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Sample records for scannerless imaging laser

  1. Scannerless laser range imaging using loss modulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandusky, John V [Albuquerque, NM

    2011-08-09

    A scannerless 3-D imaging apparatus is disclosed which utilizes an amplitude modulated cw light source to illuminate a field of view containing a target of interest. Backscattered light from the target is passed through one or more loss modulators which are modulated at the same frequency as the light source, but with a phase delay .delta. which can be fixed or variable. The backscattered light is demodulated by the loss modulator and detected with a CCD, CMOS or focal plane array (FPA) detector to construct a 3-D image of the target. The scannerless 3-D imaging apparatus, which can operate in the eye-safe wavelength region 1.4-1.7 .mu.m and which can be constructed as a flash LADAR, has applications for vehicle collision avoidance, autonomous rendezvous and docking, robotic vision, industrial inspection and measurement, 3-D cameras, and facial recognition.

  2. A low-cost, high-resolution, video-rate imaging optical radar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sackos, J.T.; Nellums, R.O.; Lebien, S.M.; Diegert, C.F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Grantham, J.W.; Monson, T. [Air Force Research Lab., Eglin AFB, FL (United States)

    1998-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a unique type of portable low-cost range imaging optical radar (laser radar or LADAR). This innovative sensor is comprised of an active floodlight scene illuminator and an image intensified CCD camera receiver. It is a solid-state device (no moving parts) that offers significant size, performance, reliability, and simplicity advantages over other types of 3-D imaging sensors. This unique flash LADAR is based on low cost, commercially available hardware, and is well suited for many government and commercial uses. This paper presents an update of Sandia`s development of the Scannerless Range Imager technology and applications, and discusses the progress that has been made in evolving the sensor into a compact, low, cost, high-resolution, video rate Laser Dynamic Range Imager.

  3. Semiconductor Laser Multi-Spectral Sensing and Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Q. Le

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Multi-spectral laser imaging is a technique that can offer a combination of the laser capability of accurate spectral sensing with the desirable features of passive multispectral imaging. The technique can be used for detection, discrimination, and identification of objects by their spectral signature. This article describes and reviews the development and evaluation of semiconductor multi-spectral laser imaging systems. Although the method is certainly not specific to any laser technology, the use of semiconductor lasers is significant with respect to practicality and affordability. More relevantly, semiconductor lasers have their own characteristics; they offer excellent wavelength diversity but usually with modest power. Thus, system design and engineering issues are analyzed for approaches and trade-offs that can make the best use of semiconductor laser capabilities in multispectral imaging. A few systems were developed and the technique was tested and evaluated on a variety of natural and man-made objects. It was shown capable of high spectral resolution imaging which, unlike non-imaging point sensing, allows detecting and discriminating objects of interest even without a priori spectroscopic knowledge of the targets. Examples include material and chemical discrimination. It was also shown capable of dealing with the complexity of interpreting diffuse scattered spectral images and produced results that could otherwise be ambiguous with conventional imaging. Examples with glucose and spectral imaging of drug pills were discussed. Lastly, the technique was shown with conventional laser spectroscopy such as wavelength modulation spectroscopy to image a gas (CO. These results suggest the versatility and power of multi-spectral laser imaging, which can be practical with the use of semiconductor lasers.

  4. Semiconductor laser multi-spectral sensing and imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Han Q; Wang, Yang

    2010-01-01

    Multi-spectral laser imaging is a technique that can offer a combination of the laser capability of accurate spectral sensing with the desirable features of passive multispectral imaging. The technique can be used for detection, discrimination, and identification of objects by their spectral signature. This article describes and reviews the development and evaluation of semiconductor multi-spectral laser imaging systems. Although the method is certainly not specific to any laser technology, the use of semiconductor lasers is significant with respect to practicality and affordability. More relevantly, semiconductor lasers have their own characteristics; they offer excellent wavelength diversity but usually with modest power. Thus, system design and engineering issues are analyzed for approaches and trade-offs that can make the best use of semiconductor laser capabilities in multispectral imaging. A few systems were developed and the technique was tested and evaluated on a variety of natural and man-made objects. It was shown capable of high spectral resolution imaging which, unlike non-imaging point sensing, allows detecting and discriminating objects of interest even without a priori spectroscopic knowledge of the targets. Examples include material and chemical discrimination. It was also shown capable of dealing with the complexity of interpreting diffuse scattered spectral images and produced results that could otherwise be ambiguous with conventional imaging. Examples with glucose and spectral imaging of drug pills were discussed. Lastly, the technique was shown with conventional laser spectroscopy such as wavelength modulation spectroscopy to image a gas (CO). These results suggest the versatility and power of multi-spectral laser imaging, which can be practical with the use of semiconductor lasers.

  5. Image quality of digital mammography images produced using wet and dry laser imaging systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Khalifah, K.; Brindhaban, A.; AlArfaj, R.; Jassim, O.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: A study was carried out to compare the quality of digital mammographic images printed or processed by a wet laser imaging system and a dedicated mammographic dry laser imaging system. Material and methods: Digital images of a tissue equivalent breast phantom were obtained using a GE Senographe 2000D digital mammography system and different target/filter combinations of the X-ray tube. These images were printed on films using the Fuji FL-IM D wet laser imaging system and the Kodak DryView 8600 dry laser imaging system. The quality of images was assessed in terms of detectability of microcalcifications and simulated tumour masses by five radiologists. In addition, the contrast index and speed index of the two systems were measured using the step wedge in the phantom. The unpaired, unequal variance t-test was used to test any statistically significant differences. Results: There were no significant (p < 0.05) differences between the images printed using the two systems in terms of microcalcification and tumour mass detectability. The wet system resulted in slightly higher contrast index while the dry system showed significantly higher speed index. Conclusion: Both wet and dry laser imaging systems can produce mammography images of good quality on which 0.2 mm microcalcifications and 2 mm tumour masses can be detected. Dry systems are preferable due to the absence of wet chemical processing and solid or liquid chemical waste. The wet laser imaging systems, however, still represent a useful alternative to dry laser imaging systems for mammography studies

  6. Spectroscopic and imaging diagnostics of pulsed laser deposition laser plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thareja, Raj K.

    2002-01-01

    An overview of laser spectroscopic techniques used in the diagnostics of laser ablated plumes used for thin film deposition is given. An emerging laser spectroscopic imaging technique for the laser ablation material processing is discussed. (author)

  7. System analysis and simulation of airborne scannerless 3D imaging lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Pan; Hao, Qiwei; Chen, Siying

    2009-11-01

    Airborne non-scanned 3D imaging lidar is a recently developed method for remote sensing. The design method and flow of the system parameters round with the spatial resolution are established and explained in detail with examples. An evaluation indicator of data coverage is proposed to optimize the imaging control method. Pixel aliasing in all directions are analyzed, the possible factors cause the aliasing are stated, including the time control error, atmospheric disturbance and platform shake. At last, a parallel data output format is proposed to eliminate the timing mismatch of image data and POS parameters.

  8. Laser scanning endoscope via an imaging fiber bundle for fluorescence imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeboah, Lorenz D.; Nestler, Dirk; Steiner, Rudolf W.

    1994-12-01

    Based on a laser scanning endoscope via an imaging fiber bundle, a new approach for a tumor diagnostic system has been developed to assist physicians in the diagnosis before the actual PDT is carried out. Laser induced, spatially resolved fluorescence images of diseased tissue can be compared with images received by video endoscopy using a white light source. The set- up is required to produce a better contrast between infected and healthy tissue and might serve as a constructive diagnostic help for surgeons. The fundamental idea is to scan a low-power laser beam on an imaging fiber bundle and to achieve a spatially resolved projection on the tissue surface. A sufficiently high laser intensity from the diode laser is concentrated on each single spot of the tissue exciting fluorescence when a dye has previously been accumulated. Subsequently, video image of the tissue is recorded and stored. With an image processing unit, video and fluorescence images are overlaid producing a picture of the fluorescence intensity in the environment of the observed tissue.

  9. Laser doppler perfusion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waardell, K.

    1992-01-01

    Recording of tissue perfusion is important in assessing the influence of peripheral vascular diseases on the microcirculation. This thesis reports on a laser doppler perfusion imager based on dynamic light scattering in tissue. When a low power He-Ne laser beam sequentally scans the tissue, moving blood cells generate doppler components in the back-scattered light. A fraction of this light is detected by a photodetector and converted into an electrical signal. In the processor, a signal proportional to the tissue perfusion at each measurement site is calculated and stored. When the scanning procedure is completed, a color-coded perfusion image is presented on a monitor. To convert important aspects of the perfusion image into more quantitative parameters, data analysis functions are implemented in the software. A theory describing the dependence of the distance between individual measurement points and detector on the system amplification factor is proposed and correction algorithms are presented. The performance of the laser doppler perfusion imager was evaluated using a flow simulator. A linear relationship between processor output signal and flow through the simulator was demonstrated for blood cell concentrations below 0.2%. The median sampling depth of the laser beam was simulated by a Monte Carlo technique and estimated to 235 μm. The perfusion imager has been used in the clinic to study perfusion changes in port wine stains treated with argon laser and to investigate the intensity and extension of the cutaneous axon reflex response after electrical nerve stimulation. The fact that perfusion can be visualized without touching the tissue implies elimination of sterilization problems, thus simplifying clinical investigations of perfusion in association with diagnosis and treatment of peripheral vascular diseases. 22 refs

  10. Crack imaging by pulsed laser spot thermography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, T; Almond, D P; Rees, D A S; Weekes, B

    2010-01-01

    A surface crack close to a spot heated by a laser beam impedes lateral heat flow and produces alterations to the shape of the thermal image of the spot that can be monitored by thermography. A full 3D simulation has been developed to simulate heat flow from a laser heated spot in the proximity of a crack. The modelling provided an understanding of the ways that different parameters affect the thermal images of laser heated spots. It also assisted in the development of an efficient image processing strategy for extracting the scanned cracks. Experimental results show that scanning pulsed laser spot thermography has considerable potential as a remote, non-contact crack imaging technique.

  11. Multicolor Scanning Laser Imaging in Diabetic Retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mohammad S Z; Carrim, Zia Iqbal

    2017-11-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is a common cause of blindness in individuals younger than 60 years. Screening for retinopathy is undertaken using conventional color fundus photography and relies on the identification of hemorrhages, vascular abnormalities, exudates, and cotton-wool spots. These can sometimes be difficult to identify. Multicolor scanning laser imaging, a new imaging modality, may have a role in improving screening outcomes, as well as facilitating treatment decisions. Observational case series comprising two patients with known diabetes who were referred for further examination after color fundus photography revealed abnormal findings. Multicolor scanning laser imaging was undertaken. Features of retinal disease from each modality were compared. Multicolor scanning laser imaging provides superior visualization of retinal anatomy and pathology, thereby facilitating risk stratification and treatment decisions. Multicolor scanning laser imaging is a novel imaging technique offering the potential for improving the reliability of screening for diabetic retinopathy. Validation studies are warranted.

  12. Underwater laser imaging system (UWLIS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeLong, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    Practical limitations with underwater imaging systems area reached when the noise in the back scattered radiation generated in the water between the imaging system and the target obscures the spatial contrast and resolution necessary for target discovery and identification. The advent of high power lasers operating in the blue-green portion of the visible spectrum (oceanic transmission window) has led to improved experimental illumination systems for underwater imaging. Range-gated and synchronously scanned devices take advantage of the unique temporal and spatial coherence properties of laser radiation, respectively, to overcome the deleterious effects of common volume back scatter.

  13. Image-converter diagnostics of laser and laser plasma in pico-femtosecond region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schelev, M.Ya.

    1979-01-01

    In the present communication we would like to outline some new trends in development of pico-femtosecond image-converter diagnostics for laser and laser plasma research on the basis of the recent works done in P.N.Lebedev Physical Institute. The discussion of the following subjects will be included: new generation of picosecond image-converter tubes (ICT), pulsed control circuitry, late prototype of picosecond image-converter cameras (ICC), test installation consisting of Nd: glass and YAG lasers for production the ultra-short pulses and sinusoidally modulated radiation, methods and techniques for image tube and camera dynamic measurements in IR, visible and X-ray spectral regions. Also discussed are the image processing technique for pictures taken with picosecond ICC in order to correct the geometrical distortions, enhance pictures quality and evaluate parameters of the input signals through their recorded images. (author)

  14. Research on range-gated laser active imaging seeker

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Mu; Wang, PengHui; Tan, DongJie

    2013-09-01

    Compared with other imaging methods such as millimeter wave imaging, infrared imaging and visible light imaging, laser imaging provides both a 2-D array of reflected intensity data as well as 2-D array of range data, which is the most important data for use in autonomous target acquisition .In terms of application, it can be widely used in military fields such as radar, guidance and fuse. In this paper, we present a laser active imaging seeker system based on range-gated laser transmitter and sensor technology .The seeker system presented here consist of two important part, one is laser image system, which uses a negative lens to diverge the light from a pulse laser to flood illuminate a target, return light is collected by a camera lens, each laser pulse triggers the camera delay and shutter. The other is stabilization gimbals, which is designed to be a rotatable structure both in azimuth and elevation angles. The laser image system consists of transmitter and receiver. The transmitter is based on diode pumped solid-state lasers that are passively Q-switched at 532nm wavelength. A visible wavelength was chosen because the receiver uses a Gen III image intensifier tube with a spectral sensitivity limited to wavelengths less than 900nm.The receiver is image intensifier tube's micro channel plate coupled into high sensitivity charge coupled device camera. The image has been taken at range over one kilometer and can be taken at much longer range in better weather. Image frame frequency can be changed according to requirement of guidance with modifiable range gate, The instantaneous field of views of the system was found to be 2×2 deg. Since completion of system integration, the seeker system has gone through a series of tests both in the lab and in the outdoor field. Two different kinds of buildings have been chosen as target, which is located at range from 200m up to 1000m.To simulate dynamic process of range change between missile and target, the seeker system has

  15. Laser-induced photo-thermal strain imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Changhoon; Ahn, Joongho; Jeon, Seungwan; Kim, Chulhong

    2018-02-01

    Vulnerable plaque is the one of the leading causes of cardiovascular disease occurrence. However, conventional intravascular imaging techniques suffer from difficulty in finding vulnerable plaque due to limitation such as lack of physiological information, imaging depth, and depth sensitivity. Therefore, new techniques are needed to help determine the vulnerability of plaque, Thermal strain imaging (TSI) is an imaging technique based on ultrasound (US) wave propagation speed that varies with temperature of medium. During temperature increase, strain occurs in the medium and its variation tendency is depending on the type of tissue, which makes it possible to use for tissue differentiation. Here, we demonstrate laser-induced photo-thermal strain imaging (pTSI) to differentiate tissue using an intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) catheter and a 1210-nm continuous-wave laser for heating lipids intensively. During heating, consecutive US images were obtained from a custom-made phantom made of porcine fat and gelatin. A cross correlation-based speckle-tracking algorithm was then applied to calculate the strain of US images. In the strain images, the positive strain produced in lipids (porcine fat) was clearly differentiated from water-bearing tissue (gelatin). This result shows that laser-induced pTSI could be a new method to distinguish lipids in the plaque and can help to differentiate vulnerability of plaque.

  16. Laser biostimulation therapy planning supported by imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mester, Adam R.

    2018-04-01

    Ultrasonography and MR imaging can help to identify the area and depth of different lesions, like injury, overuse, inflammation, degenerative diseases. The appropriate power density, sufficient dose and direction of the laser treatment can be optimally estimated. If required minimum 5 mW photon density and required optimal energy dose: 2-4 Joule/cm2 wouldn't arrive into the depth of the target volume - additional techniques can help: slight compression of soft tissues can decrease the tissue thickness or multiple laser diodes can be used. In case of multiple diode clusters light scattering results deeper penetration. Another method to increase the penetration depth is a second pulsation (in kHz range) of laser light. (So called continuous wave laser itself has inherent THz pulsation by temporal coherence). Third solution of higher light intensity in the target volume is the multi-gate technique: from different angles the same joint can be reached based on imaging findings. Recent developments is ultrasonography: elastosonography and tissue harmonic imaging with contrast material offer optimal therapy planning. While MRI is too expensive modality for laser planning images can be optimally used if a diagnostic MRI already was done. Usual DICOM images offer "postprocessing" measurements in mm range.

  17. IMAGE CONVERSION FOR LASER PYROGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian PETRU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available All previous studies of pyrography have been focussed on colour obtained through modifying the work parameters. This paper analyses colour nuances obtained by laser woodworking by measuring colour changes digitally. The investigated parameter is colour reproduction by laser technology, using different image conversion methods (Halftone Round, Jarvis, and so on. The changes of image reproduction are analysed globally and colour by colour. The results show that the colour nuances are represented to a more and less degree, according to the conversion method selected. To evaluate the aesthetic changes, CIEL*a*b* colour measurements were applied. The results show that laser burning on wood surfaces has a great influence on wood colour. These findings will be useful to develop innovative design possibilities for wood surfaces for furniture and other products.

  18. Laser radiography forming bremsstrahlung radiation to image an object

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Michael D.; Sefcik, Joseph A.

    2004-01-13

    A method of imaging an object by generating laser pulses with a short-pulse, high-power laser. When the laser pulse strikes a conductive target, bremsstrahlung radiation is generated such that hard ballistic high-energy electrons are formed to penetrate an object. A detector on the opposite side of the object detects these electrons. Since laser pulses are used to form the hard x-rays, multiple pulses can be used to image an object in motion, such as an exploding or compressing object, by using time gated detectors. Furthermore, the laser pulses can be directed down different tubes using mirrors and filters so that each laser pulse will image a different portion of the object.

  19. Laser bistatic two-dimensional scattering imaging simulation of lambert cone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yanjun; Zhu, Chongyue; Wang, Mingjun; Gong, Lei

    2015-11-01

    This paper deals with the laser bistatic two-dimensional scattering imaging simulation of lambert cone. Two-dimensional imaging is called as planar imaging. It can reflect the shape of the target and material properties. Two-dimensional imaging has important significance for target recognition. The expression of bistatic laser scattering intensity of lambert cone is obtained based on laser radar eauqtion. The scattering intensity of a micro-element on the target could be obtained. The intensity is related to local angle of incidence, local angle of scattering and the infinitesimal area on the cone. According to the incident direction of laser, scattering direction and normal of infinitesimal area, the local incidence angle and scattering angle can be calculated. Through surface integration and the introduction of the rectangular function, we can get the intensity of imaging unit on the imaging surface, and then get Lambert cone bistatic laser two-dimensional scattering imaging simulation model. We analyze the effect of distinguishability, incident direction, observed direction and target size on the imaging. From the results, we can see that the scattering imaging simulation results of the lambert cone bistatic laser is correct.

  20. Laser speckle contrast imaging of skin blood perfusion responses induced by laser coagulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogami, M; Kulkarni, R; Wang, H; Reif, R; Wang, R K [University of Washington, Department of Bioengineering, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

    2014-08-31

    We report application of laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI), i.e., a fast imaging technique utilising backscattered light to distinguish such moving objects as red blood cells from such stationary objects as surrounding tissue, to localise skin injury. This imaging technique provides detailed information about the acute perfusion response after a blood vessel is occluded. In this study, a mouse ear model is used and pulsed laser coagulation serves as the method of occlusion. We have found that the downstream blood vessels lacked blood flow due to occlusion at the target site immediately after injury. Relative flow changes in nearby collaterals and anastomotic vessels have been approximated based on differences in intensity in the nearby collaterals and anastomoses. We have also estimated the density of the affected downstream vessels. Laser speckle contrast imaging is shown to be used for highresolution and fast-speed imaging for the skin microvasculature. It also allows direct visualisation of the blood perfusion response to injury, which may provide novel insights to the field of cutaneous wound healing. (laser biophotonics)

  1. Three dimensional imaging technique for laser-plasma diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Shaoen; Zheng Zhijian; Liu Zhongli

    2001-01-01

    A CT technique for laser-plasma diagnostic and a three-dimensional (3D) image reconstruction program (CT3D) have been developed. The 3D images of the laser-plasma are reconstructed by using a multiplication algebraic reconstruction technique (MART) from five pinhole camera images obtained along different sight directions. The technique has been used to measure the three-dimensional distribution of X-ray of laser-plasma experiments in Xingguang II device, and the good results are obtained. This shows that a CT technique can be applied to ICF experiments

  2. Three dimensional imaging technique for laser-plasma diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaoen, Jiang; Zhijian, Zheng; Zhongli, Liu [China Academy of Engineering Physics, Chengdu (China)

    2001-04-01

    A CT technique for laser-plasma diagnostic and a three-dimensional (3D) image reconstruction program (CT3D) have been developed. The 3D images of the laser-plasma are reconstructed by using a multiplication algebraic reconstruction technique (MART) from five pinhole camera images obtained along different sight directions. The technique has been used to measure the three-dimensional distribution of X-ray of laser-plasma experiments in Xingguang II device, and the good results are obtained. This shows that a CT technique can be applied to ICF experiments.

  3. Scanning laser microscope for imaging nanostructured superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Takekazu; Arai, Kohei; Akita, Yukio; Miyanari, Mitsunori; Minami, Yusuke; Yotsuya, Tsutomu; Kato, Masaru; Satoh, Kazuo; Uno, Mayumi; Shimakage, Hisashi; Miki, Shigehito; Wang, Zhen

    2010-01-01

    The nanofabrication of superconductors yields various interesting features in superconducting properties. A variety of different imaging techniques have been developed for probing the local superconducting profiles. A scanning pulsed laser microscope has been developed by the combination of the XYZ piezo-driven stages and an optical fiber with an aspheric focusing lens. The scanning laser microscope is used to understand the position-dependent properties of a superconducting MgB 2 stripline of length 100 μm and width of 3 μm under constant bias current. Our results show that the superconducting stripline can clearly be seen in the contour image of the scanning laser microscope on the signal voltage. It is suggested from the observed image that the inhomogeneity is relevant in specifying the operating conditions such as detection efficiency of the sensor.

  4. Scanning laser microscope for imaging nanostructured superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Takekazu; Arai, Kohei; Akita, Yukio; Miyanari, Mitsunori; Minami, Yusuke; Yotsuya, Tsutomu; Kato, Masaru; Satoh, Kazuo; Uno, Mayumi; Shimakage, Hisashi; Miki, Shigehito; Wang, Zhen

    2010-10-01

    The nanofabrication of superconductors yields various interesting features in superconducting properties. A variety of different imaging techniques have been developed for probing the local superconducting profiles. A scanning pulsed laser microscope has been developed by the combination of the XYZ piezo-driven stages and an optical fiber with an aspheric focusing lens. The scanning laser microscope is used to understand the position-dependent properties of a superconducting MgB 2 stripline of length 100 μm and width of 3 μm under constant bias current. Our results show that the superconducting stripline can clearly be seen in the contour image of the scanning laser microscope on the signal voltage. It is suggested from the observed image that the inhomogeneity is relevant in specifying the operating conditions such as detection efficiency of the sensor.

  5. Spectral and imaging characterization of tabletop X-ray lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, J.; Osterheld, A.L.; Moon, S.J.; Fournier, K.B.; Nilsen, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Faenov, A.Ya.; Pikuz, T.A.; Skobelev, I.Yu.; Magunov, A.I. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); MISDC of VNIIFTRI, Mendeleevo (Russian Federation); Shlyaptsev, V.N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). DAS

    2001-07-01

    We have performed L-shell spectroscopy and one-dimensional (1-D) imaging of a line focus plasma from a laser-heated Fe polished slab using the tabletop COMET laser system at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. These plasmas are used to generate a Ne-like Fe transient gain X-ray laser that is recorded simultaneously. A spherically-curved crystal spectrometer gives high resolution X-ray spectra of the n=3-2 and n=4-2 resonance lines with 1-D spatial resolution along the line focus. Spectra are presented for different laser pulse conditions. In addition, a variety of X-ray imaging techniques are described. We discuss imaging results from a double-slit X-ray camera with a spherically-curved crystal spectrometer. We show a high resolution Fe K-{alpha} spectrum from the X-ray laser target that indicates the presence of hot electrons in the X-ray laser plasma. (orig.)

  6. Random laser illumination: an ideal source for biomedical polarization imaging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Mariana T.; Lotay, Amrit S.; Kenny, Fiona M.; Girkin, John M.; Gomes, Anderson S. L.

    2016-03-01

    Imaging applications increasingly require light sources with high spectral density (power over spectral bandwidth. This has led in many cases to the replacement of conventional thermal light sources with bright light-emitting diodes (LEDs), lasers and superluminescent diodes. Although lasers and superluminescent diodes appear to be ideal light sources due to their narrow bandwidth and power, however, in the case of full-field imaging, their spatial coherence leads to coherent artefacts, such as speckle, that corrupt the image. LEDs, in contrast, have lower spatial coherence and thus seem the natural choice, but they have low spectral density. Random Lasers are an unconventional type of laser that can be engineered to provide low spatial coherence with high spectral density. These characteristics makes them potential sources for biological imaging applications where specific absorption and reflection are the characteristics required for state of the art imaging. In this work, a Random Laser (RL) is used to demonstrate speckle-free full-field imaging for polarization-dependent imaging in an epi-illumination configuration. We compare LED and RL illumination analysing the resulting images demonstrating that the RL illumination produces an imaging system with higher performance (image quality and spectral density) than that provided by LEDs.

  7. COMPARISON OF RETINAL PATHOLOGY VISUALIZATION IN MULTISPECTRAL SCANNING LASER IMAGING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshi, Amit; Lin, Tiezhu; Dans, Kunny; Chen, Kevin C; Amador, Manuel; Hasenstab, Kyle; Muftuoglu, Ilkay Kilic; Nudleman, Eric; Chao, Daniel; Bartsch, Dirk-Uwe; Freeman, William R

    2018-03-16

    To compare retinal pathology visualization in multispectral scanning laser ophthalmoscope imaging between the Spectralis and Optos devices. This retrospective cross-sectional study included 42 eyes from 30 patients with age-related macular degeneration (19 eyes), diabetic retinopathy (10 eyes), and epiretinal membrane (13 eyes). All patients underwent retinal imaging with a color fundus camera (broad-spectrum white light), the Spectralis HRA-2 system (3-color monochromatic lasers), and the Optos P200 system (2-color monochromatic lasers). The Optos image was cropped to a similar size as the Spectralis image. Seven masked graders marked retinal pathologies in each image within a 5 × 5 grid that included the macula. The average area with detected retinal pathology in all eyes was larger in the Spectralis images compared with Optos images (32.4% larger, P < 0.0001), mainly because of better visualization of epiretinal membrane and retinal hemorrhage. The average detection rate of age-related macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy pathologies was similar across the three modalities, whereas epiretinal membrane detection rate was significantly higher in the Spectralis images. Spectralis tricolor multispectral scanning laser ophthalmoscope imaging had higher rate of pathology detection primarily because of better epiretinal membrane and retinal hemorrhage visualization compared with Optos bicolor multispectral scanning laser ophthalmoscope imaging.

  8. Nanosecond-laser induced crosstalk of CMOS image sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Rongzhen; Wang, Yanbin; Chen, Qianrong; Zhou, Xuanfeng; Ren, Guangsen; Cui, Longfei; Li, Hua; Hao, Daoliang

    2018-02-01

    The CMOS Image Sensor (CIS) is photoelectricity image device which focused the photosensitive array, amplifier, A/D transfer, storage, DSP, computer interface circuit on the same silicon substrate[1]. It has low power consumption, high integration,low cost etc. With large scale integrated circuit technology progress, the noise suppression level of CIS is enhanced unceasingly, and its image quality is getting better and better. It has been in the security monitoring, biometrice, detection and imaging and even military reconnaissance and other field is widely used. CIS is easily disturbed and damaged while it is irradiated by laser. It is of great significance to study the effect of laser irradiation on optoelectronic countermeasure and device for the laser strengthening resistance is of great significance. There are some researchers have studied the laser induced disturbed and damaged of CIS. They focused on the saturation, supersaturated effects, and they observed different effects as for unsaturation, saturation, supersaturated, allsaturated and pixel flip etc. This paper research 1064nm laser interference effect in a typical before type CMOS, and observring the saturated crosstalk and half the crosstalk line. This paper extracted from cmos devices working principle and signal detection methods such as the Angle of the formation mechanism of the crosstalk line phenomenon are analyzed.

  9. Influence of laser ablation parameters on trueness of imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaculovič, T.; Warchilová, T.; Čadková, Z.; Száková, J.; Tlustoš, P.; Otruba, V.; Kanický, V.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Laser ablation conditions vs. quality of LA-ICP-MS imaging (resolution, detection). • Increase in laser spot size improves detection limit, while deteriorates resolution. • Decrease in scan speed improves resolution but prolongs time of analysis. • Compromise spot size and scan speed meet required quality of imaging. • Metal-enriched/depleted zones in tapeworm sections were resolved by LA-ICP-MS. - Abstract: Influence of laser ablation conditions on limit of detection, spatial resolution and time of analysis was studied for laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) applied to elemental mapping. Laser repetition rate and laser fluence were investigated in tapeworm thin section to attain optimum ablation rate, yielding appropriately low detection limit which complies with elemental contents in the tissue. Effect of combinations of laser spot size and scan speed on relative broadening (Δw rel ) of image of the ablated pattern (line) was investigated with the aim to quantify the trueness of imaging. Ink lines printed on paper were employed for the study of influence of spot size and scan speed on limit of detection, relative broadening of elemental image and duration of elemental mapping. An uneven distribution of copper in a printed line (coffee stain effect) was observed. The Δw rel is strongly reduced (down to 2%) at low scan speed (10 μm s −1 ) and laser spot diameter of 10 μm but resulting in unacceptably long time of mapping (up to 3000 min). Finally, tapeworm thin-section elemental maps (4 mm × 5 mm) were obtained at the laser spot diameter of 65 μm and the scan speed of 65 μm s −1 within 100 min. A dissimilar lateral distribution of Pb was observed in comparison with that of Cu or Zn due to different pathways of element uptake

  10. Influence of laser ablation parameters on trueness of imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaculovič, T.; Warchilová, T. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, Brno 61137 (Czech Republic); CEITEC, Masaryk University, Kamenice 5, Brno 62500 (Czech Republic); Čadková, Z.; Száková, J.; Tlustoš, P. [Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamýcka 129, Praha 16521 (Czech Republic); Otruba, V. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, Brno 61137 (Czech Republic); Kanický, V., E-mail: viktork@chemi.muni.cz [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, Brno 61137 (Czech Republic); CEITEC, Masaryk University, Kamenice 5, Brno 62500 (Czech Republic)

    2015-10-01

    Highlights: • Laser ablation conditions vs. quality of LA-ICP-MS imaging (resolution, detection). • Increase in laser spot size improves detection limit, while deteriorates resolution. • Decrease in scan speed improves resolution but prolongs time of analysis. • Compromise spot size and scan speed meet required quality of imaging. • Metal-enriched/depleted zones in tapeworm sections were resolved by LA-ICP-MS. - Abstract: Influence of laser ablation conditions on limit of detection, spatial resolution and time of analysis was studied for laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) applied to elemental mapping. Laser repetition rate and laser fluence were investigated in tapeworm thin section to attain optimum ablation rate, yielding appropriately low detection limit which complies with elemental contents in the tissue. Effect of combinations of laser spot size and scan speed on relative broadening (Δw{sub rel}) of image of the ablated pattern (line) was investigated with the aim to quantify the trueness of imaging. Ink lines printed on paper were employed for the study of influence of spot size and scan speed on limit of detection, relative broadening of elemental image and duration of elemental mapping. An uneven distribution of copper in a printed line (coffee stain effect) was observed. The Δw{sub rel} is strongly reduced (down to 2%) at low scan speed (10 μm s{sup −1}) and laser spot diameter of 10 μm but resulting in unacceptably long time of mapping (up to 3000 min). Finally, tapeworm thin-section elemental maps (4 mm × 5 mm) were obtained at the laser spot diameter of 65 μm and the scan speed of 65 μm s{sup −1} within 100 min. A dissimilar lateral distribution of Pb was observed in comparison with that of Cu or Zn due to different pathways of element uptake.

  11. Neutron penumbral imaging of laser-fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerche, R.A.; Ress, D.B.

    1988-01-01

    Using a new technique, penumbral coded-aperture imaging, the first neutron images of laser-driven, inertial-confinement fusion targets were obtained. With these images the deuterium-tritium burn region within a compressed target can be measured directly. 4 references, 11 figures

  12. Laser speckle contrast imaging of skin blood perfusion responses induced by laser coagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogami, M.; Kulkarni, R.; Wang, H.; Reif, R.; Wang, R. K.

    2014-08-01

    We report application of laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI), i.e., a fast imaging technique utilising backscattered light to distinguish such moving objects as red blood cells from such stationary objects as surrounding tissue, to localise skin injury. This imaging technique provides detailed information about the acute perfusion response after a blood vessel is occluded. In this study, a mouse ear model is used and pulsed laser coagulation serves as the method of occlusion. We have found that the downstream blood vessels lacked blood flow due to occlusion at the target site immediately after injury. Relative flow changes in nearby collaterals and anastomotic vessels have been approximated based on differences in intensity in the nearby collaterals and anastomoses. We have also estimated the density of the affected downstream vessels. Laser speckle contrast imaging is shown to be used for highresolution and fast-speed imaging for the skin microvasculature. It also allows direct visualisation of the blood perfusion response to injury, which may provide novel insights to the field of cutaneous wound healing.

  13. Coherent fiber supercontinuum laser for nonlinear biomedical imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tu, Haohua; Liu, Yuan; Liu, Xiaomin

    2012-01-01

    Nonlinear biomedical imaging has not benefited from the well-known techniques of fiber supercontinuum generation for reasons such as poor coherence (or high noise), insufficient controllability, low spectral power intensity, and inadequate portability. Fortunately, a few techniques involving...... nonlinear fiber optics and femtosecond fiber laser development have emerged to overcome these critical limitations. These techniques pave the way for conducting point-of-care nonlinear biomedical imaging by a low-maintenance cost-effective coherent fiber supercontinuum laser, which covers a broad emission...... wavelength of 350-1700 nm. A prototype of this laser has been demonstrated in label-free multimodal nonlinear imaging of cell and tissue samples.© (2012) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only....

  14. Time-resolved photoelectron imaging using a femtosecond UV laser and a VUV free-electron laser

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, S. Y.; Ogi, Yoshihiro; Fuji, Takao; Nishizawa, Kiyoshi; Horio, Takuya; Mizuno, Tomoya; Kohguchi, Hiroshi; Nagasono, Mitsuru; Togashi, Tadashi; Tono, Kensuke; Yabashi, Makina; Senba, Yasunori; Ohashi, Haruhiko; Kimura, Hiroaki; Ishikawa, Tetsuya

    2010-01-01

    A time-resolved photoelectron imaging using a femtosecond ultraviolet (UV) laser and a vacuum UV freeelectron laser is presented. Ultrafast internal conversion and intersystem crossing in pyrazine in a supersonic molecular beam were clearly observed in the time profiles of photoioinzation intensity and time-dependent photoelectron images.

  15. Three Dimensional Speckle Imaging Employing a Frequency-Locked Tunable Diode Laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cannon, Bret D.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Schiffern, John T.; Mendoza, Albert

    2015-09-01

    We describe a high accuracy frequency stepping method for a tunable diode laser to improve a three dimensional (3D) imaging approach based upon interferometric speckle imaging. The approach, modeled after Takeda, exploits tuning an illumination laser in frequency as speckle interferograms of the object (specklegrams) are acquired at each frequency in a Michelson interferometer. The resulting 3D hypercube of specklegrams encode spatial information in the x-y plane of each image with laser tuning arrayed along its z-axis. We present laboratory data of before and after results showing enhanced 3D imaging resulting from precise laser frequency control.

  16. Laser-induced acoustic imaging of underground objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen; DiMarzio, Charles A.; McKnight, Stephen W.; Sauermann, Gerhard O.; Miller, Eric L.

    1999-02-01

    This paper introduces a new demining technique based on the photo-acoustic interaction, together with results from photo- acoustic experiments. We have buried different types of targets (metal, rubber and plastic) in different media (sand, soil and water) and imaged them by measuring reflection of acoustic waves generated by irradiation with a CO2 laser. Research has been focused on the signal acquisition and signal processing. A deconvolution method using Wiener filters is utilized in data processing. Using a uniform spatial distribution of laser pulses at the ground's surface, we obtained 3D images of buried objects. The images give us a clear representation of the shapes of the underground objects. The quality of the images depends on the mismatch of acoustic impedance of the buried objects, the bandwidth and center frequency of the acoustic sensors and the selection of filter functions.

  17. Influence of Atmospheric Propagation on Performance of Laser Active Imaging System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yingchun; Sun Huayan; Guo Huichao; Zhao Yun

    2011-01-01

    Atmospheric propagation has serious influence on the performance of a good designed laser active imaging system. Atmospheric attenuation and turbulence are two main effects on laser atmospheric propagation. Imaging SNR (Signal-Noise-Ratio) and resolution are two key indexes to describe the performance of a laser active imaging system. Establishing the relation between system performance index and atmospheric propagation effect is significant. The paper analyzed the relation between imaging performance and atmospheric attenuation and turbulence through simulation. And also the experiments were done under different weather to validate the conclusion of simulation.

  18. Image-guided, Laser-based Fabrication of Vascular-derived Microfluidic Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Heintz, Keely A.; Mayerich, David; Slater, John H.

    2017-01-01

    This detailed protocol outlines the implementation of image-guided, laser-based hydrogel degradation for the fabrication of vascular-derived microfluidic networks embedded in PEGDA hydrogels. Here, we describe the creation of virtual masks that allow for image-guided laser control; the photopolymerization of a micromolded PEGDA hydrogel, suitable for microfluidic network fabrication and pressure head-driven flow; the setup and use of a commercially available laser scanning confocal microscope...

  19. Multimodal backside imaging of a microcontroller using confocal laser scanning and optical-beam-induced current imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkeldey, Markus; Göring, Lena; Schellenberg, Falk; Brenner, Carsten; Gerhardt, Nils C.; Hofmann, Martin

    2017-02-01

    Microscopy imaging with a single technology is usually restricted to a single contrast mechanism. Multimodal imaging is a promising technique to improve the structural information that could be obtained about a device under test (DUT). Due to the different contrast mechanisms of laser scanning microscopy (LSM), confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and optical beam induced current microscopy (OBICM), a combination could improve the detection of structures in integrated circuits (ICs) and helps to reveal their layout. While OBIC imaging is sensitive to the changes between differently doped areas and to semiconductor-metal transitions, CLSM imaging is mostly sensitive to changes in absorption and reflection. In this work we present the implementation of OBIC imaging into a CLSM. We show first results using industry standard Atmel microcontrollers (MCUs) with a feature size of about 250nm as DUTs. Analyzing these types of microcontrollers helps to improve in the field of side-channel attacks to find hardware Trojans, possible spots for laser fault attacks and for reverse engineering. For the experimental results the DUT is placed on a custom circuit board that allows us to measure the current while imaging it in our in-house built stage scanning microscope using a near infrared (NIR) laser diode as light source. The DUT is thinned and polished, allowing backside imaging through the Si-substrate. We demonstrate the possibilities using this optical setup by evaluating OBIC, LSM and CLSM images above and below the threshold of the laser source.

  20. Laser-induced fluorescence imaging of bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Peter J.

    1998-12-01

    This paper outlines a method for optically detecting bacteria on various backgrounds, such as meat, by imaging their laser induced auto-fluorescence response. This method can potentially operate in real-time, which is many times faster than current bacterial detection methods, which require culturing of bacterial samples. This paper describes the imaging technique employed whereby a laser spot is scanned across an object while capturing, filtering, and digitizing the returned light. Preliminary results of the bacterial auto-fluorescence are reported and plans for future research are discussed. The results to date are encouraging with six of the eight bacterial strains investigated exhibiting auto-fluorescence when excited at 488 nm. Discrimination of these bacterial strains against red meat is shown and techniques for reducing background fluorescence discussed.

  1. AN AUTOMATIC PROCEDURE FOR COMBINING DIGITAL IMAGES AND LASER SCANNER DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Moussa

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Besides improving both the geometry and the visual quality of the model, the integration of close-range photogrammetry and terrestrial laser scanning techniques directs at filling gaps in laser scanner point clouds to avoid modeling errors, reconstructing more details in higher resolution and recovering simple structures with less geometric details. Thus, within this paper a flexible approach for the automatic combination of digital images and laser scanner data is presented. Our approach comprises two methods for data fusion. The first method starts by a marker-free registration of digital images based on a point-based environment model (PEM of a scene which stores the 3D laser scanner point clouds associated with intensity and RGB values. The PEM allows the extraction of accurate control information for the direct computation of absolute camera orientations with redundant information by means of accurate space resection methods. In order to use the computed relations between the digital images and the laser scanner data, an extended Helmert (seven-parameter transformation is introduced and its parameters are estimated. Precedent to that, in the second method, the local relative orientation parameters of the camera images are calculated by means of an optimized Structure and Motion (SaM reconstruction method. Then, using the determined transformation parameters results in having absolute oriented images in relation to the laser scanner data. With the resulting absolute orientations we have employed robust dense image reconstruction algorithms to create oriented dense image point clouds, which are automatically combined with the laser scanner data to form a complete detailed representation of a scene. Examples of different data sets are shown and experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the presented procedures.

  2. An improved three-dimensional non-scanning laser imaging system based on digital micromirror device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Wenze; Han, Shaokun; Lei, Jieyu; Zhai, Yu; Timofeev, Alexander N.

    2018-01-01

    Nowadays, there are two main methods to realize three-dimensional non-scanning laser imaging detection, which are detection method based on APD and detection method based on Streak Tube. However, the detection method based on APD possesses some disadvantages, such as small number of pixels, big pixel interval and complex supporting circuit. The detection method based on Streak Tube possesses some disadvantages, such as big volume, bad reliability and high cost. In order to resolve the above questions, this paper proposes an improved three-dimensional non-scanning laser imaging system based on Digital Micromirror Device. In this imaging system, accurate control of laser beams and compact design of imaging structure are realized by several quarter-wave plates and a polarizing beam splitter. The remapping fiber optics is used to sample the image plane of receiving optical lens, and transform the image into line light resource, which can realize the non-scanning imaging principle. The Digital Micromirror Device is used to convert laser pulses from temporal domain to spatial domain. The CCD with strong sensitivity is used to detect the final reflected laser pulses. In this paper, we also use an algorithm which is used to simulate this improved laser imaging system. In the last, the simulated imaging experiment demonstrates that this improved laser imaging system can realize three-dimensional non-scanning laser imaging detection.

  3. Modifying a Rodenstock scanning laser ophthalmoscope for imaging densitometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornow, R P; Beuel, S; Zrenner, E

    1997-08-01

    The necessary modifications and technical requirements are described for using a commercially available scanning laser ophthalmoscope (Rodenstock Model 101 SLO) as an imaging densitometer to assess human photopigment distribution. The main requirements are a linear detector amplifier, fast shutters for the laser beams, and a trigger unit. Images must be compensated for varying laser intensity. Both rod and cone photopigments are measured with the 514-nm argon laser of the SLO. Discrimination is possible owing to the different spatial distribution. The cone pigment density peaks in the foveal center (D = 0.40) with a steep decrease with increasing eccentricity E (full width at half-maximum, 2.5 degrees ). Rod photopigment increases with increasing eccentricity (D = 0.23 for E = 11 degrees ). These values are in agreement with previous reported results obtained with scanning laser ophthalmoscopes specially designed for retinal densitometry and high stability.

  4. Post-modelling of images from a laser-induced wavy boiling front

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matti, R.S., E-mail: ramiz.matti@ltu.se [Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, SE-971 87 Luleå (Sweden); University of Mosul, College of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Mosul (Iraq); Kaplan, A.F.H. [Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, SE-971 87 Luleå (Sweden)

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • New method: post-modelling of high speed images from a laser-induced front. • From the images a wavy cavity and its absorption distribution is calculated. • Histograms enable additional statistical analysis and understanding. • Despite the complex topology the absorptivity is bound to 35–43%. • The new method visualizes valuable complementary information. - Abstract: Processes like laser keyhole welding, remote fusion laser cutting or laser drilling are governed by a highly dynamic wavy boiling front that was recently recorded by ultra-high speed imaging. A new approach has now been established by post-modelling of the high speed images. Based on the image greyscale and on a cavity model the three-dimensional front topology is reconstructed. As a second step the Fresnel absorptivity modulation across the wavy front is calculated, combined with the local projection of the laser beam. Frequency polygons enable additional analysis of the statistical variations of the properties across the front. Trends like shadow formation and time dependency can be studied, locally and for the whole front. Despite strong topology modulation in space and time, for lasers with 1 μm wavelength and steel the absorptivity is bounded to a narrow range of 35–43%, owing to its Fresnel characteristics.

  5. Image-guided macular laser therapy: design considerations and progress toward implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Jeffrey W.; Shin, David S.

    1999-06-01

    Laser therapy is currently the only treatment of proven benefit for exudative age related macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy. To guide treatment for macular diseases, investigations were initiated to permit overlay of previously-stored angiographic images and image sequences superimposed onto the real-time biomicroscopic fundus image. Prior to treatment, a set of partially overlapping fundus images is acquired and montaged in order to provide a map for subsequent tracking operations. A binocular slit-lamp biomicroscope interfaced to a CCD camera, framegrabber board, and PC permits acquisition and rendering of retinal images. Computer-vision algorithms facilitate robust tracking, registration, and near-video-rate image overlay of previously-stored retinal photographic and angiographic images onto the real-time fundus image. Laser treatment is guided in this augmented reality environment where the borders of the treatment target--for example, the boundaries of a choroidal neovascularization complex--are easily identified through overlay of angiographic information superimposed on, and registered with, the real-time fundus image. During periods of misregistration as judged by the amplitude of the tracking similarity metric, laser function is disabled, affording additional safety. Image-guided macular laser therapy should facilitate accurate targeting of treatable lesions and less unintentional retinal injury when compared with standard techniques.

  6. Intelligent Image Analysis for Image-Guided Laser Hair Removal and Skin Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Brian; Lu, Thomas; Chao, Tien-Hsin

    2012-01-01

    We present the development of advanced automatic target recognition (ATR) algorithms for the hair follicles identification in digital skin images to accurately direct the laser beam to remove the hair. The ATR system first performs a wavelet filtering to enhance the contrast of the hair features in the image. The system then extracts the unique features of the targets and sends the features to an Adaboost based classifier for training and recognition operations. The ATR system automatically classifies the hair, moles, or other skin lesion and provides the accurate coordinates of the intended hair follicle locations. The coordinates can be used to guide a scanning laser to focus energy only on the hair follicles. The intended benefit would be to protect the skin from unwanted laser exposure and to provide more effective skin therapy.

  7. Image-guided automatic triggering of a fractional CO2 laser in aesthetic procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilczyński, Sławomir; Koprowski, Robert; Wiernek, Barbara K; Błońska-Fajfrowska, Barbara

    2016-09-01

    Laser procedures in dermatology and aesthetic medicine are associated with the need for manual laser triggering. This leads to pulse overlapping and side effects. Automatic laser triggering based on image analysis can provide a secure fit to each successive doses of radiation. A fractional CO2 laser was used in the study. 500 images of the human skin of healthy subjects were acquired. Automatic triggering was initiated by an application together with a camera which tracks and analyses the skin in visible light. The tracking algorithm uses the methods of image analysis to overlap images. After locating the characteristic points in analysed adjacent areas, the correspondence of graphs is found. The point coordinates derived from the images are the vertices of graphs with respect to which isomorphism is sought. When the correspondence of graphs is found, it is possible to overlap the neighbouring parts of the image. The proposed method of laser triggering owing to the automatic image fitting method allows for 100% repeatability. To meet this requirement, there must be at least 13 graph vertices obtained from the image. For this number of vertices, the time of analysis of a single image is less than 0.5s. The proposed method, applied in practice, may help reduce the number of side effects during dermatological laser procedures resulting from laser pulse overlapping. In addition, it reduces treatment time and enables to propose new techniques of treatment through controlled, precise laser pulse overlapping. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. High frame rate multi-resonance imaging refractometry with distributed feedback dye laser sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vannahme, Christoph; Dufva, Martin; Kristensen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    imaging refractometry without moving parts is presented. DFB dye lasers are low-cost and highly sensitive refractive index sensors. The unique multi-wavelength DFB laser structure presented here comprises several areas with different grating periods. Imaging in two dimensions of space is enabled...... by analyzing laser light from all areas in parallel with an imaging spectrometer. With this multi-resonance imaging refractometry method, the spatial position in one direction is identified from the horizontal, i.e., spectral position of the multiple laser lines which is obtained from the spectrometer charged...

  9. Range-Gated Laser Stroboscopic Imaging for Night Remote Surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xin-Wei, Wang; Yan, Zhou; Song-Tao, Fan; Jun, He; Yu-Liang, Liu

    2010-01-01

    For night remote surveillance, we present a method, the range-gated laser stroboscopic imaging(RGLSI), which uses a new kind of time delay integration mode to integrate target signals so that night remote surveillance can be realized by a low-energy illuminated laser. The time delay integration in this method has no influence on the video frame rate. Compared with the traditional range-gated laser imaging, RGLSI can reduce scintillation and target speckle effects and significantly improve the image signal-to-noise ratio analyzed. Even under low light level and low visibility conditions, the RGLSI system can effectively work. In a preliminary experiment, we have detected and recognized a railway bridge one kilometer away under a visibility of six kilometers, when the effective illuminated energy is 29.5 μJ

  10. Laser amplification of optical images using a CW Nd:YAG amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aman, H

    2013-01-01

    In this paper a scheme for the amplification of optical images is described, using a continuous wave (CW) diode-pumped Nd:YAG (yttrium aluminum garnet) laser module. A passively q-switched end-pumped Nd:YAG laser is used as a pump source, which carries the optical image distribution as an input which is transmitted towards the amplifier at a distance of about ten feet. For amplification, a three-side-pumped CW Nd:YAG laser module is utilized without the cavity mirrors. In this way, optical images are amplified by a factor of 3.2 and imaged at a distance of ten feet with a spatial resolution of 500 μm. (paper)

  11. Comparative study of digital laser film and analog paper image recordings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K.R.; Cox, G.G.; Templeton, A.W.; Preston, D.F.; Anderson, W.H.; Hensley, K.S.; Dwyer, S.J.

    1987-01-01

    The increase in the use of various imaging modalities demands higher quality and more efficacious analog image recordings. Laser electronic recordings with digital array prints of 4,000 x 5,000 x 12 bits obtained using laser-sensitive film or paper are being evaluated. Dry silver paper recordings are being improved and evaluated. High-resolution paper dot printers are being studied to determine their gray-scale capabilities. The authors evaluated the image quality, costs, clinical utilization, and acceptability of CT scans, MR images, digital subtraction angiograms, digital radiographs, and radionuclide scans recorded by seven different printers (three laser, three silver paper, and one dot) and compared the same features in conventional film recording. This exhibit outlines the technical developments and instrumentation of digital laser film and analog paper recorders and presents the results of the study

  12. Holographic Imaging of Evolving Laser-Plasma Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downer, Michael [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Shvets, G. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2014-07-31

    In the 1870s, English photographer Eadweard Muybridge captured motion pictures within one cycle of a horse’s gallop, which settled a hotly debated question of his time by showing that the horse became temporarily airborne. In the 1940s, Manhattan project photographer Berlin Brixner captured a nuclear blast at a million frames per second, and resolved a dispute about the explosion’s shape and speed. In this project, we developed methods to capture detailed motion pictures of evolving, light-velocity objects created by a laser pulse propagating through matter. These objects include electron density waves used to accelerate charged particles, laser-induced refractive index changes used for micromachining, and ionization tracks used for atmospheric chemical analysis, guide star creation and ranging. Our “movies”, like Muybridge’s and Brixner’s, are obtained in one shot, since the laser-created objects of interest are insufficiently repeatable for accurate stroboscopic imaging. Our high-speed photographs have begun to resolve controversies about how laser-created objects form and evolve, questions that previously could be addressed only by intensive computer simulations based on estimated initial conditions. Resolving such questions helps develop better tabletop particle accelerators, atmospheric ranging devices and many other applications of laser-matter interactions. Our photographic methods all begin by splitting one or more “probe” pulses from the laser pulse that creates the light-speed object. A probe illuminates the object and obtains information about its structure without altering it. We developed three single-shot visualization methods that differ in how the probes interact with the object of interest or are recorded. (1) Frequency-Domain Holography (FDH). In FDH, there are 2 probes, like “object” and “reference” beams in conventional holography. Our “object” probe surrounds the light-speed object, like a fleas swarming around a

  13. Laser Imaging Video Camera Sees Through Fire, Fog, Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Under a series of SBIR contracts with Langley Research Center, inventor Richard Billmers refined a prototype for a laser imaging camera capable of seeing through fire, fog, smoke, and other obscurants. Now, Canton, Ohio-based Laser Imaging through Obscurants (LITO) Technologies Inc. is demonstrating the technology as a perimeter security system at Glenn Research Center and planning its future use in aviation, shipping, emergency response, and other fields.

  14. Laser image recording on detonation nanodiamond films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikheev, G M; Mikheev, K G; Mogileva, T N; Puzyr, A P; Bondar, V S

    2014-01-01

    A focused He – Ne laser beam is shown to cause local blackening of semitransparent detonation nanodiamond (DND) films at incident power densities above 600 W cm -2 . Data obtained with a Raman spectrometer and low-power 632.8-nm laser source indicate that the blackening is accompanied by a decrease in broadband background luminescence and emergence of sharp Raman peaks corresponding to the structures of nanodiamond and sp 2 carbon. The feasibility of image recording on DND films by a focused He – Ne laser beam is demonstrated. (letters)

  15. Laser image recording on detonation nanodiamond films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikheev, G M; Mikheev, K G; Mogileva, T N [Institute of Mechanics, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Izhevsk (Russian Federation); Puzyr, A P; Bondar, V S [Institute of Biophysics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation)

    2014-01-31

    A focused He – Ne laser beam is shown to cause local blackening of semitransparent detonation nanodiamond (DND) films at incident power densities above 600 W cm{sup -2}. Data obtained with a Raman spectrometer and low-power 632.8-nm laser source indicate that the blackening is accompanied by a decrease in broadband background luminescence and emergence of sharp Raman peaks corresponding to the structures of nanodiamond and sp{sup 2} carbon. The feasibility of image recording on DND films by a focused He – Ne laser beam is demonstrated. (letters)

  16. Statistical Image Recovery From Laser Speckle Patterns With Polarization Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    several techniques for speckle suppression in optical imaging [19]. However, averaging nonimaged laser speckle patterns does not yield the same result...Comparison”. Applied Optics , 21(15):2758–2769, August 1982. 13. Fienup, James R. “Image Formation from Nonimaged Laser Speckle Patterns”. S. R. Robinson...6 ν Optical Frequency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 t Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 ϕ

  17. Imaging femtosecond laser-induced electronic excitation in glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Xianglei; Mao, Samuel S.; Russo, Richard E.

    2003-01-01

    While substantial progress has been achieved in understanding laser ablation on the nanosecond and picosecond time scales, it remains a considerable challenge to elucidate the underlying mechanisms during femtosecond laser material interactions. We present experimental observations of electronic excitation inside a wide band gap glass during single femtosecond laser pulse (100 fs, 800 nm) irradiation. Using a femtosecond time-resolved imaging technique, we measured the evolution of a laser-induced electronic plasma inside the glass and calculated the electron number density to be on the order of 10 19 cm -3

  18. Optimization of an Image-Guided Laser-Induced Choroidal Neovascularization Model in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Gong

    Full Text Available The mouse model of laser-induced choroidal neovascularization (CNV has been used in studies of the exudative form of age-related macular degeneration using both the conventional slit lamp and a new image-guided laser system. A standardized protocol is needed for consistent results using this model, which has been lacking. We optimized details of laser-induced CNV using the image-guided laser photocoagulation system. Four lesions with similar size were consistently applied per eye at approximately double the disc diameter away from the optic nerve, using different laser power levels, and mice of various ages and genders. After 7 days, the mice were sacrificed and retinal pigment epithelium/choroid/sclera was flat-mounted, stained with Isolectin B4, and imaged. Quantification of the area of the laser-induced lesions was performed using an established and constant threshold. Exclusion criteria are described that were necessary for reliable data analysis of the laser-induced CNV lesions. The CNV lesion area was proportional to the laser power levels. Mice at 12-16 weeks of age developed more severe CNV than those at 6-8 weeks of age, and the gender difference was only significant in mice at 12-16 weeks of age, but not in those at 6-8 weeks of age. Dietary intake of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid reduced laser-induced CNV in mice. Taken together, laser-induced CNV lesions can be easily and consistently applied using the image-guided laser platform. Mice at 6-8 weeks of age are ideal for the laser-induced CNV model.

  19. Laser line scan underwater imaging by complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhiyi; Luo, Meixing; Song, Xiyu; Wang, Dundong; He, Ning

    2017-12-01

    This work employs the complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) camera to acquire images in a scanning manner for laser line scan (LLS) underwater imaging to alleviate backscatter impact of seawater. Two operating features of the CMOS camera, namely the region of interest (ROI) and rolling shutter, can be utilized to perform image scan without the difficulty of translating the receiver above the target as the traditional LLS imaging systems have. By the dynamically reconfigurable ROI of an industrial CMOS camera, we evenly divided the image into five subareas along the pixel rows and then scanned them by changing the ROI region automatically under the synchronous illumination by the fun beams of the lasers. Another scanning method was explored by the rolling shutter operation of the CMOS camera. The fun beam lasers were turned on/off to illuminate the narrow zones on the target in a good correspondence to the exposure lines during the rolling procedure of the camera's electronic shutter. The frame synchronization between the image scan and the laser beam sweep may be achieved by either the strobe lighting output pulse or the external triggering pulse of the industrial camera. Comparison between the scanning and nonscanning images shows that contrast of the underwater image can be improved by our LLS imaging techniques, with higher stability and feasibility than the mechanically controlled scanning method.

  20. Enabling vendor independent photoacoustic imaging systems with asynchronous laser source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yixuan; Zhang, Haichong K.; Boctor, Emad M.

    2018-02-01

    Channel data acquisition, and synchronization between laser excitation and PA signal acquisition, are two fundamental hardware requirements for photoacoustic (PA) imaging. Unfortunately, however, neither is equipped by most clinical ultrasound scanners. Therefore, less economical specialized research platforms are used in general, which hinders a smooth clinical transition of PA imaging. In previous studies, we have proposed an algorithm to achieve PA imaging using ultrasound post-beamformed (USPB) RF data instead of channel data. This work focuses on enabling clinical ultrasound scanners to implement PA imaging, without requiring synchronization between the laser excitation and PA signal acquisition. Laser synchronization is inherently consisted of two aspects: frequency and phase information. We synchronize without communicating the laser and the ultrasound scanner by investigating USPB images of a point-target phantom in two steps. First, frequency information is estimated by solving a nonlinear optimization problem, under the assumption that the segmented wave-front can only be beamformed into a single spot when synchronization is achieved. Second, after making frequencies of two systems identical, phase delay is estimated by optimizing the image quality while varying phase value. The proposed method is validated through simulation, by manually adding both frequency and phase errors, then applying the proposed algorithm to correct errors and reconstruct PA images. Compared with the ground truth, simulation results indicate that the remaining errors in frequency correction and phase correction are 0.28% and 2.34%, respectively, which affirm the potential of overcoming hardware barriers on PA imaging through software solution.

  1. Optical coherence tomography image-guided smart laser knife for surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katta, Nitesh; McElroy, Austin B; Estrada, Arnold D; Milner, Thomas E

    2018-03-01

    Surgical oncology can benefit from specialized tools that enhance imaging and enable precise cutting and removal of tissue without damage to adjacent structures. The combination of high-resolution, fast optical coherence tomography (OCT) co-aligned with a nanosecond pulsed thulium (Tm) laser offers advantages over conventional surgical laser systems. Tm lasers provide superior beam quality, high volumetric tissue removal rates with minimal residual thermal footprint in tissue, enabling a reduction in unwanted damage to delicate adjacent sub-surface structures such as nerves or micro-vessels. We investigated such a combined Tm/OCT system with co-aligned imaging and cutting beams-a configuration we call a "smart laser knife." A blow-off model that considers absorption coefficients and beam delivery systems was utilized to predict Tm cut depth, tissue removal rate and spatial distribution of residual thermal injury. Experiments were performed to verify the volumetric removal rate predicted by the model as a function of average power. A bench-top, combined Tm/OCT system was constructed using a 15W 1940 nm nanosecond pulsed Tm fiber laser (500 μJ pulse energy, 100 ns pulse duration, 30 kHz repetition rate) for removing tissue and a swept source laser (1310 ± 70 nm, 100 kHz sweep rate) for OCT imaging. Tissue phantoms were used to demonstrate precise surgery with blood vessel avoidance. Depth imaging informed cutting/removal of targeted tissue structures by the Tm laser was performed. Laser cutting was accomplished around and above phantom blood vessels while avoiding damage to vessel walls. A tissue removal rate of 5.5 mm 3 /sec was achieved experimentally, in comparison to the model prediction of approximately 6 mm 3 /sec. We describe a system that combines OCT and laser tissue modification with a Tm laser. Simulation results of the tissue removal rate using a simple model, as a function of average power, are in good agreement with experimental

  2. X-ray imaging in the laser-fusion program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCall, G.H.

    1977-01-01

    Imaging devices which are used or planned for x-ray imaging in the laser-fusion program are discussed. Resolution criteria are explained, and a suggestion is made for using the modulation transfer function as a uniform definition of resolution for these devices

  3. Dual-wavelength differential spectroscopic imaging for diagnostics of laser-induced plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motto-Ros, V., E-mail: vincent.motto-ros@univ-lyon1.fr [Universite de Lyon, F-69622, Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, Villeurbanne, CNRS, UMR5579, LASIM (France); Ma, Q.L. [Universite de Lyon, F-69622, Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, Villeurbanne, CNRS, UMR5579, LASIM (France); Gregoire, S. [CRITT Matriaux Alsace, 19 rue de St Junien, 67300 Schiltigheim (France); Lei, W.Q.; Wang, X.C. [Universite de Lyon, F-69622, Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, Villeurbanne, CNRS, UMR5579, LASIM (France); Pelascini, F.; Surma, F. [CRITT Matriaux Alsace, 19 rue de St Junien, 67300 Schiltigheim (France); Detalle, V. [Laboratoire de Recherche des Monuments Historiques, 29 rue de Paris, 77420 Champs-sur-Marne (France); Yu, J. [Universite de Lyon, F-69622, Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, Villeurbanne, CNRS, UMR5579, LASIM (France)

    2012-08-15

    A specific configuration for plasma fast spectroscopic imaging was developed, where a pair of narrowband filters, one fitting an emission line of a species to be studied and the other out of its emission line, allowed double images to be taken for a laser-induced plasma. A dedicated software was developed for the subtraction between the double images. The result represents therefore the monochromatic emission image of the species in the plasma. We have shown in this work that such configuration is especially efficient for the monitoring of a plasma generated under the atmospheric pressure at very short delays after the impact of the laser pulse on the target, when a strong continuum emission is observed. The efficiency of the technique has been particularly demonstrated in the study of laser-induced plasma on a polymer target. Molecular species, such as C{sub 2} and CN, as well as atomic species, such as C and N, were imaged starting from 50 ns after the laser impact. Moreover space segregation of different species, atomic or molecular, inside of the plasma was clearly observed. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Imaging to study species with time and space resolution in laser induced plasma. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Image display of multiple species is proposed based on RGB color model. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Molecular emission (CN and C{sub 2}) is observed at very short delays (50 ns). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Segregation of different species inside the plasma is clearly established.

  4. Laser Imaging Facilitates Early Detection of Synchronous Adenocarcinomas in Patients with Barrett’s Esophagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chihiro Iwashita

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Barrett’s adenocarcinoma may occur in multiple sites, and recurrence and metachronous lesions are the major problems with endoscopic resection. Therefore, early detection of such lesions is ideal to achieve complete resection and obtain improved survival rates with minimally invasive treatment. Laser imaging systems allow multiple modalities of endoscopic imaging by using white light laser, flexible spectral imaging color enhancement (FICE, blue laser imaging (BLI, and linked color imaging even at a distant view. However, the usefulness of these modalities has not been sufficiently reported regarding Barrett’s adenocarcinoma. Here, we report on a patient with three synchronous lesions followed by one metachronous lesion in a long segment with changes of Barrett’s esophagus, all diagnosed with this new laser endoscopic imaging system and enhanced by using FICE and/or BLI with high contrast compared with the surrounding mucosa. Laser endoscopic imaging may facilitate the detection of malignancies in patients with early Barrett’s adenocarcinoma.

  5. An improved triangulation laser rangefinder using a custom CMOS HDR linear image sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liscombe, Michael

    3-D triangulation laser rangefinders are used in many modern applications, from terrain mapping to biometric identification. Although a wide variety of designs have been proposed, laser speckle noise still provides a fundamental limitation on range accuracy. These works propose a new triangulation laser rangefinder designed specifically to mitigate the effects of laser speckle noise. The proposed rangefinder uses a precision linear translator to laterally reposition the imaging system (e.g., image sensor and imaging lens). For a given spatial location of the laser spot, capturing N spatially uncorrelated laser spot profiles is shown to improve range accuracy by a factor of N . This technique has many advantages over past speckle-reduction technologies, such as a fixed system cost and form factor, and the ability to virtually eliminate laser speckle noise. These advantages are made possible through spatial diversity and come at the cost of increased acquisition time. The rangefinder makes use of the ICFYKWG1 linear image sensor, a custom CMOS sensor developed at the Vision Sensor Laboratory (York University). Tests are performed on the image sensor's innovative high dynamic range technology to determine its effects on range accuracy. As expected, experimental results have shown that the sensor provides a trade-off between dynamic range and range accuracy.

