WorldWideScience

Sample records for scanning electron microscopic

  1. Scanning transmission electron microscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruit, P.

    2006-01-01

    The invention relates to a scanning transmission electron microscope comprising an electron source, an electron accelerator and deflection means for directing electrons emitted by the electron source at an object to be examined, and in addition a detector for detecting electrons coming from the

  2. Scanning transmission electron microscope

    OpenAIRE

    Kruit, P.

    2006-01-01

    The invention relates to a scanning transmission electron microscope comprising an electron source, an electron accelerator and deflection means for directing electrons emitted by the electron source at an object to be examined, and in addition a detector for detecting electrons coming from the object and, connected to the detector, a device for processing the detected electrons so as to form an object image, wherein a beam splitter is provided for dividing the electron beam from the electron...

  3. Scanning Auger Electron Microscope

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — A JEOL model 7830F field emission source, scanning Auger microscope.Specifications / Capabilities:Ultra-high vacuum (UHV), electron gun range from 0.1 kV to 25 kV,...

  4. A fluorescence scanning electron microscope

    OpenAIRE

    Kanemaru, Takaaki; Hirata, Kazuho; Takasu, Shin-ichi; Isobe, Shin-Ichiro; Mizuki, Keiji; Mataka, Shuntaro; Nakamura, Kei-ichiro

    2010-01-01

    Fluorescence techniques are widely used in biological research to examine molecular localization, while electron microscopy can provide unique ultrastructural information. To date, correlative images from both fluorescence and electron microscopy have been obtained separately using two different instruments, i.e. a fluorescence microscope (FM) and an electron microscope (EM). In the current study, a scanning electron microscope (SEM) (JEOL JXA8600 M) was combined with a fluorescence digital c...

  5. Multibeam scanning electron microscope : Experimental results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohammadi-Gheidari, A.; Hagen, C.W.; Kruit, P.

    2010-01-01

    The authors present the first results obtained with their multibeam scanning electron microscope. For the first time, they were able to image 196 (array of 14×14) focused beams of a multielectron beam source on a specimen using single beam scanning electron microscope (SEM) optics. The system

  6. Scanning Electron Microscope Analysis System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This facility provides the capability to examine surfaces microscopically with high resolution (5 nanometers), perform micro chemical analyses of these surfaces, and...

  7. Development of Scanning Ultrafast Electron Microscope Capability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Kimberlee Chiyoko [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Talin, Albert Alec [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Chandler, David W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Michael, Joseph R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Modern semiconductor devices rely on the transport of minority charge carriers. Direct examination of minority carrier lifetimes in real devices with nanometer-scale features requires a measurement method with simultaneously high spatial and temporal resolutions. Achieving nanometer spatial resolutions at sub-nanosecond temporal resolution is possible with pump-probe methods that utilize electrons as probes. Recently, a stroboscopic scanning electron microscope was developed at Caltech, and used to study carrier transport across a Si p-n junction [ 1 , 2 , 3 ] . In this report, we detail our development of a prototype scanning ultrafast electron microscope system at Sandia National Laboratories based on the original Caltech design. This effort represents Sandia's first exploration into ultrafast electron microscopy.

  8. Scanning electron microscopic observations on bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, C; Danylchuk, K D

    1977-01-01

    The maceration technique employed in the preparation of specimens of bone for museum purposes has also been found to be of use in the preparation of fresh specimens for study with the scanning electron microscope. The technique requires less technical supervision, permits a greater underprocessing to overprocessing margin, and allows comparability of recent biopsy material with previously macerated bone specimens with no less detail than that found by other authors using other techniques on biopsy material.

  9. Dopant profiling with the scanning electron microscope

    CERN Document Server

    Elliott, S L

    2001-01-01

    This dissertation is a detailed study of dopant profiling with the scanning electron microscope (SEM) using secondary electrons. The technique has been applied to a wide variety of doped silicon, gallium arsenide and gallium nitride semiconductor test structures as well as a metal-oxide field effect transistor and several light emitting diodes. A concise set of guide-lines are provided for users of this technique, including the optimum SEM operating conditions that should be used for maximum contrast, an image manipulation procedure, and the resolution and sensitivity limits that can be expected. Dopant contrast observed with the SEM has been studied over the past few years by a number of researchers, and a theory for the contrast has evolved. This theory considers the patch fields outside the specimen to be the dominant factor determining the secondary electron intensity. In this dissertation the contrast mechanism has been further investigated by examining the contrast at different temperatures and after su...

  10. Cathodoluminescence in the scanning transmission electron microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kociak, M., E-mail: mathieu.kociak@u-psud.fr [Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, Université Paris-SudParis-Sud, CNRS-UMR 8502, Orsay 91405 (France); Zagonel, L.F. [“Gleb Wataghin” Institute of Physics University of Campinas - UNICAMP, 13083-859 Campinas, São Paulo (Brazil)

    2017-05-15

    Cathodoluminescence (CL) is a powerful tool for the investigation of optical properties of materials. In recent years, its combination with scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) has demonstrated great success in unveiling new physics in the field of plasmonics and quantum emitters. Most of these results were not imaginable even twenty years ago, due to conceptual and technical limitations. The purpose of this review is to present the recent advances that broke these limitations, and the new possibilities offered by the modern STEM-CL technique. We first introduce the different STEM-CL operating modes and the technical specificities in STEM-CL instrumentation. Two main classes of optical excitations, namely the coherent one (typically plasmons) and the incoherent one (typically light emission from quantum emitters) are investigated with STEM-CL. For these two main classes, we describe both the physics of light production under electron beam irradiation and the physical basis for interpreting STEM-CL experiments. We then compare STEM-CL with its better known sister techniques: scanning electron microscope CL, photoluminescence, and electron energy-loss spectroscopy. We finish by comprehensively reviewing recent STEM-CL applications. - Highlights: • Reviews the field of STEM-CL. • Introduces the technical requirements and challenges for STEM-CL. • Introduces the different types of excitations probed by STEM-CL. • Gives comprehensive overview of the last fifteenth years in the field.

  11. Wettability study using transmitted electrons in environmental scanning electron microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkay, Z.

    2010-05-01

    A method for quantitative wettability study at nanoscale is presented. It is based on measuring transmitted electrons through nanodroplets using wet scanning transmission electron microscope (wet-STEM) detector in environmental scanning electron microscope. The quantitative information of the nanodroplet shape and contact angle is obtained by fitting Monte Carlo simulation results for transmitted electrons through spherical cap geometry with the experimental wet-STEM results. The characterization is demonstrated for particles and for initial stages of water droplet condensation over a nonhomogeneous holey carbon grid. The method is suggested for application in thin polymer and biological films.

  12. Scanning electron microscopic evaluation of root canal surfaces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-07-15

    50. How to cite this article: Hema BS, Chandu GS, Shiraguppi VL. Scanning electron microscopic evaluation of root canal surfaces prepared with three rotary endodontic systems: Lightspeed, ProTaper and EndoWave. Niger J.

  13. Dental Wear: A Scanning Electron Microscope Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Levrini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental wear can be differentiated into different types on the basis of morphological and etiological factors. The present research was carried out on twelve extracted human teeth with dental wear (three teeth showing each type of wear: erosion, attrition, abrasion, and abfraction studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The study aimed, through analysis of the macro- and micromorphological features of the lesions (considering the enamel, dentin, enamel prisms, dentinal tubules, and pulp, to clarify the different clinical and diagnostic presentations of dental wear and their possible significance. Our results, which confirm current knowledge, provide a complete overview of the distinctive morphology of each lesion type. It is important to identify the type of dental wear lesion in order to recognize the contributing etiological factors and, consequently, identify other more complex, nondental disorders (such as gastroesophageal reflux, eating disorders. It is clear that each type of lesion has a specific morphology and mechanism, and further clinical studies are needed to clarify the etiological processes, particularly those underlying the onset of abfraction.

  14. Comparative study of image contrast in scanning electron microscope and helium ion microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, R; Chen, Y; Zhang, H; Zhou, Y; Fox, D; Maguire, P; Wang, J J; Rodenburg, C

    2017-12-01

    Images of Ga+ -implanted amorphous silicon layers in a 110 n-type silicon substrate have been collected by a range of detectors in a scanning electron microscope and a helium ion microscope. The effects of the implantation dose and imaging parameters (beam energy, dwell time, etc.) on the image contrast were investigated. We demonstrate a similar relationship for both the helium ion microscope Everhart-Thornley and scanning electron microscope Inlens detectors between the contrast of the images and the Ga+ density and imaging parameters. These results also show that dynamic charging effects have a significant impact on the quantification of the helium ion microscope and scanning electron microscope contrast. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2017 Royal Microscopical Society.

  15. New Scanning Electron Microscope Used for Cryogenic Tensile Testing

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2013-01-01

    At CERN engineering department's installation for cryogenic tensile testing, the new scanning electron microscope (SEM) allows for detailed optical observations to be carried out. Using the SEM, surface coatings and tensile properties of materials can investigated in order to better understand how they behave under different conditions.

  16. Scanning electron microscopic evaluation of root canal surfaces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scanning electron microscopic evaluation of root canal surfaces prepared with three rotary endodontic systems: Lightspeed, ProTaper and EndoWave. ... presence or absence of debris and smear layer and the photographs were taken at coronal, middle and apical 1/3 with a magnification of ~200 and ~1000 respectively.

  17. Transmission environmental scanning electron microscope with scintillation gaseous detection device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danilatos, Gerasimos, E-mail: gerry@danilatos.com [ESEM Research Laboratory, 28 Wallis Parade, North Bondi, NSW 2026 (Australia); Kollia, Mary [Laboratory of Electron Microscopy and Microanalysis, School of Natural Sciences, University of Patras, GR-26504 Patras (Greece); Dracopoulos, Vassileios [Foundation for Research & Technology-Hellas (FORTH), Institute of Chemical Engineering Sciences (ICE-HT), Stadiou Str., Platani P.O.Box 1414, GR-26504 Patras (Greece)

    2015-03-15

    A transmission environmental scanning electron microscope with use of a scintillation gaseous detection device has been implemented. This corresponds to a transmission scanning electron microscope but with addition of a gaseous environment acting both as environmental and detection medium. A commercial type of low vacuum machine has been employed together with appropriate modifications to the detection configuration. This involves controlled screening of various emitted signals in conjunction with a scintillation gaseous detection device already provided with the machine for regular surface imaging. Dark field and bright field imaging has been obtained along with other detection conditions. With a progressive series of modifications and tests, the theory and practice of a novel type of microscopy is briefly shown now ushering further significant improvements and developments in electron microscopy as a whole. - Highlights: • Novel scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) with an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) called TESEM. • Use of the gaseous detection device (GDD) in scintillation mode that allows high resolution bright and dark field imaging in the TESEM. • Novel approach towards a unification of both vacuum and environmental conditions in both bulk/surface and transmission mode of electron microscopy.

  18. Closed-Loop Autofocus Scheme for Scanning Electron Microscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Le

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a full scale autofocus approach for scanning electron microscope (SEM. The optimal focus (in-focus position of the microscope is achieved by maximizing the image sharpness using a vision-based closed-loop control scheme. An iterative optimization algorithm has been designed using the sharpness score derived from image gradient information. The proposed method has been implemented and validated using a tungsten gun SEM at various experimental conditions like varying raster scan speed, magnification at real-time. We demonstrate that the proposed autofocus technique is accurate, robust and fast.

  19. Black hairy tongue. A scanning electron microscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Y; Gaafar, H

    1977-01-01

    A patient with tongue malignancy associated with a black hairy tongue is presented. Specimens from e area fo the black hairy tongue and from a normally appearing part were studied with the scanning electron microscope. The "hairs" consisted of elongated filiform papillae due to accumulated keratinized layers. In-between these layers, fungi and bacteria were found. The aetiology of the blck hairy tongue in this patient is discussed.

  20. Simulation of scanning transmission electron microscope images on desktop computers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwyer, C., E-mail: christian.dwyer@mcem.monash.edu.au [Monash Centre for Electron Microscopy, Department of Materials Engineering, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia)

    2010-02-15

    Two independent strategies are presented for reducing the computation time of multislice simulations of scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) images: (1) optimal probe sampling, and (2) the use of desktop graphics processing units. The first strategy is applicable to STEM images generated by elastic and/or inelastic scattering, and requires minimal effort for its implementation. Used together, these two strategies can reduce typical computation times from days to hours, allowing practical simulation of STEM images of general atomic structures on a desktop computer.

  1. [Enamel bundles and lamellae under the scanning electron microscope].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bures, H; Svejda, J

    1976-01-01

    Lamellae, tufts and cracks were found in the enamel near the dentionenamel junction. When investigated by the scanning electron microscop, lamellae and tufts were very similar to each other as to their structure. Lamellae appeared in two kinds: 1. Organic material originating in the dentionenamel membrane filled the whole space. 2. The space was empty, yet an organic membrane was covering the walls of adjacent prisms. Tufts and lamellae differed merely in their lenght. The walls of the cracks lacked organic material, the prisms being damaged or their course interrupted.

  2. Characteristics of different frequency ranges in scanning electron microscope images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, K. S., E-mail: kssim@mmu.edu.my; Nia, M. E.; Tan, T. L.; Tso, C. P.; Ee, C. S. [Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Multimedia University, 75450 Melaka (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    We demonstrate a new approach to characterize the frequency range in general scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. First, pure frequency images are generated from low frequency to high frequency, and then, the magnification of each type of frequency image is implemented. By comparing the edge percentage of the SEM image to the self-generated frequency images, we can define the frequency ranges of the SEM images. Characterization of frequency ranges of SEM images benefits further processing and analysis of those SEM images, such as in noise filtering and contrast enhancement.

  3. Adaptive noise Wiener filter for scanning electron microscope imaging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, K S; Teh, V; Nia, M E

    2016-01-01

    Noise on scanning electron microscope (SEM) images is studied. Gaussian noise is the most common type of noise in SEM image. We developed a new noise reduction filter based on the Wiener filter. We compared the performance of this new filter namely adaptive noise Wiener (ANW) filter, with four common existing filters as well as average filter, median filter, Gaussian smoothing filter and the Wiener filter. Based on the experiments results the proposed new filter has better performance on different noise variance comparing to the other existing noise removal filters in the experiments. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Miniaturized Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope for In Situ Planetary Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskin, Jessica; Abbott, Terry; Medley, Stephanie; Gregory, Don; Thaisen, Kevin; Taylor , Lawrence; Ramsey, Brian; Jerman, Gregory; Sampson, Allen; Harvey, Ralph

    2010-01-01

    The exploration of remote planetary surfaces calls for the advancement of low power, highly-miniaturized instrumentation. Instruments of this nature that are capable of multiple types of analyses will prove to be particularly useful as we prepare for human return to the moon, and as we continue to explore increasingly remote locations in our Solar System. To this end, our group has been developing a miniaturized Environmental-Scanning Electron Microscope (mESEM) capable of remote investigations of mineralogical samples through in-situ topographical and chemical analysis on a fine scale. The functioning of an SEM is well known: an electron beam is focused to nanometer-scale onto a given sample where resulting emissions such as backscattered and secondary electrons, X-rays, and visible light are registered. Raster scanning the primary electron beam across the sample then gives a fine-scale image of the surface topography (texture), crystalline structure and orientation, with accompanying elemental composition. The flexibility in the types of measurements the mESEM is capable of, makes it ideally suited for a variety of applications. The mESEM is appropriate for use on multiple planetary surfaces, and for a variety of mission goals (from science to non-destructive analysis to ISRU). We will identify potential applications and range of potential uses related to planetary exploration. Over the past few of years we have initiated fabrication and testing of a proof-of-concept assembly, consisting of a cold-field-emission electron gun and custom high-voltage power supply, electrostatic electron-beam focusing column, and scanning-imaging electronics plus backscatter detector. Current project status will be discussed. This effort is funded through the NASA Research Opportunities in Space and Earth Sciences - Planetary Instrument Definition and Development Program.

  5. Simulation and Characterization of a Miniaturized Scanning Electron Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskin, Jessica A.; Jerman, Gregory A.; Medley, Stephanie; Gregory, Don; Abbott, Terry O.; Sampson, Allen R.

    2011-01-01

    A miniaturized Scanning Electron Microscope (mSEM) for in-situ lunar investigations is being developed at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center with colleagues from the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH), Advanced Research Systems (ARS), the University of Tennessee in Knoxville (UTK) and Case Western Reserve University (CWRU). This effort focuses on the characterization of individual components of the mSEM and simulation of the complete system. SEMs can provide information on the size, shape, morphology and chemical composition of lunar regolith. Understanding these basic properties will allow us to better estimate the challenges associated with In-Situ Resource Utilization and to improve our basic science knowledge of the lunar surface (either precluding the need for sample return or allowing differentiation of unique samples to be returned to Earth.) The main components of the mSEM prototype includes: a cold field emission electron gun (CFEG), focusing lens, deflection/scanning system and backscatter electron detector. Of these, the electron gun development is of particular importance as it dictates much of the design of the remaining components. A CFEG was chosen for use with the lunar mSEM as its emission does not depend on heating of the tungsten emitter (lower power), it offers a long operation lifetime, is orders of magnitude brighter than tungsten hairpin guns, has a small source size and exhibits low beam energy spread.

  6. Standard practice for scanning electron microscope beam Size characterization

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2004-01-01

    1.1 This practice provides a reproducible means by which one aspect of the performance of a scanning electron microscope (SEM) may be characterized. The resolution of an SEM depends on many factors, some of which are electron beam voltage and current, lens aberrations, contrast in the specimen, and operator-instrument-material interaction. However, the resolution for any set of conditions is limited by the size of the electron beam. This size can be quantified through the measurement of an effective apparent edge sharpness for a number of materials, two of which are suggested. This practice requires an SEM with the capability to perform line-scan traces, for example, Y-deflection waveform generation, for the suggested materials. The range of SEM magnification at which this practice is of utility is from 1000 to 50 000 × . Higher magnifications may be attempted, but difficulty in making precise measurements can be expected. 1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, ass...

  7. Lagrange time delay estimation for scanning electron microscope image magnification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, K-S; Thong, L W; Ting, H Y; Tso, C P

    2010-02-01

    Interpolation techniques that are used for image magnification to obtain more useful details of the surface such as morphology and mechanical contrast usually rely on the signal information distributed around edges and areas of sharp changes and these signal information can also be used to predict missing details from the sample image. However, many of these interpolation methods tend to smooth or blur out image details around the edges. In the present study, a Lagrange time delay estimation interpolator method is proposed and this method only requires a small filter order and has no noticeable estimation bias. Comparing results with the original scanning electron microscope magnification and results of various other interpolation methods, the Lagrange time delay estimation interpolator is found to be more efficient, more robust and easier to execute.

  8. Trichomes of Cannabis sativa as viewed with scanning electron microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledbetter, M.C.; Krikorian, A.D.

    1975-06-01

    Direct examination of fresh, unfixed and uncoated specimens from vegetative and floral parts of Cannabis sativa with the scanning electron microscope enables one to obtain a faithful representation of their surface morphology. The presence of two major types of trichomes has been confirmed: a glandular type comprising or terminating in a globoid structure, and a conically-shaped nonglandular type. Moreover, three or possibly four distinct glandular types can be distinguished: sessile globoid, small-stalked and large-stalked globoid, and a peltate type. The nonglandular trichomes can be distinguished by the nature of their surfaces: those with a warty surface, and those which are relatively smooth. The range of size and distribution, and the special features of all these types of trichomes are also provided.

  9. [Scanning electron microscopic study on newborn middle ear mucosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y

    1992-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopic studies were made on the mucosa of newborn middle ear. The results were: 1. The epithelial surface was found to contain four types of cell: the ciliated cell, the nonciliated cell without secretory granules (SG), the nonciliated cell with secretory granules (SG) and the flat cell. 2. The ciliated cell population appeared in the following order (from dense to sparse): eustachian tube, hypotympanum, antetympanum, epitympanum, promontory and post-tympanum. 3. The density of nonciliated cell without SG population was gradually increasing from anterior to posterior part of middle ear. 4. The population of nonciliated cell with SG was fewer and they were always found near the ciliated cells. 5. The flat cells were only seen on the flaccid part of tympanic membrane. This paper suggests that the ciliary system is basically mature and the development of mucus secreting members still is not perfect in newborn middle ear mucosa.

  10. Transmission electron imaging in the Delft multibeam scanning electron microscope 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ren, Y.; Kruit, P.

    2016-01-01

    Our group is developing a multibeam scanning electron microscope (SEM) with 196 beams in order to increase the throughput of SEM. Three imaging systems using, respectively, transmission electron detection, secondary electron detection, and backscatter electron detection are designed in order to

  11. Parallel electron-beam-induced deposition using a multi-beam scanning electron microscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, P.C.; Mohammadi-Gheidari, A.; Hagen, C.W.; Kruit, P.

    2011-01-01

    Lithography techniques based on electron-beam-induced processes are inherently slow compared to light lithography techniques. The authors demonstrate here that the throughput can be enhanced by a factor of 196 by using a scanning electron microscope equipped with a multibeam electron source. Using

  12. Scanning electron microscope automatic defect classification of process induced defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Scott; McGarvey, Steve

    2017-03-01

    With the integration of high speed Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) based Automated Defect Redetection (ADR) in both high volume semiconductor manufacturing and Research and Development (R and D), the need for reliable SEM Automated Defect Classification (ADC) has grown tremendously in the past few years. In many high volume manufacturing facilities and R and D operations, defect inspection is performed on EBeam (EB), Bright Field (BF) or Dark Field (DF) defect inspection equipment. A comma separated value (CSV) file is created by both the patterned and non-patterned defect inspection tools. The defect inspection result file contains a list of the inspection anomalies detected during the inspection tools' examination of each structure, or the examination of an entire wafers surface for non-patterned applications. This file is imported into the Defect Review Scanning Electron Microscope (DRSEM). Following the defect inspection result file import, the DRSEM automatically moves the wafer to each defect coordinate and performs ADR. During ADR the DRSEM operates in a reference mode, capturing a SEM image at the exact position of the anomalies coordinates and capturing a SEM image of a reference location in the center of the wafer. A Defect reference image is created based on the Reference image minus the Defect image. The exact coordinates of the defect is calculated based on the calculated defect position and the anomalies stage coordinate calculated when the high magnification SEM defect image is captured. The captured SEM image is processed through either DRSEM ADC binning, exporting to a Yield Analysis System (YAS), or a combination of both. Process Engineers, Yield Analysis Engineers or Failure Analysis Engineers will manually review the captured images to insure that either the YAS defect binning is accurately classifying the defects or that the DRSEM defect binning is accurately classifying the defects. This paper is an exploration of the feasibility of the

  13. Somatic Embryos in Catharanthus roseus: A Scanning Electron Microscopic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junaid ASLAM

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Catharanthus roseus (L. G. Don is an important medicinal plant as it contains several anti-cancerous compounds, like vinblastine and vincristine. Plant tissue culture technology (organogenesis and embryogenesis has currently been used in fast mass propagating raw materials for secondary metabolite synthesis. In this present communication, scanning electron microscopic (SEM study of somatic embryos was conducted and discussed. The embryogenic callus was first induced from hypocotyls of in vitro germinated seeds on which somatic embryos, differentiated in numbers, particularly on 2,4-D (1.0 mg/L Murashige and Skoog (MS was medium. To understand more about the regeneration method and in vitro formed embryos SEM was performed. The SEM study revealed normal somatic embryo origin and development from globular to heart-, torpedo- and then into cotyledonary-stage of embryos. At early stage, the embryos were clustered together in a callus mass and could not easily be detached from the parental tissue. The embryos were often long cylindrical structure with or without typical notch at the tip. Secondary embryos were also formed on primary embryo structure. The advanced cotyledonary embryos showed prominent roots and shoot axis, which germinated into plantlets. The morphology, structure and other details of somatic embryos at various stages were presented.

  14. Visualizing bone porosities using a tabletop scanning electron microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamoorthy, D.; DaPonte, J.; Broadbridge, C. C.; Daniel, D.; Alter, L.

    2010-04-01

    Pores are naturally occurring entities in bone. Changes in pore size and number are often associated with diseases such as Osteoporosis and even microgravity during spaceflight. Studying bone perforations may yield great insight into bone's material properties, including bone density and may contribute to identifying therapies to halt or potentially reverse bone loss. Current technologies used in this field include nuclear magnetic resonance, micro-computed tomography and the field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) 2, 5. However, limitations in each method limit further advancement. The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of using a new generation of analytical instruments, the TM-1000 tabletop, SEM with back-scatter electron (BSE) detector, to analyze cortical bone porosities. Hind limb unloaded and age-based controlled mouse femurs were extracted and tested in vitro for changes in pores on the periosteal surface. An important advantage of using the tabletop is the simplified sample preparation that excludes extra coatings, dehydration and fixation steps that are otherwise required for conventional SEM. For quantitative data, pores were treated as particles in order to use an analyze particles feature in the NIH ImageJ software. Several image-processing techniques for background smoothing, thresholding and filtering were employed to produce a binary image suitable for particle analysis. It was hypothesized that the unloaded bones would show an increase in pore area, as the lack of mechanical loading would affect bone-remodeling processes taking place in and around pores. Preliminary results suggest only a slight different in frequency but not in size of pores between unloaded and control femurs.

  15. Autofocus on moving object in scanning electron microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudryavtsev, Andrey V; Dembélé, Sounkalo; Piat, Nadine

    2017-11-01

    The sharpness of the images coming from a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) is a very important property for many computer vision applications at micro- and nanoscale. It represents how much object details are distinctive in the images: the object may be perceived sharp or blurred. Image sharpness highly depends on the value of focal distance, or working distance in the case of the SEM. Autofocus is the technique allowing to automatically adjust the working distance to maximize the sharpness. Most of the existing algorithms allows working only with a static object which is enough for the tasks of visualization, manual microanalysis or microcharacterization. These applications work with a low frame rate, less than 1 Hz, that guarantees a low level of noise. However, static autofocus can not be used for samples performing continuous 3D motion, which is the case of robotic applications where it is required to carry out a continuous 3D position measurement, e.g., nano-assembly or nanomanipulation. Moreover, in addition to constantly keeping object in focus while it is moving, it is required to perform the operation at high frame rate. The approach offering both these possibilities is presented in this paper and is referred as dynamic autofocus. The presented solution is based on stochastic optimization techniques. It allows tracking the maximum of the sharpness of the images without sweep and without training. It works under uncertainty conditions: presence of noise in images, unknown maximal sharpness and unknown 3D motion of the specimen. The experiments, that were performed with noisy images at high frame rate (5 Hz), were conducted on a Carl Zeiss Auriga 60 FE-SEM. They prove the robustness of the algorithm with respect to the variation of optimization parameters, object speed and magnification. Moreover, it is invariant to the object structure and its variation in time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Neural Network for Nanoscience Scanning Electron Microscope Image Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modarres, Mohammad Hadi; Aversa, Rossella; Cozzini, Stefano; Ciancio, Regina; Leto, Angelo; Brandino, Giuseppe Piero

    2017-10-16

    In this paper we applied transfer learning techniques for image recognition, automatic categorization, and labeling of nanoscience images obtained by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Roughly 20,000 SEM images were manually classified into 10 categories to form a labeled training set, which can be used as a reference set for future applications of deep learning enhanced algorithms in the nanoscience domain. The categories chosen spanned the range of 0-Dimensional (0D) objects such as particles, 1D nanowires and fibres, 2D films and coated surfaces, and 3D patterned surfaces such as pillars. The training set was used to retrain on the SEM dataset and to compare many convolutional neural network models (Inception-v3, Inception-v4, ResNet). We obtained compatible results by performing a feature extraction of the different models on the same dataset. We performed additional analysis of the classifier on a second test set to further investigate the results both on particular cases and from a statistical point of view. Our algorithm was able to successfully classify around 90% of a test dataset consisting of SEM images, while reduced accuracy was found in the case of images at the boundary between two categories or containing elements of multiple categories. In these cases, the image classification did not identify a predominant category with a high score. We used the statistical outcomes from testing to deploy a semi-automatic workflow able to classify and label images generated by the SEM. Finally, a separate training was performed to determine the volume fraction of coherently aligned nanowires in SEM images. The results were compared with what was obtained using the Local Gradient Orientation method. This example demonstrates the versatility and the potential of transfer learning to address specific tasks of interest in nanoscience applications.

  17. A versatile atomic force microscope integrated with a scanning electron microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreith, J.; Strunz, T.; Fantner, E. J.; Fantner, G. E.; Cordill, M. J.

    2017-05-01

    A versatile atomic force microscope (AFM), which can be installed in a scanning electron microscope (SEM), is introduced. The flexible design of the instrument enables correlated analysis for different experimental configurations, such as AFM imaging directly after nanoindentation in vacuum. In order to demonstrate the capabilities of the specially designed AFM installed inside a SEM, slip steps emanating around nanoindents in single crystalline brass were examined. This example showcases how the combination of AFM and SEM imaging can be utilized for quantitative dislocation analysis through the measurement of the slip step heights without the hindrance of oxide formation. Finally, an in situ nanoindentation technique is introduced, illustrating the use of AFM imaging during indentation experiments to examine plastic deformation occurring under the indenter tip. The mechanical indentation data are correlated to the SEM and AFM images to estimate the number of dislocations emitted to the surface.

  18. [Scanning electron microscope study of chemically disinfected endodontic files].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, G; Mateos, M; Navarro, J L; Canalda, C

    1991-01-01

    Forty stainless steel endodontic files were observed at scanning electron microscopy after being subjected to ten disinfection cycles of 10 minutes each one, immersed in different chemical disinfectants. Corrosion was not observed on the surface of the files in circumstances that this study was made.

  19. Angularly-selective transmission imaging in a scanning electron microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Jason; Keller, Robert R

    2016-08-01

    This work presents recent advances in transmission scanning electron microscopy (t-SEM) imaging control capabilities. A modular aperture system and a cantilever-style sample holder that enable comprehensive angular selectivity of forward-scattered electrons are described. When combined with a commercially available solid-state transmission detector having only basic bright-field and dark-field imaging capabilities, the advances described here enable numerous transmission imaging modes. Several examples are provided that demonstrate how contrast arising from diffraction to mass-thickness can be obtained. Unanticipated image contrast at some imaging conditions is also observed and addressed. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Angularly-selective transmission imaging in a scanning electron microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holm, Jason, E-mail: jason.holm@nist.gov; Keller, Robert R.

    2016-08-15

    This work presents recent advances in transmission scanning electron microscopy (t-SEM) imaging control capabilities. A modular aperture system and a cantilever-style sample holder that enable comprehensive angular selectivity of forward-scattered electrons are described. When combined with a commercially available solid-state transmission detector having only basic bright-field and dark-field imaging capabilities, the advances described here enable numerous transmission imaging modes. Several examples are provided that demonstrate how contrast arising from diffraction to mass-thickness can be obtained. Unanticipated image contrast at some imaging conditions is also observed and addressed. - Highlights: • A modular aperture system for STEM-in-SEM imaging is described. • A flexible cantilever sample holder that can maximize camera length is described. • The aperture system and sample holder enable complete acceptance angle control. • Most STEM imaging modes can be implemented without multi-segment detectors.

  1. Depth Sectioning with the Aberration-Corrected Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Albina Y. Borisevich; Andrew R. Lupini; Stephen J. Pennycook

    2006-01-01

    The ability to correct the aberrations of the probe-forming lens in the scanning transmission electron microscope provides not only a significant improvement in transverse resolution but in addition...

  2. Electron beam detection of a Nanotube Scanning Force Microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siria, Alessandro; Niguès, Antoine

    2017-09-14

    Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) allows to probe matter at atomic scale by measuring the perturbation of a nanomechanical oscillator induced by near-field interaction forces. The quest to improve sensitivity and resolution of AFM forced the introduction of a new class of resonators with dimensions at the nanometer scale. In this context, nanotubes are the ultimate mechanical oscillators because of their one dimensional nature, small mass and almost perfect crystallinity. Coupled to the possibility of functionalisation, these properties make them the perfect candidates as ultra sensitive, on-demand force sensors. However their dimensions make the measurement of the mechanical properties a challenging task in particular when working in cavity free geometry at ambient temperature. By using a focused electron beam, we show that the mechanical response of nanotubes can be quantitatively measured while approaching to a surface sample. By coupling electron beam detection of individual nanotubes with a custom AFM we image the surface topography of a sample by continuously measuring the mechanical properties of the nanoresonators. The combination of very small size and mass together with the high resolution of the electron beam detection method offers unprecedented opportunities for the development of a new class of nanotube-based scanning force microscopy.

  3. Advances in imaging and electron physics the scanning transmission electron microscope

    CERN Document Server

    Hawkes, Peter W

    2009-01-01

    Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics merges two long-running serials--Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics and Advances in Optical and Electron Microscopy. This series features extended articles on the physics of electron devices (especially semiconductor devices), particle optics at high and low energies, microlithography, image science and digital image processing, electromagnetic wave propagation, electron microscopy, and the computing methods used in all these domains.  This particular volume presents several timely articles on the scanning transmission electron microscope. Updated with contributions from leading international scholars and industry experts Discusses hot topic areas and presents current and future research trends Provides an invaluable reference and guide for physicists, engineers and mathematicians.

  4. Studies of Paramecium caudatum by means of scanning electron microscope and projection X-ray microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yada, Keiji; Abe, Taiki; Haga, Nobuyuki

    2009-01-01

    Samples of Paramecium caudatum are observed by means of a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and a projection X-ray microscope (XRM) with computer tomography (CT) function. The samples are fixed with two kinds of fixatives, glutaraldehyde and osmium-tetra oxide acid. After the fixation and replacement procedure with t-buthyl alcohol, the samples followed by a freeze drying, well retain their structures. Surface structures, cilia and microfibrillar systems including infraciliary lattice structures, are clearly depicted by SEM observation. On the other hand, XRM images give quite different information, namely, in the case of osmium oxide fixation, the structures of internal organelles like the macronucleus placed in the central part of cell body and trichocysts located under the cell membrane of a whole body are visible. In the case of glutaraldehyde fixation, the surface structures and internal structures are both visible but their image contrast is fairly weak. In order to examine toxicological effect, Paramecium caudatum samples treated in the environmental condition containing nano-particles of Ag (17 nm across) and Co-ferrite (300 nm across) are observed with results of certain morphological differences, namely, inner vacuoles increase in number and in volume in Co-ferrite treated cells as compared with Ag treated ones. But then, cilia-less areas increase on the surface of the body of Ag treated cells. In the case of Co-ferrite treated cells, cilia-less areas are not clearly detected. Whether these morphological differences observed in Ag and Co-ferrite treated cells are caused by the differences of materials or particle sizes remain to be examined in future.

  5. Bright-field scanning confocal electron microscopy using a double aberration-corrected transmission electron microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Peng; Behan, Gavin; Kirkland, Angus I. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Nellist, Peter D., E-mail: peter.nellist@materials.ox.ac.uk [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Cosgriff, Eireann C.; D' Alfonso, Adrian J.; Morgan, Andrew J.; Allen, Leslie J. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Hashimoto, Ayako [Advanced Nano-characterization Center, National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 3-13 Sakura, Tsukuba 305-0003 (Japan); Takeguchi, Masaki [Advanced Nano-characterization Center, National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 3-13 Sakura, Tsukuba 305-0003 (Japan); High Voltage Electron Microscopy Station, NIMS, 3-13 Sakura, Tsukuba 305-0003 (Japan); Mitsuishi, Kazutaka [Advanced Nano-characterization Center, National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 3-13 Sakura, Tsukuba 305-0003 (Japan); Quantum Dot Research Center, NIMS, 3-13 Sakura, Tsukuba 305-0003 (Japan); Shimojo, Masayuki [High Voltage Electron Microscopy Station, NIMS, 3-13 Sakura, Tsukuba 305-0003 (Japan); Advanced Science Research Laboratory, Saitama Institute of Technology, 1690 Fusaiji, Fukaya 369-0293 (Japan)

    2011-06-15

    Scanning confocal electron microscopy (SCEM) offers a mechanism for three-dimensional imaging of materials, which makes use of the reduced depth of field in an aberration-corrected transmission electron microscope. The simplest configuration of SCEM is the bright-field mode. In this paper we present experimental data and simulations showing the form of bright-field SCEM images. We show that the depth dependence of the three-dimensional image can be explained in terms of two-dimensional images formed in the detector plane. For a crystalline sample, this so-called probe image is shown to be similar to a conventional diffraction pattern. Experimental results and simulations show how the diffracted probes in this image are elongated in thicker crystals and the use of this elongation to estimate sample thickness is explored. -- Research Highlights: {yields} The confocal probe image in a scanning confocal electron microscopy image reveals information about the thickness and height of the crystalline layer. {yields} The form of the contrast in a three-dimensional bright-field scanning confocal electron microscopy image can be explained in terms of the confocal probe image. {yields} Despite the complicated form of the contrast in bright-field scanning confocal electron microscopy, we see that depth information is transferred on a 10 nm scale.

  6. Imaging systems in the Delft Multi-Beam Scanning Electron Microscope 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ren, Y.

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this Ph.D. research is to develop imaging systems for the multiple beam scanning electron microscope (MBSEM) built in Delft University of Technology. This thesis includes two imaging systems, transmission electron (TE) imaging system, and secondary electron (SE) imaging system. The major

  7. Three-dimensional optical transfer functions in the aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, L; Nellist, P D

    2014-05-01

    In the scanning transmission electron microscope, hardware aberration correctors can now correct for the positive spherical aberration of round electron lenses. These correctors make use of nonround optics such as hexapoles or octupoles, leading to the limiting aberrations often being of a nonround type. Here we explore the effect of a number of potential limiting aberrations on the imaging performance of the scanning transmission electron microscope through their resulting optical transfer functions. In particular, the response of the optical transfer function to changes in defocus are examined, given that this is the final aberration to be tuned just before image acquisition. The resulting three-dimensional optical transfer functions also allow an assessment of the performance of a system for focal-series experiments or optical sectioning applications. © 2014 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2014 Royal Microscopical Society.

  8. Scanning electron microscopic observation of the brown tumor of the head of mandible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunali, Selcuk; Celik, Hamdi H; Uslu, Sabri S; Aldur, Mustafa M

    2005-05-01

    Brown tumors are tumor-like, expansile osteolytic lesions of bone which are seen in both primary and secondary hyperparathyroidism. They generally resolve after surgical treatment of the parathyroid adenoma. Here, we report a case of brown tumor of the mandible of a cadaver with its scanning electron microscopic observation and review of literature.

  9. Examination of mycological samples by means of the scanning electron microscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Thibaut

    1973-04-01

    Full Text Available Three species of Siphomycetes: Rhizopus arhizus, Rhizopus equinus and Rhizopus nigricans, as well as a Septomycete: Emericella nidulans, have been examined by means of a scanning electron microscope. Among the difjerent Rhizopus, this technique showed differences in the appearance of the sporangia. In Emericella nidulans, scanning microscopy enábled one to ascertain that the "Hull cells" were completely hollow and also demonstrated the ornemented aspect of the ascospores.

  10. Method and apparatus for a high-resolution three dimensional confocal scanning transmission electron microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jonge, Niels [Oak Ridge, TN

    2010-08-17

    A confocal scanning transmission electron microscope which includes an electron illumination device providing an incident electron beam propagating in a direction defining a propagation axis, and a precision specimen scanning stage positioned along the propagation axis and movable in at least one direction transverse to the propagation axis. The precision specimen scanning stage is configured for positioning a specimen relative to the incident electron beam. A projector lens receives a transmitted electron beam transmitted through at least part of the specimen and focuses this transmitted beam onto an image plane, where the transmitted beam results from the specimen being illuminated by the incident electron beam. A detection system is placed approximately in the image plane.

  11. Corrections of magnification and focusing in a cathode lens-equipped scanning electron microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zobacová, J; Zobac, M; Oral, M; Müllerová, I; Frank, L

    2006-01-01

    One of the well-proven and efficient methods of obtaining a very low-energy impact of primary electrons in the scanning electron microscope is to introduce a retarding field element below the pole piece of the objective lens (OL). It is advantageous to use the specimen alone as the negatively biased electrode (i.e., cathode of the cathode lens). The optical power of the cathode lens modifies some of the standard parameters of the image formation such as relation of working distance to OL excitation or magnification to the scanning coils current, the impact angle of primary electrons, and so forth. In computer-controlled electron microscopes these parameters, particularly with regard to focusing and magnification, can be corrected automatically. Derivation of algorithms for such corrections and their experimental verifications are presented in this paper. Furthermore, a more accurate analytical expression for the focal length of an aperture lens is derived.

  12. Visualizing Morphological Changes of Abscission Zone Cells in Arabidopsis by Scanning Electron Microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Chun-Lin; Butenko, Melinka A

    2018-01-01

    Scanning electron microscope (SEM) is a type of electron microscope which produces detailed images of surface structures. It has been widely used in plants and animals to study cellular structures. Here, we describe a detailed protocol to prepare samples of floral abscission zones (AZs) for SEM, as well as further image analysis. We show that it is a powerful tool to detect morphologic changes at the cellular level during the course of abscission in wild-type plants and to establish the details of phenotypic alteration in abscission mutants.

  13. Design of Pixellated CMOS Photon Detector for Secondary Electron Detection in the Scanning Electron Microscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joon Huang Chuah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel method of detecting secondary electrons generated in the scanning electron microscope (SEM. The method suggests that the photomultiplier tube (PMT, traditionally used in the Everhart-Thornley (ET detector, is to be replaced with a configurable multipixel solid-state photon detector offering the advantages of smaller dimension, lower supply voltage and power requirements, and potentially cheaper product cost. The design of the proposed detector has been implemented using a standard 0.35 μm CMOS technology with optical enhancement. This microchip comprises main circuit constituents of an array of photodiodes connecting to respective noise-optimised transimpedance amplifiers (TIAs, a selector-combiner (SC circuit, and a postamplifier (PA. The design possesses the capability of detecting photons with low input optical power in the range of 1 nW with 100 μm × 100 μm sized photodiodes and achieves a total amplification of 180 dBΩ at the output.

  14. Optimal imaging techniques in the scanning transmission electron microscope: applications to biological macromolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsuki, M; Crewe, A V

    1980-01-01

    We show applications of the optimal imaging method to stained biological macromolecules. This optimal imaging method involves the following basic procedures: (i) for any given resolution, which is represented by the electron probe size in the scanning transmission electron microscope, a preferred magnification is used; (ii) the micrographs taken at the condition described above are then spatially filtered by using a low-pass filter (nu < 1/2d, in which d is the space between scan lines) to optically reconstruct the final optimal image. It is found that the micrographs obtained by using the optimal imaging method clearly show an improvement in contrast. Images PMID:6933454

  15. The Scanning Optical Microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, C. J. R.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the principle of the scanning optical microscope and explains its advantages over the conventional microscope in the improvement of resolution and contrast, as well as the possibility of producing a picture from optical harmonies generated within the specimen.

  16. Revealing the 1 nm/s Extensibility of Nanoscale Amorphous Carbon in a Scanning Electron Microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Wei

    2013-01-01

    In an ultra-high vacuum scanning electron microscope, the edged branches of amorphous carbon film (∼10 nm thickness) can be continuously extended with an eye-identifying speed (on the order of ∼1 nm/s) under electron beam. Such unusual mobility of amorphous carbon may be associated with deformati...... positive implications to explore some amorphous carbon as electron field emission device. SCANNING 35: 261-264, 2013. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.......In an ultra-high vacuum scanning electron microscope, the edged branches of amorphous carbon film (∼10 nm thickness) can be continuously extended with an eye-identifying speed (on the order of ∼1 nm/s) under electron beam. Such unusual mobility of amorphous carbon may be associated with deformation...... promoted by the electric field, which resulted from an inner secondary electron potential difference from the main trunk of carbon film to the tip end of branches under electron beam. This result demonstrates importance of applying electrical effects to modify properties of carbon materials. It may have...

  17. Scanning Electron Microscope Calibration Using a Multi-Image Non-Linear Minimization Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Le; Marchand, Éric

    2015-04-01

    A scanning electron microscope (SEM) calibrating approach based on non-linear minimization procedure is presented in this article. A part of this article has been published in IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), 2014. . Both the intrinsic parameters and the extrinsic parameters estimations are achieved simultaneously by minimizing the registration error. The proposed approach considers multi-images of a multi-scale calibration pattern view from different positions and orientations. Since the projection geometry of the scanning electron microscope is different from that of a classical optical sensor, the perspective projection model and the parallel projection model are considered and compared with distortion models. Experiments are realized by varying the position and the orientation of a multi-scale chessboard calibration pattern from 300× to 10,000×. The experimental results show the efficiency and the accuracy of this approach.

  18. Depth sectioning with the aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisevich, Albina Y.; Lupini, Andrew R.; Pennycook, Stephen J.

    2006-01-01

    The ability to correct the aberrations of the probe-forming lens in the scanning transmission electron microscope provides not only a significant improvement in transverse resolution but in addition brings depth resolution at the nanometer scale. Aberration correction therefore opens up the possibility of 3D imaging by optical sectioning. Here we develop a definition for the depth resolution for scanning transmission electron microscope depth sectioning and present initial results from this method. Objects such as catalytic metal clusters and single atoms on various support materials are imaged in three dimensions with a resolution of several nanometers. Effective focal depth is determined by statistical analysis and the contributing factors are discussed. Finally, current challenges and future capabilities available through new instruments are discussed. PMID:16492746

  19. Magnification-continuous static calibration model of a scanning-electron microscope.

    OpenAIRE

    Malti, Abed Choaib; Dembélé, Sounkalo; Piat, Nadine; Rougeot, Patrick; Salut, Roland

    2012-01-01

    International audience; We present a new calibration model of both static distortion and projection for a scanning-electron microscope (SEM). The proposed calibration model depends continuously on the magnification factor. State-of-the-art methods have proposed models to solve the static distortion and projection model but for a discrete set of low and high magnifications: at low magnifications, existing models assume static distortion and perspective projection. At high magnifications, exist...

  20. Solving Research Tasks Using Desk top Scanning Electron Microscope Phenom ProX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vertsanova, O.V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Phenom ProX — morden effective universal desktop Scanning Electron Microscope with integrated EDS system. Phenom-World helps customers to stay competitive in a world where critical dimensions are continuously getting smaller. All Phenom desktop systems give direct access to the high resolution and high-quality imaging and analysis required in a large variety of applications. They are affordable, flexible and a fast tool enabling engineers, technicians, researchers and educational professionals to investigate micron and submicron structures.

  1. Clinical and scanning electron microscopic assessments of porcelain and ceromer resin veneers.

    OpenAIRE

    Dhawan P; Prakash H; Shah N

    2003-01-01

    PURPOSE: Recently available Ceromer resin materials are promising for fabrication of esthetic anterior laminates and provices an alternative, cost effective treament modality to porcelain laminates for discolored anterior anterior teeth. It was proposed to study the esthetic quality and surface finish of veneers fbricated from ceromer resin and compare it with the standard porcelain veneers, both clinically as well as by scanning electron microscope (SEM) at baseline and at 12 months. If foun...

  2. Scanning Electron Microscopic Evaluation of Root Canal Irrigation with Saline, Sodium Hypochlorite, and Citric Acid,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    endodontic techniques; citric acid for root canal irrigation 4410,ABSTACgmf --,-,m- ,-rms n roc"---’This Study used a scanning electron microscope and a...wall is instrumented during canal preparation and that the smeared layer seems to be found only where endodontic instruments have scraped the surface...between the extremes. It was also decided to use a magnification of 75X to evaluate the superficial debris and 800X to evaluate the smeared layer

  3. Intensity interferometry experiments in a scanning transmission electron microscope : physics and applications

    OpenAIRE

    Meuret, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Quantum optics performed at the nanometer scale is an important challenge, especially for quantum emitters characterization. They can be point defects in material (few ang- ströms) or confined structures of a few nanometers. A way to reach this scale is by using cathodoluminescence (CL) performed in a scanning transmission electron microscope (CL- STEM), which has only recently been done [1]. However, when aiming at studying the statistical properties of the light coming out of a CL experimen...

  4. Vison and visual servoing for nanomanipulation and nanocharacterization using scanning electron microscope

    OpenAIRE

    Marturi, Naresh

    2013-01-01

    With the latest advances in nanotechnology, it became possible to design novel nanoscale devicesand systems with increasing efficiency. The consequence of this fact is an increase in the need for developing reliable and cutting edge processes for nanomanipulation and nanocharacterization. Since the human direct sensing is not a feasible option at this particular scale, the tasks are usually performedby an expert human operator using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped withmicro-nano...

  5. SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPIC INVESTIGATION OF DENTINAL TUBULES IN MONKEY DENTIN SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPIC INVESTIGATION OF DENTINAL TUBULES IN Cebus apella DENTIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Humberto Antoniazzi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The aim of the study was to investigate the number and diameter of the Cebus apella dentinal tubules. The roots of the Cebus apella teeth were examined in specific tooth locations: the apical, middle and cervical dentin. The calculations were based on the scanning electron microscope photographs of the fractured surfaces. The results showed that the average number of dentinal tubules for each location was: 74,800 tubules/mm2 for apical root dentin, 90,000 tubules/mm2 for mid-root dentin, 91,600 tubules/mm2 for cervical root dentin. The average diameter was the following: apical root dentin, 4,30µm; mid-root dentin, 4,37µm; cervical root dentin,  5,23µm. These findings demonstrate that the Cebus apella teeth are a suitable substitute for human in endodontics studies. 

    KEY WORDS: Dentin, dentinal tubules, teeth.
    The aim of the study was to investigate the number and diameter of the Cebus apella dentinal tubules. The roots of the Cebus apella teeth were examined in specific tooth locations: the apical, middle and cervical dentin. The calculations were based on the scanning electron microscope photographs of the fractured surfaces. The results showed that the average number of dentinal tubules for each location was: 74,800 tubules/mm2 for apical root dentin, 90,000 tubules/mm2 for mid-root dentin, 91,600 tubules/mm2 for cervical root dentin. The average diameter was the following: apical root dentin, 4,30µm; mid-root dentin, 4,37µm; cervical root dentin,  5,23µm. These findings demonstrate that the Cebus apella teeth are a suitable substitute for human in endodontics studies. 

    KEY WORDS: Dentin, dentinal tubules, teeth.

  6. Imaging and identifying defects in nitride semiconductor thin films using a scanning electron microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naresh-Kumar, G.; Hourahine, B.; Trager-Cowan, C. [Department of Physics, SUPA, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Vilalta-Clemente, A.; Ruterana, P. [CIMAP UMR 6252 CNRS-ENSICAEN-CEA-UCBN, 6, Caen (France); Gamarra, P.; Lacam, C.; Tordjman, M.; Di Forte-Poisson, M.A. [Thales Research and Technology, III-V Lab, Marcoussis (France); Parbrook, P.J. [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Sheffield (United Kingdom); Day, A.P. [Aunt Daisy Scientific Ltd., Claremont House, High St, Lydney (United Kingdom); England, G. [K. E. Developments Ltd., Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2012-03-15

    We describe the use of electron channelling contrast imaging (ECCI) - in a field emission scanning electron microscope (SEM) - to reveal and identify defects in nitride semiconductor thin films. In ECCI changes in crystallographic orientation, or changes in lattice constant due to local strain, are revealed by changes in grey scale in an image constructed by monitoring the intensity of backscattered electrons (BSEs) as an electron beam is scanned over a suitably oriented sample. Extremely small orientation changes are detectable, enabling small angle tilt and rotation boundaries and dislocations to be imaged. Images with a resolution of tens of nanometres are obtainable with ECCI. In this paper, we describe the use of ECCI with TEM to determine threading dislocation densities and types in InAlN/GaN heterostructures grown on SiC and sapphire substrates. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Experimental setup for energy-filtered scanning confocal electron microscopy (EFSCEM) in a double aberration-corrected transmission electron microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, P; Behan, G; Kirkland, A I; Nellist, P D, E-mail: peng.wang@materials.ox.ac.u [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-01

    Scanning confocal electron microscopy (SCEM) is a new imaging mode in electron microscopy. Spherical aberration corrected electron microscope instruments fitted with two aberration correctors can be used in this mode which provides improved depth resolution and selectivity compared to optical sectioning in a conventional scanning transmission geometry. In this article, we consider a confocal optical configuration for SCEM using inelastically scattered electrons. We lay out the necessary steps for achieving this new operational mode in a double aberration-corrected instrument with uncorrected chromatic aberration and present preliminary experimental results in such mode.

  8. Modeling a Miniaturized Scanning Electron Microscope Focusing Column - Lessons Learned in Electron Optics Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyd, Jody; Gregory, Don; Gaskin, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    This presentation discusses work done to assess the design of a focusing column in a miniaturized Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) developed at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) for use in-situ on the Moon-in particular for mineralogical analysis. The MSFC beam column design uses purely electrostatic fields for focusing, because of the severe constraints on mass and electrical power consumption imposed by the goals of lunar exploration and of spaceflight in general. The resolution of an SEM ultimately depends on the size of the focused spot of the scanning beam probe, for which the stated goal here is a diameter of 10 nanometers. Optical aberrations are the main challenge to this performance goal, because they blur the ideal geometrical optical image of the electron source, effectively widening the ideal spot size of the beam probe. In the present work the optical aberrations of the mini SEM focusing column were assessed using direct tracing of non-paraxial rays, as opposed to mathematical estimates of aberrations based on paraxial ray-traces. The geometrical ray-tracing employed here is completely analogous to ray-tracing as conventionally understood in the realm of photon optics, with the major difference being that in electron optics the lens is simply a smoothly varying electric field in vacuum, formed by precisely machined electrodes. Ray-tracing in this context, therefore, relies upon a model of the electrostatic field inside the focusing column to provide the mathematical description of the "lens" being traced. This work relied fundamentally on the boundary element method (BEM) for this electric field model. In carrying out this research the authors discovered that higher accuracy in the field model was essential if aberrations were to be reliably assessed using direct ray-tracing. This led to some work in testing alternative techniques for modeling the electrostatic field. Ultimately, the necessary accuracy was attained using a BEM

  9. A design for a subminiature, low energy scanning electron microscope with atomic resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastham, D. A.; Edmondson, P.; Greene, S.; Donnelly, S.; Olsson, E.; Svensson, K.; Bleloch, A.

    2009-01-01

    We describe a type of scanning electron microscope that works by directly imaging the electron field-emission sites on a nanotip. Electrons are extracted from the nanotip through a nanoscale aperture, accelerated in a high electric field, and focused to a spot using a microscale Einzel lens. If the whole microscope (accelerating section and lens) and the focal length are both restricted in size to below 10 μm, then computer simulations show that the effects of aberration are extremely small and it is possible to have a system with approximately unit magnification at electron energies as low as 300 eV. Thus a typical emission site of 1 nm diameter will produce an image of the same size, and an atomic emission site will give a resolution of 0.1-0.2 nm (1-2 Å). Also, because the beam is not allowed to expand beyond 100 nm in diameter, the depth of field is large and the contribution to the beam spot size from chromatic aberrations is less than 0.02 nm (0.2 Å) for 500 eV electrons. Since it is now entirely possible to make stable atomic sized emitters (nanopyramids), it is expected that this instrument will have atomic resolution. Furthermore the brightness of the beam is determined only by the field emission and can be up to 1×106 times larger than in a typical (high energy) electron microscope. The advantages of this low energy, bright-beam electron microscope with atomic resolution are described and include the possibility of it being used to rapidly sequence the human genome from a single strand of DNA as well as being able to identify atomic species directly from the elastic scattering of electrons.

  10. Fundamental and experimental aspects of diffraction for characterizing dislocations by electron channeling contrast imaging in scanning electron microscope

    OpenAIRE

    Kriaa, H.; Guitton, A.; Maloufi, N.

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays Field Emission Gun-Scanning Electron Microscopes provide detailed crystallographic information with high spatial and angular resolutions, and allow direct observation of crystalline defects, such as dislocations, through an attractive technique called Electron Channeling Contrast Imaging (ECCI). Dislocations play a crucial role in the properties of materials and ECCI has naturally emerged as an adapted tool for characterizing defects in bulk specimen. Nevertheless, fine control of th...

  11. Atomic imaging using secondary electrons in a scanning transmission electron microscope: Experimental observations and possible mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inada, H. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Hitachi High Technologies Corp., Ibaraki (Japan); Su, D. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Egerton, R.F. [University of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada); Konno, M. [Hitachi High Technologies Corp., Ibaraki (Japan); Wu, L.; Ciston, J.; Wall, J. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Zhu, Y., E-mail: zhu@bnl.gov [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

    2011-06-15

    We report detailed investigation of high-resolution imaging using secondary electrons (SE) with a sub-nanometer probe in an aberration-corrected transmission electron microscope, Hitachi HD2700C. This instrument also allows us to acquire the corresponding annular dark-field (ADF) images both simultaneously and separately. We demonstrate that atomic SE imaging is achievable for a wide range of elements, from uranium to carbon. Using the ADF images as a reference, we studied the SE image intensity and contrast as functions of applied bias, atomic number, crystal tilt, and thickness to shed light on the origin of the unexpected ultrahigh resolution in SE imaging. We have also demonstrated that the SE signal is sensitive to the terminating species at a crystal surface. A possible mechanism for atomic-scale SE imaging is proposed. The ability to image both the surface and bulk of a sample at atomic-scale is unprecedented, and can have important applications in the field of electron microscopy and materials characterization. -- Research highlights: {yields} Atomic imaging using secondary electrons in an aberration-corrected electron microscope. {yields} High-resolution secondary electron imaging mechanism. {yields} Image contrast quantification and as functions of imaging conditions. {yields} Simultaneous acquisition of atomic images from surface and bulk.

  12. Nanotubular Structure on the Ti-29Nb-5Zr Alloy by Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun-Ju; Jeong, Yong-Hoon; Kang, Bo-An; Choe, Han-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we reported the observation of highly ordered nanotubular structure on the Ti-29Nb-5Zr alloy in various potentials and electrolytes by field emission scanning electron microscopy and scanning transmission electron microscope. From the X-ray diffraction results and microstructure analysis, Ti-29Nb-5Zr alloy had β phase. The nanotube morphologies of Ti-29Nb-5Zr alloy were transformed from nano-porous structure to nanotube structure as NaF concentration and voltage increased. Nanotube diameter and layer changed with different concentration of NaF in 1 M H3PO4 at the same voltage. From the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results, nanotube was formed by Nb, Zr, and Ti oxide. Also, barrier layer of large tube was about 50 nm thickness, small one was 60 nm thickness. The nanotube size and crystallinity on the β Ti alloy was controlled by fluoride concentration, applied potential, anodization time, and tube layer.

  13. Dose-rate-dependent damage of cerium dioxide in the scanning transmission electron microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston-Peck, Aaron C., E-mail: aaron.johnston-peck@nist.gov [Materials Measurement Lab, National Institute of Standards Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); DuChene, Joseph S.; Roberts, Alan D.; Wei, Wei David [Department of Chemistry and Center for Nanostructured Electronic Materials, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Herzing, Andrew A. [Materials Measurement Lab, National Institute of Standards Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Beam damage caused by energetic electrons in the transmission electron microscope is a fundamental constraint limiting the collection of artifact-free information. Through understanding the influence of the electron beam, experimental routines may be adjusted to improve the data collection process. Investigations of CeO{sub 2} indicate that there is not a critical dose required for the accumulation of electron beam damage. Instead, measurements using annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy demonstrate that the onset of measurable damage occurs when a critical dose rate is exceeded. The mechanism behind this phenomenon is that oxygen vacancies created by exposure to a 300 keV electron beam are actively annihilated as the sample re-oxidizes in the microscope environment. As a result, only when the rate of vacancy creation exceeds the recovery rate will beam damage begin to accumulate. This observation suggests that dose-intensive experiments can be accomplished without disrupting the native structure of the sample when executed using dose rates below the appropriate threshold. Furthermore, the presence of an encapsulating carbonaceous layer inhibits processes that cause beam damage, markedly increasing the dose rate threshold for the accumulation of damage. - Highlights: • Electron beam interactions introduce oxygen vacancies in CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles. • ADF-STEM and EELS can track the reduction of CeO{sub 2}. • The reduced nanoparticles will oxidize in the microscope environment. • There is no critical dose for the accumulation of detectable damage. • The accumulation of detectable damage is dose rate dependent.

  14. [Scanning electron microscopic observations on the copulatory spicules of the male Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, S E; Lu, X J; Xie, L C; Zhang, D P

    1993-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopic observations were made on the morphological structures of the two copulatory spicules of the male Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale. In both species, one of the two copulatory spicules was in the shape of a concave groove and the other, in the shape of an oblate tube. Owing to the difference in the concavity of the groove shaped copulatory spicule between the two species as shown by the cross sections, Necator americanus usually appear to have only one copulatory spicule whereas Ancylostoma duodenale usually show two separate copulatory spicules in appearance (Figs 1-10).

  15. Unveiling the Mysteries of Mars with a Miniaturized Variable Pressure Scanning Electron Microscope (MVP-SEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunson, J.; Gaskin, J. A.; Doloboff, I. J.; Jerman, G.

    2017-01-01

    Development of a miniaturized scanning electron microscope that will utilize the martian atmosphere to dissipate charge during analysis continues. This instrument is expected to be used on a future rover or lander to answer fundamental Mars science questions. To identify the most important questions, a survey was taken at the 47th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference (LPSC). From the gathered information initial topics were identified for a SEM on the martian surface. These priorities are identified and discussed below. Additionally, a concept of operations is provided with the goal of maximizing the science obtained with the minimum amount of communication with the instrument.

  16. PRISMLESS ENAMEL IN HUMAN NON-ERUPTED DECIDUOUS MOLAR TEETH: A SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPIC STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FAVA Marcelo

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The frequency, structure and thickness of the prismless enamel layer in the buccal and lingual surfaces of non-erupted deciduous molar teeth were described. The teeth were extracted, kept in a 70% ethanol solution, dried, coated with gold and examined in a scanning electron microscope JEOL, JSM-6.100. The aprismatic layer was observed in the occlusal, middle and cervical thirds of all buccal and lingual surfaces. The hydroxyapatite crystals were arranged parallel to each other and perpendicular to the enamel surface. No statistically significant differences were observed between the occlusal, middle and cervical thirds, which had 7.257 m m of average thickness.

  17. Manipulation of nanoparticles of different shapes inside a scanning electron microscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Polyakov

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work polyhedron-like gold and sphere-like silver nanoparticles (NPs were manipulated on an oxidized Si substrate to study the dependence of the static friction and the contact area on the particle geometry. Measurements were performed inside a scanning electron microscope (SEM that was equipped with a high-precision XYZ-nanomanipulator. To register the occurring forces a quartz tuning fork (QTF with a glued sharp probe was used. Contact areas and static friction forces were calculated by using different models and compared with the experimentally measured force. The effect of NP morphology on the nanoscale friction is discussed.

  18. Fibrous architecture of cementodentinal junction in disease: A scanning electron microscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhakar, R; Pratebha, B

    2015-01-01

    The cementodentinal junction (CDJ) forms a biological and structural link between cementum and dentin. This biological link is regarded as a distinct tissue in its own right. Certain important proteins responsible for periodontal regeneration are said to be present in this tissue. Few studies have described the structure and composition of this layer by light and electron microscopy. Scanning electron microscopic studies pertaining to CDJ in health and disease are few and documentation of periodontal pathological changes of CDJ is unclear. In the first phase of our study, the collagenous architecture of CDJ of healthy teeth has been reported. The objective of this study is to observe and report periodontal pathological changes in the fibrous or collagenous architecture of CDJ of periodontitis-affected teeth and discuss the probable clinical implications of CDJ in disease. Twenty periodontitis-affected teeth were collected and processed for observing under a scanning electron microscope. The results are as follows: Increased width of interface at CDJ in periodontitis samples (7.1 μ) compared to that of healthy samples; fewer areas of fiber intermingling at CDJ in periodontitis samples as compared to healthy samples; frequent detachment of cementum from dentin during sodium hydroxide maceration of samples. It may be inferred from results that there is a possibility of a definite weakening of CDJ in periodontally affected root surfaces and we believe that clinical procedures such as scaling and root planning may have a detrimental effect on the cementodentinal attachment of periodontally involved root surfaces.

  19. Frequency-doubled Alexandrite laser for use in periodontology: a scanning electron microscopic investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechmann, Peter; Hennig, Thomas

    1996-12-01

    During prior studies it could be demonstrated that engaging a frequency double Alexandrite-laser allows a fast and strictly selective ablation of supra- and subgingival calculus. Furthermore, the removal of unstained microbial plaque was observed. First conclusions were drawn following light microscopic investigations on undecalcified sections of irradiated teeth. In the present study the cementum surface after irradiation with a frequency doubled Alexandrite-laser was observed by means of a scanning electron microscope. After irradiation sections of teeth were dried in alcohol and sputtered with gold. In comparison irradiated cementum surfaces of unerupted operatively removed wisdom teeth and tooth surfaces after the selective removal of calculus were investigated. A complete removal of calculus was observed as well as a remaining smooth surface of irradiated cementum.

