are detected at specific time intervals postinjection by a rectilinear scanner with minification is used and the entire skeleton can be imaged from head to toe. Minification allows visualization of the entire skeleton in a single image. A gamma camera can concentrate on an isolated area. However, it requires multiple views to complete the whole skeletal image. Recent advances have allowed computer augmentation of the data received from radionucleotide imaging. The purpose of this chapter is to present the current radionuclides clinically useful in podiatric patients

  14. Least fixed points revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.W. de Bakker (Jaco)

    1975-01-01

    textabstractParameter mechanisms for recursive procedures are investigated. Contrary to the view of Manna et al., it is argued that both call-by-value and call-by-name mechanisms yield the least fixed points of the functionals determined by the bodies of the procedures concerned. These functionals

  15. Characterizing fixed points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjo Zlobec

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A set of sufficient conditions which guarantee the existence of a point x⋆ such that f(x⋆ = x⋆ is called a "fixed point theorem". Many such theorems are named after well-known mathematicians and economists. Fixed point theorems are among most useful ones in applied mathematics, especially in economics and game theory. Particularly important theorem in these areas is Kakutani's fixed point theorem which ensures existence of fixed point for point-to-set mappings, e.g., [2, 3, 4]. John Nash developed and applied Kakutani's ideas to prove the existence of (what became known as "Nash equilibrium" for finite games with mixed strategies for any number of players. This work earned him a Nobel Prize in Economics that he shared with two mathematicians. Nash's life was dramatized in the movie "Beautiful Mind" in 2001. In this paper, we approach the system f(x = x differently. Instead of studying existence of its solutions our objective is to determine conditions which are both necessary and sufficient that an arbitrary point x⋆ is a fixed point, i.e., that it satisfies f(x⋆ = x⋆. The existence of solutions for continuous function f of the single variable is easy to establish using the Intermediate Value Theorem of Calculus. However, characterizing fixed points x⋆, i.e., providing answers to the question of finding both necessary and sufficient conditions for an arbitrary given x⋆ to satisfy f(x⋆ = x⋆, is not simple even for functions of the single variable. It is possible that constructive answers do not exist. Our objective is to find them. Our work may require some less familiar tools. One of these might be the "quadratic envelope characterization of zero-derivative point" recalled in the next section. The results are taken from the author's current research project "Studying the Essence of Fixed Points". They are believed to be original. The author has received several feedbacks on the preliminary report and on parts of the project

  16. Palpable discrete breast masses in young women: Two of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    non-invasive or minimally invasive means of diagnosis helps to lessen the anxiety and aids in ... involves clinical breast examination (CBE), ultrasound scans and cytological ..... in Breast Cancer Screening and Diagnosis. 4th ed. Summary ...

  17. Mondor's Disease of the Breast in a Nigerian Woman Previously ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is seldom diagnosed, and its etiology and epidemiology ... breast cancer have been postulated. ... breast specialists to include it as a diagnostic consideration in patients presenting .... had subsided, and the repeat ultrasound scan of her right.

  18. Breast Tomosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in distinguishing non-cancerous breast conditions from breast cancers. Breast implants may also impede accurate mammogram readings because both ... view as much as possible without rupturing the implant. top of ... discuss breast cancer screening options with their doctors: Breast Density and ...

  19. Vilified and Fixed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thessa; Westberg, Lysa

    , and imbalances of power between scholars and journalists on one side, and fans on the other are not rare occurrences. An analysis of a number of recent news articles, scholarly works, and websites, shows how the attempt of fixing fandom still prevails. Like Said's view on how the Orient is treated, fandom...... and tween website", 'Teen' managed to outrage fans. It took days and hundreds of comments, tweets, and mails to the publishers, before the article was taken down. Vilification in scholarly works and the media may have significantly lessened in recent years. Still, misunderstandings, applied exoticism...... is similarly exotisised, incorporated, and fixed. Scholars explain how to become better fans, attempting authority over fandom by applying rules to a culture, which already has their own. This, the notion of the 'better fan', devalues the existing discourses, rules, and traditions within fandom. The expert...

  20. Automation and Preclinical Evaluation of a Dedicated Emission Mammotomography System for Fully 3-D Molecular Breast Imaging

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cutler, Spencer J

    2007-01-01

    .... A retrospective study of 103 clinical MRI uncompressed breast scans was conducted to create surface renderings of the uncompressed breasts and analyze how to adapt existing acquisition orbits for varying breast shapes...

  1. Breast infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastitis; Infection - breast tissue; Breast abscess ... must continue to breastfeed or pump to relieve breast swelling from milk production. In case if the abscess does not go away, needle aspiration under ultrasound ...

  2. Breast lump

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with milk). These cysts can occur with breastfeeding. Breast abscess . These typically occur if you are breastfeeding or ... Breast infections are treated with antibiotics. Sometimes a breast abscess needs to be drained with a needle or ...

  3. Breast Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bumps, and discharges (fluids that are not breast milk). If you have a breast lump, pain, discharge or skin irritation, see your health care provider. Minor and serious breast problems have similar ...

  4. Breast lift

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and areola may be moved. Sometimes, women have breast augmentation (enlargement with implants) when they have a breast lift. Why the ... MD, FACS, general surgery practice specializing in breast cancer, Virginia Mason Medical Center, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed ...

  5. Breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can help you know how to prevent breast cancer. Breast implants, using antiperspirants, and wearing underwire bras do not increase the risk for breast cancer. There is also no evidence of a direct ...

  6. Fibroadenoma - breast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast lump - fibroadenoma; Breast lump - noncancerous; Breast lump - benign ... The cause of fibroadenomas is not known. They may be related to hormones. Girls who are going through puberty and women who are ...

  7. Breast reconstruction - implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast implants surgery; Mastectomy - breast reconstruction with implants; Breast cancer - breast reconstruction with implants ... harder to find a tumor if your breast cancer comes back. Getting breast implants does not take as long as breast reconstruction ...

  8. Augmented reality for breast imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rancati, Alberto; Angrigiani, Claudio; Nava, Maurizio B; Catanuto, Giuseppe; Rocco, Nicola; Ventrice, Fernando; Dorr, Julio

    2018-02-21

    Augmented reality (AR) enables the superimposition of virtual reality reconstructions onto clinical images of a real patient, in real time. This allows visualization of internal structures through overlying tissues, thereby providing a virtual transparency vision of surgical anatomy. AR has been applied to neurosurgery, which utilizes a relatively fixed space, frames, and bony references; the application of AR facilitates the relationship between virtual and real data. Augmented Breast imaging (ABI) is described. Breast MRI studies for breast implant patients with seroma were performed using a Siemens 3T system with a body coil and a four-channel bilateral phased-array breast coil as the transmitter and receiver, respectively. The contrast agent used was (CA) gadolinium (Gd) injection (0.1 mmol/kg at 2 ml/s) by a programmable power injector. Dicom formated images data from 10 MRI cases of breast implant seroma and 10 MRI cases with T1-2 N0 M0 breast cancer, were imported and transformed into Augmented reality images. Augmented breast imaging (ABI) demonstrated stereoscopic depth perception, focal point convergence, 3D cursor use, and joystick fly-through. Augmented breast imaging (ABI) to the breast can improve clinical outcomes, giving an enhanced view of the structures to work on. It should be further studied to determine its utility in clinical practice.

  9. Optical surface scanning for respiratory motion monitoring in radiotherapy: a feasibility study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekke, Susanne Lise; Mahmood, Faisal; Helt-Hansen, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. We evaluated the feasibility of a surface scanning system (Catalyst) for respiratory motion monitoring of breast cancer patients treated with radiotherapy in deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH). DIBH is used to reduce the radiation dose to the heart and lung. In contrast to RPM, a compet......Purpose. We evaluated the feasibility of a surface scanning system (Catalyst) for respiratory motion monitoring of breast cancer patients treated with radiotherapy in deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH). DIBH is used to reduce the radiation dose to the heart and lung. In contrast to RPM...... and 3: the Quasar phantom was used to study if the angle of the monitored surface affects the amplitude of the recorded signal. Results. Experiment 1: we observed comparable period estimates for both systems. The amplitudes were 8 ± 0.1 mm (Catalyst) and 4.9 ± 0.1 mm (RPM). Independent check with in...... 1. Experiment 3: an increased (fixed) surface angle during breathing motion resulted in an overestimated amplitude with RPM, while the amplitude estimated by Catalyst was unaffected. Conclusion. Our study showed that Catalyst can be used as a better alternative to the RPM. With Catalyst...

  10. Head CT scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... scan - orbits; CT scan - sinuses; Computed tomography - cranial; CAT scan - brain ... head size in children Changes in thinking or behavior Fainting Headache, when you have certain other signs ...

  11. Visualization of female breast in bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uno, Kimiichi; Uchida, Yoshitaka; Sakata, Shouichi

    1992-01-01

    Breast cancer incidence rates in Japan has more than doubled in the decade between 1975 and 1985 due to a well-established and affluent Western life-style. One hundred patients having breast cancer, 107 patients having mastectomies, and 243 patients having no breast cancer were reviewed for whole body and spot views of bone scintigraphy with 99m Tc-MDP. The frequency of positive breast uptake in patients with no breast cancer showed a maximum in those patients between the ages of 30 and 40, with a progressive rise and fall before and after the peak, respectively. Patients between the ages of 50 and 60 with breast cancer showed a maximum uptake of 83%, while those patients between the ages of 70 and 80 with breast cancer showed an uptake higher than 50%. There was a markedly higher breast uptake ratio in the breast cancer group compared to the breast cancer free group. Although this scanning agent was of no value in recognition of tumor localization from breast uptake, we have to suspect a high incidence of cancer existence whenever there was unilateral increased breast activity. Even though the mechanism of 99m Tc-MDP uptake by breast tissue is unknown, breast concentration of 99m Tc-MDP appears to be influenced by hormones, especially estrogen. (author)

  12. Sonomammography: An atlas of comparative breast ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guyer, B.P.; Dewsbury, K.C.

    1987-01-01

    This atlas of breast ultrasound is extensively illustrated and provides a short analytical text before each group of pathologies. Although based on B-scan techniques, there are numerous comparisons with sector scans and linear array scans. X-ray mammography and breast ultrasound is analyzed, based upon 2000 sonomammograms, showing how a more accurate pre-operation assessment can be made, and how unnecessary surgery can be reduced. Major features of this atlas include a detailed analysis of the appearances of breast lesions, extensive illustrations of the various pathologies (generally confirmed histologically), a close comparison of ultrasound with x-ray mammography, and illustrations of lesions by different ultrasound techniques

  13. A High Rigidity and Precision Scanning Tunneling Microscope with Decoupled XY and Z Scans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xu; Guo, Tengfei; Hou, Yubin; Zhang, Jing; Meng, Wenjie; Lu, Qingyou

    2017-01-01

    A new scan-head structure for the scanning tunneling microscope (STM) is proposed, featuring high scan precision and rigidity. The core structure consists of a piezoelectric tube scanner of quadrant type (for XY scans) coaxially housed in a piezoelectric tube with single inner and outer electrodes (for Z scan). They are fixed at one end (called common end). A hollow tantalum shaft is coaxially housed in the XY -scan tube and they are mutually fixed at both ends. When the XY scanner scans, its free end will bring the shaft to scan and the tip which is coaxially inserted in the shaft at the common end will scan a smaller area if the tip protrudes short enough from the common end. The decoupled XY and Z scans are desired for less image distortion and the mechanically reduced scan range has the superiority of reducing the impact of the background electronic noise on the scanner and enhancing the tip positioning precision. High quality atomic resolution images are also shown.

  14. A High Rigidity and Precision Scanning Tunneling Microscope with Decoupled XY and Z Scans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new scan-head structure for the scanning tunneling microscope (STM is proposed, featuring high scan precision and rigidity. The core structure consists of a piezoelectric tube scanner of quadrant type (for XY scans coaxially housed in a piezoelectric tube with single inner and outer electrodes (for Z scan. They are fixed at one end (called common end. A hollow tantalum shaft is coaxially housed in the XY-scan tube and they are mutually fixed at both ends. When the XY scanner scans, its free end will bring the shaft to scan and the tip which is coaxially inserted in the shaft at the common end will scan a smaller area if the tip protrudes short enough from the common end. The decoupled XY and Z scans are desired for less image distortion and the mechanically reduced scan range has the superiority of reducing the impact of the background electronic noise on the scanner and enhancing the tip positioning precision. High quality atomic resolution images are also shown.

  15. Fixed term employment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durant, B.W.; Schonberner, M.J.

    1999-01-01

    A series of brief notes were included with this presentation which highlighted certain aspects of contract management. Several petroleum companies have realized the benefits of taking advantage of contract personnel to control fixed G and A, manage the impacts on their organization, contain costs, to manage termination costs, and to fill gaps in lean personnel rosters. An independent contractor was described as being someone who is self employed, often with a variety of work experiences. The tax benefits and flexibility of contractor personnel were also described. Some liability aspects of hiring an independent contractor were also reviewed. The courts have developed the following 4 tests to help determine whether an individual is an employee or an independent contractor: (1) the control test, (2) the business integration test, (3) specific result test, and (4) the economic reality test

  16. Fixed Access Network Sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornaglia, Bruno; Young, Gavin; Marchetta, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    Fixed broadband network deployments are moving inexorably to the use of Next Generation Access (NGA) technologies and architectures. These NGA deployments involve building fiber infrastructure increasingly closer to the customer in order to increase the proportion of fiber on the customer's access connection (Fibre-To-The-Home/Building/Door/Cabinet… i.e. FTTx). This increases the speed of services that can be sold and will be increasingly required to meet the demands of new generations of video services as we evolve from HDTV to "Ultra-HD TV" with 4k and 8k lines of video resolution. However, building fiber access networks is a costly endeavor. It requires significant capital in order to cover any significant geographic coverage. Hence many companies are forming partnerships and joint-ventures in order to share the NGA network construction costs. One form of such a partnership involves two companies agreeing to each build to cover a certain geographic area and then "cross-selling" NGA products to each other in order to access customers within their partner's footprint (NGA coverage area). This is tantamount to a bi-lateral wholesale partnership. The concept of Fixed Access Network Sharing (FANS) is to address the possibility of sharing infrastructure with a high degree of flexibility for all network operators involved. By providing greater configuration control over the NGA network infrastructure, the service provider has a greater ability to define the network and hence to define their product capabilities at the active layer. This gives the service provider partners greater product development autonomy plus the ability to differentiate from each other at the active network layer.

  17. PET scanning in plastic and reconstructive surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eirini, L.; Emmanouil, L.; Othonas, P.; Hans-Guenther, M.; Nikolaos, P.A.

    2012-01-01

    In this report we highlight the use of position emission tomography (PET) scan in plastic and reconstructive surgery. PET scanning is a very important tool in plastic surgery oncology (melanoma, soft-tissue sarcomas and bone sarcomas, head and neck cancer, peripheral nerve sheath tumors of the extremities and breast cancer after breast esthetic surgery), as diagnosis, staging, treatment planning and follow-up of cancer patients is based on imaging. PET scanning seems also to be useful as a flap monitoring system as well as an infection's imaging tool, for example in the management of diabetic foot ulcer. PET also contributes to the understanding of pathophysiology of keloids which remain a therapeutic challenge. (author)

  18. Breast cancer detection using sonography in women with mammographically dense breasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okello, Jimmy; Kisembo, Harriet; Bugeza, Sam; Galukande, Moses

    2014-01-01

    Mammography, the gold standard for breast cancer screening misses some cancers, especially in women with dense breasts. Breast ultrasonography as a supplementary imaging tool for further evaluation of symptomatic women with mammographically dense breasts may improve the detection of mass lesions otherwise missed at mammography. The purpose of this study was to determine the incremental breast cancer detection rate using US scanning in symptomatic women with mammographically dense breasts in a resource poor environment. A cross sectional descriptive study. Women referred for mammography underwent bilateral breast ultrasound, and mammography for symptom evaluation. The lesions seen by both modalities were described using sonographic BI-RADS lexicon and categorized. Ultrasound guided core biopsies were performed. IRB approval was obtained and all participants provided informed written consent. In total 148 women with mammographically dense breasts were recruited over six months. The prevalence of breast cancer in symptomatic women with mammographically dense breasts was 22/148 (15%). Mammography detected 16/22 (73%) of these cases and missed 6/22 (27%). The six breast cancer cases missed were correctly diagnosed on breast ultrasonography. Sonographic features typical of breast malignancy were irregular shape, non-parallel orientation, non circumscribed margin, echogenic halo, and increased lesion vascularity (p values < 0.005). Typical sonofeatures of benign mass lesions were: oval shape, parallel orientation and circumscribed margin (p values <0.005). Breast ultrasound scan as a supplementary imaging tool detected 27% more malignant mass lesions otherwise missed by mammography among these symptomatic women with mammographically dense breasts. We recommend that ultra sound scanning in routine evaluation of symptomatic women with mammographically dense breasts

  19. Fixed pigmented erythema due to cimetidine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almamy Diabaté

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Fixed pigmented erythema (EPF is pathognomonic of drug-induced toxicity. Antisecretory drugs are among the most commonly not responsible drugs. EPF secondary to cimetidine administration has rarely been described. We report an EPF case during a cimetidine-based treatment in Bouake. A 43-year-old patient, HIV negative, consults for an EPF located on both sides of the breasts, on the 5th day of an antiulcer treatment comprising compressed cimetidine and gastric dressing based on phosphatase d ‘aluminum. The diagnosis is made in front of the characteristic aspect of the lesion of EPF and the early reappearance of lesions recurring exactly in the same places, after the reintroduction of cimetidine. The discovery of an EPF imposes a strict etiological approach in search of the responsible drug. During anti-ulcer treatment, the practitioner should bear in mind the potential role of cimetidine.

  20. Lung uptake in bone scan - Two case reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nahar, N.; Kabir, F.; Islam, N.; Karim, M.A.

    2001-01-01

    Breast cancer is the 2nd most common cancer in female in our country. When a case of breast cancer is diagnosed a base line bone scan is asked for to exclude skeletal metastasis. This helps for treatment planning and future follow up. Scan pattern in bone metastasis is usually multiple, randomly distributed foci of intensely increased tracer accumulation. Uptake of radio pharmaceutical in breast tissue is frequently observed. Kidneys are another extra skeletal organs through which 99m Tc-MDP is excreted and that's why normal kidneys are faintly visualized in delayed views suggesting normal exertion of tracer. If there is any outflow obstruction in any kidney, it will show hold up of radiotracer on that side. Often radiopharmaceuticals are seen to accumulate in other organs like lungs. Here two cases of breast cancer are discussed where bone scan shows significant uptake of tracer in lungs

  1. A gene-protein assay for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2: brightfield tricolor visualization of HER2 protein, the HER2 gene, and chromosome 17 centromere (CEN17 in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded breast cancer tissue sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitta Hiroaki

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The eligibility of breast cancer patients for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2-directed therapies is determined by the HER2 gene amplification and/or HER2 protein overexpression status of the breast tumor as determined by in situ hybridization (ISH or immunohistochemistry (IHC, respectively. Our objective was to combine the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA-approved HER2 & chromosome 17 centromere (CEN17 brightfield ISH (BISH and HER2 IHC assays into a single automated HER2 gene-protein assay allowing simultaneous detection of all three targets in a single tissue section. Methods The HER2 gene-protein assay was optimized using formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE samples of the xenograft tumors MCF7 [HER2 negative (non-amplified gene, protein negative] and Calu-3 [HER2 positive (amplified gene, protein positive]. HER2 IHC was performed using a rabbit monoclonal anti-HER2 antibody (clone 4B5 and a conventional 3,3'-diaminobenzidine IHC detection. The HER2 & CEN17 BISH signals were visualized using horseradish peroxidase-based silver and alkaline phosphatase-based red detection systems, respectively with a cocktail of 2,4-dinitrophenyl-labeled HER2 and digoxigenin-labeled CEN17 probes. The performance of the gene-protein assay on tissue microarray slides containing 189 randomly selected FFPE clinical breast cancer tissue cores was compared to that of the separate HER2 IHC and HER2 & CEN17 BISH assays. Results HER2 protein detection was optimal when the HER2 IHC protocol was used before (rather than after the BISH protocol. The sequential use of HER2 IHC and HER2 & CEN17 BISH detection steps on FFPE xenograft tumor sections appropriately co-localized the HER2 protein, HER2 gene, and CEN17 signals after mitigating the silver background staining by using a naphthol phosphate-containing hybridization buffer for the hybridization step. The HER2 protein and HER2 gene status obtained using the multiplex HER2 gene

  2. Security scanning of Web sites at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2010-01-01

    As of early 2010, the CERN Computer Security Team will start regular scanning of all Web sites and Web applications at CERN, visible on the Internet, or on the General Purpose Network (office network). The goal of this scanning is to improve the quality of CERN Web sites. All deficits found will be reported by e-mail to the relevant Web site owners, and must be fixed in a timely manner. Web site owners may also request one-off scans of their Web site or Web application, by sending an e-mail to Computer.Security@cern.ch. These Web scans are designed to limit the impact on the scanned Web sites. Nevertheless, in very rare cases scans may cause undesired side-effects, e.g. generate a large number of log entries, or cause particularly badly designed or less robust Web applications to crash. If a Web site is affected by these security scans, it will also be susceptible to any more aggressive scan that can be performed any time by a malicious attacker. Such Web applications should be fixed, and also additionally...

  3. Precursor and Neutral Loss Scans in an RF Scanning Linear Quadrupole Ion Trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Dalton T.; Szalwinski, Lucas J.; Schrader, Robert L.; Pirro, Valentina; Hilger, Ryan; Cooks, R. Graham

    2018-03-01

    Methodology for performing precursor and neutral loss scans in an RF scanning linear quadrupole ion trap is described and compared to the unconventional ac frequency scan technique. In the RF scanning variant, precursor ions are mass selectively excited by a fixed frequency resonance excitation signal at low Mathieu q while the RF amplitude is ramped linearly to pass ions through the point of excitation such that the excited ion's m/z varies linearly with time. Ironically, a nonlinear ac frequency scan is still required for ejection of the product ions since their frequencies vary nonlinearly with the linearly varying RF amplitude. In the case of the precursor scan, the ejection frequency must be scanned so that it is fixed on a product ion m/z throughout the RF scan, whereas in the neutral loss scan, it must be scanned to maintain a constant mass offset from the excited precursor ions. Both simultaneous and sequential permutation scans are possible; only the former are demonstrated here. The scans described are performed on a variety of samples using different ionization sources: protonated amphetamine ions generated by nanoelectrospray ionization (nESI), explosives ionized by low-temperature plasma (LTP), and chemical warfare agent simulants sampled from a surface and analyzed with swab touch spray (TS). We lastly conclude that the ac frequency scan variant of these MS/MS scans is preferred due to electronic simplicity. In an accompanying manuscript, we thus describe the implementation of orthogonal double resonance precursor and neutral loss scans on the Mini 12 using constant RF voltage. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  4. Isotope bone scanning in operable mammary cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maylin, C [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 94 - Creteil (France); Vilcoq, J R; Schlienger, P; Calle, R [Institut du Radium, 75 - Paris (France)

    1977-01-01

    In the pre-treatment work-up in breast carcinoma cases, the bone scan findings could be of major interest. If the presence of occult metastases is discovered management may be modified accordingly. In a group involving 78 cases of breast carcinoma, classified as primary, operable, in three cases only scintigraphy revealed bone metastases before they produced clinical and radiological signs. In two of them there was agreement, in one disagreement over the findings. Moreover, in 5 cases a bone metastasis was revealed and immediately confirmed on a complete bone assessment.

  5. Comparison of heating deposition patterns for stacked linear phased array and fixed focus ultrasonic hyperthermia applicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocheltree, K.B.; Benkeser, P.J.; Frizzell, L.A.; Cain, C.A.

    1985-01-01

    An ultrasonic stacked linear phased array applicator for hyperthermia has been designed to heat tumors at depths from 5 to 10 cm. The power deposition pattern for this applicator is compared to that for a fixed focus applicator for several different scan paths. The power deposition pattern for the stacked linear phased array shows hot spots that are not observed for the mechanically scanned fixed focus applicator. These hot spots are related to the skewed power deposition pattern resulting from scanning the focus off the center of the linear arrays. The overall performance of the stacked linear phased array applicator is compared to that of a fixed focus applicator

  6. Interval scanning photomicrography of microbial cell populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casida, L. E., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    A single reproducible area of the preparation in a fixed focal plane is photographically scanned at intervals during incubation. The procedure can be used for evaluating the aerobic or anaerobic growth of many microbial cells simultaneously within a population. In addition, the microscope is not restricted to the viewing of any one microculture preparation, since the slide cultures are incubated separately from the microscope.

  7. Bell’s Palsy As a Rare First Presentation of Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Hosseini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Otalgia and Bell’s palsy are rare manifestations of metastasis and the most common presentation of an inflammatory process in the temporal bone.Case presentation: This article explains a 34-year-old woman with breast cancer who presented with cranial nerve palsy symptoms. The 7th and 8th cranial nerves were involved in the metastatic phase and then hoarseness was added to her symptoms. Brain MRI showed a petrous lesion in the temporal bone due to metastasis, which was the first clue to cancer. Her metastatic workup showed multiple bone lesions. On chest CT scan, multiple lung lesions were noted. Also, a breast mass was discovered on her chest CT scan. On breast examination an irregular mass fixed to the pectoralis muscle was found. Pathologic evaluation of samples obtained through ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of invasive ductal carcinoma.Conclusion: Temporal bone metastases are rare and may be asymptomatic, or with mild symptoms mimicking mastoid infections. Physicians should consider metastatic cancer on the list of differential diagnoses in patients presenting with prolonged otologic symptoms or facial nerve disorders.

  8. Brain PET scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... results on a PET scan. Blood sugar or insulin levels may affect the test results in people with diabetes . PET scans may be done along with a CT scan. This combination scan is called a PET/CT. Alternative Names Brain positron emission tomography; PET scan - brain References Chernecky ...

  9. Breast Gangrene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husasin Irfan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast gangrene is rare in surgical practice. Gangrene of breast can be idiopathic or secondary to some causative factor. Antibiotics and debridement are used for management. Acute inflammatory infiltrate, severe necrosis of breast tissue, necrotizing arteritis, and venous thrombosis is observed on histopathology. The aim of was to study patients who had breast gangrene. Methods A prospective study of 10 patients who had breast gangrene over a period of 6 years were analyzed Results All the patients in the study group were female. Total of 10 patients were encountered who had breast gangrene. Six patients presented with breast gangrene on the right breast whereas four had on left breast. Out of 10 patients, three had breast abscess after teeth bite followed by gangrene, one had iatrogenic trauma by needle aspiration of erythematous area of breast under septic conditions. Four had history of application of belladonna on cutaneous breast abscess and had then gangrene. All were lactating female. Amongst the rest two were elderly, one of which was a diabetic who had gangrene of breast and had no application of belladonna. All except one had debridement under cover of broad spectrum antibiotics. Three patients had grafting to cover the raw area. Conclusion Breast gangrene occurs rarely. Etiology is variable and mutifactorial. Teeth bite while lactation and the iatrogenic trauma by needle aspiration of breast abscess under unsterlised conditions could be causative. Uncontrolled diabetes can be one more causative factor for the breast gangrene. Belladonna application as a topical agent could be inciting factor. Sometimes gangrene of breast can be idiopathic. Treatment is antibiotics and debridement.

  10. Local multiplicity adjustment for the spatial scan statistic using the Gumbel distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangnon, Ronald E

    2012-03-01

    The spatial scan statistic is an important and widely used tool for cluster detection. It is based on the simultaneous evaluation of the statistical significance of the maximum likelihood ratio test statistic over a large collection of potential clusters. In most cluster detection problems, there is variation in the extent of local multiplicity across the study region. For example, using a fixed maximum geographic radius for clusters, urban areas typically have many overlapping potential clusters, whereas rural areas have relatively few. The spatial scan statistic does not account for local multiplicity variation. We describe a previously proposed local multiplicity adjustment based on a nested Bonferroni correction and propose a novel adjustment based on a Gumbel distribution approximation to the distribution of a local scan statistic. We compare the performance of all three statistics in terms of power and a novel unbiased cluster detection criterion. These methods are then applied to the well-known New York leukemia dataset and a Wisconsin breast cancer incidence dataset. © 2011, The International Biometric Society.

  11. Breast Exam

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ends. What you can expect Begin with a visual examination of your breasts Sit or stand shirtless ... to the next section. If you have a disability that makes it difficult to examine your breasts ...

  12. Breast cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A collaborative article gives an overview of breast cancer in LICs, ... approach to the problem; therefore they are published as two separate ... attached to the diagnosis of breast cancer. ... Their founding statement in its early form is included.

  13. Fixed points of quantum gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Litim, D F

    2003-01-01

    Euclidean quantum gravity is studied with renormalisation group methods. Analytical results for a non-trivial ultraviolet fixed point are found for arbitrary dimensions and gauge fixing parameter in the Einstein-Hilbert truncation. Implications for quantum gravity in four dimensions are discussed.

  14. Heart PET scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nuclear medicine scan; Heart positron emission tomography; Myocardial PET scan ... A PET scan requires a small amount of radioactive material (tracer). This tracer is given through a vein (IV), ...

  15. Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast cancer affects one in eight women during their lives. No one knows why some women get breast cancer, but there are many risk factors. Risks that ... who have family members with breast or ovarian cancer may wish to be tested for the genes. ...

