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Sample records for scandium 54

  1. Scandium recovery from slags after oxidized nickel ore processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyshlyaev, Denis; Botalov, Maxim; Bunkov, Grigory; Rychkov, Vladimir; Kirillov, Evgeny; Kirillov, Sergey; Semenishchev, Vladimir

    2017-09-01

    One of the possible sources of scandium production - waste (slags) from processing of oxidized nickel ores, has been considered in present research work. The hydrometallurgical method has been selected as the primary for scandium extraction. Different reagents for leaching of scandium, such as sulfuric acid, various carbonate salts and fluorides, have been tested. Sulfuric acid has been recognized as an optimal leaching reagent. Sulfuric acid concentration of 100 g L-1 allowed recovering up to 97 % of scandium.

  2. Influence of scandium concentration on power generation figure of merit of scandium aluminum nitride thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiyama, Morito; Nagase, Toshimi [Measurement Solution Research Center, National Institute of Advanced Industrials Science and Technology, Tosu, Saga 841-0052 (Japan); Umeda, Keiichi; Honda, Atsushi [Murata Manufacturing Co., Ltd., Nagaokakyo, Kyoto 617-8555 (Japan)

    2013-01-14

    The authors have investigated the influence of scandium concentration on the power generation figure of merit (FOM) of scandium aluminum nitride (Sc{sub x}Al{sub 1-x}N) films prepared by cosputtering. The power generation FOM strongly depends on the scandium concentration. The FOM of Sc{sub 0.41}Al{sub 0.59}N film was 67 GPa, indicating that the FOM is five times larger than that of AlN. The FOM of Sc{sub 0.41}Al{sub 0.59}N film is higher than those of lead zirconate titanate and Pb(Mg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}-PbTiO{sub 3} films, which is the highest reported for any piezoelectric thin films. The high FOM of Sc{sub 0.41}Al{sub 0.59}N film is due to the high d{sub 31} and the low relative permittivity.

  3. Lifetime measurements and oscillator strengths in singly ionized scandium and the solar abundance of scandium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehlivan Rhodin, A.; Belmonte, M. T.; Engström, L.; Lundberg, H.; Nilsson, H.; Hartman, H.; Pickering, J. C.; Clear, C.; Quinet, P.; Fivet, V.; Palmeri, P.

    2017-12-01

    The lifetimes of 17 even-parity levels (3d5s, 3d4d, 3d6s and 4p2) in the region 57 743-77 837 cm-1 of singly ionized scandium (Sc II) were measured by two-step time-resolved laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy. Oscillator strengths of 57 lines from these highly excited upper levels were derived using a hollow cathode discharge lamp and a Fourier transform spectrometer. In addition, Hartree-Fock calculations where both the main relativistic and core-polarization effects were taken into account were carried out for both low- and high-excitation levels. There is a good agreement for most of the lines between our calculated branching fractions and the measurements of Lawler & Dakin in the region 9000-45 000 cm-1 for low excitation levels and with our measurements for high excitation levels in the region 23 500-63 100 cm-1. This, in turn, allowed us to combine the calculated branching fractions with the available experimental lifetimes to determine semi-empirical oscillator strengths for a set of 380 E1 transitions in Sc II. These oscillator strengths include the weak lines that were used previously to derive the solar abundance of scandium. The solar abundance of scandium is now estimated to logε⊙ = 3.04 ± 0.13 using these semi-empirical oscillator strengths to shift the values determined by Scott et al. The new estimated abundance value is in agreement with the meteoritic value (logεmet = 3.05 ± 0.02) of Lodders, Palme & Gail.

  4. Smelting of Scandium by Microwave Irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Satoshi; Tsubaki, Shuntaro; Inazu, Naomi; Suzuki, Eiichi; Wada, Yuji

    2017-09-27

    Scandium is being explored as an alloying element for aluminum alloys, which are gaining importance as high-performance lightweight structural alloys in the transportation industry. A few years ago, Sc was also found to be suitable for use in electrical devices. High-Sc-content ScAlN thin films have attracted significant attention because of their strong piezoelectricity. The piezoelectric response of ScAlN suggests that ScAlN thin films formed on a hard substrate would be suitable surface acoustic wave wideband filters for next-generation wireless communication systems. However, it is often difficult to use ScAlN thin films in MEMS devices-including acoustic ones-because of the extremely high price of metallic Sc, given the difficulty associated with smelting it. Here, we propose a novel process for smelting Sc metal by microwave irradiation. Sc metal was able to be obtained successfully from ScF₃ through a microwave-irradiation-based carbon reduction reaction. The reaction temperature for this reduction process was approximately 880°C, which is half of that for the conventional smelting process involving reduction with Ca. Thus, the proposed microwave irradiation process has significant potential for use in the smelting of Sc metal.

  5. Smelting of Scandium by Microwave Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Fujii

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Scandium is being explored as an alloying element for aluminum alloys, which are gaining importance as high-performance lightweight structural alloys in the transportation industry. A few years ago, Sc was also found to be suitable for use in electrical devices. High-Sc-content ScAlN thin films have attracted significant attention because of their strong piezoelectricity. The piezoelectric response of ScAlN suggests that ScAlN thin films formed on a hard substrate would be suitable surface acoustic wave wideband filters for next-generation wireless communication systems. However, it is often difficult to use ScAlN thin films in MEMS devices—including acoustic ones—because of the extremely high price of metallic Sc, given the difficulty associated with smelting it. Here, we propose a novel process for smelting Sc metal by microwave irradiation. Sc metal was able to be obtained successfully from ScF3 through a microwave-irradiation-based carbon reduction reaction. The reaction temperature for this reduction process was approximately 880°C, which is half of that for the conventional smelting process involving reduction with Ca. Thus, the proposed microwave irradiation process has significant potential for use in the smelting of Sc metal.

  6. Hydrometallurgical methods of recovery of scandium from the wastes of various technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molchanova, T. V.; Akimova, I. D.; Smirnov, K. M.; Krylova, O. K.; Zharova, E. V.

    2017-03-01

    The recovery of scandium from the wastes of the production of uranium, titanium, iron-vanadium, and alumina is studied. The applied acid schemes of scandium transfer to a solution followed by ion-exchange recovery and extraction concentration of scandium ensure the precipitation of crude scandium oxides containing up to 5% Sc2O3. Scandium oxides of 99.96-99.99% purity are formed after additional refining of these crude oxides according to an extraction technology using a mixture 15% multiradical phosphine oxide or Cyanex-925 + 15% tributyl phosphate in kerosene.

  7. Synthesis and Reactivity of a Scandium Terminal Hydride: H2  Activation by a Scandium Terminal Imido Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xianghao; Xiang, Li; Lamsfus, Carlos A; Mao, Weiqing; Lu, Erli; Maron, Laurent; Leng, Xuebing; Chen, Yaofeng

    2017-10-20

    Dihydrogen is easily activated by a scandium terminal imido complex containing the weakly coordinated THF. The reaction proceeds through a 1,2-addition mechanism, which is distinct from the σ-bond metathesis mechanism reported to date for rare-earth metal-mediated H2 activation. This reaction yields a scandium terminal hydride, which is structurally well-characterized, being the first one to date. The reactivity of this hydride is reported with unsaturated substrates, further shedding light on the existence of the terminal hydride complex. Interestingly, the H2 activation can be reversible. DFT investigations further eludciate the mechanistic aspects of the reactivity of the scandium anilido-terminal hydride complex with PhNCS but also on the reversible H2 activation process. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Thermoelectric material comprising scandium doped zinc cadmium oxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    There is presented a composition of scandium doped Zinc Cadmium Oxide with the general formula ZnzCdxScyO which the inventors have prepared, and for which material the inventors have made the insight that it is particularly advantageous as an n-type oxide material, such as particularly advantageous...

  9. Scandium/carbon filters for soft x rays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Artioukov, IA; Kasyanov, YS; Kopylets, IA; Pershin, YP; Romanova, SA

    2003-01-01

    This Note deals with thin-film soft x-ray filters for operation at the wavelengths near carbon K edge (similar to4.5 nm). The filters were fabricated by magnetron sputtering deposition of thin layers of scandium (total thickness 0.1-0.2 mum) onto films of polypropylene (thickness 1.5 mum) and

  10. Solvent extraction of scandium from lateritic nickel- cobalt ores using different organic reagents

    OpenAIRE

    Ferizoğlu Ece; Kaya Şerif; Topkaya Yavuz A.

    2016-01-01

    Scandium is the most important and strategic metal that can be recovered as a by-product from lateritic nickel-cobalt ores. In this research, different extractants were investigated in order to extract scandium from a sulfate medium by a using a solvent extraction method. Generally, the organic extractants are classified as acidic, neutral and basic organophosphorus compounds. However, in solvent extraction of scandium, the acidic and neutral organophosphorus compounds are preferred due to th...

  11. BASIC RESEARCH ON THE SEPARATION OF SCANDIUM YTTRIUM, AND THE RARE EARTHS BY SOLVENT EXTRACTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    RARE EARTH ELEMENTS, * SOLVENT EXTRACTION ), (*CHELATE COMPOUNDS, RARE EARTH ELEMENTS), PURIFICATION, ATOMIC SPECTROSCOPY, SCANDIUM, YTTRIUM, PRASEODYMIUM, SAMARIUM, EUROPIUM, GADOLINIUM, TERBIUM, FLUORINE COMPOUNDS, KETONES

  12. Determination of scandium concentrate composition by WD-XRF and ICP-MS methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkisova, A. S.; Shibitko, A. O.; Abramov, A. V.; Rebrin, O. I.; Bunkov, G. M.; Lisienko, D. G.

    2017-09-01

    WD-XRF spectroscopy was applied for determining composition of scandium concentrate (ScC) containing 70 % scandium fluoride. Determination of ScC composition was performed using 6 glass beads reference materials produced by fusing synthesized mixture of analyte compounds with the lithium-borate flux in the ratio of 1:10. ScC powder with the known composition was then used as a powder pellet reference material to analyze scandium concentrate from technological line by external standard method. ICP-MS method was employed to control the ScC composition. The statistical data processing and metrological parameters evaluation of the analytical technique developed were carried out.

  13. Tin etching from metallic and oxidized scandium thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachecka, M.; Lee, C. J.; Sturm, J. M.; Bijkerk, F.

    2017-08-01

    The role of oxide on Sn adhesion to Sc surfaces was studied with in-situ ellipsometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and secondary electron microscopy. Sn etching with hydrogen radicals was performed on metallic Sc, metallic Sc with a native oxide, and a fully oxidized Sc layer. The results show that Sn adsorbs rather weakly to a non-oxidized Sc surface, and is etched relatively easily by atomic hydrogen. In contrast, the presence of native oxide on Sc allows Sn to adsorb more strongly to the surface, slowing the etching. Furthermore, thinner layers of scandium oxide result in weaker Sn adsorption, indicating that the layer beneath the oxide plays a significant role in determining the adsorption strength. Unexpectedly, for Sn on Sc2O3, and, to a lesser extent, for Sn on Sc, the etch rate shows a variation over time, which is explained by surface restructuring, temperature change, and hydrogen adsorption saturation.

  14. Tin etching from metallic and oxidized scandium thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pachecka

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The role of oxide on Sn adhesion to Sc surfaces was studied with in-situ ellipsometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and secondary electron microscopy. Sn etching with hydrogen radicals was performed on metallic Sc, metallic Sc with a native oxide, and a fully oxidized Sc layer. The results show that Sn adsorbs rather weakly to a non-oxidized Sc surface, and is etched relatively easily by atomic hydrogen. In contrast, the presence of native oxide on Sc allows Sn to adsorb more strongly to the surface, slowing the etching. Furthermore, thinner layers of scandium oxide result in weaker Sn adsorption, indicating that the layer beneath the oxide plays a significant role in determining the adsorption strength. Unexpectedly, for Sn on Sc2O3, and, to a lesser extent, for Sn on Sc, the etch rate shows a variation over time, which is explained by surface restructuring, temperature change, and hydrogen adsorption saturation.

  15. Extraction of scandium by liquid di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid in fusible diluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainur Isatayeva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently widespread distribution of extraction methods using fusible reagents can be explained by a number of advantages, such as high kinetic characteristics of the process, the ease separation of two phases, high selectivity of many extractants, relatively complete regeneration. For the extraction of scandium in technological order, neutral and cation exchange extractants can be used. Several extraction reagents melt easily at high temperatures, and such melts can be used for extraction. Efficiency of the extraction of metal by cation reagents depends on many factors. Extraction of scandium by melt mixtures of di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid - higher carboxylic acid - paraffin and the effect of acidity of the aqueous phase, the concentration of scandium and the aqueous extractant in the organic phase, the volume ratio of organic and aqueous phases on the extraction of metal were studied. It was found that the extraction of scandium proceeds through the cation exchange mechanism. Scandium was extracted quantitatively (> 99.0% from acid solutions. The optimal concentration of di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid in the extractant was 0,250 M, quantitative extraction of scandium was observed in the range of its concentrations of 10-3-10-6 M and the volume ratio of organic phases to aqueous phases of 1:5 - 1:20.

  16. Thermodynamic and kinetic study of scandium(III) complexes of DTPA and DOTA: a step toward scandium radiopharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pniok, Miroslav; Kubíček, Vojtěch; Havlíčková, Jana; Kotek, Jan; Sabatie-Gogová, Andrea; Plutnar, Jan; Huclier-Markai, Sandrine; Hermann, Petr

    2014-06-23

    Diethylenetriamine-N,N,N',N'',N''-pentaacetic acid (DTPA) and 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) scandium(III) complexes were investigated in the solution and solid state. Three (45)Sc NMR spectroscopic references suitable for aqueous solutions were suggested: 0.1 M Sc(ClO4)3 in 1 M aq. HClO4 (δSc =0.0 ppm), 0.1 M ScCl3 in 1 M aq. HCl (δSc =1.75 ppm) and 0.01 M [Sc(ox)4](5-) (ox(2-) = oxalato) in 1 M aq. K2C2O4 (δSc =8.31 ppm). In solution, [Sc(dtpa)](2-) complex (δSc = 83 ppm, Δν = 770 Hz) has a rather symmetric ligand field unlike highly unsymmetrical donor atom arrangement in [Sc(dota)](-) anion (δSc = 100 ppm, Δν = 4300 Hz). The solid-state structure of K8[Sc2(ox)7]⋅13 H2O contains two [Sc(ox)3](3-) units bridged by twice "side-on" coordinated oxalate anion with Sc(3+) ion in a dodecahedral O8 arrangement. Structures of [Sc(dtpa)](2-) and [Sc(dota)](-) in [(Hguanidine)]2[Sc(dtpa)]⋅3 H2O and K[Sc(dota)][H6 dota]Cl2⋅4 H2O, respectively, are analogous to those of trivalent lanthanide complexes with the same ligands. The [Sc(dota)](-) unit exhibits twisted square-antiprismatic arrangement without an axial ligand (TSA' isomer) and [Sc(dota)](-) and (H6 dota)(2+) units are bridged by a K(+) cation. A surprisingly high value of the last DOTA dissociation constant (pKa =12.9) was determined by potentiometry and confirmed by using NMR spectroscopy. Stability constants of scandium(III) complexes (log KScL 27.43 and 30.79 for DTPA and DOTA, respectively) were determined from potentiometric and (45)Sc NMR spectroscopic data. Both complexes are fully formed even below pH 2. Complexation of DOTA with the Sc(3+) ion is much faster than with trivalent lanthanides. Proton-assisted decomplexation of the [Sc(dota)](-) complex (τ1/2 =45 h; 1 M aq. HCl, 25 °C) is much slower than that for [Ln(dota)](-) complexes. Therefore, DOTA and its derivatives seem to be very suitable ligands for scandium

  17. Effects of iron on intermetallic compound formation in scandium modified Al–Si–Mg Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patakham, Ussadawut [National Metal and Materials Technology Center, National Science and Technology Development Agency, 114 Thailand Science Park, Klong Nueng, Klong Luang, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand); Limmaneevichitr, Chaowalit, E-mail: chaowalit.lim@mail.kmutt.ac.th [Production Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi, 126 Pracha-Utid Rd., Bangmod, Tungkhru, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Iron reduces the modification effects of scandium in Al–Si–Mg alloys. • Morphologies of Sc-rich intermetallic phases vary with Fe and Sc contents and the cooling rates. • Sc neutralizes effects of Fe by changing Fe-rich intermetallic phases from platelets to more cubic. - Abstract: In general, iron has a strong tendency to dissolve in molten aluminum. Iron has very low solid solubility in aluminum–silicon casting alloys, so it will form intermetallic compounds that cause detrimental effects on mechanical properties. In this work, the effects of iron on intermetallic compound formations in scandium modified Al–Si–Mg alloys were studied. There were two levels of iron addition (0.2 and 0.4 wt.%) and two levels of scandium addition (0.2 and 0.4 wt.%). We found that the effects of scandium modification decreased with increasing iron addition. The morphologies of the complex intermetallic compounds were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) techniques. It was found that scandium changes the morphology of Fe-rich intermetallic compounds from β-phase (plate-like) to α-phase, which reduces the harmful effects of β-phase.

  18. Solvent extraction of scandium from lateritic nickel- cobalt ores using different organic reagents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferizoğlu Ece

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Scandium is the most important and strategic metal that can be recovered as a by-product from lateritic nickel-cobalt ores. In this research, different extractants were investigated in order to extract scandium from a sulfate medium by a using a solvent extraction method. Generally, the organic extractants are classified as acidic, neutral and basic organophosphorus compounds. However, in solvent extraction of scandium, the acidic and neutral organophosphorus compounds are preferred due to their higher extraction efficiencies. Thus, the aim of the present study was to compare the scandium extraction efficiencies of some acidic and neutral organic reagents. For this reason, Ionquest 290 (Bis(2,4,4-trimethylpenthyl phosphonic acid, DEHPA (Di(2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid, Cyanex 272 ((Bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl phosphinic acid which are acidic organophosphorus compounds, and Cyanex 923 (Trialkylphosphine oxide, which is a neutral organophosphorus compound, were used. The extraction capacities of these organics were studied with respect to the extractant concentration at same pH and phase ratio. As a result of the study, DEHPA was found to have higher scandium extraction efficiency with lower iron extraction at pH = 0.55 at a phase ratio of 10:1 = A:O.

  19. Correlation between stoichiometry and properties of scandium oxide films prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belosludtsev, Alexandr; Juškevičius, Kęstutis; Ceizaris, Lukas; Samuilovas, Romanas; Stanionytė, Sandra; Jasulaitienė, Vitalija; Kičas, Simonas

    2018-01-01

    Scandium oxide films were deposited on fused silica substrates by reactive pulsed DC magnetron sputtering. The use of feed-back optical emission monitoring enabled high-rate reactive deposition of films with tunable stoichiometry and properties. The under-stoichiometric, stoichiometric and over-stoichiometric scandium oxide films were prepared. The compressive stress in films was between 235 and 530 MPa. We showed that phase structure, density, surface roughness and optical properties of the scandium oxide are affected by the film stoichiometry and deposition conditions. Transparent scandium oxide films were slightly hydrophobic (94 ± 3°), homogeneous with a crystallite size of 20 ± 5 nm. The lowest extinction coefficient 0.7 × 10-3, the highest refractive index 2.08 (both quantities at the wavelength of 355 nm) and the highest density 4.1 ± 0.1 g cm-3 exhibited film prepared with the stoichiometric composition. Stoichiometric scandium oxide can be used in various optical applications as high refractive index and wide bandgap material. Transitions to under- or over-stoichiometry lead to a decrease of film density, refractive index and increase of the extinction coefficient.

  20. Mossbauer investigation of scandium oxide-hematite nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allwes, Mark; Sorescu, Monica

    Scandium oxide-doped hematite, xSc2O3*(1-x)alpha-Fe2O3 with molar concentration x =0.1, 0.3, and 0.5 was prepared by using ball milling, taking samples at times 0, 2, 4, 8, and 12 hours. The resulting Mossbauer spectra of the nanoparticles systems were parameterized using NORMOS-90. For each concentration, the spectra at 0 hours only consisted of 1 sextet, as the substitution of Sc2O3into Fe2O3 did not appear until after 2 hours of ball milling time (BMT). Concentration x =0.1 at BMT 2hours consisted of 2 sextets while x =0.3 and 0.5 were fit with 1 sextet and 1 quadrupole-split doublet. Concentration x =0.1 at BMT 4 and 8 hours consisted of 3 sextets, and at BMT 12 hours consisted of 4 sextets. For concentrations x =0.3 and 0.5 at BMT 4, 8, and 12 hours the spectra were fit with 3 sextets and 1 quadrupole-split doublet. With increasing initial concentration, the appearance of the quadrupole-split doublet became more pronounced, indicating the substitution of Fe into Sc2O3 occurred. But for x =0.1, the BMT did influence the number of sextets needed, causing an increase in substitution of Sc2O3 into Fe2O3.

  1. Association between toenail scandium levels and risk of acute myocardial infarction in European men: The EURAMIC and Heavy Metals Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gómez-Aracena, J.; Martin-Moreno, J.M.; Riemersma, R.A.; Bode, P.; Gutiérrez-Bedmar, M.; Gorgojo, L.; Kark, J.D.; Garcia-Rodríguez, A.; Gomez-Gracia, E.; Kardinaal, A.F.M.; Aro, A.; Veer, P. van 't; Wedel, H.; Kok, F.J.; Fernández-Crehuet, J.

    2002-01-01

    The association between scandium status and risk of acute myocardial infarction (MI) was examined in a multicentre case control study in 10 centres from Europe and Israel. Scandium in toenails was assessed in 684 cases and 724 controls less than 70 years of age. Mean concentrations of toenail

  2. In-source laser spectroscopy developments at TRILIS-towards spectroscopy on actinium and scandium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raeder, Sebastian, E-mail: raeder@triumf.ca; Dombsky, Marik; Heggen, Henning; Lassen, Jens; Quenzel, Thomas [TRIUMF, Canada' s National Laboratory for Nuclear and Particle Physics (Canada); Sjoedin, Marica [GANIL (France); Teigelhoefer, Andrea [TRIUMF, Canada' s National Laboratory for Nuclear and Particle Physics (Canada); Wendt, Klaus [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Institut fuer Physik (Germany)

    2013-04-15

    Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Sources (RILIS) have become a versatile tool for production and study of exotic nuclides at Isotope Separator On-Line (ISOL) facilities such as ISAC at TRIUMF. The recent development and addition of a grating tuned spectroscopy laser to the TRIUMF RILIS solid state laser system allows for wide range spectral scans to investigate atomic structures on short lived isotopes, e.g., those from the element actinium, produced in uranium targets at ISAC. In addition, development of new and improved laser ionization schemes for rare isotope production at ISAC is ongoing. Here spectroscopic studies on bound states, Rydberg states and autoionizing (AI) resonances on scandium using the existing off-line capabilities are reported. These results allowed to identify a suitable ionization scheme for scandium via excitation into an autoionizing state at 58,104 cm{sup - 1} which has subsequently been used for ionization of on-line produced exotic scandium isotopes.

  3. Process and Mechanical Properties: Applicability of a Scandium modified Al-alloy for Laser Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidtke, K.; Palm, F.; Hawkins, A.; Emmelmann, C.

    The applicability of an aluminium alloy containing scandium for laser additive manufacturing (LAM) is considered. Modified aluminium alloys with a scandium content beyond the eutectic point offer great potential to become a high prioritized aerospace material. Depending on other alloying elements like magnesium or zirconium, strongly required weight reduction, corrosion resistance and improved strength properties of metallic light weight alloys can be achieved. The development, production and testing of parts built up by a laser powder bed process will be presented with regard to the qualification of the new material concept "ScalmalloyRP®" for laser additive manufacturing.