  20. Novel low-dose imaging technique for characterizing atomic structures through scanning transmission electron microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chia-Ping; Syu, Wei-Jhe; Hsiao, Chien-Nan; Lai, Ping-Shan; Chen, Chien-Chun

    2017-08-01

    To investigate dislocations or heterostructures across interfaces is now of great interest to condensed matter and materials scientists. With the advances in aberration-corrected electron optics, the scanning transmission electron microscope has demonstrated its excellent capability of characterizing atomic structures within nanomaterials, and well-resolved atomic-resolution images can be obtained through long-exposure data acquisition. However, the sample drifting, carbon contamination, and radiation damage hinder further analysis, such as deriving three-dimensional (3D) structures from a series of images. In this study, a method for obtaining atomic-resolution images with significantly reduced exposure time was developed, using which an original high-resolution image with approximately one tenth the electron dose can be obtained by combining a fast-scan high-magnification image and a slow-scan low-magnification image. The feasibility of obtaining 3D atomic structures using the proposed approach was demonstrated through multislice simulation. Finally, the feasibility and accuracy of image restoration were experimentally verified. This general method cannot only apply to electron microscopy but also benefit to image radiation-sensitive materials using various light sources.

  1. Microscopical characterization of known postmortem root bands using light and scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hietpas, Jack; Buscaglia, JoAnn; Richard, Adam H; Shaw, Stephen; Castillo, Hilda S; Donfack, Joseph

    2016-10-01

    A postmortem root band (PMRB) is a distinct microscopic feature that is postulated to occur in hair remaining in the follicle during the postmortem interval [1] (Petraco et al., 1998). The scientific validity of this premise has been highlighted in two recent high-profile criminal cases involving PMRBs [2,3] (State of Florida v. Casey Marie Anthony, 2008; People v. Kogut, 2005). To better understand the fundamental aspects of postmortem root banding, the microscopical properties of known PMRBs(1) were characterized by light microscopy, and scanning electron microscope (SEM) imaging of microtomed sections of hairs showing root banding. The results from this study show that the appearance of the PMRB may be due to the degradation of the chemically labile, non-keratin intermacrofibrillar matrix (IMM) in the pre-keratin/keratogenous region of anagen hairs. In addition, this degradation is confined to the cortex of the hair, with no apparent damage to the layers of the cuticle. These results could provide valuable information for determining the mechanism of band formation, as well as identify a set of microscopic features that could be used to distinguish hairs with known PMRBs from similarly looking environmentally degraded hairs. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  2. Analysis of improvement in performance and design parameters for enhancing resolution in an atmospheric scanning electron microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Yeo Hun; Kim, Seung Jae; Kim, Dong Hwan

    2015-12-01

    The scanning electron microscope is used in various fields to go beyond diffraction limits of the optical microscope. However, the electron pathway should be conducted in a vacuum so as not to scatter electrons. The pretreatment of the sample is needed for use in the vacuum. To directly observe large and fully hydrophilic samples without pretreatment, the atmospheric scanning electron microscope (ASEM) is needed. We developed an electron filter unit and an electron detector unit for implementation of the ASEM. The key of the electron filter unit is that electrons are transmitted while air molecules remain untransmitted through the unit. The electron detector unit collected the backscattered electrons. We conducted experiments using the selected materials with Havar foil, carbon film and SiN film. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japanese Society of Microscopy. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Study of skin of an Egyptian mummy using a scanning electron microscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mańkowska-Pliszka Hanna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The first study of modified human remains using an electron microscope was carried out at the end of the 1950 and in 1979 the first result of the study involving a scanning electron microscope (SEM was published for the first time. The study was mainly focused on the structure of tissues and cells. With the help of this technique cell and tissue elements, viruses and bacterial endospores as well as the structure of epithelium and the collagen contents of dermis were identified and described. In the above-mentioned case the object of the study using a SEM was a free part of the right hand (forearm with the dorsal and palmar parts of hand of unknown origin, with signs of mummification revealed during microscopic analysis. Our study was aimed at finding the answer to the question if the mummification of the studied limb was natural or intentional, and if the study using a SEM could link the anonymous remains with ancient Egypt.

  4. Examination of mycological samples by means of the scanning electron microscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Thibaut

    1973-04-01

    Full Text Available Three species of Siphomycetes: Rhizopus arhizus, Rhizopus equinus and Rhizopus nigricans, as well as a Septomycete: Emericella nidulans, have been examined by means of a scanning electron microscope. Among the difjerent Rhizopus, this technique showed differences in the appearance of the sporangia. In Emericella nidulans, scanning microscopy enábled one to ascertain that the "Hull cells" were completely hollow and also demonstrated the ornemented aspect of the ascospores.Três espécies de Sifomicetas: Rhizopus arhizus, Rhizopus equinus, Rhizopus nigricans e um Septomiceta: Emericella nidulans foram examinados em microscopia de exploração. Esta técnica mostrou detalhes não evidenciáveis ao poder de resolução do microscópio óptico, demonstrando ser útil para o diagnóstico em micologia.

  5. Polarized light and scanning electron microscopic investigation of enamel hypoplasia in primary teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabel, Nina; Klingberg, Gunilla; Dietz, Wolfram; Nietzsche, Sandor; Norén, Jörgen G

    2010-01-01

    Enamel hypoplasia is a developmental disturbance during enamel formation, defined as a macroscopic defect in the enamel, with a reduction of the enamel thickness with rounded, smooth borders. Information on the microstructural level is still limited, therefore further studies are of importance to better understand the mechanisms behind enamel hypoplasia. To study enamel hypoplasia in primary teeth by means of polarized light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Nineteen primary teeth with enamel hypoplasia were examined in a polarized light microscope and in a scanning electron microscope. The cervical and incisal borders of the enamel hypoplasia had a rounded appearance, as the prisms in the rounded cervical area of the hypoplasia were bent. The rounded borders had a normal surface structure whereas the base of the defects appeared rough and porous. Morphological findings in this study indicate that the aetiological factor has a short duration and affects only certain ameloblasts. The bottom of the enamel hypoplasia is porous and constitutes possible pathways for bacteria into the dentin.

  6. Experimental evaluation of environmental scanning electron microscopes at high chamber pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzek, H; Schroettner, H; Wagner, J; Hofer, F; Rattenberger, J

    2015-11-01

    In environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) high pressure applications have become increasingly important. Wet or biological samples can be investigated without time-consuming sample preparation and potential artefacts from this preparation can be neglected. Unfortunately, the signal-to-noise ratio strongly decreases with increasing chamber pressure. To evaluate the high pressure performance of ESEM and to compare different electron microscopes, information about spatial resolution and detector type is not enough. On the one hand, the scattering of the primary electron beam increases, which vanishes the contrast in images; and on the other hand, the secondary electrons (SE) signal amplification decreases. The stagnation gas thickness (effective distance the beam has to travel through the imaging gas) as well as the SE detection system depend on the microscope and for a complete and serious evaluation of an ESEM or low vacuum SEM it is necessary to specify these two parameters. A method is presented to determine the fraction of scattered and unscattered electrons and to calculate the stagnation gas thickness (θ). To evaluate the high pressure performance of the SE detection system, a method is presented that allows for an analysis of a single image and the calculation of the signal-to-noise ratio of this image. All investigations are performed on an FEI ESEM Quanta 600 (field emission gun) and an FEI ESEM Quanta 200 (thermionic gun). These methods and measurements should represent opportunities for evaluating the high pressure performance of an ESEM. © 2015 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2015 Royal Microscopical Society.

  7. Placing single atoms in graphene with a scanning transmission electron microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyck, Ondrej; Kim, Songkil; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Jesse, Stephen

    2017-09-01

    We employ the sub-atomically focused beam of a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) to introduce and controllably manipulate individual dopant atoms in a 2D graphene lattice. The electron beam is used to create defects and subsequently sputter adsorbed source materials into the graphene lattice such that individual vacancy defects are controllably passivated by Si substitutional atoms. We further document that Si point defects may be directed through the lattice via e-beam control or modified (as yet, uncontrollably) to form new defects which can incorporate new atoms into the graphene lattice. These studies demonstrate the potential of STEM for atom-by-atom nanofabrication and fundamental studies of chemical reactions in 2D materials on the atomic level.

  8. In situ study of live specimens in an environmental scanning electron microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tihlaříková, Eva; Neděla, Vilém; Shiojiri, Makoto

    2013-08-01

    In this paper we introduce new methodology for the observation of living biological samples in an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM). The methodology is based on an unconventional initiation procedure for ESEM chamber pumping, free from purge-flood cycles, and on the ability to control thermodynamic processes close to the sample. The gradual and gentle change of the working environment from air to water vapor enables the study of not only living samples in dynamic in situ experiments and their manifestation of life (sample walking) but also its experimentally stimulated physiological reactions. Moreover, Monte Carlo simulations of primary electron beam energy losses in a water layer on the sample surface were studied; consequently, the influence of the water thickness on radiation, temperature, or chemical damage of the sample was considered.

  9. Sensitivity Analysis of X-ray Spectra from Scanning Electron Microscopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Thomas Martin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Patton, Bruce W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Weber, Charles F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bekar, Kursat B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The primary goal of this project is to evaluate x-ray spectra generated within a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to determine elemental composition of small samples. This will be accomplished by performing Monte Carlo simulations of the electron and photon interactions in the sample and in the x-ray detector. The elemental inventories will be determined by an inverse process that progressively reduces the difference between the measured and simulated x-ray spectra by iteratively adjusting composition and geometric variables in the computational model. The intended benefit of this work will be to develop a method to perform quantitative analysis on substandard samples (heterogeneous phases, rough surfaces, small sizes, etc.) without involving standard elemental samples or empirical matrix corrections (i.e., true standardless quantitative analysis).

  10. Design of a cathodoluminescence image generator using a Raspberry Pi coupled to a scanning electron microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benítez, Alfredo; Santiago, Ulises; Sanchez, John E; Ponce, Arturo

    2018-01-01

    In this work, an innovative cathodoluminescence (CL) system is coupled to a scanning electron microscope and synchronized with a Raspberry Pi computer integrated with an innovative processing signal. The post-processing signal is based on a Python algorithm that correlates the CL and secondary electron (SE) images with a precise dwell time correction. For CL imaging, the emission signal is collected through an optical fiber and transduced to an electrical signal via a photomultiplier tube (PMT). CL Images are registered in a panchromatic mode and can be filtered using a monochromator connected between the optical fiber and the PMT to produce monochromatic CL images. The designed system has been employed to study ZnO samples prepared by electrical arc discharge and microwave methods. CL images are compared with SE images and chemical elemental mapping images to correlate the emission regions of the sample.

  11. Design of a cathodoluminescence image generator using a Raspberry Pi coupled to a scanning electron microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benítez, Alfredo; Santiago, Ulises; Sanchez, John E.; Ponce, Arturo

    2018-01-01

    In this work, an innovative cathodoluminescence (CL) system is coupled to a scanning electron microscope and synchronized with a Raspberry Pi computer integrated with an innovative processing signal. The post-processing signal is based on a Python algorithm that correlates the CL and secondary electron (SE) images with a precise dwell time correction. For CL imaging, the emission signal is collected through an optical fiber and transduced to an electrical signal via a photomultiplier tube (PMT). CL Images are registered in a panchromatic mode and can be filtered using a monochromator connected between the optical fiber and the PMT to produce monochromatic CL images. The designed system has been employed to study ZnO samples prepared by electrical arc discharge and microwave methods. CL images are compared with SE images and chemical elemental mapping images to correlate the emission regions of the sample.

  12. Contrast and decay of cathodoluminescence from phosphor particles in a scanning electron microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Engelsen, Daniel; Harris, Paul G; Ireland, Terry G; Fern, George R; Silver, Jack

    2015-10-01

    Cathodoluminescence (CL) studies are reported on phosphors in a field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). ZnO: Zn and other luminescent powders manifest a bright ring around the periphery of the particles: this ring enhances the contrast. Additionally, particles resting on top of others are substantially brighter than underlying ones. These phenomena are explained in terms of the combined effects of electrons backscattered out of the particles, together with light absorption by the substrate. The contrast is found to be a function of the particle size and the energy of the primary electrons. Some phosphor materials exhibit a pronounced comet-like structure at high scan rates in a CL-image, because the particle continues to emit light after the electron beam has moved to a position without phosphor material. Image analysis has been used to study the loss of brightness along the tail and hence to determine the decay time of the materials. The effect of phosphor saturation on the determination of decay times by CL-microscopy was also investigated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Computer Archiving and Image Enhancement of Diagnostic Electron Micrographs Using Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope as Real-Time Digitizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okagaki, T.; Jones, M.H.; Clark, B.A.; Pan, T.; Ferro, J.M.; Hsing, R.; Tzou, K.H.

    1984-01-01

    Diagnostic electron micrographs were digitized in real time using a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) controlled by a devoted front end processor at a resolution of 1K × 1K × 8. Various methods of image enhancement produced satisfactory results. From our experience, a faster front end processor with a larger memory size and 2K × 2K or 4K × 4K spatial resolution of an image are desirable. In order to facilitate storage and retrieval of an image archive, efficient data compression is necessary. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3

  14. Terahertz scanning probe microscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klapwijk, T.M.

    2014-01-01

    The invention provides aterahertz scanning probe microscope setup comprising (i) a terahertz radiation source configured to generate terahertz radiation; (ii) a terahertz lens configured to receive at least part of the terahertz radiation from the terahertz radiation source; (iii) a cantilever unit

  15. SPM: Scanning positron microscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Dickmann

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Munich scanning positron microscope, operated by the Universität der Bundeswehr München and the Technische Universität München, located at NEPOMUC, permits positron lifetime measurements with a lateral resolution in the µm range and within an energy range of 1 – 20 keV.

  16. Annular electron energy-loss spectroscopy in the scanning transmission electron microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruben, Gary [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Bosman, Michel [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, A-STAR (Agency for Science, Technology and Research), 3 Research Link, Singapore 117602 (Singapore); D' Alfonso, Adrian J. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Okunishi, Eiji; Kondo, Yukihito [JEOL Ltd., 1-2, Musashino 3-chome Akishima, Tokyo 196-8558 (Japan); Allen, Leslie J., E-mail: lja@unimelb.edu.au [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia)

    2011-11-15

    We study atomic-resolution annular electron energy-loss spectroscopy (AEELS) in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) imaging with experiments and numerical simulations. In this technique the central part of the bright field disk is blocked by a beam stop, forming an annular entry aperture to the spectrometer. The EELS signal thus arises only from electrons scattered inelastically to angles defined by the aperture. It will be shown that this method is more robust than conventional EELS imaging to variations in specimen thickness and can also provide higher spatial resolution. This raises the possibility of lattice resolution imaging of lighter elements or ionization edges previously considered unsuitable for EELS imaging. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We study annular electron energy-loss spectroscopy (AEELS) in STEM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This is more robust to changes in specimen thickness than conventional EELS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AEELS provides higher spatial resolution than conventional EELS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This raises the possibility of lattice resolution imaging of lighter elements.

  17. Ultrastructural study of polyspermy during early embryo development in pigs, observed by scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, P; Wang, Z; Yang, Z; Tan, J; Qin, P

    2001-02-01

    Polyspermy is generally considered a pathological phenomenon in mammals. Incidence of polyspermy in porcine eggs in vivo is extremely high (30-40%) compared with other species, and polyspermy rate in the in vitro fertilized eggs in pigs can reach 65%. It is still unknown whether polyspermy to a certain degree is a physiological condition in pigs, and whether porcine eggs have any capability with which to remove the accessory sperm in the cytoplasm. The objectives in the present study are to observe the ultrastructural changes of accessory sperm during early embryonic development in pigs. A total of 58 normal, early embryos at one-, two, three-, and four-cell and morular stages were collected from gilts and were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The surface ultrastructure showed that sperm fusion with the zona pellucida was a continuous process during one-, two-, three-, and four-cell and morular stages, as observed by the SEM. Accessory sperm were present in the cytoplasm of cleaved embryos. The sperm heads in the cytoplasm of cleaved embryos did not decondense. TEM revealed the presence of a condensed sperm head within a lysosome (or phagolysosome) in a three-cell embryo. These observations suggest that polyspermy may be a physiological condition in pigs and that early embryos may develop to term if accessory sperm do not interrupt the embryo genome. Furthermore, lysosome activity could be another physiological mechanism for removing accessory sperm in the cytoplasm of fertilized eggs and cleaved embryos after fertilization in pigs.

  18. Scanning Electron Microscopic Studies of the Pecten Oculi in the Quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aris F. Pourlis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to extend the microscopic investigations of the pecten oculi in the quail in order to add some information on the unresolved functional anatomy of this unique avian organ. The pecten oculi of the quail was studied by scanning electron microscopy. Eighteen- to-twenty two highly vascularised accordion-like folds were joined apically by a heavily pigmented bridge of tissue, which holds the pecten in a fanlike shape, widest at the base. The structure of the double layered limiting membrane was recorded. The presence of hyalocytes with macrophage-like appearance was illustrated. It is assumed that the pecten oculi of the quail resembles that of the chicken. Illustrated morphological features of this species may add information on the active physiological role of the pecten. But still, the functional significance of this organ is a matter of controversies.

  19. Standard practice for calibrating the magnification of a scanning electron microscope

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers general procedures necessary for the calibration of magnification of scanning electron microscopes. The relationship between true magnification and indicated magnification is a complicated function of operating conditions. Therefore, this practice must be applied to each set of standard operating conditions to be used. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  20. Scanning electron microscopic observations of fibrous structure of cemento-dentinal junction in healthy teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratebha, B; Jaikumar, N D; Sudhakar, R

    2014-01-01

    The cemento-dentinal junction (CDJ) is a structural and biologic link between cementum and dentin present in the roots of teeth. Conflicting reports about the origin, structure and composition of this layer are present in literature. The width of this junctional tissue is reported to be about 2-4 μm with adhesion of cementum and dentin by proteoglycans and by collagen fiber intermingling. The objective of this study is to observe and report the fibrous architecture of the CDJ of healthy tooth roots. A total of 15 healthy teeth samples were collected, sectioned into halves, demineralized in 5% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, processed using NaOH maceration technique and observed under a scanning electron microscope. The CDJ appeared to be a fibril poor groove with a width of 2-4 µm. Few areas of collagen fiber intermingling could be appreciated. A detailed observation of these tissues has been presented.

  1. The migration of lymphocytes across the vascular endothelium in lymph nodes: a scanning electron microscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, M; Hamada, N; Nomura, H; Mastueda, M; Aiko, T

    1979-03-01

    Endothelial cells of Postcapillary Venules (PCV) and the passage of lymphocytes through the wall of PCV were investigated with Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) in mesenteric lymph nodes of rats. Individual endothelial cells of PCV in the lymph node did not have flat surface or were not typically cubic, but swelled at the central part assuming a foot ball-like shape. Circulating lymphocytes are considered to migrate into lymphatic tissues through the wall of PCV from the blood stream. Two hypotheses, inter-endothelial cell passage and intra-endothelial cell passage, have been proposed. The three-dimensional studies on lymphocytes passing the wall with SEM confirmed that migrating lymphocytes pushes their way through the intercellular space with pressing the adjoining endothelial cells from beginning to end, supporting the former hypothesis. Invasion of lymphocytes into endothelial cells were not observed.

  2. Determination of the sequence of intersecting lines using Focused Ion Beam/Scanning Electron Microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jiye; Kim, MinJung; An, JinWook; Kim, Yunje

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to verify that the combination of focused ion beam (FIB) and scanning electron microscope/energy-dispersive X-ray (SEM/EDX) could be applied to determine the sequence of line crossings. The samples were transferred into FIB/SEM for FIB milling and an imaging operation. EDX was able to explore the chemical components and the corresponding elemental distribution in the intersection. The technique was successful in determining the sequence of heterogeneous line intersections produced using gel pens and red sealing ink with highest success rate (100% correctness). These observations show that the FIB/SEM was the appropriate instrument for an overall examination of document. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  3. A novel and compact nanoindentation device for in situ nanoindentation tests inside the scanning electron microscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Huang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In situ nanomechanical tests provide a unique insight into mechanical behaviors of materials, such as fracture onset and crack propagation, shear band formation and so on. This paper presents a novel in situ nanoindentation device with dimensions of 103mm×74mm×60mm. Integrating the stepper motor, the piezoelectric actuator and the flexure hinge, the device can realize coarse adjustment of the specimen and precision loading and unloading of the indenter automatically. A novel indenter holder was designed to guarantee that the indenter penetrates into and withdraws from the specimen surface vertically. Closed-loop control of the indentation process was established to solve the problem of nonlinearity of the piezoelectric actuator and to enrich the loading modes. The in situ indentation test of Indium Phosphide (InP inside the scanning electron microscope (SEM was carried out and the experimental result indicates the feasibility of the developed device.

  4. Evaluation of Enterococcus faecalis adhesion, penetration, and method to prevent the penetration of Enterococcus faecalis into root cementum: Confocal laser scanning microscope and scanning electron microscope analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halkai, Rahul S; Hegde, Mithra N; Halkai, Kiran R

    2016-01-01

    To ascertain the role of Enterococcus faecalis in persistent infection and a possible method to prevent the penetration of E. faecalis into root cementum. One hundred and twenty human single-rooted extracted teeth divided into five groups. Group I (control): intact teeth, Group II: no apical treatment done, Group III divided into two subgroups. In Groups IIIa and IIIb, root apex treated with lactic acid of acidic and neutral pH, respectively. Group IV: apical root cementum exposed to lactic acid and roughened to mimic the apical resorption. Group V: apical treatment done same as Group IV and root-end filling done using mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). Apical one-third of all samples immersed in E. faecalis broth for 8 weeks followed by bone morphogenetic protein and obturation and again immersed into broth for 8 weeks. Teeth split into two halves and observed under confocal laser scanning microscope and scanning electron microscope, organism identified by culture and polymerase chain reaction techniques. Adhesion and penetration was observed in Group IIIa and Group IV. Only adhesion in Group II and IIIB and no adhesion and penetration in Group I and V. Adhesion and penetration of E. faecalis into root cementum providing a long-term nidus for subsequent infection are the possible reason for persistent infection and root-end filling with MTA prevents the adhesion and penetration.

  5. Evaluation of Enterococcus faecalis adhesion, penetration, and method to prevent the penetration of Enterococcus faecalis into root cementum: Confocal laser scanning microscope and scanning electron microscope analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halkai, Rahul S.; Hegde, Mithra N.; Halkai, Kiran R.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To ascertain the role of Enterococcus faecalis in persistent infection and a possible method to prevent the penetration of E. faecalis into root cementum. Methodology: One hundred and twenty human single-rooted extracted teeth divided into five groups. Group I (control): intact teeth, Group II: no apical treatment done, Group III divided into two subgroups. In Groups IIIa and IIIb, root apex treated with lactic acid of acidic and neutral pH, respectively. Group IV: apical root cementum exposed to lactic acid and roughened to mimic the apical resorption. Group V: apical treatment done same as Group IV and root-end filling done using mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). Apical one-third of all samples immersed in E. faecalis broth for 8 weeks followed by bone morphogenetic protein and obturation and again immersed into broth for 8 weeks. Teeth split into two halves and observed under confocal laser scanning microscope and scanning electron microscope, organism identified by culture and polymerase chain reaction techniques. Results: Adhesion and penetration was observed in Group IIIa and Group IV. Only adhesion in Group II and IIIB and no adhesion and penetration in Group I and V. Conclusion: Adhesion and penetration of E. faecalis into root cementum providing a long-term nidus for subsequent infection are the possible reason for persistent infection and root-end filling with MTA prevents the adhesion and penetration. PMID:27994316

  6. Phase sensitive scanning optical microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungerman, R.L.; Hobbs, P.C.D.; Kino, G.S.

    1984-10-15

    An electronically scanned optical microscope which quantitatively measures amplitude and phase is described. The system is insenstive to mechanical vibrations. The phase infromation makes it possible to measure surface height variations with an accuracy of better than 100 A and can also be used to improve the lateral resolution.

  7. Atomic Imaging Using Secondary Electrons in a Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope: Experimental Observations and Possible Mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, D.; Inada, H.; Egerton, R.F.; Konno, M.; Wua, L.; Ciston, J.; Wall, J.; Zhu, Y.

    2011-11-11

    We report detailed investigation of high-resolution imaging using secondaryelectrons (SE) with a sub-nanometer probe in an aberration-corrected transmissionelectron microscope, Hitachi HD2700C. This instrument also allows us to acquire the corresponding annular dark-field (ADF) images both simultaneously and separately. We demonstrate that atomic SE imaging is achievable for a wide range of elements, from uranium to carbon. Using the ADF images as a reference, we studied the SE image intensity and contrast as functions of applied bias, atomic number, crystal tilt, and thickness to shed light on the origin of the unexpected ultrahigh resolution in SE imaging. We have also demonstrated that the SE signal is sensitive to the terminating species at a crystal surface. Apossiblemechanism for atomic-scale SE imaging is proposed. The ability to image both the surface and bulk of a sample at atomic-scale is unprecedented, and can have important applications in the field of electron microscopy and materials characterization.

  8. Bottlenecks in bog pine multiplication by somatic embryogenesis and their visualization with the environmental scanning electron microscope

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vlašínová, H.; Neděla, Vilém; Dordevic, B.; Havel, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 254, č. 4 (2017), s. 1487-1497 ISSN 0033-183X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-22777S Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : somatic embryogenesis * pinus uncinata subsp uliginosa * abnormalities * environmental scanning electron microscope Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 2.870, year: 2016

  9. Development of electron optical system using annular pupils for scanning transmission electron microscope by focused ion beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsutani, Takaomi, E-mail: matutani@ele.kindai.ac.jp [Kinki University, 3-4-1 Kowakae, Higashiosaka, Osaka 577-8502 (Japan); Yasumoto, Tsuchika; Tanaka, Takeo [Osaka Sangyo University, 3-1-1 Nakagaito, Daito, Osaka 574-8530 (Japan); Kawasaki, Tadahiro; Ichihashi, Mikio [Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Ikuta, Takashi [Osaka Electro-Communication University, 18-8 Hatsu-cho, Neyagawa, Osaka 572-8530 (Japan)

    2012-02-01

    Annular pupils for electron optics were produced using a focused ion beam (FIB), enabling an increase in the depth of focus and allowing for aberration-free imaging and separation of the amplitude and phase images in a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). Simulations demonstrate that an increased focal depth is advantageous for three-dimensional tomography in the STEM. For a 200 kV electron beam, the focal depth is increased to approximately 100 nm by using an annular pupil with inner and outer semi-angles of 29 and 30 mrad, respectively. Annular pupils were designed with various outer diameters of 40-120 {mu}m and the inner diameter was designed at 80% of the outer diameter. A taper angle varying from 1 Degree-Sign to 20 Degree-Sign was applied to the slits of the annular pupils to suppress the influence of high-energy electron scattering. The fabricated annular pupils were inspected by scanning ion beam microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. These annular pupils were loaded into a STEM and no charge-up effects were observed in the scintillator projection images recorded by a CCD camera.

  10. Nanoscale Imaging of Whole Cells Using a Liquid Enclosure and a Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckys, Diana B.; Veith, Gabriel M.; Joy, David C.; de Jonge, Niels

    2009-01-01

    Nanoscale imaging techniques are needed to investigate cellular function at the level of individual proteins and to study the interaction of nanomaterials with biological systems. We imaged whole fixed cells in liquid state with a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) using a micrometer-sized liquid enclosure with electron transparent windows providing a wet specimen environment. Wet-STEM images were obtained of fixed E. coli bacteria labeled with gold nanoparticles attached to surface membrane proteins. Mammalian cells (COS7) were incubated with gold-tagged epidermal growth factor and fixed. STEM imaging of these cells resulted in a resolution of 3 nm for the gold nanoparticles. The wet-STEM method has several advantages over conventional imaging techniques. Most important is the capability to image whole fixed cells in a wet environment with nanometer resolution, which can be used, e.g., to map individual protein distributions in/on whole cells. The sample preparation is compatible with that used for fluorescent microscopy on fixed cells for experiments involving nanoparticles. Thirdly, the system is rather simple and involves only minimal new equipment in an electron microscopy (EM) laboratory. PMID:20020038

  11. Nanoscale imaging of whole cells using a liquid enclosure and a scanning transmission electron microscope.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana B Peckys

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Nanoscale imaging techniques are needed to investigate cellular function at the level of individual proteins and to study the interaction of nanomaterials with biological systems. We imaged whole fixed cells in liquid state with a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM using a micrometer-sized liquid enclosure with electron transparent windows providing a wet specimen environment. Wet-STEM images were obtained of fixed E. coli bacteria labeled with gold nanoparticles attached to surface membrane proteins. Mammalian cells (COS7 were incubated with gold-tagged epidermal growth factor and fixed. STEM imaging of these cells resulted in a resolution of 3 nm for the gold nanoparticles. The wet-STEM method has several advantages over conventional imaging techniques. Most important is the capability to image whole fixed cells in a wet environment with nanometer resolution, which can be used, e.g., to map individual protein distributions in/on whole cells. The sample preparation is compatible with that used for fluorescent microscopy on fixed cells for experiments involving nanoparticles. Thirdly, the system is rather simple and involves only minimal new equipment in an electron microscopy (EM laboratory.

  12. Atmospheric scanning electron microscope system with an open sample chamber: Configuration and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishiyama, Hidetoshi, E-mail: hinishiy@jeol.co.jp [JEOL Ltd., 3-1-2, Musashino, Akishima, Tokyo 196-8558 (Japan); Koizumi, Mitsuru, E-mail: koizumi@jeol.co.jp [JEOL Technics Ltd., 2-6-38 Musashino, Akishima, Tokyo 196-0021 (Japan); Ogawa, Koji, E-mail: kogawa@jeol.co.jp [JEOL Technics Ltd., 2-6-38 Musashino, Akishima, Tokyo 196-0021 (Japan); Kitamura, Shinich, E-mail: kitamura@jeol.co.jp [JEOL Ltd., 3-1-2, Musashino, Akishima, Tokyo 196-8558 (Japan); Konyuba, Yuji, E-mail: ykonyuub@jeol.co.jp [JEOL Ltd., 3-1-2, Musashino, Akishima, Tokyo 196-8558 (Japan); Watanabe, Yoshiyuki, E-mail: watanabeyoshiy@pref.yamagata.jp [Yamagata Research Institute of Technology, 2-2-1, Matsuei, Yamagata 990-2473 (Japan); Ohbayashi, Norihiko, E-mail: n.ohbayashi@m.tohoku.ac.jp [Laboratory of Membrane Trafficking Mechanisms, Department of Developmental Biology and Neurosciences, Graduate School of Life Sciences, Tohoku University, Aobayama, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Fukuda, Mitsunori, E-mail: nori@m.tohoku.ac.jp [Laboratory of Membrane Trafficking Mechanisms, Department of Developmental Biology and Neurosciences, Graduate School of Life Sciences, Tohoku University, Aobayama, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Suga, Mitsuo, E-mail: msuga@jeol.co.jp [JEOL Ltd., 3-1-2, Musashino, Akishima, Tokyo 196-8558 (Japan); Sato, Chikara, E-mail: ti-sato@aist.go.jp [Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-4, Umezono, Tsukuba 305-8568 (Japan)

    2014-12-15

    An atmospheric scanning electron microscope (ASEM) with an open sample chamber and optical microscope (OM) is described and recent developments are reported. In this ClairScope system, the base of the open sample dish is sealed to the top of the inverted SEM column, allowing the liquid-immersed sample to be observed by OM from above and by SEM from below. The optical axes of the two microscopes are aligned, ensuring that the same sample areas are imaged to realize quasi-simultaneous correlative microscopy in solution. For example, the cathodoluminescence of ZnO particles was directly demonstrated. The improved system has (i) a fully motorized sample stage, (ii) a column protection system in the case of accidental window breakage, and (iii) an OM/SEM operation system controlled by a graphical user interface. The open sample chamber allows the external administration of reagents during sample observation. We monitored the influence of added NaCl on the random motion of silica particles in liquid. Further, using fluorescence as a transfection marker, the effect of small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of endogenous Varp on Tyrp1 trafficking in melanocytes was examined. A temperature-regulated titanium ASEM dish allowed the dynamic observation of colloidal silver nanoparticles as they were heated to 240 °C and sintered. - Highlights: • Atmospheric SEM (ASEM) allows observation of samples in liquid or gas. • Open sample chamber allows in situ monitoring of evaporation and sintering processes. • in situ monitoring of processes during reagent administration is also accomplished. • Protection system for film breakage is developed for ASEM. • Usability of ASEM has been improved significantly including GUI control.

  13. Laser Scanning Fluorescence Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Eric W.; Zelten, J. Peter; Wiseman, Benjamin A.

    1988-06-01

    We report on the development of a laser scanning fluorescence microscope possessing several features which facilitate its application to biological and biophysical analyses in living cells. It is built around a standard inverted microscope stand, enabling the use of standard optics, micromanipulation apparatus, and conventional (including video) microscopy in conjunction with laser scanning. The beam is scanned across the specimen by a pair of galvanometer-mounted mirrors, driven by a programmable controller which can operate in three modes: full raster scan, region of interest, and random-access. A full 512x512 pixel image can be acquired in one second. In region of interest mode, several subareas of the field can be selected for more rapid or detailed analysis. For those cases where the time scale of the observed phenomenon precludes full-field imaging, or where a full-field image is unnecessary, the random access mode enables an arbitrary pattern of isolated points to be selected and rapidly sequenced through. Via a graphical user interface implemented on the system's host computer, a user will be able to take a scout image either with video or a full-field laser scan, select regions or points on the scout image with a mouse, and set up experimental parameters such as detector integration times with a window-style menu. The instrument is designed to be a flexible testbed for investigating new techniques, without compromising its utility as a tool for biological research.

  14. Examination of Scanning Electron Microscope and Computed Tomography Images of PICA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, John W.; Stackpoole, Margaret M.; Shklover, Valery

    2010-01-01

    Micrographs of PICA (Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator) taken using a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and 3D images taken with a Computed Tomography (CT) system are examined. PICA is a carbon fiber based composite (Fiberform ) with a phenolic polymer matrix. The micrographs are taken at different surface depths and at different magnifications in a sample after arc jet testing and show different levels of oxidative removal of the charred matrix (Figs 1 though 13). CT scans, courtesy of Xradia, Inc. of Concord CA, were captured for samples of virgin PICA, charred PICA and raw Fiberform (Fig. 14). We use these images to calculate the thermal conductivity (TC) of these materials using correlation function (CF) methods. CF methods give a mathematical description of how one material is embedded in another and is thus ideally suited for modeling composites like PICA. We will evaluate how the TC of the materials changes as a function of surface depth. This work is in collaboration with ETH-Zurich, which has expertise in high temperature materials and TC modeling (including CF methods).

  15. Autoregressive linear least square single scanning electron microscope image signal-to-noise ratio estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Kok Swee; NorHisham, Syafiq

    2016-11-01

    A technique based on linear Least Squares Regression (LSR) model is applied to estimate signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. In order to test the accuracy of this technique on SNR estimation, a number of SEM images are initially corrupted with white noise. The autocorrelation function (ACF) of the original and the corrupted SEM images are formed to serve as the reference point to estimate the SNR value of the corrupted image. The LSR technique is then compared with the previous three existing techniques known as nearest neighbourhood, first-order interpolation, and the combination of both nearest neighborhood and first-order interpolation. The actual and the estimated SNR values of all these techniques are then calculated for comparison purpose. It is shown that the LSR technique is able to attain the highest accuracy compared to the other three existing techniques as the absolute difference between the actual and the estimated SNR value is relatively small. SCANNING 38:771-782, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Charge compensation by in-situ heating for insulating ceramics in scanning electron microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Li [Institute of Microstructure and Property of Advanced Materials, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Ji, Yuan, E-mail: jiyuan@bjut.edu.cn [Institute of Microstructure and Property of Advanced Materials, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Wei, Bin; Zhang, Yinqi; Fu, Jingyong; Xu, Xuedong; Han, Xiaodong [Institute of Microstructure and Property of Advanced Materials, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China)

    2009-10-15

    With a steady temperature increase under high vacuum (HV) in an environmental scanning electronic microscope, we observed charge-free characterization and fine secondary electron (SE) images in focus for insulating ceramics (alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), aluminum nitride (AlN), pure magnesium silicate (Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4})). The sample current I{sub sc} increased from -8.18x10{sup -13} to 2.76x10{sup -7} A for Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and -9.28x10{sup -12} to 2.77x10{sup -6} A for AlN with the temperature increased from 298 to 633 K. The surface conductance {sigma} increased from 5.6x10{sup -13} to 5.0x10{sup -11}/{Omega} for Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and 1.1x10{sup -12} to 1.0x10{sup -7}/{Omega} for AlN with the temperature increased from 363 to 593 K. The SE image contrast obtained via heating approach in high vacuum with an Everhart-Thornley SE-detector was better than that via conventional approach of electron-ion neutralization in low vacuum (LV) with a gaseous SE-detector. The differences of compensation temperatures for charge effects indicate dielectric and thermal properties, and band structures of insulators. The charge compensation mechanisms of heating approach mainly relate to accelerated release of trapped electrons on insulating surface and to increase of electron emission yield by heating.

  17. The Atmospheric Scanning Electron Microscope with open sample space observes dynamic phenomena in liquid or gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suga, Mitsuo, E-mail: msuga@jeol.co.jp [Clair Project, JEOL Ltd., 3-1-2, Musashino, Akishima, Tokyo 196-8558 (Japan); Nishiyama, Hidetoshi; Konyuba, Yuji [Clair Project, JEOL Ltd., 3-1-2, Musashino, Akishima, Tokyo 196-8558 (Japan); Iwamatsu, Shinnosuke; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki [Yamagata Research Institute of Technology, 2-2-1, Matsuei, Yamagata, 990-2473 (Japan); Yoshiura, Chie; Ueda, Takumi [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Sato, Chikara, E-mail: ti-sato@aist.go.jp [Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-4, Umezono, Tsukuba 305-8568 (Japan)

    2011-12-15

    Although conventional electron microscopy (EM) requires samples to be in vacuum, most chemical and physical reactions occur in liquid or gas. The Atmospheric Scanning Electron Microscope (ASEM) can observe dynamic phenomena in liquid or gas under atmospheric pressure in real time. An electron-permeable window made of pressure-resistant 100 nm-thick silicon nitride (SiN) film, set into the bottom of the open ASEM sample dish, allows an electron beam to be projected from underneath the sample. A detector positioned below captures backscattered electrons. Using the ASEM, we observed the radiation-induced self-organization process of particles, as well as phenomena accompanying volume change, including evaporation-induced crystallization. Using the electrochemical ASEM dish, we observed tree-like electrochemical depositions on the cathode. In silver nitrate solution, we observed silver depositions near the cathode forming incidental internal voids. The heated ASEM dish allowed observation of patterns of contrast in melting and solidifying solder. Finally, to demonstrate its applicability for monitoring and control of industrial processes, silver paste and solder paste were examined at high throughput. High resolution, imaging speed, flexibility, adaptability, and ease of use facilitate the observation of previously difficult-to-image phenomena, and make the ASEM applicable to various fields. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Atmospheric SEM (ASEM) observes dynamic phenomena in liquid or gas in open ASEM dish. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Random motion and radiation-induced self-organization were observed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tree-like electrochemical deposition of gold was observed on an electrode in situ. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Temperature-dependent phase transitions of solder were dynamically observed in air. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silver and solder pastes were easily and rapidly observed in air for process control.

  18. A Student-Built Scanning Tunneling Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekkens, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Many introductory and nanotechnology textbooks discuss the operation of various microscopes including atomic force (AFM), scanning tunneling (STM), and scanning electron microscopes (SEM). In a nanotechnology laboratory class, students frequently utilize microscopes to obtain data without a thought about the detailed operation of the tool itself.…

  19. Dark field imaging of biological macromolecules with the scanning transmission electron microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsuki, Mitsuo; Isaacson, Michael S.; Crewe, A. V.

    1979-01-01

    A scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) equipped with a field emission gun has been employed for the examination of biological macromolecules at high resolution. The quality of micrographs obtained with the STEM is dependent upon the quality of the substrate used to support biological objects because the image contrast in dark field is proportional to the mass density of the specimen. In order to reduce deleterious effects of the substrates on the image quality, we have developed a method of fabricating substrates consisting of very thin, very clean carbon films supported on very clean fenestrated plastic films. These films are approximately 15 Å thick. Well-known biological macromolecules such as glutamine synthetase and tobacco mosaic virus (both stained) and low-density lipoprotein and ferritin (both unstained were placed on these substrates and examined with the STEM by using various modes of contrast. The micrographs obtained by using the dark field mode of contrast employing an annular detector were free from phase contrast, as expected. Using this contrast mode, we have been able to directly observe (in-focus) 2.5- to 4.4-Å lattice spacings in the ferritin core. The effect of electron radiation damage on the helical structure of tobacco mosaic virus was also examined. Micrographs as well as corresponding optical diffraction patterns obtained with moderately low doses showed very clear helical structure from both sides of the virus. In addition, the (11.5 Å)-1 layer lines indicated the effective resolution attained on these particles. Images PMID:35788

  20. Orientation mapping of nanostructured materials using transmission Kikuchi diffraction in the scanning electron microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trimby, Patrick W., E-mail: patrick.trimby@sydney.edu.au [Australian Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, The University of Sydney, Madsen Building F09 Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2012-09-15

    In this study, the new technique of transmission Kikuchi diffraction (TKD) in the scanning electron microscope (SEM) has been applied for the first time to enable orientation mapping of bulk, nanostructured metals. The results show how the improved spatial resolution of SEM-TKD, compared to conventional EBSD, enables reliable mapping of truly nanostructured metals and alloys, with mean grain sizes in the 40-200 nm range. The spatial resolution of the technique is significantly below 10 nm, and contrasting examples are shown from both dense (Ni) and lighter (Al-alloy) materials. Despite the burden of preparing thin, electron-transparent samples, orientation mapping using SEM-TKD is likely to become invaluable for routine characterisation of nanocrystalline and, potentially, highly deformed microstructures. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer First report of orientation mapping by transmission Kikuchi diffraction in the SEM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The SEM-TKD technique can achieve an effective spatial resolution of 2-4 nm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanostructured Ni with a mean grain size of <50 nm has been effectively mapped. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Highly deformed Al-alloy, with sub-200 nm grains, has also been characterized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The sample thickness is critical for effective results: ideally 75-200 nm for Al.

  1. Miniature Variable Pressure Scanning Electron Microscope for In-Situ Imaging and Chemical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskin, Jessica A.; Jerman, Gregory; Gregory, Don; Sampson, Allen R.

    2012-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is leading an effort to develop a Miniaturized Variable Pressure Scanning Electron Microscope (MVP-SEM) for in-situ imaging and chemical analysis of uncoated samples. This instrument development will be geared towards operation on Mars and builds on a previous MSFC design of a mini-SEM for the moon (funded through the NASA Planetary Instrument Definition and Development Program). Because Mars has a dramatically different environment than the moon, modifications to the MSFC lunar mini-SEM are necessary. Mainly, the higher atmospheric pressure calls for the use of an electron gun that can operate at High Vacuum, rather than Ultra-High Vacuum. The presence of a CO2-rich atmosphere also allows for the incorporation of a variable pressure system that enables the in-situ analysis of nonconductive geological specimens. Preliminary testing of Mars meteorites in a commercial Environmental SEM(Tradmark) (FEI) confirms the usefulness of lowcurrent/low-accelerating voltage imaging and highlights the advantages of using the Mars atmosphere for environmental imaging. The unique capabilities of the MVP-SEM make it an ideal tool for pursuing key scientific goals of NASA's Flagship Mission Max-C; to perform in-situ science and collect and cache samples in preparation for sample return from Mars.

  2. Sparse sampling and reconstruction for electron and scanning probe microscope imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Hyrum; Helms, Jovana; Wheeler, Jason W.; Larson, Kurt W.; Rohrer, Brandon R.

    2015-07-28

    Systems and methods for conducting electron or scanning probe microscopy are provided herein. In a general embodiment, the systems and methods for conducting electron or scanning probe microscopy with an undersampled data set include: driving an electron beam or probe to scan across a sample and visit a subset of pixel locations of the sample that are randomly or pseudo-randomly designated; determining actual pixel locations on the sample that are visited by the electron beam or probe; and processing data collected by detectors from the visits of the electron beam or probe at the actual pixel locations and recovering a reconstructed image of the sample.

  3. Quantification of carbon contamination under electron beam irradiation in a scanning transmission electron microscope and its suppression by plasma cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffiths, A J V; Walther, T, E-mail: t.walther@sheffield.ac.u [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sir Frederick Mappin Building, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-01

    We have measured the build-up of carbon surface contamination as a function of time and irradiated area size for various specimens in a JEOL 2010F (scanning) transmission electron microscope, employing both t/{lambda} mapping with our Gatan imaging filter and recording changes in annular dark-field image intensity. It is shown that the total number of carbon atoms deposited per time for a given beam intensity is roughly constant at room temperature for as-received specimens while it is significantly lower for plasma cleaned specimens. This explains why contamination is generally only an issue at the highest magnifications where the contamination regions become smaller and the carbon layers correspondingly thicker. A Fischione plasma cleaner was then used to remove these carbon layers, and the rate of carbon removal has been determined for contamination spots produced in stationary spot mode as well as for extended regions scanned for a minute so that optimal cleaning times can be chosen.

  4. Fundamental and experimental aspects of diffraction for characterizing dislocations by electron channeling contrast imaging in scanning electron microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriaa, H; Guitton, A; Maloufi, N

    2017-08-29

    Nowadays Field Emission Gun-Scanning Electron Microscopes provide detailed crystallographic information with high spatial and angular resolutions, and allow direct observation of crystalline defects, such as dislocations, through an attractive technique called Electron Channeling Contrast Imaging (ECCI). Dislocations play a crucial role in the properties of materials and ECCI has naturally emerged as an adapted tool for characterizing defects in bulk specimen. Nevertheless, fine control of the channeling conditions is absolutely required to get strong dislocation contrast for achieving comprehensive analysis. In this work, experiment-assisted fundamental aspects of the origin of dislocation contrast are studied. Experimentally, the potential of ECCI is explored in several dislocation configurations in Interstitial-Free steel (Fe - 1% Si) used as a model material. Full interpretations of dislocation contrast in (g, -g) and its evolution along the Kikuchi band are shown. Furthermore, a dislocation dipole is observed and fully characterized for the first time in an SEM.

  5. Application of Tuning Fork Sensors for In-situ Studies of Dynamic Force Interactions Inside Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana ANDZANE

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical properties of nanoscale contacts have been probed in-situ by specially developed force sensor based on a quartz tuning fork resonator (TF. Additional control is provided by observation of process in scanning electron microscope (SEM and transmission electron microscope (TEM. A piezoelectric manipulator allows precise positioning of atomic force microscope (AFM probe in contact with another electrode and recording of the TF oscillation amplitude and phase while simultaneously visualizing the contact area in electron microscope. Electrostatic control of interaction between the electrodes is demonstrated during observation of the experiment in SEM. In the TEM system the TF sensor operated in shear force mode: Use of TEM allowed for direct control of separation between electrodes. New opportunities for in situ studies of nanomechanical systems using these instruments are discussed.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.18.2.1927

  6. Mass mapping of a protein complex with the scanning transmission electron microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, A; Baumeister, W; Saxton, W O

    1982-01-01

    A mass map of the hexagonally packed intermediate layer (HPI-layer), a regular protein monolayer from the cell envelope of Micrococcus radiodurans, has been obtained by scanning transmission electron microscopy. Samples were freeze-dried within the microscope, and low-dose images were recorded in the dark-field mode directly in digital form and processed by correlation averaging. The averaged projection of the unstained structure--i.e., the mass map--thus calculated shows a resolution to 3-nm period and reveals morphological features consistent with those obtained by negative staining. The mass of individual morphological domains was extracted by using variously the mass map itself or an average from a negatively stained HPI layer to define the domain boundaries. Protrusions as small as 1,300 daltons could be measured reproducibly within the unit cell of 655,000 daltons. The method developed opens an avenue to identify molecular species in situ and to correlate topographic information with biochemical data. Images PMID:6955791

  7. Vertical marginal discrepancies of metal castings obtained using different pattern materials: A scanning electron microscope study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Sushma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Dental Casting involves various stages of processing, out of which any may affect the dimensional accuracy. The fit of a casting depends not only on the method of fabrication employed but also on the type of materials utilized. One important variable in the casting process is the type of pattern material employed. This study was carried out to determine and compare the effect of different pattern materials on the vertical marginal accuracy of complete cast crowns. Materials and Methods: A standardized metal master die simulating a prepared crown was used to prepare 60 models on which patterns were fabricated using Inlay Pattern Wax; Auto-polymerized Pattern Resin and Light Cured Modeling Resin and cast immediately. Castings of the patterns were subjected to analysis of marginal fit using a scanning electron microscope (SEM. Results: One-way ANOVA result showed a significant difference in the gap observed between the castings fabricated using the three types of pattern materials (P 0.05. Conclusion: With strict adherence to the principles of pattern fabrication and immediate casting, Inlay wax can still be the pattern material of choice to produce a casting with minimal marginal discrepancy with added advantages of being user friendly and cost effective.

  8. Ultra-morphology of root surface subsequent to periodontal instrumentation: A scanning electron microscope study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parveen Dahiya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to compare root surface characteristic following root planing with various hand and power driven instruments. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 single rooted teeth were used in this study, of which two specimens were used as control (no instrumentation done and remaining 18 specimens were equally divided into three groups. Specimens from each group were then subjected to root planing by one of the following instruments: (1 a Gracey curette (2 Ultrasonic tip and (3 a Rotary bur. In each case, the time required for scaling and root planing was measured. After treatment, the specimens were observed under scanning electron microscope and surface roughness was measured by using Roughness and loss of tooth substance index (RLTSI. Results: The mean RLTSI scores for Gracey curette, ultrasonic and rotary instrument group were 2.5, 2.0 and 0.667 respectively. The mean scores of time spent for scaling and root planing by Gracey curette, ultrasonic and rotary instrument group in seconds were 42.50, 35.83 and 54.50. Conclusion: All the three instruments namely Gracey curette, Ultrasonic tip and Rotary bur were effective in mechanical debridement of root surface. The results favoured the use of rotary instruments for root planing to achieve smooth clean root surface; however, the use of rotary instrument was more time consuming which might limit its use in clinical practice.

  9. Somatic Embryos in Catharanthus roseus: A Scanning Electron Microscopic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junaid ASLAM

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Catharanthus roseus (L. G. Don is an important medicinal plant as it contains several anti-cancerous compounds, like vinblastine and vincristine. Plant tissue culture technology (organogenesis and embryogenesis has currently been used in fast mass propagating raw materials for secondary metabolite synthesis. In this present communication, scanning electron microscopic (SEM study of somatic embryos was conducted and discussed. The embryogenic callus was first induced from hypocotyls of in vitro germinated seeds on which somatic embryos, differentiated in numbers, particularly on 2,4-D (1.0 mg/L Murashige and Skoog (MS was medium. To understand more about the regeneration method and in vitro formed embryos SEM was performed. The SEM study revealed normal somatic embryo origin and development from globular to heart-, torpedo- and then into cotyledonary-stage of embryos. At early stage, the embryos were clustered together in a callus mass and could not easily be detached from the parental tissue. The embryos were often long cylindrical structure with or without typical notch at the tip. Secondary embryos were also formed on primary embryo structure. The advanced cotyledonary embryos showed prominent roots and shoot axis, which germinated into plantlets. The morphology, structure and other details of somatic embryos at various stages were presented.

  10. Assessing the efficacy of citrus aurantifolia extract on smear layer removal with scanning electron microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolhari, Behnam; Sharifian, Mohammad Reza; Aminsobhani, Mohsen; Monsef Esfehani, Hamid Reza; Tavakolian, Pardis

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of citrus aurantifolia (CA) extract on smear layer removal in different parts of root canals. Thirty-nine single-rooted human teeth were randomly divided into three experimental (n=12) and one control (n=3) groups. Teeth were instrumented using MTwo rotary instruments. Root canals were irrigated with NaOCl during instrumentation. The canals in each group were irrigated with one of the following: completed mixture of citrus aurantifolia extracts, 17% EDTA, and alcoholic extract of CA. Distilled water was used for the control group. The irrigants were left within the canal for 20 minutes, and then rinsed with normal saline solution. Teeth were subsequently split longitudinally into 2 halves, and the canals were examined by a scanning electron-microscope. Cleanliness was evaluated using a five point scoring system. Statistical significant difference was found between groups (Pcitrus aurantifolia extracts were not able to effectively remove smear layer compared with 17% EDTA during root canal therapy.

  11. A scanning electron microscopic and microradiographic study of pits in fluorosed human enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thylstrup, A; Fejerskov, O

    1979-04-01

    The aim of the present study has been to correlate the surface appearance of pitted, fluorosed enamel in the scanning electron microscope (SEM) with the microradiographic features of the underlying tissue. Intact enamel surfaces of severely fluorosed teeth appeared similar to that of normal enamel. In the unabraded surfaces discrete pits were sharply demarcated from the surrounding intact enamel surface leaving steep walls of parallel running rods. The microradiographic appearance of sections made through pits indicated that focal loss of surface enamel occurred corresponding to the inner highly hypomineralized part of the fluorotic subsurface lesion. The abrupt wall formation and the finding that the striae of Retzius never changed direction along the margins of the lesions indicated that pits in fluorosed enamel may be secondarily produced defects rather than true hypoplasias. Further evidence of the posteruptive origin of the defects was derived from the observation that enamel lamellae occasionally formed part of the lateral border. The relatively higher degree of radiopacity observed in the tissue surrounding the pit indicates a posteruptively acquired deposition of minerals in the exposed porous enamel.

  12. Scanning Electron Microscope-Cathodoluminescence Analysis of Rare-Earth Elements in Magnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imashuku, Susumu; Wagatsuma, Kazuaki; Kawai, Jun

    2016-02-01

    Scanning electron microscope-cathodoluminescence (SEM-CL) analysis was performed for neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) and samarium-cobalt (Sm-Co) magnets to analyze the rare-earth elements present in the magnets. We examined the advantages of SEM-CL analysis over conventional analytical methods such as SEM-energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy and SEM-wavelength-dispersive X-ray (WDX) spectroscopy for elemental analysis of rare-earth elements in NdFeB magnets. Luminescence spectra of chloride compounds of elements in the magnets were measured by the SEM-CL method. Chloride compounds were obtained by the dropwise addition of hydrochloric acid on the magnets followed by drying in vacuum. Neodymium, praseodymium, terbium, and dysprosium were separately detected in the NdFeB magnets, and samarium was detected in the Sm-Co magnet by the SEM-CL method. In contrast, it was difficult to distinguish terbium and dysprosium in the NdFeB magnet with a dysprosium concentration of 1.05 wt% by conventional SEM-EDX analysis. Terbium with a concentration of 0.02 wt% in an NdFeB magnet was detected by SEM-CL analysis, but not by conventional SEM-WDX analysis. SEM-CL analysis is advantageous over conventional SEM-EDX and SEM-WDX analyses for detecting trace rare-earth elements in NdFeB magnets, particularly dysprosium and terbium.

  13. Image sharpness measurement in the scanning electron-microscope--part III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, N F; Postek, M T; Larrabee, R D; Vladár, A E; Keery, W J; Jones, S N

    1999-01-01

    Fully automated or semi-automated scanning electron microscopes (SEM) are now commonly used in semiconductor production and other forms of manufacturing. Testing and proving that the instrument is performing at a satisfactory level of sharpness is an important aspect of quality control. The application of Fourier analysis techniques to the analysis of SEM images is a useful methodology for sharpness measurement. In this paper, a statistical measure known as the multivariate kurtosis is proposed as an additional useful measure of the sharpness of SEM images. Kurtosis is designed to be a measure of the degree of departure of a probability distribution. For selected SEM images, the two-dimensional spatial Fourier transforms were computed. Then the bivariate kurtosis of this Fourier transform was calculated as though it were a probability distribution. Kurtosis has the distinct advantage that it is a parametric (i.e., a dimensionless) measure and is sensitive to the presence of the high spatial frequencies necessary for acceptable levels of image sharpness. The applications of this method to SEM metrology will be discussed.

  14. Performance assessment of methods for estimation of fractal dimension from scanning electron microscope images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risović, Dubravko; Pavlović, Zivko

    2013-01-01

    Processing of gray scale images in order to determine the corresponding fractal dimension is very important due to widespread use of imaging technologies and application of fractal analysis in many areas of science, technology, and medicine. To this end, many methods for estimation of fractal dimension from gray scale images have been developed and routinely used. Unfortunately different methods (dimension estimators) often yield significantly different results in a manner that makes interpretation difficult. Here, we report results of comparative assessment of performance of several most frequently used algorithms/methods for estimation of fractal dimension. To that purpose, we have used scanning electron microscope images of aluminum oxide surfaces with different fractal dimensions. The performance of algorithms/methods was evaluated using the statistical Z-score approach. The differences between performances of six various methods are discussed and further compared with results obtained by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy on the same samples. The analysis of results shows that the performance of investigated algorithms varies considerably and that systematically erroneous fractal dimensions could be estimated using certain methods. The differential cube counting, triangulation, and box counting algorithms showed satisfactory performance in the whole investigated range of fractal dimensions. Difference statistic is proved to be less reliable generating 4% of unsatisfactory results. The performances of the Power spectrum, Partitioning and EIS were unsatisfactory in 29%, 38%, and 75% of estimations, respectively. The results of this study should be useful and provide guidelines to researchers using/attempting fractal analysis of images obtained by scanning microscopy or atomic force microscopy. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Scanning electron microscope technique for measuring electrical conductivity: application to tetrathiafulvalene--tetracyanoquinodimethane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, James Peter [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)

    1977-01-01

    A new technique for measuring the electrical conductivity of small samples and its application to the organic conductor tetrathiafulvalene-tetracyanoquinodimethane (TTF-TCNQ) is reported. A movable current source provided by the electron beam of a scanning electron microscope is used to map out the potential distribution on crystal faces containing the a-b crystallographic axes. Silver paint contacts are used to return the beam current to ground and measure voltage changes as the beam position is moved. The results of the new technique are confirmed and complemented by the conventional movable contact method and the extension of both methods to low temperature is discussed. The potential distributions for our samples reveal frequently occurring irregularities in current flow which are attributable to sample imperfections and inhomogeneities in the silver paint contacts. Methods are presented whereby the commonly reported conductivities sigmaa and sigmab can be determined despite the presence of certain current flow irrgularities; room temperature values are found to be: sigmab = 490 ± 80 (Ωcm)-1 and sigmaa = 1.21 ± 0.15 (Ωcm)-1. The relationship of sigmaa/ and sigmab to the elements of the correctly expressed conductivity tensor for TTF-TCNQ is clarified. The influence of contact inhomogeneities on four-probe measurements of the temperature dependence of the b-axis conductivity as determined with an electrolytic tank model are also presented. It is found that there is a large probability of slightly underestimating conductivity, but that it is possible in a small number of cases to greatly overestimate conductivity.

  16. Scanning laser video camera/ microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C. P.; Bow, R. T.

    1984-10-01

    A laser scanning system capable of scanning at standard video rate has been developed. The scanning mirrors, circuit design and system performance, as well as its applications to video cameras and ultra-violet microscopes, are discussed.

  17. Angle selective backscattered electron contrast in the low-voltage scanning electron microscope: Simulation and experiment for polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, Q., E-mail: qwan2@sheffield.ac.uk [Department of Material Science and Engineering, University of Sheffield, Western Bank, Sheffield S10 2TN (United Kingdom); Masters, R.C. [Department of Material Science and Engineering, University of Sheffield, Western Bank, Sheffield S10 2TN (United Kingdom); Lidzey, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Western Bank, Sheffield S10 2TN (United Kingdom); Abrams, K.J. [Department of Material Science and Engineering, University of Sheffield, Western Bank, Sheffield S10 2TN (United Kingdom); Dapor, M. [European Centre for Theoretical Studies in Nuclear Physics and Related Areas (ECT-FBK) and Trento Institute for Fundamental Physics and Applications (TIFPA-INFN), via Sommarive 18, I-38123 Trento (Italy); Plenderleith, R.A. [Department of Material Science and Engineering, University of Sheffield, Western Bank, Sheffield S10 2TN (United Kingdom); Rimmer, S. [Department of Chemistry, University of Sheffield, Western Bank, Sheffield S10 2TN (United Kingdom); Claeyssens, F.; Rodenburg, C. [Department of Material Science and Engineering, University of Sheffield, Western Bank, Sheffield S10 2TN (United Kingdom)

    2016-12-15

    Recently developed detectors can deliver high resolution and high contrast images of nanostructured carbon based materials in low voltage scanning electron microscopes (LVSEM) with beam deceleration. Monte Carlo Simulations are also used to predict under which exact imaging conditions purely compositional contrast can be obtained and optimised. This allows the prediction of the electron signal intensity in angle selective conditions for back-scattered electron (BSE) imaging in LVSEM and compares it to experimental signals. Angle selective detection with a concentric back scattered (CBS) detector is considered in the model in the absence and presence of a deceleration field, respectively. The validity of the model prediction for both cases was tested experimentally for amorphous C and Cu and applied to complex nanostructured carbon based materials, namely a Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)/Poly(ethylene glycol) Diacrylate (PNIPAM/PEGDA) semi-interpenetration network (IPN) and a Poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) film, to map nano-scale composition and crystallinity distribution by avoiding experimental imaging conditions that lead to a mixed topographical and compositional contrast - Highlights: • An optimised model for nano-scale analysis of beam sensitive materials by LVSEM. • Simulation and separation of composition and topography in a CBS detector. • Selective angle backscattered electron collection for mapping of polymers.

  18. Neonatal lines in the enamel of primary teeth--a morphological and scanning electron microscopic investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabel, Nina; Johansson, Carina; Kühnisch, Jan; Robertson, Agneta; Steiniger, Frank; Norén, Jörgen G; Klingberg, Gunilla; Nietzsche, Sandor

    2008-10-01

    The neonatal line (NNL) is in principle found in all primary teeth and the line represents the time of birth. Earlier findings of the appearance of the NNL in light microscope and in microradiographs have shown not only changes in the prism direction of the enamel, but that the NNL has a hypomineralized character. The neonatal line was analyzed in un-decalcified sections of primary lower and central incisors, collected from individuals of different ages utilizing polarized light microscopy, microradiography, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray analysis (XRMA). In polarized light the NNL appeared to have a more porous structure than the enamel in general. The appearance of the NNL as a dark line in microradiographs is interpreted as the NNL being less mineralized than neighbouring enamel. Analysis with ImageJ visualized the reduction of the amount of grey value, indicating that the NNL is less mineralized. Analysis of the NNL in SEM showed a reduction of the diameter of enamel prisms, the more narrow diameters continued through the postnatal enamel. A change of the growth direction of the prisms was also observed at the NNL. In a three-dimensional image the NNL appeared as a grove, however, in non-etched enamel no grove was seen. The elemental analyses with XRMA showed no marked changes in the content of C, Ca, P, N, O or S in the area around the NNL. The NNL is an optical phenomenon due to alterations in height, and degree of mineralization of the enamel prisms.

  19. Chlorhexidine as a root canal irrigant: Antimicrobial and scanning electron microscopic evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Slavoljub

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Selection of irrigant is very important for longterm success of root canal therapy. Objective. This study was undertaken to evaluate the antimicrobial effects of 2% chlorhexidine digluconate solution (CHX against five selected microorganisms and to evaluate its efficacy in root canal cleaning. Methods. In this study, by agar diffusion test, were evaluated antimicrobial effects of three root canal irrigants: 5.25% NaOCl, 2.5% NaOCl and 2% CHX. The microorganisms tested in this study were Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. A scanning electron microscope was used to evaluate root canal cleaning ability of 5.25% NaOCl, 2.5% NaOCl, 2% CHX and 15% EDTA. Twelve extracted single-root human teeth were divided into four groups depending on the irrigant used during instrumentation. Mechanical preparation was performed with Step back technique and K files. Data were analyzed statistically by Student’s t-test. Results 5.25% NaOCl was the most effective against all tested microorganisms. 2.5% NaOCl and 2% CHX showed antimicrobial effects against all tested microorganisms but zones of inhibition were smaller. The best results in root canal walls cleaning were obtained in the group where the irrigant was 15% EDTA (score 2.33. In 5.25% NaOCl, 2.5% NaOCl and 2% CHX groups, there was more smear layer (score 4 and 5. Conclusion. 2% chlorhexidine digluconate showed strong antimicrobial effect on the tested microorganisms, but was not effective in cleaning root canal walls.