  6. Image digitizer system for bubble chamber laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haggerty, H.

    1986-01-01

    An IBM PC-based image digitizer system has been assembled to monitor the laser flash used for holography at the 15 foot bubble chamber. The hardware and the operating software are outlined. For an operational test of the system, an array of LEDs was flashed with a 10 microsecond pulse and the image was grabbed by one of the operating programs and processed

  7. An electronically tunable ultrafast laser source applied to fluorescence imaging and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunsby, C; Lanigan, P M P; McGinty, J; Elson, D S; Requejo-Isidro, J; Munro, I; Galletly, N; McCann, F; Treanor, B; Oenfelt, B; Davis, D M; Neil, M A A; French, P M W

    2004-01-01

    Fluorescence imaging is used widely in microscopy and macroscopic imaging applications for fields ranging from biomedicine to materials science. A critical component for any fluorescence imaging system is the excitation source. Traditionally, wide-field systems use filtered thermal or arc-generated white light sources, while point scanning confocal microscope systems require spatially coherent (point-like) laser sources. Unfortunately, the limited range of visible wavelengths available from conventional laser sources constrains the design and usefulness of fluorescent probes in confocal microscopy. A 'hands-off' laser-like source, electronically tunable across the visible spectrum, would be invaluable for fluorescence imaging and provide new opportunities, e.g. automated excitation fingerprinting and in situ measurement of excitation cross-sections. Yet more information can be obtained using fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM), which requires that the light source be pulsed or rapidly modulated. We show how a white light continuum, generated by injecting femtosecond optical radiation into a micro-structured optical fibre, coupled with a simple prism-based tunable filter arrangement, can fulfil all these roles as a continuously electronically tunable (435-1150 nm) visible ultrafast light source in confocal, wide-field and FLIM systems

  8. Plasma turbulence imaging using high-power laser Thomson scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweben, S. J.; Caird, J.; Davis, W.; Johnson, D. W.; Le Blanc, B. P.

    2001-01-01

    The two-dimensional (2D) structure of plasma density turbulence in a magnetically confined plasma can potentially be measured using a Thomson scattering system made from components of the Nova laser of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. For a plasma such as the National Spherical Torus Experiment at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, the laser would form an ≈10-cm-wide plane sheet beam passing vertically through the chamber across the magnetic field. The scattered light would be imaged by a charge coupled device camera viewing along the direction of the magnetic field. The laser energy required to make 2D images of density turbulence is in the range 1-3 kJ, which can potentially be obtained from a set of frequency-doubled Nd:glass amplifiers with diameters in the range of 208-315 mm. A laser pulse width of ⩽100 ns would be short enough to capture the highest frequency components of the expected density fluctuations.

  9. A contribution to laser range imaging technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defigueiredo, Rui J. P.; Denney, Bradley S.

    1991-01-01

    The goal of the project was to develop a methodology for fusion of a Laser Range Imaging Device (LRID) and camera data. Our initial work in the project led to the conclusion that none of the LRID's that were available were sufficiently adequate for this purpose. Thus we spent the time and effort on the development of the new LRID with several novel features which elicit the desired fusion objectives. In what follows, we describe the device developed and built under contract. The Laser Range Imaging Device (LRID) is an instrument which scans a scene using a laser and returns range and reflection intensity data. Such a system would be extremely useful in scene analysis in industry and space applications. The LRID will be eventually implemented on board a mobile robot. The current system has several advantages over some commercially available systems. One improvement is the use of X-Y galvonometer scanning mirrors instead of polygonal mirrors present in some systems. The advantage of the X-Y scanning mirrors is that the mirror system can be programmed to provide adjustable scanning regions. For each mirror there are two controls accessible by the computer. The first is the mirror position and the second is a zoom factor which modifies the amplitude of the position of the parameter. Another advantage of the LRID is the use of a visible low power laser. Some of the commercial systems use a higher intensity invisible laser which causes safety concerns. By using a low power visible laser, not only can one see the beam and avoid direct eye contact, but also the lower intensity reduces the risk of damage to the eye, and no protective eyeware is required.

  10. MR imaging and histopathologic correlations of thermal injuries induced by interstitial laser applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anzai, Y.; Lufkin, R.B.; Castro, D.J.; Farahani, K.; Chen, H.W.; Hirchowiz, S.

    1991-01-01

    Interstitial laser phototherapy for deep-seated tumors may become an attractive therapeutic modality when a noninvasive, accurate monitoring system is developed. In this paper, to devaluate the ability of MR imaging to differentiate reversible and irreversible thermal injuries induced by laser therapy, the precise correlation of MR and histopathologic findings are investigated in the in vivo model. Nd:YAG lasers were applied to normal musculature of rabbits, and MR examinations were performed immediately after laser exposure and followed up for up to 10 weeks. The sequential MR images were correlated with histopathologic findings. T2-weighted MR imaging clearly showed laser-induced thermal injuries on any postoperative day. MR imaging of acute thermal injuries showed a central cavity, low-signal zone of coagulative necrosis and a peripheral high-signal layer of interstitial edema. The infiltration of neutrophils followed by fibrovascular response was identified on the marginal edema layer after 6 postoperative days

  11. Imaging hydrogen flames by two-photon, laser-induced fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, R.; Lempert, W.; Kumar, V.; Diskin, G.

    1991-01-01

    A nonintrusive multicomponent imaging system is developed which can image hydrogen, hot oxygen, and air simultaneously. An Ar-F excimer laser is injection-locked to cover the Q1 two-photon transition in molecular hydrogen which allows the observation of both hot oxygen and cold hydrogen. Rayleigh scattering from the water molecules occurs at the same frequency as the illuminating laser allowing analysis of the air density. Images of ignited and nonignited hydrogen jets are recorded with a high-sensitivity gated video camera. The images permit the analysis of turbulent hydrogen-core jet, the combustion zone, and the surrounding air, and two-dimensional spatial correlations can be made to study the turbulent structure and couplings between different regions of the flow field. The method is of interest to the study of practical combustion systems which employ hydrogen-air diffusion flames.

  12. Investigating biomass burning aerosol morphology using a laser imaging nephelometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfred, Katherine M.; Washenfelder, Rebecca A.; Wagner, Nicholas L.; Adler, Gabriela; Erdesz, Frank; Womack, Caroline C.; Lamb, Kara D.; Schwarz, Joshua P.; Franchin, Alessandro; Selimovic, Vanessa; Yokelson, Robert J.; Murphy, Daniel M.

    2018-02-01

    Particle morphology is an important parameter affecting aerosol optical properties that are relevant to climate and air quality, yet it is poorly constrained due to sparse in situ measurements. Biomass burning is a large source of aerosol that generates particles with different morphologies. Quantifying the optical contributions of non-spherical aerosol populations is critical for accurate radiative transfer models, and for correctly interpreting remote sensing data. We deployed a laser imaging nephelometer at the Missoula Fire Sciences Laboratory to sample biomass burning aerosol from controlled fires during the FIREX intensive laboratory study. The laser imaging nephelometer measures the unpolarized scattering phase function of an aerosol ensemble using diode lasers at 375 and 405 nm. Scattered light from the bulk aerosol in the instrument is imaged onto a charge-coupled device (CCD) using a wide-angle field-of-view lens, which allows for measurements at 4-175° scattering angle with ˜ 0.5° angular resolution. Along with a suite of other instruments, the laser imaging nephelometer sampled fresh smoke emissions both directly and after removal of volatile components with a thermodenuder at 250 °C. The total integrated aerosol scattering signal agreed with both a cavity ring-down photoacoustic spectrometer system and a traditional integrating nephelometer within instrumental uncertainties. We compare the measured scattering phase functions at 405 nm to theoretical models for spherical (Mie) and fractal (Rayleigh-Debye-Gans) particle morphologies based on the size distribution reported by an optical particle counter. Results from representative fires demonstrate that particle morphology can vary dramatically for different fuel types. In some cases, the measured phase function cannot be described using Mie theory. This study demonstrates the capabilities of the laser imaging nephelometer instrument to provide realtime, in situ information about dominant particle

  13. Laser plasmas as x-ray sources for lithographic imaging of submicron structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bijkerk, F.; van Dorssen, G.E.; van der Wiel, M.J.

    1988-01-01

    Laser radiation can be used efficiently to generate x-rays for lithographic imaging of submicron patterns, e.g., for VLSI device fabrication. Due to their short wavelength and high average power, excimer lasers show much potential for this application. Results are presented of scaling studies for high repetition rate excimer laser application, using the frequency doubled output of a low repetition rate Nd:YAG/Glass laser. Spectral and spatial characteristics of x-ray emission of the laser plasma are shown. The power density in the laser focus was 3 x 10 12 W/cm 2 . With this source Si x-ray masks with submicron Au absorber profiles are imaged into high sensitivity x-ray photoresist. For the exposures 80 laser shots sufficed to yield high quality submicron structures. Extrapolation of the results to a high power excimer laser reduces the exposure time of the photoresists to several seconds, enabling a wafer throughput at an industrial level

  14. Quality Assurance By Laser Scanning And Imaging Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    SchmalfuB, Harald J.; Schinner, Karl Ludwig

    1989-03-01

    Laser scanning systems are well established in the world of fast industrial in-process quality inspection systems. The materials inspected by laser scanning systems are e.g. "endless" sheets of steel, paper, textile, film or foils. The web width varies from 50 mm up to 5000 mm or more. The web speed depends strongly on the production process and can reach several hundred meters per minute. The continuous data flow in one of different channels of the optical receiving system exceeds ten Megapixels/sec. Therefore it is clear that the electronic evaluation system has to process these data streams in real time and no image storage is possible. But sometimes (e.g. first installation of the system, change of the defect classification) it would be very helpful to have the possibility for a visual look on the original, i.e. not processed sensor data. At first we show the principle set up of a standard laser scanning system. Then we will introduce a large image memory especially designed for the needs of high-speed inspection sensors. This image memory co-operates with the standard on-line evaluation electronics and provides therefore an easy comparison between processed and non-processed data. We will discuss the basic system structure and we will show the first industrial results.

  15. Remote defect imaging for plate-like structures based on the scanning laser source technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Takahiro; Maeda, Atsuya; Nakao, Shogo

    2018-04-01

    In defect imaging with a scanning laser source technique, the use of a fixed receiver realizes stable measurements of flexural waves generated by laser at multiple rastering points. This study discussed the defect imaging by remote measurements using a laser Doppler vibrometer as a receiver. Narrow-band burst waves were generated by modulating laser pulse trains of a fiber laser to enhance signal to noise ratio in frequency domain. Averaging three images obtained at three different frequencies suppressed spurious distributions due to resonance. The experimental system equipped with these newly-devised means enabled us to visualize defects and adhesive objects in plate-like structures such as a plate with complex geometries and a branch pipe.

  16. Ultrafast molecular imaging by laser-induced electron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, M.; Nguyen-Dang, T. T.; Cornaggia, C.; Saugout, S.; Charron, E.; Keller, A.; Atabek, O.

    2011-01-01

    We address the feasibility of imaging geometric and orbital structures of a polyatomic molecule on an attosecond time scale using the laser-induced electron diffraction (LIED) technique. We present numerical results for the highest molecular orbitals of the CO 2 molecule excited by a near-infrared few-cycle laser pulse. The molecular geometry (bond lengths) is determined within 3% of accuracy from a diffraction pattern which also reflects the nodal properties of the initial molecular orbital. Robustness of the structure determination is discussed with respect to vibrational and rotational motions with a complete interpretation of the laser-induced mechanisms.

  17. Transmyocardial laser revascularization - first experiences of imaging in MRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, C.; Maas, R.; Steiner, P.; Beese, M.; Hvalic, M.; Buecheler, E.; Stubbe, M.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: Imaging of myocardial signal alteration and perfusion differences after transmyocardial laser revascularization (TMLR). Methods and Material: 5 patients suffering from coronary vessel disease underwent MRI (0.5 T) pre- and 4-7 d post-TMLR. T 1 -weighted spin echo sequences were acquired ECG-triggered native and after injection of gadolinium. Qualitative analysis was performed on both native and contrast-enhanced images. Myocardial signal alterations and wall changes were evaluated. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of contrast-enhanced images were performed with regard of post therapeutic perfusion differences. Analysis was based on contrast-to-noise (C/N) data obtained from operator defined 'regions of interest'. Results: Visualization of laser-induced channels was not possible. Native scans obtained before and after TMLR revealed no significant change with regard to the qualitative analysis. Both qualitative and quantitative analyses demonstrated a posttherapeutic increase of C/N in both the left ventricular myocardium (64.4 pre-TMLR; 89.1 post-TMLR; p=0.06) and the septum in the majority of cases. No significant difference between laser-treated left myocardium and untreated septum was observed (p>0.05). Discussion: Single myocardial laser channels could not be visualized with a 0.5-T MRI. However, visualization of increased myocardial contrast enhancement in laser-treated left ventricular myocardium was evident in the majority of cases on the basis of qualitative and quantitative analyses. Conclusions: The MRI technique used enabled a first, limited depiction of TMLR-induced myocardial changes. The clinical value and impact still have to be defined. (orig.) [de

  18. Optimizing Ti:Sapphire laser for quantitative biomedical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Jeemol; Thomsen, Hanna; Hanstorp, Dag; Alemán Hérnandez, Felipe Ademir; Rothe, Sebastian; Enger, Jonas; Ericson, Marica B.

    2018-02-01

    Ti:Sapphire lasers are powerful tools in the field of scientific research and industry for a wide range of applications such as spectroscopic studies and microscopic imaging where tunable near-infrared light is required. To push the limits of the applicability of Ti:Sapphire lasers, fundamental understanding of the construction and operation is required. This paper presents two projects, (i) dealing with the building and characterization of custom built tunable narrow linewidth Ti:Sapphire laser for fundamental spectroscopy studies; and the second project (ii) the implementation of a fs-pulsed commercial Ti:Sapphire laser in an experimental multiphoton microscopy platform. For the narrow linewidth laser, a gold-plated diffraction grating with a Littrow geometry was implemented for highresolution wavelength selection. We demonstrate that the laser is tunable between 700 to 950 nm, operating in a pulsed mode with a repetition rate of 1 kHz and maximum average output power around 350 mW. The output linewidth was reduced from 6 GHz to 1.5 GHz by inserting an additional 6 mm thick etalon. The bandwidth was measured by means of a scanning Fabry Perot interferometer. Future work will focus on using a fs-pulsed commercial Ti:Sapphire laser (Tsunami, Spectra physics), operating at 80 MHz and maximum average output power around 1 W, for implementation in an experimental multiphoton microscopy set up dedicated for biomedical applications. Special focus will be on controlling pulse duration and dispersion in the optical components and biological tissue using pulse compression. Furthermore, time correlated analysis of the biological samples will be performed with the help of time correlated single photon counting module (SPCM, Becker&Hickl) which will give a novel dimension in quantitative biomedical imaging.

  19. Laser system for testing radiation imaging detector circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubrzycka, Weronika; Kasinski, Krzysztof

    2015-09-01

    Performance and functionality of radiation imaging detector circuits in charge and position measurement systems need to meet tight requirements. It is therefore necessary to thoroughly test sensors as well as read-out electronics. The major disadvantages of using radioactive sources or particle beams for testing are high financial expenses and limited accessibility. As an alternative short pulses of well-focused laser beam are often used for preliminary tests. There are number of laser-based devices available on the market, but very often their applicability in this field is limited. This paper describes concept, design and validation of laser system for testing silicon sensor based radiation imaging detector circuits. The emphasis is put on keeping overall costs low while achieving all required goals: mobility, flexible parameters, remote control and possibility of carrying out automated tests. The main part of the developed device is an optical pick-up unit (OPU) used in optical disc drives. The hardware includes FPGA-controlled circuits for laser positioning in 2 dimensions (horizontal and vertical), precision timing (frequency and number) and amplitude (diode current) of short ns-scale (3.2 ns) light pulses. The system is controlled via USB interface by a dedicated LabVIEW-based application enabling full manual or semi-automated test procedures.

  20. A laser scanner for imaging fluorophore labeled molecules in electrophoretic gels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, D.J.; Sutherland, J.C. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Biology Dept.

    1995-08-01

    A laser scanner for imaging electrophoretic gels was constructed and tested. The scanner incorporates a green helium-neon (HeNe) laser (543.5nm wavelength) and can achieve a spatial resolution of 19{micro}m. The instrument can function in two modes : snap-shot and finish-line. In snapshot mode, all samples are electrophoresed for the same time and the gel is scanned after completion of electrophoresis, while in finish-line mode, fluorophore labeled samples are electrophoresed for a constant distance and the image is formed as the samples pass under the detector. The resolving power of the finish-line mode of imaging is found to be greater than that of the snapshot mode of imaging. This laser scanner is also compared with a Charge Coupled Device (CCD) camera and in terms of resolving power is found to be superior. Sensitivity of the instrument is presented in terms of the minimum amount of DNA that can be detected verses its molecular length.

  1. A New Multichannel Spectral Imaging Laser Scanning Confocal Microscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunhai Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a new multichannel spectral imaging laser scanning confocal microscope for effective detection of multiple fluorescent labeling in the research of biological tissues. In this paper, the design and key technologies of the system are introduced. Representative results on confocal imaging, 3-dimensional sectioning imaging, and spectral imaging are demonstrated. The results indicated that the system is applicable to multiple fluorescent labeling in biological experiments.

  2. Ultra high-speed x-ray imaging of laser-driven shock compression using synchrotron light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olbinado, Margie P.; Cantelli, Valentina; Mathon, Olivier; Pascarelli, Sakura; Grenzer, Joerg; Pelka, Alexander; Roedel, Melanie; Prencipe, Irene; Laso Garcia, Alejandro; Helbig, Uwe; Kraus, Dominik; Schramm, Ulrich; Cowan, Tom; Scheel, Mario; Pradel, Pierre; De Resseguier, Thibaut; Rack, Alexander

    2018-02-01

    A high-power, nanosecond pulsed laser impacting the surface of a material can generate an ablation plasma that drives a shock wave into it; while in situ x-ray imaging can provide a time-resolved probe of the shock-induced material behaviour on macroscopic length scales. Here, we report on an investigation into laser-driven shock compression of a polyurethane foam and a graphite rod by means of single-pulse synchrotron x-ray phase-contrast imaging with MHz frame rate. A 6 J, 10 ns pulsed laser was used to generate shock compression. Physical processes governing the laser-induced dynamic response such as elastic compression, compaction, pore collapse, fracture, and fragmentation have been imaged; and the advantage of exploiting the partial spatial coherence of a synchrotron source for studying low-density, carbon-based materials is emphasized. The successful combination of a high-energy laser and ultra high-speed x-ray imaging using synchrotron light demonstrates the potentiality of accessing complementary information from scientific studies of laser-driven shock compression.

  3. Multimodal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy for image guided treatment of age-related macular degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Daniel X.; Ferguson, R. D.; Patel, Ankit H.; Iftimia, Nicusor V.; Mujat, Mircea; Husain, Deeba

    2009-02-01

    Subretinal neovascular membranes (SRNM) are a deleterious complication of laser eye injury and retinal diseases such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD), choroiditis, and myopic retinopathy. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) drugs are approved treatment methods. PDT acts by selective dye accumulation, activation by laser light, and disruption and clotting of the new leaky vessels. However, PDT surgery is currently not image-guided, nor does it proceed in an efficient or automated manner. This may contribute to the high rate of re-treatment. We have developed a multimodal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO) for automated diagnosis and image-guided treatment of SRNMs associated with AMD. The system combines line scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (LSLO), fluorescein angiography (FA), indocyanine green angiography (ICGA), PDT laser delivery, and retinal tracking in a compact, efficient platform. This paper describes the system hardware and software design, performance characterization, and automated patient imaging and treatment session procedures and algorithms. Also, we present initial imaging and tracking measurements on normal subjects and automated lesion demarcation and sizing analysis of previously acquired angiograms. Future pre-clinical testing includes line scanning angiography and PDT treatment of AMD subjects. The automated acquisition procedure, enhanced and expedited data post-processing, and innovative image visualization and interpretation tools provided by the multimodal retinal imager may eventually aid in the diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of AMD and other retinal diseases.

  4. Nanoimprinted distributed feedback dye laser sensor for real-time imaging of small molecule diffusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vannahme, Christoph; Dufva, Martin; Kristensen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Label-free imaging is a promising tool for the study of biological processes such as cell adhesion and small molecule signaling processes. In order to image in two dimensions of space current solutions require motorized stages which results in low imaging frame rates. Here, a highly sensitive...... distributed feedback (DFB) dye laser sensor for real-time label-free imaging without any moving parts enabling a frame rate of 12 Hz is presented. The presence of molecules on the laser surface results in a wavelength shift which is used as sensor signal. The unique DFB laser structure comprises several areas...

  5. Infrared laser transillumination CT imaging system using parallel fiber arrays and optical switches for finger joint imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Yoshiaki; Emori, Ryota; Inage, Hiroki; Goto, Masaki; Takahashi, Ryo; Yuasa, Tetsuya; Taniguchi, Hiroshi; Devaraj, Balasigamani; Akatsuka, Takao

    2004-05-01

    The heterodyne detection technique, on which the coherent detection imaging (CDI) method founds, can discriminate and select very weak, highly directional forward scattered, and coherence retaining photons that emerge from scattering media in spite of their complex and highly scattering nature. That property enables us to reconstruct tomographic images using the same reconstruction technique as that of X-Ray CT, i.e., the filtered backprojection method. Our group had so far developed a transillumination laser CT imaging method based on the CDI method in the visible and near-infrared regions and reconstruction from projections, and reported a variety of tomographic images both in vitro and in vivo of biological objects to demonstrate the effectiveness to biomedical use. Since the previous system was not optimized, it took several hours to obtain a single image. For a practical use, we developed a prototype CDI-based imaging system using parallel fiber array and optical switches to reduce the measurement time significantly. Here, we describe a prototype transillumination laser CT imaging system using fiber-optic based on optical heterodyne detection for early diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), by demonstrating the tomographic imaging of acrylic phantom as well as the fundamental imaging properties. We expect that further refinements of the fiber-optic-based laser CT imaging system could lead to a novel and practical diagnostic tool for rheumatoid arthritis and other joint- and bone-related diseases in human finger.

  6. Stereoscopic Planar Laser-Induced Fluorescence Imaging at 500 kHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medford, Taylor L.; Danehy, Paul M.; Jones, Stephen B.; Jiang, N.; Webster, M.; Lempert, Walter; Miller, J.; Meyer, T.

    2011-01-01

    A new measurement technique for obtaining time- and spatially-resolved image sequences in hypersonic flows is developed. Nitric-oxide planar laser-induced fluorescence (NO PLIF) has previously been used to investigate transition from laminar to turbulent flow in hypersonic boundary layers using both planar and volumetric imaging capabilities. Low flow rates of NO were typically seeded into the flow, minimally perturbing the flow. The volumetric imaging was performed at a measurement rate of 10 Hz using a thick planar laser sheet that excited NO fluorescence. The fluorescence was captured by a pair of cameras having slightly different views of the flow. Subsequent stereoscopic reconstruction of these images allowed the three-dimensional flow structures to be viewed. In the current paper, this approach has been extended to 50,000 times higher repetition rates. A laser operating at 500 kHz excites the seeded NO molecules, and a camera, synchronized with the laser and fitted with a beam-splitting assembly, acquires two separate images of the flow. The resulting stereoscopic images provide three-dimensional flow visualizations at 500 kHz for the first time. The 200 ns exposure time in each frame is fast enough to freeze the flow while the 500 kHz repetition rate is fast enough to time-resolve changes in the flow being studied. This method is applied to visualize the evolving hypersonic flow structures that propagate downstream of a discrete protuberance attached to a flat plate. The technique was demonstrated in the NASA Langley Research Center s 31-Inch Mach 10 Air Tunnel facility. Different tunnel Reynolds number conditions, NO flow rates and two different cylindrical protuberance heights were investigated. The location of the onset of flow unsteadiness, an indicator of transition, was observed to move downstream during the tunnel runs, coinciding with an increase in the model temperature.

  7. Sensitive elemental detection using microwave-assisted laser-induced breakdown imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Adeel; Sun, Zhiwei; Wall, Matthew; Alwahabi, Zeyad T.

    2017-10-01

    This study reports a sensitive spectroscopic method for quantitative elemental detection by manipulating the temporal and spatial parameters of laser-induced plasma. The method was tested for indium detection in solid samples, in which laser ablation was used to generate a tiny plasma. The lifetime of the laser-induced plasma can be extended to hundreds of microseconds using microwave injection to remobilize the electrons. In this novel method, temporal integrated signal of indium emission was significantly enhanced. Meanwhile, the projected detectable area of the excited indium atoms was also significantly improved using an interference-, instead of diffraction-, based technique, achieved by directly imaging microwave-enhanced plasma through a novel narrow-bandpass filter, exactly centered at the indium emission line. Quantitative laser-induce breakdown spectroscopy was also recorded simultaneously with the new imaging method. The intensities recorded from both methods exhibit very good mutual linear relationship. The detection intensity was improved to 14-folds because of the combined improvements in the plasma lifetime and the area of detection.

  8. Multi-image mosaic with SIFT and vision measurement for microscale structures processed by femtosecond laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fu-Bin; Tu, Paul; Wu, Chen; Chen, Lei; Feng, Ding

    2018-01-01

    In femtosecond laser processing, the field of view of each image frame of the microscale structure is extremely small. In order to obtain the morphology of the whole microstructure, a multi-image mosaic with partially overlapped regions is required. In the present work, the SIFT algorithm for mosaic images was analyzed theoretically, and by using multiple images of a microgroove structure processed by femtosecond laser, a stitched image of the whole groove structure could be studied experimentally and realized. The object of our research concerned a silicon wafer with a microgroove structure ablated by femtosecond laser. First, we obtained microgrooves at a width of 380 μm at different depths. Second, based on the gray image of the microgroove, a multi-image mosaic with slot width and slot depth was realized. In order to improve the image contrast between the target and the background, and taking the slot depth image as an example, a multi-image mosaic was then realized using pseudo color enhancement. Third, in order to measure the structural size of the microgroove with the image, a known width streak ablated by femtosecond laser at 20 mW was used as a calibration sample. Through edge detection, corner extraction, and image correction for the streak images, we calculated the pixel width of the streak image and found the measurement ratio constant Kw in the width direction, and then obtained the proportional relationship between a pixel and a micrometer. Finally, circular spot marks ablated by femtosecond laser at 2 mW and 15 mW were used as test images, and proving that the value Kw was correct, the measurement ratio constant Kh in the height direction was obtained, and the image measurements for a microgroove of 380 × 117 μm was realized based on a measurement ratio constant Kw and Kh. The research and experimental results show that the image mosaic, image calibration, and geometric image parameter measurements for the microstructural image ablated by

  9. Image quality of a wet laser printer versus a paper printer for full-field digital mammograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schueller, Gerd; Kaindl, Elisabeth; Matzek, Wolfgang K; Semturs, Friedrich; Schueller-Weidekamm, Claudia; Helbich, Thomas H

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to compare the image quality of a wet laser printer with that of a paper printer for full-field digital mammography (FFDM). For both a wet laser printer and a paper printer connected to an FFDM system, image quality parameters were evaluated using a standardized printer test image (luminance density, dynamic range). The detectability of standardized objects on a phantom was also evaluated. Furthermore, 640 mammograms of 80 patients with different breast tissue composition patterns were imaged with both printers. Subjective image quality parameters (brightness, contrast, and detection of details of anatomic structures-that is, skin, subcutis, musculature, glandular tissue, and fat), the detectability of breast lesions (mass, calcifications), and the diagnostic performance according to the BI-RADS classification were evaluated. Both the luminance density and the dynamic range were superior for the wet laser printer. More standardized objects were visible on the phantom imaged with the wet laser printer than with the paper printer (13/16 vs 11/16). Each subjective image quality parameter of the mammograms from the wet laser printer was rated superior to those of the paper printer. Significantly more breast lesions were detected on the wet laser printer images than on the paper printer images (masses, 13 vs 10; calcifications, 65 vs 48; p printer images, BI-RADS 4 and 5 categories were underestimated for 10 (43.5%) of 23 patients. For FFDM, images obtained from a wet laser printer show superior objective and subjective image quality compared with a paper printer. As a consequence, the paper printer should not be used for FFDM.

  10. Research of time fiducial and imaging VISAR laser for Shenguang-III laser facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Wang, Zhenguo; Tian, Xiaocheng; Zhou, Dandan; Zhu, Na; Wang, Jianjun; Li, Mingzhong; Xu, Dangpeng; Dang, Zhao; Hu, Dongxia; Zhu, Qihua; Zheng, Wanguo; Wang, Feng

    2015-10-01

    Time fiducial laser is an important tool for the precise measurement in high energy density physics experiments. The VISAR probe laser is also vital for shock wave diagnostics in ICF experiments. Here, time fiducial laser and VISAR light were generated from one source on SG-III laser facility. After generated from a 1064-nm DFB laser, the laser is modulated by an amplitude modulator driven by 10 GS/s arbitrary waveform generator. Using time division multiplexing technology, the ten-pulse time fiducial laser and the 20-ns VISAR pulse were split by a 1×2 multiplexer and then chosen by two acoustic optic modulators. Using the technique, cost of the system was reduced. The technologies adopted in the system also include pulse polarization stabilization, high precision fiber coupling and energy transmission. The time fiducial laser generated synchronized 12-beam 2ω and 4-beam 3ω laser, providing important reference marks for different detectors and making it convenient for the analysis of diagnostic data. After being amplified by fiber amplifiers and Nd:YAG rod amplifiers, the VISAR laser pulse was frequency-converted to 532-nm pulse by a thermally controlled LBO crystal with final output energy larger than 20 mJ. Finally, the green light was coupled into a 1-mm core diameter, multimode fused silica optical fiber and propagated to the imaging VISAR. The VISAR laser has been used in the VISAR diagnostic physics experiments. Shock wave loading and slowdown processes were measured. Function to measure velocity history of shock wave front movement in different kinds of materials was added to the SG-III laser facility.

  11. Real-time near-IR imaging of laser-ablation crater evolution in dental enamel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2007-02-01

    We have shown that the enamel of the tooth is almost completely transparent near 1310-nm in the near-infrared and that near-IR (NIR) imaging has considerable potential for the optical discrimination of sound and demineralized tissue and for observing defects in the interior of the tooth. Lasers are now routinely used for many applications in dentistry including the ablation of dental caries. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that real-time NIR imaging can be used to monitor laser-ablation under varying conditions to assess peripheral thermal and transient-stress induced damage and to measure the rate and efficiency of ablation. Moreover, NIR imaging may have considerable potential for monitoring the removal of demineralized areas of the tooth during cavity preparations. Sound human tooth sections of approximately 3-mm thickness were irradiated by a CO II laser under varying conditions with and without a water spray. The incision area in the interior of each sample was imaged using a tungsten-halogen lamp with band-pass filter centered at 131--nm combined with an InGaAs focal plane array with a NIR zoom microscope in transillumination. Due to the high transparency of enamel at 1310-nm, laser-incisions were clearly visible to the dentin-enamel junction and crack formation, dehydration and irreversible thermal changes were observed during ablation. This study showed that there is great potential for near-IR imaging to monitor laser-ablation events in real-time to: assess safe laser operating parameters by imaging thermal and stress-induced damage, elaborate the mechanisms involved in ablation such as dehydration, and monitor the removal of demineralized enamel.

  12. A pin diode x-ray camera for laser fusion diagnostic imaging: Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jernigan, J.G.

    1987-01-01

    An x-ray camera has been constructed and tested for diagnostic imaging of laser fusion targets at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) of the University of Rochester. The imaging detector, developed by the Hughes Aircraft Company, is a germanium PIN diode array of 10 x 64 separate elements which are bump bonded to a silicon readout chip containing a separate low noise amplifier for each pixel element. The camera assembly consists of a pinhole alignment mechanism, liquid nitrogen cryostat with detector mount and a thin beryllium entrance window, and a shielded rack containing the analog and digital electronics for operations. This x-ray camera has been tested on the OMEGA laser target chamber, the primary laser target facility of LLE, and operated via an Ethernet link to a SUN Microsystems workstation. X-ray images of laser targets are presented. The successful operation of this particular x-ray camera is a demonstration of the viability of the hybrid detector technology for future imaging and spectroscopic applications. This work was funded by the Department of Energy (DOE) as a project of the National Laser Users Facility (NLUF)

  13. Illumination Effect of Laser Light in Foggy Objects Using an Active Imaging System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Seong-Ouk; Park, Seung-Kyu; Ahn, Yong-Jin; Baik, Sung-Hoon; Choi, Young-Soo; Jeong, Kyung-Min [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Active imaging techniques usually provide improved image information when compared to passive imaging techniques. Active vision is a direct visualization technique using an artificial illuminant. Range-gated imaging (RGI) technique is one of active vision technologies. The RGI technique extracts vision information by summing time sliced vision images. In the RGI system, objects are illuminated for ultra-short time by a high intensity illuminant and then the light reflected from objects is captured by a highly sensitive image sensor with the exposure of ultra-short time. The Range-gated imaging is an emerging technology in the field of surveillance for security application, especially in the visualization of darken night or foggy environment. Although RGI viewing was discovered in the 1960's, this technology is currently more applicable by virtue of the rapid development of optical and sensor technologies, such as highly sensitive imaging sensor and ultra-short pulse laser light. Especially, this system can be adopted in robot-vision system by virtue of the compact system configuration. During the past decades, several applications of this technology have been applied in target recognition and in harsh environments, such as fog, underwater vision. Also, this technology has been demonstrated range imaging based on range-gated imaging. Laser light having a short pulse width is usually used for the range-gated imaging system. In this paper, an illumination effect of laser light in foggy objects is studied using a range-gated imaging system. The used imaging system consists of an ultra-short pulse (0.35 ns) laser light and a gated imaging sensor. The experiment is carried out to monitor objects in a box filled by fog. In this paper, the effects by fog particles in range-gated imaging technique are studied. Edge blurring and range distortion are the generated by fog particles.

  14. Illumination Effect of Laser Light in Foggy Objects Using an Active Imaging System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Seong-Ouk; Park, Seung-Kyu; Ahn, Yong-Jin; Baik, Sung-Hoon; Choi, Young-Soo; Jeong, Kyung-Min

    2015-01-01

    Active imaging techniques usually provide improved image information when compared to passive imaging techniques. Active vision is a direct visualization technique using an artificial illuminant. Range-gated imaging (RGI) technique is one of active vision technologies. The RGI technique extracts vision information by summing time sliced vision images. In the RGI system, objects are illuminated for ultra-short time by a high intensity illuminant and then the light reflected from objects is captured by a highly sensitive image sensor with the exposure of ultra-short time. The Range-gated imaging is an emerging technology in the field of surveillance for security application, especially in the visualization of darken night or foggy environment. Although RGI viewing was discovered in the 1960's, this technology is currently more applicable by virtue of the rapid development of optical and sensor technologies, such as highly sensitive imaging sensor and ultra-short pulse laser light. Especially, this system can be adopted in robot-vision system by virtue of the compact system configuration. During the past decades, several applications of this technology have been applied in target recognition and in harsh environments, such as fog, underwater vision. Also, this technology has been demonstrated range imaging based on range-gated imaging. Laser light having a short pulse width is usually used for the range-gated imaging system. In this paper, an illumination effect of laser light in foggy objects is studied using a range-gated imaging system. The used imaging system consists of an ultra-short pulse (0.35 ns) laser light and a gated imaging sensor. The experiment is carried out to monitor objects in a box filled by fog. In this paper, the effects by fog particles in range-gated imaging technique are studied. Edge blurring and range distortion are the generated by fog particles

  15. Single-Shot, Volumetrically Illuminated, Three-Dimensional, Tomographic Laser-Induced-Fluorescence Imaging in a Gaseous Free Jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-28

    Single-shot, volumetrically illuminated, three- dimensional, tomographic laser-induced- fluorescence imaging in a gaseous free jet Benjamin R. Halls...acquisition; (110.6955) Tomographic imaging ; (110.6960) Tomography; (280.2490) Flow diagnostics; (300.2530) Fluorescence , laser-induced...84 (1983). 2. I. van Cruyningen, A. Lozano, and R. K. Hanson, “Quantitative imaging of concentration by planar laser-induced fluorescence ,” Exp

  16. Enhanced 2D-image upconversion using solid-state lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Christian; Karamehmedovic, Emir; Dam, Jeppe Seidelin

    2009-01-01

    the image inside a nonlinear PPKTP crystal located in the high intra-cavity field of a 1342 nm solid-state Nd:YVO4 laser, an upconverted image at 488 nm is generated. We have experimentally achieved an upconversion efficiency of 40% under CW conditions. The proposed technique can be further adapted for high...

  17. Validation of image quality in full-field digital mammography: Is the replacement of wet by dry laser printers justified?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schueller, Gerd; Kaindl, Elisabeth; Langenberger, Herbert; Stadler, Alfred; Schueller-Weidekamm, Claudia; Semturs, Friedrich; Helbich, Thomas H.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Dry laser printers have replaced wet laser printers to produce hard copies of high-resolution digital images, primarily because of environmental concerns. However, no scientific research data have been published that compare the image quality of dry and wet laser printers in full-field digital mammography (FFDM). This study questions the image quality of these printers. Materials and methods: Objective image quality parameters of both printers were evaluated using a standardized printer test image, i.e., optical density and detectability of specific image elements (lines, curves, and shapes). Furthermore, mammograms of 129 patients with different breast tissue composition patterns were imaged with both printers. A total of 1806 subjective image quality parameters (brightness, contrast, and detail detection of anatomic structures), the detectability of breast lesions, as well as diagnostic performance according to the BI-RADS classification were evaluated. In addition, the presence of film artifacts was investigated. Results: Optical density values were equal for the dry and the wet laser printer. Detection of specific image elements on the printer test image was not different. Ratings of subjective image quality parameters were equal, as were the detectability of breast lesions and the diagnostic performance. Dry laser printer images showed more artifacts (164 versus 27). However, these artifacts did not influence image quality. Conclusion: Based on the evidence of objective and subjective parameters, a dry laser printer equals the image quality of a wet laser printer in FFDM. Therefore, not only for reasons of environmental preference, the replacement of wet laser printers by dry laser printers in FFDM is justified

  18. Image Signal Transfer Method in Artificial Retina using Laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, I.Y.; Lee, B.H.; Kim, S.J. [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea)

    2002-05-01

    Recently, the research on artificial retina for the blind is active. In this paper a new optical link method for the retinal prosthesis is proposed. Laser diode system was chosen to transfer image into the eye in this project and the new optical system was designed and evaluated. The use of laser diode array in artificial retina system makes system simple for lack of signal processing part inside of the eyeball. Designed optical system is enough to focus laser diode array on photodiode array in 20X20 application. (author). 11 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Real-time near IR (1310 nm) imaging of CO2 laser ablation of enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Cynthia L; Fried, Daniel

    2008-02-18

    The high-transparency of dental enamel in the near-IR (NIR) can be exploited for real-time imaging of ablation crater formation during drilling with lasers. NIR images were acquired with an InGaAs focal plane array and a NIR zoom microscope during drilling incisions in human enamel samples with a lambda=9.3-microm CO(2) laser operating at repetition rates of 50-300-Hz with and without a water spray. Crack formation, dehydration and thermal changes were observed during ablation. These initial images demonstrate the potential of NIR imaging to monitor laser-ablation events in real-time to provide information about the mechanism of ablation and to evaluate the potential for peripheral thermal and mechanical damage.

  20. Modeling laser speckle imaging of perfusion in the skin (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Caitlin; Hayakawa, Carole K.; Choi, Bernard

    2016-02-01

    Laser speckle imaging (LSI) enables visualization of relative blood flow and perfusion in the skin. It is frequently applied to monitor treatment of vascular malformations such as port wine stain birthmarks, and measure changes in perfusion due to peripheral vascular disease. We developed a computational Monte Carlo simulation of laser speckle contrast imaging to quantify how tissue optical properties, blood vessel depths and speeds, and tissue perfusion affect speckle contrast values originating from coherent excitation. The simulated tissue geometry consisted of multiple layers to simulate the skin, or incorporated an inclusion such as a vessel or tumor at different depths. Our simulation used a 30x30mm uniform flat light source to optically excite the region of interest in our sample to better mimic wide-field imaging. We used our model to simulate how dynamically scattered photons from a buried blood vessel affect speckle contrast at different lateral distances (0-1mm) away from the vessel, and how these speckle contrast changes vary with depth (0-1mm) and flow speed (0-10mm/s). We applied the model to simulate perfusion in the skin, and observed how different optical properties, such as epidermal melanin concentration (1%-50%) affected speckle contrast. We simulated perfusion during a systolic forearm occlusion and found that contrast decreased by 35% (exposure time = 10ms). Monte Carlo simulations of laser speckle contrast give us a tool to quantify what regions of the skin are probed with laser speckle imaging, and measure how the tissue optical properties and blood flow affect the resulting images.

  1. Development of Laser-Polarized Noble Gas Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsworth, Ronald L.

    2004-01-01

    We are developing technology for laser-polarized noble gas nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), with the aim of enabling it as a novel biomedical imaging tool for ground-based and eventually space-based application. This emerging multidisciplinary technology enables high-resolution gas-space magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-e.g., of lung ventilation, perfusion, and gas-exchange. In addition, laser-polarized noble gases (3He and 1BXe) do not require a large magnetic field for sensitive NMR detection, opening the door to practical MRI with novel, open-access magnet designs at very low magnetic fields (and hence in confined spaces). We are pursuing two specific aims in this technology development program. The first aim is to develop an open-access, low-field (less than 0.01 T) instrument for MRI studies of human gas inhalation as a function of subject orientation, and the second aim is to develop functional imaging of the lung using laser-polarized He-3 and Xe-129.

  2. Laser injury and in vivo multimodal imaging using a mouse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocock, Ginger M.; Boretsky, Adam; Gupta, Praveena; Oliver, Jeff W.; Motamedi, Massoud

    2011-03-01

    Balb/c wild type mice were used to perform in vivo experiments of laser-induced thermal damage to the retina. A Heidelberg Spectralis HRA confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope with a spectral domain optical coherence tomographer was used to obtain fundus and cross-sectional images of laser induced injury in the retina. Sub-threshold, threshold, and supra-threshold lesions were observed using optical coherence tomography (OCT), infrared reflectance, red-free reflectance, fluorescence angiography, and autofluorescence imaging modalities at different time points post-exposure. Lesions observed using all imaging modalities, except autofluorescence, were not visible immediately after exposure but did resolve within an hour and grew in size over a 24 hour period. There was a decrease in fundus autofluorescence at exposure sites immediately following exposure that developed into hyper-fluorescence 24-48 hours later. OCT images revealed threshold damage that was localized to the RPE but extended into the neural retina over a 24 hour period. Volumetric representations of the mouse retina were created to visualize the extent of damage within the retina over a 24 hour period. Multimodal imaging provides complementary information regarding damage mechanisms that may be used to quantify the extent of the damage as well as the effectiveness of treatments without need for histology.

  3. Near field imaging of transient collisional excitation x-ray laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Momoko; Kado, Masataka; Hasegawa, Noboru; Kawachi, Tetsuya; Sukegawa, Kouta; Lu, Peixiang; Nagashima, Akira; Kato, Yoshiaki

    2001-01-01

    We observed the spatial profile of the transient collisional excitation Ni-like Ag laser (λ=13.9 nm) for various plasma lengths using the near field imaging method. The gain coefficient of the x-ray laser was estimated as 24 cm -1 . The gain region was a 50 μm crescent shape and included localized high gain areas. (author)

  4. Fluorescence imaging of ion distributions in an inductively coupled plasma with laser ablation sample introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moses, Lance M.; Ellis, Wade C.; Jones, Derick D.; Farnsworth, Paul B.

    2015-01-01

    High-resolution images of the spatial distributions of Sc II, Ca II, and Ba II ion densities in the 10 mm upstream from the sampling cone in a laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (LA-ICP-MS) were obtained using planar laser induced fluorescence. Images were obtained for each analyte as a function of the carrier gas flow rate with laser ablation (LA) sample introduction and compared to images with solution nebulization (SN) over the same range of flow rates. Additionally, images were obtained using LA at varying fluences and with varying amounts of helium added to a constant flow of argon gas. Ion profiles in SN images followed a pattern consistent with previous work: increasing gas flow caused a downstream shift in the ion profiles. When compared to SN, LA led to ion profiles that were much narrower radially and reached a maximum near the sampling cone at higher flow rates. Increasing the fluence led to ions formed in the ICP over greater axial and radial distances. The addition of He to the carrier gas prior to the ablation cell led to an upstream shift in the position of ionization and lower overall fluorescence intensities. - Highlights: • We map distributions of analytes in the ICP using laser ablation sample introduction. • We compare images from laser ablation with those from a pneumatic nebulizer. • We document the effects of water added to the laser ablation aerosol. • We compare distributions from a metal to those from crystalline solids. • We document the effect of laser fluence on ion distributions

  5. Computerized video interaction self-instruction of MR imaging fundamentals utilizing laser disk technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genberg, R.W.; Javitt, M.C.; Popky, G.L.; Parker, J.A.; Pinkney, M.N.

    1986-01-01

    Interactive computer-assisted self-instruction is emerging as a recognized didactic modality and is now being introduced to teach physicians the physics of MR imaging. The interactive system consists of a PC-compatible computer, a 12-inch laser disk drive, and a high-resolution monitor. The laser disk, capable of storing 54,000 images, is pressed from a previously edited video tape of MR and video images. The interactive approach is achieved through the use of the computer and appropriate software. The software is written to include computer graphics overlays of the laser disk images, to select interactive branching paths (depending on the user's response to directives or questions), and to provide feedback to the user so that he can assess his performance. One of their systems is available for use in the scientific exhibit area

  6. Laser Doppler perfusion imaging with a complimentary metal oxide semiconductor image sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serov, Alexander; Steenbergen, Wiendelt; de Mul, F.F.M.

    2002-01-01

    We utilized a complimentary metal oxide semiconductor video camera for fast f low imaging with the laser Doppler technique. A single sensor is used for both observation of the area of interest and measurements of the interference signal caused by dynamic light scattering from moving particles inside

  7. OPTICAL correlation identification technology applied in underwater laser imaging target identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Guang-tao; Zhang, Xiao-hui; Ge, Wei-long

    2012-01-01

    The underwater laser imaging detection is an effective method of detecting short distance target underwater as an important complement of sonar detection. With the development of underwater laser imaging technology and underwater vehicle technology, the underwater automatic target identification has gotten more and more attention, and is a research difficulty in the area of underwater optical imaging information processing. Today, underwater automatic target identification based on optical imaging is usually realized with the method of digital circuit software programming. The algorithm realization and control of this method is very flexible. However, the optical imaging information is 2D image even 3D image, the amount of imaging processing information is abundant, so the electronic hardware with pure digital algorithm will need long identification time and is hard to meet the demands of real-time identification. If adopt computer parallel processing, the identification speed can be improved, but it will increase complexity, size and power consumption. This paper attempts to apply optical correlation identification technology to realize underwater automatic target identification. The optics correlation identification technology utilizes the Fourier transform characteristic of Fourier lens which can accomplish Fourier transform of image information in the level of nanosecond, and optical space interconnection calculation has the features of parallel, high speed, large capacity and high resolution, combines the flexibility of calculation and control of digital circuit method to realize optoelectronic hybrid identification mode. We reduce theoretical formulation of correlation identification and analyze the principle of optical correlation identification, and write MATLAB simulation program. We adopt single frame image obtained in underwater range gating laser imaging to identify, and through identifying and locating the different positions of target, we can improve

  8. Comparison of laser diffraction and image analysis for measurement of Streptomyces coelicolor cell clumps and pellets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønnest, Nanna Petersen; Stocks, Stuart M; Eliasson Lantz, Anna

    2012-01-01

    and pellets of Streptomyces coelicolor compare to image analysis. Samples, taken five times during fed-batch cultivation, were analyzed by image analysis and laser diffraction. The volume-weighted size distribution was calculated for each sample. Laser diffraction and image analysis yielded similar size...

  9. Remote imaging laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy using nanosecond pulses from a mobile lidar system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grönlund, Rasmus; Lundqvist, Mats; Svanberg, Sune

    2006-08-01

    A mobile lidar system was used in remote imaging laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) experiments. Also, computer-controlled remote ablation of a chosen area was demonstrated, relevant to cleaning of cultural heritage items. Nanosecond frequency-tripled Nd:YAG laser pulses at 355 nm were employed in experiments with a stand-off distance of 60 meters using pulse energies of up to 170 mJ. By coaxial transmission and common folding of the transmission and reception optical paths using a large computer-controlled mirror, full elemental imaging capability was achieved on composite targets. Different spectral identification algorithms were compared in producing thematic data based on plasma or fluorescence light.

  10. Mobile phone based laser speckle contrast imager for assessment of skin blood flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovels, Dainis; Saknite, Inga; Krievina, Gita; Zaharans, Janis; Spigulis, Janis

    2014-10-01

    Assessment of skin blood flow is of interest for evaluation of skin viability as well as for reflection of the overall condition of the circulatory system. Laser Doppler perfusion imaging (LDPI) and laser speckle contrast imaging (LASCI) are optical techniques used for assessment of skin perfusion. However, these systems are still too expensive and bulky to be widely available. Implementation of such techniques as connection kits for mobile phones have a potential for primary diagnostics. In this work we demonstrate simple and low cost LASCI connection kit for mobile phone and its comparison to laser Doppler perfusion imager. Post-occlusive hyperemia and local thermal hyperemia tests are used to compare both techniques and to demonstrate the potential of LASCI device.

  11. Multi-image acquisition-based distance sensor using agile laser spot beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riza, Nabeel A; Amin, M Junaid

    2014-09-01

    We present a novel laser-based distance measurement technique that uses multiple-image-based spatial processing to enable distance measurements. Compared with the first-generation distance sensor using spatial processing, the modified sensor is no longer hindered by the classic Rayleigh axial resolution limit for the propagating laser beam at its minimum beam waist location. The proposed high-resolution distance sensor design uses an electronically controlled variable focus lens (ECVFL) in combination with an optical imaging device, such as a charged-coupled device (CCD), to produce and capture different laser spot size images on a target with these beam spot sizes different from the minimal spot size possible at this target distance. By exploiting the unique relationship of the target located spot sizes with the varying ECVFL focal length for each target distance, the proposed distance sensor can compute the target distance with a distance measurement resolution better than the axial resolution via the Rayleigh resolution criterion. Using a 30 mW 633 nm He-Ne laser coupled with an electromagnetically actuated liquid ECVFL, along with a 20 cm focal length bias lens, and using five spot images captured per target position by a CCD-based Nikon camera, a proof-of-concept proposed distance sensor is successfully implemented in the laboratory over target ranges from 10 to 100 cm with a demonstrated sub-cm axial resolution, which is better than the axial Rayleigh resolution limit at these target distances. Applications for the proposed potentially cost-effective distance sensor are diverse and include industrial inspection and measurement and 3D object shape mapping and imaging.

  12. Hyperspectral laser-induced autofluorescence imaging of dental caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bürmen, Miran; Fidler, Aleš; Pernuš, Franjo; Likar, Boštjan

    2012-01-01

    Dental caries is a disease characterized by demineralization of enamel crystals leading to the penetration of bacteria into the dentine and pulp. Early detection of enamel demineralization resulting in increased enamel porosity, commonly known as white spots, is a difficult diagnostic task. Laser induced autofluorescence was shown to be a useful method for early detection of demineralization. The existing studies involved either a single point spectroscopic measurements or imaging at a single spectral band. In the case of spectroscopic measurements, very little or no spatial information is acquired and the measured autofluorescence signal strongly depends on the position and orientation of the probe. On the other hand, single-band spectral imaging can be substantially affected by local spectral artefacts. Such effects can significantly interfere with automated methods for detection of early caries lesions. In contrast, hyperspectral imaging effectively combines the spatial information of imaging methods with the spectral information of spectroscopic methods providing excellent basis for development of robust and reliable algorithms for automated classification and analysis of hard dental tissues. In this paper, we employ 405 nm laser excitation of natural caries lesions. The fluorescence signal is acquired by a state-of-the-art hyperspectral imaging system consisting of a high-resolution acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) and a highly sensitive Scientific CMOS camera in the spectral range from 550 nm to 800 nm. The results are compared to the contrast obtained by near-infrared hyperspectral imaging technique employed in the existing studies on early detection of dental caries.

  13. Comparison of 193 nm and 308 nm laser liquid printing by shadowgraphy imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palla-Papavlu, A., E-mail: apalla@nipne.ro [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, P.O. Box MG-36, Magurele, RO-077125 Bucharest (Romania); Shaw-Stewart, J. [EMPA, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research, Laboratory for Functional Polymers, Überlandstrasse 129, 8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Paul Scherrer Institute, General Energy Research Department, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Mattle, T. [Paul Scherrer Institute, General Energy Research Department, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Dinca, V. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, P.O. Box MG-36, Magurele, RO-077125 Bucharest (Romania); Lippert, T.; Wokaun, A. [Paul Scherrer Institute, General Energy Research Department, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Dinescu, M. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, P.O. Box MG-36, Magurele, RO-077125 Bucharest (Romania)

    2013-08-01

    Over the last years laser-induced forward transfer has emerged as a versatile and powerful tool for engineering surfaces with active compounds. Soft, easily damageable materials can be transferred using a triazene polymer as a sacrificial layer which acts as a pressure generator and at the same time protects the material from direct laser irradiation. To understand and optimize the transfer process of biomolecules in liquid solution by using an intermediate triazene polymer photosensitive layer, shadowgraphy imaging is carried out. Two laser systems i.e. an ArF laser operating at 193 nm and a XeCl laser operating at 308 nm are applied for the transfer. Solutions with 50% v/v glycerol concentration are prepared and the influence of the triazene polymer sacrificial layer thickness (60 nm) on the deposits is studied. The shadowgraphy images reveal a pronounced difference between laser-induced forward transfer using 193 nm or 308 nm, i.e. very different shapes of the ejected liquid.

  14. A novel optical gating method for laser gated imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginat, Ran; Schneider, Ron; Zohar, Eyal; Nesher, Ofer

    2013-06-01

    For the past 15 years, Elbit Systems is developing time-resolved active laser-gated imaging (LGI) systems for various applications. Traditional LGI systems are based on high sensitive gated sensors, synchronized to pulsed laser sources. Elbit propriety multi-pulse per frame method, which is being implemented in LGI systems, improves significantly the imaging quality. A significant characteristic of the LGI is its ability to penetrate a disturbing media, such as rain, haze and some fog types. Current LGI systems are based on image intensifier (II) sensors, limiting the system in spectral response, image quality, reliability and cost. A novel propriety optical gating module was developed in Elbit, untying the dependency of LGI system on II. The optical gating module is not bounded to the radiance wavelength and positioned between the system optics and the sensor. This optical gating method supports the use of conventional solid state sensors. By selecting the appropriate solid state sensor, the new LGI systems can operate at any desired wavelength. In this paper we present the new gating method characteristics, performance and its advantages over the II gating method. The use of the gated imaging systems is described in a variety of applications, including results from latest field experiments.

  15. Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope imaging: technology update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merino D

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available David Merino, Pablo Loza-Alvarez The Institute of Photonic Sciences (ICFO, The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology, Castelldefels, Barcelona, Spain Abstract: Adaptive optics (AO retinal imaging has become very popular in the past few years, especially within the ophthalmic research community. Several different retinal techniques, such as fundus imaging cameras or optical coherence tomography systems, have been coupled with AO in order to produce impressive images showing individual cell mosaics over different layers of the in vivo human retina. The combination of AO with scanning laser ophthalmoscopy has been extensively used to generate impressive images of the human retina with unprecedented resolution, showing individual photoreceptor cells, retinal pigment epithelium cells, as well as microscopic capillary vessels, or the nerve fiber layer. Over the past few years, the technique has evolved to develop several different applications not only in the clinic but also in different animal models, thanks to technological developments in the field. These developments have specific applications to different fields of investigation, which are not limited to the study of retinal diseases but also to the understanding of the retinal function and vision science. This review is an attempt to summarize these developments in an understandable and brief manner in order to guide the reader into the possibilities that AO scanning laser ophthalmoscopy offers, as well as its limitations, which should be taken into account when planning on using it. Keywords: high-resolution, in vivo retinal imaging, AOSLO

  16. Ultrafast high-repetition imaging of fuel sprays using picosecond fiber laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwar, Harsh; Wang, Hongjie; Tang, Mincheng; Idlahcen, Saïd; Rozé, Claude; Blaisot, Jean-Bernard; Godin, Thomas; Hideur, Ammar

    2015-12-28

    Modern diesel injectors operate at very high injection pressures of about 2000 bar resulting in injection velocities as high as 700 m/s near the nozzle outlet. In order to better predict the behavior of the atomization process at such high pressures, high-resolution spray images at high repetition rates must be recorded. However, due to extremely high velocity in the near-nozzle region, high-speed cameras fail to avoid blurring of the structures in the spray images due to their exposure time. Ultrafast imaging featuring ultra-short laser pulses to freeze the motion of the spray appears as an well suited solution to overcome this limitation. However, most commercial high-energy ultrafast sources are limited to a few kHz repetition rates. In the present work, we report the development of a custom-designed picosecond fiber laser generating ∼ 20 ps pulses with an average power of 2.5 W at a repetition rate of 8.2 MHz, suitable for high-speed imaging of high-pressure fuel jets. This fiber source has been proof tested by obtaining backlight images of diesel sprays issued from a single-orifice injector at an injection pressure of 300 bar. We observed a consequent improvement in terms of image resolution compared to standard white-light illumination. In addition, the compactness and stability against perturbations of our fiber laser system makes it particularly suitable for harsh experimental conditions.

  17. Assessment of biological leaf tissue using biospeckle laser imaging technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, M. Z.; Mujeeb, A.; Nirala, A. K.

    2018-06-01

    We report on the application of an optical imaging technique, the biospeckle laser, as a potential tool to assess biological and medicinal plant leaves. The biospeckle laser technique is a non-invasive and non-destructive optical technique used to investigate biological objects. Just after their removal from plants, the torn leaves were used for biospeckle laser imaging. Quantitative evaluation of the biospeckle data using the inertia moment (IM) of the time history speckle pattern, showed that the IM can be utilized to provide a biospeckle signature to the plant leaves. It showed that leaves from different plants can have their own characteristic IM values. We further investigated the infected regions of the leaves that display a relatively lower biospeckle activity than the healthy tissue. It was easy to discriminate between the infected and healthy regions of the leaf tissue. The biospeckle technique can successfully be implemented as a potential tool for the taxonomy of quality leaves. Furthermore, the technique can help boost the quality of ayurvedic medicines.

  18. Laser therapy (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A laser is used for many medical purposes. Because the laser beam is so small and precise, it enables ... without injuring surrounding tissue. Some uses of the laser are retinal surgery, excision of lesions, and cauterization ...

  19. Systems and methods for imaging using radiation from laser produced plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renard-Le Galloudec, Nathalie; Cowan, Thomas E.; Sentoku, Yasuhiko; Rassuchine, Jennifer

    2009-06-30

    In particular embodiments, the present disclosure provides systems and methods for imaging a subject using radiation emitted from a laser produced plasma generating by irradiating a target with a laser. In particular examples, the target includes at least one radiation enhancing component, such as a fluor, cap, or wire. In further examples, the target has a metal layer and an internal surface defining an internal apex, the internal apex of less than about 15 .mu.m, such as less than about 1 .mu.m. The targets may take a variety of shapes, including cones, pyramids, and hemispheres. Certain aspects of the present disclosure provide improved imaging of a subject, such as improved medical images of a radiation dose than typical conventional methods and systems.

  20. Coincidence imaging of polyatomic molecules via laser-induced Coulomb explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagnon, J; Corkum, P B; Bhardwaj, V R; Lee, Kevin F; Rayner, D M

    2008-01-01

    We extend laser-induced Coulomb explosion imaging to retrieve the structure of the five-atom dichloromethane (CH 2 Cl 2 ) molecule by developing coincidence imaging and geometry optimization techniques. By detecting all five atoms in coincidence, we show that, from the measured velocity vectors, the geometry of the molecules can be reconstructed.

  1. Tissue imaging with a stigmatic mass microscope using laser desorption/ionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awazu, Kunio; Hazama, Hisanao; Hamanaka, Tomonori; Aoki, Jun; Toyoda, Michisato; Naito, Yasuhide

    2012-03-01

    A novel stigmatic mass microscope using laser desorption/ionization and a multi-turn time-of-flight mass spectrometer, MULTUM-IMG, has been developed. Stigmatic ion images of crystal violet masked by a fine square mesh grid with a 12.7 μm pitch were clearly observed, and the estimated spatial resolution was about 3 μm in the linear mode with a 20-fold ion optical magnification. Tissue sections of a brain and eyes of a mouse stained with crystal violet and methylene blue were observed in the linear mode, and the stigmatic total ion images of crystal violet and methylene blue agreed well with the optical photomicrograph of the same sections. Especially, the fine structure in the cornea tissue was clearly observed with a spatial resolution in the range of micrometers. Although the total measurement time of the stigmatic ion image for the whole-eye section was about 59 minutes using a laser with a 10 Hz repetition rate, the measurement time could be reduced to about 35 s using a laser with a 1 kHz repetition rate and automation of measurements. The stigmatic mass microscope developed in this research should be suitable for high-spatial resolution and high-throughput imaging mass spectrometry for pathology, pharmacokinetics, and so on.

  2. Unsynchronized scanning with a low-cost laser range finder for real-time range imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatipoglu, Isa; Nakhmani, Arie

    2017-06-01

    Range imaging plays an essential role in many fields: 3D modeling, robotics, heritage, agriculture, forestry, reverse engineering. One of the most popular range-measuring technologies is laser scanner due to its several advantages: long range, high precision, real-time measurement capabilities, and no dependence on lighting conditions. However, laser scanners are very costly. Their high cost prevents widespread use in applications. Due to the latest developments in technology, now, low-cost, reliable, faster, and light-weight 1D laser range finders (LRFs) are available. A low-cost 1D LRF with a scanning mechanism, providing the ability of laser beam steering for additional dimensions, enables to capture a depth map. In this work, we present an unsynchronized scanning with a low-cost LRF to decrease scanning period and reduce vibrations caused by stop-scan in synchronized scanning. Moreover, we developed an algorithm for alignment of unsynchronized raw data and proposed range image post-processing framework. The proposed technique enables to have a range imaging system for a fraction of the price of its counterparts. The results prove that the proposed method can fulfill the need for a low-cost laser scanning for range imaging for static environments because the most significant limitation of the method is the scanning period which is about 2 minutes for 55,000 range points (resolution of 250x220 image). In contrast, scanning the same image takes around 4 minutes in synchronized scanning. Once faster, longer range, and narrow beam LRFs are available, the methods proposed in this work can produce better results.

  3. Integration of image exposure time into a modified laser speckle imaging method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RamIrez-San-Juan, J C; Salazar-Hermenegildo, N; Ramos-Garcia, R; Munoz-Lopez, J [Optics Department, INAOE, Puebla (Mexico); Huang, Y C [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Choi, B, E-mail: jcram@inaoep.m [Beckman Laser Institute and Medical Clinic, University of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2010-11-21

    Speckle-based methods have been developed to characterize tissue blood flow and perfusion. One such method, called modified laser speckle imaging (mLSI), enables computation of blood flow maps with relatively high spatial resolution. Although it is known that the sensitivity and noise in LSI measurements depend on image exposure time, a fundamental disadvantage of mLSI is that it does not take into account this parameter. In this work, we integrate the exposure time into the mLSI method and provide experimental support of our approach with measurements from an in vitro flow phantom.

  4. Integration of image exposure time into a modified laser speckle imaging method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RamIrez-San-Juan, J C; Salazar-Hermenegildo, N; Ramos-Garcia, R; Munoz-Lopez, J; Huang, Y C; Choi, B

    2010-01-01

    Speckle-based methods have been developed to characterize tissue blood flow and perfusion. One such method, called modified laser speckle imaging (mLSI), enables computation of blood flow maps with relatively high spatial resolution. Although it is known that the sensitivity and noise in LSI measurements depend on image exposure time, a fundamental disadvantage of mLSI is that it does not take into account this parameter. In this work, we integrate the exposure time into the mLSI method and provide experimental support of our approach with measurements from an in vitro flow phantom.

  5. Power-scalable, polarization-stable, dual-colour DFB fibre laser system for CW terahertz imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eichhorn, Finn; Pedersen, Jens Engholm; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    Imaging with electromagnetic radiation in the terahertz (THz) range has received a large amount of attention during recent years. THz imaging systems have diverse potential application areas such as security screening, medical diagnostics and non-destructive testing. We will discuss a power......-scalable, dual-colour, polarization-maintaining distributed feedback (DFB) fibre laser system with an inherent narrow linewidth from the DFB fibre laser oscillators. The laser system can be used as source in CW THz systems employing photomixing (optical heterodyning) for generation and detection...