  4. Synthesis and structural characterization of scandium SALEN complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meermann, Christian; Sirsch, Peter; Törnroos, Karl W; Anwander, Reiner

    2006-02-28

    A series of heteroleptic scandium SALEN complexes, [(SALEN)Sc(mu-Cl)]2 and (SALEN)Sc[N(SiHMe2)2] is obtained via amine elimination reactions using [Sc(N(i)Pr2)2(mu-Cl)(THF)]2 and Sc[N(SiHMe2)2]3(THF) as metal precursors, respectively. H(2)SALEN ligand precursors comprising H2Salen [(1,2-ethandiyl)bis(nitrilomethylidyne)bis(2,4-di-tert-butyl)phenol], H2Salpren [(2,2-dimethylpropanediyl)bis(nitrilomethylidyne)bis(2,4-di-tert-butyl)phenol], H2Salcyc [(1R,2R)-(-)-1,2-cyclohexanediyl)bis(nitrilomethylidyne)bis(2,4-di-tert-butyl)phenol] and H2Salphen [((1S,2S)-(-)-1,2-diphenylethandiyl)bis(nitrilomethylidyne)bis(2,4-di-tert-butyl)phenol] are selected according to solubility and ligand backbone variation ("=N-(R)-N=" bite angle) criteria. Consideration is given to the feasibility of [Cl --> NR2] and [N(SiHMe2)2--> OSiR3] secondary ligand exchange reactions. X-ray crystal structure analyses of donor-free (Salpren)Sc(N(i)Pr2), (R,R)-(Salcyc)Sc[N(SiHMe2)2], (Salen)Sc(OSi(t)BuPh2) and (Salphen)Sc(OSiH(t)Bu2) reveal (i) a very short Sc-N bond distance of 2.000(3) A, (ii) weak beta(Si-H)(amido)-Sc agostic interactions and (iii) an exclusive intramolecularly tetradentate and intrinsically bent coordination mode of the SALEN ligands with angle(Ph,Ph) dihedral angles and Sc-[N(2)O(2)] distances in the 124.27(9)-127.7(3) degrees and 0.638(1)-0.688(1) A range, respectively.

  5. Scandium SALEN complexes bearing chloro, aryloxo, and hydroxo ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meermann, Christian; Törnroos, Karl W; Anwander, Reiner

    2009-03-16

    Heteroleptic amide complexes (SALEN)Sc[N(SiHMe(2))(2)] (SALEN = Salen(tBu,tBu), Salcyc(tBu,tBu), or Salpren(tBu,tBu) if not stated differently) were examined as synthesis precursors according to silylamine elimination reactions. Treatment of (SALEN)Sc[N(SiHMe(2))(2)] with H(2)O or phenols (HOAr(R,R); R = tBu, iPr) afforded complexes [(SALEN)Sc(mu-OH)](2) and (SALEN)Sc(OAr(R,R)), while chloro exchange products were formed from the respective reactions with NH(4)Cl or AlMe(2)Cl. Such complexes [(SALEN)Sc(mu-Cl)](2) and (SALEN)ScCl(thf) were also obtained by utilizing alternative synthesis protocols, allowing for controlled donor absence and presence. Heteroleptic amide precursors [Sc(NiPr(2))(2)(mu-Cl)(thf)](2) and [Sc[N(SiHMe(2))(2)](2)(mu-Cl)(thf)](2) readily undergo amine elimination reactions with H(2)SALEN derivatives to form the corresponding chloride complexes. Spectroscopic and X-ray structural data of the heteroleptic scandium complexes revealed an exclusive intramolecular tetradentate coordination mode of the SALEN ligands independent of the SALEN ligand bite angle and the nature of the "second" ligand (chloro, amido, aryloxo, hydroxo). The coordination of the SALEN ligands is rationalized on the basis of (a) the displacement d of the metal center from the [N(2)O(2)] least-squares plane, (b) the dihedral angle alpha between the phenyl rings of the salicylidene moieties, and (c) the angle beta = Ct-Ln-Ct (Ct = centroid of the phenyl rings) in the case of strongly twisted ligands.

  6. Vertical distribution of scandium in the north central Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amakawa, Hiroshi; Nomura, Miho; Sasaki, Kazunori; Oura, Yasuji; Ebihara, Mitsuru

    2007-06-01

    The concentrations of scandium (Sc) in seawater, which have remained unreported since the early 1970s, were determined together with those of yttrium (Y) and lanthanides (Ln) with samples from the north central Pacific Ocean (St. BO-3). The Sc concentration shows a so-called nutrient-like profile: it increases gradually from the surface (about 2 pmol/kg) to the ocean floor (about 20 pmol/kg). That pattern closely resembles those of Y and Ln (correlation coefficient (r) > 0.92). Some light-to-middle Ln (Pr-Tb) exhibit a closer correlation with Sc than do Y, La, or heavy Ln (Ho-Lu). In contrast, Y/Sc and Ln/Sc ratios (elemental abundance ratios) indicate that Sc is depleted compared to either Y or Ln in seawater more than in loess, which represents chemical compositions of crustal material. These observations offer a conflicting view of chemical reactivity related Y, Ln, and Sc: r values show that the chemical reactivity of Sc resembles those of Y and Ln, but differences of Y/Sc and Ln/Sc ratios in seawater and in loess suggest that the chemical reactivity of Sc differs from those of Y and Ln. More Sc data for seawater are necessary to clarify the chemical reactivity of Sc in the ocean. We also propose that comparative studies of vertical profiles of Sc and such elements as Fe, Ti, Zr, and Hf showing so-called nutrient-like profiles at the same oceanic stations would be helpful and effective for clarifying the behavior of Sc in the ocean.

  7. In situ observation of the reaction of scandium and carbon by neutron diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juarez-Arellano, Erick A., E-mail: eajuarez@unpa.edu.m [Institut fuer Geowissenschaften, Universitaet Frankfurt, Altenhoeferallee 1, 60438 Frankfurt a.M. (Germany); Universidad del Papaloapan, Circuito Central 200, Parque Industrial, Tuxtepec 68301 (Mexico); Winkler, Bjorn [Institut fuer Geowissenschaften, Universitaet Frankfurt, Altenhoeferallee 1, 60438 Frankfurt a.M. (Germany); Vogel, Sven C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Lujan Center. Mail Stop H805, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Senyshyn, Anatoliy [Forschungsneutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM II), Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Lichtenbergstr. 1, D-85747 Garching (Germany); Materialwissenschaft, TU Darmstadt, Petersensstr. 23, D-64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Kammler, Daniel R. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Avalos-Borja, Miguel [CNyN, UNAM, A. Postal 2681, Ensenada, B.C. (Mexico)

    2011-01-05

    Research highlights: {yields} Exist two ScC cubic phases with B1-structure type differing in site occupancy of C. {yields} A new orthorhombic scandium carbide phase is formed at 1473(50) K. {yields} The recrystallization of alpha-Sc occurs between 1000 and 1223 K. - Abstract: The formation of scandium carbides by reaction of the elements has been investigated by in situ neutron diffraction up to 1823 K. On heating, the recrystallization of {alpha}-Sc occurs between 1000 and 1223 K. The formation of Sc{sub 2}C and ScC (NaCl-B1 type structure) phases has been detected at 1323 and 1373 K, respectively. The formation of a new orthorhombic scandium carbide phase was observed at 1473(50) K. Once the scandium carbides are formed they are stable upon heating or cooling. No other phases were detected in the present study, in which the system was always carbon saturated. The thermal expansion coefficients of all phases have been determined, they are constant throughout the temperature interval studied.

  8. The effects of aluminum or scandium on the toughness, density and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of the substitution of aluminum or scandium on the density, toughness as well as the stability of the phases formed by such an addition on platinum, iridium, rhodium and palladium metals were evaluated with the density functional quantum mechanical calculation methods. All the metals had four atoms per ...

  9. Effects of erbium‑and chromium‑doped yttrium scandium gallium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-08-21

    Aug 21, 2014 ... surfaces because of its high power, and the ablation was deeper for these samples. High‑magnification SEM ... Key words: Erbium chromium‑doped yttrium scandium gallium garnet, diode laser, restorative dental materials, scanning electron ... garnet (Nd: YAG) and carbon dioxide (CO2) lasers on indirect ...

  10. Chemical and biological evaluation of scandium(III)-polyaminopolycarboxylate complexes as potential PET agents and radiopharmaceuticals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huclier-Markai, S.; Sabatie, A.; Ribet, S. [Univ. de Nantes (France). Lab. Subatech; Kubicek, V.; Hermann, P. [Charles Univ., Prague (Czech Republic). Dept. of Inorganic Chemistry; Paris, M. [Univ. de Nantes (France). Inst. des Materiaux; Vidaud, C. [CEA/DSV/iBEB/SBTN, Bagnols sur Ceze (France). Lab. d' Etude des Proteines Cibles; Cutler, C.S. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). Reserach Reactor Center

    2011-07-01

    Scandium isotopes ({sup 44}Sc, {sup 47}Sc) are more available and their properties are convenient for either PET imaging or radiotherapy. To use them in nuclear medicine, ligands forming complexes with a high stability are necessary. Available experimental data on stability constants for complexes of ligands such as EDTA, DTPA, DOTA, NOTA and TETA with various metal ions have been published. But scandium is the exception since scarce data is available in the literature. Values of stability constants of Sc(III) with the ligands were determined by free-ion selective radiotracer extraction, complemented by {sup 45}Sc NMR and potentiometry data. The thermodynamic stability of the Sc-complexes increases in the order TETA < NOTA < EDTA < DTPA < DOTA. The in vitro stability of the Sc(III) complexes was studied in the presence of hydroxyapatite and rat serum to estimate their in vivo stability. The most stable complex was shown to be Sc-DOTA.

  11. Precipitation behaviour and recrystallisation resistance in aluminum alloys with additions of hafnium, scandium and zirconium

    OpenAIRE

    Hallem, Håkon

    2005-01-01

    The overall objective of this work has been to develop aluminium alloys, which after hot and cold deformation are able to withstand high temperatures without recrystallising. This has been done by investigating aluminium alloys with various additions of hafnium, scandium and zirconium, with a main focus on Hf and to which extent it may partly substitute or replace Zr and/or Sc as a dispersoid forming elements in these alloys. What is the effect of hafnium, alone and in combination with Zr...

  12. Pilot-scale recovery of rare earths and scandium from phosphogypsum and uranium leachates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashkovtsev Maxim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ural Federal University (UrFU and VTT have performed joint research on development of industrial technologies for the extraction of REM and Scandium compounds from phosphogypsum and Uranium ISL leachate solutions. Leaching-absorption experiments at UrFU have been supported with multicomponent solution modelling by VTT. The simulations have been performed with VTT’s ChemSheet/Balas program and can be used for speciation calculations in the lixiviant solution. The experimental work combines solvent extraction with advanced ion exchange methodology in a pilot facility capable of treating 5 m3 solution per hour. Currently, the plant produces cerium carbonate, lanthanum oxide, neodymium oxide and concentrate of heavy rare earth metals. A batch of 45 t solids has been processed with the gain of 100 kg’s of REM concentrate. A mini-pilot plant with productivity above 50 liters per hour has been applied to recover scandium oxide and REE concentrates from the uranium ISL solution. As the preliminary product contains radioactivity (mainly strontium, an additional decontamination and cleaning of both concentrates by extraction has rendered a necessity. Finally a purified 99% concentrate of scandium oxide as well as 99% rare earth concentrate are received.

  13. Optimization of scandium oxide growth by high pressure sputtering on silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feijoo, P.C., E-mail: pedronska@fis.ucm.es; Pampillon, M.A.; San Andres, E.; Lucia, M.L.

    2012-12-30

    This work demonstrates the viability of scandium oxide deposition on silicon by means of high pressure sputtering. Deposition pressure and radio frequency power are varied for optimization of the properties of the thin films and the ScO{sub x}/Si interface. The physical characterization was performed by ellipsometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Aluminum gate electrodes were evaporated for metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) fabrication. From the electrical characterization of the MIS devices, the density of interfacial defects is found to decrease with deposition pressure, showing a reduced plasma damage of the substrate surface for higher pressures. This is also supported by lower flatband voltage shifts in the capacitance versus voltage hysteresis curves. Sputtering at high pressures (above 100 Pa) reduces the interfacial SiO{sub x} formation, according to the infrared spectra. The growth rates decrease with deposition pressure, so a very accurate control of the layer thicknesses could be provided. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Scandium oxide is considered as a high permittivity dielectric. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Scandium oxide was deposited on Si by high pressure sputtering. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Characterization was performed for deposition condition optimization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High deposition pressures showed higher film and interface quality.

  14. Recovery of Scandium from Leachate of Sulfation-Roasted Bayer Red Mud by Liquid-Liquid Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhaobo; Li, Hongxu; Jing, Qiankun; Zhang, Mingming

    2017-11-01

    The leachate obtained from sulfation-roasted Bayer red mud is suitable for extraction of scandium by liquid-liquid solvent extraction because it contains trace amounts of Fe3+ and Si4+. In this study, a completely new metallurgical process for selective recovery of scandium from Bayer red mud was proposed. The extraction performances of Sc3+, Fe3+, Al3+, Si4+, Ca2+, and Na+ from synthetic leachate of sulfation-roasted red mud were first investigated using organophosphorus extractants (di-2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid P204 and 2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester P507) and carboxylic acid extractant (Versatic acid 10). It shows that P204 has an excellent extraction ability and that it can be applied to the scandium recovery. P507 and Versatic acid 10 are much poorer in performance for selective extraction of scandium. In the leachate of sulfation-roasted red mud, approximately 97% scandium can be recovered using a P204/sulfonated kerosene (1% v/v) extraction system under the condition of an organic-to-aqueous phase ratio of 10:1 and with an extraction temperature of 15°C.

  15. Scandium-doped zinc cadmium oxide as a new stable n-type oxide thermoelectric material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Li; Christensen, Dennis Valbjørn; Bhowmik, Arghya

    2016-01-01

    Scandium-doped zinc cadmium oxide (Sc-doped ZnCdO) is proposed as a new n-type oxide thermoelectric material. The material is sintered in air to maintain the oxygen stoichiometry and avoid instability issues. The successful alloying of CdO with ZnO at a molar ratio of 1 : 9 significantly reduced...... is a good candidate for improving the overall conversion efficiencies in oxide thermoelectric modules. Meanwhile, Sc-doped ZnCdO is robust in air at high temperatures, whereas other n-type materials, such as Al-doped ZnO, will experience rapid degradation of their electrical conductivity and ZT....

  16. Scandium and yttrium phosphasalen complexes as initiators for ring-opening polymerization of cyclic esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakewell, Clare; White, Andrew J P; Long, Nicholas J; Williams, Charlotte K

    2015-03-02

    The synthesis and characterization of novel scandium and yttrium phosphasalen complexes is reported, where phosphasalen refers to two different bis(iminophosphorane) derivatives of the more ubiquitous salen ligands. The activity of the complexes as initiators for the ring-opening polymerization of cyclic esters is presented. The scandium complexes are inactive for lactide polymerization but slow and controlled initiators for ε-caprolactone polymerization. The lack of activity toward lactide exhibited by these compounds is probed, and a rare example of single-monomer insertion product, unable to undergo further reactions with lactide, is identified. In contrast, the analogous yttrium phosphasalen complex is a very active initiator for the ring-opening polymerization of rac-lactide (kobs = 1.5 × 10(-3) s(-1) at 1:500 [yttrium initiator]:[rac-lactide], 1 M overall concentration of lactide in THF at 298 K). In addition to being a very fast initiator, the yttrium complex also maintains excellent levels of polymerization control and a high degree of isoselectivity, with the probability of isotactic enchainment being Pi = 0.78 at 298 K.

  17. Thermodynamic parameters of scandium trifluoride and triiodide in the condensed state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aristova, N. M.; Belov, G. V.

    2015-06-01

    The thermodynamic properties of new classes of compounds, particularly scandium trihalides ScF3, ScCl3, ScBr3, and ScI3, are added to the IVTANTHERMO software package. A critical analysis and processing of the entire array of primary data available in the literature is performed. An equation approximating the temperature dependence of heat capacity in the temperature range 298.15- T m (K) is derived for each crystalline scandium trihalide. The resulting equations C {/p po}( T) for the solid state and the data for the liquid phase are used to calculate the thermodynamic functions of entropy, the reduced Gibbs free energies, and the enthalpy increments. Both the experimental data available in literature and the missing estimated thermodynamic data are used in calculations. The error of the recommended values is estimated in all cases. In the first part of this work, we describe the thermodynamic properties of ScF3 and ScI3 used as the reference data for calculating the thermodynamic functions of ScCl3 and ScBr3, for which experimental data are either very scarce or missing altogether. The resulting data are added to the database of the IVTANTHERMO software package.

  18. Recovery of Scandium(III) from Aqueous Solutions by Solvent Extraction with the Functionalized Ionic Liquid Betainium Bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide

    OpenAIRE

    Onghena, Bieke; Binnemans, Koen

    2015-01-01

    The ionic liquid betainium is(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide [Hbet][Tf2N] was used for the extraction of scandium from aqueous solutions. The influence of several extraction parameters on the extraction efficiency was investigated, including the initial metal concentration, phase ratio, and pH. The extraction kinetics was examined, and a comparison was made between conventional liquid−liquid extraction and homogeneous liquid−liquid extraction (HLLE). The stoichiometry of the extracted scandium...

  19. Modification mechanism of eutectic silicon in Al–6Si–0.3Mg alloy with scandium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patakham, Ussadawut [Manufacturing and Systems Engineering Program, Department of Production Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi, 126 Pracha-Utid Rd., Bangmod, Tungkhru, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand); Kajornchaiyakul, Julathep [National Metal and Material Technology Center, National Science and Technology Development Agency, 114 Thailand Science Park, Klong Nueng, Klong Luang, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand); Limmaneevichitr, Chaowalit, E-mail: chaowalit.lim@kmutt.ac.th [Manufacturing and Systems Engineering Program, Department of Production Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi, 126 Pracha-Utid Rd., Bangmod, Tungkhru, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)

    2013-10-25

    Highlights: •Morphologies and growth of Sc and Sr-modified eutectic silicon resemble those of dendrites. •Crystal orientation of eutectic aluminum depends on growth characteristics of eutectic silicon. •We report strong evidence of the occurrence of an impurity-induced twinning mechanism. -- Abstract: The modification mechanism of eutectic silicon in Al–6Si–0.3Mg alloy with scandium was studied. The crystallographic orientation relationships between primary dendrites and the eutectic phase of unmodified and modified Al–6Si–0.3 Mg alloys were determined using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The orientation of aluminum modified with scandium in the eutectic phase was different from that of the neighboring primary dendrites. This result implies that eutectic aluminum grows epitaxially from the surrounding primary aluminum dendrites in the unmodified alloy and that eutectic aluminum grows competitively from the surrounding primary aluminum dendrites in the modified alloy. The pole figure maps of eutectic Si in the [1 0 0], [1 1 0] and [1 1 1] axes of the unmodified and Sc-modified alloys were different, suggesting that the eutectic Al and Si crystals in modified alloy growth are more isotropic and cover a larger set of directions. The lattice fringes of Si of the alloys with and without Sc modification were different in the TEM results. The lattice fringes of Si in modified alloy were found to be multiple twins. However, this was not observed in the unmodified alloy. The growth characteristic of eutectic Si crystal in modified alloy suggests the occurrence of multiple twinning reactions and the formation of a high density of twins. This modification mechanism by Sc is explained by the results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis, which provide strong evidence of the occurrence of the impurity-induced twinning (IIT) mechanism.

  20. Grain refinement mechanism in an Al-Si-Mg alloy with scandium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patakham, Ussadawut [Department of Production Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, 126 Pracha-Utid Rd., Bangmod, Tungkhru, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand); Kajornchaiyakul, Julathep [National Metal and Material Technology Center, National Science and Technology Development Agency, 114 Thailand Science Park, Klong Nueng, Klong Luang, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand); Limmaneevichitr, Chaowalit, E-mail: chaowalit.lim@kmutt.ac.th [Department of Production Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, 126 Pracha-Utid Rd., Bangmod, Tungkhru, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)

    2012-11-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Scandium can be used to refine aluminum grains in an Al-Si-Mg aluminum alloy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effectiveness of Sc is lower than that of conventional Al-Ti grain refiners. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Al{sub 3}Sc particles can act as heterogeneous nuclei of aluminum phases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Higher alloying elements cause more intermetallic compound phases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Those phases cannot effectively act as heterogeneous nuclei compared with Al{sub 3}Sc particles. - Abstract: Grain refinement of the primary aluminum ({alpha}-Al) phase in a hypoeutectic Al-Si alloy using scandium (Sc) was studied to identify the grain refinement mechanism. Optical microscopy (OM), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) techniques were extensively used in this study. We found that Sc refined grains of primary aluminum. However, the grain refinement efficiency of Sc was considerably lower than that of titanium (Ti) in the Al-Si-Mg foundry alloy. It was evident that the precipitated Sc-containing phases acted as heterogeneous nucleation sites for the primary aluminum phase. The Sc-containing heterogeneous sites are irregular in shape with sizes between 3 and 5 {mu}m. At least three groups of nuclei based on their chemical composition were found, i.e., (i) Al and Sc, (ii) Al, Si, Mg, and Sc, and (iii) Al, Si, Mg, Sc, and Fe. Crystal orientation mapping showed primary aluminum dendrites with one orientation in each grain near Al{sub 3}Sc particles. The grain refinement mechanism of Sc for aluminum relies on heterogeneous nucleation of Al{sub 3}Sc particles, with less responsibly for grain growth restriction. Many intermetallic phases with Al, Si, Fe, Mg and Sc as their major components were found, and these phases could not effectively act as heterogeneous nuclei.

  1. GPR54 and kisspeptins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colledge, W H

    2008-01-01

    The G-protein coupled receptor GPR54 has an essential role in the initiation and maintenance of mammalian fertility. Humans and mice with mutations in GPR54 have hypogonadotropic hypogonadism characterized by absence of sexual maturation and low levels of gonadotropic hormones (LH and FSH). The ligand for GPR54 is encoded by the KISS1 gene, which produces a 54-amino-acid peptide (metastin or kisspeptin-54) that can be cleaved into shorter peptides (kisspeptins 14, 13 and 10) with similar potencies. Kisspeptin administration stimulates gonadotropin release in several species by inducing GnRH secretion from hypothalamic GnRH neurons expressing GPR54. Kisspeptins are produced by neurons located in the AVPV and ARC regions of the hypothalamus. Expression of Kiss1 in these neurons is differentially regulated by sex steroids providing a mechanism by which testosterone or estrogen can regulate GnRH release. The AVPV region is sexually dimorphic with highest expression of kisspeptin in females. Positive feedback by estrogen on expression of Kiss1 in the AVPV region may be responsible for the pre-ovulatory LH surge during the estrus cycle. Central administration of kisspeptin to immature female rats can induce precocious activation of the gonadotropic axis, causing advanced vaginal opening, elevated uterus weight, increased serum levels of LH and estrogen and induce ovulation. Kisspeptins/GPR54 have also been implicated in regulating the estrus cycle of seasonal breeders and in the control of lactational amenorrhea. Expression of Gpr54 and Kiss1 have also been reported in several peripheral tissues including the pituitary, ovary, testes and the placenta raising the possibility that these genes may have additional functions in these tissues. Regulation of kisspeptin expression by peripheral factors such as leptin may be involved in coordinating metabolic status with the reproductive axis.