  20. Elevated temperature, nano-mechanical testing in situ in the scanning electron microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler, J. M.; Michler, J. [EMPA - Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Laboratory for Mechanics of Materials and Nanostructures, Feuerwerkerstrasse 39, Thun CH-3602 (Switzerland)

    2013-04-15

    A general nano-mechanical test platform capable of performing variable temperature and variable strain rate testing in situ in the scanning electron microscope is described. A variety of test geometries are possible in combination with focused ion beam machining or other fabrication techniques: indentation, micro-compression, cantilever bending, and scratch testing. The system is intrinsically displacement-controlled, which allows it to function directly as a micro-scale thermomechanical test frame. Stable, elevated temperature indentation/micro-compression requires the indenter tip and the sample to be in thermal equilibrium to prevent thermal displacement drift due to thermal expansion. This is achieved through independent heating and temperature monitoring of both the indenter tip and sample. Furthermore, the apex temperature of the indenter tip is calibrated, which allows it to act as a referenced surface temperature probe during contact. A full description of the system is provided, and the effects of indenter geometry and of radiation on imaging conditions are discussed. The stabilization time and temperature distribution throughout the system as a function of temperature is characterized. The advantages of temperature monitoring and thermal calibration of the indenter tip are illustrated, which include the possibility of local thermal conductivity measurement. Finally, validation results using nanoindentation on fused silica and micro-compression of <100> silicon micro-pillars as a function of temperature up to 500 Degree-Sign C are presented, and procedures and considerations taken for these measurements are discussed. A brittle to ductile transition from fracture to splitting then plastic deformation is directly observed in the SEM for silicon as a function of temperature.

  1. Micro-four-point probes in a UHV scanning electron microscope for in-situ surface-conductivity measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shiraki, I.; Nagao, T.; Hasegawa, S.

    2000-01-01

    For in-situ measurements of surface conductivity in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV), we have installed micro-four-point probes (probe spacings down to 4 mum) in a UHV scanning electron microscope (SEM) combined with scanning reflection-high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED). With the aid of piezoactuators...... for precise positioning of the probes, local conductivity of selected surface domains of well-defined superstructures could be measured during SEM and RHEED observations. It was found that the surface sensitivity of the conductivity measurements was enhanced by reducing the probe spacing, enabling...

  2. Comparison of macroscopic and microscopic (stereomicroscopy and scanning electron microscopy) features of bone lesions due to hatchet hacking trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Luísa; Quatrehomme, Gérald; Bertrand, Marie-France; Rallon, Christophe; Ceinos, Romain; du Jardin, Philippe; Adalian, Pascal; Alunni, Véronique

    2017-03-01

    This experimental study examined the lesions produced by a hatchet on human bones (tibiae). A total of 30 lesions were produced and examined macroscopically (naked eye) and by stereomicroscopy. 13 of them were also analyzed using scanning electron microscopy. The general shape of the lesion, both edges, both walls, the kerf floor and the extremities were described. The length and maximum width of the lesions were also recorded. The microscopic analysis of the lesions led to the description of a sharp-blunt mechanism. Specific criteria were identified (lateral pushing back, fragmentation of the upraising, fossa dug laterally to the edge and vertical striae) enabling the forensic expert to conclude that a hacking instrument was used. These criteria are easily identifiable using scanning electron microscopy, but can also be observed with stereomicroscopy. Overall, lateral pushing back and vertical striae visible using stereomicroscopy and scanning electron microscopy signal the use of a hacking tool.

  3. Clinical and scanning electron microscopic assessments of porcelain and ceromer resin veneers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhawan, Pankaj; Prakash, Hari; Shah, Nassem

    2003-01-01

    Recently available Ceromer resin materials are promising for fabrication of esthetic anterior laminates and provices an alternative, cost effective treament modality to porcelain laminates for discolored anterior anterior teeth. It was proposed to study the esthetic quality and surface finish of veneers fbricated from ceromer resin and compare it with the standard porcelain veneers, both clinically as well as by scanning electron microscope (SEM) at baseline and at 12 months. If found comparable, ceromer resin veneer could provide an alternative to porcelain veneers which is an expensive technique for a developing country like India. Seventy-two veneers, 36 porcelain and 36 ceromer were placed in 12 subjects who were studied at 0, 6 and 12 months for clinical acceptability, and at 0 and 12 months for SEM assessment. The restorations were luted with Opal luting composite and Scotchbond multipurpose system; polyvinyl siloxane was used as the impression material. The clinical assessment was made using modified United Public Health Services criteria, whereas the SEM assessment was made by quantitative analysis of the marginal fit and surface characteristics of the two veneering materials. Ceromer exhibited good anatomical form during the study period, but depicted changes in color, surface appearance, marginal adaptation, increased marginal discoloration, and tissue response. Inability to achieve a good finish with high gloss was a major drawback of the ceromer. Porcelain exhibited better esthetics, marginal adaptation, finish qualities, and tissue response. The SEM showed good to excellent marginal fit at baselinne in ceromer and porcelain veneers, but loss of luting resin at the margins was evident in both the materials after 12 months, leading to visible gaps in a number of veneer restorations. Ceromer veneers exhibited poor surface characteristics in several restorations, which further degraded in an oral conditions over 12 months. Veneering is an effective mode of

  4. Skeletal growth phases of the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa shown by scanning electron microscope and electron backscatter diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouchi, Vincent; Vonlanthen, Pierre; Verrecchia, Eric P.; Crowley, Quentin G.

    2016-04-01

    Lophelia pertusa is a cold-water coral, which may form reefs by the association of multiple coralites within which a polyp lives. Each individual polyp builds an aragonite skeleton by an initial phase of early mineralization (traditionally referred to as centres of calcification) from which aragonite fibres grow in thickening deposits. The skeleton wall features successive optically opaque and translucent bands previously attributed to different regimes of growth as either uniform in crystal orientation (translucent bands) or with a chaotic organization (opaque bands). The processes involved in any organizational changes are still unknown. Microlayers in the coral wall, which represent separate periods of skeletal growth, have been recently identified and described. These growth patterns are readily visible under scanning electron microscope (SEM) after etching in dilute formic acid, but they do not necessarily form continuously visible structures. Here we present high quality SEM images and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) maps to study aragonite fibre orientation across the wall of L. pertusa. Both microlayers and opaque and translucent bands are compared to the crystallographic orientation of the aragonite fibres. EBSD maps and SEM images indicate that aragonite fibres do not exhibit a chaotic orientation, even in opaque bands. The absence of continuity of microlayers is partially explained by an association of multiple crystallographic preferred orientations of aragonite fibres. In the case of L. pertusa, careful textural characterisation is necessary prior to elemental or isotope analysis in order to select a skeletal transect representing a linear and continuous time period.

  5. Scanning electron microscopic (Sem studies on fourth instar larva and pupa of Anopheles (Cellia stephensi Liston (Anophelinae: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagbir Singh Kirti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Anopheles (Cellia stephensi Liston is a major vector species of malaria in Indian subcontinent. Taxonomists have worked on its various morphological aspects and immature stages to explore additional and new taxonomic attributes. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM studies have been conducted on the fourth instar larva and pupa of An. stephensi to find additional taxonomic features for the first time from Punjab state.

  6. Carbon-fiber tips for scanning probe microscopes and molecular electronics experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rubio-Bollinger, G.; Castellanos-Gomez, A.; Bilan, S.; Zotti, L.A.; Arroyo, C.R.; Agraït, N.; Cuevas, J.

    2012-01-01

    We fabricate and characterize carbon-fiber tips for their use in combined scanning tunneling and force microscopy based on piezoelectric quartz tuning fork force sensors. An electrochemical fabrication procedure to etch the tips is used to yield reproducible sub-100-nm apex. We also study electron

  7. A rapid method for combined laser scanning confocal microscopic and electron microscopic visualization of biocytin or neurobiotin-labeled neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, X J; Tolbert, L P; Hildebrand, J G; Meinertzhagen, I A

    1998-02-01

    Intracellular recording and dye filling are widely used to correlate the morphology of a neuron with its physiology. With laser scanning confocal microscopy, the complex shapes of labeled neurons in three dimensions can be reconstructed rapidly, but this requires fluorescent dyes. These dyes are neither permanent nor electron dense and therefore do not allow investigation by electron microscopy. Here we report a technique that quickly and easily converts a fluorescent label into a more stable and electron-dense stain. With this technique, a neuron is filled with Neurobiotin or biocytin, reacted with fluorophore-conjugated avidin, and imaged by confocal microscopy. To permit long-term storage or EM study, the fluorescent label is then converted to a stable electron-dense material by a single-step conversion using a commercially available ABC kit. We find that the method, which apparently relies on recognition of avidin's excess biotin binding sites by the biotin-peroxidase conjugate, is both faster and less labor intensive than photo-oxidation procedures in common use. The technique is readily adaptable to immunocytochemistry with biotinylated probes, as we demonstrate using anti-serotonin as an example.

  8. Microstructure characterization of Al matrix composite reinforced with Ti-6Al-4V meshes after compression by scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Q; Sun, D L; Han, X L; Cheng, S R; Chen, G Q; Jiang, L T; Wu, G H

    2012-02-01

    Compressive properties of Al matrix composite reinforced with Ti-6Al-4V meshes (TC4(m)/5A06 Al composite) under the strain rates of 10(-3)S(-1) and 1S(-1) at different temperature were measured and microstructure of composites after compression was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Compressive strength decreased with the test temperature increased and the strain-rate sensitivity (R) of composite increased with the increasing temperature. SEM observations showed that grains of Al matrix were elongated severely along 45° direction (angle between axis direction and fracture surface) and TC4 fibres were sheared into several parts in composite compressed under the strain rate of 10(-3)S(-1) at 25°C and 250°C. Besides, amounts of cracks were produced at the interfacial layer between TC4 fibre and Al matrix and in (Fe, Mn)Al(6) phases. With the compressive temperature increasing to 400°C, there was no damage at the interfacial layer between TC4 fibre and Al matrix and in (Fe, Mn)Al(6) phases, while equiaxed recrystal grains with sizes about 10 μm at the original grain boundaries of Al matrix were observed. However, interface separation of TC4 fibres and Al matrix occurred in composite compressed under the strain rate of 1S(-1) at 250°C and 400°C. With the compressive temperature increasing from 25°C to 100°C under the strain rate of 10(-3) S(-1), TEM microstructure in Al matrix exhibited high density dislocations and slipping bands (25°C), polygonized dislocations and dynamic recovery (100°C), equiaxed recrystals with sizes below 500 μm (250°C) and growth of equiaxed recrystals (400°C), respectively. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Mass measurement with the electron microscope. [Application of scanning transmission electron microscopy in molecular weight determinations of fd phage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, J.S.

    1979-01-01

    The use of electron scattering measurements performed in the electron microscope as a means of measurement of particle molecular weight is described. Various potential sources of errors are identified and estimated where possible. Specimen preparation and observation conditions to minimize errors are described. The fd phage is presented as an example of analysis and an illustration of the accuracy obtainable at low dose.

  10. Scanning ultrafast electron microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Ding-Shyue; Mohammed, Omar F.; Zewail, Ahmed H.

    2010-01-01

    Progress has been made in the development of four-dimensional ultrafast electron microscopy, which enables space-time imaging of structural dynamics in the condensed phase. In ultrafast electron microscopy, the electrons are accelerated, typically to 200 keV, and the microscope operates in the transmission mode. Here, we report the development of scanning ultrafast electron microscopy using a field-emission-source configuration. Scanning of pulses is made in the single-electron mode, for whic...

  11. Dynamic investigation of electron trapping and charge decay in electron-irradiated Al sub 2 O sub 3 in a scanning electron microscope: Methodology and mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Fakhfakh, S; Belhaj, M; Fakhfakh, Z; Kallel, A; Rau, E I

    2002-01-01

    The charging and discharging of polycrystalline Al sub 2 O sub 3 submitted to electron-irradiation in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) are investigated by means of the displacement current method. To circumvent experimental shortcomings inherent to the use of the basic sample holder, a redesign of the latter is proposed and tests are carried out to verify its operation. The effects of the primary beam accelerating voltage on charging, flashover and discharging phenomena during and after electron-irradiation are studied. The experimental results are then analyzed. In particular, the divergence between the experimental data and those predicted by the total electron emission yield approach (TEEYA) is discussed. A partial discharge was observed immediately after the end of the electron-irradiation exposure. The experimental data suggests, that the discharge is due to the evacuation to the ground, along the insulator surface, of released electrons from shallow traps at (or in the close vicinity of) the insulat...

  12. Scanning electron microscopical observations on the shedding of the tegument of adult Schistosoma mattheei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, F J; Joubert, P H

    1990-11-01

    In search of indications of membrane turnover the teguments of male Schistosoma mattheei from cattle and laboratory rodents were studied by means of scanning electron microscopy. A number of slightly elevated circular patches of tegument which appeared to peel off on the edges were seen on the outer membrane of a limited number of specimens from both rodents and cattle. It is suggested that this phenomenon may represent limited rapid turnover of the outer layer in response to host immunological action.

  13. The Dentin Tubule System: A Replica and Scanning Electron Microscope Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-06-20

    this laboratory to prepare soft and calci fied tissues for scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The resolution, magnification range and...several intertubular connections , originally examined at a magnification of 17,000 times (Fig. 7). In addition to the omnipresent lateral tubule...branches , and the ease of penetration therein of endodontic reagents from the pulp. Intratubular network throughout the dentin may be a route of intra

  14. A scanning electron microscopic evaluation of different root canal irrigation regimens

    OpenAIRE

    Chaves Medici Mônika; Izabel Cristina Fröner

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of endodontic irrigants in removing the smear layer from instrumented root canal walls using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The endodontic irrigants used were: 1% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl); 1% NaOCl mixed to 17% EDTAC; 2% chlorhexidine gel; and Ricinus communis gel. Photomicrographs of the middle and apical thirds were evaluated with the aid of the Fotoscore - v. 2.0 software. The results indicated that the mixture of sodium hyp...

  15. Efficient elastic imaging of single atoms on ultrathin supports in a scanning transmission electron microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hovden, Robert, E-mail: rmh244@cornell.edu [School of Applied and Engineering Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 148532 (United States); Muller, David A. [School of Applied and Engineering Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 148532 (United States); Kavli Institute at Cornell for Nanoscale Science, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2012-12-15

    Mono-atomic-layer membranes such as graphene offer new opportunities for imaging and detecting individual light atoms in transmission electron microscopes (TEM). For such applications where multiple scattering and diffraction effects are weak, we evaluate the detection efficiency and interpretability of single atom images for the most common detector geometries using quantitative quantum mechanical simulations. For well-resolved and atomically-thin specimens, the low angle annular dark field (LAADF) detector can provide a significant increase in signal-to-noise over other common detector geometries including annular bright field and incoherent bright field. This dramatically improves the visibility of organic specimens on atomic-layer membranes. Simulations of Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) imaged under ideal conditions indicate the minimal dose requirements for elastic imaging by STEM or conventional TEM still exceed previously reported dose limits. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Graphene offers new opportunities for imaging individual light atoms in electron microscopes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer For ultrathin materials, a low angle annular dark field detector can provide a SNR comparable to TEM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LAADF dramatically improves the visibility of organic specimens on atomic-layer membranes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Simulations for atomic imaging of ATP nucleotides exceed the molecules' dose limits.

  16. Can X-ray spectrum imaging replace backscattered electrons for compositional contrast in the scanning electron microscope?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbury, Dale E; Ritchie, Nicholas W M

    2011-01-01

    The high throughput of the silicon drift detector energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SDD-EDS) enables X-ray spectrum imaging (XSI) in the scanning electron microscope to be performed in frame times of 10-100 s, the typical time needed to record a high-quality backscattered electron (BSE) image. These short-duration XSIs can reveal all elements, except H, He, and Li, present as major constituents, defined as 0.1 mass fraction (10 wt%) or higher, as well as minor constituents in the range 0.01-0.1 mass fraction, depending on the particular composition and possible interferences. Although BSEs have a greater abundance by a factor of 100 compared with characteristic X-rays, the strong compositional contrast in element-specific X-ray maps enables XSI mapping to compete with BSE imaging to reveal compositional features. Differences in the fraction of the interaction volume sampled by the BSE and X-ray signals lead to more delocalization of the X-ray signal at abrupt compositional boundaries, resulting in poorer spatial resolution. Improved resolution in X-ray elemental maps occurs for the case of a small feature composed of intermediate to high atomic number elements embedded in a matrix of lower atomic number elements. XSI imaging strongly complements BSE imaging, and the SDD-EDS technology enables an efficient combined BSE-XSI measurement strategy that maximizes the compositional information. If 10 s or more are available for the measurement of an area of interest, the analyst should always record the combined BSE-XSI information to gain the advantages of both measures of compositional contrast. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Alcoholic liver injury: defenestration in noncirrhotic livers--a scanning electron microscopic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, T; Christoffersen, P; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1987-01-01

    (fractional area of fenestrae) was observed in acinar Zone 3, both in biopsies with and without Zone 3 fibrosis as judged by light microscopy. A significant reduction of porosity as shown in this study may influence the blood hepatocytic exchange and contribute to the alcohol-induced liver injury.......The fenestration of hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells in 15 needle biopsies obtained from chronic alcoholics without cirrhosis was studied by scanning electron microscopy. As compared to nonalcoholics, a significant reduction in the number of fenestrae and porosity of the sinusoidal lining wall...

  18. A scanning electron microscopic study of impala (Aepyceros melampus sperm from the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.J. Ackerman

    1996-02-01

    Full Text Available Since knowledge of sperm morphological characteristics can play an important role in semen evaluation and fertilisation, baseline data on sperm ultrastructure are required. Live spermatozoa were collected from the cauda epididymis from 64 impala rams in the Kruger National Park and 5082 spermatozoa from 40 of these impala were studied by scanning electron microscopy. The mean length of impala sperm was 59.23 @ 2.7 um. The morphology of normal sperm as well as the occurrence of abnormalities were documented. The morphology of impala sperm were compared with those of other mammals. New findings on appendages of the cytoplasmic droplet are described and interpreted.

  19. Scanning electron microscopic analyses of Ferrocyanide tank wastes for the Ferrocyanide safety program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callaway, W.S.

    1995-09-01

    This is Fiscal Year 1995 Annual Report on the progress of activities relating to the application of scanning electron microscopy in addressing the Ferrocyanide Safety Issue associated with Hanford Site high-level radioactive waste tanks. The status of the FY 1995 activities directed towards establishing facilities capable of providing SEM based micro-characterization of ferrocyanide tank wastes is described. A summary of key events in the SEM task over FY 1995 and target activities in FY 1996 are presented. A brief overview of the potential applications of computer controlled SEM analytical data in light of analyses of ferrocyanide simulants performed by an independent contractor is also presented

  20. Scanning electron microscopic study of hamster tracheal organ cultures infected with Bordetella pertussis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muse, K E; Collier, A M; Baseman, J B

    1977-12-01

    Hamster tracheal organculture was employed as a model for the study of the pathogenesis of infection due to bordetella pertusis. Scanning electron microscopy provided a three-dimensional view of the surface infection of the tracheal explants. Phase I B. pertussis attached only to the ciliated epithelial cells, and a sequence of events involving the injury, expulsion, and destruction of these differentiated cells occurred. This in vitro model provides insights into the mechanisms by which B. pertussis mediates host cell injury at the site of infection.

  1. Bottlenecks in bog pine multiplication by somatic embryogenesis and their visualization with the environmental scanning electron microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlašínová, Helena; Neděla, Vilem; Đorđević, Biljana; Havel, Ladislav

    2017-07-01

    Somatic embryogenesis (SE) is an important biotechnological technique used for the propagation of many pine species in vitro. However, in bog pine, one of the most endangered tree species in the Czech Republic, limitations were observed, which negatively influenced the development and further germination of somatic embryos. Although initiation frequency was very low-0.95 %, all obtained cell lines were subjected to maturation. The best responding cell line (BC1) was used and subjected to six different variants of the maturation media. The media on which the highest number of early-precotyledonary/cotyledonary somatic embryos was formed was supplemented with 121 μM abscisic acid (ABA) and with 6 % maltose. In the end of maturation experiments, different abnormalities in formation of somatic embryos were observed. For visualization and identification of abnormalities in meristem development during proliferation and maturation processes, the environmental scanning electron microscope was used. In comparison to the classical light microscope, the non-commercial environmental scanning electron microscope AQUASEM II has been found as a very useful tool for the quick recognition of apical meristem disruption and abnormal development. To our knowledge, this is the first report discussing somatic embryogenesis in bog pine. Based on this observation, the cultivation procedure could be enhanced and the method for SE of bog pine optimized.

  2. A comparative scanning electron microscopic view of the integument of domestic mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, W; Neurand, K

    1987-03-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) demonstrates efficiently species-specific differences of hairy skin (integumentum commune) of domestic mammals (pig, cat, dog, horse, cattle, sheep, goat). This technique is very helpful in characterizing the typical structural features of the epidermal layers, the arrangement of the collagen fibre bundles and the elastic fibre network in the dermis, the external and internal construction of hair follicles and hair shafts, and the functional development of skin glands. It is also possible to observe certain domestication effects, especially where the hair coat is concerned. SEM supplements the knowledge about the integument as available from conventional transmission electron microscopy, light microscopy or histochemistry. Thus, comparative morphology can be the basis for the development of specific functional models of the different integumentary layers and derivatives or their tissues involved.

  3. Localization of actin filaments in internodal cells of characean algae. A scanning and transmission electron microscope study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    New methods of visualizing subcortical actin filament bundles, or fibrils, in Characean internodes confirm that they are associated with chloroplasts at the surface facing the streaming endoplasm, and reveal that they are continuous over long distances. With the scanning electron microscope, an average of four to six fibrils are seen bridging a file of chloroplasts. The same configuration appears in negatively stained preparations of large blocks of chloroplast files connected by actin fibrils. Few branches of the subcortical fibrils are evident. These findings are discussed with respect to the mechanism of cytoplasmic streaming in Characeae. PMID:1245548

  4. Performance of signal-to-noise ratio estimation for scanning electron microscope using autocorrelation Levinson-Durbin recursion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, K S; Lim, M S; Yeap, Z X

    2016-07-01

    A new technique to quantify signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) value of the scanning electron microscope (SEM) images is proposed. This technique is known as autocorrelation Levinson-Durbin recursion (ACLDR) model. To test the performance of this technique, the SEM image is corrupted with noise. The autocorrelation function of the original image and the noisy image are formed. The signal spectrum based on the autocorrelation function of image is formed. ACLDR is then used as an SNR estimator to quantify the signal spectrum of noisy image. The SNR values of the original image and the quantified image are calculated. The ACLDR is then compared with the three existing techniques, which are nearest neighbourhood, first-order linear interpolation and nearest neighbourhood combined with first-order linear interpolation. It is shown that ACLDR model is able to achieve higher accuracy in SNR estimation. © 2016 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2016 Royal Microscopical Society.

  5. The low-temperature method for study of coniferous tissues in the environmental scanning electron microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neděla, Vilém; Tihlaříková, Eva; Hřib, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    The use of non-standard low-temperature conditions in environmental scanning electron microscopy might be promising for the observation of coniferous tissues in their native state. This study is aimed to analyse and evaluate the method based on the principle of low-temperature sample stabilization. We demonstrate that the upper mucous layer is sublimed and a microstructure of the sample surface can be observed with higher resolution at lower gas pressure conditions, thanks to a low-temperature method. An influence of the low-temperature method on sample stability was also studied. The results indicate that high-moisture conditions are not suitable for this method and often cause the collapse of samples. The potential improvement of stability to beam damage has been demonstrated by long-time observation at different operation parameters. We finally show high applicability of the low-temperature method on different types of conifers and Oxalis acetosella. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. A morphological study of molecularly imprinted polymers using the scanning electron microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paniagua Gonzalez, Gema [Departamento de Ciencias Analiticas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia (UNED), 28040 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: gpaniagua@pas.uned.es; Fernandez Hernando, Pilar [Departamento de Ciencias Analiticas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia (UNED), 28040 Madrid (Spain); Durand Alegria, J.S. [Departamento de Ciencias Analiticas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia (UNED), 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2006-01-31

    Molecular imprinting is an emerging technique for producing polymers with applications in affinity-based separation, in biomimetic sensors, in catalysis, etc. This variety of uses relies upon the production of polymers with different affinities, specificities, sensitivities and loading capacities. Research into the development of molecular imprinted polymers (MIPs) with new or improved morphologies - which involves modification of the polymerisation process - is therefore underway. This paper reports a comparative study of non-covalent MIPs synthesised by 'bulk' polymerisation using digoxin as template. These were synthesised under different conditions, i.e., changing the functional monomers employed (methacrylic acid or 2-vinylpyridine), the porogens (acetonitrile or dichloromethane) used, and by altering the volume of the latter. The polymerisation process was allowed to proceed either under UV light or in a thermostat-controlled waterbath. The surface morphology (was determined by scanning electron microscopy) and the ability of the different polymers to selectively rebind the template was then evaluated.

  7. [Scanning electron microscopic study of films of the loose connective tissue of mice exposed to DMBA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ol'shevskaia, L V

    1979-01-01

    Under examination by scanning electron microscopy were film samples of the subcutaneous connective tissue. The surface of the films from intact mice was even and smooth, fibroblasts have a spread pattern. Following the saline injection the film was even, collagen fibres, differing in the character of surface and the size of diameter, were readily seen. The collagen fibres formed a multilayer system with a definite orientation inside the layer. After DMBA injection the film surface would get uneven and tuberous, the fibroblast body rising over the film surface, thus the orientation of fibres and all strata was disturbed. There was a spacial rearrangement of all tissue components. It is suggested that carcinogenic agents affecting the relationship between tissue components could interfere the contact inhibition of cell division and result in the development of focal cell proliferates.

  8. Marginal Leakage of Class V Composite Restorations Assessed Using Microcomputed Tomography and Scanning Electron Microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengo, C; Goracci, C; Ametrano, G; Chieffi, N; Spagnuolo, G; Rengo, S; Ferrari, M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare in Class V composite restorations marginal leakage measurements obtained with microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations. Class V cavities were prepared on 10 human molars and restored using Optibond FL (Kerr, Orange, CA, USA) and Premise Flowable (Kerr). Sealing ability was evaluated by assessing silver-nitrate penetration depth along enamel and dentin margins. Leakage was quantified using a scoring system. Micro-CT analysis provided 502 cross-sectional images for each tooth. Microleakage evaluation was performed first on three cross-sections corresponding to the sections examined by SEM, then on all 502 of the obtained micro-CT images. SEM observations were performed first at 20× magnification, then, if showing a zero score, at 80× magnification. Enamel and dentin microleakage scores assigned to corresponding sections through micro-CT and SEM (20×) were compared (Wilcoxon signed-rank test, α=0.05). No statistically significant difference in leakage scores emerged between micro-CT and 20×-magnification SEM. Eight tooth sections that were given a zero score under SEM at 20× magnification showed to be infiltrated at the higher magnification (80×). For five teeth a higher score was assigned following scanning of 502 cross-sections than based on the observation of three sections. Micro-CT presents as a valid, nondestructive in vitro method to quantitatively evaluate marginal leakage of adhesive restorations.

  9. Correlative microscopy of Purkinje dendritic spines: a field emission scanning and transmission electron microscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castejón, O J; Castellano, A; Arismendi, G; Apkarian, R

    2004-01-01

    Purkinje dendritic spines (Pds) of mouse cerebellar cortex were examined by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) using ultrathin sections and freeze-etching replicas, to study their three-dimensional features and intramembrane morphology. FESEM showed unattached mushroom-type, elongated and lanceolate Pds separated by 100-500 nm on the dendritic shaft surface. High resolution FESEM showed 25-50 nm globular subunits at the spine postsynaptic density corresponding to the localization of postsynaptic proteins and/or postsynaptic receptors. TEM images of ultrathin sections showed gem-like, mushroom-shaped, lanceolate and neckless or stubby spines. Freeze etching replicas exposed postsynaptic intramembrane particles that can be correlated with the globular subunits observed at high resolution FESEM. Parallel and climbing fiber endings were observed making asymmetric synaptic contacts with the Pds heads. Simultaneous contacts with the necks and heads were also found. The variety of Pds shapes were interpreted as spine conformational changes related with spine dynamic, and spine plasticity.

  10. Cell organelles at uncoated cryofractured surfaces as viewed with the scanning electron microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, P S; Ledbetter, M C

    1976-06-01

    A method of direct visualization of cell organelles by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is described. Plant and animal tissues fixed in glutaraldehyde and osmium tetroxide are treated with the ligand thiocarbohydrazide and a second osmium tetroxide solution, to increase their osmium content. Tissues are then dehydrated, infiltrated with an epoxy monomer, and together solidified with dry ice and fractured. The pieces are transferred to pure acetone, critical-point dried, attached to stubs with silver paint and viewed by SEM. The ligating procedure increases the osmium concentration at its original bonding site sufficiently to render the tissue electrically conductive, thus obviating the need for metallic coating. he organelles at the fractured surface are revaled in relation to their osmium incorporation rather than by surface irregularities as with coating methods. The image derived from the uncoated surface approaches in resolution that of transmission electron micrographs of thin sections. A protion of the image arising from a small distance below the surface, while at progressively lower resolution, provides some 3-dimensional information about cell fine structure.

  11. Evaluation of the effect of cigarette smoking on the olfactory neuroepithelium of New Zealand white rabbit, using scanning electron microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskander, Nagi M; El-Hennawi, Diaa M; Yousef, Tarek F; El-Tabbakh, Mohammed T; Elnahriry, Tarek A

    2017-06-01

    To detect ultra-structural changes of Rabbit's olfactory neuro-epithelium using scanning electron microscope after exposure to cigarette smoking. Sixty six rabbits (Pathogen free New Zealand white rabbits weighing 1-1.5 kg included in the study were randomly assigned into one of three groups: control group did not expose to cigarette smoking, study group 1 was exposed to cigarette smoking for 3 months and study group 2 was exposed to cigarette smoking 3 months and then stopped for 2 months. Olfactory neuro-epithelium from all rabbits were dissected and examined under Philips XL-30 scanning electron microscope. Changes that were found in the rabbits of study group 1 in comparison to control group were loss of microvilli of sustentacular cells (p = 0.016) and decreases in distribution of specialized cilia of olfactory receptor cells (p = 0.046). Also respiratory metaplasia was detected. These changes were reversible in study group 2. Cigarette smoking causes ultra-structural changes in olfactory neuro-epithelium which may explain why smell was affected in cigarette smokers. Most of these changes were reversible after 45 days of cessation of cigarette smoking to the rabbits.

  12. An in vitro scanning electron microscopic study comparing MTAD (intracanal irrigant and various root biomodifiers on periodontally involved human teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charu Tandon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Smear layer removal and collagen fiber exposure may improve regeneration outcome, which can be accomplished by use of root biomodifiers. These enhance the degree of connective tissue attachment to denuded roots. The objective of this in vitro scanning electron microscopic study was to comparatively evaluate mixture of tetracycline (TTC and acid and detergent (MTAD and other root biomodifiers for smear layer removal on periodontally involved human teeth. Materials and Methods: Forty human teeth were collected and stored in saline. After scaling and root planning, two samples were obtained from each tooth. A total of 80 dentin blocks were randomly divided into four groups: MTAD, TTC hydrochloride (TTC HCl, citric acid (CA, and normal saline. The agents were applied for 3 min by active burnishing. Immediately following treatment, the specimens were rinsed, dehydrated, fixed and prepared for scanning electron microscope and was examined at Χ3500 magnification. Previously trained blind examiners evaluated photomicrographs using Sampaio′s index (2005. Statistical analysis was performed. Results: MTAD is most efficacious in removing smear layer and showed statistically significant dentinal tubules opening, followed by TTC HCl and CA. Conclusion: MTAD and conventional root biomodifiers used in the study alters the dentin surface by smear layer removal and exposure of dentinal tubules. Hence, MTAD as a root biomodifier may have a significant role in periodontal regeneration .

  13. Transmission and scanning electron microscope study on the secondary cyclic hardening behavior of interstitial-free steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shih, Chia-Chang; Ho, New-Jin [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Huang, Hsing-Lu, E-mail: hlhuang8423@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chinese Military Academy, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)

    2009-11-15

    Strain controlled fatigue experiment was employed to evaluate automotive grade interstitial-free ferrite steel. Hundreds of grains were examined by scanning electron microscope under electron channeling contrast image technique of backscattered electron image mode for comprehensive comparison of micrographs with those taken under transmission electron microscope. The cyclic stress responses clearly revealed that rapid hardening occurs at the early stage of cycling as a result of multiplication of dislocations to develop loop patches, dipolar walls and dislocation cells at various total strain amplitudes. After primary rapid hardening, stress responses varied from being saturated to further hardening according to dislocation structure evolution at various strain amplitudes. The fatigue failure was always accompanied with further hardening including secondary hardening. The corresponding dislocation structures with the three types of hardening behaviors are discussed. Once the secondary hardening starts, dislocation cells began to develop along grain boundaries in the low strain region and then extended into grain interiors as strain amplitudes increased and cycling went on. The secondary hardening rates were found to be directly proportional to their strain amplitudes.

  14. Epithelial maturation pattern of dysplastic epithelium and normal oral epithelium exposed to tobacco and alcohol: a scanning electron microscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagannathan, Nithya; Ramani, Pratibha; Premkumar, Priya; Natesan, Anuja; Sherlin, Herald J

    2013-05-01

    The detection of oral cancer at an early stage is an optimal strategy and is the most effective approach for preventing further progression. The rationale of the study was to evaluate the epithelial maturation pattern in oral mucosa exposed to tobacco/alcohol and on dysplastic oral mucosa using the scanning electron microscope. Fifteen subjects were selected based on clinical examination and divided into three groups: group 1-patients with apparently normal oral mucosa; group 2-patients with oral mucosa exposed to tobacco/alcohol; group 3-patients with clinical diagnosis of leukoplakia. An incisional biopsy was performed from the buccal mucosa. One part of the specimen was prepared for light microscopy and the other part was prepared for scanning electron microscopy. Light microscopy revealed nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium in group 1, while group 2 demonstrated hyperparakeratinized stratified squamous epithelium with mild cytological atypia, and group 3 showed architectural and cytological changes. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated flat-surfaced cells with equidistant parallel microridges in group 1, while group 2 showed irregular and widened microridges with numerous pits and absence of honeycomb pattern. Group 3 showed irregularly arranged broad and swollen cells with numerous pits and irregular microvilli projecting over the surface. The present study establishes the relationship of the surface abnormalities to the tendency of the cells to become malignant and thus serves as a tool in early detection of squamous cell carcinoma. It also emphasizes the need of routine follow-up in these high-risk patients for progression of carcinoma.

  15. Cytoarchitecture of the normal rat olfactory epithelium: light and scanning electron microscopic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Tomoyuki; Takahashi, Sugata; Ushiki, Tatsuo

    2004-06-01

    The three-dimensional cytoarchitecture of the normal rat olfactory epithelium was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of KOH digested tissues as well as by light and transmission electron microscopy of plastic sections. Observations specimens from the lateral side of the olfactory epithelium allowed identification of four cell types by their surface structure: olfactory neurons, supporting cells, basal cells, and duct cells of the Bowman's gland. The olfactory neurons were characterized by the presence of a thick apical process (i.e., dendrite) and a thin basal process (i.e., axon). These olfactory neurons tended to be aligned along the vertical axis of the epithelium. Immature olfactory neurons were present at the basal part of the epithelium and had a pear-shaped cell body with a thin and long axon and a short dendrite which failed to reach the epithelial surface. Supporting cells were roughly columnar in shape and occupied the full length of the epithelium. They became thinner in the basal two thirds of their length but had branched foot processes spreading on the basal surface of the epithelium. Basal cells located in the basal epithelial region were oval, round or cuboidal and present among the foot processes of the supporting cells. The ducts of the Bowman's gland entered the epithelium from the lamina propria and took straight, perpendicular courses within the epithelium. These intraepithelial ducts were composed of several slender cells. The acinar cells are sometimes present in the epithelium and appeared as a globular bulge of the duct at the basal part of the epithelium. SEM observation of the basal surface of the olfactory epithelium also clearly showed that axon bundles were surrounded by the sheet-like processes of Schwann cells, the investment being found at the base of the epithelium just before axon bundles leave the epithelium.

  16. Reissner's fibre in the rat: a scanning and transmission electron microscope study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woollam, D H; Collins, P

    1980-01-01

    The structure and connexions of Reissner's fibre have been studied in the rat by means of scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The fibre was found to arise from a series of filaments, each of which was formed by a structure forming the juxta-aqueductal surface or lining of the subcommissural organ. This structure was termed 'apical spherical protrusion' and was found to be rich in rough endoplasmic reticulum. The fibre was firmly attached at its rostral end to the subcommissural organ, at its middle to the ventral surface of the termination of the aqueduct and finally to the calamus scriptorius of the fourth ventricle. It was held in a state of considerable tension between these three points and attached to it were numerous cilia from the ependymal lining. In sections examined by TEM the fibre appeared to be totally amorphous in structure, with erythrocytes and other debris attached to it. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7440397

  17. Scanning Electron Microscopic Features of the External and Internal Surfaces of Normal Adult Lacrimal Drainage System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohammad Javed; Baig, Farhana; Lakshman, Mekala; Naik, Milind N

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the ultrastructural features of the external and internal surfaces of healthy lacrimal drainage systems. A prospective interventional study was performed on the healthy adult lacrimal drainage systems obtained from fresh exenterated specimens. Exenteration was performed for malignancies unrelated to lacrimal system where preoperative lacrimal evaluation was normal. A careful and thorough dissection was carried out to isolate the entire lacrimal drainage system from the punctum to the nasolacrimal duct. The analysis was performed using the standard protocols of scanning electron microscopy. Inner punctal surfaces showed a definite and slightly elevated junction between the luminal surfaces of punctum and beginning of the vertical canaliculus. Similar junction could be identified between the lacrimal sac and nasolacrimal duct. The valves of the canaliculi showed broad rugae-like mucosal surfaces, whereas the external surfaces of the canaliculi demonstrated well-defined orbicularis muscle with collagenous attachments. The walls of the lacrimal sac and nasolacrimal duct showed dense vascular plexus which included wide luminal arteries, throttle veins, and large capacitance vessels. Ultrastructural features of external and internal surfaces of lacrimal drainage system help in better understanding of its anatomy and physiology. The junctional area between the punctum-vertical canaliculus and lacrimal sac-nasolacrimal duct needs further exploration to understand their roles.

  18. [Scanning electron microscopic investigations on the anatomy of the fetlock joint in horses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breit, S; Stiglhuber, A; König, H E

    1997-07-01

    Striking synovial structures were taken and their surface was investigated by scanning electron microscopy. Depending where the probes were taken from, the stratum synovial was arranged in a different way. The synovial intima seems to miss under the tendon of the long/commune extensor muscle, the collateral ligaments and the sesamoidean collateral ligaments. That is why the subsynovial tissue forms the superficial layer. The surface of the probes taken sidewards to the tendon of the extensor muscle and of the synovial fold, which is situated between the metacarpus/metatarsus and the proximal phalanx as well as from the palmar/plantar recess is dominated by synovial intima. Synovial cells are mainly arranged as monolayer. Synovial cells are variable in their appearance. Some resemble blackberrys, others show a quite undulating surface. The length of processes of synovial cells differs from 2-10 microns, the diameter of the synovial cells from 5-10 microns. The space between two cells amounts to 2-10 microns. The intercellular gap is put in relation to the length of the cells' processes. The synovial intima is supposed to form a barrier between the articular cavity and the surrounding structures.

  19. Correlation between auditory brainstem recordings and morphology as seen through the scanning electron microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hultcrantz, M.

    1988-09-01

    Pregnant CBA/CBA mice were exposed to 0.5, 1 and 2 Grey (Gy), (1 Gy = 100 rad) in single doses with whole body gamma-irradiation on the 12th, 13th and 16th gestational days, respectively. The animals were tested at an age of one month for vestibular and cochlear function. Thereafter the inner ears were analyzed with scanning electron microscopy. A morphological analysis with cytocochleograms was performed. Morphological changes in the vestibular part showed gross malformations in the cristae ampullares. Hair cells of type I seemed to be more severely changed than hair cells type II. The macula utriculi also showed malformations of the otoconia. All these changes were more pronounced when the irradiation was given early during pregnancy and with the highest doses used, except the otoconia which were more injured when irradiated day 16 of gestation. No disturbances of the equilibrium reflexes were noted. In the cochlea a dose-dependent, time-related damage pattern was demonstrated with pathological changes of outer (OHC) and inner (IHC) hair cells. When tested electrophysiologically for auditory function with auditory brainstem recordings (ABR), elevated thresholds were revealed different in shape depending on when during pregnancy irradiation took place. A good correlation existed between the morphological changes as seen in the cytocochleograms and the functional changes documented with the ABR.

  20. Comparison of different retreatment techniques and root canal sealers: a scanning electron microscopic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neslihan Simsek

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of two retreatment techniques, in terms of the operating time and scanning electron microscopy (SEM results, in removing three different root canal sealers from root canals that were previously filled with gutta-percha. Sixty extracted single-rooted human premolars were divided into three groups and filled with iRoot SP, MM Seal, and AH Plus sealers, along with gutta-percha, through a lateral compaction technique. Root canal fillings of the samples were removed by ESI ultrasonic tips or R-Endo files. The time to reach the working length was recorded. Longitudinally sectioned samples were examined under SEM magnification. Each picture was evaluated in terms of the residual debris. Data were statistically analyzed with the Kruskall-Wallis test. No statistically significant differences were found in terms of operating time (p>0.05. Significant differences in the number of debris-free dentinal tubules were found among the root canal thirds, but this finding was not influenced by the experimental group (p < 0.05. Resin sealer tags were observed inside the dentinal tubules in the MM Seal group. Under the conditions of this study, it may be established that there was no difference among the sealers and retreatment techniques.

  1. [Scanning electron microscopic observations on the middle ear mucosa of human fetuses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J

    1992-01-01

    The epithelial development of middle ear mucosa in nine human fetuses, ranging from the 12th week to full term, was observed by the scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the ciliated cells were found in the tympanic cleft of the 12th week fetus. The ciliated cells were especially dense in a crescent region along the antero-inferior periphery of the inner surface of eardrum, and were distributed around the tympanic orifice predominantly, above and blow the promontory and the hypotympanum. The length of cilia and the population of the ciliated cells increased with the fetal age. At the 26th week, the ciliated cell population and the length of cilia were similar to those of the neonate. The goblet cells appeared at the 26th fetal week. The secretory phenomenon of the goblet cells was seen at the 34th fetal age. These findings indicated that the mucociliary transportation system has been developed well at the late period of fetal development.

  2. Scanning Electron Microscopic Structure of the Lingual Papillae of the Common Opossum (Didelphis marsupialis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Shigenori; Schraufnagel, Dean E.

    2005-08-01

    The mammalian tongue has evolved for specialized functions in different species. The structure of its papillae tells about the animal's diet, habit, and taxonomy. The opossum has four kinds of lingual papillae (filiform, conical, fungiform, vallate). Scanning electron microscopy of the external features, connective tissue cores, and corrosion casts of the microvasculature show the filiform papillae have a spearhead-like main process and spiny accessory processes around the apical part of the main process. The shape and number of both processes depend on their position on the tongue. On the apex, the main processes have shovel-like capillary networks and the accessory processes have small conical networks. On the lingual radix, the processes have small capillary loops. In the patch region, conical papillae have capillaries arranged as a full sail curving posteriorly. The fungiform papillae are scattered among the filiform papillae and have capillary baskets beneath each taste bud. Giant fungiform papillae on the tongue tip are three to four times larger than the ones on the lingual body. Capillaries of giant papillae form a fan-shaped network. The opossum has three vallate papillae arranged in a triangle. Their tops have secondary capillary loops but not their lateral surfaces. Mucosal folds on the posterolateral border have irregular, fingerlike projections with cylindrical capillary networks. These findings and the structure of the rest of the masticatory apparatus suggest the lingual papillae of opossum have kept their ancestral carnivorous features but also developed the herbivore characteristics of other marsupials.

  3. Effect of ultrasonic excitation on the porosity of glass ionomer cement: a scanning electron microscope evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coldebella, Cármen Regina; Santos-Pinto, Lourdes; Zuanon, Angela Cristina Cilense

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasonic excitation (US) was applied to glass ionomer cement (GIC) during early set time to increase the advantageous properties of this material. The aim of this in vitro study was to assess the inner porosity of GIC after US. A total of 16 specimens, for each material, were prepared from high-viscosity GIC Fuji IX GP, Ketac Molar, and Ketac Molar Easymix. Half of these specimens (n = 8) received 30 s of US during the initial cement setting. After completion of the material setting, specimens were fractured and observed by scanning electronic microscopy to quantitatively assay porosity inside the material using Image J software. Statistical data analysis revealed that US reduced the porosity for all tested materials (P ≤ 0.05). The following reductions (expressed in percentages) were achieved: Fuji IX--from 3.9% to 2.8%; Ketac Molar Easy Mix--from 4.4% to 2.6%, and Ketac Molar--from 2.4% to 1.6%. Under the tested conditions, US was an effective method for porosity reduction inside the material. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. In Vitro Laser Fenestration of Aortic Stent-Grafts: A Qualitative Analysis Under Scanning Electron Microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jing; Udgiri, Naval; Guidoin, Robert; Panneton, Jean; Guan, Xiaoning; Guillemette, Maxime; Wang, Lu; Du, Jia; Zhu, Dajie; Nutley, Mark; Zhang, Ze

    2016-11-01

    In situ fenestration of stent-grafts allows patients with life threatening aortic pathologies to be amenable to emergent "off the shelf indications for use" percutaneous treatments as a bail out technique. Three types of aortic stent-grafts were subjected to laser fenestration in a physiological saline solution followed by balloon angioplasty using 8, 10 or 12 mm in diameter noncompliant balloons. The morphology and the size of fenestrations were observed under optical and scanning electron microscopy. The damage to the fabrics was analyzed and quantified. The creation of fenestrations was feasible in all devices, with varying degrees of fraying and/or tearing. The monofilament twill weave (Medtronic Valiant) tore in two directions (warp and weft) while the multifilament weave fenestrations showed more fraying (Anaconda Vascutek and Zenith TX2 Cook). The size and directions of tearing were more predictable with the 8 mm diameter balloon whereas the results obtained with the 10 and 12 mm diameter balloons were more unpredictable. The fenestrations were free of melting of the yarns and blackening of the filaments. The in situ fenestration is feasible but the observed damage to the fabric constructions must be carefully considered. This procedure must currently be limited to urgent and emergent life threatening cases because it is off indications for use for approved devices. Copyright © 2016 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Imaging and elemental mapping of biological specimens with a dual-EDS dedicated scanning transmission electron microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J.S.; Kim, A. M.; Bleher, R.; Myers, B.D.; Marvin, R. G.; Inada, H.; Nakamura, K.; Zhang, X.F.; Roth, E.; Li, S.Y.; Woodruff, T. K.; O'Halloran, T. V.; Dravid, Vinayak P.

    2013-01-01

    A dedicated analytical scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) with dual energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) detectors has been designed for complementary high performance imaging as well as high sensitivity elemental analysis and mapping of biological structures. The performance of this new design, based on a Hitachi HD-2300A model, was evaluated using a variety of biological specimens. With three imaging detectors, both the surface and internal structure of cells can be examined simultaneously. The whole-cell elemental mapping, especially of heavier metal species that have low cross-section for electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), can be faithfully obtained. Optimization of STEM imaging conditions is applied to thick sections as well as thin sections of biological cells under low-dose conditions at room- and cryogenic temperatures. Such multimodal capabilities applied to soft/biological structures usher a new era for analytical studies in biological systems. PMID:23500508

  6. Scanning Electron Microscopic study of Piper betle L. leaves extract effect against Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubaidah Haji Abdul Rahim

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Previous studies have shown that Piper betle L. leaves extract inhibits the adherence of Streptococcus mutans to glass surface, suggesting its potential role in controlling dental plaque development. OBJECTIVES: In this study, the effect of the Piper betle L. extract towards S. mutans (with/without sucrose using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and on partially purifed cell-associated glucosyltransferase activity were determined. MATERIAL AND METHODS: S. mutans were allowed to adhere to glass beads suspended in 6 different Brain Heart Infusion broths [without sucrose; with sucrose; without sucrose containing the extract (2 mg mL-1 and 4 mg mL-1; with sucrose containing the extract (2 mg mL-1 and 4 mg mL-1]. Positive control was 0.12% chlorhexidine. The glass beads were later processed for SEM viewing. Cell surface area and appearance and, cell population of S. mutans adhering to the glass beads were determined upon viewing using the SEM. The glucosyltransferase activity (with/without extract was also determined. One- and two-way ANOVA were used accordingly. RESULTS: It was found that sucrose increased adherence and cell surface area of S. mutans (p<0.001. S. mutans adhering to 100 µm² glass surfaces (with/without sucrose exhibited reduced cell surface area, fuffy extracellular appearance and cell population in the presence of the Piper betle L. leaves extract. It was also found that the extract inhibited glucosyltransferase activity and its inhibition at 2.5 mg mL-1 corresponded to that of 0.12% chlorhexidine. At 4 mg mL-1 of the extract, the glucosyltransferase activity was undetectable and despite that, bacterial cells still demonstrated adherence capacity. CONCLUSION: The SEM analysis confrmed the inhibitory effects of the Piper betle L. leaves extract towards cell adherence, cell growth and extracellular polysaccharide formation of S. mutans visually. In bacterial cell adherence, other factors besides glucosyltransferase are

  7. Comparative scanning electron microscopic study of the effect of different dental conditioners on dentin micromorphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Henrique Susin

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated comparatively by scanning electron microscopy (SEM the effect of different dental conditioners on dentin micromorphology, when used according to the same protocol. Forty dentin sticks were obtained from 20 caries-free third human molars and were assigned to 4 groups corresponding to 3 conditioners (phosphoric acid 37%, Clearfil SE Bond and iBond and an untreated control group. After application of the conditioners, the specimens were immersed in 50% ethanol solution during 10 s, chemically fixed and dehydrated to prepare them to SEM analysis. In the control group, dentin surface was completely covered by smear layer and all dentinal tubules were occluded. In the phosphoric acid-etched group, dentin surface was completely clean and presented exposed dentinal tubule openings; this was the only group in which the tubules exhibited the funnel-shaped aspect. In the groups conditioned with Clearfil SE Bond primer and iBond, which are less acidic than phosphoric acid, tubule openings were occluded or partially occluded, though smear layer removal was observed. SE Bond was more efficient in removing the smear layer than iBond. In the Clearfil SE Bond group, the cuff-like aspect of peritubular dentin was more evident. It may be concluded all tested conditioners were able to change dentin morphology. However, it cannot be stated that the agent aggressiveness was the only cause of the micromorphological alterations because a single morphological pattern was not established for each group, but rather an association of different aspects, according to the aggressiveness of the tested conditioner.

  8. Elaphostrongylus spp. from Scandinavian cervidae - a scanning electron microscope study (SEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margareta Stéen

    1990-08-01

    Full Text Available Nematodes of the genus Elaphostrongylus collected from moose (Alces alces L., reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L., and red deer (Cervus elaphus L., respectively, were studied by means of scanning electron microscopy. Morphological differences in the ribs of the genital bursa were demonstrated. The Elaphostrongylus species from reindeer and red deer differed from each other in four ribs of the genital bursa. These results agree with the morphological characters of E. cervi and E. rangiferi described by Cameron (1931 and Mitskevitch (1960. The genital bursa of Elaphostrongylus sp. from moose, in accordance with the description of E. alces by Steen et al. (1989 showed characteristics differing from those found in Elaphostrongylus spp. from reindeer and red deer respectively. These results support the hypothesis that there are three separate species of Elaphostrongylus present in Scandinavian Cervidae. Svep-elektroniska studier på Elaphostrongylus spp. hos skandinaviska hjortdjur.Abstract in Swedish / Sammandrag: Rundmaskar inom slaktet Elaphostrongylus funna hos alg (Alces alces L., ren (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L. och kronhjort(Cervus elaphus L. studerades med hjalp av svepelelektronmikroskop. De hanliga bursorna med sin a stodjeribbor uppvisade variationer i utseende, langd och placering mellan dessa rundmaskar. De arter av Elaphostrongylus funna hos ren och kronhjort skilde sig åt avseende fyra stodjeribbor på de hanliga bursorna. Dessa resultat stammer val overens med de karaktarer som tidigare ar beskrivna av Cameron(1931 och av Mitskevich (1960. Den hanliga bursan hos arten Elaphostrongylus funnen hos alg, vilken tidigare ar beskriven av Steen et al. (1989, visade upp ett utseende som skilde sig från bursorna hos de Elaphostrongylus-arter funna hos ren och kronhjort. Dessa resultat stoder hypotesen om tre skilda arter av Elaphostrongylus hos skandinaviska hjortdjur.

  9. Different scanning electron microscopic evaluation methods of cement interface homogeneity of adhesively luted glass fiber posts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watzke, Ronny; Frankenberger, Roland; Naumann, Michael

    2011-03-01

    To compare two methods used to examine the cement interface homogeneity of adhesively luted glass fiber posts (GFPs). GFPs were divided into four groups (n = 5 in each) and inserted into artificial root canals under standardized conditions: Group I = RelyX Unicem, application with application aid; Group II = RelyX Unicem; Group III = Panavia F 2.0; and Group IV = Variolink II. Posts in Groups II-IV were cemented without using an appliance. All specimens were sectioned at three levels (cervical, middle and apical) perpendicularly to the post's long axis and examined and photographed (n = 60) using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Cement interface inhomogeneities were (A) measured by means of SEM software and (B) estimated using a graphics program with SEM images being divided into 72 equal circle segments to calculate a percentage value of inhomogeneities of the 360° circumference. Median values of inhomogeneities (A/B; %) within the cement interface for the cervical, middle and apical levels of analysis, respectively were 1.4/2.1, 2.2/4.2 and 1.9/2.1 for Group I; 21.0/20.1, 24.8/23.6 and 27.0/24.3 for Group II; 1.5/1.7, 5.5/6.3 and 19.4/20.8 for Group III; and 18.1/16.7, 16.1/15.3 and 27.2/25.7 for Group IV. The two methods correlated very well (0.994), with a value of one indicating a 100% correlation. Both evaluation methods were found to be equally appropriate for quantifying the cement interface homogeneity of SEM cross-sections of adhesively luted GFPs.

  10. Accuracy of four transfer impression techniques for dental implants: a scanning electron microscopic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Elcio; Marotti, Juliana; de Campos, Tomie Toyota; Neto, Pedro Tortamano

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate, using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the accuracy of four impression techniques for osseointegrated implants (with or without acrylic resin splinting and with irreversible hydrocolloid or polyvinyl siloxane [PVS] impression material). A metal master model was made with three implant analogs and two prosthetic spaces. This model was used as the standard for all impressions. Two impression materials were used (irreversible hydrocolloid and PVS) and two transfer techniques were used (squared impression copings indexed by the impression material and squared impression copings splinted with acrylic resin). Four groups were therefore analyzed (n = 5): IH = irreversible hydrocolloid only, IHS = irreversible hydrocolloid + splint, P = PVS only, and PS = PVS + splint. A reference framework made with palladium-silver alloy over the UCLA abutment was created on the master model. The fit of this structure to the master model was used as a reference. SEM images of the front and side gaps between the abutments and the implant analogs were created and then measured using image analysis software. IH presented the largest misfit. The splinted impression copings generated a smaller marginal gap than the indexed material technique, irrespective of the impression material used. There was no significant difference between IHS, P, PS, and the reference (multivariate test, Wilks criteria). However, PS presented a standard deviation that was three times lower than those of the other groups, and its mean was closer to the reference. The IH impression technique was the least accurate technique. There was no difference between IHS, P, and PS techniques with regard to the reference constant. The impression techniques that used splinted impression copings generated more accurate casts, irrespective of the impression material.

  11. Interstitial cells of Cajal and Auerbach's plexus. A scanning electron microscopical study of guinea-pig small intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Harry; Thuneberg, Lars

    1991-01-01

    Anatomy, interstitial cells of Cajal, myenteric plexus, small intestine, guinea-pig, scanning electron microscopy......Anatomy, interstitial cells of Cajal, myenteric plexus, small intestine, guinea-pig, scanning electron microscopy...

  12. Graded morphogenetic patterns during the development of the extraembryonic blood system and coelom of the chick blastoderm: A scanning electron microscope and light microscope study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessel, J; Fabian, B C

    1985-06-01

    This scanning electron- and light-microscopic study traces the morphogenesis of the yolk-sac vascular system and extraembryonic coelom in the chick blastoderm. The fate of the mesodermal cells in both the area opaca vasculosa (AOV) and the area pellucida (AP) is followed, and the cellular patterning in these two areas is compared. We describe new details of the formation of coelom lining in the AOV, and new observations of the tendency of the intravascular blood island cells of the AOV to become flattened and attenuated. The morphogenesis of the blood system and coelom is analyzed in terms of polarized morphological patterns with coordinates in two modes:proximodistal (from the AP to the AOV) and dorsoventral (from the ectoderm to the endoderm). By highlighting differences in the methods of formation of blood vessels and coelom lining in the AP and AOV, this paper resolves some paradoxes in the literature.

  13. Scanning electron microscopic evaluation of the material interface of adjacent layers of dental materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilleri, Josette

    2011-09-01

    Many dental materials are used in contact with each other in sandwich techniques. Liners, bases and permanent restorative materials are placed adjacent to each other and allowed to set under the same conditions. The same applies for endodontic materials where irrigating solutions and root canal dressings come in contact with root canal obturating materials and root-end fillers. The aim of this research was to investigate the material interface of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) in contact with non-setting calcium hydroxide paste (CH), glass ionomer cement (GIC) and intermediate restorative material (IRM). All materials were mixed according to manufacturer's instructions. Freshly mixed MTA (Dentsply) was placed in a plastic container and another dental material was compacted on it while still unset. These materials included GIC (Fuji IX), non-setting calcium hydroxide (Calasept) and IRM (Dentsply). The materials were allowed to set for 28 days at 37°C and 100% humidity. The layered materials were sectioned longitudinally embedded in resin and polished to expose the interface between the two materials. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was performed of the interface and X-ray energy dispersive analysis (EDX) was conducted at 50 μm intervals to establish elements present at specific distances from the material interface. The calcium hydroxide paste did not affect the hydration of MTA. Migration of silicon, aluminum and bismuth from the MTA to the CH occurred. The GIC exhibited a high degree of micro-cracking and some porosity in the interfacial region. Strontium from the GIC was detected at 200 μm within the MTA. The zinc from the IRM cement was detected at 100 μm within the MTA. The zinc affected the hydration of the MTA leading to retardation of setting and increased porosity. MTA interacts with other dental materials with resultant elemental migration in adjacent materials. Zinc oxide eugenol based cements should be avoided in the presence of MTA as zinc

  14. Computer control of a scanning electron microscope for digital image processing of thermal-wave images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Percy; Jones, Robert E.; Kramarchuk, Ihor; Williams, Wallace D.; Pouch, John J.

    1987-01-01

    Using a recently developed technology called thermal-wave microscopy, NASA Lewis Research Center has developed a computer controlled submicron thermal-wave microscope for the purpose of investigating III-V compound semiconductor devices and materials. This paper describes the system's design and configuration and discusses the hardware and software capabilities. Knowledge of the Concurrent 3200 series computers is needed for a complete understanding of the material presented. However, concepts and procedures are of general interest.

  15. In-situ investigation of laser surface modifications of WC-Co hard metals inside a scanning electron microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, H.; Wetzig, K.; Schultrich, B.; Pompe, Wolfgang; Chapliev, N. I.; Konov, Vitaly I.; Pimenov, S. M.; Prokhorov, Alexander M.

    1989-05-01

    The investigation of laser interaction with solid surfaces and of the resulting mechanism of surface modification are of technical interest to optimize technological processes, and they are also of fundamental scientific importance. Most instructive indormation is available with the ail of the in-situ techniques. For instance, measuring of the photon emission of the irradiated surface ane the plasma torch (if it is produced) simultaneously to laser action, makes it possible to gain a global characterization of the laser-solid interaction. In order to obtain additional information about surface and structure modifications in microscopic detail , a laser and scanning electron microscope were combined in to a tandem equipment (LASEM). Inside this eqiipment the microscopic observation is carried out directly at the laser irradiated area without any displacement of the sample. In this way, the stepwise development of surface modification during multipulse irradiation is visible in microscopic details and much more reliable information about the surface modification process is obtainable in comparison to an external laser irradiation. Such kind of equipments were realized simultaneously and independently in the Institut of General Physics (Moscow) and the Central Institute of Solid State Physics and Material Research (Dresden) using a CO2 and a LTd-glass-laser, respectively. In the following the advantages and possibilities of a LASEM shall be demonstrated by some selected investigations of WC-CO hardmeta. The results were obtained in collaboration by both groups with the aid of the pulsed CO2-laser. The TEA CO2 laser was transmitted through a ZnSe-window into the sample chamber of the SEM and focused ofAo tfte sample surface. It was operated in TEM - oo mode with a repetition rate of about 1 pulse per second. A peak power density of about 160 MW/cm2 was achieved in front of the sample surface.

  16. Project NANO: Will allowing high school students to use research grade scanning electron microscopes increase their interest in science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Leslie TenEyck

    In this study, one AP Biology curriculum unit and one general Biology curriculum unit that included tabletop Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) technology provided by Project NANO, a grant-funded, collaborative initiative designed to integrate cutting-edge nanotechnology into high school classrooms were implemented at a public high school in rural Oregon. Nine students participated in the AP unit and 52 students participated in the general Biology unit. Each student completed an opinion-based pre and post survey to determine if using the SEM as a part of the curriculum unit had an impact on his or her interest in science or in nanoscience. Interviews were conducted to add to the data. The results indicate that using the SEM can increase a student's interest in science. Recommendations for improving student experience were identified.

  17. Light and scanning electron microscopic studies on the esophageal spines in the Pacific ridley turtle, Lepidochelys olivacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshie, S; Honma, Y

    1976-02-01

    The peculairly specialized esophagus of the Pacific ridley turtle, Lepidochelys olivacea, was described by light and scanning electron microscopic studies. The esophagus is lined by a stratified squamous epithelium with remarkable keratinization, and its major part forms a number of large spines which have been called "pharyngeal teeth." The epithelium consists of three strate: stratum germinativum, stratum spinosum and stratum corneum. The surface of the spine is covered by a scaly keratin of possibly sloughing cells, and the cornified layer on the spine is very thick (more than 100 mu), reaching 3 to 7 times the depth of the corresponding layer in other parts. This peculiar structure in the marine turtle without toothed jaws prabably is used for breaking food into small pieces.

  18. Retrieving the Quantitative Chemical Information at Nanoscale from Scanning Electron Microscope Energy Dispersive X-ray Measurements by Machine Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jany, B. R.; Janas, A.; Krok, F.

    2017-11-01

    The quantitative composition of metal alloy nanowires on InSb(001) semiconductor surface and gold nanostructures on germanium surface is determined by blind source separation (BSS) machine learning (ML) method using non negative matrix factorization (NMF) from energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) spectrum image maps measured in a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The BSS method blindly decomposes the collected EDX spectrum image into three source components, which correspond directly to the X-ray signals coming from the supported metal nanostructures, bulk semiconductor signal and carbon background. The recovered quantitative composition is validated by detailed Monte Carlo simulations and is confirmed by separate cross-sectional TEM EDX measurements of the nanostructures. This shows that SEM EDX measurements together with machine learning blind source separation processing could be successfully used for the nanostructures quantitative chemical composition determination.

  19. Coupling auto trophic in vitro plant cultivation system to scanning electron microscope to study plant-fungal interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, N. de; Decock, C.; Declereck, S.; Providencia, I. E. de la

    2010-07-01

    The interactions of plants with pathogens and beneficial micro-organisms have been seldom compared on the same host and under strict controlled auto trophic in vitro culture conditions. Here, the life cycle of two plant beneficial (Glomus sp. MUCL 41833 and Trichoderma harzianum) and one plant pathogen (Rhizoctonia solani) fungi were described on potato (Solanum tuberosum) plantlets under auto trophic in vitro culture conditions using video camera imaging and the scanning electron microscope (SEM). (i) The colony developmental pattern of the extraradical mycelium within the substrate, (ii) the reproduction structures and (iii) the three-dimensional spatial arrangements of the fungal hyphae within the potato root cells were successfully visualized, monitored and described. The combination of the autotrophic in vitro culture system and SEM represent a powerful tool for improving our knowledge on the dynamics of plant-fungal interactions. (Author) 41 refs.