  6. Active laser radar (lidar) for measurement of corresponding height and reflectance images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehlich, Christoph; Mettenleiter, M.; Haertl, F.

    1997-08-01

    For the survey and inspection of environmental objects, a non-tactile, robust and precise imaging of height and depth is the basis sensor technology. For visual inspection,surface classification, and documentation purposes, however, additional information concerning reflectance of measured objects is necessary. High-speed acquisition of both geometric and visual information is achieved by means of an active laser radar, supporting consistent 3D height and 2D reflectance images. The laser radar is an optical-wavelength system, and is comparable to devices built by ERIM, Odetics, and Perceptron, measuring the range between sensor and target surfaces as well as the reflectance of the target surface, which corresponds to the magnitude of the back scattered laser energy. In contrast to these range sensing devices, the laser radar under consideration is designed for high speed and precise operation in both indoor and outdoor environments, emitting a minimum of near-IR laser energy. It integrates a laser range measurement system and a mechanical deflection system for 3D environmental measurements. This paper reports on design details of the laser radar for surface inspection tasks. It outlines the performance requirements and introduces the measurement principle. The hardware design, including the main modules, such as the laser head, the high frequency unit, the laser beam deflection system, and the digital signal processing unit are discussed.the signal processing unit consists of dedicated signal processors for real-time sensor data preprocessing as well as a sensor computer for high-level image analysis and feature extraction. The paper focuses on performance data of the system, including noise, drift over time, precision, and accuracy with measurements. It discuses the influences of ambient light, surface material of the target, and ambient temperature for range accuracy and range precision. Furthermore, experimental results from inspection of buildings, monuments

  7. ANALYSIS OF MOBILE LASER SCANNING DATA AND MULTI-VIEW IMAGE RECONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Briese

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The combination of laser scanning (LS, active, direct 3D measurement of the object surface and photogrammetry (high geometric and radiometric resolution is widely applied for object reconstruction (e.g. architecture, topography, monitoring, archaeology. Usually the results are a coloured point cloud or a textured mesh. The geometry is typically generated from the laser scanning point cloud and the radiometric information is the result of image acquisition. In the last years, next to significant developments in static (terrestrial LS and kinematic LS (airborne and mobile LS hardware and software, research in computer vision and photogrammetry lead to advanced automated procedures in image orientation and image matching. These methods allow a highly automated generation of 3D geometry just based on image data. Founded on advanced feature detector techniques (like SIFT (Scale Invariant Feature Transform very robust techniques for image orientation were established (cf. Bundler. In a subsequent step, dense multi-view stereo reconstruction algorithms allow the generation of very dense 3D point clouds that represent the scene geometry (cf. Patch-based Multi-View Stereo (PMVS2. Within this paper the usage of mobile laser scanning (MLS and simultaneously acquired image data for an advanced integrated scene reconstruction is studied. For the analysis the geometry of a scene is generated by both techniques independently. Then, the paper focuses on the quality assessment of both techniques. This includes a quality analysis of the individual surface models and a comparison of the direct georeferencing of the images using positional and orientation data of the on board GNSS-INS system and the indirect georeferencing of the imagery by automatic image orientation. For the practical evaluation a dataset from an archaeological monument is utilised. Based on the gained knowledge a discussion of the results is provided and a future strategy for the integration of

  8. Near-IR imaging of thermal changes in enamel during laser ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maung, Linn H.; Lee, Chulsung; Fried, Daniel

    2010-02-01

    The objective of this work was to observe the various thermal-induced optical changes that occur in the near-infrared (NIR) during drilling in dentin and enamel with the laser and the high-speed dental handpiece. Tooth sections of ~ 3 mm-thickness were prepared from extracted human incisors (N=60). Samples were ablated with a mechanically scanned CO2 laser operating at a wavelength of 9.3-μm, a 300-Hz laser pulse repetition rate, and a laser pulse duration of 10-20 μs. An InGaAs imaging camera was used to acquire real-time NIR images at 1300-nm of thermal and mechanical changes (cracks). Enamel was rapidly removed by the CO2 laser without peripheral thermal damage by mechanically scanning the laser beam while a water spray was used to cool the sample. Comparison of the peripheral thermal and mechanical changes produced while cutting with the laser and the high-speed hand-piece suggest that enamel and dentin can be removed at high speed by the CO2 laser without excessive peripheral thermal or mechanical damage. Only 2 of the 15 samples ablated with the laser showed the formation of small cracks while 9 out of 15 samples exhibited crack formation with the dental hand-piece. The first indication of thermal change is a decrease in transparency due to loss of the mobile water from pores in the enamel which increase lightscattering. To test the hypothesis that peripheral thermal changes were caused by loss of mobile water in the enamel, thermal changes were intentionally induced by heating the surface. The mean attenuation coefficient of enamel increased significantly from 2.12 +/- 0.82 to 5.08 +/- 0.98 with loss of mobile water due to heating.

  9. Image Blocking Encryption Algorithm Based on Laser Chaos Synchronization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Ying Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In view of the digital image transmission security, based on laser chaos synchronization and Arnold cat map, a novel image encryption scheme is proposed. Based on pixel values of plain image a parameter is generated to influence the secret key. Sequences of the drive system and response system are pretreated by the same method and make image blocking encryption scheme for plain image. Finally, pixels position are scrambled by general Arnold transformation. In decryption process, the chaotic synchronization accuracy is fully considered and the relationship between the effect of synchronization and decryption is analyzed, which has characteristics of high precision, higher efficiency, simplicity, flexibility, and better controllability. The experimental results show that the encryption algorithm image has high security and good antijamming performance.

  10. Aerosol Imaging with a Soft X-ray Free Electron Laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogan, Michael J.; Boutet, Sebastien; Chapman, Henry N.; Marchesini, Stefano; Barty, Anton; Benner, W. Henry; Rohner, Urs; Frank, Matthias; Hau-Riege, Stefan P.; Bajt, Sasa; Woods, Bruce; Seibert, M.M.; Iwan, Bianca; Timneanu, Nicusor; Hajdu, Janos; Schulz, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    Lasers have long played a critical role in the advancement of aerosol science. A new regime of ultrafast laser technology has recently be realized, the world's first soft xray free electron laser. The Free electron LASer in Hamburg, FLASH, user facility produces a steady source of 10 femtosecond pulses of 7-32 nm x-rays with 10 12 photons per pulse. The high brightness, short wavelength, and high repetition rate (>500 pulses per second) of this laser offers unique capabilities for aerosol characterization. Here we use FLASH to perform the highest resolution imaging of single PM2.5 aerosol particles in flight to date. We resolve to 35 nm the morphology of fibrous and aggregated spherical carbonaceous nanoparticles that existed for less than two milliseconds in vacuum. Our result opens the possibility for high spatialand time-resolved single particle aerosol dynamics studies, filling a critical technological need in aerosol science.

  11. Beam stability and warm-up effects of Nd:YAG lasers used in particle image velocimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grayson, K; De Silva, C M; Hutchins, N; Marusic, I

    2017-01-01

    The characteristics and causes of Nd:YAG laser warm-up transients and steady state beam stability effects are investigated in this study. Dynamic laser performance has a particularly noticeable impact on particle image velocimetry (PIV) and other laser-based flow visualisation techniques, where changes in beam pointing can influence the overlap between laser light sheets and thereby degrade the correlation of PIV image pairs. Despite anecdotal knowledge or experience of laser warm-up effects, they have not been formally documented or quantified to date for PIV applications. In this study, the nature of these laser transients are analysed and compared among a selection of typical PIV laser equipment. An investigation into the cause of these transients during the laser warm-up sequence is also presented. Furthermore, the degree of dual cavity transient coupling within a PIV laser system is analysed to determine a practical limit to the laser light sheet overlap that can be expected from PIV experiments. Finally, the results from this study inform a series of recommendations for PIV best practice, which aim to minimise the impact of laser transients on experimental data. (paper)

  12. High-resolution three-dimensional compositional imaging by double-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiavo, C.; Grifoni, E.; Legnaioli, S.; Lorenzetti, G.; Poggialini, F.; Pagnotta, S.; Palleschi, V.; Menichetti, L.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present a new instrument specifically realized for high-resolution three-dimensional compositional analysis and mapping of materials. The instrument is based on the coupling of a Double-Pulse Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) instrument with an optical microscope. The compositional mapping of the samples is obtained by scanning the laser beam across the surface of the sample, while the in depth analysis is performed by sending multiple laser pulses on the same point. Depths of analysis of several tens of microns can be obtained. The instrument presented has definite advantages with respect to Laser Ablation-ICP Mass Spectrometry in many applications related to material analysis, biomedicine and environmental diagnostics. An application to the diagnostics of industrial ceramics is presented, demonstrating the feasibility of Double-Pulse LIBS Imaging and its advantages with respect to conventional single-pulse LIBS imaging.

  13. Transmission Geometry Laser Ablation into a Non-Contact Liquid Vortex Capture Probe for Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovchinnikova, Olga S [ORNL; Bhandari, Deepak [ORNL; Lorenz, Matthias [ORNL; Van Berkel, Gary J [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    RATIONALE: Capture of material from a laser ablation plume into a continuous flow stream of solvent provides the means for uninterrupted sampling, transport and ionization of collected material for coupling with mass spectral analysis. Reported here is the use of vertically aligned transmission geometry laser ablation in combination with a new non-contact liquid vortex capture probe coupled with electrospray ionization for spot sampling and chemical imaging with mass spectrometry. Methods: A vertically aligned continuous flow liquid vortex capture probe was positioned directly underneath a sample surface in a transmission geometry laser ablation (355 nm, 10 Hz, 7 ns pulse width) setup to capture into solution the ablated material. The outlet of the vortex probe was coupled to the Turbo V ion source of an AB SCIEX TripleTOF 5600+ mass spectrometer. System operation and performance metrics were tested using inked patterns and thin tissue sections. Glass slides and slides designed especially for laser capture microdissection, viz., DIRECTOR slides and PEN 1.0 (polyethylene naphthalate) membrane slides, were used as sample substrates. Results: The estimated capture efficiency of laser ablated material was 24%, which was enabled by the use of a probe with large liquid surface area (~ 2.8 mm2) and with gravity to help direct ablated material vertically down towards the probe. The swirling vortex action of the liquid surface potentially enhanced capture and dissolution of not only particulates, but also gaseous products of the laser ablation. The use of DIRECTOR slides and PEN 1.0 (polyethylene naphthalate) membrane slides as sample substrates enabled effective ablation of a wide range of sample types (basic blue 7, polypropylene glycol, insulin and cyctochrome c) without photodamage using a UV laser. Imaging resolution of about 6 m was demonstrated for stamped ink on DIRECTOR slides based on the ability to distinguish features present both in the optical and in the

  14. Parallel-hierarchical processing and classification of laser beam profile images based on the GPU-oriented architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarovyi, Andrii A.; Timchenko, Leonid I.; Kozhemiako, Volodymyr P.; Kokriatskaia, Nataliya I.; Hamdi, Rami R.; Savchuk, Tamara O.; Kulyk, Oleksandr O.; Surtel, Wojciech; Amirgaliyev, Yedilkhan; Kashaganova, Gulzhan

    2017-08-01

    The paper deals with a problem of insufficient productivity of existing computer means for large image processing, which do not meet modern requirements posed by resource-intensive computing tasks of laser beam profiling. The research concentrated on one of the profiling problems, namely, real-time processing of spot images of the laser beam profile. Development of a theory of parallel-hierarchic transformation allowed to produce models for high-performance parallel-hierarchical processes, as well as algorithms and software for their implementation based on the GPU-oriented architecture using GPGPU technologies. The analyzed performance of suggested computerized tools for processing and classification of laser beam profile images allows to perform real-time processing of dynamic images of various sizes.

  15. Evaluation of Laser Stabilization and Imaging Systems for LCLS-II - Final Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barry, Matthew [Auburn Univ., AL (United States)

    2015-08-20

    By combining the top performing commercial laser beam stabilization system with the most ideal optical imaging configuration, the beamline for the Linear Accelerator Coherent Light Source II (LCLS-II) will deliver the highest quality and most stable beam to the cathode. To determine the optimal combination, LCLS-II beamline conditions were replicated and the systems tested with a He-Ne laser. The Guidestar-II and MRC active laser beam stabilization systems were evaluated for their ideal positioning and stability. Both a two and four lens optical imaging configuration was then evaluated for beam imaging quality, magnification properties, and natural stability. In their best performances when tested over fifteen hours, Guidestar-II kept the beam stable over approximately 70-110um while the MRC system kept it stable over approximately 90-100um. During short periods of time, Guidestar-II kept the beam stable between 10-20um, but was more susceptible to drift over time, while the MRC system maintained the beam between 30-50um with less overall drift. The best optical imaging configuration proved to be a four lens system that images to the iris located in the cathode room and from there, imaged to the cathode. The magnification from the iris to the cathode was 2:1, within an acceptable tolerance to the expected 2.1:1 magnification. The two lens configuration was slightly more stable in small periods of time (less than 10 minutes) without the assistance of a stability system, approximately 55um compared to approximately 70um, but the four lens configurations beam image had a significantly flatter intensity distribution compared to the two lens configuration which had a Gaussian distribution. A final test still needs to be run with both stability systems running at the same time through the four lens system. With this data, the optimal laser beam stabilization system can be determined for the beamline of LCLS-II.

  16. Structural damage identification based on laser ultrasonic propagation imaging technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Chen-Ciang; Jang, Si-Gwang; Lee, Jung-Ryul; Yoon, Dong-Jin

    2009-06-01

    An ultrasonic propagation imaging (UPI) system consisted of a Q-switched Nd-YAG pulsed laser and a galvanometer laser mirror scanner was developed. The system which requires neither reference data nor fixed focal length could be used for health monitoring of curved structures. If combined with a fiber acoustic wave PZT (FAWPZT) sensor, it could be used to inspect hot target structures that present formidable challenges to the usage of contact piezoelectric transducers mainly due to the operating temperature limitation of transducers and debonding problem due to the mismatch of coefficient of thermal expansion between the target, transducer and bonding material. The inspection of a stainless steel plate with a curvature radius of about 4 m, having 2mm×1mm open-crack was demonstrated at 150°C using a FAWPZT sensor welded on the plate. Highly-curved surfaces scanning capability and adaptivity of the system for large laser incident angle up to 70° was demonstrated on a stainless steel cylinder with 2mm×1mm open-crack. The imaging results were presented in ultrasonic propagation movie which was a moving wavefield emerged from an installed ultrasonic sensor. Damages were localized by the scattering wavefields. The result images enabled easy detection and interpretation of structural defects as anomalies during ultrasonic wave propagation.

  17. The x-ray laser as a tool for imaging plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Libby, S.B.; Da Silva, L.B.; Barbee, T.W. Jr.

    1995-07-01

    The x-ray laser is now being used at LLNL as a tool for measuring the behaviors of hot dense plasmas. In particular, we have used the 155 Angstrom yttrium laser to study transient plasmas by both radiography and moire deflectrometry. These techniques have been used to probe long scale length plasmas at electron densities exceeding 10 22 cm -3 . Recent advances in multilayer technology have made it possible to directly image ion densities in directly driven thin foils to an accuracy of 1--2 μm. In addition, we have constructed an x-ray laser Mach-Zehnder interferometer using multilayer beam-splitters. This interferometer yields direct 2D projections of electron densities in plasmas with micron spatial resolution. In addition, this interferometer can be used to measure spectral line shapes to high accuracy. Among the subject plasmas under study are laser irradiated planar targets, gold hohlraums, and x-ray lasers themselves

  18. Guided-wave tomography imaging plate defects by laser-based ultrasonic techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jun Pil; Lim, Ju Young; Cho, Youn Ho [School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    Contact-guided-wave tests are impractical for investigating specimens with limited accessibility and rough surfaces or complex geometric features. A non-contact setup with a laser-ultrasonic transmitter and receiver is quite attractive for guided-wave inspection. In the present work, we developed a non-contact guided-wave tomography technique using the laser-ultrasonic technique in a plate. A method for Lamb-wave generation and detection in an aluminum plate with a pulsed laser-ultrasonic transmitter and Michelson-interferometer receiver was developed. The defect shape and area in the images obtained using laser scanning, showed good agreement with the actual defect. The proposed approach can be used as a non-contact online inspection and monitoring technique.

  19. Laser lithotripsy with the Ho:YAG laser: fragmentation process revealed by time-resolved imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidlin, Franz R.; Beghuin, Didier; Delacretaz, Guy P.; Venzi, Giordano; Jichlinski, Patrice; Rink, Klaus; Leisinger, Hans-Juerg; Graber, Peter

    1998-07-01

    Improvements of endoscopic techniques have renewed the interest of urologists in laser lithotripsy in recent years. Laser energy can be easily transmitted through flexible fibers thereby enabling different surgical procedures such as cutting, coagulating and lithotripsy. The Ho:YAG laser offers multiple medical applications in Urology, among them stone fragmentation. However, the present knowledge of its fragmentation mechanism is incomplete. The objective was therefore to analyze the fragmentation process and to discuss the clinical implications related to the underlying fragmentation mechanism. The stone fragmentation process during Ho:YAG laser lithotripsy was observed by time resolved flash video imaging. Possible acoustic transient occurrence was simultaneously monitored with a PVDF-needle hydrophone. Fragmentation was performed on artificial and cystine kidney stones in water. We observed that though the fragmentation process is accompanied with the formation of a cavitation bubble, cavitation has only a minimal effect on stone fragmentation. Fragment ejection is mainly due to direct laser stone heating leading to vaporization of organic stone constituents and interstitial water. The minimal effect of the cavitation bubble is confirmed by acoustic transients measurements, which reveal weak pressure transients. Stone fragmentation with the Holmium laser is the result of vaporization of interstitial (stone) water and organic stone constituents. It is not due to the acoustic effects of a cavitation bubble or plasma formation. The fragmentation process is strongly related with heat production thereby harboring the risk of undesired thermal damage. Therefore, a solid comprehension of the fragmentation process is needed when using the different clinically available laser types of lithotripsy.

  20. X-ray generation by femtosecond laser pulses and its application to soft X-ray imaging microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Kenichi; Kotaki, Hideyuki; Nakajima, Kazuhisa

    2002-01-01

    We have developed laser-produced plasma X-ray sources using femtosecond laser pulses at 10Hz repetition rate in a table-top size in order to investigate basic mechanism of X-ray emission from laser-matter interactions and its application to a X-ray microscope. In a soft X-ray region over 5 nm wavelength, laser-plasma X-ray emission from a solid target achieved an intense flux of photons of the order of 1011 photons/rad per pulse with duration of a few 100 ps, which is intense enough to make a clear imaging in a short time exposure. As an application of laser-produced plasma X-ray source, we have developed a soft X-ray imaging microscope operating in the wavelength range around 14 nm. The microscope consists of a cylindrically ellipsoidal condenser mirror and a Schwarzshird objective mirror with highly-reflective multilayers. We report preliminary results of performance tests of the soft X-ray imaging microscope with a compact laser-produced plasma X-ray source

  1. Image-based tracking system for vibration measurement of a rotating object using a laser scanning vibrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dongkyu, E-mail: akein@gist.ac.kr; Khalil, Hossam; Jo, Youngjoon; Park, Kyihwan, E-mail: khpark@gist.ac.kr [School of Mechatronics, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Buk-gu, Gwangju, South Korea, 500-712 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-28

    An image-based tracking system using laser scanning vibrometer is developed for vibration measurement of a rotating object. The proposed system unlike a conventional one can be used where the position or velocity sensor such as an encoder cannot be attached to an object. An image processing algorithm is introduced to detect a landmark and laser beam based on their colors. Then, through using feedback control system, the laser beam can track a rotating object.

  2. Quantitative imaging of a non-combusting diesel spray using structured laser illumination planar imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrocal, E.; Kristensson, E.; Hottenbach, P.; Aldén, M.; Grünefeld, G.

    2012-12-01

    Due to its transient nature, high atomization process, and rapid generation of fine evaporating droplets, diesel sprays have been, and still remain, one of the most challenging sprays to be fully analyzed and understood by means of non-intrusive diagnostics. The main limitation of laser techniques for quantitative measurements of diesel sprays concerns the detection of the multiple light scattering resulting from the high optical density of such a scattering medium. A second limitation is the extinction of the incident laser radiation as it crosses the spray, as well as the attenuation of the signal which is to be detected. All these issues have strongly motivated, during the past decade, the use of X-ray instead of visible light for dense spray diagnostics. However, we demonstrate in this paper that based on an affordable Nd:YAG laser system, structured laser illumination planar imaging (SLIPI) can provide accurate quantitative description of a non-reacting diesel spray injected at 1,100 bar within a room temperature vessel pressurized at 18.6 bar. The technique is used at λ = 355 nm excitation wavelength with 1.0 mol% TMPD dye concentration, for simultaneous LIF/Mie imaging. Furthermore, a novel dual-SLIPI configuration is tested with Mie scattering detection only. The results confirm that a mapping of both the droplet Sauter mean diameter and extinction coefficient can be obtained by such complementary approaches. These new insights are provided in this article at late times after injection start. It is demonstrated that the application of SLIPI to diesel sprays provides valuable quantitative information which was not previously accessible.

  3. Subcellular imaging of freeze-fractured cell cultures by TOF-SIMS and Laser-SNMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fartmann, M.; Dambach, S.; Kriegeskotte, C.; Lipinsky, D.; Wiesmann, H.P.; Wittig, A.; Sauerwein, W.; Arlinghaus, H.F.

    2003-01-01

    We have examined atomic and molecular distributions in freeze-fractured freeze-dried primary osteoblasts and cancer cells using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) and non-resonant laser secondary neutral mass spectrometry (NR-Laser-SNMS). A pulsed Ga primary ion beam with a diameter of approximately 200 nm was employed to bombard the sample. Ion-induced electron-images were used to identify individual cells. High resolution elemental and molecular images were obtained from cell cultures. From these data the K/Na ratio was determined. It shows a higher K-concentration inside individual cells demonstrating that the chemical and structural integrity of living cells were preserved by the applied preparation technique. Consecutive presputtering of the sample with different primary ion dose densities was used to move the analysis plane toward the inside of the cell. It can be concluded that TOF-SIMS and Laser-SNMS are well suited for imaging trace element and molecule concentrations in biological samples

  4. QUANTITATIVE FLOW-ANALYSIS AROUND AQUATIC ANIMALS USING LASER SHEET PARTICLE IMAGE VELOCIMETRY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    STAMHUIS, EJ; VIDELER, JJ

    Two alternative particle image velocimetry (PIV) methods have been developed, applying laser light sheet illumination of particle-seeded flows around marine organisms, Successive video images, recorded perpendicular to a light sheet parallel to the main stream, were digitized and processed to map

  5. Evaluating laser-driven Bremsstrahlung radiation sources for imaging and analysis of nuclear waste packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Christopher P., E-mail: cj0810@bristol.ac.uk [Interface Analysis Centre, HH Wills Physics Laboratory, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Brenner, Ceri M. [Central Laser Facility, STFC, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Stitt, Camilla A. [Interface Analysis Centre, HH Wills Physics Laboratory, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Armstrong, Chris; Rusby, Dean R. [Central Laser Facility, STFC, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, SUPA, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Mirfayzi, Seyed R. [Centre for Plasma Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Wilson, Lucy A. [Central Laser Facility, STFC, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Alejo, Aarón; Ahmed, Hamad [Centre for Plasma Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Allott, Ric [Central Laser Facility, STFC, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Butler, Nicholas M.H. [Department of Physics, SUPA, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Clarke, Robert J.; Haddock, David; Hernandez-Gomez, Cristina [Central Laser Facility, STFC, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Higginson, Adam [Department of Physics, SUPA, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Murphy, Christopher [Department of Physics, University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Notley, Margaret [Central Laser Facility, STFC, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Paraskevoulakos, Charilaos [Interface Analysis Centre, HH Wills Physics Laboratory, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Jowsey, John [Ground Floor North B582, Sellafield Ltd, Seascale, Cumbria CA20 1PG (United Kingdom); and others

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • X-ray generation was achieved via laser interaction with a tantalum thin foil target. • Picosecond X-ray pulse from a sub-mm spot generated high resolution images. • MeV X-ray emission is possible, permitting analysis of full scale waste containers. • In parallel neutron emission of 10{sup 7}–10{sup 9} neutrons per steradian per pulse was attained. • Development of a 10 Hz diode pumped laser system for waste monitoring is envisioned. - Abstract: A small scale sample nuclear waste package, consisting of a 28 mm diameter uranium penny encased in grout, was imaged by absorption contrast radiography using a single pulse exposure from an X-ray source driven by a high-power laser. The Vulcan laser was used to deliver a focused pulse of photons to a tantalum foil, in order to generate a bright burst of highly penetrating X-rays (with energy >500 keV), with a source size of <0.5 mm. BAS-TR and BAS-SR image plates were used for image capture, alongside a newly developed Thalium doped Caesium Iodide scintillator-based detector coupled to CCD chips. The uranium penny was clearly resolved to sub-mm accuracy over a 30 cm{sup 2} scan area from a single shot acquisition. In addition, neutron generation was demonstrated in situ with the X-ray beam, with a single shot, thus demonstrating the potential for multi-modal criticality testing of waste materials. This feasibility study successfully demonstrated non-destructive radiography of encapsulated, high density, nuclear material. With recent developments of high-power laser systems, to 10 Hz operation, a laser-driven multi-modal beamline for waste monitoring applications is envisioned.

  6. Evaluating laser-driven Bremsstrahlung radiation sources for imaging and analysis of nuclear waste packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Christopher P.; Brenner, Ceri M.; Stitt, Camilla A.; Armstrong, Chris; Rusby, Dean R.; Mirfayzi, Seyed R.; Wilson, Lucy A.; Alejo, Aarón; Ahmed, Hamad; Allott, Ric; Butler, Nicholas M.H.; Clarke, Robert J.; Haddock, David; Hernandez-Gomez, Cristina; Higginson, Adam; Murphy, Christopher; Notley, Margaret; Paraskevoulakos, Charilaos; Jowsey, John

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • X-ray generation was achieved via laser interaction with a tantalum thin foil target. • Picosecond X-ray pulse from a sub-mm spot generated high resolution images. • MeV X-ray emission is possible, permitting analysis of full scale waste containers. • In parallel neutron emission of 10"7–10"9 neutrons per steradian per pulse was attained. • Development of a 10 Hz diode pumped laser system for waste monitoring is envisioned. - Abstract: A small scale sample nuclear waste package, consisting of a 28 mm diameter uranium penny encased in grout, was imaged by absorption contrast radiography using a single pulse exposure from an X-ray source driven by a high-power laser. The Vulcan laser was used to deliver a focused pulse of photons to a tantalum foil, in order to generate a bright burst of highly penetrating X-rays (with energy >500 keV), with a source size of <0.5 mm. BAS-TR and BAS-SR image plates were used for image capture, alongside a newly developed Thalium doped Caesium Iodide scintillator-based detector coupled to CCD chips. The uranium penny was clearly resolved to sub-mm accuracy over a 30 cm"2 scan area from a single shot acquisition. In addition, neutron generation was demonstrated in situ with the X-ray beam, with a single shot, thus demonstrating the potential for multi-modal criticality testing of waste materials. This feasibility study successfully demonstrated non-destructive radiography of encapsulated, high density, nuclear material. With recent developments of high-power laser systems, to 10 Hz operation, a laser-driven multi-modal beamline for waste monitoring applications is envisioned.

  7. Visible-to-visible four-photon ultrahigh resolution microscopic imaging with 730-nm diode laser excited nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Baoju; Zhan, Qiuqiang; Zhao, Yuxiang; Wu, Ruitao; Liu, Jing; He, Sailing

    2016-01-25

    Further development of multiphoton microscopic imaging is confronted with a number of limitations, including high-cost, high complexity and relatively low spatial resolution due to the long excitation wavelength. To overcome these problems, for the first time, we propose visible-to-visible four-photon ultrahigh resolution microscopic imaging by using a common cost-effective 730-nm laser diode to excite the prepared Nd(3+)-sensitized upconversion nanoparticles (Nd(3+)-UCNPs). An ordinary multiphoton scanning microscope system was built using a visible CW diode laser and the lateral imaging resolution as high as 161-nm was achieved via the four-photon upconversion process. The demonstrated large saturation excitation power for Nd(3+)-UCNPs would be more practical and facilitate the four-photon imaging in the application. A sample with fine structure was imaged to demonstrate the advantages of visible-to-visible four-photon ultrahigh resolution microscopic imaging with 730-nm diode laser excited nanocrystals. Combining the uniqueness of UCNPs, the proposed visible-to-visible four-photon imaging would be highly promising and attractive in the field of multiphoton imaging.

  8. Laser beam welding quality monitoring system based in high-speed (10 kHz) uncooled MWIR imaging sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Rodrigo; Vergara, German; Gutiérrez, Raúl; Fernández, Carlos; Villamayor, Víctor; Gómez, Luis; González-Camino, Maria; Baldasano, Arturo; Castro, G.; Arias, R.; Lapido, Y.; Rodríguez, J.; Romero, Pablo

    2015-05-01

    The combination of flexibility, productivity, precision and zero-defect manufacturing in future laser-based equipment are a major challenge that faces this enabling technology. New sensors for online monitoring and real-time control of laserbased processes are necessary for improving products quality and increasing manufacture yields. New approaches to fully automate processes towards zero-defect manufacturing demand smarter heads where lasers, optics, actuators, sensors and electronics will be integrated in a unique compact and affordable device. Many defects arising in laser-based manufacturing processes come from instabilities in the dynamics of the laser process. Temperature and heat dynamics are key parameters to be monitored. Low cost infrared imagers with high-speed of response will constitute the next generation of sensors to be implemented in future monitoring and control systems for laser-based processes, capable to provide simultaneous information about heat dynamics and spatial distribution. This work describes the result of using an innovative low-cost high-speed infrared imager based on the first quantum infrared imager monolithically integrated with Si-CMOS ROIC of the market. The sensor is able to provide low resolution images at frame rates up to 10 KHz in uncooled operation at the same cost as traditional infrared spot detectors. In order to demonstrate the capabilities of the new sensor technology, a low-cost camera was assembled on a standard production laser welding head, allowing to register melting pool images at frame rates of 10 kHz. In addition, a specific software was developed for defect detection and classification. Multiple laser welding processes were recorded with the aim to study the performance of the system and its application to the real-time monitoring of laser welding processes. During the experiments, different types of defects were produced and monitored. The classifier was fed with the experimental images obtained. Self

  9. A multiphoton laser scanning microscope setup for transcranial in vivo brain imaging on mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nase, Gabriele; Helm, P. Johannes; Reppen, Trond; Ottersen, Ole Petter

    2005-12-01

    We describe a multiphoton laser scanning microscope setup for transcranial in vivo brain imaging in mice. The modular system is based on a modified industrial standard Confocal Scanning Laser Microscope (CSLM) and is assembled mainly from commercially available components. A special multifunctional stage, which is optimized for both laser scanning microscopic observation and preparative animal surgery, has been developed and built. The detection unit includes a highly efficient photomultiplier tube installed in a Peltier-cooled thermal box shielding the detector from changes in room temperature and from distortions caused by external electromagnetic fields. The images are recorded using a 12-bit analog-to-digital converter. Depending on the characteristics of the staining, individual nerve cells can be imaged down to at least 100μm below the intact cranium and down to at least 200μm below the opened cranium.

  10. A laser driven pulsed X-ray backscatter technique for enhanced penetrative imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deas, R M; Wilson, L A; Rusby, D; Alejo, A; Allott, R; Black, P P; Black, S E; Borghesi, M; Brenner, C M; Bryant, J; Clarke, R J; Collier, J C; Edwards, B; Foster, P; Greenhalgh, J; Hernandez-Gomez, C; Kar, S; Lockley, D; Moss, R M; Najmudin, Z; Pattathil, R; Symes, D; Whittle, M D; Wood, J C; McKenna, P; Neely, D

    2015-01-01

    X-ray backscatter imaging can be used for a wide range of imaging applications, in particular for industrial inspection and portal security. Currently, the application of this imaging technique to the detection of landmines is limited due to the surrounding sand or soil strongly attenuating the 10s to 100s of keV X-rays required for backscatter imaging. Here, we introduce a new approach involving a 140 MeV short-pulse (< 100 fs) electron beam generated by laser wakefield acceleration to probe the sample, which produces Bremsstrahlung X-rays within the sample enabling greater depths to be imaged. A variety of detector and scintillator configurations are examined, with the best time response seen from an absorptive coated BaF2 scintillator with a bandpass filter to remove the slow scintillation emission components. An X-ray backscatter image of an array of different density and atomic number items is demonstrated. The use of a compact laser wakefield accelerator to generate the electron source, combined with the rapid development of more compact, efficient and higher repetition rate high power laser systems will make this system feasible for applications in the field. Content includes material subject to Dstl (c) Crown copyright (2014). Licensed under the terms of the Open Government Licence except where otherwise stated. To view this licence, visit http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/doc/open-government-licence/version/3 or write to the Information Policy Team, The National Archives, Kew, London TW9 4DU, or email: psi@ nationalarchives.gsi.gov.uk.

  11. Ultrasound imaging of Nd:YAG laser-induced tissue coagulation in porcine livers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritzel, U; Wietzke-Braun, P; Brinck, U; Leonhardt, U; Ramadori, G

    2001-12-01

    Absorption of laser light energy induces denaturation of proteins and thermocoagulation of irradiated tissue. Recently, MRI-guided laser coagulation in combination with MR thermometry was reported as a treatment of liver tumours. In the present study ultrasonographic imaging was evaluated for its suitability in laser induced tissue thermocoagulation. Fresh porcine livers were used for ex vivo examinations. Placement of the laser catheter and tissue coagulation during laser light emission were online monitored by ultrasonography. Nd:YAG laser-induced tissue damage was evaluated by macroscopical and microscopical examinations of histological sections. During laser light emission a marked hyperdense signal enhancement was observed by ultrasonography which strongly correlated with the extent of macroscopic tissue damage. The size of laser-induced coagulation zone depended on both the power setting and total energy delivered. Carbonization of the tissue surrounding the laser tip is a limiting factor because of laser light absorption. However our data indicate that using appropriate laser energy and exposure time prevent carbonization although carbonization can not be visualized by ultrasonography. It is concluded from the present ex vivo studies that laser coagulation can be effectively performed under ultrasonographic guidance.

  12. Overview of solid state lasers with applications as LIDAR transmitters and optical image amplifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, R.C.; Basiev, T.T.; Zverev, P.G.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: This talk will review the current status of solid state lasers. Then a specific class of solid state lasers, Raman lasers, will be discussed as a specific example of new technology development. The spectroscopic properties of the materials are used in these lasers is presented and the use of these materials in shared-, coupled-, and external-resonator laser systems is described. System design parameters affecting efficiency, beam quality, and temporal pulse width are discussed. Examples will be presented of the use of these lasers for transmitters in atmospheric and marine imaging light detection and ranging (LIDAR) systems and in optical amplifiers

  13. Automatic registration of panoramic image sequence and mobile laser scanning data using semantic features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianping; Yang, Bisheng; Chen, Chi; Huang, Ronggang; Dong, Zhen; Xiao, Wen

    2018-02-01

    Inaccurate exterior orientation parameters (EoPs) between sensors obtained by pre-calibration leads to failure of registration between panoramic image sequence and mobile laser scanning data. To address this challenge, this paper proposes an automatic registration method based on semantic features extracted from panoramic images and point clouds. Firstly, accurate rotation parameters between the panoramic camera and the laser scanner are estimated using GPS and IMU aided structure from motion (SfM). The initial EoPs of panoramic images are obtained at the same time. Secondly, vehicles in panoramic images are extracted by the Faster-RCNN as candidate primitives to be matched with potential corresponding primitives in point clouds according to the initial EoPs. Finally, translation between the panoramic camera and the laser scanner is refined by maximizing the overlapping area of corresponding primitive pairs based on the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), resulting in a finer registration between panoramic image sequences and point clouds. Two challenging urban scenes were experimented to assess the proposed method, and the final registration errors of these two scenes were both less than three pixels, which demonstrates a high level of automation, robustness and accuracy.

  14. Scanning thin-sheet laser imaging microscopy (sTSLIM) with structured illumination and HiLo background rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröter, Tobias J; Johnson, Shane B; John, Kerstin; Santi, Peter A

    2012-01-01

    We report replacement of one side of a static illumination, dual sided, thin-sheet laser imaging microscope (TSLIM) with an intensity modulated laser scanner in order to implement structured illumination (SI) and HiLo image demodulation techniques for background rejection. The new system is equipped with one static and one scanned light-sheet and is called a scanning thin-sheet laser imaging microscope (sTSLIM). It is an optimized version of a light-sheet fluorescent microscope that is designed to image large specimens (HiLo image demodulation. The static light-sheet has a thickness of 3.2 µm; whereas, the scanned side has a light-sheet thickness of 4.2 µm. The scanned side images specimens with subcellular resolution (HiLo produce superior contrast compared to both the uniform static and scanned light-sheets. HiLo contrast was greater than SI and is faster and more robust than SI because as it produces images in two-thirds of the time and exhibits fewer intensity streaking artifacts. 2011 Optical Society of America

  15. High-spatial-resolution sub-surface imaging using a laser-based acoustic microscopy technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogun, Oluwaseyi; Cole, Garrett D; Huber, Robert; Chinn, Diane; Murray, Todd W; Spicer, James B

    2011-01-01

    Scanning acoustic microscopy techniques operating at frequencies in the gigahertz range are suitable for the elastic characterization and interior imaging of solid media with micrometer-scale spatial resolution. Acoustic wave propagation at these frequencies is strongly limited by energy losses, particularly from attenuation in the coupling media used to transmit ultrasound to a specimen, leading to a decrease in the depth in a specimen that can be interrogated. In this work, a laser-based acoustic microscopy technique is presented that uses a pulsed laser source for the generation of broadband acoustic waves and an optical interferometer for detection. The use of a 900-ps microchip pulsed laser facilitates the generation of acoustic waves with frequencies extending up to 1 GHz which allows for the resolution of micrometer-scale features in a specimen. Furthermore, the combination of optical generation and detection approaches eliminates the use of an ultrasonic coupling medium, and allows for elastic characterization and interior imaging at penetration depths on the order of several hundred micrometers. Experimental results illustrating the use of the laser-based acoustic microscopy technique for imaging micrometer-scale subsurface geometrical features in a 70-μm-thick single-crystal silicon wafer with a (100) orientation are presented.

  16. Laser-produced Au nanoparticles as X-ray contrast agents for diagnostic imaging

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Torrisi, L.; Restuccia, N.; Cuzzocrea, S.; Paterniti, I.; Ielo, I.; Pergolizzi, S.; Cutroneo, Mariapompea; Kováčik, L.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 1 (2017), s. 51-60 ISSN 0017-1557 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015056; GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : Au nanoparticles * Laser * X-ray diagnostic s * medical imaging * contrast medium Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers OBOR OECD: Inorganic and nuclear chemistry Impact factor: 1.638, year: 2016

  17. Silver nanostructures in laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry and mass spectrometry imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekuła, Justyna; Nizioł, Joanna; Rode, Wojciech; Ruman, Tomasz

    2015-09-21

    Silver nanoparticles have been successfully applied as a matrix replacement for the laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LDI-ToF-MS). Nanoparticles, producing spectra with highly reduced chemical background in the low m/z region, are perfectly suited for low-molecular weight compound analysis and imaging. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) can efficiently absorb ultraviolet laser radiation, transfer energy to the analyte and promote analyte desorption, but also constitute a source of silver ions suitable for analyte cationisation. This review provides an overview of the literature on silver nanomaterials as non-conventional desorption and ionization promoters in LDI-MS and mass spectrometry imaging.

  18. Ultrafast gated imaging of laser produced plasmas using the optical Kerr effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Symes, D. R.; Wegner, U.; Ahlswede, H.-C.; Streeter, M. J. V.; Gallegos, P. L.; Divall, E. J.; Rajeev, P. P.; Neely, D.; Smith, R. A.

    2010-01-01

    Optical imaging is a versatile diagnostic for investigations of plasmas generated under intense laser irradiation. Electro-optic gating techniques operating on the >100 ps timescale are commonly used to reduce the amount of light detected from self-emission of hot plasma or improve the temporal resolution of the detector. The use of an optical Kerr gate enables a superior dynamic range and temporal resolution compared to electronically gated devices. The application of this method for enhanced imaging of laser produced plasmas with gate time ∼100 fs is demonstrated, and the possibility to produce a sub-10 fs, high dynamic range 'all optical' streak camera is discussed.

  19. Imaging photoelectrons formed in strong laser fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helm, H.; Dyer, M.J.; Saeed, M.; Huestis, D.L.

    1993-01-01

    An instrument capable of characterizing the angular correlation and energy distribution of products from photoionization of single atoms or molecules will be described. An external electric field is used to project individual charged particles generated in multiphoton ionization from the focal volume onto two-dimensional detectors. Digital images are recorded for each laser shot and summed. These images provide a direct view of the angular nodal plants of the photoelectrons and they can be analyzed to represent the spatial and energy distributions in the form of a polar plot, f(E,Θ). We discuss the application of this instrument to short pulse photoionization of rare gases and molecular hydrogen at visible and UV wavelengths at intensities ranging from 10 13 to 10 15 W/cm 2

  20. Computer assisted treatments for image pattern data of laser plasma experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaoita, Akira; Matsushima, Isao

    1987-01-01

    An image data processing system for laser-plasma experiments has been constructed. These image data are two dimensional images taken by X-ray, UV, infrared and visible light television cameras and also taken by streak cameras. They are digitized by frame memories. The digitized image data are stored in disk memories with the aid of a microcomputer. The data are processed by a host computer and stored in the files of the host computer and on magnetic tapes. In this paper, the over view of the image data processing system and some software for data handling in the host computer are reported. (author)

  1. A new three-dimensional nonscanning laser imaging system based on the illumination pattern of a point-light-source array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Wenze; Ma, Yayun; Han, Shaokun; Wang, Yulin; Liu, Fei; Zhai, Yu

    2018-06-01

    One of the most important goals of research on three-dimensional nonscanning laser imaging systems is the improvement of the illumination system. In this paper, a new three-dimensional nonscanning laser imaging system based on the illumination pattern of a point-light-source array is proposed. This array is obtained using a fiber array connected to a laser array with each unit laser having independent control circuits. This system uses a point-to-point imaging process, which is realized using the exact corresponding optical relationship between the point-light-source array and a linear-mode avalanche photodiode array detector. The complete working process of this system is explained in detail, and the mathematical model of this system containing four equations is established. A simulated contrast experiment and two real contrast experiments which use the simplified setup without a laser array are performed. The final results demonstrate that unlike a conventional three-dimensional nonscanning laser imaging system, the proposed system meets all the requirements of an eligible illumination system. Finally, the imaging performance of this system is analyzed under defocusing situations, and analytical results show that the system has good defocusing robustness and can be easily adjusted in real applications.

  2. The algorithm to generate color point-cloud with the registration between panoramic image and laser point-cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Fanyang; Zhong, Ruofei

    2014-01-01

    Laser point cloud contains only intensity information and it is necessary for visual interpretation to obtain color information from other sensor. Cameras can provide texture, color, and other information of the corresponding object. Points with color information of corresponding pixels in digital images can be used to generate color point-cloud and is conducive to the visualization, classification and modeling of point-cloud. Different types of digital cameras are used in different Mobile Measurement Systems (MMS).the principles and processes for generating color point-cloud in different systems are not the same. The most prominent feature of the panoramic images is the field of 360 degrees view angle in the horizontal direction, to obtain the image information around the camera as much as possible. In this paper, we introduce a method to generate color point-cloud with panoramic image and laser point-cloud, and deduce the equation of the correspondence between points in panoramic images and laser point-clouds. The fusion of panoramic image and laser point-cloud is according to the collinear principle of three points (the center of the omnidirectional multi-camera system, the image point on the sphere, the object point). The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm and formulae in this paper are correct

  3. Time Resolved Shadowgraph Images of Silicon during Laser Ablation: Shockwaves and Particle Generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, C Y; Mao, X L; Greif, R; Russo, R E

    2007-01-01

    Time resolved shadowgraph images were recorded of shockwaves and particle ejection from silicon during laser ablation. Particle ejection and expansion were correlated to an internal shockwave resonating between the shockwave front and the target surface. The number of particles ablated increased with laser energy and was related to the crater volume

  4. Time Resolved Shadowgraph Images of Silicon during Laser Ablation:Shockwaves and Particle Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, C.Y.; Mao, X.L.; Greif, R.; Russo, R.E.

    2006-05-06

    Time resolved shadowgraph images were recorded of shockwaves and particle ejection from silicon during laser ablation. Particle ejection and expansion were correlated to an internal shockwave resonating between the shockwave front and the target surface. The number of particles ablated increased with laser energy and was related to the crater volume.

  5. Laser induced florescence: application to spectroscopy and new microscopy imaging methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galaup, L. P.

    2012-01-01

    Laser induced fluorescence is one of the light using techniques which allows the highest sensitivity for atoms and molecules detection, up to the single atom or single molecule level. This field is much too large for an extensive review; therefor we have chosen to focus on two main points: 1- the observation of laser stimulated fluorescence in phthalocyanine and porphyrin like molecules in rare gas and nitrogen matrices at low temperatures. 2- the presentation of laser induced fluorescence techniques suitable for achieving ultra-high spatial resolution imaging, below the diffraction limit of conventional microscopy, thanks to highly fluorescent molecules to be used as biological markers. (Author)

  6. Characterization of a novel miniaturized burst-mode infrared laser system for IR-MALDESI mass spectrometry imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekelöf, Måns; Manni, Jeffrey; Nazari, Milad; Bokhart, Mark; Muddiman, David C

    2018-03-01

    Laser systems are widely used in mass spectrometry as sample probes and ionization sources. Mid-infrared lasers are particularly suitable for analysis of high water content samples such as animal and plant tissues, using water as a resonantly excited sacrificial matrix. Commercially available mid-IR lasers have historically been bulky and expensive due to cooling requirements. This work presents a novel air-cooled miniature mid-IR laser with adjustable burst-mode output and details an evaluation of its performance for mass spectrometry imaging. The miniature laser was found capable of generating sufficient energy for complete ablation of animal tissue in the context of an IR-MALDESI experiment with exogenously added ice matrix, yielding several hundred confident metabolite identifications. Graphical abstract The use of a novel miniature 2.94 μm burst-mode laser in IR-MALDESI allows for rapid and sensitive mass spectrometry imaging of a whole mouse.

  7. Guided-wave tomographic imaging of plate defects by laser-based ultrasonic techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Junpil; Lim, Ju Young; Cho, Youn Ho [School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Contact-guided-wave tests are impractical for investigating specimens with limited accessibility and rough surfaces or complex geometric features. A non-contact setup with a laser-ultrasonic transmitter and receiver is quite attractive for guided-wave inspection. In the present work, we developed a non-contact guided-wave tomography technique using the laser-ultrasonic technique in a plate. A method for Lamb-wave generation and detection in an aluminum plate with a pulsed laser-ultrasonic transmitter and Michelson-interferometer receiver was developed. The defect shape and area in the images obtained using laser scanning, showed good agreement with the actual defect. The proposed approach can be used as a non-contact online inspection and monitoring technique.

  8. Images of the laser entrance hole from the static x-ray imager at NIF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, M B; Jones, O S; Meezan, N B; Milovich, J L; Town, R P; Alvarez, S S; Beeler, R G; Bradley, D K; Celeste, J R; Dixit, S N; Edwards, M J; Haugh, M J; Kalantar, D H; Kline, J L; Kyrala, G A; Landen, O L; MacGowan, B J; Michel, P; Moody, J D; Oberhelman, S K; Piston, K W; Pivovaroff, M J; Suter, L J; Teruya, A T; Thomas, C A; Vernon, S P; Warrick, A L; Widmann, K; Wood, R D; Young, B K

    2010-10-01

    The static x-ray imager at the National Ignition Facility is a pinhole camera using a CCD detector to obtain images of Hohlraum wall x-ray drive illumination patterns seen through the laser entrance hole (LEH). Carefully chosen filters, combined with the CCD response, allow recording images in the x-ray range of 3-5 keV with 60 μm spatial resolution. The routines used to obtain the apparent size of the backlit LEH and the location and intensity of beam spots are discussed and compared to predictions. A new soft x-ray channel centered at 870 eV (near the x-ray peak of a 300 eV temperature ignition Hohlraum) is discussed.

  9. Endoscopic Laser-Based 3D Imaging for Functional Voice Diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Semmler

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, we reported on the in vivo application of a miniaturized measuring device for 3D visualization of the superior vocal fold vibrations from high-speed recordings in combination with a laser projection unit (LPU. As a long-term vision for this proof of principle, we strive to integrate the further developed laserendoscopy as a diagnostic method in daily clinical routine. The new LPU mainly comprises a Nd:YAG laser source (532 nm/CW/2 ω and a diffractive optical element (DOE generating a regular laser grid (31 × 31 laser points that is projected on the vocal folds. By means of stereo triangulation, the 3D coordinates of the laser points are reconstructed from the endoscopic high-speed footage. The new design of the laserendoscope constitutes a compromise between robust image processing and laser safety regulations. The algorithms for calibration and analysis are now optimized with respect to their overall duration and the number of required interactions, which is objectively assessed using binary classifiers. The sensitivity and specificity of the calibration procedure are increased by 40.1% and 22.3%, which is statistically significant. The overall duration for the laser point detection is reduced by 41.9%. The suggested semi-automatic reconstruction software represents an important stepping-stone towards potential real time processing and a comprehensive, objective diagnostic tool of evidence-based medicine.

  10. Multivariate image analysis of laser-induced photothermal imaging used for detection of caries tooth

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sherif, Ashraf F.; Abdel Aziz, Wessam M.; El-Sharkawy, Yasser H.

    2010-08-01

    Time-resolved photothermal imaging has been investigated to characterize tooth for the purpose of discriminating between normal and caries areas of the hard tissue using thermal camera. Ultrasonic thermoelastic waves were generated in hard tissue by the absorption of fiber-coupled Q-switched Nd:YAG laser pulses operating at 1064 nm in conjunction with a laser-induced photothermal technique used to detect the thermal radiation waves for diagnosis of human tooth. The concepts behind the use of photo-thermal techniques for off-line detection of caries tooth features were presented by our group in earlier work. This paper illustrates the application of multivariate image analysis (MIA) techniques to detect the presence of caries tooth. MIA is used to rapidly detect the presence and quantity of common caries tooth features as they scanned by the high resolution color (RGB) thermal cameras. Multivariate principal component analysis is used to decompose the acquired three-channel tooth images into a two dimensional principal components (PC) space. Masking score point clusters in the score space and highlighting corresponding pixels in the image space of the two dominant PCs enables isolation of caries defect pixels based on contrast and color information. The technique provides a qualitative result that can be used for early stage caries tooth detection. The proposed technique can potentially be used on-line or real-time resolved to prescreen the existence of caries through vision based systems like real-time thermal camera. Experimental results on the large number of extracted teeth as well as one of the thermal image panoramas of the human teeth voltanteer are investigated and presented.

  11. Assessment of radicular dentin permeability after irradiation with CO2 laser and endodontic irrigation treatments with thermal imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Heajin; Lee, Robert C.; Chan, Kenneth H.; Fried, Daniel

    2017-02-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the permeability changes due to the surface modification of dentin can be quantified via thermal imaging during dehydration. The CO2 laser has been shown to remove the smear layer and disinfect root canals. Moreover, thermal modification via CO2 laser irradiation can be used to convert dentin into a highly mineralized enamel-like mineral. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the radicular dentin surface modification after CO2 laser irradiation by measuring the permeability with thermal imaging. Human molar specimens (n=12) were sectioned into 4 axial walls of the pulp chamber and treated with either 10% NaClO for 1 minute, 5% EDTA for 1 minute, CO2 laser or none. The CO2 laser was operated at 9.4 μm with a pulse duration of 26 μs, pulse repetition rate of 300 Hz and a fluence of 13 J/cm2. The samples were dehydrated using an air spray for 60 seconds and imaged using a thermal camera. The resulting surface morphological changes were assessed using 3D digital microscopy. The images from digital microscopy confirmed melting of the mineral phase of dentin. The area enclosed by the time-temperature curve during dehydration, ▵Q, measured with thermal imaging increased significantly with treatments with EDTA and the CO2 laser (Ptreatment increases permeability of radicular dentin.

  12. A HWIL test facility of infrared imaging laser radar using direct signal injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Lu, Wei; Wang, Chunhui; Wang, Qi

    2005-01-01

    Laser radar has been widely used these years and the hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL) testing of laser radar become important because of its low cost and high fidelity compare with On-the-Fly testing and whole digital simulation separately. Scene generation and projection two key technologies of hardware-in-the-loop testing of laser radar and is a complicated problem because the 3D images result from time delay. The scene generation process begins with the definition of the target geometry and reflectivity and range. The real-time 3D scene generation computer is a PC based hardware and the 3D target models were modeled using 3dsMAX. The scene generation software was written in C and OpenGL and is executed to extract the Z-buffer from the bit planes to main memory as range image. These pixels contain each target position x, y, z and its respective intensity and range value. Expensive optical injection technologies of scene projection such as LDP array, VCSEL array, DMD and associated scene generation is ongoing. But the optical scene projection is complicated and always unaffordable. In this paper a cheaper test facility was described that uses direct electronic injection to provide rang images for laser radar testing. The electronic delay and pulse shaping circuits inject the scenes directly into the seeker's signal processing unit.

  13. Multiphoton Laser Microscopy and Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging for the Evaluation of the Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Seidenari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiphoton laser microscopy is a new, non-invasive technique providing access to the skin at a cellular and subcellular level, which is based both on autofluorescence and fluorescence lifetime imaging. Whereas the former considers fluorescence intensity emitted by epidermal and dermal fluorophores and by the extra-cellular matrix, fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM, is generated by the fluorescence decay rate. This innovative technique can be applied to the study of living skin, cell cultures and ex vivo samples. Although still limited to the clinical research field, the development of multiphoton laser microscopy is thought to become suitable for a practical application in the next few years: in this paper, we performed an accurate review of the studies published so far, considering the possible fields of application of this imaging method and providing high quality images acquired in the Department of Dermatology of the University of Modena.

  14. Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging of Electron Heated Targets in Petawatt Laser Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, T.; MacPhee, A.; Key, M.; Akli, K.; Mackinnon, A.; Chen, C.; Barbee, T.; Freeman, R.; King, J.; Link, A.; Offermann, D.; Ovchinnikov, V.; Patel, P.; Stephens, R.; VanWoerkom, L.; Zhang, B.; Beg, F.

    2007-01-01

    The study of the transport of electrons, and the flow of energy into a solid target or dense plasma, is instrumental in the development of fast ignition inertial confinement fusion. An extreme ultraviolet (XUV) imaging diagnostic at 256 eV and 68 eV provides information about heating and energy deposition within petawatt laser-irradiated targets. XUV images of several irradiated solid targets are presented

  15. Image transmission in mid-IR using a solid state laser pumped optical parametric oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Narasimha S.; Kratovil, Pat; Magee, James R.

    2002-04-01

    In this paper, image transmission using a mid-wave IR (MWIR) optical transceiver based free-space data link under low visibility conditions is presented. The all-solid-state MWIR transceiver primarily consisted of a passively Q-switched, short-pulsed Nd:YAG laser pumping a periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) based optical parametric oscillator and a Dember effect detector. The MILES transceiver generates pulse position waveforms. The optical data link consisting of transmitter drive electronics, pulse conditioning electronics and a computer generating pulses compatible with the 2400-baud rate RS232 receiver was utilized. Data formatting and RS232 transmission and reception were achieved using a computer. Data formatting transformed an arbitrary image file format compatible with the basic operation of pump laser. Images were transmitted at a date rate of 2400 kbits/sec with 16 bits/pixel. Test images consisting of 50X40 pixels and 100X80 pixels were transmitted through free-space filled with light fog up to 120 ft. Besides optical parametric oscillators, the proposed concept can be extended to optical parametric amplifiers, Raman lasers and other nonlinear optical devices to achieve multi-functionality.

  16. Detection of fecal residue on poultry carcasses by laser induced fluorescence imaging techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potential use of laser-induced fluorescence imaging techniques was investigated for the detection of diluted fecal matters from various parts of the digestive tract, including colon, ceca, small intestine, and duodenum, on poultry carcasses. One of the challenges for using fluorescence imaging f...

  17. High-resolution 3D laser imaging based on tunable fiber array link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Sisi; Ruan, Ningjuan; Yang, Song

    2017-10-01

    Airborne photoelectric reconnaissance system with the bore sight down to the ground is an important battlefield situational awareness system, which can be used for reconnaissance and surveillance of complex ground scene. Airborne 3D imaging Lidar system is recognized as the most potential candidates for target detection under the complex background, and is progressing in the directions of high resolution, long distance detection, high sensitivity, low power consumption, high reliability, eye safe and multi-functional. However, the traditional 3D laser imaging system has the disadvantages of lower imaging resolutions because of the small size of the existing detector, and large volume. This paper proposes a high resolution laser 3D imaging technology based on the tunable optical fiber array link. The echo signal is modulated by a tunable optical fiber array link and then transmitted to the focal plane detector. The detector converts the optical signal into electrical signals which is given to the computer. Then, the computer accomplishes the signal calculation and image restoration based on modulation information, and then reconstructs the target image. This paper establishes the mathematical model of tunable optical fiber array signal receiving link, and proposes the simulation and analysis of the affect factors on high density multidimensional point cloud reconstruction.

  18. Diffuse reflectance imaging for non-melanoma skin cancer detection using laser feedback interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowla, Alireza; Taimre, Thomas; Lim, Yah L.; Bertling, Karl; Wilson, Stephen J.; Prow, Tarl W.; Soyer, H. P.; Rakić, Aleksandar D.

    2016-04-01

    We propose a compact, self-aligned, low-cost, and versatile infrared diffuse-reflectance laser imaging system using a laser feedback interferometry technique with possible applications in in vivo biological tissue imaging and skin cancer detection. We examine the proposed technique experimentally using a three-layer agar skin phantom. A cylindrical region with a scattering rate lower than that of the surrounding normal tissue was used as a model for a non-melanoma skin tumour. The same structure was implemented in a Monte Carlo computational model. The experimental results agree well with the Monte Carlo simulations validating the theoretical basis of the technique. Results prove the applicability of the proposed technique for biological tissue imaging, with the capability of depth sectioning and a penetration depth of well over 1.2 mm into the skin phantom.

  19. Evaluating laser-driven Bremsstrahlung radiation sources for imaging and analysis of nuclear waste packages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Christopher P; Brenner, Ceri M; Stitt, Camilla A; Armstrong, Chris; Rusby, Dean R; Mirfayzi, Seyed R; Wilson, Lucy A; Alejo, Aarón; Ahmed, Hamad; Allott, Ric; Butler, Nicholas M H; Clarke, Robert J; Haddock, David; Hernandez-Gomez, Cristina; Higginson, Adam; Murphy, Christopher; Notley, Margaret; Paraskevoulakos, Charilaos; Jowsey, John; McKenna, Paul; Neely, David; Kar, Satya; Scott, Thomas B

    2016-11-15

    A small scale sample nuclear waste package, consisting of a 28mm diameter uranium penny encased in grout, was imaged by absorption contrast radiography using a single pulse exposure from an X-ray source driven by a high-power laser. The Vulcan laser was used to deliver a focused pulse of photons to a tantalum foil, in order to generate a bright burst of highly penetrating X-rays (with energy >500keV), with a source size of <0.5mm. BAS-TR and BAS-SR image plates were used for image capture, alongside a newly developed Thalium doped Caesium Iodide scintillator-based detector coupled to CCD chips. The uranium penny was clearly resolved to sub-mm accuracy over a 30cm(2) scan area from a single shot acquisition. In addition, neutron generation was demonstrated in situ with the X-ray beam, with a single shot, thus demonstrating the potential for multi-modal criticality testing of waste materials. This feasibility study successfully demonstrated non-destructive radiography of encapsulated, high density, nuclear material. With recent developments of high-power laser systems, to 10Hz operation, a laser-driven multi-modal beamline for waste monitoring applications is envisioned. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Application of ultra-fast high-resolution gated-image intensifiers to laser fusion studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lieber, A.J.; Benjamin, R.F.; Sutphin, H.D.; McCall, G.H.

    1975-01-01

    Gated-image intensifiers for fast framing have found high utility in laser-target interaction studies. X-ray pinhole camera photographs which can record asymmetries of laser-target interactions have been instrumental in further system design. High-resolution high-speed x-ray images of laser irradiated targets are formed using pinhole optics and electronically amplified by proximity focused channelplate intensifiers before being recorded on film. Spectral resolution is obtained by filtering. In these applications shutter duration is determined by source duration. Electronic gating serves to reduce background thereby enhancing signal-to-noise ratio. Cameras are used to view the self light of the interaction but may also be used for shadowgraphs. Sources for shadowgraphs may be sequenced to obtain a series of pictures with effective rates of 10 10 frame/s. Multiple aperatures have been used to obtain stereo x-ray views, yielding three dimensional information about the interactions. (author)

  1. Generation of narrowband elastic waves with a fiber laser and its application to the imaging of defects in a plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Takahiro; Ishihara, Ken

    2017-05-01

    Pulsed laser equipment can be used to generate elastic waves through the instantaneous reaction of thermal expansion or ablation of the material; however, we cannot control the waveform generated by the laser in the same manner that we can when piezoelectric transducers are used as exciters. This study investigates the generation of narrowband tone-burst waves using a fiber laser of the type that is widely used in laser beam machining. Fiber lasers can emit laser pulses with a high repetition rate on the order of MHz, and the laser pulses can be modulated to a burst train by external signals. As a consequence of the burst laser emission, a narrowband tone-burst elastic wave is generated. We experimentally confirmed that the elastic waves agreed well with the modulation signals in time domain waveforms and their frequency spectra, and that waveforms can be controlled by the generation technique. We also apply the generation technique to defect imaging with a scanning laser source. In the experiments, with small laser emission energy, we were not able to obtain defect images from the signal amplitude due to low signal-to-noise ratio, whereas using frequency spectrum peaks of the tone-burst signals gave clear defect images, which indicates that the signal-to-noise ratio is improved in the frequency domain by using this technique for the generation of narrowband elastic waves. Moreover, even for defect imaging at a single receiving point, defect images were enhanced by taking an average of distributions of frequency spectrum peaks at different frequencies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Instantaneous imaging of ozone in a gliding arc discharge using photofragmentation laser-induced fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Kajsa; Hot, Dina; Gao, Jinlong; Kong, Chengdong; Li, Zhongshan; Aldén, Marcus; Bood, Joakim; Ehn, Andreas

    2018-04-01

    Ozone vapor, O3, is here visualized in a gliding arc discharge using photofragmentation laser-induced fluorescence. Ozone is imaged by first photodissociating the O3 molecule into an O radical and a vibrationally hot O2 fragment by a pump photon. Thereafter, the vibrationally excited O2 molecule absorbs a second (probe) photon that further transits the O2-molecule to an excited electronic state, and hence, fluorescence from the deexcitation process in the molecule can be detected. Both the photodissociation and excitation processes are achieved within one 248 nm KrF excimer laser pulse that is formed into a laser sheet and the fluorescence is imaged using an intensified CCD camera. The laser-induced signal in the vicinity of the plasma column formed by the gliding arc is confirmed to stem from O3 rather than plasma produced vibrationally hot O2. While both these products can be produced in plasmas a second laser pulse at 266 nm was utilized to separate the pump- from the probe-processes. Such arrangement allowed lifetime studies of vibrationally hot O2, which under these conditions were several orders of magnitude shorter than the lifetime of plasma-produced ozone.

  3. ToF-SIMS and Laser-SNMS Imaging of Heterogeneous Topographically Complex Polymer Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelster, Andreas; Körsgen, Martin; Kurosawa, Takako; Morita, Hiromi; Arlinghaus, Heinrich F

    2016-10-04

    Heterogeneous polymer coatings, such as those used in organic electronics and medical devices, are of increasing industrial importance. In order to advance the development of these types of systems, analytical techniques are required which are able to determine the elemental and molecular spatial distributions, on a nanometer scale, with very high detection efficiency and sensitivity. The goal of this study was to investigate the suitability of laser postionization secondary neutral mass spectrometry (Laser-SNMS) with a 157 nm postionization laser beam to image structured polymer mixtures and compare the results with time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) measurements using Bi 3 + primary ions. The results showed that Laser-SNMS is better suited than ToF-SIMS for unambiguous detection and submicrometer imaging of the wide range of polymers investigated. The data also showed that Laser-SNMS has the advantage of being much more sensitive (in general higher by more than an order of magnitude and peaking at up to 3 orders of magnitude) than ToF-SIMS while also showing superior performance on topographically complex structured insulating surfaces, due to significantly reduced field effects and a higher dynamic range as compared to ToF-SIMS. It is concluded that Laser-SNMS is a powerful complementary technique to ToF-SIMS for the analysis of heterogeneous polymers and other complex structured organic mixtures, providing submicrometer resolution and high sensitivity.