  2. Neutron and Charged-Particle Induced Cross Sections for Radiochemistry for Isotopes of Scandium, Titanium, Vanadium, Chromium, Manganese, and Iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelley, K; Hoffman, R D; Dietrich, F S; Bauer, R; Mustafa, M

    2004-11-30

    We have developed a set of modeled nuclear reaction cross sections for use in radiochemical diagnostics. Local systematics for the input parameters required by the Hauser-Feshbach statistical model were developed and used to calculate neutron and proton induced nuclear reaction cross sections in the mass region of scandium, titanium, vanadium, chromium, manganese, and iron (21 {le} Z {le} 26, 20 {le} N {le} 32).

  3. A composite cathode based on scandium doped titanate with enhanced electrocatalytic activity towards direct carbon dioxide electrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liming; Xie, Kui; Wu, Lan; Qin, Qingqing; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Yong; Xie, Ting; Wu, Yucheng

    2014-10-21

    A composite cathode based on redox-stable La0.2Sr0.8TiO(3+δ) (LSTO) can perform direct carbon dioxide electrolysis; however, the insufficient electro-catalytic activity limits the electrode performances and current efficiencies. In this work, catalytically active scandium is doped into LSTO to enhance the electro-catalytic activity for CO2 electrolysis. The structures, electronic conductivities and ionic conductivities of La0.2Sr0.8Ti(1-x)Sc(x)O (LSTS(x)O) (x = 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15 and 0.2) are systematically studied and further correlated with electrode performances. The ionic conductivities of single-phase LSTS(x)O (x = 0, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.15) remarkably improve versus the scandium doping contents though the electrical conductivities gradually change in an adverse trend. Electrochemical measurements demonstrate promising electrode polarisation of LSTS(x)O electrodes and increasing scandium doping contents accordingly improve electrode performances. The Faradic efficiencies of carbon dioxide electrolysis are enhanced by 20% with LSTS0.15O in contrast to bare LSTO electrodes in a solid oxide electrolyser at 800 °C.

  4. Adsorption of hydrogen in Scandium/Titanium decorated nitrogen doped carbon nanotube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mananghaya, Michael, E-mail: mikemananghaya@gmail.com [De La Salle University, 2401 Taft Ave, 0922, Manila (Philippines); DLSU STC Laguna Boulevard, LTI Spine Road Barangays Biñan and Malamig, Biñan City, Laguna (Philippines); DOST-ASTHRDP, PCIEERD, Gen. Santos Ave., Bicutan, Taguig City 1631 (Philippines); Belo, Lawrence Phoa; Beltran, Arnel [De La Salle University, 2401 Taft Ave, 0922, Manila (Philippines); DLSU STC Laguna Boulevard, LTI Spine Road Barangays Biñan and Malamig, Biñan City, Laguna (Philippines)

    2016-09-01

    Nitrogen doped Carbon Nanotube with divacancy (4ND-CN{sub x}NT) that is decorated with Scandium and Titanium as potential hydrogen storage medium using the pseudo potential density functional method was investigated. Highly localized states near the Fermi level, which are derived from the nitrogen defects, contribute to strong Sc and Ti bindings, which prevent metal aggregation and improve the material stability. A detailed Comparison of the Hydrogen adsorption capability with promising system-weight efficiency of Sc over Ti was elucidated when functionalized with 4ND-CN{sub x}NT. Finally, the (Sc/4ND){sub 10}-CN{sub x}CNT composite material has a thermodynamically favorable adsorption and consecutive adsorption energy for ideal reversible adsorption and desorption of hydrogen at room temperature such that it can hold at least 5.8 wt% hydrogen molecules at the LDA and GGA level. - Highlights: • Carbon Nanotube with divacancy (4ND-CN{sub x}NT) decorated with Sc and Ti. • Nitrogen defects, contribute to strong Sc and Ti bindings. • H{sub 2} and (Sc/4ND){sub 10}-CN{sub x}CNT has a favorable adsorption. • 5.8 wt% adsorption at the LDA and GGA level.

  5. Urinary monitoring of exposure to yttrium, scandium, and europium in male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Yasuhiro; Usuda, Kan; Shimizu, Hiroyasu; Fujimoto, Keiichi; Kono, Rei; Fujita, Aiko; Kono, Koichi

    2012-12-01

    On the assumption that rare earth elements (REEs) are nontoxic, they are being utilized as replacements of toxic heavy metals in novel technological applications. However, REEs are not entirely innocuous, and their impact on health is still uncertain. In the past decade, our laboratory has studied the urinary excretion of REEs in male Wistar rats given chlorides of europium, scandium, and yttrium solutions by one-shot intraperitoneal injection or oral dose. The present paper describes three experiments for the suitability and appropriateness of a method to use urine for biological monitoring of exposure to these REEs. The concentrations of REEs were determined in cumulative urine samples taken at 0-24 h by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, showing that the urinary excretion of REEs is <2 %. Rare earth elements form colloidal conjugates in the bloodstream, which make high REEs accumulation in the reticuloendothelial system and glomeruli and low urinary excretion. The high sensitivity of inductively coupled plasma-argon emission spectrometry analytical methods, with detection limits of <2 μg/L, makes urine a comprehensive assessment tool that reflects REE exposure. The analytical method and animal experimental model described in this study will be of great importance and encourage further discussion for future studies.

  6. On new ternary equiatomic scandium transition metal aluminum compounds ScTAl with T = Cr, Ru, Ag, Re, Pt, and Au

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radzieowski, Mathis; Janka, Oliver [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie; Benndorf, Christopher [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie; Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physikalische Chemie; Haverkamp, Sandra [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physikalische Chemie; Eckert, Hellmut [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physikalische Chemie; University of Sao Paulo, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. of Physics

    2016-08-01

    The new equiatomic scandium transition metal aluminides ScTAl for T = Cr, Ru, Ag, Re, Pt, and Au were obtained by arc-melting of the elements followed by subsequent annealing for crystal growth. The samples were studied by powder and single crystal X-ray diffraction. The structures of three compounds were refined from single crystal X-ray diffractometer data: ScCrAl, MgZn{sub 2} type, P6{sub 3}/mmc, a = 525.77(3), c = 858.68(5) pm, R{sub 1} = 0.0188, wR{sub 2} = 0.0485, 204 F{sup 2} values, 13 variables, ScPtAl, TiNiSi type, Pnma, a = 642.83(4), b = 428.96(2), c = 754.54(5) pm, R{sub 1} = 0.0326, wR{sub 2} = 0.0458, 448 F{sup 2} values, 20 variables and ScAuAl, HfRhSn type, P anti 62c, a = 722.88(4), c = 724.15(4) pm, R{sub 1} = 0.0316, wR{sub 2} = 0.0653, 512 F{sup 2} values, 18 variables. Phase pure samples of all compounds were furthermore investigated by magnetic susceptibility measurements, and Pauli-paramagnetism but no superconductivity was observed down to 2.1 K for all of them. The local structural features and disordering phenomena have been characterized by {sup 27}Al and {sup 45}Sc magic angle spinning (MAS) and static NMR spectroscopic investigations.

  7. Selective recovery of vanadium and scandium by ion exchange with D201 and solvent extraction using P507 from hydrochloric acid leaching solution of red mud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaobo; Li, Wang; Tang, Sen; Zeng, Majian; Bai, Pengyuan; Chen, Lunjian

    2017-05-01

    D201 resin and P507 extractant diluted with sulfonated kerosene were used to respectively separate vanadium and scandium, and impurity ions from hydrochloric acid leaching solution of red mud. More than 99% of vanadium was selectively adsorbed from the hydrochloric acid leaching solution under the conditions of pH value of 1.8, volume ratio of leaching solution to resin of 10, and flow rate of 3.33 mL/min. Maximum extraction and separation of scandium was observed from the acid leaching solution at an aqueous pH value of 0.2. More than 99% of scandium can be selectively extracted using 15% P507, 5% TBP at the aqueous solution/organic phase (A/O) ratio of 10:1 for 6 min. The loaded organic phase was washed with 0.3 mol/L sulfuric acid, wherein most impurities were removed. After the process of desorption or stripping, precipitation, and roasting, high-purity V2O5 and Sc2O3 were obtained. Finally, a conceptual flow sheet was established to separate and recover vanadium and scandium from red mud hydrochloric acid leaching solution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Random-field Potts model for the polar domains of lead magnesium niobate and lead scandium tantalate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, H.; Bursill, L.A

    1997-06-01

    A random filed Potts model is used to establish the spatial relationship between the nanoscale distribution of charges chemical defects and nanoscale polar domains for the perovskite-based relaxor materials lead magnesium niobate (PMN) and lead scandium tantalate (PST). The random fields are not set stochastically but are determined initially by the distribution of B-site cations (Mg, Nb) or (Sc, Ta) generated by Monte Carlo NNNI-model simulations for the chemical defects. An appropriate random field Potts model is derived and algorithms developed for a 2D lattice. It is shown that the local fields are strongly correlated with the chemical domain walls and that polar domains as a function of decreasing temperature is simulated for the two cases of PMN and PST. The dynamics of the polar clusters is also discussed. 33 refs., 9 figs.

  9. Development of methods for the selective separation of scandium, zirconium and tin for radiopharmaceutical applications; Entwicklung von Methoden zur selektiven Trennung von Scandium, Zirkonium und Zinn fuer radiopharmazeutische Anwendungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dirks-Fandrei, Carina

    2014-07-01

    The subject of the present work is the development of fast and highly selective methods for the separation and purification of scandium, zirconium and tin radionuclides from potential target materials for use in nuclear medicine. A number of selected resins (TrisKem International) were first characterized with respect to their extraction behaviour towards a large number of cations. Characterization studies were performed in batch experiments by determination of weight distribution ratios D{sub w} and further the influence of interferences on the uptake of these elements was evaluated. Weight distribution ratios were determined in different acids and acid concentrations with main focus on scandium, tin or zirconium. The interference of macro amounts of Calcium and Ti on the Sc extraction was evaluated as well as the interference of macro amounts of Y on the Zr extraction. Best suited uptake conditions were found for Scandium on DGA were determined to be 2.5 M HNO{sub 3} for Ti-Targets and 0.1 M HNO{sub 3} for Calcium-Targets. Otherwise it is also possible to extract Sc with TRU Resin. High uptakes were obtained at 2.5 M HNO{sub 3} for simulated Ti- and Calcium-targets. Separation methods were developed using elution studies; employed conditions were chosen according to parameters evaluated in the batch-experiment. The developed methods allowed separating Sc very rapidly in high purity very rapidly from Ti- or Calcium-targets. For Zr a separation method based on UTEVA Resin has been developed. Following results of batch experiments simulated Y-target solution were loaded onto a UTEVA resin column from 6 M HNO{sub 3}; the elution of Zr could be performed in 0.01 M oxalic acid. Decontamination factors in the order of 10{sup 4}-10{sup 5} could be obtained applying the developed method; the method thus allowed separating Zr in a high purity. Initial testing of a method for the separation of Sn from Cd targets based on the use of TBP Resin showed that the TBP resin seems

  10. RJHS 5(4).cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Results: During the period of study, 166 females with symptomatic breast lesions had diagnostic mammography. The mean age was 49.29years ± 11.12. Sixty- five (39.2%) patients presented with breast lump, 54(32.5%) had breast pain, while 15 (9.0%) had nipple discharge. Seventy- five (45.2%) of the patients had no ...

  11. The impact of an erbium, chromium:yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet laser with radial-firing tips on endodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoop, U; Barylyak, A; Goharkhay, K; Beer, F; Wernisch, J; Georgopoulos, A; Sperr, W; Moritz, A

    2009-01-01

    Radial-firing tips should allow a more homogeneous laser irradiation of root canal walls. The aim of the study was to assess the effects of erbium, chromium:yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser irradiation in conjunction with those newly designed tips. The investigation comprised bacteriology, morphological evaluations and temperature measurements. Root canals were inoculated with two test strains and laser irradiated with power settings of 0.6 W and 0.9 W and a repetition rate of 20 Hz. Subsequently, the samples were subjected to microbiological evaluation. The morphological changes of the canal walls were assessed by scanning electron microscopy. To reveal possible thermal side effects, we carried out temperature measurements. The bacteriological evaluation revealed a decisive disinfectant effect. Scanning electron microscopy showed the homogeneous removal of smear layer from the root canal walls. The temperature rise at the root surface during the irradiation was moderate, yielding 1.3 degrees C for the 0.6 W setting and 1.6 degrees C for the 0.9 W setting. The investigations indicated that the Er,Cr:YSGG laser, in conjunction with radial-firing tips, is a suitable tool for the elimination of bacteria in root canals and for the removal of smear layer.

  12. Effect of scandium addition on the microstructure, mechanical and wear properties of the spray formed hypereutectic aluminum–silicon alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raghukiran, Nadimpalli; Kumar, Ravi, E-mail: nvrk@iitm.ac.in

    2015-08-12

    Hypereutectic Al–x%Si–0.8Sc alloys (x=13, 16, 19 and 22 wt%) were produced by spray forming. The microstructures of all the alloys exhibited very fine silicon phase with average size of about 5–10 µm irrespective of the silicon content of the alloy. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the presence of a nano-scale scandium rich phase, identified as AlSi{sub 2}Sc{sub 2} (V-phase) uniformly distributed in the alloy. The presence of V-phase resulted in higher matrix hardness (1.34 GPa) in contrast to 1.04 GPa observed in the case of binary Al–Si alloys by nanoindentation. Isothermal heat treatment at 375 °C revealed insignificant coarsening of silicon phase in both binary and ternary alloys. The Al–x%Si–0.8Sc alloys exhibited higher flow stress and tensile strength in contrast to their binary alloy counterparts which was attributed to the bi-modal size distribution of the strengthening phases in the form of nano-scale V-phase and sub-micron to 10 µm size silicon particles. The pin-on-disk wear tests exhibited appreciable improvement in the wear performance of the relatively low-silicon content ternary alloys over their binary counterparts while the high-silicon content binary and ternary alloys exhibited no much difference in the wear performance.

  13. Scandium and Titanium Containing Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes for Hydrogen Storage: a Thermodynamic and First Principle Calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mananghaya, Michael; Yu, Dennis; Santos, Gil Nonato; Rodulfo, Emmanuel

    2016-06-15

    The generalized gradient approximation (GGA) to density functional theory (DFT) calculations indicate that the highly localized states derived from the defects of nitrogen doped carbon nanotube with divacancy (4ND-CNxNT) contribute to strong Sc and Ti bindings, which prevent metal aggregation. Comparison of the H2 adsorption capability of Sc over Ti-decorated 4ND-CNxNT shows that Ti cannot be used for reversible H2 storage due to its inherent high adsorption energy. The Sc/4ND-CNxNT possesses favorable adsorption and consecutive adsorption energy at the local-density approximation (LDA) and GGA level. Molecular dynamics (MD) study confirmed that the interaction between molecular hydrogen and 4ND-CNxNT decorated with scandium is indeed favorable. Simulations indicate that the total amount of adsorption is directly related to the operating temperature and pressure. The number of absorbed hydrogen molecules almost logarithmically increases as the pressure increases at a given temperature. The total excess adsorption of hydrogen on the (Sc/4ND)10-CNxNT arrays at 300 K is within the range set by the department of energy (DOE) with a value of at least 5.85 wt%.

  14. 32 CFR 54.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 54.3 Section 54.3 National Defense... CHILD AND SPOUSAL SUPPORT § 54.3 Definitions. (a) Authorized person. Any agent or attorney of any State... Military Service concerned who is authorized to receive and to process notices under this part. See § 54.6...

  15. 32 CFR 54.5 - Responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Responsibilities. 54.5 Section 54.5 National... ALLOTMENTS FOR CHILD AND SPOUSAL SUPPORT § 54.5 Responsibilities. (a) The Assistant Secretary of Defense... change or modify the procedures in § 54.6. (b) The Secretaries of the Military Departments shall comply...

  16. The Low-Lying Electronic States of Scandium Monocarbide, ScC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chiao-Wei; Merer, Anthony; Hsu, Yen-Chu

    2017-06-01

    Extensive wavelength-resolved fluorescence studies have been carried out for the electronic bands of ScC and Sc{}^{13}C lying in the range 14000 - 16000 cm^{-1}. Taken together with detailed rotational analyses of these bands, these studies have clarified the natures of the low-lying electronic states. The ground state is an Ω = 3/2 state, with a vibrational frequency of 648 cm^{-1}, and the first excited electronic state is an Ω = 5/2 state, with a frequency of 712 cm^{-1}, lying 155.54 cm^{-1} higher. These states are assigned as the lowest spin-orbit components of X^2Π_i and a^4Π_i, respectively. The quartet nature of the a state is confirmed by the observation of the ^4Π_{3/2} component, 18.71 cm^{-1} above the ^4Π_{5/2} component. The strongest bands in the region studied are two ^4Δ_{7/2} - ^4Π_{5/2} transitions, where the upper states lie 14355 and 15445 cm^{-1} above X^2Π_{3/2}. Extensive doublet-quartet mixing occurs, which results in some complicated emission patterns. The energy order, a^4Π above X^2Π, is consistent with the ab initio calculations of Kalemos et al., but differs from that found by Simard et al in the isoelectronic YC molecule. A. Kalemos, A. Mavridis and J.F. Harrison, J. Phys. Chem. A155, 755 (2001). B. Simard, P.A. Hackett and W.J. Balfour, Chem. Phys. Lett., 230, 103 (1994).

  17. Effects of scandium addition on iron-bearing phases and tensile properties of Al–7Si–0.6Mg alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzeng, Yu-Chih [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Central University, Jhongli, Taiwan (China); Wu, Chih-Ting [Department of Vehicle Engineering, Army Academy R.O.C., Jhongli, Taiwan (China); Bor, Hui-Yun; Horng, Jain-Long; Tsai, Mu-Lin [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Central University, Jhongli, Taiwan (China); Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, National Central University, Jhongli, Taiwan (China); Lee, Sheng-Long, E-mail: shenglon@cc.ncu.edu.tw [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Central University, Jhongli, Taiwan (China); Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, National Central University, Jhongli, Taiwan (China)

    2014-01-21

    Iron is the most deleterious impurity in aluminum alloys and can easily combine with aluminum to form an acicular β-Al{sub 5}FeSi phase that reduces ductility during the solidification of the molten metal. Adding scandium (Sc) to Al–7Si–0.6Mg alloys can transform the acicular β-Al{sub 5}FeSi phase into a comparatively harmless nodular Sc–Fe phase (Al{sub 12}Si{sub 6}Fe{sub 2}(Mg,Sc){sub 5}). This Sc–Fe phase has a lower hardness and elastic modulus than the β-Al{sub 5}FeSi phase; it is thus less likely to initiate cracks in the Al matrix. Moreover, the nodular Sc–Fe phase can improve the fluidity of Al during solidification, reducing interdendritic shrinkage. Tensile testing measurements showed that the elongation of Al–7Si–0.6Mg alloys with 0.04 and 0.12 wt% Sc can be respectively increased by 115% and 110% compared to Al–7Si–0.6Mg without Sc. The corresponding quality indices are increased by 17% and 19%, respectively, suggesting that the tensile properties of Al–7Si–0.6Mg alloys can be enhanced by adding scandium.

  18. Separation of (44)Ti from proton irradiated scandium by using solid-phase extraction chromatography and design of (44)Ti/(44)Sc generator system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radchenko, V; Meyer, C A L; Engle, J W; Naranjo, C M; Unc, G A; Mastren, T; Brugh, M; Birnbaum, E R; John, K D; Nortier, F M; Fassbender, M E

    2016-12-16

    Scandium-44g (half-life 3.97h [1]) shows promise for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of longer biological processes than that of the current gold standard, (18)F, due to its favorable decay parameters. One source of (44g)Sc is the long-lived parent nuclide (44)Ti (half-life 60.0 a). A (44)Ti/(44g)Sc generator would have the ability to provide radionuclidically pure (44g)Sc on a daily basis. The production of (44)Ti via the (45)Sc(p,2n) reaction requires high proton beam currents and long irradiation times. Recovery and purification of no-carrier added (nca) (44)Ti from scandium metal targets involves complex separation chemistry. In this study, separation systems based on solid phase extraction chromatography were investigated, including branched diglycolamide (BDGA) resin and hydroxamate based ZR resin. Results indicate that ZR resin in HCl media represents an effective (44)Ti/(44g)Sc separation system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. GPR54 and kisspeptin in reproduction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tena-Sempere, Manuel

    2006-01-01

    ...--a phenotype that was reproduced in GPR54-null mice. Those seminal observations revealed a totally unexpected, fundamental role of the KiSS-1/GPR54 system in control of puberty and reproductive function and boosted an extraordinary...

  20. 9 CFR 54.21 - Participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Participation. 54.21 Section 54.21 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Certification Program § 54.21 Participation. Any owner of a sheep or goat flock may apply to enter the Scrapie...

  1. 28 CFR 54.505 - Employment criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employment criteria. 54.505 Section 54... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 54.505 Employment criteria. A recipient shall not administer or operate any test or other criterion for any employment opportunity that...

  2. 46 CFR 503.54 - Original classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Original classification. 503.54 Section 503.54 Shipping... Program § 503.54 Original classification. (a) No Commission Member or employee has the authority to... require classification, or receives any foreign government information as defined in section 1.1(d) of...

  3. 46 CFR 54.30-3 - Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Introduction. 54.30-3 Section 54.30-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Mechanical Stress Relief § 54.30-3 Introduction. (a) Large conventional pressure vessels used to transport liquefied...

  4. 47 CFR 54.505 - Discounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discounts. 54.505 Section 54.505... SERVICE Universal Service Support for Schools and Libraries § 54.505 Discounts. (a) Discount mechanism. Discounts for eligible schools and libraries shall be set as a percentage discount from the pre-discount...

  5. 32 CFR 770.54 - Background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Background. 770.54 Section 770.54 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY MISCELLANEOUS RULES RULES LIMITING PUBLIC... Hampshire § 770.54 Background. (a) Portsmouth Naval Shipyard maintains and operates facilities “to provide...

  6. 47 CFR 54.508 - Technology plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Technology plans. 54.508 Section 54.508... SERVICE Universal Service Support for Schools and Libraries § 54.508 Technology plans. (a) Contents. The technology plans referred to in this subpart must include the following five elements: (1) A clear statement...

  7. 47 CFR 54.207 - Service areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service areas. 54.207 Section 54.207... SERVICE Carriers Eligible for Universal Service Support § 54.207 Service areas. (a) The term service area means a geographic area established by a state commission for the purpose of determining universal...

  8. 7 CFR 906.54 - Effective time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Effective time. 906.54 Section 906.54 Agriculture... RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 906.54 Effective time. The provisions of this subpart, or any amendment thereto, shall become effective at such time as the...

  9. 7 CFR 989.54 - Marketing policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing policy. 989.54 Section 989.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Marketing Policy § 989.54 Marketing policy. (a) Trade demand. On or...

  10. 7 CFR 1700.54 - Electric Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Electric Program. 1700.54 Section 1700.54 Agriculture... GENERAL INFORMATION Loan and Grant Approval Authorities § 1700.54 Electric Program. (a) Administrator: The... Administrator, Electric Program, has the authority to approve the following loans, loan guarantees, and lien...

  11. 40 CFR 96.54 - Compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compliance. 96.54 Section 96.54... Tracking System § 96.54 Compliance. (a) NO X allowance transfer deadline. The NOX allowances are available to be deducted for compliance with a unit's NOX Budget emissions limitation for a control period in a...

  12. 47 CFR 54.515 - Distributing support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Distributing support. 54.515 Section 54.515... SERVICE Universal Service Support for Schools and Libraries § 54.515 Distributing support. (a) A telecommunications carrier providing services eligible for support under this subpart to eligible schools and...

  13. 47 CFR 54.611 - Distributing support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Distributing support. 54.611 Section 54.611... SERVICE Universal Service Support for Health Care Providers § 54.611 Distributing support. (a) A telecommunications carrier providing services eligible for support under this subpart to eligible health care...