  20. Study of the surface structure of butterfly wings using the scanning electron microscopic moiré method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishimoto, Satoshi; Wang, Qinghua; Xie, Huimin; Zhao, Yapu

    2007-10-01

    Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) moiré method was used to study the surface structure of three kinds of butterfly wings: Papilio maackii Menetries, Euploea midamus (Linnaeus), and Stichophthalma howqua (Westwood). Gratings composed of curves with different orientations were found on scales. The planar characteristics of gratings and some other planar features of the surface structure of these wings were revealed, respectively, in terms of virtual strain. Experimental results demonstrate that SEM moiré method is a simple, nonlocal, economical, effective technique for determining which grating exists on one whole scale, measuring the dimension and the whole planar structural character of the grating on each scale, as well as characterizing the relationship between gratings on different scales of each butterfly wing. Thus, the SEM moiré method is a useful tool to assist with characterizing the structure of butterfly wings and explaining their excellent properties.

  1. Effects of gamma radiation on hard dental tissues of albino rats using scanning electron microscope - Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Faramawy, Nabil; Ameen, Reham; El-Haddad, Khaled; Maghraby, Ahmed; El-Zainy, Medhat

    2011-12-01

    In the present study, 40 adult male albino rats were used to study the effect of gamma radiation on the hard dental tissues (enamel surface, dentinal tubules and the cementum surface). The rats were irradiated at 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0 and 6.0 Gy gamma doses. The effects of irradiated hard dental tissues samples were investigated using a scanning electron microscope. For doses up to 0.5 Gy, there was no evidence of the existence of cracks on the enamel surface. With 1 Gy irradiation dose, cracks were clearly observed with localized erosive areas. At 2 Gy irradiation dose, the enamel showed morphological alterations as disturbed prismatic and interprismatic areas. An increase in dentinal tubules diameter and a contemporary inter-tubular dentine volume decrease were observed with higher irradiation dose. Concerning cementum, low doses,teeth.

  2. High Quality Real-Time Video with Scanning Electron Microscope Using Total Variation Algorithm on a Graphics Processing Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouarti, Nizar; Sauvet, Bruno; Régnier, Stéphane

    2012-04-01

    The scanning electron microscope (SEM) is usually dedicated to taking a picture of micro-nanoscopic objects. In the present study, we wondered whether a SEM can be converted as a real-time video display. To this end, we designed a new methodology. We use the slow mode of the SEM to acquire a high quality reference image that can then be used to estimate the optimal parameters that regularize the signal for a given method. Here, we employ Total Variation, a method which minimizes the noise and regularizes the image. An optimal lagrangian multiplier can be computed that regularizes the image efficiently. We showed that a limited number of iterations for Total Variation algorithm can lead to an acceptable quality of regularization. This algorithm is parallel and deployed on a Graphics Processing Unit to obtain a real-time high quality video with a SEM. It opens the possibility of a real-time interaction at micro-nanoscales.

  3. Construction of a four tip scanning tunneling microscope/scanning electron microscope combination and conductivity measurements of silicide nanowires; Aufbau einer Vierspitzen-Rastertunnelmikroskop/Rasterelektronenmikroskop-Kombination und Leitfaehigkeitsmessungen an Silizid Nanodraehten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zubkov, Evgeniy

    2013-09-01

    In this work the combination of a four-tip scanning tunneling microscope with a scanning electron microscope is presented. By means of this apparatus it is possible to perform the conductivity measurements on the in-situ prepared nanostructures in ultra-high vacuum. With the aid of a scanning electron microscope (SEM), it becomes possible to position the tunneling tips of the four-tip scanning tunneling microscope (STM), so that an arrangement for a four-point probe measurement on nanostructures can be obtained. The STM head was built according to the novel coaxial Beetle concept. This concept allows on the one hand, a very compact arrangement of the components of the STM and on the other hand, the new-built STM head has a good mechanical stability, in order to achieve atomic resolution with all four STM units. The atomic resolution of the STM units was confirmed by scanning a Si(111)-7 x 7 surface. The thermal drift during the STM operation, as well as the resonant frequencies of the mechanical structure of the STM head, were determined. The scanning electron microscope allows the precise and safe navigation of the tunneling tips on the sample surface. Multi tip spectroscopy with up to four STM units can be performed synchronously. To demonstrate the capabilities of the new-built apparatus the conductivity measurements were carried out on metallic yttrium silicide nanowires. The nanowires were prepared by the in-situ deposition of yttrium on a heated Si(110) sample surface. Current-voltage curves were recorded on the nanowires and on the wetting layer in-between. The curves indicate an existence of the Schottky barrier between the yttrium silicide nanowires and the silicon bulk. By means of the two-tip measurements with a gate, the insulating property of the Schottky barrier has been confirmed. Using this Schottky barrier, it is possible to limit the current to the nanowire and to prevent it from flowing through the silicon bulk. A four-tip resistance measurement

  4. Efficacy of 3 different irrigation systems on removal of calcium hydroxide from the root canal: a scanning electron microscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alturaiki, Sami; Lamphon, Hebah; Edrees, Hadeel; Ahlquist, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of different irrigation systems on removing calcium hydroxide (Ca[OH]2) from the root canal by using a scanning electron microscope. Forty extracted single-rooted teeth were divided randomly into 4 groups. Canal instrumentation was done, and the teeth were filled with Ca(OH)2 paste. One week later, 4 techniques were used for Ca(OH)2 removal. In the first group, the canals were cleaned with a master apical file. The second, third, and fourth groups were irrigated using the EndoVac (Discus Dental, Culver City, CA), EndoActivator (Dentsply Tulsa Dental Specialties, Tulsa, OK), and ProUltra (Dentsply Tulsa, Tulsa, OK) systems, respectively. All the groups were irrigated with 3 mL (18%) EDTA and 3 mL (1%) NaOCl for 1 minute. The canal walls were viewed, and the remaining amount of Ca(OH)2 was evaluated using a scanning electron microscope. A scoring system was used to assess the amount of residue Ca(OH)2 on each third of the canal. The obtained data for comparisons between the conventional irrigation needle and each device were statistically analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test. To compare the 4 devices, the results were statistically analyzed using the analysis of variance test. None of the investigated techniques removed the Ca(OH)2 dressing completely. However, the EndoActivator System showed better results in removing Ca(OH)2 in each third of the root canals in comparison with the other techniques. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of sildenafil citrate (Viagra) and ethanol on the Albino rat testis: a scanning electron microscopic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivasankaran, T G; Udayakumar, R; Elanchezhiyan, C; Sabhanayakam, Selvi

    2008-02-01

    The effects of sildenafil citrate with ethanol on the rat testis was studied using scanning electron microscopy. Male Albino rats were divided into 8 groups, each being treated for a maximum of 45 days as follows. In the 4 short-term treatment groups, control rats were administered normal saline orally, whereas experimental animals were fed sildenafil citrate (Viagra) 1 microg/g with 18% ethanol (5 g/kg body weight), which was given orally as a single dose. After 1, 2.5, 4 and 24h the rats were killed. In the 4 long-term treatment groups, daily continuous doses of drug and ethanol with a single dosage were given for 15, 30 and 45 days and the animals killed 4h after the last dosage. Changes in the testis were compared with the normal healthy rat testis. The use of a scanning electron microscope for evaluation of the changes in the testis is more suitable for observation of the surface and morphological shapes of the tissue structures.

  6. Analytical Electron Microscope

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Titan 80-300 is a transmission electron microscope (TEM) equipped with spectroscopic detectors to allow chemical, elemental, and other analytical measurements to...

  7. Acquisition parameters optimization of a transmission electron forward scatter diffraction system in a cold-field emission scanning electron microscope for nanomaterials characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodusch, Nicolas; Demers, Hendrix; Trudeau, Michel; Gauvin, Raynald

    2013-01-01

    Transmission electron forward scatter diffraction (t-EFSD) is a new technique providing crystallographic information with high resolution on thin specimens by using a conventional electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) system in a scanning electron microscope. In this study, the impact of tilt angle, working distance, and detector distance on the Kikuchi pattern quality were investigated in a cold-field emission scanning electron microscope (CFE-SEM). We demonstrated that t-EFSD is applicable for tilt angles ranging from -20° to -40°. Working distance (WD) should be optimized for each material by choosing the WD for which the EBSD camera screen illumination is the highest, as the number of detected electrons on the screen is directly dependent on the scattering angle. To take advantage of the best performances of the CFE-SEM, the EBSD camera should be close to the sample and oriented towards the bottom to increase forward scattered electron collection efficiency. However, specimen chamber cluttering and beam/mechanical drift are important limitations in the CFE-SEM used in this work. Finally, the importance of t-EFSD in materials science characterization was illustrated through three examples of phase identification and orientation mapping. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Scanning electron microscope analysis of gunshot defects to bone: an underutilized source of information on ballistic trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickman, John M; Smith, Martin J

    2014-11-01

    Recent years have seen increasing involvement by forensic anthropologists in the interpretation of skeletal trauma. With regard to ballistic injuries, there is now a large literature detailing gross features of such trauma; however, less attention has been given to microscopic characteristics. This article presents analysis of experimentally induced gunshot trauma in animal bone (Bos taurus scapulae) using full metal jacket (FMJ), soft point (SP), and captive bolt projectiles. The results were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Additional analysis was conducted on a purported parietal gunshot lesion in a human cranial specimen. A range of features was observed in these samples suggesting that fibrolamellar bone response to projectile impact is analogous to that observed in synthetic composite laminates. The results indicate that direction of bullet travel can be discerned microscopically even when it is ambiguous on gross examination. It was also possible to distinguish SP from FMJ lesions. SEM analysis is therefore recommended as a previously underexploited tool in the analysis of ballistic trauma. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  9. A video rate laser scanning confocal microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hongzhou; Jiang, James; Ren, Hongwu; Cable, Alex E.

    2008-02-01

    A video-rate laser scanning microscope was developed as an imaging engine to integrate with other photonic building blocks to fulfill various microscopic imaging applications. The system is quipped with diode laser source, resonant scanner, galvo scanner, control electronic and computer loaded with data acquisition boards and imaging software. Based on an open frame design, the system can be combined with varies optics to perform the functions of fluorescence confocal microscopy, multi-photon microscopy and backscattering confocal microscopy. Mounted to the camera port, it allows a traditional microscope to obtain confocal images at video rate. In this paper, we will describe the design principle and demonstrate examples of applications.

  10. The micromorphology of the blesbuck louse Damalinia (Damalinia crenelata as observed under the scanning electron microscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Turner

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The blesbuck is an important game animal on many game farms and reserves in South Africa. Damalinia crenelata, a biting louse, host-specific to the blesbuck, feed upon epidermal debris of this antelope, leading to severe skin irritation and dermatitis. Symptomatic scratching by the host aggravates these conditions. High infestations may lead to decreased population numbers. Live lice were collected from a blesbuck in the Rietvlei Nature Reserve and prepared for selectron microscopic investigation. Micrographs were recorded. The SEM investigation revealed several micromorphological features not previously described in D. crenelata. Besides the obvious anatomical differences in the reproductive organs of the male and female, several other differences were noted. The antennal flagellae showed morphological differences as well as certain features on the ventral surfaces of the head. Dorsally the forehead was markedly emarginated and showed an acute invagination (clypeo labral suture in the pulvinal area. The ventral surface of the head clearly demonstrated the structures of the preantennal regions such as ventral carina, pulvinus, labrum, mandibles and clypeus. The epipharynx appeared as an underlying extension of the labrum. The rims of the clypeus were more raised and thickened in the female than in that of the male. The mandibles were not notched and were noted to be angular in shape. The three segments of each of the antennae of the male were thicker and more robust than than those of the female. This could suggest sexual dimorphism in this species. The sensilla basoconica comprised 10 pegs. Pit organs were seen within the pore organs. The prothorax and mesothorax were clearly distinguished. The abdominal segments showed six pairs of spiracles. The male andfemale terminalia were confirmed to be strongly sexually dimorphic. The three pairs oflegs each terminated in a single, long and slender, claw.

  11. Imaging and elemental mapping of biological specimens with a dual-EDS dedicated scanning transmission electron microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, J.S., E-mail: jinsong-wu@northwestern.edu [Northwestern University Atomic and Nanoscale Characterization Experimental (NUANCE) Center, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Kim, A.M. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL 60611 (United States); Chemistry of Life Processes Institute, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Bleher, R. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Chemistry of Life Processes Institute, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Myers, B.D. [Northwestern University Atomic and Nanoscale Characterization Experimental (NUANCE) Center, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Marvin, R.G. [Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Chemistry of Life Processes Institute, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Inada, H.; Nakamura, K. [Hitachi High-Technologies Corporation, Ibaraki 312-8504 (Japan); Zhang, X.F. [Hitachi High Technologies America, Inc., 5960 Inglewood Drive, Pleasanton, California 94588 (United States); Roth, E. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Chemistry of Life Processes Institute, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Li, S.Y. [Northwestern University Atomic and Nanoscale Characterization Experimental (NUANCE) Center, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); and others

    2013-05-15

    A dedicated analytical scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) with dual energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) detectors has been designed for complementary high performance imaging as well as high sensitivity elemental analysis and mapping of biological structures. The performance of this new design, based on a Hitachi HD-2300A model, was evaluated using a variety of biological specimens. With three imaging detectors, both the surface and internal structure of cells can be examined simultaneously. The whole-cell elemental mapping, especially of heavier metal species that have low cross-section for electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), can be faithfully obtained. Optimization of STEM imaging conditions is applied to thick sections as well as thin sections of biological cells under low-dose conditions at room and cryogenic temperatures. Such multimodal capabilities applied to soft/biological structures usher a new era for analytical studies in biological systems. - Highlights: ► Applications of STEM in characterization of biological samples are demonstrated. ► Elemental analyses are performed by dual EDS and EELS. ► Both the surface and internal structure of cells can be studied simultaneously. ► The imaging contrast in low-dose cryo-STEM has been analyzed.

  12. A Miniaturized Variable Pressure Scanning Electron Microscope (MVP-SEM) for In-Situ Mars Surface Sample Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunson, J.; Gaskin, J. A.; Jerman, G. A.; Harvey, R. P.; Doloboff, I. J.; Neidholdt, E. L.

    2016-01-01

    The Miniaturized Variable Pressure Scanning Electron Microscope (MVP-SEM) project, funded by the NASA Planetary Instrument Concepts for the Advancement of Solar System Observations (PICASSO) Research Opportunities in Space and Earth Sciences (ROSES), will build upon previous miniaturized SEM designs and recent advancements in variable pressure SEM's to design and build a SEM to complete analyses of samples on the surface of Mars using the atmosphere as an imaging medium. This project is a collaboration between NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), electron gun and optics manufacturer Applied Physics Technologies, and small vacuum system manufacturer Creare. Dr. Ralph Harvery and environmental SEM (ESEM) inventor Dr. Gerry Danilatos serve as advisors to the team. Variable pressure SEMs allow for fine (nm-scale) resolution imaging and micron-scale chemical study of materials without sample preparation (e.g., carbon or gold coating). Charging of a sample is reduced or eliminated by the gas surrounding the sample. It is this property of ESEMs that make them ideal for locations where sample preparation is not yet feasible, such as the surface of Mars. In addition, the lack of sample preparation needed here will simplify the sample acquisition process and allow caching of the samples for future complementary payload use.

  13. Automated Classification Of Scanning Electron Microscope Particle Images Using Morphological Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamarche, B. L.; Lewis, R. R.; Girvin, D. C.; McKinley, J. P.

    2008-12-01

    We are developing a software tool that can automatically classify anthropogenic and natural aerosol particulates using morphological analysis. Our method was developed using SEM (background and secondary electron) images of single particles. Particle silhouettes are detected and converted into polygons using Intel's OpenCV image processing library. Our analysis then proceeds independently for the two kinds of images. Analysis of secondary images concerns itself solely with the silhouette and seeks to quantify its shape and roughness. Traversing the polygon with spline interpolation, we uniformly sample k(s), the signed curvature of the silhouette's path as a function of distance along the perimeter s. k(s) is invariant under rotation and translation. The power spectrum of k(s) qualitatively shows both shape and roughness: more power at low frequencies indicates variation in shape; more power at higher frequencies indicates a rougher silhouette. We present a series of filters (low-, band-, and high-pass) which we convolve with k(s) to yield a set of parameters that characterize the shape and roughness numerically. Analysis of backscatter images focuses on the (visual) texture, which is the result of both composition and geometry. Using the silhouette as a boundary, we compute the variogram, a statistical measure of inter-pixel covariance as a function of distance. Variograms take on characteristic curves, which we fit with a heuristic, asymptotic function that uses a small set of parameters. The combination of silhouette and variogram fit parameters forms the basis of a multidimensional classification space whose dimensionality we may reduce by principal component analysis and whose region boundaries allow us to classify new particles. This analysis is performed without a priori knowledge of other physical, chemical, or climatic properties. The method will be adapted to multi-particulate images.

  14. Inspection of anode and field wires for the COMPASS drift chamber, DC5, with Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyuzuzo, Sonia

    2014-09-01

    The COMPASS experiment at CERN uses a secondary pion beam from the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) at CERN to explore the spin structure of nucleons. A new drift chamber, DC5, will be integrated into the COMPASS spectrometer to replace an aging straw tube detector. DC5 will detect muon pairs from Drell-Yan scattering of a pion-beam off a transversely polarized proton target. This data will be used to determine the correlation between transverse proton spin and the intrinsic transverse momentum of up-quarks inside the proton, the Sivers effect. DC5 is a large area planar drift chamber with 8 layers of anode-frames made of G10 fiberglass-epoxy. The G10 frames support printed circuit boards for soldering 20 μm diameter anode and 100 μm diameter field wires. The anode planes are sandwiched by 13 graphite coated Mylar cathode planes. To ensure a well-functioning of DC5, the wires were carefully tested. An optical inspection and a spectral analysis was performed with an Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope (ESEM) to verify the composition and dimensions and the integrity of the gold plating on the surface of these wires. The spectra of the wires were studied at 10 and 30 keV. The COMPASS experiment at CERN uses a secondary pion beam from the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) at CERN to explore the spin structure of nucleons. A new drift chamber, DC5, will be integrated into the COMPASS spectrometer to replace an aging straw tube detector. DC5 will detect muon pairs from Drell-Yan scattering of a pion-beam off a transversely polarized proton target. This data will be used to determine the correlation between transverse proton spin and the intrinsic transverse momentum of up-quarks inside the proton, the Sivers effect. DC5 is a large area planar drift chamber with 8 layers of anode-frames made of G10 fiberglass-epoxy. The G10 frames support printed circuit boards for soldering 20 μm diameter anode and 100 μm diameter field wires. The anode planes are sandwiched by 13

  15. Scanning electron microscopic study of teeth restored with fiber posts and composite resin: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K S Sridhara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study is to compare and evaluate the thickness of resin dentin interface zones (RDIZ obtained by luting carbon fiber post to intra-radicular dentin, either with All-Bond 2 bonding agent and C and B composite cement or Panavia F dentin-bonding system and Panavia F resin cement. Materials and Methods: Twenty single rooted mandibular premolars of similar sizes were prepared for the carbon fiber post after biomechanical preparation and obturation. They were divided into two groups, Group 1 and 2 of 10 samples each. Carbon fiber posts used for Group 1 samples were luted using All-Bond 2 and C and B cement. For Group 2 carbon fiber posts were luted using Panavia F dentin-bonding system and Panavia F resin cement. All the 20 samples were sectioned longitudinally and marked at three points on the length of the tooth from the dentin-core interface to the apex at 2 mm, 5 mm, and 8 mm to get coronal, middle, and apical areas, respectively. The formation and thickness (width of the RDIZ at the marked areas was evaluated by scanning electron microscope using ×1000 magnification. The results were statistical analyzed. Results: Irrespective of the adhesive systems used all specimens showed a RDIZ formation. Microscopic examination of Group 1 showed significantly higher percentage of RDIZ (P < 0.05 than Group 2. RDIZ morphology was easily detectable at coronal and middle areas of all specimens. Conclusion: All-Bond 2 showed denser and wider RDIZ compared with the Panavia F.

  16. Scanning Quantum Cryogenic Atom Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Kollár, Alicia J.; Taylor, Stephen F.; Turner, Richard W.; Lev, Benjamin L.

    2017-03-01

    Microscopic imaging of local magnetic fields provides a window into the organizing principles of complex and technologically relevant condensed-matter materials. However, a wide variety of intriguing strongly correlated and topologically nontrivial materials exhibit poorly understood phenomena outside the detection capability of state-of-the-art high-sensitivity high-resolution scanning probe magnetometers. We introduce a quantum-noise-limited scanning probe magnetometer that can operate from room-to-cryogenic temperatures with unprecedented dc-field sensitivity and micron-scale resolution. The Scanning Quantum Cryogenic Atom Microscope (SQCRAMscope) employs a magnetically levitated atomic Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), thereby providing immunity to conductive and blackbody radiative heating. The SQCRAMscope has a field sensitivity of 1.4 nT per resolution-limited point (approximately 2 μ m ) or 6 nT /√{Hz } per point at its duty cycle. Compared to point-by-point sensors, the long length of the BEC provides a naturally parallel measurement, allowing one to measure nearly 100 points with an effective field sensitivity of 600 pT /√{Hz } for each point during the same time as a point-by-point scanner measures these points sequentially. Moreover, it has a noise floor of 300 pT and provides nearly 2 orders of magnitude improvement in magnetic flux sensitivity (down to 10-6 Φ0/√{Hz } ) over previous atomic probe magnetometers capable of scanning near samples. These capabilities are carefully benchmarked by imaging magnetic fields arising from microfabricated wire patterns in a system where samples may be scanned, cryogenically cooled, and easily exchanged. We anticipate the SQCRAMscope will provide charge-transport images at temperatures from room temperature to 4 K in unconventional superconductors and topologically nontrivial materials.

  17. [A study of different polishing techniques for amalgams and glass-cermet cement by scanning electron microscope (SEM)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakaboura, A; Vougiouklakis, G; Argiri, G

    1989-01-01

    Finishing and polishing an amalgam restoration, is considered as an important and necessary step of the restorative procedure. Various polishing techniques have been recommended to success a smooth amalgam surface. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of three different polishing treatments on the marginal integrity and surface smoothness of restorations made of three commercially available amalgams and a glass-cermet cement. The materials used were the amalgams, Amalcap (Vivadent), Dispersalloy (Johnson and Johnson), Duralloy (Degussa) and the glass-cermet Katac-Silver (ESPE). The occlusal surfaces of the restorations were polished by the methods: I) round bur, No4-rubber cup-zinc oxide paste in a small brush, II) round bur No 4-bur-brown, green and super green (Shofu) polishing cups and points successively and III) amalgam polishing bur of 12-blades-smooth amalgam polishing bur. Photographs from unpolished and polished surfaces of the restorations, were taken with scanning electron microscope, to evaluate the polishing techniques. An improvement of marginal integrity and surface smoothness of all amalgam restorations was observed after the specimens had been polished with the three techniques. Method II, included Shofu polishers, proved the best results in comparison to the methods I and III. Polishing of glass-cermet cement was impossible with the examined techniques.

  18. Cathodoluminescence spectroscopy of single GaN/AlN quantum dots directly performed in a scanning transmission electron microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertram, Frank; Schmidt, Gordon; Mueller, Marcus; Petzold, Silke; Veit, Peter; Christen, Juergen [Institute of Experimental Physics, Otto-von-Guericke-University Magdeburg (Germany); Das, Aparna; Monroy, Eva [CEA/CNRS Group Nanophysique et Semiconducteurs, INAC/SP2M, CEA-Grenoble (France)

    2013-07-01

    In this study we will present a nanoscale optical and structural characterization of a III-nitride based quantum dot (QD) heterostructure. A 1 μm thick AlN layer grown on a sapphire substrate using metal organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) serves as template for the further growth process. Subsequent, a stack of 10 GaN QD layers, each embedded in 50 nm thick AlN barrier, were grown under an optimized plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy process on an AlN-MOVPE/sapphire template. The cross-section high angle annular dark field image (HAADF) in a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) clearly reveals the GaN QD layers. The comparison of the HAADF image with the simultaneously recorded panchromatic cathodoluminescence mapping at 16 K exhibits a spot like luminescence distribution of the upper six QD layers solely, indicating no formation of the first four intentionally grown QD layers. Addressing a very few to single QDs we observe a broad luminescence between 3.0 eV and 4.0 eV originating from the superposition of the single emission lines.

  19. Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope observations of defects in as-grown and pre-strained Mo-alloy fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phani, P. Sudharshan [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Johanns, K. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Duscher, G. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) & Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Gali, A. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) & Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); George, Easo P [ORNL; Pharr, George M [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) & Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

    2011-01-01

    Compression testing of micro-pillars has recently been of great interest to the small-scale mechanics community. Previous compression tests on single crystal Mo alloy micro-pillars produced by directional solidification of eutectic alloys showed that as-grown pillars yield at strengths close to the theoretical strength while pre-strained pillars yield at considerably lower stresses. In addition, the flow behavior changes from stochastic to deterministic with increasing pre-strain. In order to gain a microstructural insight into this behavior, an aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscope was used to study the defect structures in as-grown and pre-strained single crystal Mo alloy fibers. The as-grown fibers were found to be defect free over large lengths while the highly pre-strained (16%) fibers had high defect densities that were uniform throughout. Interestingly, the fibers with intermediate pre-strain (4%) exhibited an inhomogeneous defect distribution. The observed defect structures and their distributions are correlated with the previously reported stress-strain behavior. Some of the mechanistic interpretations of Bei et al. are examined in the light of new microstructural observations.

  20. Scanning transmission electron microscope observations of defects in as-grown and pre-strained Mo alloy fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phani, P. Sudharshan; Johanns, K.E. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Duscher, G.; Gali, A.; George, E.P. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Pharr, G.M., E-mail: pharr@utk.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2011-03-15

    Compression testing of micro-pillars has recently been of great interest to the small-scale mechanics community. Previous compression tests on single crystal Mo alloy micro-pillars produced by directional solidification of eutectic alloys showed that as-grown pillars yield at strengths close to the theoretical strength while pre-strained pillars yield at considerably lower stresses. In addition, the flow behavior changes from stochastic to deterministic with increasing pre-strain. In order to gain a microstructural insight into this behavior, an aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscope was used to study the defect structures in as-grown and pre-strained single crystal Mo alloy fibers. The as-grown fibers were found to be defect free over large lengths while the highly pre-strained (16%) fibers had high defect densities that were uniform throughout. Interestingly, the fibers with intermediate pre-strain (4%) exhibited an inhomogeneous defect distribution. The observed defect structures and their distributions are correlated with the previously reported stress-strain behavior. Some of the mechanistic interpretations of Bei et al. are examined in the light of new microstructural observations.

  1. Cleaning efficacy using two engine-driven systems versus manual instrumentation in curved root canals: a scanning electron microscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zmener, Osvaldo; Pameijer, Cornelis H; Alvarez Serrano, Susana; Hernandez, Sandra R

    2011-09-01

    This ex vivo study evaluated the cleanliness of curved root canal walls after chemomechanical instrumentation using two automated systems versus manual instrumentation while using a standardized irrigation protocol. Thirty mesial root canals of extracted human first and second mandibular molars were prepared with the TiLOS hybrid engine-driven instrumentation system (Ultradent Products Inc, South Jordan, UT) (n = 10), ProTaper engine-driven file series (n = 10), and manual instrumentation (n = 10). Irrigation was performed using alternately 5.25% sodium hypochlorite and 17% EDTA followed by rinsing with distilled water. After the roots were split longitudinally, the presence of debris and/or smear layer was visualized using serial scanning electron microscopic digital photomicrographs taken at 1, 5, and 10 mm from the working length. Mean scores for debris and the smear layer were calculated and statistically analyzed for significance (P .05) were found between TiLOS and ProTaper (Dentsply/Tulsa Dental, Tulsa, OK) groups, whereas both performed significantly better than the manual instrumentation group. Engine-driven TiLOS and ProTaper instrumentation systems combined with a standardized irrigation protocol produced cleaner root canal walls than the manual instrumentation technique although complete cleanliness was not achieved. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Surface debris of canal walls after post space preparation in endodontically treated teeth: a scanning electron microscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafino, Cinzia; Gallina, Giuseppe; Cumbo, Enzo; Ferrari, Marco

    2004-03-01

    To evaluate surface cleanliness of root canal walls along post space after endodontic treatment using 2 different irrigant regimens, obturation techniques, and post space preparation for adhesive bonding. Forty teeth, divided into 4 groups, were instrumented, using Ni-Ti rotary files, irrigated with NaOCl or NaOCl+EDTA and obturated with cold lateral condensation (CLC) or warm vertical condensation (WVC) of gutta-percha. After post space preparation, etching, and washing procedure, canal walls were observed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Amount of debris, smear layer, sealer/gutta-percha remnants, and visibility of open tubules were rated. Higher amounts of rough debris, large sealer/gutta-percha remnants, thick smear layer, and no visibility of tubule orifices were recorded in all the groups at apical level of post space. At middle and coronal levels areas of clean dentin, alternating with areas covered by thin smear layer, smaller debris, gutta-percha remnants, and orifices of tubules partially or totally occluded by plugs were frequently observed. After endodontic treatment, obturation, and post space preparation SEM analysis of canal walls along post space shows large areas (covered by smear layer, debris, and sealer/gutta-percha remnants) not available for adhesive bonding and resin cementation of fiber posts.

  3. Human teeth with periapical pathosis after overinstrumentation and overfilling of the root canals: a scanning electron microscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, J H; Brizuela, C; Villota, E

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether overinstrumentation followed by immediate overfilling could be a potential risk in the treatment of infected root canals. Thirty-five human teeth with infected root canals were overinstrumented and overfilled approximately 45 min after their extraction. The experimental teeth were enlarged up to size 40 and the overinstrumentation and overfilling were checked with the aid of a magnifying glass. The specimens were fixed in glutaraldehyde plus sodium cacodylate solution and prepared for scanning electron microscope examination. Bacteria were detected on the flute of the files and mostly at the root apices around the main foramen, remaining firmly attached to resorptive lacunae despite the fact that the apices had undergone great changes, including fracture or zipping. A control group consisting of 10 human teeth root canals containing vital pulps were also overinstrumented and overfilled. No bacteria were detected on the flutes of the files, at the apices or on the extruded master cone overfilling these samples. The high percentage of bacteria adhering to the resorptive lacunae or in the flutes of files used in overinstrumented human teeth with infected root canals carry a potential risk for postoperative pain, clinical discomfort and flare-ups. The hazards observed in these circumstances do not support the one-visit treatment of teeth having acute or chronic periapical abscesses.

  4. In vitro bonding effectiveness of self-etch adhesives with different application techniques: A microleakage and scanning electron microscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagpal, Rajni; Manuja, Naveen; Tyagi, Shashi Prabha; Singh, Udai Pratap

    2011-07-01

    To evaluate and compare the microleakage of self-etch adhesives placed under different clinical techniques and to analyze the resin-dentin interfacial ultrastructure under scanning electron microscope (SEM). 100 extracted human premolars were divided into two groups for different adhesives (Clearfil S(3) and Xeno III). Class V cavities were prepared. Each group was further divided into four subgroups (n = 10) according to the placement technique of the adhesive, i.e. according to manufacturer's directions (Group 1), with phosphoric acid etching of enamel margins (Group 2), with hydrophobic resin coat application (Group 3), with techniques of both groups 2 and 3 (Group 4). The cavities were restored with composite. Ten samples from each group were subjected to microleakage study. Five samples each of both the adhesives from groups 1 and 3 were used for SEM examination of the micromorphology of the resin-dentin interface. At enamel margins for both the adhesives tested, groups 2 and 4 showed significantly lesser leakage than groups 1 and 3. At dentin margins, groups 3 and 4 depicted significantly reduced leakage than groups 1 and 2 for Xeno III. SEM observation of the resin-dentin interfaces revealed generalized gap and poor resin tag formation in both the adhesives. Xeno III showed better interfacial adaptation when additional hydrophobic resin coat was applied. In enamel, prior phosphoric acid etching reduces microleakage of self-etch adhesives, while in dentin, hydrophobic resin coating over one-step self-etch adhesives decreases the microleakage.

  5. Design and Performance of a TES X-ray Microcalorimeter Array for Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy on Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, Haruka; Nagayoshi, K.; Hayashi, T.; Sakai, K.; Yamamoto, R.; Mitsuda, K.; Yamasaki, N. Y.; Maehata, K.; Hara, T.

    2016-07-01

    We discuss the design and performance of a transition edge sensor (TES) X-ray microcalorimeter array for scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM)-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The TES X-ray microcalorimeter has better energy resolution compared to conventional silicon drift detector and STEM-EDS utilizing a TES detector makes it possible to map the distribution of elements on a specimen in addition to analyze the composition. The requirement for a TES detector is a high counting rate (>20 kcps), wide energy band (0.5-15 keV) and good energy resolution (<10 eV) full width at half maximum. The major improvement of this development is to increase the maximum counting rate. In order to accommodate the high counting rate, we adopted an 8 × 8 format, 64-pixel array and common biasing scheme for the readout method. We did all design and fabrication of the device in house. With the device we have fabricated most recently, the pulse decay time is 40 \\upmu s which is expected to achieve 50 kcps. For a single pixel, the measured energy resolution was 7.8 eV at 5.9 keV. This device satisfies the requirements of counting rate and energy resolution, although several issues remain where the performance must be confirmed.

  6. Effect of endodontic irrigation with 1% sodium hypochlorite and 17% EDTA on primary teeth: a scanning electron microscope analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ximenes, Marcos; Triches, Thaisa C; Beltrame, Ana Paula C A; Hilgert, Leandro A; Cardoso, Mariane

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of 2 final irrigation solutions for removal of the smear layer (SL) from root canals of primary teeth, using scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis. Thirty primary molars were selected and a single operator instrumented the canals. The initial irrigation was done with a 1% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) solution. After the preparation, the roots were randomly divided into 3 groups for final irrigation: Group 1, 1% NaOCl (n = 10); Group 2, 17% EDTA + 1% NaOCl (n = 10); and Group 3, 17% EDTA + saline solution (n = 10). The roots were prepared for SEM analysis (magnification 1000X). The photomicrographs were independently analyzed by 2 investigators with SEM experience, attributing scores to each root third in terms of SL removal. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests revealed that there was no statistical difference between the groups (P = 0.489). However, a statistical difference was found (P < 0.05) in a comparison of root thirds, with the apical third having the worst results. Comparing the thirds within the same group, all canals showed statistical differences between the cervical and apical thirds (P < 0.05). The authors determined that no substance or association of substances were able to completely remove SL.

  7. Evaluation of three different manual techniques of sharpening curettes through a scanning electron microscope: a randomized controlled experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Fiore, A; Mazzoleni, S; Fantin, F; Favero, L; De Francesco, M; Stellini, E

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of three different techniques for manually sharpening of periodontal curettes (PCs) by examining the blades with the aid of scanning electron microscope (SEM). Three groups were considered based on three sharpening methods used: group A (moving a PC over a stationary stone); group B (moving a stone over a stationary PC) and group C (moving a PC over a stone fixed, placed on a 'sharpening horse'). After the sharpening, the blades were examined using SEM. The SEM images were assessed independently by five different independent observers. An evaluation board was used to assign a value to each image. A preliminary pilot study was conducted to establish the number of samples. Pearson's correlation test was used to assess the correlations between measurements. anova test with Bonferroni's post hoc test was used to compare the three groups. Sixty PCs (20 PCs per group) were used in this study. Statistically significant differences emerged between the three groups (P-value = 0.001). Bonferroni's test showed that the difference between groups A and B was not statistically significant (P-value = 0.80), while it was significant for the comparisons between groups A and C (P-value = 0.005) and between groups B and C (P-value = 0.001). The sharpening technique used in group C, which involved the use of the sharpening horse, proved the most effective. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Scanning electron microscopic evaluation of the successful sterilization of Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann) utilized in maggot debridement therapy (mdt).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeong, Y S; Nazni, W A; Santana, R L; Mohd Noor, I; Lee, H L; Mohd Sofian, A

    2011-08-01

    In Malaysia, maggot debridement therapy (MDT) utilizes maggots of Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann) to debride necrotic tissue from wound surface, reduce bacterial infection and therefore, enhance wound healing process. To evaluate the sterility of the sterile maggots produced after sterilization process before delivering onto patient wounds. Sterility of sterile maggots is crucial in ensuring the safe usage of MDT and patient's health. Eggs of L. cuprina collected from a laboratory colony were divided into treated group (sterilized) and control group (non-sterilized). Treated group underwent sterilization while eggs from control group were allowed to hatch without sterilization. Sodium hypochlorite and formaldehyde were the main disinfectants used in this sterilization process. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to examine and ascertain the sterility of sterile maggots. SEM results showed that all sterilized L. cuprina eggs and maggots achieved sterility and all were cleared from bacterial contamination. In contrast, all non-sterilized eggs and maggots were found to be colonized by microorganisms. Sterilization method employed to sterilize eggs and maggots used in Malaysia MDT was proven successful and MDT is safe to be used as wound management tools.

  9. Twelve-point scale grading system of scanning electron microscopic examination to investigate subtle changes in damaged hair surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S Y; Choi, A R; Baek, J H; Kim, H O; Shin, M K; Koh, J S

    2016-11-01

    To assess the hair surface condition, scanning electron microscope (SEM) is commonly used and it remains an indispensable hair morphology characterization technique. Yet, the technique is criticized for having subjective viewpoints and limitations in distinguishing the appearance of cuticle layers. The aim of this study is to establish an objective classification system and also to subdivide by detailed description of damaged cuticle layers. Hair samples were collected from female subjects (n = 500) who participated in hair efficacy study and Asian hair bunches (n = 180) that were previously collected. Damage to hair was initiated by chemical, heat stress and ultraviolet irradiation. We suggested the grading criterion on a 12-point scale and compared with a wide range grading system on a 5-point scale. We evaluated other hair surface-related parameters such as hair luster-ring and combing load to verify the validity and efficacy of our new grading system. The grading criterion on our 12-point scale revealed an improved discrimination compared to the wide range grading system. Hair surface-related parameters were significantly improved after hair care product, and these tendencies were likely to be determined to be similarly improved using the 12-point scale grading system. The 12-point scale classification system was demonstrated to be a more precise standardization and appropriate evaluation method to investigate the subtle distinction of the hair shaft after hair care product application. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Study of corrosion in archaeological gilded irons by Raman imaging and a coupled scanning electron microscope-Raman system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veneranda, Marco; Costantini, Ilaria; de Vallejuelo, Silvia Fdez-Ortiz; Garcia, Laura; García, Iñaki; Castro, Kepa; Azkarate, Agustín; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

    2016-12-01

    In this work, analytical and chemical imaging tools have been applied to the study of a gilded spur found in the medieval necropolis of Erenozar (Bizkaia, Spain). As a first step, a lot of portable equipment has been used to study the object in a non-invasive way. The hand-held energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence equipment allowed us to characterize the artefact as a rare example of an iron matrix item decorated by means of a fire gilding technique. On the other hand, the use of a portable Raman system helped us to detect the main degradation compounds affecting the spur. Afterwards, further information was acquired in the laboratory by analysing detached fragments. The molecular images obtained using confocal Raman microscopy permitted us to characterize the stratigraphic succession of iron corrosions. Furthermore, the combined use of this technique with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) was achieved owing to the use of a structural and chemical analyser interface. In this way, the molecular characterization, enhanced by the magnification feature of the SEM, allowed us to identify several micrometric degradation compounds. Finally, the effectiveness of one of the most used desalination baths (NaOH) was evaluated by comparing its effects with those provided by a reference bath (MilliQ). The comparison proved that basic treatment avoided any side effects on the spur decorated by fire gilding, compensating for the lack of bibliographic documentation in this field. This article is part of the themed issue "Raman spectroscopy in art and archaeology".

  11. Evaluation of enamel surfaces following interproximal reduction and polishing with different methods: A scanning electron microscope study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eenal Bhambri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Interproximal reduction was introduced as an alternative to tooth extraction in patients with mild-to-moderate crowding, the beneficial outcomes of interdental reduction have been well documented, but nevertheless, possible detrimental effects on enamel have also been an issue of debate. Interproximal reduction generates the formation of grooves and valleys creating plaque retentive areas, predisposing teeth to caries, and periodontal disease. Various proximal stripping techniques, it is postulated, produce varying grades of roughness of the enamel surface; it is in this area that the research in this paper was focused. Aim: The aim is to evaluate enamel surface roughness after various interproximal reduction and polishing methods. Materials and Methods: 16-blade tungsten carbide bur, diamond disc, diamond-coated metal strip, fine Sof-Lex disc, and fine diamond bur were used for interproximal reduction and polishing on extracted human premolars. The specimens were then evaluated under scanning electron microscope (SEM and surface plots of images were made using Image J software. Statistical Analysis: The data obtained were subjected to ANOVA and posthoc multiple tests. Results: Under the SEM, all interproximal reduction protocols resulted in roughened and grooved enamel surfaces. The use of diamond-coated metal strip followed by polishing with fine Sof-Lex disc created surfaces that were reasonably smooth. Conclusions: The enamel surfaces after reduction with diamond-coated metal strip and polishing by fine Sof-Lex disc (group F were the smoothest.

  12. The effect of root surface conditioning on smear layer removal in periodontal regeneration (a scanning electron microscopic study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidyawati, D.; Soeroso, Y.; Masulili, S. L. C.

    2017-08-01

    The role of root surface conditioning treatment on smear layer removal of human teeth is affected by periodontitis in periodontal regeneration. The objective of this study is to analyze the smear layer on root surface conditioned with 2.1% minocycline HCl ointment (Periocline), and 24% EDTA gel (Prefgel). A total of 10 human teeth indicated for extraction due to chronic periodontitis were collected and root planed. The teeth were sectioned in thirds of the cervical area, providing 30 samples that were divided into three groups - minocycline ointment treatment, 24% EDTA gel treatment, and saline as a control. The samples were examined by scanning electron microscope. No significant differences in levels of smear layer were observed between the minocycline group and the EDTA group (p=0.759). However, there were significant differences in the level of smear layer after root surface treatment in the minocycline and EDTA groups, compared with the control group (p=0.00). There was a relationship between root surface conditioning treatment and smear layer levels following root planing.

  13. Investigation of voltages and electric fields in silicon semi 3D radiation detectors using Silvaco/ATLAS simulation tool and a scanning electron microscope

    CERN Document Server

    Palviainen, T; Tuuva, T; Eranen, S; Härkönen, J; Luukka, P; Tuovinen, E

    2006-01-01

    The structure of silicon semi three-dimensional radiation detector is simulated on purpose to find out its electrical characteristics such as the depletion voltage and electric field. Two-dimensional simulation results are compared to voltage and electric field measurements done by a scanning electron microscope.

  14. Charge collection microscopy of in-situ switchable PRAM line cells in a scanning electron microscope : Technique development and unique observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosthoek, J. L. M.; Schuitema, R. W.; ten Brink, G. H.; Gravesteijn, D. J.; Kooi, B. J.

    An imaging method has been developed based on charge collection in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) that allows discrimination between the amorphous and crystalline states of Phase-change Random Access Memory (PRAM) line cells. During imaging, the cells are electrically connected and can be

  15. Microscopic techniques bridging between nanoscale and microscale with an atomically sharpened tip - field ion microscopy/scanning probe microscopy/ scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomitori, Masahiko; Sasahara, Akira

    2014-11-01

    Over a hundred years an atomistic point of view has been indispensable to explore fascinating properties of various materials and to develop novel functional materials. High-resolution microscopies, rapidly developed during the period, have taken central roles in promoting materials science and related techniques to observe and analyze the materials. As microscopies with the capability of atom-imaging, field ion microscopy (FIM), scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) can be cited, which have been highly evaluated as methods to ultimately bring forward the viewpoint of reductionism in materials science. On one hand, there have been difficulties to derive useful and practical information on large (micro) scale unique properties of materials using these excellent microscopies and to directly advance the engineering for practical materials. To make bridges over the gap between an atomic scale and an industrial engineering scale, we have to develop emergence science step-by-step as a discipline having hierarchical structures for future prospects by combining nanoscale and microscale techniques; as promising ways, the combined microscopic instruments covering the scale gap and the extremely sophisticated methods for sample preparation seem to be required. In addition, it is noted that spectroscopic and theoretical methods should implement the emergence science.Fundamentally, the function of microscope is to determine the spatial positions of a finite piece of material, that is, ultimately individual atoms, at an extremely high resolution with a high stability. To define and control the atomic positions, the STM and AFM as scanning probe microscopy (SPM) have successfully demonstrated their power; the technological heart of SPM lies in an atomically sharpened tip, which can be observed by FIM and TEM. For emergence science we would like to set sail using the tip as a base. Meanwhile, it is significant

  16. Performance of the SRRC scanning photoelectron microscope

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, I H; Yin, G C; Wei, D H; Juang, J M; Dann, T E; Klauser, R; Chuang, T J; Chen, C T; Tsang, K L

    2001-01-01

    A scanning photoelectron microscope has been constructed at SRRC. This SPEM system consists primarily of a Fresnel zone plate (ZP) with an order-selection aperture, a flexure scanning stage, a hemispherical electron analyzer, and sample/ZP insertion system. The flexure stage is used to scan the sample. A hemispherical analyzer with Omni V lens and a 16-channel multichannel detector (MCD) is used to collect photoelectrons. A set of 16 photoelectron images at different kinetic energies can be simultaneously acquired in one single scan. The data acquisition system is designed to collect up to 32 images concurrently, including 16 MCD signals, total electron yield and transmitted photon flux. The design and some initial test results of this SPEM station are presented and discussed.

  17. Attainment of 40.5 pm spatial resolution using 300 kV scanning transmission electron microscope equipped with fifth-order aberration corrector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishita, Shigeyuki; Ishikawa, Ryo; Kohno, Yuji; Sawada, Hidetaka; Shibata, Naoya; Ikuhara, Yuichi

    2017-12-22

    The achievement of a fine electron probe for high-resolution imaging in scanning transmission electron microscopy requires technological developments, especially in electron optics. For this purpose, we developed a microscope with a fifth-order aberration corrector that operates at 300 kV. The contrast flat region in an experimental Ronchigram, which indicates the aberration-free angle, was expanded to 70 mrad. By using a probe with convergence angle of 40 mrad in the scanning transmission electron microscope at 300 kV, we attained the spatial resolution of 40.5 pm, which is the projected interatomic distance between Ga-Ga atomic columns of GaN observed along [212] direction. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japanese Society of Microscopy. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Scanning ultrafast electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ding-Shyue; Mohammed, Omar F; Zewail, Ahmed H

    2010-08-24

    Progress has been made in the development of four-dimensional ultrafast electron microscopy, which enables space-time imaging of structural dynamics in the condensed phase. In ultrafast electron microscopy, the electrons are accelerated, typically to 200 keV, and the microscope operates in the transmission mode. Here, we report the development of scanning ultrafast electron microscopy using a field-emission-source configuration. Scanning of pulses is made in the single-electron mode, for which the pulse contains at most one or a few electrons, thus achieving imaging without the space-charge effect between electrons, and still in ten(s) of seconds. For imaging, the secondary electrons from surface structures are detected, as demonstrated here for material surfaces and biological specimens. By recording backscattered electrons, diffraction patterns from single crystals were also obtained. Scanning pulsed-electron microscopy with the acquired spatiotemporal resolutions, and its efficient heat-dissipation feature, is now poised to provide in situ 4D imaging and with environmental capability.

  19. The effect of praziquantel and Carica papaya seeds on Hymenolepis nana infection in mice using scanning electron microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Shady, Omayma M; Basyoni, Maha M A; Mahdy, Olfat A; Bocktor, Nardden Zakka

    2014-08-01

    Hymenolepis nana (H. nana) is the most common tapeworm infection worldwide. It is more prevalent in warm climates where sanitation is poor, particularly among children. The effect and mechanism of action of praziquantel (PZQ), given at a dose of 25-mg/kg BW, and Carica papaya dried seed crude aqueous extract (CAE), given at a dose of 1.2-g/kg BW, were assessed on H. nana worms in experimentally infected mice. Tegumental changes were studied using the scanning electron microscope (SEM) and different parasitological parameters were observed. Each group of infected mice was divided into two subgroups. The first subgroup received either treatment before the 4th day after infection to investigate their effects on the cysticercoid stage. The other subgroup received treatments after the development of the adult stage, confirmed by eggs detection in stool. Both PZQ and C. papaya dried seed CAE resulted in a significant reduction of worm burden, total egg output and viable egg count. Marked tegumental changes were evident in adult worms treated with either treatment including shrinkage of the scolex and neck region with rostellar edema and complete loss of its hooks. However, all previous effects were exerted more rapidly in the case of PZQ treatment. They both significantly reduced cysticercoid stage size. Nevertheless, C. papaya outstand PZQ in having a deforming effect on adults arising from treated cysticercoids. It was concluded that C. papaya has significant anti-cestodal properties that enable its seed extract to be a very effective alternative to PZQ against H. nana.

  20. Enhanced phase contrast transfer using ptychography combined with a pre-specimen phase plate in a scanning transmission electron microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Hao; Ercius, Peter [Molecular Foundry, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Nellist, Peter D. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Ophus, Colin, E-mail: clophus@lbl.gov [Molecular Foundry, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2016-12-15

    The ability to image light elements in both crystalline and noncrystalline materials at near atomic resolution with an enhanced contrast is highly advantageous to understand the structure and properties of a wide range of beam sensitive materials including biological specimens and molecular hetero-structures. This requires the imaging system to have an efficient phase contrast transfer at both low and high spatial frequencies. In this work we introduce a new phase contrast imaging method in a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) using a pre-specimen phase plate in the probe forming aperture, combined with a fast pixelated detector to record diffraction patterns at every probe position, and phase reconstruction using ptychography. The phase plate significantly enhances the contrast transfer of low spatial frequency information, and ptychography maximizes the extraction of the phase information at all spatial frequencies. In addition, the STEM probe with the presence of the phase plate retains its atomic resolution, allowing simultaneous incoherent Z-contrast imaging to be obtained along with the ptychographic phase image. An experimental image of Au nanoparticles on a carbon support shows high contrast for both materials. Multislice image simulations of a DNA molecule shows the capability of imaging soft matter at low dose conditions, which implies potential applications of low dose imaging of a wide range of beam sensitive materials. - Highlights: • This work demonstrates a phase contrast imaging method by combining a pre-specimen phase plate with ptychogrpahy. • This method is shown to have a high phase contrast transfer efficiency at both low and high spatial frequencies. • Unlike CTEM which uses a heavy defocus to gain contrast, the phase plate gives a linear phase contrast at zero defocus aberrations. • Image simulations of DNA suggest this method is highly attractive for imaging beam sensitive materials at a low dose.

  1. Comparative scanning electron microscope analysis of diode laser and desensitizing toothpastes for evaluation of efficacy of dentinal tubular occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guntakala Vikram Reddy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study aims to evaluate the efficacy of diode laser alone and in combination with desensitizing toothpastes in occluding dentinal tubules (both partially occluded and completely occluded tubules by scanning electron microscope (SEM. Materials and Methods: Fifty human teeth were extracted, cervical cavities were prepared and etched with 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, and smear layer was removed to expose the tubules. The teeth were divided into five groups: Group I – Application of NovaMin-formulated toothpaste, Group II – Application of Pro-Argin™-formulated toothpaste, Group III – Application of diode laser in noncontact mode, Group IV – NovaMin-formulated toothpaste followed by laser irradiation, and Group V – Pro-Argin™-formulated toothpaste followed by laser irradiation. After treatment, quantitative analysis of occluded dentinal tubules was done by SEM analysis. Results: The mean values of percentages of total occlusion of dentinal tubules in Groups I, II, III, IV, and V were 92.73% ± 1.38, 90.67% ± 1.86, 96.57% ± 0.64, 97.3% ± 0.68, and 96.9% ± 6.08, respectively. Addition of diode laser (Groups III, IV, and V yielded a significant occlusion of the dentinal tubules when compared to desensitizing toothpastes alone (Groups I and II. Conclusion: Diode laser (Group III has shown more efficacy in occluding dentinal tubules when compared with desensitizing toothpastes which was statistically significant (P < 0.05. Among the five groups, NovaMin + diode laser (Group IV showed the highest percentage of occluded dentinal tubules.

  2. Topographic assessment of human enamel surface treated with different topical sodium fluoride agents: Scanning electron microscope consideration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurlal Singh Brar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Continuous balanced demineralization and remineralization are natural dynamic processes in enamel. If the balance is interrupted and demineralization process dominates, it may eventually lead to the development of carious lesions in enamel and dentine. Fluoride helps control decay by enhancing remineralization and altering the structure of the tooth, making the surface less soluble. Methodology: One hundred and twenty sound human permanent incisors randomly and equally distributed into six groups as follows: Group I - Control, II - Sodium fluoride solution, III - Sodium fluoride gel, IV - Sodium fluoride varnish, V - Clinpro Tooth Crème (3M ESPE, and VI-GC Tooth Mousse Plus or MI Paste Plus. The samples were kept in artificial saliva for 12 months, and the topical fluoride agents were applied to the respective sample groups as per the manufacturer instructions. Scanning electron microscope (SEM evaluation of all the samples after 6 and 12 months was made. Results: Morphological changes on the enamel surface after application of fluoride in SEM revealed the presence of globular precipitate in all treated samples. Amorphous, globular, and crystalline structures were seen on the enamel surface of the treated samples. Clear differences were observed between the treated and untreated samples. Conclusion: Globular structures consisting of amorphous CaF2precipitates, which acted as a fluoride reservoir, were observed on the enamel surface after action of different sodium fluoride agents. CPP-ACPF (Tooth Mousse and Tricalcium phosphate with fluoride (Clinpro tooth crème are excellent delivery vehicles available in a slow release amorphous form to localize fluoride at the tooth surface.

  3. Partial ceramic crowns. Influence of preparation design and luting material on margin integrity--a scanning electron microscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federlin, Marianne; Sipos, C; Hiller, K-A; Thonemann, B; Schmalz, G

    2005-03-01

    This in vitro study examines the effects of three preparation designs and different luting agents on the marginal integrity of partial ceramic crowns. One hundred forty-four extracted human molars were prepared according to the following preparation designs: A. Coverage of functional cusps, B. Horizontal reduction of functional cusps and C. Complete reduction of functional cusps. Partial ceramic crowns (Vita Mark II, Cerec 3 System) were bonded to the cavities with: Variolink II/Excite (Vivadent), Panavia F/ED primer (Kuraray), Dyract/Prime and Bond NT (Detrey/Dentsply), and Fuji Plus/GC cavity conditioner (GC). The specimens were exposed to thermocycling and mechanical loading. Marginal adaptation was assessed on replicas using quantitative margin analysis in the scanning electron microscope (SEM). Significant differences were observed between the preparation designs in general. Coverage of functional cusps with preparation of butt joints and use of Variolink as luting material showed a tendency toward the lowest values for compromised adhesion, especially within the dentin. Significant differences could be determined between luting systems: resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) caused fracture of the restorations and revealed higher values than all other luting materials for compromised adhesion at ceramic-luting agent and tooth-luting agent interfaces. The dentin-luting material interface, in general, showed higher percentages of compromised adhesion (38-100%) than enamel- and ceramic-luting material interfaces (0-30%). In conclusion, the SEM data indicate that, with adhesively bonded partial ceramic crowns, retentive preparation is not contraindicated and the choice of luting material is more relevant than the preparation design. Margins below the cemento-enamel junction reveal significant loss of adhesion in spite of adhesive luting techniques. The RMGIC cannot be recommended as a luting material for feldspathic partial ceramic crowns.

  4. Bonding of contemporary glass ionomer cements to different tooth substrates; microshear bond strength and scanning electron microscope study

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Wakeel, Aliaa Mohamed; Elkassas, Dina Wafik; Yousry, Mai Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate the microshear bond strength (μSBS) and ultramorphological characterization of glass ionomer (GI) cements; conventional GI cement (Fuji IX, CGI), resin modified GI (Fuji II LC, RMGI) and nano-ionomer (Ketac N100, NI) to enamel, dentin and cementum substrates. Materials and Methods: Forty-five lower molars were sectioned above the cemento-enamel junction. The occlusal surfaces were ground flat to obtain enamel and dentin substrates, meanwhile the cervical one-third of the root portion were utilized to evaluate the bonding efficacy to cementum substrate. Each substrate received microcylinders from the three tested materials; which were applied according to manufacturer instructions. μSBS was assessed using a universal testing machine. The data were analyzed using two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's post-hoc test. Modes of failure were examined using stereomicroscope at ×25 magnification. Interfacial analysis of the bonded specimens was carried out using environmental field emission scanning electron microscope. Results: Two-way ANOVA revealed that materials, substrates and their interaction had a statistically significant effect on the mean μSBS values at P values; ˂0.0001, 0.0108 and 0.0037 respectively. RMGI showed statistically significant the highest μSBS values to all examined tooth substrates. CGI and RMGI show substrate independent bonding efficiency, meanwhile; NI showed higher μSBS values to dentin and cementum compared to enamel. Conclusion: Despite technological development of GI materials, mainly the nano-particles use, better results have not been achieved for both investigations, when compared to RMGI, independent of tooth substrate. PMID:26038646

  5. Comparative Evaluation of Cleaning Efficacy using Four Novel Nickel-titanium Rotary Instruments: An in vitro Scanning Electron Microscope Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Prem P; Khasnis, Sandhya A; Kidiyoor, Krisnamurthy H

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the cleaning efficacy (debris and smear layer removal) of two multifile rotary systems (MTwo and Silk) and two single-file rotary systems (F6 Skytaper and NeoNiTi). Eighty mesial canals of mandibular first molars were cleaned and shaped using four nickel-titanium (NiTi) rotary instruments to size # 25 and 3% NaOCl and 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). Samples were randomly divided into four equal groups (n = 20) according to instrumentation: Group I, Mtwo; group II, Silk; group III, F6 Skytaper; group IV, NeoNiTi. Samples were split longitudinally and examined under scanning electron microscope (SEM) for debris and smear layer removal in coronal, middle, and apical thirds of each root canal. F6 skytaper and Mtwo groups showed significantly higher debris removal than Silk and NeoNiTi groups in apical third of root canal as well as when compared with NeoNiTi group in middle third. F6 Skytaper group showed significantly higher debris and smear layer removal than Silk group in coronal third. There was statistically significant difference among all thirds of root canal in terms of debris removal in Silk and NeoNiTi groups. There was statistically significant difference among all thirds of root canal in F6 Skytaper and NeoNiTi groups in terms of smear layer removal. F6 Skytaper single-file rotary instrumentation showed the maximum cleaning efficacy followed by Mtwo multifile rotary instrumentation in all thirds of root canal. F6 Skytaper rotary instrument is most efficient followed by Mtwo rotary instrument among all rotary instruments.

  6. Mesothelial lamellar bodies in norm and experimental conditions. Transmission and scanning electron microscopic observations on the peritoneum, pleura and pericardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michailova, K N

    2004-07-01

    The ultrastructural characteristics of the mesothelial intracellular and extracellular lamellar bodies (LB) in norm, and especially in pathological conditions are still unknown. After routine fixation procedure, material from organs in the three serous cavities of Wistar rats, as control group were compared with animals following experimental hemothorax (EH) and experimental peritonitis (EP), using transmission and scanning electron microscopy (TEM, SEM). Different membrane-bound profiles, short strip-like structures and single LB characterize the control group. Five days after EH small groups of LB were observed. Single balloon-like profiles, numerous particles and larger groups of LB with wide varieties in size, form and membrane structure characterize the 8th day after EH. Thin and concentric membranes build single LB the 5th day of EP. Eight days after the same treatment, groups of LB, complex structures with several multilamellar centers, strip-like structures with rough granulo-filamentous material and uninterrupted covering over wide areas were observed. We conclude that constant components in the untreated rats are different membrane profiles, as initial lamellar formations and single typical LB with predominant intracellular position. The preferable sites for exocytosis of LB are the intercellular spaces. The present data demonstrate simultaneous findings of the two main groups of formations by using routine fixation in the control group and in the treated animals. The first represent LB as well as other round profiles, observed by TEM and particles, observed by SEM, which are widespread and probably have a basic role. The second ones are strip-like structures and its SEM-equivalents, i.e. uninterrupted covering. TEM-profiles and their SEM-images show significant organ differences and in some cases lack of correspondence between both electron microscopic techniques in the same treatment. Significant enlargement of the number of LB and the length of the

  7. X-ray microanalysis with transition edge sensors. The future of material analysis with scanning electron microscopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollerith, C.

    2006-07-05

    In current experiments and technical applications the demand for new and advanced concepts for the detection of radiation and particle is increasing. Low temperature detectors such as Transition Edge Sensors (TES) have been developed as ultrahigh-resolution radiation and particle detectors offering advantages in manifold applications. They were designed primarily for astrophysical experiments such as the dark matter search. In material analysis they have been introduced to revolutionize mass spectroscopy of biological molecules and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS). EDS is the determination of the elemental constitution of samples in scanning electron microscopes (SEMs) with characteristic X-ray radiation excited by the electron beam. The use of TES detectors improves the EDS analysis of small volumes such as particles or thin layers. This is especially important for the semiconductor industry because of the continual shrinking of device size. Current structure sizes of 65 nm are already demanding new approaches in analytic methodology. In this thesis the introduction and improvement of a fully automated TES detector system in the industrial environment of a semiconductor failure analysis lab is described. This system, marketed under the trade name of 'Polaris' by the manufacturer, is based on a mechanical pulse tube cooler in combination with an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) for cooling the TES detector to its operating temperature. Several large improvements had to be made to the system during the total system integration. The energy resolution could be improved significantly thus enabling a better peak separation and the measurement of chemical shifts. Due to the small area of TES detectors compared with conventional EDS detectors the efficiency of the system proved to be too low for everyday use. A polycapillary X-ray lens was added to the system in order to solve this problem. The application of the lens, however, brought its

  8. Analytical Formulae for Calculation of X-Ray Detector Solid Angles in the Scanning and Scanning/Transmission Analytical Electron Microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaluzec, Nestor J.

    2014-05-22

    Closed form analytical equations used to calculate the collection solid angle of six common geometries of solid-state X-ray detectors in scanning and scanning/transmission analytical electron microscopy are presented. Using these formulae one can make realistic comparisons of the merits of the different detector geometries in modern electron column instruments. This work updates earlier formulations and adds new detector configurations.

  9. Fish scale deformation analysis using scanning electron microscope: New potential biomarker in aquatic environmental monitoring of aluminum and iron contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hidayati, Dewi; Sulaiman, Norela; Othman, Shuhaimi; Ismail, B. S. [School of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2013-11-27

    Fish scale has the potential to be a rapid biomarker due to its structure and high possibility to come into contact with any pollutant in the aquatic environment. The scale structure consists of osteoblastic cells and other bone materials such as collagen where it is possible to form a molecular complex with heavy metals such as aluminum and iron. Hence, aluminum and iron in water could possibly destroy the scale material and marked as a scale deformation that quantitatively could be analyzed by comparing it to the normal scale structure. Water sampling and fish cage experiment were performed between June and July 2011 in Porong river which represented the water body that has high aluminum and iron contamination. The filtered water samples were preserved and extracted using the acid-mixture procedure prior to measurement of the aluminum and iron concentrations using Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES), while samples for total suspended solid (TSS) analysis were kept at 4 °C in cool-boxes. The scales were cleaned with sterile water, then dehydrated in 30, 50, 70, and 90% ethanol and dried on filter papers. They were then mounted on an aluminum stub and coated with gold in a sputter coater prior to Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) observation. According to the SEM analysis, it was found that there were several deformations on the scale samples taken from sites that have high concentrations of aluminum and iron i.e. the increasing number of pits, deformation and decreasing number of spherules and ridges while the control scale exhibited the normal features. However, the site with higher TSS and pH indicated lower aluminum effect. A moderate correlation was found between the number of pits with aluminum (r=0.43) and iron (r=0.41) concentrations. Fish scale deformation using SEM analysis can potentially be a rapid biomarker in aquatic monitoring of aluminum and iron contamination. However, the measurement must be accompanied by pH and

  10. Surface micromorphological changes of glass ionomer following application of 1.23% acidulated phosphate fluoride: a scanning electron microscope study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosla, Ektah; Kuriakose, Sobha; Suderasen, Chintu

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the surface micromorphological changes of conventional glass ionomer cement (GIC) (Fuji II, GC Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) and high strength, high viscosity GIC (Fuji IX GP, GC Corporation) subjected to 1.23% acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) gel for 4 min. It also evaluated the surface micromorphological changes that occurred in these materials when they were coated with a layer of glass ionomer varnish prior to the application of 1.23% APF gel. A total of 60 uniform glass ionomer cylinders were prepared (30 of each Fuji II and Fuji IX) and stored in distilled water for 48 h, following which they were divided into six groups depending on the surface treatment. Group 1: Fuji II alone, Group 2: Fuji IX alone, Group 3: Fuji II + 1.23% APF gel for 4 min, Group 4: Fuji IX + 1.23% APF gel for 4 min, Group 5: Fuji II + varnish + 1.23% APF gel for 4 min, and Group 6: Fuji IX + varnish + 1.23% APF gel for 4 min. After the required surface treatment had been done, the specimens were mounted, coated, and evaluated under scanning electron microscope. Kruskal-Wallis test applied to compare the level of degradation among the groups subjected to treatment was highly significant (P glass ionomer varnish and level of surface degradation and was also statistically significant (P = 0.001). The results indicated that APF gel etched the surface of both Fuji II and Fuji IX. However, Fuji IX showed to possess better resistance to the erosive effect of APF than Fuji II. It was also observed that application of glass ionomer varnish prior to APF gel application protected the glass ionomer from the erosive effect of APF gel. APF gel caused erosive wear of the GICs esp. Fuji II. Hence, it is advisable to avoid the use of APF containing preparations for regular home use especially in children having glass ionomer restoration. If APF gel is indicated or preferred for professional application, it is recommended to apply glass ionomer varnish on the

  11. The early development of inflorescences and flowers of the oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) seen through the scanning electron microscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heel, van W.A.; Breure, C.J.; Menendez, T.