  16. CERN: Fixed target targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1993-03-15

    Full text: While the immediate priority of CERN's research programme is to exploit to the full the world's largest accelerator, the LEP electron-positron collider and its concomitant LEP200 energy upgrade (January, page 1), CERN is also mindful of its long tradition of diversified research. Away from LEP and preparations for the LHC proton-proton collider to be built above LEP in the same 27-kilometre tunnel, CERN is also preparing for a new generation of heavy ion experiments using a new source, providing heavier ions (April 1992, page 8), with first physics expected next year. CERN's smallest accelerator, the LEAR Low Energy Antiproton Ring continues to cover a wide range of research topics, and saw a record number of hours of operation in 1992. The new ISOLDE on-line isotope separator was inaugurated last year (July, page 5) and physics is already underway. The remaining effort concentrates around fixed target experiments at the SPS synchrotron, which formed the main thrust of CERN's research during the late 1970s. With the SPS and LEAR now approaching middle age, their research future was extensively studied last year. Broadly, a vigorous SPS programme looks assured until at least the end of 1995. Decisions for the longer term future of the West Experimental Area of the SPS will have to take into account the heavy demand for test beams from work towards experiments at big colliders, both at CERN and elsewhere. The North Experimental Area is the scene of larger experiments with longer lead times. Several more years of LEAR exploitation are already in the pipeline, but for the longer term, the ambitious Superlear project for a superconducting ring (January 1992, page 7) did not catch on. Neutrino physics has a long tradition at CERN, and this continues with the preparations for two major projects, the Chorus and Nomad experiments (November 1991, page 7), to start next year in the West Area. Delicate neutrino oscillation effects could become visible for the first

  17. CERN: Fixed target targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Full text: While the immediate priority of CERN's research programme is to exploit to the full the world's largest accelerator, the LEP electron-positron collider and its concomitant LEP200 energy upgrade (January, page 1), CERN is also mindful of its long tradition of diversified research. Away from LEP and preparations for the LHC proton-proton collider to be built above LEP in the same 27-kilometre tunnel, CERN is also preparing for a new generation of heavy ion experiments using a new source, providing heavier ions (April 1992, page 8), with first physics expected next year. CERN's smallest accelerator, the LEAR Low Energy Antiproton Ring continues to cover a wide range of research topics, and saw a record number of hours of operation in 1992. The new ISOLDE on-line isotope separator was inaugurated last year (July, page 5) and physics is already underway. The remaining effort concentrates around fixed target experiments at the SPS synchrotron, which formed the main thrust of CERN's research during the late 1970s. With the SPS and LEAR now approaching middle age, their research future was extensively studied last year. Broadly, a vigorous SPS programme looks assured until at least the end of 1995. Decisions for the longer term future of the West Experimental Area of the SPS will have to take into account the heavy demand for test beams from work towards experiments at big colliders, both at CERN and elsewhere. The North Experimental Area is the scene of larger experiments with longer lead times. Several more years of LEAR exploitation are already in the pipeline, but for the longer term, the ambitious Superlear project for a superconducting ring (January 1992, page 7) did not catch on. Neutrino physics has a long tradition at CERN, and this continues with the preparations for two major projects, the Chorus and Nomad experiments (November 1991, page 7), to start next year in the West Area. Delicate neutrino oscillation effects could become

  18. CAD/CAM-assisted breast reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melchels, Ferry; Hutmacher, Dietmar Werner; Wiggenhauser, Paul Severin; Schantz, Jan-Thorsten; Warne, David; Barry, Mark; Ong, Fook Rhu; Chong, Woon Shin

    2011-01-01

    The application of computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) techniques in the clinic is growing slowly but steadily. The ability to build patient-specific models based on medical imaging data offers major potential. In this work we report on the feasibility of employing laser scanning with CAD/CAM techniques to aid in breast reconstruction. A patient was imaged with laser scanning, an economical and facile method for creating an accurate digital representation of the breasts and surrounding tissues. The obtained model was used to fabricate a customized mould that was employed as an intra-operative aid for the surgeon performing autologous tissue reconstruction of the breast removed due to cancer. Furthermore, a solid breast model was derived from the imaged data and digitally processed for the fabrication of customized scaffolds for breast tissue engineering. To this end, a novel generic algorithm for creating porosity within a solid model was developed, using a finite element model as intermediate.

  19. Hyperchromatic laser scanning cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tárnok, Attila; Mittag, Anja

    2007-02-01

    In the emerging fields of high-content and high-throughput single cell analysis for Systems Biology and Cytomics multi- and polychromatic analysis of biological specimens has become increasingly important. Combining different technologies and staining methods polychromatic analysis (i.e. using 8 or more fluorescent colors at a time) can be pushed forward to measure anything stainable in a cell, an approach termed hyperchromatic cytometry. For cytometric cell analysis microscope based Slide Based Cytometry (SBC) technologies are ideal as, unlike flow cytometry, they are non-consumptive, i.e. the analyzed sample is fixed on the slide. Based on the feature of relocation identical cells can be subsequently reanalyzed. In this manner data on the single cell level after manipulation steps can be collected. In this overview various components for hyperchromatic cytometry are demonstrated for a SBC instrument, the Laser Scanning Cytometer (Compucyte Corp., Cambridge, MA): 1) polychromatic cytometry, 2) iterative restaining (using the same fluorochrome for restaining and subsequent reanalysis), 3) differential photobleaching (differentiating fluorochromes by their different photostability), 4) photoactivation (activating fluorescent nanoparticles or photocaged dyes), and 5) photodestruction (destruction of FRET dyes). With the intelligent combination of several of these techniques hyperchromatic cytometry allows to quantify and analyze virtually all components of relevance on the identical cell. The combination of high-throughput and high-content SBC analysis with high-resolution confocal imaging allows clear verification of phenotypically distinct subpopulations of cells with structural information. The information gained per specimen is only limited by the number of available antibodies and by sterical hindrance.

  20. National Radiological Fixed Lab Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Radiological Fixed Laboratory Data Asset includes data produced in support of various clients such as other EPA offices, EPA Regional programs, DOE,...

  1. Can mushrooms fix atmospheric nitrogen?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Introduction. Rhizobium is a genus of symbiotic N2-fixing soil bacteria that induce ... To produce biofilm cultures, a 2 × 2 cm yeast manitol agar. (YMA) slab was .... determination of antibiotic susceptibilities of bacterial biofilms;. J. Clin. Microbiol.

  2. Elevated Fixed Platform Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Elevated Fixed Platform (EFP) is a helicopter recovery test facility located at Lakehurst, NJ. It consists of a 60 by 85 foot steel and concrete deck built atop...

  3. Linking world scan and image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timmer, H.; Alcamo, J.; Bollen, J.; Gielen, A.; Gerlach, R.; Den Ouden, A.; Zuidema, G.

    1995-01-01

    activity-based variables in IMAGE 2. Emissions determine concentration as they run through the Atmosphere Ocean subsystem (AOS) in IMAGE 2. Agricultural demand, which is also an output of WORLD SCAN, is fed into IMAGE 2 and determines land use in the Terrestrial Environment subsystem (TES), again affecting climate change. The feedbacks from IMAGE 2 to WORLD SCAN include the land use and average quality of land which determine the so-called fixed factor in the WORLD SCAN production function of agriculture, and climate change related damage costs which affect a region's consumption possibilities. 9 refs

  4. Scanning or treating device for smooth curved surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gemma, A.

    1988-01-01

    This robot for scanning or treating a smooth curved surface is made by a vehicle moving predeterminately on the surface, this vehicle having mobil grips. A support arm is attached to the vehicle by a swivel and fixed at the center of the curvature. It is orientable parralel to the axes of legs of the vehicle near the center. Scanning or treatment systems for the surface are fixed on the vehicle. Drives and control systems for the vehicle and treatment or scanning system are provided [fr

  5. Chest wall tuberculosis simulating breast carcinoma: Imaging appearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goyal, M.; Sharma, R.; Sharma, A.; Swahney, S.; Berry, M.; Chumber, S.

    1998-01-01

    Tuberculosis of the breast is a rare disease. Tubercular abscesses predominantly affecting the soft tissues are also very infrequent. A case of chest wall tuberculosis secondarily involving the breast presenting as a hard, fixed lump simulating mammary carcinoma is presented here. There was no evidence of pleural or pulmonary tuberculosis. Copyright (1998) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  6. Breast Reconstruction After Mastectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Prevention Genetics of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Reconstruction After Mastectomy On This Page What is breast reconstruction? How do surgeons use implants to reconstruct a woman’s breast? How do surgeons ...

  7. Breast cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammogram - breast cancer screening; Breast exam - breast cancer screening; MRI - breast cancer screening ... is performed to screen women to detect early breast cancer when it is more likely to be cured. ...

  8. Stages of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Breast ...

  9. Breast Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? Go ... from starting. Risk-reducing surgery . General Information About Breast Cancer Key Points Breast cancer is a disease in ...

  10. Breast Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Breast ...

  11. Laser assisted removal of fixed contamination from metallic substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Aniruddha; Prasad, Manisha; Prakash, Tej; Shail, Shailini; Bhatt, R.B.; Behere, P.G.; Mohd Afzal; Kumar, Arun; Biswas, D.J.

    2015-01-01

    A single mode pulsed fiber laser was used to remove fixed contamination from stainless steel substrate by ablation. Samples were simulated by electro-deposition technique with 232 U as the test contaminant. Laser power, repetition rate, laser beam scanning speed and number of passes were optimised to obtain the desired ablation depth in the substrate. Ablation depth varying between few microns to few hundreds of microns could be achieved through careful control of these processing parameters. The absence of any activity in laser treated samples provided experimental signature of the efficacy of the laser assisted removal of fixed contamination. (author)

  12. Breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Gablerová, Pavlína

    2010-01-01

    In this work the topic of breast cancer treated more generally and mainly focused on risk factors for the development. The theoretical part describes the general knowledge about breast cancer as a stage or treatment. The practical part is to have clarified the risk factors that have some bearing on the diagnosis of breast cancer. What level are involved in the probability of occurrence? Can we eliminate them? As a comparison of risk factors examined in the Czech Republic, England, Australia a...

  13. Mastopathy and breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, K.

    2007-01-01

    Mastopathy (mastopathia fibroso-cystica) and breast cancer are two major epidemiologic, economic and medical problems of women. In Poland, annually, 0.2 - 1.6 billion Polish zlotys is spent on diagnosis and treatment of mastopathy; half of that sum is spent improperly. Many papers suggest relationships between these two diseases, however, it is not certain, whether, or how much, mastopathy increases breast cancer incidence. The available papers from the recent years indicate increased risk, but the methodology of these data is not perfect. It is not excluded that fibrocystic diseases of the breast increase breast cancer incidence. If such an influence exists, independent of other well-know factors, it is probably very small. Moreover, due to the diversity of medical information there is a lack of diagnostic and therapeutic standards in mastopathy. Different types of scans, hormonal, biochemical and immunohistochemical examinations are performed improperly, and there has been no genetic analysis of mastopathy. Therefore, there is a strong need of well planned, prospective trials in this field. (author)

  14. Body mass index and breast cancer survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Qi; Burgess, Stephen; Turman, Constance

    2017-01-01

    Background: There is increasing evidence that elevated body mass index (BMI) is associated with reduced survival for women with breast cancer. However, the underlying reasons remain unclear. We conducted a Mendelian randomization analysis to investigate a possible causal role of BMI in survival...... from breast cancer. Methods: We used individual-level data from six large breast cancer case-cohorts including a total of 36 210 individuals (2475 events) of European ancestry. We created a BMI genetic risk score (GRS) based on genotypes at 94 known BMI-associated genetic variants. Association between...... the BMI genetic score and breast cancer survival was analysed by Cox regression for each study separately. Study-specific hazard ratios were pooled using fixed-effect meta-analysis. Results: BMI genetic score was found to be associated with reduced breast cancer-specific survival for estrogen receptor (ER...

  15. Tumor scanning with /sup 57/Co-bleomycin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, S; Hasegawa, Y; Matsuda, Minoru; Ho, T; Doi, O [Osaka Prefectural Center for Adult Diseases (Japan)

    1975-06-01

    The clinical application of /sup 57/Co-bleomycin as a tumor scanning radiopharmaceutical was firstly reported by Nouel and Maeda respectively. The authors conducted studies on the diagnostic significance of this tumor scanning agent and presented the results obtained in 40 patients with malignant and non malignant lesions. Six hours and 24 hours after the injection of 500 ..mu..Ci of /sup 57/Co-bleomycin, scintigrams were taken with a 3-inch scintiscanner. Positive scans were found in 20 out of 36 patients with various malignant tumors. Of 20 patients with lung cancer, positive scans were obtained in 17 cases (85%) and of 6 with breast cancer, 3 cases showed positive scans. False negative scans were obtained in another 10 cases of malignant tumors (3 cases of thyroid carcinoma, 4 cases of hepatoma, and 1 case each of gastric carcinoma, peritoneal carcinomatosis, and reticulum cell sarcoma). Of 4 patients with non malignant disease, one case of pulmonary tuberculosis showed a positive scan. In 8 cases of lung cancer and 6 of breast cancer, the relationship between the size of the excised tumor and the scintigram findings was studied. The smallest tumors detected by scintigram were 2 cm in lung cancer and 3.2 cm in breast cancer.

  16. TH-AB-209-10: Breast Cancer Identification Through X-Ray Coherent Scatter Spectral Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapadia, A; Morris, R; Albanese, K; Spencer, J; McCall, S; Greenberg, J [Duke University, Durham, NC (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: We have previously described the development and testing of a coherent-scatter spectral imaging system for identification of cancer. Our prior evaluations were performed using either tissue surrogate phantoms or formalin-fixed tissue obtained from pathology. Here we present the first results from a scatter imaging study using fresh breast tumor tissues obtained through surgical excision. Methods: A coherent-scatter imaging system was built using a clinical X-ray tube, photon counting detectors, and custom-designed coded-apertures. System performance was characterized using calibration phantoms of biological materials. Fresh breast tumors were obtained from patients undergoing mastectomy and lumpectomy surgeries for breast cancer. Each specimen was vacuum-sealed, scanned using the scatter imaging system, and then sent to pathology for histological workup. Scatter images were generated separately for each tissue specimen and analyzed to identify voxels containing malignant tissue. The images were compared against histological analysis (H&E + pathologist identification of tumors) to assess the match between scatter-based and histological diagnosis. Results: In all specimens scanned, the scatter images showed the location of cancerous regions within the specimen. The detection and classification was performed through automated spectral matching without the need for manual intervention. The scatter spectra corresponding to cancer tissue were found to be in agreement with those reported in literature. Inter-patient variability was found to be within limits reported in literature. The scatter images showed agreement with pathologist-identified regions of cancer. Spatial resolution for this configuration of the scanner was determined to be 2–3 mm, and the total scan time for each specimen was under 15 minutes. Conclusion: This work demonstrates the utility of coherent scatter imaging in identifying cancer based on the scatter properties of the tissue. It

  17. Radiopharmaceutical scanning agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    This invention is directed to dispersions useful in preparing radiopharmaceutical scanning agents, to technetium labelled dispersions, to methods for preparing such dispersions and to their use as scanning agents

  18. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Scan and Uptake Thyroid scan and uptake uses small amounts of radioactive materials called radiotracers, a special ... is a branch of medical imaging that uses small amounts of radioactive material to diagnose and determine ...

  19. Nuclear Heart Scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home / Nuclear Heart Scan Nuclear Heart Scan Also known as Nuclear Stress Test , ... Learn More Connect With Us Contact Us Directly Policies Privacy Policy Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Accessibility ...

  20. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of page What will I experience during and after the procedure? Most thyroid scan and thyroid uptake ... you otherwise, you may resume your normal activities after your nuclear medicine scan. If any special instructions ...

  1. RBC nuclear scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003835.htm RBC nuclear scan To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. An RBC nuclear scan uses small amounts of radioactive material to ...

  2. Fixed points of quantum operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arias, A.; Gheondea, A.; Gudder, S.

    2002-01-01

    Quantum operations frequently occur in quantum measurement theory, quantum probability, quantum computation, and quantum information theory. If an operator A is invariant under a quantum operation φ, we call A a φ-fixed point. Physically, the φ-fixed points are the operators that are not disturbed by the action of φ. Our main purpose is to answer the following question. If A is a φ-fixed point, is A compatible with the operation elements of φ? We shall show in general that the answer is no and we shall give some sufficient conditions under which the answer is yes. Our results will follow from some general theorems concerning completely positive maps and injectivity of operator systems and von Neumann algebras

  3. Scanning gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engdahl, L.W.; Batter, J.F. Jr.; Stout, K.J.

    1977-01-01

    A scanning system for a gamma camera providing for the overlapping of adjacent scan paths is described. A collimator mask having tapered edges provides for a graduated reduction in intensity of radiation received by a detector thereof, the reduction in intensity being graduated in a direction normal to the scanning path to provide a blending of images of adjacent scan paths. 31 claims, 15 figures

  4. Breast Cancer Detection: Mammography and other methods in breast imaging, second edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassett, L.W.; Gold, R.H.

    1987-01-01

    The text addresses mammography and the advantages and limitations of other breast imaging methods presently available. The establishment of X-ray mammography as the safest and most accurate noninvasive method of early, nonpalpable breast cancer detection is addressed in the first section of the book. The second section emphasizes the signs of early cancer, the complete mammographic examination, and the team approach to diagnosis. The advantages and limitations of film-screen mammography, zero mammography, breast ultrasound, thermography, light scanning, magnetic resonance imaging, and ductography are highlighted as alternate methods of detection. The benefits of mammography, and its unmatched value in screeening for breast cancer, are presented in the final section

  5. Scanning electron microscopy of primary bone tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pool, R.R.; Kerner, B.

    1975-01-01

    Critical-point-drying of tumor tissue fixed in a glutaraldehyde-paraformaldehyde solution and viewed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) provides a 3-dimensional view of tumor cells and their matrices. This report describes the SEM appearance of three primary bone tumors: a canine osteosarcoma of the distal radius, a feline chondrosarcoma of the proximal tibia and a canine fibrosarcoma of the proximal humerus. The ultrastructural morphology is compared with the histologic appearance of each tumor

  6. Fixed-point signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Padgett, Wayne T

    2009-01-01

    This book is intended to fill the gap between the ""ideal precision"" digital signal processing (DSP) that is widely taught, and the limited precision implementation skills that are commonly required in fixed-point processors and field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). These skills are often neglected at the university level, particularly for undergraduates. We have attempted to create a resource both for a DSP elective course and for the practicing engineer with a need to understand fixed-point implementation. Although we assume a background in DSP, Chapter 2 contains a review of basic theory

  7. Apparatus for fixing radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, J.D.; Pirro, J. Jr.; Lawrence, M.; Wisla, S.F.

    1975-01-01

    Fixing radioactive waste is disclosed in which the waste is collected as a slurry in aqueous media in a metering tank located within the nuclear facilities. Collection of waste is continued from time to time until a sufficient quantity of material to make up a full shipment to a burial ground has been collected. The slurry is then cast in shipping containers for shipment to a burial ground or the like by metering through a mixer into which fixing materials are simultaneously metered at a rate to yield the desired proportions of materials. (U.S.)

  8. Extrathyroidal Radioiodine Accumulation in a Fibroadenoma of the Breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myoung Hyoun; Kim, Hun Soo; Park, Soon-Ah

    2017-02-01

    A 45-year-old woman with a differentiated thyroid carcinoma received adjuvant radioiodine therapy following total thyroidectomy and left modified radical neck dissection. A posttherapy planar radioiodine scan showed multifocal uptake in the thyroid bed and left chest. SPECT/CT revealed a fibroadenoma in the left breast. Six months later, an I scan showed no iodine avidity in the breast fibroadenoma, whereas ultrasonography showed no significant change in the size of the fibroadenoma. Altered radioiodine uptake of a breast fibroadenoma can be observed on follow-up scans after cytotoxic radioiodide treatment in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma.

  9. Invasive lobular carcinoma: a rare presentation in the male breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo Abreu, Elisa; Pereira, Pedro; Marques, José Carlos; Esteves, Gonçalo

    2016-05-05

    Breast cancer in men is uncommon, accounting for cancers. Even though lobular structures are quite infrequent in the male breast, rare cases of invasive lobular breast carcinoma have been described, representing 1-2% of all breast cancers in men. Risk factors include undescended testes, congenital inguinal hernia, orchiectomy, orchitis, testicular injury, infertility and Klinefelter's syndrome, previous thoracic radiotherapy, alterations of the oestrogen-testosterone ratio and familial history (BRCA 2 and 1). The authors present a case of a 52-year-old man with no relevant predisposing factors to breast cancer, who presented with a painless, firm nodule, fixed to the nipple on the left breast, associated with nipple retraction and ulceration, and fully characterised by mammogram and ultrasound. Histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis revealed the diagnosis of invasive lobular breast carcinoma and the patient underwent left radical mastectomy, followed by adjuvant chemotherapy, radiotherapy and hormonotherapy. A brief review of the literature is presented. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  10. Breast asymmetry and predisposition to breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Scutt, Diane; Lancaster, Gillian A; Manning, John T

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: It has been shown in our previous work that breast asymmetry is related to several of the known risk factors for breast cancer, and that patients with diagnosed breast cancer have more breast volume asymmetry, as measured from mammograms, than age-matched healthy women. METHODS: In the present study, we compared the breast asymmetry of women who were free of breast disease at time of mammography, but who had subsequently developed breast cancer, with that of age-matched healthy ...

  11. Flat Coalgebraic Fixed Point Logics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Lutz; Venema, Yde

    Fixed point logics are widely used in computer science, in particular in artificial intelligence and concurrency. The most expressive logics of this type are the μ-calculus and its relatives. However, popular fixed point logics tend to trade expressivity for simplicity and readability, and in fact often live within the single variable fragment of the μ-calculus. The family of such flat fixed point logics includes, e.g., CTL, the *-nesting-free fragment of PDL, and the logic of common knowledge. Here, we extend this notion to the generic semantic framework of coalgebraic logic, thus covering a wide range of logics beyond the standard μ-calculus including, e.g., flat fragments of the graded μ-calculus and the alternating-time μ-calculus (such as ATL), as well as probabilistic and monotone fixed point logics. Our main results are completeness of the Kozen-Park axiomatization and a timed-out tableaux method that matches ExpTime upper bounds inherited from the coalgebraic μ-calculus but avoids using automata.

  12. Enumerating matroids of fixed rank

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pendavingh, R.; van der Pol, J.

    2017-01-01

    It has been conjectured that asymptotically almost all matroids are sparse paving, i.e. that~s(n)∼m(n)s(n)∼m(n), where m(n)m(n) denotes the number of matroids on a fixed groundset of size nn, and s(n)s(n) the number of sparse paving matroids. In an earlier paper, we showed that

  13. Fixed Costs and Hours Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, William R.

    2011-01-01

    Hours constraints are typically identified by worker responses to questions asking whether they would prefer a job with more hours and more pay or fewer hours and less pay. Because jobs with different hours but the same rate of pay may be infeasible when there are fixed costs of employment or mandatory overtime premia, the constraint in those…

  14. Adhesives for fixed orthodontic bands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millett, Declan T; Glenny, Anne-Marie; Mattick, Rye Cr; Hickman, Joy; Mandall, Nicky A

    2016-10-25

    Orthodontic treatment involves using fixed or removable appliances (dental braces) to correct the positions of teeth. It has been shown that the quality of treatment result obtained with fixed appliances is much better than with removable appliances. Fixed appliances are, therefore, favoured by most orthodontists for treatment. The success of a fixed orthodontic appliance depends on the metal attachments (brackets and bands) being attached securely to the teeth so that they do not become loose during treatment. Brackets are usually attached to the front and side teeth, whereas bands (metal rings that go round the teeth) are more commonly used on the back teeth (molars). A number of adhesives are available to attach bands to teeth and it is important to understand which group of adhesives bond most reliably, as well as reducing or preventing dental decay during the treatment period. To evaluate the effectiveness of the adhesives used to attach bands to teeth during fixed appliance treatment, in terms of:(1) how often the bands come off during treatment; and(2) whether they protect the banded teeth against decay during fixed appliance treatment. The following electronic databases were searched: Cochrane Oral Health's Trials Register (searched 2 June 2016), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2016, Issue 5) in the Cochrane Library (searched 2 June 2016), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 2 June 2016) and EMBASE Ovid (1980 to 2 June 2016). We searched ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform for ongoing trials. No restrictions were placed on the language or date of publication when searching the electronic databases. Randomised and controlled clinical trials (RCTs and CCTs) (including split-mouth studies) of adhesives used to attach orthodontic bands to molar teeth were selected. Patients with full arch fixed orthodontic appliance(s) who had bands attached to molars were included. All review authors

  15. Breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, Masayoshi

    1992-01-01

    More than 20-year follow-up of A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki has a crucial role in determining the relationship of radiation to the occurrence of breast cancer. In 1967, Wanebo et al have first reported 27 cases of breast cancer during the period 1950-1966 among the Adult Health Study population of A-bomb survivors. Since then, follow-up surveys for breast cancer have been made using the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort, and the incidence of breast cancer has increased year by year; that is breast cancer was identified in 231 cases by the first LSS series (1950-1969), 360 cases by the second LSS series (1950-1974), 564 cases by the third LSS series (1950-1980), and 816 cases in the fourth LSS series (1950-1085). The third LSS series have revealed a high risk for radiation-induced breast cancer in women aged 10 or less at the time of exposure (ATE). Both relative and absolute risks are found to be decreased with increasing ages ATE. Based on the above-mentioned findings and other studies on persons exposed medical radiation, radiation-induced breast cancer is characterized by the following: (1) the incidence of breast cancer is linearly increased with increasing radiation doses; (2) both relative and absolute risks for breast cancer are high in younger persons ATE; (3) age distribution of breast cancer in proximally exposed A-bomb survivors is the same as that in both distally A-bomb survivors and non-exposed persons, and there is no difference in histology between the former and latter groups. Thus, immature mammary gland cells before the age of puberty are found to be most radiosensitive. (N.K.)

  16. Breast cancer staging with MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smathers, R.L.; D'Amelio, F.; Stockdale, F.

    1989-01-01

    Forty-three patients with biopsy-proved breast cancer underwent MR staging of the cervicothoracic spine, lumbosacral spine, liver, and thorax. In all cases, these findings have been compared with the results of clinical staging, laboratory tests, chest radiography, and radionuclide bone scanning. MR imaging was a valuable staging tool for patients with more than minimal breast cancer and indications for radionuclide bone scanning. MR imaging had the greatest clinical importance when it identified thoracic soft-tissue abnormalities, including axillary., lateral thoracic, supraclavicular, and mediastinal lymphadenopathy. The coronal and sagittal views were very valuable for detection of chest wall invasion, sternal involvement, and internal mammary adenopathy. Negative MR staging clinically reassured patients that aggressive local therapy bad curative potential. Positive MR staging avoided inappropriate aggressive local therapy and mastectomy. MR imaging can be recommended for improved breast cancer staging in patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer who have more than minimal disease

  17. A virtual trial framework for quantifying the detectability of masses in breast tomosynthesis projection data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, Stefano; Bakic, Predrag R.; Myers, Kyle J.; Jennings, Robert J.; Park, Subok

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is a promising breast cancer screening tool that has already begun making inroads into clinical practice. However, there is ongoing debate over how to quantitatively evaluate and optimize these systems, because different definitions of image quality can lead to different optimal design strategies. Powerful and accurate tools are desired to extend our understanding of DBT system optimization and validate published design principles. Methods: The authors developed a virtual trial framework for task-specific DBT assessment that uses digital phantoms, open-source x-ray transport codes, and a projection-space, spatial-domain observer model for quantitative system evaluation. The authors considered evaluation of reconstruction algorithms as a separate problem and focused on the information content in the raw, unfiltered projection images. Specifically, the authors investigated the effects of scan angle and number of angular projections on detectability of a small (3 mm diameter) signal embedded in randomly-varying anatomical backgrounds. Detectability was measured by the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC). Experiments were repeated for three test cases where the detectability-limiting factor was anatomical variability, quantum noise, or electronic noise. The authors also juxtaposed the virtual trial framework with other published studies to illustrate its advantages and disadvantages. Results: The large number of variables in a virtual DBT study make it difficult to directly compare different authors’ results, so each result must be interpreted within the context of the specific virtual trial framework. The following results apply to 25% density phantoms with 5.15 cm compressed thickness and 500 μm 3 voxels (larger 500 μm 2 detector pixels were used to avoid voxel-edge artifacts): 1. For raw, unfiltered projection images in the anatomical-variability-limited regime, AUC appeared to remain constant

  18. Terahertz Imaging of Three-Dimensional Dehydrated Breast Cancer Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Tyler; Wu, Yuhao; Gauch, John; Campbell, Lucas K.; El-Shenawee, Magda

    2017-06-01

    This work presents the application of terahertz imaging to three-dimensional formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded human breast cancer tumors. The results demonstrate the capability of terahertz for in-depth scanning to produce cross section images without the need to slice the tumor. Samples of tumors excised from women diagnosed with infiltrating ductal carcinoma and lobular carcinoma are investigated using a pulsed terahertz time domain imaging system. A time of flight estimation is used to obtain vertical and horizontal cross section images of tumor tissues embedded in paraffin block. Strong agreement is shown comparing the terahertz images obtained by electronically scanning the tumor in-depth in comparison with histopathology images. The detection of cancer tissue inside the block is found to be accurate to depths over 1 mm. Image processing techniques are applied to provide improved contrast and automation of the obtained terahertz images. In particular, unsharp masking and edge detection methods are found to be most effective for three-dimensional block imaging.