  14. 47 CFR 54.609 - Calculating support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Calculating support. 54.609 Section 54.609... SERVICE Universal Service Support for Health Care Providers § 54.609 Calculating support. (a) Except with... amount of universal service support for an eligible service provided to a public or non-profit rural...

  15. 47 CFR 54.417 - Recordkeeping requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Universal Service Support for Low-Income Consumers § 54.417 Recordkeeping requirements. (a... resellers that purchase Lifeline discounted wholesale services to offer discounted services to low-income...-income consumers, it constitutes the eligible telecommunications carrier referenced in §§ 54.405(c), 54...

  16. 19 CFR 145.54 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alcoholic beverages. 145.54 Section 145.54 Customs... (CONTINUED) MAIL IMPORTATIONS Restricted and Prohibited Merchandise § 145.54 Alcoholic beverages. (a) Nonmailable. Alcoholic beverages are nonmailable, with certain exceptions (see 18 U.S.C. 1716 and the postal...

  17. 7 CFR 54.1033 - Confidential treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidential treatment. 54.1033 Section 54.1033 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... and Poultry Products § 54.1033 Confidential treatment. Every design review specialist providing...

  18. 40 CFR 205.54 - Test procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test procedures. 205.54 Section 205.54 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Medium and Heavy Trucks § 205.54 Test procedures. The procedures described...

  19. 28 CFR 54.310 - Recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recruitment. 54.310 Section 54.310... in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 54.310 Recruitment. (a) Nondiscriminatory recruitment. A... recruitment and admission of students. A recipient may be required to undertake additional recruitment efforts...

  20. 28 CFR 54.510 - Recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recruitment. 54.510 Section 54.510... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 54.510 Recruitment. (a) Nondiscriminatory recruitment and hiring. A recipient shall not discriminate on the basis of sex in the recruitment...

  1. 10 CFR § 1003.54 - Contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2017-01-01 2017-01-01 false Contents. § 1003.54 Section § 1003.54 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) OFFICE OF HEARINGS AND APPEALS PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS Modification or Rescission § 1003.54 Contents. (a) The application shall contain a full and complete statement of all...

  2. 42 CFR 54a.10 - Fiscal accountability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fiscal accountability. 54a.10 Section 54a.10 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS CHARITABLE CHOICE... PREVENTION AND TREATMENT SERVICES § 54a.10 Fiscal accountability. (a) Religious organizations that receive...

  3. 42 CFR 54.10 - Fiscal accountability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fiscal accountability. 54.10 Section 54.10 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS CHARITABLE CHOICE... PROJECTS FOR ASSISTANCE IN TRANSITION FROM HOMELESSNESS GRANTS § 54.10 Fiscal accountability. (a) Religious...

  4. 21 CFR 640.54 - Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Processing. 640.54 Section 640.54 Food and Drugs... STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Cryoprecipitate § 640.54 Processing. (a) Processing the plasma... within the timeframe specified in the directions for use for the blood collecting, processing, and...

  5. 29 CFR 1926.54 - Nonionizing radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nonionizing radiation. 1926.54 Section 1926.54 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1926.54 Nonionizing radiation. (a) Only qualified and trained employees shall be assigned to install...

  6. 7 CFR 927.54 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false 927.54 Section 927.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits... Regulation of Shipments § 927.54 Inspection ...

  7. 49 CFR 173.54 - Forbidden explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Forbidden explosives. 173.54 Section 173.54 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Definitions, Classification and Packaging for Class 1 § 173.54 Forbidden explosives...

  8. 7 CFR 948.54 - Eligibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligibility. 948.54 Section 948.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Order Regulating Handling Committees § 948.54 Eligibility. Area committee members and alternates shall...

  9. 7 CFR 929.54 - Withholding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Withholding. 929.54 Section 929.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... LONG ISLAND IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK Order Regulating Handling Regulations § 929.54 Withholding. (a...

  10. 32 CFR 54.1 - Purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Purpose. 54.1 Section 54.1 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN ALLOTMENTS FOR CHILD AND SPOUSAL SUPPORT § 54.1 Purpose. Under section 65 of title 42, United States Code, this part...

  11. 7 CFR 983.54 - Commingling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Commingling. 983.54 Section 983.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Regulations § 983.54 Commingling. Certified lots may be commingled with other...

  12. 45 CFR 86.54 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compensation. 86.54 Section 86.54 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 86.54 Compensation. A recipient shall...

  13. 7 CFR 958.54 - Minimum quantities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum quantities. 958.54 Section 958.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Regulation § 958.54 Minimum...

  14. 40 CFR 30.54 - Quality assurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Quality assurance. 30.54 Section 30.54 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE UNIFORM... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Reports and Records § 30.54 Quality assurance. If the...

  15. 42 CFR 460.54 - Termination procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Termination procedures. 460.54 Section 460.54 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... ELDERLY (PACE) Sanctions, Enforcement Actions, and Termination § 460.54 Termination procedures. (a) Except...

  16. 7 CFR 900.54 - Docket number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Docket number. 900.54 Section 900.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Governing Proceedings on Petitions To Modify or To Be Exempted From Marketing Orders § 900.54 Docket number...

  17. 32 CFR 54.4 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Policy. 54.4 Section 54.4 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN ALLOTMENTS FOR CHILD AND SPOUSAL SUPPORT § 54.4 Policy. The Department of Defense is obligated by 42 U.S.C. 665 to...

  18. 7 CFR 932.54 - Transfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transfers. 932.54 Section 932.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Regulations § 932.54 Transfers. Transfers within the area of olives from one handler to...

  19. 7 CFR 959.54 - Safeguards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safeguards. 959.54 Section 959.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Regulations § 959.54 Safeguards. The committee, with the approval of the Secretary, may...

  20. 28 CFR 54.540 - Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Advertising. 54.540 Section 54.540... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 54.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation, specification, or...

  1. 7 CFR 54.1030 - Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Identification. 54.1030 Section 54.1030 Agriculture... and Poultry Products § 54.1030 Identification. All official design review specialists and supervisors shall have their Agricultural Marketing Service identification cards in their possession at all times...

  2. 7 CFR 54.29 - Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Identification. 54.29 Section 54.29 Agriculture... MEAT PRODUCTS (GRADING, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) Regulations Miscellaneous § 54.29 Identification... identification cards in their possession at all times while they are performing any function under the...

  3. 7 CFR 1780.54 - Technical services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Technical services. 1780.54 Section 1780.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF..., Constructing and Inspections § 1780.54 Technical services. Owners are responsible for providing the engineering...

  4. 9 CFR 113.54 - Sterile diluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sterile diluent. 113.54 Section 113.54... Requirements § 113.54 Sterile diluent. Sterile Diluent shall be supplied in a final container by the licensee when such diluent is required for rehydration or dilution of the vaccine. (a) Sterile Diluent may be...

  5. 29 CFR 1918.54 - Rigging gear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rigging gear. 1918.54 Section 1918.54 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Vessel's Cargo Handling Gear § 1918.54 Rigging gear. (a... other alternate device shall be provided to allow trimming of the gear and to prevent employees from...

  6. Gd-Sc-based mixed-metal nitride cluster fullerenes: mutual influence of the cage and cluster size and the role of scandium in the electronic structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svitova, Anna L; Popov, Alexey A; Dunsch, Lothar

    2013-03-18

    The influence of the cage as well as of the cluster size has been studied in Gd-Sc nitride cluster fullerenes, which have been synthesized and isolated for these studies. A series of carbon cages ranging from C78 to C88 have been synthesized, isolated, and characterized in detail using absorption and vibrational spectroscopy as well as electrochemistry and density functional theory calculations. Gd-Sc mixed-metal cluster fullerenes in carbon cages different from C80 were described for the first time. A review of their structures, properties, and stability is given. The synthesis was performed with melamine as an effective solid source of nitrogen, providing high fullerene yield and suppressing empty fullerene formation. Substitution of gadolinium by scandium imposes a noticeable influence on the electronic structure of nitride cluster fullerenes as revealed by electrochemical, spectroscopic, and computational methods.

  7. Copper scandium zirconium phosphate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bond, Andrew David; Warner, Terence Edwin

    2013-01-01

    components. The [Sc(III)Zr(IV)(PO(4))(3)](2-) framework is composed of corner-sharing Sc/ZrO(6) octahedra and PO(4) tetrahedra. The Sc and Zr atoms are disordered on one atomic site on a crystallographic threefold axis. The P atom of the phosphate group lies on a crystallographic twofold axis. Nonframework...

  8. 28 CFR 54.450 - Athletics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Athletics. 54.450 Section 54.450 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR... hockey, football, basketball, and other sports the purpose or major activity of which involves bodily...

  9. 42 CFR 54.7 - Nondiscrimination requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nondiscrimination requirement. 54.7 Section 54.7 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS CHARITABLE CHOICE... a refusal to actively participate in a religious practice. ...

  10. 42 CFR 54a.6 - Employment practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Employment practices. 54a.6 Section 54a.6 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS CHARITABLE CHOICE... FUNDING UNDER TITLE V OF THE PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE ACT, 42 U.S.C. 290aa, ET SEQ., FOR SUBSTANCE ABUSE...

  11. 7 CFR 1219.54 - Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assessments. 1219.54 Section 1219.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH...

  12. 40 CFR 97.54 - Compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compliance. 97.54 Section 97.54... Compliance. (a) NOX allowance transfer deadline. The NOX allowances are available to be deducted for compliance with a unit's NOX Budget emissions limitation for a control period in a given year only if the NOX...

  13. 32 CFR 651.54 - Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Introduction. 651.54 Section 651.54 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY... Introduction. (a) Protection of the environment is an Army priority, no matter where the Army actions are...

  14. 33 CFR 62.54 - Ownership identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ownership identification. 62.54... NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.54 Ownership identification. Ownership identification on private or state aids to navigation is permitted so long as it does...

  15. Synthesis and characterization of reduced scandium halide containing one- and two-dimensional metal bonded arrays. [Sc--ScCl3; Cs3Sc2Cl9; CsScCl3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poeppelmeier, K.R.

    1978-08-01

    The stabilization effect of metal-metal bond formation on reduced scandium compounds was studied. The binary compounds Sc/sub 7/Cl/sub 12/, Sc/sub 5/Cl/sub 8/, Sc/sub 7/Cl/sub 10/ and ScCl were prepared by high temperature techniques and were characterized by single crystal x-ray diffraction. The respective metal arrays in these compounds can be viewed as fragments of scandium metal ranging from discrete six atom metal cluster species (Sc(Sc/sub 6/Cl/sub 12/)), through intermediate single and double infinite chain configurations ((ScCl/sub 2/)(Sc/sub 4/Cl/sub 6/)) and ((ScCl/sub 2/)(Sc/sub 6/Cl/sub 8/)) to double metal close-packed sheets (ScCl). The halogen atoms effectively isolate the clusters, chains and sheets by bonding face, edge or exo positions on the metal arrays. The common occurrence of isolated scandium (III) ions emphasizes that a minimum number of bonding electrons is required to stabilize what are formally anionic metal arrays. The distribution of the reduction electrons in these anisotropic materials was studied by magnetic susceptibility, EPR and uv-X photoelectron spectroscopy. The ternary compounds studied were Cs/sub 3/Sc/sub 2/Cl/sub 9/ and CsScCl/sub 3/. The anion-bridged metal chain of the hexagonal perovskite structure was found to stabilize scandium (II). CsScCl/sub 3/ was found to be grossly nonstoichiometric on the transition metal site and the effects of the mixed valence character were studied between the single valence extremes Cs/sub 3/Sc/sub 2 + x/Cl/sub 9/; 0< x < 1.0.

  16. Human diseases associated with GPR54 mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teles, Milena Gurgel; Silveira, Leticia Ferreira Gontijo; Bianco, Suzy; Latronico, Ana Claudia

    2009-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptor 54 (GPR54) was first described as an orphan receptor in the rat brain one decade ago. At that time, all we knew about this receptor was that it had a high homology with other G protein-coupled receptors, like galanin receptors. Later, its endogenous ligand, kisspeptin, was identified and the kisspeptin-GPR54 system became one of the most important excitatory neuroendocrine regulators of puberty initiation. Several loss-of-function mutations in GPR54 gene were described to be associated with sporadic and familial normosmic isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism phenotype in humans. Consistent with this fact, knockout mice for gpr54(-/-) recapitulated the human phenotype of the lack of reproductive maturation. On the other hand, a unique activating mutation (R386P) was recently described in this receptor in a girl with central precocious puberty. This missense mutation located at carboxy-terminal tail of the GPR54 leads to prolonged activation of intracellular signaling pathways in response to kisspeptin, suggesting an uncommon model of G protein-coupled receptor activation. This chapter will describe the kisspeptin-GPR54 complex physiology and its current role in human diseases. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. 47 CFR 54.615 - Obtaining services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... non-profit entity that falls within one of the seven categories set forth in the definition of health... provided under § 54.621, that the requester cannot obtain toll-free access to an Internet service provider...

  18. Scandium functionalized carbon aerogel: Synthesis of nanoparticles and structure of a new ScOCl and properties of NaAlH{sub 4} as a function of pore size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javadian, Payam; Nielsen, Thomas K. [Center for Energy Materials, Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO), and Department of Chemistry, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus (Denmark); Ravnsbæk, Dorthe B. [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge 02142, MA (United States); Jepsen, Lars H. [Center for Energy Materials, Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO), and Department of Chemistry, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus (Denmark); Polanski, Marek [Faculty of Advanced Technology and Chemistry, Military University of Technology, 2 Kaliskiego Str., 00-908 Warsaw (Poland); Plocinski, Tomasz [Faculty of Material Science and Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, 144 Woloska Str., 02-507 Warsaw (Poland); Kunce, Izabela [Faculty of Advanced Technology and Chemistry, Military University of Technology, 2 Kaliskiego Str., 00-908 Warsaw (Poland); Besenbacher, Flemming [Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Bystrzycki, Jerzy [Faculty of Advanced Technology and Chemistry, Military University of Technology, 2 Kaliskiego Str., 00-908 Warsaw (Poland); Jensen, Torben R., E-mail: trj@chem.au.dk [Center for Energy Materials, Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO), and Department of Chemistry, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus (Denmark)

    2015-11-15

    A new method for scandium-functionalization of carbon aerogels forming nanoparticles of a new scandiumoxochloride, ScOCl is presented. Sodium aluminiumhydride, NaAlH{sub 4}, is successfully melt infiltrated into the nano porous scaffolds with pore sizes of D{sub max}=7, 10, 13, 21, 26 and 39 nm, containing scandium based nano particles (<2.9 wt%) confirmed by elemental analysis and scanning electron microscopy. A systematic study of hydrogen storage properties of the nano composite materials is presented. An aqueous solution of ScCl{sub 3} was initially infiltrated and formed nanoconfined [Sc(OH)(H{sub 2}O){sub 5}]{sub 2}Cl{sub 4}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}, which transforms to nanoparticles of a new scandium oxochloride, ScOCl at 192 °C and to Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3} at 420 °C. ScOCl crystallizes in an orthorhombic unit cell a=3.4409(8), b=3.9613(6) and c=8.178(2) Å, space group Pmmn, and is built from layers of [ScO{sub 4}Cl{sub 2}] octahedra forming neutral ScOCl layers. Temperature programmed desorption mass spectroscopy shows slightly improved kinetics for release of hydrogen with decreasing pore size. Continuous cycling of hydrogen release and uptake measured by the Sieverts' method reveal a larger preserved hydrogen storage capacity for scandium-functionalized aerogel with the larger pores (39 nm). - Highlights: • New synthesis approach for nanoporous Sc-functionalization carbon aerogel (Sc-CA). • The new scandium oxochloride, ScOCl, structure is obtained. • NaAlH{sub 4} nanoconfined in Sc-CA with pores ranging between 7 nm

  19. GPR54 and kisspeptin in reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tena-Sempere, Manuel

    2006-01-01

    Kisspeptins, the peptide products of the KiSS-1 gene, were identified in 2001 as natural ligands of the previously orphan G protein-coupled receptor, GPR54. They include, among others, metastin and kisspeptin-10. The known biological functions of kisspeptins were initially restricted to their ability to suppress tumour metastasis, hence the name of metastin. However, in late 2003, two groups independently reported that loss-of-function mutations of the GPR54 gene are linked to absence of puberty onset and hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism in humans--a phenotype that was reproduced in GPR54-null mice. Those seminal observations revealed a totally unexpected, fundamental role of the KiSS-1/GPR54 system in control of puberty and reproductive function and boosted an extraordinary interest for the characterization of these novel facets of kisspeptin physiology. Indeed, in the last 2 years, metastin and kisspeptin-10 have been demonstrated as very potent stimulators of the gonadotrophic axis, in a number of species and through different routes of administration. In addition, the hypothalamic KiSS-1/GPR54 system has been proven as an essential gatekeeper of GnRH neurons, involved in their activation at puberty and their regulation by gonadal steroids and (probably) metabolic factors. This review comprehensively examines the experimental evidence obtained to date supporting a pivotal role of kisspeptins and GPR54 in the control of reproduction.

  20. The use of the erbium, chromium:yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet laser in endodontic treatment: the results of an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoop, Ulrich; Goharkhay, Kawe; Klimscha, Johannes; Zagler, Manuela; Wernisch, Johann; Georgopoulos, Apostolos; Sperr, Wolfgang; Moritz, Andreas

    2007-07-01

    The use of the erbium, chromium:yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser has become accepted in the field of cavity preparation. The development of miniaturized and flexible fiber tips has allowed this device to be used in endodontics. The authors conducted an in vitro study to assess the effects of Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation on root canals. The authors inoculated root canals with two bacteria, laser irradiated them at two power settings and subjected them to a quantitative microbiological evaluation. They used scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to assess morphological changes in endodontically processed and laser-irradiated root canal walls. They measured temperature increases on the root surface to determine possible thermal side effects. The bacteriological evaluation revealed a disinfecting effect in the root dentin samples that was dependent on the output power but not specific for the bacterial species investigated. SEM showed the removal of the smear layer from the root canal walls and the exposure of dentinal tubules. The temperature rise during irradiation was moderate when standardized power settings were used. The Er,Cr:YSGG laser can be used to eliminate bacteria in root canals. It also effectively removes smear layer and debris from the canal wall. Practitioners can use the Er,Cr:YSGG laser to prepare root canals for endodontic therapy.

  1. Aluminum-Scandium Alloys: Material Characterization, Friction Stir Welding, and Compatibility With Hydrogen Peroxide (MSFC Center Director's Discretionary Fund Final Report, Proj. No. 04-14)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. A.; Chen, P. S.

    2004-01-01

    This Technical Memorandum describes the development of several high-strength aluminum (Al) alloys that are compatible with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) propellant for NASA Hypersonic-X (Hyper-X) vehicles fuel tanks and structures. The yield strengths for some of these Al-magnesium-based alloys are more than 3 times stronger than the conventional 5254-H112 Al alloy, while maintaining excellent H2O2 compatibility similar to class 1 5254 alloy. The alloy development strategy is to add scandium, zirconium, and other transitional metals with unique electrochemical properties, which will not act as catalysts, to decompose the highly concentrated 90 percent H2O2. Test coupons are machined from sheet metals for H2O2 long-term exposure testing and mechanical properties testing. In addition, the ability to weld the new alloys using friction stir welding has also been explored. The new high-strength alloys could represent an enabling material technology for Hyper-X vehicles, where flight weight reduction is a critical requirement.

  2. High-fluence and high-density treatment of perioral rhytides using a new, fractionated 2,790-nm ablative erbium-doped Yttrium Scandium Gallium Garnet Laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciocon, David H; Hussain, Mussarat; Goldberg, David J

    2011-06-01

    In this study, we evaluated the safety and efficacy of a novel 2,790-nm erbium-doped yttrium scandium gallium garnet (Er:YSGG) laser system for the treatment of facial photodamage and perioral wrinkles using a single-treatment, high-fluence, high-density protocol. Eleven female participants with Fitzpatrick skin types II to III and facial wrinkles underwent a single full-face fractional ablative treatment with a 2,790-nm Er:YSGG laser. Follow-up visits were completed at 1, 2, and 6 weeks 3 and 6 months. Quartile improvement scale (0-4) and Fitzpatrick wrinkle scores (1-9) were used for the assessments. Based on blinded photographic assessments, the mean difference in Fitzpatrick wrinkle scores for full face wrinkles was 1.5 ± 1.2 (a reduction from 6.6 to 5.1; paired t-test, p = .003). There was also a statistically significant mean reduction of 1.7 ± 1.3 in perioral wrinkle scores (from 6.7 to 5.0; p = .002). No serious adverse events were reported. A novel, fractionated, ablative 2,790-nm Er:YSGG laser can safely and effectively treat photodamage and perioral wrinkles in a single treatment using a high-fluence, high-density protocol. Cutera provided the equipment used in this study and funding to Dr. Goldberg. © 2011 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc.

  3. Impact of layer and substrate properties on the surface acoustic wave velocity in scandium doped aluminum nitride based SAW devices on sapphire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillinger, M., E-mail: manuel.gillinger@tuwien.ac.at; Knobloch, T.; Schneider, M.; Schmid, U. [Institute of Sensor and Actuator Systems, TU Wien, 1040 Vienna (Austria); Shaposhnikov, K.; Kaltenbacher, M. [Institute of Mechanics and Mechatronics, TU Wien, 1040 Vienna (Austria)

    2016-06-06

    This paper investigates the performance of surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices consisting of reactively sputter deposited scandium doped aluminum nitride (Sc{sub x}Al{sub 1-x}N) thin films as piezoelectric layers on sapphire substrates for wireless sensor or for RF-MEMS applications. To investigate the influence of piezoelectric film thickness on the device properties, samples with thickness ranging from 500 nm up to 3000 nm are fabricated. S{sub 21} measurements and simulations demonstrate that the phase velocity is predominantly influenced by the mass density of the electrode material rather than by the thickness of the piezoelectric film. Additionally, the wave propagation direction is varied by rotating the interdigital transducer structures with respect to the crystal orientation of the substrate. The phase velocity is about 2.5% higher for a-direction compared to m-direction of the sapphire substrate, which is in excellent agreement with the difference in the anisotropic Young's modulus of the substrate corresponding to these directions.

  4. Δ(54) flavor phenomenology and strings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carballo-Pérez, Brenda [Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México,Apartado Postal 20-364, Ciudad de México 01000 (Mexico); HEBA Ideas S.A. de C.V.,Calculistas 37, Cd. Mx. 09400 (Mexico); Peinado, Eduardo; Ramos-Sánchez, Saúl [Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México,Apartado Postal 20-364, Ciudad de México 01000 (Mexico)

    2016-12-23

    Δ(54) can serve as a flavor symmetry in particle physics, but remains almost unexplored. We show that in a classification of semi-realistic ℤ{sub 3}×ℤ{sub 3} heterotic string orbifolds, Δ(54) turns out to be the most natural flavor symmetry, providing additional motivation for its study. We revisit its phenomenological potential from a low-energy perspective and subject to the constraints of string models. We find a model with Δ(54) arising from heterotic orbifolds that leads to the Gatto-Sartori-Tonin relation for quarks and charged-leptons. Additionally, in the neutrino sector, it leads to a normal hierarchy for neutrino masses and a correlation between the reactor and the atmospheric mixing angles, the latter taking values in the second octant and being compatible at three sigmas with experimental data.

  5. 17 CFR 200.54 - Constitutional obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... against any infringement of the constitutional rights, privileges, or immunities of those who are subject... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Constitutional obligations... ORGANIZATION; CONDUCT AND ETHICS; AND INFORMATION AND REQUESTS Canons of Ethics § 200.54 Constitutional...