    1987-01-01

    The development of inflorescences and flowers of the African Oil Palm up to anthesis is illustrated by scanning electron microscopy images. The time of origin relative to the development of the foliage leaves of the basipetalous succession of flowering rachillae is determined, as well as the time of

  12. Scanning electron microscopic assessment of coating irregularities and their precursors in unexpanded durable polymer-based drug-eluting stents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basalus, M.W.; Tandjung, K.; Tandjung, K.; van Westen, T.; Sen, H.; van der Jagt, P.K.N.; Grijpma, Dirk W.; van Apeldoorn, Aart A.; von Birgelen, Clemens

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To assess and quantify coating irregularities on unexpanded and expanded durable polymer-based drug-eluting stents (DES) to gain insights into the origin of coating irregularities. Background: Previous scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies in various expanded DES revealed

  13. Scanning Electron Microscopic Evaluation of the Fractured Surfaces of Canine Calculi from Substrata with Different Surface Free Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Uyen, H. M. W.; Jongebloed, W. L.; Busscher, H. J.

    1991-01-01

    The strength of adhesion between dental calculus and enamel or dentin surfaces determines the ease with which the calculus can be removed by brushing or professional dental treatment. In this study, we examined the adhesion of canine calculi formed on substrata with different surface free energies (sfe) and roughness by means of scanning electron microscopy. In 4 beagle dogs fenestrated crowns were made on the upper fourth premolars. Subsequently, facings of glass (sfe = 120 mJ. m-2), bovine ...

  14. Electron microscope phase enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jian; Glaeser, Robert M.

    2010-06-15

    A microfabricated electron phase shift element is used for modifying the phase characteristics of an electron beam passing though its center aperture, while not affecting the more divergent portion of an incident beam to selectively provide a ninety-degree phase shift to the unscattered beam in the back focal plan of the objective lens, in order to realize Zernike-type, in-focus phase contrast in an electron microscope. One application of the element is to increase the contrast of an electron microscope for viewing weakly scattering samples while in focus. Typical weakly scattering samples include biological samples such as macromolecules, or perhaps cells. Preliminary experimental images demonstrate that these devices do apply a ninety degree phase shift as expected. Electrostatic calculations have been used to determine that fringing fields in the region of the scattered electron beams will cause a negligible phase shift as long as the ratio of electrode length to the transverse feature-size aperture is about 5:1. Calculations are underway to determine the feasibility of aspect smaller aspect ratios of about 3:1 and about 2:1.

  15. In-situ measurements of delamination crack tip behaviour in composite laminates inside a scanning electron microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Isabelle

    Delamination is an important failure mode for composite laminates. As it affects the mechanical response of the structure and is difficult to detect from the surface, this type of damage is of great concern, particularly in the aerospace industry. The topic of delamination growth has received much attention, with Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics (LEFM) being the most common approach to predict the behaviour of a crack from the global applied conditions. However, local perturbations such as resin rich regions, fibre bridging and friction have been noticed by many investigators. Thus global applied loads are often not transposed directly into equivalent local crack tip conditions. Moreover, there is currently considerable controversy about the exact nature of mixed-mode fracture behaviour. Therefore, the objective of this thesis is to measure the load and displacement applied to a specimen and, at the same time, the crack tip behaviour, in order to establish a quantitative relation between them. An experimental loading jig designed to fit inside a scanning electron microscope (SEM) has been developed. Mode I, mode II and mixed-mode loadings can be applied. The applied loads and displacements are measured and the images obtained from the SEM are stored. After the test, the crack opening and shear displacements are calculated from the applied loads and displacements using LEFM, and are compared with those measured from the images. Mode I and mode II tests have been conducted that show good agreement between LEFM predictions and measurements. For a brittle material, the behaviour remains linear elastic up to failure. The comparison of the crack faces displacements with the ones obtained from a finite element analysis are also excellent. The effect of the increase in fracture toughness with mode I crack growth on the local crack tip behaviour has been studied. As the crack grows, the magnitude of the measured crack opening displacement profiles is reduced. The

  16. In-situ integrity control of frozen-hydrated, vitreous lamellas prepared by the cryo-focused ion beam-scanning electron microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Winter, D A Matthijs; Mesman, Rob J; Hayles, Michael F; Schneijdenberg, Chris T W M; Mathisen, Cliff; Post, Jan A

    2013-07-01

    Recently a number of new approaches have been presented with the intention to produce electron beam transparent cryo-sections (lamellas in FIB-SEM terminology) from hydrated vitreously frozen cryo samples with a Focused Ion Beam (FIB) system, suitable for cryo-Transmission Electron Microscopy (cryo-TEM). As the workflow is still challenging and time consuming, it is important to be able to determine the integrity and suitability (cells vs. no cells; vitreous vs. crystalline) of the lamellas. Here we present an in situ method that tests both conditions by using the cryo-Scanning Electron Microscope (cryo-SEM) in transmission mode (TSEM; Transmission Scanning Electron Microscope) once the FIB-made lamella is ready. Cryo-TSEM imaging of unstained cells yields strong contrast, enabling direct imaging of material present in the lamellas. In addition, orientation contrast is shown to be suitable for distinguishing crystalline lamellas from vitreous lamellas. Tilting the stage a few degrees results in changes of contrast between ice grains as a function of the tilt angle, whereas the contrast of areas with vitreous ice remains unchanged as a function of the tilt angle. This orientation contrast has subsequently been validated by cryo-Electron BackScattered Diffraction (EBSD) in transmission mode. Integration of the presented method is discussed and the role it can play in future developments for a new and innovative all-in-one cryo-FIB-SEM life sciences instrument. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Photon scanning tunneling microscope in combination with a force microscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moers, M.H.P.; Moers, M.H.P.; Tack, R.G.; van Hulst, N.F.; Bölger, B.; Bölger, B.

    1994-01-01

    The simultaneous operation of a photon scanning tunneling microscope with an atomic force microscope is presented. The use of standard atomic force silicon nitride cantilevers as near-field optical probes offers the possibility to combine the two methods. Vertical forces and torsion are detected

  18. Deceleration of probe beam by stage bias potential improves resolution of serial block-face scanning electron microscopic images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwer, James C; Deerinck, Thomas J; Bushong, Eric; Astakhov, Vadim; Ramachandra, Ranjan; Peltier, Steven T; Ellisman, Mark H

    2017-01-01

    Serial block-face scanning electron microscopy (SBEM) is quickly becoming an important imaging tool to explore three-dimensional biological structure across spatial scales. At probe-beam-electron energies of 2.0 keV or lower, the axial resolution should improve, because there is less primary electron penetration into the block face. More specifically, at these lower energies, the interaction volume is much smaller, and therefore, surface detail is more highly resolved. However, the backscattered electron yield for metal contrast agents and the backscattered electron detector sensitivity are both sub-optimal at these lower energies, thus negating the gain in axial resolution. We found that the application of a negative voltage (reversal potential) applied to a modified SBEM stage creates a tunable electric field at the sample. This field can be used to decrease the probe-beam-landing energy and, at the same time, alter the trajectory of the signal to increase the signal collected by the detector. With decelerated low landing-energy electrons, we observed that the probe-beam-electron-penetration depth was reduced to less than 30 nm in epoxy-embedded biological specimens. Concurrently, a large increase in recorded signal occurred due to the re-acceleration of BSEs in the bias field towards the objective pole piece where the detector is located. By tuning the bias field, we were able to manipulate the trajectories of the  primary and secondary electrons, enabling the spatial discrimination of these signals using an advanced ring-type BSE detector configuration or a standard monolithic BSE detector coupled with a blocking aperture.

  19. Injection technique and scanning electron microscopic study of the arterial pattern of the 20 gestation days (G20) rat fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, M; Carretero, A; Canut, L; Perez-Aparicio, F J; Cristofol, C; Manesse, M; Sautet, J; Arboix, M; Ruberte, J

    1998-01-01

    A technique to obtain microvascular corrosion casts of the G20 rat fetus and the normal pattern of the main arteries of the G20 rat fetus are described. The casts were studied by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The arterial pattern is similar to that described in the adult; however, several variations have been found. It is concluded that the use of vascular corrosion casts studied by SEM may be particularly helpful to observe the extremely small arteries of rat fetuses. Moreover, we suggest that this technique may be useful in practical teratological studies.

  20. A SCANNING AND TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPE STUDY OF ANTIGEN-BINDING SITES ON ROSETTE-FORMING CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudat, Fred G.; Villiger, W.

    1973-01-01

    The ultrastructure of binding sites in rosette-forming cells of mice after immunization with sheep red cells was studied by means of scanning and transmission electron microscopy. It was found that the red cells were bound to the lymphocyte surface in circumscribed, immunoglobulin-containing areas, consistent with a spotlike or patchy distribution of antigen-binding immunoglobulin receptors. In these contact areas the cell membranes formed a gap of 80 Å (range 75–90 Å) which exhibited electron-opaque bridges at high magnification. These results are discussed in the light of the recent recognition of the formation of immunoglobulin spots on the lymphocyte surface after antigen contact. Morphological details suggest that the same mechanism is operating in rosette formation, possibly including the movement of the contact areas on the lymphocyte membrane. PMID:4685705

  1. Scanning Transmission Electron microscope Studies of Deep-Frozen Unfixed Muscle Correlated with Spatial Localization of Intracellular Elements by Fluorescent X-Ray Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacaner, Marvin; Broadhurst, John; Hutchinson, Thomas; Lilley, John

    1973-01-01

    Thin sections of deep-frozen unfixed muscle were studied in a scanning electron microscope modified for transmission imaging and equipped with a “cryostage” for vacuum compatibility of hydrated tissue. With an energy-dispersive x-ray analysis system, intracellular atomic species in the scan beam path were identified by their fluorescent x-rays and spatially localized in correlation with the electron optical image of the microstructure. Marked differences are noted between the ultrastructure of deep-frozen hydrated muscle and that of fixed dehydrated muscle. In frozen muscle, myofibrils appear to be composed of previously undescribed longitudinal structures between 400-1000 Å wide (“macromyofilaments”). The usual myofilaments, mitochondria, and sarcoplasmic reticulum were not seen unless the tissue was “fixed” before examination. Fluorescent x-ray analysis of the spatial location of constituent elements clearly identified all elements heavier than Na. Intracellular Cl was relatively higher than expected. Images PMID:4587251

  2. Using an Electron Scanning Microscope to Assess the Penetrating Abilities of an Experimental Preparation with Features of a Dental Infiltrant: Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skucha-Nowak, Małgorzata; Mertas, Anna; Tanasiewicz, Marta

    2016-01-01

    The resin infiltration technique is one of the micro-invasive methods whose aim is the penetration of demineralized enamel with a low viscosity resin. This technique allows the dentist to avoid the application of mechanical means of treatment. The objective of this preliminary study was to attempt to determine the possibilities of using an electron microscope to assess the penetrating abilities of an experimental preparation with features of a dental infiltrant and to compare the depth of infiltration of the designed experimental preparation with an infiltrant available on the market. A bioactive methacrylate monomer based on PMMAn with built-in metronidazole was synthesized. The commercially available Icon solution (with contrast agent YbF3) and the experimental solution were applied to the relevant parts of teeth. The dissected sections along the long tooth axis and polished surfaces were then examined with use of an electron scanning microscope. The backscattered electron technique gives much better results than the secondary electron method as it makes it possible to localize even very small YbF3 particles. The authors concluded that the backscattered electron technique gives much better results than the secondary electron method as it makes it possible to localize even very small particles of the contrast agent. In order to prevent blockage of decalcified enamel tissue by ytterbium trifluoride (YbF3) grains, a nanoparticle form of that compound should be used (that is, particles with sizes in the range of 10-9 m).

  3. A versatile LabVIEW and field-programmable gate array-based scanning probe microscope for in operando electronic device characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Andrew J; Page, Michael R; Jacob, Jan; Young, Justin R; Lewis, Jim; Wenzel, Lothar; Bhallamudi, Vidya P; Johnston-Halperin, Ezekiel; Pelekhov, Denis V; Hammel, P Chris

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the complex properties of electronic and spintronic devices at the micro- and nano-scale is a topic of intense current interest as it becomes increasingly important for scientific progress and technological applications. In operando characterization of such devices by scanning probe techniques is particularly well-suited for the microscopic study of these properties. We have developed a scanning probe microscope (SPM) which is capable of both standard force imaging (atomic, magnetic, electrostatic) and simultaneous electrical transport measurements. We utilize flexible and inexpensive FPGA (field-programmable gate array) hardware and a custom software framework developed in National Instrument's LabVIEW environment to perform the various aspects of microscope operation and device measurement. The FPGA-based approach enables sensitive, real-time cantilever frequency-shift detection. Using this system, we demonstrate electrostatic force microscopy of an electrically biased graphene field-effect transistor device. The combination of SPM and electrical transport also enables imaging of the transport response to a localized perturbation provided by the scanned cantilever tip. Facilitated by the broad presence of LabVIEW in the experimental sciences and the openness of our software solution, our system permits a wide variety of combined scanning and transport measurements by providing standardized interfaces and flexible access to all aspects of a measurement (input and output signals, and processed data). Our system also enables precise control of timing (synchronization of scanning and transport operations) and implementation of sophisticated feedback protocols, and thus should be broadly interesting and useful to practitioners in the field.

  4. A versatile LabVIEW and field-programmable gate array-based scanning probe microscope for in operando electronic device characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, Andrew J., E-mail: berger.156@osu.edu; Page, Michael R.; Young, Justin R.; Bhallamudi, Vidya P.; Johnston-Halperin, Ezekiel; Pelekhov, Denis V.; Hammel, P. Chris [Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Jacob, Jan [Werum Software and Systems CIS AG, Wulf-Werum-Straße 3, 21337 Lüneburg (Germany); Lewis, Jim; Wenzel, Lothar [National Instruments, Austin, Texas 78759 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Understanding the complex properties of electronic and spintronic devices at the micro- and nano-scale is a topic of intense current interest as it becomes increasingly important for scientific progress and technological applications. In operando characterization of such devices by scanning probe techniques is particularly well-suited for the microscopic study of these properties. We have developed a scanning probe microscope (SPM) which is capable of both standard force imaging (atomic, magnetic, electrostatic) and simultaneous electrical transport measurements. We utilize flexible and inexpensive FPGA (field-programmable gate array) hardware and a custom software framework developed in National Instrument's LabVIEW environment to perform the various aspects of microscope operation and device measurement. The FPGA-based approach enables sensitive, real-time cantilever frequency-shift detection. Using this system, we demonstrate electrostatic force microscopy of an electrically biased graphene field-effect transistor device. The combination of SPM and electrical transport also enables imaging of the transport response to a localized perturbation provided by the scanned cantilever tip. Facilitated by the broad presence of LabVIEW in the experimental sciences and the openness of our software solution, our system permits a wide variety of combined scanning and transport measurements by providing standardized interfaces and flexible access to all aspects of a measurement (input and output signals, and processed data). Our system also enables precise control of timing (synchronization of scanning and transport operations) and implementation of sophisticated feedback protocols, and thus should be broadly interesting and useful to practitioners in the field.

  5. A versatile LabVIEW and field-programmable gate array-based scanning probe microscope for in operando electronic device characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Andrew J.; Page, Michael R.; Jacob, Jan; Young, Justin R.; Lewis, Jim; Wenzel, Lothar; Bhallamudi, Vidya P.; Johnston-Halperin, Ezekiel; Pelekhov, Denis V.; Hammel, P. Chris

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the complex properties of electronic and spintronic devices at the micro- and nano-scale is a topic of intense current interest as it becomes increasingly important for scientific progress and technological applications. In operando characterization of such devices by scanning probe techniques is particularly well-suited for the microscopic study of these properties. We have developed a scanning probe microscope (SPM) which is capable of both standard force imaging (atomic, magnetic, electrostatic) and simultaneous electrical transport measurements. We utilize flexible and inexpensive FPGA (field-programmable gate array) hardware and a custom software framework developed in National Instrument's LabVIEW environment to perform the various aspects of microscope operation and device measurement. The FPGA-based approach enables sensitive, real-time cantilever frequency-shift detection. Using this system, we demonstrate electrostatic force microscopy of an electrically biased graphene field-effect transistor device. The combination of SPM and electrical transport also enables imaging of the transport response to a localized perturbation provided by the scanned cantilever tip. Facilitated by the broad presence of LabVIEW in the experimental sciences and the openness of our software solution, our system permits a wide variety of combined scanning and transport measurements by providing standardized interfaces and flexible access to all aspects of a measurement (input and output signals, and processed data). Our system also enables precise control of timing (synchronization of scanning and transport operations) and implementation of sophisticated feedback protocols, and thus should be broadly interesting and useful to practitioners in the field.

  6. Nano-scale luminescence characterization of individual InGaN/GaN quantum wells stacked in a microcavity using scanning transmission electron microscope cathodoluminescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Gordon, E-mail: Gordon.Schmidt@ovgu.de; Müller, Marcus; Veit, Peter; Bertram, Frank; Christen, Jürgen [Institute of Experimental Physics, Otto-von-Guericke-University Magdeburg, 39106 Magdeburg (Germany); Glauser, Marlene; Carlin, Jean-François; Cosendey, Gatien; Butté, Raphaël; Grandjean, Nicolas [Institute of Condensed Matter Physics, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2014-07-21

    Using cathodoluminescence spectroscopy directly performed in a scanning transmission electron microscope at liquid helium temperatures, the optical and structural properties of a 62 InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well embedded in an AlInN/GaN based microcavity are investigated at the nanometer scale. We are able to spatially resolve a spectral redshift between the individual quantum wells towards the surface. Cathodoluminescence spectral linescans allow directly visualizing the critical layer thickness in the quantum well stack resulting in the onset of plastic relaxation of the strained InGaN/GaN system.

  7. Morphology of the adult male and pupal exuviae of Glyptotendipes (Glyptotendipes) glaucus (Meigen 1818) (Diptera, Chironomidae) using scanning electron microscope (SEM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kownacki, Andrzej; Woznicka, Olga; Szarek-Gwiazda, Ewa; Michailova, Paraskeva; Czaplicka, Anna

    2017-02-27

    In this paper, a study of the morphology of the pupa and male imago of Glyptotendipes (G.) glaucus (Meigen 1818) was carried out, with the aid of a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The SEM provided additional valuable information on the morphology of the species. Adult male head, antenna, wing, leg, abdomen, hypopygium, pupal cephalothorax and abdomen were examined. It is emphasized that SEM was not often used in Chironomidae studies. The present results confirm SEM as a suitable approach in carrying out morphological and taxonomical descriptions of Chironomidae species.

  8. Study of the painting methods of mural paintings in ancient tombs of Goguryeo using scanning electron microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kyeongsoon; Lee, Sangjin; Lee, Hwasoo

    2013-08-01

    Disputes on the painting methods of Goguryeo murals can mainly be categorized into whether the murals adapted eastern secco or western fresco; however, the murals have their own unique methods as well. There are different viewpoints among experts on interpreting the painting methods. This study involved the creation of research samples to discover the painting methods under dispute and may help discover the methods based on scanning electron microscopy energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) studies. Goguryeo murals introduced pseudo-fresco rather than buon fresco methods. Unlike fresco techniques in the West, Goguryeo painters mixed traditional soft binders and adapted typical secco painting techniques for paintings, borders, and corrections after drying. The disputed issues may be resolved by these techniques, and samples may be produced based on the analyzed data. Therefore, many questions can finally be answered through SEM-EDX elemental mapping.

  9. Scanning tunneling microscope spectroscopy of polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zypman, Fredy R

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents theoretical results on the relationship between density of states (DOS) and scanning tunneling microscope current-voltage curves in polymers. We considered samples of linear hydrocarbons electrically grounded at one of their extremes. The other extreme is electrically connected to the microscope tip via electron tunneling through vacuum. When a voltage, V, is applied to the tip, electric current, I, flows in the tip-sample circuit. This current varies as the voltage varies and depends on the DOS to the extent that no current would flow if no electron states exist at a certain energy (or voltage). The detailed relationship between DOS and the current-voltage (I-V) curve is not known a priori. We solve the corresponding quantum problem in the context of tight binding and find that I-V reproduces accurately the resonant energy peaks of the DOS. We apply the results to 100 atom-long alkane and alkene chains and found that there is a significant voltage shift in the corresponding curves as to discriminate one structure from the other.

  10. Scanning laser microscope for biological investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidovits, P; Egger, M D

    1971-07-01

    The theory and design of a special purpose scanning laser microscope are described. This microscope, particularly suited for biological investigations, is intended for the observation of objects embedded within transparent or translucent bodies, such as nerve cells in an intact brain. Some photographs made with a prototype are shown.

  11. Transmission electron microscope CCD camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, Kenneth H.

    1999-01-01

    In order to improve the performance of a CCD camera on a high voltage electron microscope, an electron decelerator is inserted between the microscope column and the CCD. This arrangement optimizes the interaction of the electron beam with the scintillator of the CCD camera while retaining optimization of the microscope optics and of the interaction of the beam with the specimen. Changing the electron beam energy between the specimen and camera allows both to be optimized.

  12. The influence of diet and dimethylhydrazine on the large intestine of vervet monkeys: scanning and transmission electron microscope studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaskiewicz, K.; Kritchevsky, D.; Venter, F. S.; van Wyk, W. E.

    1987-01-01

    The study was designed to identify diet and carcinogen-dependent ultrastructural changes in the epithelium of macroscopically normal colonic mucosa in primates. Seventy adult female vervet monkeys were divided into seven equal treatment groups. Four received a Western high-fat low fibre diet (WD), two a prudent low-fat higher fibre diet (PD) and one a control low-fat high fibre diet (CD). Three groups (2 WD, 1 PD) received dimethylhydrazine intramuscularly at 14 day intervals. After 18 months, monkeys of two groups on the WD were transferred to the PD (WD----PD) and 30 months later all were killed. Mucosae of caecum, colon transversum and rectum were examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy and showed close similarity to that of humans. Rectal mucosae showed increased surface goblet cell secretory activity, mucin production and microvillar changes related to WD and WD----PD. The enhancing effect of a carcinogen on ultrastructural changes such as cellular pleomorphism, cytoplasmic interbridging, nuclear and nucleolar irregularities and appearance of argentaffin cells in the free surface epithelium were noted predominantly in high-fat treated animals. Such changes observed in the upper part of crypt, orifice and free surface epithelium can be characteristic for precancerous change and could be utilised practically in the detection of precursor lesions of the colon. Images Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Figs. 11 & 12 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Figs. 13 & 14 PMID:3620336

  13. Comparative evaluation of canal cleaning ability of various rotary endodontic filesin apical third: A scanning electron microscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, Ganesh Ranganath; Mittal, Priya; Kulkarni, Anish; Syed, Shibli; Bagul, Ravikiran; Elahi, Saina; Kalra, Dheeraj

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the canal cleaning ability of three novel endodontic rotary instruments and compare with ProTaper files as a control in apical third of root canals under scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Eighty freshly extracted mandibular premolars were selected according to inclusion criteria. Buccal cusp tips were ground to ensure having a flat coronal reference point with a total tooth length of 16 mm for all samples. Teeth were divided equally into four groups: Group I (ProTaper group), Group II (ProTaper next group), Group III (variable taper group), and Group IV (self-adjusting file [SAF] group). Using SEM, the dentinal surfaces were observed and rated at apical thirds with a magnification of ×1000 for the presence/absence of smear layer and debris. Descriptive analysis was performed, and analysis of variance with Bonferroni post hoc test was carried out for comparison between the groups, at a significance level of 0.05. There was statistically significant difference between Group II and Group IV for debris (P = 0.047) and smear layer (P = 0.037). In apical third of root canal, SAF showed statistically significant canal cleaning ability due to combined effect of continuous streaming irrigation with effectively replacing the irrigant from the apical portion of the root canal, irrigants activation through the creation of turbulence, and its self-adapting design to root canal anatomy with a scrubbing motion on the canal walls.

  14. First evidence of putrescine involvement in mitigating the floral malformation in mangoes: a scanning electron microscope study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Archana; Ansari, Mohammad W; Rani, Varsha; Singh, C P; Shukla, Alok; Pant, Ramesh C; Tuteja, Narendra; Bains, Gurdeep

    2014-09-01

    Floral malformation is the most destructive disease in mangoes. To date, the etiology of this disease has not been resolved. There are indications that stress-stimulated ethylene production might be responsible for the disease. Putrescine mediates various physiological processes for normal functioning and cellular metabolism. Here, the effect of putrescine in concentration ranging from 10(-1) to 10(-3) M was evaluated on disease incidence during mango flowering seasons of 2012 and 2013. In a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) study, putrescine (10(-2) M)-treated malformed floral buds bloomed into opened flowers with separated sepals and/or petals like healthy, whereas the untreated (control) malformed buds remained deformed. Further, malformed flowers recovered upon putrescine treatment, displaying clearly bilobed anthers, enclosing a large number of normal pollen grains and functional ovary with broad stigmatic surface as compared to control. The present findings provide the first report to demonstrate the role of putrescine in reducing various adverse effects of stress ethylene via decelerating the higher pace of its biosynthesis. It stabilizes the normal morphology, development, and functions of malformed reproductive organs to facilitate successful pollination, fertilization, and, thereby, fruit set in mango flowers. However, putrescine-ethylene-mediated cell signaling network, involving various genes to trigger the response, which regulates a wide range of developmental and physiological processes leading to normal cell physiology, needs to be investigated further.

  15. Scanning electron microscope evaluation of chlorhexidine gel and liquid associated with sodium hypochlorite cleaning on the root canal walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valera, Marcia Carneiro; Chung, Adriana; Menezes, Márcia Maciel; Fernandes, Carlos Eduardo Fernandes; Carvalho, Cláudio Antonio Talge; Camargo, Samira Esteves Afonso; Camargo, Carlos Henrique Ribeiro

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate, by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), the cleaning of the root canal walls after instrumentation and irrigation with 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) associated with 2% chlorhexidine (CHX) gel or liquid, combined or not with 17% ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA). Sixty single-root human teeth were subjected to standardized root canal instrumentation with different irrigants (n = 10): G1) NaOCl + CHX liquid; G2) NaOCl + CHX liquid + EDTA + saline solution; G3) NaOCl + CHX gel; G4) NaOCl + CHX gel + EDTA + saline solution; G5) saline solution; G6) saline solution + EDTA. After instrumentation, the teeth were prepared for SEM analysis (×500 and ×2,000) to evaluate the cleaning of the cervical, middle, and apical thirds. The area analyzed was quantified according to the percentage of open and closed tubules, and data were statistically analyzed by analysis of variance and Tukey tests (P = .05). The number of open tubules was highest in G4 in all root thirds, showing statistically significant difference from G1, G2, and G5 (P < .05). G1 presented higher quantity of closed tubules significant than G2. Irrigation with NaOCl and CHX gel followed by EDTA and saline solution produced greater cleaning of the root canal walls. Copyright © 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Scanning electron microscopic study of the tongue in golden-headed lion tamarins, Leontopithecus chrysomelas (Callithrichidae: Primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique de F. Burity

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Leontopithecus is the largest genus of Callithrichidae, occupying isolated remnants of the Atlantic Forest in Brazil. The objective of this study was to investigate the ultrastructure of the dorsum of the tongue of golden-headed lion tamarins. Tongues of ten adult lion tamarins kept in captivity at the Center of Primatology of Rio de Janeiro (CPRJ-FEEMA were analyzed under scanning electron microscopy. The three vallate papillae were distributed in a V shape, and each papilla was surrounded by a deep sulcus and an external pad; the medial papilla showed a round shape and the lateral one was elliptical. The filiform papillae were shaped as a crown or as finger-like papillae, and were distributed throughout the tongue, including the margins, except for the posterior region. The fungiform papillae were scattered among the filiform papillae, in a disperse manner, from the apex to the lateral vallate papillae. The foliate papillae had a typical ultrastructure, with folds that ranged in number from 1 to 3. With respect to vallate papillae, we identified the microridge and pore pattern on its surface. Further studies are required to confirm the hypotheses on the ultrastructural aspects described for golden-headed lion tamarins.

  17. A Miniaturized Variable Pressure Scanning Electron Microscope (MVP-SEM) for the Surface of Mars: An Instrument for the Planetary Science Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunson, J.; Gaskin, J. A.; Danilatos, G.; Doloboff, I. J.; Effinger, M. R.; Harvey, R. P.; Jerman, G. A.; Klein-Schoder, R.; Mackie, W.; Magera, B.; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Miniaturized Variable Pressure Scanning Electron Microscope(MVP-SEM) project, funded by the NASA Planetary Instrument Concepts for the Advancement of Solar System Observations (PICASSO) Research Opportunities in Space and Earth Science (ROSES), will build upon previous miniaturized SEM designs for lunar and International Space Station (ISS) applications and recent advancements in variable pressure SEM's to design and build a SEM to complete analyses of samples on the surface of Mars using the atmosphere as an imaging medium. By the end of the PICASSO work, a prototype of the primary proof-of-concept components (i.e., the electron gun, focusing optics and scanning system)will be assembled and preliminary testing in a Mars analog chamber at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory will be completed to partially fulfill Technology Readiness Level to 5 requirements for those components. The team plans to have Secondary Electron Imaging(SEI), Backscattered Electron (BSE) detection, and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) capabilities through the MVP-SEM.

  18. About the contrast of δ' precipitates in bulk Al-Cu-Li alloys in reflection mode with a field-emission scanning electron microscope at low accelerating voltage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodusch, Nicolas; Voisard, Frédéric; Gauvin, Raynald

    2017-11-01

    Characterising the impact of lithium additions in the precipitation sequence in Al-Li-Cu alloys is important to control the strengthening of the final material. Since now, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) at high beam voltage has been the technique of choice to monitor the size and spatial distribution of δ' precipitates (Al3 Li). Here we report on the imaging of the δ' phase in such alloys using backscattered electrons (BSE) and low accelerating voltage in a high-resolution field-emission scanning electron microscope. By applying low-energy Ar+ ion milling to the surface after mechanical polishing (MP), the MP-induced corroded layers were efficiently removed and permitted the δ's to be visible with a limited impact on the observed microstructure. The resulting BSE contrast between the δ's and the Al matrix was compared with that obtained using Monte Carlo modelling. The artefacts possibly resulting from the sample preparation procedure were reviewed and discussed and permitted to confirm that these precipitates were effectively the metastable δ's. The method described in this report necessitates less intensive sample preparation than that required for TEM and provides a much larger field of view and an easily interpretable contrast compared to the transmission techniques. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2017 Royal Microscopical Society.

  19. DNA synthesis and scanning electron microscopic lesions in renal pelvic epithelium of rats treated with bladder cancer promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, M A; Asakawa, E; Hagiwara, A; Kurata, Y; Fukushima, S

    1991-03-01

    The proliferation response of rat renal pelvic epithelium, lined by transitional epithelium, to administration of various bladder cancer promoters was investigated. In addition, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), lipid peroxide (LPO), malondialdehyde (MDA) and cyclic adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate (cyclic AMP) levels were assessed in urine of rats given the non-promoter L-ascorbic acid (AsA) and the promoters sodium L-ascorbate (AsA-Na) or sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) for 4 or 8 weeks. DNA synthesis in the renal pelvic epithelium, as assessed by 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation, was increased in the groups given AsA-Na, an extremely high dose of sodium chloride (NaCl), tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) or ethoxyquin (EQ). Moreover, with the exception of AsA-Na, all treatments that induced an elevation of DNA synthesis also caused morphological epithelial alterations as observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Treatment with butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) did not result in any proliferative response of the rat renal pelvis. No treatment-related changes in urinary PGE2 and cyclic AMP were noted, although AsA-Na and AsA but not NaHCO3 reduced levels of LPO and MDA in the urine. The results indicate that while the response of renal pelvic epithelium to certain bladder cancer promoters is similar to that of the bladder itself, none of the urinary cellular growth or free radical biochemical parameters is directly related to urothelial cell proliferation.

  20. A scanning electron microscope study on the route of entry of clorsulon into the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meaney, M; Haughey, S; Brennan, G P; Fairweather, I

    2005-01-01

    Three experiments were carried out in vitro to determine the roles of the tegument and gut of Fasciola hepatica in the uptake of the flukicidal drug, clorsulon. Changes to the two surfaces were assessed by scanning electron microscopy. In the first experiment, the flukes were ligatured to prevent the oral ingestion of drug and treated for 24 h in clorsulon (10 microg/ml). The gastrodermal surface remained normal and few changes to the tegumental surface were observed. In the second experiment, flukes were fed for 24 h on red blood cells isolated from rats dosed with clorsulon at 12.5 mg/kg body weight; this experiment was designed to prevent the exposure of the tegumental surface to the drug. The gastrodermal surface was severely disrupted and the gut lamellae were disorganised and necrotic. Swelling of the tegument and blebbing on the tegumental surface were evident, but the changes were not severe. More severe swelling of the tegument was observed in the third experiment, in which flukes were incubated for 24 h in clorsulon (10 microg/ml), with both absorptive surfaces being available for drug uptake. The gastrodermal surface was badly disrupted and the gut lamellae were disorganised and necrotic. Taking the results of the three experiments together, the gastrodermal surface was more affected than the tegument and the greatest disruption to the two surfaces was seen when both routes of entry were available to the fluke. The data support a previous study which indicated that entry of clorsulon into the fluke in vivo is principally by the oral ingestion of drug bound to the red blood cells.

  1. Effect of the Femtosecond Laser on an Intracorneal Inlay for Surgical Compensation of Presbyopia during Cataract Surgery: Scanning Electron Microscope Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarz, Marta; Rodríguez-Prats, Jose Luis; Hernández-Verdejo, Jose Luis; Tañá, Pedro

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the effect of the femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery (FLACS) on porcine eyes implanted with a Kamra corneal inlay and to describe how the inlay may change the effect of the femtosecond laser on the lens. FLACS was performed on six porcine eyes and a Kamra corneal inlay had been implanted, exploring the lens under the surgical microscope. Another Kamra corneal inlay was attached to the upper part of the transparent hemisphere used for calibration of the femtosecond laser. Capsulorhexis, arcuate incisions, and phacofragmentation were carried out. The Kamra corneal inlay was compared with a nontreated one using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), and the hemisphere was analyzed with a surgical microscope. Capsulorhexis and phacofragmentation were completed in all the porcine eyes, although accuracy to determine the exact effect on the lens was not possible to achieve. The effect of the femtosecond laser on the PMMA hemisphere through the Kamra corneal inlay showed the capsulorhexis was placed outside the outer margin of the inlay and a sharply sculpted fragmentation pattern with a three-dimensional (donut-shaped) annulus untreated beneath it. SEM images of the nontreated and the treated inlays were comparable. No ultrastructural changes were found in the treated Kamra corneal inlay. FLACS can be performed with a Kamra corneal inlay for surgical compensation of presbyopia without the risk of damaging the inlay. The Kamra corneal inlay acts as a screen that avoids the laser to reach the areas beneath its shadow, but not the exposed areas of the lens.

  2. Scanning tunneling microscope assembly, reactor, and system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Feng; Salmeron, Miquel; Somorjai, Gabor A

    2014-11-18

    An embodiment of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) reactor includes a pressure vessel, an STM assembly, and three spring coupling objects. The pressure vessel includes a sealable port, an interior, and an exterior. An embodiment of an STM system includes a vacuum chamber, an STM reactor, and three springs. The three springs couple the STM reactor to the vacuum chamber and are operable to suspend the scanning tunneling microscope reactor within the interior of the vacuum chamber during operation of the STM reactor. An embodiment of an STM assembly includes a coarse displacement arrangement, a piezoelectric fine displacement scanning tube coupled to the coarse displacement arrangement, and a receiver. The piezoelectric fine displacement scanning tube is coupled to the coarse displacement arrangement. The receiver is coupled to the piezoelectric scanning tube and is operable to receive a tip holder, and the tip holder is operable to receive a tip.

  3. Contribution of a new generation field-emission scanning electron microscope in the understanding of a 2099 Al-Li alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodusch, Nicolas; Trudeau, Michel; Michaud, Pierre; Rodrigue, Lisa; Boselli, Julien; Gauvin, Raynald

    2012-12-01

    Aluminum-lithium alloys are widespread in the aerospace industry. The new 2099 and 2199 alloys provide improved properties, but their microstructure and texture are not well known. This article describes how state-of-the-art field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) can contribute to the characterization of the 2099 aluminum-lithium alloy and metallic alloys in general. Investigations were carried out on bulk and thinned samples. Backscattered electron imaging at 3 kV and scanning transmission electron microscope imaging at 30 kV along with highly efficient microanalysis permitted correlation of experimental and expected structures. Although our results confirm previous studies, this work points out possible substitutions of Mg and Zn with Li, Al, and Cu in the T1 precipitates. Zinc and magnesium are also present in "rice grain"-shaped precipitates at the grain boundaries. The versatility of the FE-SEM is highlighted as it provides information in the macro- and microscales with relevant details. Its ability to probe the distribution of precipitates from nano- to microsizes throughout the matrix makes FE-SEM an essential technique for the characterization of metallic alloys.

  4. Resolução lamelar num novo microscópio eletrônico de varredura Lamellar resolution in a new scanning electron microscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Jürgen Kestenbach

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: Trabalhando com elétrons de baixa energia (na faixa de 1keV, o novo microscópio eletrônico de varredura dispensa a etapa de metalização e permite a observação direta da estrutura lamelar de polímeros semicristalinos, sem a necessidade de preparação de amostras. São apresentados exemplos da morfologia lamelar do PVDF em função das condições de processamento e da temperatura de cristalização, em filmes contendo as fases a, b e g. Um outro exemplo revela o crescimento inicial da camada transcristalina que se formou ao longo de uma fibra de polietileno de ultra-alto peso molecular embutida em matriz de polietileno de alta densidade.ABSTRACT: Working with low energy electrons (in the range of 1keV, the new scanning electron microscope permits the lamellar (supermolecular structure of semicrystalline polymers to be observed directly without the need of specimen coating or of any other sample preparation technique. Microscope performance is demonstrated by several examples of high resolution micrographs which show spherulitic, lamellar and fibrilar morphologies developed by the a, b and g phases of PVDF as a function of processing conditions and crystallization temperature. Another example reveals the early stages of transcrystalline layer formation in HDPE reinforced by UHMWPE fibers.

  5. Environmental, scanning electron and optical microscope image analysis software for determining volume and occupied area of solid-state fermentation fungal cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osma, Johann F; Toca-Herrera, José L; Rodríguez-Couto, Susana

    2011-01-01

    Here we propose a software for the estimation of the occupied area and volume of fungal cultures. This software was developed using a Matlab platform and allows analysis of high-definition images from optical, electronic or atomic force microscopes. In a first step, a single hypha grown on potato dextrose agar was monitored using optical microscopy to estimate the change in occupied area and volume. Weight measurements were carried out to compare them with the estimated volume, revealing a slight difference of less than 1.5%. Similarly, samples from two different solid-state fermentation cultures were analyzed using images from a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and an environmental SEM (ESEM). Occupied area and volume were calculated for both samples, and the results obtained were correlated with the dry weight of the cultures. The difference between the estimated volume ratio and the dry weight ratio of the two cultures showed a difference of 10%. Therefore, this software is a promising non-invasive technique to determine fungal biomass in solid-state cultures.

  6. A Scanning Quantum Cryogenic Atom Microscope

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Fan; Taylor, Stephen F; Turner, Richard W; Lev, Benjamin L

    2016-01-01

    Microscopic imaging of local magnetic fields provides a window into the organizing principles of complex and technologically relevant condensed matter materials. However, a wide variety of intriguing strongly correlated and topologically nontrivial materials exhibit poorly understood phenomena outside the detection capability of state-of-the-art high-sensitivity, high-resolution scanning probe magnetometers. We introduce a quantum-noise-limited scanning probe magnetometer that can operate from room-to-cryogenic temperatures with unprecedented DC-field sensitivity and micron-scale resolution. The Scanning Quantum Cryogenic Atom Microscope (SQCRAMscope) employs a magnetically levitated atomic Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), thereby providing immunity to conductive and blackbody radiative heating. The SQCRAMscope has a noise floor of 300 pT and provides a 100x improvement in magnetic flux sensitivity over previous atomic scanning probe magnetometers. These capabilities are carefully benchmarked by imaging magnet...

  7. Larva of Glyptotendipes (Glyptotendipes) glaucus (Meigen 1818) (Chironomidae, Diptera)-morphology by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), karyotype, and biology in laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kownacki, Andrzej; Woznicka, Olga; Szarek-Gwiazda, Ewa; Michailova, Paraskeva

    2016-09-21

    Larvae belonging to the family Chironomidae are difficult to identify. The aim of the present study was to describe the larval morphology of G. (G.) glaucus with the aid of a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), the karyotype and biology based on materials obtained from laboratory culture. Describing the morphology of larvae, special attention was paid to rarely or never described structures like the maxilla (lacinia and maxillary palp), the long plate situated below the ventromental plate, and plate X situated between lacinia and mentum. The use of SEM allowed also to obtain better images of labrum and ventromental plate. Morphological features of this species have been supplemented by karyotype and biology of larvae in laboratory conditions. Under controlled experimental conditions we found non-synchronous development of G. (G.) glaucus larvae hatched from one egg mass reflected in different lengths of larvae and emerged imagoes.

  8. Retracted: Evaluation of the incidence of microcracks caused by Mtwo and ProTaper NEXT rotary file systems versus the Self Adjusting File: A scanning electron microscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, S G; Vijaywargiya, N; Dubey, S; Saxena, D; Kala, S

    2015-11-24

    The following article from International Endodontic Journal, 'Evaluation of the incidence of microcracks caused by Mtwo and ProTaper NEXT rotary file systems versus the Self Adjusting File: a scanning electron microscopic study' by S. G. Saha, N. Vijaywargiya, S. Dubey, D. Saxena & S. Kala, published online on 24 November 2015 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary. com), has been retracted by agreement between the authors, the journal Editor in Chief, Prof. Paul Dummer, and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. The retraction has been agreed due to the consideration that the SEM methodology used by the authors has the potential to cause cracks and is thus is not suitable for the evaluation of micro-cracks in roots. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. Argon broad ion beam tomography in a cryogenic scanning electron microscope: a novel tool for the investigation of representative microstructures in sedimentary rocks containing pore fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desbois, G; Urai, J L; Pérez-Willard, F; Radi, Z; Offern, S; Burkart, I; Kukla, P A; Wollenberg, U

    2013-03-01

    The contribution describes the implementation of a broad ion beam (BIB) polisher into a scanning electron microscope (SEM) functioning at cryogenic temperature (cryo). The whole system (BIB-cryo-SEM) provides a first generation of a novel multibeam electron microscope that combines broad ion beam with cryogenic facilities in a conventional SEM to produce large, high-quality cross-sections (up to 2 mm(2)) at cryogenic temperature to be imaged at the state-of-the-art SEM resolution. Cryogenic method allows detecting fluids in their natural environment and preserves samples against desiccation and dehydration, which may damage natural microstructures. The investigation of microstructures in the third dimension is enabled by serial cross-sectioning, providing broad ion beam tomography with slices down to 350 nm thick. The functionalities of the BIB-cryo-SEM are demonstrated by the investigation of rock salts (synthetic coarse-grained sodium chloride synthesized from halite-brine mush cold pressed at 150 MPa and 4.5 GPa, and natural rock salt mylonite from a salt glacier at Qom Kuh, central Iran). In addition, results from BIB-cryo-SEM on a gas shale and Boom Clay are also presented to show that the instrument is suitable for a large range of sedimentary rocks. For the first time, pore and grain fabrics of preserved host and reservoir rocks can be investigated at nm-scale range over a representative elementary area. In comparison with the complementary and overlapping performances of the BIB-SEM method with focused ion beam-SEM and X-ray tomography methods, the BIB cross-sectioning enables detailed insights about morphologies of pores at greater resolution than X-ray tomography and allows the production of large representative surfaces suitable for FIB-SEM investigations of a specific representative site within the BIB cross-section. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2013 Royal Microscopical Society.

  10. Smear layer production by 3 rotary reamers with different cutting blade designs in straight root canals: a scanning electron microscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, In-Soo; Spångberg, Larz S W; Yoon, Tai-Cheol; Kazemi, Reza B; Kum, Kee-Yeon

    2003-11-01

    The design of the cutting blade of rotary instruments may affect the outcome of root canal instrumentation in terms of cleanliness. The aim of this scanning electron microscopic study was to compare the quality and amount of smear layer generated in the apical third of straight root canals by 2 rotary nickel-titanium reamers and 1 rotary steel reamer with different cutting blade designs. Seventy intact, single-rooted human mandibular premolars with straight, fully developed roots were selected for this study. Before instrumentation, the cervical portion of all teeth was removed by using a microtome (Isomet), leaving 13-mm-long roots. Automated preparation was performed with ProFile (n = 20) and Hero 642 (n = 20) reamers by using the crown-down technique and with a stainless steel engine reamer (Mani; n = 20) by using a reaming motion. All root canals were instrumented to No. 40. A control group (pulp extirpation with barbed broaches; n = 10) was also included. Irrigation with 3 mL of a 1% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) solution was performed after each instrumentation. After the instrumentation, each root was split longitudinally, and a scanning electron microscope was used to examine the selected areas of the canal walls at the apical third from 2 different perspectives. A 4-category scoring system for smear layer was used, and the resulting scores were statistically analyzed. The least smear layer remained in the Hero 642 group at the selected apical third of straight root canals (P < .05). However, all instruments left a smear layer. The surface texture of the smear layer, in addition to the depth and the frequency of packed materials into the dentinal tubules, varied with instrument type. These data revealed that the design of the cutting blade of rotary instruments can affect root canal cleanliness in straight root canals. This information may be useful in the selection of nickel-titanium rotary reamers.

  11. Presence of matrix vesicles in the body of odontoblasts and in the inner third of dentinal tissue: a scanning electron microscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcés-Ortíz, Maricela; Ledesma-Montes, Constantino; Reyes-Gasga, José

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this report is to present the results of a scanning electron microscopic study on the presence of matrix vesicles (MVs) found in human dentine. Dentin tissue from 20 human bicuspids was analyzed by means of scanning electron microscopy. MVs were found as outgrowths of the cellular membrane of the odontoblastic body, the more proximal portion of the odontoblastic process before entering the dentinal tubule and in the odontoblastic process within the inner third of the dentin. Size of MVs varied depending on location. In the inner third of dentin, they were seen in diverse positions; as membranal outgrowths, deriving from the odontoblastic process, lying free in the intratubular space and attached to the dentinal wall. Sometimes, they were seen organized forming groups of different sizes and shapes or as multivesicular chains running from the surface of the odontoblastic process to the tubular wall. MVs were present in places never considered: 1) the body of odontoblasts; 2) the most proximal part of the odontoblastic processes before entering the circumpulpal dentine and also: 3) in the inner third of dentinal tissue. According to our results, MVs not only participate during mantle dentin mineralization during early dentinogenesis, they also contribute during the mineralization process of the inner dentin.

  12. A new species of the genus Heterobothrium (Monogenea: Diclidophoridae) parasitizing the gills of tiger puffer fish Tetraodon lineatus (Tetraodontidae). A light and scanning electron microscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsy, Kareem; Saady, Hoda; Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Bashtar, Abdel-Rahman; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Quraishy, Saleh Al; Adel, Asmaa

    2012-03-01

    In the present study, the morphology and morphometric characterization of Heterobothrium lineatus, a monogenean gill parasite infecting the gills and wall of the bronchial cavity of the tiger pufferfish Tetraodon lineatus, were described by means of light and scanning electron microscopy for the first time from the River Nile at Qena Governorate, South Valley, Egypt. In wet mount preparation, the adult worms exhibited an elongated body with anterior pointed and posterior broad ends. The adult worm measured 1.15-1.76 mm (1.53 ± 0.2) in length and 0.30-0.42 mm (0.35 ± 0.02) in width. Light and scanning electron microscopic observations showed the presence of two buccal organs situated anteriorly around the mouth opening. The opisthohaptor was subdivided into four pairs of clamps but had no isthmus separating it from the body proper. The present Heterobothrium species differs from all other described species in the genus, by its lower dimensions of the worm measurements and the presence of a copulatory organ armed with 12-15 genital hooks. Furthermore, it is easily distinguished from Heterobothrium tetrodonis and Heterobothrium okamotoi by the absence of a distinct isthmus, and resembles Heterobothrium lamothei described from the gills of Sphoeroides testodineus in Mexico in its general appearance and the presence of rectangular haptor with the fourth pair of clamps smaller than the previous ones.

  13. Fiber coupled ultrafast scanning tunneling microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keil, Ulrich Dieter Felix; Jensen, Jacob Riis; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    1997-01-01

    We report on a scanning tunneling microscope with a photoconductive gate in the tunneling current circuit. The tunneling tip is attached to a coplanar transmission line with an integrated photoconductive switch. The switch is illuminated through a fiber which is rigidly attached to the switch...

  14. Development of olfactory epithelium and associated structures in the green iguana, Iguana iguana—light and scanning electron microscopic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Sapoznikov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The ontogenesis of the nasal cavity has been described in many mammalian species. The situation is different with reptiles, despite the fact that they have become relatively common as pets. In this study we focused on the ontogenesis of the olfactory epithelium, as well as other types of epithelia in the nasal cavity of pre-hatched green iguanas (Iguana iguana. Collection of samples began from day 67 of incubation and continued every four days until hatching. Microscopic examination revealed that significant morphological changes in the nasal cavity began approximately at day 91 of ontogenesis. Approximately at this same stage, the nasal cavity epithelium began to differentiate. The cavity was divided into two compartments by a cartilaginous disc. The ventral compartment bulged rostrally and eventually opened up into the external environment. Three clearly demarcated areas of epithelium in the nasal cavity were visible at day 107.

  15. Provenance study through analysis of microstructural characteristics using an optical microscope and scanning electron microscopy for Goryeo celadon excavated from the seabed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min-su, Han

    2013-08-01

    This paper aims at identifying the provenance of Goryeo celadons by understanding its microstructural characteristics, such as particles, blisters, forms and amount of pores, and the presence of crystal formation, bodies, and glazes and its boundary, using an optical microscope and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The analysis of the reproduced samples shows that the glazed layer of the sherd fired at higher temperatures has lower viscosity and therefore it encourages the blisters to be combined together and the layer to become more transparent. In addition, the result showed that the vitrification and melting process of clay minerals such as feldspars and quartzs on the bodies was accelerated for those samples. To factor such characteristics of the microstructure and apply it to the sherds, the samples could be divided into six categories based on status, such as small particles with many small pores or mainly large and small circular pores in the bodies, only a limited number of varied sized blisters in the glazes, and a few blisters and needle-shaped crystals on the boundary surface. In conclusion, the analysis of the microstructural characteristics using an optical microscope and SEM have proven to be useful as a categorizing reference factor in a provenance study on Goryeo celadons.

  16. Electric field effects in scanning tunneling microscope imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokbro, Kurt; Quaade, Ulrich; Grey, Francois

    1998-01-01

    We present a high-voltage extension of the Tersoff-Hamann theory of scanning tunneling microscope (STM) images, which includes the effect of the electric field between the tip and the sample. The theoretical model is based on first-principles electronic structure calculations and has no adjustable...

  17. Advanced Identification and Quantification of In-Bearing Minerals by Scanning Electron Microscope-Based Image Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Kai; Frenzel, Max; Krause, Joachim; Gutzmer, Jens

    2017-06-01

    The identification and accurate characterization of discrete grains of rare minerals in sulfide base-metal ores is usually a cumbersome procedure due to the small grain sizes (typically EPMA). The method was successfully applied to polymetallic massive sulfide ores from the Neves-Corvo deposit in Portugal. The presence of roquesite and sakuraiite could be systematically detected, their concentration quantified by MLA measurements, and their identity later confirmed by EPMA analyses. Based on these results, an almost complete indium deportment could be obtained for the studied samples. This validates the approach taken, combining automated mineralogy data with electron microprobe analysis. A similar approach could be used to find minerals of other common minor and trace elements in complex base-metal sulfide ores, for example Se, Ge, Sb, or Ag, thus permitting the targeted development of resource technologies suitable for by-product recovery.

  18. Dual-MWCNT Probe Thermal Sensor Assembly and Evaluation Based on Nanorobotic Manipulation inside a Field-Emission-Scanning Electron Microscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan Yang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We report a thermal sensor composed of two multiwalled carbon nano-tubes (MWCNTs inside a field-emission-scanning electron microscope. The sensor was assembled using a nanorobotic manipulation system, which was used to construct a probe tip in order to detect the local environment of a single cell. An atomic force microscopy (AFM cantilever was used as a substrate; the cantilever was composed of Si3N4 and both sides were covered with a gold layer. MWCNTs were individually assembled on both sides of the AFM cantilever by employing nanorobotic manipulation. Another AFM cantilever was subsequently used as an end effector to manipulate the MWCNTs to touch each other. Electron-beam-induced deposition (EBID was then used to bond the two MWCNTs. The MWCNT probe thermal sensor was evaluated inside a thermostated container in the temperature range from 25°C to 60°C. The experimental results show the positive characteristics of the temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR.

  19. Imaging of intracellular spherical lamellar structures and tissue gross morphology by a focused ion beam/scanning electron microscope (FIB/SEM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drobne, Damjana [Department of Biology, University of Ljubljana, Vecna pot 111, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)], E-mail: damjana.drobne@bf.uni-lj.si; Milani, Marziale [Materials Science Department, University of Milano-Bicocca, Via Cozzi 53, I-20125 Milano (Italy); Leser, Vladka [Department of Biology, University of Ljubljana, Vecna pot 111, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Tatti, Francesco [FEI Italia, Via Cervi 40, I-00139 Roma (Italy); Zrimec, Alexis [Institute of Physical Biology, Velika Loka 90, SI-1290 Grosuplje (Slovenia); Znidarsic, Nada; Kostanjsek, Rok; Strus, Jasna [Department of Biology, University of Ljubljana, Vecna pot 111, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2008-06-15

    We report the use of a focused ion beam/scanning electron microscope (FIB/SEM) for simultaneous investigation of digestive gland epithelium gross morphology and ultrastructure of multilamellar intracellular structures. Digestive glands of a terrestrial isopod (Porcellio scaber, Isopoda, Crustacea) were examined by FIB/SEM and by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results obtained by FIB/SEM and by TEM are comparable and complementary. The FIB/SEM shows the same ultrastructural complexity of multilamellar intracellular structures as indicated by TEM. The term lamellar bodies was used for the multillamellar structures in the digestive glands of P. scaber due to their structural similarity to the lamellar bodies found in vertebrate lungs. Lamellar bodies in digestive glands of different animals vary in their abundance, and number as well as the thickness of concentric lamellae per lamellar body. FIB/SEM revealed a connection between digestive gland gross morphological features and the structure of lamellar bodies. Serial slicing and imaging of cells enables easy identification of the contact between a lamellar body and a lipid droplet. There are frequent reports of multilamellar intracellular structures in different vertebrate as well as invertebrate cells, but laminated cellular structures are still poorly known. The FIB/SEM can significantly contribute to the structural knowledge and is always recommended when a link between gross morphology and ultrastrucutre is investigated, especially when cells or cellular inclusions have a dynamic nature due to normal, stressed or pathological conditions.

  20. Dental enamel: qualitative evaluation of the surface after application of aluminum oxide (microetching using the scanning electron microscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SILVA Paulo César Gomes

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentistry nowadays can count on a wide range of resources to treat patients. With the development of adhesive materials and several newly introduced restorative techniques, the dental structure can be subjected to different sorts of surface treatment. The use of aluminum oxide flow at high speed to remove dental structure was described by Black in 1945, however, the literature regarding the use of aluminum oxide jet is still scarce, as far as the alterations occurring in the dental structure are concerned. At the present, with the development of new abrasive air equipment, microabrasion has been added to several adhesive restorative techniques, in the preparation of the dental surface and of inner surfaces of indirect restorations, which will receive the application of adhesive materials. The aim of this study was to assess the alterations produced by abrasive air applied on the dental enamel by means of electronic microscopy, taking into consideration micromorphological surface alterations. The importance of this study is based on the fact that alternative surface treatments both chemical and mechanical could be introduced in surface priming, including dental enamel priming.

  1. Isotope analysis in the transmission electron microscope

    OpenAIRE

    Susi, Toma; Hofer, Christoph; Argentero, Giacomo; Leuthner, Gregor T.; Pennycook, Timothy J.; Mangler, Clemens; Meyer, Jannik C.; Kotakoski, Jani

    2016-01-01

    The {\\AA}ngstr\\"om-sized probe of the scanning transmission electron microscope can visualize and collect spectra from single atoms. This can unambiguously resolve the chemical structure of materials, but not their isotopic composition. Here we differentiate between two isotopes of the same element by quantifying how likely the energetic imaging electrons are to eject atoms. First, we measure the displacement probability in graphene grown from either $^{12}$C or $^{13}$C and describe the proc...

  2. Effect of different aspirin doses on arterial thrombosis after canine carotid endarterectomy: a scanning electron microscope and indium-111-labeled platelet study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ercius, M.S.; Chandler, W.F.; Ford, J.W.; Swanson, D.P.; Burke, J.C.

    1984-02-01

    Although it is widely accepted that aspirin inhibits platelet aggregation in arterial thrombosis, the appropriate dosage of aspirin remains quite controversial. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of different doses of aspirin (0.5 mg/kg vs. 10 mg/kg) on mural thrombus formation after carotid endarterectomy. Eighteen hours after oral aspirin administration, 20 endarterectomies were performed on mongrel dogs with the use of the operating microscope. Blood flow was then restored for 3 hours and the vessels were prepared for investigation with the scanning electron microscope. Ten endarterectomies were also performed on unmedicated dogs as controls. Five minutes before vessel unclamping, autologous indium-111-labeled platelets were administered intravenously, and the endarterectomized portions of the vessels were studied with a gamma counter system after harvesting. Group 1, the control group, revealed extensive mural thrombus consisting of platelet aggregates, fibrin, red blood cells, and white blood cells. Six of the 10 vessels in Group 2, premedicated with 0.5 mg of aspirin per kg, demonstrated varying amounts of mural thrombus. Group 3 (10 vessels), premedicated with 10 mg of aspirin per kg, revealed a platelet monolayer completely covering the exposed vessel wall media, with scattered white blood cells and infrequent fine fibrin strands overlying the platelet surface. The mean (+/- SD) radioactivity per group expressed as counts/minute/mm2 was: Group 1--2055.3 +/- 1905.5, log . 7.253 +/- 0.926; Group 2--1235.6 +/- 1234.3, log . 6.785 +/- 0.817; Group 3--526 +/- 433.06, log . 5.989 +/- 0.774.

  3. Vibrational spectroscopy in the electron microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivanek, Ondrej L; Lovejoy, Tracy C; Dellby, Niklas; Aoki, Toshihiro; Carpenter, R W; Rez, Peter; Soignard, Emmanuel; Zhu, Jiangtao; Batson, Philip E; Lagos, Maureen J; Egerton, Ray F; Crozier, Peter A

    2014-10-09

    Vibrational spectroscopies using infrared radiation, Raman scattering, neutrons, low-energy electrons and inelastic electron tunnelling are powerful techniques that can analyse bonding arrangements, identify chemical compounds and probe many other important properties of materials. The spatial resolution of these spectroscopies is typically one micrometre or more, although it can reach a few tens of nanometres or even a few ångströms when enhanced by the presence of a sharp metallic tip. If vibrational spectroscopy could be combined with the spatial resolution and flexibility of the transmission electron microscope, it would open up the study of vibrational modes in many different types of nanostructures. Unfortunately, the energy resolution of electron energy loss spectroscopy performed in the electron microscope has until now been too poor to allow such a combination. Recent developments that have improved the attainable energy resolution of electron energy loss spectroscopy in a scanning transmission electron microscope to around ten millielectronvolts now allow vibrational spectroscopy to be carried out in the electron microscope. Here we describe the innovations responsible for the progress, and present examples of applications in inorganic and organic materials, including the detection of hydrogen. We also demonstrate that the vibrational signal has both high- and low-spatial-resolution components, that the first component can be used to map vibrational features at nanometre-level resolution, and that the second component can be used for analysis carried out with the beam positioned just outside the sample--that is, for 'aloof' spectroscopy that largely avoids radiation damage.

  4. Isotope analysis in the transmission electron microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susi, Toma; Hofer, Christoph; Argentero, Giacomo; Leuthner, Gregor T.; Pennycook, Timothy J.; Mangler, Clemens; Meyer, Jannik C.; Kotakoski, Jani

    2016-10-01

    The Ångström-sized probe of the scanning transmission electron microscope can visualize and collect spectra from single atoms. This can unambiguously resolve the chemical structure of materials, but not their isotopic composition. Here we differentiate between two isotopes of the same element by quantifying how likely the energetic imaging electrons are to eject atoms. First, we measure the displacement probability in graphene grown from either 12C or 13C and describe the process using a quantum mechanical model of lattice vibrations coupled with density functional theory simulations. We then test our spatial resolution in a mixed sample by ejecting individual atoms from nanoscale areas spanning an interface region that is far from atomically sharp, mapping the isotope concentration with a precision better than 20%. Although we use a scanning instrument, our method may be applicable to any atomic resolution transmission electron microscope and to other low-dimensional materials.

  5. Effect of diode laser and ultrasonics with and without ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid on smear layer removal from the root canals: A scanning electron microscope study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Khalid; Masoodi, Ajaz; Nabi, Shahnaz; Ahmad, Parvaiz; Farooq, Riyaz; Purra, Aamir Rashid; Ahangar, Fayaz Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of diode laser and ultrasonics with and without ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) on the smear layer removal from root canals. A total of 120 mandibular premolars were decoronated to working the length of 12 mm and prepared with protaper rotary files up to size F3. Group A canals irrigated with 1 ml of 3% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) followed by 3 ml of 3% NaOCl. Group B canals irrigated with 1 ml of 17% EDTA followed by 3 ml of 3% NaOCl. Group C canals lased with a diode laser. Group D canals were initially irrigated with 0.8 ml of 17% EDTA the remaining 0.2 ml was used to fill the root canals, and diode laser application was done. Group E canals were irrigated with 1 ml distilled water with passive ultrasonic activation, followed by 3 ml of 3% NaOCl. Group F canals were irrigated with 1 ml EDTA with passive ultrasonic activation, followed by 3 ml of 3% NaOCl. Scanning electron microscope examination of canals was done for remaining smear layer at coronal middle and apical third levels. Ultrasonics with EDTA had the least smear layer scores. Diode laser alone performed significantly better than ultrasonics.

  6. [Evaluation of adaptation of FibreFill/Resilon post and Epiphany to the walls of the root canal. Scanning electron microscope study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kot, Katarzyna; Górski, Maciej; Dura, Włodzimierz; Droździk, Agnieszka; Lipski, Mariusz

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the adaptation of sealer to the dentine and to the components of the post, i.e. the part made of composite reinforced with glass fibre and the part made of resilon. The study was carried out on 7 extracted one-canal human teeth that were treated using Mtwo nickel-titanium instruments and an Endo IT Professional endodontic micromotor. The canals were rinsed with NaOCl, EDTA and chlorhexidine, and then filled with the Epiphany sealer and FibreFill posts. Next, tooth roots were cut along the frontal plane, to expose the entire lumen length of the filled canal, and inspected under the scanning electron microscope. SEM study demonstrated good adaptation of sealers to the walls of the root canals on their entire length, despite occasional gaps between the sealer and dentine. The results of preliminary studies suggest that FibreFill posts and Epiphany sealer are useful for canal filling. However, several-years' clinical follow-up is necessary for the complete evaluation of the system.