  4. Thermal imaging of high power diode lasers subject to back-irradiance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C.; Pipe, K. P.; Cao, C.; Thiagarajan, P.; Deri, R. J.; Leisher, P. O.

    2018-03-01

    CCD-based thermoreflectance imaging and finite element modeling are used to study the two-dimensional (2D) temperature profile of a junction-down broad-area diode laser facet subject to back-irradiance. By determining the temperature rise in the active region (ΔΤAR) at different diode laser optical powers, back-irradiance reflectance levels, and back-irradiance spot locations, we find that ΔΤAR increases by nearly a factor of three when the back-irradiance spot is centered in the absorbing substrate approximately 5 μm away from the active region, a distance roughly equal to half of the back-irradiance spot FWHM (9 μm). This corroborates prior work studying the relationship between the back-irradiance spot location and catastrophic optical damage, suggesting a strong thermal basis for reduced laser lifetime in the presence of back-irradiance for diode lasers fabricated on absorbing substrates.

  5. Rapid calibrated high-resolution hyperspectral imaging using tunable laser source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Lam K.; Margalith, Eli

    2009-05-01

    We present a novel hyperspectral imaging technique based on tunable laser technology. By replacing the broadband source and tunable filters of a typical NIR imaging instrument, several advantages are realized, including: high spectral resolution, highly variable field-of-views, fast scan-rates, high signal-to-noise ratio, and the ability to use optical fiber for efficient and flexible sample illumination. With this technique, high-resolution, calibrated hyperspectral images over the NIR range can be acquired in seconds. The performance of system features will be demonstrated on two example applications: detecting melamine contamination in wheat gluten and separating bovine protein from wheat protein in cattle feed.

  6. The Characterization of Laser Ablation Patterns and a New Definition of Resolution in Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Imaging Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-IMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rourke, Matthew B; Raymond, Benjamin B A; Padula, Matthew P

    2017-05-01

    Matrix assisted laser desorption ionization imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS) is a technique that has seen a sharp rise in both use and development. Despite this rapid adoption, there have been few thorough investigations into the actual physical mechanisms that underlie the acquisition of IMS images. We therefore set out to characterize the effect of IMS laser ablation patterns on the surface of a sample. We also concluded that the governing factors that control spatial resolution have not been correctly defined and therefore propose a new definition of resolution. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  7. Laser Speckle Contrast Imaging: theory, instrumentation and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senarathna, Janaka; Rege, Abhishek; Li, Nan; Thakor, Nitish V

    2013-01-01

    Laser Speckle Contrast Imaging (LSCI) is a wide field of view, non scanning optical technique for observing blood flow. Speckles are produced when coherent light scattered back from biological tissue is diffracted through the limiting aperture of focusing optics. Mobile scatterers cause the speckle pattern to blur; a model can be constructed by inversely relating the degree of blur, termed speckle contrast to the scatterer speed. In tissue, red blood cells are the main source of moving scatterers. Therefore, blood flow acts as a virtual contrast agent, outlining blood vessels. The spatial resolution (~10 μm) and temporal resolution (10 ms to 10 s) of LSCI can be tailored to the application. Restricted by the penetration depth of light, LSCI can only visualize superficial blood flow. Additionally, due to its non scanning nature, LSCI is unable to provide depth resolved images. The simple setup and non-dependence on exogenous contrast agents have made LSCI a popular tool for studying vascular structure and blood flow dynamics. We discuss the theory and practice of LSCI and critically analyze its merit in major areas of application such as retinal imaging, imaging of skin perfusion as well as imaging of neurophysiology.

  8. Present and future status of flexible spectral imaging color enhancement and blue laser imaging technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osawa, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Hironori

    2014-01-01

    The usefulness of flexible spectral imaging color enhancement (FICE) has been reported for evaluating the esophagus, stomach, and small and large intestine. Higher contrast is shown between cancer and the surrounding mucosa in the esophagus and stomach and may facilitate the detection of gastric cancers missed by white light imaging alone. The surface patterns of gastric mucosa are clearly visualized in non-malignant areas but are irregular and blurred in malignant areas, leading to clear demarcation. Capsule endoscopy with FICE detects angiodysplasia and erosions of the small intestine. The surface and vascular pattern with FICE is useful for the differential diagnosis of colorectal polyps. However, FICE remains somewhat poor at visualizing mucosal microvasculature on a tumor surface. Narrow-band imaging (NBI) is dark in observing whole gastric mucosa and poor at visualizing mucosal microstructure. Blue laser imaging (BLI) has the potential to resolve these limitations. Narrow-band laser light combined with white light shows irregular microvessels on both differentiated and undifferentiated gastric cancer similar to those using NBI. In addition, irregular surface patterns including minute white zones are clearly seen on the uneven surface of differentiated lesions, resulting in exclusion of undifferentiated lesions. Using both distant and close-up views, a high contrast between green intestinal metaplasia and brown gastric cancer may lead to early detection of gastric cancers and determination of a demarcation line. BLI produces high-contrast images in esophageal cancer with clear vision of intrapapillary capillary loops and also predicts the histopathological diagnosis and depth of invasion in colorectal neoplasms. © 2013 The Authors. Digestive Endoscopy © 2013 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.

  9. High-energy laser-assisted imaging through vaporizing aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zardecki, A.; Gerstl, S.A.W.

    1988-02-01

    The degradation of image quality due to multiple scattering in a turbid medium is analyzed various conditions of illumination. The emphasis is on the forward-peaked multiple scattering effects, which can adequately be described by the small-angle approximation. In the case of incoherent illumination, the modulation transfer function (MTF) can be given explicity both in the low- and high-frequency limits. For scattering with smaller degree of anisotropy, the MTF should be imputed numerically by considering numerical by considering solutions to the equation of radiative transfer with a line or point source. As the beam power increases, the turbid medium becomes modified by its interactions with the beam, thus affecting the image resolution. In this nonlinear transport regime (flux levels of the order of 10 6 Wcm 2 and higher) the propagation leads actually to beam narrowing. In the context of the imaging problem, an apparent paradosical situation in which the image of a point source narrows down as the high-energy laser (HEL) beam propagates is discussed. 14 refs., 12 figs

  10. Compact Aberration-Free Relay-Imaging Multi-Pass Layouts for High-Energy Laser Amplifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Körner

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We present the results from a theoretical investigation of laser beam propagation in relay imaging multi-pass layouts, which recently found application in high-energy laser amplifiers. Using a method based on the well-known ABCD-matrix formalism and proven by ray tracing, it was possible to derive a categorization of such systems. Furthermore, basic rules for the setup of such systems and the compensation for low order aberrations are derived. Due to the introduced generalization and parametrization, the presented results can immediately be applied to any system of the investigated kinds for a wide range of parameters, such as number of round-trips, focal lengths and optics sizes. It is shown that appropriate setups allow a close-to-perfect compensation of defocus caused by a thermal lens and astigmatism caused by non-normal incidence on the imaging optics, as well. Both are important to avoid intensity spikes leading to damages of optics in multi-pass laser amplifiers.

  11. 3-D Imaging by Laser Radar and Applications in Preventing and Combating Crime and Terrorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Letalick, Dietmar; Ahlberg, Joergen; Andersson, Pierre; Chevalier, Tomas; Groenwall, Christina; Larsson, Hakan; Persson, Asa; Klasen, Lena

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the ongoing research on 3-dimensional (3-D) imaging at FOI. Specifically, we address the new possibilities brought by laser radars, focusing on systems for high resolution 3-D imaging...

  12. Registration area and accuracy when integrating laser-scanned and maxillofacial cone-beam computed tomography images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, LiJun; Hwang, Hyeon-Shik; Lee, Kyung-Min

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine changes in registration accuracy after including occlusal surface and incisal edge areas in addition to the buccal surface when integrating laser-scanned and maxillofacial cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) dental images. CBCT scans and maxillary dental casts were obtained from 30 patients. Three methods were used to integrate the images: R1, only the buccal and labial surfaces were used; R2, the incisal edges of the anterior teeth and the buccal and distal marginal ridges of the second molars were used; and R3, labial surfaces, including incisal edges of anterior teeth, and buccal surfaces, including buccal and distal marginal ridges of the second molars, were used. Differences between the 2 images were evaluated by color-mapping methods and average surface distances by measuring the 3-dimensional Euclidean distances between the surface points on the 2 images. The R1 method showed more discrepancies between the laser-scanned and CBCT images than did the other methods. The R2 method did not show a significant difference in registration accuracy compared with the R3 method. The results of this study indicate that accuracy when integrating laser-scanned dental images into maxillofacial CBCT images can be increased by including occlusal surface and incisal edge areas as registration areas. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Target plane imaging system for the Nova laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swift, C.D.; Bliss, E.S.; Jones, W.A.; Reeves, R.J.; Seppala, L.G.; Shelton, R.T.; VanArsdall, P.J.

    1985-01-01

    The Nova laser, in operation since December 1984, is capable of irradiating targets with light at 1.05 μm, 0.53 μm, and 0.35 μm. Correct alignment of these harmonic beams uses a system called a target plane imager (TPI). It is a large microscope (four meters long, weighing one thousand kilograms) that relays images from the target chamber center to a video optics module located on the outside of the chamber. Several modes of operation are possible including: near-field viewing and far-field viewing at three magnifications and three wavelengths. In addition, the entire instrument can be scanned in X,Y,Z to examine various planes near chamber center. Performance of this system and its computer controls will be described

  14. High speed, intermediate resolution, large area laser beam induced current imaging and laser scribing system for photovoltaic devices and modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Adam B.; Song, Zhaoning; DeWitt, Jonathan L.; Stone, Jon M.; Krantz, Patrick W.; Royston, John M.; Zeller, Ryan M.; Mapes, Meghan R.; Roland, Paul J.; Dorogi, Mark D.; Zafar, Syed; Faykosh, Gary T.; Ellingson, Randy J.; Heben, Michael J.

    2016-09-01

    We have developed a laser beam induced current imaging tool for photovoltaic devices and modules that utilizes diode pumped Q-switched lasers. Power densities on the order of one sun (100 mW/cm2) can be produced in a ˜40 μm spot size by operating the lasers at low diode current and high repetition rate. Using galvanostatically controlled mirrors in an overhead configuration and high speed data acquisition, large areas can be scanned in short times. As the beam is rastered, focus is maintained on a flat plane with an electronically controlled lens that is positioned in a coordinated fashion with the movements of the mirrors. The system can also be used in a scribing mode by increasing the diode current and decreasing the repetition rate. In either mode, the instrument can accommodate samples ranging in size from laboratory scale (few cm2) to full modules (1 m2). Customized LabVIEW programs were developed to control the components and acquire, display, and manipulate the data in imaging mode.

  15. Differential laser-induced perturbation spectroscopy and fluorescence imaging for biological and materials sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Dallas Jonathan

    The field of laser-based diagnostics has been a topic of research in various fields, more specifically for applications in environmental studies, military defense technologies, and medicine, among many others. In this dissertation, a novel laser-based optical diagnostic method, differential laser-induced perturbation spectroscopy (DLIPS), has been implemented in a spectroscopy mode and expanded into an imaging mode in combination with fluorescence techniques. The DLIPS method takes advantage of deep ultraviolet (UV) laser perturbation at sub-ablative energy fluences to photochemically cleave bonds and alter fluorescence signal response before and after perturbation. The resulting difference spectrum or differential image adds more information about the target specimen, and can be used in combination with traditional fluorescence techniques for detection of certain materials, characterization of many materials and biological specimen, and diagnosis of various human skin conditions. The differential aspect allows for mitigation of patient or sample variation, and has the potential to develop into a powerful, noninvasive optical sensing tool. The studies in this dissertation encompass efforts to continue the fundamental research on DLIPS including expansion of the method to an imaging mode. Five primary studies have been carried out and presented. These include the use of DLIPS in a spectroscopy mode for analysis of nitrogen-based explosives on various substrates, classification of Caribbean fruit flies versus Caribbean fruit flies that have been irradiated with gamma rays, and diagnosis of human skin cancer lesions. The nitrogen-based explosives and Caribbean fruit flies have been analyzed with the DLIPS scheme using the imaging modality, providing complementary information to the spectroscopic scheme. In each study, a comparison between absolute fluorescence signals and DLIPS responses showed that DLIPS statistically outperformed traditional fluorescence techniques

  16. Laser speckle contrast imaging using light field microscope approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaohui; Wang, Anting; Ma, Fenghua; Wang, Zi; Ming, Hai

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, a laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) system using light field (LF) microscope approach is proposed. As far as we known, it is first time to combine LSCI with LF. To verify this idea, a prototype consists of a modified LF microscope imaging system and an experimental device was built. A commercially used Lytro camera was modified for microscope imaging. Hollow glass tubes with different depth fixed in glass dish were used to simulate the vessels in brain and test the performance of the system. Compared with conventional LSCI, three new functions can be realized by using our system, which include refocusing, extending the depth of field (DOF) and gathering 3D information. Experiments show that the principle is feasible and the proposed system works well.

  17. Real-time terahertz imaging through self-mixing in a quantum-cascade laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wienold, M., E-mail: martin.wienold@dlr.de; Rothbart, N.; Hübers, H.-W. [Institute of Optical Sensor Systems, German Aerospace Center (DLR), Rutherfordstr. 2, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Department of Physics, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Newtonstr. 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Hagelschuer, T. [Institute of Optical Sensor Systems, German Aerospace Center (DLR), Rutherfordstr. 2, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Schrottke, L.; Biermann, K.; Grahn, H. T. [Paul-Drude-Institut für Festkörperelektronik, Leibniz-Institut im Forschungsverbund Berlin e. V., Hausvogteiplatz 5-7, 10117 Berlin (Germany)

    2016-07-04

    We report on a fast self-mixing approach for real-time, coherent terahertz imaging based on a quantum-cascade laser and a scanning mirror. Due to a fast deflection of the terahertz beam, images with frame rates up to several Hz are obtained, eventually limited by the mechanical inertia of the employed scanning mirror. A phase modulation technique allows for the separation of the amplitude and phase information without the necessity of parameter fitting routines. We further demonstrate the potential for transmission imaging.

  18. Stabilizing laser energy density on a target during pulsed laser deposition of thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowden, Paul C.; Jia, Quanxi

    2016-05-31

    A process for stabilizing laser energy density on a target surface during pulsed laser deposition of thin films controls the focused laser spot on the target. The process involves imaging an image-aperture positioned in the beamline. This eliminates changes in the beam dimensions of the laser. A continuously variable attenuator located in between the output of the laser and the imaged image-aperture adjusts the energy to a desired level by running the laser in a "constant voltage" mode. The process provides reproducibility and controllability for deposition of electronic thin films by pulsed laser deposition.

  19. All-optical extravascular laser-ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging of calcified atherosclerotic plaque in excised carotid artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jami L. Johnson

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Photoacoustic (PA imaging may be advantageous as a safe, non-invasive imaging modality to image the carotid artery. However, calcification that accompanies atherosclerotic plaque is difficult to detect with PA due to the non-distinct optical absorption spectrum of hydroxyapatite. We propose reflection-mode all-optical laser-ultrasound (LUS imaging to obtain high-resolution, non-contact, non-ionizing images of the carotid artery wall and calcification. All-optical LUS allows for flexible acquisition geometry and user-dependent data acquisition for high repeatability. We apply all-optical techniques to image an excised human carotid artery. Internal layers of the artery wall, enlargement of the vessel, and calcification are observed with higher resolution and reduced artifacts with nonconfocal LUS compared to confocal LUS. Validation with histology and X-ray computed tomography (CT demonstrates the potential for LUS as a method for non-invasive imaging in the carotid artery. Keywords: Atherosclerosis, Photoacoustic imaging, Laser-ultrasound, Calcification, Reverse-time migration

  20. Spatiotemporal closure of fractional laser-ablated channels imaged by optical coherence tomography and reflectance confocal microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banzhaf, Christina A.; Wind, Bas S.; Mogensen, Mette

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) offer high-resolution optical imaging of the skin, which may provide benefit in the context of laser-assisted drug delivery. We aimed to characterize postoperative healing of ablative fractional...... laser (AFXL)-induced channels and dynamics in their spatiotemporal closure using in vivo OCT and RCM techniques. Study design/Materials and Methods The inner forearm of healthy subjects (n = 6) was exposed to 10,600 nm fractional CO2 laser using 5 and 25% densities, 120 μm beam diameter, 5, 15, and 25 m......J/microbeam. Treatment sites were scanned with OCT to evaluate closure of AFXL-channels and RCM to evaluate subsequent re-epithelialization. Results OCT and RCM identified laser channels in epidermis and upper dermis as black, ablated tissue defects surrounded by characteristic hyper-and hyporeflective zones. OCT imaged...

  1. Introduction of a 20 kHz Nd:YVO4 laser into a hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer for MALDI-MS imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trim, Paul J; Djidja, Marie-Claude; Atkinson, Sally J; Oakes, Keith; Cole, Laura M; Anderson, David M G; Hart, Philippa J; Francese, Simona; Clench, Malcolm R

    2010-08-01

    A commercial hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer has been modified for high-speed matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation (MALDI) imaging using a short-pulse optical technology Nd:YVO(4) laser. The laser operating in frequency-tripled mode (lambda = 355 nm) is capable of delivering 1.5-ns pulses of energy at up to 8 microJ at 5-10 kHz and 3 microJ at 20 kHz. Experiments to improve beam homogeneity and reduce laser speckle by mechanical vibration of the fibre-optic laser delivery system are reported along with data from trial and tissue imaging experiments using the modified instrument. The laser appeared to yield best results for MALDI-MS imaging experiments when operating at repetition rates 5-10 kHz. Combining this with raster imaging allowed images of rat brain sections to be recorded in 37 min. Similarly, images of the distribution of peptides in "on-tissue" digest experiments from tumour tissues were recorded in 1 h and 30 min rather than the 8-h acquisition time previously used. A brief investigation of targeted protein analysis/imaging by multiple reaction monitoring experiments "on-tissue" is reported. A total of 26 transitions were recorded over a 3-s cycle time and images of abundant proteins were successfully recorded.

  2. Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy in fundus imaging, a review and update

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Bing; Li, Ni; Kang, Jie; He, Yi; Chen, Xiao-Ming

    2017-01-01

    Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (AO-SLO) has been a promising technique in funds imaging with growing popularity. This review firstly gives a brief history of adaptive optics (AO) and AO-SLO. Then it compares AO-SLO with conventional imaging methods (fundus fluorescein angiography, fundus autofluorescence, indocyanine green angiography and optical coherence tomography) and other AO techniques (adaptive optics flood-illumination ophthalmoscopy and adaptive optics optical coherenc...

  3. Laser interference fringe tomography: a novel 3D imaging technique for pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemzadeh, Farnoud; Haylock, Thomas M.; Chifman, Lev M.; Hajian, Arsen R.; Behr, Bradford B.; Cenko, Andrew T.; Meade, Jeff T.; Hendrikse, Jan

    2011-03-01

    Laser interference fringe tomography (LIFT) is within the class of optical imaging devices designed for in vivo and ex vivo medical imaging applications. LIFT is a very simple and cost-effective three-dimensional imaging device with performance rivaling some of the leading three-dimensional imaging devices used for histology. Like optical coherence tomography (OCT), it measures the reflectivity as a function of depth within a sample and is capable of producing three-dimensional images from optically scattering media. LIFT has the potential capability to produce high spectral resolution, full-color images. The optical design of LIFT along with the planned iterations for improvements and miniaturization are presented and discussed in addition to the theoretical concepts and preliminary imaging results of the device.

  4. Collaborative Research: Tomographic imaging of laser-plasma structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downer, Michael [University of Texas at Austin

    2018-01-18

    The interaction of intense short laser pulses with ionized gases, or plasmas, underlies many applications such as acceleration of elementary particles, production of energy by laser fusion, generation of x-ray and far-infrared “terahertz” pulses for medical and materials probing, remote sensing of explosives and pollutants, and generation of guide stars. Such laser-plasma interactions create tiny electron density structures (analogous to the wake behind a boat) inside the plasma in the shape of waves, bubbles and filaments that move at the speed of light, and evolve as they propagate. Prior to recent work by the PI of this proposal, detailed knowledge of such structures came exclusively from intensive computer simulations. Now “snapshots” of these elusive, light-velocity structures can be taken in the laboratory using dynamic variant of holography, the technique used to produce ID cards and DVDs, and dynamic variant of tomography, the technique used in medicine to image internal bodily organs. These fast visualization techniques are important for understanding, improving and scaling the above-mentioned applications of laser-plasma interactions. In this project, we accomplished three things: 1) We took holographic pictures of a laser-driven plasma-wave in the act of accelerating electrons to high energy, and used computer simulations to understand the pictures. 2) Using results from this experiment to optimize the performance of the accelerator, and the brightness of x-rays that it emits. These x-rays will be useful for medical and materials science applications. 3) We made technical improvements to the holographic technique that enables us to see finer details in the recorded pictures. Four refereed journal papers were published, and two students earned PhDs and moved on to scientific careers in US National Laboratories based on their work under this project.

  5. Pseudo colour visualization of fused multispectral laser scattering images for optical diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabarylo, U.; Minet, O.

    2010-01-01

    Investigations on the application of optical procedures for the diagnosis of rheumatism using scattered light images are only at the beginning both in terms of new image-processing methods and subsequent clinical application. For semi-automatic diagnosis using laser light, the multispectral scattered light images are registered and overlapped to pseudo-coloured images, which depict diagnostically essential contents by visually highlighting pathological changes.

  6. Output of CT images and treatment planning data to a laser printer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinschmidt, C.; Gfirtner, H.; Goetzfried, M.

    1992-01-01

    We introduce a program for the digital output of CT images with overlaid isodose maps to a laser printer. The high quality prints permit the additional output of treatment planning data on the same sheet. (orig.) [de

  7. Laser speckle imaging based on photothermally driven convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Caitlin; Choi, Bernard

    2016-02-01

    Laser speckle imaging (LSI) is an interferometric technique that provides information about the relative speed of moving scatterers in a sample. Photothermal LSI overcomes limitations in depth resolution faced by conventional LSI by incorporating an excitation pulse to target absorption by hemoglobin within the vascular network. Here we present results from experiments designed to determine the mechanism by which photothermal LSI decreases speckle contrast. We measured the impact of mechanical properties on speckle contrast, as well as the spatiotemporal temperature dynamics and bulk convective motion occurring during photothermal LSI. Our collective data strongly support the hypothesis that photothermal LSI achieves a transient reduction in speckle contrast due to bulk motion associated with thermally driven convection. The ability of photothermal LSI to image structures below a scattering medium may have important preclinical and clinical applications.

  8. X-ray imaging of targets irradiated by the Nike KrF laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, C.; Seely, J.; Feldman, U.; Obenschain, S.; Bodner, S.; Pawley, C.; Gerber, K.; Serlin, V.; Sethian, J.; Aglitskiy, Y.; Lehecka, T.; Holland, G.

    1997-01-01

    Foil targets irradiated by the Naval Research Laboratory Nike KrF laser were imaged in the x-ray region with two-dimensional spatial resolution in the 2 endash 10 μm range. The images revealed the smoothness of the emission from target and backlighter foils, the acceleration of the target foils, and the growth of Rayleigh endash Taylor instabilities that were seeded by patterns on the irradiated sides of CH foils

  9. Removal of a glowing spot from an image tube using laser radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurski, T. R.

    1972-01-01

    A troublesome problem with the Kron electronograph has been the presence of a white glowing spot on the glass wall of the tube adjacent to the focus electrode. The procedure followed to eliminate the spot was to operate in the dark and apply voltage only to the focused electrode. Ruby laser radiation was unfocused, and its position was shifted on the electrode between laser shots until an effect was observed. This technique for removing the glowing spot should be applicable to other electronic image tubes.

  10. Evaluation of Yogurt Microstructure Using Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy and Image Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Jacob Lercke; Ghita, Ovidiu; Whelan, Paul F.

    2015-01-01

    The microstructure of protein networks in yogurts defines important physical properties of the yogurt and hereby partly its quality. Imaging this protein network using confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM) has shown good results, and CSLM has become a standard measuring technique for fermented...... to image texture description. Here, CSLM images from a yogurt fermentation study are investigated, where production factors including fat content, protein content, heat treatment, and incubation temperature are varied. The descriptors are evaluated through nearest neighbor classification, variance analysis...... scanning microscopy images can be used to provide information on the protein microstructure in yogurt products. For large numbers of microscopy images, subjective evaluation becomes a difficult or even impossible approach, if the images should be incorporated in any form of statistical analysis alongside...

  11. The application of image processing in the measurement for three-light-axis parallelity of laser ranger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Wang, Qianqian

    2008-12-01

    When laser ranger is transported or used in field operations, the transmitting axis, receiving axis and aiming axis may be not parallel. The nonparallelism of the three-light-axis will affect the range-measuring ability or make laser ranger not be operated exactly. So testing and adjusting the three-light-axis parallelity in the production and maintenance of laser ranger is important to ensure using laser ranger reliably. The paper proposes a new measurement method using digital image processing based on the comparison of some common measurement methods for the three-light-axis parallelity. It uses large aperture off-axis paraboloid reflector to get the images of laser spot and white light cross line, and then process the images on LabVIEW platform. The center of white light cross line can be achieved by the matching arithmetic in LABVIEW DLL. And the center of laser spot can be achieved by gradation transformation, binarization and area filter in turn. The software system can set CCD, detect the off-axis paraboloid reflector, measure the parallelity of transmitting axis and aiming axis and control the attenuation device. The hardware system selects SAA7111A, a programmable vedio decoding chip, to perform A/D conversion. FIFO (first-in first-out) is selected as buffer.USB bus is used to transmit data to PC. The three-light-axis parallelity can be achieved according to the position bias between them. The device based on this method has been already used. The application proves this method has high precision, speediness and automatization.

  12. Rat retinal vasomotion assessed by laser speckle imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neganova, Anastasiia Y; Postnov, Dmitry D; Sosnovtseva, Olga

    2017-01-01

    Vasomotion is spontaneous or induced rhythmic changes in vascular tone or vessel diameter that lead to rhythmic changes in flow. While the vascular research community debates the physiological and pathophysiological consequence of vasomotion, there is a great need for experimental techniques...... that can address the role and dynamical properties of vasomotion in vivo. We apply laser speckle imaging to study spontaneous and drug induced vasomotion in retinal network of anesthetized rats. The results reveal a wide variety of dynamical patterns. Wavelet-based analysis shows that (i) spontaneous...

  13. A Classification-oriented Method of Feature Image Generation for Vehicle-borne Laser Scanning Point Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANG Bisheng

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available An efficient method of feature image generation of point clouds to automatically classify dense point clouds into different categories is proposed, such as terrain points, building points. The method first uses planar projection to sort points into different grids, then calculates the weights and feature values of grids according to the distribution of laser scanning points, and finally generates the feature image of point clouds. Thus, the proposed method adopts contour extraction and tracing means to extract the boundaries and point clouds of man-made objects (e.g. buildings and trees in 3D based on the image generated. Experiments show that the proposed method provides a promising solution for classifying and extracting man-made objects from vehicle-borne laser scanning point clouds.

  14. Instantaneous three-dimensional visualization of concentration distributions in turbulent flows with crossed-plane laser-induced fluorescence imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, A.; Zimmermann, F.; Scharr, H.; Krömker, S.; Schulz, C.

    2005-01-01

    A laser-based technique for measuring instantaneous three-dimensional species concentration distributions in turbulent flows is presented. The laser beam from a single laser is formed into two crossed light sheets that illuminate the area of interest. The laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) signal emitted from excited species within both planes is detected with a single camera via a mirror arrangement. Image processing enables the reconstruction of the three-dimensional data set in close proximity to the cutting line of the two light sheets. Three-dimensional intensity gradients are computed and compared to the two-dimensional projections obtained from the two directly observed planes. Volume visualization by digital image processing gives unique insight into the three-dimensional structures within the turbulent processes. We apply this technique to measurements of toluene-LIF in a turbulent, non-reactive mixing process of toluene and air and to hydroxyl (OH) LIF in a turbulent methane-air flame upon excitation at 248 nm with a tunable KrF excimer laser.

  15. Interferometric laser imaging for in-flight cloud droplet sizing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunker, Christina; Roloff, Christoph; Grassmann, Arne

    2016-01-01

    A non-intrusive particle sizing method with a high spatial distribution is used to estimate cloud droplet spectra during flight test campaigns. The interferometric laser imaging for droplet sizing (ILIDS) method derives particle diameters of transparent spheres by evaluating the out-of-focus image patterns. This sizing approach requires a polarized monochromatic light source, a camera including an objective lens with a slit aperture, a synchronization unit and a processing tool for data evaluation. These components are adapted to a flight test environment to enable the microphysical investigation of different cloud genera. The present work addresses the design and specifications of ILIDS system, flight test preparation and selected results obtained in the lower and middle troposphere. The research platform was a Dornier Do228-101 commuter aircraft at the DLR Flight Operation Center in Braunschweig. It was equipped with the required instrumentation including a high-energy laser as the light source. A comprehensive data set of around 71 800 ILIDS images was acquired over the course of five flights. The data evaluation of the characteristic ILIDS fringe patterns relies, among other things, on a relationship between the fringe spacing and the diameter of the particle. The simplest way to extract this information from a pattern is by fringe counting, which is not viable for such an extensive number of data. A brief contrasting comparison of evaluation methods based on frequency analysis by means of fast Fourier transform and on correlation methods such as minimum quadratic difference is used to encompass the limits and accuracy of the ILIDS method for such applications. (paper)

  16. Quantitative phase imaging of living cells with a swept laser source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shichao; Zhu, Yizheng

    2016-03-01

    Digital holographic phase microscopy is a well-established quantitative phase imaging technique. However, interference artifacts from inside the system, typically induced by elements whose optical thickness are within the source coherence length, limit the imaging quality as well as sensitivity. In this paper, a swept laser source based technique is presented. Spectra acquired at a number of wavelengths, after Fourier Transform, can be used to identify the sources of the interference artifacts. With proper tuning of the optical pathlength difference between sample and reference arms, it is possible to avoid these artifacts and achieve sensitivity below 0.3nm. Performance of the proposed technique is examined in live cell imaging.

  17. Extended Field Laser Confocal Microscopy (EFLCM): Combining automated Gigapixel image capture with in silico virtual microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flaberg, Emilie; Sabelström, Per; Strandh, Christer; Szekely, Laszlo

    2008-01-01

    Confocal laser scanning microscopy has revolutionized cell biology. However, the technique has major limitations in speed and sensitivity due to the fact that a single laser beam scans the sample, allowing only a few microseconds signal collection for each pixel. This limitation has been overcome by the introduction of parallel beam illumination techniques in combination with cold CCD camera based image capture. Using the combination of microlens enhanced Nipkow spinning disc confocal illumination together with fully automated image capture and large scale in silico image processing we have developed a system allowing the acquisition, presentation and analysis of maximum resolution confocal panorama images of several Gigapixel size. We call the method Extended Field Laser Confocal Microscopy (EFLCM). We show using the EFLCM technique that it is possible to create a continuous confocal multi-colour mosaic from thousands of individually captured images. EFLCM can digitize and analyze histological slides, sections of entire rodent organ and full size embryos. It can also record hundreds of thousands cultured cells at multiple wavelength in single event or time-lapse fashion on fixed slides, in live cell imaging chambers or microtiter plates. The observer independent image capture of EFLCM allows quantitative measurements of fluorescence intensities and morphological parameters on a large number of cells. EFLCM therefore bridges the gap between the mainly illustrative fluorescence microscopy and purely quantitative flow cytometry. EFLCM can also be used as high content analysis (HCA) instrument for automated screening processes

  18. Skin perfusion evaluation between laser speckle contrast imaging and laser Doppler flowmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humeau-Heurtier, Anne; Mahe, Guillaume; Durand, Sylvain; Abraham, Pierre

    2013-03-01

    In the biomedical field, laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) and laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) are two optical techniques aiming at monitoring - non-invasively - the microvascular blood perfusion. LDF has been used for nearly 40 years whereas LSCI is a recent technique that overcomes some drawbacks of LDF. Both LDF and LSCI give perfusion assessments in arbitrary units. However, the possible relationship existing between perfusions given by LDF and by LSCI over large blood flow values has not been completely studied yet. We therefore herein evaluate the relationship between the LDF and LSCI perfusion values across a broad range of skin blood flows. For this purpose, LDF and LSCI data were acquired simultaneously on the forearm of 12 healthy subjects, at rest, during different durations of vascular occlusion and during reactive hyperemia. For the range of skin blood flows studied, the power function fits the data better than the linear function: powers for individual subjects go from 1.2 to 1.7 and the power is close to 1.3 when all the subjects are studied together. We thus suggest distinguishing perfusion values given by the two optical systems.

  19. Infrared scanning laser ophthalmoscope imaging of the macula and its correlation with functional loss and structural changes in patients with stargardt disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasakis, Anastasios; Fishman, Gerald A; Lindeman, Martin; Genead, Mohamed A; Zhou, Wensheng

    2011-05-01

    To correlate the degree of functional loss with structural changes in patients with Stargardt disease. Eighteen eyes of 10 patients with Stargardt disease were studied. Scanning laser ophthalmoscope infrared images were compared with corresponding spectral-domain optical coherence tomography scans. Additionally, scanning laser ophthalmoscope microperimetry was performed, and results were superimposed on scanning laser ophthalmoscope infrared images and in selected cases on fundus autofluorescence images. Seventeen of 18 eyes showed a distinct hyporeflective foveal and/or perifoveal area with distinct borders on scanning laser ophthalmoscope infrared images, which was less evident on funduscopy and incompletely depicted in fundus autofluorescence images. This hyporeflective zone corresponded to areas of significantly elevated psychophysical thresholds on microperimetry testing, in addition to thinning of the retinal pigment epithelium and disorganization or loss of the photoreceptor cell inner segment-outer segment junction and external-limiting membrane on spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Scanning laser ophthalmoscope infrared fundus images are useful for depicting retinal structural changes in patients with Stargardt disease. A spectral-domain optical coherence tomography/scanning laser ophthalmoscope microperimetry device allows for a direct correlation of structural abnormalities with functional defects that will likely be applicable for the determination of retinal areas for potential improvement of retinal function in these patients during future clinical trials and for the monitoring of the diseases' natural history.

  20. Molecular imaging of banknote and questioned document using solvent-free gold nanoparticle-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ho-Wai; Wong, Melody Yee-Man; Chan, Sharon Lai-Fung; Che, Chi-Ming; Ng, Kwan-Ming

    2011-01-01

    Direct chemical analysis and molecular imaging of questioned documents in a non/minimal-destructive manner is important in forensic science. Here, we demonstrate that solvent-free gold-nanoparticle-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry is a sensitive and minimal destructive method for direct detection and imaging of ink and visible and/or fluorescent dyes printed on banknotes or written on questioned documents. Argon ion sputtering of a gold foil allows homogeneous coating of a thin layer of gold nanoparticles on banknotes and checks in a dry state without delocalizing spatial distributions of the analytes. Upon N(2) laser irradiation of the gold nanoparticle-coated banknotes or checks, abundant ions are desorbed and detected. Recording the spatial distributions of the ions can reveal the molecular images of visible and fluorescent ink printed on banknotes and determine the printing order of different ink which may be useful in differentiating real banknotes from fakes. The method can also be applied to identify forged parts in questioned documents, such as number/writing alteration on a check, by tracing different writing patterns that come from different pens.

  1. Technologies for security, military police, and professional policing organizations: the Department of Energy perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Basil J.

    1997-01-01

    There are many emerging technologies that can be used to help the law enforcement community protect the public as well as public and private facilities against ever increasing threats to this country and its resources. These technologies include sensors, closed circuit television (CCTV), access control, contraband detection, communications, control and display, barriers, and various component and system modeling techniques. This paper will introduce some of the various technologies that have been examined for the Department of Energy that could be applied to various law enforcement applications. They include: scannerless laser radar; next generation security systems; response force video information helmet system; access delay technologies; rapidly deployable intrusion detection systems; cost risk benefit analysis.

  2. Laser-sheet imaging of HE-driven interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamin, R.F.; Rightley, P.M.; Kinkead, S.; Martin, R.A.; Critchfield, R.; Sandoval, D.L.; Holmes, R.; Gorman, T.

    1998-01-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The authors made substantial progress in developing the MILSI (Multiple Imaging of Laser-Sheet Illumination) technique for high explosive (HE)-driven fluid interfaces. They observed the instability, but have not yet measured the instability growth rate. They developed suitable sample containers and optical systems for studying the Rightmyer-Meshkov instability of perturbed water/bromoform interfaces and they successfully fielded the new MILSI diagnostic at two firing-site facilities. The problem continues to be of central importance to the inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and weapons physics communities

  3. Pulsed x-ray imaging of high-density objects using a ten picosecond high-intensity laser driver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusby, D. R.; Brenner, C. M.; Armstrong, C.; Wilson, L. A.; Clarke, R.; Alejo, A.; Ahmed, H.; Butler, N. M. H.; Haddock, D.; Higginson, A.; McClymont, A.; Mirfayzi, S. R.; Murphy, C.; Notley, M.; Oliver, P.; Allott, R.; Hernandez-Gomez, C.; Kar, S.; McKenna, P.; Neely, D.

    2016-10-01

    Point-like sources of X-rays that are pulsed (sub nanosecond), high energy (up to several MeV) and bright are very promising for industrial and security applications where imaging through large and dense objects is required. Highly penetrating X-rays can be produced by electrons that have been accelerated by a high intensity laser pulse incident onto a thin solid target. We have used a pulse length of 10ps to accelerate electrons to create a bright x-ray source. The bremsstrahlung temperature was measured for a laser intensity from 8.5-12×1018 W/cm2. These x-rays have sequentially been used to image high density materials using image plate and a pixelated scintillator system.

  4. A new instrument of VUV laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging with micrometer spatial resolution and low level of molecular fragmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia; Liu, Feng; Mo, Yuxiang; Wang, Zhaoying; Zhang, Sichun; Zhang, Xinrong

    2017-11-01

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) has important applications in material research, biology, and medicine. The MSI method based on UV laser desorption/ionization (UVLDI) can obtain images of intact samples, but has a high level of molecular fragmentation. In this work, we report a new MSI instrument that uses a VUV laser (125.3 nm) as a desorption/ionization source to exploit its advantages of high single photon energy and small focus size. The new instrument was tested by the mass spectra of Nile red and FGB (Fibrinogen beta chain) samples and mass spectrometric images of a fly brain section. For the tested samples, the VUVDI method offers lower levels of molecular fragmentations and higher sensitivities than those of the UVLDI method and second ion mass spectrometry imaging method using a Bi 3 + beam. The ablation crater produced by the focused VUV laser on a quartz plate has an area of 10 μm 2 . The VUV laser is prepared based on the four-wave mixing method using three collimated laser beams and a heated Hg cell.

  5. A new instrument of VUV laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging with micrometer spatial resolution and low level of molecular fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia; Liu, Feng; Mo, Yuxiang; Wang, Zhaoying; Zhang, Sichun; Zhang, Xinrong

    2017-11-01

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) has important applications in material research, biology, and medicine. The MSI method based on UV laser desorption/ionization (UVLDI) can obtain images of intact samples, but has a high level of molecular fragmentation. In this work, we report a new MSI instrument that uses a VUV laser (125.3 nm) as a desorption/ionization source to exploit its advantages of high single photon energy and small focus size. The new instrument was tested by the mass spectra of Nile red and FGB (Fibrinogen beta chain) samples and mass spectrometric images of a fly brain section. For the tested samples, the VUVDI method offers lower levels of molecular fragmentations and higher sensitivities than those of the UVLDI method and second ion mass spectrometry imaging method using a Bi3+ beam. The ablation crater produced by the focused VUV laser on a quartz plate has an area of 10 μm2. The VUV laser is prepared based on the four-wave mixing method using three collimated laser beams and a heated Hg cell.

  6. Laser speckle imaging: a novel method for detecting dental erosion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson H Koshoji

    Full Text Available Erosion is a highly prevalent condition known as a non-carious lesion that causes progressive tooth wear due to chemical processes that do not involve the action of bacteria. Speckle images proved sensitive to even minimal mineral loss from the enamel. The aim of the present study was to investigate the use of laser speckle imaging analysis in the spatial domain to quantify shifts in the microstructure of the tooth surface in an erosion model. 32 fragments of the vestibular surface of bovine incisors were divided in for groups (10 min, 20 min. 30 min and 40 min of acid etching immersed in a cola-based beverage (pH approximately 2.5 twice a day during 7 days to create an artificial erosion. By analyzing the laser speckle contrast map (LASCA in the eroded region compared to the sound it was observed that the LASCA map shifts, proportionally to the acid each duration, by: 18%; 23%; 39% and 44% for the 10 min; 20 min; 30 min and 40 min groups, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate the correlation between speckle patterns and erosion progression.

  7. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation mass spectrometry imaging and its development for plant protein imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Millar A Harvey

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionisation (MALDI mass spectrometry imaging (MSI uses the power of high mass resolution time of flight (ToF mass spectrometry coupled to the raster of lasers shots across the cut surface of tissues to provide new insights into the spatial distribution of biomolecules within biological tissues. The history of this technique in animals and plants is considered and the potential for analysis of proteins by this technique in plants is discussed. Protein biomarker identification from MALDI-MSI is a challenge and a number of different approaches to address this bottleneck are discussed. The technical considerations needed for MALDI-MSI are reviewed and these are presented alongside examples from our own work and a protocol for MALDI-MSI of proteins in plant samples.

  8. Femtosecond two-photon laser-induced fluorescence of krypton for high-speed flow imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yejun; Capps, Cade; Kulatilaka, Waruna D

    2017-02-15

    Ultrashort-pulse (femtosecond-duration) two-photon laser-induced fluorescence (fs-TPLIF) of an inert gas tracer krypton (Kr) is investigated. A detailed spectroscopic study of fluorescence channels followed by the 5p'←←4p excitation of Kr at 204.1 nm is reported. The experimental line positions in the 750-840 nm emission region agree well with the NIST Atomic Spectra Database. The present work provides an accurate listing of relative line strengths in this spectral region. In the range of laser pulse energies investigated, a quadratic dependence was observed between the Kr-TPLIF signal and the laser pulse energy. The single-laser-shot 2D TPLIF images recorded in an unsteady jet demonstrate the potential of using fs excitation at 204.1 nm for mixing and flow diagnostic studies using Kr as an inert gas tracer.

  9. Markerless laser registration in image-guided oral and maxillofacial surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmulla, Rüdiger; Lüth, Tim; Mühling, Joachim; Hassfeld, Stefan

    2004-07-01

    The use of registration markers in computer-assisted surgery is combined with high logistic costs and efforts. Markerless patient registration using laser scan surface registration techniques is a new challenging method. The present study was performed to evaluate the clinical accuracy in finding defined target points within the surgical site after markerless patient registration in image-guided oral and maxillofacial surgery. Twenty consecutive patients with different cranial diseases were scheduled for computer-assisted surgery. Data set alignment between the surgical site and the computed tomography (CT) data set was performed by markerless laser scan surface registration of the patient's face. Intraoral rigidly attached registration markers were used as target points, which had to be detected by an infrared pointer. The Surgical Segment Navigator SSN++ has been used for all procedures. SSN++ is an investigative product based on the SSN system that had previously been developed by the presenting authors with the support of Carl Zeiss (Oberkochen, Germany). SSN++ is connected to a Polaris infrared camera (Northern Digital, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada) and to a Minolta VI 900 3D digitizer (Tokyo, Japan) for high-resolution laser scanning. Minimal differences in shape between the laser scan surface and the surface generated from the CT data set could be detected. Nevertheless, high-resolution laser scan of the skin surface allows for a precise patient registration (mean deviation 1.1 mm, maximum deviation 1.8 mm). Radiation load, logistic costs, and efforts arising from the planning of computer-assisted surgery of the head can be reduced because native (markerless) CT data sets can be used for laser scan-based surface registration.

  10. Laser-Induced Photofragmentation Fluorescence Imaging of Alkali Compounds in Flames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leffler, Tomas; Brackmann, Christian; Aldén, Marcus; Li, Zhongshan

    2017-06-01

    Laser-induced photofragmentation fluorescence has been investigated for the imaging of alkali compounds in premixed laminar methane-air flames. An ArF excimer laser, providing pulses of wavelength 193 nm, was used to photodissociate KCl, KOH, and NaCl molecules in the post-flame region and fluorescence from the excited atomic alkali fragment was detected. Fluorescence emission spectra showed distinct lines of the alkali atoms allowing for efficient background filtering. Temperature data from Rayleigh scattering measurements together with simulations of potassium chemistry presented in literature allowed for conclusions on the relative contributions of potassium species KOH and KCl to the detected signal. Experimental approaches for separate measurements of these components are discussed. Signal power dependence and calculated fractions of dissociated molecules indicate the saturation of the photolysis process, independent on absorption cross-section, under the experimental conditions. Quantitative KCl concentrations up to 30 parts per million (ppm) were evaluated from the fluorescence data and showed good agreement with results from ultraviolet absorption measurements. Detection limits for KCl photofragmentation fluorescence imaging of 0.5 and 1.0 ppm were determined for averaged and single-shot data, respectively. Moreover, simultaneous imaging of KCl and NaCl was demonstrated using a stereoscope with filters. The results indicate that the photofragmentation method can be employed for detailed studies of alkali chemistry in laboratory flames for validation of chemical kinetic mechanisms crucial for efficient biomass fuel utilization.

  11. Novel Volumetric Size and Velocity Measurement of Particles Using Interferometric Laser Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawardana, R.; Zarzecki, M.; Diez, F. J.

    2008-11-01

    Global Sizing Velocimetry (GSV) is a recently developed technique for characterizing the particle size distribution and flow velocity in a plane and in this research we extend this measurement to a volume through a laser scanning system. In GSV, a LASER sheet is used to illuminate translucent particles in a spray or flow field and the camera image is de-focused a known distance to create interference patterns. The diameters of the particles in the flow field are calculated by measuring the inter-fringe spacing in the resulting interferogram. Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) techniques are used to compute velocity by measuring the particle displacement over a known short time interval. Researchers have recently begun applying GSV techniques to characterize sprays in a plane as it offers a larger area of investigation than other well known techniques such as Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA). In this paper we extend GSA techniques from the current planar measurements to a volumetric measurement. The approach uses a high speed camera to acquire GSA images by scanning multiple planes in a volume of the flow field within a short period of time and obtain particle size distribution and velocity measurements in the entire volume.

  12. Validation of phalanx bone three-dimensional surface segmentation from computed tomography images using laser scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeVries, Nicole A.; Gassman, Esther E.; Kallemeyn, Nicole A.; Shivanna, Kiran H.; Magnotta, Vincent A.; Grosland, Nicole M.

    2008-01-01

    To examine the validity of manually defined bony regions of interest from computed tomography (CT) scans. Segmentation measurements were performed on the coronal reformatted CT images of the three phalanx bones of the index finger from five cadaveric specimens. Two smoothing algorithms (image-based and Laplacian surface-based) were evaluated to determine their ability to represent accurately the anatomic surface. The resulting surfaces were compared with laser surface scans of the corresponding cadaveric specimen. The average relative overlap between two tracers was 0.91 for all bones. The overall mean difference between the manual unsmoothed surface and the laser surface scan was 0.20 mm. Both image-based and Laplacian surface-based smoothing were compared; the overall mean difference for image-based smoothing was 0.21 mm and 0.20 mm for Laplacian smoothing. This study showed that manual segmentation of high-contrast, coronal, reformatted, CT datasets can accurately represent the true surface geometry of bones. Additionally, smoothing techniques did not significantly alter the surface representations. This validation technique should be extended to other bones, image segmentation and spatial filtering techniques. (orig.)

  13. Validation of phalanx bone three-dimensional surface segmentation from computed tomography images using laser scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeVries, Nicole A.; Gassman, Esther E.; Kallemeyn, Nicole A. [The University of Iowa, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Center for Computer Aided Design, Iowa City, IA (United States); Shivanna, Kiran H. [The University of Iowa, Center for Computer Aided Design, Iowa City, IA (United States); Magnotta, Vincent A. [The University of Iowa, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Department of Radiology, Center for Computer Aided Design, Iowa City, IA (United States); Grosland, Nicole M. [The University of Iowa, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, Center for Computer Aided Design, Iowa City, IA (United States)

    2008-01-15

    To examine the validity of manually defined bony regions of interest from computed tomography (CT) scans. Segmentation measurements were performed on the coronal reformatted CT images of the three phalanx bones of the index finger from five cadaveric specimens. Two smoothing algorithms (image-based and Laplacian surface-based) were evaluated to determine their ability to represent accurately the anatomic surface. The resulting surfaces were compared with laser surface scans of the corresponding cadaveric specimen. The average relative overlap between two tracers was 0.91 for all bones. The overall mean difference between the manual unsmoothed surface and the laser surface scan was 0.20 mm. Both image-based and Laplacian surface-based smoothing were compared; the overall mean difference for image-based smoothing was 0.21 mm and 0.20 mm for Laplacian smoothing. This study showed that manual segmentation of high-contrast, coronal, reformatted, CT datasets can accurately represent the true surface geometry of bones. Additionally, smoothing techniques did not significantly alter the surface representations. This validation technique should be extended to other bones, image segmentation and spatial filtering techniques. (orig.)

  14. Imaging with a 90 frames/s microbolometer focal plane array and high-power terahertz free electron laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dem'yanenko, M. A.; Esaev, D. G.; Knyazev, B. A.; Vinokurov, N. A.; Kulipanov, G. N.

    2008-01-01

    An uncooled microbolometer focal plane array (FPA) has been developed and used for imaging of objects illuminated by monochromatic coherent radiation of a free electron laser tunable in the range of 1.25-2.5 THz. A sensitivity threshold of 1.3x10 -3 W/cm 2 was obtained for the FPA with a homemade absolute interferometric power meter. Videos up to 90 frames/s were recorded in both transmission and reflection/scattering modes. When objects were illuminated by laser radiation scattered by a rough metal surface, speckled images were observed. Good quality terahertz images were achieved through the fast rotation of the scatterer

  15. Probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (pCLE) - a new imaging technique for in situ localization of spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trottmann, Matthias; Stepp, Herbert; Sroka, Ronald; Heide, Michael; Liedl, Bernhard; Reese, Sven; Becker, Armin J; Stief, Christian G; Kölle, Sabine

    2015-05-01

    In azoospermic patients, spermatozoa are routinely obtained by testicular sperm extraction (TESE). However, success rates of this technique are moderate, because the site of excision of testicular tissue is determined arbitrarily. Therefore the aim of this study was to establish probe-based laser endomicroscopy (pCLE) a noval biomedical imaging technique, which provides the opportunity of non-invasive, real-time visualisation of tissue at histological resolution. Using pCLE we clearly visualized longitudinal and horizontal views of the tubuli seminiferi contorti and localized vital spermatozoa. Obtained images and real-time videos were subsequently compared with confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) of spermatozoa and tissues, respectively. Comparative visualization of single native Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM, left) and probe-based laser endomicroscopy (pCLE, right) using Pro Flex(TM) UltraMini O after staining with acriflavine. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Advanced femtosecond lasers enable new developments in non-linear imaging and functional studies in neuroscience, biology and medical applications (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrigoni, Marco; McCoy, Darryl

    2016-03-01

    In the last few years Multiphoton Excitation Microscopy witnessed a mutation from tool for imaging cellular structures in living animals deeper than other high-resolution techniques, into an instrument for monitoring functionality and even stimulating or inhibiting inter-cellular signalling. This paradigm shift has been enabled primarily by the development of genetically encoded probes like Ca indicators (GECI) and Opsins for optogenetics inhibition and stimulation. These developments will hopefully enable the understanding of how local network of hundreds or thousands of neurons operate in response to actual tasks or induced stimuli. Imaging, monitoring signals and activating neurons, all on a millisecond time scale, requires new laser tools providing a combination of wavelengths, higher powers and operating regimes different from the ones traditionally used for classic multiphoton imaging. The other key development in multiphoton techniques relates to potential diagnostic and clinical applications where non-linear imaging could provide all optical marker-free replacement of H and E techniques and even intra-operative guidance for procedures like cancer surgery. These developments will eventually drive the development of specialized laser sources where compact size, ease of use, beam delivery and cost are primary concerns. In this talk we will discuss recent laser product developments targeting the various applications of multiphoton imaging, as fiber lasers and other new type of lasers gradually gain popularity and their own space, side-by-side or as an alternative to conventional titanium sapphire femtosecond lasers.

  17. Estimation of vessel diameter and blood flow dynamics from laser speckle images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postnov, Dmitry D.; Tuchin, Valery V.; Sosnovtseva, Olga

    2016-01-01

    Laser speckle imaging is a rapidly developing method to study changes of blood velocity in the vascular networks. However, to assess blood flow and vascular responses it is crucial to measure vessel diameter in addition to blood velocity dynamics. We suggest an algorithm that allows for dynamical...

  18. Cost-effectiveness of laser Doppler imaging in burn care in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Hop (M. Jenda); J. Hiddingh (J.); C.M. Stekelenburg (C.); H.C. Kuipers (Hester); E. Middelkoop (Esther); M. Nieuwenhuis (Marianne); S. Polinder (Suzanne); M.E. van Baar (Margriet)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Early accurate assessment of burn depth is important to determine the optimal treatment of burns. The method most used to determine burn depth is clinical assessment, which is the least expensive, but not the most accurate.Laser Doppler imaging (LDI) is a technique with which

  19. Microscope self-calibration based on micro laser line imaging and soft computing algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apolinar Muñoz Rodríguez, J.

    2018-06-01

    A technique to perform microscope self-calibration via micro laser line and soft computing algorithms is presented. In this technique, the microscope vision parameters are computed by means of soft computing algorithms based on laser line projection. To implement the self-calibration, a microscope vision system is constructed by means of a CCD camera and a 38 μm laser line. From this arrangement, the microscope vision parameters are represented via Bezier approximation networks, which are accomplished through the laser line position. In this procedure, a genetic algorithm determines the microscope vision parameters by means of laser line imaging. Also, the approximation networks compute the three-dimensional vision by means of the laser line position. Additionally, the soft computing algorithms re-calibrate the vision parameters when the microscope vision system is modified during the vision task. The proposed self-calibration improves accuracy of the traditional microscope calibration, which is accomplished via external references to the microscope system. The capability of the self-calibration based on soft computing algorithms is determined by means of the calibration accuracy and the micro-scale measurement error. This contribution is corroborated by an evaluation based on the accuracy of the traditional microscope calibration.

  20. Cone structure imaged with adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy in eyes with nonneovascular age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayit-Soudry, Shiri; Duncan, Jacque L; Syed, Reema; Menghini, Moreno; Roorda, Austin J

    2013-11-15

    To evaluate cone spacing using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO) in eyes with nonneovascular AMD, and to correlate progression of AOSLO-derived cone measures with standard measures of macular structure. Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy images were obtained over 12 to 21 months from seven patients with AMD including four eyes with geographic atrophy (GA) and four eyes with drusen. Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy images were overlaid with color, infrared, and autofluorescence fundus photographs and spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) images to allow direct correlation of cone parameters with macular structure. Cone spacing was measured for each visit in selected regions including areas over drusen (n = 29), at GA margins (n = 14), and regions without drusen or GA (n = 13) and compared with normal, age-similar values. Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy imaging revealed continuous cone mosaics up to the GA edge and overlying drusen, although reduced cone reflectivity often resulted in hyporeflective AOSLO signals at these locations. Baseline cone spacing measures were normal in 13/13 unaffected regions, 26/28 drusen regions, and 12/14 GA margin regions. Although standard clinical measures showed progression of GA in all study eyes, cone spacing remained within normal ranges in most drusen regions and all GA margin regions. Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy provides adequate resolution for quantitative measurement of cone spacing at the margin of GA and over drusen in eyes with AMD. Although cone spacing was often normal at baseline and remained normal over time, these regions showed focal areas of decreased cone reflectivity. These findings may provide insight into the pathophysiology of AMD progression. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00254605).

  1. The influence of laser scribing on magnetic domain formation in grain oriented electrical steel visualized by directional neutron dark-field imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher, P.; Betz, B.; Hauptmann, J.; Wetzig, A.; Beyer, E.; Grünzweig, C.

    2016-12-01

    The performance and degree of efficiency of transformers are directly determined by the bulk magnetic properties of grain oriented electrical steel laminations. The core losses can be improved by post manufacturing methods, so-called domain refinement techniques. All these methods induce mechanical or thermal stress that refines the domain structure. The most commonly used technique is laser scribing due to the no-contact nature and the ease of integration in existing production systems. Here we show how directional neutron dark-field imaging allows visualizing the impact of laser scribing on the bulk and supplementary domain structure. In particular, we investigate the domain formation during magnetization of samples depending on laser treatment parameters such as laser energy and line distances. The directional dark-field imaging findings were quantitatively interpreted in the context with global magnetic hysteresis measurements. Especially we exploit the orientation sensitivity in the dark-field images to distinguish between different domain structures alignment and their relation to the laser scribing process.

  2. System for automatic x-ray-image analysis, measurement, and sorting of laser fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singleton, R.M.; Perkins, D.E.; Willenborg, D.L.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes the Automatic X-Ray Image Analysis and Sorting (AXIAS) system which is designed to analyze and measure x-ray images of opaque hollow microspheres used as laser fusion targets. The x-ray images are first recorded on a high resolution film plate. The AXIAS system then digitizes and processes the images to accurately measure the target parameters and defects. The primary goals of the AXIAS system are: to provide extremely accurate and rapid measurements, to engineer a practical system for a routine production environment and to furnish the capability of automatically measuring an array of images for sorting and selection

  3. Local scattering property scales flow speed estimation in laser speckle contrast imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao, Peng; Chao, Zhen; Feng, Shihan; Ji, Yuanyuan; Yu, Hang; Thakor, Nitish V; Li, Nan

    2015-01-01

    Laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) has been widely used in in vivo blood flow imaging. However, the effect of local scattering property (scattering coefficient µ s ) on blood flow speed estimation has not been well investigated. In this study, such an effect was quantified and involved in relation between speckle autocorrelation time τ c and flow speed v based on simulation flow experiments. For in vivo blood flow imaging, an improved estimation strategy was developed to eliminate the estimation bias due to the inhomogeneous distribution of the scattering property. Compared to traditional LSCI, a new estimation method significantly suppressed the imaging noise and improves the imaging contrast of vasculatures. Furthermore, the new method successfully captured the blood flow changes and vascular constriction patterns in rats’ cerebral cortex from normothermia to mild and moderate hypothermia. (letter)

  4. Time Integrated Soft X-ray Imaging in High Intensity Laser Experiments (thesis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stafford, David [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2009-01-01

    2009 marks a significant achievement and the dawn of a new era in high intensity laser research with the final commissioning of all 192 beams at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). NIF is a department of energy (DOE) funded project more than 10 years in the making located at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The following research was done as one of many preliminary experiments done to prepare for these historic events. The primary focus of the experimental campaign this paper addresses is to test and develop a thermal x-radiation source using a short pulse laser. This data is hoped to provide information about the thermal transport mechanisms important in the development of prediction models in High Energy Density (HED) science. One of several diagnostics fielded was a soft x-ray imager (SXRI) which is detailed in this paper. The SXRI will be used to measure the relative size of the heated region and also the relative level of specific x-ray emissions among several shot and target configurations. The laser system used was the Titan laser located in the Jupiter Laser Facility (JLF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Titan uses the JLF Janus Nd:glass laser west frontend system with a Optical Parametric Chirped Pulse Amplification (OPCPA) in place of the nanosecond oscillator. The system is capable of producing laser intensities of over a petawatt with several tens of joules delivered in the beam.

  5. Color Laser Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awamura, D.; Ode, T.; Yonezawa, M.

    1987-04-01

    A color laser microscope utilizing a new color laser imaging system has been developed for the visual inspection of semiconductors. The light source, produced by three lasers (Red; He-Ne, Green; Ar, Blue; He-Cd), is deflected horizontally by an AOD (Acoustic Optical Deflector) and vertically by a vibration mirror. The laser beam is focused in a small spot which is scanned over the sample at high speed. The light reflected back from the sample is reformed to contain linear information by returning to the original vibration mirror. The linear light is guided to the CCD image sensor where it is converted into a video signal. Individual CCD image sensors are used for each of the three R, G, or B color image signals. The confocal optical system with its laser light source yields a color TV monitor image with no flaring and a much sharper resolution than that of the conventional optical microscope. The AOD makes possible a high speed laser scan and a NTSC or PAL TV video signal is produced in real time without any video memory. Since the light source is composed of R, G, and B laser beams, color separation superior to that of white light illumination is achieved. Because of the photometric linearity of the image detector, the R, G, and B outputs of the system are most suitably used for hue analysis. The CCD linear image sensors in the optical system produce no geometrical distortion, and good color registration is available principally. The output signal can be used for high accuracy line width measuring. The many features of the color laser microscope make it ideally suited for the visual inspection of semiconductor processing. A number of these systems have already been installed in such a capacity. The Color Laser Microscope can also be a very useful tool for the fields of material engineering and biotechnology.

  6. Comparative study between fundus autofluorescence and red reflectance imaging of choroidal nevi using ultra-wide-field scanning laser ophthalmoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Miguel Angel; Leila, Mahmoud; Teixidor, Teresa; Garcia-Arumi, Jose

    2015-06-01

    To explore the utility of fundus autofluorescence (FAF) and red reflectance (RR) imaging using ultra-wide-field scanning laser ophthalmoscope in choroidal nevi. Retrospective observational case study reviewing clinical data, color, FAF, and RR images of patients with choroidal nevi and comparing the findings. The ultra-wide-field scanning laser ophthalmoscope uses green laser 532 nm and red laser 633 nm that enabled FAF and RR imaging, respectively in separate channels. Superimposition of both images yielded a composite color image. The study included 46 eyes of 45 patients. Nevi were unilateral in 44 patients (98%). Forty-one nevi (89.1%) were located temporally between the macula and the equator. All nevi (100%) were deeply pigmented. The most frequent surface changes were lipofuscin pigments, zones of retinal pigment epithelium atrophy, and retinal pigment epithelium pigment clumps in 31 (67.3%), 18 (39.1%), and 8 eyes (17.3%), respectively. Color photographs were superior to FAF in detecting nevus boundaries and surface changes. Red reflectance correlated strongly with color images, although the nevus boundaries and surface changes were better delineated in RR mode. Red reflectance was superior to FAF in delineating the boundaries and surface changes of the nevus; clear visibility (3+) for RR versus no or poor visibility (0/1+) for FAF. Nevertheless, the areas of retinal pigment epithelium atrophy were better delineated in FAF mode; clear visibility (3+) for FAF versus poor visibility (1+) for FAF. Red reflectance imaging is more sensitive than conventional photography for follow-up of choroidal nevi. Fundus autofluorescence should be considered only as a complementary tool to RR imaging.

  7. Cost-effectiveness of laser Doppler imaging in burn care in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hop, M.J.; Hiddingh, J.; Stekelenburg, C.; Kuipers, H.C.; Middelkoop, E.; Nieuwenhuis, M.K.; Polinder, S.; van Baar, M.E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Early accurate assessment of burn depth is important to determine the optimal treatment of burns. The method most used to determine burn depth is clinical assessment, which is the least expensive, but not the most accurate.Laser Doppler imaging (LDI) is a technique with which a more

  8. Microstructure and properties of laser clad coatings studied by orientation imaging microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocelik, V.; Furar, I.; De Hosson, J.Th.M.

    2010-01-01

    In this work orientation imaging microscopy (OIM), based on electron backscatter diffraction in scanning electron microscopy, was employed to examine in detail the relationship between laser cladding processing parameters and he properties and the microstructure of single and overlapping laser tracks. The study was performed on thick (∼1 mm) Co-based coatings prepared by 2 kW Nd:YAG laser cladding a 42CrMo4 steel substrate using different laser beam scanning speeds (1.0-15 mm s -1 ). It was found that the directional growth of individual primary grains led to the formation of a typical solidification fiber texture. The dependence of this texture on the processing speed and the shape of the solidification front were investigated in detail. Strong epitaxial growth of Co grains on austenitic steel substrate grains was found, which did not depend on the laser beam scanning velocity. During laser cladding a strong temperature gradient exists just below the coating-substrate interface that promotes the formation of a Greninger-Troiano orientation relationship between martensitic plates and the original austenitic grain inside the heat affected zone: {1 1 1} γ ∼ 1 o to {1 1 0} α and γ ∼ 2 o to α . Relatively drastic changes in grain size at the internal coating interfaces did not exhibit sharp changes in microhardness.