  6. 47 CFR 54.601 - Eligibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the definition used by the Commission prior to July 1, 2005, and that had received a funding... boundary of the largest city in a state as defined in § 54.625(a). (2) Internet access and limited toll-free access to internet. (i) For purposes of this subpart, eligible Internet access is an information...

  7. 28 CFR 54.515 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 54.515 Compensation. A recipient shall... of pay or other compensation; (b) Results in the payment of wages to employees of one sex at a rate...

  8. 24 CFR 3282.54 - Public information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME PROCEDURAL AND ENFORCEMENT REGULATIONS Formal Procedures § 3282.54 Public... the Secretary or a PIA or SAA which fall within the definitions of a trade secret or confidential... by the provisions of 24 CFR part 16 (40 FR 39729) relating to the Privacy Act which may limit the...

  9. 7 CFR 51.54 - Plant survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946... Requirements for Plants Operating Under Continuous Inspection on A Contract Basis § 51.54 Plant survey. Prior...

  10. 28 CFR 54.230 - Transition plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 54.230 Transition plans... one administratively separate unit may submit either a single transition plan applicable to all such...

  11. 47 CFR 54.401 - Lifeline defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Universal Service Support for Low-Income Consumers § 54.401 Lifeline defined. (a) As used in this...-income consumers; (2) For which qualifying low-income consumers pay reduced charges as a result of...

  12. 28 CFR 54.235 - Statutory amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... abortion. Medical procedures, benefits, services, and the use of facilities, necessary to save the life of... proprietorship as a whole; or (2) Which is principally engaged in the business of providing education, health... EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 54.235 Statutory...

  13. It's Time to Implement GASB Statement 54

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinfeld, Gary; Nuehring, Bert

    2012-01-01

    In February 2009, the Governmental Accounting Standards Board (GASB) issued Statement No. 54, "Find Balance Reporting and Governmental Fund Type Definitions." This statement changes how a fund balance is classified on the face of the government fund financial statements and refines the definitions for government fund types. The statement's…

  14. Psalm 54: The power of positive patterning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.J. Botha

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Psalm 54: The power of positive patterning Psalm 54 is analysed in 'n literary, rhetorical and socio-critical way in order to determine the dominant textual strategy and the way in which it was supposed to function. It is established that the basic concern of the psalm is with the honour of the individuals for whom the psalm was intended as a cultic prayer. The way in which words with a positive and those with a negative connotative meaning are arranged, is found to be compliant with the purpose of having the enemies exposed and the self vindicated. What is more, this pattern seems to have been devised also to be of therapeutic value for the suppliant himself.

  15. Structure and temperature effects on Nd3+ spectra in polycrystalline mixed scandium aluminum garnets Y3ScxAl5-xO12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupei, A.; Lupei, V.; Hau, S.; Gheorghe, C.; Voicu, F.

    2015-09-01

    New spectroscopic data obtained from high resolution low temperature absorption and emission spectra of Nd3+ in mixed scandium aluminum garnets Y3ScxAl5-xO12 - (x = 0-2) translucent ceramics revealed transition dependent composition effects: modification of the shapes (Lorentz at x = 0 and 2, quasi-Gauss at x = 1, x-dependent asymmetric for other x values, with obvious multicenter structure for low x), widths and shifts of the lines. Nd3+ electronic structure dependence on structural changes with composition is analyzed in terms of nephelauxetic effect and maximum splitting of manifolds: Sc3+ co-doping reduces the nephelauxetic effect, and the increase of 4F3/2 splitting from 85 cm-1 (x = 0) to 98 cm-1 (x = 2) denotes the lowering of local symmetry. The multicenter structure and inhomogeneous broadening of Nd3+ lines is attributed to crystal field distributions determined by the random occupancy of the octahedral sites by Sc3+ and Al3+. For low x (0.2) the resolved two satellites S1, S2 that accompany Nd:YAG lines are correlated to anisotropic crystal field perturbations produced by the n.n. Sc3+ by analogy to those determined by Y3+-antisites (excess of Y3+ ions that enter in octahedral sites of the melt-grown YAG crystals). The temperature evolution of the Nd3+ spectral characteristics (line intensity, shift, broadening) in the 10-300 K range is analyzed in terms of thermal population of the Stark levels, of the effect on electron-phonon interaction and on lattice expansion. The relevance of the spectroscopic properties on the laser emission characteristics in these systems is discussed.

  16. Dissolved scandium, yttrium, and lanthanum in the surface waters of the North Atlantic: Potential use as an indicator of scavenging intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Till, C. P.; Shelley, R. U.; Landing, W. M.; Bruland, K. W.

    2017-08-01

    Recent work has begun to elucidate the biogeochemical cycling of scandium (Sc) in the open ocean, but so far no surface distribution data have been reported of dissolved Sc, and no basin-scale surface distributions have been reported of yttrium (Y) or lanthanum (La). This work presents basin-wide surface Sc, Y, and La data in a section across the North Atlantic subtropical gyre (2011 GEOTRACES GA03) and investigates the potential utility of these distributions. This work uses dissolved and aerosol concentration data for La and Sc to estimate their surface ocean residence times in both the center of the oligotrophic gyre and near the African coastline. This work additionally shows that the surface distribution of Sc in the North Atlantic correlates with the shape of the gyre as inferred by isotherm depth, with lower Sc concentrations at the gyre boundaries. This pattern suggests that Sc could be drawn down by the elevated particle flux at the gyre boundaries. In this case, Sc removal could be used as an indicator of scavenging intensity. In order to account for variable input of Sc to the surface ocean, we propose normalizing the Sc distribution to that of Y or La, which are much less particle reactive and are input via dust to the surface North Atlantic in constant ratios with Sc. Such normalization improves the correlation with isotherm depth. We propose that the variations in dissolved Y/Sc and La/Sc ratios may be due to preferential Sc scavenging and could therefore indicate scavenging intensity.

  17. Treatment of infraorbital dark circles in atopic dermatitis with a 2790-nm erbium: yttrium scandium gallium garnet laser: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kui Young; Oh, In Young; Moon, Nam Ju; Seo, Seong Jun

    2013-04-01

    Although many Asian atopic patients have orbital darkening symptom and the demand to treat this condition is increasing, little has been reported in the literature on the treatment of infraorbital dark circles in atopic dermatitis. To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of 2790-nm erbium:yttrium scandium gallium garnet (Er:YSGG) laser therapy for reducing infraorbital dark circles in atopic dermatitis patients. Ten Korean patients over 21 year with mild atopic dermatitis and infraorbital dark circles were enrolled in this study. Patients who need active atopic dermatitis treatments are excluded because of the possibility of aggravation after laser treatment. They were treated for dark circles using a 2790-nm Er:YSGG laser. The treatment parameters were 1.8-2.2 J/cm² fluence, 6-mm spot size, and 0.3-ms pulse width with 10% overlap over the infraorbital areas once with a 4-week interval between treatments. Efficacy was assessed with a quartile grading score ranging from 0 to 5 by a blinded investigator, and the patients also documented their degree of satisfaction with the same grading score. All possible side effects were evaluated. The clinical assessment showed 74.5% (2.7) and 72.5% (2.5) improvements, and the patient satisfaction scale scores improved an average of 74% (2.4) and 71.5% (2.3) at 2 months and 4 months after treatment, respectively. There were no severe side effects or aggravation of atopic dermatitis. Our study suggests that 2790-nm Er:YSGG laser therapy can be effectively and safely used in the treatment of infraorbital dark circles in atopic dermatitis patients.

  18. The influence of cation ordering, oxygen vacancy distribution and proton siting on observed properties in ceramic electrolytes: the case of scandium substituted barium titanate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torino, Nico; Henry, Paul F; Knee, Christopher S; Bjørheim, Tor Svendsen; Rahman, Seikh M H; Suard, Emma; Giacobbe, Carlotta; Eriksson, Sten G

    2017-07-04

    The origin of the 2-order of magnitude difference in the proton conductivity of the hydrated forms of hexagonal and cubic oxygen deficient BaScxTi1-xO3-δ (x = 0.2 and x = 0.7) was probed using a combination of neutron diffraction and density functional theory techniques to support published X-ray diffraction, conductivity, thermogravimetric and differential scanning calorimetry studies. Cation ordering is found in the 6H structure type (space group P63/mmc) adopted by BaSc0.2Ti0.8O3-δ with scandium preferentially substituting in the vertex sharing octahedra (2a crystallographic site) and avoiding the face-sharing octahedra (4f site). This is coupled with oxygen vacancy ordering in the central plane of the face-sharing octahedra (O1 site). In BaSc0.7Ti0.3O3-δ a simple cubic perovskite (space group Pm3[combining macron]m) best represents the average structure from Rietveld analysis with no evidence of either cation ordering or oxygen vacancy ordering. Significant diffuse scattering is observed, indicative of local order. Hydration in both cases leads to complete filling of the available oxygen vacancies and permits definition of the proton sites. We suggest that the more localised nature of the proton sites in the 6H structure is responsible for the significantly lower proton conduction observed in the literature. Within the 6H structure type final model, proton diffusion requires a 3-step process via higher energy proton sites that are unoccupied at room temperature and is also likely to be anisotropic whereas the highly disordered cubic perovskite proton position allows 3-dimensional diffusion by well-described modes. Finally, we propose how this knowledge can be used to further materials design for ceramic electrolytes for proton conducting fuel cells.

  19. 37 CFR 41.54 - Action following decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....54 Section 41.54 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PRACTICE BEFORE THE BOARD OF PATENT APPEALS AND INTERFERENCES Ex Parte Appeals § 41.54... 32977, June 10, 2008, § 41.54 was revised, effective December 10, 2008. Per a subsequent final rule...

  20. Mutation analysis in 54 propionic acidemia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, J P; Spector, E; Venezia, S; Estes, P; Chiang, P W; Creadon-Swindell, G; Müllerleile, S; de Silva, L; Barth, M; Walter, M; Walter, K; Meissner, T; Lindner, M; Ensenauer, R; Santer, R; Bodamer, O A; Baumgartner, M R; Brunner-Krainz, M; Karall, D; Haase, C; Knerr, I; Marquardt, T; Hennermann, J B; Steinfeld, R; Beblo, S; Koch, H G; Konstantopoulou, V; Scholl-Bürgi, S; van Teeffelen-Heithoff, A; Suormala, T; Ugarte, M; Sperl, W; Superti-Furga, A; Schwab, K O; Grünert, S C; Sass, J O

    2012-01-01

    Deficiency of propionyl CoA carboxylase (PCC), a dodecamer of alpha and beta subunits, causes inherited propionic acidemia. We have studied, at the molecular level, PCC in 54 patients from 48 families comprised of 96 independent alleles. These patients of various ethnic backgrounds came from research centers and hospitals in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. The thorough clinical characterization of these patients was described in the accompanying paper (Grünert et al. 2012). In all 54 patients, many of whom originated from consanguineous families, the entire PCCB gene was examined by genomic DNA sequencing and in 39 individuals the PCCA gene was also studied. In three patients we found mutations in both PCC genes. In addition, in many patients RT-PCR analysis of lymphoblast RNA, lymphoblast enzyme assays, and expression of new mutations in E.coli were carried out. Eight new and eight previously detected mutations were identified in the PCCA gene while 15 new and 13 previously detected mutations were found in the PCCB gene. One missense mutation, p.V288I in the PCCB gene, when expressed in E.coli, yielded 134% of control activity and was consequently classified as a polymorphism in the coding region. Numerous new intronic polymorphisms in both PCC genes were identified. This study adds a considerable amount of new molecular data to the studies of this disease.

  1. Effects of erbium-and chromium-doped yttrium scandium gallium garnet and diode lasers on the surfaces of restorative dental materials: a scanning electron microscope study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatipoglu, M; Barutcigil, C

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential effects of laser irradiation, which is commonly performed in periodontal surgery, on the surfaces of restorative materials. Five different restorative dental materials were used in this study, as follows: (1) Resin composite, (2) poly acid-modified resin composite (compomer), (3) conventional glass ionomer cement (GIC), (4) resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC), and (5) amalgam. Four cylindrical samples (8 mm diameter, 2 mm height) were prepared for each restorative material. In addition, four freshly extracted, sound human incisors teeth were selected. Two different laser systems commonly used in periodontal surgery were examined in this study: A 810 nm diode laser at a setting of 1 W with continuous-phase laser irradiation for 10 s, and an erbium-and chromium-doped yttrium scandium gallium garnet (Er, Cr: YSGG) laser at settings of 2.5 W, 3.25 W, and 4 W with 25 Hz laser irradiation for 10 s. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis was performed to evaluate the morphology and surface deformation of the restorative materials and tooth surfaces. According to the SEM images, the Er, Cr: YSGG laser causes irradiation markings that appear as demineralized surfaces on tooth samples. The Er, Cr: YSGG laser also caused deep defects on composite, compomer, and RMGIC surfaces because of its high power, and the ablation was deeper for these samples. High-magnification SEM images of GIC samples showed the melting and combustion effects of the Er, Cr: YSGG laser, which increased as the laser power was increased. In amalgam samples, neither laser left significant harmful effects at the lowest power setting. The diode laser did cause irradiation markings, but they were insignificant compared with those left by the Er, Cr: YSGG laser on the surfaces of the different materials and teeth. Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that Er, Cr: YSGG laser irradiation could cause distortions of the surfaces

  2. Signal Recognition Particle 54 kD Protein (SRP54 from the Marine Sponge Geodia cydonium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Durajlija-Žinić

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In the systematic search for phylogenetically conserved proteins in the simplest and most ancient extant metazoan phylum – Porifera, we have identified and analyzed a cDNA encoding the signal recognition particle 54 kD protein (SRP54 from the marine sponge Geodia cydonium (Demospongiae. The signal recognition particle (SRP is a universally conserved ribonucleoprotein complex of a very ancient origin, comprising SRP RNA and several proteins (six in mammals. The nucleotide sequence of the sponge cDNA predicts a protein of 499 amino acid residues with a calculated Mr of 55175. G. cydonium SRP54 displays unusually high overall similarity (90 % with human/mammalian SRP54 proteins, higher than with Drosophila melanogaster (88 %, or Caenorhabditis elegans (82 %. The same was found for the majority of known and phylogenetically conserved proteins from sponges, indicating that the molecular evolutionary rates in protein coding genes in Porifera as well as in highly developed mammals (vertebrates are slower, when compared with the rates in homologous genes from invertebrates (insects, nematodes. Therefore, genes/proteins from sponges might be the best candidates for the reconstruction of ancient structures of proteins and genome/proteome complexity in the ancestral organism, common to all multicellular animals.

  3. in 54 Mother-Child Dyads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene Werner

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes parental expectations for sleep-wake patterns in healthy kindergarten children and explores their relation to children’s sleep quality and parental distress. Data analysis of 54 mother-child dyads (age range of the children: 4–7 years indicated that parental expectations for children’s sleep-wake patterns differ between scheduled and free days and depend on children’s chronotype. Mothers of children with late chronotype showed less adequate expectations for children’s sleep onset time than mothers of children with early chronotype (e.g., morning types. Furthermore, children of mothers with less adequate expectations for children’s sleep onset time on scheduled days had longer settling periods during which sleep rituals may take place (r=0.31, P≤0.05, spent more time in bed than they actually sleep (r=0.35, P≤0.01, and had more frequently difficulties falling asleep (r=0.33, P≤0.01. However, less adequate expectations for children’s sleep onset time were not associated with parental distress (P>0.05. We conclude that parental expectations about their children’s sleep play a key role in understanding normal and abnormal sleep during childhood.

  4. 47 CFR 54.405 - Carrier obligation to offer Lifeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Universal Service Support for Low-Income Consumers § 54.405 Carrier obligation... service, as defined in § 54.401, to qualifying low-income consumers, and (b) Publicize the availability of...

  5. 26 CFR 54.4980B-4 - Qualifying events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Qualifying events. 54.4980B-4 Section 54.4980B... EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) PENSION EXCISE TAXES § 54.4980B-4 Qualifying events. The determination of what constitutes a qualifying event is addressed in the following questions and answers: Q-1: What is a qualifying...

  6. 28 CFR 5.4 - Computation of time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Computation of time. 5.4 Section 5.4 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ADMINISTRATION AND ENFORCEMENT OF FOREIGN AGENTS REGISTRATION ACT OF 1938, AS AMENDED § 5.4 Computation of time. Sundays and holidays shall be counted in computing...

  7. 49 CFR 386.54 - Administrative Law Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administrative Law Judge. 386.54 Section 386.54... General Rules and Hearings § 386.54 Administrative Law Judge. (a) Powers of an Administrative Law Judge. The Administrative Law Judge may take any action and may prescribe all necessary rules and regulations...

  8. 29 CFR 96.54 - Responsibility for subrecipient audits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Responsibility for subrecipient audits. 96.54 Section 96.54 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor AUDIT REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS, CONTRACTS, AND OTHER AGREEMENTS Audit Resolution § 96.54 Responsibility for subrecipient audits. Recipients of Federal assistance from...

  9. 46 CFR 54.15-3 - Definitions (modifies Appendix 3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions (modifies Appendix 3). 54.15-3 Section 54.15-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Pressure-Relief Devices § 54.15-3 Definitions (modifies Appendix 3). (a) Definitions applicable to...

  10. 9 CFR 54.3 - Animals eligible for indemnity payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Animals eligible for indemnity payments. 54.3 Section 54.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... SCRAPIE Scrapie Indemnification Program § 54.3 Animals eligible for indemnity payments. (a) Indemnity may...

  11. 9 CFR 54.7 - Procedures for destruction of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedures for destruction of animals. 54.7 Section 54.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... SCRAPIE Scrapie Indemnification Program § 54.7 Procedures for destruction of animals. (a) Scrapie-positive...

  12. 7 CFR 54.1001 - Meaning of words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meaning of words. 54.1001 Section 54.1001 Agriculture... and Poultry Products § 54.1001 Meaning of words. For the purposes of the regulations in this subpart, words in the singular form shall be deemed to impart the plural and vice versa, as the case may demand. ...

  13. 7 CFR 54.5 - Availability of service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Availability of service. 54.5 Section 54.5 Agriculture... MEAT PRODUCTS (GRADING, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) Regulations Service § 54.5 Availability of... be imprinted by roller brand or handstamp and shall be applied so that the imprint is at least 2...

  14. 26 CFR 54.4980B-1 - COBRA in general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false COBRA in general. 54.4980B-1 Section 54.4980B-1... TAXES (CONTINUED) PENSION EXCISE TAXES § 54.4980B-1 COBRA in general. The COBRA continuation coverage... requirements were added to section 162 by the Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1985 (COBRA...

  15. 46 CFR 54.25-5 - Corrosion allowance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Corrosion allowance. 54.25-5 Section 54.25-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Construction With Carbon, Alloy, and Heat Treated Steels § 54.25-5 Corrosion allowance. The corrosion allowance...

  16. 7 CFR 54.18 - Custody of identification devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Custody of identification devices. 54.18 Section 54.18... MEAT PRODUCTS (GRADING, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) Regulations Service § 54.18 Custody of..., shall be kept in the custody of the Branch, and accurate records shall be kept by the Branch of all such...

  17. 41 CFR 109-26.501-54 - Communications equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Communications equipment. 109-26.501-54 Section 109-26.501-54 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... PROCUREMENT 26-PROCUREMENT SOURCES AND PROGRAM 26.5-GSA Procurement Programs § 109-26.501-54 Communications...

  18. 7 CFR 201.54 - Number of seeds for germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Number of seeds for germination. 201.54 Section 201.54..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of the Act § 201.54 Number of seeds for germination. At...

  19. 47 CFR 54.303 - Long term support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Long term support. 54.303 Section 54.303... SERVICE Universal Service Support for High Cost Areas § 54.303 Long term support. (a) Beginning January 1... shall receive Long Term Support. Beginning July 1, 2004, no carrier shall receive Long Term Support. (b...

  20. 47 CFR 54.301 - Local switching support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Local switching support. 54.301 Section 54.301... SERVICE Universal Service Support for High Cost Areas § 54.301 Local switching support. (a) Calculation of local switching support. (1) Beginning January 1, 1998, an incumbent local exchange carrier that has...

  1. 47 CFR 54.415 - Consumer qualification for Link Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Consumer qualification for Link Up. 54.415 Section 54.415 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Universal Service Support for Low-Income Consumers § 54.415 Consumer...

  2. 38 CFR 61.54 - Awarding technical assistance grants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Awarding technical assistance grants. 61.54 Section 61.54 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VA HOMELESS PROVIDERS GRANT AND PER DIEM PROGRAM § 61.54 Awarding technical assistance grants. (a...

  3. 10 CFR 32.54 - Same: Labeling of devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Same: Labeling of devices. 32.54 Section 32.54 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION SPECIFIC DOMESTIC LICENSES TO MANUFACTURE OR TRANSFER CERTAIN ITEMS CONTAINING BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Generally Licensed Items § 32.54 Same: Labeling of devices. (a) A person...

  4. 40 CFR 205.54-2 - Sound data acquisition system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sound data acquisition system. 205.54-2 Section 205.54-2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Medium and Heavy Trucks § 205.54-2 Sound...

  5. 36 CFR 7.54 - Theodore Roosevelt National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Theodore Roosevelt National Park. 7.54 Section 7.54 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.54 Theodore Roosevelt National Park. (a...

  6. 46 CFR 111.54-3 - Remote control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Remote control. 111.54-3 Section 111.54-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Circuit Breakers § 111.54-3 Remote control. Remotely controlled circuit breakers must have local...

  7. 19 CFR 151.54 - Testing by Customs laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Testing by Customs laboratory. 151.54 Section 151.54 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF... Other Metal-Bearing Materials § 151.54 Testing by Customs laboratory. Samples taken in accordance with...

  8. 7 CFR 920.54 - Special purpose shipments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special purpose shipments. 920.54 Section 920.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Regulations § 920.54 Special purpose shipments. (a) Except as otherwise provided in this section, any person...

  9. 7 CFR 923.54 - Special purpose shipments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special purpose shipments. 923.54 Section 923.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Regulations § 923.54 Special purpose shipments...

  10. 12 CFR 327.54 - Requests for review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requests for review. 327.54 Section 327.54 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY ASSESSMENTS Implementation of Dividend Requirements § 327.54 Requests for review. (a) An insured depository...

  11. 20 CFR 617.54 - State agency rulemaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false State agency rulemaking. 617.54 Section 617.54 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TRADE ADJUSTMENT ASSISTANCE FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Administration by Applicable State Agencies § 617.54 State...

  12. 22 CFR 96.54 - Placement standards in outgoing cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Placement standards in outgoing cases. 96.54 Section 96.54 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES ACCREDITATION OF AGENCIES... Cases) § 96.54 Placement standards in outgoing cases. (a) Except in the case of adoption by relatives or...

  13. 7 CFR 984.54 - Establishment of obligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Establishment of obligation. 984.54 Section 984.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Regulating Handling Reserve Walnuts § 984.54 Establishment of obligation. (a) Reserve obligation. Whenever...

  14. 19 CFR 113.54 - Cancellation of erroneous charges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cancellation of erroneous charges. 113.54 Section 113.54 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS BONDS Assessment of Damages and Cancellation of Bond § 113.54 Cancellation of...

  15. 45 CFR 400.54 - Notice and hearings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notice and hearings. 400.54 Section 400.54 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN... Assistance § 400.54 Notice and hearings. (a) Timely and adequate notice. (1) A written notice must be sent or...

  16. 50 CFR 14.54 - Unavailability of Service officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Unavailability of Service officers. 14.54 Section 14.54 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR....54 Unavailability of Service officers. (a) Designated ports. All wildlife arriving at a designated...

  17. 7 CFR 922.54 - Special purpose shipments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special purpose shipments. 922.54 Section 922.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Regulations § 922.54 Special purpose shipments. (a) Except...