  7. Smear layer removal efficacy of combination of herbal extracts in two different ratios either alone or supplemented with sonic agitation: An in vitro scanning electron microscope study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, Naveen; Gyanani, Hitesh; Kamatagi, Laxmikant

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the combination of two natural extracts in varying ratios for removal of smear layer either alone or supplemented with sonic agitation. Fifty extracted single-rooted teeth were collected, disinfected and decoronated below the cementoenamel junction to obtain standardized root length of 10 mm. Root canals were instrumented using rotary files at working length 1 mm short of the apex. Specimens were divided into six groups according to the irrigation protocol as follows: Group A - Distilled water, Group B - 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, Group C - Herbal extracts in 1:1 ratio, Group D - Herbal extracts in 1:1 ratio supplemented with sonic agitation, Group E - Herbal extracts in 2:1 ratio, Group F - Herbal extracts in 2:1 ratio supplemented with sonic agitation. Specimens were longitudinally sectioned and evaluated under scanning electron microscope for smear layer removal efficacy. Obtained scores were statistically analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and post-hoc test. Among all, Group B showed the best results followed by Group F. Remaining other groups showed inferior outcome (P < 0.05). The combination of two extracts in 2:1 ratio was slightly better than 1:1 ratio and the smear layer removal efficacy was further improved when accompanied with sonic agitation.

  8. Scanning electron microscope comparative surface evaluation of glazed-lithium disilicate ceramics under different irradiation settings of Nd:YAG and Er:YAG lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viskic, Josko; Jokic, Drazen; Jakovljevic, Suzana; Bergman, Lana; Ortolan, Sladana Milardovic; Mestrovic, Senka; Mehulic, Ketij

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the surface of glazed lithium disilicate dental ceramics after irradiation under different irradiation settings of Nd:YAG and Er:YAG lasers using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Three glazed-press lithium disilicate ceramic discs were treated with HF, Er:YAG, and Nd:YAG, respectively. The laser-setting variables tested were laser mode, repetition rate (Hz), power (W), time of exposure (seconds), and laser energy (mJ). Sixteen different variable settings were tested for each laser type, and all the samples were analyzed by SEM at 500× and 1000× magnification. Surface analysis of the HF-treated sample showed a typical surface texture with a homogenously rough pattern and exposed ceramic crystals. Er:YAG showed no effect on the surface under any irradiation setting. The surface of Nd:YAG-irradiated samples showed cracking, melting, and resolidifying of the ceramic glaze. These changes became more pronounced as the power increased. At the highest power setting (2.25 W), craters on the surface with large areas of melted or resolidified glaze surrounded by globules were visible. However, there was little to no exposure of ceramic crystals or visible regular surface roughening. Neither Er:YAG nor Nd:YAG dental lasers exhibited adequate surface modification for bonding of orthodontic brackets on glazed lithium disilicate ceramics compared with the control treated with 9.5% HF.

  9. Smear layer removal efficacy of combination of herbal extracts in two different ratios either alone or supplemented with sonic agitation: An in vitro scanning electron microscope study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, Naveen; Gyanani, Hitesh; Kamatagi, Laxmikant

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the combination of two natural extracts in varying ratios for removal of smear layer either alone or supplemented with sonic agitation. Materials and Methods: Fifty extracted single-rooted teeth were collected, disinfected and decoronated below the cementoenamel junction to obtain standardized root length of 10 mm. Root canals were instrumented using rotary files at working length 1 mm short of the apex. Specimens were divided into six groups according to the irrigation protocol as follows: Group A – Distilled water, Group B – 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, Group C – Herbal extracts in 1:1 ratio, Group D – Herbal extracts in 1:1 ratio supplemented with sonic agitation, Group E – Herbal extracts in 2:1 ratio, Group F – Herbal extracts in 2:1 ratio supplemented with sonic agitation. Specimens were longitudinally sectioned and evaluated under scanning electron microscope for smear layer removal efficacy. Obtained scores were statistically analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and post-hoc test. Results: Among all, Group B showed the best results followed by Group F. Remaining other groups showed inferior outcome (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The combination of two extracts in 2:1 ratio was slightly better than 1:1 ratio and the smear layer removal efficacy was further improved when accompanied with sonic agitation. PMID:26430300

  10. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM Evaluation of the Interface between a Nanostructured Calcium-Incorporated Dental Implant Surface and the Human Bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Mangano

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of this scanning electron microscope (SEM study was to investigate the interface between the bone and a novel nanostructured calcium-incorporated dental implant surface in humans. Methods. A dental implant (Anyridge®, Megagen Implant Co., Gyeongbuk, South Korea with a nanostructured calcium-incorporated surface (Xpeed®, Megagen Implant Co., Gyeongbuk, South Korea, which had been placed a month earlier in a fully healed site of the posterior maxilla (#14 of a 48-year-old female patient, and which had been subjected to immediate functional loading, was removed after a traumatic injury. Despite the violent trauma that caused mobilization of the fixture, its surface appeared to be covered by a firmly attached, intact tissue; therefore, it was subjected to SEM examination. The implant surface of an unused nanostructured calcium-incorporated implant was also observed under SEM, as control. Results. The surface of the unused implant showed a highly-structured texture, carved by irregular, multi-scale hollows reminiscent of a fractal structure. It appeared perfectly clean and devoid of any contamination. The human specimen showed trabecular bone firmly anchored to the implant surface, bridging the screw threads and filling the spaces among them. Conclusions. Within the limits of this human histological report, the sample analyzed showed that the nanostructured calcium-incorporated surface was covered by new bone, one month after placement in the posterior maxilla, under an immediate functional loading protocol.

  11. Comparison to the scanning electron microscope of professional dental hygiene methods on metal-free layered structures and metal-free monolithic structures processed by different polymerization cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermetici, M; Segù, M; Butera, A

    2014-06-01

    Aim of the study was to find effective instrumental methodologies and procedures for scaling and deplaquing without compromising the structure of metal-free, monolithic lithium disilicate and layered zirconia prosthetics. Of 14 decontaminated, extracted teeth in good anatomical condition, 7 veneers lithium disilicate monolithic and 7 layered zirconia crowns were prepared for testing and divided into 6 treatment groups. Each group was composed of a veneer and a crown. The division of the groups was carried out according to the type of treatment performed- instrumental carbon fiber and steel tips, prophylaxis paste with high and low RDA (Relative dentin abrasion), bicarbonate powder. Samples were examined and observed through a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Afterwards a detailed comparison of the images of treated and untreated samples was performed. The images were at the same magnification, thus showing the differences in the treated samples. The monolithic lithium disilicate presents minor damage to the surface but no excessive changes to the structure in general post treatment. The layered zirconia resulted in notable damage with evident abrasions on the layered ceramic structure after the use of ultrasound with a steel tip and air flow with bicarbonate. Carbon fibre tips and prophylaxis paste containing perlite and low RDA did not create notable changes to the properties of the materials in question. The results of the disilicate monolithic appear to show it to be a much more resistant material compared to layered zirconia in ceramic. Its resistance is demonstrated by the lack of notable damage in all the treatment groups.

  12. Comparative evaluation of 15% ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid plus cetavlon and 5% chlorine dioxide in removal of smear layer: A scanning electron microscope study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sandeep; Arora, Vimal; Majithia, Inderpal; Dhiman, Rakesh Kumar; Kumar, Dinesh; Ather, Amber

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of smear layer removal by 5% chlorine dioxide and 15% Ethylenediamine Tetra-Acetic Acid plus Cetavlon (EDTAC) from the human root canal dentin. Fifty single rooted human mandibular anterior teeth were divided into two groups of 20 teeth each and control group of 10 teeth. The root canals were prepared till F3 protaper and initially irrigated with 2% Sodium hypochlorite followed by 1 min irrigation with 15% EDTAC or 5% Chlorine dioxide respectively. The control group was irrigated with saline. The teeth were longitudinally split and observed under Scanning electron microscope SEM (×2000). The statistical analysis was done using General Linear Mixed Model. At the coronal thirds, no statistically significant difference was found between 15% EDTAC and 5% Chlorine dioxide in removing smear layer. In the middle and apical third region 15% EDTAC showed better smear layer removal ability than 5% Chlorine dioxide. Final irrigation with 15% EDTAC is superior to 5% chlorine dioxide in removing smear layer in the middle and apical third of radicular dentin.

  13. Comparative evaluation of 15% ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid plus cetavlon and 5% chlorine dioxide in removal of smear layer: A scanning electron microscope study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of smear layer removal by 5% chlorine dioxide and 15% Ethylenediamine Tetra-Acetic Acid plus Cetavlon (EDTAC from the human root canal dentin. Materials >and Methods : Fifty single rooted human mandibular anterior teeth were divided into two groups of 20 teeth each and control group of 10 teeth. The root canals were prepared till F3 protaper and initially irrigated with 2% Sodium hypochlorite followed by 1 min irrigation with 15% EDTAC or 5% Chlorine dioxide respectively. The control group was irrigated with saline. The teeth were longitudinally split and observed under Scanning electron microscope SEM (×2000. Statistical Analysis Used: The statistical analysis was done using General Linear Mixed Model. Results : At the coronal thirds, no statistically significant difference was found between 15% EDTAC and 5% Chlorine dioxide in removing smear layer. In the middle and apical third region 15% EDTAC showed better smear layer removal ability than 5% Chlorine dioxide. Conclusion : Final irrigation with 15% EDTAC is superior to 5% chlorine dioxide in removing smear layer in the middle and apical third of radicular dentin.

  14. Quantitative in-situ scanning electron microscope pull-out experiments and molecular dynamics simulations of carbon nanotubes embedded in palladium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, S., E-mail: steffen.hartmann@etit.tu-chemnitz.de; Blaudeck, T.; Hermann, S.; Wunderle, B. [Technische Universität Chemnitz, Reichenhainer Str. 70, 09126 Chemnitz (Germany); Hölck, O. [Technische Universität Chemnitz, Reichenhainer Str. 70, 09126 Chemnitz (Germany); Fraunhofer IZM Berlin, Gustav-Meyer-Allee 25, 13355 Berlin (Germany); Schulz, S. E.; Gessner, T. [Technische Universität Chemnitz, Reichenhainer Str. 70, 09126 Chemnitz (Germany); Fraunhofer ENAS Chemnitz, Technologie-Campus 3, 09126 Chemnitz (Germany)

    2014-04-14

    In this paper, we present our results of experimental and numerical pull-out tests on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) embedded in palladium. We prepared simple specimens by employing standard silicon wafers, physical vapor deposition of palladium and deposition of CNTs with a simple drop coating technique. An AFM cantilever with known stiffness connected to a nanomanipulation system was utilized inside a scanning electron microscope (SEM) as a force sensor to determine forces acting on a CNT during the pull-out process. SEM-images of the cantilever attached to a CNT have been evaluated for subsequent displacement steps with greyscale correlation to determine the cantilever deflection. We compare the experimentally obtained pull-out forces with values of numerical investigations by means of molecular dynamics and give interpretations for deviations according to material impurities or defects and their influence on the pull-out data. We find a very good agreement of force data from simulation and experiment, which is 17 nN and in the range of 10–61 nN, respectively. Our findings contribute to the ongoing research of the mechanical characterization of CNT-metal interfaces. This is of significant interest for the design of future mechanical sensors utilizing the intrinsic piezoresistive effect of CNTs or other future devices incorporating CNT-metal interfaces.

  15. A MEMS-based heating holder for the direct imaging of simultaneous in-situ heating and biasing experiments in scanning/transmission electron microscopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mele, Luigi; Konings, Stan; Dona, Pleun; Evertz, Francis; Mitterbauer, Christoph; Faber, Pybe; Schampers, Ruud; Jinschek, Joerg R

    2016-04-01

    The introduction of scanning/transmission electron microscopes (S/TEM) with sub-Angstrom resolution as well as fast and sensitive detection solutions support direct observation of dynamic phenomena in-situ at the atomic scale. Thereby, in-situ specimen holders play a crucial role: accurate control of the applied in-situ stimulus on the nanostructure combined with the overall system stability to assure atomic resolution are paramount for a successful in-situ S/TEM experiment. For those reasons, MEMS-based TEM sample holders are becoming one of the preferred choices, also enabling a high precision in measurements of the in-situ parameter for more reproducible data. A newly developed MEMS-based microheater is presented in combination with the new NanoEx™-i/v TEM sample holder. The concept is built on a four-point probe temperature measurement approach allowing active, accurate local temperature control as well as calorimetry. In this paper, it is shown that it provides high temperature stability up to 1,300°C with a peak temperature of 1,500°C (also working accurately in gaseous environments), high temperature measurement accuracy (<4%) and uniform temperature distribution over the heated specimen area (<1%), enabling not only in-situ S/TEM imaging experiments, but also elemental mapping at elevated temperatures using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Moreover, it has the unique capability to enable simultaneous heating and biasing experiments. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Effects of Photodynamic Therapy on Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacterial Biofilms by Bioluminescence Imaging and Scanning Electron Microscopic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, Silvia C.; Azambuja, Nilton; Fregnani, Eduardo R.; Rodriguez, Helena M.H.; Hamblin, Michael R.; Suzuki, Hideo; Ribeiro, Martha S.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The aim of this study was to test photodynamic therapy (PDT) as an alternative approach to biofilm disruption on dental hard tissue, We evaluated the effect of methylene blue and a 660 nm diode laser on the viability and architecture of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial biofilms. Materials and methods: Ten human teeth were inoculated with bioluminescent Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Enterococcus faecalis to form 3 day biofilms in prepared root canals. Bioluminescence imaging was used to serially quantify and evaluate the bacterial viability, and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) imaging was used to assess architecture and morphology of bacterial biofilm before and after PDT employing methylene blue and 40 mW, 660 nm diode laser light delivered into the root canal via a 300 μm fiber for 240 sec, resulting in a total energy of 9.6 J. The data were statistically analyzed with analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey test. Results: The bacterial reduction showed a dose dependence; as the light energy increased, the bioluminescence decreased in both planktonic suspension and in biofilms. The SEM analysis showed a significant reduction of biofilm on the surface. PDT promoted disruption of the biofilm and the number of adherent bacteria was reduced. Conclusions: The photodynamic effect seems to disrupt the biofilm by acting both on bacterial cells and on the extracellular matrix. PMID:23822168

  17. Effect of Different Powers of Er,Cr:YSGG Laser Treatment on Surface Morphology of Microhybride Composite Resin: Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, Mansore; Yasini, Esmaeil; Tavakoli, Atefeh; Chiniforush, Nasim

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare microhybride composite treated by bur and different power of Erbium, Chromium doped Yttrium Scandium Gallium Garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). 21 microhybride composite blocks (DiaFil TM, DiaDent, Korea) with 2 × 4 × 4 mm dimensions were made. The bonding surface of these blocks were polished, The samples were put into 6 groups for laser irradiation as follows: Group 1 (power: 1W, Energy: 50 mJ); Group 2(power: 2 W, Energy: 100mJ); Group 3 (power: 3W, Energy: 150mJ); Group 4 (power: 4W, Energy: 200mJ); Group 5 (power: 5W, Energy: 250mJ) and Group 6(power:6 W, Energy:300mJ). One group prepared by bur- treated. All samples were prepared by repetition rate of 20 Hz. Then, the samples were prepared for SEM examination. Some irregularities were seen in Er,Cr:YSGG laser samples in comparison to Bur group that produced favorable surface for adhesion of repair composite. Among different lasers, Er;Cr:YSGG laser can be chosen as a suitable technique for surface treatment of unsatisfactory composites.

  18. An entomopathogenic strain of Beauveria bassiana against Frankliniella occidentalis with no detrimental effect on the predatory mite Neoseiulus barkeri: evidence from laboratory bioassay and scanning electron microscopic observation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengyong Wu

    Full Text Available Among 28 isolates of Beauveria bassiana tested for virulence against F. occidentalis in laboratory bioassays, we found strain SZ-26 as the most potent, causing 96% mortality in adults at 1×10(7 mL(-1conidia after 4 days. The effect of the strain SZ-26 on survival, longevity and fecundity of the predatory mite Neoseiulus (Amblyseius barkeri Hughes were studied under laboratory conditions. The bioassay results showed that the corrected mortalities were less than 4 and 8% at 10 days following inoculation of the adult and the larvae of the predator, respectively, with 1×10(7 conidia mL(-1 of SZ-26. Furthermore, no fungal hyphae were found in dead predators. The oviposition and postoviposition durations, longevity, and fecundity displayed no significant differences after inoculation with SZ-26 using first-instar larvae of F. occidentalis as prey in comparison with untreated predator. In contrast, the preoviposition durations were significantly longer. Observations with a scanning electron microscope, revealed that many conidia were attached to the cuticles of F. occidentalis at 2 h after treatment with germ tubes oriented toward cuticle at 24 h, penetration of the insect cuticle at 36 h, and finally, fungal colonization of the whole insect body at 60 h. In contrast, we never observed penetration of the predator's cuticle and conidia were shed gradually from the body, further demonstrating that B. bassiana strain SZ-26 show high toxicity against F. occidentalis but no pathogenicity to predatory mite.

  19. Evaluation of sealing ability of Biodentine™ and mineral trioxide aggregate in primary molars using scanning electron microscope: A randomized controlled in vitro trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allwyn Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the sealing ability of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA and Biodentine™ when used to repair the furcal perforations in primary molars using scanning electron microscope (SEM. Study Design: The study sample comprised forty recently extracted primary molars. These teeth were placed in a 5.25% sodium hypochlorite solution for 24 h and washed with tap water. Access cavities were made using a round bur in high-speed handpiece. Perforations were made in the center of the floor of the pulpal chamber using a 0.5 mm round bur. The teeth were randomly assigned into two experimental groups based on the material used to seal the perforation: Group A - MTA and Group B - Biodentine™. The packed materials were allowed to set for 24 h. The samples were sectioned longitudinally and the extent of marginal adaptation was measured by SEM. Wilcoxon-signed rank test was used for statistical analysis using SPSS software. Results: All teeth exhibited microleakage, but Biodentine™ showed significantly less leakage (0.149 compared to MTA (0.583. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, Biodentine™ showed lesser microleakage compared to MTA and thus may be a good alternative to MTA.

  20. Morphological adaptation of the buccal cavity in relation to feeding habits of the omnivorous fish Clarias gariepinus: A scanning electron microscopic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Gamal

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The surface architecture of the buccal cavity of the omnivorous fish Clarias gariepinus was studied in relation to its food and feeding habits. The buccal cavity of the present fish was investigated by means of a scanning electron microscope. This cavity may be distinguished into the roof and the floor. Papilliform and molariform teeth which are located in the buccal cavity are associated with seizing, grasping, holding of the prey, crushing and grinding of various food items. Three types of taste buds (Types I, II & III were found at different levels in the buccal cavity. Type I taste buds were found in relatively high epidermal papillae. Type II taste buds were mostly found in low epidermal papillae. Type III taste buds never raise above the normal level of the epithelium. These types may be useful for ensuring full utilization of the gustatory ability of the fish. A firm consistency or rigidity of the free surface of the epithelial cells may be attributed to compactly arranged microridges. These structures protect against physical abrasions potentially caused during food maneuvering and swallowing. Furthermore, protection of the epithelium from abrasion is enhanced with mucous cell secretions which lubricate ingested food items.

  1. The application of neutron activation analysis, scanning electron microscope, and radiographic imaging for the characterization of electrochemically deposited layers of lanthanide and actinide elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebe, D.; Eberhardt, K.; Hartmann, W.; Häger, T.; Hübner, A.; Kratz, J. V.; Kindler, B.; Lommel, B.; Thörle, P.; Schädel, M.; Steiner, J.

    2008-06-01

    Lanthanide and actinide targets are prepared at the University of Mainz by molecular plating, an electrochemical deposition from an organic solvent, for heavy-ion reaction studies at GSI. To acquire information about deposition yield, target thickness, and target homogeneity, the following analysis methods are applied. With neutron activation analysis (NAA) the deposition yield and the average thickness of the deposited material is determined. We report on the analytical procedure of NAA performed subsequent to the molecular plating process. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) is used to determine the morphology of the target surfaces. In combination with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS), we also could obtain qualitative information about the chemical form of the deposited material. So far, gadolinium, samarium, holmium, and uranium targets have been investigated with SEM/EDS. With radiographic imaging (RI), targets of uranium prepared by molecular plating and by vacuum vaporization are investigated. This method is suitable to obtain information about the spatial distribution, the homogeneity, and the thickness of the target layer deposition.

  2. Estimation of changes in nickel and chromium content in nickel-titanium and stainless steel orthodontic wires used during orthodontic treatment: An analytical and scanning electron microscopic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana Kararia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The biocompatibility of orthodontic dental alloys has been investigated over the past 20 years, but the results have been inconclusive. The study compares standard 3 M Unitek nickel-titanium (NiTi and stainless steel archwires with locally available JJ orthodontics wires. Scanning electron microscope (SEM study of surface changes and complexometric titration to study compositional change was performed. Materials and Methods: Ten archwires each of group 1-3 M 0.016" NiTi, group 2-JJ 0.016" NiTi, group 3-3 M 0.019" FNx010.025" SS and group 4-JJ SS contributed a 10 mm piece of wire for analysis prior to insertion in the patient and 6 weeks post insertion. SEM images were recorded at Χ2000, Χ4000 and Χ6000 magnification. The same samples were subjected to complexiometric titration using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid to gauge the actual change in the composition. Observations and Results: The SEM images of all the archwires showed marked changes with deep scratches and grooves and dark pitting corrosion areas post intraoral use. 3M wires showed an uniform criss-cross pattern in as received wires indicating a coating which was absent after intraoral use. There was a significant release of Nickel and Chromium from both group 3 and 4. Group 2 wires released ions significantly more than group 1 (P = 0.0. Conclusion: Extensive and stringent trials are required before certifying any product to be used in Orthodontics.

  3. Estimation of changes in nickel and chromium content in nickel-titanium and stainless steel orthodontic wires used during orthodontic treatment: An analytical and scanning electron microscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kararia, Vandana; Jain, Pradeep; Chaudhary, Seema; Kararia, Nitin

    2015-01-01

    The biocompatibility of orthodontic dental alloys has been investigated over the past 20 years, but the results have been inconclusive. The study compares standard 3 M Unitek nickel-titanium (NiTi) and stainless steel archwires with locally available JJ orthodontics wires. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) study of surface changes and complexometric titration to study compositional change was performed. Ten archwires each of group 1-3 M 0.016" NiTi, group 2-JJ 0.016" NiTi, group 3-3 M 0.019" *0.025" SS and group 4-JJ SS contributed a 10 mm piece of wire for analysis prior to insertion in the patient and 6 weeks post insertion. SEM images were recorded at ×2000, ×4000 and ×6000 magnification. The same samples were subjected to complexiometric titration using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid to gauge the actual change in the composition. The SEM images of all the archwires showed marked changes with deep scratches and grooves and dark pitting corrosion areas post intraoral use. 3M wires showed an uniform criss-cross pattern in as received wires indicating a coating which was absent after intraoral use. There was a significant release of Nickel and Chromium from both group 3 and 4. Group 2 wires released ions significantly more than group 1 (P = 0.0). Extensive and stringent trials are required before certifying any product to be used in Orthodontics.

  4. Toxicological effects and recovery of the corneal epithelium in Cyprinus carpio communis Linn. exposed to monocrotophos: an scanning electron microscope study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppal, Ravneet Kaur; Johal, Mohinder Singh; Sharma, Madan Lal

    2015-05-01

    This study was conducted based on the evidence of fish habitats in North India being affected by organophosphate pesticides draining from agricultural fields into bodies of water, especially during the rainy season. Various tissues of fish such as scales, gills ovaries, kidney, and liver have been studied from the toxicological point of view, but the toxicological effects of aquatic pollutants on fish cornea have not been investigated to date. We conducted comparative toxicological studies on the cornea of Cyprinus carpio communis using two sublethal (0.038 and 0.126 ppm) concentrations of monocrotophos pesticide for 30 days. Corneas from all the groups were evaluated by a scanning electron microscope. The fish exposed to the monocrotophos pesticide developed corneal necrosis due to the formation of crystalloid-like structures, thinning and shrinkage of microridges on the corneal epithelium. After 30 days, fish from the monocrotophos-treated tank were transferred to normal environmental conditions. After 60 days under natural condition, epithelial cells did not fully recover. In conclusion, exposure to monocrotophos induces irreversible changes in the cornea of C. carpio communis. As fish and mammalian visual systems share many similarities, the reported finding may offer useful insights for further toxicological and ophthalmological studies in humans. © 2013 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  5. Nanometer scale correlation of optical and structural properties of individual InGaN/GaN nanorods by scanning transmission electron microscope cathodoluminescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Marcus; Schmidt, Gordon; Veit, Peter; Petzold, Silke; Bertram, Frank; Christen, Juergen [Institute of Experimental Physics, Otto-von-Guericke-University Magdeburg (Germany); Albert, Steven; Bengoechea-Encabo, Ana Maria; Sanchez-Garcia, Miguel Angel; Calleja, Enrique [ISOM e Departamento de Ingenieria Electronica, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (Spain)

    2013-07-01

    A potential benefit of nanorods as light emitters, aside from their very high crystal quality, relies on better light extraction efficiency as compared to thin films, because of the high surface to volume ratio. In this study we present a direct nano-scale correlation of the optical properties with the actual crystalline structure of ordered InGaN/GaN nanorods using low temperature cathodoluminescence spectroscopy in a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM-CL). Direct comparison of the high-angle annular dark field image with the simultaneously recorded panchromatic CL mapping at 15 K reveals a weak luminescence from the bottom GaN layer. We observe the highest CL intensity in the middle of the InGaN region. The spectral position of the InGaN emission shifts continuously red from the GaN/InGaN interface (λ=409 nm) to the NR top (λ=446 nm) due to lattice pulling effects and InGaN partial decomposition. Additionally, optical active basal stacking faults in the GaN layer emitting at 366 nm can be found.

  6. Effect of residual chips on the material removal process of the bulk metallic glass studied by in situ scratch testing inside the scanning electron microscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Huang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Research on material removal mechanism is meaningful for precision and ultra-precision manufacturing. In this paper, a novel scratch device was proposed by integrating the parasitic motion principle linear actuator. The device has a compact structure and it can be installed on the stage of the scanning electron microscope (SEM to carry out in situ scratch testing. Effect of residual chips on the material removal process of the bulk metallic glass (BMG was studied by in situ scratch testing inside the SEM. The whole removal process of the BMG during the scratch was captured in real time. Formation and growth of lamellar chips on the rake face of the Cube-Corner indenter were observed dynamically. Experimental results indicate that when lots of chips are accumulated on the rake face of the indenter and obstruct forward flow of materials, materials will flow laterally and downward to find new location and direction for formation of new chips. Due to similar material removal processes, in situ scratch testing is potential to be a powerful research tool for studying material removal mechanism of single point diamond turning, single grit grinding, mechanical polishing and grating fabrication.

  7. X-ray spectrometry and spectrum image mapping at output count rates above 100 kHz with a silicon drift detector on a scanning electron microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbury, Dale E

    2005-01-01

    A third-generation silicon drift detector (SDD) in the form of a silicon multicathode detector (SMCD) was tested as an analytical x-ray spectrometer on a scanning electron microscope. Resolution, output count rate, and spectral quality were examined as a function of the detector peaking time from 8 micros to 250 ns and over a range of input count rate (dead time). The SDD-SMCD (50 mm2 active area) produced a resolution of 134 eV with a peaking time of 8 micros. The peak width and peak channel were nearly independent of the input count rate (at 8 micros peaking time, the peak width degradation was 0.003 eV/percent dead time and peak position change was -0.7 eV over the dead time range tested). Maximum output count rates as high as 280 kHz were obtained with a 500 ns peaking time (188 eV resolution) and 500 kHz with a 250 ns peaking time (217 eV resolution). X-ray spectrum imaging was achieved with a pixel dwell time as short as 10 ms (with 1.3 ms overhead) in which a 2048 channel (10 eV/channel) spectrum with 2-byte intensity range was recorded at each pixel (scanned at 128 x 128). With a 220 kHz output count rate, a minor constituent of iron (present at a concentration of 0.04 mass fraction or 4 weight %) in an aluminum-nickel alloy could be readily detected in the x-ray maps derived from the x-ray spectrum image database accumulated in 185 s.

  8. A Scanning Quantum Cryogenic Atom Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev, Benjamin

    Microscopic imaging of local magnetic fields provides a window into the organizing principles of complex and technologically relevant condensed matter materials. However, a wide variety of intriguing strongly correlated and topologically nontrivial materials exhibit poorly understood phenomena outside the detection capability of state-of-the-art high-sensitivity, high-resolution scanning probe magnetometers. We introduce a quantum-noise-limited scanning probe magnetometer that can operate from room-to-cryogenic temperatures with unprecedented DC-field sensitivity and micron-scale resolution. The Scanning Quantum Cryogenic Atom Microscope (SQCRAMscope) employs a magnetically levitated atomic Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), thereby providing immunity to conductive and blackbody radiative heating. The SQCRAMscope has a field sensitivity of 1.4 nT per resolution-limited point (2 um), or 6 nT / Hz1 / 2 per point at its duty cycle. Compared to point-by-point sensors, the long length of the BEC provides a naturally parallel measurement, allowing one to measure nearly one-hundred points with an effective field sensitivity of 600 pT / Hz1 / 2 each point during the same time as a point-by-point scanner would measure these points sequentially. Moreover, it has a noise floor of 300 pT and provides nearly two orders of magnitude improvement in magnetic flux sensitivity (down to 10- 6 Phi0 / Hz1 / 2) over previous atomic probe magnetometers capable of scanning near samples. These capabilities are for the first time carefully benchmarked by imaging magnetic fields arising from microfabricated wire patterns and done so using samples that may be scanned, cryogenically cooled, and easily exchanged. We anticipate the SQCRAMscope will provide charge transport images at temperatures from room to \\x9D4K in unconventional superconductors and topologically nontrivial materials.

  9. Electron microscope studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crewe, A.V.; Kapp, O.H.

    1991-06-01

    This year our laboratory has continued to make progress in the design of electron-optical systems, in the study of structure-function relationships of large multi-subunit proteins, in the development of new image processing software and in achieving a workable sub-angstrom STEM. We present an algebraic approach to the symmetrical Einzel (unipotential) lens wherein we simplify the analysis by specifying a field shape that meets some preferred set of boundary or other conditions and then calculate the fields. In a second study we generalize this approach to study of three element electrostatic lenses of which the symmetrical Einzel lens is a particular form. The purpose is to develop a method for assisting in the design of a lens for a particular purpose. In our biological work we study a stable and functional dodecameric complex of globin chains from the hemoglobin of Lumbricus terrestris. This is a complex lacking the linker'' subunit first imaged in this lab and required for maintenance of the native structure. In addition, we do a complete work-up on the hemoglobin of the marine polychaete Eudistylia vancouverii demonstrating the presence of a hierarchy of globin complexes. We demonstrate stable field-emission in the sub-angstrom STEM and the preliminary alignment of the beam. We continue our exploration of a algorithms for alignment of sequences of protein and DNA. Our computer facilities now include four second generation RISC workstations and we continue to take increasing advantage of the floating-point and graphical performance of these devices.

  10. [Scanning electron microscopic investigations of cutting edge quality in lamellar keratotomy using the Wavelight femtosecond laser (FS-200) : What influence do spot distance and an additional tunnel have?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, T; Höche, T; Heichel, J

    2018-01-01

    Femtosecond lasers (fs-lasers) are established cutting instruments for the creation of LASIK flaps. Previous studies often showed even rougher surfaces after application of fs-laser systems compared to lamellar keratotomy with mechanical microkeratomes. When cutting the cornea with fs-lasers, an intrastromal gas development occurs, which has a potentially negative influence on the cutting quality if the gas cannot be dissipated; therefore, manufacturers have chosen the way of gas assimilation in so-called pockets. The investigated system creates a tunnel which opens under the conjunctiva. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a tunnel as well as the influence of different spot distances on the quality of cut surfaces and edges. In this experimental study on freshly enucleated porcine eyes (n = 15), the following cuts were carried out with the FS-200 (Wavelight, Erlangen, Germany): 1. standard setting (spot and line separation 8 µm), 2. with tunnel for gas drainage, 3. without gas-conducting tunnel, 4. with increased spot spacing (spot and line separation 9 μm instead of 8 μm) and 5. with reduced spot spacing (spot and line separation 7 μm instead of 8 μm). Subsequently, scanning electron microscopy (FEI Quanta 650, Hillsboro, OR) of the cut edges and surfaces as well as the gas drain tunnel were performed. The evaluation was based on an established score. The current fs-laser system (200 Hz) is able to create smooth cutting surfaces and sharp edges. The changed density of laser pulses compared to the standard settings with a reduced or increased distance between the pulses, did not achieve any further improvement in the surface quality. The gas-conducting tunnel could be detected by scanning electron microscope. In the case of cutting without a tunnel, roughened surfaces and irregularities on the cutting edges were found. When the FS-200 fs-laser is used, LASIK cuts with very smooth cut surfaces and sharp cutting

  11. Effectiveness in cleaning oval-shaped root canals using Anatomic Endodontic Technology, ProFile and manual instrumentation: a scanning electron microscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zmener, O; Pameijer, C H; Banegas, G

    2005-06-01

    To compare in vitro the cleanliness of root canal walls in oval-shaped root canals following automated or manual instrumentation. Forty-five oval-shaped single-rooted maxillary and mandibular premolars with straight canals were divided into three groups of 15. Automated canal preparation was performed using Anatomic Endodontic Technology (AET, group 1) and the ProFile system (group 2). Manual instrumentation (group 3) was performed with K-Flexofiles. Irrigation was performed using alternately 5.25% NaOCl and 17% EDTA, followed by rinsing with saline. The roots were split longitudinally into halves and the canals examined at x200 and x400 in a scanning electron microscope. The presence of debris and smear layer was recorded at distances of 1, 5 and 10 mm from the working length using a three-step scoring scale and a 300 mum square grid. Mean scores for debris and smear layer were calculated and statistically analysed for significance (P < 0.05) between and within groups, using the Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric anova and Dunn's tests. At 1, 5 and 10-mm levels the root canals prepared with AET had significantly less surface debris and smear layer on the canal walls compared with canals prepared with ProFile or manual instrumentation. For all three groups significantly lower mean smear layer scores (P < 0.05) were recorded at 5 and 10-mm levels compared with the 1 mm level. Significantly lower mean debris scores (P < 0.05) were also recorded at 5 and 10-mm levels for the AET group whereas no significant differences were found between the three levels for the ProFile and manual instrumentation groups. Although better instrumentation scores were obtained in canals prepared with AET, complete cleanliness was not achieved by any of the techniques and instruments investigated.

  12. Scanning Electron Microscopic Evaluation of Residual Smear Layer Following Preparation of Curved Root Canals Using Hand Instrumentation or Two Engine-Driven Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khademi, Abbasali; Saatchi, Masoud; Shokouhi, Mohammad Mehdi; Baghaei, Badri

    2015-01-01

    In this experimental study, the amount of smear layer (SL) remnants in curved root canals after chemomechanical instrumentation with two engine-driven systems or hand instrumentation was evaluated. Forty-eight mesiobuccal roots of mandibular first molars with curvatures ranging between 25 and 35 degrees (according to Schneider's method) were divided into three groups (n=16) which were prepared by either the ProTaper Universal file series, Reciproc single file system or hand instrumentation. The canals were intermittently irrigated with 5.25% NaOCl and 17% (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) EDTA, followed by distilled water as the final rinse. The roots were split longitudinally and the apical third of the specimens were evaluated under 2500× magnification with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The mean scores of the SL were calculated and analyzed using the non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. The mean scores of the SL were 2.00±0.73, 1.94±0.68 and 1.44±0.63 µm for the ProTaper Universal, Reciproc and hand instrumentation, respectively. Mean score of SL was significantly less in the hand instrumentation group than the ProTaper (P=0.027) and Reciproc (P=0.035) groups. The difference between the two engine-driven systems, however, was not significant (P=0.803). The amount of smear layer in the apical third of curved root canals prepared with both engine-driven systems was similar and greater than the hand instrumentation technique. Complete cleanliness was not attained.

  13. Ultrafast supercontinuum fiber-laser based pump-probe scanning magneto-optical Kerr effect microscope for the investigation of electron spin dynamics in semiconductors at cryogenic temperatures with picosecond time and micrometer spatial resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henn, T; Kiessling, T; Ossau, W; Molenkamp, L W; Biermann, K; Santos, P V

    2013-12-01

    We describe a two-color pump-probe scanning magneto-optical Kerr effect microscope which we have developed to investigate electron spin phenomena in semiconductors at cryogenic temperatures with picosecond time and micrometer spatial resolution. The key innovation of our microscope is the usage of an ultrafast "white light" supercontinuum fiber-laser source which provides access to the whole visible and near-infrared spectral range. Our Kerr microscope allows for the independent selection of the excitation and detection energy while avoiding the necessity to synchronize the pulse trains of two separate picosecond laser systems. The ability to independently tune the pump and probe wavelength enables the investigation of the influence of excitation energy on the optically induced electron spin dynamics in semiconductors. We demonstrate picosecond real-space imaging of the diffusive expansion of optically excited electron spin packets in a (110) GaAs quantum well sample to illustrate the capabilities of the instrument.

  14. The qualitative f-ratio method applied to electron channelling-induced x-ray imaging with an annular silicon drift detector in a scanning electron microscope in the transmission mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodusch, Nicolas; Gauvin, Raynald

    2017-09-01

    Electron channelling is known to affect the x-ray production when an accelerated electron beam is applied to a crystalline material and is highly dependent on the local crystal orientation. This effect, unless very long counting time are used, is barely noticeable on x-ray energy spectra recorded with conventional silicon drift detectors (SDD) located at a small elevation angle. However, the very high count rates provided by the new commercially available annular SDDs permit now to observe this effect routinely and may, in some circumstances, hide the true elemental x-ray variations due to the local true specimen composition. To circumvent this issue, the recently developed f-ratio method was applied to display qualitatively the true net intensity x-ray variations in a thin specimen of a Ti-6Al-4V alloy in a scanning electron microscope in transmission mode. The diffraction contrast observed in the x-ray images was successfully cancelled through the use of f-ratios and the true composition variations at the grain boundaries could be observed in relation to the dislocation alignment prior to the β-phase nucleation. The qualitative effectiveness in removing channelling effects demonstrated in this work makes the f-ratio, in its quantitative form, a possible alternative to the ZAF method in channelling conditions. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2017 Royal Microscopical Society.

  15. The Development of a Scanning Soft X-Ray Microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rarback, Harvey Miles

    We have developed a scanning soft X-ray microscope, which can be used to image natural biological specimens at high resolution and with less damage than electron microscopy. The microscope focuses a monochromatic beam of synchrotron radiation to a nearly diffraction limited spot with the aid of a high resolution Fresnel zone plate, specially fabricated for us at the IBM Watson Research Center. The specimen at one atmosphere is mechanically scanned through the spot and the transmitted radiation is efficiently detected with a flow proportional counter. A computer forms a realtime transmission image of the specimen which is displayed on a color monitor. Our first generation optics have produced images of natural wet specimens at a resolution of 300 nm.

  16. The scanning ion conductance microscope for cellular physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lab, Max J; Bhargava, Anamika; Wright, Peter T; Gorelik, Julia

    2013-01-01

    The quest for nonoptical imaging methods that can surmount light diffraction limits resulted in the development of scanning probe microscopes. However, most of the existing methods are not quite suitable for studying biological samples. The scanning ion conductance microscope (SICM) bridges the gap between the resolution capabilities of atomic force microscope and scanning electron microscope and functional capabilities of conventional light microscope. A nanopipette mounted on a three-axis piezo-actuator, scans a sample of interest and ion current is measured between the pipette tip and the sample. The feedback control system always keeps a certain distance between the sample and the pipette so the pipette never touches the sample. At the same time pipette movement is recorded and this generates a three-dimensional topographical image of the sample surface. SICM represents an alternative to conventional high-resolution microscopy, especially in imaging topography of live biological samples. In addition, the nanopipette probe provides a host of added modalities, for example using the same pipette and feedback control for efficient approach and seal with the cell membrane for ion channel recording. SICM can be combined in one instrument with optical and fluorescent methods and allows drawing structure-function correlations. It can also be used for precise mechanical force measurements as well as vehicle to apply pressure with precision. This can be done on living cells and tissues for prolonged periods of time without them loosing viability. The SICM is a multifunctional instrument, and it is maturing rapidly and will open even more possibilities in the near future.

  17. Spectral Interferometry with Electron Microscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talebi, Nahid

    2016-09-01

    Interference patterns are not only a defining characteristic of waves, but also have several applications; characterization of coherent processes and holography. Spatial holography with electron waves, has paved the way towards space-resolved characterization of magnetic domains and electrostatic potentials with angstrom spatial resolution. Another impetus in electron microscopy has been introduced by ultrafast electron microscopy which uses pulses of sub-picosecond durations for probing a laser induced excitation of the sample. However, attosecond temporal resolution has not yet been reported, merely due to the statistical distribution of arrival times of electrons at the sample, with respect to the laser time reference. This is however, the very time resolution which will be needed for performing time-frequency analysis. These difficulties are addressed here by proposing a new methodology to improve the synchronization between electron and optical excitations through introducing an efficient electron-driven photon source. We use focused transition radiation of the electron as a pump for the sample. Due to the nature of transition radiation, the process is coherent. This technique allows us to perform spectral interferometry with electron microscopes, with applications in retrieving the phase of electron-induced polarizations and reconstructing dynamics of the induced vector potential.

  18. Scanning electron microscopic evaluation of root canal surfaces prepared with three rotary endodontic systems: Lightspeed, ProTaper and EndoWave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hema, B S; Chandu, G S; Shiraguppi, V L

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate and compare the cleaning efficiency, preparation time, instrument deformation and fracture with LightSpeed (LS), ProTaper (PT) and EndoWave (Ew) rotary instruments. A total of 45 freshly extracted human mandibular premolars were subjected for the study. They were divided into three groups, each group consisting of 15 teeth. Group 1: The canals were prepared with LS system; Group 2: PT rotary system, Group 3: Ew rotary system. All the groups were prepared according to manufacturer's recommendation, using 5.25% sodium hypochlorite and 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (dent wash, prime dent) alternately as an irrigants. Crowns of each tooth were removed with diamond disks at the level of cemento enamel junction. Canal length was determined by placing a size 10 K-file. The working length was 0.5 mm short of canal length. Two longitudinal grooves were prepared on the lingual and buccal surfaces of each root to facilitate vertical splitting with a chisel after canal instrumentation. The sections were then observed under scanning electron microscope for presence or absence of debris and smear layer and the photographs were taken at coronal, middle and apical 1/3 with a magnification of × 200 and × 1000 respectively. The time taken to enlarge each canal was recorded in minutes and seconds. The instruments were examined after every use for deformation. The scores recorded were statistically analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and Mann-Whitney test. There was statistically significant difference with regard to removal of debris and smear layer at coronal, middle and apical third for LS versus PT and LS versus Ew (P < 0.01). There was no significant difference between PT and Ew. The mean preparation time for LS, PT and Ew was 1.76, 2.50 and 2.75 respectively. The study demonstrated that, LS instrumentation removed debris and smear layer effectively with shorter preparation time and Ew instrument showed

  19. A qualitative analysis to compare the effects of surface machining of conventional denture base resin and two soft liners: a scanning electron microscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Santoshi V; Taruna, M; Chittaranjan, B; Reddy, Sushendhar M; Reddy, Kranti Kiran E; Kulkarni, Ganesh

    2015-01-01

    The denture base acrylic resins require adjustments for various reasons. During this process there is an alteration in the surface characteristics of the denture base. Rough surfaces promote the bacterial adhesion and plaque accumulation; therefore it is important to know the character of the surface left by instrumentation on denture base materials. This study evaluated the surface characteristics of the machined surfaces of heat-cured acrylic denture base resin, GC supersoft and Permasoft softliners. Thirty 15×15×1.5mm acrylic resin specimens were fabricated with each of three acrylic resins: Lucitone 199 denture base resin (Group I), GC supersoft (Group II) and Permasoft (Group III) softliners. They were further divided into three sub Groups A, B and C, in which Sub Group A was control group that is smooth produced against the glass. Sub Group B was produced by machining with the tungsten carbide bur and Sub group C is machined with the stone bur. Each surface was evaluated by a Scanning electron microscope and data were analyzed by analysis of variance followed by Tukey's HSD test. Stone bur produced smoother surface (Ra 3.6681μm± 0.254) on Lucitone199 than the tungsten carbide bur (Ra 5.3881μm ± 0.3373). Carbide bur produced a smoother surface on the GC super soft (Ra 1.617097μm ± 0.191767) and Permasoft softliners (Ra 2.237419μm ± 0.354259). Whereas stone bur produced rougher surface on GC supersoft(Ra 2.6μm) and Permasoft (Ra 4.184839μm ± 0.409869) softliners. The present study shows each type of rotary instrument produces its own characteristic surface on each type of denture base materials and that care is needed when selecting the most appropriate instrument to adjust denture base materials. These results can have a significant clinical implication. While using Lucitone 199 stone bur can be used for chair side adjustments. Tungsten carbide bur can be used for GC supersoft and Permasoft softliners to achieve smoother surface.

  20. Analysis of a copper sample for the CLIC ACS study in a field emission scanning microscope

    CERN Document Server

    Muranaka, Tomoko; Leifer, Klaus; Ziemann, Volker; Navitski, Aliaksandr; Müller, Günter

    2011-01-01

    We report measurements on a diamond turned Copper sample of material intended for the CLIC accelerating structures. The first part of the measurements was performed at Bergische Universität Wuppertal using a field emission scanning microscope to localize and characterize strong emission sites. In a second part the sample was investigated in an optical microscope, a white-light profilometer and scanning electron microscope in the microstructure laboratory in Uppsala to attempt to identify the features responsible for the field emission.

  1. Calibrated atomic force microscope measurements of vickers hardness indentations and tip production and characterisation for scanning tunelling microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Carsten P.

    Calibrated atomic force microscope measurements of vickers hardness indentations and tip production and characterisation for scanning tunelling microscope......Calibrated atomic force microscope measurements of vickers hardness indentations and tip production and characterisation for scanning tunelling microscope...

  2. A High Rigidity and Precision Scanning Tunneling Microscope with Decoupled XY and Z Scans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new scan-head structure for the scanning tunneling microscope (STM is proposed, featuring high scan precision and rigidity. The core structure consists of a piezoelectric tube scanner of quadrant type (for XY scans coaxially housed in a piezoelectric tube with single inner and outer electrodes (for Z scan. They are fixed at one end (called common end. A hollow tantalum shaft is coaxially housed in the XY-scan tube and they are mutually fixed at both ends. When the XY scanner scans, its free end will bring the shaft to scan and the tip which is coaxially inserted in the shaft at the common end will scan a smaller area if the tip protrudes short enough from the common end. The decoupled XY and Z scans are desired for less image distortion and the mechanically reduced scan range has the superiority of reducing the impact of the background electronic noise on the scanner and enhancing the tip positioning precision. High quality atomic resolution images are also shown.

  3. A High Rigidity and Precision Scanning Tunneling Microscope with Decoupled XY and Z Scans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xu; Guo, Tengfei; Hou, Yubin; Zhang, Jing; Meng, Wenjie; Lu, Qingyou

    2017-01-01

    A new scan-head structure for the scanning tunneling microscope (STM) is proposed, featuring high scan precision and rigidity. The core structure consists of a piezoelectric tube scanner of quadrant type (for XY scans) coaxially housed in a piezoelectric tube with single inner and outer electrodes (for Z scan). They are fixed at one end (called common end). A hollow tantalum shaft is coaxially housed in the XY-scan tube and they are mutually fixed at both ends. When the XY scanner scans, its free end will bring the shaft to scan and the tip which is coaxially inserted in the shaft at the common end will scan a smaller area if the tip protrudes short enough from the common end. The decoupled XY and Z scans are desired for less image distortion and the mechanically reduced scan range has the superiority of reducing the impact of the background electronic noise on the scanner and enhancing the tip positioning precision. High quality atomic resolution images are also shown.

  4. Nanofabrication of magnetic scanned-probe microscope sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Chong, B K

    2001-01-01

    experiments were carried out under ambient conditions. The experiments required no extra preparation to be done to the specimen before imaging and measurements were carried out under ambient conditions. These probes offer the prospect of direct magnetic field measurement, non- invasiveness, very close proximity, possible local manipulation, better control over the tip- specimen interaction distance and topographic imaging. It is hoped that these magnetic microscope probes will be of great interest and general utility for academic and industrial magneticians. This thesis presents the development of novel magnetic sensor combined with Atomic Force Microscope probe (AFM) using conventional semiconductor processing techniques and Electron Beam Lithography (EBL). The fabrication of these magnetic sensors was performed on a common micromachined silicon substrate using a generic batch fabrication technique. Sub-micron Hall bar for Scanning Hall probe Microscopy (SHPM) and electromagnetic force coil magnet for Scanni...

  5. Scanning electron microscopy of bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyde, Alan

    2012-01-01

    This chapter described methods for Scanning Electron Microscopical imaging of bone and bone cells. Backscattered electron (BSE) imaging is by far the most useful in the bone field, followed by secondary electrons (SE) and the energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analytical modes. This chapter considers preparing and imaging samples of unembedded bone having 3D detail in a 3D surface, topography-free, polished or micromilled, resin-embedded block surfaces, and resin casts of space in bone matrix. The chapter considers methods for fixation, drying, looking at undersides of bone cells, and coating. Maceration with alkaline bacterial pronase, hypochlorite, hydrogen peroxide, and sodium or potassium hydroxide to remove cells and unmineralised matrix is described in detail. Attention is given especially to methods for 3D BSE SEM imaging of bone samples and recommendations for the types of resin embedding of bone for BSE imaging are given. Correlated confocal and SEM imaging of PMMA-embedded bone requires the use of glycerol to coverslip. Cathodoluminescence (CL) mode SEM imaging is an alternative for visualising fluorescent mineralising front labels such as calcein and tetracyclines. Making spatial casts from PMMA or other resin embedded samples is an important use of this material. Correlation with other imaging means, including microradiography and microtomography is important. Shipping wet bone samples between labs is best done in glycerol. Environmental SEM (ESEM, controlled vacuum mode) is valuable in eliminating -"charging" problems which are common with complex, cancellous bone samples.

  6. Aberration corrected Lorentz scanning transmission electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McVitie, S., E-mail: stephen.mcvitie@glasgow.ac.uk; McGrouther, D.; McFadzean, S.; MacLaren, D.A.; O’Shea, K.J.; Benitez, M.J.

    2015-05-15

    We present results from an aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscope which has been customised for high resolution quantitative Lorentz microscopy with the sample located in a magnetic field free or low field environment. We discuss the innovations in microscope instrumentation and additional hardware that underpin the imaging improvements in resolution and detection with a focus on developments in differential phase contrast microscopy. Examples from materials possessing nanometre scale variations in magnetisation illustrate the potential for aberration corrected Lorentz imaging as a tool to further our understanding of magnetism on this lengthscale. - Highlights: • Demonstration of nanometre scale resolution in magnetic field free environment using aberration correction in the scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). • Implementation of differential phase contrast mode of Lorentz microscopy in aberration corrected STEM with improved sensitivity. • Quantitative imaging of magnetic induction of nanostructures in amorphous and cross-section samples.

  7. Simulation of channeling contrast in scanning ion microscope images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohya, Kaoru

    2018-01-01

    The scanning ion microscope (SIM) provides a distinct channeling contrast in backscattered ion (BSI) and secondary electron (SE) images owing to its wide critical angle for ion channeling. In this report, we present a molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of a crystalline sample's channeling contrast that has been scanned by ion beams of 30 keV He, Ne, and Ga in the SIM. A middle portion of the sample surface inclined at different angles against neighboring sides oriented toward the ions' channeling direction. Line profiles of the BSI and SE yields along the surface reproduced crystalline-oriented changes that are expected for a transparency model. Nevertheless, a trajectory simulation of the ions in the sample according to the MD technique suggests some contrast differences from that of the model for the BSI and SE images and for different ion species.

  8. High-throughput critical dimensions uniformity (CDU) measurement of two-dimensional (2D) structures using scanning electron microscope (SEM) systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullam, Jennifer; Boye, Carol; Standaert, Theodorus; Gaudiello, John; Tomlinson, Derek; Xiao, Hong; Fang, Wei; Zhang, Xu; Wang, Fei; Ma, Long; Zhao, Yan; Jau, Jack

    2011-03-01

    In this paper, we tested a novel methodology of measuring critical dimension (CD) uniformity, or CDU, with electron beam (e-beam) hotspot inspection and measurement systems developed by Hermes Microvision, Inc. (HMI). The systems were used to take images of two-dimensional (2D) array patterns and measure CDU values in a custom designated fashion. Because this methodology combined imaging of scanning micro scope (SEM) and CD value averaging over a large array pattern of optical CD, or OCD, it can measure CDU of 2D arrays with high accuracy, high repeatability and high throughput.

  9. Scanning electron microscope studies of miracidia suggest introgressive hybridization between Schistosoma haematobium and S. haematobium x S. mattheei in the Eastern Transvaal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, F J; Hamilton-Attwell, V L

    1988-06-01

    Schistosoma haematobium miracidia were collected from a locality with a high prevalence of human infection with the animal parasite, S. mattheei, which hybridizes with S. haematobium, and from 2 localities with negligible infection rates. The terebratoria of the miracidia from these localities were compared with each other, with laboratory maintained S. haematobium and with four populations of S. mattheei by means of scanning electron microscopy. It was found that the terebratorial membrane of certain of the S. haematobium miracidia from the locality with a high S. mattheei prevalence in humans, resembled the more intricate membrane of S. mattheei. This suggests introgressive hybridization between S. haematobium and S. haematobium x S. mattheei.

  10. Leukocyte-derived microparticles and scanning electron microscopic structures in two fractions of fresh cerebrospinal fluid in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachau Anne C

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by degeneration of motoneuron cells in anterior spinal horns. There is a need for early and accurate diagnosis with this condition. In this case report we used two complementary methods: scanning electron microscopy and fluorescence-activated cell sorting. This is the first report to our knowledge of microparticles in the cerebrospinal fluid of a patient with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Case presentation An 80-year-old Swedish man of Caucasian ethnicity presented to our facility with symptoms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis starting a year before his first hospital examination, such as muscle weakness and twitching in his right hand progressing to arms, body and leg muscles. Electromyography showed classical neurophysiological findings of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Routine blood sample results were normal. A lumbar puncture was performed as a routine investigation and his cerebrospinal fluid was normal with regard to cell count and protein levels, and there were no signs of inflammation. However, scanning electron microscopy and fluorescence-activated cell sorting showed pronounced abnormalities compared to healthy controls. Flow cytometry analysis of two fractions of cerebrospinal fluid from our patient with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis was used to measure the specific binding of antibodies to CD42a, CD144 and CD45, and of phosphatidylserine to lactadherin. Our patient displayed over 100 times more phosphatidylserine-positive microparticles and over 400 times more cell-derived microparticles of leukocyte origin in his cerebrospinal fluid compared to healthy control subjects. The first cerebrospinal fluid fraction contained about 50% more microparticles than the second fraction. The scanning electron microscopy filters used with cerebrospinal fluid from our patient were filled with compact aggregates of spherical particles of

  11. Operation of a scanning near field optical microscope in reflection in combination with a scanning force microscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hulst, N.F.; Moers, M.H.P.; Moers, M.H.P.; Noordman, O.F.J.; Noordman, O.F.J.; Faulkner, T.; Segerink, Franciscus B.; van der Werf, Kees; de Grooth, B.G.; Bölger, B.; Bölger, B.

    1992-01-01

    Images obtained with a scanning near field optical microscope (SNOM) operating in reflection are presented. We have obtained the first results with a SiN tip as optical probe. The instrument is simultaneously operated as a scanning force microscope (SFM). Moreover, the instrument incorporates an

  12. Scanning probe microscopes go video rate and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rost, M. J.; Crama, L.; Schakel, P.; van Tol, E.; van Velzen-Williams, G. B. E. M.; Overgauw, C. F.; ter Horst, H.; Dekker, H.; Okhuijsen, B.; Seynen, M.; Vijftigschild, A.; Han, P.; Katan, A. J.; Schoots, K.; Schumm, R.; van Loo, W.; Oosterkamp, T. H.; Frenken, J. W. M.

    2005-05-01

    In this article we introduce a, video-rate, control system that can be used with any type of scanning probe microscope, and that allows frame rates up to 200images/s. These electronics are capable of measuring in a fast, completely analog mode as well as in the more conventional digital mode. The latter allows measurements at low speeds and options, such as, e.g., atom manipulation, current-voltage spectroscopy, or force-distance curves. For scanning tunneling microscope (STM) application we implemented a hybrid mode between the well-known constant-height and constant-current modes. This hybrid mode not only increases the maximum speed at which the surface can be imaged, but also improves the resolution at lower speeds. Acceptable image quality at high speeds could only be obtained by pushing the performance of each individual part of the electronics to its limit: we developed a preamplifier with a bandwidth of 600kHz, a feedback electronics with a bandwidth of 1MHz, a home-built bus structure for the fast data transfer, fast analog to digital converters, and low-noise drivers. Future improvements and extensions to the control electronics can be realized easily and quickly, because of its open architecture with its modular plug-in units. In the second part of this article we show our high-speed results. The ultrahigh vacuum application of these control electronics on our (UHV)-STM enabled imaging speeds up to 0.3mm/s, while still obtaining atomic step resolution. At high frame rates, the images suffered from noticeable distortions, which we have been able to analyze by virtue of the unique access to the error (dZ) signal. The distortions have all been associated with mechanical resonances in the scan head of the UHV-STM. In order to reduce such resonance effects, we have designed and built a scan head with high resonance frequencies (⩾64kHz), especially for the purpose of testing the fast electronics. Using this scanner we have reached video-rate imaging speeds

  13. Scanning microscopic four-point conductivity probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Christian Leth; Hansen, Torben Mikael; Bøggild, Peter

    2002-01-01

    the conducting material either for a silicon wafer or a single probe unit. Using shadow masking photolithography an electrode spacing (pitch) down to 1.1 mum was obtained, with cantilever separation down to 200 run. Characterisation measurements have shown the microscopic probes to be mechanically very flexible......A method for fabricating microscopic four-point probes is presented. The method uses silicon-based microfabrication technology involving only two patterning steps. The last step in the fabrication process is an unmasked deposition of the conducting probe material, and it is thus possible to select...

  14. Scanning electron microscopic analysis to compare the cleaning efficiency of three different irrigation systems at different root canal levels: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambe, Varsha H; Vishwas, Jayshree; Ghonmode, W N; Nagmode, Pradnya; Agrawal, Gaurav Pralhad; Balsaraf, Omkar

    2014-07-01

    This study compared the efficacy of conventional, endovac and ultrasonic irrigation system for the removal of debris from root canal walls, using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) at cervical, middle and apical 3rd. A total of 30 freshly extracted human mandibular premolars with complete root formation were selected and divided into group 1 endovac, group 2 conventional and group 3 ultrasonic. After instrumentation and irrigation, the teeth were sectioned in buccolingual direction and analyzed by SEM and the results were analyzed statistically by students unpaired 't' test. There was significant difference between mean values of cervical (CV), middle (M), and apical (A) when endovac compared with conventional and conventional compared with ultrasonic group (i.e. irrigation of canals leading to least debris and better prognosis.

  15. Quantitative methods for the analysis of electron microscope images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skands, Peter Ulrik Vallø

    1996-01-01

    The topic of this thesis is an general introduction to quantitative methods for the analysis of digital microscope images. The images presented are primarily been acquired from Scanning Electron Microscopes (SEM) and interfermeter microscopes (IFM). The topic is approached though several examples...... foundation of the thesis fall in the areas of: 1) Mathematical Morphology; 2) Distance transforms and applications; and 3) Fractal geometry. Image analysis opens in general the possibility of a quantitative and statistical well founded measurement of digital microscope images. Herein lies also the conditions...

  16. An electron microscope for the aberration-corrected era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivanek, O L; Corbin, G J; Dellby, N; Elston, B F; Keyse, R J; Murfitt, M F; Own, C S; Szilagyi, Z S; Woodruff, J W

    2008-02-01

    Improved resolution made possible by aberration correction has greatly increased the demands on the performance of all parts of high-end electron microscopes. In order to meet these demands, we have designed and built an entirely new scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). The microscope includes a flexible illumination system that allows the properties of its probe to be changed on-the-fly, a third-generation aberration corrector which corrects all geometric aberrations up to fifth order, an ultra-responsive yet stable five-axis sample stage, and a flexible configuration of optimized detectors. The microscope features many innovations, such as a modular column assembled from building blocks that can be stacked in almost any order, in situ storage and cleaning facilities for up to five samples, computer-controlled loading of samples into the column, and self-diagnosing electronics. The microscope construction is described, and examples of its capabilities are shown.

  17. An electron microscope for the aberration-corrected era

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krivanek, O.L. [Nion Co., 1102 8th Street, Kirkland, WA 98033 (United States)], E-mail: krivanek.ondrej@gmail.com; Corbin, G.J.; Dellby, N.; Elston, B.F.; Keyse, R.J.; Murfitt, M.F.; Own, C.S.; Szilagyi, Z.S.; Woodruff, J.W. [Nion Co., 1102 8th Street, Kirkland, WA 98033 (United States)

    2008-02-15

    Improved resolution made possible by aberration correction has greatly increased the demands on the performance of all parts of high-end electron microscopes. In order to meet these demands, we have designed and built an entirely new scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). The microscope includes a flexible illumination system that allows the properties of its probe to be changed on-the-fly, a third-generation aberration corrector which corrects all geometric aberrations up to fifth order, an ultra-responsive yet stable five-axis sample stage, and a flexible configuration of optimized detectors. The microscope features many innovations, such as a modular column assembled from building blocks that can be stacked in almost any order, in situ storage and cleaning facilities for up to five samples, computer-controlled loading of samples into the column, and self-diagnosing electronics. The microscope construction is described, and examples of its capabilities are shown.

  18. A confocal laser scanning microscopic study on thermoresponsive ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    CdTe QDs composites using a fluorescence confocal laser scanning microscope. These composites have potential applications both in material science and biology. Keywords. Confocal ... of binary colloidal alloys and other soft matter systems.

  19. Manipulation of magnetic skyrmions with a scanning tunneling microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieser, R.; Shindou, R.; Xie, X. C.

    2017-02-01

    The dynamics of a single magnetic skyrmion in an atomic spin system under the influence of a scanning tunneling microscope is investigated by computer simulations solving the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation. Two possible scenarios are described: manipulation with aid of a spin-polarized tunneling current and by an electric field created by the scanning tunneling microscope. The dynamics during the creation and annihilation process is studied and the possibility to move single skyrmions is showed.

  20. A scanning electron microscopic study of the development of the shoulder, visceral arches, and the region ventral to the cervical somites of the chick embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yander, G; Searls, R L

    1980-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to investigate the development of the shoulder in the chick embryo. Initially the wing grows on an axis perpendicular to the dorso-ventral and cranial-caudal axes of the embryo, but soon begins to grow in a ventral and partially caudal direction. The change in axis of outgrowth occurs while the shoulder forms at the cranial proximal portion of the wing. Analysis of SEM observations, together with an analysis of serially sectioned embryos and photographs of live embryos in ovo has demonstrated that the shoulder continues to grow out on an axis perpendicular to the dorso-ventral axis of the embryo, while the caudal and distal portions of the wing grow ventrally. The change in axis of outgrowth seems to be due to 1) the formation of the viscera under the wing, 2) the closing of the membrana reuniens to form a continuous sheet covering the viscera under the wing. 3) caudal movement of the duct of Cuvier and the cranial margin of the pleural coelom, and 4)ventral movement of the lateral body fold caudal to the wing. Although the visceral arches undergo major morphogenetic changes during this period, the visceral arches do not appear to have an influence on shoulder development.

  1. Effectiveness of three different irrigants - 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, Q-MIX, and phytic acid in smear layer removal: A comparative scanning electron microscope study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janhavi Balasaheb Jagzap

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Removal of smear layer from the root canal walls is important for long-standing endodontic success. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate and compare smear layer removing ability among 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA, Q-MIX, and phytic acid by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Materials and Methods: This in-vitro experimental study assessed smear layer removal using three different irrigants. Thirty single-rooted freshly extracted human permanent premolars were collected, disinfected, and decoronated to a standardized root length of 13 mm. Root canals were cleaned and shaped till F2 universal rotary protaper at working length 1 mm short of the apex. They were randomly divided into three groups, and final irrigation was done accordingly. Group 1 (n = 10: with 1 ml of 17% EDTA, Group 2 (n = 10: with 1 ml of Q-MIX, Group 3 (n = 10: with 1 ml of phytic acid. Samples were then longitudinally sectioned and evaluated under SEM at coronal, middle, and apical levels. Statistical Analysis: Two-way analysis of variance and Tukey's post hoc test were performed. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: Smear layer removing ability among irrigants and sections in descending order: 17 EDTA > Q-MIX > phytic acid; coronal > middle > apical. Conclusion: 17% EDTA showed better and promising results followed by Q-MIX and then phytic acid.