  19. Breast reconstruction - natural tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... flap; TRAM; Latissimus muscle flap with a breast implant; DIEP flap; DIEAP flap; Gluteal free flap; Transverse upper gracilis flap; TUG; Mastectomy - breast reconstruction with natural tissue; Breast cancer - breast reconstruction with natural tissue

  20. Breast Cancer: Treatment Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breast Cancer > Breast Cancer: Treatment Options Request Permissions Breast Cancer: Treatment Options Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial ... can be addressed as quickly as possible. Recurrent breast cancer If the cancer does return after treatment for ...

  1. Lung PET scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chest PET scan; Lung positron emission tomography; PET - chest; PET - lung; PET - tumor imaging; ... Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging . 6th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  2. Scanning of bone metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robillard, J.

    1977-01-01

    The Centers against cancer of Caen, Angers, Montpellier, Strasbourg and 'the Curie Foundation' have confronted their experience in detection of bone metastases by total body scanning. From the investigation by this procedure, of 1,467 patients with cancer, it results: the confrontation between radio and scanning shows a rate of false positive and false negative identical to the literature ones; the countage scanning allows to reduce the number of false positive; scanning allows to direct bone biopsy and to improve efficiency of histological examination [fr

  3. Fixed target flammable gas upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, R.; Squires, B.; Gasteyer, T.; Richardson, R.

    1996-12-01

    In the past, fixed target flammable gas systems were not supported in an organized fashion. The Research Division, Mechanical Support Department began to support these gas systems for the 1995 run. This technical memo describes the new approach being used to supply chamber gasses to fixed target experiments at Fermilab. It describes the engineering design features, system safety, system documentation and performance results. Gas mixtures provide the medium for electron detection in proportional and drift chambers. Usually a mixture of a noble gas and a polyatomic quenching gas is used. Sometimes a small amount of electronegative gas is added as well. The mixture required is a function of the specific chamber design, including working voltage, gain requirements, high rate capability, aging and others. For the 1995 fixed target run all the experiments requested once through gas systems. We obtained a summary of problems from the 1990 fixed target run and made a summary of the operations logbook entries from the 1991 run. These summaries primarily include problems involving flammable gas alarms, but also include incidents where Operations was involved or informed. Usually contamination issues were dealt with by the experimenters. The summaries are attached. We discussed past operational issues with the experimenters involved. There were numerous incidents of drift chamber failure where contaminated gas was suspect. However analyses of the gas at the time usually did not show any particular problems. This could have been because the analysis did not look for the troublesome component, the contaminant was concentrated in the gas over the liquid and vented before the sample was taken, or that contaminants were drawn into the chambers directly through leaks or sub-atmospheric pressures. After some study we were unable to determine specific causes of past contamination problems, although in argon-ethane systems the problems were due to the ethane only

  4. A fixed-point farrago

    CERN Document Server

    Shapiro, Joel H

    2016-01-01

    This text provides an introduction to some of the best-known fixed-point theorems, with an emphasis on their interactions with topics in analysis. The level of exposition increases gradually throughout the book, building from a basic requirement of undergraduate proficiency to graduate-level sophistication. Appendices provide an introduction to (or refresher on) some of the prerequisite material and exercises are integrated into the text, contributing to the volume’s ability to be used as a self-contained text. Readers will find the presentation especially useful for independent study or as a supplement to a graduate course in fixed-point theory. The material is split into four parts: the first introduces the Banach Contraction-Mapping Principle and the Brouwer Fixed-Point Theorem, along with a selection of interesting applications; the second focuses on Brouwer’s theorem and its application to John Nash’s work; the third applies Brouwer’s theorem to spaces of infinite dimension; and the fourth rests ...

  5. MO-F-CAMPUS-I-04: Characterization of Fan Beam Coded Aperture Coherent Scatter Spectral Imaging Methods for Differentiation of Normal and Neoplastic Breast Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, R; Albanese, K; Lakshmanan, M; Greenberg, J; Kapadia, A [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, Carl E Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Durham, NC (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: This study intends to characterize the spectral and spatial resolution limits of various fan beam geometries for differentiation of normal and neoplastic breast structures via coded aperture coherent scatter spectral imaging techniques. In previous studies, pencil beam raster scanning methods using coherent scatter computed tomography and selected volume tomography have yielded excellent results for tumor discrimination. However, these methods don’t readily conform to clinical constraints; primarily prolonged scan times and excessive dose to the patient. Here, we refine a fan beam coded aperture coherent scatter imaging system to characterize the tradeoffs between dose, scan time and image quality for breast tumor discrimination. Methods: An X-ray tube (125kVp, 400mAs) illuminated the sample with collimated fan beams of varying widths (3mm to 25mm). Scatter data was collected via two linear-array energy-sensitive detectors oriented parallel and perpendicular to the beam plane. An iterative reconstruction algorithm yields images of the sample’s spatial distribution and respective spectral data for each location. To model in-vivo tumor analysis, surgically resected breast tumor samples were used in conjunction with lard, which has a form factor comparable to adipose (fat). Results: Quantitative analysis with current setup geometry indicated optimal performance for beams up to 10mm wide, with wider beams producing poorer spatial resolution. Scan time for a fixed volume was reduced by a factor of 6 when scanned with a 10mm fan beam compared to a 1.5mm pencil beam. Conclusion: The study demonstrates the utility of fan beam coherent scatter spectral imaging for differentiation of normal and neoplastic breast tissues has successfully reduced dose and scan times whilst sufficiently preserving spectral and spatial resolution. Future work to alter the coded aperture and detector geometries could potentially allow the use of even wider fans, thereby making coded

  6. Profile of Breast Diseases in Eastern Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Bajracharya

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Breast problems, benign or malignant are common in occurrence worldwide. Breast problems can present themselves in a number of ways like breast pain, nipple discharge, cystic lesions and more commonly a lump. Breast diseases are under reported and cancer is one of the leading causes of mortality in women. This prospective study was undertaken with an aim to study the profile of various breast diseases in eastern Nepal.Materials & Methods:  This is a prospective study of women with breast diseases conducted from March 2011 to February 2012. Inclusion criteria were women irrespective of age with breast diseases with or without complaints. Exclusion criteria were women having breast abscess and mammary fistula.Results: Out of 125 breast diseases 39 cases (31% had malignancy and 86 cases (69% had BBD. The overall mean age for BBD was 25.9 years, with range of 10-60 years. The mean age for malignant breast diseases was 45.6 years, with range of 28-67 years. All of the cases had breast lump as their presenting complaints whether they came out benign or malignant. 52.8% had no significant pain associated with lump; in malignant cases 35.8% had pain associated with lump. In benign cases 68.7% had no perceptible change in lump size. On ultrasound scan, 69% of the lesions were designated benign compared to 31% malignant features. FNAC resulted in 68% lesions to be classified as of benign nature and 32% as malignant /suspicious malignancy.Conclusion: BBD constituted 69% of breast diseases, and mostly fibroadenoma and FCC/FCD and commonest malignant lesion was infiltrating ductal carcinoma. The BBD peaked at the age of 21-30 years.

  7. CASE REPORT Unusual cause of breast lump: a CSF pseudocyst

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    function or benign masses.2 ... A 16-year-old girl presented with pain in the right breast and a gradually increasing breast ... was considered, and the patient was referred for CT scan of the brain, .... Ex vacuo dilatation of the left frontal horn.

  8. Breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado, L.; Krygier, G.; Castillo, C.

    2009-01-01

    This article is about the diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of breast cancer. Positive diagnosis is based on clinical mammary exam, mammography, mammary ultrasonography, and histological study. Before the chemotherapy and radiotherapy treatment are evaluated the risks

  9. Breast Augmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Administration (FDA) has identified a possible association between breast implants and the development of anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL), a rare cancer of the immune system. The FDA believes that ...

  10. Breast Augmentation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-04-13

    Apr 13, 1974 ... Complications encountered after breast augmentation are dealt with in .... in Phisohex or other suitable preparation for a few days before surgery ... In all cases, the prosthesis causes a fibrous tissue capsule to form around it.

  11. Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... modulators and aromatase inhibitors, reduce the risk of breast cancer in women with a high risk of the disease. These medications carry a risk of side effects, so doctors reserve these medications for women who ...

  12. Nodular breast lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, M.; Sahagun, E.; Pena, J.; Mendez, J.

    1996-01-01

    We attempt to correlate the histological types [in three cases of B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), one case of T-cell NHL and one of Hodgkin's disease] with the radiological presentation and compare our findings with the literature reviewed. Among the mammographic studies, performed over and 18-month period, we have assessed five patients (four women and one man, aged as having lymphoma. the man presented bilateral involvement. Both mammography and a broader study with ultrasound and chest and abdominal CT scan were performed in every case. Four patients underwent breast ultrasound. The definitive diagnosis was based on biopsy in all cases. Three of the five cases involved primary lymphomas and the other two were secondary. Four patients presented NHL and the remaining patient had Hodgkin's disease. In mammography, the nodules showed different degrees of margin definition. In ultrasound, all the lesion were hypoechoic. The radiological diagnosis of breast lymphoma is difficult in the absence of a previous diagnosis of lymphoma. This lesion should be included in the differential diagnosis in the presence of a breast nodule associated with axillary lymph nodes, especially when the latter are bilateral. (Author)

  13. Model PET Scan Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strunk, Amber; Gazdovich, Jennifer; Redouté, Oriane; Reverte, Juan Manuel; Shelley, Samantha; Todorova, Vesela

    2018-05-01

    This paper provides a brief introduction to antimatter and how it, along with other modern physics topics, is utilized in positron emission tomography (PET) scans. It further describes a hands-on activity for students to help them gain an understanding of how PET scans assist in detecting cancer. Modern physics topics provide an exciting way to introduce students to current applications of physics.

  14. Scanning laser Doppler vibrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøns, Marie; Thomsen, Jon Juel

    With a Scanning Laser Doppler Vibrometer (SLDV) a vibrating surface is automatically scanned over predefined grid points, and data processed for displaying vibration properties like mode shapes, natural frequencies, damping ratios, and operational deflection shapes. Our SLDV – a PSV-500H from...

  15. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Thyroid Scan and Uptake Thyroid scan and uptake uses ...

  16. Bone scintiscanning significance in breast cancer propaedeutics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, J.S. de; Fahel, V.G.; Almeida, M.R.M. de; Hassan, A.T.; Hassan, E.M.M.T.

    1977-01-01

    An evaluation was performed of 139 bone scannings which were accomplished in patients with breast cancer. Bone scintigraphy was concluded to be more important than the radiological examination in this propedeutic. The increase of alkaline phosphatase was very significative too, since there was only one case in which it was increased and the bone scanning was negative and even so the liver scanning was positive. On the other hand there were cases which showed positive both bone scanning and radiological study although the alkaline phosphatase was not increase. The necessity of realizing this examination was emphazised even in initial cases, making possible to modify therapeutic shedules in time, to help patient [pt

  17. Bone scintiscanning significance in breast cancer propaedeutics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Almeida, J S; Fahel, V G; de Almeida, M R.M.; Hassan, A T; Hassan, E M.M.T. [Hospital Aristides Maltez, Salvador (Brazil). Servico de Medicina Nuclear

    1977-01-01

    An evaluation was performed of 139 bone scannings which were accomplished in patients with breast cancer. Bone scintigraphy was concluded to be more important than the radiological examination in this propedeutic. The increase of alkaline phosphatase was very significative too, since there was only one case in which it was increased and the bone scanning was negative and even so the liver scanning was positive. On the other hand there were cases which showed positive both bone scanning and radiological study although the alkaline phosphatase was not increase. The necessity of realizing this examination was emphazised even in initial cases, making possible to modify therapeutic shedules in time, to help patient.

  18. Transverse section scanning mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doherty, E.J.

    1978-01-01

    Apparatus is described for scanning a transverse, radionuclide scan-field using an array of focussed collimators. The collimators are movable tangentially on rails, driven by a single motor via a coupled screw. The collimators are also movable in a radial direction on rails driven by a step motor via coupled screws and bevel gears. Adjacent bevel gears rotate in opposite directions so adjacent collimators move in radially opposite directions. In use, the focal point of each collimator scans at least half of the scan-field, e.g. a human head located in the central aperture, and the electrical outputs of detectors associated with each collimator are used to determine the distribution of radioactive emission intensity at a number of points in the scan-field. (author)

  19. LIDAR COMBINED SCANNING UNIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Elizarov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. The results of lidar combined scanning unit development for locating leaks of hydrocarbons are presented The unit enables to perform high-speed scanning of the investigated space in wide and narrow angle fields. Method. Scanning in a wide angular field is produced by one-line scanning path by means of the movable aluminum mirror with a frequency of 20Hz and amplitude of 20 degrees of swing. Narrowband scanning is performed along a spiral path by the deflector. The deflection of the beam is done by rotation of the optical wedges forming part of the deflector at an angle of ±50. The control function of the scanning node is performed by a specialized software product written in C# programming language. Main Results. This scanning unit allows scanning the investigated area at a distance of 50-100 m with spatial resolution at the level of 3 cm. The positioning accuracy of the laser beam in space is 15'. The developed scanning unit gives the possibility to browse the entire investigated area for the time not more than 1 ms at a rotation frequency of each wedge from 50 to 200 Hz. The problem of unambiguous definition of the beam geographical coordinates in space is solved at the software level according to the rotation angles of the mirrors and optical wedges. Lidar system coordinates are determined by means of GPS. Practical Relevance. Development results open the possibility for increasing the spatial resolution of scanning systems of a wide range of lidars and can provide high positioning accuracy of the laser beam in space.

  20. Breast implants and the risk of breast cancer: a meta-analysis of cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noels, Eline C; Lapid, Oren; Lindeman, Jan H N; Bastiaannet, Esther

    2015-01-01

    The popularity of cosmetic breast augmentation and the incidence of breast cancer have been increasing worldwide. It has been hypothesized that the risk of breast cancer may be greater among patients who have undergone cosmetic breast implantation. The authors performed a meta-analysis of the available literature on the risk of breast cancer among women with cosmetic breast implants. The study was designed as a meta-analysis of observational studies. A systematic search of the English literature (published by August 28, 2013) was conducted in PubMed and EMBASE. Eligible reports were those that included relative risk (RR; the increased or decreased risk of breast cancer associated with breast implants) or the standardized incidence ratio (SIR) of the observed number of cases of breast cancer to the expected number of cases among patients that previously underwent cosmetic breast augmentation. Seventeen studies representing 7 cohorts were selected. Some of these were follow-up reports of previously published studies; in such cases, only the most recent reports were included in the meta-analysis. Summary SIR and RR rates and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated with a random-effects (SIR) or fixed-effects (RR) model. The overall SIR estimate was 0.69 (95% CI, 0.56-0.85), and the overall RR, based on 4 studies, was 0.63 (95% CI, 0.56-0.71). Finding of this meta-analysis suggest that women who have undergone cosmetic breast implantation do not have an increased risk of breast cancer. © 2015 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Dynamic helical CT mammography of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Akira; Fukushima, Hitoshi; Okamura, Ryuji; Nakamura, Yoshiaki; Morimoto, Taisuke; Urata, Yoji; Mukaihara, Sumio; Hayakawa, Katsumi

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether dynamic helical computed tomography (CT)-mammography could assist in selecting the most appropriate surgical method in women with breast cancer. Preoperative contrast-enhanced helical CT scanning of the breast was performed on 133 female patients with suspicion of breast cancer at the same time as clinical, mammographic, and/or ultrasonographic examinations. The patients were scanned in the prone position with a specially designed CT-compatible device. A helical scan was made with rapid intravenous bolus injection (3 ml/s) of 100 ml of iodine contrast material. Three-dimensional maximum intensity projection (MIP) images were reconstructed, and CT findings were correlated with surgical and histopathological findings. Histopathological analysis revealed 84 malignant lesions and seven benign lesions. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy levels of the CT scanning were 94.6%, 58.6%, and 78.9%. Helical scanning alone revealed additional contralateral carcinomas in three of four patients and additional ipsilateral carcinomas in three of five patients. However, the technique gave false-positive readings in 24 patients. The preoperative CT-mammogram altered the surgical method in six patients. Dynamic helical CT-mammography in the prone position may be one of the choices of adjunct imaging in patients with suspected breast cancer scheduled for surgery. (author)

  2. Adhesives for fixed orthodontic brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandall, N A; Millett, D T; Mattick, C R; Hickman, J; Macfarlane, T V; Worthington, H V

    2003-01-01

    Bonding of orthodontic brackets to teeth is important to enable effective and efficient treatment with fixed appliances. The problem is bracket failure during treatment which increases operator chairside time and lengthens treatment time. A prolonged treatment is likely to increase the oral health risks of orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances one of which is irreversible enamel decalcification. To evaluate the effectiveness of different orthodontic adhesives for bonding. Electronic databases: the Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE and EMBASE. Date of most recent searches: August 2002 (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library Issue 2, 2002). Trials were selected if they met the following criteria: randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials (CCTs) comparing two different adhesive groups. Participants were patients with fixed orthodontic appliances. The interventions were adhesives that bonded stainless steel brackets to all teeth except the molars. The primary outcome was debond or bracket failure. Data were recorded on decalcification as a secondary outcome, if present. Information regarding methods, participants, interventions, outcome measures and results were extracted in duplicate by pairs of reviewers (Nicky Mandall (NM) and Rye Mattick (CRM); Declan Millett (DTM) and Joy Hickman (JH2)). Since the data were not presented in a form that was amenable to meta-analysis, the results of the review are presented in narrative form only. Three trials satisfied the inclusion criteria. A chemical cured composite was compared with a light cure composite (one trial), a conventional glass ionomer cement (one trial) and a polyacid-modified resin composite (compomer) (one trial). The quality of the trial reports was generally poor. It is difficult to draw any conclusions from this review, however, suggestions are made for methods of improving future research involving

  3. Growth of breast cancer recurrences assessed by consecutive MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millet, Ingrid; Bouic-Pages, Emmanuelle; Hoa, Denis; Azria, David; Taourel, Patrice

    2011-01-01

    Women with a personal history of breast cancer have a high risk of developing an ipsi- or contralateral recurrence. We aimed to compare the growth rate of primary breast cancer and recurrences in women who had undergone prior breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Three hundred and sixty-two women were diagnosed with breast cancer and had undergone breast MRI at the time of diagnosis in our institution (2005 - 2009). Among them, 37 had at least one prior breast MRI with the lesion being visible but not diagnosed as cancer. A linear regression of tumour volume measured on MRI scans and time data was performed using a generalized logistic model to calculate growth rates. The primary objective was to compare the tumour growth rate of patients with either primary breast cancer (no history of breast cancer) or ipsi- or contralateral recurrences of breast cancer. Twenty women had no history of breast cancer and 17 patients were diagnosed as recurrences (7 and 10 were ipsi- and contralateral, respectively). The tumour growth rate was higher in contralateral recurrences than in ipsilateral recurrences (growth rate [10 -3 days -1 ] 3.56 vs 1.38, p < .001) or primary cancer (3.56 vs 2.09, p = 0.01). Differences in tumour growth were not significant for other patient-, tumour- or treatment-related characteristics. These findings suggest that contralateral breast cancer presents accelerated growth compared to ipsilateral recurrences or primary breast events

  4. Poster - 34: Clinical Implementation of Prone Breast Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Runqing; Fleming, Katrina; Kobeleva, Sofya; Osei, Ernest [Grand River Regional Cancer Centre (Canada)

    2016-08-15

    Purpose: Prone breast treatment is used to reduce acute and late toxicities for large or pendulous breast patients. This study developed and implemented the clinical workflow of prone breast radiotherapy treatment. Methods: Varian kVue Access360™ Prone Breast Couchtop was used as prone breast board. The treatment planning (TP)is performed in Eclipse TP system. TP comparisons between supine deep inspiration breathing hold (DIBH) and prone breast; prone forward field-in-field (FinF) planning and inverse IMRT planning were performed and discussed. For the daily setup, breast coverage was assessed in the room using light field and MV imaging was used at day 1 and weekly. Results: The first ten patients are CT scanned and planned both supine and prone. The coverage was all excellent for supine DIBH plan and prone breast plan. The plan in the prone position demonstrated improvements in lung sparing comparing to the DIBH plan. Both forward FinF plan and inverse IMRT plan achieved acceptable coverage of the breast, and heart dose is comparable. Considering the daily setup variations and MLC leakage, forward FinF plan was recommended for routine clinical use. The procedure has been tested in phantom and patients were treated clinically. Conclusions: Prone breast irradiation has been advocated for women with large pendulous breasts in order to decrease acute and late toxicities. The workflow for prone breast radiation therapy has been developed and the technique is ready to treat patients.

  5. BRST gauge fixing and regularization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damgaard, P.H.; Jonghe, F. de; Sollacher, R.

    1995-05-01

    In the presence of consistent regulators, the standard procedure of BRST gauge fixing (or moving from one gauge to another) can require non-trivial modifications. These modifications occur at the quantum level, and gauges exist which are only well-defined when quantum mechanical modifications are correctly taken into account. We illustrate how this phenomenon manifests itself in the solvable case of two-dimensional bosonization in the path-integral formalism. As a by-product, we show how to derive smooth bosonization in Batalin-Vilkovisky Lagrangian BRST quantization. (orig.)

  6. GOLD and the fixed ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vestbo J

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Jørgen VestboUniversity of Manchester, Manchester, UKI read with interest the paper entitled "Diagnosis of airway obstruction in the elderly: contribution of the SARA study" by Sorino et al in a recent issue of this journal.1 Being involved in the Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Diseases (GOLD, it is nice to see the interest sparked by the GOLD strategy document. However, in the paper by Sorino et al, there are a few misunderstandings around GOLD and the fixed ratio (forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced volume vital capacity < 0.70 that need clarification.View original paper by Sorino and colleagues.

  7. Mammography combined with breast dynamic contrast-enhanced-magnetic resonance imaging for the diagnosis of early breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yakun He; Guohui Xu; Jin Ren; Bin Feng; Xiaolei Dong; Hao Lu; Changjiu He

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the application of mammography combined with breast dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) for the diagnosis of early breast cancer. Methods Mammography and DCE-MRI were performed for 120 patients with breast cancer (malignant, 102; benign; 18). Results The sensitivity of mammography for early diagnosis of breast cancer was 66.67%, specificity was 77.78%, and accuracy was 68.33%. The sensitivity of MRI for early diagnosis of breast cancer was 94.12%, specificity was 88.89%, and accuracy was 93.33%. However, the sensitivity of mammography combined with DCE-MRI volume imaging with enhanced water signal (VIEWS) scanning for early diagnosis of breast cancer was 97.06%, specificity was 94.44%, and accuracy was 96.67%. Conclusion Mammography combined with DCE-MRI increased the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of diagnosing early breast cancer.

  8. Laser Scanning in Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Håkan Olsson

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS to forests has been revolutionary during the last decade. This development was facilitated by combining earlier ranging lidar discoveries [1–5], with experience obtained from full-waveform ranging radar [6,7] to new airborne laser scanning systems which had components such as a GNSS receiver (Global Navigation Satellite System, IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit and a scanning mechanism. Since the first commercial ALS in 1994, new ALS-based forest inventory approaches have been reported feasible for operational activities [8–12]. ALS is currently operationally applied for stand level forest inventories, for example, in Nordic countries. In Finland alone, the adoption of ALS for forest data collection has led to an annual savings of around 20 M€/year, and the work is mainly done by companies instead of governmental organizations. In spite of the long implementation times and there being a limited tradition of making changes in the forest sector, laser scanning was commercially and operationally applied after about only one decade of research. When analyzing high-ranked journal papers from ISI Web of Science, the topic of laser scanning of forests has been the driving force for the whole laser scanning research society over the last decade. Thus, the topic “laser scanning in forests” has provided a significant industrial, societal and scientific impact. [...

  9. Bone scan in pediatrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, I.; Peters, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    In 1984, a survey carried out in 21 countries in Europe showed that bone scintigraphy comprised 16% of all paediatric radioisotope scans. Although the value of bone scans in paediatrics is potentially great, their quality varies greatly, and poor-quality images are giving this valuable technique a bad reputation. The handling of children requires a sensitive staff and the provision of a few simple inexpensive items of distraction. Attempting simply to scan a child between two adult patients in a busy general department is a recipe for an unhappy, uncooperative child with the probable result of poor images. The intravenous injection of isotope should be given adjacent to the gamma camera room, unless dynamic scans are required, so that the child does not associate the camera with the injection. This injection is best carried out by someone competent in paediatric venipunture; the entire procedure should be explained to the child and parent, who should remain with child throughout. It is naive to think that silence makes for a cooperative child. The sensitivity of bone-seeking radioisotope tracers and the marked improvement in gamma camera resolution has allowed the bone scanning to become an integrated technique in the assessment of children suspected of suffering from pathological bone conditions. The tracer most commonly used for routine bone scanning is 99m Tc diphosphonate (MDP); other isotopes used include 99m Tc colloid for bone marrow scans and 67 Ga citrate and 111 In white blood cells ( 111 In WBC) for investigation of inflammatory/infective lesions

  10. Clinical role of skeletal scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ell, P J

    1975-12-01

    Malignant disease very often spreads to the skeleton. This is particularly true for carcinomas of the breast, the lungs, the prostate, and the thyroid. Knowledge of the state of the skeleton in these disorders is therefore desirable since patient management will largely depend on the early detection of bony deposits. Primary bone disease often spreads to soft tissue (lungs), and the early detection of this may alter significantly the therapeutic approach to the primary lesion. Traditionally, x-ray skeletal surveys and serum enzyme measurements provide indices which can be used in the staging of these disorders. Complementary techniques such as mammography, xeroradiography, thermography, and radionuclide imaging have been used to provide further relevant information. A number of benign bone diseases need early assessment in order to institute the best form of treatment. It is of importance to assess the circulation in localized areas of bone and to predict the appearance of avascular necrosis, to understand the healing mechanisms involved in fractures, and to predict the outcome of bone grafting. In this paper the clinical role of bone scanning is reviewed, particular attention being given to the recent advances brought about by the introduction of the /sup 99m/Tc compounds. It is important that the non-specialist should be aware of the great improvement in the results obtained and in the help they can give him in deciding on the best management of each patient as an individual.

  11. Utilization of nitrogen fixing trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brewbaker, J.L.; Beldt, R. van den; MacDicken, K.; Budowski, G.; Kass, D.C.L.; Russo, R.O.; Escalante, G.; Herrera, R.; Aranguren, J.; Arkcoll, D.B.; Doebereinger, J. (cord.)

    1983-01-01

    Six papers from the symposium are noted. Brewbaker, J.L., Beldt, R. van den, MacDicken, K. Fuelwood uses and properties of nitrogen-fixing trees, pp 193-204, (Refs. 15). Includes a list of 35 nitrogen-fixing trees of high fuelwood value. Budowski, G.; Kass, D.C.L.; Russo, R.O. Leguminous trees for shade, pp 205-222, (Refs. 68). Escalante, G., Herrera, R., Aranguren, J.; Nitrogen fixation in shade trees (Erythrina poeppigiana) in cocoa plantations in northern Venezuela, pp 223-230, (Refs. 13). Arkcoll, D.B.; Some leguminous trees providing useful fruits in the North of Brazil, pp 235-239, (Refs. 13). This paper deals with Parkia platycephala, Pentaclethra macroloba, Swartzia sp., Cassia leiandra, Hymenaea courbaril, dipteryz odorata, Inga edulis, I. macrophylla, and I. cinnamonea. Baggio, A.J.; Possibilities of the use of Gliricidia sepium in agroforestry systems in Brazil, pp 241-243; (Refs. 15). Seiffert, N.F.; Biological nitrogen and protein production of Leucaena cultivars grown to supplement the nutrition of ruminants, pp 245-249, (Refs. 14). Leucaena leucocephala cv. Peru, L. campina grande (L. leucocephala), and L. cunningham (L. leucocephalae) were promising for use as browse by beef cattle in central Brazil.

  12. Fixed-Target Electron Accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, William K.

    2001-01-01

    A tremendous amount of scientific insight has been garnered over the past half-century by using particle accelerators to study physical systems of sub-atomic dimensions. These giant instruments begin with particles at rest, then greatly increase their energy of motion, forming a narrow trajectory or beam of particles. In fixed-target accelerators, the particle beam impacts upon a stationary sample or target which contains or produces the sub-atomic system being studied. This is in distinction to colliders, where two beams are produced and are steered into each other so that their constituent particles can collide. The acceleration process always relies on the particle being accelerated having an electric charge; however, both the details of producing the beam and the classes of scientific investigations possible vary widely with the specific type of particle being accelerated. This article discusses fixed-target accelerators which produce beams of electrons, the lightest charged particle. As detailed in the report, the beam energy has a close connection with the size of the physical system studied. Here a useful unit of energy is a GeV, i.e., a giga electron-volt. (ne GeV, the energy an electron would have if accelerated through a billion volts, is equal to 1.6 x 10 -10 joules.) To study systems on a distance scale much smaller than an atomic nucleus requires beam energies ranging from a few GeV up to hundreds of GeV and more

  13. [Characteristics of porcine thoracic arteries fixed with polyepoxy compound].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xi-Xun; Chen, Huai-Qing

    2005-09-01

    To investigate the characteristics of porcine thoracic arteries fixed with ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether (EX-810) and to provide the proper scaffold materials for tissue-engineered blood vessel. The porcine thoracic arteries were respectively treated with 40 ml/L EX-810 and 6.25 g/L glutaraldehyde, and then they were examined with naked-eye, light microscope and scanning electron microscope. The fixation index determination, the amino acid analysis and the biomechanics test were also performed. The antigenicity of vascular tissues can be diminished by EX-810 through getting rid of cell in the vascular tissues or reducing the level of free amino groups in the vascular tissues. The structural integrity of vascular tissues can be preserved after treatment with EX-810. It was also found that the EX-810-fixed porcine vascular tissues appeared more similar to the natural vascular tissues in color and mechanical properties, and were more pliable than the glutaraldehyde-fixed tissues. The EX-810-fixed porcine thoracic arteries with low cytotoxicity and low antigenicity showed favorable characteristic similar to those of natural vessel, and it should be a promising material for fabricating scaffold of tissue-engineered blood vessel.