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging-guided focused laser interstitial thermal therapy for subinsular metastatic adenocarcinoma: technical case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawasli, Ammar H; Ray, Wilson Z; Murphy, Rory K J; Dacey, Ralph G; Leuthardt, Eric C

    2012-06-01

    To describe the novel use of the AutoLITT System (Monteris Medical, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada) for focused laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT) with intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and stereotactic image guidance for the treatment of metastatic adenocarcinoma in the left insula. The patient was a 61-year-old right-handed man with a history of metastatic adenocarcinoma of the colon. He had previously undergone resection of multiple lesions, Gamma Knife radiosurgery, and whole-brain radiation. Despite treatment of a left insular tumor, serial imaging revealed that the lesion continued to enlarge. Given the refractory nature of this tumor to radiation and the deep-seated location, the patient elected to undergo LITT treatment. The center of the lesion and entry point on the scalp were identified with STEALTH (Medtronic, Memphis, Tennessee) image-guided navigation. The AXiiiS Stereotactic Miniframe (Monteris Medical) for the LITT system was secured onto the skull, and a trajectory was defined to achieve access to the centroid of the tumor. After a burr hole was made, a gadolinium template probe was inserted into the AXiiiS base. The trajectory was confirmed via an intraoperative MRI, and the LITT probe driver was attached to the base and CO2-cooled, side-firing laser LITT probe. The laser was activated and thermometry images were obtained. Two trajectories, posteromedial and anterolateral, produced satisfactory tumor ablation. LITT with intraoperative MRI and stereotactic image guidance is a newly available, minimally invasive, and therapeutically viable technique for the treatment of deep seated brain tumors.

  10. Agile beam laser radar using computational imaging for robotic perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Michael A.; Stann, Barry L.; Giza, Mark M.

    2015-05-01

    This paper introduces a new concept that applies computational imaging techniques to laser radar for robotic perception. We observe that nearly all contemporary laser radars for robotic (i.e., autonomous) applications use pixel basis scanning where there is a one-to-one correspondence between world coordinates and the measurements directly produced by the instrument. In such systems this is accomplished through beam scanning and/or the imaging properties of focal-plane optics. While these pixel-basis measurements yield point clouds suitable for straightforward human interpretation, the purpose of robotic perception is the extraction of meaningful features from a scene, making human interpretability and its attendant constraints mostly unnecessary. The imposing size, weight, power and cost of contemporary systems is problematic, and relief from factors that increase these metrics is important to the practicality of robotic systems. We present a system concept free from pixel basis sampling constraints that promotes efficient and adaptable sensing modes. The cornerstone of our approach is agile and arbitrary beam formation that, when combined with a generalized mathematical framework for imaging, is suited to the particular challenges and opportunities of robotic perception systems. Our hardware concept looks toward future systems with optical device technology closely resembling modern electronically-scanned-array radar that may be years away from practicality. We present the design concept and results from a prototype system constructed and tested in a laboratory environment using a combination of developed hardware and surrogate devices for beam formation. The technological status and prognosis for key components in the system is discussed.

  11. Scanning laser optical tomography for in toto imaging of the murine cochlea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Nolte

    Full Text Available The mammalian cochlea is a complex macroscopic structure due to its helical shape and the microscopic arrangements of the individual layers of cells. To improve the outcomes of hearing restoration in deaf patients, it is important to understand the anatomic structure and composition of the cochlea ex vivo. Hitherto, only one histological technique based on confocal laser scanning microscopy and optical clearing has been developed for in toto optical imaging of the murine cochlea. However, with a growing size of the specimen, e.g., human cochlea, this technique reaches its limitations. Here, we demonstrate scanning laser optical tomography (SLOT as a valuable imaging technique to visualize the murine cochlea in toto without any physical slicing. This technique can also be applied in larger specimens up to cm3 such as the human cochlea. Furthermore, immunolabeling allows visualization of inner hair cells (otoferlin or spiral ganglion cells (neurofilament within the whole cochlea. After image reconstruction, the 3D dataset was used for digital segmentation of the labeled region. As a result, quantitative analysis of position, length and curvature of the labeled region was possible. This is of high interest in order to understand the interaction of cochlear implants (CI and cells in more detail.

  12. 3-D reconstruction of neurons from multichannel confocal laser scanning image series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouterlood, Floris G

    2014-04-10

    A confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) collects information from a thin, focal plane and ignores out-of-focus information. Scanning of a specimen, with stepwise axial (Z-) movement of the stage in between each scan, produces Z-series of confocal images of a tissue volume, which then can be used to 3-D reconstruct structures of interest. The operator first configures separate channels (e.g., laser, filters, and detector settings) for each applied fluorochrome and then acquires Z-series of confocal images: one series per channel. Channel signal separation is extremely important. Measures to avoid bleaching are vital. Post-acquisition deconvolution of the image series is often performed to increase resolution before 3-D reconstruction takes place. In the 3-D reconstruction programs described in this unit, reconstructions can be inspected in real time from any viewing angle. By altering viewing angles and by switching channels off and on, the spatial relationships of 3-D-reconstructed structures with respect to structures visualized in other channels can be studied. Since each brand of CLSM, computer program, and 3-D reconstruction package has its own proprietary set of procedures, a general approach is provided in this protocol wherever possible. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  13. Multiplex CARS imaging with spectral notch shaped laser pulses delivered by optical fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Seung Ryeol; Park, Joo Hyun; Kim, Kyung-Soo; Lee, Jae Yong; Kim, Soohyun

    2017-12-11

    We present an experimental demonstration of single-pulse coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) using a spectrally shaped broadband laser that is delivered by an optical fiber to a sample at its distal end. The optical fiber consists of a fiber Bragg grating component to serve as a narrowband notch filter and a combined large-mode-area fiber to transmit such shaped ultrashort laser pulses without spectral distortion in a long distance. Experimentally, our implementation showed a capability to measure CARS spectra of various samples with molecular vibrations in the fingerprint region. Furthermore, CARS imaging of poly(methyl methacrylate) bead samples was carried out successfully under epi-CARS geometry in which backward-scattered CARS signals were collected into a multimode optical fiber. A compatibility of single-pulse CARS scheme with fiber optics, verified in this study, implies a potential for future realization of compact all-fiber CARS spectroscopic imaging systems.

  14. Application of a high-repetition-rate laser diagnostic system for single-cycle-resolved imaging in internal combustion engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hult, Johan; Richter, Mattias; Nygren, Jenny; Aldén, Marcus; Hultqvist, Anders; Christensen, Magnus; Johansson, Bengt

    2002-08-20

    High-repetition-rate laser-induced fluorescence measurements of fuel and OH concentrations in internal combustion engines are demonstrated. Series of as many as eight fluorescence images, with a temporal resolution ranging from 10 micros to 1 ms, are acquired within one engine cycle. A multiple-laser system in combination with a multiple-CCD camera is used for cycle-resolved imaging in spark-ignition, direct-injection stratified-charge, and homogeneous-charge compression-ignition engines. The recorded data reveal unique information on cycle-to-cycle variations in fuel transport and combustion. Moreover, the imaging system in combination with a scanning mirror is used to perform instantaneous three-dimensional fuel-concentration measurements.

  15. 3D-imaging of selective laser melting defects in a Co–Cr–Mo alloy by synchrotron radiation micro-CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Xin; Wang, Dianzheng; Liu, Xihe; Zhang, DanDan; Qu, Shilian; Ma, Jing; London, Gary; Shen, Zhijian; Liu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Microstructure defects set the mechanical property limits for solid Co–Cr–Mo alloy prepared by selective laser melting (SLM). Previous studies were mainly based on 2D SEM images and thus not able to provide information of the 3D morphologies of the complex defects. In this paper, the remaining porosities in Co–Cr–Mo alloy parts prepared by selective laser melting were presented in relation to the laser processing parameters. In order to understand the defect forming mechanism, accurate 3D images of defects inside SLM fabricated Co–Cr–Mo samples were provided by synchrotron radiation micro-CT imaging of 300 μm thick slices cut from a 10 mm cube. With 3D reconstructed images distinctive morphologies of SLM defects spanning across the consolidated powder layers were generated. The faults can be classified as single layer or multi-layers defects. The accidental single layer defects form as gaps between adjacent laser melt tracks or melt track discontinuousness caused by inherent fluid instability under various disturbances. The first formed single layer defect generates often a multi-layer defect spanning for 2–3 subsequent powder layers. By stabilizing the melt pool flow and by reducing the surface roughness through adjusting processing parameters it appears possible to reduce the defect concentrations

  16. Asymmetrically cut crystal pair as x-ray magnifier for imaging at high intensity laser facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szabo, C. I.; Feldman, U. [Artep Inc., 2922 Excelsior Spring Circle, Ellicott City, Maryland 21042 (United States); Seely, J. F. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375-5352 (United States); Curry, J. J.; Hudson, L. T.; Henins, A. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    The potential of an x-ray magnifier prepared from a pair of asymmetrically cut crystals is studied to explore high energy x-ray imaging capabilities at high intensity laser facilities. OMEGA-EP and NIF when irradiating mid and high Z targets can be a source of high-energy x-rays whose production mechanisms and use as backlighters are a subject of active research. This paper studies the properties and potential of existing asymmetric cut crystal pairs from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) built in a new enclosure for imaging x-ray sources. The technique of the x-ray magnifier has been described previously. This new approach is aimed to find a design that could be used at laser facilities by magnifying the x-ray source into a screen far away from the target chamber center, with fixed magnification defined by the crystals' lattice spacing and the asymmetry angles. The magnified image is monochromatic and the imaging wavelength is set by crystal asymmetry and incidence angles. First laboratory results are presented and discussed.

  17. A study on laser-based ultrasonic technique by the use of guided wave tomographic imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Junpil, E-mail: jpp@pusan.ac.kr; Lim, Juyoung, E-mail: jpp@pusan.ac.kr [Graduate school, School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Younho [School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University (Korea, Republic of); Krishnaswamy, Sridhar [Center for Quality Engineering and Failure Prevention, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL (United States)

    2015-03-31

    Guided wave tests are impractical for investigating specimens with limited accessibility and coarse surfaces or geometrically complicated features. A non-contact setup with a laser ultrasonic transmitter and receiver is the classic attractive for guided wave inspection. The present work was done to develop a non-contact guided-wave tomography technique by laser ultrasonic technique in a plate-like structure. A method for Lam wave generation and detection in an aluminum plate with a pulse laser ultrasonic transmitter and a Michelson interferometer receiver has been developed. In the images obtained by laser scanning, the defect shape and area showed good agreement with the actual defect. The proposed approach can be used as a non-contact-based online inspection and monitoring technique.

  18. Quantitative images of metals in plant tissues measured by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, J.S.; Dietrich, R.C.; Matusch, A.; Pozebon, D.; Dressler, V.L.

    2008-01-01

    Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was used for quantitative imaging of toxic and essential elements in thin sections (thickness of 30 or 40 μm) of tobacco plant tissues. Two-dimensional images of Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Cd, Rh, Pt and Pb in leaves, shoots and roots of tobacco were produced. Sections of the plant tissues (fixed onto glass slides) were scanned by a focused beam of a Nd:YAG laser in a laser ablation chamber. The ablated material was transported with argon as carrier gas to the ICP ion source at a quadrupole ICP-MS instrument. Ion intensities of the investigated elements were measured together with 13 C + , 33 S + and 34 S + within the entire plant tissue section. Matrix matching standards (prepared using powder of dried tobacco leaves) were used to constitute calibration curves, whereas the regression coefficient of the attained calibration curves was typically 0.99. The variability of LA-ICP-MS process, sample heterogeneity and water content in the sample were corrected by using 13 C + as internal standard. Quantitative imaging of the selected elements revealed their inhomogeneous distribution in leaves, shoots and roots

  19. Near Field Intensity Trends of Main Laser Alignment Images in the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leach, R R; Beltsar, I; Burkhart, S; Lowe-Webb, R; Kamm, V M; Salmon, T; Wilhelmsen, K

    2015-01-22

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) utilizes 192 high-energy laser beams focused with enough power and precision on a hydrogen-filled spherical, cryogenic target to potentially initiate a fusion reaction. NIF has been operational for six years; during that time, thousands of successful laser firings or shots have been executed. Critical instrument measurements and camera images are carefully recorded for each shot. The result is a massive and complex database or ‘big data’ archive that can be used to investigate the state of the laser system at any point in its history or to locate and track trends in the laser operation over time. In this study, the optical light throughput for more than 1600 NIF shots for each of the 192 main laser beams and 48 quads was measured over a three year period from January 2009 to October 2012. The purpose was to verify that the variation in the transmission of light through the optics over time performed within design expectations during this time period. Differences between average or integrated intensity from images recorded by the input sensor package (ISP) and by the output sensor package (OSP) in the NIF beam-line were examined. A metric is described for quantifying changes in the integrated intensity measurements and was used to view potential trends. Results are presented for the NIF input and output sensor package trends and changes over the three year time-frame.

  20. Micron-scale resolution radiography of laser-accelerated and laser-exploded foils using an yttrium x-ray laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cauble, R.; Da Silva, L.B.; Barbee, T.W. Jr.; Celliers, P.; Moreno, J.C.; Mrowka, S.; Perry, T.S.; Wan, A.S.

    1994-09-01

    The authors have imaged laser-accelerated foils and exploding foils on the few-micron scale using an yttrium x-ray laser (155 angstrom, 80 eV, ∼200 ps duration) and a multilayer mirror imaging system. At the maximum magnification of 30, resolution was of order one micron. The images were side-on radiographs of the foils. Accelerated foils showed significant filamentation on the rear-side (away from the driving laser) of the foil, although the laser beam was smoothed. In addition to the narrow rear-side filamentation, some shots revealed larger-scale plume-like structures on the front (driven) side of the Al foil. These plumes seem to be little-affected by beam smoothing and are likely a consequence of Rayleigh-Taylor instability. The experiments were carried out at the Nova two-beam facility

  1. Large field distributed aperture laser semiactive angle measurement system design with imaging fiber bundles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chunyun; Cheng, Haobo; Feng, Yunpeng; Jing, Xiaoli

    2016-09-01

    A type of laser semiactive angle measurement system is designed for target detecting and tracking. Only one detector is used to detect target location from four distributed aperture optical systems through a 4×1 imaging fiber bundle. A telecentric optical system in image space is designed to increase the efficiency of imaging fiber bundles. According to the working principle of a four-quadrant (4Q) detector, fiber diamond alignment is adopted between an optical system and a 4Q detector. The structure of the laser semiactive angle measurement system is, we believe, novel. Tolerance analysis is carried out to determine tolerance limits of manufacture and installation errors of the optical system. The performance of the proposed method is identified by computer simulations and experiments. It is demonstrated that the linear region of the system is ±12°, with measurement error of better than 0.2°. In general, this new system can be used with large field of view and high accuracy, providing an efficient, stable, and fast method for angle measurement in practical situations.

  2. Kalman Filtered MR Temperature Imaging for Laser Induced Thermal Therapies

    OpenAIRE

    Fuentes, D.; Yung, J.; Hazle, J. D.; Weinberg, J. S.; Stafford, R. J.

    2011-01-01

    The feasibility of using a stochastic form of Pennes bioheat model within a 3D finite element based Kalman filter (KF) algorithm is critically evaluated for the ability to provide temperature field estimates in the event of magnetic resonance temperature imaging (MRTI) data loss during laser induced thermal therapy (LITT). The ability to recover missing MRTI data was analyzed by systematically removing spatiotemporal information from a clinical MR-guided LITT procedure in human brain and comp...

  3. Technologies for security, military police and professional policing organizations, the Department of Energy perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steele, B.J.

    1996-01-01

    There are many technologies emerging from this decade that can be used to help the law enforcement community protect the public as well as public and private facilities against ever increasing threats to this country and its resources. These technologies include sensors, closed circuit television (CCTV), access control, contraband detection, communications, control and display, barriers, and various component and system modeling techniques. This paper will introduce some of the various technologies that have been examined for the Department of Energy that could be applied to various law enforcement applications. They include: (1) scannerless laser radar; (2) next generation security systems; (3) response force video information helmet system; (4) access delay technologies; (5) rapidly deployable intrusion detection systems; and (6) cost risk benefit analysis

  4. Real-Time fusion of visual images and laser data images for safe navigation in outdoor environments

    OpenAIRE

    García-Alegre Sánchez, María C.; Martín, David; Guinea García-Alegre, Domingo M.; Guinea Díaz, Domingo

    2011-01-01

    [EN]In recent years, two dimensional laser range finders mounted on vehicles is becoming a fruitful solution to achieve safety and environment recognition requirements (Keicher & Seufert, 2000), (Stentz et al., 2002), (DARPA, 2007). They provide real-time accurate range measurements in large angular fields at a fixed height above the ground plane, and enable robots and vehicles to perform more confidently a variety of tasks by fusing images from visual cameras with range data (...

  5. Long axial imaging range using conventional swept source lasers in optical coherence tomography via re-circulation loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradu, Adrian; Jackson, David A.; Podoleanu, Adrian

    2018-03-01

    Typically, swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) imaging instruments are capable of a longer axial range than their camera based (CB) counterpart. However, there are still various applications that would take advantage for an extended axial range. In this paper, we propose an interferometer configuration that can be used to extend the axial range of the OCT instruments equipped with conventional swept-source lasers up to a few cm. In this configuration, the two arms of the interferometer are equipped with adjustable optical path length rings. The use of semiconductor optical amplifiers in the two rings allows for compensating optical losses hence, multiple paths depth reflectivity profiles (Ascans) can be combined axially. In this way, extremely long overall axial ranges are possible. The use of the recirculation loops produces an effect equivalent to that of extending the coherence length of the swept source laser. Using this approach, the achievable axial imaging range in SS-OCT can reach values well beyond the limit imposed by the coherence length of the laser, to exceed in principle many centimeters. In the present work, we demonstrate axial ranges exceeding 4 cm using a commercial swept source laser and reaching 6 cm using an "in-house" swept source laser. When used in a conventional set-up alone, both these lasers can provide less than a few mm axial range.

  6. Detection of white spot lesions by segmenting laser speckle images using computer vision methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavinho, Luciano G; Araujo, Sidnei A; Bussadori, Sandra K; Silva, João V P; Deana, Alessandro M

    2018-05-05

    This paper aims to develop a method for laser speckle image segmentation of tooth surfaces for diagnosis of early stages caries. The method, applied directly to a raw image obtained by digital photography, is based on the difference between the speckle pattern of a carious lesion tooth surface area and that of a sound area. Each image is divided into blocks which are identified in a working matrix by their χ 2 distance between block histograms of the analyzed image and the reference histograms previously obtained by K-means from healthy (h_Sound) and lesioned (h_Decay) areas, separately. If the χ 2 distance between a block histogram and h_Sound is greater than the distance to h_Decay, this block is marked as decayed. The experiments showed that the method can provide effective segmentation for initial lesions. We used 64 images to test the algorithm and we achieved 100% accuracy in segmentation. Differences between the speckle pattern of a sound tooth surface region and a carious region, even in the early stage, can be evidenced by the χ 2 distance between histograms. This method proves to be more effective for segmenting the laser speckle image, which enhances the contrast between sound and lesioned tissues. The results were obtained with low computational cost. The method has the potential for early diagnosis in a clinical environment, through the development of low-cost portable equipment.

  7. Target isolation system, high power laser and laser peening method and system using same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dane, C. Brent; Hackel, Lloyd A.; Harris, Fritz

    2007-11-06

    A system for applying a laser beam to work pieces, includes a laser system producing a high power output beam. Target delivery optics are arranged to deliver the output beam to a target work piece. A relay telescope having a telescope focal point is placed in the beam path between the laser system and the target delivery optics. The relay telescope relays an image between an image location near the output of the laser system and an image location near the target delivery optics. A baffle is placed at the telescope focal point between the target delivery optics and the laser system to block reflections from the target in the target delivery optics from returning to the laser system and causing damage.

  8. 3D laser imaging for ODOT interstate network at true 1-mm resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    With the development of 3D laser imaging technology, the latest iteration of : PaveVision3D Ultra can obtain true 1mm resolution 3D data at full-lane coverage in all : three directions at highway speed up to 60MPH. This project provides rapid survey ...

  9. Injection-controlled laser resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, J.J.

    1995-07-18

    A new injection-controlled laser resonator incorporates self-filtering and self-imaging characteristics with an efficient injection scheme. A low-divergence laser signal is injected into the resonator, which enables the injection signal to be converted to the desired resonator modes before the main laser pulse starts. This injection technique and resonator design enable the laser cavity to improve the quality of the injection signal through self-filtering before the main laser pulse starts. The self-imaging property of the present resonator reduces the cavity induced diffraction effects and, in turn, improves the laser beam quality. 5 figs.

  10. A High Precision Laser-Based Autofocus Method Using Biased Image Plane for Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Chen Gu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study designs and accomplishes a high precision and robust laser-based autofocusing system, in which a biased image plane is applied. In accordance to the designed optics, a cluster-based circle fitting algorithm is proposed to calculate the radius of the detecting spot from the reflected laser beam as an essential factor to obtain the defocus value. The experiment conduct on the experiment device achieved novel performance of high precision and robustness. Furthermore, the low demand of assembly accuracy makes the proposed method a low-cost and realizable solution for autofocusing technique.

  11. Excimer laser doping technique for application in an integrated CdTe imaging device

    CERN Document Server

    Mochizuki, D; Aoki, T; Tomita, Y; Nihashi, T; Hatanaka, Y

    1999-01-01

    CdTe is an attractive semiconductor material for applications in solid-state high-energy X-ray and gamma-ray imaging systems because of its high absorption coefficient, large band gap, good mobility lifetime product of holes and stability at normal atmospheric conditions. We propose a new concept for fabricating an integrated CdTe with monolithic circuit configuration for two-dimensional imaging systems suitable for medical, research or industrial applications and operation at room temperature. A new doping technique has been recently developed that employs excimer laser radiation to diffuse impurity atoms into the semiconductor. Accordingly, heavily doped n- and p-type layers with resistivities less than 1 OMEGA cm can be formed on the high resistive CdTe crystals. We have further extended this technique for doping with spatial pattern. We will present the laser doping technique and various results thus obtained. Spatially patterned doping is demonstrated and we propose the use of these doping techniques for...

  12. Scanning laser topography and scanning laser polarimetry: comparing both imaging methods at same distances from the optic nerve head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremmer, Stephan; Keienburg, Marcus; Anastassiou, Gerasimos; Schallenberg, Maurice; Steuhl, Klaus-Peter; Selbach, J Michael

    2012-01-01

    To compare the performance of scanning laser topography (SLT) and scanning laser polarimetry (SLP) on the rim of the optic nerve head and its surrounding area and thereby to evaluate whether these imaging technologies are influenced by other factors beyond the thickness of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL). A total of 154 eyes from 5 different groups were examined: young healthy subjects (YNorm), old healthy subjects (ONorm), patients with normal tension glaucoma (NTG), patients with open-angle glaucoma and early glaucomatous damage (OAGE) and patients with open-angle glaucoma and advanced glaucomatous damage (OAGA). SLT and SLP measurements were taken. Four concentric circles were superimposed on each of the images: the first one measuring at the rim of the optic nerve head (1.0 ONHD), the next measuring at 1.25 optic nerve head diameters (ONHD), at 1.5 ONHD and at 1.75 ONHD. The aligned images were analyzed using GDx/NFA software. Both methods showed peaks of RNFL thickness in the superior and inferior segments of the ONH. The maximum thickness, registered by the SLT device was at the ONH rim where the SLP device tended to measure the lowest values. SLT measurements at the ONH were influenced by other tissues besides the RNFL like blood vessels and glial tissues. SLT and SLP were most strongly correlated at distances of 1.25 and 1.5 ONHD. While both imaging technologies are valuable tools in detecting glaucoma, measurements at the ONH rim should be interpreted critically since both methods might provide misleading results. For the assessment of the retinal nerve fiber layer we would like to recommend for both imaging technologies, SLT and SLP, measurements in 1.25 and 1.5 ONHD distance of the rim of the optic nerve head.

  13. Quantum imaging with incoherently scattered light from a free-electron laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Raimund; Mehringer, Thomas; Mercurio, Giuseppe; Wenthaus, Lukas; Classen, Anton; Brenner, Günter; Gorobtsov, Oleg; Benz, Adrian; Bhatti, Daniel; Bocklage, Lars; Fischer, Birgit; Lazarev, Sergey; Obukhov, Yuri; Schlage, Kai; Skopintsev, Petr; Wagner, Jochen; Waldmann, Felix; Willing, Svenja; Zaluzhnyy, Ivan; Wurth, Wilfried; Vartanyants, Ivan A.; Röhlsberger, Ralf; von Zanthier, Joachim

    2018-02-01

    The advent of accelerator-driven free-electron lasers (FEL) has opened new avenues for high-resolution structure determination via diffraction methods that go far beyond conventional X-ray crystallography methods. These techniques rely on coherent scattering processes that require the maintenance of first-order coherence of the radiation field throughout the imaging procedure. Here we show that higher-order degrees of coherence, displayed in the intensity correlations of incoherently scattered X-rays from an FEL, can be used to image two-dimensional objects with a spatial resolution close to or even below the Abbe limit. This constitutes a new approach towards structure determination based on incoherent processes, including fluorescence emission or wavefront distortions, generally considered detrimental for imaging applications. Our method is an extension of the landmark intensity correlation measurements of Hanbury Brown and Twiss to higher than second order, paving the way towards determination of structure and dynamics of matter in regimes where coherent imaging methods have intrinsic limitations.

  14. Intraoperative laser speckle contrast imaging for monitoring cerebral blood flow: results from a 10-patient pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Lisa M.; Weber, Erica L.; Parthasarathy, Ashwin B.; Kappeler, Kaelyn L.; Fox, Douglas J.; Dunn, Andrew K.

    2012-02-01

    Monitoring cerebral blood flow (CBF) during neurosurgery can provide important physiological information for a variety of surgical procedures. Although multiple intraoperative vascular monitoring technologies are currently available, a quantitative method that allows for continuous monitoring is still needed. Laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) is an optical imaging method with high spatial and temporal resolution that has been widely used to image CBF in animal models in vivo. In this pilot clinical study, we adapted a Zeiss OPMI Pentero neurosurgical microscope to obtain LSCI images by attaching a camera and a laser diode. This LSCI adapted instrument has been used to acquire full field flow images from 10 patients during tumor resection procedures. The patient's ECG was recorded during acquisition and image registration was performed in post-processing to account for pulsatile motion artifacts. Digital photographs confirmed alignment of vasculature and flow images in four cases, and a relative change in blood flow was observed in two patients after bipolar cautery. The LSCI adapted instrument has the capability to produce real-time, full field CBF image maps with excellent spatial resolution and minimal intervention to the surgical procedure. Results from this study demonstrate the feasibility of using LSCI to monitor blood flow during neurosurgery.

  15. Multispectral imaging system based on laser-induced fluorescence for security applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caneve, L.; Colao, F.; Del Franco, M.; Palucci, A.; Pistilli, M.; Spizzichino, V.

    2016-10-01

    The development of portable sensors for fast screening of crime scenes is required to reduce the number of evidences useful to be collected, optimizing time and resources. Laser based spectroscopic techniques are good candidates to this scope due to their capability to operate in field, in remote and rapid way. In this work, the prototype of a multispectral imaging LIF (Laser Induced Fluorescence) system able to detect evidence of different materials on large very crowded and confusing areas at distances up to some tens of meters will be presented. Data collected as both 2D fluorescence images and LIF spectra are suitable to the identification and the localization of the materials of interest. A reduced scan time, preserving at the same time the accuracy of the results, has been taken into account as a main requirement in the system design. An excimer laser with high energy and repetition rate coupled to a gated high sensitivity ICCD assures very good performances for this purpose. Effort has been devoted to speed up the data processing. The system has been tested in outdoor and indoor real scenarios and some results will be reported. Evidence of the plastics polypropylene (PP) and polyethilene (PE) and polyester have been identified and their localization on the examined scenes has been highlighted through the data processing. By suitable emission bands, the instrument can be used for the rapid detection of other material classes (i.e. textiles, woods, varnishes). The activities of this work have been supported by the EU-FP7 FORLAB project (Forensic Laboratory for in-situ evidence analysis in a post blast scenario).

  16. PINPIN a-Si:H based structures for X-ray image detection using the laser scanning technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, M., E-mail: mfernandes@isel.pt [Electronics Telecommunication and Computer Dept., ISEL, R.Conselheiro Emídio Navarro, 1959-007 Lisboa (Portugal); CTS-UNINOVA Quinta da Torre, Monte da Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Vygranenko, Y.; Vieira, M. [Electronics Telecommunication and Computer Dept., ISEL, R.Conselheiro Emídio Navarro, 1959-007 Lisboa (Portugal); CTS-UNINOVA Quinta da Torre, Monte da Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal)

    2015-05-01

    Highlights: • We present novel structure for X-ray image sensor based on the laser scanned technique. • Amorphous silicon based tandem structure characterization results are presented and discussed. • Results from preliminary tests of the imaging application are promising for very large area image sensing. - Abstract: Conventional film based X-ray imaging systems are being replaced by their digital equivalents. Different approaches are being followed by considering direct or indirect conversion, with the later technique dominating. The typical, indirect conversion, X-ray panel detector uses a phosphor for X-ray conversion coupled to a large area array of amorphous silicon based optical sensors and a couple of switching thin film transistors (TFT). The pixel information can then be readout by switching the correspondent line and column transistors, routing the signal to an external amplifier. In this work we follow an alternative approach, where the electrical switching performed by the TFT is replaced by optical scanning using a low power laser beam and a sensing/switching PINPIN structure, thus resulting in a simpler device. The optically active device is a PINPIN array, sharing both front and back electrical contacts, deposited over a glass substrate. During X-ray exposure, each sensing side photodiode collects photons generated by the scintillator screen (560 nm), charging its internal capacitance. Subsequently a laser beam (445 nm) scans the switching diodes (back side) retrieving the stored charge in a sequential way, reconstructing the image. In this paper we present recent work on the optoelectronic characterization of the PINPIN structure to be incorporated in the X-ray image sensor. The results from the optoelectronic characterization of the device and the dependence on scanning beam parameters are presented and discussed. Preliminary results of line scans are also presented.

  17. Direct visualization of secretion from single bovine adrenal chromaffin cells by laser-induced native fluorescence imaging microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong, W.; Yeung, E.S. [Ames Laboratory---USDOE and Department of Chemistry, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States)

    1998-03-01

    Direct visualization of the secretion process of individual bovine adrenal chromaffin cells was achieved with laser-induced native fluorescence imaging microscopy. By monitoring the native fluorescence of catecholamines excited by the 275 nm laser line with an intensified charge-coupled-device (CCD) camera, we obtained good temporal and spatial resolution simultaneously without using additional fluorescent probes. Large variations were found among individual cells in terms of the amounts of catecholamines secreted and the rates of secretion. Different regions of a cell also behave differently during the secretion process. However, the degree of this local heterogeneity is smaller than in neurons and neuralgia. The influence of deep-ultraviolet (UV) laser excitation on cells is also discussed. This quantitative imaging technique provides a useful noninvasive approach for the study of dynamic cellular changes and the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of secretory processes. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital Society for Applied Spectroscopy}

  18. Hyperspectral imaging based on diffused laser light for prediction of astaxanthin coating concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungqvist, Martin Georg; Nielsen, Otto Højager Attermann; Frosch, Stina

    2014-01-01

    -continuum laser as the light source was introduced. Furthermore, a parallel study with the commercially available multispectral VideometerLab imaging system was performed. The SuperK setup used 113 spectral bands (455–1,015 nm), and the VideometerLab used 20 spectral bands (385–1,050 nm). To predict...

  19. Pulsed Raman fiber laser and multispectral imaging in three dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Joachim F.; Busck, Jens; Heiselberg, Henning

    2006-01-01

    Raman scattering in single-mode optical fibers is exploited to generate multispectral light from a green nanolaser with high pulse repetition rate. Each pulse triggers a picosecond camera and measures the distance by time-of-flight in each of the 0.5 Mpixels. Three-dimensional images...... are then constructed with submillimeter accuracy for all visible colors. The generation of a series of Stokes peaks by Raman scattering in a Si fiber is discussed in detail and the laser radar technique is demonstrated. The data recording takes only a few seconds, and the high accuracy 3D color imaging works at ranges...... up to ∼200 m. Applications for optical tomography in highly scattering media such as water and human tissue are mentioned. © 2006 Optical Society of America....

  20. Automatic segmentation of cell nuclei from confocal laser scanning microscopy images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelemen, A.; Reist, H.W.

    1997-01-01

    A newly developed experimental method combines the possibility of irradiating more than a thousand cells simultaneous with an efficient colony-forming ability and with the capability of localizing a particle track through a cell nucleus together with the assessment of the energy transfer by digital superposition of the image containing the track with that of the cells. To assess the amount of energy deposition by particles traversing the cell nucleus the intersection lengths of the particle tracks have to be known. Intersection lengths can be obtained by determining the 3D surface contours of the irradiated cell nuclei. Confocal laser scanning microscopy using specific DNA fluorescent dye offers a possible way for the determination of the 3D shape of individual nuclei. Unfortunately, such experiments cannot be performed on living cells. One solution to this problem can be provided by building a statistical model of the shape of the nuclei of the exposed cells. In order to build such a statistical model, a large number of cell nuclei have to be identified and segmented from confocal laser scanning microscopy images. The present paper describes a method to perform this 3D segmentation in an automatic manner in order to create a solid basis for the statistical model. (author) 2 figs., 4 refs

  1. HIGH RESOLUTION AIRBORNE LASER SCANNING AND HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGING WITH A SMALL UAV PLATFORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gallay

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The capabilities of unmanned airborne systems (UAS have become diverse with the recent development of lightweight remote sensing instruments. In this paper, we demonstrate our custom integration of the state-of-the-art technologies within an unmanned aerial platform capable of high-resolution and high-accuracy laser scanning, hyperspectral imaging, and photographic imaging. The technological solution comprises the latest development of a completely autonomous, unmanned helicopter by Aeroscout, the Scout B1-100 UAV helicopter. The helicopter is powered by a gasoline two-stroke engine and it allows for integrating 18 kg of a customized payload unit. The whole system is modular providing flexibility of payload options, which comprises the main advantage of the UAS. The UAS integrates two kinds of payloads which can be altered. Both payloads integrate a GPS/IMU with a dual GPS antenna configuration provided by OXTS for accurate navigation and position measurements during the data acquisition. The first payload comprises a VUX-1 laser scanner by RIEGL and a Sony A6000 E-Mount photo camera. The second payload for hyperspectral scanning integrates a push-broom imager AISA KESTREL 10 by SPECIM. The UAS was designed for research of various aspects of landscape dynamics (landslides, erosion, flooding, or phenology in high spectral and spatial resolution.

  2. Recent advances in ultrafast-laser-based spectroscopy and imaging for reacting plasmas and flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patnaik, Anil K.; Adamovich, Igor; Gord, James R.; Roy, Sukesh

    2017-10-01

    Reacting flows and plasmas are prevalent in a wide array of systems involving defense, commercial, space, energy, medical, and consumer products. Understanding the complex physical and chemical processes involving reacting flows and plasmas requires measurements of key parameters, such as temperature, pressure, electric field, velocity, and number densities of chemical species. Time-resolved measurements of key chemical species and temperature are required to determine kinetics related to the chemical reactions and transient phenomena. Laser-based, noninvasive linear and nonlinear spectroscopic approaches have proved to be very valuable in providing key insights into the physico-chemical processes governing reacting flows and plasmas as well as validating numerical models. The advent of kilohertz rate amplified femtosecond lasers has expanded the multidimensional imaging of key atomic species such as H, O, and N in a significant way, providing unprecedented insight into preferential diffusion and production of these species under chemical reactions or electric-field driven processes. These lasers not only provide 2D imaging of chemical species but have the ability to perform measurements free of various interferences. Moreover, these lasers allow 1D and 2D temperature-field measurements, which were quite unimaginable only a few years ago. The rapid growth of the ultrafast-laser-based spectroscopic measurements has been fueled by the need to achieve the following when measurements are performed in reacting flows and plasmas. They are: (1) interference-free measurements (collision broadening, photolytic dissociation, Stark broadening, etc), (2) time-resolved single-shot measurements at a rate of 1-10 kHz, (3) spatially-resolved measurements, (4) higher dimensionality (line, planar, or volumetric), and (5) simultaneous detection of multiple species. The overarching goal of this article is to review the current state-of-the-art ultrafast-laser-based spectroscopic

  3. Laser Imaging Polarimetry of Nacre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Joshua A; Metzler, Rebecca A; D'Addario, Anthony J; Burgess, Carrie; Regan, Brian; Spano, Samantha; Cvarch, Ben A; Galvez, Enrique J

    2018-03-25

    Nacre is a complex biomaterial made of aragonite-tablet bricks and organic mortar that is considerably resilient against breakage. Nacre has been studied with a wide range of laboratory techniques, leading to understanding key fundamentals, and informing the creation of bio-inspired materials. In this article we present an optical polarimetric technique to investigate nacre, taking advantage of the translucence and birefringence of its micro-components. We focus our study on three classes of mollusks that have nacreous shells: bivalve (Pinctada fucata), gastropod (Haliotis asisina and Haliotis rufescens) and cephalopod (Nautilus pompilius). We sent polarized light from a laser through thin samples of nacre and did imaging polarimetry of the transmitted light. We observed clear distinctions between the structures of bivalve and gastropod, due to the spatial variation of their birefringence. The patterns for cephalopod were more similar to bivalve than gastropod. Bleaching of the samples disrupted the transmitted light. Subsequent refilling of the bivalve and gastropod nacre samples with oil produced optical patterns similar to those of unbleached samples. In cephalopod samples we found that bleaching produced irreversible changes in the optical pattern. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. RESEARCH ON COORDINATE TRANSFORMATION METHOD OF GB-SAR IMAGE SUPPORTED BY 3D LASER SCANNING TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In the image plane of GB-SAR, identification of deformation distribution is usually carried out by artificial interpretation. This method requires analysts to have adequate experience of radar imaging and target recognition, otherwise it can easily cause false recognition of deformation target or region. Therefore, it is very meaningful to connect two-dimensional (2D plane coordinate system with the common three-dimensional (3D terrain coordinate system. To improve the global accuracy and reliability of the transformation from 2D coordinates of GB-SAR images to local 3D coordinates, and overcome the limitation of traditional similarity transformation parameter estimation method, 3D laser scanning data is used to assist the transformation of GB-SAR image coordinates. A straight line fitting method for calculating horizontal angle was proposed in this paper. After projection into a consistent imaging plane, we can calculate horizontal rotation angle by using the linear characteristics of the structure in radar image and the 3D coordinate system. Aided by external elevation information by 3D laser scanning technology, we completed the matching of point clouds and pixels on the projection plane according to the geometric projection principle of GB-SAR imaging realizing the transformation calculation of GB-SAR image coordinates to local 3D coordinates. Finally, the effectiveness of the method is verified by the GB-SAR deformation monitoring experiment on the high slope of Geheyan dam.

  5. Research on Coordinate Transformation Method of Gb-Sar Image Supported by 3d Laser Scanning Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, P.; Xing, C.

    2018-04-01

    In the image plane of GB-SAR, identification of deformation distribution is usually carried out by artificial interpretation. This method requires analysts to have adequate experience of radar imaging and target recognition, otherwise it can easily cause false recognition of deformation target or region. Therefore, it is very meaningful to connect two-dimensional (2D) plane coordinate system with the common three-dimensional (3D) terrain coordinate system. To improve the global accuracy and reliability of the transformation from 2D coordinates of GB-SAR images to local 3D coordinates, and overcome the limitation of traditional similarity transformation parameter estimation method, 3D laser scanning data is used to assist the transformation of GB-SAR image coordinates. A straight line fitting method for calculating horizontal angle was proposed in this paper. After projection into a consistent imaging plane, we can calculate horizontal rotation angle by using the linear characteristics of the structure in radar image and the 3D coordinate system. Aided by external elevation information by 3D laser scanning technology, we completed the matching of point clouds and pixels on the projection plane according to the geometric projection principle of GB-SAR imaging realizing the transformation calculation of GB-SAR image coordinates to local 3D coordinates. Finally, the effectiveness of the method is verified by the GB-SAR deformation monitoring experiment on the high slope of Geheyan dam.

  6. Q-switched Erbium-doped fiber laser at 1600 nm for photoacoustic imaging application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piao, Zhonglie [Department of Cogno-Mechatronics Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Beckman Laser Institute, Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California, Irvine, California 92612 (United States); Zeng, Lvming; Chen, Zhongping, E-mail: z2chen@uci.edu, E-mail: ckim@pusan.ac.kr [Beckman Laser Institute, Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California, Irvine, California 92612 (United States); Kim, Chang-Seok, E-mail: z2chen@uci.edu, E-mail: ckim@pusan.ac.kr [Department of Cogno-Mechatronics Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-04

    We present a nanosecond Q-switched Erbium-doped fiber (EDF) laser system operating at 1600 nm with a tunable repetition rate from 100 kHz to 1 MHz. A compact fiber coupled, acousto-optic modulator-based EDF ring cavity was used to generate a nanosecond seed laser at 1600 nm, and a double-cladding EDF based power amplifier was applied to achieve the maximum average power of 250 mW. In addition, 12 ns laser pulses with the maximum pulse energy of 2.4 μJ were obtained at 100 kHz. Furthermore, the Stokes shift by Raman scattering over a 25 km long fiber was measured, indicating that the laser can be potentially used to generate the high repetition rate pulses at the 1.7 μm region. Finally, we detected the photoacoustic signal from a human hair at 200 kHz repetition rate with a pulse energy of 1.2 μJ, which demonstrates that a Q-switched Er-doped fiber laser can be a promising light source for the high speed functional photoacoustic imaging.

  7. Natural products in Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice) rhizome imaged at the cellular level by atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem mass spectrometry imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Bin; Bhandari, Dhaka Ram; Janfelt, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The rhizome of Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice) was analyzed by high-resolution mass spectrometry imaging and tandem mass spectrometry imaging. An atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging ion source was combined with an orbital trapping mass spectrometer in order to o...... and saponins in legume species, combing the spatially resolved chemical information with morphological details at the microscopic level. Furthermore, the technique offers a scheme capable of high-throughput profiling of metabolites in plant tissues....

  8. Integration of instrumentation and processing software of a laser speckle contrast imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrick, Jacob J.

    Laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) has the potential to be a powerful tool in medicine, but more research in the field is required so it can be used properly. To help in the progression of Michigan Tech's research in the field, a graphical user interface (GUI) was designed in Matlab to control the instrumentation of the experiments as well as process the raw speckle images into contrast images while they are being acquired. The design of the system was successful and is currently being used by Michigan Tech's Biomedical Engineering department. This thesis describes the development of the LSCI GUI as well as offering a full introduction into the history, theory and applications of LSCI.

  9. CO2 laser imaging heterodyne and phase contrast interferometer for density profile and fluctuation measurements in LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, K.; Michael, C.; Akiyama, T.; Kawahata, K.; Ito, Y.; Vyacheslavov, L.N.; Sanin, A.L.; Okajima, S.

    2007-01-01

    A CO 2 laser heterodyne imaging interferometer (CO 2 HI) and a CO 2 laser phase contrast imaging interferometer (CO 2 PCI) were installed in LHD. The purpose of CO 2 HI is to measure electron density profile at high density (>1x10 20 m -3 ), where the existing far infrared laser (wavelength 118.9 μm) interferometer suffers from fringe jump due to the reduction of signal intensity caused by refraction. In the beginning of 10th LHD experimental campaign (2006-2007), sixty three three of CO 2 HI with 10 channels of YAG HI for vibration compensation, and in the later of 10th LHD experimental campaign. Eighty one channels CO 2 HI and 15 channels YAG HI became available. The purpose of CO 2 PCI is to measure turbulent fluctuation, which can contribute to the energy and particle transport. In order to get local fluctuation information, magnetic shear technique was applied with use of 48 (6 by 8) channel two dimensional detector. (author)

  10. In vivo integrated photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy, optical coherence tomography, and scanning laser ophthalmoscopy for retinal imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wei; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Hao F.; Wei, Qing; Cao, Wenwu

    2012-12-01

    The physiological and pathological properties of retina are closely associated with various optical contrasts. Hence, integrating different ophthalmic imaging technologies is more beneficial in both fundamental investigation and clinical diagnosis of several blinding diseases. Recently, photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy (PAOM) was developed for in vivo retinal imaging in small animals, which demonstrated the capability of imaging retinal vascular networks and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) at high sensitivity. We combined PAOM with traditional imaging modalities, such as fluorescein angiography (FA), spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), and auto-fluorescence scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (AF-SLO), for imaging rats and mice. The multimodal imaging system provided more comprehensive evaluation of the retina based on the complementary imaging contrast mechanisms. The high-quality retinal images show that the integrated ophthalmic imaging system has great potential in the investigation of blinding disorders.

  11. Optical diagnostics of vascular reactions triggered by weak allergens using laser speckle-contrast imaging technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, Yu L; Kalchenko, V V; Astaf'eva, N G; Meglinski, I V

    2014-01-01

    The capability of using the laser speckle contrast imaging technique with a long exposure time for visualisation of primary acute skin vascular reactions caused by a topical application of a weak contact allergen is considered. The method is shown to provide efficient and accurate detection of irritant-induced primary acute vascular reactions of skin. The presented technique possesses a high potential in everyday diagnostic practice, preclinical studies, as well as in the prognosis of skin reactions to the interaction with potentially allergenic materials. (laser biophotonics)

  12. Optical diagnostics of vascular reactions triggered by weak allergens using laser speckle-contrast imaging technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, Yu L; Kalchenko, V V [Department of Veterinary Resources, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, 76100 (Israel); Astaf' eva, N G [V.I.Razumovsky Saratov State Medical University, Saratov (Russian Federation); Meglinski, I V [N.G. Chernyshevsky Saratov State University, Saratov (Russian Federation)

    2014-08-31

    The capability of using the laser speckle contrast imaging technique with a long exposure time for visualisation of primary acute skin vascular reactions caused by a topical application of a weak contact allergen is considered. The method is shown to provide efficient and accurate detection of irritant-induced primary acute vascular reactions of skin. The presented technique possesses a high potential in everyday diagnostic practice, preclinical studies, as well as in the prognosis of skin reactions to the interaction with potentially allergenic materials. (laser biophotonics)

  13. Development of Pulse-Burst Laser Source and Digital Image Processing for Measurements of High-Speed, Time-Evolving Flow

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miles, Richard

    2000-01-01

    ... Ti:Sapphire Laser and the demonstration of UV filtered Rayleigh scattering imaging in a supersonic jet, the fabrication/characterization of a narrow passband transmission filter, and the development of a new concept for a line imaging Raman spectrometer for flow field, combustion, and plasma diagnostics.

  14. Production of aerosols by optical catapulting: Imaging, performance parameters and laser-induced plasma sampling rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelhamid, M.; Fortes, F.J.; Fernández-Bravo, A.; Harith, M.A.; Laserna, J.J.

    2013-01-01

    Optical catapulting (OC) is a sampling and manipulation method that has been extensively studied in applications ranging from single cells in heterogeneous tissue samples to analysis of explosive residues in human fingerprints. Specifically, analysis of the catapulted material by means of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) offers a promising approach for the inspection of solid particulate matter. In this work, we focus our attention in the experimental parameters to be optimized for a proper aerosol generation while increasing the particle density in the focal region sampled by LIBS. For this purpose we use shadowgraphy visualization as a diagnostic tool. Shadowgraphic images were acquired for studying the evolution and dynamics of solid aerosols produced by OC. Aluminum silicate particles (0.2–8 μm) were ejected from the substrate using a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm, while time-resolved images recorded the propagation of the generated aerosol. For LIBS analysis and shadowgraphy visualization, a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm and 532 nm was employed, respectively. Several parameters such as the time delay between pulses and the effect of laser fluence on the aerosol production have been also investigated. After optimization, the particle density in the sampling focal volume increases while improving the aerosol sampling rate till ca. 90%. - Highlights: • Aerosol generation by optical catapulting has been successfully optimized. • We study the evolution and dynamics of solid aerosols produced by OC. • We use shadowgraphy visualization as a diagnostic tool. • Effects of temporal conditions and laser fluence on the elevation of the aerosol cloud have been investigated. • The observed LIBS sampling rate increased from 50% reported before to approximately 90%

  15. Intraocular lens calculation adjustment after laser refractive surgery using Scheimpflug imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Alexander K; Schanzlin, David J; Thomas, Karin E; Heichel, Christopher W; Purcell, Tracy L; Barker, Patrick D

    2016-02-01

    To test a new method of intraocular lens (IOL) calculation after corneal refractive surgery using Scheimpflug imaging (Pentacam HR) and partial coherence interferometry (PCI) (IOLMaster) that does not require historical data; that is, the Schuster/Schanzlin-Thomas-Purcell (SToP) IOL calculator. Shiley Eye Center, San Diego, California, and Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, Bethesda, Maryland, USA. Retrospective data analysis and validation study. Data were retrospectively collected from patient charts including data from Scheimpflug imaging and refractive history. Target refraction was calculated using PCI and the Holladay 1 and SRK/T formulas. Regression analysis was performed to explain the deviation of the target refraction, taking into account the following influencing factors: ratio of posterior-to-anterior corneal radius, axial length (AL), and anterior corneal radius. The regression analysis study included 61 eyes (39 patients) that had laser in situ keratomileusis (57 eyes) or photorefractive keratectomy (4 eyes) and subsequent cataract. Two factors were found that explained the deviation of the target refraction using the Holladay 1 formula; that is, the ratio of the corneal radii and the AL and the ratio of corneal radii for the SRK/T formula. A new IOL adjustment calculator was derived and validated at a second center using 14 eyes (10 patients). The error in IOL calculation for normal eyes after laser refractive treatment was related to the ratio of posterior-to-anterior corneal radius. A formula requiring Scheimpflug data and suggested IOL power only yielded an improved postoperative result for patients with previous corneal laser refractive surgery having cataract surgery. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2016 ASCRS and ESCRS. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of Yogurt Microstructure Using Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy and Image Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skytte, Jacob L; Ghita, Ovidiu; Whelan, Paul F; Andersen, Ulf; Møller, Flemming; Dahl, Anders B; Larsen, Rasmus

    2015-06-01

    The microstructure of protein networks in yogurts defines important physical properties of the yogurt and hereby partly its quality. Imaging this protein network using confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM) has shown good results, and CSLM has become a standard measuring technique for fermented dairy products. When studying such networks, hundreds of images can be obtained, and here image analysis methods are essential for using the images in statistical analysis. Previously, methods including gray level co-occurrence matrix analysis and fractal analysis have been used with success. However, a range of other image texture characterization methods exists. These methods describe an image by a frequency distribution of predefined image features (denoted textons). Our contribution is an investigation of the choice of image analysis methods by performing a comparative study of 7 major approaches to image texture description. Here, CSLM images from a yogurt fermentation study are investigated, where production factors including fat content, protein content, heat treatment, and incubation temperature are varied. The descriptors are evaluated through nearest neighbor classification, variance analysis, and cluster analysis. Our investigation suggests that the texton-based descriptors provide a fuller description of the images compared to gray-level co-occurrence matrix descriptors and fractal analysis, while still being as applicable and in some cases as easy to tune. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. Automatic registration of Iphone images to LASER point clouds of the urban structures using shape features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Sirmacek

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Fusion of 3D airborne laser (LIDAR data and terrestrial optical imagery can be applied in 3D urban modeling and model up-dating. The most challenging aspect of the fusion procedure is registering the terrestrial optical images on the LIDAR point clouds. In this article, we propose an approach for registering these two different data from different sensor sources. As we use iPhone camera images which are taken in front of the interested urban structure by the application user and the high resolution LIDAR point clouds of the acquired by an airborne laser sensor. After finding the photo capturing position and orientation from the iPhone photograph metafile, we automatically select the area of interest in the point cloud and transform it into a range image which has only grayscale intensity levels according to the distance from the image acquisition position. We benefit from local features for registering the iPhone image to the generated range image. In this article, we have applied the registration process based on local feature extraction and graph matching. Finally, the registration result is used for facade texture mapping on the 3D building surface mesh which is generated from the LIDAR point cloud. Our experimental results indicate possible usage of the proposed algorithm framework for 3D urban map updating and enhancing purposes.

  18. Laser Guidestar Satellite for Ground-based Adaptive Optics Imaging of Geosynchronous Satellites and Astronomical Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlow, W. A.; Cahoy, K.; Males, J.; Carlton, A.; Yoon, H.

    2015-12-01

    Real-time observation and monitoring of geostationary (GEO) satellites with ground-based imaging systems would be an attractive alternative to fielding high cost, long lead, space-based imagers, but ground-based observations are inherently limited by atmospheric turbulence. Adaptive optics (AO) systems are used to help ground telescopes achieve diffraction-limited seeing. AO systems have historically relied on the use of bright natural guide stars or laser guide stars projected on a layer of the upper atmosphere by ground laser systems. There are several challenges with this approach such as the sidereal motion of GEO objects relative to natural guide stars and limitations of ground-based laser guide stars; they cannot be used to correct tip-tilt, they are not point sources, and have finite angular sizes when detected at the receiver. There is a difference between the wavefront error measured using the guide star compared with the target due to cone effect, which also makes it difficult to use a distributed aperture system with a larger baseline to improve resolution. Inspired by previous concepts proposed by A.H. Greenaway, we present using a space-based laser guide starprojected from a satellite orbiting the Earth. We show that a nanosatellite-based guide star system meets the needs for imaging GEO objects using a low power laser even from 36,000 km altitude. Satellite guide star (SGS) systemswould be well above atmospheric turbulence and could provide a small angular size reference source. CubeSatsoffer inexpensive, frequent access to space at a fraction of the cost of traditional systems, and are now being deployed to geostationary orbits and on interplanetary trajectories. The fundamental CubeSat bus unit of 10 cm cubed can be combined in multiple units and offers a common form factor allowing for easy integration as secondary payloads on traditional launches and rapid testing of new technologies on-orbit. We describe a 6U CubeSat SGS measuring 10 cm x 20 cm x

  19. Final Report - DOE Center for Laser Imaging and Cancer Diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfano, Robert R.; Koutcher, Jason A.

    2002-10-31

    This Final Report summarizes the significant progress made by the researchers, students and staff of the Center for Laser Imaging and Cancer Diagnostics (CLICD) from January 1998 through May 2002. During this period, the Center supported several projects. Most projects were proposed initially, some were added subsequently as their relevance and importance to the DOE mission became evident. DOE support has been leveraged to obtain continuing funding for some projects. Leveraged funds come from various sources, including NIH, Army, NSF and the Air Force. The goal of the Center was to develop laser-based instruments for use in the detection and diagnosis of major diseases, with an emphasis on detection and diagnosis of various cancers. Each of the supported projects is a collaborative effort between physicists and laser scientists and the City College of New York and noted physicians, surgeons, pathologists, and biologists located at medical centers in the Metropolitan area. The participating institutions were: City College of New York Institute for Ultrafast Lasers and Spectroscopy, Hackensack University Medical Center, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, and New York Eye and Ear Institute. Each of the projects funded by the Center is grouped into one of four research categories: a) Disease Detection, b) Non-Disease Applications, c) New Diagnostic Tools, and, d) Education, Training, Outreach and Dissemination. The progress achieved by the multidisciplinary teams was reported in 51 publications and 32 presentations at major national conferences. Also, one U.S. patent was obtained and six U.S. patent applications have been filed for innovations resulting from the projects sponsored by the Center.

  20. Optical coherence tomography-guided laser microsurgery for blood coagulation with continuous-wave laser diode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Feng-Yu; Tsai, Meng-Tsan; Wang, Zu-Yi; Chi, Chun-Kai; Lee, Cheng-Kuang; Yang, Chih-Hsun; Chan, Ming-Che; Lee, Ya-Ju

    2015-11-16

    Blood coagulation is the clotting and subsequent dissolution of the clot following repair to the damaged tissue. However, inducing blood coagulation is difficult for some patients with homeostasis dysfunction or during surgery. In this study, we proposed a method to develop an integrated system that combines optical coherence tomography (OCT) and laser microsurgery for blood coagulation. Also, an algorithm for positioning of the treatment location from OCT images was developed. With OCT scanning, 2D/3D OCT images and angiography of tissue can be obtained simultaneously, enabling to noninvasively reconstruct the morphological and microvascular structures for real-time monitoring of changes in biological tissues during laser microsurgery. Instead of high-cost pulsed lasers, continuous-wave laser diodes (CW-LDs) with the central wavelengths of 450 nm and 532 nm are used for blood coagulation, corresponding to higher absorption coefficients of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin. Experimental results showed that the location of laser exposure can be accurately controlled with the proposed approach of imaging-based feedback positioning. Moreover, blood coagulation can be efficiently induced by CW-LDs and the coagulation process can be monitored in real-time with OCT. This technology enables to potentially provide accurate positioning for laser microsurgery and control the laser exposure to avoid extra damage by real-time OCT imaging.

  1. Neuroscience imaging enabled by new highly tunable and high peak power femtosecond lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakulinen, T.; Klein, J.

    2017-02-01

    Neuroscience applications benefit from recent developments in industrial femtosecond laser technology. New laser sources provide several megawatts of peak power at wavelength of 1040 nm, which enables simultaneous optogenetics photoactivation of tens or even hundreds of neurons using red shifted opsins. Another recent imaging trend is to move towards longer wavelengths, which would enable access to deeper layers of tissue due to lower scattering and lower absorption in the tissue. Femtosecond lasers pumping a non-collinear optical parametric amplifier (NOPA) enable the access to longer wavelengths with high peak powers. High peak powers of >10 MW at 1300 nm and 1700 nm allow effective 3-photon excitation of green and red shifted calcium indicators respectively and access to deeper, sub-cortex layers of the brain. Early results include in vivo detection of spontaneous activity in hippocampus within an intact mouse brain, where neurons express GCaMP6 activated in a 3-photon process at 1320 nm.

  2. Computer-guided laser for neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivukangas, J; Louhisalmi, Y

    1990-01-01

    On the basis of over 40 neurosurgical laser operations, including CO2, Nd-YAG and simultaneous CO2/Nd-YAG laser procedures, a computer-guided system for spatial control of the laser beam has been developed. The pilot laser has several modes: it can direct the neurosurgeon along the central axis of the surgical microscope to stereotactically determined point-like targets or outline selected layers of underlying volume targets onto superficial surfaces such as scalp and cortex and onto the tissue at the appropriate depth. The active treatment laser can be guided by preoperative CT/MRI or intraoperative ultrasound image data for layer-by-layer resection of tumor. The laser system can be connected to the surgical field by rigid stereotactic means or by neuronavigator. In the present system, a special brain surgery adapter coordinates the imaging system and laser to the surgical field. Thus, the laser system can be used for image-guided surgical orientation, for demarcation of lesions and for actual layer-by-layer removal of tumor.

  3. High resolution laser beam induced current images under trichromatic laser radiation: approximation to the solar irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navas, F J; Alcántara, R; Fernández-Lorenzo, C; Martín-Calleja, J

    2010-03-01

    A laser beam induced current (LBIC) map of a photoactive surface is a very useful tool when it is necessary to study the spatial variability of properties such as photoconverter efficiency or factors connected with the recombination of carriers. Obtaining high spatial resolution LBIC maps involves irradiating the photoactive surface with a photonic beam with Gaussian power distribution and with a low dispersion coefficient. Laser emission fulfils these characteristics, but against it is the fact that it is highly monochromatic and therefore has a spectral distribution different to solar emissions. This work presents an instrumental system and procedure to obtain high spatial resolution LBIC maps in conditions approximating solar irradiation. The methodology developed consists of a trichromatic irradiation system based on three sources of laser excitation with emission in the red, green, and blue zones of the electromagnetic spectrum. The relative irradiation powers are determined by either solar spectrum distribution or Planck's emission formula which provides information approximate to the behavior of the system if it were under solar irradiation. In turn, an algorithm and a procedure have been developed to be able to form images based on the scans performed by the three lasers, providing information about the photoconverter efficiency of photovoltaic devices under the irradiation conditions used. This system has been checked with three photosensitive devices based on three different technologies: a commercial silicon photodiode, a commercial photoresistor, and a dye-sensitized solar cell. These devices make it possible to check how the superficial quantum efficiency has areas dependent upon the excitation wavelength while it has been possible to measure global incident photon-to-current efficiency values approximating those that would be obtained under irradiation conditions with sunlight.

  4. Analysis of high resolution scatter images from laser damage experiments performed on KDP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Runkel, M.; Woods, B.; Yan, M.

    1996-01-01

    Interest in producing high damage threshold KH 2 PO 4 (KDP) and (D x H 1-x ) 2 PO 4 (KD*P, DKDP) for optical switching and frequency conversion applications is being driven by the system requirements for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Lab (LLNL). Historically, the path to achieving higher damage thresholds has been to improve the purity of crystal growth solutions. Application of advanced filtration technology has increased the damage threshold, but gives little insight into the actual mechanisms of laser damage. We have developed a laser scatter diagnostic to better study bulk defects and laser damage mechanisms in KDP and KD*P crystals. This diagnostic consists of a cavity doubled, kilohertz class, Nd:YLF laser (527 nm) and high dynamic range CCD camera which allows imaging of bulk scatter signals. With it, we have performed damage tests at 355 nm on four different open-quotes vintagesclose quotes of KDP crystals, concentrating on crystals produced via fast growth methods. We compare the diagnostic's resolution to LLNL's standard damage detection method of 100X darkfield microscopy and discuss its impact on damage threshold determination. We have observed the disappearance of scatter sites upon exposure to subthreshold irradiation. In contrast, we have seen scatterers appear where none previously existed. This includes isolated, large (high signal) sites as well as multiple small scatter sites which appear at fluences above 7 J/cm 2 (fine tracking). However, we have not observed a strong correlation of preexisting scatter sites and laser damage sites. We speculate on the connection between the laser-induced disappearance of scatter sites and the observed increase in damage threshold with laser conditioning

  5. Contrast image formation based on thermodynamic approach and surface laser oxidation process for optoelectronic read-out system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherbak, Aleksandr; Yulmetova, Olga

    2018-05-01

    A pulsed fiber laser with the wavelength 1.06 μm was used to treat titanium nitride film deposited on beryllium substrates in the air with intensities below an ablation threshold to provide oxide formation. Laser oxidation results were predicted by the chemical thermodynamic method and confirmed by experimental techniques (X-ray diffraction). The developed technology of contrast image formation is intended to be used for optoelectronic read-out system.

  6. Note: Diagnosing femtosecond laser-solid interactions with monochromatic Kα imager and x-ray pinhole camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, X. X.; Li, Y. T.; Liu, F.; Du, F.; Wang, S. J.; Chen, L. M.; Zhang, L.; Zheng, Y.; Liu, X.; Liu, X. L.; Wang, Z. H.; Ma, J. L.; Wei, Z. Y.; Liu, B. C.; Zhang, J.

    2011-01-01

    An x-ray pinhole camera and a monochromatic K α imager are used to measure the interactions of intense femtosecond laser pulses with Cu foil targets. The two diagnostics give different features in the spot size and the laser energy scaling, which are resulted from different physical processes. Under our experimental conditons, the K α emission is mainly excited by the fast electrons transporting inside the cold bulk target. In contrast, the x-ray pinhole signals are dominated by the broadband thermal x-ray emission from the hot plasma at the front target surface.

  7. Biological Studies with Laser-Polarized ^129Xe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, C. H.; Oteiza, E. R.; Wong, G. A.; Walsworth, R. L.; Albert, M. S.; Nascimben, L.; Peled, S.; Sakai, K.; Jolesz, F. A.

    1996-05-01

    We have studied several biological systems using laser-polarized ^129Xe. In certain tissues magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using inhaled laser-polarized noble gases may provide images superior to those from conventional proton MRI. High resolution laser-polarized ^3He images of air spaces in the human lung were recently obtained by the Princeton/Duke group. However, ^3He is not very soluble in tissue. Therefore, we are using laser polarized ^129Xe (tissue-soluble), with the long term goal of biomedical functional imaging. We have investigated multi-echo and multi-excitation magnetic resonance detection schemes to exploit the highly non-thermal ^129Xe magnetization produced by the laser polarization technique. We have inhalated live rats with laser-polarized ^129Xe gas and measured three distinct ^129Xe tissue resonances that last 20 to 40 sec. As a demonstration, we obtained a laser polarized ^129Xe image of the human oral cavity. Currently we are measuring the polarization lifetime of ^129Xe dissolved in human blood, the biological transporting medium. These studies and other recent developments will be reported.

  8. LONG-TERM SD-OCT/SLO IMAGING OF NEURORETINA AND RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM AFTER SUB-THRESHOLD INFRARED LASER TREATMENT OF DRUSEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    MOJANA, FRANCESCA; BRAR, MANPREET; CHENG, LINGYUN; BARTSCH, DIRK-UWE G.; FREEMAN, WILLIAM R.