  2. Effectiveness of Three Different Irrigants - 17% Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid, Q-MIX, and Phytic Acid in Smear Layer Removal: A Comparative Scanning Electron Microscope Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagzap, Janhavi Balasaheb; Patil, Sanjay S; Gade, Vandana Jaykumar; Chandhok, Deepika J; Upagade, Madhura A; Thakur, Deepa A

    2017-01-01

    Removal of smear layer from the root canal walls is important for long-standing endodontic success. The aim of this study is to evaluate and compare smear layer removing ability among 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), Q-MIX, and phytic acid by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). This in-vitro experimental study assessed smear layer removal using three different irrigants. Thirty single-rooted freshly extracted human permanent premolars were collected, disinfected, and decoronated to a standardized root length of 13 mm. Root canals were cleaned and shaped till F2 universal rotary protaper at working length 1 mm short of the apex. They were randomly divided into three groups, and final irrigation was done accordingly. Group 1 (n = 10): with 1 ml of 17% EDTA, Group 2 (n = 10): with 1 ml of Q-MIX, Group 3 (n = 10): with 1 ml of phytic acid. Samples were then longitudinally sectioned and evaluated under SEM at coronal, middle, and apical levels. Two-way analysis of variance and Tukey's post hoc test were performed. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Smear layer removing ability among irrigants and sections in descending order: 17 EDTA > Q-MIX > phytic acid; coronal > middle > apical. 17% EDTA showed better and promising results followed by Q-MIX and then phytic acid.

  3. Comparative Scanning Electron Microscopic Study of the Marginal Adaptation of Four Root-End Filling Materials in Presence and Absence of Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnam Bolhari

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate marginal adaptation of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA, calcium enriched mixture (CEM cement, Biodentine and BioAggregate in presence of normal saline and human blood.Materials and Methods: In this in-vitro experimental study, 80 extracted single-rooted human teeth were instrumented and filled with gutta-percha. After resect- ing the root-end, apical cavity preparation was done and the teeth were randomly divided into 4 groups (N=20(a total of 8 subgroups. Root-end filling materials were placed in 3mm root-end cavities prepared ultrasonically. Half the specimens in each group were exposed to normal saline and the other half to fresh whole human blood. After 4 days, epoxy resin replicas of the apical portion of samples were fabricated and scanning electron microscopy (SEM analysis was performed to find gaps in the adaptation of the root-end filling materials at their interface with dentin. The Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests were used for statistical analysis of data with P<0.05 as the limit of significance.Results: There were no significant differences in marginal adaptation of the 8 tested groups (P>0.05.Conclusion: Based on the results, blood contamination does not affect the mar- ginal adaptation of MTA, CEM cement, Biodentine or BioAggregate .

  4. Surface roughness average and scanning electron microscopic observations of resin luting agents Alteração de rugosidade superficial e observações em microscopia eletrônica de varredura de cimentos resinosos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Francisco Lia Mondelli

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the surface roughness changes of three current resin cements after tooth brushing simulation, as well as discuss its relation with scanning electron microscopic observations. The materials employed were Enforce Sure Cure (Dentsply, Rely X (3M-ESPE and Variolink II (Vivadent. They were subjected to brushing abrasion (100,000 strokes for each specimen and the surface roughness alterations (before and after strokes were detected. For each roughness test condition, specimens were coated with gold-palladium and observed on a DSM 900 Zeiss scanning electron microscope. Roughness changes values (Ra were statistically increased after brushing strokes. Based on the microscopic observations and roughness changes analysis, all cements studied became rougher after brushing strokes.O objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar a alteração de rugosidade superficial de três cimentos resinosos após submetê-los a ciclos de escovação simulada e analisar qualitativamente a sua superfície através de observações microscópicas. Os materiais empregados neste estudo foram Enforce Sure Cure (Dentsply, Rely X (3M-ESPE e Variolink II (Vivadent. Estes foram submetidos à ciclos de escovação simulada (100.000 ciclos para cada espécime e a alteração de sua rugosidade superficial (antes e após escovação foi avaliada. Para cada material e condição de rugosidade, espécimes foram selecionados, metalizados e observados em microscopia eletrônica de varredura (DSM 900 Zeiss. Baseado nas observações microscópicas e nos valores de alteração de rugosidade, todos os materiais apresentaram aumento de rugosidade aritmética (Ra após ciclos de escovação simulada.

  5. Morphological description of Cosmocerca sp. (Nematoda: Cosmocerdidae) from the Mascarene grass frog Ptychadena cf. mascareniensis (Amphibia: Ptychadenidae). A light and scanning electron microscopic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Gaber, Rewaida; Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Kamel, Reem; Maher, Sherein; El Deeb, Nashwa; Al Quraishy, Saleh; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2017-06-01

    The Mascarene grass frog Ptychadena cf. mascareniensis is a species of frog with a vast area of distribution in Africa. A total of 300 frog specimens were collected from different localities at El-Giza province, Egypt; then dissected and examined for the presence of parasitic infection. Only eighty six (28.66%) specimens were found to be naturally infected with nematode parasite. Seasonally, the prevalence of infection was reached its maximum value of 74.66% during summer and minimum values of 26.66% (20/75), 13.33% (10/75) during spring and autumn, respectively; while no records were observed during winter season. The morphology of the recovered parasite was studied by using light and scanning electron microscopy. The adult worm characterized by anterior extremity with small mouth opening being surrounded by three lips provided with four sub-median cephalic papillae and one pair of lateral amphids. Body measurements showed that male worms were smaller than females measuring 1.22-2.43 (2.21 ± 0.1) mm in length and 0.21-0.34 (0.29 ± 0.01) mm in width. Females measured 1.9-3.7 (2.8 ± 0.1) mm in length and 0.24-0.42 (0.38 ± 0.01) mm in width. Comparing the present parasite with other species of the same genus described previously, several similarities were observed. However, peculiar new characteristics such as the arrangement of plectanes and somatic papillae, the presence of gubernaculum, the position of nerve ring, excretory pore, and vulval opening make it reasonable belongs to the family Cosmocercidae and identified as Cosmocerca sp. In addition, the present study was the first report for occurrence of cosmocercid species from the Mascarene grass frog in Egypt.

  6. Electronically-Scanned Pressure Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, C. F.; Parra, G. T.; Kauffman, R. C.

    1984-01-01

    Sensors not pneumatically switched. Electronic pressure-transducer scanning system constructed in modular form. Pressure transducer modules and analog to digital converter module small enough to fit within cavities of average-sized wind-tunnel models. All switching done electronically. Temperature controlled environment maintained within sensor modules so accuracy maintained while ambient temperature varies.

  7. Effects of erbium-and chromium-doped yttrium scandium gallium garnet and diode lasers on the surfaces of restorative dental materials: a scanning electron microscope study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatipoglu, M; Barutcigil, C

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential effects of laser irradiation, which is commonly performed in periodontal surgery, on the surfaces of restorative materials. Five different restorative dental materials were used in this study, as follows: (1) Resin composite, (2) poly acid-modified resin composite (compomer), (3) conventional glass ionomer cement (GIC), (4) resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC), and (5) amalgam. Four cylindrical samples (8 mm diameter, 2 mm height) were prepared for each restorative material. In addition, four freshly extracted, sound human incisors teeth were selected. Two different laser systems commonly used in periodontal surgery were examined in this study: A 810 nm diode laser at a setting of 1 W with continuous-phase laser irradiation for 10 s, and an erbium-and chromium-doped yttrium scandium gallium garnet (Er, Cr: YSGG) laser at settings of 2.5 W, 3.25 W, and 4 W with 25 Hz laser irradiation for 10 s. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis was performed to evaluate the morphology and surface deformation of the restorative materials and tooth surfaces. According to the SEM images, the Er, Cr: YSGG laser causes irradiation markings that appear as demineralized surfaces on tooth samples. The Er, Cr: YSGG laser also caused deep defects on composite, compomer, and RMGIC surfaces because of its high power, and the ablation was deeper for these samples. High-magnification SEM images of GIC samples showed the melting and combustion effects of the Er, Cr: YSGG laser, which increased as the laser power was increased. In amalgam samples, neither laser left significant harmful effects at the lowest power setting. The diode laser did cause irradiation markings, but they were insignificant compared with those left by the Er, Cr: YSGG laser on the surfaces of the different materials and teeth. Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that Er, Cr: YSGG laser irradiation could cause distortions of the surfaces

  8. Secondary electron imaging of monolayer materials inside a transmission electron microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cretu, Ovidiu, E-mail: cretu.ovidiu@nims.go.jp; Lin, Yung-Chang; Suenaga, Kazutomo [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba 305-8565 (Japan)

    2015-08-10

    A scanning transmission electron microscope equipped with a backscattered and secondary electron detector is shown capable to image graphene and hexagonal boron nitride monolayers. Secondary electron contrasts of the two lightest monolayer materials are clearly distinguished from the vacuum level. A signal difference between these two materials is attributed to electronic structure differences, which will influence the escape probabilities of the secondary electrons. Our results show that the secondary electron signal can be used to distinguish between the electronic structures of materials with atomic layer sensitivity, enhancing its applicability as a complementary signal in the analytical microscope.

  9. Designs for a quantum electron microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruit, P; Hobbs, R G; Kim, C-S; Yang, Y; Manfrinato, V R; Hammer, J; Thomas, S; Weber, P; Klopfer, B; Kohstall, C; Juffmann, T; Kasevich, M A; Hommelhoff, P; Berggren, K K

    2016-05-01

    One of the astounding consequences of quantum mechanics is that it allows the detection of a target using an incident probe, with only a low probability of interaction of the probe and the target. This 'quantum weirdness' could be applied in the field of electron microscopy to generate images of beam-sensitive specimens with substantially reduced damage to the specimen. A reduction of beam-induced damage to specimens is especially of great importance if it can enable imaging of biological specimens with atomic resolution. Following a recent suggestion that interaction-free measurements are possible with electrons, we now analyze the difficulties of actually building an atomic resolution interaction-free electron microscope, or "quantum electron microscope". A quantum electron microscope would require a number of unique components not found in conventional transmission electron microscopes. These components include a coherent electron beam-splitter or two-state-coupler, and a resonator structure to allow each electron to interrogate the specimen multiple times, thus supporting high success probabilities for interaction-free detection of the specimen. Different system designs are presented here, which are based on four different choices of two-state-couplers: a thin crystal, a grating mirror, a standing light wave and an electro-dynamical pseudopotential. Challenges for the detailed electron optical design are identified as future directions for development. While it is concluded that it should be possible to build an atomic resolution quantum electron microscope, we have also identified a number of hurdles to the development of such a microscope and further theoretical investigations that will be required to enable a complete interpretation of the images produced by such a microscope. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Electron beam excitation assisted optical microscope with ultra-high resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inami, Wataru; Nakajima, Kentaro; Miyakawa, Atsuo; Kawata, Yoshimasa

    2010-06-07

    We propose electron beam excitation assisted optical microscope, and demonstrated its resolution higher than 50 nm. In the microscope, a light source in a few nanometers size is excited by focused electron beam in a luminescent film. The microscope makes it possible to observe dynamic behavior of living biological specimens in various surroundings, such as air or liquids. Scan speed of the nanometric light source is faster than that in conventional near-field scanning optical microscopes. The microscope enables to observe optical constants such as absorption, refractive index, polarization, and their dynamic behavior on a nanometric scale. The microscope opens new microscopy applications in nano-technology and nano-science.

  11. Measuring voltage transients with an ultrafast scanning tunneling microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keil, Ulrich Dieter Felix; Jensen, Jacob Riis; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    1997-01-01

    We use an ultrafast scanning tunneling microscope to resolve propagating voltage transients in space and time. We demonstrate that the previously observed dependence of the transient signal amplitude on the tunneling resistance was only caused by the electrical sampling circuit. With a modified......-gating photoconductive switch with a rigidly attached fiber, the probe is scanned without changing the probe characteristics. (C) 1997 American Institute of Physics....

  12. Modeling the hysteresis of a scanning probe microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dirscherl, Kai; Garnæs, Jørgen; Nielsen, L.

    2000-01-01

    Most scanning probe microscopes use piezoelectric actuators in open loop configurations. Therefore a major problem related to these instruments is the image distortion due to the hysteresis effect of the piezo. In order to eliminate the distortions, cost effective software control based on a model...

  13. Modular Scanning Confocal Microscope with Digital Image Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xianjun; McCluskey, Matthew D

    2016-01-01

    In conventional confocal microscopy, a physical pinhole is placed at the image plane prior to the detector to limit the observation volume. In this work, we present a modular design of a scanning confocal microscope which uses a CCD camera to replace the physical pinhole for materials science applications. Experimental scans were performed on a microscope resolution target, a semiconductor chip carrier, and a piece of etched silicon wafer. The data collected by the CCD were processed to yield images of the specimen. By selecting effective pixels in the recorded CCD images, a virtual pinhole is created. By analyzing the image moments of the imaging data, a lateral resolution enhancement is achieved by using a 20 × / NA = 0.4 microscope objective at 532 nm laser wavelength.

  14. Scanning reflection ion microscopy in a helium ion microscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri V. Petrov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Reflection ion microscopy (RIM is a technique that uses a low angle of incidence and scattered ions to form an image of the specimen surface. This paper reports on the development of the instrumentation and the analysis of the capabilities and limitations of the scanning RIM in a helium ion microscope (HIM. The reflected ions were detected by their “conversion” to secondary electrons on a platinum surface. An angle of incidence in the range 5–10° was used in the experimental setup. It was shown that the RIM image contrast was determined mostly by surface morphology but not by the atomic composition. A simple geometrical analysis of the reflection process was performed together with a Monte Carlo simulation of the angular dependence of the reflected ion yield. An interpretation of the RIM image formation and a quantification of the height of the surface steps were performed. The minimum detectable step height was found to be approximately 5 nm. RIM imaging of an insulator surface without the need for charge compensation was successfully demonstrated.

  15. Improved controlled atmosphere high temperature scanning probe microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Karin Vels; Wu, Yuehua; Jacobsen, Torben

    2013-01-01

    ) is monitored by an oxygen sensor. We present here some examples of its capabilities demonstrated by high temperature topography with simultaneously ac electrical conductance measurements during atmosphere changes, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy at various temperatures, and measurements of the surface......To locally access electrochemical active surfaces and interfaces in operando at the sub-micron scale at high temperatures in a reactive gas atmosphere is of great importance to understand the basic mechanisms in new functional materials, for instance, for energy technologies, such as solid oxide...... fuel cells and electrolyzer cells. Here, we report on advanced improvements of our original controlled atmosphere high temperature scanning probe microscope, CAHT-SPM. The new microscope can employ a broad range of the scanning probe techniques including tapping mode, scanning tunneling microscopy...

  16. Transmission electron microscope studies of extraterrestrial materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Lindsay P.

    1995-01-01

    Transmission Electron Microscopy, X-Ray spectrometry and electron-energy-loss spectroscopy are used to analyse carbon in interplanetary dust particles. Optical micrographs are shown depicting cross sections of the dust particles embedded in sulphur. Selected-area electron diffraction patterns are shown. Transmission Electron Microscope specimens of lunar soil were prepared using two methods: ion-milling and ultramicrotomy. A combination of high resolution TEM imaging and electron diffraction is used to characterize the opaque assemblages. The opaque assemblages analyzed in this study are dominated by ilmenite with lesser rutile and spinel exsolutions, and traces of Fe metal.

  17. The Scanning Theremin Microscope: A Model Scanning Probe Instrument for Hands-On Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quardokus, Rebecca C.; Wasio, Natalie A.; Kandel, S. Alex

    2014-01-01

    A model scanning probe microscope, designed using similar principles of operation to research instruments, is described. Proximity sensing is done using a capacitance probe, and a mechanical linkage is used to scan this probe across surfaces. The signal is transduced as an audio tone using a heterodyne detection circuit analogous to that used in…

  18. Exploring the environmental transmission electron microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Jakob B.; Cavalca, Filippo; Damsgaard, Christian D.

    2012-01-01

    of the opportunities that the environmental TEM (ETEM) offers when combined with other in situ techniques will be explored, directly in the microscope, by combining electron-based and photon-based techniques and phenomena. In addition, application of adjacent setups using sophisticated transfer methods...

  19. Exploring the environmental transmission electron microscope

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, Jakob B.; Cavalca, Filippo; Damsgaard, Christian D.; Duchstein, Linus D.L.; Hansen, Thomas W.; Renu Sharma, Peter A. Crozier

    2012-01-01

    The increasing interest and development in the field of in situ techniques have now reached a level where the idea of performing measurements under near realistic conditions has become feasible for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) while maintaining high spatial resolution.In this paper, some of the opportunities that the environmental TEM (ETEM) offers when combined with other in situ techniques will be explored, directly in the microscope, by combining electron-based and photon-based t...

  20. Experiments on terahertz 3D scanning microscopic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yi; Li, Qi

    2016-10-01

    Compared with the visible light and infrared, terahertz (THz) radiation can penetrate nonpolar and nonmetallic materials. There are many studies on the THz coaxial transmission confocal microscopy currently. But few researches on the THz dual-axis reflective confocal microscopy were reported. In this paper, we utilized a dual-axis reflective confocal scanning microscope working at 2.52 THz. In contrast with the THz coaxial transmission confocal microscope, the microscope adopted in this paper can attain higher axial resolution at the expense of reduced lateral resolution, revealing more satisfying 3D imaging capability. Objects such as Chinese characters "Zhong-Hua" written in paper with a pencil and a combined sheet metal which has three layers were scanned. The experimental results indicate that the system can extract two Chinese characters "Zhong," "Hua" or three layers of the combined sheet metal. It can be predicted that the microscope can be applied to biology, medicine and other fields in the future due to its favorable 3D imaging capability.

  1. A New Multichannel Spectral Imaging Laser Scanning Confocal Microscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunhai Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a new multichannel spectral imaging laser scanning confocal microscope for effective detection of multiple fluorescent labeling in the research of biological tissues. In this paper, the design and key technologies of the system are introduced. Representative results on confocal imaging, 3-dimensional sectioning imaging, and spectral imaging are demonstrated. The results indicated that the system is applicable to multiple fluorescent labeling in biological experiments.

  2. Science 101: How Does an Electron Microscope Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Bill

    2013-01-01

    Contrary to popular opinion, electron microscopes are not used to look at electrons. They are used to look for structure in things that are too small to observe with an optical microscope, or to obtain images that are magnified much more than is obtainable with an optical microscope. To understand how electron microscopes work, it will help to go…

  3. Scanning Electron Microscopic Studies of Clinostomum tilapiae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/tv.v22i1.4544 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL · News. OTHER RESOURCES... for Researchers · for Journals · for Authors · for Policy Makers ...

  4. Transmission Electron Microscope Measures Lattice Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, William T.

    1996-01-01

    Convergent-beam microdiffraction (CBM) in thermionic-emission transmission electron microscope (TEM) is technique for measuring lattice parameters of nanometer-sized specimens of crystalline materials. Lattice parameters determined by use of CBM accurate to within few parts in thousand. Technique developed especially for use in quantifying lattice parameters, and thus strains, in epitaxial mismatched-crystal-lattice multilayer structures in multiple-quantum-well and other advanced semiconductor electronic devices. Ability to determine strains in indivdual layers contributes to understanding of novel electronic behaviors of devices.

  5. An in-vitro evaluation of the effect of 980 nm diode laser irradiation on intra-canal dentin surface and dentinal tubule openings after biomechanical preparation: Scanning electron microscopic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhingan, Pulkit; Sandhu, Meera; Jindal, Garima; Goel, Deepti; Sachdev, Vinod

    2015-01-01

    Context: Very recently, diode laser has been used for disinfecting the root canals in endodontic treatment and increasing its success rate and longevity utilizing the thermal effect of laser on surrounding tissues. Aims: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of 980 nm laser irradiation on intra-canal dentin surface – scanning electron microscopic (SEM) - in-vitro study. Methods: A total of 40 single-rooted freshly extracted permanent teeth were collected. Teeth were sectioned at the cemento-enamel junction using diamond disc. Root canals of all samples were prepared using hand ProTaper, which were randomly assigned into two groups (n = 20 each). Group 1: Receiving no treatment after biomechanical preparation; Group 2: 980 nm diode laser-treated root canals. Teeth were prepared for SEM analysis to check the size of intra-canal dentinal tubule openings. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were analyzed using SPSS V.16 software and compared using Levene's and independent t-test. Results: On statistical analysis, width of intracanal dentinal tubule openings in Group 1 (control) was significantly higher than those observed in Group 2 (diode laser-treated) (P diode laser on intra-radicular dentin resulted in ultrastructural alterations resulting in melting of dentin. PMID:26097338

  6. Comparative in vitro evaluation of internal adaptation of resin-modified glass ionomer, flowable composite and bonding agent applied as a liner under composite restoration: A scanning electron microscope study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soubhagya, M; Goud, K Mallikarjun; Deepak, B S; Thakur, Sophia; Nandini, T N; Arun, J

    2015-04-01

    The use of resin-modified glass Ionomer cement in sandwich technique is widely practiced with the advent of various newer generation of composites the bond between resin-modified glass Ionomer and these resins should be validated. This study is done to evaluate the interfacial microgaps between different types of liners and dentin, liners and composite (Filtek p60 [FLp60]) using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Standardized Class V preparations were performed in buccal/lingual surfaces of 30 caries, crack and defect-free extracted human third molars. The prepared teeth were divided into three groups. Group I: Single bond (SB), Group II: SB + synergy flow, Group III: SB + vitrebond. They were restored with composite resin FLp60, according to the manufacturer instructions. The SB + vitrebond, cross-sectioned through the canter of the restoration. The specimens were fixed, dehydrated, polished, and processed for SEM. The internal adaptation of the materials to the axial wall was analyzed under SEM with ×1000 magnification. The data obtained were analyzed with nonparametric tests (Kruskal-Wallis, P < 0.05). flowable composite or resin-modified glass ionomer applied in conjunction with adhesive resulted in statistically wider microgaps than occurred when the dentin was only hybridized prior to the restoration. Hybridization of dentin only provides superior sealing of the dentin-restoration interface than does flowable resin or resin-modified glass ionomer.

  7. Comparison of marginal adaptation of mineral trioxide aggregate, glass ionomer cement and intermediate restorative material as root-end filling materials, using scanning electron microscope: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundam, Sirisha; Patil, Jayaprakash; Venigalla, Bhuvan Shome; Yadanaparti, Sravanthi; Maddu, Radhika; Gurram, Sindhura Reddy

    2014-11-01

    The present study compares the marginal adaption of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA), Glass Ionomer Cement (GIC) and Intermediate Restorative Material (IRM) as root-end filling materials in extracted human teeth using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Thirty single rooted human teeth were obturated with Gutta-percha after cleaning and shaping. Apical 3 mm of roots were resected and retrofilled with MTA, GIC and IRM. One millimeter transverse section of the retrofilled area was used to study the marginal adaptation of the restorative material with the dentin. Mounted specimens were examined using SEM at approximately 15 Kv and 10(-6) Torr under high vacuum condition. At 2000 X magnification, the gap size at the material-tooth interface was recorded at 2 points in microns. One way ANOVA Analysis of the data from the experimental group was carried out with gap size as the dependent variable, and material as independent variable. The lowest mean value of gap size was recorded in MTA group (0.722 ± 0.438 μm) and the largest mean gap in GIC group (1.778 ± 0.697 μm). MTA showed least gap size when compared to IRM and GIC suggesting a better marginal adaptation.

  8. Evaluation of the effects of Er:YAG laser and desensitizing paste containing 8% arginine and calcium carbonate, and their combinations on human dentine tubules: a scanning electron microscopic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunar, Ogul L; Gürsoy, Hare; Çakar, Gökser; Kuru, Bahar; Ipci, Sebnem Dirikan; Yılmaz, Selçuk

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro effects of Er:YAG laser and an in-office desensitizing paste alone or in combination by using scanning electron microscopic (SEM) analysis. Various treatment modalities have been proposed for dentin hypersensitivity, but to date, no single agent or form of treatment has been found effective. Forty dentine specimens obtained from freshly extracted impacted third molars were included and divided into four groups. Group I served as the control, whereas Group II, Group III, and Group IV recieved Er:YAG laser (30 Hz, 60 mJ/pulse, 10 sec), a desensitizing paste (DP) containing 8% arginine and calcium carbonate, and DP+Er:YAG laser in combination, respectively, evaluated under SEM. SEM analysis presented occlusion and narrowing of dentinal tubules in all treatment groups, but more prominent occlusion was observed in the combined treatment group. Intergroup comparisons regarding the tubule diameters and the number of the open dentinal tubules per 100 μm2 revealed statistically significant difference in favor of combined group (ptreatment procedures are effective in dentinal tubule occlusion. However, more prominent occlusion is observed in the combined treatment group.

  9. Analytical scanning evanescent microwave microscope and control stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Xiao-Dong; Gao, Chen; Duewer, Fred; Yang, Hai Tao; Lu, Yalin

    2009-06-23

    A scanning evanescent microwave microscope (SEMM) that uses near-field evanescent electromagnetic waves to probe sample properties is disclosed. The SEMM is capable of high resolution imaging and quantitative measurements of the electrical properties of the sample. The SEMM has the ability to map dielectric constant, loss tangent, conductivity, electrical impedance, and other electrical parameters of materials. Such properties are then used to provide distance control over a wide range, from to microns to nanometers, over dielectric and conductive samples for a scanned evanescent microwave probe, which enable quantitative non-contact and submicron spatial resolution topographic and electrical impedance profiling of dielectric, nonlinear dielectric and conductive materials. The invention also allows quantitative estimation of microwave impedance using signals obtained by the scanned evanescent microwave probe and quasistatic approximation modeling. The SEMM can be used to measure electrical properties of both dielectric and electrically conducting materials.

  10. Scanning optical microscope with long working distance objective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloutier, Sylvain G.

    2010-10-19

    A scanning optical microscope, including: a light source to generate a beam of probe light; collimation optics to substantially collimate the probe beam; a probe-result beamsplitter; a long working-distance, infinity-corrected objective; scanning means to scan a beam spot of the focused probe beam on or within a sample; relay optics; and a detector. The collimation optics are disposed in the probe beam. The probe-result beamsplitter is arranged in the optical paths of the probe beam and the resultant light from the sample. The beamsplitter reflects the probe beam into the objective and transmits resultant light. The long working-distance, infinity-corrected objective is also arranged in the optical paths of the probe beam and the resultant light. It focuses the reflected probe beam onto the sample, and collects and substantially collimates the resultant light. The relay optics are arranged to relay the transmitted resultant light from the beamsplitter to the detector.

  11. Simulation study of secondary electron images in scanning ion microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Ohya, K

    2003-01-01

    The target atomic number, Z sub 2 , dependence of secondary electron yield is simulated by applying a Monte Carlo code for 17 species of metals bombarded by Ga ions and electrons in order to study the contrast difference between scanning ion microscopes (SIM) and scanning electron microscopes (SEM). In addition to the remarkable reversal of the Z sub 2 dependence between the Ga ion and electron bombardment, a fine structure, which is correlated to the density of the conduction band electrons in the metal, is calculated for both. The brightness changes of the secondary electron images in SIM and SEM are simulated using Au and Al surfaces adjacent to each other. The results indicate that the image contrast in SIM is much more sensitive to the material species and is clearer than that for SEM. The origin of the difference between SIM and SEM comes from the difference in the lateral distribution of secondary electrons excited within the escape depth.

  12. Pupil engineering for a confocal reflectance line-scanning microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Yogesh G.; Rajadhyaksha, Milind; DiMarzio, Charles A.

    2011-03-01

    Confocal reflectance microscopy may enable screening and diagnosis of skin cancers noninvasively and in real-time, as an adjunct to biopsy and pathology. Current confocal point-scanning systems are large, complex, and expensive. A confocal line-scanning microscope, utilizing a of linear array detector can be simpler, smaller, less expensive, and may accelerate the translation of confocal microscopy in clinical and surgical dermatology. A line scanner may be implemented with a divided-pupil, half used for transmission and half for detection, or with a full-pupil using a beamsplitter. The premise is that a confocal line-scanner with either a divided-pupil or a full-pupil will provide high resolution and optical sectioning that would be competitive to that of the standard confocal point-scanner. We have developed a confocal line-scanner that combines both divided-pupil and full-pupil configurations. This combined-pupil prototype is being evaluated to determine the advantages and limitations of each configuration for imaging skin, and comparison of performance to that of commercially available standard confocal point-scanning microscopes. With the combined configuration, experimental evaluation of line spread functions (LSFs), contrast, signal-to-noise ratio, and imaging performance is in progress under identical optical and skin conditions. Experimental comparisons between divided-pupil and full-pupil LSFs will be used to determine imaging performance. Both results will be compared to theoretical calculations using our previously reported Fourier analysis model and to the confocal point spread function (PSF). These results may lead to a simpler class of confocal reflectance scanning microscopes for clinical and surgical dermatology.

  13. UAVSAR Active Electronically Scanned Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowy, Gregory, A.; Chamberlain, Neil F.; Zawadzki, Mark S.; Brown, Kyle M.; Fisher, Charles D.; Figueroa, Harry S.; Hamilton, Gary A.; Jones, Cathleen E.; Vorperian, Vatche; Grando, Maurio B.

    2011-01-01

    The Uninhabited Airborne Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) is a pod-based, L-band (1.26 GHz), repeatpass, interferometric, synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) used for Earth science applications. Repeat-pass interferometric radar measurements from an airborne platform require an antenna that can be steered to maintain the same angle with respect to the flight track over a wide range of aircraft yaw angles. In order to be able to collect repeat-pass InSAR data over a wide range of wind conditions, UAVSAR employs an active electronically scanned array (AESA). During data collection, the UAVSAR flight software continuously reads the aircraft attitude state measured by the Embedded GPS/INS system (EGI) and electronically steers the beam so that it remains perpendicular to the flight track throughout the data collection

  14. Analysis of self-organized In(Ga)As quantum structures with the scanning transmission electron microscope; Analyse selbstorganisierter In(Ga)As-Quantenstrukturen mit dem Raster-Transmissionselektronenmikroskop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauerwald, Andres

    2008-05-27

    Aim of this thesis was to apply the analytical methods of the scanning transmission electron microscopy to the study of self-organized In(Ga)As quantum structures. With the imaging methods Z contrast and bright field (position resolutions in the subnanometer range) and especially with the possibilities of the quantitative chemical EELS analysis of the scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) fundamental questions concerning morphology and chemical properties of self-organized quantum structures should be answered. By the high position resolution of the STEM among others essentail morphological and structural parameters in the growth behaviour of 'dot in a well' (DWell) structures and of vertically correlated quantum dots (QDs) could be analyzed. For the optimization of DWell structures samples were studied, the nominal InAs-QD growth position was directedly varied within the embedding InGaAs quantum wells. The STEM offers in connection with the EELS method a large potential for the chemical analysis of quantum structures. Studied was a sample series of self-organized InGaAs/GaAs structures on GaAs substrate, the stress of which was changed by varying the Ga content of the INGaAs material between 2.4 % and 4.3 %. [German] Ziel dieser Arbeit war es, die analytischen Methoden der Raster-Transmissionselektronenmikroskopie zur Untersuchung selbstorganisierter In(Ga)As-Quantenstrukturen anzuwenden. Mit den abbildenden Methoden Z-Kontrast und Hellfeld (Ortsaufloesungen im Subnanometerbereich) und insbesondere mit den Moeglichkeiten der quantitativen chemischen EELS-Analyse des Raster-Transmissionselektronenmikroskops (RTEMs) sollten grundsaetzliche Fragestellungen hinsichtlich der Morphologie und der chemischen Eigenschaften selbstorganisierter Quantenstrukturen beantwortet werden. Durch die hohe Ortsaufloesung des RTEMs konnten u.a. essentielle morphologische und strukturelle Parameter im Wachstumsverhalten von 'Dot in a Well

  15. Comparison of the efficacy of Smear Clear with and without a canal brush in smear layer and debris removal from instrumented root canal using WaveOne versus ProTaper: a scanning electron microscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel, Wael H; Kataia, Engy M

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare by scanning electron microscopy the presence of smear layer and debris on root canal walls after preparation with the single-file system WaveOne (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) versus the rotary ProTaper system (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) under 2 final irrigant regimens. Forty freshly extracted single-rooted human teeth were randomly divided into 4 groups (n = 10). The ProTaper and ProTaper and rotary CanalBrush (Coltène Whaledent GmbH+ Co KG, Langenau, Germany) groups were instrumented with the ProTaper system. Groups WaveOne and WaveOne and rotary CanalBrush were instrumented with the WaveOne system. The irrigant in all groups was 2 mL 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) solution, whereas the final irrigation after preparation in the ProTaper and WaveOne groups was 1 mL Smear Clear solution (Sybron Endo, Orange, CA) and then 5.25% NaOCl applied with a plastic syringe, and in the ProTaper and rotary CanalBrush and WaveOne and rotary CanalBrush groups, it was 1 mL Smear Clear solution and then 5.25% NaOCl (rotary CanalBrush agitation). Roots were processed for scanning electron microscopic examination for debris and smear layer scoring. Data were statistically analyzed. All groups showed more efficient smear layer and debris removal coronally than in the middle and apical regions, whereas the mean total debris score and the mean smear layer score in all groups were less in the WaveOne and rotary CanalBrush groups than the ProTaper and rotary CanalBrush and the WaveOne and ProTaper groups. Using the rotary CanalBrush in canals prepared with WaveOne produced the cleanest canal walls, and the WaveOne system gave superior results compared with the ProTaper system. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. U-10Mo Sample Preparation and Examination using Optical and Scanning Electron Microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabhakaran, Ramprashad [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Joshi, Vineet V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rhodes, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Schemer-Kohrn, Alan L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Guzman, Anthony D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lavender, Curt A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-03-30

    The purpose of this document is to provide guidelines to prepare specimens of uranium alloyed with 10 weight percent molybdenum (U-10Mo) for optical metallography and scanning electron microscopy. This document also provides instructions to set up an optical microscope and a scanning electron microscope to analyze U-10Mo specimens and to obtain the required information.

  17. U-10Mo Sample Preparation and Examination using Optical and Scanning Electron Microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabhakaran, Ramprashad [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Joshi, Vineet V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rhodes, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Schemer-Kohrn, Alan L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Guzman, Anthony D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lavender, Curt A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide guidelines to prepare specimens of uranium alloyed with 10 weight percent molybdenum (U-10Mo) for optical metallography and scanning electron microscopy. This document also provides instructions to set up an optical microscope and a scanning electron microscope to analyze U-10Mo specimens and to obtain the required information.

  18. Towards Automated Nanomanipulation under Scanning Electron Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xutao

    Robotic Nanomaterial Manipulation inside scanning electron microscopes (SEM) is useful for prototyping functional devices and characterizing one-dimensional nanomaterial's properties. Conventionally, manipulation of nanowires has been performed via teleoperation, which is time-consuming and highly skill-dependent. Manual manipulation also has the limitation of low success rates and poor reproducibility. This research focuses on a robotic system capable of automated pick-place of single nanowires. Through SEM visual detection and vision-based motion control, the system transferred individual silicon nanowires from their growth substrate to a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) device that characterized the nanowires' electromechanical properties. The performances of the nanorobotic pick-up and placement procedures were quantified by experiments. The system demonstrated automated nanowire pick-up and placement with high reliability. A software system for a load-lock-compatible nanomanipulation system is also designed and developed in this research.

  19. Microsphere-based super-resolution scanning optical microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huszka, Gergely; Yang, Hui; Gijs, Martin A M

    2017-06-26

    High-refractive index dielectric microspheres positioned within the field of view of a microscope objective in a dielectric medium can focus the light into a so-called photonic nanojet. A sample placed in such nanojet can be imaged by the objective with super-resolution, i.e. with a resolution beyond the classical diffraction limit. However, when imaging nanostructures on a substrate, the propagation distance of a light wave in the dielectric medium in between the substrate and the microsphere must be small enough to reveal the sample's nanometric features. Therefore, only the central part of an image obtained through a microsphere shows super-resolution details, which are typically ∼100 nm using white light (peak at λ = 600 nm). We have performed finite element simulations of the role of this critical distance in the super-resolution effect. Super-resolution imaging of a sample placed beneath the microsphere is only possible within a very restricted central area of ∼10 μm2, where the separation distance between the substrate and the microsphere surface is very small (∼1 μm). To generate super-resolution images over larger areas of the sample, we have fixed a microsphere on a frame attached to the microscope objective, which is automatically scanned over the sample in a step-by-step fashion. This generates a set of image tiles, which are subsequently stitched into a single super-resolution image (with resolution of λ/4-λ/5) of a sample area of up to ∼104 μm2. Scanning a standard optical microscope objective with microsphere therefore enables super-resolution microscopy over the complete field-of-view of the objective.

  20. Light and scanning electron microscopic studies of Myxobolus indica n. sp. and a report of three Myxozoan (Myxosporea: Bivalvulida parasites of cultured ornamental goldfish, Carassius auratus L. for the first time in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandira Saha

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The ornamental fish industry is an economically viable sector in India which suffers from different ectoparasitic infestations, including the myxozoan parasites. An icthyoparasitological survey of myxozoan infections in ornamental fish farms in India revealed the presence of four myxozoan parasites belonging to the family Myxobolidae, in the genera Myxobolus and Thelohanellus. The myxozoan spores were small to large, spherical to ellipsoidal in size. The plasmodia measured 0.5–3.0 mm in diameter with disporic pansporoblasts and mature spores. During the survey the authors identified for the first time in India, three previously described species, namely, M. mehlhorni, T. nikolskii and T. batae; and one new species M. indica n. sp., all infecting the ornamental goldfish, Carassius auratus. The present study thus reports a new host, and a new locality for T. batae and M. mehlhorni. The description of T. nikolskii is the first record found in India. The spore of M. indica n. sp. measures 5.8 ± 0.2 × 4.1 ± 0.5 μm in size, having two equal shaped pyriform polar capsules measuring 4.1 ± 0.4 × 2.7 ± 0.6 μm. The results from a combination of light and scanning electron microscopic observations along with a comparison with closely related species were incorporated here. Molecular data is needed to complete the description of the new species.

  1. A comparative microleakage evaluation of three different base materials in Class I cavity in deciduous molars in sandwich technique using dye penetration and dentin surface interface by scanning electron microscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babita Niranjan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A major objective in restorative dentistry is the control of marginal leakage, which may occur because of dimensional changes or lack of adaptation of restorative material to the cavity preparation. Numerous techniques have been advocated to overcome polymerization shrinkage in composite restorations. Aim and Objectives: This study investigated microleakage of three different bases under composite resin in sandwich technique using dye penetration and dentin surface interface using scanning electron microscope (SEM. Materials and Methods: Sixty extracted deciduous molars were stored in distilled water and Class I cavities with a width of about one-fourth of intercuspal distance and a depth of 0.5-1 mm below the dentino-enamel junction was prepared without bevels. In Group 1 - glass ionomer cement (GIC; Group 2 - mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA; Group 3 - Biodentine™ was placed as a base under composite. Teeth were longitudinally sectioned in two halves, through the centers of the restoration, immersed in 2% methylene blue and microleakage was evaluated under stereomicroscope and surface interface between base and dentin was evaluated under SEM. Results:Under the condition of in vitro study, less microleakage and less internal gaps were seen in Biodentine™ (0.00 ± 0.00 and 4.00 ± 1.59 group than MTA (0.00 ± 0.00 and 6.08 ± 1.82 and GIC (25.25 ± 6.57 and 14.73 ± 3.72, respectively and showed very strong positive correlation between microleakage and internal gaps. Conclusion: Biodentine™ exhibits superior marginal sealing ability as well as marginal adaptation under composite resin as compared to MTA and GIC.

  2. An in vitro scanning electron microscopic study comparing the efficacy of passive ultrasonic and syringe irrigation methods using sodium hypochlorite in removal of debris from the root canal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Vineet S; Kapoor, Sonali

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate and compare the cleaning ability of the more biocompatible 1% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) with passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI) to that of 2.5% NaOCl with syringe method irrigation. Thirty-six extracted permanent single-rooted mandibular premolar teeth were decoronated at the cemento-enamel junction and divided randomly into four groups (nine in each group) after biomechanical preparation. Group 1: Control group - normal saline was used as an irrigant solution. Group 2: PUI with 1% NaOCl. Group 3: syringe irrigation with 1% NaOCl. Group 4: syringe irrigation with 2.5% NaOCl. Roots were split and canal walls were examined at the apical third at 1,000X magnification in a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Debris scores were recorded using a scoring scale. Means were tested for significance using nonparametric Mann-Whitney U and chi-square tests. Group 2 showed the lowest mean score of 0.33 compared to the other groups and Group 1 had the highest mean score. Significant difference was found when PUI with 1% NaOCl (Group 2) was done compared to syringe irrigation with 1% NaOCl (Group 3, p=0.001), and syringe irrigation with 2.5% NaOCl (Group 4, p=0.002). PUI with 1% NaOCl is more effective in removal of debris from the root canal system than syringe irrigation with a higher concentration of 2.5% NaOCl.

  3. The Effect of Systemic Delivery of Aminoguanidine versus Doxycycline on the Resorptive Phase of Alveolar Bone Following modified Widman Flap in Diabetic Rats: A Histopathological and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tella, E; Aldahlawi, S; Eldeeb, A; El Gazaerly, H

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Aminoguanidine (guanylhydrazinehydrochloride) is a drug that prevents many of the classical systemic complications of diabetes including diabetic osteopenia through its inhibitory activity on the accumulation of advanced glycation end –products (AGEs). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of aminoguanidine versus doxycycline in reducing alveolar bone resorption following mucoperiosteal flap in diabetic rats, using the conventional histopathology and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Methods Twenty-seven male albino rats were used in this study. Periodontal defects were induced experimentally on lower anterior teeth. All rats were subjected to induction of diabetes, by IV injection of the pancreatic B-cells toxin alloxan monohydrate. After eight weeks following the establishment of periodontal defects in all rats, the ligation was removed and 3 rats were scarified as negative control (group 1). The remaining animals were divided into three group based on treatment applied following mucoperiosteal flap surgery. Group 2 received saline treatment only, group 3 received doxycycline periostat (1.5 mg/kg/day) for 3 weeks, and group 4 received aminoguanidine (7.3 mmol/kg) for 3 weeks. The fasting glucose level was measured weekly post operatively. After 21 days all rats were sacrificed. Three anterior parts of the mandible of each group was prepared for histopathological examination and two parts were prepared for SEM. Results Aminoguanidine treated group (group 4) showed statistically significant increased new bone formation, higher number of osteoblasts and decrease osteoclasts number, resorptive lacunae and existing inflammatory cell infiltration as compared to positive control group (group 2) (Pdocumental by histopathological study. Conclusion The present study showed that aminoguanidine was significantly effective in reducing alveolar bone loss and can modify the detrimental effects of diabetes in alveolar bone resorption. PMID

  4. The Titan Environmental Transmission Electron Microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Willum; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal; Jinschek, Jörg R.

    2009-01-01

    them and many additional considerations are required when compared to conventional TEM. In particular the parameter space that affects the result of an experiment increases significantly, and it becomes even more important to consider the effect of both electron/solid and electron/gas interactions...... as well as of gases using high-energy electrons. In addition to microscope performance (stability and resolution) the primary challenges of ETEM experiments involve stable and reproducible control of gas pressure, gas flux, and temperature (heating) of gas and specimen. Increased power is required...... to operate TEM heating holders in the presence of gas in the column as a result of the transport of heat away from the sample region by the gas. Even small variations in gas flow will result in large variations in holder and specimen temperature giving rise to sample drift and instability. DTU’s ETEM...

  5. Postprocessing Algorithm for Driving Conventional Scanning Tunneling Microscope at Fast Scan Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an image postprocessing framework for Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM to reduce the strong spurious oscillations and scan line noise at fast scan rates and preserve the features, allowing an order of magnitude increase in the scan rate without upgrading the hardware. The proposed method consists of two steps for large scale images and four steps for atomic scale images. For large scale images, we first apply for each line an image registration method to align the forward and backward scans of the same line. In the second step we apply a “rubber band” model which is solved by a novel Constrained Adaptive and Iterative Filtering Algorithm (CIAFA. The numerical results on measurement from copper(111 surface indicate the processed images are comparable in accuracy to data obtained with a slow scan rate, but are free of the scan drift error commonly seen in slow scan data. For atomic scale images, an additional first step to remove line-by-line strong background fluctuations and a fourth step of replacing the postprocessed image by its ranking map as the final atomic resolution image are required. The resulting image restores the lattice image that is nearly undetectable in the original fast scan data.

  6. Nanoindentation in situ a Transmission Electron Microscope

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Lars

    2007-01-01

    The technique of Nanoindentation in situ Transmission Electron Microscope has been implemented on a Philips CM20. Indentations have been performed on Si and Sapphire (α-Al2O3) cut from wafers; Cr/Sc multilayers and Ti3SiC2 thin films. Different sample geometries and preparation methods have been evaluated. Both conventional ion and Focused Ion Beam milling were used, with different ways of protecting the sample during milling. Observations were made of bending and fracture of samples, disloca...

  7. Construction of a Dual-Tip Scanning Tunneling Microscope: a Prototype Nanotechnology Workstation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelker, Mark Alan

    1993-01-01

    This dissertation describes the construction and performance of a dual-tip scanning tunneling microscope (STM). The microscope was built as a prototype nanotechnology workstation, a general purpose instrument designed to give a researcher the ability to investigate and manipulate nanometer scale structures. Chapter One describes the genesis and development of the concept of nanotechnology, from the atomic hypothesis of Democritus to modern developments in synthetic chemistry. Nanometer scale electronics (molecular electronics) is introduced and the state of the art in this field is described. The dual-tip scanning probe microscope is proposed as a way to address individual molecular electronic devices, a key goal in realizing nanometer scale electronic technology. Investigation of microtubules, a proposed nanometer scale intracellular biological information processing system, is also discussed. Chapter Two reviews the history and fundamental physics of STM, along with the related techniques of Field Ion Microscopy (FIM) and Ballistic Electon Emission Microscopy (BEEM). BEEM is used to introduce the physics of the dual -tip STM. Other dual-probe systems are also described. Chapter Three covers the design and construction of the dual-tip STM. Both hardware and software are described in detail. Chapter Four presents the results obtained with the dual-tip STM, including dual-tip images and noise measurements for the electronic circuitry. The last chapter, Chapter Five, contains suggested design changes for improving the performance of the dual -tip microscope and descriptions of experiments that can be performed with an improved instrument. Design and use of a nanotechnology workstation in the fields of semiconductor electronics, molecular electronics and cellular biology is discussed. Investigation of neurons grown on a silicon chip with a dual-tip STM system is proposed. Four Appendices present a noise model of the STM tunneling gap and preamplifier, describe

  8. Phase-gradient contrast in thick tissue with a scanning microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz, J; Gasecka, A; Daradich, A; Davison, I; Coté, D

    2014-02-01

    It is well known that the principle of reciprocity is valid for light traveling even through scattering or absorptive media. This principle has been used to establish an equivalence between conventional widefield microscopes and scanning microscopes. We make use of this principle to introduce a scanning version of oblique back-illumination microscopy, or sOBM. This technique provides sub-surface phase-gradient and amplitude images from unlabeled tissue, in an epi-detection geometry. That is, it may be applied to arbitrarily thick tissue. sOBM may be implemented as a simple, cost-effective add-on with any scanning microscope, requiring only the availability of an extra input channel in the microscope electronics. We demonstrate here its implementation in combination with two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) microscopy and with coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy, applied to brain or spinal cord tissue imaging. In both cases, sOBM provides information on tissue morphology complementary to TPEF or CARS contrast. This information is obtained simultaneously and is automatically co-registered. Finally, we show that sOBM can be operated at video rate.

  9. A high stability and repeatability electrochemical scanning tunneling microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Zhigang; Wang, Jihao; Lu, Qingyou, E-mail: qxl@ustc.edu.cn [High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Chinese Academy of Sciences and University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Hou, Yubin [High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Chinese Academy of Sciences and University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2014-12-15

    We present a home built electrochemical scanning tunneling microscope (ECSTM) with very high stability and repeatability. Its coarse approach is driven by a closely stacked piezo motor of GeckoDrive type with four rigid clamping points, which enhances the rigidity, compactness, and stability greatly. It can give high clarity atomic resolution images without sound and vibration isolations. Its drifting rates in XY and Z directions in solution are as low as 84 pm/min and 59 pm/min, respectively. In addition, repeatable coarse approaches in solution within 2 mm travel distance show a lateral deviation less than 50 nm. The gas environment can be well controlled to lower the evaporation rate of the cell, thus reducing the contamination and elongating the measurement time. Atomically resolved SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} image on Au (111) work electrode is demonstrated to show the performance of the ECSTM.

  10. Scanning tunneling microscope with continuous flow cryostat sample cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behler, S.; Rose, M.K.; Dunphy, J.C.; Ogletree, D.F.; Salmeron, M. [Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Chapelier, C. [Departement de Recherche Fondamentale sur la Matiere Condensee, CEA/Grenoble, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    1997-06-01

    We have constructed an ultrahigh vacuum scanning tunneling microscope (STM) for operation in the temperature range 20{endash}300 K. The design consists of a vibration isolated sample holder mounted on a continuous flow cryostat. By rotation and linear motion of the cryostat, the sample can be positioned in front of various surface preparation and analysis instruments contained in a single vacuum chamber. A lightweight beetle-type STM head is lowered from the top onto the sample by a linear manipulator. To minimize helium convection in the cryostat, the entire vacuum system, including a liquid helium storage Dewar, can be tilted by a few degrees perpendicular to the cryostat axis, which improves the operation. The performance of the instrument is demonstrated by atomically resolved images of the Pd(111) surface and adsorbed CO molecules. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  11. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy on electron-boson interactions in superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Schackert, Michael Peter

    2015-01-01

    This work describes the experimental study of electron-boson interactions in superconductors by means of inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy performed with a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) at temperatures below 1 K. This new approach allows the direct measurement of the Eliashberg function of conventional superconductors as demonstrated on lead (Pb) and niobium (Nb). Preparative experiments on unconventional iron-pnictides are presented in the end.

  12. Field emission from individual multiwalled carbon nanotubes prepared in an electron microscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jonge, N.; van Druten, N.J.

    2003-01-01

    Individual multiwalled carbon nanotube field emitters were prepared in a scanning electron microscope. The angular current density, energy spectra, and the emission stability of the field-emitted electrons were measured. An estimate of the electron source brightness was extracted from the

  13. Volume 19, Issue8 (December 2004)Articles in the Current Issue:Research ArticleTowards automation of palynology 1: analysis of pollen shape and ornamentation using simple geometric measures, derived from scanning electron microscope images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treloar, W. J.; Taylor, G. E.; Flenley, J. R.

    2004-12-01

    This is the first of a series of papers on the theme of automated pollen analysis. The automation of pollen analysis could result in numerous advantages for the reconstruction of past environments, with larger data sets made practical, objectivity and fine resolution sampling. There are also applications in apiculture and medicine. Previous work on the classification of pollen using texture measures has been successful with small numbers of pollen taxa. However, as the number of pollen taxa to be identified increases, more features may be required to achieve a successful classification. This paper describes the use of simple geometric measures to augment the texture measures. The feasibility of this new approach is tested using scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of 12 taxa of fresh pollen taken from reference material collected on Henderson Island, Polynesia. Pollen images were captured directly from a SEM connected to a PC. A threshold grey-level was set and binary images were then generated. Pollen edges were then located and the boundaries were traced using a chain coding system. A number of simple geometric variables were calculated directly from the chain code of the pollen and a variable selection procedure was used to choose the optimal subset to be used for classification. The efficiency of these variables was tested using a leave-one-out classification procedure. The system successfully split the original 12 taxa sample into five sub-samples containing no more than six pollen taxa each. The further subdivision of echinate pollen types was then attempted with a subset of four pollen taxa. A set of difference codes was constructed for a range of displacements along the chain code. From these difference codes probability variables were calculated. A variable selection procedure was again used to choose the optimal subset of probabilities that may be used for classification. The efficiency of these variables was again tested using a leave

  14. Evaluation of the Effects of Er,Cr:YSGG Laser, Ultrasonic Scaler and Curette on Root Surface Profile Using Surface Analyser and Scanning Electron Microscope: An In Vitro Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Shipra; Lamba, Arundeep Kaur; Faraz, Farrukh; Tandon, Shruti; Ahad, Abdul

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The periodontal therapy is primarily targeted at removal of dental plaque and plaque retentive factors. Although the thorough removal of adherent plaque, calculus and infected root cementum is desirable, it is not always achieved by conventional modalities. To accomplish more efficient results several alternative devices have been used. Lasers are one of the most promising modalities for nonsurgical periodontal treatment as they can achieve excellent tissue ablation with strong bactericidal and detoxification effects. Methods: Thirty freshly extracted premolars were selected and decoronated. The mesial surface of each root was divided vertically into four approximately equal parts. These were distributed into four group based on the root surface treatment. Part A (n = 30) was taken as control and no instrumentation was performed. Part B (n = 30) was irradiated by Erbium, Chromium doped Yttrium Scandium Gallium Garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser. Part C (n = 30) was treated by piezoelectric ultrasonic scaler. Part D (n = 30) was treated by Gracey curette. The surface roughness was quantitatively analyzed by profilometer using roughness average (Ra) value, while presence of smear layer, cracks, craters and melting of surface were analyzed using scanning electron microscope (SEM). The means across the groups were statistically compared with control using Dunnett test. Results: Among the test groups, Er,Cr:YSGG laser group showed maximum surface roughness (mean Ra value of 4.14 μm) as compared to ultrasonic scaler (1.727 μm) and curette group (1.22 μm). However, surface with smear layer were found to be maximum (50%) in curette treated samples and minimum (20%) in laser treated ones. Maximum cracks (83.34%) were produced by ultrasonic scaler, and minimum (43.33%) by curettes. Crater formation was maximum (50%) in laser treated samples and minimum (3.33%) in curette treated ones. 63.33% samples treated by laser demonstrated melting of root surface, followed by

  15. Comparative morphometry and morphology of Anopheles aconitus Form B and C eggs under scanning electron microscope Morfometria e morfologia comparadas de ovos de Anopheles aconitus formas B e C à microscopia eletrônica de varredura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuluck Junkum

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Comparative morphometric and morphological studies of eggs under scanning electron microscope (SEM were undertaken in the three strains of two karyotypic forms of Anopheles aconitus, i.e., Form B (Chiang Mai and Phet Buri strains and Form C (Chiang Mai and Mae Hong Son strains. Morphometric examination revealed the intraspecific variation with respect to the float width [36.77 ± 2.30 µm (Form C: Chiang Mai strain = 38.49 ± 2.78 µm (Form B: Chiang Mai strain = 39.06 ± 2.37 µm (Form B: Phet Buri strain > 32.40 ± 3.52 µm (Form C: Mae Hong Son strain] and number of posterior tubercles on deck [2.40 ± 0.52 (Form B: Phet Buri strain = 2.70 ± 0.82 (Form B: Chiang Mai strain Estudos comparativos morfométricos e morfológicos de ovos à microscopia eletrônica de varredura (SEM foram efetuados nas três linhagens de duas formas cariotípicas de Anopheles aconitus, isto é, Forma B (linhagens Chiang Mai e Phet Buri e Forma C (linhagens Chiang Mai e Mae Hong Son. Exame morfométrico revelou a variação intraespecífica com respeito à largura de superfície [36,77 ± 2,30 µm (Forma C: linhagem Chiang Mai = 38,49 ± 2,78 µm (Forma B: linhagem Chiang Mai = 39,06 ± 2,37 µm (Forma B: linhagem Phet Buri > 32,40 ± 3,52 µm (Forma C: linhagem Mae Hong Son] e número de tubérculos posteriores sobre a superfície livre [2,40 ± 0,52 (Forma B: linhagem Phet Buri = 2,70 ± 0,82 (Forma B: linhagem Chiang Mai < 3,10 ± 0,32 (Forma C: linhagem Chiang Mai = 3,20 ± 0,42 (Forma C: linhagem Mae Hong Son] embora a topografia de superfície dos ovos entre as três linhagens de duas formas cariotípicas tenham sido morfologicamente semelhantes.

  16. Instrumental fundamental parameters and selected applications of the microfocus X-ray fluorescence analysis at a scanning electron microscope; Instrumentelle Fundamentalparameter und ausgewaehlte Anwendungen der Mikrofokus-Roentgenfluoreszenzanalyse am Rasterelektronenmikroskop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rackwitz, Vanessa

    2012-05-30

    For a decade X-ray sources have been commercially available for the microfocus X-ray fluorescence analysis ({mu}-XRF) and offer the possibility of extending the analytics at a scanning electron microscope (SEM) with an attached energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS). By using the {mu}-XRF it is possible to determine the content of chemical elements in a microscopic sample volume in a quantitative, reference-free and non-destructive way. For the reference-free quantification with the XRF the Sherman equation is referred to. This equation deduces the intensity of the detected X-ray intensity of a fluorescence peak to the content of the element in the sample by means of fundamental parameters. The instrumental fundamental parameters of the {mu}-XRF at a SEM/EDS system are the excitation spectrum consisting of X-ray tube spectrum and the transmission of the X-ray optics, the geometry and the spectrometer efficiency. Based on a calibrated instrumentation the objectives of this work are the development of procedures for the characterization of all instrumental fundamental parameters as well as the evaluation and reduction of their measurement uncertainties: The algorithms known from the literature for the calculation of X-ray tube spectrum are evaluated with regard to their deviations in the spectral distribution. Within this work a novel semi-empirical model is improved with respect to its uncertainties and enhanced in the low energy range as well as extended for another three anodes. The emitted X-ray tube spectrum is calculated from the detected one, which is measured at an especially developed setup for the direct measurement of X-ray tube spectra. This emitted X-ray tube spectrum is compared to the one calculated on base of the model of this work. A procedure for the determination of the most important parameters of an X-ray semi-lens in parallelizing mode is developed. The temporal stability of the transmission of X-ray full lenses, which have been in regular

  17. Image Resolution in Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennycook, S. J.; Lupini, A.R.

    2008-06-26

    Digital images captured with electron microscopes are corrupted by two fundamental effects: shot noise resulting from electron counting statistics and blur resulting from the nonzero width of the focused electron beam. The generic problem of computationally undoing these effects is called image reconstruction and for decades has proved to be one of the most challenging and important problems in imaging science. This proposal concerned the application of the Pixon method, the highest-performance image-reconstruction algorithm yet devised, to the enhancement of images obtained from the highest-resolution electron microscopes in the world, now in operation at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  18. Computer-Controlled 3D Laser Scanning Microscope Based On Optical Disk Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, P.; Neveux, L.; Chiaramello, M.; Monteil, P.; Ostrowsky, D. B...

    1987-08-01

    We describe RASCALS* (RAster SCAn Laser System) a 2D and 3D scanning laser microscope and outline it's performance. This system, based on optical disk technology and a PC compatible computer offers an interesting cost/performance ratio compared to existing laser scanning microscopes.

  19. A landmark-based method for the geometrical 3D calibration of scanning microscopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritter, M.

    2007-04-27

    This thesis presents a new strategy and a spatial method for the geometric calibration of 3D measurement devices at the micro-range, based on spatial reference structures with nanometersized landmarks (nanomarkers). The new method was successfully applied for the 3D calibration of scanning probe microscopes (SPM) and confocal laser scanning microscopes (CLSM). Moreover, the spatial method was also used for the photogrammetric self-calibration of scanning electron microscopes (SEM). In order to implement the calibration strategy to all scanning microscopes used, the landmark-based principle of reference points often applied at land survey or at close-range applications has been transferred to the nano- and micro-range in the form of nanomarker. In order to function as a support to the nanomarkers, slope-shaped step pyramids have been developed and fabricated by focused ion beam (FIB) induced metal deposition. These FIB produced 3D microstructures have been sized to embrace most of the measurement volume of the scanning microscopes. Additionally, their special design allows the homogenous distribution of the nanomarkers. The nanomarkers were applied onto the support and the plateaus of the slope-step pyramids by FIB etching (milling) as landmarks with as little as several hundreds of nanometers in diameter. The nanomarkers are either of point-, or ring-shaped design. They are optimized so that they can be spatially measured by SPM and CLSM, and, imaged and photogrammetrically analyzed on the basis of SEM data. The centre of the each nanomarker serves as reference point in the measurement data or images. By applying image processing routines, the image (2D) or object (3D) coordinates of each nanomarker has been determined with subpixel accuracy. The correlative analysis of the SPM, CLSM and photogrammetric SEM measurement data after 3D calibration resulted in mean residues in the measured coordinates of as little as 13 nm. Without the coupling factors the mean

  20. Characterization of Line Nanopatterns on Positive Photoresist Produced by Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadegh Mehdi Aghaei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Line nanopatterns are produced on the positive photoresist by scanning near-field optical microscope (SNOM. A laser diode with a wavelength of 450 nm and a power of 250 mW as the light source and an aluminum coated nanoprobe with a 70 nm aperture at the tip apex have been employed. A neutral density filter has been used to control the exposure power of the photoresist. It is found that the changes induced by light in the photoresist can be detected by in situ shear force microscopy (ShFM, before the development of the photoresist. Scanning electron microscope (SEM images of the developed photoresist have been used to optimize the scanning speed and the power required for exposure, in order to minimize the final line width. It is shown that nanometric lines with a minimum width of 33 nm can be achieved with a scanning speed of 75 µm/s and a laser power of 113 mW. It is also revealed that the overexposure of the photoresist by continuous wave laser generated heat can be prevented by means of proper photoresist selection. In addition, the effects of multiple exposures of nanopatterns on their width and depth are investigated.

  1. SPATIAL REPARTITION OF CURRENT FLUCTUATIONS IN A SCANNING TUNNELING MICROSCOPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome Lagoute

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM is a technique where the surface topography of a conducting sample is probed by a scanning metallic tip. The tip-to-surface distance is controlled by monitoring the electronic tunneling current between the two metals. The aim of this work is to extend the temporal range of this instrument by characterising the time fluctuations of this current on different surfaces. The current noise power spectral density is dominated by a characteristic 1/f component, the physical origin of which is not yet clearly identified, despite a number of investigations. A new I-V preamplifier was developed in order to characterise these fluctuations of the tunnelling current and to obtain images of their spatial repartition. It is observed that their intensity is correlated with some topographical features. This information can be used to get insights on the physical phenomena involved that are not accessible by the usual STM set-up, which is limited to low frequencies.

  2. Quantitative detection of gold nanoparticles on individual, unstained cancer cells by Scanning Electron Microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartsuiker, Liesbeth; van Es, Peter; Petersen, Wilhelmina; van Leeuwen, Ton; Terstappen, Leonardus Wendelinus Mathias Marie; Otto, Cornelis

    2011-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles are rapidly emerging for use in biomedical applications. Characterization of the interaction and delivery of nanoparticles to cells through microscopy is important. Scanning electron microscopes have the intrinsic resolution to visualize gold nanoparticles on cells. A novel sample

  3. Transmission electron microscope calibration methods for critical dimension standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orji, Ndubuisi G.; Dixson, Ronald G.; Garcia-Gutierrez, Domingo I.; Bunday, Benjamin D.; Bishop, Michael; Cresswell, Michael W.; Allen, Richard A.; Allgair, John A.

    2016-10-01

    One of the key challenges in critical dimension (CD) metrology is finding suitable dimensional calibration standards. The transmission electron microscope (TEM), which produces lattice-resolved images having scale traceability to the SI (International System of Units) definition of length through an atomic lattice constant, has gained wide usage in different areas of CD calibration. One such area is critical dimension atomic force microscope (CD-AFM) tip width calibration. To properly calibrate CD-AFM tip widths, errors in the calibration process must be quantified. Although the use of TEM for CD-AFM tip width calibration has been around for about a decade, there is still confusion on what should be considered in the uncertainty analysis. We characterized CD-AFM tip-width samples using high-resolution TEM and high angle annular dark field scanning TEM and two CD-AFMs that are implemented as reference measurement systems. The results are used to outline how to develop a rigorous uncertainty estimate for TEM/CD-AFM calibration, and to compare how information from the two electron microscopy modes are applied to practical CD-AFM measurements. The results also represent a separate validation of previous TEM/CD-AFM calibration. Excellent agreement was observed.