  14. Temporal Subtraction of Digital Breast Tomosynthesis Images for Improved Mass Detection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Christina M

    2007-01-01

    Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) strives to overcome the obstacles presented in conventional 2D mammography by taking multiple projections over a fixed angle and reconstructing volumetric data isolates overlying anatomy...

  15. Improved Landau gauge fixing and discretisation errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnet, F.D.R.; Bowman, P.O.; Leinweber, D.B.; Richards, D.G.; Williams, A.G.

    2000-01-01

    Lattice discretisation errors in the Landau gauge condition are examined. An improved gauge fixing algorithm in which O(a 2 ) errors are removed is presented. O(a 2 ) improvement of the gauge fixing condition displays the secondary benefit of reducing the size of higher-order errors. These results emphasise the importance of implementing an improved gauge fixing condition

  16. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for a thyroid scan is 30 minutes or less. Thyroid Uptake You will be given radioactive iodine ( ... for each thyroid uptake is five minutes or less. top of page What will I experience during ...

  17. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... evaluate changes in the gland following medication use, surgery, radiotherapy or chemotherapy top of page How should ... such as an x-ray or CT scan, surgeries or treatments using iodinated contrast material within the ...

  18. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... abnormal was found, and should not be a cause of concern for you. If you had an ... abnormal was found, and should not be a cause of concern for you. Actual scanning time for ...

  19. Tomographic scanning apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Details are given of a tomographic scanning apparatus, with particular reference to a multiplexer slip ring means for receiving output from the detectors and enabling interfeed to the image reconstruction station. (U.K.)

  20. Tomographic scanning apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Details are presented of a tomographic scanning apparatus, its rotational assembly, and the control and circuit elements, with particular reference to the amplifier and multiplexing circuits enabling detector signal calibration. (U.K.)

  1. Tomographic scanning apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This patent specification relates to a tomographic scanning apparatus using a fan beam and digital output signal, and particularly to the design of the gas-pressurized ionization detection system. (U.K.)

  2. Pediatric CT Scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Radiation Epidemiology Branch and collaborators have initiated a retrospective cohort study to evaluate the relationship between radiation exposure from CT scans conducted during childhood and adolescence and the subsequent development of cancer.

  3. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... which are encased in metal and plastic and most often shaped like a box, attached to a ... will I experience during and after the procedure? Most thyroid scan and thyroid uptake procedures are painless. ...

  4. Heart CT scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... make to decrease the risk of heart disease. Risks Risks of CT scans include: Being exposed to ... urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows ...

  5. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... eat for several hours before your exam because eating can affect the accuracy of the uptake measurement. ... often unattainable using other imaging procedures. For many diseases, nuclear medicine scans yield the most useful information ...

  6. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A thyroid scan is a type of nuclear medicine imaging. The radioactive iodine uptake test (RAIU) is ... thyroid function, but does not involve imaging. Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging that uses ...

  7. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... that help physicians diagnose and evaluate medical conditions. These imaging scans use radioactive materials called radiopharmaceuticals or ... or had thyroid cancer. A physician may perform these imaging tests to: determine if the gland is ...

  8. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Because nuclear medicine procedures are able to pinpoint molecular activity within the body, they offer the potential ... or imaging device that produces pictures and provides molecular information. The thyroid scan and thyroid uptake provide ...

  9. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Actual scanning time for each thyroid uptake is five minutes or less. top of page What will ... diagnostic procedures have been used for more than five decades, and there are no known long-term ...

  10. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... top of page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer top ... Scan and Uptake Sponsored by Please note RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please contact your ...

  11. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... often unattainable using other imaging procedures. For many diseases, nuclear medicine scans yield the most useful information needed to make a diagnosis or to determine appropriate treatment, if any. Nuclear medicine is less expensive and ...

  12. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the gamma camera and single-photon emission-computed tomography (SPECT). The gamma camera, also called a scintillation ... high as with other imaging techniques, such as CT or MRI. However, nuclear medicine scans are more ...

  13. Scanning Auger Electron Microscope

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — A JEOL model 7830F field emission source, scanning Auger microscope.Specifications / Capabilities:Ultra-high vacuum (UHV), electron gun range from 0.1 kV to 25 kV,...

  14. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... as an overactive thyroid gland, a condition called hyperthyroidism , cancer or other growths assess the nature of ... an x-ray or CT scan, surgeries or treatments using iodinated contrast material within the last two ...

  15. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... painless. However, during the thyroid scan, you may feel uncomfortable when lying completely still with your head ... When the radiotracer is given intravenously, you will feel a slight pin prick when the needle is ...

  16. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... energy. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? The thyroid scan is used ... community, you can search the ACR-accredited facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The ...

  17. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... scan and thyroid uptake provide information about the structure and function of the thyroid. The thyroid is ... computer, create pictures offering details on both the structure and function of organs and tissues in your ...

  18. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... found, and should not be a cause of concern for you. If you had an intravenous line ... found, and should not be a cause of concern for you. Actual scanning time for each thyroid ...

  19. Body CT (CAT Scan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a CT scan can be reformatted in multiple planes, and can even generate three-dimensional images. These ... other medical conditions and whether you have a history of heart disease, asthma, diabetes, kidney disease or ...

  20. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the gland following medication use, surgery, radiotherapy or chemotherapy top of page How should I prepare? You ... You will receive specific instructions based on the type of scan you are undergoing. top of page ...

  1. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Uptake? A thyroid scan is a type of nuclear medicine imaging. The radioactive iodine uptake test (RAIU) ... of thyroid function, but does not involve imaging. Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging that ...

  2. Tomographic scanning apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This patent specification describes a tomographic scanning apparatus, with particular reference to the adjustable fan beam and its collimator system, together with the facility for taking a conventional x-radiograph without moving the patient. (U.K.)

  3. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... exam of any medications you are taking, including vitamins and herbal supplements. You should also inform them ... of scan you are undergoing. top of page What does the equipment look like? The special camera ...

  4. The Scanning Optical Microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, C. J. R.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the principle of the scanning optical microscope and explains its advantages over the conventional microscope in the improvement of resolution and contrast, as well as the possibility of producing a picture from optical harmonies generated within the specimen.

  5. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the gland following medication use, surgery, radiotherapy or chemotherapy top of page How should I prepare? You ... but is often performed on hospitalized patients as well. Thyroid Scan You will be positioned on an ...

  6. Primary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma of the breast: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong Heon; Kim, Dae Bong; Shin, Mi Kyung; Jang, Suk Ki; Kang, Su Min; Ahn, In Oak [Bundang Jesaeng General Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-11-15

    A primary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma (MALT lymphoma) of the breast is extremely rare. We report a case of a MALT lymphoma of the breast that presented as a palpable left breast mass in a 37-year-old woman. A physical examination revealed a large firm, and fixed mass in the left inner breast. Mammograms showed a large, isodense mass in the lower inner quadrant of the left breast and an enlarged lymph node in the axilla. A sonogram demonstrated a 5 cm sized, oval, circumscribed, and heterogeneously hypoechoic mass with posterior acoustic enhancement. A surgical biopsy was performed, and the pathology revealed a MALT lymphoma.

  7. Primary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma of the breast: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jong Heon; Kim, Dae Bong; Shin, Mi Kyung; Jang, Suk Ki; Kang, Su Min; Ahn, In Oak

    2007-01-01

    A primary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma (MALT lymphoma) of the breast is extremely rare. We report a case of a MALT lymphoma of the breast that presented as a palpable left breast mass in a 37-year-old woman. A physical examination revealed a large firm, and fixed mass in the left inner breast. Mammograms showed a large, isodense mass in the lower inner quadrant of the left breast and an enlarged lymph node in the axilla. A sonogram demonstrated a 5 cm sized, oval, circumscribed, and heterogeneously hypoechoic mass with posterior acoustic enhancement. A surgical biopsy was performed, and the pathology revealed a MALT lymphoma

  8. Adhesives for fixed orthodontic brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandall, Nicky A; Hickman, Joy; Macfarlane, Tatiana V; Mattick, Rye Cr; Millett, Declan T; Worthington, Helen V

    2018-04-09

    Bonding of orthodontic brackets to teeth is important to enable effective and efficient treatment with fixed appliances. The problem is bracket failure during treatment which increases operator chairside time and lengthens treatment time. A prolonged treatment is likely to increase the oral health risks of orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances one of which is irreversible enamel decalcification. This is an update of the Cochrane Review first published in 2003. A new full search was conducted on 26 September 2017 but no new studies were identified. We have only updated the search methods section in this new version. The conclusions of this Cochrane Review remain the same. To evaluate the effects of different orthodontic adhesives for bonding. Cochrane Oral Health's Information Specialist searched the following databases: Cochrane Oral Health's Trials Register (to 26 September 2017), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2017, Issue 8) in the Cochrane Library (searched 26 September 2017), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 26 September 2017), and Embase Ovid (1980 to 26 September 2017). The US National Institutes of Health Ongoing Trials Register (ClinicalTrials.gov) and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform were searched for ongoing trials. No restrictions were placed on the language or date of publication when searching the electronic databases. Trials were selected if they met the following criteria: randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials (CCTs) comparing two different adhesive groups. Participants were patients with fixed orthodontic appliances. The interventions were adhesives that bonded stainless steel brackets to all teeth except the molars. The primary outcome was debond or bracket failure. Data were recorded on decalcification as a secondary outcome, if present. Information regarding methods, participants, interventions, outcome measures and results were extracted in

  9. A spreadsheet to determine the volume ratio for target and breast in partial breast irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kron, T.; Willis, D.; Miller, J.; Hubbard, P.; Oliver, M.; Chua, B.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: The technical feasibility of Partial Breast Irradiation (PBI) using external beam radiotherapy depends on the ratio between the evaluation planning target volume (PTV e val) and the whole breast volume (PBI volume ratio = PVR). We aimed to develop a simple method to determine PVR using measurements performed at the time of the planning CT scan. A PVR calculation tool was developed using a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet to determine the PTV from three orthogonal dimensions of the seroma cavity and a given margin on the CT scans. The breast volume is estimated from the separation and breast height in five equally spaced CT slices. The PTV e val and whole breast volume were determined for 29 patients from two centres using the spreadsheet calculation tool and compared to volumes delineated on computerised treatment planning systems. Both the PTV e val and whole breast volumes were underestimated by approximately 25% using the spreadsheet. The resulting PVRs were 1.05 +/- 0.35 (mean +/- 1 S D) times larger than the ones determined from planning. Estimations of the PVR using the calculation tool were achievable in around 5 minutes at the time of CT scanning and allow a prompt decision on the suitability of the patients for PBI.

  10. Multiple primary malignant neoplasms in a fixed population of A-bomb survivors, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soda, Midori; Yokoyama, Naokata; Matsuo, Tatsuki; Takagi, Miwako; Kitano, Koei; Toyama, Kyoko; Fujikura, Toshio

    1986-01-01

    In a fixed population (7,564 A-bomb survivors) for Adult Health Study performed until December 1985, 28 A-bomb survivors (5 men and 23 women) were diagnosed as having thyroid cancer, and 79 (including one man) as breast cancer. There was an evident tendency among the group receiving 100 rad or more towards higher incidence of cancers of the thyroid and breast and synchronous or metachronous multiple primaries. The incidence of thyroid cancer tended to be higher in A-bomb survivors less than 20 years of age at the time of exposure; however, this tendency was not seen in the case of breast cancer. The incidence of thyroid cancer - in contrast to breast cancer - tended to decrease from year to year. Multiple primaries were associated with thyroid cancer in 5 A-bomb survivors and breast cancer in 9 A-bomb survivors. Three A-bomb survivors had both thyroid and breast cancers. Among the 11 A-bomb survivors with multiple primaries, nine had received 100 rad or more. (Namekawa, K.)

  11. Bilateral symmetry analysis of breast MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alterson, Robert; Plewes, Donald B

    2003-01-01

    Mammographic interpretation often uses symmetry between left and right breasts to indicate the site of potential tumour masses. This approach has not been applied to breast images obtained from MRI. We present an automatic technique for breast symmetry detection based on feature extraction techniques which does not require any efforts to co-register breast MRI data. The approach applies computer-vision techniques to detect natural biological symmetries in breast MR scans based on three objective measures of similarity: multiresolution non-orthogonal wavelet representation, three-dimensional intensity distributions and co-occurrence matrices. Statistical distributions that are invariant to feature localization are computed for each of the extracted image features. These distributions are later compared against each other to account for perceptual similarity. Studies based on 51 normal MRI scans of randomly selected patients showed that the sensitivity of symmetry detection rate approached 94%. The symmetry analysis procedure presented in this paper can be applied as an aid in detecting breast tissue changes arising from disease

  12. A Study for Reappearance According to the Scan Type, the CT Scanning by a Moving Phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jae Hyock; Jeong, Do Hyeong; Choi, Gye Suk; Jang, Yo Jong; Kim, Jae Weon; Lee, Hui Seok

    2007-01-01

    CT scan shows that significant tumor movement occurs in lesions located in the proximity of the heart, diaphragm, and lung hilus. There are differences concerning three kinds of type to get images following the Scan type called Axial, Helical, Cine (4D-CT) mode, when the scanning by CT. To know how each protocol describe accurately, this paper is going to give you reappearance using the moving phantom. To reconstruct the movement of superior-inferior and anterior-posterior, the manufactured moving phantom and the motor following breathing were used. To distinguish movement from captured images by CT scanning, a localizer adhered to the marker on the motor. The moving phantom fixed the movement of superior-inferior upon 1.3 cm /1 min. The motor following breathing fixed the movement of anterior-posterior upon 0.2 cm /1 min. After fixing each movement, CT scanning was taken by following the CT protocols. The movement of A localizer and volume-reappearance analyzed by RTP machine. Total volume of a marker was 88.2 cm 3 considering movement of superior-inferior. Total volume was 184.3 cm 3 . Total volume according to each CT scan protocol were 135 cm 3 by axial mode, 164.9 cm 3 by helical mode, 181.7 cm 3 by cine (4D-CT) mode. The most closely describable protocol about moving reappearance was cine mode, the marker attached localizer as well. CT scan should reappear concerning a exact organ-description and target, when the moving organ is being scanned by three kinds of CT protocols. The cine (4D-CT) mode has the advantage of the most highly reconstructible ability of the three protocols in reappearance of the marker using a moving phantom. The marker on the phantom has always regular motion but breathing patients don't move like a phantom. Breathing education and devices setting patients were needed so that images reconstruct breathing as exactly as possible. Users should also consider that an amount of radiation to patients is being bombed.

  13. A Case of Conjunctival Melanoma Presenting with Breast Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Canhoroz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Most breast masses arise from the breast. Metastasis to the breast is fairly uncommon, but can occur in breast skin and parenchyma. In particular, leukemia and lung cancers, and MM may metastasize to the breast. Breast metastasis might be the first symptom or may occur during the course of other malignancies. Our case presented with a fixed mass in the upper-medial quadrant of her left breast during regular follow-up visits. The mean time to breast metastasis in patients with MM is 62 months (13-178. In our case this time was 48 months. In a case series with 7 patients hematological malignancies (Hodgkin lymphoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and leukemia were the leading cause of breast metastasis, whereas in only 1 case the cause was MM. In another case series of 15 MM patients with metastasis to the breast, the primary tumor was frequently localized to the upper extremities and trunk. In a report of 250 conjunctival MM cases the mortality rate was significantly higher in patients with tumors >4 mm in vertical thickness. In another 45-case MM series tumors with a diameter >10 mm were associated with higher mortality rates. In our case the thickness of the tumor was 5 mm. In conclusion, histopathological evaluation should be mandatory in patients with known primary malignancies in order to differentiate new primary tumors, metastases, and benign tumors.

  14. Breast Cancer Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    FACTS FOR LIFE Breast Cancer Surgery The goal of breast cancer surgery is to remove the whole tumor from the breast. Some lymph nodes ... might still be in the body. Types of breast cancer surgery There are two types of breast cancer ...

  15. MR images of rupture and leakage of breast implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Ling; Liu Pengcheng; Huang Rong; Hu Huaxin; Chen Zaizhong; Du Duanming; Liu Hanqiao; Feng Fei

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the diagnostic value of magnetic resonance imaging in detecting rupture and leakage of breast implants. Methods: Seventeen cases with breast implants were imaged by MR scanner. 1 normal silicone breast implant outside the body was scanned by MR as an consultative standard. MR images of silicone implants and polypropylene acyl amine implants were classified and analyzed. Results: In 7 cases, 12 single lumen silicone implants were intact, among them 8 were silicone gel-filled implants, 4 were physiological saline-filled implants. 2 physiological saline-filled implants ruptured, among them 1 belonged to intracapsular silicone implant rupture with subsided silicone gel capsule which presented as long T 1 signal and short T 2 signal on MR images; The other belonged to extracapsular silicone implant rapture with physiological saline granule outside breast on MR images. 20 breast implants in 10 cases were injected by polypropylene acyl amine, among them 2 breast implants were intact, 16 breast implants ruptured completely with pieces and nodes of long T 1 signal and long T 2 signal on MR images, 14 of 16 also presented polypropylene acyl amine granule outside breast; 2 breast implants splited inside with linguine sign. Conclusion: The magnetic resonance imaging can make clear the type and the seat of breast implants, the type of rupture of breast implants, and the distribution of leakage material. Therefore magnetic resonance imaging can be an effective guidance for clinical operation and can be an consultative standard for follow-up

  16. Copying of holograms by spot scanning approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okui, Makoto; Wakunami, Koki; Oi, Ryutaro; Ichihashi, Yasuyuki; Jackin, Boaz Jessie; Yamamoto, Kenji

    2018-05-20

    To replicate holograms, contact copying has conventionally been used. In this approach, a photosensitive material is fixed together with a master hologram and illuminated with a coherent beam. This method is simple and enables high-quality copies; however, it requires a large optical setup for large-area holograms. In this paper, we present a new method of replicating holograms that uses a relatively compact optical system even for the replication of large holograms. A small laser spot that irradiates only part of the hologram is used to reproduce the hologram by scanning the spot over the whole area of the hologram. We report on the results of experiments carried out to confirm the copy quality, along with a guide to design scanning conditions. The results show the potential effectiveness of the large-area hologram replication technology using a relatively compact apparatus.

  17. Effects on image quality of a 2D antiscatter grid in x-ray digital breast tomosynthesis: Initial experience using the dual modality (x-ray and molecular) breast tomosynthesis scanner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Tushita, E-mail: tp3rn@virginia.edu [Department of Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States); Peppard, Heather [Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908 (United States); Williams, Mark B. [Department of Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States); Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908 (United States)

    2016-04-15

    Purpose: Radiation scattered from the breast in digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) causes image degradation, including loss of contrast between cancerous and background tissue. Unlike in 2-dimensional (2D) mammography, an antiscatter grid cannot readily be used in DBT because changing alignment between the tube and detector during the scan would result in unacceptable loss of primary radiation. However, in the dual modality breast tomosynthesis (DMT) scanner, which combines DBT and molecular breast tomosynthesis, the tube and detector rotate around a common axis, thereby maintaining a fixed tube-detector alignment. This C-arm geometry raises the possibility of using a 2D (cellular) focused antiscatter grid. The purpose of this study is to assess change in image quality when using an antiscatter grid in the DBT portion of a DMT scan under conditions of fixed radiation dose. Methods: Two 2D focused prototype grids with 80 cm focal length were tested, one stack-laminated from copper (Cu) and one cast from a tungsten-polymer (W-poly). They were reciprocated using a motion scheme designed to maximize transmission of primary x-ray photons. Grid-in and grid-out scatter-to-primary ratios (SPRs) were measured for rectangular blocks of material simulating 30%, 50%, and 70% glandular tissue compositions. For assessment of changes in image quality through the addition of a grid, the Computerized Imaging Reference Systems, Inc., phantom Model 011A containing a set of 1 cm thick blocks simulating a range of glandular/adipose ratios from 0/100 to 100/0 was used. To simulate 6.5 and 8.5 cm thick compressed breasts, 1 cm thick slices of PMMA were added to the Model 011A phantom. DBT images were obtained with and without the grid, with exposure parameters fixed for a given compressed thickness. Signal-difference-to-noise ratios (SDNRs), contrast, and voxel value-based attenuation coefficients (μ) were measured for all blocks from reconstructed phantom images. Results: For 4, 6, and

  18. Periodic and uniform nanogratings formed on cemented carbide by femtosecond laser scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lian, Yunsong; Deng, Jianxin; Xing, Youqiang; Lei, Shuting; Yu, Xiaoming

    2013-01-01

    Periodic and uniform nanogratings are fabricated by femtosecond laser scanning on cemented carbide. Specifically, three experiments are designed to study the influence of single pulse energy, scanning speed, and scanning spacing on the period and the uniformity of the formed nanogratings. The results show that the sample with single pulse energy of 2 μJ, scanning speed of 1000 μm/s, and scanning spacing of 5 μm shows the best quality of nanogratings among all the tested samples at different processing parameters. The uniformity of the nanogratings is largely determined by single pulse energy, scanning speed, and scanning spacing. Single pulse energy and scanning speed significantly affect the period of the nanogratings, whereas the period of the nanogratings maintains a fixed value under different scanning spacings. The period of the nanogratings increases gradually with the decrease of the single pulse energy and the increase of the scanning speed, respectively.

  19. Safe Active Scanning for Energy Delivery Systems Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helms, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Salazar, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Scheibel, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Engels, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Reiger, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-09-30

    The Department of Energy’s Cybersecurity for Energy Delivery Systems Program has funded Safe(r) Active Scanning for Energy Delivery Systems, led by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, to investigate and analyze the impacts of active scanning in the operational environment of energy delivery systems. In collaboration with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Idaho National Laboratory, active scans across three testbeds including 38 devices were performed. This report gives a summary of the initial literature survey performed on the SASEDS project as well as industry partner interview summaries and main findings from Phase 1 of the project. Additionally, the report goes into the details of scanning techniques, methodologies for testing, testbed descriptions, and scanning results, with appendices to elaborate on the specific scans that were performed. As a result of testing, a single device out of 38 exhibited problems when actively scanned, and a reboot was required to fix it. This single failure indicates that active scanning is not likely to have a detrimental effect on the safety and resilience of energy delivery systems. We provide a path forward for future research that could enable wide adoption of active scanning and lead utilities to incorporate active scanning as part of their default network security plans to discover and rectify rogue devices, adversaries, and services that may be on the network. This increased network visibility will allow operational technology cybersecurity practitioners to improve their situational awareness of networks and their vulnerabilities.

  20. Postural control in women with breast hypertrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Ferreira Barbosa

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The consequences of breast hypertrophy have been described based on the alteration of body mass distribution, leading to an impact on psychological and physical aspects. The principles of motor control suggest that breast hypertrophy can lead to sensorimotor alterations and the impairment of body balance due to postural misalignment. The aim of this study is to evaluate the postural control of women with breast hypertrophy under different sensory information conditions. METHOD: This cross-sectional study included 14 women with breast hypertrophy and 14 without breast hypertrophy, and the mean ages of the groups were 39 ±15 years and 39±16 years, respectively. A force platform was used to assess the sensory systems that contribute to postural control: somatosensory, visual and vestibular. Four postural conditions were sequentially tested: eyes open and fixed platform, eyes closed and fixed platform, eyes open and mobile platform, and eyes closed and mobile platform. The data were processed, and variables related to the center of pressure were analyzed for each condition. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare the conditions between the groups for the area of center of pressure displacement and the velocity of center of pressure displacement in the anterior-posterior and medial-lateral directions. The alpha level error was set at 0.05. RESULTS: Women with breast hypertrophy presented an area that was significantly higher for three out of four conditions and a higher velocity of center of pressure displacement in the anterior-posterior direction under two conditions: eyes open and mobile platform and eyes closed and mobile platform. CONCLUSIONS: Women with breast hypertrophy have altered postural control, which was demonstrated by the higher area and velocity of center of pressure displacement.

  1. The Genomic Grade Assay Compared With Ki67 to Determine Risk of Distant Breast Cancer Recurrence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ignatiadis, Michail; Azim, Hatem A; Desmedt, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Importance: The Genomic Grade Index (GGI) was previously developed, evaluated on frozen tissue, and shown to be prognostic in early breast cancer. To test the GGI in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded breast cancer tumors, a quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay...

  2. PAM50 breast cancer intrinsic subtypes and effect of gemcitabine in advanced breast cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Charlotte Levin Tykjær; Nielsen, Torsten O; Bjerre, Karsten D

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In vitro studies suggest basal breast cancers are more sensitive to gemcitabine relative to other intrinsic subtypes. The main objective of this study was to use specimens from a randomized clinical trial to evaluate whether the basal-like subtype identifies patients with advanced...... breast cancer who benefit from gemcitabine plus docetaxel (GD) compared to single agent docetaxel (D). MATERIAL AND METHODS: From patients randomly assigned to GD or D, RNA was isolated from archival formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded primary breast tumor tissue and used for PAM50 intrinsic subtyping...... chemotherapy were analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method, and Cox proportional hazards regression models. Data analysis was performed independently by the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG) statistical core and all statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: RNA from 270 patients was evaluable; 84...

  3. Breast-conserving therapy in patients with bilateral breast cancer: Do today's treatment choices burn bridges for tomorrow?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilroy, Jeffrey S.; Morris, Christopher G.; Mendenhall, Nancy Price

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To determine how often initial treatment choices limit treatment options for subsequent breast cancer management in patients undergoing breast-conserving therapy (BCT), in particular with treatment of internal mammary nodes. Methods and Materials: Between January 1985 and June 2001, 464 women with pathologic Stage 0, I, and II (T0-2, N0-1) breast cancer underwent BCT at our institution. All 464 patients had computed tomography-based treatment planning. In patients with bilateral breast cancer, the planning computed tomography scans were used to determine the impact initial radiation therapy fields had on treatment options for subsequent contralateral breast cancer. Results: There were 500 breast cancers diagnosed in 464 patients. Thirty-six patients (8%) had bilateral breast cancer with 9 (2%) synchronous and 27 (6%) metachronous primaries. In 80 patients, the ipsilateral internal mammary nodes were explicitly treated. Initial breast cancer treatment choices impacted subsequent treatment decisions for the contralateral breast in only 2 of 464 patients (0.4%) in the study: 2 of 80 patients (2.5%) whose internal mammary nodes were treated, and 2 of 27 patients (7.4%) who developed metachronous bilateral breast cancer. Conclusions: Initial BCT, including internal mammary node irradiation, rarely compromised future contralateral breast-conserving therapy

  4. BREAST RECONSTRUCTIONS AFTER BREAST CANCER TREATING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Vrabič

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Breasts are an important symbol of physical beauty, feminity, mothering and sexual desire through the entire history of mankind. Lost of the whole or part of the breast is functional and aesthetic disturbance for woman. It is understandable, that the woman, who is concerned over breast loss, is as appropriate as another person´s concern over the loss of a limb or other body part. Before the 1960, breast reconstruction was considered as a dangerous procedure and it was almost prohibited. Considering the psychological importance of the breast in modern society, the possibility of breast reconstruction for the woman about to undergo a mastectomy is a comforting alternative. We can perform breast reconstruction with autologous tissue (autologous reconstruction, with breast implants and combination of both methods. For autologous reconstruction we can use local tissue (local flaps, or tissue from distant parts of the body (free vascular tissue transfer. Tissue expansion must be performed first, in many cases of breast reconstructions with breast implants. Conclusions. Possibility of breast reconstruction made a big progress last 3 decades. Today we are able to reconstruct almost every defect of the breast and the entire breast. Breast reconstruction rise the quality of life for breast cancer patients. Breast reconstruction is a team work of experts from many medicine specialites. In Slovenia we can offer breast reconstruction for breast cancer patients in Ljubljana, where plastic surgeons from Clinical Department for Plastic Surgery and Burns cooperate with oncologic surgeons. Ten years ago a similar cooperation between plastic surgeons and surgeons of the Centre for Breast Diseases was established in Maribor.

  5. Frequency scanning microstrip antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Magnus; Jørgensen, Rolf

    1979-01-01

    The principles of using radiating microstrip resonators as elements in a frequency scanning antenna array are described. The resonators are cascade-coupled. This gives a scan of the main lobe due to the phase-shift in the resonator in addition to that created by the transmission line phase......-shift. Experimental results inX-band, in good agreement with the theory, show that it is possible to scan the main lobe an angle ofpm30degby a variation of the frequencypm300MHz, and where the 3 dB beamwidth is less than10deg. The directivity was 14.7 dB, while the gain was 8.1 dB. The efficiency might be improved...

  6. Breast pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that reducing the amount of fat, caffeine, or chocolate in your diet helps reduce breast pain. Vitamin ... harmful, but most studies have not shown any benefit. Talk to your provider before starting any medicine or ... Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center-Shreveport, Shreveport, LA. Review provided by ...