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE To determine the long-term effect of sub-threshold diode laser treatment for drusen in patients with non-exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD) with spectral domain optical coherence tomography combined with simultaneous scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SD-OCT/SLO). METHODS 8 eyes of 4 consecutive AMD patients with bilateral drusen previously treated with sub-threshold diode laser were imaged with SD-OCT/SLO. Abnormalities in the outer retina layers reflectivity as seen with SD-OCT/SLO were retrospectively analyzed and compared with color fundus pictures and autofluorescence images (AF) acquired immediately before and after the laser treatment. RESULTS A focal discrete disruptions in the reflectivity of the outer retinal layers was noted in 29% of the laser lesions. The junction in between the inner and outer segment of the photoreceptor was more frequently affected, with associated focal damage of the outer nuclear layer. Defects of the RPE were occasionally detected. These changes did not correspond to threshold burns on color fundus photography, but corresponded to focal areas of increased AF in the majority of the cases. CONCLUSIONS Sub-threshold diode laser treatment causes long-term disruption of the retinal photoreceptor layer as analyzed by SD-OCT/SLO. The concept that sub-threshold laser treatment can achieve a selected RPE effect without damage to rods and cones may be flawed. PMID:21157398

  9. In-vivo brain blood flow imaging based on laser speckle contrast imaging and synchrotron radiation microangiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao, Peng; Feng, Shihan; Zhang, Qi; Lin, Xiaojie; Xie, Bohua; Liu, Chenwei; Yang, Guo-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In-vivo imaging of blood flow in the cortex and sub-cortex is still a challenge in biological and pathological studies of cerebral vascular diseases. Laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) only provides cortex blood flow information. Traditional synchrotron radiation micro-angiography (SRA) provides sub-cortical vasculature information with high resolution. In this study, a bolus front-tracking method was developed to extract blood flow information based on SRA. Combining LSCI and SRA, arterial blood flow in the ipsilateral cortex and sub-cortex was monitored after experimental intracerebral hemorrhage of mice. At 72 h after injury, a significant blood flow increase was observed in the lenticulostriate artery along with blood flow decrease in cortical branches of the middle cerebral artery. This combined strategy provides a new approach for the investigation of brain vasculature and blood flow changes in preclinical studies. (paper)

  10. Research on the underwater target imaging based on the streak tube laser lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Zihao; Tian, Zhaoshuo; Zhang, Yanchao; Bi, Zongjie; Yang, Gang; Gu, Erdan

    2018-03-01

    A high frame rate streak tube imaging lidar (STIL) for real-time 3D imaging of underwater targets is presented in this paper. The system uses 532nm pulse laser as the light source, the maximum repetition rate is 120Hz, and the pulse width is 8ns. LabVIEW platform is used in the system, the system control, synchronous image acquisition, 3D data processing and display are realized through PC. 3D imaging experiment of underwater target is carried out in a flume with attenuation coefficient of 0.2, and the images of different depth and different material targets are obtained, the imaging frame rate is 100Hz, and the maximum detection depth is 31m. For an underwater target with a distance of 22m, the high resolution 3D image real-time acquisition is realized with range resolution of 1cm and space resolution of 0.3cm, the spatial relationship of the targets can be clearly identified by the image. The experimental results show that STIL has a good application prospect in underwater terrain detection, underwater search and rescue, and other fields.

  11. X-ray free electron laser and its application to 3-dimensional imaging of non-crystalline nano-structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Tetsuya

    2007-01-01

    The Laser in the X-ray region has been anticipated to be realized as a light source to probe the nano-world. Free electron lasers using high energy electron accelerators have been promising the candidates. The finding of the principle of Self-Amplified Spontaneous Emission (SASE) resolved the technological difficulties accompanying the X-ray free electron laser, and the construction of large scale SASE facilities started in western countries. In Japan the construction of an SASE facility started in 2006 to be completed in 2010 at the site of the large synchrotron radiation facility, SPring-8 positioned as a 'critical technology of national importance' by the Japanese government. The principle of the X-ray free electron laser is explained and the outline of the Japanese facility construction plan is presented. Also the application of the X-ray laser to the imaging of non-crystalline nano-structure is introduced. (K.Yoshida)

  12. Kalman filtered MR temperature imaging for laser induced thermal therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, D; Yung, J; Hazle, J D; Weinberg, J S; Stafford, R J

    2012-04-01

    The feasibility of using a stochastic form of Pennes bioheat model within a 3-D finite element based Kalman filter (KF) algorithm is critically evaluated for the ability to provide temperature field estimates in the event of magnetic resonance temperature imaging (MRTI) data loss during laser induced thermal therapy (LITT). The ability to recover missing MRTI data was analyzed by systematically removing spatiotemporal information from a clinical MR-guided LITT procedure in human brain and comparing predictions in these regions to the original measurements. Performance was quantitatively evaluated in terms of a dimensionless L(2) (RMS) norm of the temperature error weighted by acquisition uncertainty. During periods of no data corruption, observed error histories demonstrate that the Kalman algorithm does not alter the high quality temperature measurement provided by MR thermal imaging. The KF-MRTI implementation considered is seen to predict the bioheat transfer with RMS error 10 sec.

  13. Spectral imaging technique for retinal perfusion detection using confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasta, Seyed Hossein; Manivannan, Ayyakkannu; Sharp, Peter F.

    2012-11-01

    To evaluate retinal perfusion in the human eye, a dual-wavelength confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (cSLO) was developed that provides spectral imaging of the fundus using a combination of red (670 nm) and near-infrared (810 nm) wavelengths. The image of the ocular fundus was analyzed to find out if quantitative measurements of the reflectivity of tissue permit assessment of the oxygen perfusion of tissue. We explored problems that affect the reproducibility of patient measurements such as non-uniformity errors on the image. For the first time, an image processing technique was designed and used to minimize the errors of oxygen saturation measurements by illumination correction in retina wide field by increasing SNR. Retinal images were taken from healthy and diabetic retinopathy eyes using the cSLO with a confocal aperture of 100 μm. The ratio image (RI) of red/IR, as oxygen saturation (SO2) index, was calculated for normal eyes. The image correction technique improved the reproducibility of the measurements. Average RI intensity variation of healthy retina tissue was determined within a range of about 5.5%. The capability of the new technique to discriminate oxygenation levels of retinal artery and vein was successfully demonstrated and showed good promise in the diagnosis of the perfused retina.

  14. The effect of fog on the probability density distribution of the ranging data of imaging laser radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhua Song

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines theoretically investigations of the probability density distribution (PDD of ranging data for the imaging laser radar (ILR system operating at a wavelength of 905 nm under the fog condition. Based on the physical model of the reflected laser pulses from a standard Lambertian target, a theoretical approximate model of PDD of the ranging data is developed under different fog concentrations, which offer improved precision target ranging and imaging. An experimental test bed for the ILR system is developed and its performance is evaluated using a dedicated indoor atmospheric chamber under homogeneously controlled fog conditions. We show that the measured results are in good agreement with both the accurate and approximate models within a given margin of error of less than 1%.

  15. The effect of fog on the probability density distribution of the ranging data of imaging laser radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wenhua; Lai, JianCheng; Ghassemlooy, Zabih; Gu, Zhiyong; Yan, Wei; Wang, Chunyong; Li, Zhenhua

    2018-02-01

    This paper outlines theoretically investigations of the probability density distribution (PDD) of ranging data for the imaging laser radar (ILR) system operating at a wavelength of 905 nm under the fog condition. Based on the physical model of the reflected laser pulses from a standard Lambertian target, a theoretical approximate model of PDD of the ranging data is developed under different fog concentrations, which offer improved precision target ranging and imaging. An experimental test bed for the ILR system is developed and its performance is evaluated using a dedicated indoor atmospheric chamber under homogeneously controlled fog conditions. We show that the measured results are in good agreement with both the accurate and approximate models within a given margin of error of less than 1%.

  16. Toluene laser-induced fluorescence imaging of compressible flows in an expansion tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, V. A.; Gamba, M.; Mungal, M. G.; Hanson, R. K.; Mohri, K.; Schulz, C.

    2011-11-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) imaging using toluene as a tracer molecule has been developed for high-speed, low-to-moderate enthalpy conditions in the Stanford 6-inch Expansion Tube. The approach is demonstrated on three canonical compressible flow configurations: (i) supersonic flow over a 20° wedge, (ii) around a cylinder, and (iii) a supersonic boundary layer. Under constant-pressure conditions, toluene LIF offers unique sensitivity to temperature and can therefore be used as an accurate thermometry diagnostic for supersonic flows; on the other hand, for variable-pressure flow fields (e.g., flow around a blunt body), toluene LIF imaging is demonstrated to be an effective flow visualization tool. The three configurations selected demonstrate the diagnostic in these two capacities. For all configurations considered in the study, toluene (0.6% by volume) is seeded into a nitrogen freestream at a Mach number ~ 2.2, T ~ 500K, and p ~ 1.5 bar. A frequency-quadrupled pulsed Nd:YAG laser is used to excite the tracer, and the resulting fluorescence is captured by an ICCD camera. Synthetic fluorescence signals from CFD solutions of each case have been computed and compare favorably to measured signals. Sponsored by DoE PSAAP at Stanford University.

  17. Tomography of laser fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceglio, N.M.

    1977-01-01

    Experimental programs exist in a number of laboratories throughout the world to test the feasibility of using powerful laser systems to drive the implosion of hydrogen isotope fuel to thermonuclear burn conditions. In a typical experiment multiple laser beams are focused onto a glass microshell (typically 50 μm to 200 μm diameter) filled with an equimolar D-T gas mixture. X-ray and particle emissions from the target provide important information about the hydrodynamic implosion of the glass shell and the associated compression and heating of the D-T fuel. Standard diagnostics for imaging such emissions are the grazing incidence reflection (GIR) x-ray microscope and the pinhole camera. Recently, a particular coded imaging technique, Zone Plate Coded Imaging (ZPCI), has been successfully used for x-ray and particle microscopy of laser fusion plasmas. ZPCI is highly attractive for investigating laser produced plasmas because it possesses a tomographic capability not shared by either the GIR or pinhole imaging techniques. This presentation provides a brief discussion of the tomographic potential of ZPCI. In addition, the first tomographic x-ray images (tomographic resolution approximately 74 μm) of a laser produced plasma are presented

  18. Laser speckle imaging of rat retinal blood flow with hybrid temporal and spatial analysis method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Haiying; Yan, Yumei; Duong, Timothy Q.

    2009-02-01

    Noninvasive monitoring of blood flow in retinal circulation will reveal the progression and treatment of ocular disorders, such as diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration and glaucoma. A non-invasive and direct BF measurement technique with high spatial-temporal resolution is needed for retinal imaging. Laser speckle imaging (LSI) is such a method. Currently, there are two analysis methods for LSI: spatial statistics LSI (SS-LSI) and temporal statistical LSI (TS-LSI). Comparing these two analysis methods, SS-LSI has higher signal to noise ratio (SNR) and TSLSI is less susceptible to artifacts from stationary speckle. We proposed a hybrid temporal and spatial analysis method (HTS-LSI) to measure the retinal blood flow. Gas challenge experiment was performed and images were analyzed by HTS-LSI. Results showed that HTS-LSI can not only remove the stationary speckle but also increase the SNR. Under 100% O2, retinal BF decreased by 20-30%. This was consistent with the results observed with laser Doppler technique. As retinal blood flow is a critical physiological parameter and its perturbation has been implicated in the early stages of many retinal diseases, HTS-LSI will be an efficient method in early detection of retina diseases.

  19. Velocity map imaging of attosecond and femtosecond dynamics in atoms and small molecules in strong laser fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kling, M.F.; Ni, Yongfeng; Lepine, F.; Khan, J.I.; Vrakking, M.J.J.; Johnsson, P.; Remetter, T.; Varju, K.; Gustafsson, E.; L'Huillier, A.; Lopez-Martens, R.; Boutu, W.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: In the past decade, the dynamics of atomic and small molecular systems in strong laser fields has received enormous attention, but was mainly studied with femtosecond laser fields. We report on first applications of attosecond extreme ultraviolet (XUV) pulse trains (APTs) from high-order harmonic generation (HHG) for the study of atomic and molecular electron and ion dynamics in strong laser fields utilizing the Velocity Map Imaging Technique. The APTs were generated in argon from harmonics 13 to 35 of a 35 fs Ti:sapphire laser, and spatially and temporally overlapped with an intense IR laser field (up to 5x10 13 W/cm 2 ) in the interaction region of a Velocity Map Imaging (VMI) machine. In the VMI setup, electrons and ions that were created at the crossing point of the laser fields and an atomic or molecular beam were accelerated in a dc-electric field towards a two-dimensional position-sensitive detector, allowing to reconstruct the full initial three-dimensional velocity distribution. The poster will focus on results that were obtained for argon atoms. We recorded the velocity distribution of electron wave packets that were strongly driven in the IR laser field after their generation in Ar via single-photon ionization by attosecond XUV pulses. The 3D evolution of the electron wave packets was observed on an attosecond timescale. In addition to earlier experiments with APTs using a magnetic bottle electron time-of-flight spectrometers and with single attosecond pulses, the angular dependence of the electrons kinetic energies can give further insight into the details of the dynamics. Initial results that were obtained for molecular systems like H 2 , D 2 , N 2 , and CO 2 using the same powerful approach will be highlighted as well. We will show, that detailed insight into the dynamics of these systems in strong laser fields can be obtained (e.g. on the alignment, above-threshold ionization, direct vs. sequential two-photon ionization, dissociation, and

  20. Small scale soft x-ray lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, C.H.; DiCicco, D.S.; Kim, D.; Voorhees, D.; Suckewer, S.

    1990-01-01

    The widespread application of soft x-ray laser technology is contingent on the development of small scale soft x-ray lasers that do not require large laser facilities. Progress in the development of soft x-ray lasers pumped by a Nd laser of energy 6-12J is reported below. Application of an existing soft x-ray laser to x-ray microscopy has begun. A soft x-ray laser of output energy 1-3 mJ at 18,2 nm has been used to record high resolution images of biological specimens. The contact images were recorded on photoresist which was later viewed in a scanning electron microscope. The authors present a composite optical x-ray laser microscope design

  1. Ultrafast Coherent Diffraction Imaging with X-ray Free-Electron Lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, H N; Bajt, S; Barty, A; Benner, W; Bogan, M; Frank, M; Hau-Riege, S; London, R; Marchesini, S; Spiller, E; Szoke, A; Woods, B; Boutet, S; Hodgson, K; Hajdu, J; Bergh, M; Burmeister, F; Caleman, C; Huldt, G; Maia, F; Seibert, M M; der Spoel, D v

    2006-01-01

    The ultrafast pulses from X-ray free-electron lasers will enable imaging of non-periodic objects at near-atomic resolution [1, Neutze]. These objects could include single molecules, protein complexes, or virus particles. The specimen would be completely destroyed by the pulse in a Coulomb explosion, but that destruction will only happen after the pulse. The scattering from the sample will give structural information about the undamaged object. There are many technical challenges that must be addressed before carrying out such experiments at an XFEL, which we are doing so with experiments at FLASH, the soft-X-ray FEL at DESY

  2. Near-Infrared Confocal Laser Reflectance Cytoarchitectural Imaging of the Substantia Nigra and Cerebellum in the Fresh Human Cadaver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheyuo, Cletus; Grand, Walter; Balos, Lucia L

    2017-01-01

    Cytoarchitectural neuroimaging remains critical for diagnosis of many brain diseases. Fluorescent dye-enhanced, near-infrared confocal in situ cellular imaging of the brain has been reported. However, impermeability of the blood-brain barrier to most fluorescent dyes limits clinical utility of this modality. The differential degree of reflectance from brain tissue with unenhanced near-infrared imaging may represent an alternative technique for in situ cytoarchitectural neuroimaging. We assessed the utility of unenhanced near-infrared confocal laser reflectance imaging of the cytoarchitecture of the cerebellum and substantia nigra in 2 fresh human cadaver brains using a confocal near-infrared laser probe. Cellular images based on near-infrared differential reflectance were captured at depths of 20-180 μm from the brain surface. Parts of the cerebellum and substantia nigra imaged using the probe were subsequently excised and stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histologic correlation. Near-infrared reflectance imaging revealed the 3-layered cytoarchitecture of the cerebellum, with Purkinje cells appearing hyperreflectant. In the substantia nigra, neurons appeared hyporeflectant with hyperreflectant neuromelanin cytoplasmic inclusions. Cytoarchitecture of the cerebellum and substantia nigra revealed on near-infrared imaging closely correlated with the histology on hematoxylin-eosin staining. We showed that unenhanced near-infrared reflectance imaging of fresh human cadaver brain can reliably identify and distinguish neurons and detailed cytoarchitecture of the cerebellum and substantia nigra. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Contactless respiratory monitoring system for magnetic resonance imaging applications using a laser range sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krug Johannes W.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available During a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI exam, a respiratory signal can be required for different purposes, e.g. for patient monitoring, motion compensation or for research studies such as in functional MRI. In addition, respiratory information can be used as a biofeedback for the patient in order to control breath holds or shallow breathing. To reduce patient preparation time or distortions of the MR imaging system, we propose the use of a contactless approach for gathering information about the respiratory activity. An experimental setup based on a commercially available laser range sensor was used to detect respiratory induced motion of the chest or abdomen. This setup was tested using a motion phantom and different human subjects in an MRI scanner. A nasal airflow sensor served as a reference. For both, the phantom as well as the different human subjects, the motion frequency was precisely measured. These results show that a low cost, contactless, laser-based approach can be used to obtain information about the respiratory motion during an MRI exam.

  4. Multi-image encryption based on synchronization of chaotic lasers and iris authentication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Santo; Mukhopadhyay, Sumona; Rondoni, Lamberto

    2012-07-01

    A new technique of transmitting encrypted combinations of gray scaled and chromatic images using chaotic lasers derived from Maxwell-Bloch's equations has been proposed. This novel scheme utilizes the general method of solution of a set of linear equations to transmit similar sized heterogeneous images which are a combination of monochrome and chromatic images. The chaos encrypted gray scaled images are concatenated along the three color planes resulting in color images. These are then transmitted over a secure channel along with a cover image which is an iris scan. The entire cryptology is augmented with an iris-based authentication scheme. The secret messages are retrieved once the authentication is successful. The objective of our work is briefly outlined as (a) the biometric information is the iris which is encrypted before transmission, (b) the iris is used for personal identification and verifying for message integrity, (c) the information is transmitted securely which are colored images resulting from a combination of gray images, (d) each of the images transmitted are encrypted through chaos based cryptography, (e) these encrypted multiple images are then coupled with the iris through linear combination of images before being communicated over the network. The several layers of encryption together with the ergodicity and randomness of chaos render enough confusion and diffusion properties which guarantee a fool-proof approach in achieving secure communication as demonstrated by exhaustive statistical methods. The result is vital from the perspective of opening a fundamental new dimension in multiplexing and simultaneous transmission of several monochromatic and chromatic images along with biometry based authentication and cryptography.

  5. Automated detection of delamination and disbond from wavefield images obtained using a scanning laser vibrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, H; Yang, J Y; Dutta, D; DeSimio, M; Olson, S; Swenson, E

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents signal and image processing algorithms to automatically detect delamination and disbond in composite plates from wavefield images obtained using a scanning laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV). Lamb waves are excited by a lead zirconate titanate transducer (PZT) mounted on the surface of a composite plate, and the out-of-plane velocity field is measured using an LDV. From the scanned time signals, wavefield images are constructed and processed to study the interaction of Lamb waves with hidden delaminations and disbonds. In particular, the frequency–wavenumber (f–k) domain filter and the Laplacian image filter are used to enhance the visibility of defects in the scanned images. Thereafter, a statistical cluster detection algorithm is used to identify the defect location and distinguish damaged specimens from undamaged ones

  6. First set of gated x-ray imaging diagnostics for the Laser Megajoule facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosch, R.; Trosseille, C.; Caillaud, T.; Allouche, V.; Bourgade, J. L.; Briat, M.; Brunel, P.; Burillo, M.; Casner, A.; Depierreux, S.; Gontier, D.; Jadaud, J. P.; Le Breton, J. P.; Llavador, P.; Loupias, B.; Miquel, J. L.; Oudot, G.; Perez, S.; Raimbourg, J.; Rousseau, A. [CEA-DAM Ile de France, Bruyères-le-Châtel, 91297 Arpajon Cedex (France); and others

    2016-03-15

    The Laser Megajoule (LMJ) facility located at CEA/CESTA started to operate in the early 2014 with two quadruplets (20 kJ at 351 nm) focused on target for the first experimental campaign. We present here the first set of gated x-ray imaging (GXI) diagnostics implemented on LMJ since mid-2014. This set consists of two imaging diagnostics with spatial, temporal, and broadband spectral resolution. These diagnostics will give basic measurements, during the entire life of the facility, such as position, structure, and balance of beams, but they will also be used to characterize gas filled target implosion symmetry and timing, to study x-ray radiography and hydrodynamic instabilities. The design requires a vulnerability approach, because components will operate in a harsh environment induced by neutron fluxes, gamma rays, debris, and shrapnel. Grazing incidence x-ray microscopes are fielded as far as possible away from the target to minimize potential damage and signal noise due to these sources. These imaging diagnostics incorporate microscopes with large source-to-optic distance and large size gated microchannel plate detectors. Microscopes include optics with grazing incidence mirrors, pinholes, and refractive lenses. Spatial, temporal, and spectral performances have been measured on x-ray tubes and UV lasers at CEA-DIF and at Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt BESSY II synchrotron prior to be set on LMJ. GXI-1 and GXI-2 designs, metrology, and first experiments on LMJ are presented here.

  7. Computer modeling of the optical properties and heating of spherical gold and silica-gold nanoparticles for laser combined imaging and photothermal treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pustovalov, V; Astafyeva, L; Jean, B

    2009-01-01

    Recently, several groups of investigators (Anderson, Halas, Zharov, El-Sayed and their co-workers (Pitsillides et al 2003 Biophys. J. 84 4023-31, Zharov et al 2003 Appl. Phys. Lett. 83 4897-9, Zharov et al 2004 Proc. SPIE 5319 291-9, Loo et al 2005 Nano Lett. 5 709-11, Gobin et al 2007 Nano Lett. 7 1929-34, Fu et al 2008 Nanotechnology 19 045103, Huang et al 2006 J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128 2115-20, Jain et al 2006 J. Phys. Chem. B 110 7238-48, Jain et al 2007 Nano Today 2 18-29)) demonstrated, through pioneering results, the great potential of laser thermal therapy of cells and tissues conjugated with gold nanoparticles. It was also proposed to use combined diagnostics and therapy on the basis of nanoparticle selection for achievement of efficient contrast for laser imaging applications, as well as for photothermal therapy. However, the current understanding of the relationship between optical properties (absorption, backscattering) of nanoparticles, the efficiency of nanoparticle heating and the possibility to use them for combined imaging and therapy is limited. Here, we report the results of computer modeling of optical absorption and backscattering properties and laser heating of gold and silica-gold spherical nanoparticles for laser combined imaging and photothermal treatment of cells and tissues conjugated with nanoparticles. The efficiencies of nanoparticle heating and backscattering by nanoparticles, depending upon their radii, structure and optical properties of the metal, were investigated. This paper focuses on the analysis and determination of appropriate ranges of nanoparticle sizes for the purposes of laser combined imaging and photothermal treatment. The possibility to use spherical gold and silica-gold nanoparticles in determined ranges of radii for these purposes for laser wavelengths 532 and 800 nm is investigated.

  8. Comments on advanced, time-resolved imaging techniques for free-electron laser (FEL) experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumpkin, A.H.

    1992-01-01

    An extensive set of time-resolved imaging experiments has been performed on rf-linac driven free-electron lasers (FELs) over the past few years. These experiments have addressed both micropulse and macropulse timescales on both the charged-particle beam and the wiggler/undulator outputs (spontaneous emission and lasing). A brief review of first measurements on photoinjecter micropulse elongation, submacropulse phase slew in drive lasers, submacropulse wavelength shifts in lasers, etc. is presented. This is followed by discussions of new measurements of 35-MeV electron beam micropulse bunch length (<10 ps) using optical transition radiation, some of the first single bend synchrotron radiation beam profile measurements at gamma <80, and comments on the low-jitter synchroscan streak camera tuner. These techniques will be further developed on the 200-650 MeV linac test stand at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) in the next few years. Such techniques should be adaptable to many of the present FEL designs and to some aspects of the next generation of light sources.

  9. Comments on advanced, time-resolved imaging techniques for free-electron laser (FEL) experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumpkin, A.H.

    1992-11-01

    An extensive set of time-resolved imaging experiments has been performed on rf-linac driven free-electron lasers (FELs) over the past few years. These experiments have addressed both micropulse and macropulse timescales on both the charged-particle beam and the wiggler/undulator outputs (spontaneous emission and lasing). A brief review of first measurements on photoinjecter micropulse elongation, submacropulse phase slew in drive lasers, submacropulse wavelength shifts in lasers, etc. is presented. This is followed by discussions of new measurements of 35-MeV electron beam micropulse bunch length (<10 ps) using optical transition radiation, some of the first single bend synchrotron radiation beam profile measurements at gamma <80, and comments on the low-jitter synchroscan streak camera tuner. These techniques will be further developed on the 200-650 MeV linac test stand at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) in the next few years. Such techniques should be adaptable to many of the present FEL designs and to some aspects of the next generation of light sources.

  10. A linear systems description of the CO2 laser based tangential imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, E.L.J.; Nazikian, R.

    1995-01-01

    We demonstrate that the phase variation produced by the projection of the density fluctuations onto a laser beam that is aligned tangent to the magnetic field lines in a toroidal plasma, is in fact a convolution of the density fluctuation profile in the tangency plane with a shift-invariant point spread function. Thus a spatial filter can be used to invert the corresponding transfer function to produce an undistorted image of the plasma density fluctuations at the tangency plane. Numerical simulations demonstrate that a spatial filter consisting of a simple and versatile step-function form of a Zernike phase mirror, will recover a reasonably accurate image of the fluctuations

  11. Time-resolved imaging of flyer dynamics for femtosecond laser-induced backward transfer of solid polymer thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feinaeugle, M., E-mail: m.feinaeugle@utwente.nl [Optoelectronics Research Centre, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Gregorčič, P. [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Aškerčeva 6, 1000, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Heath, D.J. [Optoelectronics Research Centre, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Mills, B., E-mail: bm602@orc.soton.ac.uk [Optoelectronics Research Centre, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Eason, R.W. [Optoelectronics Research Centre, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • Laser-induced backward transfer was investigated by time-resolved shadowgraphy. • Flyer velocity was a function of carrier, donor thickness, delay and fluence. • We investigated the fluence window for intact transfer and the role of the receiver. • Donor-crater profile variation was studied for different ejection regimes. • Conditions for intact and fragmented flyers were determined. - Abstract: We have studied the transfer regimes and dynamics of polymer flyers from laser-induced backward transfer (LIBT) via time-resolved shadowgraphy. Imaging of the flyer ejection phase of LIBT of 3.8 μm and 6.4 μm thick SU-8 polymer films on germanium and silicon carrier substrates was performed over a time delay range of 1.4–16.4 μs after arrival of the laser pulse. The experiments were carried out with 150 fs, 800 nm pulses spatially shaped using a digital micromirror device, and laser fluences of up to 3.5 J/cm{sup 2} while images were recorded via a CCD camera and a spark discharge lamp. Velocities of flyers found in the range of 6–20 m/s, and the intact and fragmented ejection regimes, were a function of donor thickness, carrier and laser fluence. The crater profile of the donor after transfer and the resulting flyer profile indicated different flyer ejection modes for Si carriers and high fluences. The results contribute to better understanding of the LIBT process, and help to determine experimental parameters for successful LIBT of intact deposits.

  12. Control of Porosity and Spatter in Laser Welding of Thick AlMg5 Parts Using High-Speed Imaging and Optical Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei C. Popescu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We report on a feedback mechanism for rapid identification of optimal laser parameters during welding of AlMg5 coupons using real-time monitoring by high-speed imaging. The purpose was to constrain the liquid movement in the groove in order to obtain pore-free welds in this otherwise difficult-to-weld alloy. High-speed imaging of the welding process via an optical microscope allowed for recording at millimeter level, providing new information on liquid-metal dynamics during laser irradiation as well as plausible explanations for spatter occurrence and pores formation. The pore formation and especially the position of these pores had to be controlled in order to weld 3 mm thick samples. By tuning both laser power and pulse duration, pores were aligned on a single line, at the bottom of the weld. A laser pass of reduced power on that side was then sufficient for removing all pores and providing a suitable weld.

  13. Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy in fundus imaging, a review and update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Zhang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (AO-SLO has been a promising technique in funds imaging with growing popularity. This review firstly gives a brief history of adaptive optics (AO and AO-SLO. Then it compares AO-SLO with conventional imaging methods (fundus fluorescein angiography, fundus autofluorescence, indocyanine green angiography and optical coherence tomography and other AO techniques (adaptive optics flood-illumination ophthalmoscopy and adaptive optics optical coherence tomography. Furthermore, an update of current research situation in AO-SLO is made based on different fundus structures as photoreceptors (cones and rods, fundus vessels, retinal pigment epithelium layer, retinal nerve fiber layer, ganglion cell layer and lamina cribrosa. Finally, this review indicates possible research directions of AO-SLO in future.

  14. A prototype distributed object-oriented architecture for image-based automatic laser alignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stout, E.A.; Kamm, V.J.M.; Spann, J.M.; Van Arsdall, P.J.

    1996-01-01

    Designing a computer control system for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a complex undertaking because of the system's large size and its distributed nature. The controls team is addressing that complexity by adopting the object-oriented programming paradigm, designing reusable software frameworks, and using the Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) for distribution. A prototype system for image-based automatic laser alignment has been developed to evaluate and gain experience with CORBA and OOP in a small distributed system. The prototype is also important in evaluating alignment concepts, image processing techniques, speed and accuracy of automatic alignment objectives for the NIF, and control hardware for aligment devices. The prototype system has met its inital objectives and provides a basis for continued development

  15. Characterization of laser-produced plasma density profiles using grid image refractometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craxton, R.S.; Turner, F.S.; Hoefen, R.; Darrow, C.; Gabl, E.F.; Busch, G.E.

    1993-01-01

    Grid image refractometry (GIR) is proposed as a technique for determining the two-dimensional density profiles of long scale-length laser-produced plasmas. Its distinctive feature is that an optical probe beam is broken up into ''rays'' by being passed through a grid before traversing the plasma. The refraction angles of the rays are measured by imaging the plasma at two or more object planes and are integrated to yield the phase front. For cylindrically symmetric plasmas the density profile is then determined using Abel inversion. The feasibility of GIR is illustrated by an experiment in which a thick CH target was irradiated with ∼100 J of 527 nm radiation and diagnosed with a 20 ps, 263 nm probe. The resulting density profile is substantially larger than any that have previously been reported using interferometry and compares quite closely with hydrodynamic simulations

  16. Faster scannerless GLR parsing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Economopoulos, G.R.; Klint, P.; Vinju, J.J.; Moor, de O.; Schwartzbach, M.I.

    2009-01-01

    Analysis and renovation of large software portfolios requires syntax analysis of multiple, usually embedded, languages and this is beyond the capabilities of many standard parsing techniques. The traditional separation between lexer and parser falls short due to the limitations of tokenization based

  17. Faster Scannerless GLR parsing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J. Vinju (Jurgen); G.R. Economopoulos (Giorgos Robert); P. Klint (Paul)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractAnalysis and renovation of large software portfolios requires syntax analysis of multiple, usually embedded, languages and this is beyond the capabilities of many standard parsing techniques. The traditional separation between lexer and parser falls short due to the limitations of

  18. Faster scannerless GLR parsing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.R. Economopoulos (Giorgos Robert); P. Klint (Paul); J.J. Vinju (Jurgen); O. de Moor; M.I. Schwartzbach

    2009-01-01

    textabstractAnalysis and renovation of large software portfolios requires syntax analysis of multiple, usually embedded, languages and this is beyond the capabilities of many standard parsing techniques. The traditional separation between lexer and parser falls short due to the limitations of

  19. Laser Doppler Blood Flow Imaging Using a CMOS Imaging Sensor with On-Chip Signal Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cally Gill

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The first fully integrated 2D CMOS imaging sensor with on-chip signal processing for applications in laser Doppler blood flow (LDBF imaging has been designed and tested. To obtain a space efficient design over 64 × 64 pixels means that standard processing electronics used off-chip cannot be implemented. Therefore the analog signal processing at each pixel is a tailored design for LDBF signals with balanced optimization for signal-to-noise ratio and silicon area. This custom made sensor offers key advantages over conventional sensors, viz. the analog signal processing at the pixel level carries out signal normalization; the AC amplification in combination with an anti-aliasing filter allows analog-to-digital conversion with a low number of bits; low resource implementation of the digital processor enables on-chip processing and the data bottleneck that exists between the detector and processing electronics has been overcome. The sensor demonstrates good agreement with simulation at each design stage. The measured optical performance of the sensor is demonstrated using modulated light signals and in vivo blood flow experiments. Images showing blood flow changes with arterial occlusion and an inflammatory response to a histamine skin-prick demonstrate that the sensor array is capable of detecting blood flow signals from tissue.

  20. Laser doppler blood flow imaging using a CMOS imaging sensor with on-chip signal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Diwei; Nguyen, Hoang C; Hayes-Gill, Barrie R; Zhu, Yiqun; Crowe, John A; Gill, Cally; Clough, Geraldine F; Morgan, Stephen P

    2013-09-18

    The first fully integrated 2D CMOS imaging sensor with on-chip signal processing for applications in laser Doppler blood flow (LDBF) imaging has been designed and tested. To obtain a space efficient design over 64 × 64 pixels means that standard processing electronics used off-chip cannot be implemented. Therefore the analog signal processing at each pixel is a tailored design for LDBF signals with balanced optimization for signal-to-noise ratio and silicon area. This custom made sensor offers key advantages over conventional sensors, viz. the analog signal processing at the pixel level carries out signal normalization; the AC amplification in combination with an anti-aliasing filter allows analog-to-digital conversion with a low number of bits; low resource implementation of the digital processor enables on-chip processing and the data bottleneck that exists between the detector and processing electronics has been overcome. The sensor demonstrates good agreement with simulation at each design stage. The measured optical performance of the sensor is demonstrated using modulated light signals and in vivo blood flow experiments. Images showing blood flow changes with arterial occlusion and an inflammatory response to a histamine skin-prick demonstrate that the sensor array is capable of detecting blood flow signals from tissue.

  1. Effect of static scatterers in laser speckle contrast imaging: an experimental study on correlation and contrast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Pedro G.; Humeau-Heurtier, Anne; Figueiras, Edite; Correia, Carlos; Cardoso, João

    2018-01-01

    Laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) is a non-invasive microvascular blood flow assessment technique with good temporal and spatial resolution. Most LSCI systems, including commercial devices, can perform only qualitative blood flow evaluation, which is a major limitation of this technique. There are several factors that prevent the utilization of LSCI as a quantitative technique. Among these factors, we can highlight the effect of static scatterers. The goal of this work was to study the influence of differences in static and dynamic scatterer concentration on laser speckle correlation and contrast. In order to achieve this, a laser speckle prototype was developed and tested using an optical phantom with various concentrations of static and dynamic scatterers. It was found that the laser speckle correlation could be used to estimate the relative concentration of static/dynamic scatterers within a sample. Moreover, the speckle correlation proved to be independent of the dynamic scatterer velocity, which is a fundamental characteristic to be used in contrast correction.

  2. Distribution of Fe atom density in a dc magnetron sputtering plasma source measured by laser-induced fluorescence imaging spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibagaki, K.; Nafarizal, N.; Sasaki, K.; Toyoda, H.; Iwata, S.; Kato, T.; Tsunashima, S.; Sugai, H.

    2003-10-01

    Magnetron sputtering discharge is widely used as an efficient method for thin film fabrication. In order to achieve the optimized fabrication, understanding of the kinetics in plasmas is essential. In the present work, we measured the density distribution of sputtered Fe atoms using laser-induced fluorescence imaging spectroscopy. A dc magnetron plasma source with a Fe target was used. An area of 20 × 2 mm in front of the target was irradiated by a tunable laser beam having a planar shape. The picture of laser-induced fluorescence on the laser beam was taken using an ICCD camera. In this way, we obtained the two-dimensional image of the Fe atom density. As a result, it has been found that the Fe atom density observed at a distance of several centimeters from the target is higher than that adjacent to the target, when the Ar gas pressure was relatively high. It is suggested from this result that some gas-phase production processes of Fe atoms are available in the plasma. This work has been performed under the 21st Century COE Program by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in Japan.

  3. Optical fibre laser velocimetry: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charrett, Thomas O H; James, Stephen W; Tatam, Ralph P

    2012-01-01

    The applications of optical fibre technology to laser velocimetry are diverse and often critical to their successful implementation, particularly in harsh environments. Applications range from the use of optical fibres for beam delivery and scattered light collection, aiding the miniaturization of instrument probes, to the use of imaging fibre bundles for imaging the flow field in planar velocimetry systems. Optical fibre techniques have also been used in signal processing, for example fibre frequency shifters, and optical fibre devices such as amplifiers and lasers have been exploited. This paper will review the use of optical fibres in point-wise laser velocimetry techniques such as laser Doppler velocimetry and laser transit anemometry, as well as in planar measurement techniques such as particle imaging velocimetry and planar Doppler velocimetry. (topical review)

  4. Three-dimensional imaging of porous media using confocal laser scanning microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, S M; Crawshaw, J P; Boek, E S

    2017-02-01

    In the last decade, imaging techniques capable of reconstructing three-dimensional (3-D) pore-scale model have played a pivotal role in the study of fluid flow through complex porous media. In this study, we present advances in the application of confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) to image, reconstruct and characterize complex porous geological materials with hydrocarbon reservoir and CO 2 storage potential. CLSM has a unique capability of producing 3-D thin optical sections of a material, with a wide field of view and submicron resolution in the lateral and axial planes. However, CLSM is limited in the depth (z-dimension) that can be imaged in porous materials. In this study, we introduce a 'grind and slice' technique to overcome this limitation. We discuss the practical and technical aspects of the confocal imaging technique with application to complex rock samples including Mt. Gambier and Ketton carbonates. We then describe the complete workflow of image processing to filtering and segmenting the raw 3-D confocal volumetric data into pores and grains. Finally, we use the resulting 3-D pore-scale binarized confocal data obtained to quantitatively determine petrophysical pore-scale properties such as total porosity, macro- and microporosity and single-phase permeability using lattice Boltzmann (LB) simulations, validated by experiments. © 2016 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2016 Royal Microscopical Society.

  5. Spin-image surface matching based target recognition in laser radar range imagery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Wang; Jian-Feng, Sun; Qi, Wang

    2010-01-01

    We explore the problem of in-plane rotation-invariance existing in the vertical detection of laser radar (Ladar) using the algorithm of spin-image surface matching. The method used to recognize the target in the range imagery of Ladar is time-consuming, owing to its complicated procedure, which violates the requirement of real-time target recognition in practical applications. To simplify the troublesome procedures, we improve the spin-image algorithm by introducing a statistical correlated coefficient into target recognition in range imagery of Ladar. The system performance is demonstrated on sixteen simulated noise range images with targets rotated through an arbitrary angle in plane. A high efficiency and an acceptable recognition rate obtained herein testify the validity of the improved algorithm for practical applications. The proposed algorithm not only solves the problem of in-plane rotation-invariance rationally, but also meets the real-time requirement. This paper ends with a comparison of the proposed method and the previous one. (classical areas of phenomenology)

  6. Quantitative, depth-resolved determination of particle motion using multi-exposure, spatial frequency domain laser speckle imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Tyler B; Kwan, Elliott; Hayakawa, Carole K; Durkin, Anthony J; Choi, Bernard; Tromberg, Bruce J

    2013-01-01

    Laser Speckle Imaging (LSI) is a simple, noninvasive technique for rapid imaging of particle motion in scattering media such as biological tissue. LSI is generally used to derive a qualitative index of relative blood flow due to unknown impact from several variables that affect speckle contrast. These variables may include optical absorption and scattering coefficients, multi-layer dynamics including static, non-ergodic regions, and systematic effects such as laser coherence length. In order to account for these effects and move toward quantitative, depth-resolved LSI, we have developed a method that combines Monte Carlo modeling, multi-exposure speckle imaging (MESI), spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI), and careful instrument calibration. Monte Carlo models were used to generate total and layer-specific fractional momentum transfer distributions. This information was used to predict speckle contrast as a function of exposure time, spatial frequency, layer thickness, and layer dynamics. To verify with experimental data, controlled phantom experiments with characteristic tissue optical properties were performed using a structured light speckle imaging system. Three main geometries were explored: 1) diffusive dynamic layer beneath a static layer, 2) static layer beneath a diffuse dynamic layer, and 3) directed flow (tube) submerged in a dynamic scattering layer. Data fits were performed using the Monte Carlo model, which accurately reconstructed the type of particle flow (diffusive or directed) in each layer, the layer thickness, and absolute flow speeds to within 15% or better.

  7. Detector for imaging and dosimetry of laser-driven epithermal neutrons by alpha conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirfayzi, S. R.; Alejo, A.; Ahmed, H.; Wilson, L. A.; Ansell, S.; Armstrong, C.; Butler, N. M. H.; Clarke, R. J.; Higginson, A.; Notley, M.; Raspino, D.; Rusby, D. R.; Borghesi, M.; Rhodes, N. J.; McKenna, P.; Neely, D.; Brenner, C. M.; Kar, S.

    2016-10-01

    An epithermal neutron imager based on detecting alpha particles created via boron neutron capture mechanism is discussed. The diagnostic mainly consists of a mm thick Boron Nitride (BN) sheet (as an alpha converter) in contact with a non-borated cellulose nitride film (LR115 type-II) detector. While the BN absorbs the neutrons in the thermal and epithermal ranges, the fast neutrons register insignificantly on the detector due to their low neutron capture and recoil cross-sections. The use of solid-state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD), unlike image plates, micro-channel plates and scintillators, provide safeguard from the x-rays, gamma-rays and electrons. The diagnostic was tested on a proof-of-principle basis, in front of a laser driven source of moderated neutrons, which suggests the potential of using this diagnostic (BN+SSNTD) for dosimetry and imaging applications.

  8. Short pulse laser systems for biomedical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mitra, Kunal

    2017-01-01

    This book presents practical information on the clinical applications of short pulse laser systems and the techniques for optimizing these applications in a manner that will be relevant to a broad audience, including engineering and medical students as well as researchers, clinicians, and technicians. Short pulse laser systems are useful for both subsurface tissue imaging and laser induced thermal therapy (LITT), which hold great promise in cancer diagnostics and treatment. Such laser systems may be used alone or in combination with optically active nanoparticles specifically administered to the tissues of interest for enhanced contrast in imaging and precise heating during LITT. Mathematical and computational models of short pulse laser-tissue interactions that consider the transient radiative transport equation coupled with a bio-heat equation considering the initial transients of laser heating were developed to analyze the laser-tissue interaction during imaging and therapy. Experiments were first performe...

  9. Incorporation of a laser range scanner into image-guided liver surgery: Surface acquisition, registration, and tracking

    OpenAIRE

    Cash, David M.; Sinha, Tuhin K.; Chapman, William C.; Terawaki, Hiromi; Dawant, Benoit M.; Galloway, Robert L.; Miga, Michael I.

    2003-01-01

    As image guided surgical procedures become increasingly diverse, there will be more scenarios where point-based fiducials cannot be accurately localized for registration and rigid body assumptions no longer hold. As a result, procedures will rely more frequently on anatomical surfaces for the basis of image alignment and will require intraoperative geometric data to measure and compensate for tissue deformation in the organ. In this paper we outline methods for which a laser range scanner may...

  10. Proton radiography using highpower femtosecond laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Chang Il

    2010-08-01

    A femtosecond laser emits pulses whose width is between few and few hundreds femtoseconds (10 -15 s). The production mechanism of the high energy protons generated by the femtosecond laser is not clear so far, but the technologies have been improving. The applications using the generated protons are the proton therapy, proton radiography, nuclear physics, security inspection, and so on. Especially in the radiography, the laser-generated protons are very useful to obtain high quality images of thin objects, because protons are able to penetrate an object following an almost straight path and give a depth distribution information of various elements in a subject. Since the laser-driven protons require lower cost and smaller facility than accelerator-based protons, the radiography using laser-driven protons have been of interest. In this research, we have performed the radiography experiments by using protons generated by the 100 TW titanium sapphire femtosecond laser facility of Advanced Photonics Research Institute (APRI) of Gwangju Institute of Science Technology (GIST). A CR-39 Solid State Nuclear Track Detector (SSNTD) has been used as radiography screen. The radiography digital images have been obtained by using an optical microscope and a CCD camera. Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) has been derived from analyzing the obtained images, and the spatial resolution of the images have been evaluated. And, we have performed the radiography experiments of monoenergetic proton from the Tandem Van de Graaff accelerator of Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM). We have obtained and compared the radiography images from other proton production methods which are the laser and the accelerator, respectively. And also, we have found out the optimized chemical etching condition, in order to improve the spatial resolution of the radiography images. Finally, the evaluated maximum spatial resolution of the images are 2.09 μm

  11. Development of high repetition rate nitric oxide planar laser induced fluorescence imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Naibo

    have obtained, for the first time by any known optical method, Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) image sequences at ultrahigh (≥100kHz) frame rates, in particular NO PLIF image sequences, have been obtained in a Mach 2 jet. We also studied the possibility of utilizing a 250 kHz pulsed Nd:YVO 4 laser as the master oscillator. 10-pulse-10-mus spacing burst sequences with reasonably uniform burst envelope have been obtained. The total energy of the burst sequence is ˜2.5J.

  12. Laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry for direct profiling and imaging of small molecules from raw biological materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Sangwon [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization(MALDI) mass spectrometry(MS) has been widely used for analysis of biological molecules, especially macromolecules such as proteins. However, MALDI MS has a problem in small molecule (less than 1 kDa) analysis because of the signal saturation by organic matrixes in the low mass region. In imaging MS (IMS), inhomogeneous surface formation due to the co-crystallization process by organic MALDI matrixes limits the spatial resolution of the mass spectral image. Therefore, to make laser desorption/ionization (LDI) MS more suitable for mass spectral profiling and imaging of small molecules directly from raw biological tissues, LDI MS protocols with various alternative assisting materials were developed and applied to many biological systems of interest. Colloidal graphite was used as a matrix for IMS of small molecules for the first time and methodologies for analyses of small metabolites in rat brain tissues, fruits, and plant tissues were developed. With rat brain tissues, the signal enhancement for cerebroside species by colloidal graphite was observed and images of cerebrosides were successfully generated by IMS. In addition, separation of isobaric lipid ions was performed by imaging tandem MS. Directly from Arabidopsis flowers, flavonoids were successfully profiled and heterogeneous distribution of flavonoids in petals was observed for the first time by graphite-assisted LDI(GALDI) IMS.

  13. Evaluation of pulsed laser holograms of flashing sprays by digital image processing and holographic particle image velocimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldmann, O.; Gebhard, P.; Mayinger, F.

    1998-01-01

    This study deals with the application of the pulsed laser holography and the digital image processing in the analysis of flashing sprays. Both the information about the macroscopic structures of a spray, such as the breakup-length and the spray-angle, and about its microscopic structures, such as the number, the size, and the location of the generated droplets is stored three-dimensionally on a single pulsed hologram. In addition to that, the velocity of the droplets can be obtained from double pulsed holograms. In every experiment, two holograms are taken, resulting in two three-dimensional reconstructions of the test section, seen from different directions. These reconstructions are scanned by video-cameras with a small depth of field and subdivided into several two-dimensional images. These images are digitized and binarized, and the information about the droplets depicted sharply on each image is saved. In case of a double pulsed hologram, a Fourier-analysis based algorithm creates a search volume to determine the droplets' second position and thus their velocity in each view. A stereo matching modulus correlates both views and determines the position and/or the velocity of each droplet highly accurate. The applicability of the employed holographic technique and the filtering and correlating moduli is proven by the presented results. (author)

  14. Multicolor probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy: a new world for in vivo and real-time cellular imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercauteren, Tom; Doussoux, François; Cazaux, Matthieu; Schmid, Guillaume; Linard, Nicolas; Durin, Marie-Amélie; Gharbi, Hédi; Lacombe, François

    2013-03-01

    Since its inception in the field of in vivo imaging, endomicroscopy through optical fiber bundles, or probe-based Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy (pCLE), has extensively proven the benefit of in situ and real-time examination of living tissues at the microscopic scale. By continuously increasing image quality, reducing invasiveness and improving system ergonomics, Mauna Kea Technologies has turned pCLE not only into an irreplaceable research instrument for small animal imaging, but also into an accurate clinical decision making tool with applications as diverse as gastrointestinal endoscopy, pulmonology and urology. The current implementation of pCLE relies on a single fluorescence spectral band making different sources of in vivo information challenging to distinguish. Extending the pCLE approach to multi-color endomicroscopy therefore appears as a natural plan. Coupling simultaneous multi-laser excitation with minimally invasive, microscopic resolution, thin and flexible optics, allows the fusion of complementary and valuable biological information, thus paving the way to a combination of morphological and functional imaging. This paper will detail the architecture of a new system, Cellvizio Dual Band, capable of video rate in vivo and in situ multi-spectral fluorescence imaging with a microscopic resolution. In its standard configuration, the system simultaneously operates at 488 and 660 nm, where it automatically performs the necessary spectral, photometric and geometric calibrations to provide unambiguously co-registered images in real-time. The main hardware and software features, including calibration procedures and sub-micron registration algorithms, will be presented as well as a panorama of its current applications, illustrated with recent results in the field of pre-clinical imaging.

  15. Untangling the contributions of image charge and laser profile for optimal photoemission of high-brightness electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portman, J.; Zhang, H.; Makino, K.; Ruan, C. Y.; Berz, M.; Duxbury, P. M.

    2014-01-01

    Using our model for the simulation of photoemission of high brightness electron beams, we investigate the virtual cathode physics and the limits to spatio-temporal and spectroscopic resolution originating from the image charge on the surface and from the profile of the exciting laser pulse. By contrasting the effect of varying surface properties (leading to expanding or pinned image charge), laser profiles (Gaussian, uniform, and elliptical), and aspect ratios (pancake- and cigar-like) under different extraction field strengths and numbers of generated electrons, we quantify the effect of these experimental parameters on macroscopic pulse properties such as emittance, brightness (4D and 6D), coherence length, and energy spread. Based on our results, we outline optimal conditions of pulse generation for ultrafast electron microscope systems that take into account constraints on the number of generated electrons and on the required time resolution.

  16. Hydrometeor Size Distribution Measurements by Imaging the Attenuation of a Laser Spot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, John

    2013-01-01

    The optical extinction of a laser due to scattering of particles is a well-known phenomenon. In a laboratory environment, this physical principle is known as the Beer-Lambert law, and is often used to measure the concentration of scattering particles in a fluid or gas. This method has been experimentally shown to be a usable means to measure the dust density from a rocket plume interaction with the lunar surface. Using the same principles and experimental arrangement, this technique can be applied to hydrometeor size distributions, and for launch-pad operations, specifically as a passive hail detection and measurement system. Calibration of a hail monitoring system is a difficult process. In the past, it has required comparison to another means of measuring hydrometeor size and density. Using a technique recently developed for estimating the density of surface dust dispersed during a rocket landing, measuring the extinction of a laser passing through hail (or dust in the rocket case) yields an estimate of the second moment of the particle cloud, and hydrometeor size distribution in the terrestrial meteorological case. With the exception of disdrometers, instruments that measure rain and hail fall make indirect measurements of the drop-size distribution. Instruments that scatter microwaves off of hydrometeors, such as the WSR-88D (Weather Surveillance Radar 88 Doppler), vertical wind profilers, and microwave disdrometers, measure the sixth moment of the drop size distribution (DSD). By projecting a laser onto a target, changes in brightness of the laser spot against the target background during rain and hail yield a measurement of the DSD's second moment by way of the Beer-Lambert law. In order to detect the laser attenuation within the 8-bit resolution of most camera image arrays, a minimum path length is required. Depending on the intensity of the hail fall rate for moderate to heavy rainfall, a laser path length of 100 m is sufficient to measure variations in

  17. A Simple Sonication Improves Protein Signal in Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li-En; Su, Pin-Rui; Wu, Hsin-Yi; Hsu, Cheng-Chih

    2018-02-01

    Proper matrix application is crucial in obtaining high quality matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry imaging (MSI). Solvent-free sublimation was essentially introduced as an approach of homogeneous coating that gives small crystal size of the organic matrix. However, sublimation has lower extraction efficiency of analytes. Here, we present that a simple sonication step after the hydration in standard sublimation protocol significantly enhances the sensitivity of MALDI MSI. This modified procedure uses a common laboratory ultrasonicator to immobilize the analytes from tissue sections without noticeable delocalization. Improved imaging quality with additional peaks above 10 kDa in the spectra was thus obtained upon sonication treatment. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  18. Imaging micro-well proportional counters fabricated with masked UV laser ablation

    CERN Document Server

    Deines-Jones, P; Crawford, H; Hunter, S D

    2002-01-01

    The micro-well detector is a gas-proportional counter similar to the CAT (Bartol et al., J. Phys. III 6 (1996) 337) and WELL detectors (Bellazzini et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 423 (1999) 125). The micro-well is a cylindrical hole formed in the polymer substrate of commercially fabricated copper-clad flexible printed circuit board by UV laser ablation. The micro-wells are drilled at GSFC's UV laser-ablation facility. The cathode is a metal annulus that surrounds the opening of the well. The anode is a metal pad that fills the bottom of the well. Advantages of this topology include intrinsic two-dimensional sensing, thick robust electrodes, and large localized image charge on the cathodes. We have fabricated 5 cmx5 cm micro-well detectors with segmented anodes (1-d) and with both anodes and cathodes segmented (2-d), and have demonstrated: - stable, proportional operation at gas gains in excess of 30,000 in Ar- and Xe-based gases; - FWHM energy resolution of 20% at 6 keV in P-10; - preliminary 1-d spatial re...

  19. Wavelet analysis of polarization azimuths maps for laser images of myocardial tissue for the purpose of diagnosing acute coronary insufficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanchuliak, O. Ya.; Peresunko, A. P.; Bakko, Bouzan Adel; Kushnerick, L. Ya.

    2011-09-01

    This paper presents the foundations of a large scale - localized wavelet - polarization analysis - inhomogeneous laser images of histological sections of myocardial tissue. Opportunities were identified defining relations between the structures of wavelet coefficients and causes of death. The optical model of polycrystalline networks of myocardium protein fibrils is presented. The technique of determining the coordinate distribution of polarization azimuth of the points of laser images of myocardium histological sections is suggested. The results of investigating the interrelation between the values of statistical (statistical moments of the 1st-4th order) parameters are presented which characterize distributions of wavelet - coefficients polarization maps of myocardium layers and death reasons.

  20. Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Imaging Mass Spectrometry for the Investigation of Proteins and Peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnum, Kristin E.; Frappier, Sara L.; Caprioli, Richard M.

    2008-07-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS) is an excellent technology for molecular imaging because of its high data dimensionality. MS can monitor thousands of individual molecular data channels measured as mass-to-charge (m/z). We describe the use of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) MS for the image analysis of proteins, peptides, lipids, drugs, and metabolites in tissues. We discuss the basic instrumentation and sample preparation methods needed to produce high-resolution images and high image reproducibility. Matrix-addition protocols are briefly discussed along with normal operating procedures, and selected biological and medical applications of MALDI imaging MS are described. We give examples of both two- and three-dimensional imaging, including normal mouse embryo implantation, sperm maturation in mouse epididymis, protein distributions in brain sections, protein alterations as a result of drug administration, and protein changes in brain due to neurodegeneration and tumor formation. Advantages of this technology and future challenges for its improvement are discussed.

  1. Laser vision seam tracking system based on image processing and continuous convolution operator tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yanbiao; Chen, Tao

    2018-06-01

    To address the problem of low welding precision caused by the poor real-time tracking performance of common welding robots, a novel seam tracking system with excellent real-time tracking performance and high accuracy is designed based on the morphological image processing method and continuous convolution operator tracker (CCOT) object tracking algorithm. The system consists of a six-axis welding robot, a line laser sensor, and an industrial computer. This work also studies the measurement principle involved in the designed system. Through the CCOT algorithm, the weld feature points are determined in real time from the noise image during the welding process, and the 3D coordinate values of these points are obtained according to the measurement principle to control the movement of the robot and the torch in real time. Experimental results show that the sensor has a frequency of 50 Hz. The welding torch runs smoothly with a strong arc light and splash interference. Tracking error can reach ±0.2 mm, and the minimal distance between the laser stripe and the welding molten pool can reach 15 mm, which can significantly fulfill actual welding requirements.

  2. Design and realization of a hard X-ray prototype imager with spectral selection for the Laser MegaJoule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennetiere, David

    2012-01-01

    In the Laser MegaJoule (LMJ) project context, measurements need to be done by diagnostics in order to achieve ignition. Amongst these diagnostics, some of the X-ray imagers will have to observe hydrodynamics instabilities on the micron balloon surface. X-ray radiography or self-emission imaging are the techniques used to obtain such imaging. None of the existing X-ray imagers designed for LMJ is currently able to record this kind of image. The X-ray imager designed during this thesis will have to achieve a high resolution image at high energy and will have to meet all the requirements subsequent to its use on a large facility like LMJ. We have studied and optimized an already existing diagnostic: EHRXI. We have extended its covered spectral range up to 12 keV. We measured its resolution that is under 5 μm in a 1 mm diameter field of view. This diagnostic has been successfully used on laser experiments in ELFIE 100 TW and OMEGA. After analyzing the performances and weaknesses of EHRXI, we were able to design a LMJ diagnostic prototype: Merssix. This microscope will achieve a resolution under 5 μm in a 500 μm diameter field of view with a covered spectral range up to 22 keV. Merssix has been specifically designed for LMJ and adapted to fit its experimental framework. Its design allows it in particular to be used for radiography in a complex X-ray producing environment. (author) [fr

  3. Laser Doppler imaging, thermographic imaging, and tissue oxygen saturation measurements detect early skin reactions during breast radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, David K.; Harrison, Eileen M.; Newton, David J.; Windsor, Phyllis M.

    2001-05-01

    A range of acute skin reactions, ranging from mild erythema to moist desquamation, can be seen in patients receiving standard fractionated radiotherapy to the breast for conservation therapy of breast carcinoma. In a number of cases these reactions can cause considerable discomfort and seriously affect the patient's quality of life. In previous studies we have used the techniques of laser Doppler imaging, digital thermographic imaging and lightguide spectrophotometry to study oxygen supply and blood flow in inflammatory reactions induced experimentally in forearm skin. The present study is an attempt to use the same techniques to investigate whether any or all of them can detect changes in breast skin very early on in the course of radiotherapy treatment. A further aim of the longer term study is to investigate to what extent these early changes may be able to predict the occurrence later of severe acute or delayed reactions.

  4. AASERT: Development of Pulse-Burst Laser Source and Digital Image Processing for Measurements of High-Speed, Time-Evolving Flow

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miles, Richard

    2000-01-01

    ... Ti:Sapphire Laser and the demonstration of UV filtered Rayleigh scattering imaging in a supersonic jet, the fabrication/ characterization of a narrow passband transmission filter, and the development...

  5. Frequency characteristics of the laser film digitizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishimitsu, Y.; Taira, R.K.; Huang, H.K.

    1988-01-01

    The frequency characteristics of the laser film digitizer in the parallel and in the perpendicular scan direction are different. Because of this difference, moire pattern artifacts may appear in the digitized image. The authors found that this phenomenon is due to the frequency transfer characteristics of the various components in the laser film digitizer. From this observation, they derive a relationship between the spatial frequency content of the original image and the laser beam spot size based on the concept of image contrast. This relationship can be utilized to avoid the appearance of the moire pattern in the digitized image

  6. Acousto-optic laser projection systems for displaying TV information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulyaev, Yu V; Kazaryan, M A; Mokrushin, Yu M; Shakin, O V

    2015-01-01

    This review addresses various approaches to television projection imaging on large screens using lasers. Results are presented of theoretical and experimental studies of an acousto-optic projection system operating on the principle of projecting an image of an entire amplitude-modulated television line in a single laser pulse. We consider characteristic features of image formation in such a system and the requirements for its individual components. Particular attention is paid to nonlinear distortions of the image signal, which show up most severely at low modulation signal frequencies. We discuss the feasibility of improving the process efficiency and image quality using acousto-optic modulators and pulsed lasers. Real-time projectors with pulsed line imaging can be used for controlling high-intensity laser radiation. (review)

  7. Acousto-optic laser projection systems for displaying TV information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulyaev, Yu V.; Kazaryan, M. A.; Mokrushin, Yu M.; Shakin, O. V.

    2015-04-01

    This review addresses various approaches to television projection imaging on large screens using lasers. Results are presented of theoretical and experimental studies of an acousto-optic projection system operating on the principle of projecting an image of an entire amplitude-modulated television line in a single laser pulse. We consider characteristic features of image formation in such a system and the requirements for its individual components. Particular attention is paid to nonlinear distortions of the image signal, which show up most severely at low modulation signal frequencies. We discuss the feasibility of improving the process efficiency and image quality using acousto-optic modulators and pulsed lasers. Real-time projectors with pulsed line imaging can be used for controlling high-intensity laser radiation.

  8. Acousto-optic laser projection systems for displaying TV information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulyaev, Yu V [V.A.Kotel' nikov Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kazaryan, M A [P N Lebedev Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Mokrushin, Yu M [D.V. Efremov Scientific Research Institute of Electrophysical Apparatus (Russian Federation); Shakin, O V [Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2015-04-30

    This review addresses various approaches to television projection imaging on large screens using lasers. Results are presented of theoretical and experimental studies of an acousto-optic projection system operating on the principle of projecting an image of an entire amplitude-modulated television line in a single laser pulse. We consider characteristic features of image formation in such a system and the requirements for its individual components. Particular attention is paid to nonlinear distortions of the image signal, which show up most severely at low modulation signal frequencies. We discuss the feasibility of improving the process efficiency and image quality using acousto-optic modulators and pulsed lasers. Real-time projectors with pulsed line imaging can be used for controlling high-intensity laser radiation. (review)

  9. Novel Infiltration Diagnostics based on Laser-line Scanning and Infrared Temperature Field Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xinwei [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2017-12-08

    This project targets the building energy efficiency problems induced by building infiltration/leaks. The current infiltration inspection techniques often require extensive visual inspection and/or whole building pressure test. These current techniques cannot meet more than three of the below five criteria of ideal infiltration diagnostics: 1. location and extent diagnostics, 2. building-level application, 3. least surface preparation, 4. weather-proof, and 5. non-disruption to building occupants. These techniques are either too expensive or time consuming, and often lack accuracy and repeatability. They are hardly applicable to facades/facades section. The goal of the project was to develop a novel infiltration diagnostics technology based on laser line-scanning and simultaneous infrared temperature imaging. A laboratory scale experimental setup was designed to mimic a model house of well-defined pressure difference below or above the outside pressure. Algorithms and Matlab-based programs had been developed for recognition of the hole location in infrared images. Our experiment based on laser wavelengths of 450 and 1550 nm and laser beam diameters of 4-25 mm showed that the location of the holes could be identified using laser heating; the diagnostic approach however could not readily distinguish between infiltration and non-infiltration points. To significantly improve the scanning throughput and recognition accuracy, a second approach was explored, developed, and extensively tested. It incorporates a liquid spray on the surface to induce extra phase change cooling effect. In this spray method, we termed it as PECIT (Phase-change Enhanced Cooling Infrared Thermography), phase-change enhanced cooling was used, which significantly amplifies the effect of air flow (infiltration and exfiltration). This heat transfer method worked extremely well to identify infiltration and exfiltration locations with high accuracy and increased throughput. The PECIT technique was

  10. Laser Doppler imaging as a tool in the burn wound treatment protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Venclauskiene, Algirda; Basevicius, Algidas; Zacharevskij, Ernest; Vaicekauskas, Vytautas; Rimdeika, Rytis; Lukosevicius, Saulius

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The main treatment of burns is early excision of injured tissues. Aim To compare two different methods of examination of burned patients: clinical burn depth examination (CDE) and laser Doppler imaging (LDI). Material and methods A prospective randomized study of 57 burn patients treated in 2009–2011 was carried out. The burned patients were randomized into a CDE group and an LDI group. The CDE and LDI scan were performed 72 h after injury, with the second and third CDE and LDI s...

  11. On the release of cppxfel for processing X-ray free-electron laser images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginn, Helen Mary; Evans, Gwyndaf; Sauter, Nicholas K; Stuart, David Ian

    2016-06-01

    As serial femtosecond crystallography expands towards a variety of delivery methods, including chip-based methods, and smaller collected data sets, the requirement to optimize the data analysis to produce maximum structure quality is becoming increasingly pressing. Here cppxfel , a software package primarily written in C++, which showcases several data analysis techniques, is released. This software package presently indexes images using DIALS (diffraction integration for advanced light sources) and performs an initial orientation matrix refinement, followed by post-refinement of individual images against a reference data set. Cppxfel is released with the hope that the unique and useful elements of this package can be repurposed for existing software packages. However, as released, it produces high-quality crystal structures and is therefore likely to be also useful to experienced users of X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) software who wish to maximize the information extracted from a limited number of XFEL images.

  12. D Model of AL Zubarah Fortress in Qatar - Terrestrial Laser Scanning VS. Dense Image Matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersten, T.; Mechelke, K.; Maziull, L.

    2015-02-01

    In September 2011 the fortress Al Zubarah, built in 1938 as a typical Arabic fortress and restored in 1987 as a museum, was recorded by the HafenCity University Hamburg using terrestrial laser scanning with the IMAGER 5006h and digital photogrammetry for the Qatar Museum Authority within the framework of the Qatar Islamic Archaeology and Heritage Project. One goal of the object recording was to provide detailed 2D/3D documentation of the fortress. This was used to complete specific detailed restoration work in the recent years. From the registered laser scanning point clouds several cuttings and 2D plans were generated as well as a 3D surface model by triangle meshing. Additionally, point clouds and surface models were automatically generated from digital imagery from a Nikon D70 using the open-source software Bundler/PMVS2, free software VisualSFM, Autodesk Web Service 123D Catch beta, and low-cost software Agisoft PhotoScan. These outputs were compared with the results from terrestrial laser scanning. The point clouds and surface models derived from imagery could not achieve the same quality of geometrical accuracy as laser scanning (i.e. 1-2 cm).