  4. Scanning Electron Microscopy in modern dentistry research

    OpenAIRE

    Paradella, Thaís Cachuté; Unesp-FOSJC; Bottino, Marco Antonio; Unesp-FOSJC

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to review the usage of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) in dentistry research nowadays, through a careful and updated literature review. By using the key-words Scanning Electron Microscopy and one of the following areas of research in dentistry (Endodontics, Periodontics and Implant), in international database (PubMed), in the year of 2012 (from January to September), a total of 112 articles were found. This data was tabled and the articles were classified ac...

  5. The theory and practice of high resolution scanning electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joy, D.C. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (USA) Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Recent advances in instrumentation have produced the first commercial examples of what can justifiably be called High Resolution Scanning Electron Microscopes. The key components of such instruments are a cold field emission gun, a small-gap immersion probe-forming lens, and a clean dry-pumped vacuum. The performance of these microscopes is characterized by several major features including a spatial resolution, in secondary electron mode on solid specimens, which can exceed 1nm on a routine basis; an incident probe current density of the order of 10{sup 6} amps/cm{sup 2}; and the ability to maintain these levels of performance over an accelerating voltage range of from 1 to 30keV. This combination of high resolution, high probe current, low contamination and flexible electron-optical conditions provides many new opportunitites for the application of the SEM to materials science, physics, and the life sciences. 27 refs., 14 figs.

  6. Development of a shear-force scanning near-field cathodoluminescence microscope for characterization of nanostructures' optical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercu, N B; Troyon, M; Molinari, M

    2016-09-01

    An original scanning near-field cathodoluminescence microscope for nanostructure characterization has been developed and successfully tested. By using a bimorph piezoelectric stack both as actuator and detector, the developed setup constitutes a real improvement compared to previously reported SEM-based solutions. The technique combines a scanning probe and a scanning electron microscope in order to simultaneously offer near-field cathodoluminescence and topographic images of the sample. Share-force topography and cathodoluminescence measurements on GaN, SiC and ZnO nanostructures using the developed setup are presented showing a nanometric resolution in both topography and cathodoluminescence images with increased sensitivity compared to classical luminescence techniques. © 2016 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2016 Royal Microscopical Society.

  7. A Simple Metric for Determining Resolution in Optical, Ion, and Electron Microscope Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, Alexandra E; Skinner, Ryan; Sanders, Aric W

    2015-06-01

    A resolution metric intended for resolution analysis of arbitrary spatially calibrated images is presented. By fitting a simple sigmoidal function to pixel intensities across slices of an image taken perpendicular to light-dark edges, the mean distance over which the light-dark transition occurs can be determined. A fixed multiple of this characteristic distance is then reported as the image resolution. The prefactor is determined by analysis of scanning transmission electron microscope high-angle annular dark field images of Si. This metric has been applied to optical, scanning electron microscope, and helium ion microscope images. This method provides quantitative feedback about image resolution, independent of the tool on which the data were collected. In addition, our analysis provides a nonarbitrary and self-consistent framework that any end user can utilize to evaluate the resolution of multiple microscopes from any vendor using the same metric.

  8. Heterobothrium lineatus (Monogenea: Diclidophoridae) infecting the gills of the Nile puffer Tetraodon lineatus (Pisces: Tetraodontidae) from the River Nile, Egypt with a new localit record: a light and scanning electron microscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsy, Kareem S; Khalil, Mona Fathi; Gamil, Irene Sameh; Elebiarie, Ahmed Salem; Ibrahim, Rokia Mahmoud

    2013-12-01

    Heterobothrium lineatus (Monogenea: Diclidophoridae) is described from the gills of Tetraodon lineatus collected from the River Nile at Helwan governorate, Egypt as a new locality record. The morphology and morphometric characterization of the recovered worms were described by means of light and scanning electron microscopy. Twenty two out 35 with a percentage of 62.9% of the examined fish were infected with Heterobothrium sp. (the intensity of infection was about ten worms per fish in general). Most of the infected fish had very pale gills and showed symptoms of anemia. Morphologically, the adult worms were elongated with anterior pointed and posterior broad ends, it measured 1.15-1.76 (1.52 +/- 0.02) mm in length x 0.28-0.39 (0.29 +/- 0.02) mm in width. Two buccal organs situated anteriorly around mouth opening were shown by light and scanning electron microscopy. Haptor subdivided into four pairs of clamps without isthmus separating it from body. The recovered worm differed from the previously species in the same genus by small dimensions of the measurements and presence of a copulatory organ armed with 7-11 genital hooks. Also, it is distinguished from H. tetrodonis and H. okamotoi by absence of a distinct isthmus, and resembled H. lamothei from gills of Sphoeroides testodineus in Mexico and H. lineatus from T. lineatus in Egypt in general appearance and presence of rectangular haptor with the fourth pair of clamps smaller than the previous ones.

  9. Time-resolved scanning electron microscopy with polarization analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frömter, Robert, E-mail: rfroemte@physik.uni-hamburg.de; Oepen, Hans Peter [Institut für Nanostruktur-und Festkörperphysik, Universität Hamburg, Jungiusstraße 11, 20355 Hamburg (Germany); The Hamburg Centre for Ultrafast Imaging, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Kloodt, Fabian; Rößler, Stefan; Frauen, Axel; Staeck, Philipp; Cavicchia, Demetrio R. [Institut für Nanostruktur-und Festkörperphysik, Universität Hamburg, Jungiusstraße 11, 20355 Hamburg (Germany); Bocklage, Lars [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestraße 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); The Hamburg Centre for Ultrafast Imaging, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Röbisch, Volker; Quandt, Eckhard [Institute for Materials Science, Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, 24143 Kiel (Germany)

    2016-04-04

    We demonstrate the feasibility of investigating periodically driven magnetization dynamics in a scanning electron microscope with polarization analysis based on spin-polarized low-energy electron diffraction. With the present setup, analyzing the time structure of the scattering events, we obtain a temporal resolution of 700 ps, which is demonstrated by means of imaging the field-driven 100 MHz gyration of the vortex in a soft-magnetic FeCoSiB square. Owing to the efficient intrinsic timing scheme, high-quality movies, giving two components of the magnetization simultaneously, can be recorded on the time scale of hours.

  10. Scanning transmission electron microscopy: Albert Crewe's vision and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivanek, Ondrej L; Chisholm, Matthew F; Murfitt, Matthew F; Dellby, Niklas

    2012-12-01

    Some four decades were needed to catch up with the vision that Albert Crewe and his group had for the scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) in the nineteen sixties and seventies: attaining 0.5Å resolution, and identifying single atoms spectroscopically. With these goals now attained, STEM developments are turning toward new directions, such as rapid atomic resolution imaging and exploring atomic bonding and electronic properties of samples at atomic resolution. The accomplishments and the future challenges are reviewed and illustrated with practical examples. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Sub-nanosecond time-resolved near-field scanning magneto-optical microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudge, J; Xu, H; Kolthammer, J; Hong, Y K; Choi, B C

    2015-02-01

    We report on the development of a new magnetic microscope, time-resolved near-field scanning magneto-optical microscope, which combines a near-field scanning optical microscope and magneto-optical contrast. By taking advantage of the high temporal resolution of time-resolved Kerr microscope and the sub-wavelength spatial resolution of a near-field microscope, we achieved a temporal resolution of ∼50 ps and a spatial resolution of microscope, the magnetic field pulse induced gyrotropic vortex dynamics occurring in 1 μm diameter, 20 nm thick CoFeB circular disks has been investigated. The microscope provides sub-wavelength resolution magnetic images of the gyrotropic motion of the vortex core at a resonance frequency of ∼240 MHz.

  12. Online correction of scanning probe microscopes with pixel accuracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dirscherl, Kai

    2000-01-01

    -20% depending on the piezo material used and the scan range. The change in sensitivity is up to 20% as well, depending on the scan frequency. Current software controlled SPM are equipped with an algorithm that changes the shape of the control voltage online in a way to produce a linear piezo movement...

  13. Numerical restoration of surface vortices in Nb films measured by a scanning SQUID microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Atsuki; Thanh Huy, Ho; Dang, Vu The; Miyoshi, Hiroki; Hayashi, Masahiko; Ishida, Takekazu

    2017-07-01

    In the present work, we investigated a vortex profile appeared on a pure Nb film (500 nm in thickness, 10 mm x 10 mm) by using a scanning SQUID microscope. We found that the local magnetic distribution thus observed is broadened compared to a true vortex profile in the superconducting film. We therefore applied the numerical method to improve a spatial resolution of the scanning SQUID microscope. The method is based on the inverse Biot-Savart law and the Fourier transformation to recover a real-space image. We found that the numerical analyses give a smaller vortex than the raw vortex profile observed by the scanning microscope.

  14. An Evanescent Field Optical Microscope. Scanning probe Microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hulst, N.F.; Segerink, Franciscus B.; Bölger, B.; Bölger, B.; Wickramasinghe, H. Kumar

    1991-01-01

    An Evanescent Field Optical Microscope (EFOM) is presented, which employs frustrated total internal reflection on a highly localized scale by means of a sharp dielectric tip. The coupling of the evanescent field to the sub-micrometer probe as a function of probe-sample distance, angle of incidence

  15. Field programmable gate array based reconfigurable scanning probe/optical microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Derek B; Lawrence, A J; Dzegede, Zechariah K; Hiester, Justin C; Kim, Cliff; Sánchez, Erik J

    2011-10-01

    The increasing popularity of nanometrology and nanospectroscopy has pushed researchers to develop complex new analytical systems. This paper describes the development of a platform on which to build a microscopy tool that will allow for flexibility of customization to suit research needs. The novelty of the described system lies in its versatility of capabilities. So far, one version of this microscope has allowed for successful near-field and far-field fluorescence imaging with single molecule detection sensitivity. This system is easily adapted for reflection, polarization (Kerr magneto-optical (MO)), Raman, super-resolution techniques, and other novel scanning probe imaging and spectroscopic designs. While collecting a variety of forms of optical images, the system can simultaneously monitor topographic information of a sample with an integrated tuning fork based shear force system. The instrument has the ability to image at room temperature and atmospheric pressure or under liquid. The core of the design is a field programmable gate array (FPGA) data acquisition card and a single, low cost computer to control the microscope with analog control circuitry using off-the-shelf available components. A detailed description of electronics, mechanical requirements, and software algorithms as well as examples of some different forms of the microscope developed so far are discussed.

  16. Development of the Atomic-Resolution Environmental Transmission Electron Microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gai, Pratibha L.; Boyes, Edward D.; Yoshida, Kenta

    2016-01-01

    The development of the novel atomic-resolution environmental transmission electron microscope (atomic-resolution ETEM) for directly probing dynamic gas–solid reactions in situ at the atomic level under controlled reaction conditions consisting of gas environment and elevated temperatures...... is used to study steels, graphene, nanowires, etc. In this chapter, the experimental setup of the microscope column and its peripherals are described....

  17. New scanning technique for the optical vortex microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustyniak, Ireneusz; Popiołek-Masajada, Agnieszka; Masajada, Jan; Drobczyński, Sławomir

    2012-04-01

    In the optical vortex microscopy the focused Gaussian beam with optical vortex scans a sample. An optical vortex can be introduced into a laser beam with the use of a special optical element--a vortex lens. When moving the vortex lens, the optical vortex changes its position inside the spot formed by a focused laser beam. This effect can be used as a new precise scanning technique. In this paper, we study the optical vortex behavior at the sample plane. We also estimate if the new scanning technique results in observable effects that could be used for a phase object detection.

  18. Versatile variable temperature and magnetic field scanning probe microscope for advanced material research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jin-Oh; Choi, Seokhwan; Lee, Yeonghoon; Kim, Jinwoo; Son, Donghyeon; Lee, Jhinhwan

    2017-10-01

    We have built a variable temperature scanning probe microscope (SPM) that covers 4.6 K-180 K and up to 7 T whose SPM head fits in a 52 mm bore magnet. It features a temperature-controlled sample stage thermally well isolated from the SPM body in good thermal contact with the liquid helium bath. It has a 7-sample-holder storage carousel at liquid helium temperature for systematic studies using multiple samples and field emission targets intended for spin-polarized spectroscopic-imaging scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) study on samples with various compositions and doping conditions. The system is equipped with a UHV sample preparation chamber and mounted on a two-stage vibration isolation system made of a heavy concrete block and a granite table on pneumatic vibration isolators. A quartz resonator (qPlus)-based non-contact atomic force microscope (AFM) sensor is used for simultaneous STM/AFM operation for research on samples with highly insulating properties such as strongly underdoped cuprates and strongly correlated electron systems.

  19. Investigating Single Molecule Physics with the Scanning Tunneling Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Calvin Jay

    Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) has given the scientific community a method to view, characterize, and manipulate the world at the atomic scale. Thirty years after the Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded for its invention, the remarkable instrument is still being used to deepen our understanding of physical and chemical processes. Tantamount to this has been the development of new techniques to expand its capabilities allowing STMs to answer increasingly more difficult scientific questions. This dissertation describes three technological thrusts in expanding the STMs capabilities in studying physics at the single molecule level. First, I have helped developed a new technique called the RF-STM which has the potential to snapshot femtosecond and picosecond processes by locking into the high frequency tunneling component generated from the 80MHz laser pulse train. This technique solves the problem of low frequency thermal oscillations when choppers are used in the beam line and if only tunneling signal is monitored, sub-angstrom spatial resolution should be simultaneously possible. Second, I have helped develop the itProbe technique by increasing its ability to map out the interaction potential energy surface (iPES) between a tip-CO molecule and a surface adsorbed molecule. I present a study conducted on the bridge-like 1,4 phenylene diisocyanide molecule where the iPES is probed at different heights and different energies. The result is an ability to 3-dimensionally map out the iPES and provide reliable insight into developing itProbe simulations. Third, I have developed a new technique called Energy Resolved Laser Action STM (ERLA-STM) where we can observe the change in molecular dynamics as a function of the illumination wavelength. In our pyrrolidine study, we demonstrated the kinetic changes that occur when an overtone of the CH stretch mode is excited by a near-IR laser pulse. By sweeping the excitation energy, we can characterize and control single molecule

  20. Advantages of environmental scanning electron microscopy in studies of microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, S P; Pope, R K; Scheetz, R W; Ray, R I; Wagner, P A; Little, B J

    1993-08-01

    Microorganisms, including bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and microalgae, are composed predominantly of water which prohibits direct observation in a traditional scanning electron microscope (SEM). Preparation for SEM requires that microorganisms be fixed, frozen or dehydrated, and coated with a conductive film before observation in a high vacuum environment. Sample preparation may mechanically disturb delicate samples, compromise morphological information, and introduce other artifacts. The environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) provides a technology for imaging hydrated or dehydrated biological samples with minimal manipulation and without the need for conductive coatings. Sporulating cultures of three fungi, Aspergillus sp., Cunninghamella sp., and Mucor sp., were imaged in the ESEM to assess usefulness of the instrument in the direct observation of delicate, uncoated, biological specimens. Asexual sporophores showed no evidence of conidial displacement or disruption of sporangia. Uncoated algal cells of Euglena gracilis and Spirogyra sp. were examined using the backscatter electron detector (BSE) and the environmental secondary electron detector (ESD) of the ESEM. BSE images had more clearly defined intracellular structures, whereas ESD gave a clearer view of the surface E. gracilis cells fixed with potassium permanganate, Spirogyra sp. stained with Lugol's solution, and Saprolegnia sp. fixed with osmium tetroxide were compared using BSE and ESD to demonstrate that cellular details could be enhanced by the introduction of heavy metals. The effect of cellular water on signal quality was evaluated by comparing hydrated to critical point dried specimens.

  1. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) Procedure for HE Powders on a Zeiss Sigma HD VP SEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaka, F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-11-15

    This method describes the characterization of inert and HE materials by the Zeiss Sigma HD VP field emission Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The SEM uses an accelerated electron beam to generate high-magnification images of explosives and other materials. It is fitted with five detectors (SE, Inlens, STEM, VPSE, HDBSD) to enable imaging of the sample via different secondary electron signatures, angles, and energies. In addition to imaging through electron detection, the microscope is also fitted with two Oxford Instrument Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS) 80 mm detectors to generate elemental constituent spectra and two-dimensional maps of the material being scanned.

  2. Improved axial point spread function in a two-frequency laser scanning confocal fluorescence microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jheng-Syong; Chung, Yung-Chin; Chien, Jun-Jei; Chou, Chien

    2018-01-01

    A two-frequency laser scanning confocal fluorescence microscope (TF-LSCFM) based on intensity modulated fluorescence signal detection was proposed. The specimen-induced spherical aberration and scattering effect were suppressed intrinsically, and high image contrast was presented due to heterodyne interference. An improved axial point spread function in a TF-LSCFM compared with a conventional laser scanning confocal fluorescence microscope was demonstrated and discussed. (2018) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  3. Scanning electron microscopy study of Trichomonas gallinae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasca, Tiana; De Carli, Geraldo A

    2003-12-01

    A scanning electron microscopy (SEM) study of Trichomonas gallinae (Rivolta, 1878), provided more information about the morphology of this flagellated protozoan. SEM showed the morphological features of the trophozoites; the emergence of the anterior flagella, the structure of the undulating membrane, the position and shape of the pelta, axostyle and posterior flagellum. Of special interest were the pseudocyst forms.

  4. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis in the electron microscope

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, DC

    2003-01-01

    This book provides an in-depth description of x-ray microanalysis in the electron microscope. It is sufficiently detailed to ensure that novices will understand the nuances of high-quality EDX analysis. Includes information about hardware design as well as the physics of x-ray generation, absorption and detection, and most post-detection data processing. Details on electron optics and electron probe formation allow the novice to make sensible adjustments to the electron microscope in order to set up a system which optimises analysis. It also helps the reader determine which microanalytical me

  5. [Scanning electron microscopy of heat-damaged bone tissue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsanyl, L

    1977-02-01

    Parts of diaphyses of bones were exposed to high temperature of 200-1300 degrees C. Damage to the bone tissue caused by the heat was investigated. The scanning electron microscopic picture seems to be characteristic of the temperature applied. When the bones heated to the high temperature of 700 degrees C characteristic changes appear on the periostal surface, higher temperatura on the other hand causes damage to the compact bone tissue and can be observed on the fracture-surface. Author stresses the importance of this technique in the legal medicine and anthropology.

  6. Restoration of images from the scanning-tunneling microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokaram, A. C.; Persad, N.; Lasenby, J.; Fitzgerald, W. J.; McKinnon, A.; Welland, M.

    1995-08-01

    During the acquisition of an image from any probe microscope instrument, various noise sources cause distortion in the observed image. It is often the case that impulsive disturbances cause bright groups of pixels to replace the actual image data in these locations. Furthermore, the images from a probe microscope show some amount of blurring caused both by the instrument function and the material properties. In almost all image-processing applications it is important to remove any impulsive distortion that may be present before deblurring can be attempted. We give a technique for detecting these impulses and reconstructing the image. This technique is superior to the standard global application of median filters for the case considered. The reconstruction is limited only to the affected regions and therefore results in a much sharper and more meaningful image. With the assumption of Gaussian blur it is then possible to propose several different deblurring methodologies. We present a novel Wiener-filter deblurring implementation and compare it to both maximum-entropy and Richardson-Lucy deblurring.

  7. Identification of sandstone core damage using scanning electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Abdul Razak; Jaafar, Mohd Zaidi; Sulaiman, Wan Rosli Wan; Ismail, Issham; Shiunn, Ng Yinn

    2017-12-01

    Particles and fluids invasion into the pore spaces causes serious damage to the formation, resulting reduction in petroleum production. In order to prevent permeability damage for a well effectively, the damage mechanisms should be identified. In this study, water-based drilling fluid was compared to oil-based drilling fluids based on microscopic observation. The cores were damaged by several drilling fluid systems. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to observe the damage mechanism caused by the drilling fluids. Results showed that the ester based drilling fluid system caused the most serious damage followed by synthetic oil based system and KCI-polymer system. Fine solids and filtrate migration and emulsion blockage are believed to be the major mechanisms controlling the changes in flow properties for the sandstone samples.

  8. Compact scanning transmission x-ray microscope at the photon factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeichi, Yasuo, E-mail: yasuo.takeichi@kek.jp; Inami, Nobuhito; Ono, Kanta [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Suga, Hiroki [Hiroshima University, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Takahashi, Yoshio [Hiroshima University, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2016-01-28

    We report the design and performance of a compact scanning transmission X-ray microscope developed at the Photon Factory. Piezo-driven linear stages are used as coarse stages of the microscope to realize excellent compactness, mobility, and vibrational and thermal stability. An X-ray beam with an intensity of ∼10{sup 7} photons/s was focused to a diameter of ∼40 nm at the sample. At the soft X-ray undulator beamline used with the microscope, a wide range of photon energies (250–1600 eV) is available. The microscope has been used to research energy materials and in environmental sciences.

  9. Method to characterize the vibrational response of a beetle type scanning tunneling microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behler, S.; Rose, M.K.; Ogletree, D.F.; Salmeron, M. [Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    1997-01-01

    We describe a method for analyzing the external vibrations and intrinsic mechanical resonances affecting scanning probe microscopes by using the microscope as an accelerometer. We show that clear correlations can be established between the frequencies of mechanical vibrational modes and the frequencies of peaks in the tunnel current noise power spectrum. When this method is applied to our {open_quotes}beetle{close_quotes} type scanning tunneling microscope (STM), we find unexpected low frequency {open_quotes}rattling resonances{close_quotes} in the 500{endash}1700 Hz range that depend on the exact lateral position of the STM, in addition to the expected mechanical resonances of the STM above 4 kHz which are in good agreement with theoretical estimates. We believe that these rattling resonances may be a general problem for scanning probe microscopes that use some type of kinetic motion for coarse positioning. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  10. The FAST module: An add-on unit for driving commercial scanning probe microscopes at video rate and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esch, Friedrich; Dri, Carlo; Spessot, Alessio; Africh, Cristina; Cautero, Giuseppe; Giuressi, Dario; Sergo, Rudi; Tommasini, Riccardo; Comelli, Giovanni

    2011-05-01

    We present the design and the performance of the FAST (Fast Acquisition of SPM Timeseries) module, an add-on instrument that can drive commercial scanning probe microscopes (SPM) at and beyond video rate image frequencies. In the design of this module, we adopted and integrated several technical solutions previously proposed by different groups in order to overcome the problems encountered when driving SPMs at high scanning frequencies. The fast probe motion control and signal acquisition are implemented in a way that is totally transparent to the existing control electronics, allowing the user to switch immediately and seamlessly to the fast scanning mode when imaging in the conventional slow mode. The unit provides a completely non-invasive, fast scanning upgrade to common SPM instruments that are not specifically designed for high speed scanning. To test its performance, we used this module to drive a commercial scanning tunneling microscope (STM) system in a quasi-constant height mode to frame rates of 100 Hz and above, demonstrating extremely stable and high resolution imaging capabilities. The module is extremely versatile and its application is not limited to STM setups but can, in principle, be generalized to any scanning probe instrument.

  11. Smear layer removal and canal cleanliness using different irrigation systems (EndoActivator, EndoVac, and passive ultrasonic irrigation): field emission scanning electron microscopic evaluation in an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Manuele; Cerroni, Loredana; Iorio, Lorenzo; Armellin, Emiliano; Conte, Gabriele; Cianconi, Luigi

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of different irrigating methods in removing the smear layer at 1, 3, 5, and 8 mm from the apex of endodontic canals. Sixty-five extracted single-rooted human mandibular premolars were decoronated to a standardized length of 16 mm. Specimens were shaped to ProTaper F4 (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) and irrigated with 5.25% NaOCl at 37°C. Teeth were divided into 5 groups (2 control groups [n = 10] and 3 test groups [n = 15]) according to the final irrigant activation/delivering technique (ie, sonic irrigation, passive ultrasonic irrigation [PUI], or apical negative pressure). Root canals were then split longitudinally and observed by field emission scanning electron microscopy. The presence of debris and a smear layer at 1, 3, 5, and 8 mm from the apex was evaluated. Scores were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. The EndoActivator System (Dentsply Tulsa Dental Specialties, Tulsa, OK) was significantly more efficient than PUI and the control groups in removing the smear layer at 3, 5, and 8 mm from the apex. The EndoVac System (Discus Dental, Culver City, CA) removed statistically significantly more smear layer than all groups at 1, 3, 5, and 8 mm from the apex. At 5 and 8 mm from the apex, PUI and the EndoVac did not differ statistically significantly, but both performed statistically better than the control groups. In our study, none of the activation/delivery systems completely removed the smear layer from the endodontic dentine walls; nevertheless, the EndoActivator and EndoVac showed the best results at 3, 5, and 8 mm (EndoActivator) and 1, 3, 5, and 8 mm (EndoVac) from the apex. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A scanning electron microscopic evaluation of different root canal irrigation regimens Avaliação por microscopia eletrônica de varredura de diferentes regimes irrigantes no canal radicular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaves Medici Mônika

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of endodontic irrigants in removing the smear layer from instrumented root canal walls using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. The endodontic irrigants used were: 1% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl; 1% NaOCl mixed to 17% EDTAC; 2% chlorhexidine gel; and Ricinus communis gel. Photomicrographs of the middle and apical thirds were evaluated with the aid of the Fotoscore - v. 2.0 software. The results indicated that the mixture of sodium hypochlorite and EDTAC completely removed the smear layer from dentinal walls. The other endodontic irrigants were not as efficient in cleansing the root canals.A proposta deste estudo foi avaliar, por meio de microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV, a efetividade dos irrigantes endodônticos na remoção da "smear layer" das paredes dos canais radiculares instrumentados. Os irrigantes endodônticos utilizados foram: solução de hipoclorito de sódio a 1%; solução de hipoclorito de sódio a 1% misturado ao EDTAC a 17%, gel de clorexidina a 2% e gel de Ricinus communis. Fotomicrografias dos terços médio e apical foram avaliadas com o auxílio do software Fotoscore - versão 2.0. Os resultados indicaram que a mistura da solução de hipoclorito de sódio e EDTAC removeu eficientemente a "smear layer" das paredes dentinárias. Os demais irrigantes endodônticos não foram tão eficientes na limpeza dos canais.

  13. Catalysts under Controlled Atmospheres in the Transmission Electron Microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Willum; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal

    2014-01-01

    microscope, and since its invention by Ernst Ruska, the idea of imaging samples under gaseous atmospheres was envisioned. However, microscopes have traditionally been operated in high vacuum due to sensitive electron sources, sample contamination, and electron scattering off gas molecules resulting in loss...... of resolution. Using suitably clean gases, modified pumping schemes, and short pathways through dense gas regions, these issues are now circumvented. Here we provide an account of best practice using environmental transmission electron microscopy on catalytic systems illustrated using select examples from...

  14. Designing a curriculum about electron microscope based on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ten books from reference books and electronic sources were selected as samples for design the syllabus. The objectives and content was developed according to disciplinary method. Finally, researchers propose 4 objectives and 10 contents about electron microscope learning for undergraduates. The main objects are: ...

  15. [Current application of confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) in stomatology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-sen; Li, Ning-yi

    2007-04-01

    Confocal laser scanning microscopy is one kind of modern Hi-tech on the basis of confocal imaging which is characterized by depth discrimination capability. It has been widely used in the field of stomatology due to its great advantages of non-destructive and non-invasive optical sectioning and three-dimensional reconstruction of the vital objects, in situ and dynamic real-time observation of the tissues and cells can be performed at high resolution. This paper reviews the fundamentals of confocal imaging and the application of CLSM in the fields of dental material, caries, dentin bonding interface and other basic researches in stomatology in recent years.

  16. Destructive effects induced by the electron beam in scanning electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, M. C.; Bita, B. I.; Banu, M. A.; Tomescu, R. M.

    2016-12-01

    The Scanning Electron Microscopy has been validated by its impressive imaging and reliable measuring as an essential characterization tool for a variety of applications and research fields. This paper is a comprehensive study dedicated to the undesirable influence of the accelerated electron beam associated with the dielectric materials, sensitive structures or inappropriate sample manipulation. Depending on the scanning conditions, the electron beam may deteriorate the investigated sample due to the extended focusing or excessive high voltage and probe current applied on vulnerable configurations. Our aim is to elaborate an instructive material for improved SEM visualization capabilities by overcoming the specific limitations of the technique. Particular examination and measuring methods are depicted along with essential preparation and manipulation procedures in order to protect the integrity of the sample. Various examples are mentioned and practical solutions are described in respect to the general use of the electron microscope.

  17. Scanning electron microscopy of superficial white onychomycosis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida Jr., Hiram Larangeira; Boabaid, Roberta Oliveira; Timm, Vitor; Silva, Ricardo Marques e; de Castro, Luis Antonio Suita

    2015-01-01

    Superficial white onychomycosis is characterized by opaque, friable, whitish superficial spots on the nail plate. We examined an affected halux nail of a 20-year-old male patient with scanning electron microscopy. The mycological examination isolated Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Abundant hyphae with the formation of arthrospores were found on the nail's surface, forming small fungal colonies. These findings showed the great capacity for dissemination of this form of onychomycosis. PMID:26560225

  18. Scanning electron microscopy of molluscum contagiosum*

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida Jr,Hiram Larangeira de; Abuchaim,Martha Oliveira; Schneide, Maiko Abel; Marques, Leandra; Castro, Luis Antônio Suíta de

    2013-01-01

    Molluscum contagiosum is a disease caused by a poxvirus. It is more prevalent in children up to 5 years of age. There is a second peak of incidence in young adults. In order to examine its ultrastructure, three lesions were curetted without disruption, cut transversely with a scalpel, and routinely processed for scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The oval structure of molluscum contagiosum could be easily identified. In its core, there was a central umbilication and just below this depressio...

  19. Scanning electron microscopy of cold gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santra, Bodhaditya; Ott, Herwig

    2015-06-01

    Ultracold quantum gases offer unique possibilities to study interacting many-body quantum systems. Probing and manipulating such systems with ever increasing degree of control requires novel experimental techniques. Scanning electron microscopy is a high resolution technique which can be used for in situ imaging, single site addressing in optical lattices and precision density engineering. Here, we review recent advances and achievements obtained with this technique and discuss future perspectives.

  20. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy of the internal cellular organization of fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, W.H.; Aelst, van A.C.; Humbel, B.M.; Krift, van der T.P.; Boekhout, T.

    2000-01-01

    Internal viewing of the cellular organization of hyphae by scanning electron microscopy is an alternative to observing sectioned fungal material with a transmission electron microscope. To study cytoplasmic organelles in the hyphal cells of fungi by SEM, colonies were chemically fixed with

  1. Structural examination of lithium niobate ferroelectric crystals by combining scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efremova, P. V.; Ped'ko, B. B.; Kuznecova, Yu. V.

    2016-02-01

    The structure of lithium niobate single crystals is studied by a complex technique that combines scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. By implementing the piezoresponse force method on an atomic force microscope, the domain structure of lithium niobate crystals, which was not revealed without electron beam irradiation, is visualized

  2. Experimental charge density from electron microscopic maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jimin

    2017-08-01

    The charge density (CD) distribution of an atom is the difference per unit volume between the positive charge of its nucleus and the distribution of the negative charges carried by the electrons that are associated with it. The CDs of the atoms in macromolecules are responsible for their electrostatic potential (ESP) distributions, which can now be visualized using cryo-electron microscopy at high resolution. CD maps can be recovered from experimental ESP density maps using the negative Laplacian operation. CD maps are easier to interpret than ESP maps because they are less sensitive to long-range electrostatic effects. An ESP-to-CD conversion involves multiplication of amplitudes of structure factors as Fourier transforms of these maps in reciprocal space by 1/d2 , where d is the resolution of reflections. In principle, it should be possible to determine the charges carried by the individual atoms in macromolecules by comparing experimental CD maps with experimental ESP maps. © 2017 The Protein Society.

  3. Local potentiometry using a multiprobe scanning tunneling microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannani, A; Bobisch, C A; Möller, R

    2008-08-01

    Scanning tunneling potentiometry (STP) is a powerful tool to analyze the conductance through thin conducting layers with lateral resolution in the nanometer range. In this work, we show how a commercial ultrahigh vacuum multiprobe system, equipped with four independent tips, can be used to perform STP experiments. Two tips are gently pushed into the surface applying a lateral current through the layer of interest. Simultaneously, the topography and the potential distribution across the metal film are measured with a third tip. The signal-to-noise ratio of the potentiometry signal may be enhanced by using a fourth tip, providing a reference potential in close vicinity of the studied area. Two different examples are presented. For epitaxial (111) oriented Bi films, grown on a Si(100)-(2 x 1) surface, an almost constant gradient of the potential as well as potential drops at individual Bi-domain boundaries were observed. On the surface of the Si(111)(3 x 3)-Ag superstructure the potential variation at individual monoatomic steps could be precisely resolved.

  4. Quantitative magnetic measurements with transmission electron microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusz, Jan, E-mail: jan.rusz@fysik.uu.s [Department of Physics and Materials Science, Uppsala University, Box 530, S-751 21 (Sweden); Lidbaum, Hans [Department of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, Box 534, S-751 21 (Sweden); Liebig, Andreas; Hjoervarsson, Bjoergvin; Oppeneer, Peter M. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, Uppsala University, Box 530, S-751 21 (Sweden); Rubino, Stefano [Department of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, Box 534, S-751 21 (Sweden); Eriksson, Olle [Department of Physics and Materials Science, Uppsala University, Box 530, S-751 21 (Sweden); Leifer, Klaus [Department of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, Box 534, S-751 21 (Sweden)

    2010-05-15

    We briefly review the state-of-the-art electron magnetic chiral dichroism experiments and theory with focus on quantitative measurements of the atom-specific orbital to spin moment ratio m{sub l}/m{sub s}. Our approach of quantitative method, based on reciprocal space mapping of the magnetic signal, is described. We discuss additional symmetry considerations for m{sub l}/m{sub s} measurements, which are present due to dynamical diffraction effects. These lead to a preference for the 3-beam orientation of the sample. Further on, we describe a method of correcting asymmetries present due to imperfect 3-beam orientation-the so-called double-difference correction.

  5. Scanning Electron Microscopy with Samples in an Electric Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Ludĕk; Hovorka, Miloš; Mikmeková, Šárka; Mikmeková, Eliška; Müllerová, Ilona; Pokorná, Zuzana

    2012-01-01

    The high negative bias of a sample in a scanning electron microscope constitutes the “cathode lens” with a strong electric field just above the sample surface. This mode offers a convenient tool for controlling the landing energy of electrons down to units or even fractions of electronvolts with only slight readjustments of the column. Moreover, the field accelerates and collimates the signal electrons to earthed detectors above and below the sample, thereby assuring high collection efficiency and high amplification of the image signal. One important feature is the ability to acquire the complete emission of the backscattered electrons, including those emitted at high angles with respect to the surface normal. The cathode lens aberrations are proportional to the landing energy of electrons so the spot size becomes nearly constant throughout the full energy scale. At low energies and with their complete angular distribution acquired, the backscattered electron images offer enhanced information about crystalline and electronic structures thanks to contrast mechanisms that are otherwise unavailable. Examples from various areas of materials science are presented.

  6. A simple but precise method for quantitative measurement of the quality of the laser focus in a scanning optical microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trägårdh, J; Macrae, K; Travis, C; Amor, R; Norris, G; Wilson, S H; Oppo, G-L; McConnell, G

    2015-07-01

    We report a method for characterizing the focussing laser beam exiting the objective in a laser scanning microscope. This method provides the size of the optical focus, the divergence of the beam, the ellipticity and the astigmatism. We use a microscopic-scale knife edge in the form of a simple transmission electron microscopy grid attached to a glass microscope slide, and a light-collecting optical fibre and photodiode underneath the specimen. By scanning the laser spot from a reflective to a transmitting part of the grid, a beam profile in the form of an error function can be obtained and by repeating this with the knife edge at different axial positions relative to the beam waist, the divergence and astigmatism of the postobjective laser beam can be obtained. The measured divergence can be used to quantify how much of the full numerical aperture of the lens is used in practice. We present data of the beam radius, beam divergence, ellipticity and astigmatism obtained with low (0.15, 0.7) and high (1.3) numerical aperture lenses and lasers commonly used in confocal and multiphoton laser scanning microscopy. Our knife-edge method has several advantages over alternative knife-edge methods used in microscopy including that the knife edge is easy to prepare, that the beam can be characterized also directly under a cover slip, as necessary to reduce spherical aberrations for objectives designed to be used with a cover slip, and it is suitable for use with commercial laser scanning microscopes where access to the laser beam can be limited. © 2015 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2015 Royal Microscopical Society.

  7. Time Dependent Tunneling in Laser Irradiated Scanning Tunneling Microscope Junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sookyung Hur

    A principal motivation for the studies reported in this thesis was to obtain a theoretical explanation for the experimental results obtained by Nguyen et al. (1989) to determine the traversal time of an electron tunneling through a quantum mechanical barrier in a laser irradiated STM junction. The work therefore focused on the calculation of tunneling in a time-dependent oscillating barrier, and more specifically on the inelastic contributions to the tunneling current. To do so the kinetic formalism for tunneling was modified and extended to calculate inelastic processes in an irradiated tunneling junction. Furthermore, there is significant absorption of power from the laser beam in the junction electrodes resulting in thermal effects which can influence the tunneling. Extensive analysis of the spatial and temporal temperature distributions was first done for a realistic model of the diode emitter and anode using the Green function method. Specifically we considered (i) thermal effects due to surface heating of the absorbed laser radiation, (ii) the thermoelectric emf produced in the junction due to differential heating, and (iii) resistive and Thomson heat produced in the junction by laser induced currents. Using first-order time-dependent perturbation theory we also (iv) calculated the inelastic tunneling current due to a time dependent oscillating barrier produced by the antenna geometry of the STM junction. Lastly, we (v) formulated photo-assisted tunneling due to the electron -photon interaction in the junction using the second-quantization formalism. Although quite significant results were obtained for the tunneling current density as a function of frequency, gap distance and other junction parameters which gave insights into important features of the Nguyen et al. experiment (and tunneling characteristics of an irradiated STM in general), no single expression was derived or calculated results obtained which explains or fits all their observed data, or

  8. Upgrade of a Scanning Confocal Microscope to a Single-Beam Path STED Microscope.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Klauss

    Full Text Available By overcoming the diffraction limit in light microscopy, super-resolution techniques, such as stimulated emission depletion (STED microscopy, are experiencing an increasing impact on life sciences. High costs and technically demanding setups, however, may still hinder a wider distribution of this innovation in biomedical research laboratories. As far-field microscopy is the most widely employed microscopy modality in the life sciences, upgrading already existing systems seems to be an attractive option for achieving diffraction-unlimited fluorescence microscopy in a cost-effective manner. Here, we demonstrate the successful upgrade of a commercial time-resolved confocal fluorescence microscope to an easy-to-align STED microscope in the single-beam path layout, previously proposed as "easy-STED", achieving lateral resolution < λ/10 corresponding to a five-fold improvement over a confocal modality. For this purpose, both the excitation and depletion laser beams pass through a commercially available segmented phase plate that creates the STED-doughnut light distribution in the focal plane, while leaving the excitation beam unaltered when implemented into the joint beam path. Diffraction-unlimited imaging of 20 nm-sized fluorescent beads as reference were achieved with the wavelength combination of 635 nm excitation and 766 nm depletion. To evaluate the STED performance in biological systems, we compared the popular phalloidin-coupled fluorescent dyes Atto647N and Abberior STAR635 by labeling F-actin filaments in vitro as well as through immunofluorescence recordings of microtubules in a complex epithelial tissue. Here, we applied a recently proposed deconvolution approach and showed that images obtained from time-gated pulsed STED microscopy may benefit concerning the signal-to-background ratio, from the joint deconvolution of sub-images with different spatial information which were extracted from offline time gating.

  9. Valence electron energy-loss spectroscopy in monochromated scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erni, Rolf; Browning, Nigel D

    2005-10-01

    With the development of monochromators for (scanning) transmission electron microscopes, valence electron energy-loss spectroscopy (VEELS) is developing into a unique technique to study the band structure and optical properties of nanoscale materials. This article discusses practical aspects of spatially resolved VEELS performed in scanning transmission mode and the alignments necessary to achieve the current optimum performance of approximately 0.15 eV energy resolution with an electron probe size of approximately 1 nm. In particular, a collection of basic concepts concerning the acquisition process, the optimization of the energy resolution, the spatial resolution and the data processing are provided. A brief study of planar defects in a Y(1)Ba(2)Cu(3)O(7-)(delta) high-temperature superconductor illustrates these concepts and shows what kind of information can be accessed by VEELS.

  10. A scanning force microscope for simultaneous force and patch-clamp measurements on living cell tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, M. G.; Öffner, W.; Wittmann, H.; Flösser, H.; Schaar, H.; Häberle, W.; Pralle, A.; Ruppersberg, J. P.; Hörber, J. K. H.

    1997-06-01

    For the investigation of mechanosensitive ion channels of living cells it is of great interest to apply very local forces in the piconewton range and to measure, simultaneously, ion currents down to 1 pA. Scanning force microscopy (SFM) is a suitable technique, that allows the application of such small forces with a lateral resolution in the range of 10 nm. We developed a novel type of experimental setup, because no existing SFM, home built or commercial, allows a simultaneous investigation of ion currents and mechanical properties of living cells. The construction consists of a SFM that is combined with an upright infrared differential interference contrast (DIC) video microscope and a conventional patch-clamp setup. Instead of the object, the force sensor is scanned to prevent relative movements between the patch pipette and the patched cell. The deflection of the SFM cantilever is detected with the so-called optical deflection method through the objective of the optical microscope. In opposite to common optical setups the laser beam was not focused on the force sensor. The presented optic creates a parallel laser beam between the objective and the SFM cantilever, which allows a vertical displacement of the sensor without any changes of the detector signal. For the three-dimensional positioning of the specimen chamber a two-axis translation stage including a vertical piezoelectric translation device was developed. The SFM tip is fixed on a combined lateral and vertical translation stage including a piezoelectric tube scanner for three-dimensional fine positioning. Thus the instrument enables an easy approach of the SFM tip to any optically identified cell structure. The head stage of the patch-clamp electronics and the patch pipette are directly fixed on the specimen stage. This prevents relative movements between patched cells and patch pipette during the approach to the SFM tip. The three-axis positioning of the patch pipette is done by a compact hydraulic

  11. Inducing superconductivity at a nanoscale: photodoping with a near-field scanning optical microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decca, R S; Drew, H D; Maiorov, B; Guimpel, J; Osquiguil, E J

    1999-01-01

    The local modification of an insulating GdBa2Cu3O6.5 thin film, made superconducting by illumination with a near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM), is reported. A 100-nm aperture NSOM probe acts as a sub-wavelength light source of wavelength lambda(exc) = 480-650 nm, locally generating photocarriers in an otherwise insulating GdBa2-Cu3O6.5 thin film. Of the photogenerated electron-hole pairs, electrons are trapped in the crystallographic lattice, defining an electrostatic confining potential to enable the holes to move. Reflectance measurements at lambda = 1.55 microm at room temperature show that photocarriers can be induced and constrained to move on a approximately 200 nm scale for all investigated lambda(exc). Photogenerated wires present a superconducting critical temperature Tc= 12 K with a critical current density Jc = 10(4) A cm(-2). Exploiting the flexibility provided by photodoping through a NSOM probe, a junction was written by photodoping a wire with a narrow (approximately 50 nm) under-illuminated gap. The strong magnetic field modulation of the critical current provides a clear signature of the existence of a Josephson effect in the junction.

  12. Three-Dimensional Orientation Mapping in the Transmission Electron Microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Haihua; Schmidt, Søren; Poulsen, Henning Friis

    2011-01-01

    resolution of 200 nanometers (nm). We describe here a nondestructive technique that enables 3D orientation mapping in the transmission electron microscope of mono- and multiphase nanocrystalline materials with a spatial resolution reaching 1 nm. We demonstrate the technique by an experimental study...

  13. In situ nanoindentation in a transmission electron microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minor, Andrew M. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This dissertation presents the development of the novel mechanical testing technique of in situ nanoindentation in a transmission electron microscope (TEM). This technique makes it possible to simultaneously observe and quantify the mechanical behavior of nano-scale volumes of solids.

  14. A Video Rate Confocal Laser Beam Scanning Light Microscope Using An Image Dissector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Seth R.; Hubin, Thomas; Rosenthal, Scott; Washburn, Clayton

    1989-12-01

    A video rate confocal reflected light microscope with no moving parts has been developed. Return light from an acousto-optically raster scanned laser beam is imaged from the microscope stage onto the photocathode of an Image Dissector Tube (IDT). Confocal operation is achieved by appropriately raster scanning with the IDT x and y deflection coils so as to continuously "sample" that portion of the photocathode that is being instantaneously illuminated by the return image of the scanning laser spot. Optimum IDT scan parameters and geometric distortion correction parameters are determined under computer control within seconds and are then continuously applied to insure system alignment. The system is operational and reflected light images from a variety of objects have been obtained. The operating principle can be extended to fluorescence and transmission microscopy.

  15. Quantitative imaging of graphene impedance with the near-field scanning microwave microscope.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalugin, Nikolai G. (New Mexico Tech, Socorro, NM); Gonzales, Edward; Kalichava, Irakli (New Mexico Tech, Socorro, NM); Gin, Aaron V.; Wickey, Lee (New Mexico Tech, Socorro, NM); Del Barga, Christopher (New Mexico Tech, Socorro, NM); Talanov, Vladimir V. (Neocera, LLC, Beltsville, MD); Shaner, Eric Arthur

    2010-07-01

    Graphene has emerged as a promising material for high speed nano-electronics due to the relatively high carrier mobility that can be achieved. To further investigate electronic transport in graphene and reveal its potential for microwave applications, we employed a near-field scanning microwave microscope with the probe formed by an electrically open end of a 4 GHz half-lambda parallel-strip transmission line resonator. Because of the balanced probe geometry, our microscope allows for truly localized quantitative characterization of various bulk and low-dimensional materials, with the response region defined by the one micron spacing between the two metallic strips at the probe tip. The single- and few-layer graphene flakes were fabricated by a mechanical cleavage method on 300-nm-thick silicon dioxide grown on low resistivity Si wafer. The flake thickness was determined using both AFM and Raman microscopies. We observe clear correlation between the near-field microwave and far-field optical images of graphene produced by the probe resonant frequency shift and thickness-defined color gradation, respectively. We show that the microwave response of graphene flakes is determined by the local sheet impedance, which is found to be predominantly active. Furthermore, we apply a quantitative electrodynamic model relating the probe resonant frequency shift to 2D conductivity of single- and few-layer graphene. From fitting a model to the experimental data we evaluate graphene sheet resistance as a function of thickness. Near-field scanning microwave microscopy can simultaneously image location, geometry, thickness, and distribution of electrical properties of graphene without a need for device fabrication. The approach may be useful for design of graphene-based microwave transistors, quality control of large area graphene sheets, or investigation of chemical and electrical doping effects on graphene transport properties. We acknowledge support from the DOE Center for

  16. Masked illumination scheme for a galvanometer scanning high-speed confocal fluorescence microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Uk; Moon, Sucbei; Song, Hoseong; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Kim, Dug Young

    2011-01-01

    High-speed beam scanning and data acquisition in a laser scanning confocal microscope system are normally implemented with a resonant galvanometer scanner and a frame grabber. However, the nonlinear scanning speed of a resonant galvanometer can generate nonuniform photobleaching in a fluorescence sample as well as image distortion near the edges of a galvanometer scanned fluorescence image. Besides, incompatibility of signal format between a frame grabber and a point detector can lead to digitization error during data acquisition. In this article, we introduce a masked illumination scheme which can effectively decrease drawbacks in fluorescence images taken by a laser scanning confocal microscope with a resonant galvanometer and a frame grabber. We have demonstrated that the difference of photobleaching between the center and the edge of a fluorescence image can be reduced from 26 to 5% in our confocal laser scanning microscope with a square illumination mask. Another advantage of our masked illumination scheme is that the zero level or the lowest input level of an analog signal in a frame grabber can be accurately set by the dark area of a mask in our masked illumination scheme. We have experimentally demonstrated the advantages of our masked illumination method in detail. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Historical evolution toward achieving ultrahigh vacuum in JEOL electron microscopes

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshimura, Nagamitsu

    2014-01-01

    This book describes the developmental history of the vacuum system of the transmission electron microscope (TEM) at the Japan Electron Optics Laboratory (JEOL) from its inception to its use in today’s high-technology microscopes. The author and his colleagues were engaged in developing vacuum technology for electron microscopes (JEM series) at JEOL for many years. This volume presents a summary and explanation of their work and the technology that makes possible a clean ultrahigh vacuum. The typical users of the TEM are top-level researchers working at the frontiers of new materials or with new biological specimens. They often use the TEM under extremely severe conditions, with problems sometimes occurring in the vacuum system of the microscopes. JEOL engineers then must work as quickly as possible to improve the vacuum evacuation system so as to prevent the recurrence of such problems. Among the wealth of explanatory material in this book are examples of users’ reports of problems in the vacuum system of...

  18. Imaging of surface plasmon polariton interference using phase-sensitive scanning tunneling microscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jose, J.; Segerink, Franciscus B.; Korterik, Jeroen P.; Herek, Jennifer Lynn; Offerhaus, Herman L.

    2011-01-01

    We report the surface plasmon polariton interference, generated via a ‘buried’ gold grating, and imaged using a phase-sensitive Photon Scanning Tunneling Microscope (PSTM). The phase-resolved PSTM measurement unravels the complex surface plasmon polariton interference fields at the gold-air

  19. Observation of magnetic domains using a reflection mode scanning near-field optical microscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Durkam, C.; Shvets, I.V.; Lodder, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    It is demonstrated that it is possible to image magnetic domains with a resolution of better than 60 nm with the Kerr effect in a reflection-mode scanning near-field optical microscope. Images taken of tracks of thermomagnetically prewritten bits in a Co/Pt multilayer structure magnetized out-of

  20. Measurements with an ultrafast scanning tunnelling microscope on photoexcited semiconductor layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keil, Ulrich Dieter Felix; Jensen, Jacob Riis; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    1998-01-01

    Summary form only given. We demonstrate the use of a ultrafast scanning tunnelling microscopes (USTM) for detecting laser-induced field transients on semiconductor layers. In principle, the instrument can detect transient field changes thus far observed as far-field THz radiation in the near-fiel...

  1. Quantitative phase tomography by using x-ray microscope with Foucault knife-edge scanning filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Norio; Tsuburaya, Yuji; Shimada, Akihiro; Aoki, Sadao

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative phase tomography was evaluated by using a differential phase microscope with a Foucault knife-edge scanning filter. A 3D x-ray phase image of polystyrene beads was obtained at 5.4 keV. The reconstructed refractive index was fairly good agreement with the Henke's tabulated data.

  2. Quantitative phase tomography by using x-ray microscope with Foucault knife-edge scanning filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Norio; Tsuburaya, Yuji; Shimada, Akihiro; Aoki, Sadao [Faculty of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8573 (Japan)

    2016-01-28

    Quantitative phase tomography was evaluated by using a differential phase microscope with a Foucault knife-edge scanning filter. A 3D x-ray phase image of polystyrene beads was obtained at 5.4 keV. The reconstructed refractive index was fairly good agreement with the Henke’s tabulated data.

  3. Quasi interference of perpendicularly polarized guided modes observed with a photon scanning tunneling microscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balistreri, M.L.M.; Driessen, A.; Korterik, Jeroen P.; Kuipers, L.; van Hulst, N.F.

    2000-01-01

    The simultaneous detection of TE- as well as TM-polarized light with a photon scanning tunneling microscope leads to a quasi- interference pattern of these mutually perpendicular polarized fields. This interference pattern has been observed in the optical field distribution as a function of both

  4. A novel cryogenic scanning laser microscope tested on Josephson tunnel junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jesper; Mygind, Jesper

    1995-01-01

    A novel cryogenic scanning laser microscope with a spatial resolution of less than 5 µm has been designed for on-chip in situ investigations of the working properties of normal and superconducting circuits and devices. The instrument relies on the detection of the electrical response of the circuit...... to a very localized heating induced by irradiation with 675 nm wavelength light from a semiconductor laser. The hot spot is moved by a specially designed piezoelectric scanner sweeping the tip of a single-mode optical fiber a few µm above the circuit. Depending on the scanner design the scanning area can...... be as large as 50×500 µm2 at 4.2 K. The microscope can be operated in the temperature range 2–300 K using a standard temperature controller. The central microscope body is mounted inside the vacuum can of a dip-stick-type cryoprobe. A damped spring system is used to reduce interference from extraneous...

  5. Foucault imaging by using non-dedicated transmission electron microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Yoshifumi; Matsumoto, Hiroaki; Harada, Ken

    2012-08-01

    An electron optical system for observing Foucault images was constructed using a conventional transmission electron microscope without any special equipment for Lorentz microscopy. The objective lens was switched off and an electron beam was converged by a condenser optical system to the crossover on the selected area aperture plane. The selected area aperture was used as an objective aperture to select the deflected beam for Foucault mode, and the successive image-forming lenses were controlled for observation of the specimen images. The irradiation area on the specimen was controlled by selecting the appropriate diameter of the condenser aperture.

  6. Foucault imaging by using non-dedicated transmission electron microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taniguchi, Yoshifumi [Science and Medical Systems Business Group, Hitachi High-Technologies Corp., Ichige, Hitachinaka, Ibaraki 312-8504 (Japan); Matsumoto, Hiroaki [Corporate Manufacturing Strategy Group, Hitachi High-Technologies Corp., Ishikawa-cho, Hitachinaka, Ibaraki 312-1991 (Japan); Harada, Ken [Central Research Laboratory, Hitachi Ltd., Hatoyama, Saitama 350-0395 (Japan)

    2012-08-27

    An electron optical system for observing Foucault images was constructed using a conventional transmission electron microscope without any special equipment for Lorentz microscopy. The objective lens was switched off and an electron beam was converged by a condenser optical system to the crossover on the selected area aperture plane. The selected area aperture was used as an objective aperture to select the deflected beam for Foucault mode, and the successive image-forming lenses were controlled for observation of the specimen images. The irradiation area on the specimen was controlled by selecting the appropriate diameter of the condenser aperture.

  7. Phase-contrast scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minoda, Hiroki; Tamai, Takayuki; Iijima, Hirofumi; Hosokawa, Fumio; Kondo, Yukihito

    2015-06-01

    This report introduces the first results obtained using phase-contrast scanning transmission electron microscopy (P-STEM). A carbon-film phase plate (PP) with a small center hole is placed in the condenser aperture plane so that a phase shift is introduced in the incident electron waves except those passing through the center hole. A cosine-type phase-contrast transfer function emerges when the phase-shifted scattered waves interfere with the non-phase-shifted unscattered waves, which passed through the center hole before incidence onto the specimen. The phase contrast resulting in P-STEM is optically identical to that in phase-contrast transmission electron microscopy that is used to provide high contrast for weak phase objects. Therefore, the use of PPs can enhance the phase contrast of the STEM images of specimens in principle. The phase shift resulting from the PP, whose thickness corresponds to a phase shift of π, has been confirmed using interference fringes displayed in the Ronchigram of a silicon single crystal specimen. The interference fringes were found to abruptly shift at the edge of the PP hole by π. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japanese Society of Microscopy. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. [Thirty years of the electron microscope investigation in zoology and parasitology in the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatrov, A B

    2003-01-01

    The history of the electron microscope investigations in zoology and parasitology in the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences and progress in scanning and transmission electron microscope investigations in this field of biology to the moment are briefly accounted.

  9. Simultaneous imaging of multiple focal planes in scanning two-photon absorption microscope by photon counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carriles, Ramón; Hoover, Erich E.; Amir, Wafa; Squier, Jeffery A.

    2007-09-01

    We demonstrate a two-photon absorption scanning microscope capable of imaging two focal planes simultaneously. The 23MHz fundamental laser is split in two, one part delayed in time while the other is focused with a deformable mirror to change its divergence. Both parts are then recombined to form a 46MHz pulse train consisting of two interlaced trains with different divergences that after the objective are focused at different sample depths. At the detection path, photon counting techniques allow photons coming from each depth to be separated based on their relative timing with respect to the 46MHz train. The separation is accomplished using a field-programmable gate array that has been programmed to switch back and forth between two counters at a rate provided by a master clock generated by the 46MHz pulse train. The computer that controls the scanners reads and resets the counters before moving to a new pixel. The scheme is demonstrated for two depths but can be extended to a larger number, the ultimate limit being the fluorescence lifetime. This technique could also be implemented for second or third harmonic generation microscopy, in this case the ultimate achievable number of focal planes would be determined by the electronics speed.

  10. Scanning microscopic study on the effects of radiation on the laryngeal mucosa of human and rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taniguchi, T. (Mie Univ., Tsu (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1981-05-01

    The fine surface structure of the laryngeal mucosa of humans and rats was investigated by using a scanning electron microscope and an X-ray microanalyser. Experimental materials were obtained from human patients who were treated with doses of 3000r to 4000r for laryngeal cancer and rats which had been raised on a normal diet or a diet deprived of vitamin E. These rats were experimentally irradiated with doses of 1000r to 1500r. Significant changes on the laryngeal surface of the humans were seen on the supraglottic areas and ventricular cavity which were composed of nonciliated cells. There was loss of nonciliated cells from the surface and tightly packed microvilli on the surface. In some areas of the ciliated laryngeal epithelium, there were compound cilia, bleb-formation, polyp-like formation of cilia, and/or shortened cilia. The surface structure of the larynges of the rats experimentally irradiated rat with doses of 1000r to 1500r showed similar findings to those of the humans. They were especially prominent in the vitamin E-defficient rats. The surface structure of laryngeal cancer treated with radiation showed a bulging formation of cells, an irregular surface of intercellular space. In the biochemical study using an X-ray microanalyser, phosphorus and sulfur were found more frequently on the laryngeal cancer than on the intact larynx.

  11. Confocal fluorescence microscope with dual-axis architecture and biaxial postobjective scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Thomas D; Contag, Christopher H; Mandella, Michael J; Chan, Ning Y; Kino, Gordon S

    2004-01-01

    We present a novel confocal microscope that has dual-axis architecture and biaxial postobjective scanning for the collection of fluorescence images from biological specimens. This design uses two low-numerical-aperture lenses to achieve high axial resolution and long working distance, and the scanning mirror located distal to the lenses rotates along the orthogonal axes to produce arc-surface images over a large field of view (FOV). With fiber optic coupling, this microscope can potentially be scaled down to millimeter dimensions via microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology. We demonstrate a benchtop prototype with a spatial resolution < or =4.4 microm that collects fluorescence images with a high SNR and a good contrast ratio from specimens expressing GFP. Furthermore, the scanning mechanism produces only small differences in aberrations over the image FOV. These results demonstrate proof of concept of the dual-axis confocal architecture for in vivo molecular and cellular imaging.

  12. Scanning electron microscopy of molluscum contagiosum*

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida Jr, Hiram Larangeira; Abuchaim, Martha Oliveira; Schneider, Maiko Abel; Marques, Leandra; de Castro, Luis Antônio Suíta

    2013-01-01

    Molluscum contagiosum is a disease caused by a poxvirus. It is more prevalent in children up to 5 years of age. There is a second peak of incidence in young adults. In order to examine its ultrastructure, three lesions were curetted without disruption, cut transversely with a scalpel, and routinely processed for scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The oval structure of molluscum contagiosum could be easily identified. In its core, there was a central umbilication and just below this depression, there was a keratinized tunnel. Under higher magnification, a proliferation similar to the epidermis was seen. Moreover, there were areas of cells disposed like a mosaic. Under higher magnification, rounded structures measuring 0.4 micron could be observed at the end of the keratinized tunnel and on the surface of the lesion. PMID:23539009

  13. Controlling molecular condensation/diffusion of copper phthalocyanine by local electric field induced with scanning tunneling microscope tip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaoka, Katsumi; Yaginuma, Shin; Nakayama, Tomonobu

    2018-02-01

    We have discovered the condensation/diffusion phenomena of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) molecules controlled with a pulsed electric field induced by the scanning tunneling microscope tip. This behavior is not explained by the conventional induced dipole model. In order to understand the mechanism, we have measured the electronic structure of the molecule by tunneling spectroscopy and also performed theoretical calculations on molecular orbitals. These data clearly indicate that the molecule is positively charged owing to charge transfer to the substrate, and that hydrogen bonding exists between CuPc molecules, which makes the molecular island stable.

  14. Pili annulati with fragility: Electron microscopic findings of a case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akoglu, Gulsen; Emre, Selma; Metin, Ahmet; Erbil, K Mine; Akpolat, Demet; Firat, Aysegul; Hayran, Murvet

    2012-01-01

    Pili annulati (PA) is typically characterized by shinny beads seen along the hair shaft. PA is accepted to belong to the classification of hair shaft abnormalities without fragility. Herein, we described a 14-year-old, fair skin with dark-haired girl diagnosed as PA with fragility which was demonstrated by weathering features in electron microscopic examinations. The patient had shinny beaded, easily breakable hairs since the age of four. A few broken hairs were observed by a light pull test. Transmitted light microscopy revealed periodic dark bands in the hair shaft. These dark bands disappeared after application of 10% aqueous potassium hydroxide. Multiple cavities within hair shaft and severe cuticular damages representing the weathering pattern were observed in electron microscopic examinations. All these findings were found to be consistent with presence of fragility in PA. This case provides evidences of fragile hair structure of PA which may be due to pathological cavities within hair shafts. PMID:23180916

  15. Fine structure of the endolymphatic duct in the rat. A scanning and transmission electron microscopy study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvortrup, K; Rostgaard, Jørgen; Bretlau, P

    1995-01-01

    and thiocarbohydrazide followed by a continuous dehydration procedure. Three types of cells were identified with the scanning electron microscope: A polygonal and oblong epithelial cell was observed in the largest number throughout the duct, whereas in the juxta-saccular half of the duct two additional types...

  16. Focused Ion Beam - Scanning Electron Microscopy Applied to Electrically Insulating Materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Winter, D.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    The Focused Ion Beam – Scanning Electron Microscope (FIB-SEM) is a versatile instrument originating from the semiconductor industry. The FIB is used to produce cross sections of pre-defined locations of interest, which are imaged and analyzed with the SEM. Repeated FIB cross sectioning and

  17. Electron microscope evidence of virus infection in cultured marine fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiu-Qin; Zhang, Jin-Xing; Qu, Ling-Yun

    2000-09-01

    Electron microscope investigation on the red sea bream ( Pagrosomus major), bastard halibut ( Paralichthys olivaceus) and stone flounder ( Kareius bicoloratus) in North China revealed virus infection in the bodies of the dead and diseased fish. These viruses included the lymphocystis disease virus (LDV), parvovirus, globular virus, and a kind of baculavirus which was not discovered and reported before and is now tentatively named baculavirus of stone flounder ( Kareius bicoloratus).

  18. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy of galvannealed coatings on steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, P; Uran, K; Macherey, F; Ebert, M; Ullrich, H-J; Sommer, D; Friedel, F

    2009-04-01

    The formation of Fe-Zn intermetallic compounds, as relevant in the commercial product galvannealed steel sheet, was investigated by scanning electron microscopy and different methods of X-ray diffraction. A scanning electron microscope with high resolution was applied to investigate the layers of the galvannealed coating and its topography. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GID) was preferred over conventional Bragg-Brentano geometry for analysing thin crystalline layers because of its lower incidence angle alpha and its lower depth of information. Furthermore, in situ experiments at an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) with an internal heating plate and at an X-ray diffractometer equipped with a high-temperature chamber were carried out. Thus, it was possible to investigate the phase evolution during heat treatment by X-ray diffraction and to display the growth of the zeta crystals in the ESEM.

  19. Development of a backscattering type ultraviolet apertureless near-field scanning optical microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Sangjin; Jeong, Hyun; Jeong, Mun Seok; Jeong, Sungho

    2011-08-01

    A backscattering type ultraviolet apertureless near-field scanning optical microscope (ANSOM) for the correlated measurement of topographical and optical characteristics of photonic materials with high optical resolution was developed. The near-field Rayleigh scattering image of GaN covered with periodic submicron Cr dots showed that optical resolution around 40 nm was achievable. By measuring the tip scattered photoluminescence of InGaN/GaN multi quantum wells, the applicability of the developed microscope for high resolution fluorescence measurement was also demonstrated.

  20. Concurrent in situ ion irradiation transmission electron microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattar, K., E-mail: khattar@sandia.gov; Bufford, D.C.; Buller, D.L.

    2014-11-01

    An in situ ion irradiation transmission electron microscope has been developed and is operational at Sandia National Laboratories. This facility permits high spatial resolution, real time observation of electron transparent samples under ion irradiation, implantation, mechanical loading, corrosive environments, and combinations thereof. This includes the simultaneous implantation of low-energy gas ions (0.8–30 keV) during high-energy heavy ion irradiation (0.8–48 MeV). Initial results in polycrystalline gold foils are provided to demonstrate the range of capabilities.