  7. Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... right away. He or she will do a physical exam. They will ask you about your health history and your family’s history of breast cancer. ... and Wellness Staying Healthy Healthy Living Travel Occupational Health First Aid and ... Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food ...

  8. Breast lymphoma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To fulfil the criteria for primary breast lymphoma, the following characteristics were reqUired: (I) technically adequate specimens; (iI) mammary tissue and lymphomatous infiltrate in close association; (iil) no evidence of concurrent widespread disease; and (iv) no previous. Haematology/Oncology Division, Department of ...

  9. Breast cancer

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    "Cancer specialists will soon be able to compare mammograms with computerized images of breast cancer from across Europe, in a bid to improve diagnosis and treatment....The new project, known as MammoGrid, brings together computer and medical imaging experts, cancer specialists, radiologists and epidemiologists from Bristol, Oxford, Cambridge, France and Italy" (1 page).

  10. Tomographic scanning apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abele, M.

    1983-01-01

    A computerized tomographic scanning apparatus suitable for diagnosis and for improving target identification in stereotactic neurosurgery is described. It consists of a base, a source of penetrating energy, a detector which produces scanning signals and detector positioning means. A frame with top and bottom arms secures the detector and source to the top and bottom arms respectively. A drive mechanism rotates the frame about an axis along which the frame may also be moved. Finally, the detector may be moved relative to the bottom arm in a direction contrary to the rotation of the frame. (U.K.)

  11. Scanning the phenomenological MSSM

    CERN Document Server

    Wuerzinger, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    A framework to perform scans in the 19-dimensional phenomenological MSSM is developed and used to re-evaluate the ATLAS experiments' sensitivity to R-parity-conserving supersymmetry with LHC Run 2 data ($\\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV), using results from 14 separate ATLAS searches. We perform a $\\tilde{t}_1$ dedicated scan, only considering models with $m_{\\tilde{t}_1}<1$ TeV, while allowing both a neutralino ($\\tilde{\\chi}_1^0$) and a sneutrino ($\\tilde{\

  12. Calibration of scanning Lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Courtney, Michael

    This report describes the tests carried out on a scanning lidar at the DTU Test Station for large wind turbines, Høvsøre. The tests were divided in two parts. In the first part, the purpose was to obtain wind speed calibrations at two heights against two cup anemometers mounted on a mast. Additio......This report describes the tests carried out on a scanning lidar at the DTU Test Station for large wind turbines, Høvsøre. The tests were divided in two parts. In the first part, the purpose was to obtain wind speed calibrations at two heights against two cup anemometers mounted on a mast...

  13. Adaptive Optical Scanning Holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, P. W. M.; Poon, Ting-Chung; Liu, J.-P.

    2016-01-01

    Optical Scanning Holography (OSH) is a powerful technique that employs a single-pixel sensor and a row-by-row scanning mechanism to capture the hologram of a wide-view, three-dimensional object. However, the time required to acquire a hologram with OSH is rather lengthy. In this paper, we propose an enhanced framework, which is referred to as Adaptive OSH (AOSH), to shorten the holographic recording process. We have demonstrated that the AOSH method is capable of decreasing the acquisition time by up to an order of magnitude, while preserving the content of the hologram favorably. PMID:26916866

  14. Intensity and resolution of a general scan in reciprocal space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebech, B.; Nielsen, M.

    1975-01-01

    Elastic neutron scattering on single crystals is traditionally carried out either by rotating the sample and keeping the detector fixed, or by coupling the detector rotation to the sample rotation in the the ratio 2:1. In recent years, a number of papers have discussed the feasibility of other types of scans. General scans at oblique angles to reciprocal lattice vectors are commonly used in inelastic neutron scattering. Such scans are also useful in elastic neutron scattering and may easily be made by means of computer or tape controlled diffractometers. Formulas are derived for the intensity and width of Bragg reflections measured by scanning at oblique angles to reciprocal lattice vectors. The results of the calculations are compared to experimental results on simple structures. The limitations of general scans in reciprocal space are also discussed

  15. Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although breast cancer is much more common in women, men can get it too. It happens most often to men between ... 60 and 70. Breast lumps usually aren't cancer. However, most men with breast cancer have lumps. ...

  16. Breast biopsy -- stereotactic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... org/-/media/ACR/Files/Practice-Parameters/stereo-breast.pdf . Updated 2016. Accessed March 14, 2017. Parker C, Umphrey H, Bland K. The role of stereotactic breast biopsy in the management of breast disease. In: Cameron ...

  17. Breast Cancer in Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ultrasound or a breast MRI cannot rule out breast cancer then you will need a biopsy to confirm diagnosis. If diagnosed When first diagnosed with breast cancer, many men are in shock. After all, ...

  18. MRI of the Breast

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in evaluating women at high risk for breast cancer. MRI can successfully image the dense breast tissue common in younger women, and it can successfully image breast implants. Both of these are difficult to image using ...

  19. Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... types of breast cancer that can occur in men include Paget's disease of the nipple and inflammatory breast cancer. Inherited genes that increase breast cancer risk Some men inherit abnormal (mutated) genes from their parents that ...

  20. Plasmacytoma of the Breast

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    2015-10-04

    Oct 4, 2015 ... The clinical diagnosis of a breast plasmacytoma is ... lead to a diagnosis of breast plasmacytoma (1-3). Bone marrow ... breast cancer cases present at an advanced stage, ... pelvic ultrasonography, were normal, Bence Jones.

  1. Breast Cancer Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2.65 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Breast Cancer Black Women Have Higher Death Rates from Breast ... of Page U.S. State Info Number of Additional Breast Cancer Deaths Among Black Women, By State SOURCE: National ...

  2. Fixed telephony evolution at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    The heart of CERN’s telephony infrastructure consists of the Alcatel IP-PBX that links CERN’s fixed line phones, Lync softphones and CERN’s GSM subscribers to low-cost local and international telephony services. The PABX infrastructure also supports the emergency “red telephones” in the LHC tunnel and provides vital services for the Fire and Rescue Service and the CERN Control Centre. Although still reliable, the Alcatel hardware is increasingly costly to maintain and looking increasingly outmoded in a market where open source solutions are increasingly dominant. After presenting an overview of the Alcatel PABX and the services it provides, including innovative solutions such as the Closed User Group for our mobile telephony services, we present a possible architecture for a software based system designed to meet tomorrow’s communication needs and describe how the introduction of open-source call routers based on the SIP protocol and Session Border Controllers (SBC) could foster the introduction...

  3. Fixed type incore measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, Naotaka; Ito, Hitoshi; Maeda, Hiroyuki

    1998-01-01

    The present invention concerns a measuring device using gamma thermometers to be used in a BWR type reactor. An input switch is inserted to the vicinity of a detection signal input portion of a signal cable connecting GT with the detection signal input portion of a fixed type incore measuring device, and a loop resistance measuring means is disposed to the input switch on the side of the GT by way of a measurement switch. Upon measuring loop resistance, the GT measuring circuit is switched from the detection signal input portion to the loop resistance measuring means by a switching operation of the input switch and the measurement switch thereby enabling to confirm the value of the loop resistance. In addition, the lowering of the voltage in the loop resistance is compensated to confirm the accurate measurement values to be used thereby enabling to measure GT detection signals accurately. A diagnosing means for diagnosing the state of GT based on the results of the measurement for the loop resistance is disposed, and the results are reported to an operator. (N.H.)

  4. Spectral imaging of breast fibroadenoma using second-harmonic generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Liqin; Wang, Yuhua

    2014-09-01

    Fibroadenoma (FA), typically composed of stroma and epithelial cells, is a very common benign breast disease. Women with FA are associated with an increased risk of future breast cancer. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the potential of multiphoton laser scanning microscopy (MPLSM) for characterizing the morphology of collagen in the human breast fibroadenomas. In the study, high-contrast SHG images of human normal breast tissues and fibroadenoma tissues were obtained for comparison. The morphology of collagen was different between normal breast tissue and fibroadenoma. This study shows that MPLSM has the ability to distinguish fibroadenoma tissues from the normal breast tissues based on the noninvasive SHG imaging. With the advent of the clinical portability of miniature MPLSM, we believe that the technique has great potential to be used in vivo studies and for monitoring the treatment responses of fibroadenomas in clinical.

  5. Reproducible automated breast density measure with no ionizing radiation using fat-water decomposition MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jie; Stopeck, Alison T; Gao, Yi; Marron, Marilyn T; Wertheim, Betsy C; Altbach, Maria I; Galons, Jean-Philippe; Roe, Denise J; Wang, Fang; Maskarinec, Gertraud; Thomson, Cynthia A; Thompson, Patricia A; Huang, Chuan

    2018-04-06

    Increased breast density is a significant independent risk factor for breast cancer, and recent studies show that this risk is modifiable. Hence, breast density measures sensitive to small changes are desired. Utilizing fat-water decomposition MRI, we propose an automated, reproducible breast density measurement, which is nonionizing and directly comparable to mammographic density (MD). Retrospective study. The study included two sample sets of breast cancer patients enrolled in a clinical trial, for concordance analysis with MD (40 patients) and reproducibility analysis (10 patients). The majority of MRI scans (59 scans) were performed with a 1.5T GE Signa scanner using radial IDEAL-GRASE sequence, while the remaining (seven scans) were performed with a 3T Siemens Skyra using 3D Cartesian 6-echo GRE sequence with a similar fat-water separation technique. After automated breast segmentation, breast density was calculated using FraGW, a new measure developed to reliably reflect the amount of fibroglandular tissue and total water content in the entire breast. Based on its concordance with MD, FraGW was calibrated to MR-based breast density (MRD) to be comparable to MD. A previous breast density measurement, Fra80-the ratio of breast voxels with density changes and treatment response. 3 Technical Efficacy: Stage 1 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2018. © 2018 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  6. Pseudomonal breast infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastall, S; Catchpole, C; Bright-Thomas, R; Thrush, S

    2010-01-01

    Breast infection and breast sepsis secondary to Pseudomonas aeruginosa is uncommon. We report two cases of pseudomonal breast infection leading to septic shock and abscess formation in women with non-responding breast infection. The management of breast infection is broad-spectrum antibiotics and ultrasound with aspiration of any collection. To treat breast infection effectively, the causative organism must be isolated to enable appropriate antibiotic therapy. PMID:20412664

  7. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... process that regulates the rate at which the body converts food to energy. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? The thyroid scan is used to determine the size, shape and position of the thyroid gland. The ...

  8. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Thyroid Scan and Uptake ...

  9. Dialogue scanning measuring systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borodyuk, V.P.; Shkundenkov, V.N.

    1985-01-01

    The main developments of scanning measuring systems intended for mass precision processsing of films in nuclear physics problems and in related fields are reviewed. A special attention is paid to the problem of creation of dialogue systems which permit to simlify the development of control computer software

  10. Scanning electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, B. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    1970-05-15

    The JSM-11 scanning electron microscope at CRNL has been used extensively for topographical studies of oxidized metals, fracture surfaces, entomological and biological specimens. A non-dispersive X-ray attachment permits the microanalysis of the surface features. Techniques for the production of electron channeling patterns have been developed. (author)

  11. Scanning tunneling microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binnig, G.; Rohrer, H.

    1983-01-01

    Based on vacuum tunneling, a novel type of microscope, the scanning tunneling microscope (STM) was developed. It has an unprecedented resolution in real space on an atomic scale. The authors review the important technical features, illustrate the power of the STM for surface topographies and discuss its potential in other areas of science and technology. (Auth.)

  12. Bone scan in rheumatology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales G, R.; Cano P, R.; Mendoza P, R.

    1993-01-01

    In this chapter a revision is made concerning different uses of bone scan in rheumatic diseases. These include reflex sympathetic dystrophy, osteomyelitis, spondyloarthropaties, metabolic bone diseases, avascular bone necrosis and bone injuries due to sports. There is as well some comments concerning pediatric pathology and orthopedics. (authors). 19 refs., 9 figs

  13. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... information. The thyroid scan and thyroid uptake provide information about the structure and function of the thyroid. The thyroid is a gland in the neck that controls metabolism , a chemical process that regulates the rate at which the body ...

  14. Tomographic scanning apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Details are given of a tomographic scanning apparatus, with particular reference to the means of adjusting the apparent gain of the signal processing means for receiving output signals from the detectors, to compensate for drift in the gain characteristics, including means for passing a reference signal. (U.K.)

  15. Stabilized radiographic scanning agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fawzi, M.B.

    1979-01-01

    A stable composition useful in preparation of technetium-99m-based radiographic scanning agents has been developed. The composition contains a stabilizing amount of gentisate stabilizer selected from gentisic acid and its soluble pharmaceutically-acceptable salts and esthers. (E.G.)

  16. Scanning electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    The principle underlying the design of the scanning electron microscope (SEM), the design and functioning of SEM are described. Its applications in the areas of microcircuitry and materials science are outlined. The development of SEM in India is reviewed. (M.G.B.)

  17. Radiographic scanning agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tofe, A.J.

    1976-01-01

    A stable radiographic scanning agent on a sup(99m)Tc basis has been developed. The substance contains a pertechnetate reduction agent, tin(II)-chloride, chromium(II)-chloride, or iron(II)-sulphate, as well as an organospecific carrier and ascorbic acid or a pharmacologically admissible salt or ester of ascorbic acid. (VJ) [de

  18. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you: have had any tests, such as an x-ray or CT scan, surgeries or treatments using iodinated ... page How does the procedure work? With ordinary x-ray examinations, an image is made by passing x- ...

  19. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for a thyroid scan is 30 minutes or less. Thyroid Uptake You will be given radioactive iodine (I-123 or I-131) in liquid or capsule form to swallow. The thyroid uptake will begin several hours to 24 hours later. Often, two separate uptake ...

  20. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... an x-ray or CT scan, surgeries or treatments using iodinated contrast material within the last two months. are taking medications or ingesting other substances that contain iodine , including kelp, seaweed, cough syrups, multivitamins or heart medications. have any ...

  1. Common fixed points for weakly compatible maps

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Springer Verlag Heidelberg #4 2048 1996 Dec 15 10:16:45

    In 1976, Jungck [4] proved a common fixed point theorem for commuting maps generalizing the Banach's fixed point theorem, which states that, 'let (X, d) be a complete metric space. If T satisfies d(Tx,Ty) ≤ kd(x,y) for each x,y ∈ X where 0 ≤ k < 1, then T has a unique fixed point in X'. This theorem has many applications, ...

  2. Infra-red fixed points in supersymmetry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ¾c /font>, and c stands for the color quadratic Casimir of the field. Fixed points arise when R* ¼ or when R*. /nobr>. ´S-½. µ ´r ·b¿µ. The stability of the solutions may be tested by linearizing the system about the fixed points. For the non-trivial fixed points we need to consider the eigenvalues of the stability matrix whose ...

  3. Breast Reduction Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... considering breast reduction surgery, consult a board-certified plastic surgeon. It's important to understand what breast reduction surgery entails — including possible risks and complications — as ...

  4. Radiopharmaceuticals in breast milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mountford, P.J.; Coakley, A.J.

    1986-01-01

    As assessment has been made of the radiological hazards to an infant following the administration of a radiopharmaceutical to a breast feeding mother. Feeding should be discontinued after administration of most I-131 and I-125 compounds, Ga-67 citrate or Se-78 methionine, and for iodinated compounds where it was possible to resume feeding, a thyroid-blocking agent should be administered. For Tc-99m compounds, pertechnetate had the greatest excretion in milk and interruptions of 12hr and 4hr were considered appropriate for pertechnetate and MAA respectively. Other Tc-99m compounds, Cr-51 EDTA and In-111 leucocytes did not justify an interruption just on the grounds of their associated excretion in milk. The ingestion hazard could be minimized by reducing the administered activity, and in some cases, by the substitution of a radiopharmaceutical with lower breast milk excretion. For Tc-99m lung and brain scans, the absorbed dose due to radiation emitted by the mother (i.e. when cuddling) was less than the ingested dose, but for a Tc-99m bone scan the emitted dose was greater. In all three cases, the emitted dose did not exceed 0 x 5 mGy for the infant in close contact to the mother for one-third of the time. For In-111 leucocytes, the emitted dose was about 2mGy, and it was concluded that close contact should be restricted to feeding times during the first 3 days after injection. 36 references, 2 figures, 5 tables

  5. Fixed point theorems in spaces and -trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirk WA

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We show that if is a bounded open set in a complete space , and if is nonexpansive, then always has a fixed point if there exists such that for all . It is also shown that if is a geodesically bounded closed convex subset of a complete -tree with , and if is a continuous mapping for which for some and all , then has a fixed point. It is also noted that a geodesically bounded complete -tree has the fixed point property for continuous mappings. These latter results are used to obtain variants of the classical fixed edge theorem in graph theory.

  6. Correlating Whole Brain Neural Activity with Behavior in Head-Fixed Larval Zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orger, Michael B; Portugues, Ruben

    2016-01-01

    We present a protocol to combine behavioral recording and imaging using 2-photon laser-scanning microscopy in head-fixed larval zebrafish that express a genetically encoded calcium indicator. The steps involve restraining the larva in agarose, setting up optics that allow projection of a visual stimulus and infrared illumination to monitor behavior, and analysis of the neuronal and behavioral data.

  7. Kiss-1/GPR54 protein expression in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaoiconomou, Eleni; Lymperi, Maria; Petraki, Constantina; Philippou, Anastassios; Msaouel, Pavlos; Michalopoulou, Fani; Kafiri, Georgia; Vassilakos, George; Zografos, Georgios; Koutsilieris, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Numerous studies have shown that the Kiss-1 gene countervails the metastatic aptitude of several cancer cell lines and solid-tumor neoplasias. However, there still remains ambiguity regarding its role in breast cancer and literature has arisen asserting that Kiss-1 expression may be linked to an aggressive phenotype and malignant progression. Herein, we investigated the protein expression of Kiss-1 and its receptor GPR54 in breast cancer tissues compared to non-cancerous mammary tissues. Paraffin-fixed cancer tissues from 43 women with resected breast adenocarcinomas and 11 specimens derived from women suffering from fibrocystic disease, serving as controls, were immunostained with Kiss-1 and GPR54 antibodies. Kiss-1 and GPR54 protein expression levels were significantly higher in breast cancer compared to fibrocystic tissues (pbreast cancer and fibrocystic disease specimens. Kiss-1/GPR54 expression was found to be significantly higher in breast cancer compared to non-malignant mammary tissues.

  8. Factors influencing bonding fixed restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medić Vesna

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Crown displacement often occurs because the features of tooth preparations do not counteract the forces directed against restorations. OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of preparation designs on retention and resistance of fixed restorations. METHOD The study was performed on 64 differently sized stainless steel dies. Also, caps which were used for evaluated retention were made of stainless steel for each die. After cementing the caps on experimental dies, measuring of necessary tensile forces to separate cemented caps from dies was done. Caps, which were made of a silver-palladium alloy with a slope of 60° to the longitudinal axis formed on the occlusal surface, were used for evaluating resistance. A sudden drop in load pressure recorded by the test machine indicated failure for that cap. RESULTS A significant difference was found between the tensile force required to remove the caps from the dies with different length (p<0.05 and different taper (p<0.01. The greatest retentive strengths (2579.2 N and 2989.8 N were noticed in experimental dies with the greatest length and smallest taper. No statistically significant (p>0.05 differences were found between tensile loads for caps cemented on dies with different diameter. Although there was an apparent slight increase in resistance values for caps on dies with smaller tapers, the increase in resistance for those preparation designs was not statistically significant. There was a significant difference among the resistance values for caps on dies with different length (p<0.01 and diameter (p<0.05. CONCLUSION In the light of the results obtained, it could be reasonably concluded that retention and resistance of the restoration is in inverse proportion to convergence angle of the prepared teeth. But, at a constant convergence angle, retention and resistance increase with rising length and diameter.

  9. A Genome-wide Breast Cancer Scan in African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Contraceptive and Reproductive Experiences (CARE) Study. The CARE Study is a large multi-center, population-based case–control study that was designed to examine...Malone, K.E., Strom, B.L., Norman, S.A., Weiss, L.K. et al. (2002) The NICHD Women’s Contraceptive and Reproductive Experiences Study: methods and...PMV Research Group at the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany 51 Division of

  10. [Fibrocystic breast disease--breast cancer sequence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habor, V; Habor, A; Copotoiu, C; Panţîru, A

    2010-01-01

    Fibrocystic breast disease has developed a major issue: the breast cancer sequence. Its involvement regarding the increse of breast cancer risk has 2 aspects: it may be either the marker of a prone tissue or a premalignant hystological deffect. Difficult differential diagnosis of benign proliferative breast lession and carcinoma led to the idea of sequency between the two: cancer does not initiate on normal mammary epithelia; it takes several proliferative stages for it to occur. In our series we analized a number of 677 breast surgical procedures where the pathologic examination reveals 115 cases (17%) of coexistence between cancer and fibrocystic breast disease. This aspect has proved to be related to earlier debut of breast cancer, suggesting that epithelial hyperplasia is a risk factor for breast cancer.

  11. Scanning probe microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mainsbridge, B.

    1994-01-01

    In late 1959, Richard Feynman observed that manoeuvring atoms was something that could be done in principle but has not been done, 'because we are too big'. In 1982, the scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) was invented and is now a central tool for the construction of nanoscale devices in what was known as molecular engineering, and now, nanotechnology. The principles of the microscope are outlined and references are made to other scanning devices which have evolved from the original invention. The method of employment of the STM as a machine tool is described and references are made to current speculations on applications of the instrument in nanotechnology. A short bibliography on this topic is included. 27 refs., 7 figs

  12. Scanning probe microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mainsbridge, B [Murdoch Univ., WA (Australia). School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences

    1994-12-31

    In late 1959, Richard Feynman observed that manoeuvring atoms was something that could be done in principle but has not been done, `because we are too big`. In 1982, the scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) was invented and is now a central tool for the construction of nanoscale devices in what was known as molecular engineering, and now, nanotechnology. The principles of the microscope are outlined and references are made to other scanning devices which have evolved from the original invention. The method of employment of the STM as a machine tool is described and references are made to current speculations on applications of the instrument in nanotechnology. A short bibliography on this topic is included. 27 refs., 7 figs.

  13. 67Ga lung scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niden, A.H.; Mishkin, F.S.; Khurana, M.M.L.; Pick, R.

    1977-01-01

    Twenty-three patients with clinical signs of pulmonary embolic disease and lung infiltrates were studied to determine the value of gallium citrate 67 Ga lung scan in differentiating embolic from inflammatory lung disease. In 11 patients without angiographically proved embolism, only seven had corresponding ventilation-perfusion defects compatible with inflammatory disease. In seven of these 11 patients, the 67 Ga concentration indicated inflammatory disease. In the 12 patients with angiographically proved embolic disease, six had corresponding ventilation-perfusion defects compatible with inflammatory disease. None had an accumulation of 67 Ga in the area of pulmonary infiltrate. Thus, ventilation-perfusion lung scans are of limited value when lung infiltrates are present. In contrast, the accumulation of 67 Ga in the lung indicates an inflammatory process. Gallium imaging can help select those patients with lung infiltrates who need angiography

  14. Horizon Scanning for Pharmaceuticals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lepage-Nefkens, Isabelle; Douw, Karla; Mantjes, GertJan

    for a joint horizon scanning system (HSS).  We propose to create a central “horizon scanning unit” to perform the joint HS activities (a newly established unit, an existing HS unit, or a third party commissioned and financed by the collaborating countries). The unit will be responsible for the identification...... and filtration of new and emerging pharmaceutical products. It will maintain and update the HS database, organise company pipeline meetings, and disseminate the HSS’s outputs.  The HS unit works closely together with the designated national HS experts in each collaborating country. The national HS experts...... will collect country-specific information, liaise between the central HS unit and country-specific clinical and other experts, coordinate the national prioritization process (to select products for early assessment), and communicate the output of the HSS to national decision makers.  The outputs of the joint...

  15. Scanning drop sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Jian; Xiang, Chengxiang; Gregoire, John

    2017-05-09

    Electrochemical experiments are performed on a collection of samples by suspending a drop of electrolyte solution between an electrochemical experiment probe and one of the samples that serves as a test sample. During the electrochemical experiment, the electrolyte solution is added to the drop and an output solution is removed from the drop. The probe and collection of samples can be moved relative to one another so the probe can be scanned across the samples.

  16. Scanning drop sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Jian; Xiang, Chengxiang; Gregoire, John M.; Shinde, Aniketa A.; Guevarra, Dan W.; Jones, Ryan J.; Marcin, Martin R.; Mitrovic, Slobodan

    2017-05-09

    Electrochemical or electrochemical and photochemical experiments are performed on a collection of samples by suspending a drop of electrolyte solution between an electrochemical experiment probe and one of the samples that serves as a test sample. During the electrochemical experiment, the electrolyte solution is added to the drop and an output solution is removed from the drop. The probe and collection of samples can be moved relative to one another so the probe can be scanned across the samples.

  17. IMEF gamma scanning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Sang Yeol; Park, Dae Kyu; Ahn, Sang Bok; Ju, Yong Sun; Jeon, Yong Bum

    1997-06-01

    The gamma scanning system which is installed in IMEF is the equipment obtaining the gamma ray spectrum from irradiated fuels. This equipment could afford the useful data relating spent fuels like as burn-up measurements. We describe the specifications of the equipment and its accessories, and also described its operation procedure so that an operator can use this report as the operation procedure. (author). 1 tab., 11 figs., 11 refs.

  18. IMEF gamma scanning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Sang Yeol; Park, Dae Kyu; Ahn, Sang Bok; Ju, Yong Sun; Jeon, Yong Bum.

    1997-06-01

    The gamma scanning system which is installed in IMEF is the equipment obtaining the gamma ray spectrum from irradiated fuels. This equipment could afford the useful data relating spent fuels like as burn-up measurements. We describe the specifications of the equipment and its accessories, and also described its operation procedure so that an operator can use this report as the operation procedure. (author). 1 tab., 11 figs., 11 refs

  19. Scanning unit for collectrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plaige, Yves.

    1976-01-01

    This invention concerns a measurement scanning assembly for collectron type detectors. It is used in measuring the neutron flux in nuclear reactors. As the number of these detectors in a reactor can be very great, they are not usually all connected permanently to the measuring facility but rather in turn by means of a scanning device which carries out, as it were, multiplexing between all the collectrons and the input of a single measuring system. The object of the invention is a scanning assembly which is of relative simplicity through an original organisation. Specifically, according to this organisation, the collectrons outputs are grouped together in bunches, each of these bunches being processed by a multiplexing sub-assembly belonging to a first stage, the different outputs of these multiplexing subassemblies of this first stage being grouped together yet again in bunches processed by multiplexors forming a new stage and so forth. Further, this structure is specially adapted for use with collectrons by utilising a current amplifier at each multiplexing level so that from one end to the other of the multiplexing system, the commutations are carried out on currents and not on voltages [fr

  20. Forensic Scanning Electron Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, R. H.

    1983-03-01

    The scanning electron microscope equipped with an x-ray spectrometer is a versatile instrument which has many uses in the investigation of crime and preparation of scientific evidence for the courts. Major applications include microscopy and analysis of very small fragments of paint, glass and other materials which may link an individual with a scene of crime, identification of firearms residues and examination of questioned documents. Although simultaneous observation and chemical analysis of the sample is the most important feature of the instrument, other modes of operation such as cathodoluminescence spectrometry, backscattered electron imaging and direct x-ray excitation are also exploited. Marks on two bullets or cartridge cases can be compared directly by sequential scanning with a single beam or electronic linkage of two instruments. Particles of primer residue deposited on the skin and clothing when a gun is fired can be collected on adhesive tape and identified by their morphology and elemental composition. It is also possible to differentiate between the primer residues of different types of ammunition. Bullets may be identified from the small fragments left behind as they pass through the body tissues. In the examination of questioned documents the scanning electron microscope is used to establish the order in which two intersecting ink lines were written and to detect traces of chemical markers added to the security inks on official documents.

  1. Magnetic Fixed Points and Emergent Supersymmetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antipin, Oleg; Mojaza, Matin; Pica, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    We establish in perturbation theory the existence of fixed points along the renormalization group flow for QCD with an adjoint Weyl fermion and scalar matter reminiscent of magnetic duals of QCD [1-3]. We classify the fixed points by analyzing their basin of attraction. We discover that among...

  2. Fixed Wireless may be a temporary answer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Possible to enhance throughput by 4 with respect to Mobile Wireless. And get 8 to 10 bps / Hz / cell; Examples: BB corDECT: today provides 256/512kbps to each connection in fixed environment. Ideal for small town / rural Broadband. Fixed 802.16d/e does the same in but at much higher price-points.

  3. Metallic and antiferromagnetic fixed points from gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Chandrima

    2018-06-01

    We consider SU(2) × U(1) gauge theory coupled to matter field in adjoints and study RG group flow. We constructed Callan-Symanzik equation and subsequent β functions and study the fixed points. We find there are two fixed points, showing metallic and antiferromagnetic behavior. We have shown that metallic phase develops an instability if certain parametric conditions are satisfied.

  4. Gaining Insight into an Organization's Fixed Assets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Elisabet

    2003-01-01

    Discusses issues related to school district implementation of June 2001 Government Accounting Standards Board (GASB) Statement 34 designed to change how schools report fixed assets. Includes planning for GASB implementation, conducting fixed-asset inventories, and making time for GASB reporting. (PKP)

  5. 78 FR 20705 - Fixed Income Roundtable

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-69275; File No. 4-660] Fixed Income Roundtable... of fixed income markets. The roundtable will focus on the municipal securities, corporate bonds, and asset-backed securities markets. The roundtable discussion will be held in the multi-purpose room of the...