  13. Terahertz near-field imaging using subwavelength plasmonic apertures and a quantum cascade laser source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baragwanath, Adam J; Freeman, Joshua R; Gallant, Andrew J; Zeitler, J Axel; Beere, Harvey E; Ritchie, David A; Chamberlain, J Martyn

    2011-07-01

    The first demonstration, to our knowledge, of near-field imaging using subwavelength plasmonic apertures with a terahertz quantum cascade laser source is presented. "Bull's-eye" apertures, featuring subwavelength circular apertures flanked by periodic annular corrugations were created using a novel fabrication method. A fivefold increase in intensity was observed for plasmonic apertures over plain apertures of the same diameter. Detailed studies of the transmitted beam profiles were undertaken for apertures with both planarized and corrugated exit facets, with the former producing spatially uniform intensity profiles and subwavelength spatial resolution. Finally, a proof-of-concept imaging experiment is presented, where an inhomogeneous pharmaceutical drug coating is investigated.

  14. Precise alignment of the collection fiber assisted by real-time plasma imaging in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motto-Ros, V., E-mail: vincent.motto-ros@univ-lyon1.fr [Institut Lumière Matière, UMR 5306 Université Lyon 1-CNRS, Université de Lyon, 69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Negre, E. [Institut Lumière Matière, UMR 5306 Université Lyon 1-CNRS, Université de Lyon, 69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); CRITT Matériaux Alsace, 19, rue de St Junien, 67305 Schiltigheim (France); Pelascini, F. [CRITT Matériaux Alsace, 19, rue de St Junien, 67305 Schiltigheim (France); Panczer, G.; Yu, J. [Institut Lumière Matière, UMR 5306 Université Lyon 1-CNRS, Université de Lyon, 69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France)

    2014-02-01

    Improving the repeatability and the reproducibility of measurement with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is one of the actual challenging issues faced by the technique to fit the requirements of precise and accurate quantitative analysis. Among the numerous factors influencing the measurement stability in short and long terms, there are shot-to-shot and day-to-day fluctuations of the morphology of the plasma. Such fluctuations are due to the high sensitivity of laser-induced plasma to experimental conditions including properties of the sample, the laser parameters as well as properties of the ambient gas. In this paper, we demonstrate that precise alignment of the optical fiber for the collection of the plasma emission with respect to the actual morphology of the plasma assisted by real-time imaging, greatly improves the stability of LIBS measurements in short as well as in long terms. The used setup is based on a plasma imaging arrangement using a CCD camera and a real-time image processing. The obtained plasma image is displayed in a 2-dimensional frame where the position of the optical fiber is beforehand calibrated. In addition, the setup provides direct sample surface monitoring, which allows a precise control of the distance between the focusing lens and the sample surface. Test runs with a set of 8 reference samples show very high determination coefficient for calibration curves (R{sup 2} = 0.9999), and a long term repeatability and reproducibility of 4.6% (relative standard deviation) over a period of 3 months without any signal normalization. The capacity of the system to automatically correct the sample surface position for a tilted or non-regular sample surface during a surface mapping measurement is also demonstrated. - Highlights: • Automated alignment of the collection fiber by real-time plasma imaging • High level control of experimental parameters in LIBS experiments • Improvement of the short and long term stability in LIBS

  15. Precise alignment of the collection fiber assisted by real-time plasma imaging in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motto-Ros, V.; Negre, E.; Pelascini, F.; Panczer, G.; Yu, J.

    2014-01-01

    Improving the repeatability and the reproducibility of measurement with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is one of the actual challenging issues faced by the technique to fit the requirements of precise and accurate quantitative analysis. Among the numerous factors influencing the measurement stability in short and long terms, there are shot-to-shot and day-to-day fluctuations of the morphology of the plasma. Such fluctuations are due to the high sensitivity of laser-induced plasma to experimental conditions including properties of the sample, the laser parameters as well as properties of the ambient gas. In this paper, we demonstrate that precise alignment of the optical fiber for the collection of the plasma emission with respect to the actual morphology of the plasma assisted by real-time imaging, greatly improves the stability of LIBS measurements in short as well as in long terms. The used setup is based on a plasma imaging arrangement using a CCD camera and a real-time image processing. The obtained plasma image is displayed in a 2-dimensional frame where the position of the optical fiber is beforehand calibrated. In addition, the setup provides direct sample surface monitoring, which allows a precise control of the distance between the focusing lens and the sample surface. Test runs with a set of 8 reference samples show very high determination coefficient for calibration curves (R 2 = 0.9999), and a long term repeatability and reproducibility of 4.6% (relative standard deviation) over a period of 3 months without any signal normalization. The capacity of the system to automatically correct the sample surface position for a tilted or non-regular sample surface during a surface mapping measurement is also demonstrated. - Highlights: • Automated alignment of the collection fiber by real-time plasma imaging • High level control of experimental parameters in LIBS experiments • Improvement of the short and long term stability in LIBS measurements

  16. Investigation of Biophysical Mechanisms in Gold Nanoparticle Mediated Laser Manipulation of Cells Using a Multimodal Holographic and Fluorescence Imaging Setup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakoski, Mirko S.; Heinemann, Dag; Schomaker, Markus; Ripken, Tammo; Meyer, Heiko

    2015-01-01

    Laser based cell manipulation has proven to be a versatile tool in biomedical applications. In this context, combining weakly focused laser pulses and nanostructures, e.g. gold nanoparticles, promises to be useful for high throughput cell manipulation, such as transfection and photothermal therapy. Interactions between laser pulses and gold nanoparticles are well understood. However, it is still necessary to study cell behavior in gold nanoparticle mediated laser manipulation. While parameters like cell viability or perforation efficiency are commonly addressed, the influence of the manipulation process on other essential cell parameters is not sufficiently investigated yet. Thus, we set out to study four relevant cell properties: cell volume and area, ion exchange and cytoskeleton structure after gold nanoparticle based laser manipulation. For this, we designed a multimodal imaging and manipulation setup. 200 nm gold nanoparticles were attached unspecifically to canine cells and irradiated by weakly focused 850 ps laser pulses. Volume and area change in the first minute post laser manipulation was monitored using digital holography. Calcium imaging and cells expressing a marker for filamentous actin (F-actin) served to analyze the ion exchange and the cytoskeleton, respectively. High radiant exposures led to cells exhibiting a tendency to shrink in volume and area, possibly due to outflow of cytoplasm. An intracellular raise in calcium was observed and accompanied by an intercellular calcium wave. This multimodal approach enabled for the first time a comprehensive analysis of the cell behavior in gold nanoparticle mediated cell manipulation. Additionally, this work can pave the way for a better understanding and the evaluation of new applications in the context of cell transfection or photothermal therapy. PMID:25909631

  17. Investigation of biophysical mechanisms in gold nanoparticle mediated laser manipulation of cells using a multimodal holographic and fluorescence imaging setup.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Kalies

    Full Text Available Laser based cell manipulation has proven to be a versatile tool in biomedical applications. In this context, combining weakly focused laser pulses and nanostructures, e.g. gold nanoparticles, promises to be useful for high throughput cell manipulation, such as transfection and photothermal therapy. Interactions between laser pulses and gold nanoparticles are well understood. However, it is still necessary to study cell behavior in gold nanoparticle mediated laser manipulation. While parameters like cell viability or perforation efficiency are commonly addressed, the influence of the manipulation process on other essential cell parameters is not sufficiently investigated yet. Thus, we set out to study four relevant cell properties: cell volume and area, ion exchange and cytoskeleton structure after gold nanoparticle based laser manipulation. For this, we designed a multimodal imaging and manipulation setup. 200 nm gold nanoparticles were attached unspecifically to canine cells and irradiated by weakly focused 850 ps laser pulses. Volume and area change in the first minute post laser manipulation was monitored using digital holography. Calcium imaging and cells expressing a marker for filamentous actin (F-actin served to analyze the ion exchange and the cytoskeleton, respectively. High radiant exposures led to cells exhibiting a tendency to shrink in volume and area, possibly due to outflow of cytoplasm. An intracellular raise in calcium was observed and accompanied by an intercellular calcium wave. This multimodal approach enabled for the first time a comprehensive analysis of the cell behavior in gold nanoparticle mediated cell manipulation. Additionally, this work can pave the way for a better understanding and the evaluation of new applications in the context of cell transfection or photothermal therapy.

  18. Dissociation and ionization of molecular ions by ultra-short intense laser pulses probed by coincidence 3D momentum imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Itzhak, Itzik; Wang, Pengqian; Xia, Jiangfan; Max Sayler, A.; Smith, Mark A.; Maseberg, J.W.; Carnes, Kevin D.; Esry, Brett D.

    2005-01-01

    We have experimentally explored laser-induced dissociation and ionization of diatomic molecular ions using coincidence 3D momentum imaging. The vibrationally excited molecular ion beam (4-8 keV) is crossed by an ultrafast intense laser beam (28-200 fs, 10 13 -10 14 W/cm 2 ). The resulting fragments are recorded in coincidence by a time and position-sensitive detector. Complete angular distributions and kinetic energy release maps are reconstructed from the measured dissociation-momentum vectors. The angular distribution of the H + + H fragments was found to be strongly correlated to their kinetic energy release upon dissociation. Low KER was associated with very narrow angular distributions and high KER with distributions peaking away from the laser polarization. Ionization was found to be smaller than dissociation and increased with laser intensity. The H + + H + fragments have a very narrow angular distribution along the laser polarization

  19. THE USE OF MOBILE LASER SCANNING DATA AND UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE IMAGES FOR 3D MODEL RECONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zhu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The increasing availability in multiple data sources acquired by different sensor platforms has provided the great advantages for desired result achievement. This paper proposes the use of both mobile laser scanning (MLS data and Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV images for 3D model reconstruction. Due to no available exterior orientation parameters for UAV images, the first task is to georeference these images to 3D points. In order to fast and accurate acquire 3D points which are also easy to be found the corresponding locations on UAV images, automated pole extraction from MLS was developed. After georeferencing UAV images, building roofs are acquired from those images and building walls are extracted from MLS data. The roofs and the walls are combined to achieve the complete building models.

  20. Automatic registration of iPhone images to laser point clouds of urban structures using shape features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sirmacek, B.; Lindenbergh, R.C.; Menenti, M.

    2013-01-01

    Fusion of 3D airborne laser (LIDAR) data and terrestrial optical imagery can be applied in 3D urban modeling and model up-dating. The most challenging aspect of the fusion procedure is registering the terrestrial optical images on the LIDAR point clouds. In this article, we propose an approach for

  1. Analysis of the imaging method for the assessment of the smile of laser diode bars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marti-Lopez, Luis; Ramos-de-Campos, Jose A.; Furlan, Walter D.

    2009-01-01

    Imaging systems designed for the assessment of the smile of laser diode bars (LDBs) are studied. The magnification matrix is derived from the required sampling period and the geometries of the LDB and the charge coupled device (CCD) array. These imaging systems present in-plane pure translation invariance, but lack in-plane rotation invariance. It is shown that the smile parameters of the image of the LDB are linked with the smile parameters of the LDB by simple mathematical expressions. The spatial resolution of such optical systems is estimated at about 1μm for a mean wavelength λ ∼ 800 nm and a fast axis divergence φ ∼ 20 o - 30 o . Our results suggest that imaging systems for LDB smile assessment can be used for assessing smile heights in the 1μm 10μm range. (Author)

  2. Image analysis as an improved melting criterion in laser-heated diamond anvil cell

    OpenAIRE

    Salem, Ran; Matityahu, Shlomi; Melchior, Aviva; Nikolaevsky, Mark; Noked, Ori; Sterer, Eran

    2015-01-01

    The precision of melting curve measurements using laser-heated diamond anvil cell (LHDAC) is largely limited by the correct and reliable determination of the onset of melting. We present a novel image analysis of speckle interference patterns in the LHDAC as a way to define quantitative measures which enable an objective determination of the melting transition. Combined with our low-temperature customized IR pyrometer, designed for measurements down to 500K, our setup allows studying the melt...

  3. Restoration of longitudinal laser tomography target image from inhomogeneous medium degradation under common conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, WenJun; Wang, Ping; Fu, MeiCheng; Tan, JiChun; Zhu, Jubo; Li, XiuJian

    2017-07-10

    In order to overcome the shortages of the target image restoration method for longitudinal laser tomography using self-calibration, a more general restoration method through backscattering medium images associated with prior parameters is developed for common conditions. The system parameters are extracted from pre-calibration, and the LIDAR ratio is estimated according to the medium types. Assisted by these prior parameters, the degradation caused by inhomogeneous turbid media can be established with the backscattering medium images, which can further be used for removal of the interferences of turbid media. The results of simulations and experiments demonstrate that the proposed image restoration method can effectively eliminate the inhomogeneous interferences of turbid media and achieve exactly the reflectivity distribution of targets behind inhomogeneous turbid media. Furthermore, the restoration method can work beyond the limitation of the previous method that only works well under the conditions of localized turbid attenuations and some types of targets with fairly uniform reflectivity distributions.

  4. Full Waveform Analysis for Long-Range 3D Imaging Laser Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallace AndrewM

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The new generation of 3D imaging systems based on laser radar (ladar offers significant advantages in defense and security applications. In particular, it is possible to retrieve 3D shape information directly from the scene and separate a target from background or foreground clutter by extracting a narrow depth range from the field of view by range gating, either in the sensor or by postprocessing. We discuss and demonstrate the applicability of full-waveform ladar to produce multilayer 3D imagery, in which each pixel produces a complex temporal response that describes the scene structure. Such complexity caused by multiple and distributed reflection arises in many relevant scenarios, for example in viewing partially occluded targets, through semitransparent materials (e.g., windows and through distributed reflective media such as foliage. We demonstrate our methodology on 3D image data acquired by a scanning time-of-flight system, developed in our own laboratories, which uses the time-correlated single-photon counting technique.

  5. Photothermal imaging of melanin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerimo, Josef; DiMarzio, Charles A.

    2013-02-01

    We present photothermal images of melanin using modulation with two laser beams. Strong melanin absorption followed by efficient nonradiative relaxation caused heating and an increase in temperature. This temperature effect was used as an imaging contrast to detect melanin. Melanin from several samples including Sepia officinalis, black human hair, and live zebra fish, were imaged with a high signal-to-noise ratio. For the imaging, we focused two near infrared laser beams (pump and probe) collinearly with different wavelengths and the pump was modulated in amplitude. The thermally induced variations in the refractive index, at the modulation frequency, were detected by the scattering of the probe beam. The Photothermal method brings several imaging benefits including the lack of background interference and the possibility of imaging for an extended period of time without photodamage to the melanin. The dependence of the photothermal signal on the laser power, modulation frequency, and spatial offset of the probe is discussed. The new photothermal imaging method is promising and provides background-free and label-free imaging of melanin and can be implemented with low-cost CW lasers.

  6. Imaging time-resolved electrothermal atomization laser-excited atomic fluorescence spectrometry for determination of mercury in seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bihan, Alain; Cabon, Jean-Yves; Deschamps, Laure; Giamarchi, Philippe

    2011-06-15

    In this study, direct determination of mercury at the nanogram per liter level in the complex seawater matrix by imaging time-resolved electrothermal atomization laser-excited atomic fluorescence spectrometry (ITR-ETA-LEAFS) is described. In the case of mercury, the use of a nonresonant line for fluorescence detection with only one laser excitation is not possible. For measurements at the 253.652 nm resonant line, scattering phenomena have been minimized by eliminating the simultaneous vaporization of salts and by using temporal resolution and the imaging mode of the camera. Electrothermal conditions (0.1 M oxalic acid as matrix modifier, low atomization temperature) have been optimized in order to suppress chemical interferences and to obtain a good separation of specific signal and seawater background signal. For ETA-LEAFS, a specific response has been obtained for Hg with the use of time resolution. Moreover, an important improvement of the detection limit has been obtained by selecting, from the furnace image, pixels collecting the lowest number of scattered photons. Using optimal experimental conditions, a detection limit of 10 ng L(-1) for 10 μL of sample, close to the lowest concentration level of total Hg in the open ocean, has been obtained.

  7. Off-axis holographic laser speckle contrast imaging of blood vessels in tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdurashitov, Arkady; Bragina, Olga; Sindeeva, Olga; Sergey, Sindeev; Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya, Oxana V.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2017-09-01

    Laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) has become one of the most common tools for functional imaging in tissues. Incomplete theoretical description and sophisticated interpretation of measurement results are completely sidelined by a low-cost and simple hardware, fastness, consistent results, and repeatability. In addition to the relatively low measuring volume with around 700 μm of the probing depth for the visible spectral range of illumination, there is no depth selectivity in conventional LSCI configuration; furthermore, in a case of high NA objective, the actual penetration depth of light in tissues is greater than depth of field (DOF) of an imaging system. Thus, the information about these out-of-focus regions persists in the recorded frames but cannot be retrieved due to intensity-based registration method. We propose a simple modification of LSCI system based on the off-axis holography to introduce after-registration refocusing ability to overcome both depth-selectivity and DOF problems as well as to get the potential possibility of producing a cross-section view of the specimen.

  8. Confocal laser endomicroscopy for diagnosis and histomorphologic imaging of brain tumors in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Foersch

    Full Text Available Early detection and evaluation of brain tumors during surgery is crucial for accurate resection. Currently cryosections during surgery are regularly performed. Confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE is a novel technique permitting in vivo histologic imaging with miniaturized endoscopic probes at excellent resolution. Aim of the current study was to evaluate CLE for in vivo diagnosis in different types and models of intracranial neoplasia. In vivo histomorphology of healthy brains and two different C6 glioma cell line allografts was evaluated in rats. One cell line expressed EYFP, the other cell line was used for staining with fluorescent dyes (fluorescein, acriflavine, FITC-dextran and Indocyanine green. To evaluate future application in patients, fresh surgical resection specimen of human intracranial tumors (n = 15 were examined (glioblastoma multiforme, meningioma, craniopharyngioma, acoustic neurinoma, brain metastasis, medulloblastoma, epidermoid tumor. Healthy brain tissue adjacent to the samples served as control. CLE yielded high-quality histomorphology of normal brain tissue and tumors. Different fluorescent agents revealed distinct aspects of tissue and cell structure (nuclear pattern, axonal pathways, hemorrhages. CLE discrimination of neoplastic from healthy brain tissue was easy to perform based on tissue and cellular architecture and resemblance with histopathology was excellent. Confocal laser endomicroscopy allows immediate in vivo imaging of normal and neoplastic brain tissue at high resolution. The technology might be transferred to scientific and clinical application in neurosurgery and neuropathology. It may become helpful to screen for tumor free margins and to improve the surgical resection of malignant brain tumors, and opens the door to in vivo molecular imaging of tumors and other neurologic disorders.

  9. Mixture-fraction imaging at 1  kHz using femtosecond laser-induced fluorescence of krypton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Daniel R; Jiang, Naibo; Stauffer, Hans U; Kearney, Sean P; Roy, Sukesh; Gord, James R

    2017-09-01

    Femtosecond, two-photon-absorption laser-induced-fluorescence (TALIF) imaging measurements of krypton (Kr) are demonstrated to study mixing in gaseous flows. A measurement approach is presented in which observed Kr TALIF signals are 7 times stronger than the current state-of-the-art methodology. Fluorescence emission is compared for different gas pressures and excitation wavelengths, and the strongest fluorescence signals were observed when the excitation wavelength was tuned to 212.56 nm. Using this optimized excitation scheme, 1-kHz, single-laser-shot visualizations of unsteady flows and two-dimensional measurements of mixture fraction and scalar dissipation rate of a Kr-seeded jet are demonstrated.

  10. Advanced Laser-Compton Gamma-Ray Sources for Nuclear Materials Detection, Assay and Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barty, C. P. J.

    2015-10-01

    Highly-collimated, polarized, mono-energetic beams of tunable gamma-rays may be created via the optimized Compton scattering of pulsed lasers off of ultra-bright, relativistic electron beams. Above 2 MeV, the peak brilliance of such sources can exceed that of the world's largest synchrotrons by more than 15 orders of magnitude and can enable for the first time the efficient pursuit of nuclear science and applications with photon beams, i.e. Nuclear Photonics. Potential applications are numerous and include isotope-specific nuclear materials management, element-specific medical radiography and radiology, non-destructive, isotope-specific, material assay and imaging, precision spectroscopy of nuclear resonances and photon-induced fission. This review covers activities at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory related to the design and optimization of mono-energetic, laser-Compton gamma-ray systems and introduces isotope-specific nuclear materials detection and assay applications enabled by them.

  11. Laser-polarized xenon-129 magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging. The development of a method for in vivo perfusion measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Matthew Scot

    2001-07-01

    This thesis presents in vivo nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies with laser-polarized 129Xe delivered to living rats by inhalation and transported to tissue via blood flow. The results presented herein include the observation, assignment, and dynamic measurement of 129Xe resonances in the brain and body, the first one- and two-dimensional chemical-shift-resolved images of 129Xe in blood, tissue, and gas in the thorax, and the first images of 129Xe in brain tissue. These results establish that laser-polarized 129Xe can be used as a magnetic resonance tracer in vivo. NMR resonances at 0, 191, 198, and 209 ppm relative to the 129 Xe gas resonance are observed in the rat thorax and assigned to 129Xe in gas, fat, tissue, and blood respectively. Resonances at 189, 192, 195, 198, and 209 ppm are observed in the brain, and the 195 and 209 ppm resonances are assigned to 129Xe in grey matter, and blood, respectively. The design and construction of a laser-polarized 129Xe production and delivery system is described. This system produces liter-volumes of laser- polarized 129Xe by spin-exchange optical- pumping. It represented an order of magnitude increase over previously reported production volumes of polarized 129Xe. At approximately 3-7% polarization, 157 cc-atm of xenon is produced and stored as ice every 5 minutes. This reliable, effective, and simple production method for large volumes of 129Xe can be applied to other areas of research involving the use of laser-polarized noble gases. A model of the in vivo transport of laser polarized 129Xe to tissue under realistic experimental NMR conditions is described. Appropriate control of the NMR parameters is shown to allow tissue perfasion and 129Xe tissue T1 to be extracted from measurement of the steady-state 129Xe tissue signal. In vivo rodent 129Xe NMR results are used to estimate the signal-to-noise ratio of this technique, and an inhaled 30% xenon/70% O2 mixture polarized to 5

  12. Prussian blue/serum albumin/indocyanine green as a multifunctional nanotheranostic agent for bimodal imaging guided laser mediated combinatorial phototherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Abhishek; Lee, Jong Hyun; Lee, Hye Gyeong; Jeong, Yong Yeon; Tae, Giyoong

    2016-08-28

    Developing novel nanotheranostic agent using only clinically approved materials is highly desirable and challenging. In this study, we combined three clinically approved materials, Prussian blue (PB), serum albumin (BSA), and indocyanine green (ICG), by a simple and biocompatible method to prepare a multifunctional theranostic PB-BSA-ICG nanoparticle. The multifunctional nanoparticle system could provide dual mode magnetic resonance (MR) and near infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging as well as combined photothermal and photodynamic (PTT-PDT) therapy in response to a single NIR laser. This nanoparticle showed an excellent stability in physiological solutions and could suppress the photo-instability of ICG. In the absence of light, the nanoparticles showed no cytotoxicity, but significant cell death was induced through combined PTT-PDT effect after irradiation with NIR laser light. A high tumor accumulation and minimal nonspecific uptake by other major organs of PB-BSA-ICG nanoparticle were observed in vivo, analyzed by T1-weighted MR and NIR fluorescence bimodal imaging in tumor xenograft mice after intravenous injection. The nanoparticles efficiently suppressed the tumor growth through combinatorial phototherapy with no tumor recurrence upon a single NIR laser irradiation. These results demonstrated that PB-BSA-ICG is potentially an interesting nanotheranostic agent for imaging guided cancer therapy by overcoming the limitations of each technology and enhancing the therapeutic efficiency as well as reducing side effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Multi-elemental imaging of paraffin-embedded human samples by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncayo, S.; Trichard, F.; Busser, B.; Sabatier-Vincent, M.; Pelascini, F.; Pinel, N.; Templier, I.; Charles, J.; Sancey, L.; Motto-Ros, V.

    2017-07-01

    Chemical elements play central roles for physiological homeostasis in human cells, and their dysregulation might lead to a certain number of pathologies. Novel imaging techniques that improve the work of pathologists for tissue analysis and diagnostics are continuously sought. We report the use of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) to perform multi-elemental images of human paraffin-embedded skin samples on the entire biopsy scale in a complementary and compatible way with microscope histopathological examination. A specific instrumental configuration is proposed in order to detect most of the elements of medical interest (i.e. P, Al, Mg, Na, Zn, Si, Fe, and Cu). As an example of medical application, we selected and analysed skin biopsies, including healthy skin tissue, cutaneous metastasis of melanoma, Merkel-cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. Clear distinctions in the distribution of chemical elements are observed from the different samples investigated. This study demonstrates the high complementarity of LIBS elemental imaging with conventional histopathology, opening new opportunities for any medical application involving metals.

  14. Dual Use of Image Based Tracking Techniques: Laser Eye Surgery and Low Vision Prosthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juday, Richard D.; Barton, R. Shane

    1994-01-01

    With a concentration on Fourier optics pattern recognition, we have developed several methods of tracking objects in dynamic imagery to automate certain space applications such as orbital rendezvous and spacecraft capture, or planetary landing. We are developing two of these techniques for Earth applications in real-time medical image processing. The first is warping of a video image, developed to evoke shift invariance to scale and rotation in correlation pattern recognition. The technology is being applied to compensation for certain field defects in low vision humans. The second is using the optical joint Fourier transform to track the translation of unmodeled scenes. Developed as an image fixation tool to assist in calculating shape from motion, it is being applied to tracking motions of the eyeball quickly enough to keep a laser photocoagulation spot fixed on the retina, thus avoiding collateral damage.

  15. Laser-induced-fluorescence imaging of NO in a eta-heptane- and diesel-fuel-driven diesel engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brugman, T.M.; Klein-Douwel, R.J.H.; Huigen, G.; Walwijk, van E.; Meulen, ter J.J.

    1993-01-01

    Continuous on-line imaging by 2D-LIF techniques of in-cylinder NO distributions in a running Diesel engine is explored using an ArF-excimer laser at 193 nm operating at low power. For the first time NO excitation spectra could be measured as a result of high optical transparencies during

  16. Laser and plasma diagnostics for the OMEGA Upgrade Laser System (invited) (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letzring, S.A.

    1995-01-01

    The upgraded OMEGA laser system will be capable of delivering up to 30 kJ of 351-nm laser light with various temporal pulse shapes onto a variety of targets for both ICF and basic plasma physics experiments. ICF experiments will cover a wide parameter space up to near-ignition conditions, and basic interaction and plasma physics experiments will cover previously unattainable parameter spaces. The laser system is the tool with which the experiments are performed; the diagnostics, both of the laser system and the interaction between the laser and the target, form the heart of the experiment. A new suite of diagnostics is now being designed and constructed. Most of these are based on diagnostics previously fielded on the OMEGA laser system very successfully over the last ten years, but there are some new diagnostics, both for the laser and the interaction experiments, which have had to be invented. Laser system diagnostics include high-energy, full-beam calorimetry for all of the 60 beams of the upgrade; a novel, multispectral energy-measuring system for assessing the tuning of the frequency-multiplying crystals; a beam-balance diagnostic that forms the heart of the energy-balance system; and a peak power diagnostic that forms the heart of the power-balance system. Target diagnostics will include the usual time-integrated x-ray imaging systems, both pinhole cameras and x-ray microscopes; x-ray spectrometers, both imaging and spatially integrating; plamsa calorimeters, including x-ray calorimetry; and time-resolved x-ray diagnostics, both nonimaging and imaging in one and two dimensions. Neutron diagnostics will include several measurements of total yield, secondary, and possibly tertiary yield and neutron spectroscopy with several time-of-flight spectrometers. Other measurements will include ''knock-on'' particle measurements and neutron activation of shell materials as a diagnostic of compressed fuel and shell density

  17. Intraluminal laser atherectomy with ultrasound and electromagnetic guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Kenton W.; Aretz, H. Thomas; Martinelli, Michael A.; LeDet, Earl G.; Hatch, G. F.; Gregg, Richard E.; Sedlacek, Tomas; Haase, Wayne C.

    1991-05-01

    The MagellanTM coronary laser atherectomy system is described. It uses high- resolution ultrasound imaging and electromagnetic sensing to provide real-time guidance and control of laser therapy in the coronary arteries. The system consists of a flexible catheter, an electromagnetic navigation antenna, a sensor signal processor and a computer for image processing and display. The small, flexible catheter combines an ultrasound transducer and laser delivery optics, aimed at the artery wall, and an electromagnetic receiving sensor. An extra-corporeal electromagnetic transmit antenna, in combination with catheter sensors, locates the position of the ultrasound and laser beams in the artery. Navigation and ultrasound data are processed electronically to produce real-time, transverse, and axial cross-section images of the artery wall at selected locations. By exploiting the ability of ultrasound to image beneath the surface of artery walls, it is possible to identify candidate treatment sites and perform safe radial laser debulking of atherosclerotic plaque with reduced danger of perforation. The utility of the system in plaque identification and ablation is demonstrated with imaging and experimental results.

  18. Clinical Nonlinear Laser Imaging of Human Skin: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavone, Francesco Saverio

    2014-01-01

    Nonlinear optical microscopy has the potential of being used in vivo as a noninvasive imaging modality for both epidermal and dermal imaging. This paper reviews the capabilities of nonlinear microscopy as a noninvasive high-resolution tool for clinical skin inspection. In particular, we show that two-photon fluorescence microscopy can be used as a diagnostic tool for characterizing epidermal layers by means of a morphological examination. Additional functional information on the metabolic state of cells can be provided by measuring the fluorescence decay of NADH. This approach allows differentiating epidermal layers having different structural and cytological features and has the potential of diagnosing pathologies in a very early stage. Regarding therapy follow-up, we demonstrate that nonlinear microscopy could be successfully used for monitoring the effect of a treatment. In particular, combined two-photon fluorescence and second-harmonic generation microscopy were used in vivo for monitoring collagen remodeling after microablative fractional laser resurfacing and for quantitatively monitoring psoriasis on the basis of the morphology of epidermal cells and dermal papillae. We believe that the described microscopic modalities could find in the near future a stable place in a clinical dermatological setting for quantitative diagnostic purposes and as a monitoring method for various treatments. PMID:25250337

  19. Clinical Nonlinear Laser Imaging of Human Skin: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Cicchi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear optical microscopy has the potential of being used in vivo as a noninvasive imaging modality for both epidermal and dermal imaging. This paper reviews the capabilities of nonlinear microscopy as a noninvasive high-resolution tool for clinical skin inspection. In particular, we show that two-photon fluorescence microscopy can be used as a diagnostic tool for characterizing epidermal layers by means of a morphological examination. Additional functional information on the metabolic state of cells can be provided by measuring the fluorescence decay of NADH. This approach allows differentiating epidermal layers having different structural and cytological features and has the potential of diagnosing pathologies in a very early stage. Regarding therapy follow-up, we demonstrate that nonlinear microscopy could be successfully used for monitoring the effect of a treatment. In particular, combined two-photon fluorescence and second-harmonic generation microscopy were used in vivo for monitoring collagen remodeling after microablative fractional laser resurfacing and for quantitatively monitoring psoriasis on the basis of the morphology of epidermal cells and dermal papillae. We believe that the described microscopic modalities could find in the near future a stable place in a clinical dermatological setting for quantitative diagnostic purposes and as a monitoring method for various treatments.

  20. Reproducibility of non-invasive assessment of skin endothelial function using laser Doppler flowmetry and laser speckle contrast imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyril Puissant

    Full Text Available Endothelial dysfunction precedes atherosclerosis. Vasodilation induced by acetylcholine (ACh is a specific test of endothelial function. Reproducibility of laser techniques such as laser-Doppler-flowmetry (LDF and Laser-speckle-contrast-imaging (LSCI to detect ACh vasodilation is debated and results expressions lack standardization. We aimed to study at a 7-day interval (i the inter-subject reproducibility, (ii the intra-subjects reproducibility, and (iii the effect of the results expressions over variability.Using LDF and LSCI simultaneously, we performed two different ACh-iontophoresis protocols. The maximal ACh vasodilation (peak-ACh was expressed as absolute or normalized flow or conductance values. Inter-subject reproducibility was expressed as coefficient of variation (inter-CV,%. Intra-subject reproducibility was expressed as within subject coefficients of variation (intra-CV,%, and intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC. Fifteen healthy subjects were included. The inter-subject reproducibility of peak-ACh depended upon the expression of the results and ranged from 55% to 162% for LDF and from 17% to 83% for LSCI. The intra-subject reproducibility (intra-CV/ICC of peak-ACh was reduced when assessed with LSCI compared to LDF no matter how the results were expressed and whatever the protocol used. The highest intra-subject reproducibility was found using LSCI. It was 18.7%/0.87 for a single current stimulation (expressed as cutaneous vascular conductance and 11.4%/0.61 for multiple current stimulations (expressed as absolute value.ACh-iontophoresis coupled with LSCI is a promising test to assess endothelial function because it is reproducible, safe, and non-invasive. N°: NCT01664572.

  1. A novel image encryption algorithm based on synchronized random bit generated in cascade-coupled chaotic semiconductor ring lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiafu; Xiang, Shuiying; Wang, Haoning; Gong, Junkai; Wen, Aijun

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, a novel image encryption algorithm based on synchronization of physical random bit generated in a cascade-coupled semiconductor ring lasers (CCSRL) system is proposed, and the security analysis is performed. In both transmitter and receiver parts, the CCSRL system is a master-slave configuration consisting of a master semiconductor ring laser (M-SRL) with cross-feedback and a solitary SRL (S-SRL). The proposed image encryption algorithm includes image preprocessing based on conventional chaotic maps, pixel confusion based on control matrix extracted from physical random bit, and pixel diffusion based on random bit stream extracted from physical random bit. Firstly, the preprocessing method is used to eliminate the correlation between adjacent pixels. Secondly, physical random bit with verified randomness is generated based on chaos in the CCSRL system, and is used to simultaneously generate the control matrix and random bit stream. Finally, the control matrix and random bit stream are used for the encryption algorithm in order to change the position and the values of pixels, respectively. Simulation results and security analysis demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is effective and able to resist various typical attacks, and thus is an excellent candidate for secure image communication application.

  2. Observation of the molten metal behaviors during the laser cutting of thick steel specimens using attenuated process images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Koji; Yamagishi, Ryuichiro

    2017-01-01

    Molten metal behaviors during the laser cutting of carbon steel and stainless steel specimens up to 300 mm in thickness were observed to dismantle large steel objects for the nuclear decommissioning, where attenuated process images from both steels were observed for detailed process analysis. Circular and rod-like molten metal structures were observed at the laser irradiated region depending on the assist gas flow conditions. Molten metal blow-off and flow processes were observed as cutting processes. The observations were explained by the aerodynamic interaction of the melted surface layer. The method is useful for the detailed observation of the molten metal behaviors, and the results are informative to understand and optimize the laser cutting process of very thick steel specimens. (author)

  3. In situ thermal imaging and three-dimensional finite element modeling of tungsten carbide-cobalt during laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Yuhong; Hofmeister, William H.; Cheng Zhao; Smugeresky, John E.; Lavernia, Enrique J.; Schoenung, Julie M.

    2009-01-01

    Laser deposition is being used for the fabrication of net shapes from a broad range of materials, including tungsten carbide-cobalt (WC-Co) cermets (composites composed of a metallic phase and a hard refractory phase). During deposition, an unusual thermal condition is created for cermets, resulting in rather complex microstructures. To provide a fundamental insight into the evolution of such microstructures, we studied the thermal behavior of WC-Co cermets during laser deposition involving complementary results from in situ high-speed thermal imaging and three-dimensional finite element modeling. The former allowed for the characterization of temperature gradients and cooling rates in the vicinity of the molten pool, whereas the latter allowed for simulation of the entire sample. By combining the two methods, a more robust analysis of the thermal behavior was achieved. The model and the imaging results correlate well with each other and with the alternating sublayers observed in the microstructure.

  4. Isotopic imaging via nuclear resonance fluorescence with laser-based Thomson radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barty, Christopher P. J. [Hayward, CA; Hartemann, Frederic V [San Ramon, CA; McNabb, Dennis P [Alameda, CA; Pruet, Jason A [Brentwood, CA

    2009-07-21

    The present invention utilizes novel laser-based, high-brightness, high-spatial-resolution, pencil-beam sources of spectrally pure hard x-ray and gamma-ray radiation to induce resonant scattering in specific nuclei, i.e., nuclear resonance fluorescence. By monitoring such fluorescence as a function of beam position, it is possible to image in either two dimensions or three dimensions, the position and concentration of individual isotopes in a specific material configuration. Such methods of the present invention material identification, spatial resolution of material location and ability to locate and identify materials shielded by other materials, such as, for example, behind a lead wall. The foundation of the present invention is the generation of quasimonochromatic high-energy x-ray (100's of keV) and gamma-ray (greater than about 1 MeV) radiation via the collision of intense laser pulses from relativistic electrons. Such a process as utilized herein, i.e., Thomson scattering or inverse-Compton scattering, produces beams having diameters from about 1 micron to about 100 microns of high-energy photons with a bandwidth of .DELTA.E/E of approximately 10E.sup.-3.

  5. Laser display system for multi-depth screen projection scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Torre, J Pablo; Mayes, Nathan; Riza, Nabeel A

    2017-11-10

    Proposed is a laser projection display system that uses an electronically controlled variable focus lens (ECVFL) to achieve sharp and in-focus image projection over multi-distance three-dimensional (3D) conformal screens. The system also functions as an embedded distance sensor that enables 3D mapping of the multi-level screen platform before the desired laser scanned beam focused/defocused projected spot sizes are matched to the different localized screen distances on the 3D screen. Compared to conventional laser scanning and spatial light modulator (SLM) based projection systems, the proposed design offers in-focus non-distorted projection over a multi-distance screen zone with varying depths. An experimental projection system for a screen depth variation of 65 cm is demonstrated using a 633 nm laser beam, 3 KHz scan speed galvo-scanning mirrors, and a liquid-based ECVFL. As a basic demonstration, an in-house developed MATLAB based graphic user interface is deployed to work along with the laser projection display, enabling user inputs like text strings or predefined image projection. The user can specify projection screen distance, scanned laser linewidth, projected text font size, projected image dimensions, and laser scanning rate. Projected images are shown highlighting the 3D control capabilities of the display, including the production of a non-distorted image onto two-depths versus a distorted image via dominant prior-art projection methods.

  6. Laser Doppler imaging of cutaneous blood flow through transparent face masks: a necessary preamble to computer-controlled rapid prototyping fabrication with submillimeter precision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allely, Rebekah R; Van-Buendia, Lan B; Jeng, James C; White, Patricia; Wu, Jingshu; Niszczak, Jonathan; Jordan, Marion H

    2008-01-01

    A paradigm shift in management of postburn facial scarring is lurking "just beneath the waves" with the widespread availability of two recent technologies: precise three-dimensional scanning/digitizing of complex surfaces and computer-controlled rapid prototyping three-dimensional "printers". Laser Doppler imaging may be the sensible method to track the scar hyperemia that should form the basis of assessing progress and directing incremental changes in the digitized topographical face mask "prescription". The purpose of this study was to establish feasibility of detecting perfusion through transparent face masks using the Laser Doppler Imaging scanner. Laser Doppler images of perfusion were obtained at multiple facial regions on five uninjured staff members. Images were obtained without a mask, followed by images with a loose fitting mask with and without a silicone liner, and then with a tight fitting mask with and without a silicone liner. Right and left oblique images, in addition to the frontal images, were used to overcome unobtainable measurements at the extremes of face mask curvature. General linear model, mixed model, and t tests were used for data analysis. Three hundred seventy-five measurements were used for analysis, with a mean perfusion unit of 299 and pixel validity of 97%. The effect of face mask pressure with and without the silicone liner was readily quantified with significant changes in mean cutaneous blood flow (P face masks. Perfusion decreases with the application of pressure and with silicone. Every participant measured differently in perfusion units; however, consistent perfusion patterns in the face were observed.

  7. Wireless ultrasonic wavefield imaging via laser for hidden damage detection inside a steel box girder bridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Yun-Kyu; Song, Homin; Sohn, Hoon

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a wireless ultrasonic wavefield imaging (WUWI) technique for detecting hidden damage inside a steel box girder bridge. The proposed technique allows (1) complete wireless excitation of piezoelectric transducers and noncontact sensing of the corresponding responses using laser beams, (2) autonomous damage visualization without comparing against baseline data previously accumulated from the pristine condition of a target structure and (3) robust damage diagnosis even for real structures with complex structural geometries. First, a new WUWI hardware system was developed by integrating optoelectronic-based signal transmitting and receiving devices and a scanning laser Doppler vibrometer. Next, a damage visualization algorithm, self-referencing f-k filter (SRF), was introduced to isolate and visualize only crack-induced ultrasonic modes from measured ultrasonic wavefield images. Finally, the performance of the proposed technique was validated through hidden crack visualization at a decommissioned Ramp-G Bridge in South Korea. The experimental results reveal that the proposed technique instantaneously detects and successfully visualizes hidden cracks even in the complex structure of a real bridge. (paper)

  8. Lasers '90: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Lasers and Applications, San Diego, CA, Dec. 10-14, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, D.G.; Herbelin, J.

    1991-01-01

    The general topics considered are: x-ray lasers; FELs; solid state lasers; techniques and phenomena of ultrafast lasers; optical filters and free space laser communications; discharge lasers; tunable lasers; applications of lasers in medicine and surgery; lasers in materials processing; high power lasers; dynamics gratings, wave mixing, and holography; up-conversion lasers; lidar and laser radar; laser resonators; excimer lasers; laser propagation; nonlinear and quantum optics; blue-green technology; imaging; laser spectroscopy; chemical lasers; dye lasers; and lasers in chemistry

  9. Early diagnosis of teeth erosion using polarized laser speckle imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nader, Christelle Abou; Pellen, Fabrice; Loutfi, Hadi; Mansour, Rassoul; Jeune, Bernard Le; Brun, Guy Le; Abboud, Marie

    2016-07-01

    Dental erosion starts with a chemical attack on dental tissue causing tooth demineralization, altering the tooth structure and making it more sensitive to mechanical erosion. Medical diagnosis of dental erosion is commonly achieved through a visual inspection by the dentist during dental checkups and is therefore highly dependent on the operator's experience. The detection of this disease at preliminary stages is important since, once the damage is done, cares become more complicated. We investigate the difference in light-scattering properties between healthy and eroded teeth. A change in light-scattering properties is observed and a transition from volume to surface backscattering is detected by means of polarized laser speckle imaging as teeth undergo acid etching, suggesting an increase in enamel surface roughness.

  10. Fluorescence imaging of lattice re-distribution on step-index direct laser written Nd:YAG waveguide lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez de Mendívil, Jon; Pérez Delgado, Alberto; Lifante, Ginés; Jaque, Daniel [Departamento de Física de Materiales, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Ródenas, Airán [Departament de Química Física i Inorgànica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona 43007 (Spain); Institute of Photonics and Quantum Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom); Benayas, Antonio, E-mail: antonio.benayas@emt.inrs.ca [Departamento de Física de Materiales, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, Centre – Énergie Matériaux et Télécommunications, 1650, Boul. Lionel Boulet Varennes, Quebec J3X 1S2 (Canada); Aguiló, Magdalena; Diaz, Francesc [Departament de Química Física i Inorgànica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona 43007 (Spain); Kar, Ajoy K. [Institute of Photonics and Quantum Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-14

    The laser performance and crystalline micro-structural properties of near-infrared step-index channel waveguides fabricated inside Neodymium doped YAG laser ceramics by means of three-dimensional sub-picosecond pulse laser direct writing are reported. Fluorescence micro-mapping of the waveguide cross-sections reveals that an essential crystal lattice re-distribution has been induced after short pulse irradiation. Such lattice re-distribution is evidenced at the waveguide core corresponding to the laser written refractive index increased volume. The waveguides core surroundings also present diverse changes including slight lattice disorder and bi-axial strain fields. The step-index waveguide laser performance is compared with previous laser fabricated waveguides with a stress-optic guiding mechanism in absence of laser induced lattice re-distribution.

  11. Operative and economic evaluation of a 'Laser Printer Multimodality' System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battaglia, G.; Moscatelli, G.; Maroldi, R.; Chiesa, A.

    1991-01-01

    The increasing application of digital techniques to diagnostic imaging is causing significant changes in several related activities, such as a reproduction of digital images on film. In the Department of Diagnostic Imaging of the University of Brescia, about 70% of the whole of images are produced by digital techniques; at present, most of these images are reproduced on film with a Multimodality System interfacing CT, MR, DSA, and DR units with a single laser printer. Our analysis evaluates the operative and economics aspects of image reproduction, by comparing the 'single cassette' multiformat Camera and the Laser Printer Multimodality SAystem. Our results point out the advantages obtained by reproducing images with a Laser Printer Multimodality System: outstanding quality, reproduction of multiple originals, and marked reduction in the time needed for both image archiving and film handling. The Laser Printer Multimodality System allows over 5 hours/day to be saved -that is to say the working day of an operator, who can be thus shifted to other functions. The important economic aspect of the reproduction of digital images on film proves the Laser Printer Multimodality System to have some advantage over Cameras

  12. A statistical pixel intensity model for segmentation of confocal laser scanning microscopy images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calapez, Alexandre; Rosa, Agostinho

    2010-09-01

    Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) has been widely used in the life sciences for the characterization of cell processes because it allows the recording of the distribution of fluorescence-tagged macromolecules on a section of the living cell. It is in fact the cornerstone of many molecular transport and interaction quantification techniques where the identification of regions of interest through image segmentation is usually a required step. In many situations, because of the complexity of the recorded cellular structures or because of the amounts of data involved, image segmentation either is too difficult or inefficient to be done by hand and automated segmentation procedures have to be considered. Given the nature of CLSM images, statistical segmentation methodologies appear as natural candidates. In this work we propose a model to be used for statistical unsupervised CLSM image segmentation. The model is derived from the CLSM image formation mechanics and its performance is compared to the existing alternatives. Results show that it provides a much better description of the data on classes characterized by their mean intensity, making it suitable not only for segmentation methodologies with known number of classes but also for use with schemes aiming at the estimation of the number of classes through the application of cluster selection criteria.

  13. Application of double-layered skin phantoms for optical flow imaging during laser tattoo treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byeong-il; Song, Woosub; Kim, Hyejin; Kang, Hyun Wook

    2016-05-01

    The feasible application of double-layered skin phantoms was evaluated to identify artificial blood flow with a Doppler optical coherence tomography (DOCT) system for laser tattoo treatments. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was used to fabricate the artificial phantoms with flow channels embedded. A double-integrating sphere system with an inverse adding-doubling method quantified both the absorption and the reduced scattering coefficients for epidermis and dermis phantoms. Both OCT and caliper measurements confirmed the double-layered phantom structure (epidermis = 136 ± 17 µm vs. dermis = 3.0 ± 0.1 mm). The DOCT method demonstrated that high flow rates were associated with high image contrast, visualizing the position and the shape of the flow channel. Application of the channel-embedded skin phantoms in conjunction with DOCT can be a reliable technique to assess dynamic variations in the blood flow during and after laser tattoo treatments.

  14. K{sub α} x-ray imaging of laser-irradiated, limited-mass zirconium foils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storm, M.; Orban, C.; Jiang, S.; Freeman, R. R.; Akli, K. [Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, 191 West Woodruff Road, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Eichman, B.; Fiksel, G.; Stoeckl, C.; Theobald, W.; Delettrez, J. A. [The Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States); Dyer, G.; Ditmire, T. [The Texas Center of High Energy Density Science, The University of Texas at Austin, 2511 Speedway Street, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Stephens, R. [General Atomics, 3550 General Atomics Court, San Diego, California 92121-1200 (United States)

    2014-07-15

    X-ray fluorescence measurements to determine the effect of target heating on imaging efficiency, at a photon energy of 15.7 keV corresponding to the K{sub α} line of zirconium, have been carried out using limited-mass foils irradiated by the Texas Petawatt Laser. Zirconium foils that ranged in volume from 3000 × 3000 × 21 μm{sup 3} to 150 × 150 × 6 μm{sup 3} were irradiated with 100 J, 8 ps-long pulses and a mean intensity of 4 × 10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2}. The K{sub α} emission was measured simultaneously using a highly ordered pyrolytic graphite crystal spectrometer and a curved quartz imaging crystal. The measured ratio of the integrated image signal to the integrated spectral signal was, within the experimental error, constant, indicating that the imaging efficiency's dependence on temperature is weak throughout the probed range. Based on our experience of target heating under similar conditions, we estimate a temperature of ∼200 eV for the smallest targets. The successful imaging of K{sub α} emission for temperatures this high represents an important proof of concept for Zr K{sub α} imaging. At these temperatures, the imaging of K{sub α} emission from lower-Z materials (such as Cu) is limited by temperature-dependent shifts in the K{sub α} emission energy.

  15. Laser jamming experiment of varifocal colour CCD imaging system%变焦彩色CCD成像系统的激光干扰实验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤伟; 王锐; 王挺峰; 郭劲

    2017-01-01

    Out-field laser jamming experiment of varifocal colour CCD imaging system irradiated by semiconductor laser was done.Laser jamming effects of colour CCD imaging system with different focal lengths were measured.Laser jamming model was set-up,and theoretical proving and analysis on experimental results were completed.Theorical and experimental results show that laser jamming effect of colour CCD imaging system irradiated by 750 nm laser is obvious,and CCD surface appears obvious light saturation and crosstalk phenomena.In the same initial laser irradiating conduction,laser power truncated by the aperture gradually decreases with increase of focal length f,and light saturation area on the CCD surface gradually increases.When focal length f of colour CCD imaging system is 17 mm,light saturation area on the CCD surface is 0.33 mm×0.29 mm.While focal length f of colour CCD imaging system increases to 120 mm,light saturation area on the CCD surface is 1.8 mm×1.2 mm.Simulation results are coincident with experimental results,and it proves laser jamming model is correct.The conclusions have a reference value for colour CCD in the practical application.%开展了变焦彩色CCD成像系统的激光外场干扰实验,测得了半导体激光(750 nm)对变焦距(17~187 mm)彩色CCD相机的干扰效果;同时利用典型的激光干扰CCD模型,完成了对实验结果的验证与理论分析.理论与实验结果表明:750 nm激光对彩色CCD成像系统的干扰效果明显,CCD靶面出现了明显的光饱和和串扰现象;在激光辐照条件相同情况下,光学系统焦距f越大,被光阑截断的激光就越少,到靶的激光功率密度就越高,CCD靶面的光饱和面积就越大;光学系统焦距f为17mm时,CCD靶面的光饱和面积为0.33 mm×0.29 mm,而当光学系统焦距f增大至120 mm时,CCD靶面的光饱和面积为1.8 mm×1.2 mm.仿真结果与实验结果基本一致,证明了理论模型的正确性.研究结果将对CCD器件的实际应用具有一定的指导意义.

  16. Optical derotator alignment using image-processing algorithm for tracking laser vibrometer measurements of rotating objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Hossam; Kim, Dongkyu; Jo, Youngjoon; Park, Kyihwan

    2017-06-01

    An optical component called a Dove prism is used to rotate the laser beam of a laser-scanning vibrometer (LSV). This is called a derotator and is used for measuring the vibration of rotating objects. The main advantage of a derotator is that it works independently from an LSV. However, this device requires very specific alignment, in which the axis of the Dove prism must coincide with the rotational axis of the object. If the derotator is misaligned with the rotating object, the results of the vibration measurement are imprecise, owing to the alteration of the laser beam on the surface of the rotating object. In this study, a method is proposed for aligning a derotator with a rotating object through an image-processing algorithm that obtains the trajectory of a landmark attached to the object. After the trajectory of the landmark is mathematically modeled, the amount of derotator misalignment with respect to the object is calculated. The accuracy of the proposed method for aligning the derotator with the rotating object is experimentally tested.

  17. Ablation plume structure and dynamics in ambient gas observed by laser-induced fluorescence imaging spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyabe, M.; Oba, M.; Iimura, H.; Akaoka, K.; Khumaeni, A.; Kato, M.; Wakaida, I.

    2015-01-01

    The dynamic behavior of an ablation plume in ambient gas has been investigated by laser-induced fluorescence imaging spectroscopy. The second harmonic beam from an Nd:YAG laser (0.5–6 J/cm 2 ) was focused on a sintered oxide pellet or a metal chip of gadolinium. The produced plume was subsequently intersected with a sheet-shaped UV beam from a dye laser so that time-resolved fluorescence images were acquired with an intensified CCD camera at various delay times. The obtained cross-sectional images of the plume indicate that the ablated ground state atoms and ions of gadolinium accumulate in a hemispherical contact layer between the plume and the ambient gas, and a cavity containing a smaller density of ablated species is formed near the center of the plume. At earlier expansion stage, another luminous component also expands in the cavity so that it coalesces into the hemispherical layer. The splitting and coalescence for atomic plume occur later than those for ionic plume. Furthermore, the hemispherical layer of neutral atoms appears later than that of ions; however, the locations of the layers are nearly identical. This coincidence of the appearance locations of the layers strongly suggests that the neutral atoms in the hemispherical layer are produced as a consequence of three-body recombination of ions through collisions with gas atoms. The obtained knowledge regarding plume expansion dynamics and detailed plume structure is useful for optimizing the experimental conditions for ablation-based spectroscopic analysis. - Highlights: • Ablated ground-state species accumulated in a thin hemispherical boundary layer • Inside the layer, a cavity containing a small density of ablated species was formed. • The hemispherical layers of atoms and ions appeared at a nearly identical location. • The measured intensity peak variation was in good agreement with a model prediction. • We ascribed the dominant process for forming the layer to a three-body recombination

  18. Apertureless near-field terahertz imaging using the self-mixing effect in a quantum cascade laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, Paul, E-mail: p.dean@leeds.ac.uk; Keeley, James; Kundu, Iman; Li, Lianhe; Linfield, Edmund H.; Giles Davies, A. [School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Mitrofanov, Oleg [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University College London, Torrington Place, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom)

    2016-02-29

    We report two-dimensional apertureless near-field terahertz (THz) imaging using a quantum cascade laser (QCL) source and a scattering probe. A near-field enhancement of the scattered field amplitude is observed for small tip-sample separations, allowing image resolutions of ∼1 μm (∼λ/100) and ∼7 μm to be achieved along orthogonal directions on the sample surface. This represents the highest resolution demonstrated to date with a THz QCL. By employing a detection scheme based on self-mixing interferometry, our approach offers experimental simplicity by removing the need for an external detector and also provides sensitivity to the phase of the reinjected field.

  19. Neutron Imaging for Selective Laser Melting Inconel Hardware with Internal Passages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramel, Terri L.; Norwood, Joseph K.; Bilheux, Hassina

    2014-01-01

    Additive Manufacturing is showing great promise for the development of new innovative designs and large potential life cycle cost reduction for the Aerospace Industry. However, more development work is required to move this technology into space flight hardware production. With selective laser melting (SLM), hardware that once consisted of multiple, carefully machined and inspected pieces, joined together can be made in one part. However standard inspection techniques cannot be used to verify that the internal passages are within dimensional tolerances or surface finish requirements. NASA/MSFC traveled to Oak Ridge National Lab's (ORNL) Spallation Neutron Source to perform some non-destructive, proof of concept imaging measurements to assess the capabilities to understand internal dimensional tolerances and internal passages surface roughness. This presentation will describe 1) the goals of this proof of concept testing, 2) the lessons learned when designing and building these Inconel 718 test specimens to minimize beam time, 3) the neutron imaging test setup and test procedure to get the images, 4) the initial results in images, volume and a video, 4) the assessment of using this imaging technique to gather real data for designing internal flow passages in SLM manufacturing aerospace hardware, and lastly 5) how proper cleaning of the internal passages is critically important. In summary, the initial results are very promising and continued development of a technique to assist in SLM development for aerospace components is desired by both NASA and ORNL. A plan forward that benefits both ORNL and NASA will also be presented, based on the promising initial results. The initial images and volume reconstruction showed that clean, clear images of the internal passages geometry are obtainable. These clear images of the internal passages of simple geometries will be compared to the build model to determine any differences. One surprising result was that a new cleaning

  20. Non-contact finger vein acquisition system using NIR laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jiman; Kong, Hyoun-Joong; Park, Sangyun; Noh, SeungWoo; Lee, Seung-Rae; Kim, Taejeong; Kim, Hee Chan

    2009-02-01

    Authentication using finger vein pattern has substantial advantage than other biometrics. Because human vein patterns are hidden inside the skin and tissue, it is hard to forge vein structure. But conventional system using NIR LED array has two drawbacks. First, direct contact with LED array raise sanitary problem. Second, because of discreteness of LEDs, non-uniform illumination exists. We propose non-contact finger vein acquisition system using NIR laser and Laser line generator lens. Laser line generator lens makes evenly distributed line laser from focused laser light. Line laser is aimed on the finger longitudinally. NIR camera was used for image acquisition. 200 index finger vein images from 20 candidates are collected. Same finger vein pattern extraction algorithm was used to evaluate two sets of images. Acquired images from proposed non-contact system do not show any non-uniform illumination in contrary with conventional system. Also results of matching are comparable to conventional system. We developed Non-contact finger vein acquisition system. It can prevent potential cross contamination of skin diseases. Also the system can produce uniformly illuminated images unlike conventional system. With the benefit of non-contact, proposed system shows almost equivalent performance compared with conventional system.

  1. Development and application of an automatic system for measuring the laser camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Shuli; Peng Mingchen; Li Kuncheng

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To provide an automatic system for measuring imaging quality of laser camera, and to make an automatic measurement and analysis system. Methods: On the special imaging workstation (SGI 540), the procedure was written by using Matlab language. An automatic measurement and analysis system of imaging quality for laser camera was developed and made according to the imaging quality measurement standard of laser camera of International Engineer Commission (IEC). The measurement system used the theories of digital signal processing, and was based on the characteristics of digital images, as well as put the automatic measurement and analysis of laser camera into practice by the affiliated sample pictures of the laser camera. Results: All the parameters of imaging quality of laser camera, including H-D and MTF curve, low and middle and high resolution of optical density, all kinds of geometry distort, maximum and minimum density, as well as the dynamic range of gray scale, could be measured by this system. The system was applied for measuring the laser cameras in 20 hospitals in Beijing. The measuring results showed that the system could provide objective and quantitative data, and could accurately evaluate the imaging quality of laser camera, as well as correct the results made by manual measurement based on the affiliated sample pictures of the laser camera. Conclusion: The automatic measuring system of laser camera is an effective and objective tool for testing the quality of the laser camera, and the system makes a foundation for the future research

  2. Perfusion of burn wounds assessed by Laser Doppler Imaging is related to burn depth and healing time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloppenberg, FWH; Beerthuizen, GIJM; ten Duis, H. J.

    Average perfusion in various burn wounds was assessed using Laser Doppler Imaging (LDI). The time necessary for a complete healing of the wound was compared to the results of the LDI measurements. A certain depth of burn was associated with a typical pattern of perfusion in the course of time. There

  3. Augmented reality in laser laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quercioli, Franco

    2018-05-01

    Laser safety glasses block visibility of the laser light. This is a big nuisance when a clear view of the beam path is required. A headset made up of a smartphone and a viewer can overcome this problem. The user looks at the image of the real world on the cellphone display, captured by its rear camera. An unimpeded and safe sight of the laser beam is then achieved. If the infrared blocking filter of the smartphone camera is removed, the spectral sensitivity of the CMOS image sensor extends in the near infrared region up to 1100 nm. This substantial improvement widens the usability of the device to many laser systems for industrial and medical applications, which are located in this spectral region. The paper describes this modification of a phone camera to extend its sensitivity beyond the visible and make a true augmented reality laser viewer.

  4. Laser-wakefield accelerators for medical phase contrast imaging: Monte Carlo simulations and experimental studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipiccia, S.; Reboredo, D.; Vittoria, Fabio A.; Welsh, G. H.; Grant, P.; Grant, D. W.; Brunetti, E.; Wiggins, S. M.; Olivo, A.; Jaroszynski, D. A.

    2015-05-01

    X-ray phase contrast imaging (X-PCi) is a very promising method of dramatically enhancing the contrast of X-ray images of microscopic weakly absorbing objects and soft tissue, which may lead to significant advancement in medical imaging with high-resolution and low-dose. The interest in X-PCi is giving rise to a demand for effective simulation methods. Monte Carlo codes have been proved a valuable tool for studying X-PCi including coherent effects. The laser-plasma wakefield accelerators (LWFA) is a very compact particle accelerator that uses plasma as an accelerating medium. Accelerating gradient in excess of 1 GV/cm can be obtained, which makes them over a thousand times more compact than conventional accelerators. LWFA are also sources of brilliant betatron radiation, which are promising for applications including medical imaging. We present a study that explores the potential of LWFA-based betatron sources for medical X-PCi and investigate its resolution limit using numerical simulations based on the FLUKA Monte Carlo code, and present preliminary experimental results.

  5. Laser speckle imaging identification of increases in cortical microcirculatory blood flow induced by motor activity during awake craniotomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijn, Eva; Hulscher, Hester C.; Balvers, Rutger K.; Holland, Wim P. J.; Bakker, Jan; Vincent, Arnaud J. P. E.; Dirven, Clemens M. F.; Ince, Can

    2013-01-01

    The goal of awake neurosurgery is to maximize resection of brain lesions with minimal injury to functional brain areas. Laser speckle imaging (LSI) is a noninvasive macroscopic technique with high spatial and temporal resolution used to monitor changes in capillary perfusion. In this study, the

  6. Characterization of hydrogel microstructure using laser tweezers particle tracking and confocal reflection imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotlarchyk, M A; Botvinick, E L; Putnam, A J

    2010-01-01

    Hydrogels are commonly used as extracellular matrix mimetics for applications in tissue engineering and increasingly as cell culture platforms with which to study the influence of biophysical and biochemical cues on cell function in 3D. In recent years, a significant number of studies have focused on linking substrate mechanical properties to cell function using standard methodologies to characterize the bulk mechanical properties of the hydrogel substrates. However, current understanding of the correlations between the microstructural mechanical properties of hydrogels and cell function in 3D is poor, in part because of a lack of appropriate techniques. Here we have utilized a laser tracking system, based on passive optical microrheology instrumentation, to characterize the microstructure of viscoelastic fibrin clots. Trajectories and mean square displacements were observed as bioinert PEGylated (PEG: polyethylene glycol) microspheres (1, 2 or 4.7 μm in diameter) diffused within confined pores created by the protein phase of fibrin hydrogels. Complementary confocal reflection imaging revealed microstructures comprised of a highly heterogeneous fibrin network with a wide range of pore sizes. As the protein concentration of fibrin gels was increased, our quantitative laser tracking measurements showed a corresponding decrease in particle mean square displacements with greater resolution and sensitivity than conventional imaging techniques. This platform-independent method will enable a more complete understanding of how changes in substrate mechanical properties simultaneously influence other microenvironmental parameters in 3D cultures.

  7. Correcting for motion artifact in handheld laser speckle images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lertsakdadet, Ben; Yang, Bruce Y.; Dunn, Cody E.; Ponticorvo, Adrien; Crouzet, Christian; Bernal, Nicole; Durkin, Anthony J.; Choi, Bernard

    2018-03-01

    Laser speckle imaging (LSI) is a wide-field optical technique that enables superficial blood flow quantification. LSI is normally performed in a mounted configuration to decrease the likelihood of motion artifact. However, mounted LSI systems are cumbersome and difficult to transport quickly in a clinical setting for which portability is essential in providing bedside patient care. To address this issue, we created a handheld LSI device using scientific grade components. To account for motion artifact of the LSI device used in a handheld setup, we incorporated a fiducial marker (FM) into our imaging protocol and determined the difference between highest and lowest speckle contrast values for the FM within each data set (Kbest and Kworst). The difference between Kbest and Kworst in mounted and handheld setups was 8% and 52%, respectively, thereby reinforcing the need for motion artifact quantification. When using a threshold FM speckle contrast value (KFM) to identify a subset of images with an acceptable level of motion artifact, mounted and handheld LSI measurements of speckle contrast of a flow region (KFLOW) in in vitro flow phantom experiments differed by 8%. Without the use of the FM, mounted and handheld KFLOW values differed by 20%. To further validate our handheld LSI device, we compared mounted and handheld data from an in vivo porcine burn model of superficial and full thickness burns. The speckle contrast within the burn region (KBURN) of the mounted and handheld LSI data differed by burns. Collectively, our results suggest the potential of handheld LSI with an FM as a suitable alternative to mounted LSI, especially in challenging clinical settings with space limitations such as the intensive care unit.

  8. High speed laser tomography system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsonov, D.; Elsaesser, A.; Edwards, A.; Thomas, H. M.; Morfill, G. E.