  18. 7 CFR 924.54 - Special purpose shipments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special purpose shipments. 924.54 Section 924.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON AND IN UMATILLA COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Regulations § 924.54...

  19. 7 CFR 945.54 - Minimum quantity exemption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum quantity exemption. 945.54 Section 945.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Regulations § 945.54...

  20. 29 CFR 2700.54 - Notice of hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Notice of hearing. 2700.54 Section 2700.54 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH REVIEW COMMISSION PROCEDURAL RULES Hearings § 2700.54 Notice of hearing. Except in expedited proceedings, written notice of the time, place...

  1. 20 CFR 901.54 - Petition for reinstatement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Petition for reinstatement. 901.54 Section 901.54 Employees' Benefits JOINT BOARD FOR THE ENROLLMENT OF ACTUARIES REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE... Termination of Enrollment § 901.54 Petition for reinstatement. Any individual whose enrollment has been...

  2. 32 CFR 54.2 - Applicability and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability and scope. 54.2 Section 54.2 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN ALLOTMENTS FOR CHILD AND SPOUSAL SUPPORT § 54.2 Applicability and scope. (a) This part applies to the Office...

  3. 42 CFR 433.54 - Bona fide donations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bona fide donations. 433.54 Section 433.54 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Financial Participation § 433.54 Bona fide donations. (a) A bona fide donation means a provider-related...

  4. 7 CFR 966.54 - Shipments for special purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shipments for special purposes. 966.54 Section 966.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Regulating Handling Regulation § 966.54 Shipments for special purposes. Upon the basis of recommendations and...

  5. 45 CFR 81.54 - Request for hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Request for hearing. 81.54 Section 81.54 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE FOR HEARINGS UNDER PART 80 OF THIS TITLE Proceedings Prior to Hearing § 81.54 Request for hearing. Within 20 days...

  6. 12 CFR 313.54 - Exception to due process procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exception to due process procedures. 313.54 Section 313.54 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE PROCEDURES FOR CORPORATE DEBT COLLECTION Salary Offset § 313.54 Exception to due process procedures. (a) The...

  7. 29 CFR 1960.54 - Training of top management officials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Training of top management officials. 1960.54 Section 1960.54 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... PROGRAMS AND RELATED MATTERS Training § 1960.54 Training of top management officials. Each agency shall...

  8. 42 CFR 447.54 - Maximum allowable and nominal charges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maximum allowable and nominal charges. 447.54 Section 447.54 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Deductible, Coinsurance, Co-Payment Or Similar Cost-Sharing Charge § 447.54 Maximum allowable and nominal...

  9. 29 CFR 2200.54 - Requests for admissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requests for admissions. 2200.54 Section 2200.54 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH REVIEW COMMISSION RULES OF PROCEDURE Prehearing Procedures and Discovery § 2200.54 Requests for admissions. (a) Scope. At any time after the...

  10. 7 CFR 925.54 - Special purpose shipments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special purpose shipments. 925.54 Section 925.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... OF SOUTHEASTERN CALIFORNIA Regulations § 925.54 Special purpose shipments. (a) Regulations in effect...

  11. 7 CFR 946.54 - Shipments for specified purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shipments for specified purposes. 946.54 Section 946.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Regulation § 946.54 Shipments for specified purposes...

  12. 37 CFR 11.54 - Initial decision of hearing officer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Initial decision of hearing officer. 11.54 Section 11.54 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE... Investigations and Disciplinary Proceedings; Jurisdiction, Sanctions, Investigations, and Proceedings § 11.54...

  13. 7 CFR 916.54 - Special purpose shipments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special purpose shipments. 916.54 Section 916.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Order Regulating Handling Regulations § 916.54 Special purpose shipments. (a) Except as otherwise...

  14. 19 CFR 115.54 - Renewal of certificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Renewal of certificate. 115.54 Section 115.54 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE... Procedures for Approval of Individual Road Vehicles § 115.54 Renewal of certificate. A certificate of...

  15. 37 CFR 3.54 - Effect of recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effect of recording. 3.54 Section 3.54 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL ASSIGNMENT, RECORDING AND RIGHTS OF ASSIGNEE Date and Effect of Recording § 3.54 Effect of...

  16. 7 CFR 947.54 - Shipments for specified purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shipments for specified purposes. 947.54 Section 947.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... Order Regulating Handling Regulation § 947.54 Shipments for specified purposes. (a) Whenever the...

  17. 7 CFR 985.54 - Issuance of annual allotments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Issuance of annual allotments. 985.54 Section 985.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Volume Limitations § 985.54...

  18. 45 CFR 84.54 - Education of institutionalized persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., Welfare, and Social Services § 84.54 Education of institutionalized persons. A recipient to which this... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Education of institutionalized persons. 84.54 Section 84.54 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION...

  19. 45 CFR 605.54 - Education of institutionalized persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ASSISTANCE Health, Welfare, and Social Services § 605.54 Education of institutionalized persons. A recipient... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Education of institutionalized persons. 605.54 Section 605.54 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE...

  20. Influence of c-axis orientation and scandium concentration on infrared active modes of magnetron sputtered Sc{sub x}Al{sub 1−x}N thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayrhofer, P. M.; Bittner, A.; Schmid, U. [Institute of Sensor and Actuator Systems, Vienna University of Technology, Floragasse 7, 1040 Vienna (Austria); Eisenmenger-Sittner, C. [Institute of Solid State Physics, Vienna University of Technology, Wiedner Hauptstrasse 8, 1040 Vienna (Austria); Euchner, H. [Institute of Materials Science and Technology, Vienna University of Technology, Karlsplatz 13, 1040 Vienna (Austria)

    2013-12-16

    Doping of wurtzite aluminium nitride (AlN) with scandium (Sc) significantly enhances the piezoelectric properties of AlN. Sc{sub x}Al{sub 1−x}N thin films with different Sc concentrations (x = 0 to 0.15) were deposited by DC reactive magnetron sputtering. Infrared (IR) absorbance spectroscopy was applied to investigate the Sc concentration dependent shift of the IR active modes E{sub 1}(TO) and A{sub 1}(TO). These results are compared to ab initio simulations, being in excellent agreement with the experimental findings. In addition, IR spectroscopy is established as an economical and fast method to distinguish between thin films with a high degree of c-axis orientation and those exhibiting mixed orientations.

  1. Kisspeptin/Gpr54-independent GnRH activity in Kiss1 and Gpr54 mutant mice

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Yee-Ming; Broder-Fingert, Sarabeth; Wong, Kai Mee; Seminara, Stephanie B.

    2009-01-01

    The kisspeptin/Gpr54 signaling pathway plays a critical role in reproduction by stimulating the secretion of GnRH, yet mice carrying mutations in Kiss1 (which encodes kisspeptin) or Gpr54 exhibit partial sexual maturation. For instance, a proportion of female Kiss1−/− and Gpr54−/− mice exhibit vaginal oestrus, and some male Kiss1−/− and Gpr54−/− mice exhibit spermatogenesis.

  2. Plasma Kisspeptin-54 levels in gastric cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergen, Arzu; Canbay, Emel; Bugra, Dursun; Zeybek, Umit; Yamaner, Sumer; Bulut, Turker

    2012-01-01

    Kisspeptin (Kisspeptin-54; KP-54) is a 54-amino acid peptide was originally known as metastin that was implicated in suppression of tumor metastasis and circulating kisspeptin has been proposed as a tumor marker for numerous cancers in humans. However, the plasma level of KP-54 in gastric cancer (GC) remains undetermined. We aimed to investigate the plasma levels of KP-54 in patients with GC. Plasma KP-54 levels were quantified with enzyme-immunoassay from blood samples of 40 patients with GC at their initial staging and 59 age-matched controls. Plasma KP-54 levels were significantly higher in GC patients (63.3±17.9) than in controls (49.0±12.7) (p=0.000). Cut-off value for KP-54 was determined as 44 ng/ml and sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value, were 60%, 78%, 63%, and 74% respectively. Plasma KP-54 levels were not correlated with any clinicopathological features of GC patients (p>0.05). Result of our preliminary study suggest that plasma KP-54 levels might be a useful parameter in diagnosis of GC. Copyright © 2012 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Design and synthesis of fluorescent probes for GPR54.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneda, Masato; Misu, Ryosuke; Ohno, Hiroaki; Hirasawa, Akira; Ieda, Nahoko; Uenoyama, Yoshihisa; Tsukamura, Hiroko; Maeda, Kei-ichiro; Oishi, Shinya; Fujii, Nobutaka

    2014-07-01

    Kisspeptins are neuropeptides that induce the secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone via the activation of the cognate receptor, G-protein coupled receptor 54 (GPR54). The kisspeptin-GPR54 axis is associated with the onset of puberty and the maintenance of the reproductive system. In this study, several fluorescent probes have been designed and synthesized for rat GPR54 through the modification of the N-terminus of rat kisspeptins to allow for the visualization of the expression and localization of kisspeptin receptor(s) in living cells and native tissues. The tetramethylrhodamine (TMR) and rhodamine green (RG)-labeled kisspeptins exhibited good binding and agonistic activities towards GPR54, and the results of the application studies demonstrated that these fluorescent probes could be used effectively for the detection of GPR54 receptors in flow cytometry and confocal microscopy experiments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. 46 CFR 54.05-6 - Toughness test temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Toughness test temperatures. 54.05-6 Section 54.05-6... Toughness Tests § 54.05-6 Toughness test temperatures. Each toughness test must be conducted at temperatures not warmer than −20 °F or 10 °F below the minimum service temperature, whichever is lower, except that...

  5. The sigma(54) regulon (sigmulon) of Pseudomonas putida

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cases, I.; Ussery, David; de Lorenzo, V.

    2003-01-01

    , the sigma(54) regulon has been studied both in Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium and several species of the Rhizobiaceae. Here we present the analysis of the sigma(54) regulon (sigmulon) in the complete genome of Pseudomonas putida KT2440. We have developed an improved method for the prediction......% of the sigma(54)-dependent promoters of P. putida with high confidence. Our analysis has revealed new functions for sigma(54) and, by means of comparative analysis with the previous studies, we have drawn a potential mechanism for the evolution of this regulatory system....

  6. Two scandium-biuret complexes: [Sc(C2H5N3O2)(H2O)5]Cl3 x H2O and [Sc(C2H5N3O2)4](NO3)3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, William T A

    2008-05-01

    The scandium(III) cations in the structures of pentaaqua(biuret-kappa(2)O,O')scandium(III) trichloride monohydrate, [Sc(C(2)H(5)N(3)O(2))(H(2)O)(5)]Cl(3) x H(2)O, (I), and tetrakis(biuret-kappa(2)O,O')scandium(III) trinitrate, [Sc(C(2)H(5)N(3)O(2))(4)](NO(3))(3), (II), are found to adopt very different coordinations with the same biuret ligand. The roles of hydrogen bonding and the counter-ion in the establishment of the structures are described. In (I), the Sc(3+) cation adopts a fairly regular pentagonal bipyramidal coordination geometry arising from one O,O'-bidentate biuret molecule and five water molecules. A dense network of N-H...Cl, O-H...O and O-H...Cl hydrogen bonds help to establish the packing, resulting in dimeric associations of two cations and two water molecules. In (II), the Sc(3+) cation (site symmetry 2) adopts a slightly squashed square-antiprismatic geometry arising from four O,O'-bidentate biuret molecules. A network of N-H...O hydrogen bonds help to establish the packing, which features [010] chains of cations. One of the nitrate ions is disordered about an inversion centre. Both structures form three-dimensional hydrogen-bond networks.

  7. 46 CFR 310.54 - General requirements for eligibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....54 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRAINING MERCHANT MARINE TRAINING Admission and Training of Midshipmen at the United States Merchant Marine Academy § 310.54 General... person who is not a citizen shall be entitled to any office or position in the U.S. merchant marine by...

  8. 28 CFR 54.415 - Access to course offerings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Access to course offerings. 54.415 Section 54.415 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF..., football, basketball, and other sports the purpose or major activity of which involves bodily contact. (4...

  9. 33 CFR 401.54 - Interference with navigation aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interference with navigation aids. 401.54 Section 401.54 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION... with navigation aids. (a) Aids to navigation shall not be interfered with or used as moorings. (b) No...

  10. 34 CFR 668.54 - Selection of applications for verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL PROVISIONS Verification of Student Aid Application Information § 668.54 Selection of applications for verification. (a) General... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Selection of applications for verification. 668.54...

  11. 21 CFR 54.5 - Agency evaluation of financial interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... financial interests of any clinical investigator raise a serious question about the integrity of the data... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Agency evaluation of financial interests. 54.5... FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE BY CLINICAL INVESTIGATORS § 54.5 Agency evaluation of financial interests. (a...

  12. 27 CFR 555.54 - Change of address.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... notification of the new location of the business or operations to the Chief, Firearms and Explosives Licensing... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Change of address. 555.54 Section 555.54 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND...

  13. 7 CFR 1718.54 - Availability of model mortgage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Availability of model mortgage. 1718.54 Section 1718..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOAN SECURITY DOCUMENTS FOR ELECTRIC BORROWERS Mortgage for Distribution Borrowers § 1718.54 Availability of model mortgage. Single copies of the model mortgage (RUS Informational...

  14. 7 CFR 550.54 - Invention disclosure and utilization reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Invention disclosure and utilization reporting. 550.54... Management of Agreements Reports and Records § 550.54 Invention disclosure and utilization reporting. (a) The Cooperator shall report Invention Disclosures and Utilization information electronically via i-Edison Web...

  15. 26 CFR 54.4980B-5 - COBRA continuation coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false COBRA continuation coverage. 54.4980B-5 Section...) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) PENSION EXCISE TAXES § 54.4980B-5 COBRA continuation coverage. The following questions-and-answers address the requirements for coverage to constitute COBRA continuation...

  16. 9 CFR 54.10 - Tests for scrapie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tests for scrapie. 54.10 Section 54.10 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... proteinase resistant protein associated with scrapie, and that animal tests positive to such a test, the...

  17. 9 CFR 54.5 - Certification by owners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certification by owners. 54.5 Section... Indemnification Program § 54.5 Certification by owners. Before any indemnity is paid to an owner, the owner must sign a written agreement with APHIS, certifying the following: (a) The owner will make available for...

  18. 19 CFR 134.54 - Articles released from Customs custody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Articles released from Customs custody. 134.54 Section 134.54 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... released from Customs custody. (a) Demand for liquidated damages. If within 30 days from the date of the...

  19. 7 CFR 915.54 - Inspection and certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inspection and certification. 915.54 Section 915.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AVOCADOS GROWN IN SOUTH FLORIDA...

  20. 36 CFR 910.54 - Build-to height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Build-to height. 910.54... DEVELOPMENT AREA Glossary of Terms § 910.54 Build-to height. Build-to height means a specified minimum height of development to which the exterior wall of a building in a development must rise. Minor deviations...

  1. 28 CFR 54.455 - Textbooks and curricular material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Textbooks and curricular material. 54.455... Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 54.455 Textbooks and curricular material... way the use of particular textbooks or curricular materials. ...

  2. 27 CFR 21.54 - Formula No. 27-B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... concentrate containing 25 percent water to 100 gallons of alcohol and, after mixing, by adding thereto 33.5... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula No. 27-B. 21.54 Section 21.54 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT...

  3. 28 CFR 550.54 - Incentives for RDAP participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Incentives for RDAP participation. 550.54... DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Abuse Treatment Program § 550.54 Incentives for RDAP participation. (a) An inmate may receive incentives for his or her satisfactory participation in the RDAP. Institutions may offer...

  4. 19 CFR 122.54 - Aircraft of foreign registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... appropriate Customs officer: (1) Type of aircraft; (2) Nationality and registration number of aircraft; (3... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aircraft of foreign registry. 122.54 Section 122.54 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF...

  5. 27 CFR 5.4 - Delegations of the Administrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Delegations of the Administrator. 5.4 Section 5.4 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... may obtain a copy of this order by accessing the TTB Web site (http://www.ttb.gov) or by mailing a...

  6. 45 CFR 1355.54 - Submittal of advance planning documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... statewide automated child welfare information system, signed by the appropriate State official, in... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Submittal of advance planning documents. 1355.54 Section 1355.54 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN...

  7. 28 CFR 54.400 - Education programs or activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Education programs or activities. 54.400... SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 54.400 Education programs or activities...

  8. 47 CFR 17.54 - Rated lamp voltage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rated lamp voltage. 17.54 Section 17.54... voltage. To insure the necessary lumen output by obstruction lights, the rated voltage of incandescent lamps used shall correspond to be within 3 percent higher than the voltage across the lamp socket during...

  9. Kisspeptin-54 levels are increased in patients with colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canbay, Emel; Ergen, Arzu; Bugra, Dursun; Yamaner, Sumer; Eraltan, Ilhan Yaylim; Buyukuncu, Yilmaz; Bulut, Turker

    2012-09-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that Kisspeptin, the product of the metastasis suppressor gene KiSS-1, could have a role in tumor progression and invasion. In this pilot study, we investigated the association of plasma Kisspeptin-54 level with colorectal cancer (CRC). Plasma Kisspeptin-54 levels were quantified using enzyme-immunoassay (EIA) kits from blood samples of 81 patients with CRC at their initial staging and 59 age-matched healthy controls. Plasma Kisspeptin-54 levels were significantly higher in CRC patients (86.2 ± 20.5) than in controls (49 ± 12.7; p 54 detection was determined as 46 ng/ml, and area under curve (AUC) value was 0.766 with sensitivity 63 %, specificity 81.4 %, positive predictive value 82.2 %, negative predictive value 61.5 %, positive likelihood ratio 3.38, and negative likelihood ratio 0.46. Increased plasma Kisspeptin-54 levels were significantly correlated with nodal involvement of CRC (Spearman, rs = 0.345, p = 0.002). Kisspeptin-54 was also found to be an independent predictive marker for lymph node metastases of CRC (p = 0; Exp(B): 2.053; 95 % CI, 1.255-2.851). Our results reveal that plasma Kisspeptin-54 measurement could be a useful diagnostic and prognostic parameter for CRC. Further prospective evaluation is needed to validate these findings and to establish the clinical usefulness of Kisspeptin-54 for CRC diagnostics.

  10. 28 CFR 54.140 - Dissemination of policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dissemination of policy. 54.140 Section 54.140 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF... Dissemination of policy. (a) Notification of policy. (1) Each recipient shall implement specific and continuing...

  11. 47 CFR 54.519 - State telecommunications networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false State telecommunications networks. 54.519 Section 54.519 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES... telecommunications networks. (a) Telecommunications services. State telecommunications networks may secure discounts...

  12. 47 CFR 54.502 - Supported telecommunications services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supported telecommunications services. 54.502 Section 54.502 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES... telecommunications services. For purposes of this subpart, supported telecommunications services provided by...

  13. 40 CFR 417.54 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 417.54 Section 417.54 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Glycerine...

  14. [KISS-1/GPR54 genes and their role in reproduction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Tao; Chu, Ming-Xing; Zhang, Ying-Jie

    2008-04-01

    KISS-1 gene and its receptor gene GPR54 play key roles in the initiation of puberty onset. The peptide product of the KiSS-1 gene, Kisspeptins stimulate gonadotrophins release to initiate puberty through the expression of GPR54 gene in the brain. So the level of KISS-1 and GPR54 mRNA in hypothalamus was very high on the onset of puberty. The expression of KISS-1gene was regulated by steroid hormone in different nuclei within the forebrain to control the reproduction in puberty. Loss of function mutations of GPR54 gene could cause idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) and gonadotrophin-dependant premature puberty. This review also introduced the structure, expression, homology comparison, polymorphism of KISS-1 and GPR54 genes and their interrelation with other regulators of reproduction.

  15. Characterization of Helicobacter pylori sigma54 promoter-binding activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Lara E; Brahmachary, Priyanka; Hoover, Timothy R

    2006-06-01

    Several Helicobacter pylori flagellar genes require sigma(54) for their transcription. Predicted H. pylori sigma(54)-dependent promoters display a preference for A at position -23 instead of C or T as occurs in promoters from most other bacteria. Substitution of the A at position -23 of the H. pylori flaB promoter with a C did not effect expression of a flaB'-'xylE reporter gene in H. pylori, whereas T or G substitutions at this position drastically reduced expression. Results of gel mobility shift assays that used DNA probes corresponding to core promoter sequences and a H. pylori sigma(54) protein fused to the Escherichia coli maltose-binding protein suggested that H. pylori sigma(54) has a higher affinity for promoters with an A at the -23 position. The failure to observe an effect on expression for the flaB mutant promoter with the A to C substitution at the -23 position indicates that sequences flanking the core promoter region may assist binding of H. pylori sigma(54) to the mutant flaB promoter. Alternatively, H. pylori RNA polymerase or the sigma(54)-dependent activator FlgR may compensate for the reduced affinity of sigma(54) for the mutant flaB promoter.

  16. Design and synthesis of downsized metastin (45-54) analogs with maintenance of high GPR54 agonistic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niida, Ayumu; Wang, Zixuan; Tomita, Kenji; Oishi, Shinya; Tamamura, Hirokazu; Otaka, Akira; Navenot, Jean-Marc; Broach, James R; Peiper, Stephen C; Fujii, Nobutaka

    2006-01-01

    Metastin has been identified as a metastasis suppressor gene product that mediates its function through a G protein coupled receptor, GPR54. To refine insight into the critical pharmacophore for the activation of GPR54, we have conducted alanine and d-amino acid scanning on a biologically active metastin fragment (45-54). Based on these data and structures of peptides previously reported to activate GPR54, a series of shortened metastin (45-54) derivatives were synthesized and tested for the ability to induce GPR54 signaling. These biological experiments were performed in yeast containing human GPR54 that was coupled to the pheromone response pathway and a pheromone responsive lacZ reporter gene. Compounds 32, 33, and 39, which possess an N-terminal basic group and a C-terminal RW-amide motif, were strong agonists, similar to the level of metastin. This may provide an approach to reverse the pro-metastatic effect of metastin deletion in multiple malignant tumors.

  17. 47 CFR 54.603 - Competitive bid requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... categories set forth in the definition of health care provider, listed in § 54.601(a); (ii) The requester is... requester cannot obtain toll-free access to an Internet service provider; (iv) The requested service or...

  18. 47 CFR 54.715 - Administrative expenses of the Administrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... support mechanism, the low income support mechanism, the interstate access universal service support... SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Administration § 54.715 Administrative expenses of the Administrator... the projected quarterly budgets before the Administrator disburses funds under the federal universal...

  19. 47 CFR 3.54 - Notification of change in address.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ACCOUNTING AUTHORITIES IN MARITIME AND MARITIME MOBILE-SATELLITE RADIO SERVICES Settlement Operations § 3.54... address of an accounting authority. Such written notification should be sent to the address shown in § 3...

  20. Kiss-1/GPR54 protein expression in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaoiconomou, Eleni; Lymperi, Maria; Petraki, Constantina; Philippou, Anastassios; Msaouel, Pavlos; Michalopoulou, Fani; Kafiri, Georgia; Vassilakos, George; Zografos, Georgios; Koutsilieris, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Numerous studies have shown that the Kiss-1 gene countervails the metastatic aptitude of several cancer cell lines and solid-tumor neoplasias. However, there still remains ambiguity regarding its role in breast cancer and literature has arisen asserting that Kiss-1 expression may be linked to an aggressive phenotype and malignant progression. Herein, we investigated the protein expression of Kiss-1 and its receptor GPR54 in breast cancer tissues compared to non-cancerous mammary tissues. Paraffin-fixed cancer tissues from 43 women with resected breast adenocarcinomas and 11 specimens derived from women suffering from fibrocystic disease, serving as controls, were immunostained with Kiss-1 and GPR54 antibodies. Kiss-1 and GPR54 protein expression levels were significantly higher in breast cancer compared to fibrocystic tissues (pbreast cancer and fibrocystic disease specimens. Kiss-1/GPR54 expression was found to be significantly higher in breast cancer compared to non-malignant mammary tissues.