  6. Gauge fixing problem in the conformal QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichinose, Shoichi

    1986-01-01

    The gauge fixing problem in the conformal (spinor and scalar) QED is examined. For the analysis, we generalize Dirac's manifestly conformal-covariant formalism. It is shown that the (vector and matter) fields must obey a certain mixed (conformal and gauge) type of transformation law in order to fix the local gauge symmetry preserving the conformal invariance in the Lagrangian. (orig.)

  7. Fixed export cost heterogeneity, trade and welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jan Guldager; Schröder, Philipp J.H.

    2008-01-01

    -country intra-industry trade model where firms are of two different marginal costs types and where fixed export costs are heterogeneous across firms. This model traces many of the stylized facts of international trade. However, we find that with heterogeneous fixed export costs there exists a positive bilateral...

  8. Impact of fixed-mobile convergence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pachnicke, Stephan; Andrus, Bogdan-Mihai; Autenrieth, Achim

    2016-01-01

    Fixed-Mobile Convergence (FMC) is a very trendy concept as it promises integration of the previously separated fixed access network and the mobile network. From this novel approach telecommunication operators expect significant cost savings and performance improvements. FMC can be separated...

  9. Metrological large range scanning probe microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Gaoliang; Pohlenz, Frank; Danzebrink, Hans-Ulrich; Xu Min; Hasche, Klaus; Wilkening, Guenter

    2004-01-01

    We describe a metrological large range scanning probe microscope (LR-SPM) with an Abbe error free design and direct interferometric position measurement capability, aimed at versatile traceable topographic measurements that require nanometer accuracy. A dual-stage positioning system was designed to achieve both a large measurement range and a high measurement speed. This dual-stage system consists of a commercially available stage, referred to as nanomeasuring machine (NMM), with a motion range of 25 mmx25 mmx5 mm along x, y, and z axes, and a compact z-axis piezoelectric positioning stage (compact z stage) with an extension range of 2 μm. The metrological LR-SPM described here senses the surface using a stationary fixed scanning force microscope (SFM) head working in contact mode. During operation, lateral scanning of the sample is performed solely by the NMM. Whereas the z motion, controlled by the SFM signal, is carried out by a combination of the NMM and the compact z stage. In this case the compact z stage, with its high mechanical resonance frequency (greater than 20 kHz), is responsible for the rapid motion while the NMM simultaneously makes slower movements over a larger motion range. To reduce the Abbe offset to a minimum the SFM tip is located at the intersection of three interferometer measurement beams orientated in x, y, and z directions. To improve real time performance two high-end digital signal processing (DSP) systems are used for NMM positioning and SFM servocontrol. Comprehensive DSP firmware and Windows XP-based software are implemented, providing a flexible and user-friendly interface. The instrument is able to perform large area imaging or profile scanning directly without stitching small scanned images. Several measurements on different samples such as flatness standards, nanostep height standards, roughness standards as well as sharp nanoedge samples and 1D gratings demonstrate the outstanding metrological capabilities of the instrument

  10. Breast Fibroadenoma With Increased Activity on 68Ga DOTATATE PET/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakis, Georgios Z; Millo, Corina; Sadowski, Samira M; Karantanas, Apostolos H; Bagci, Ulas; Patronas, Nicholas J

    2017-02-01

    Fibroadenoma is the most common benign breast tumor in women of reproductive age, carrying little to no risk of breast cancer development. We report on a case of a woman with history of neuroendocrine tumor who on follow-up imaging tests underwent whole-body PET/CT study using Ga DOTATATE. The scan showed increased focal activity in the right breast, which was biopsied revealing a fibroadenoma. The presented data suggests cell surface overexpression of somatostatin receptors by this benign breast tumor. Moreover, this finding emphasizes the need for cautious interpretation of Ga DOTATATE-avid breast lesions that could mimic malignancy in neuroendocrine tumor patients.

  11. Assessment of female breast dose for thoracic cone-beam CT using MOSFET dosimeters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenzhao; Wang, Bin; Qiu, Bo; Liang, Jian; Xie, Weihao; Deng, Xiaowu; Qi, Zhenyu

    2017-03-21

    To assess the breast dose during a routine thoracic cone-beam CT (CBCT) check with the efforts to explore the possible dose reduction strategy. Metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) dosimeters were used to measure breast surface doses during a thorax kV CBCT scan in an anthropomorphic phantom. Breast doses for different scanning protocols and breast sizes were compared. Dose reduction was attempted by using partial arc CBCT scan with bowtie filter. The impact of this dose reduction strategy on image registration accuracy was investigated. The average breast surface doses were 20.02 mGy and 11.65 mGy for thoracic CBCT without filtration and with filtration, respectively. This indicates a dose reduction of 41.8% by use of bowtie filter. It was found 220° partial arc scanning significantly reduced the dose to contralateral breast (44.4% lower than ipsilateral breast), while the image registration accuracy was not compromised. Breast dose reduction can be achieved by using ipsilateral 220° partial arc scan with bowtie filter. This strategy also provides sufficient image quality for thorax image registration in daily patient positioning verification.

  12. Global gauge fixing in lattice gauge theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fachin, S.; Parrinello, C. (Physics Department, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, New York (USA))

    1991-10-15

    We propose a covariant, nonperturbative gauge-fixing procedure for lattice gauge theories that avoids the problem of Gribov copies. This is closely related to a recent proposal for a gauge fixing in the continuum that we review. The lattice gauge-fixed model allows both analytical and numerical investigations: on the analytical side, explicit nonperturbative calculations of gauge-dependent quantities can be easily performed in the framework of a generalized strong-coupling expansion, while on the numerical side a stochastic gauge-fixing algorithm is very naturally associated with the scheme. In both applications one can study the gauge dependence of the results, since the model actually provides a smooth'' family of gauge-fixing conditions.

  13. Algorithms for solving common fixed point problems

    CERN Document Server

    Zaslavski, Alexander J

    2018-01-01

    This book details approximate solutions to common fixed point problems and convex feasibility problems in the presence of perturbations. Convex feasibility problems search for a common point of a finite collection of subsets in a Hilbert space; common fixed point problems pursue a common fixed point of a finite collection of self-mappings in a Hilbert space. A variety of algorithms are considered in this book for solving both types of problems, the study of which has fueled a rapidly growing area of research. This monograph is timely and highlights the numerous applications to engineering, computed tomography, and radiation therapy planning. Totaling eight chapters, this book begins with an introduction to foundational material and moves on to examine iterative methods in metric spaces. The dynamic string-averaging methods for common fixed point problems in normed space are analyzed in Chapter 3. Dynamic string methods, for common fixed point problems in a metric space are introduced and discussed in Chapter ...

  14. The price of fixed income market volatility

    CERN Document Server

    Mele, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Fixed income volatility and equity volatility evolve heterogeneously over time, co-moving disproportionately during periods of global imbalances and each reacting to events of different nature. While the methodology for options-based "model-free" pricing of equity volatility has been known for some time, little is known about analogous methodologies for pricing various fixed income volatilities. This book fills this gap and provides a unified evaluation framework of fixed income volatility while dealing with disparate markets such as interest-rate swaps, government bonds, time-deposits and credit. It develops model-free, forward looking indexes of fixed-income volatility that match different quoting conventions across various markets, and uncovers subtle yet important pitfalls arising from naïve superimpositions of the standard equity volatility methodology when pricing various fixed income volatilities. The ultimate goal of the authors´ efforts is to make interest rate volatility standardization a valuable...

  15. Breast cancer in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in situ - male; Intraductal carcinoma - male; Inflammatory breast cancer - male; Paget disease of the nipple - male; Breast cancer - male ... The cause of breast cancer in men is not clear. But there are risk factors that make breast cancer more likely in men: Exposure to ...

  16. Breast Cancer Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are here Home > Types of Cancer > Breast Cancer Breast Cancer This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Breast Cancer. Use the menu below to choose the Overview/ ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Breast Cancer Introduction Statistics Medical Illustrations Risk Factors and Prevention ...

  17. Breast Cancer -- Male

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Types of Cancer > Breast Cancer in Men Breast Cancer in Men This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Breast Cancer in Men. Use the menu below to choose ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Breast Cancer in Men Introduction Statistics Risk Factors and Prevention ...

  18. Radiological Patterns of Brain Metastases in Breast Cancer Patients : A Subproject of the German Brain Metastases in Breast Cancer (BMBC) Registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laakmann, Elena; Witzel, Isabell; Scriba, Verena; Grzyska, Ulrich; zu Eulenburg, Christine; Burchardi, Nicole; Hesse, Tobias; Wuerschmidt, Florian; Fehm, Tanja; Moebus, Volker; von Minckwitz, Gunter; Loibl, Sibylle; Park-Simon, Tjoung-Won; Mueller, Volkmar

    2016-01-01

    Evidence about distribution patterns of brain metastases with regard to breast cancer subtypes and its influence on the prognosis of patients is insufficient. Clinical data, cranial computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of 300 breast cancer patients with brain

  19. Tetrofosmin in metastatic breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berghammer, P.; Obwegeser, R.; Ulm, M.; Wiltschke, C.; Kubista, E.; Sinzinger, H.; Zielinski, C.

    1997-01-01

    Tetrofosmin (1,2-bis[bis(2-ethoxyethyl)phosphino]ethan) is currently under investigation for its tumor seeking properties, encouraged by the incidental finding of a malignant breast-lesion on myocardial scintigraphy in 1995 (Rambaldi et al, Clin Nucl Med 1995) using tetrofosmin. Recent reports have confirmed tetrofosmins role in detecting primary tumors in breast cancer. To investigate whether tetrofosmin significantly helps detect metastatic lesions in such patients we performed tetrofosmin scintigraphy in 21 patients with metastatic breast cancer. Patients and methods: Median age of patients was 61 years. In one patient the primary site was unknown. All patients had at least one distant metastasis. 550 MBq of 99m-Tc-tetrofosmin was administered ten minutes before imaging was begun. After obtaining a planar image, a single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was done of every suspected distant lesion. CT-scans or MRI were used to confirm positive correlation with tetrofosmin scintigraphy. Results: Tetrofosmin scintigraphy correctly diagnosed metastatic disease in 71 % of patients with no false negative and two false positive results. In each of the two patients a mediastinal hot spot suggestive of malignancy was found, but none of those lesions could be proven using CT scans. Excluding patients with liver metastasis from the present analysis, 91 % of all metastasis would have been correctly diagnosed. The first patient in our department had a large metastasis in the upper mediastinum which could not be seen on regular chest films. In the patient in whom the primary site of cancer was unknown, tetrofosmin scintigraphy showed three consecutive nodules in the left mammary, gland in a coronary fashion. Magnetic resonance imaging then confirmed two single nodules of 0.8 cm in diameter. Conclusions: Evaluating 21 patients, the present study was performed to investigate tetrofosmins properties of detecting metastatic lesions in patients with breast cancer. A 91

  20. Adaptive Breast Radiation Therapy Using Modeling of Tissue Mechanics: A Breast Tissue Segmentation Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juneja, Prabhjot; Harris, Emma J.; Kirby, Anna M.; Evans, Philip M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To validate and compare the accuracy of breast tissue segmentation methods applied to computed tomography (CT) scans used for radiation therapy planning and to study the effect of tissue distribution on the segmentation accuracy for the purpose of developing models for use in adaptive breast radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Twenty-four patients receiving postlumpectomy radiation therapy for breast cancer underwent CT imaging in prone and supine positions. The whole-breast clinical target volume was outlined. Clinical target volumes were segmented into fibroglandular and fatty tissue using the following algorithms: physical density thresholding; interactive thresholding; fuzzy c-means with 3 classes (FCM3) and 4 classes (FCM4); and k-means. The segmentation algorithms were evaluated in 2 stages: first, an approach based on the assumption that the breast composition should be the same in both prone and supine position; and second, comparison of segmentation with tissue outlines from 3 experts using the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC). Breast datasets were grouped into nonsparse and sparse fibroglandular tissue distributions according to expert assessment and used to assess the accuracy of the segmentation methods and the agreement between experts. Results: Prone and supine breast composition analysis showed differences between the methods. Validation against expert outlines found significant differences (P<.001) between FCM3 and FCM4. Fuzzy c-means with 3 classes generated segmentation results (mean DSC = 0.70) closest to the experts' outlines. There was good agreement (mean DSC = 0.85) among experts for breast tissue outlining. Segmentation accuracy and expert agreement was significantly higher (P<.005) in the nonsparse group than in the sparse group. Conclusions: The FCM3 gave the most accurate segmentation of breast tissues on CT data and could therefore be used in adaptive radiation therapy-based on tissue modeling. Breast tissue segmentation

  1. Adaptive Breast Radiation Therapy Using Modeling of Tissue Mechanics: A Breast Tissue Segmentation Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juneja, Prabhjot, E-mail: Prabhjot.Juneja@icr.ac.uk [Joint Department of Physics, Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton (United Kingdom); Harris, Emma J. [Joint Department of Physics, Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton (United Kingdom); Kirby, Anna M. [Department of Academic Radiotherapy, Royal Marsden National Health Service Foundation Trust, Sutton (United Kingdom); Evans, Philip M. [Joint Department of Physics, Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton (United Kingdom)

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: To validate and compare the accuracy of breast tissue segmentation methods applied to computed tomography (CT) scans used for radiation therapy planning and to study the effect of tissue distribution on the segmentation accuracy for the purpose of developing models for use in adaptive breast radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Twenty-four patients receiving postlumpectomy radiation therapy for breast cancer underwent CT imaging in prone and supine positions. The whole-breast clinical target volume was outlined. Clinical target volumes were segmented into fibroglandular and fatty tissue using the following algorithms: physical density thresholding; interactive thresholding; fuzzy c-means with 3 classes (FCM3) and 4 classes (FCM4); and k-means. The segmentation algorithms were evaluated in 2 stages: first, an approach based on the assumption that the breast composition should be the same in both prone and supine position; and second, comparison of segmentation with tissue outlines from 3 experts using the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC). Breast datasets were grouped into nonsparse and sparse fibroglandular tissue distributions according to expert assessment and used to assess the accuracy of the segmentation methods and the agreement between experts. Results: Prone and supine breast composition analysis showed differences between the methods. Validation against expert outlines found significant differences (P<.001) between FCM3 and FCM4. Fuzzy c-means with 3 classes generated segmentation results (mean DSC = 0.70) closest to the experts' outlines. There was good agreement (mean DSC = 0.85) among experts for breast tissue outlining. Segmentation accuracy and expert agreement was significantly higher (P<.005) in the nonsparse group than in the sparse group. Conclusions: The FCM3 gave the most accurate segmentation of breast tissues on CT data and could therefore be used in adaptive radiation therapy-based on tissue modeling. Breast tissue

  2. Breast density estimation from high spectral and spatial resolution MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Weiss, William A.; Medved, Milica; Abe, Hiroyuki; Newstead, Gillian M.; Karczmar, Gregory S.; Giger, Maryellen L.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. A three-dimensional breast density estimation method is presented for high spectral and spatial resolution (HiSS) MR imaging. Twenty-two patients were recruited (under an Institutional Review Board--approved Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant protocol) for high-risk breast cancer screening. Each patient received standard-of-care clinical digital x-ray mammograms and MR scans, as well as HiSS scans. The algorithm for breast density estimation includes breast mask generating, breast skin removal, and breast percentage density calculation. The inter- and intra-user variabilities of the HiSS-based density estimation were determined using correlation analysis and limits of agreement. Correlation analysis was also performed between the HiSS-based density estimation and radiologists’ breast imaging-reporting and data system (BI-RADS) density ratings. A correlation coefficient of 0.91 (pdensity estimations. An interclass correlation coefficient of 0.99 (pdensity estimations. A moderate correlation coefficient of 0.55 (p=0.0076) was observed between HiSS-based breast density estimations and radiologists’ BI-RADS. In summary, an objective density estimation method using HiSS spectral data from breast MRI was developed. The high reproducibility with low inter- and low intra-user variabilities shown in this preliminary study suggest that such a HiSS-based density metric may be potentially beneficial in programs requiring breast density such as in breast cancer risk assessment and monitoring effects of therapy. PMID:28042590

  3. Optical computed tomography for imaging the breast: first look

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grable, Richard J.; Ponder, Steven L.; Gkanatsios, Nikolaos A.; Dieckmann, William; Olivier, Patrick F.; Wake, Robert H.; Zeng, Yueping

    2000-07-01

    The purpose of the study is to compare computed tomography optical imaging with traditional breast imaging techniques. Images produced by computed tomography laser mammography (CTLMTM) scanner are compared with images obtained from mammography, and in some cases ultrasound and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). During the CTLM procedure, a near infrared laser irradiates the breast and an array of photodiodes detectors records light scattered through the breast tissue. The laser and detectors rotate synchronously around the breast to acquire a series of slice data along the coronal place. The procedure is performed without any breast compression or optical matching fluid. Cross-sectional slices of the breast are produced using a reconstruction algorithm. Reconstruction based on the diffusion theory is used to produce cross-sectional slices of the breast. Multiple slice images are combined to produce a three dimensional volumetric array of the imaged breast. This array is used to derive axial and sagittal images of the breast corresponding to cranio-caudal and medio-lateral images used in mammography. Over 200 women and 3 men have been scanned in clinical trials. The most obvious features seen in images produced by the optical tomography scanner are vascularization and significant lesions. Breast features caused by fibrocystic changes and cysts are less obvious. Breast density does not appear to be a significant factor in the quality of the image. We see correlation of the optical image structure with that seen with traditional breast imaging techniques. Further testing is being conducted to explore the sensitivity and specificity of optical tomography of the breast.

  4. Overexpression of p53 in Nigerian breast cancers and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study sought to determine the expression of p53 protein as well as the relationship with oestrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) proteins. Methodology: Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples of diagnosed invasive breast cancer were obtained from the Department of Anatomic and ...

  5. Automatic Ultrasound Scanning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moshavegh, Ramin

    on the user adjustments on the scanner interface to optimize the scan settings. This explains the huge interest in the subject of this PhD project entitled “AUTOMATIC ULTRASOUND SCANNING”. The key goals of the project have been to develop automated techniques to minimize the unnecessary settings...... on the scanners, and to improve the computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) in ultrasound by introducing new quantitative measures. Thus, four major issues concerning automation of the medical ultrasound are addressed in this PhD project. They touch upon gain adjustments in ultrasound, automatic synthetic aperture image...

  6. Radiographic scanning agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevan, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    This invention relates to radiodiagnostic agents and more particularly to a composition and method for preparing a highly effective technetium-99m-based bone scanning agent. One deficiency of x-ray examination is the inability of that technique to detect skeletal metastases in their incipient stages. It has been discovered that the methanehydroxydiphosphonate bone mineral-seeking agent is unique in that it provides the dual benefits of sharp radiographic imaging and excellent lesion detection when used with technetium-99m. This agent can also be used with technetium-99m for detecting soft tissue calcification in the manner of the inorganic phosphate radiodiagnostic agents

  7. Spinal CT scan, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Hiroshi

    1982-01-01

    Methods of CT of the cervical and thoracic spines were explained, and normal CT pictures of them were described. Spinal CT was evaluated in comparison with other methods in various spinal diseases. Plain CT revealed stenosis due to spondylosis or ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament and hernia of intervertebral disc. CT took an important role in the diagnosis of spinal cord tumors with calcification and destruction of the bone. CT scan in combination with other methods was also useful for the diagnosis of spinal injuries, congenital anomalies and infections. (Ueda, J.)

  8. Scanning Color Laser Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awamura, D.; Ode, T.; Yonezawa, M.

    1988-01-01

    A confocal color laser microscope which utilizes a three color laser light source (Red: He-Ne, Green: Ar, Blue: Ar) has been developed and is finding useful applications in the semiconductor field. The color laser microscope, when compared to a conventional microscope, offers superior color separation, higher resolution, and sharper contrast. Recently some new functions including a Focus Scan Memory, a Surface Profile Measurement System, a Critical Dimension Measurement system (CD) and an Optical Beam Induced Current Function (OBIC) have been developed for the color laser microscope. This paper will discuss these new features.

  9. Scanning apparatus and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunnett, C.J.

    1980-01-01

    A novel method is described for processing the analogue signals from the photomultiplier tubes in a tomographic X-ray scanner. The system produces a series of pulses whose instantaneous frequency depends on the detected intensity of the X-radiation. A timer unit is used to determine the segment scan intervals and also to deduce the average radiation intensity detected during this interval. The overall system is claimed to possess the advantageous properties of low time delay, wide bandwidth and relative low cost. (U.K.)

  10. Utility of breast gammagraphy with technological 99mibi the diagnosis of breast disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saure Sarria, Victor Manuel

    2009-01-01

    Breast cancer ranks first among causes of death in women around the world, in Cuba in 2003 the incidence was 20.3% with a mortality 15.6%. Among the complementary tests of this pathology has scan breast, in this work was to evaluate the usefulness of scintigraphy in breast cancer diagnosis, we performed an observational study where were included 66 patients admitted to hospital for cancer of Camaguey breast nodules suggestive of malignant neo proliferative process in the period from January 2004 to December 2006 were taken as a group study all women who attended the clinic at that time interval and meet the following conditions: Patients over 30 years informed consent of the study, breast tumors palpable at physical examination possibility of subsequent histological confirmation, some with questionable mammograms, dense breasts, stages I and II disease, the radiotracer was used as MIBI Tc-99, and the rectilinear scanner and computer computerized imager is A sensitivity of 95%, a specificity of 88% and predictive value 90.2% positive. Which it was concluded that breast scintigraphy is useful in diagnosis of the disease. (Author)

  11. How I report breast magnetic resonance imaging studies for breast cancer staging and screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinnicombe, Sarah

    2016-07-25

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the breast is the most sensitive imaging technique for the diagnosis and local staging of primary breast cancer and yet, despite the fact that it has been in use for 20 years, there is little evidence that its widespread uncritical adoption has had a positive impact on patient-related outcomes.This has been attributed previously to the low specificity that might be expected with such a sensitive modality, but with modern techniques and protocols, the specificity and positive predictive value for malignancy can exceed that of breast ultrasound and mammography. A more likely explanation is that historically, clinicians have acted on MRI findings and altered surgical plans without prior histological confirmation. Furthermore, modern adjuvant therapy for breast cancer has improved so much that it has become a very tall order to show a an improvement in outcomes such as local recurrence rates.In order to obtain clinically useful information, it is necessary to understand the strengths and weaknesses of the technique and the physiological processes reflected in breast MRI. An appropriate indication for the scan, proper patient preparation and good scan technique, with rigorous quality assurance, are all essential prerequisites for a diagnostically relevant study.The use of recognised descriptors from a standardised lexicon is helpful, since assessment can then dictate subsequent recommendations for management, as in the American College of Radiology BI-RADS (Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System) lexicon (Morris et al., ACR BI-RADS® Atlas, Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System, 2013). It also enables audit of the service. However, perhaps the most critical factor in the generation of a meaningful report is for the reporting radiologist to have a thorough understanding of the clinical question and of the findings that will influence management. This has never been more important than at present, when we are in the throes of a

  12. False Positive Uptake in Bilateral Gynecomastia on 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT Scan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasikumar, Arun; Joy, Ajith; Nair, Bindu P; Pillai, M R A; Madhavan, Jayaprakash

    2017-09-01

    A 66-year-old man on hormonal therapy with prostate cancer was referred for Ga-PSMA PET/CT scan for biochemical recurrence. Ga-PSMA PET/CT scan detected moderate heterogeneous tracer concentration in bilateral breast parenchyma, in addition to the abnormal tracer concentration in enlarged prostate gland, right external iliac lymph node, and sclerotic lesion in L4 vertebra. On clinical examination, he was found to have bilateral gynecomastia. Abnormal concentration of Ga-PSMA in breast cancer is now well known, and in this context, it is important to know that tracer localization can occur in gynecomastia as well, as evidenced in this case.

  13. Case report of complete atrioventricular block following therapeutic irradiation for breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishizawa, Tadashi; Suzuki, Ichiro; Kobayashi, Jun; Terashima, Masafumi

    1987-12-01

    A 49-year-old woman developed complete atrioventricular (A-V) block 16 years after radiotherapy for breast cancer. The patient had received 60 Gy of cobalt 60 irradiation for left breast cancer arising 3 years after contracting right breast cancer. It took one year before complete A-V block was fixed, during which two-degree A-V block, atrial fibrillation, and sinus rhythm were predominant. She had myocardial insertion of pacemaker electrode. Fibrosis and hyaloid degeneration of the pericardium and thickened sclerosis of the epicardium seemed to be radiation-induced. There was no evidence of recurrence of breast cancer. (Namekawa, K.).

  14. About Applications of the Fixed Point Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bucur Amelia

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The fixed point theory is essential to various theoretical and applied fields, such as variational and linear inequalities, the approximation theory, nonlinear analysis, integral and differential equations and inclusions, the dynamic systems theory, mathematics of fractals, mathematical economics (game theory, equilibrium problems, and optimisation problems and mathematical modelling. This paper presents a few benchmarks regarding the applications of the fixed point theory. This paper also debates if the results of the fixed point theory can be applied to the mathematical modelling of quality.

  15. The 1994 Fermilab Fixed Target Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrad, J.

    1994-11-01

    This paper highlights the results of the Fermilab Fixed Target Program that were announced between October, 1993 and October, 1994. These results are drawn from 18 experiments that took data in the 1985, 1987 and 1990/91 fixed target running periods. For this discussion, the Fermilab Fixed Target Program is divided into 5 major topics: hadron structure, precision electroweak measurements, heavy quark production, polarization and magnetic moments, and searches for new phenomena. However, it should be noted that most experiments span several subtopics. Also, measurements within each subtopic often affect the results in other subtopics. For example, parton distributions from hadron structure measurements are used in the studies of heavy quark production

  16. Hybrid fixed point in CAT(0 spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant Kumar Pathak

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce an ultrapower approach to prove fixed point theorems for $H^{+}$-nonexpansive multi-valued mappings in the setting of CAT(0 spaces and prove several hybrid fixed point results in CAT(0 spaces for families of single-valued nonexpansive or quasinonexpansive mappings and multi-valued upper semicontinuous, almost lower semicontinuous or $H^{+}$-nonexpansive mappings which are weakly commuting. We also establish a result about structure of the set of fixed points of $H^{+}$-quasinonexpansive mapping on a CAT(0 space.

  17. NEW SCANNING DEVICE FOR SCANNING TUNNELING MICROSCOPE APPLICATIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SAWATZKY, GA; Koops, Karl Richard

    A small, single piezo XYZ translator has been developed. The device has been used as a scanner for a scanning tunneling microscope and has been tested successfully in air and in UHV. Its simple design results in a rigid and compact scanning unit which permits high scanning rates.

  18. Ultrafast scanning tunneling microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botkin, D.A. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    I have developed an ultrafast scanning tunneling microscope (USTM) based on uniting stroboscopic methods of ultrafast optics and scanned probe microscopy to obtain nanometer spatial resolution and sub-picosecond temporal resolution. USTM increases the achievable time resolution of a STM by more than 6 orders of magnitude; this should enable exploration of mesoscopic and nanometer size systems on time scales corresponding to the period or decay of fundamental excitations. USTM consists of a photoconductive switch with subpicosecond response time in series with the tip of a STM. An optical pulse from a modelocked laser activates the switch to create a gate for the tunneling current, while a second laser pulse on the sample initiates a dynamic process which affects the tunneling current. By sending a large sequence of identical pulse pairs and measuring the average tunnel current as a function of the relative time delay between the pulses in each pair, one can map the time evolution of the surface process. USTM was used to measure the broadband response of the STM`s atomic size tunnel barrier in frequencies from tens to hundreds of GHz. The USTM signal amplitude decays linearly with the tunnel junction conductance, so the spatial resolution of the time-resolved signal is comparable to that of a conventional STM. Geometrical capacitance of the junction does not appear to play an important role in the measurement, but a capacitive effect intimately related to tunneling contributes to the measured signals and may limit the ultimate resolution of the USTM.

  19. Unusual Metastatic Patterns of Invasive Lobular Carcinoma of the Breast

    OpenAIRE

    Sobinsky, Justin D.; Willson, Thomas D.; Podbielski, Francis J.; Connolly, Mark M.

    2013-01-01

    Invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast has similar patterns of metastatic disease when compared to invasive ductal carcinoma; however, lobular carcinoma metastasizes to unusual sites more frequently. We present a 65-year-old female with a history of invasive lobular breast carcinoma (T3N3M0) treated with modified radical mastectomy and aromatase-inhibitor therapy who underwent a surveillance PET scan, which showed possible sigmoid cancer. Colonoscopy with biopsy revealed a 3?cm sigmoid aden...