    2008-03-01

    A high speed laser tomography system was developed capable of acquiring three-dimensional (3D) images of optically thin clouds of moving micron-sized particles. It operates by parallel-shifting an illuminating laser sheet with a pair of galvanometer-driven mirrors and synchronously recording two-dimensional (2D) images of thin slices of the imaged volume. The maximum scanning speed achieved was 120000slices/s, sequences of 24 volume scans (up to 256 slices each) have been obtained. The 2D slices were stacked to form 3D images of the volume, then the positions of the particles were identified and followed in the consecutive scans. The system was used to image a complex plasma with particles moving at speeds up to cm/s.

  9. Greenhouse gas Laser Imaging Tomography Experiment (GreenLITE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobler, Jeremy [Exelis Inc., Fort Wayne, IN (United States); Zaccheo, T. Scott [Exelis Inc., Fort Wayne, IN (United States); Blume, Nathan [Exelis Inc., Fort Wayne, IN (United States); Pernini, Timothy [Exelis Inc., Fort Wayne, IN (United States); Braun, Michael [Exelis Inc., Fort Wayne, IN (United States); Botos, Christopher [Exelis Inc., Fort Wayne, IN (United States)

    2016-03-31

    This report describes the development and testing of a novel system, the Greenhouse gas Laser Imaging Tomography Experiment (GreenLITE), for Monitoring, Reporting and Verification (MRV) of CO2 at Geological Carbon Storage (GCS) sites. The system consists of a pair of laser based transceivers, a number of retroreflectors, and a set of cloud based data processing, storage and dissemination tools, which enable 2-D mapping of the CO2 in near real time. A system was built, tested locally in New Haven, Indiana, and then deployed to the Zero Emissions Research and Technology (ZERT) facility in Bozeman, MT. Testing at ZERT demonstrated the ability of the GreenLITE system to identify and map small underground leaks, in the presence of other biological sources and with widely varying background concentrations. The system was then ruggedized and tested at the Harris test site in New Haven, IN, during winter time while exposed to temperatures as low as -15 °CºC. Additional testing was conducted using simulated concentration enhancements to validate the 2-D retrieval accuracy. This test resulted in a high confidence in the reconstruction ability to identify sources to tens of meters resolution in this configuration. Finally, the system was deployed for a period of approximately 6 months to an active industrial site, Illinois Basin – Decatur Project (IBDP), where >1M metric tons of CO2 had been injected into an underground sandstone basin. The main objective of this final deployment was to demonstrate autonomous operation over a wide range of environmental conditions with very little human interaction, and to demonstrate the feasibility of the system for long term deployment in a GCS environment.

  10. Nova laser alignment control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Arsdall, P.J.; Holloway, F.W.; McGuigan, D.L.; Shelton, R.T.

    1984-01-01

    Alignment of the Nova laser requires control of hundreds of optical components in the ten beam paths. Extensive application of computer technology makes daily alignment practical. The control system is designed in a manner which provides both centralized and local manual operator controls integrated with automatic closed loop alignment. Menudriven operator consoles using high resolution color graphics displays overlaid with transport touch panels allow laser personnel to interact efficiently with the computer system. Automatic alignment is accomplished by using image analysis techniques to determine beam references points from video images acquired along the laser chain. A major goal of the design is to contribute substantially to rapid experimental turnaround and consistent alignment results. This paper describes the computer-based control structure and the software methods developed for aligning this large laser system

  11. Nephron blood flow dynamics measured by laser speckle contrast imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik; Sosnovtseva, Olga V; Pavlov, Alexey N

    2011-01-01

    Tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) has an important role in autoregulation of renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Because of the characteristics of signal transmission in the feedback loop, the TGF undergoes self-sustained oscillations in single-nephron blood flow, GFR, and tubular...... simultaneously. The interacting nephron fields are likely to be more extensive. We have turned to laser speckle contrast imaging to measure the blood flow dynamics of 50-100 nephrons simultaneously on the renal surface of anesthetized rats. We report the application of this method and describe analytic...... pressure and flow. Nephrons interact by exchanging electrical signals conducted electrotonically through cells of the vascular wall, leading to synchronization of the TGF-mediated oscillations. Experimental studies of these interactions have been limited to observations on two or at most three nephrons...

  12. Annual Scientific Report for DE-FG03-02NA00063 Coherent imaging of laser-plasma interactions using XUV high harmonic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry C. Kapteyn

    2005-01-01

    In this project, we use coherent short-wavelength light generated using high-order harmonic generation as a probe of laser-plasma dynamics and phase transitions on femtosecond time-scales. The interaction of ultrashort laser pulses with materials and plasmas is relevant to stockpile stewardship, to understanding the equation of state of matter at high pressures and temperatures, and to plasma concepts such as the fast-ignitor ICF fusion concept and laser-based particle acceleration. Femtosecond laser technology makes it possible to use a small-scale setup to generate 20fs pulses with average power >10W at multiple kHz repetition rates, that can be focused to intensities in excess of 1017W/cm2. These lasers can be used either to rapidly heat materials to initiate phase transitions, or to create laser plasmas over a wide parameter space. These lasers can also be used to generate fully spatially coherent XUV beams with which to probe these materials and plasma systems. We are in process of implementing imaging studies of plasma hydrodynamics and warm, dense matter. The data will be compared with simulation codes of laser-plasma interactions, making it possible to refine and validate these codes

  13. Development of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) for plant metabolite analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korte, Andrew R [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This thesis presents efforts to improve the methodology of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) as a method for analysis of metabolites from plant tissue samples. The first chapter consists of a general introduction to the technique of MALDI-MSI, and the sixth and final chapter provides a brief summary and an outlook on future work.

  14. Color speckle in laser displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Kazuo

    2015-07-01

    At the beginning of this century, lighting technology has been shifted from discharge lamps, fluorescent lamps and electric bulbs to solid-state lighting. Current solid-state lighting is based on the light emitting diodes (LED) technology, but the laser lighting technology is developing rapidly, such as, laser cinema projectors, laser TVs, laser head-up displays, laser head mounted displays, and laser headlamps for motor vehicles. One of the main issues of laser displays is the reduction of speckle noise1). For the monochromatic laser light, speckle is random interference pattern on the image plane (retina for human observer). For laser displays, RGB (red-green-blue) lasers form speckle patterns independently, which results in random distribution of chromaticity, called color speckle2).

  15. Comparison of three methods reducing the beam parameter product of a laser diode stack for long range laser illumination applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Yves; Poyet, Jean-Michel; Metzger, Nicolas

    2013-10-01

    Laser diode stacks are interesting laser sources for active imaging illuminators. They allow the accumulation of large amounts of energy in multi-pulse mode, which is well suited for long-range image recording. Even when laser diode stacks are equipped with fast-axis collimation (FAC) and slow-axis collimation (SAC) microlenses, their beam parameter product (BPP) are not compatible with a direct use in highly efficient and compact illuminators. This is particularly true when narrow divergences are required such as for long range applications. To overcome these difficulties, we conducted investigations in three different ways. A first near infrared illuminator based on the use of conductively cooled mini-bars was designed, realized and successfully tested during outdoor experimentations. This custom specified stack was then replaced in a second step by an off-the-shelf FAC + SAC micro lensed stack where the brightness was increased by polarization overlapping. The third method still based on a commercial laser diode stack uses a non imaging optical shaping principle resulting in a virtually restacked laser source with enhanced beam parameters. This low cost, efficient and low alignment sensitivity beam shaping method allows obtaining a compact and high performance laser diode illuminator for long range active imaging applications. The three methods are presented and compared in this paper.

  16. Three-dimensional hard and soft tissue imaging of the human cochlea by scanning laser optical tomography (SLOT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Tinne

    Full Text Available The present study focuses on the application of scanning laser optical tomography (SLOT for visualization of anatomical structures inside the human cochlea ex vivo. SLOT is a laser-based highly efficient microscopy technique which allows for tomographic imaging of the internal structure of transparent specimens. Thus, in the field of otology this technique is best convenient for an ex vivo study of the inner ear anatomy. For this purpose, the preparation before imaging comprises decalcification, dehydration as well as optical clearing of the cochlea samples in toto. Here, we demonstrate results of SLOT imaging visualizing hard and soft tissue structures with an optical resolution of down to 15 μm using extinction and autofluorescence as contrast mechanisms. Furthermore, the internal structure can be analyzed nondestructively and quantitatively in detail by sectioning of the three-dimensional datasets. The method of X-ray Micro Computed Tomography (μCT has been previously applied to explanted cochlea and is solely based on absorption contrast. An advantage of SLOT is that it uses visible light for image formation and thus provides a variety of contrast mechanisms known from other light microscopy techniques, such as fluorescence or scattering. We show that SLOT data is consistent with μCT anatomical data and provides additional information by using fluorescence. We demonstrate that SLOT is applicable for cochlea with metallic cochlear implants (CI that would lead to significant artifacts in μCT imaging. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates the capability of SLOT for resolution visualization of cleared human cochleae ex vivo using multiple contrast mechanisms and lays the foundation for a broad variety of additional studies.

  17. A novel effective method for the assessment of microvascular function in male patients with coronary artery disease: a pilot study using laser speckle contrast imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, J.P. [Laboratório de Atividade Física e Promoção è Saúde, Departamento de Desporto Coletivo, Instituto de Educação Física e Desportos, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Lopes, G.O. [Laboratório de Atividade Física e Promoção è Saúde, Departamento de Desporto Coletivo, Instituto de Educação Física e Desportos, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Cardiologia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Verri, V.; Coelho, M.P.; Nascimento, P.M.C.; Kopiler, D.A. [Instituto Nacional de Cardiologia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Tibirica, E. [Instituto Nacional de Cardiologia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Laboratório de Investigação Cardiovascular, Departamento Osório de Almeida, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2016-09-01

    Evaluation of microvascular endothelial function is essential for investigating the pathophysiology and treatment of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Although laser speckle contrast imaging technology is well accepted as a noninvasive methodology for assessing microvascular endothelial function, it has never been used to compare male patients with coronary artery disease with male age-matched healthy controls. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine whether laser speckle contrast imaging could be used to detect differences in the systemic microvascular functions of patients with established cardiovascular disease (n=61) and healthy age-matched subjects (n=24). Cutaneous blood flow was assessed in the skin of the forearm using laser speckle contrast imaging coupled with the transdermal iontophoretic delivery of acetylcholine and post-occlusive reactive hyperemia. The maximum increase in skin blood flow induced by acetylcholine was significantly reduced in the cardiovascular disease patients compared with the control subjects (74 vs 116%; P<0.01). With regard to post-occlusive reactive hyperemia-induced vasodilation, the patients also presented reduced responses compared to the controls (0.42±0.15 vs 0.50±0.13 APU/mmHg; P=0.04). In conclusion, laser speckle contrast imaging can identify endothelial and microvascular dysfunctions in male individuals with cardiovascular disease. Thus, this technology appears to be an efficient non-invasive technique for evaluating systemic microvascular and endothelial functions, which could be valuable as a peripheral marker of atherothrombotic diseases in men.

  18. A novel effective method for the assessment of microvascular function in male patients with coronary artery disease: a pilot study using laser speckle contrast imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, J.P.; Lopes, G.O.; Verri, V.; Coelho, M.P.; Nascimento, P.M.C.; Kopiler, D.A.; Tibirica, E.

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of microvascular endothelial function is essential for investigating the pathophysiology and treatment of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Although laser speckle contrast imaging technology is well accepted as a noninvasive methodology for assessing microvascular endothelial function, it has never been used to compare male patients with coronary artery disease with male age-matched healthy controls. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine whether laser speckle contrast imaging could be used to detect differences in the systemic microvascular functions of patients with established cardiovascular disease (n=61) and healthy age-matched subjects (n=24). Cutaneous blood flow was assessed in the skin of the forearm using laser speckle contrast imaging coupled with the transdermal iontophoretic delivery of acetylcholine and post-occlusive reactive hyperemia. The maximum increase in skin blood flow induced by acetylcholine was significantly reduced in the cardiovascular disease patients compared with the control subjects (74 vs 116%; P<0.01). With regard to post-occlusive reactive hyperemia-induced vasodilation, the patients also presented reduced responses compared to the controls (0.42±0.15 vs 0.50±0.13 APU/mmHg; P=0.04). In conclusion, laser speckle contrast imaging can identify endothelial and microvascular dysfunctions in male individuals with cardiovascular disease. Thus, this technology appears to be an efficient non-invasive technique for evaluating systemic microvascular and endothelial functions, which could be valuable as a peripheral marker of atherothrombotic diseases in men

  19. Near-field imaging of femtosecond laser ablated sub-λ/4 holes in lithium niobate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodenas, Airan; Lamela, Jorge; Jaque, Daniel; Lifante, Gines; Jaque, Francisco; Garcia-Martin, Antonio; Zhou Guangyong; Gu Min

    2009-01-01

    We report on the direct femtosecond laser ablation of sub-λ/4 (80-250 nm) holes in LiNbO 3 crystals and on its local near-field imaging. We show that the near-field transmission of holes can feature an attenuation of ∼75% at hole central position, and a ∼20% transmission enhancement at its sides. This high-contrast ring-shaped near-field distribution is found to be in agreement with simulations, suggesting the surface relief as the main contrast mechanism.

  20. High-pulse energy supercontinuum laser for high-resolution spectroscopic photoacoustic imaging of lipids in the 1650-1850 nm region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasa, Manoj Kumar; Markos, Christos; Maria, Michael; Petersen, Christian R; Moselund, Peter M; Bang, Ole

    2018-04-01

    We propose a cost-effective high-pulse energy supercontinuum (SC) source based on a telecom range diode laser-based amplifier and a few meters of standard single-mode optical fiber, with a pulse energy density as high as ~25 nJ/nm in the 1650-1850 nm regime (factor >3 times higher than any SC source ever used in this wavelength range). We demonstrate how such an SC source combined with a tunable filter allows high-resolution spectroscopic photoacoustic imaging and the spectroscopy of lipids in the first overtone transition band of C-H bonds (1650-1850 nm). We show the successful discrimination of two different lipids (cholesterol and lipid in adipose tissue) and the photoacoustic cross-sectional scan of lipid-rich adipose tissue at three different locations. The proposed high-pulse energy SC laser paves a new direction towards compact, broadband and cost-effective source for spectroscopic photoacoustic imaging.

  1. Intraluminal ultrasound guidance of transverse laser coronary atherectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aretz, H. Thomas; Martinelli, Michael A.; LeDet, Earl G.; Sedlacek, Tomas; Hatch, G. F.; Gregg, Richard E.

    1990-07-01

    A coronary laser atherectomy system combining laser delivery and ultrasonic imaging capability is described. The system is being developed by Intra-Sonix, Inc. to treat severe stenoses. The imaging system provides the clinician with the guidance needed to remove substantial plaque without perforation. The ultrasound transducers and laser optics are mounted in a small (less than 4 F), flexible catheter, that is deliverable over a standard guidewire (0.016 inch). The laser and ultrasound beams are directed at the artery wall to permit debulking of lesions and ultrasonic depth profiling of the tissue structure throughout the thickness of the artery. This allows the physician to determine the level of therapy to be applied and to monitor the plaque removal as the therapy progresses. The precise location of the ultrasound and laser beams in the artery is determined by a navigation system. Navigation data are processed electronically in conjunction with ultrasound data to produce real-time cross-sectional and longitudinal images of the artery wall at selected locations, which are updated as the catheter progresses through the vessel lumen. Results of in vitro tests on human atherosclerotic arteries and early in vivo experiments in a canine-human xenograft model showing image construction and radial laser delivery are discussed.

  2. Single-Molecule Imaging with X-Ray Free-Electron Lasers: Dream or Reality?

    KAUST Repository

    Fratalocchi, Andrea

    2011-03-09

    X-ray free-electron lasers (XFEL) are revolutionary photon sources, whose ultrashort, brilliant pulses are expected to allow single-molecule diffraction experiments providing structural information on the atomic length scale of nonperiodic objects. This ultimate goal, however, is currently hampered by several challenging questions basically concerning sample damage, Coulomb explosion, and the role of nonlinearity. By employing an original ab initio approach, we address these issues showing that XFEL-based single-molecule imaging will be only possible with a few-hundred long attosecond pulses, due to significant radiation damage and the formation of preferred multisoliton clusters which reshape the overall electronic density of the molecular system at the femtosecond scale.

  3. Single-Molecule Imaging with X-Ray Free-Electron Lasers: Dream or Reality?

    KAUST Repository

    Fratalocchi, Andrea; Ruocco, G.

    2011-01-01

    X-ray free-electron lasers (XFEL) are revolutionary photon sources, whose ultrashort, brilliant pulses are expected to allow single-molecule diffraction experiments providing structural information on the atomic length scale of nonperiodic objects. This ultimate goal, however, is currently hampered by several challenging questions basically concerning sample damage, Coulomb explosion, and the role of nonlinearity. By employing an original ab initio approach, we address these issues showing that XFEL-based single-molecule imaging will be only possible with a few-hundred long attosecond pulses, due to significant radiation damage and the formation of preferred multisoliton clusters which reshape the overall electronic density of the molecular system at the femtosecond scale.

  4. Automation and Control of an Imaging Internal Laser Desorption Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometer (I2LD-FTMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McJunkin, Timothy R; Tranter, Troy Joseph; Scott, Jill Rennee

    2002-06-01

    This paper describes the automation of an imaging internal source laser desorption Fourier transform mass spectrometer (I2LD-FTMS). The I2LD-FTMS consists of a laser-scanning device [Scott and Tremblay, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 2002, 73, 1108–1116] that has been integrated with a laboratory-built FTMS using a commercial data acquisition system (ThermoFinnigan FT/MS, Bremen, Germany). A new user interface has been developed in National Instrument's (Austin, Texas) graphical programming language LabVIEW to control the motors of the laser positioning system and the commercial FTMS data acquisition system. A feature of the FTMS software that allows the user to write macros in a scripting language is used creatively to our advantage in creating a mechanism to control the FTMS from outside its graphical user interface. The new user interface also allows the user to configure target locations. Automation of the data analysis along with data display using commercial graphing software is also described.

  5. Visualization of the influence of the air conditioning system to the high-power laser beam quality with the modulation coherent imaging method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Hua; Veetil, Suhas P; Pan, Xingchen; Liu, Cheng; Zhu, Jianqiang

    2015-08-01

    Air conditioning systems can lead to dynamic phase change in the laser beams of high-power laser facilities for the inertial confinement fusion, and this kind of phase change cannot be measured by most of the commonly employed Hartmann wavefront sensor or interferometry due to some uncontrollable factors, such as too large laser beam diameters and the limited space of the facility. It is demonstrated that this problem can be solved using a scheme based on modulation coherent imaging, and thus the influence of the air conditioning system on the performance of the high-power facility can be evaluated directly.

  6. Laser Resurfacing

    OpenAIRE

    Janik, Joseph P.; Markus, Jodi L.; Al-Dujaili, Zeena; Markus, Ramsey F.

    2007-01-01

    In a society desiring images of beauty and youthfulness, the world of cutaneous surgery offers the gifts of facial rejuvenation for those determined to combat the signs of aging. With the development of novel laser and plasma technology, pigmentary changes, scarring, and wrinkles can be conquered providing smoother, healthier, younger-looking skin. This review highlights five of the most popular resurfacing technologies in practice today including the carbon dioxide (CO2) laser, the erbium:yt...

  7. PINPIN a-Si:H based structures for X-ray image detection using the laser scanning technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, M.; Vygranenko, Y.; Vieira, M.

    2015-05-01

    Conventional film based X-ray imaging systems are being replaced by their digital equivalents. Different approaches are being followed by considering direct or indirect conversion, with the later technique dominating. The typical, indirect conversion, X-ray panel detector uses a phosphor for X-ray conversion coupled to a large area array of amorphous silicon based optical sensors and a couple of switching thin film transistors (TFT). The pixel information can then be readout by switching the correspondent line and column transistors, routing the signal to an external amplifier. In this work we follow an alternative approach, where the electrical switching performed by the TFT is replaced by optical scanning using a low power laser beam and a sensing/switching PINPIN structure, thus resulting in a simpler device. The optically active device is a PINPIN array, sharing both front and back electrical contacts, deposited over a glass substrate. During X-ray exposure, each sensing side photodiode collects photons generated by the scintillator screen (560 nm), charging its internal capacitance. Subsequently a laser beam (445 nm) scans the switching diodes (back side) retrieving the stored charge in a sequential way, reconstructing the image. In this paper we present recent work on the optoelectronic characterization of the PINPIN structure to be incorporated in the X-ray image sensor. The results from the optoelectronic characterization of the device and the dependence on scanning beam parameters are presented and discussed. Preliminary results of line scans are also presented.

  8. Graph Structure-Based Simultaneous Localization and Mapping Using a Hybrid Method of 2D Laser Scan and Monocular Camera Image in Environments with Laser Scan Ambiguity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taekjun Oh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Localization is an essential issue for robot navigation, allowing the robot to perform tasks autonomously. However, in environments with laser scan ambiguity, such as long corridors, the conventional SLAM (simultaneous localization and mapping algorithms exploiting a laser scanner may not estimate the robot pose robustly. To resolve this problem, we propose a novel localization approach based on a hybrid method incorporating a 2D laser scanner and a monocular camera in the framework of a graph structure-based SLAM. 3D coordinates of image feature points are acquired through the hybrid method, with the assumption that the wall is normal to the ground and vertically flat. However, this assumption can be relieved, because the subsequent feature matching process rejects the outliers on an inclined or non-flat wall. Through graph optimization with constraints generated by the hybrid method, the final robot pose is estimated. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, real experiments were conducted in an indoor environment with a long corridor. The experimental results were compared with those of the conventional GMappingapproach. The results demonstrate that it is possible to localize the robot in environments with laser scan ambiguity in real time, and the performance of the proposed method is superior to that of the conventional approach.

  9. Laser diode stack beam shaping for efficient and compact long-range laser illuminator design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Y.; Poyet, J. M.

    2014-04-01

    Laser diode stacks are interesting laser sources for active imaging illuminators. They allow the accumulation of large amounts of energy in multi-pulse mode, which is best suited for long-range image recording. Even when the laser diode stacks are equipped with fast-axis collimation (FAC) and slow-axis collimation (SAC) micro-lenses, their beam parameter products BPP are not compatible with direct use in highly efficient and compact illuminators. This is particularly true when narrow divergences are required such as for long-range applications. A solution to overcome these difficulties is to enhance the poor slow-axis BPP by virtually restacking the laser diode stack. We present a beam shaping and homogenization method that is low-cost and efficient and has low alignment sensitivity. After conducting simulations, we have realized and characterized the illuminator. A compact long-range laser illuminator has been set up with a divergence of 3.5×2.6 mrad and a global efficiency of 81%. Here, a projection lens with a clear aperture of 62 mm and a focal length of 571 mm was used.

  10. Real time detection of antibody-antigen interaction using a laser scanning confocal imaging-surface plasmon resonance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hong-Yan; Yang Li-Quan; Ning Ting-Yin; Liu Wei-Min; Sun Jia-Yu; Wang Peng-Fei; Meng Lan; Nie Jia-Cai

    2012-01-01

    A laser scanning confocal imaging-surface plasmon resonance (LSCI-SPR) instrument integrated with a wavelength-dependent surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor and a laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) is built to detect the bonding process of human IgG and fluorescent-labeled affinity purified antibodies in real time. The shifts of resonant wavelength at different reaction time stages are obtained by SPR, corresponding well with the changes of the fluorescence intensity collected by using LSCM. The instrument shows the merits of the combination and complementation of the SPR and LSCM, with such advantages as quantificational analysis, high spatial resolution and real time monitor, which are of great importance for practical applications in biosensor and life science. (general)

  11. Simple convergent-nozzle aerosol injector for single-particle diffractive imaging with X-ray free-electron lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Kirian

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A major challenge in high-resolution x-ray free-electron laser-based coherent diffractive imaging is the development of aerosol injectors that can efficiently deliver particles to the peak intensity of the focused X-ray beam. Here, we consider the use of a simple convergent-orifice nozzle for producing tightly focused beams of particles. Through optical imaging we show that 0.5 μm particles can be focused to a full-width at half maximum diameter of 4.2 μm, and we demonstrate the use of such a nozzle for injecting viruses into a micro-focused soft-X-ray FEL beam.

  12. Theoretical analysis of dynamic chemical imaging with lasers using high-order harmonic generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van-Hoang Le; Anh-Thu Le; Xie Ruihua; Lin, C. D.

    2007-01-01

    We report theoretical investigations of the tomographic procedure suggested by Itatani et al. [Nature (London) 432, 867 (2004)] for reconstructing highest occupied molecular orbitals (HOMOs) using high-order harmonic generation (HHG). Due to the limited range of harmonics from the plateau region, we found that even under the most favorable assumptions, it is still very difficult to obtain accurate HOMO wave functions using the tomographic procedure, but the symmetry of the HOMOs and the internuclear separation between the atoms can be accurately extracted, especially when lasers of longer wavelengths are used to generate the HHG. Since the tomographic procedure relies on approximating the continuum wave functions in the recombination process by plane waves, the method can no longer be applied upon the improvement of the theory. For future chemical imaging with lasers, we suggest that one may want to focus on how to extract the positions of atoms in molecules instead, by developing an iterative method such that the theoretically calculated macroscopic HHG spectra can best fit the experimental HHG data

  13. Low power cw-laser signatures on human skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lihachev, A; Lesinsh, J; Jakovels, D; Spigulis, J

    2011-01-01

    Impact of cw laser radiation on autofluorescence features of human skin is studied. Two methods of autofluorescence detection are applied: the spectral method with the use of a fibreoptic probe and spectrometer for determining the autofluorescence recovery kinetics at a fixed skin area of ∼12 mm 2 , and the multispectral visualisation method with the use of a multispectral imaging camera for visualising long-term autofluorescence changes in a skin area of ∼4 cm 2 . The autofluorescence recovery kinetics after preliminary laser irradiation is determined. Skin autofluorescence images with visible long-term changes - 'signatures' of low power laser treatment are acquired. (application of lasers and laser-optical methods in life sciences)

  14. Imaging the He2 quantum halo state using a free electron laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, Stefan; Kunitski, Maksim; Voigtsberger, Jörg; Kalinin, Anton; Schottelius, Alexander; Schober, Carl; Waitz, Markus; Sann, Hendrik; Hartung, Alexander; Bauer, Tobias; Pitzer, Martin; Trinter, Florian; Goihl, Christoph; Janke, Christian; Richter, Martin; Kastirke, Gregor; Weller, Miriam; Czasch, Achim; Kitzler, Markus; Braune, Markus; Grisenti, Robert E.; Schöllkopf, Wieland; Schmidt, Lothar Ph. H.; Schöffler, Markus S.; Williams, Joshua B.; Jahnke, Till; Dörner, Reinhard

    2016-12-01

    Quantum tunneling is a ubiquitous phenomenon in nature and crucial for many technological applications. It allows quantum particles to reach regions in space which are energetically not accessible according to classical mechanics. In this “tunneling region,” the particle density is known to decay exponentially. This behavior is universal across all energy scales from nuclear physics to chemistry and solid state systems. Although typically only a small fraction of a particle wavefunction extends into the tunneling region, we present here an extreme quantum system: a gigantic molecule consisting of two helium atoms, with an 80% probability that its two nuclei will be found in this classical forbidden region. This circumstance allows us to directly image the exponentially decaying density of a tunneling particle, which we achieved for over two orders of magnitude. Imaging a tunneling particle shows one of the few features of our world that is truly universal: the probability to find one of the constituents of bound matter far away is never zero but decreases exponentially. The results were obtained by Coulomb explosion imaging using a free electron laser and furthermore yielded He2’s binding energy of 151.9±13.3151.9±13.3 neV, which is in agreement with most recent calculations.

  15. A novel fiber laser development for photoacoustic microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavas, Seydi; Aytac-Kipergil, Esra; Arabul, Mustafa U.; Erkol, Hakan; Akcaalan, Onder; Eldeniz, Y. Burak; Ilday, F. Omer; Unlu, Mehmet B.

    2013-03-01

    Photoacoustic microscopy, as an imaging modality, has shown promising results in imaging angiogenesis and cutaneous malignancies like melanoma, revealing systemic diseases including diabetes, hypertension, tracing drug efficiency and assessment of therapy, monitoring healing processes such as wound cicatrization, brain imaging and mapping. Clinically, photoacoustic microscopy is emerging as a capable diagnostic tool. Parameters of lasers used in photoacoustic microscopy, particularly, pulse duration, energy, pulse repetition frequency, and pulse-to-pulse stability affect signal amplitude and quality, data acquisition speed and indirectly, spatial resolution. Lasers used in photoacoustic microscopy are typically Q-switched lasers, low-power laser diodes, and recently, fiber lasers. Significantly, the key parameters cannot be adjusted independently of each other, whereas microvasculature and cellular imaging, e.g., have different requirements. Here, we report an integrated fiber laser system producing nanosecond pulses, covering the spectrum from 600 nm to 1100 nm, developed specifically for photoacoustic excitation. The system comprises of Yb-doped fiber oscillator and amplifier, an acousto-optic modulator and a photonic-crystal fiber to generate supercontinuum. Complete control over the pulse train, including generation of non-uniform pulse trains, is achieved via the AOM through custom-developed field-programmable gate-array electronics. The system is unique in that all the important parameters are adjustable: pulse duration in the range of 1-3 ns, pulse energy up to 10 μJ, repetition rate from 50 kHz to 3 MHz. Different photocoustic imaging probes can be excited with the ultrabroad spectrum. The entire system is fiber-integrated; guided-beam-propagation rendersit misalignment free and largely immune to mechanical perturbations. The laser is robust, low-cost and built using readily available components.

  16. MHz-rate nitric oxide planar laser-induced fluorescence imaging in a Mach 10 hypersonic wind tunnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Naibo; Webster, Matthew; Lempert, Walter R; Miller, Joseph D; Meyer, Terrence R; Ivey, Christopher B; Danehy, Paul M

    2011-02-01

    Nitric oxide planar laser-induced fluorescence (NO PLIF) imaging at repetition rates as high as 1 MHz is demonstrated in the NASA Langley 31 in. Mach 10 hypersonic wind tunnel. Approximately 200 time-correlated image sequences of between 10 and 20 individual frames were obtained over eight days of wind tunnel testing spanning two entries in March and September of 2009. The image sequences presented were obtained from the boundary layer of a 20° flat plate model, in which transition was induced using a variety of different shaped protuberances, including a cylinder and a triangle. The high-speed image sequences captured a variety of laminar and transitional flow phenomena, ranging from mostly laminar flow, typically at a lower Reynolds number and/or in the near wall region of the model, to highly transitional flow in which the temporal evolution and progression of characteristic streak instabilities and/or corkscrew-shaped vortices could be clearly identified.

  17. Techniques for Effective Optical Noise Rejection in Amplitude-Modulated Laser Optical Radars for Underwater Three-Dimensional Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francucci M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Amplitude-modulated (AM laser imaging is a promising technology for the production of accurate three-dimensional (3D images of submerged scenes. The main challenge is that radiation scattered off water gives rise to a disturbing signal (optical noise that degrades more and more the quality of 3D images for increasing turbidity. In this paper, we summarize a series of theoretical findings, that provide valuable hints for the development of experimental methods enabling a partial rejection of optical noise in underwater imaging systems. In order to assess the effectiveness of these methods, which range from modulation/demodulation to polarimetry, we carried out a series of experiments by using the laboratory prototype of an AM 3D imager ( = 405 nm for marine archaeology surveys, in course of realization at the ENEA Artificial Vision Laboratory (Frascati, Rome. The obtained results confirm the validity of the proposed methods for optical noise rejection.

  18. Techniques for Effective Optical Noise Rejection in Amplitude-Modulated Laser Optical Radars for Underwater Three-Dimensional Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ricci

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Amplitude-modulated (AM laser imaging is a promising technology for the production of accurate three-dimensional (3D images of submerged scenes. The main challenge is that radiation scattered off water gives rise to a disturbing signal (optical noise that degrades more and more the quality of 3D images for increasing turbidity. In this paper, we summarize a series of theoretical findings, that provide valuable hints for the development of experimental methods enabling a partial rejection of optical noise in underwater imaging systems. In order to assess the effectiveness of these methods, which range from modulation/demodulation to polarimetry, we carried out a series of experiments by using the laboratory prototype of an AM 3D imager (λ = 405 nm for marine archaeology surveys, in course of realization at the ENEA Artificial Vision Laboratory (Frascati, Rome. The obtained results confirm the validity of the proposed methods for optical noise rejection.

  19. Theranostic probe for simultaneous in vivo photoacoustic imaging and confined photothermolysis by pulsed laser at 1064 nm in 4T1 breast cancer model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Min; Ku, Geng; Pageon, Laura; Li, Chun

    2014-11-01

    Here, we report that polyethylene glycol (PEG)-coated copper(ii) sulfide nanoparticles (PEG-CuS NPs) with their peak absorption tuned to 1064 nm could be used both as a contrast agent for photoacoustic tomographic imaging of mouse tumor vasculature and as a mediator for confined photothermolysis of tumor cells in an orthotopic syngeneic 4T1 breast tumor model. PEG-CuS NPs showed stronger photoacoustic signal than hollow gold nanospheres and single-wall carbon nanotubes at 1064 nm. MicroPET imaging of 4T1 tumor-bearing mice showed a gradual accumulation of the NPs in the tumor over time. About 6.5% of injected dose were taken up in each gram of tumor tissue at 24 h after intravenous injection of 64Cu-labeled PEG-CuS NPs. For both photoacoustic imaging and therapeutic studies, nanosecond (ns)-pulsed laser was delivered with Q-switched Nd:YAG at a wavelength of 1064 nm. Unlike conventional photothermal ablation therapy mediated by continuous wave laser with which heat could spread to the surrounding normal tissue, interaction of CuS NPs with short pulsed laser deliver heat rapidly to the treatment volume keeping the thermal damage confined to the target tissues. Our data demonstrated that it is possible to use a single-compartment nanoplatform to achieve both photoacoustic tomography and highly selective tumor destruction at 1064 nm in small animals.Here, we report that polyethylene glycol (PEG)-coated copper(ii) sulfide nanoparticles (PEG-CuS NPs) with their peak absorption tuned to 1064 nm could be used both as a contrast agent for photoacoustic tomographic imaging of mouse tumor vasculature and as a mediator for confined photothermolysis of tumor cells in an orthotopic syngeneic 4T1 breast tumor model. PEG-CuS NPs showed stronger photoacoustic signal than hollow gold nanospheres and single-wall carbon nanotubes at 1064 nm. MicroPET imaging of 4T1 tumor-bearing mice showed a gradual accumulation of the NPs in the tumor over time. About 6.5% of injected dose were

  20. Laser development: Taking physics to industry

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Esser, D

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available & Specifications ? Few examples ? Pumping another laser ? Directed infrared countermeasures ? 3 D printing ? Gated imaging ? Concept Laser Products ? Advanced Photonics Manufacturing Facility ? CSIR 2012 Slide 2 Target Divergence... Laser application: Additive Manufacturing (3 D printing) Laser Powder layer Argon System 1 m Mode: Continuous & modulation Power : 5 000 W Beam Quality: extremely good Wavelength: 1 ?m E-to-O Efficiency: 28% 3-phase power & water cooling...

  1. Diode laser based light sources for biomedical applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, André; Marschall, Sebastian; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin

    2013-01-01

    Diode lasers are by far the most efficient lasers currently available. With the ever-continuing improvement in diode laser technology, this type of laser has become increasingly attractive for a wide range of biomedical applications. Compared to the characteristics of competing laser systems, diode...... imaging. This review provides an overview of the latest development of diode laser technology and systems and their use within selected biomedical applications....

  2. Near infrared spectral imaging of explosives using a tunable laser source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klunder, G L; Margalith, E; Nguyen, L K

    2010-03-26

    Diffuse reflectance near infrared hyperspectral imaging is an important analytical tool for a wide variety of industries, including agriculture consumer products, chemical and pharmaceutical development and production. Using this technique as a method for the standoff detection of explosive particles is presented and discussed. The detection of the particles is based on the diffuse reflectance of light from the particle in the near infrared wavelength range where CH, NH, OH vibrational overtones and combination bands are prominent. The imaging system is a NIR focal plane array camera with a tunable OPO/laser system as the illumination source. The OPO is programmed to scan over a wide spectral range in the NIR and the camera is synchronized to record the light reflected from the target for each wavelength. The spectral resolution of this system is significantly higher than that of hyperspectral systems that incorporate filters or dispersive elements. The data acquisition is very fast and the entire hyperspectral cube can be collected in seconds. A comparison of data collected with the OPO system to data obtained with a broadband light source with LCTF filters is presented.

  3. A Novel Approach for Sub-Threshold Detection and Prevention of Laser Injury in Ocular Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-31

    which laser-induced changes in the autofluorescence features of retina were observed in vivo following laser treatment. 10 Use or disclosure of...wavelength scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO) for multi spectral in vivo fluorescence imaging of animal retina following laser exposure. The imaging...system was optimized for retinal imaging in aged Brown Norway rats. In order to induce laser lesions in the retina in vivo, we integrated the surgical

  4. Novel dental dynamic depth profilometric imaging using simultaneous frequency-domain infrared photothermal radiometry and laser luminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaides, Lena; Mandelis, Andreas

    2000-01-01

    A high-spatial-resolution dynamic experimental imaging setup, which can provide simultaneous measurements of laser- induced frequency-domain infrared photothermal radiometric and luminescence signals from defects in teeth, has been developed for the first time. The major findings of this work are: (1) radiometric images are complementary to (anticorrelated with) luminescence images, as a result of the nature of the two physical signal generation processes; (2) the radiometric amplitude exhibits much superior dynamic (signal resolution) range to luminescence in distinguishing between intact and cracked sub-surface structures in the enamel; (3) the radiometric signal (amplitude and phase) produces dental images with much better defect localization, delineation, and resolution; (4) radiometric images (amplitude and phase) at a fixed modulation frequency are depth profilometric, whereas luminescence images are not; and (5) luminescence frequency responses from enamel and hydroxyapatite exhibit two relaxation lifetimes, the longer of which (approximately ms) is common to all and is not sensitive to the defect state and overall quality of the enamel. Simultaneous radiometric and luminescence frequency scans for the purpose of depth profiling were performed and a quantitative theoretical two-lifetime rate model of dental luminescence was advanced.

  5. Efficient green lasers for high-resolution scanning micro-projector displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Vikram; Bauco, Anthony S.; Oubei, Hassan M.; Loeber, David A. S.

    2010-02-01

    Laser-based projectors are gaining increased acceptance in mobile device market due to their low power consumption, superior image quality and small size. The basic configuration of such micro-projectors is a miniature mirror that creates an image by raster scanning the collinear red, blue and green laser beams that are individually modulated on a pixel-bypixel basis. The image resolution of these displays can be limited by the modulation bandwidth of the laser sources, and the modulation speed of the green laser has been one of the key limitations in the development of these displays. We will discuss how this limitation is fundamental to the architecture of many laser designs and then present a green laser configuration which overcomes these difficulties. In this green laser architecture infra-red light from a distributed Bragg-reflector (DBR) laser diode undergoes conversion to green light in a waveguided second harmonic generator (SHG) crystal. The direct doubling in a single pass through the SHG crystal allows the device to operate at the large modulation bandwidth of the DBR laser. We demonstrate that the resultant product has a small footprint (9% electrical-to-optical conversion) and large modulation bandwidth (>100 MHz).

  6. 3D Imaging of Porous Media Using Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy with Application to Microscale Transport Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredrich, J.T.

    1999-02-10

    We present advances in the application of laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) to image, reconstruct, and characterize statistically the microgeometry of porous geologic and engineering materials. We discuss technical and practical aspects of this imaging technique, including both its advantages and limitations. Confocal imaging can be used to optically section a material, with sub-micron resolution possible in the lateral and axial planes. The resultant volumetric image data, consisting of fluorescence intensities for typically {approximately}50 million voxels in XYZ space, can be used to reconstruct the three-dimensional structure of the two-phase medium. We present several examples of this application, including studying pore geometry in sandstone, characterizing brittle failure processes in low-porosity rock deformed under triaxial loading conditions in the laboratory, and analyzing the microstructure of porous ceramic insulations. We then describe approaches to extract statistical microgeometric descriptions from volumetric image data, and present results derived from confocal volumetric data sets. Finally, we develop the use of confocal image data to automatically generate a three-dimensional mesh for numerical pore-scale flow simulations.

  7. Single mimivirus particles intercepted and imaged with an X-ray laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibert, M. Marvin; Ekeberg, Tomas; Maia, Filipe R. N. C.; Svenda, Martin; Andreasson, Jakob; Jönsson, Olof; Odić, Duško; Iwan, Bianca; Rocker, Andrea; Westphal, Daniel; Hantke, Max; DePonte, Daniel P.; Barty, Anton; Schulz, Joachim; Gumprecht, Lars; Coppola, Nicola; Aquila, Andrew; Liang, Mengning; White, Thomas A.; Martin, Andrew; Caleman, Carl; Stern, Stephan; Abergel, Chantal; Seltzer, Virginie; Claverie, Jean-Michel; Bostedt, Christoph; Bozek, John D.; Boutet, Sébastien; Miahnahri, A. Alan; Messerschmidt, Marc; Krzywinski, Jacek; Williams, Garth; Hodgson, Keith O.; Bogan, Michael J.; Hampton, Christina Y.; Sierra, Raymond G.; Starodub, Dmitri; Andersson, Inger; Bajt, Saša; Barthelmess, Miriam; Spence, John C. H.; Fromme, Petra; Weierstall, Uwe; Kirian, Richard; Hunter, Mark; Doak, R. Bruce; Marchesini, Stefano; Hau-Riege, Stefan P.; Frank, Matthias; Shoeman, Robert L.; Lomb, Lukas; Epp, Sascha W.; Hartmann, Robert; Rolles, Daniel; Rudenko, Artem; Schmidt, Carlo; Foucar, Lutz; Kimmel, Nils; Holl, Peter; Rudek, Benedikt; Erk, Benjamin; Hömke, André; Reich, Christian; Pietschner, Daniel; Weidenspointner, Georg; Strüder, Lothar; Hauser, Günter; Gorke, Hubert; Ullrich, Joachim; Schlichting, Ilme; Herrmann, Sven; Schaller, Gerhard; Schopper, Florian; Soltau, Heike; Kühnel, Kai-Uwe; Andritschke, Robert; Schröter, Claus-Dieter; Krasniqi, Faton; Bott, Mario; Schorb, Sebastian; Rupp, Daniela; Adolph, Marcus; Gorkhover, Tais; Hirsemann, Helmut; Potdevin, Guillaume; Graafsma, Heinz; Nilsson, Björn; Chapman, Henry N.; Hajdu, Janos

    2014-01-01

    X-ray lasers offer new capabilities in understanding the structure of biological systems, complex materials and matter under extreme conditions1–4. Very short and extremely bright, coherent X-ray pulses can be used to outrun key damage processes and obtain a single diffraction pattern from a large macromolecule, a virus or a cell before the sample explodes and turns into plasma1. The continuous diffraction pattern of non-crystalline objects permits oversampling and direct phase retrieval2. Here we show that high-quality diffraction data can be obtained with a single X-ray pulse from a non-crystalline biological sample, a single mimivirus particle, which was injected into the pulsed beam of a hard-X-ray free-electron laser, the Linac Coherent Light Source5. Calculations indicate that the energy deposited into the virus by the pulse heated the particle to over 100,000 K after the pulse had left the sample. The reconstructed exit wavefront (image) yielded 32-nm full-period resolution in a single exposure and showed no measurable damage. The reconstruction indicates inhomogeneous arrangement of dense material inside the virion. We expect that significantly higher resolutions will be achieved in such experiments with shorter and brighter photon pulses focused to a smaller area. The resolution in such experiments can be further extended for samples available in multiple identical copies. PMID:21293374

  8. Moving Target Detection With Compact Laser Doppler Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepp, G.; Breining, A.; Eisfeld, W.; Knopp, R.; Lill, E.; Wagner, D.

    1989-12-01

    This paper describes an experimental integrated optronic system for detection and tracking of moving objects. The system is based on a CO2 waveguide laser Doppler ra-dar with homodyne receiver and galvanometer mirror beam scanner. A "hot spot" seeker consisting of a thermal imager with image processor transmits the coordinates of IR-emitting, i.e. potentially powered, objects to the laser radar scanner. The scanner addresses these "hot" locations operating in a large field-of-view (FOV) random ac-cess mode. Hot spots exhibiting a Doppler shifted laser signal are indicated in the thermal image by velocity-to-colour encoded markers. After switching to a small FOV scanning mode, the laser Doppler radar is used to track fast moving objects. Labora-tory and field experiments with moving objects including rotating discs, automobiles and missiles are described.

  9. Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Mass Spectrometry Imaging for Peptide and Protein Analyses: A Critical Review of On-Tissue Digestion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cillero-Pastor, B.; Heeren, R.M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) has established itself among the plethora of mass spectrometry applications. In the biomedical field, MALDI-MSI is being more frequently recognized as a new method for the discovery of biomarkers and targets of

  10. Application of Laser Plasma Sources of Soft X-rays and Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) in Imaging, Processing Materials and Photoionization Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedorowicz, H.; Bartnik, A.; Wachulak, P. W.; Jarocki, R.; Kostecki, J.; Szczurek, M.; Ahad, I. U.; Fok, T.; Szczurek, A.; Wȩgrzyński, Ł.

    In the paper we present new applications of laser plasma sources of soft X-rays and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) in various areas of plasma physics, nanotechnology and biomedical engineering. The sources are based on a gas puff target irradiated with nanosecond laser pulses from commercial Nd: YAG lasers, generating pulses with time duration from 1 to 10 ns and energies from 0.5 to 10 J at a 10 Hz repetition rate. The targets are produced with the use of a double valve system equipped with a special nozzle to form a double-stream gas puff target which allows for high conversion efficiency of laser energy into soft X-rays and EUV without degradation of the nozzle. The sources are equipped with various optical systems to collect soft X-ray and EUV radiation and form the radiation beam. New applications of these sources in imaging, including EUV tomography and soft X-ray microscopy, processing of materials and photoionization studies are presented.

  11. Femtosecond laser inscribed cladding waveguides in Nd:YAG ceramics: fabrication, fluorescence imaging and laser performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongliang; Jia, Yuechen; Vázquez de Aldana, Javier Rodríguez; Jaque, Daniel; Chen, Feng

    2012-08-13

    We report on the fabrication of depressed cladding waveguide lasers in Nd:YAG (neodymium doped yttrium aluminum garnet, Nd:Y3Al5O12) ceramics microstructured by femtosecond laser pulses. Full control over the confined light spatial distribution is demonstrated by the fabrication of high contrast waveguides with hexagonal, circular and trapezoidal configurations. The confocal fluorescence measurements of the waveguides reveal that the original luminescence features of Nd3+ ions are well-preserved in the waveguide regions. Under optical pump at 808 nm, cladding waveguides showed continuous wave efficient laser oscillation. The maximum output power obtained at 1064.5 nm is ~181 mW with a slope efficiency as high as 44%, which suggests that the fabricated Nd:YAG ceramic waveguides are promising candidates for efficient integrated laser sources.

  12. Function analysis of working integrated circuit with scanning laser microscope. Laser kenbikyo ni yoru IC no dosa kansatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ode, T. (Lasertec Corp., Kanagawa (Japan))

    1992-10-20

    By scanning a laser light, the reaction of a specimen against the light is detected in some means. The optical effect can be visualized by displaying that on the CRT or the like in synchronism with the scanning. Among these, an image formed and visualized by internal photoelectric effect by light is called OBIC image, and chiefly used for evaluating and analyzing semiconductor devices. Observing this OBIC image by a high speed scanning laser microscope has been spotlighted these days as an effective means for observing the state of p-n junction of an IC in operation. This paper descries the principle, the observing method, the detecting circuit, etc. of the semiconductor observing method using a laser microscope. Further, actual examples of detecting defects of an IC by means of OBIC image are shown. As for the problem, since leak parts are displayed as negative contrast in the OBIC image to affect finding work of leak part, the necessity of improvement is pointed out. 39 refs., 11 figs.

  13. In vivo monitoring laser tissue interaction using high resolution Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Hang Chan; Shin, Dong Jun; Ahn, Jin-Chul; Chung, Phil-Sang; Kim, DaeYu

    2017-02-01

    Laser-induced therapies include laser ablation to remove or cut target tissue by irradiating high-power focused laser beam. These laser treatments are widely used tools for minimally invasive surgery and retinal surgical procedures in clinical settings. In this study, we demonstrate laser tissue interaction images of various sample tissues using high resolution Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (Fd-OCT). We use a Q-switch diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 nanosecond laser (532nm central wavelength) with a 4W maximum output power at a 20 kHz repetition rate to ablate in vitro and in vivo samples including chicken breast and mouse ear tissues. The Fd-OCT system acquires time-series Bscan images at the same location during the tissue ablation experiments with 532nm laser irradiation. The real-time series of OCT cross-sectional (B-scan) images compare structural changes of 532nm laser ablation using same and different laser output powers. Laser tissue ablation is demonstrated by the width and the depth of the tissue ablation from the B-scan images.

  14. Towards simultaneous Talbot bands based optical coherence tomography and scanning laser ophthalmoscopy imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Manuel J; Bradu, Adrian; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh

    2014-05-01

    We report a Talbot bands-based optical coherence tomography (OCT) system capable of producing longitudinal B-scan OCT images and en-face scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) images of the human retina in-vivo. The OCT channel employs a broadband optical source and a spectrometer. A gap is created between the sample and reference beams while on their way towards the spectrometer's dispersive element to create Talbot bands. The spatial separation of the two beams facilitates collection by an SLO channel of optical power originating exclusively from the retina, deprived from any contribution from the reference beam. Three different modes of operation are presented, constrained by the minimum integration time of the camera used in the spectrometer and by the galvo-scanners' scanning rate: (i) a simultaneous acquisition mode over the two channels, useful for small size imaging, that conserves the pixel-to-pixel correspondence between them; (ii) a hybrid sequential mode, where the system switches itself between the two regimes and (iii) a sequential "on-demand" mode, where the system can be used in either OCT or SLO regimes for as long as required. The two sequential modes present varying degrees of trade-off between pixel-to-pixel correspondence and independent full control of parameters within each channel. Images of the optic nerve and fovea regions obtained in the simultaneous (i) and in the hybrid sequential mode (ii) are presented.

  15. Development of a hardened X-ray imager for the Megajoule Laser radiative environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousseau, A.

    2014-01-01

    Thermonuclear fusion experiments are led on Megajoule class laser facility by imploding a capsule filled with Deuterium and Tritium. In this context, it is necessary to diagnose the core size and the shape of the compressed target in order to provide valuable information and identify reasons for failure. State of the art X-ray imaging diagnostics cannot realize measurements without being perturbed by the nuclear background. The diagnostic that has been designed in this thesis combine high spatial resolution X-ray imaging at high energy and radiation tolerance to nuclear background. We have first guaranteed, theoretically and experimentally, survivability of X ray multilayer coating to energetic neutrons irradiation. Consequently, we have design the X-ray imaging system in order to achieve 5 μm resolution in a spectral range up to 95 keV. The X-ray image has then been converted into visible light in order to be easily transferred through a hardened optical relay to a protected area where the optical analyser is set. This analyser, combining light amplifier and pixelised detector, has also been studied and a novel method has been developed to reduce nuclear related transient perturbations on the device. This by parts design associated with Monte-Carlo Simulation (GEANT4) and experimental campaign on FCI facility (OMEGA) led to a coherent diagnostic architecture which will sustain high level of nuclear perturbation. (author) [fr

  16. Quantitative measurements with x-ray microscopes in laser-fusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, F.J.; Su, Q.

    1995-01-01

    X-ray imaging of laser-fusion target implosions has been performed on the University of Rochester's OMEGA laser system by means of grazing-incidence optical imaging with Kirkpatrick--Baez (KB) microscopes. High spatial resolution imaging (∼5 μm) of hard x-ray emission (up to ∼7 keV) has been achieved. New grazing-incidence optics are currently being fabricated for the OMEGA Upgrade experimental laser-fusion facility. Projected performance indicates that resolution may be increased to ∼2 μm at the center of the field of view and sensitivity extended to ∼8 keV. Uses of KB microscopes on the OMEGA Upgrade will include hard x-ray imaging, grating-dispersed imaged spectroscopy, and framed imaging. A novel technique for monochromatic imaging with KB microscopes has also been demonstrated enabling images of target emission in a narrow energy band (10 to 20 eV) to be obtained

  17. Characterisation and application of a laser-based hard x-ray source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graetz, M.

    1998-11-01

    Hard X-rays are generated by focusing 110 fs laser pulses with intensities of about 1017 W/cm 2 onto solid metal targets. Characteristic properties of this X-ray source are the small source size, the short pulse duration and the high peak flux. The aim of the present work was to characterise this X-ray source and to demonstrate possible applications. A comparison with other X-ray sources and conventional imaging techniques is made. Characterising measurements were performed, including source size, emission spectrum, temporal behaviour, source stability and the influence of various laser parameters. The emission spectrum was measured using both energy-dispersive solid-state detectors and wavelength-dispersive crystal spectroscopy. The conversion efficiency from laser light to X-ray radiation was measured for different target materials. The laser ablation from different targets was studied. The feasibility of special imaging techniques, e.g. differential imaging and time-gated imaging, was investigated both theoretically and experimentally. Differential imaging allows for selective imaging of contrast agents, while time-gated imaging can reduce the influence of scattered radiation in X-ray imaging. Time-gated imaging was demonstrated in different imaging geometries, both for planar imaging and computed tomography imaging. Reasonable agreement between theoretically calculated values and experimental results was obtained

  18. Characterisation and application of a laser-based hard x-ray source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graetz, M

    1998-11-01

    Hard X-rays are generated by focusing 110 fs laser pulses with intensities of about 1017 W/cm{sup 2} onto solid metal targets. Characteristic properties of this X-ray source are the small source size, the short pulse duration and the high peak flux. The aim of the present work was to characterise this X-ray source and to demonstrate possible applications. A comparison with other X-ray sources and conventional imaging techniques is made. Characterising measurements were performed, including source size, emission spectrum, temporal behaviour, source stability and the influence of various laser parameters. The emission spectrum was measured using both energy-dispersive solid-state detectors and wavelength-dispersive crystal spectroscopy. The conversion efficiency from laser light to X-ray radiation was measured for different target materials. The laser ablation from different targets was studied. The feasibility of special imaging techniques, e.g. differential imaging and time-gated imaging, was investigated both theoretically and experimentally. Differential imaging allows for selective imaging of contrast agents, while time-gated imaging can reduce the influence of scattered radiation in X-ray imaging. Time-gated imaging was demonstrated in different imaging geometries, both for planar imaging and computed tomography imaging. Reasonable agreement between theoretically calculated values and experimental results was obtained 120 refs, figs, tabs

  19. Spatially resolved chemical analysis of cicada wings using laser-ablation electrospray ionization (LAESI) imaging mass spectrometry (IMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román, Jessica K; Walsh, Callee M; Oh, Junho; Dana, Catherine E; Hong, Sungmin; Jo, Kyoo D; Alleyne, Marianne; Miljkovic, Nenad; Cropek, Donald M

    2018-03-01

    Laser-ablation electrospray ionization (LAESI) imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) is an emerging bioanalytical tool for direct imaging and analysis of biological tissues. Performing ionization in an ambient environment, this technique requires little sample preparation and no additional matrix, and can be performed on natural, uneven surfaces. When combined with optical microscopy, the investigation of biological samples by LAESI allows for spatially resolved compositional analysis. We demonstrate here the applicability of LAESI-IMS for the chemical analysis of thin, desiccated biological samples, specifically Neotibicen pruinosus cicada wings. Positive-ion LAESI-IMS accurate ion-map data was acquired from several wing cells and superimposed onto optical images allowing for compositional comparisons across areas of the wing. Various putative chemical identifications were made indicating the presence of hydrocarbons, lipids/esters, amines/amides, and sulfonated/phosphorylated compounds. With the spatial resolution capability, surprising chemical distribution patterns were observed across the cicada wing, which may assist in correlating trends in surface properties with chemical distribution. Observed ions were either (1) equally dispersed across the wing, (2) more concentrated closer to the body of the insect (proximal end), or (3) more concentrated toward the tip of the wing (distal end). These findings demonstrate LAESI-IMS as a tool for the acquisition of spatially resolved chemical information from fragile, dried insect wings. This LAESI-IMS technique has important implications for the study of functional biomaterials, where understanding the correlation between chemical composition, physical structure, and biological function is critical. Graphical abstract Positive-ion laser-ablation electrospray ionization mass spectrometry coupled with optical imaging provides a powerful tool for the spatially resolved chemical analysis of cicada wings.

  20. Observation of meander pattern in signals from superconducting MgB{sub 2} detector by scanning pulsed laser imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishida, Takekazu, E-mail: ishida@center.osakafu-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics and Electronics, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Institute for Nanofabrication Research, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Yagi, Ikutaro; Yoshioka, Naohito; Huy, Ho Thanh [Department of Physics and Electronics, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Yotsuya, Tsutomu [Institute for Nanofabrication Research, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Research Center, Osaka Prefecture University, 2-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8570 (Japan); Shimakage, Hisashi [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, College of Engineering, 4-12-1, Nakanarusawa, Hitachi, Ibaraki 316-8511 (Japan); Miki, Shigehito [Kansai Advanced Research Center, National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, 588-2 Iwaoka-cho, Nishi-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 651-2429 (Japan); Wang, Zhen [Institute for Nanofabrication Research, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Kansai Advanced Research Center, National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, 588-2 Iwaoka-cho, Nishi-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 651-2429 (Japan)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: ► We fabricate a superconducting MgB{sub 2} meander detector as a solid-state neutron detector. ► MgB{sub 2} detector uses XYZ stage, optical fiber and focused lens to scan as a microscope. ► The 6 μm line-and-space in meandering pattern can be resolved in signals against pulsed laser. -- Abstract: Superconducting MgB{sub 2} meander detector has been imaged by scanning a spot of 1.5-μm focused pulsed laser. The superconducting detector using high-quality {sup 10}B-enriched MgB{sub 2} thin films at higher operating temperatures has been fabricated to utilize a resistance change induced by the nuclear energy of {sup 10}B and neutron. The MgB{sub 2} detector consists of a 200-nm-thick MgB{sub 2} thin-film meander line, a 300-nm-thick SiO protective layer, and 150-nm-thick Nb electrodes with 1-μm MgB{sub 2} wires. The devices were placed in a 4 K refrigerator to control at a certain temperature below T{sub c}. A scanning laser spot can be used by the combination of the XYZ piezo-drive stage and an optical fibre with an aspheric focused lens. The measurement system is fully controlled by LabVIEW based software. We succeeded in observing a line-and-space image of a meandering pattern by analysing response signals.

  1. Multispectral mid-infrared imaging using frequency upconversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanders, Nicolai Højer; Dam, Jeppe Seidelin; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin

    2013-01-01

    It has recently been shown that it is possible to upconvert infrared images to the near infrared region with high quantum efficiency and low noise by three-wave mixing with a laser field [1]. If the mixing laser is single-frequency, the upconverted image is simply a band-pass filtered version...... parameter, allowing for fast tuning and hence potentially fast image acquisition, paving the way for upconversion based real time multispectral imaging. In the present realization the upconversion module consists of an external cavity tapered diode laser in a Littrow configuration with a computer controlled...

  2. Laser speckle imaging identification of increases in cortical microcirculatory blood flow induced by motor activity during awake craniotomy ; Clinical article

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Klijn (Elko); M.E.J.L. Hulscher (Marlies); R.K. Balvers (Rutger); W.P.J. Holland (Wim); J. Bakker (Jan); A.J.P.E. Vincent (Arnoud); C.M.F. Dirven (Clemens); C. Ince (Can)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractObject. The goal of awake neurosurgery is to maximize resection of brain lesions with minimal injury to functional brain areas. Laser speckle imaging (LSI) is a noninvasive macroscopic technique with high spatial and temporal resolution used to monitor changes in capillary perfusion. In

  3. ORION laser target diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentley, C. D.; Edwards, R. D.; Andrew, J. E.; James, S. F.; Gardner, M. D.; Comley, A. J.; Vaughan, K.; Horsfield, C. J.; Rubery, M. S.; Rothman, S. D.; Daykin, S.; Masoero, S. J.; Palmer, J. B.; Meadowcroft, A. L.; Williams, B. M.; Gumbrell, E. T.; Fyrth, J. D.; Brown, C. R. D.; Hill, M. P.; Oades, K.

    2012-01-01

    The ORION laser facility is one of the UK's premier laser facilities which became operational at AWE in 2010. Its primary mission is one of stockpile stewardship, ORION will extend the UK's experimental plasma physics capability to the high temperature, high density regime relevant to Atomic Weapons Establishment's (AWE) program. The ORION laser combines ten laser beams operating in the ns regime with two sub ps short pulse chirped pulse amplification beams. This gives the UK a unique combined long pulse/short pulse laser capability which is not only available to AWE personnel but also gives access to our international partners and visiting UK academia. The ORION laser facility is equipped with a comprehensive suite of some 45 diagnostics covering optical, particle, and x-ray diagnostics all able to image the laser target interaction point. This paper focuses on a small selection of these diagnostics.

  4. ORION laser target diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, C D; Edwards, R D; Andrew, J E; James, S F; Gardner, M D; Comley, A J; Vaughan, K; Horsfield, C J; Rubery, M S; Rothman, S D; Daykin, S; Masoero, S J; Palmer, J B; Meadowcroft, A L; Williams, B M; Gumbrell, E T; Fyrth, J D; Brown, C R D; Hill, M P; Oades, K; Wright, M J; Hood, B A; Kemshall, P

    2012-10-01

    The ORION laser facility is one of the UK's premier laser facilities which became operational at AWE in 2010. Its primary mission is one of stockpile stewardship, ORION will extend the UK's experimental plasma physics capability to the high temperature, high density regime relevant to Atomic Weapons Establishment's (AWE) program. The ORION laser combines ten laser beams operating in the ns regime with two sub ps short pulse chirped pulse amplification beams. This gives the UK a unique combined long pulse/short pulse laser capability which is not only available to AWE personnel but also gives access to our international partners and visiting UK academia. The ORION laser facility is equipped with a comprehensive suite of some 45 diagnostics covering optical, particle, and x-ray diagnostics all able to image the laser target interaction point. This paper focuses on a small selection of these diagnostics.

  5. Dynamics of Laser-Driven Shock Waves in Solid Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aglitskiy, Y.; Karasik, M.; Velikovich, A. L.; Serlin, V.; Weaver, J.; Schmitt, A. J.; Obenschain, S. P.; Grun, J.; Metzler, N.; Zalesak, S. T.; Gardner, J. H.; Oh, J.; Harding, E. C.

    2009-11-01

    Accurate shock timing is a key issue of both indirect- and direct-drive laser fusions. The experiments on the Nike laser at NRL presented here were made possible by improvements in the imaging capability of our monochromatic x-ray diagnostics based on Bragg reflection from spherically curved crystals. Side-on imaging implemented on Nike makes it possible to observe dynamics of the shock wave and ablation front in laser-driven solid targets. We can choose to observe a sequence of 2D images or a continuous time evolution of an image resolved in one spatial dimension. A sequence of 300 ps snapshots taken using vanadium backlighter at 5.2 keV reveals propagation of a shock wave in a solid plastic target. The shape of the shock wave reflects the intensity distribution in the Nike beam. The streak records with continuous time resolution show the x-t trajectory of a laser-driven shock wave in a 10% solid density DVB foam.

  6. Plasmonic laser printing for functional metasurfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Xiaolong; Carstensen, M. S.; Vannahme, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Recently, we show a method of color printing on nanoimprinted plasmonic metasurfaces using laser post-writing. Laser pulses induce transient local heat generation that leads to melting and reshaping of the imprinted nanostructures [1]. Depending on the laser pulse energy density, different surface...... morphologies that support different plasmonic resonances can be created. This technology creates a laser printer capable of producing color images with a resolution up to 127,000 DPI. With tailored trains of laser pulses, multiple optical states are flatiron onto the metasurface film with a nanoscale...

  7. High-speed imaging and evolution dynamics of laser induced deposition of conductive inks (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makrygianni, Marina; Papazoglou, Symeon; Zacharatos, Filimonas; Chatzandroulis, Stavros; Zergioti, Ioanna

    2017-02-01

    During the last decade there is an ever-increasing interest for the study of laser processes dynamics and specifically of the Laser Induced Forward Transfer (LIFT) technique, since the evolution of the phenomena under investigation may provide real time metrology in terms of jet velocity, adjacent jet interaction and impact pressure. The study of such effects leads to a more thorough understanding of the deposition process, hence to an improved printing outcome and in these frames, this work presents a study on the dynamics of LIFT for conductive nanoparticles inks using high-speed imaging approaches. Moreover, in this study, we investigated the printing regimes and the printing quality during the transfer of copper (Cu) nanoink, which is a metallic nanoink usually employed in interconnect formation as well as the printing of silver nanowires, which provide transparency and may be used in applications where transparent electrodes are needed as in photovoltaics, batteries, etc. Furthermore, we demonstrate the fabrication of an all laser printed resistive chemical sensor device that combines Ag nanoparticles ink and graphene oxide, for the detection of humidity fabricated on a flexible polyimide substrate. The sensor device architecture w