  1. Review of 54 Cases of Prolonged Field Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSoucy, Erik; Shackelford, Stacy; DuBose, Joseph J; Zweben, Seth; Rush, Stephen C; Kotwal, Russ S; Montgomery, Harold R; Keenan, Sean

    Prolonged field care (PFC) is field medical care applied beyond doctrinal planning time-lines. As current and future medical operations must include deliberate and contingency planning for such events, data are lacking to support efforts. A case review was conducted to define the epidemiology, environment, and operational factors that affect PFC outcomes. A survey distributed to US military medical providers solicited details of PFC encounters lasting more than 4 hours and included patient demographics, environmental descriptors, provider training, modes of transportation, injuries, mechanism of injury, vital signs, treatments, equipment and resources used, duration of PFC, and morbidity and mortality status on delivery to the next level of care. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze survey responses. Surveys from 54 patients treated during 41 missions were analyzed. The PFC provider was on scene at time of injury or illness for 40.7% (22/54) of cases. The environment was described as remote or austere for 96.3% (52/54) of cases. Enemy activity or weather also contributed to need for PFC in 37.0% (20/54) of cases. Care was provided primarily outdoors (37.0%; 20/54) and in hardened nonmedical structures (37.0%; 20/54) with 42.6% (23/54) of cases managed in two or more locations or transport platforms. Teleconsultation was obtained in 14.8% (8/54) of cases. The prehospital time of care ranged from 4 to 120 hours (median 10 hours), and five (9.3%) patients died prior to transport to next level of care. PFC in the prehospital setting is a vital area of military medicine about which data are sparse. This review was a novel initial analysis of recent US military PFC experiences, with descriptive findings that should prove helpful for future efforts to include defining unique skillsets and capabilities needed to effectively respond to a variety of PFC contingencies. 2017.

  2. Kisspeptin/Gpr54-independent gonadotrophin-releasing hormone activity in Kiss1 and Gpr54 mutant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Y M; Broder-Fingert, S; Wong, K M; Seminara, S B

    2009-12-01

    The kisspeptin/Gpr54 signalling pathway plays a critical role in reproduction by stimulating the secretion of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH), yet mice carrying mutations in Kiss1 (which encodes kisspeptin) or Gpr54 exhibit partial sexual maturation. For example, a proportion of female Kiss1(-/-) and Gpr54(-/-) mice exhibit vaginal oestrus, and some male Kiss1(-/-) and Gpr54(-/-) mice exhibit spermatogenesis. To characterise this partial sexual maturation, we examined the vaginal cytology of female Kiss1(-/-) and Gpr54(-/-) mice over time. Almost all mutant mice eventually enter oestrus, and then spontaneously transition from oestrus to dioestrus and back to oestrus again. These transitions are not associated with ovulation, and the frequency of these transitions increases with age. The oestrus exhibited by female Kiss1(-/-) and Gpr54(-/-) mice was disrupted by the administration of the competitive GnRH antagonist acyline, which also resulted in lower uterine weights and, in Kiss1(-/-) mice, lower serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinising hormone (LH) concentrations. Similarly, male Kiss1(-/-) and Gpr54(-/-) mice treated with acyline had smaller testicular sizes and an absence of mature sperm. In addition to examining intact Kiss1(-/-) and Gpr54(-/-) mice, we also assessed the effects of acyline on gonadotrophin concentrations in gonadectomised mice. Gonadectomy resulted in a significant increase in serum FSH concentrations in male Gpr54(-/-) and Kiss1(-/-) mice. Acyline administration to gonadectomised Kiss1(-/-) and Gpr54(-/-) male mice lowered serum FSH and LH concentrations significantly. By contrast to males, gonadectomy did not result in significant gonadotrophin changes in female Kiss1(-/-) and Gpr54(-/-) mice, but acyline administration was followed by a decrease in LH concentrations. These results demonstrate that, although kisspeptin signalling is critical for the high levels of GnRH activity required for normal sexual maturation and

  3. Kisspeptin/Gpr54-independent GnRH activity in Kiss1 and Gpr54 mutant mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yee-Ming; Broder-Fingert, Sarabeth; Wong, Kai Mee; Seminara, Stephanie B.

    2009-01-01

    The kisspeptin/Gpr54 signaling pathway plays a critical role in reproduction by stimulating the secretion of GnRH, yet mice carrying mutations in Kiss1 (which encodes kisspeptin) or Gpr54 exhibit partial sexual maturation. For instance, a proportion of female Kiss1−/− and Gpr54−/− mice exhibit vaginal oestrus, and some male Kiss1−/− and Gpr54−/− mice exhibit spermatogenesis. To characterise this partial sexual maturation, we examined the vaginal cytology of female Kiss1−/− and Gpr54−/− mice over time. Nearly all mutant mice eventually enter oestrus, then spontaneously transition from oestrus to dioestrus and back to oestrus again. These transitions are not associated with ovulation, and the frequency of these transitions increases with age. The oestrus exhibited by female Kiss1−/− and Gpr54−/− mice was disrupted by administration of the competitive GnRH antagonist acyline, which also resulted in lower uterine weights and, in Kiss1−/− mice, lower serum FSH and LH concentrations. Similarly, male Kiss1−/− and Gpr54−/− mice treated with acyline had smaller testicular sizes and absence of mature sperm. In addition to examining intact Kiss1−/− and Gpr54−/− mice, we also assessed the effects of acyline on gonadotrophin concentrations in gonadectomised mice. Gonadectomy resulted in a significant increase in serum FSH concentrations in male Gpr54−/− and Kiss1−/− mice. Acyline administration to gonadectomised Kiss1−/− and Gpr54−/− male mice lowered serum FSH and LH concentrations significantly. In contrast to males, gonadectomy did not result in significant gonadotrophin changes in female Kiss1−/− and Gpr54−/− mice, but acyline administration was followed by a decrease in LH concentrations. These results demonstrate that, while kisspeptin signaling is critical for the high levels of GnRH activity required for normal sexual maturation and for ovulation, Kiss1−/− and Gpr54−/− mice retain some

  4. The KiSS1/GPR54 system in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizur, Abigail

    2009-01-01

    The KiSS1/GPR54 system has now been identified in non-mammalian vertebrates. Transcripts encoding for KiSS1 and its receptor, GPR54, have been isolated from a number of fish species. The expression of their genes was characterized in the context of temporal and spatial expression and in response to endocrine manipulations. GPR54 sequence is conserved between mammals and fish, with a second receptor sequence identified in zebrafish. The KiSS1 gene sequence is highly divergent between mammals and fish, yet the human kisspeptin is capable of activating the fish GPR54. As in mammals, the fish KiSS1/GPR54 system appears to be partially regulated by gonadal steroids. The data available for fish are fragmented, yet indicate that the KiSS1/GPR54 system is functionally conserved in non-mammalian vertebrates and supports the notion that it has a role in pubertal development and reproduction in piscine systems.

  5. 7 CFR 993.54 - Establishment of salable and reserve percentages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....54 Section 993.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... DRIED PRUNES PRODUCED IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Reserve Control § 993.54 Establishment of..., 2005, § 993.54 was suspended indefinitely. ...

  6. GPR54 polymorphisms in Chinese girls with central precocious puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, X; Yu, H; Wei, X; Zhou, Y; Wang, W; Li, P; Gan, X; Wei, D; Xiao, J

    2007-01-01

    The GPR54 gene has been proved to be important in the process of puberty onset, yet no association study has been performed to evaluate the effect of polymorphisms in the gene on central precocious puberty (CPP). This study was designed to scan for polymorphisms in the GPR54 gene and to investigate the relationships between the genotypes of GPR54 and the disease. 272 Chinese Han girls diagnosed to be CPP patients were recruited as the case group and 288 unrelated normal Chinese Han girls as the control group. The whole GPR54 gene was directly sequenced in randomly selected case samples, and the polymorphisms identified were genotyped by ligase detection reaction in both groups. Distributions of the polymorphisms and haplotypes were calculated for statistical evaluation. Totally 6 polymorphisms were found in sequencing, one of which is a nonsynonymous mutation, while genotyping declared that another SNP located in the promoter region was statistically related to the disease (p = 0.037). One polymorphism in GPR54 gene might be correlated with some cases of CPP, likely by changes in expression of the receptor, but the moderate p value and the lack of functional data make it hard to confirm the correlation. Further studies on the polymorphisms are needed for the exact mechanism. (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Menstrual cyclic change of metastin/GPR54 in endometrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Tsukasa; Kang, Hyun Sook; Hosoe, Yuko; Kharma, Budiman; Abiko, Kaoru; Matsumura, Noriomi; Hamanishi, Junzo; Yamaguchi, Ken; Yoshioka, Yumiko; Koshiyama, Masafumi; Mandai, Masaki; Murphy, Susan K; Konishi, Ikuo

    2015-06-01

    Metastin/kisspeptin is encoded by KISS1 and functions as an endogenous ligand of GPR54. Interaction of metastin with GPR54 suppresses metastasis and also regulates release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone, which promotes secretion of estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4). We have previously demonstrated epigenetic regulation of GPR54 in endometrial cancer and the potent role of metastin peptides in inhibiting metastasis in endometrial cancer. However, little is known about how the metastin-GPR54 axis is regulated in the endometrium, the precursor tissue of endometrial cancer. Endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) and endometrial glandular cells (EGCs) within the endometrium show morphological changes when exposed to E2 and P4. In this study, we show that metastin expression is induced in ESCs through decidualization, but is repressed in glandular components of atypical endometrial hyperplasia (AEH) and endometrial cancer relative to EGCs. The promoter of GPR54 is unmethylated in normal endometrium and in AEH. These results indicate metastin may function in decidualized endometrium to prepare for adequate placentation but this autocrine secretion of metastin is deregulated during oncogenesis to enable tumor cells to spread.

  8. Compact potentiostat for cellular electrochemical imaging with 54 parallel channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vergani, Marco; Carminati, M.; Ferrari, G.

    2012-01-01

    and compact enough to be placed under the objective of a standard microscope for simultaneous optical and electrochemical monitoring. Each channel, scanned every 54μs, features 3pA current resolution over a 5kHz bandwidth, suitable for detecting single exocytotic events. The design and electrical......A novel potentiostat containing 54 current amplifiers matched to an array of custom-fabricated 5μm microelectrodes for electrochemical imaging of released neurotransmitters is presented. The board is integrated with a programmable microfluidic cell culture system and the whole assembly is thin...... characterization of the system are reported together with its functionality, certified by a 54-pixel electrochemical imaging of the diffusion of a 10μl droplet of a target analyte inside the cell culture chamber....

  9. 28 CFR 54.445 - Marital or parental status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 54.445 Marital or parental status. (a... parental, family, or marital status that treats students differently on the basis of sex. (b) Pregnancy and...

  10. 28 CFR 54.530 - Marital or parental status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 54.530 Marital or parental... the potential marital, parental, or family status of an employee or applicant for employment that...

  11. 7 CFR 3550.54 - Calculation of income and assets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Section 502 Origination § 3550.54... received for the care of foster children or foster adults; (3) Amounts granted for or in reimbursement of... (including gifts); (6) Lump sum additions to family assets such as inheritances; capital gains; insurance...

  12. 45 CFR 1309.54 - Davis-Bacon Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... that all laborers and mechanics employed by contractors or subcontractors in the construction or... PROGRAM HEAD START FACILITIES PURCHASE, MAJOR RENOVATION AND CONSTRUCTION Construction and Major Renovation § 1309.54 Davis-Bacon Act. Construction and renovation projects and subcontracts financed with...

  13. 7 CFR 54.1015 - Official reports, forms, and certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT..., Processing, and Packaging of Livestock and Poultry Products § 54.1015 Official reports, forms, and...

  14. 7 CFR 54.1017 - Authority to use official identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT..., Processing, and Packaging of Livestock and Poultry Products § 54.1017 Authority to use official...

  15. 22 CFR 92.54 - “Letters rogatory” defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and Letters Rogatory § 92.54 “Letters rogatory” defined. In its broader sense in international... serving of a summons, subpoena, or other legal notice, or the execution of a civil judgment. In United... applicable laws of that jurisdiction. See § 92.66 for procedures in the use of letters rogatory requesting...

  16. 47 CFR 54.509 - Adjustments to the discount matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adjustments to the discount matrix. 54.509... discount matrix. (a) Estimating future spending requests. When submitting their requests for specific... Administrator, to estimate funding demand for the following year. (b) Reduction in percentage discounts. At all...

  17. 47 CFR 54.514 - Payment for discounted service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payment for discounted service. 54.514 Section... discounted service. (a) Choice of payment method. Service providers providing discounted services under this... choose the method of payment for the discounted services from those methods approved by the Administrator...

  18. 27 CFR 18.54 - Transfer of concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS PRODUCTION OF VOLATILE FRUIT-FLAVOR CONCENTRATE Operations § 18.54... juice, of at least 70 Brix, made from the same kind of fruit as the concentrate; or (3) Malic, citric, or tartaric acid. (d) Record of transfer. The proprietor shall record transfers of concentrate...

  19. 41 CFR 301-54.2 - What is disposable pay?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is disposable pay... BILLED TRAVEL CHARGE CARD General Rules § 301-54.2 What is disposable pay? Disposable pay is your..., etc. Deductions may be made from any type of pay you receive from your agency, e.g., basic pay...

  20. 46 CFR 54.01-1 - Incorporation by reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Specification for Pressure Vessel Plates, Alloy Steel, Nickel (“ASTM A 203”), 54.05-20; (3) ASTM A 370-97a...) American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) International, Three Park Avenue, New York, NY 10016-5990...) Compressed Gas Association (CGA), 500 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10036: (1) S-1.2, Pressure Relief Device...

  1. 47 CFR 54.409 - Consumer qualification for Lifeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the definition of “reservation” and “near reservation,” as defined in § 54.400(e), must ensure that... for Needy Families. (c) A consumer that lives on a reservation or near a reservation, but does not... Indian Affairs general assistance; Tribally administered Temporary Assistance for Needy Families; Head...

  2. 47 CFR 54.403 - Lifeline support amount.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Universal Service Support for Low-Income Consumers § 54.403 Lifeline support amount. (a) The... local exchange carrier serving the area in which the qualifying low-income consumer receives service, as...

  3. 47 CFR 54.407 - Reimbursement for offering Lifeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Universal Service Support for Low-Income Consumers § 54.407 Reimbursement for offering Lifeline. (a) Universal service support for providing Lifeline shall be provided directly to the... carrier may receive universal service support reimbursement for each qualifying low-income consumer served...

  4. 47 CFR 54.400 - Terms and definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Universal Service Support for Low-Income Consumers § 54.400 Terms and definitions. As used in this subpart, the following terms shall be defined as follows: (a) Qualifying low-income consumer. A...

  5. 47 CFR 54.411 - Link Up program defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Universal Service Support for Low-Income Consumers § 54.411 Link Up program defined. (a) For... low-income consumers, which an eligible telecommunications carrier shall offer as part of its...

  6. 47 CFR 54.518 - Support for wide area networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Support for wide area networks. 54.518 Section... area networks. To the extent that states, schools, or libraries build or purchase a wide area network to provide telecommunications services, the cost of such wide area networks shall not be eligible for...

  7. 49 CFR 230.54 - Testing and maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Water Glasses and Gauge Cocks § 230.54 Testing and maintenance. (a) Testing. All water glasses must be blown out, all gauge cocks must be tested, and all passages verified to be open at the beginning of each.... Gauge cocks, water column drain valves, and water glass valves must be maintained in such condition that...

  8. 10 CFR 51.54 - Environmental report-manufacturing license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... manufacturing license, the benefits and impacts of utilizing the reactor in a nuclear power plant, or an... 51.54 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REGULATIONS FOR... Environmental Report—Manufacturing License.” The environmental report must address the costs and benefits of...

  9. Commissioning of the LEIR electron cooler with Pb$^{+54}$ ions

    CERN Document Server

    Tranquille, G; Carly, Ch; Prieto, V; Sautier, R; Bubley, A; Parkhomchuk, V; Reva, V; Brizgunov, M; Vedenev, M; Panasyuk, V

    2006-01-01

    The new LEIR cooler with a variable profile of the electron beam and electrostatic bending was commissioned in 2005-2006. In this paper we present our experience with the commissioning of the new device as well as the first results of the ion beam Pb +54 cooling with a high-intensity variable-density electron beam.

  10. 46 CFR 54.30-5 - Limitations and requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... require stress relief (see Table 54.01-5(b)) may be mechanically stress relieved provided: (1) The steels...) Types d, e, and f because expansion and contraction stresses are concentrated at the junction points. (5... type one as described in Table UW-12 of section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code and...

  11. 47 CFR 54.703 - The Administrator's Board of Directors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... professional and biographical information about the nominee, to the Chairman of the Federal Communications... Section 54.703 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES... filed with the Office of the Secretary of the Federal Communications Commission in accordance with part...

  12. 27 CFR 6.54 - Advertising in retailer publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Advertising in retailer..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Paying for Advertising, Display Or Distribution Service § 6.54 Advertising in retailer publications. The purchase, by an industry member, of...

  13. Internal bremsstrahlung endpoint energy of {sup 54}Mn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindi, M. M. [Physics Department, Tennessee Technological University, Cookeville, Tennessee 38505 (United States); Larimer, R.-M. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Norman, E. B. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Rech, G. A. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2000-05-01

    For {sup 54}Mn there is a discrepancy between the Q{sub EC} obtained from the endpoint energy of the internal bremsstrahlung (IB) spectrum which accompanies the electron capture decay (Q{sub EC}=1353{+-}8 keV) and that obtained from the accepted mass differences (Q{sub EC}=1377{+-}1 keV). This Q value is needed to deduce the partial-half life of the astrophysically interesting {beta}{sup -} decay of {sup 54}Mn from the recently measured {beta}{sup +} partial half-life. To resolve this discrepancy, we have remeasured the endpoint energy of the IB spectrum, by recording coincidences between the IB and the 835-keV {gamma} ray, both detected in Compton-suppressed Ge detectors. The Q{sub EC} we deduce is 1379{+-}8 keV, in agreement with the accepted mass differences. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  14. Looks: Studio 54 and the Production of Fabulous Nightlife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    madison alexander moore

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available 0 0 1 92 528 yale university 4 1 619 14.0 Normal 0 false false false EN-US JA X-NONE This article combines my experience as a party-host and nightlife-creator with a close reading of Studio 54 as a theatrical production. I call for a consideration of how the staging of nightlife functions as an art form, relying on the dual practices of creation and curation. I provide a close reading of the tightly-staged Studio 54 experience, focusing on the club's infamously tight door policy and production of fabulousness to reveal what scholars and ethnographers of nightlife can learn from approaching nightlife as an artistic production. This approach can also inform a nightlife-focused research agenda.  

  15. The role of kisspeptin and GPR54 in the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Amy C

    2009-01-01

    The granule cells of the dentate gyrus form the input stage of the hippocampal trisynaptic circuit and their function is strongly influenced by peptidergic systems. GPR54 is highly and discretely expressed in these cells. We have found that activation of GPR54 with kisspeptin-10 causes a rapid and large increase in the amplitude of excitatory synaptic responses in granule cells, without changing membrane properties. The effect was suppressed by the G-protein inhibitor GDP-beta-S and the calcium chelator BAPTA, and analysis of miniature EPSCs revealed an increase in mean amplitude but not event frequency, indicating that GPR54 and the mechanisms for enhancing EPSCs are postsynaptic, possibly involving changes in AMPA receptor number or conductance. The kisspeptin-induced synaptic potentiation was abolished by inhibitors of ERK1/2, tyrosine kinase, and CaMKII. RT-PCR experiments showed that KiSS-1 is expressed in the dentate gyrus. KiSS-1 mRNA was significantly increased by seizure activity in rats and when neuronal activity in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures was enhanced by kainate or picrotoxin, while mRNA for GPR54 remained essentially unchanged. These results suggest that kisspeptin may be locally synthesized and act as an autocrine factor. In separate experiments, hippocampal KiSS-1 mRNA in male rats was increased after gonadectomy. In summary, kisspeptin is a novel endogenous factor which is dynamically regulated by neuronal activity and which, in marked distinction from other neuropeptides, increases synaptic transmission in dentate granule cells through signaling cascades possibly linked to the MAP kinase system. This novel peptide system may play a role in cognition and in the pathogenesis of epilepsy.

  16. Transgenic mouse models to study Gpr54/kisspeptin physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colledge, W H

    2009-01-01

    Four transgenic mouse lines have been generated with mutations in the Gpr54 gene and two lines with mutations in the Kiss1 gene. In general, the phenotypes of all these mutant mice are very similar and provide evidence that these molecules constitute an authentic receptor/ligand pair with no obvious redundancy or overlap with other signaling pathways. The mutant mice all fail to undergo pubertal maturation and show poor development of the gonads and infertility with low sex steroid and gonadotrophic hormone levels (hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism). Spermatogenesis and ovulation are severely impaired and mutant females do not show estrous cycling. The gonads and the anterior pituitary retain functional responses to hormonal stimulation however, consistent with the primary defect being a failure to secrete gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) from the hypothalamus. Slight differences between the phenotype of some of the mutant lines may reflect the type of mutation carried by each line. These mutant mice are being used to interrogate the function of Gpr54 and Kiss1 in key aspects of mammalian reproduction in vivo including the role of these proteins in the generation of the pre-ovulatory luteinizing hormone (LH) surge and aspects of sexual behavior. They provide a useful resource to further understand the hypothalamic regulation of mammalian reproduction, its integration with the pituitary-gonadal axis and to study the potential function of Gpr54 and Kiss1 in peripheral tissues.

  17. TA-54 (Area G) Risk Assessment from Extreme Wildfire Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linn, Rodman Ray [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Koo, Eunmo [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Honig, Kristen Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); White, Judith [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Funk, David John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-10

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and surrounding areas have been exposed to at least four significant wildfires since 1977 and there have been numerous others within 50 miles of LANL. Based on this history, wildfires are considered a risk to LANL facilities and their contents. While many LANL facilities are at risk to wildfire to some degree, they are found in a wide variety of conditions, thus they have varying sensitivities to wildfires. Additionally, LANL facilities have various functions and different assets, so they have a wide range of values or consequences if compromised. Therefore, determining the risks and precautions that are warranted to mitigate these risks must be done on a case-by-case basis. In an effort to assess possible wildfire risks to sensitive materials stored in a Perma-Con® in dome TA-54-0375, a conventional fire risk analysis was performed. This conventional risk analysis is documented in Engineering Evaluation Form AP-FIRE-001-FM1, which is dated 9/28/2015 and was titled ‘Wildland Fire Exposure Evaluation for Building TA-54-0375’ (Hall 2015). This analysis acknowledged that there was significant chance of wildfire in the vicinity of TA-54-0375, but the amount of combustible material surrounding the building was deemed low. The wildland fuels that were closest to the building were largely fine fuels and were not expected to have significant duration of heat release. The prevailing winds at this location are from the south and southwest and the nearest significant upwind fuels (tree crowns or unmown grasses) are at least 300 feet away. Based on these factors the conventional wildland fire risk to TA-54-0375 was deemed minimal, “Acceptable As Is, No Action Required.” This risk evaluation was based on a combined assessment of low probability of wildfires arriving at the site from other directions (where higher fuel loadings might be present) as well as the effective setback of fuels in the direction that fire is

  18. Stratigraphy and Observations of Nepthys Mons Quadrangle (V54), Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, N. T.