  20. Breast hemangioma mimicking metastasis at PET-CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Sabas Carlos [Universidade Federal do Piaui (UFPI), Teresina, PI (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina; Silva, Jucelia Saraiva e [MedImagem, Teresina, PI (Brazil). Clinica Medica; Madeira, Eveline Brandao; Franca, Julio Cesar Queiroz de; Martins Filho, Sebastiao Nunes [Universidade Federal do Piaui (UFPI), Teresina, PI (Brazil)

    2011-11-15

    Breast hemangioma is a rare benign tumor that presents either absent or low {sup 18}F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) uptake at positron emission tomography (PET). The authors report the case of a breast nodule pathologically compatible with hemangioma in a woman whose PET-scan has demonstrated increased FDG uptake (simulating a malignant tumor). A brief review of factors leading to false positive and false negative PET results is also undertaken. (author)

  1. miR-4443 Participates in the Malignancy of Breast Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu Chen

    Full Text Available Chemo-resistance is the leading cause of failure in cancer therapy, however, much remains to be understood about the intrinsic mechanisms. In the present study, we discovered the novel miR-4443 that regulated malignancy of breast cancer both in vitro and in vivo.We examined the expression of miR-4443 in MDA-MB-231/S and MDA-MB-231 Epirubicin-resistant cell lines with 76 breast cancer formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues by real-time PCR. Also, we investigated the loss- and gain-functions of miR-4443 by MTT assay and flow cytometry. Furthermore, we detected miR-4443 mediated tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 2 expression in cells by TargetScan, RT-qPCR and western blot.We identified the up-regulated expression of miR-4443 in Epi-resistant cell lines versus MDA-MB-231/S cell(Epi versus S and in post-chemotherapy FFPE tissues, along with statistically differential expressions in PR(partial response versus SD(stable disease/PD(progressive disease patients. Overexpression of miR-4443 increased the IC50 value of Epi for the target cells transfected, while inhibition of miR-4443 could restored sensitivity of the target cells to Epi. Besides, down-regulation of endogenous miR-4443 by miRNA-inhibitors significantly enhanced Epi-induced apoptosis while up-regulation of miR-4443 by miRNA-mimics lead to less Epi-induced apoptotic cells. Consequently, changes in TIMP2 mRNA and protein expression revealed that miR-4443 mimics suppressed expression of TIMP2 and induced migration in breast cancer cells. Furthermore, TIMP2 expression associated with better prognosis(HR = 0.721, 95%CI: 0.529-0.983.We revealed that miR-4443 induced malignancy of breast cancer mainly in chemo-resistance aspect for the very first time, providing a novel biomarker in breast cancer diagnosis and therapy.

  2. Breast Reconstruction with Flap Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... augmented with a breast implant to achieve the desired breast size. Surgical methods Autologous tissue breast reconstruction ... as long as a year or two before feeling completely healed and back to normal. Future breast ...

  3. Stages of Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Male Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information about Male Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Male ...

  4. HEALTH INSURANCE: FIXED CONTRIBUTION AND REIMBURSEMENT MAXIMA

    CERN Document Server

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    Affected by the salary adjustments on 1 January 2001 and the evolution of the staff members and fellows population, the average reference salary, which is used as an index for fixed contributions and reimbursement maxima, has changed significantly. An adjustment of the amounts of the reimbursement maxima and the fixed contributions is therefore necessary, as from 1 January 2001. Reimbursement maxima The revised reimbursement maxima will appear on the leaflet summarizing the benefits for the year 2001, which will be sent out with the forthcoming issue of the CHIS Bull'. This leaflet will also be available from the divisional secretariats and from the UNIQA office at CERN. Fixed contributions The fixed contributions, applicable to some categories of voluntarily insured persons, are set as follows (amounts in CHF for monthly contributions) : voluntarily insured member of the personnel, with normal health insurance cover : 910.- (was 815.- in 2000) voluntarily insured member of the personnel, with reduced heal...

  5. Fixed-film processes. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canziani, R.

    1999-01-01

    Recently, full scale fixed-film or mixed suspended and fixed biomass bioreactors have been applied in many wastewater treatments plants. These process no longer depend on biomass settle ability and can be used to improve the performance of existing plants as required by more stringent discharge permit limits, especially for nutrients and suspended solid. Also, processes may work at high rates making it possible to build small footprint installations. Fixed-film process include trickling filter, moving bed reactors fluidized bed reactors. In the first part, the theoretical base governing fixed-film processes are briefly outlined with some simple examples of calculations underlining the main differences with conventional activated sludge processes [it

  6. Fixed-film processes. Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canziani, R.

    1999-01-01

    Recently, full scale fixed-film or mixed suspended have been applied in many wastewater treatments plants. These processes no longer depend on biomass settle ability and can be used to improve the performance of existing plants as required by more stringent discharge permit limits, especially for nutrients suspended solids. Also, processes may work at high rates making is possible to build small footprint installations. Fixed-film processes include trickling filters (and combined suspended and fixed-films processes), rotating biological contactors, biological aerated submerged, filters moving bed reactors, fluidized bed reactors. In the first part, the theoretical based governing fixed-film processes are briefly outlined, with some simple examples of calculations, underlining the main differences with conventional activate sludge processes. In the second part, the most common types of reactors are reviewed [it

  7. Actinorhizal nitrogen fixing nodules: infection process, molecular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Actinorhizal nitrogen fixing nodules: infection process, molecular biology and genomics. Mariana Obertello, Mame Oureye SY, Laurent Laplaze, Carole Santi, Sergio Svistoonoff, Florence Auguy, Didier Bogusz, Claudine Franche ...

  8. FIXING HEALTH SYSTEMS / Executive Summary (2008 update ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-14

    Dec 14, 2010 ... FIXING HEALTH SYSTEMS / Executive Summary (2008 update) ... In several cases, specific approaches recommended by the TEHIP team have been acted upon regionally and internationally, including the ... Related articles ...

  9. Fixed-Point Configurable Hardware Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocher Romuald

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available To reduce the gap between the VLSI technology capability and the designer productivity, design reuse based on IP (intellectual properties is commonly used. In terms of arithmetic accuracy, the generated architecture can generally only be configured through the input and output word lengths. In this paper, a new kind of method to optimize fixed-point arithmetic IP has been proposed. The architecture cost is minimized under accuracy constraints defined by the user. Our approach allows exploring the fixed-point search space and the algorithm-level search space to select the optimized structure and fixed-point specification. To significantly reduce the optimization and design times, analytical models are used for the fixed-point optimization process.

  10. Anderson Acceleration for Fixed-Point Iterations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Homer F. [Worcester Polytechnic Institute, MA (United States)

    2015-08-31

    The purpose of this grant was to support research on acceleration methods for fixed-point iterations, with applications to computational frameworks and simulation problems that are of interest to DOE.

  11. Topological fixed point theory of multivalued mappings

    CERN Document Server

    Górniewicz, Lech

    1999-01-01

    This volume presents a broad introduction to the topological fixed point theory of multivalued (set-valued) mappings, treating both classical concepts as well as modern techniques. A variety of up-to-date results is described within a unified framework. Topics covered include the basic theory of set-valued mappings with both convex and nonconvex values, approximation and homological methods in the fixed point theory together with a thorough discussion of various index theories for mappings with a topologically complex structure of values, applications to many fields of mathematics, mathematical economics and related subjects, and the fixed point approach to the theory of ordinary differential inclusions. The work emphasises the topological aspect of the theory, and gives special attention to the Lefschetz and Nielsen fixed point theory for acyclic valued mappings with diverse compactness assumptions via graph approximation and the homological approach. Audience: This work will be of interest to researchers an...

  12. Scanning device for a spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignat'ev, V.M.

    1982-01-01

    The invention belongs to scanning devices and is intended for spectrum scanning in spectral devices. The purpose of the invention is broadening of spectral scanning range. The device construction ensures the spectrum scanning range determined from revolution fractions to several revolutions of the monochromator drum head, any number of the drum head revolutions determined by integral number with addition of the drum revolution fractions with high degree of accuracy being possible

  13. Rapid 4D MRI of Gad-DTPA Enhancement for Breast Lesion Characterization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chenevert, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    ... gadolinium- enhanced MR mammography. The approach involves specialized software for data acquisition and reconstruction that allows dynamic scans of 32 sections through both breasts acquired at 10-13 second temporal resolution...

  14. Fixed points of occasionally weakly biased mappings

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Mahendra Singh, M. R. Singh

    2012-01-01

    Common fixed point results due to Pant et al. [Pant et al., Weak reciprocal continuity and fixed point theorems, Ann Univ Ferrara, 57(1), 181-190 (2011)] are extended to a class of non commuting operators called occasionally weakly biased pair[ N. Hussain, M. A. Khamsi A. Latif, Commonfixed points for JH-operators and occasionally weakly biased pairs under relaxed conditions, Nonlinear Analysis, 74, 2133-2140 (2011)]. We also provideillustrative examples to justify the improvements. Abstract....

  15. Optimal Licensing Strategy: Royalty or Fixed Fee?

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Fosfuri; Esther Roca

    2004-01-01

    Licensing a cost-reducing innovation through a royalty has been shown to be superior to licensing by means of a fixed fee for an incumbent licensor. This note shows that this result relies crucially on the assumption that the incumbent licensor can sell its cost-reducing inno-vation to all industry players. If, for any reason, only some competitors could be reached through a licensing contract, then a fixed fee might be optimally chosen.

  16. Fractal Structures For Fixed Mems Capacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Elshurafa, Amro M.

    2014-08-28

    An embodiment of a fractal fixed capacitor comprises a capacitor body in a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) structure. The capacitor body has a first plate with a fractal shape separated by a horizontal distance from a second plate with a fractal shape. The first plate and the second plate are within the same plane. Such a fractal fixed capacitor further comprises a substrate above which the capacitor body is positioned.

  17. On BLM scale fixing in exclusive processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anikin, I.V.; Pire, B.; Szymanowski, L.; Teryaev, O.V.; Wallon, S.

    2005-01-01

    We discuss the BLM scale fixing procedure in exclusive electroproduction processes in the Bjorken regime with rather large x B . We show that in the case of vector meson production dominated in this case by quark exchange the usual way to apply the BLM method fails due to singularities present in the equations fixing the BLM scale. We argue that the BLM scale should be extracted from the squared amplitudes which are directly related to observables. (orig.)

  18. On BLM scale fixing in exclusive processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anikin, I.V. [JINR, Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Dubna (Russian Federation); Universite Paris-Sud, LPT, Orsay (France); Pire, B. [Ecole Polytechnique, CPHT, Palaiseau (France); Szymanowski, L. [Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Warsaw (Poland); Univ. de Liege, Inst. de Physique, Liege (Belgium); Teryaev, O.V. [JINR, Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Dubna (Russian Federation); Wallon, S. [Universite Paris-Sud, LPT, Orsay (France)

    2005-07-01

    We discuss the BLM scale fixing procedure in exclusive electroproduction processes in the Bjorken regime with rather large x{sub B}. We show that in the case of vector meson production dominated in this case by quark exchange the usual way to apply the BLM method fails due to singularities present in the equations fixing the BLM scale. We argue that the BLM scale should be extracted from the squared amplitudes which are directly related to observables. (orig.)

  19. Finite volume QCD at fixed topological charge

    OpenAIRE

    Aoki, Sinya; Fukaya, Hidenori; Hashimoto, Shoji; Onogi, Tetsuya

    2007-01-01

    In finite volume the partition function of QCD with a given $\\theta$ is a sum of different topological sectors with a weight primarily determined by the topological susceptibility. If a physical observable is evaluated only in a fixed topological sector, the result deviates from the true expectation value by an amount proportional to the inverse space-time volume 1/V. Using the saddle point expansion, we derive formulas to express the correction due to the fixed topological charge in terms of...

  20. Fixed target physics at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirk, T.B.

    1984-01-01

    The number and type of fixed target experiments that can be pursued at a proton synchrotron are very large. The advent of the Fermilab superconducting accelerator, the Tevatron, will extend and improve the results which are given here from recent CERN and Fermilab experiments. The sample of experiments given in this paper is neither meant to be inclusive nor intensive. Hopefully, it will give the flavor of contemporary fixed target physics to a predominantly cosmic ray oriented audience. (author)

  1. Characterizations of fixed points of quantum operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yuan

    2011-01-01

    Let φ A be a general quantum operation. An operator B is said to be a fixed point of φ A , if φ A (B)=B. In this note, we shall show conditions under which B, a fixed point φ A , implies that B is compatible with the operation element of φ A . In particular, we offer an extension of the generalized Lueders theorem.

  2. THE Economics of Match-Fixing

    OpenAIRE

    Caruso, Raul

    2007-01-01

    The phenomenon of match-fixing does constitute a constant element of sport contests. This paper presents a simple formal model in order to explain it. The intuition behind is that an asymmetry in the evaluation of the stake is the key factor leading to match-fixing. In sum, this paper considers a partial equilibrium model of contest where two asymmetric, rational and risk-neutral opponents evaluate differently a contested stake. Differently from common contest models, agents have the option ...

  3. Fractal Structures For Fixed Mems Capacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Elshurafa, Amro M.; Radwan, Ahmed Gomaa Ahmed; Emira, Ahmed A.; Salama, Khaled N.

    2014-01-01

    An embodiment of a fractal fixed capacitor comprises a capacitor body in a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) structure. The capacitor body has a first plate with a fractal shape separated by a horizontal distance from a second plate with a fractal shape. The first plate and the second plate are within the same plane. Such a fractal fixed capacitor further comprises a substrate above which the capacitor body is positioned.

  4. Factors influencing bone scan quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, F.G.; Shirley, A.W.

    1983-01-01

    A reliable subjective method of assessing bone scan quality is described. A large number of variables which theoretically could influence scan quality were submitted to regression and factor analysis. Obesity, age, sex and abnormality of scan were found to be significant but weak variables. (orig.)

  5. FDG-PET/CT detection of very early breast cancer in women with breast microcalcification lesions found in mammography screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Nang-Jing; Chou, Chen-Pin; Pan, Huay-Ben; Chang, Tsung-Hsien; Hu, Chin; Chiu, Yu-Li; Fu, Ting-Ying; Chang, Hong-Tai

    2015-01-01

    To assess the efficacy of positron emission tomography/computed tomography with the glucose analogue 2-[ 18 F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG-PET/CT) in Taiwanese women with early breast cancer detected by mammography screening. Dual-time-point imaging of whole-body supine and breast prone scans using FDG-PET/CT were performed sequentially in the pre-operative stage. A total of 11,849 patients underwent screening mammography, of whom 1,209 (10.2%) displayed positive results. After further investigation, 54 patients underwent FDG-PET/CT. Post-operative pathology examinations revealed malignancies in 26 lesions, including invasive breast cancer in 11 cases and non-invasive breast cancer in 15 cases, as well as benign disease in 30 lesions. The FDG-PET/CT findings from the whole-body scans were positive for 9 of 11 invasive breast cancers (81.8%) and 3 of 15 non-invasive cancers (20%), and they were negative for all benign lesions. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of FDG-PET/CT with whole-body supine imaging were 46.2%, 100%, 100% and 68.2%, respectively. Breast prone imaging revealed another patient with ductal carcinoma in situ, increasing the sensitivity to 50%. Importantly, positive PET findings were significantly correlated with tumour histology (P = 0.006), tumour size (P = 0.039) and Ki-67 expression (P = 0.011). FDG-PET/CT with whole-body scanning demonstrated high sensitivity to invasive breast cancer, limited sensitivity to non-invasive breast cancer, and high specificity for breast cancer. FDG-PET/CT might be useful for differentiating tumour invasiveness. However, the good PPV but poor NPV do not allow the physician to discard the biopsy.

  6. Breast development and anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, Sonali; Moore, Richard G

    2011-03-01

    In this article, the development of the female breast, as well as the functional anatomy, blood supply, innervation and lymphatic drainage are described. A thorough understanding of the breast anatomy is an important adjunct to a meticulous clinical breast examination. Breast examination is a complex skill involving key maneuvers, including careful inspection and palpation. Clinical breast examination can provide an opportunity for the clinician to educate patients about their breast and about breast cancer, its symptoms, risk factors, early detection, and normal breast composition, and specifically variability. Clinical breast examination can help to detect some cancers not found by mammography, and clinicians should not override their examination findings if imaging is not supportive of the physical findings.

  7. CT scans in encephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imanishi, Masami; Morimoto, Tetsuya; Iida, Noriyuki; Hisanaga, Manabu; Kinugawa, Kazuhiko

    1980-01-01

    Generally, CT scans reveal a decrease in the volume of the ventricular system, sylvian fissures and cortical sulci in the acute stage of encephalitis, and softening of the cerebral lobes with dilatation of the lateral ventricles and subarachnoidian dilated spaces in the chronic stage. We encountered three cases of encephalitis: mumps (case 1), herpes simplex (case 2), and syphilis (case 3). In case 1, brain edema was seen in the acute stage and brain atrophy in the chronic stage. In case 2, necrosis of the temporal pole, which is pathognomonic in herpes simplex encephalitis, was recognized. And in case 3, multiple lesions whose CT appearance was enhanced by contrast materials were found scattered over the whole brain. These lesions were diagnosed as inflammatory granuloma by histological examination. (author)

  8. Dense Breasts: Answers to Commonly Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Prevention Genetics of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Dense Breasts: Answers to Commonly Asked Questions What are dense breasts? Breasts contain glandular, connective, and fat tissue. Breast density is a term that describes the ...

  9. INNOVATIVE SYSTEM OF FIXED CAPITAL REPRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. Merzlikina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the basic problems of fixed capital reproduction. There are considered a significant depreciation of fixed assets of Russian enterprises. There are presented arguments in favor of urgency of the problem of reproduction of fixed assets of the Russian Federation. The paper presents theoretical evidence base basic types of fixed capital reproduction. There are identified all possible sources of simple and expanded reproduction of capital. There are considered the role of value and feasibility of depreciation in the formation of Reserve reproduction. Suggested the formation of accounting and analytical management provision fixed capital, as well as an innovative system of fixed capital reproduction, which implies the creation of depreciation , capital, revaluation, liquidation reserves. The algorithm of business valuation based on an innovative system of capital reproduction. The algorithm and the possibility of formation of reserves are considered on a concrete example of one of the industrial enterprises of the city Volgograd. On the basis of the algorithm presented calculations of business valuation of the enterprise. Calculations have shown an increase in value of the business condition of the formation of special reserves, which underlines the necessary and urgency of their formation in accounting policy and economy organizations and enterprises of Russia as a whole.

  10. Precise Point Positioning with Partial Ambiguity Fixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pan; Zhang, Xiaohong

    2015-06-10

    Reliable and rapid ambiguity resolution (AR) is the key to fast precise point positioning (PPP). We propose a modified partial ambiguity resolution (PAR) method, in which an elevation and standard deviation criterion are first used to remove the low-precision ambiguity estimates for AR. Subsequently the success rate and ratio-test are simultaneously used in an iterative process to increase the possibility of finding a subset of decorrelated ambiguities which can be fixed with high confidence. One can apply the proposed PAR method to try to achieve an ambiguity-fixed solution when full ambiguity resolution (FAR) fails. We validate this method using data from 450 stations during DOY 021 to 027, 2012. Results demonstrate the proposed PAR method can significantly shorten the time to first fix (TTFF) and increase the fixing rate. Compared with FAR, the average TTFF for PAR is reduced by 14.9% for static PPP and 15.1% for kinematic PPP. Besides, using the PAR method, the average fixing rate can be increased from 83.5% to 98.2% for static PPP, from 80.1% to 95.2% for kinematic PPP respectively. Kinematic PPP accuracy with PAR can also be significantly improved, compared to that with FAR, due to a higher fixing rate.

  11. Scanning device for scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casale, R.

    1975-01-01

    A device is described for the scintigraphic scanning according to a horizontal plane, comprising: (a) A support provided with two guides horizontally and longitudinally located, one of which is located in the upper part of the support, while the second guide is located in the lower part of the support; (b) A carriage, movable with respect to the support along the two guides, provided in its upper part, projecting above the support, with rolling means suitable to support and to cause to slide along its axis a support rod for the first detector, horizontally and transversely located, said carriage being further provided in its lower part with a recess with possible rolling means suitable to support and to cause to slide along its axis a second support rod for the second detector, said second rod being located parallel to the first rod and below it; (c) One or two support rods for the detectors, the first of said rods being supported above the support in a sliding way along its axis, by the rolling means located in the upper part of the carriage, and the second rod if present is supported slidingly along its axis by the possible rolling means contained in the suitable recess which is provided in the lower part of the carriage, and (d) A vertical shaft supported by said carriage on which is mounted a toothed wheel for each rod, each toothed wheel engaging a positive drive belt or the like, which is connected to each said rod so that rotation of the shaft determines the simultaneous displacement of the two rods along their axes; and single motor means for driving said shaft during a scanning operation. (U.S.)

  12. Scanning the periphery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, George S; Schoemaker, Paul J H

    2005-11-01

    Companies often face new rivals, technologies, regulations, and other environmental changes that seem to come out of left field. How can they see these changes sooner and capitalize on them? Such changes often begin as weak signals on what the authors call the periphery, or the blurry zone at the edge of an organization's vision. As with human peripheral vision, these signals are difficult to see and interpret but can be vital to success or survival. Unfortunately, most companies lack a systematic method for determining where on the periphery they should be looking, how to interpret the weak signals they see, and how to allocate limited scanning resources. This article provides such a method-a question-based framework for helping companies scan the periphery more efficiently and effectively. The framework divides questions into three categories: learning from the past (What have been our past blind spots? What instructive analogies do other industries offer? Who in the industry is skilled at picking up weak signals and acting on them?); evaluating the present (What important signals are we rationalizing away? What are our mavericks, outliers, complainers, and defectors telling us? What are our peripheral customers and competitors really thinking?); and envisioning the future (What future surprises could really hurt or help us? What emerging technologies could change the game? Is there an unthinkable scenario that might disrupt our business?). Answering these questions is a good first step toward anticipating problems or opportunities that may appear on the business horizon. The article concludes with a self-test that companies can use to assess their need and capability for peripheral vision.

  13. COMPLEXO: identifying the missing heritability of breast cancer via next generation collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southey, Melissa C; Park, Daniel J; Nguyen-Dumont, Tu; Campbell, Ian; Thompson, Ella; Trainer, Alison H; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Simard, Jacques; Dumont, Martine; Soucy, Penny; Thomassen, Mads; Jønson, Lars; Pedersen, Inge S; Hansen, Thomas Vo; Nevanlinna, Heli; Khan, Sofia; Sinilnikova, Olga; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Lesueur, Fabienne; Damiola, Francesca; Schmutzler, Rita; Meindl, Alfons; Hahnen, Eric; Dufault, Michael R; Chris Chan, Tl; Kwong, Ava; Barkardóttir, Rosa; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Devilee, Peter; Hilbers, Florentine; Benitez, Javier; Kvist, Anders; Törngren, Therese; Easton, Douglas; Hunter, David; Lindstrom, Sara; Kraft, Peter; Zheng, Wei; Gao, Yu-Tang; Long, Jirong; Ramus, Susan; Feng, Bing-Jian; Weitzel, Jeffrey N; Nathanson, Katherine; Offit, Kenneth; Joseph, Vijai; Robson, Mark; Schrader, Kasmintan; Wang, San; Kim, Yeong C; Lynch, Henry; Snyder, Carrie; Tavtigian, Sean; Neuhausen, Susan; Couch, Fergus J; Goldgar, David E

    2013-06-21

    Linkage analysis, positional cloning, candidate gene mutation scanning and genome-wide association study approaches have all contributed significantly to our understanding of the underlying genetic architecture of breast cancer. Taken together, these approaches have identified genetic variation that explains approximately 30% of the overall familial risk of breast cancer, implying that more, and likely rarer, genetic susceptibility alleles remain to be discovered.

  14. Breast metastases from rectal carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jia; FANG Yu; LI Ang; LI Fei

    2011-01-01

    Metastases to the breast from extramammary neoplasms are very rare, constituting 2.7% of all malignant breast tumours. The most common primary tumor metastatic to the breast is primary breast cancer. Rectal cancer metastasizing to the breast is extremely rare. We report a case of aggressive rectal carcinoma with metastasis to the breast.

  15. Comparison of dimensional accuracy of digital dental models produced from scanned impressions and scanned stone casts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subeihi, Haitham

    Introduction: Digital models of dental arches play a more and more important role in dentistry. A digital dental model can be generated by directly scanning intraoral structures, by scanning a conventional impression of oral structures or by scanning a stone cast poured from the conventional impression. An accurate digital scan model is a fundamental part for the fabrication of dental restorations. Aims: 1. To compare the dimensional accuracy of digital dental models produced by scanning of impressions versus scanning of stone casts. 2. To compare the dimensional accuracy of digital dental models produced by scanning of impressions made of three different materials (polyvinyl siloxane, polyether or vinyl polyether silicone). Methods and Materials: This laboratory study included taking addition silicone, polyether and vinyl polyether silicone impressions from an epoxy reference model that was created from an original typodont. Teeth number 28 and 30 on the typodont with a missing tooth number 29 were prepared for a metal-ceramic three-unit fixed dental prosthesis with tooth #29 being a pontic. After tooth preparation, an epoxy resin reference model was fabricated by duplicating the typodont quadrant that included the tooth preparations. From this reference model 12 polyvinyl siloxane impressions, 12 polyether impressions and 12 vinyl polyether silicone impressions were made. All 36 impressions were scanned before pouring them with dental stone. The 36 dental stone casts were, in turn, scanned to produce digital models. A reference digital model was made by scanning the reference model. Six groups of digital models were produced. Three groups were made by scanning of the impressions obtained with the three different materials, the other three groups involved the scanning of the dental casts that resulted from pouring the impressions made with the three different materials. Groups of digital models were compared using Root Mean Squares (RMS) in terms of their

  16. Accelerated partial breast irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ Whole breast radiotherapy afier tumor lumpectomy is based on the premise that that the breast cancer recurrence rate is reduced through the elimination of residual cancer foci in the remaining tissue immediately adjacent to the lumpectomy site and occult multicentric areas of in situ or infiltrating cancer in remote areas of the breast. The relevance of remote foci to ipsilateral breast failure rates after breast conserving treatment is debatable, because 65%~100% of recurrences develop in the same quadrant as the initial tumor. This has led several investigators to question whether radiotherapy must be administered to the entire breast.

  17. Breast cancer screening in Korean woman with dense breast tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Hee Jung; Ko, Eun Sook; Yi, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Asian women, including Korean, have a relatively higher incidence of dense breast tissue, compared with western women. Dense breast tissue has a lower sensitivity for the detection of breast cancer and a higher relative risk for breast cancer, compared with fatty breast tissue. Thus, there were limitations in the mammographic screening for women with dense breast tissue, and many studies for the supplemental screening methods. This review included appropriate screening methods for Korean women with dense breasts. We also reviewed the application and limitation of supplemental screening methods, including breast ultrasound, digital breast tomosynthesis, and breast magnetic resonance imaging; and furthermore investigated the guidelines, as well as the study results

  18. Breast cancer screening in Korean woman with dense breast tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Hee Jung [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Eun Sook [Dept. of Radiology, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Ann [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    Asian women, including Korean, have a relatively higher incidence of dense breast tissue, compared with western women. Dense breast tissue has a lower sensitivity for the detection of breast cancer and a higher relative risk for breast cancer, compared with fatty breast tissue. Thus, there were limitations in the mammographic screening for women with dense breast tissue, and many studies for the supplemental screening methods. This review included appropriate screening methods for Korean women with dense breasts. We also reviewed the application and limitation of supplemental screening methods, including breast ultrasound, digital breast tomosynthesis, and breast magnetic resonance imaging; and furthermore investigated the guidelines, as well as the study results.

  19. 99mTc labelled cationic lipophilic complexes in malignant and benign tumors: the role of SPET and pinhole-SPET in breast cancer, differentiated thyroid carcinoma and hyperparathyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schillaci, O.; Spanu, A.; Madeddu, G.

    2005-01-01

    Single photon emission tomography (SPET) represents an indispensable diagnostic tool in nuclear medicine. Due to better contrast resolution, cross sectional and 3D images, SPET plays a useful complementary tool to bidimensional planar scintigraphy in certain clinical conditions, while representing the procedure of choice in others. However, high resolution SPET with pinhole collimator (P-SPET) can improve conventional SPET sensitivity with parallel hole collimators. This review summarized data on the employment of conventional SPET and P-SPET in breast cancer, differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) and hyperparathyroidism patients, using the cationic lipophilic complexes ( 99m Tc )metoxy isobutyl isonitrile (sestaMIBI) and ( 99m Tc )tetrofosmin as oncotropic radiotracers. In breast cancer patients, SPET with these radiotracers can play an important complementary role to planar scintimammography in detecting primary tumors, especially when non palpable and small in size, whereas SPET and particularly P-SPET represents the procedure of choice in preoperative axillary lymph node status evaluation in which planar is almost always irrelevant. In DTC follow-up patients, SPET and P-SPET with cationic lipophilic radiotracers are indicated in both locoregional and distant metastasis detection, especially in patients with high Tg serum levels and negative radioiodine scanning in whom these procedures represent a reliable alternative to diagnostic 131 I scanning. Moreover, the combined use of ( 99m Tc)tetrofosmin P-SPET and US can identify recurrences and lymph node metastases in the neck, both fixing and non fixing iodine, down staged or negative at 131 I scanning. SPET can also be a useful complementary tool to planar parathyroid scintigraphy in the detection and localization of small and ectopic parathyroid adenomas in the neck or mediastinum, while neck P-SPET seems to also significantly increase planer sensitivity in hyperplastic glands. SPET and P-SPET are indicated in

  20. Object characterization simulator for estimating compressed breast during mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinheiro, Luciana de J.S.; Rio, Margarita Chevalier del

    2011-01-01

    The measurement of the thickness of a compressed breast during the mammography test is necessary in order to calculate the glandular dose in mammography procedures, in an analysis of risk/benefit, given that the target organ in these procedures is highly sensitive to ionising radiation. However, mammography is a test of utmost importance in diagnosis. In theory, it may be possible to calculate the thickness of the compressed breast through the measurements of the focus object distance by using projections of radio opaque objects fixed to the compression tray. The facilities of the Laboratory of Applied Radioprotection to Mammography - LARAM were used for this study, as well as breast simulators with well defined thickness, in the assembly of the techniques for the measurement of the thickness of the compressed breast. The results showed that it is possible to determine this thickness through calculations and simulators through this method which is susceptible to be adequate to the dosimetry. (author)

  1. FACTORS ASSOCIATED IN BREAST CANCER MORTALITY IN NORTHWEST PARANAENSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willian Augusto Melo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a disease process that begins when an abnormal cell is transformed by genetic mutation of cellular DNA, and breast cancer usually painless. The objective was to analyze the behavior of mortality from breast cancer in women living in Maringá-PR in the period 2000 to 2009. We used the Information System of the Unified Health System (DATASUS for variables related to race/ethnicity, marital status, education, age, place of occurrence of death. Data were analyzed descriptively and by chi-square Yates Fixed considering a confidence interval of 95% with a significance level of 5%. There were 216 deaths from breast cancer with a higher prevalence in women 60-80 years (58.4%, race white (90.2% and married (53.8%. Women over 60 with low education were more likely to breast cancer mortality was statistically significant (OR95% = 4.45, p = <0.0001

  2. Epstein-Barr virus, human papillomavirus and mouse mammary tumour virus as multiple viruses in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Wendy K; Heng, Benjamin; Delprado, Warick; Iacopetta, Barry; Whitaker, Noel J; Lawson, James S

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to determine if Epstein Barr virus (EBV), high risk human papillomavirus (HPV), and mouse mammary tumour viruses (MMTV) co-exist in some breast cancers. All the specimens were from women residing in Australia. For investigations based on standard PCR, we used fresh frozen DNA extracts from 50 unselected invasive breast cancers. For normal breast specimens, we used DNA extracts from epithelial cells from milk donated by 40 lactating women. For investigations based on in situ PCR we used 27 unselected archival formalin fixed breast cancer specimens and 18 unselected archival formalin fixed normal breast specimens from women who had breast reduction surgery. Thirteen of these fixed breast cancer specimens were ductal carcinoma in situ (dcis) and 14 were predominantly invasive ductal carcinomas (idc). EBV sequences were identified in 68%, high risk HPV sequences in 50%, and MMTV sequences in 78% of DNA extracted from 50 invasive breast cancer specimens. These same viruses were identified in selected normal and breast cancer specimens by in situ PCR. Sequences from more than one viral type were identified in 72% of the same breast cancer specimens. Normal controls showed these viruses were also present in epithelial cells in human milk - EBV (35%), HPV, 20%) and MMTV (32%) of 40 milk samples from normal lactating women, with multiple viruses being identified in 13% of the same milk samples. We conclude that (i) EBV, HPV and MMTV gene sequences are present and co-exist in many human breast cancers, (ii) the presence of these viruses in breast cancer is associated with young age of diagnosis and possibly an increased grade of breast cancer.

  3. Breast Abscess Mimicking Breast Carcinoma in Male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gochhait, Debasis; Dehuri, Priyadarshini; Umamahesweran, Sandyya; Kamat, Rohan

    2018-01-01

    Male breast can show almost all pathological entities described in female breast. Inflammatory conditions of the breast in male are not common; however, occasionally, it can be encountered in the form of an abscess. Clinically, gynecomastia always presents as a symmetric unilateral or bilateral lump in the retroareolar region, and any irregular asymmetric lump raises a possibility of malignancy. Radiology should be used as a part of the triple assessment protocol for breast lump along with fine-needle aspiration cytology for definite diagnosis and proper management.

  4. Breast Abscess Mimicking Breast Carcinoma in Male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debasis Gochhait

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Male breast can show almost all pathological entities described in female breast. Inflammatory conditions of the breast in male are not common; however, occasionally, it can be encountered in the form of an abscess. Clinically, gynecomastia always presents as a symmetric unilateral or bilateral lump in the retroareolar region, and any irregular asymmetric lump raises a possibility of malignancy. Radiology should be used as a part of the triple assessment protocol for breast lump along with fine-needle aspiration cytology for definite diagnosis and proper management.

  5. BREAST RECONSTRUCTIONS AFTER BREAST CANCER TREATING

    OpenAIRE

    Erik Vrabič

    2018-01-01

    Background. Breasts are an important symbol of physical beauty, feminity, mothering and sexual desire through the entire history of mankind. Lost of the whole or part of the breast is functional and aesthetic disturbance for woman. It is understandable, that the woman, who is concerned over breast loss, is as appropriate as another person´s concern over the loss of a limb or other body part. Before the 1960, breast reconstruction was considered as a dangerous procedure and it was almost prohi...

  6. ED breast cases and other breast emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadem, Nasim; Reddy, Sravanthi; Lee, Sandy; Larsen, Linda; Walker, Daphne

    2016-02-01

    Patients with pathologic processes of the breast commonly present in the Emergency Department (ED). Familiarity with the imaging and management of the most common entities is essential for the radiologist. Additionally, it is important to understand the limitations of ED imaging and management in the acute setting and to recognize when referrals to a specialty breast center are necessary. The goal of this article is to review the clinical presentations, pathophysiology, imaging, and management of emergency breast cases and common breast pathology seen in the ED.

  7. GPR scan assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas M. Abbas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mekaad Radwan monument is situated in the neighborhood of Bab Zuweila in the historical Cairo, Egypt. It was constructed at the middle XVII century (1635 AD. The building has a rectangle shape plan (13 × 6 m with the longitudinal sides approximately WNW-ESE. It comprises three storages namely; the ground floor; the opened floor (RADWAN Bench and the living floor with a total elevation of 15 m above the street level. The building suffers from severe deterioration phenomena with patterns of damage which have occurred over time. These deterioration and damages could be attributed to foundation problems, subsoil water and also to the earthquake that affected the entire Greater Cairo area in October 1992. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR scan was accomplished against the walls of the opened floor (RADWAN Bench to evaluate the hazard impact on the walls textures and integrity. The results showed an anomalous feature through the southern wall of RADWAN Bench. A mathematical model has been simulated to confirm the obtained anomaly and the model response exhibited a good matching with the outlined anomaly.

  8. Radionuclide brain scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Dayem, H.

    1992-01-01

    At one stage of medical imaging development, radionuclide brain scanning was the only technique available for imaging of the brain. Advent of CT and MRI pushed it to the background. It regained some of the grounds lost to ''allied advances'' with the introduction of brain perfusion radiopharmaceuticals. Positron emission tomography is a promising functional imaging modality that at present will remain as a research tool in special centres in developed countries. However, clinically useful developments will gradually percolate from PET to SPECT. The non-nuclear imaging methods are totally instrument dependent; they are somewhat like escalators, which can go that far and no further. Nuclear imaging has an unlimited scope for advance because of the new developments in radiopharmaceuticals. As the introduction of a radiopharmaceutical is less costly than buying new instruments, the recent advances in nuclear imaging are gradually perfusing through the developing countries also. Therefore, it is essential to follow very closely PET developments because what is research today might become routine tomorrow

  9. LANL Robotic Vessel Scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webber, Nels W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-11-25

    Los Alamos National Laboratory in J-1 DARHT Operations Group uses 6ft spherical vessels to contain hazardous materials produced in a hydrodynamic experiment. These contaminated vessels must be analyzed by means of a worker entering the vessel to locate, measure, and document every penetration mark on the vessel. If the worker can be replaced by a highly automated robotic system with a high precision scanner, it will eliminate the risks to the worker and provide management with an accurate 3D model of the vessel presenting the existing damage with the flexibility to manipulate the model for better and more in-depth assessment.The project was successful in meeting the primary goal of installing an automated system which scanned a 6ft vessel with an elapsed time of 45 minutes. This robotic system reduces the total time for the original scope of work by 75 minutes and results in excellent data accumulation and transmission to the 3D model imaging program.

  10. Gastrointestinal scanning agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, M.D.

    1980-01-01

    An easily prepared radiolabeled gastrointestinal scanning agent is described. Technetium-99m has ideal characteristics for imaging the upper and lower GI tract and determining stomach emptying and intestinal transit time when used with an insoluble particulate material. For example, crystalline and amorphous calcium phosphate particles can be effectively labeled in a one-step process using sup(99m)TcO 4 and SnCl 2 . These labeled particles have insignificant mass and when administered orally pass through the GI tract unchanged, without affecting the handling and density of the intestinal contents. Visualization of the esophageal entry into the stomach, the greater and lesser curvatures of the stomach, ejection into the duodenum, and rates of passage through the upper and lower GI tract are obtained. The slurry of sup(99m)TC particulate can be given rectally by enema. Good images of the cecum and the ascending, transverse, and descending colon are obtained. Mucosal folds and the splenic and hepatic flexures are visualized. The resilience of the large intestine is also readily visualized by pneumocolonographic techniques. (author)

  11. Radionuclide brain scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Dayem, H

    1993-12-31

    At one stage of medical imaging development, radionuclide brain scanning was the only technique available for imaging of the brain. Advent of CT and MRI pushed it to the background. It regained some of the grounds lost to ``allied advances`` with the introduction of brain perfusion radiopharmaceuticals. Positron emission tomography is a promising functional imaging modality that at present will remain as a research tool in special centres in developed countries. However, clinically useful developments will gradually percolate from PET to SPECT. The non-nuclear imaging methods are totally instrument dependent; they are somewhat like escalators, which can go that far and no further. Nuclear imaging has an unlimited scope for advance because of the new developments in radiopharmaceuticals. As the introduction of a radiopharmaceutical is less costly than buying new instruments, the recent advances in nuclear imaging are gradually perfusing through the developing countries also. Therefore, it is essential to follow very closely PET developments because what is research today might become routine tomorrow

  12. Development of breast cancer irradiation technique for BNCT at JRR-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Takemi; Horiguchi, Hironori; Arai, Masaji; Yanagie, Hironobu

    2014-06-01

    In the Department of Research Reactor and Tandem Accelerator, developments of irradiation technique with application enlargement for breast cancer on BNCT have been performed in the second medium term plans. We compiled this report about the technological development to solve several problems with the irradiation of breast cancer in the medical irradiation facility of JRR-4. In the present study, design fabrication of a collimator for breast cancer, dose evaluation analysis by clinical model, investigation of dose enhancement at deeper region and investigation of fixing method for breast cancer irradiation were studied. By these evaluation results, we verified that the developed breast cancer irradiation technique can be applied to BNCT medical irradiation of JRR-4. These results are expected to be able to contribute to breast cancer irradiation techniques of other reactor-based BNCT and future accelerator-based BNCT. (author)

  13. Optical Imaging of the Breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Min Jung; Kim, Eun Kyung

    2011-01-01

    As the increased prevalence of breast cancer and the advances in breast evaluation awareness have resulted in an increased number of breast examinations and benign breast biopsies, several investigations have been performed to improve the diagnostic accuracy for breast lesions. Optical imaging of the breast that uses nearinfrared light to assess the optical properties of breast tissue is a novel non-invasive imaging technique to characterize breast lesions in clinical practice. This review provides a summary of the current state of optical breast imaging and it describes the basic concepts of optical imaging, the potential clinical applications for breast cancer imaging and its potential incorporation with other imaging modalities

  14. The computation of fixed points and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Todd, Michael J

    1976-01-01

    Fixed-point algorithms have diverse applications in economics, optimization, game theory and the numerical solution of boundary-value problems. Since Scarf's pioneering work [56,57] on obtaining approximate fixed points of continuous mappings, a great deal of research has been done in extending the applicability and improving the efficiency of fixed-point methods. Much of this work is available only in research papers, although Scarf's book [58] gives a remarkably clear exposition of the power of fixed-point methods. However, the algorithms described by Scarf have been super~eded by the more sophisticated restart and homotopy techniques of Merrill [~8,~9] and Eaves and Saigal [1~,16]. To understand the more efficient algorithms one must become familiar with the notions of triangulation and simplicial approxi- tion, whereas Scarf stresses the concept of primitive set. These notes are intended to introduce to a wider audience the most recent fixed-point methods and their applications. Our approach is therefore ...

  15. Fixed point theory in metric type spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwal, Ravi P; O’Regan, Donal; Roldán-López-de-Hierro, Antonio Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Written by a team of leading experts in the field, this volume presents a self-contained account of the theory, techniques and results in metric type spaces (in particular in G-metric spaces); that is, the text approaches this important area of fixed point analysis beginning from the basic ideas of metric space topology. The text is structured so that it leads the reader from preliminaries and historical notes on metric spaces (in particular G-metric spaces) and on mappings, to Banach type contraction theorems in metric type spaces, fixed point theory in partially ordered G-metric spaces, fixed point theory for expansive mappings in metric type spaces, generalizations, present results and techniques in a very general abstract setting and framework. Fixed point theory is one of the major research areas in nonlinear analysis. This is partly due to the fact that in many real world problems fixed point theory is the basic mathematical tool used to establish the existence of solutions to problems which arise natur...

  16. Living Beyond Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ACTH CAF CMF FAC TAC TC TCH TH THP Radiation Therapy Whole Breast Radiation Partial Breast Radiation ... Basics Treatments and Your Bone Health Bone Health Tests Improving Bone Health Medicines To Protect Bones Diet, ...

  17. Breast cancer imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funke, M.; Villena, C.

    2008-01-01

    Advances in female breast imaging have substantially influenced the diagnosis, therapy, and prognosis of breast cancer in the past few years. Mammography using conventional or digital technique is considered the gold standard for the early detection of breast cancer. Other modalities such as breast ultrasound and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of the breast play an important role in diagnostic imaging, staging, and follow-up of breast cancer. Percutaneous needle biopsy is a faster, less invasive, and more cost-effective method than surgical biopsy for verifying the histological diagnosis. New methods such as breast tomosynthesis, contrast-enhanced mammography, and positron emission tomography promise to further improve breast imaging. Further studies are mandatory to adapt these new methods to clinical needs and to evaluate their performance in clinical practice. (orig.) [de

  18. Inflammatory Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... white women. Inflammatory breast tumors are frequently hormone receptor negative, which means they cannot be treated with ...

  19. Cosmetic breast surgery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000273.htm Cosmetic breast surgery - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. You had cosmetic breast surgery to change the size or shape ...

  20. Breast cancer staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000911.htm Breast cancer staging To use the sharing features on this ... Once your health care team knows you have breast cancer , they will do more tests to stage it. ...

  1. TU-CD-207-09: Analysis of the 3-D Shape of Patients’ Breast for Breast Imaging and Surgery Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agasthya, G; Sechopoulos, I [Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Develop a method to accurately capture the 3-D shape of patients’ external breast surface before and during breast compression for mammography/tomosynthesis. Methods: During this IRB-approved, HIPAA-compliant study, 50 women were recruited to undergo 3-D breast surface imaging during breast compression and imaging for the cranio-caudal (CC) view on a digital mammography/breast tomosynthesis system. Digital projectors and cameras mounted on tripods were used to acquire 3-D surface images of the breast, in three conditions: (a) positioned on the support paddle before compression, (b) during compression by the compression paddle and (c) the anterior-posterior view with the breast in its natural, unsupported position. The breast was compressed to standard full compression with the compression paddle and a tomosynthesis image was acquired simultaneously with the 3-D surface. The 3-D surface curvature and deformation with respect to the uncompressed surface was analyzed using contours. The 3-D surfaces were voxelized to capture breast shape in a format that can be manipulated for further analysis. Results: A protocol was developed to accurately capture the 3-D shape of patients’ breast before and during compression for mammography. Using a pair of 3-D scanners, the 50 patient breasts were scanned in three conditions, resulting in accurate representations of the breast surfaces. The surfaces were post processed, analyzed using contours and voxelized, with 1 mm{sup 3} voxels, converting the breast shape into a format that can be easily modified as required. Conclusion: Accurate characterization of the breast curvature and shape for the generation of 3-D models is possible. These models can be used for various applications such as improving breast dosimetry, accurate scatter estimation, conducting virtual clinical trials and validating compression algorithms. Ioannis Sechopoulos is consultant for Fuji Medical Systems USA.

  2. 99mTc-MDP Bone Scan Findings in Various Clinical Stages of Malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Hwi Joong; Lee, Myung Chul; Cho, Bo Yeon; Kim, Noe Kyeong; Koh, Chang Soon

    1981-01-01

    Bone scans with 99m Tc-MDP (methylene diphosphonate) were obtained and analysed in 574 from April, 1979 to June, 1931. Clinical staging was done in all patients without bone scan information and compared with bone scan to determine the predictive value of bone scanning. 1) Primary site of the malignancies were lung in 152, breast in 97, stomach in 43, colon in 15, esophagus in 9, liver and pancreas in 11, kidney in 14, bladder in 27, prostate in 22, thyroid in 20, skin in 11, bone in 9, head and neck in 36, ovary and uterus in 17, hematopoietic and lymphoretic ular system in 33, nervous system in 10, and others in 9 cases. Primary site was not defined in 39 cases. 2) Bone scans were positive in 186 cases (32.4%), which, included 48 cases (31.6%) of lung cancer, 27 cases (27.8%) of breast cancer, 12 cases (28%) of stomach cancer, 6 cases (40%) of colon cancer, 6 cases (43%) of kidney tumor, 4 cases (15%) of bladder cancer, 14 cases (64%) of prostate cancer, 3 cases (15%) of thyroid cancer and 66 other cases. 3) Bone scans were suspicious in 64 cases (11.2%) which included 29 cases (19.1%) of lung cancer, 10 cases (10.3%) of breast cancer, 4 cases (9.3%) of stomach cancer, one case (7%) of colon cancer, 3 cases (11%) of bladder cancer, 2 cases (10%) of thyroid cancer and 15 other cases. 4) Out of 121 cases with early stage of malignancy (which included 20 cases of lung cancer in stage I, II, 38 cases of breast cancer, 13 cases of stomach cancer, 8 cases of kidney tumor, 14 cases of thyroid cancer in stage I-III, and 6 cases of colon cancer, 14 cases of bladder cancer, 8 cases of prostate cancer in stage A-C, bone scans were positive in 5 cases (4.1%) which included 3 cases of lung cancer one case of breast cancer and one case of prostate cancer, and considered as further advanced stage, Out of 121 cases with early stage of malignancy, bone scans were suspicious in 21 cases (17.4%) which included 9 cases of lung cancer, 4 cases of breast cancer, 2 cases of stomach

  3. Breast Self- Examination Contradiction

    OpenAIRE

    Ayla Akkas Gursoy

    2008-01-01

    Breast cancer is very important health problem among women in the World and Turkey. Although treatment chance is very rising and survival is getting longer thanks to early diagnosis in breast cancer. Some discussion is making related to breast self examination which is one of the early detection methods in recent years. This article consider the discussions about breast self examination under the historical development light. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(3.000): 257-260

  4. Breast Self- Examination Contradiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayla Akkas Gursoy

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is very important health problem among women in the World and Turkey. Although treatment chance is very rising and survival is getting longer thanks to early diagnosis in breast cancer. Some discussion is making related to breast self examination which is one of the early detection methods in recent years. This article consider the discussions about breast self examination under the historical development light. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(3.000: 257-260

  5. Breast cancer during pregnancy and lactation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meshikhes, Abdul-Wahed N.; Al-Mubarek, Mohammed A.; Al-Tufaif, Ahmed A.

    2004-01-01

    We report 3 cases of gestational breast cancer that were encountered by the authors over a year period (1998) and discuss the diagnostic dilemma and modern management options. The first case was a 38-year-old Saudi female who was 8 month pregnant presented with 3 month history of left breast lump and intermittent bloody nipple discharge. She started menarche at the age of 13 years and denied any past history of benign breast diseases or oral contraceptive pill. There was no family history of malignant breast disease. Clinical examination revealed an irregular hard lump (3x3 cm) in the subareolar area of the left breast with no palpable axillary or supraclavicular lymph nodes. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) showed infiltrating ductal carcinoma. She underwent left simple mastectomy and axillary clearance together with cesarian section (CS) and tubal ligation at the same time. Histology revealed grade II infiltrating ductal carcinoma with 2 of the 11 level I nodes were positive for malignancy. She later underwent adjuvant chemoradiation and remained well with no evidence of locoregional recurrence 34 months later. The second case was a 40-year-old Saudi female who has been lactating for 10 months presented with a left breast lump of one week duration. There was no history of breast pain or nipple discharge and denied any past history of benign breast disease. There was no family history of breast cancer. Clinically, there was a 2x3 cm irregular left breast mass, in the upper outer quadrant with no palpable axillary lymphadenopathy. Mammography revealed suspicious opacity in the left breast but bone scan and ultrasonography showed no bone or liver metastases. Fine needle aspiration cytology showed suspicious of malignancy. She underwent a wide excision and left axillary clearance. Histopathology showed grade II medullary carcinoma and 2 out of 20 axillary lymph nodes were malignant. She later underwent systemic chemotherapy and radiation to left breast and

  6. Broccoli Sprout Extract in Treating Patients With Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-06-04

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Ductal Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Estrogen Receptor Negative; Estrogen Receptor Positive; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Postmenopausal; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer

  7. ANALYSES ON DIFFERENTIALLY EXPRESSED GENES ASSOCIATED WITH HUMAN BREAST CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Xu-li; DING Xiao-wen; XU Xiao-hong

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the molecular etiology of breast cancer by way of studying the differential expression and initial function of the related genes in the occurrence and development of breast cancer. Methods: Two hundred and eighty-eight human tumor related genes were chosen for preparation of the oligochips probe. mRNA was extracted from 16 breast cancer tissues and the corresponding normal breast tissues, and cDNA probe was prepared through reverse-transcription and hybridized with the gene chip. A laser focused fluorescent scanner was used to scan the chip. The different gene expressions were thereafter automatically compared and analyzed between the two sample groups. Cy3/Cy5>3.5 meant significant up-regulation. Cy3/Cy5<0.25 meant significant down-regulation. Results: The comparison between the breast cancer tissues and their corresponding normal tissues showed that 84 genes had differential expression in the Chip. Among the differently expressed genes, there were 4 genes with significant down-regulation and 6 with significant up-regulation. Compared with normal breast tissues, differentially expressed genes did partially exist in the breast cancer tissues. Conclusion: Changes in multi-gene expression regulations take place during the occurrence and development of breast cancer; and the research on related genes can help understanding the mechanism of tumor occurrence.

  8. A fixed target facility at the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loken, S.; Morfin, J.G.

    1984-01-01

    The question of whether a facility for fixed target physics should be provided at the SSC must be answered before the final technical design of the SSC can be completed, particularly if the eventual form of extraction would influence the magnet design. To this end, an enthusiastic group of experimentalists, theoreticians and accelerator specialists have studied this point. The accelerator physics issues were addressed by a group whose report is contained in these proceedings. The physics addressable by fixed target was considered by many of the Physics area working groups and in particular by the Structure Function Group. This report is the summary of the working group which considered various SSC fixed target experiments and determined which types of beams and detectors would be required

  9. Fixed point algebras for easy quantum groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gabriel, Olivier; Weber, Moritz

    2016-01-01

    Compact matrix quantum groups act naturally on Cuntz algebras. The first author isolated certain conditions under which the fixed point algebras under this action are Kirchberg algebras. Hence they are completely determined by their K-groups. Building on prior work by the second author,we prove...... that free easy quantum groups satisfy these conditions and we compute the K-groups of their fixed point algebras in a general form. We then turn to examples such as the quantum permutation group S+ n,the free orthogonal quantum group O+ n and the quantum reflection groups Hs+ n. Our fixed point......-algebra construction provides concrete examples of free actions of free orthogonal easy quantum groups,which are related to Hopf-Galois extensions....

  10. Fixed target facility at the SSC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loken, S.C.; Morfin, J.G.

    1985-01-01

    The question of whether a facility for fixed target physics should be provided at the SSC must be answered before the final technical design of the SSC can be completed, particularly if the eventual form of extraction would influence the magnet design. To this end, an enthusiastic group of experimentalists, theoreticians and accelerator specialists have studied this point. The accelerator physics issues were addressed by a group led by E. Colton whose report is contained in these proceedings. The physics addressable by fixed target was considered by many of the Physics area working groups and in particular by the Structure Function Group. This report is the summary of the working group which considered various SSC fixed target experiments and determined which types of beams and detectors would be required. 13 references, 5 figures.

  11. Fixed-site physical protection system modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, L.D.

    1975-01-01

    An evaluation of a fixed-site safeguard security system must consider the interrelationships of barriers, alarms, on-site and off-site guards, and their effectiveness against a forcible adversary attack whose intention is to create an act of sabotage or theft. A computer model has been developed at Sandia Laboratories for the evaluation of alternative fixed-site security systems. Trade-offs involving on-site and off-site response forces and response times, perimeter alarm systems, barrier configurations, and varying levels of threat can be analyzed. The computer model provides a framework for performing inexpensive experiments on fixed-site security systems for testing alternative decisions, and for determining the relative cost effectiveness associated with these decision policies

  12. Fixed target facility at the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loken, S.C.; Morfin, J.G.

    1985-01-01

    The question of whether a facility for fixed target physics should be provided at the SSC must be answered before the final technical design of the SSC can be completed, particularly if the eventual form of extraction would influence the magnet design. To this end, an enthusiastic group of experimentalists, theoreticians and accelerator specialists have studied this point. The accelerator physics issues were addressed by a group led by E. Colton whose report is contained in these proceedings. The physics addressable by fixed target was considered by many of the Physics area working groups and in particular by the Structure Function Group. This report is the summary of the working group which considered various SSC fixed target experiments and determined which types of beams and detectors would be required. 13 references, 5 figures

  13. Permanent magnet finger-size scanning electron microscope columns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelliyan, K., E-mail: elenk@nus.edu.sg [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Khursheed, A. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)

    2011-07-21

    This paper presents permanent magnet scanning electron microscope (SEM) designs for both tungsten and field emission guns. Each column makes use of permanent magnet technology and operates at a fixed primary beam voltage. A prototype column operating at a beam voltage of 15 kV was made and tested inside the specimen chamber of a conventional SEM. A small electrostatic stigmator unit and dedicated scanning coils were integrated into the column. The scan coils were wound directly around the objective lens iron core in order to reduce its size. Preliminary experimental images of a test grid specimen were obtained through the prototype finger-size column, demonstrating that it is in principle feasible.

  14. Optimal scanning and image processing with the STEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crewe, A.V.; Ohtsuki, M.

    1981-01-01

    We have recently published a theory of an optimal scanning system which is particularly suited for the STEM. One concludes from the theory that the diffraction limit of the electron probe should be a fixed fraction of the full-scale deflection in order to avoid scanning artifacts. More recently, we have confirmed the value of this technique by direct experiments. Our program now is to combine the use of optimal scanning with the use of a programmable digital refresh memory for image analysis. Limited experience to date indicates that false color conversion is probably more useful than histogram equalization in black and white and that this system is particularly valuable for rotational averaging and selected area Fourier transforms. (orig.)

  15. Permanent magnet finger-size scanning electron microscope columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelliyan, K.; Khursheed, A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents permanent magnet scanning electron microscope (SEM) designs for both tungsten and field emission guns. Each column makes use of permanent magnet technology and operates at a fixed primary beam voltage. A prototype column operating at a beam voltage of 15 kV was made and tested inside the specimen chamber of a conventional SEM. A small electrostatic stigmator unit and dedicated scanning coils were integrated into the column. The scan coils were wound directly around the objective lens iron core in order to reduce its size. Preliminary experimental images of a test grid specimen were obtained through the prototype finger-size column, demonstrating that it is in principle feasible.

  16. Theory of a Quantum Scanning Microscope for Cold Atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, D; Laflamme, C; Vasilyev, D V; Baranov, M A; Zoller, P

    2018-03-30

    We propose and analyze a scanning microscope to monitor "live" the quantum dynamics of cold atoms in a cavity QED setup. The microscope measures the atomic density with subwavelength resolution via dispersive couplings to a cavity and homodyne detection within the framework of continuous measurement theory. We analyze two modes of operation. First, for a fixed focal point the microscope records the wave packet dynamics of atoms with time resolution set by the cavity lifetime. Second, a spatial scan of the microscope acts to map out the spatial density of stationary quantum states. Remarkably, in the latter case, for a good cavity limit, the microscope becomes an effective quantum nondemolition device, such that the spatial distribution of motional eigenstates can be measured backaction free in single scans, as an emergent quantum nondemolition measurement.

  17. Tubercular breast abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep S Jadhav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tubercular breast abscess is a rare clinical entity and affects women from mainly the Indian subcontinent. It often mimics breast carcinoma and pyogenic breast abscess clinically. Routine laboratory investigations are not helpful in the diagnosis. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC or biopsy is essential for diagnosis, and tuberculous culture when positive may be very useful to start antitubercular treatment.

  18. Breast sarcomas. Literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Ryabchikov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an overview of the literature about breast sarcomas (nonepithelial malignances. Primary sarcomas are extremely rare, with less than 1 % of all malignant tumors of the breast. Breast carcinomas cause an increased interest of the scientists due to their unique clinical and pathological features and unpredictable prognosis.

  19. Risks of Breast Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have a risk of developing a type of cancer called breast implant-associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma (BIA-ALCL) in the breast tissue surrounding the implant. BIA-ALCL is not breast cancer. Women diagnosed with BIA-ALCL may need to ...

  20. Breast Cancer (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Breast Cancer KidsHealth / For Kids / Breast Cancer What's in this ... for it when they are older. What Is Breast Cancer? The human body is made of tiny building ...