    2001-01-01

    Initial mapping has begun in Venus' Nepthys Mons Quadrangle (V54, 300-330 deg. E, 25-50 deg. S). Major research areas addressed are how the styles of volcanism and tectonism have changed with time, the evolution of shield volcanoes, the evolution of coronae, the characteristics of plains volcanism, and what these observations tell us about the general geologic history of Venus. Reported here is a preliminary general stratigraphy and several intriguing findings. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  19. Experimental Conditions: SE54_S01_M01_D01 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available eds of 225 accessions of Arabidopsis SE54_S01_M01 N.A. Not written in the paper. SE54_MS01 UPLC-MS SE54_DS01 High-throughpu...t amino acid and glucosinolate analysis Default SE54_SS01 High-throughput amino acid and glucosinolate analysis ...

  20. 19 CFR 54.6 - Proof of intent; bond; proof of use; liquidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... 54.6 Section 54.6 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Processing Which Renders Them Fit Only for the Recovery of the Metal Content § 54.6 Proof of intent; bond; proof of use; liquidation. Articles predominating by weight of metal, described in § 54.5(a) shall be...

  1. 7 CFR 930.54 - Prohibition on the use or disposition of inventory reserve cherries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... reserve cherries. 930.54 Section 930.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture..., WASHINGTON, AND WISCONSIN Order Regulating Handling Regulations § 930.54 Prohibition on the use or... 66 FR 232, Jan. 3, 2001, in § 930.54 paragraph (a), the word “normal” was suspended indefinitely. ...

  2. Psychological change over 54 months of cochlear implant use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, J F; Murray, K T; Husarek, S; Westerhouse, K; Woodworth, G; Gantz, B J; Tyler, R S

    1998-06-01

    To determine the long-term psychological outcome of postlingually deafened adults who received multichannel cochlear implants and to relate the psychological outcome to audiological outcome. Thirty-seven recipients of multichannel cochlear implants who participated in a prospective clinical trial completed psychological assessments before implantation and at regularly scheduled follow-ups through 54 mo of implant use. Standardized measures of affect, social function, and personality were used, and scores on these measures were correlated with asymptotic scores on several audiological measures. Evidence of significant improvement on measures of loneliness, social anxiety, and distress were obtained within a year after implantation and throughout the duration of the follow-up period. For measures of assertiveness and marital satisfaction, improvement was apparent only after long-term implant use. Although favorable changes on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) Depression Scale were evidenced only in the initial follow-up period, improvements on the MMPI Paranoia and Social Introversion Scales persisted throughout the 54 mo follow-up. Multichannel cochlear implant use is associated with long-term psychological benefit. Correlations between audiological outcome and psychological outcome, however, suggested that the relation between audiological benefit and psychological benefit is not simple.

  3. Resolving the shocked gas in HH54 with Herschel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerkeli, P.; Liseau, R.; Brinch, C.

    2014-01-01

    as well. The observed features in the line profiles are reproduced using a 3D radiative transfer model of a bow-shock, constructed with the Line Modeling Engine code (LIME). Results. The FIR emission is confined to the HH 54 region and a coherent displacement of the location of the emission maximum of CO...... with increasing J is observed. The peak positions of the high-J CO lines are shifted upstream from the lower J CO lines and coincide with the position of the spectral feature identified previously in CO (10−9) profiles with HIFI. This indicates a hotter molecular component in the upstream gas with distinct....... The spatial proximity of this knot to the peaks of the atomic fine-structure emission lines observed with Spitzer and PACS ([O i]63, 145 μm) suggests that it may be associated with the dissociative shock as the jet impacts slower moving gas in the HH 54 bow-shock....

  4. Diagnosis of unilateral trapezius muscle palsy: 54 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seror, Paul; Stojkovic, Tanya; Lefevre-Colau, Marie Martine; Lenglet, Timothée

    2017-08-01

    We assessed medical and surgical causes of unilateral trapezius muscle (TM) palsy and/or wasting. Clinical and electrodiagnostic data were collected in 54 patients with TM impairment over 21 years. In total, 35 cases had a medical origin: neuralgic amyotrophy (NA, n = 22), idiopathic unilateral TM palsy (n = 5), regional neck radiotherapy for different conditions (n = 2), facioscapulohumeral dystrophy (FSH) (n = 4), abnormal loop of the jugular vein (n = 1), or basilar impression (n = 1). Other etiologies were neck surgery (n = 16), cervicofacial lift (n = 2), or trauma (n = 1). There were 5 main diagnostic findings in unilateral TM palsy: (1) dynamic examination of the scapula provides a new clinical sign; (2) NA is the most frequent medical cause; (3) in medical cases, partial preservation of the upper TM can offer good recovery; (4) FSH must be considered, especially in young patients; and (5) minor neck surgery can lead to severe TM palsy. Muscle Nerve 56: 215-223, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Analysis of break test of 54 cluster fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Mitsuo; Kawamata, Nobuhiro; Kamoshida, Hiroshi

    1998-03-01

    A break test of down pipe and main steam tube of 54 cluster fuels were carried out in the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) in fiscal 1996. The safety evaluation code for `Fugen` was investigated by analysing the break tests by RELAP 5 code. The tests were carried out by ATR safety experimental facility which was consisted of steam drum, lower header, pressure tube, inlet tube, riser, recirculation pump and non-return valve. Break is modified by breaking a rupture disk in both cases of test. Pressure, pressure difference, temperature, water level and flow rate at channel inlet were measured. The results proved the following: The safety evaluation code for `Fugen` estimated the higher temperature of cladding tube after dry out. A return model of the best evaluation for `Fugen` was confirmed to make reappear dry out and quenching phenomena of temperature behavior of cladding tube under the experimental conditions. RELAP 5 code made a reproduction of heat transfer fluid phenomena of LOCA experiment modifying break of down pipe of Fugen. The result proved that the code is also able to use for LOCA analysis of ATR system. (S.Y.)

  6. Streptococcus canis infections in humans: retrospective study of 54 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galpérine, Tatiana; Cazorla, Cécile; Blanchard, Elodie; Boineau, Françoise; Ragnaud, Jean-Marie; Neau, Didier

    2007-07-01

    This 5-year retrospective study reports 54 patients with infection, caused by Streptococcus canis, a pyogenic Lancefield group G streptococcus initially isolated from various animal sources. During 1997-2002, Streptococcus canis accounted for 1% of all streptococci isolated. The clinical signs, outcome and bacteriological characteristics were reviewed. All except eight were symptomatic. Clinical manifestations were: soft tissue infection (n=35), bacteremia (n=5), urinary infection (n=3), bone infection (n=2) and pneumonia (n=1). The course was favorable in 52 cases while two died from sepsis. Cultures were often polymicrobial (n=42, 77.8%) apart from hemocultures. The isolates were sensitive to most antibiotics. Presence of the bacteria did not always signify infection owing to the possible occurrence of colonization. The frequency of S. canis infections is rare and likely underestimated owing to the fact that streptococci are sought only on the basis of the Lancefield classification. The search for S. canis is recommended whenever patients present with symptoms evocative of exposure to a potentially contaminated animal.

  7. 28 CFR 54.425 - Counseling and use of appraisal and counseling materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Counseling and use of appraisal and counseling materials. 54.425 Section 54.425 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 54.425 Counseling and use of...

  8. 28 CFR 54.210 - Military and merchant marine educational institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Military and merchant marine educational institutions. 54.210 Section 54.210 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) NONDISCRIMINATION... Coverage § 54.210 Military and merchant marine educational institutions. These Title IX regulations do not...

  9. 26 CFR 54.4974-1 - Excise tax on accumulations in individual retirement accounts or annuities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Excise tax on accumulations in individual retirement accounts or annuities. 54.4974-1 Section 54.4974-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) PENSION EXCISE TAXES § 54.4974-1 Excise tax on accumulations in...

  10. 26 CFR 54.4974-2 - Excise tax on accumulations in qualified retirement plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Excise tax on accumulations in qualified retirement plans. 54.4974-2 Section 54.4974-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) PENSION EXCISE TAXES § 54.4974-2 Excise tax on accumulations in qualified retirement...

  11. 26 CFR 54.4975-1 - General rules relating to excise tax on prohibited transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General rules relating to excise tax on prohibited transactions. 54.4975-1 Section 54.4975-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) PENSION EXCISE TAXES § 54.4975-1 General rules relating to excise tax on prohibite...

  12. 26 CFR 54.4979-1 - Excise tax on certain excess contributions and excess aggregate contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Excise tax on certain excess contributions and excess aggregate contributions. 54.4979-1 Section 54.4979-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) PENSION EXCISE TAXES § 54.4979-1 Excise tax on certain excess...

  13. 43 CFR 44.54 - What happens if a State repeals or amends distribution legislation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... distribution legislation? 44.54 Section 44.54 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior... Distributes Payments § 44.54 What happens if a State repeals or amends distribution legislation? (a) If a State repeals or amends distribution legislation, the State must immediately notify the Department in...

  14. 19 CFR 10.54 - Gobelin and other hand-woven tapestries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gobelin and other hand-woven tapestries. 10.54 Section 10.54 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Works of Art § 10.54 Gobelin and other hand-woven tapestries. Pursuant to subheading 5805.00.10...

  15. 45 CFR 260.54 - Do States have flexibility to grant good cause domestic violence waivers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... domestic violence waivers? 260.54 Section 260.54 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... Special Provisions Apply to Victims of Domestic Violence? § 260.54 Do States have flexibility to grant good cause domestic violence waivers? (a) Yes; States have broad flexibility to grant these waivers to...

  16. 7 CFR 761.54 - Withdrawals from a supervised bank account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Withdrawals from a supervised bank account. 761.54 Section 761.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS GENERAL PROGRAM ADMINISTRATION Supervised Bank Accounts § 761.54...

  17. 47 CFR 54.709 - Computations of required contributions to universal service support mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... demand for the federal universal service support mechanisms for high-cost areas, low-income consumers... universal service support mechanisms. 54.709 Section 54.709 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Administration § 54.709...

  18. 7 CFR 400.54 - Submission and accuracy of production reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Submission and accuracy of production reports. 400.54 Section 400.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Actual Production History § 400.54...

  19. 26 CFR 54.4980B-2 - Plans that must comply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Plans that must comply. 54.4980B-2 Section 54... EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) PENSION EXCISE TAXES § 54.4980B-2 Plans that must comply. The following questions-and-answers apply in determining which plans must comply with the COBRA continuation coverage...

  20. 25 CFR 900.54 - Should the property management system prescribe internal controls?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... System Standards § 900.54 Should the property management system prescribe internal controls? Yes... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Should the property management system prescribe internal controls? 900.54 Section 900.54 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR, AND INDIAN...

  1. 37 CFR 2.54 - Requirements for drawings submitted on paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements for drawings submitted on paper. 2.54 Section 2.54 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES Drawing § 2.54 Requirements for...

  2. 36 CFR 5.4 - Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... motor vehicles. 5.4 Section 5.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.4 Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles. (a) The commercial transportation of passengers by motor vehicles except as authorized under a contract or...

  3. 42 CFR 431.54 - Exceptions to certain State plan requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exceptions to certain State plan requirements. 431.54 Section 431.54 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... General Administrative Requirements § 431.54 Exceptions to certain State plan requirements. (a) Statutory...

  4. 75 FR 21149 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Revenue Procedure 2006-54

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    ... Internal Revenue Service Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Revenue Procedure 2006- 54 AGENCY...-54, Procedures for Requesting Competent Authority Assistance Under Tax Treaties. DATES: Written... Authority Assistance Under Tax Treaties. OMB Number: 1545-2044. Revenue Procedure Number: Rev. Proc. 2006-54...

  5. 40 CFR 63.54 - Preconstruction review procedures for new affected sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Preconstruction review procedures for new affected sources. 63.54 Section 63.54 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Act Sections, Sections 112(g) and 112(j) § 63.54 Preconstruction review procedures for new affected...

  6. 7 CFR 981.54 - Payment to handlers for services rendered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payment to handlers for services rendered. 981.54 Section 981.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Volume Regulation § 981.54 Payment to handlers for...

  7. 77 FR 57191 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Notice 2006-54

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-17

    ... Internal Revenue Service Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Notice 2006-54 AGENCY: Internal Revenue...(c)(2)(A)). Currently, the IRS is soliciting comments concerning Notice 2006-54, Alternative Fuel... Motor Vehicle Credit. OMB Number: 1545-1993. Notice Number: Notice 2006-54. Abstract: This notice sets...

  8. 22 CFR 228.54 - Suppliers of services-foreign government-owned organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suppliers of services-foreign government-owned organizations. 228.54 Section 228.54 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES ON SOURCE, ORIGIN AND NATIONALITY FOR COMMODITIES AND SERVICES FINANCED BY USAID Waivers § 228.54 Suppliers of...

  9. 37 CFR 1.54 - Parts of application to be filed together; filing receipt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Parts of application to be filed together; filing receipt. 1.54 Section 1.54 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES... Processing Provisions The Application § 1.54 Parts of application to be filed together; filing receipt. (a...

  10. 49 CFR 511.54 - Review of initial decision in absence of appeal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Review of initial decision in absence of appeal. 511.54 Section 511.54 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL....54 Review of initial decision in absence of appeal. The Administrator may, by order, review a case...

  11. 49 CFR 176.54 - Repairs involving welding, burning, and power-actuated tools and appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Repairs involving welding, burning, and power-actuated tools and appliances. 176.54 Section 176.54 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MATERIALS REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY VESSEL General Operating Requirements § 176.54 Repairs involving welding...

  12. 78 FR 40826 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Revenue Procedure 2006-54

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-08

    ... Internal Revenue Service Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Revenue Procedure 2006- 54 AGENCY...-54, Procedures for Requesting Competent Authority Assistance Under Tax Treaties. DATES: Written... Authority Assistance Under Tax Treaties. OMB Number: 1545-2044. Revenue Procedure Number: Rev. Proc. 2006-54...

  13. 37 CFR 251.54 - Assessment of costs of arbitration panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Assessment of costs of arbitration panels. 251.54 Section 251.54 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF... OF PROCEDURE Procedures of Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panels § 251.54 Assessment of costs of...

  14. 22 CFR 51.54 - Replacement passports without payment of applicable fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Replacement passports without payment of applicable fees. 51.54 Section 51.54 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE NATIONALITY AND PASSPORTS PASSPORTS Fees § 51.54 Replacement passports without payment of applicable fees. A passport issuing office...

  15. 7 CFR 27.54 - Inspection and sampling for delayed certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inspection and sampling for delayed certification. 27.54 Section 27.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... Certification § 27.54 Inspection and sampling for delayed certification. Such cotton must have been duly...

  16. 49 CFR 551.54 - What are the required contents for a designation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are the required contents for a designation? 551.54 Section 551.54 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL... Foreign Manufacturers and Importers Form and Contents of Designation § 551.54 What are the required...

  17. 76 FR 68013 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Federal Acquisition Circular 2005-54; Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ... Space Administration 48 CFR Part 1 Federal Acquisition Regulation; Federal Acquisition Circular 2005-54... Acquisition Circular 2005-54; Introduction AGENCIES: Department of Defense (DoD), General Services...) rules agreed to by DoD, GSA, and NASA in this Federal Acquisition Circular (FAC) 2005-54. A companion...

  18. 15 CFR 30.54 - Special provisions for imports from Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special provisions for imports from Canada. 30.54 Section 30.54 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FOREIGN TRADE REGULATIONS Import Requirements § 30.54...

  19. 47 CFR 54.501 - Eligibility for services provided by telecommunications carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Eligibility for services provided by telecommunications carriers. 54.501 Section 54.501 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED... § 54.501 Eligibility for services provided by telecommunications carriers. (a) Telecommunications...

  20. 47 CFR 54.201 - Definition of eligible telecommunications carriers, generally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definition of eligible telecommunications carriers, generally. 54.201 Section 54.201 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED... § 54.201 Definition of eligible telecommunications carriers, generally. (a) Carriers eligible to...

  1. 47 CFR 54.418 - Digital Television Transition Notices by Eligible Telecommunications Carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Digital Television Transition Notices by Eligible Telecommunications Carriers. 54.418 Section 54.418 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... Low-Income Consumers § 54.418 Digital Television Transition Notices by Eligible Telecommunications...

  2. 47 CFR 80.54 - Automated Maritime Telecommunications System (AMTS)-System Licensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Automated Maritime Telecommunications System (AMTS)-System Licensing. 80.54 Section 80.54 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... § 80.54 Automated Maritime Telecommunications System (AMTS)—System Licensing. AMTS licensees will be...

  3. 47 CFR 54.621 - Access to advanced telecommunications and information services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Access to advanced telecommunications and information services. 54.621 Section 54.621 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED... § 54.621 Access to advanced telecommunications and information services. (a) Twenty-five percent of the...

  4. 47 CFR 54.203 - Designation of eligible telecommunications carriers for unserved areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Designation of eligible telecommunications carriers for unserved areas. 54.203 Section 54.203 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... Support § 54.203 Designation of eligible telecommunications carriers for unserved areas. (a) If no common...

  5. 47 CFR 54.209 - Annual reporting requirements for designated eligible telecommunications carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Annual reporting requirements for designated eligible telecommunications carriers. 54.209 Section 54.209 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... Service Support § 54.209 Annual reporting requirements for designated eligible telecommunications carriers...

  6. 47 CFR 54.613 - Limitations on supported services for rural health care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Limitations on supported services for rural health care providers. 54.613 Section 54.613 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Universal Service Support for Health Care Providers § 54.613 Limitations on supported...

  7. Anaesthesia for awake craniotomy: A retrospective study of 54 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navdeep Sokhal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: The anaesthetic challenge of awake craniotomy is to maintain adequate sedation, analgesia, respiratory and haemodynamic stability in an awake patient who should be able to co-operate during intraoperative neurological assessment. The current literature, sharing the experience on awake craniotomy, in Indian context, is minimal. Hence, we carried out a retrospective study with the aim to review and analyse the anaesthetic management and perioperative complications in patients undergoing awake craniotomy, at our centre. Methods: Medical records of 54 patients who underwent awake craniotomy for intracranial lesions over a period of 10 years were reviewed, retrospectively. Data regarding anaesthetic management, intraoperative complications and post-operative course were recorded. Results: Propofol (81.5% and dexmedetomidine (18.5% were the main agents used for providing conscious sedation to facilitate awake craniotomy. Hypertension (16.7% was the most commonly encountered complication during intraoperative period, followed by seizures (9.3%, desaturation (7.4%, tight brain (7.4%, and shivering (5.6%. The procedure had to be converted to general anaesthesia in one of patients owing to refractory brain bulge. The incidence of respiratory and haemodynamic complications were comparable in the both groups (P > 0.05. There was less incidence of intraoperative seizures in patients who received propofol (P = 0.03. In post-operative period, 20% of patients developed new motor deficit. Mean intensive care unit stay was 2.8 ± 1.9 day (1-14 days and mean hospital stay was 7.0 ± 5.0 day (3-30 days. Conclusions: ′Conscious sedation′ was the technique of choice for awake craniotomy, at our institute. Fentanyl, propofol, and dexmedetomidine were the main agents used for this purpose. Patients receiving propofol had less incidence of intraoperative seizure. Appropriate selection of patients, understanding the procedure of surgery, and

  8. Transperitoneal Laparoscopic Adrenalectomy for Adrenal Tumours: Experience with 54 Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melih Balci

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To present our laparoscopic surgery experience in the treatment of adrenal masses. Methods: Between January 2008 and March 2015, a total of 58 adrenal glands in 54 patients (39 females, 15 males underwent transperitoneal laparoscopic adrenalectomy (TLA to remove an adrenal mass. The patients underwent hormonal evaluation, triphasic magnetic resonance imaging, and/or abdominal computed tomography. Thirty-one patients (57.4% had a hormonally active adrenal mass. Results: Twenty-nine right, 21 left, and 4 bilateral TLA were performed. The mean age and body mass index of the patients were 49.5±11.2 years and 27.2±4.3 kg/m2, respectively. The mean adrenal mass size, operation time, estimated blood loss, and hospitalisation duration were 35.9±15.0 mm, 92.7±29.6 minutes, 50.8±33.1 ml, and 3.7±2.5 days, respectively. No minor or major complications were observed postoperatively. In pathological examinations, 38 (70.3% patients had adenoma or adrenal hyperplasia, 8 (14.7% had pheochromocytoma, 2 (3.7% had periadrenal paraganglioma, 2 (3.7% had adrenal cysts, 1 (1.9% had schwannoma, 1 (1.9% had myelolipoma, 1 (1.9% had myeloid metaplasia, and 1 (1.9% had adrenal cortical carcinoma. Conclusion: TLA is a safe and efficient minimally invasive treatment option with a low morbidity rate in the surgical treatment of adrenal masses.

  9. Molecular evolution of multiple forms of kisspeptins and GPR54 receptors in vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeo Reum; Tsunekawa, Kenta; Moon, Mi Jin; Um, Haet Nim; Hwang, Jong-Ik; Osugi, Tomohiro; Otaki, Naohito; Sunakawa, Yuya; Kim, Kyungjin; Vaudry, Hubert; Kwon, Hyuk Bang; Seong, Jae Young; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi

    2009-06-01

    Kisspeptin and its receptor GPR54 play important roles in mammalian reproduction and cancer metastasis. Because the KiSS and GPR54 genes have been identified in a limited number of vertebrate species, mainly in mammals, the evolutionary history of these genes is poorly understood. In the present study, we have cloned multiple forms of kisspeptin and GPR54 cDNAs from a variety of vertebrate species. We found that fish have two forms of kisspeptin genes, KiSS-1 and KiSS-2, whereas Xenopus possesses three forms of kisspeptin genes, KiSS-1a, KiSS-1b, and KiSS-2. The nonmammalian KiSS-1 gene was found to be the ortholog of the mammalian KiSS-1 gene, whereas the KiSS-2 gene is a novel form, encoding a C-terminally amidated dodecapeptide in the Xenopus brain. This study is the first to identify a mature form of KiSS-2 product in the brain of any vertebrate. Likewise, fish possess two receptors, GPR54-1 and GPR54-2, whereas Xenopus carry three receptors, GPR54-1a, GPR54-1b, and GPR54-2. Sequence identity and genome synteny analyses indicate that Xenopus GPR54-1a is a human GPR54 ortholog, whereas Xenopus GPR54-1b is a fish GPR54-1 ortholog. Both kisspeptins and GPR54s were abundantly expressed in the Xenopus brain, notably in the hypothalamus, suggesting that these ligand-receptor pairs have neuroendocrine and neuromodulatory roles. Synthetic KiSS-1 and KiSS-2 peptides activated GPR54s expressed in CV-1 cells with different potencies, indicating differential ligand selectivity. These data shed new light on the molecular evolution of the kisspeptin-GPR54 system in vertebrates.

  10. Molecular cloning of the bullfrog kisspeptin receptor GPR54 with high sensitivity to Xenopus kisspeptin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Jung Sun; Lee, Yeo Reum; Oh, Da Young; Hwang, Jong Ik; Lee, Ju Yeon; Kim, Jae Il; Vaudry, Hubert; Kwon, Hyuk Bang; Seong, Jae Young

    2009-01-01

    Kisspeptin and its receptor, GPR54, play important roles in mammalian reproduction and cancer development. However, little is known about their function in nonmammalian species. In the present study, we have isolated the cDNA encoding the kisspeptin receptor, GPR54, from the bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana. The bullfrog GPR54 (bfGPR54) cDNA encodes a 379-amino acid heptahelical G protein-coupled receptor. bfGPR54 exhibits 45-46% amino acid identity with mammalian GPR54s and 70-74% identity with fish GPR54s. RT-PCR analysis showed that bfGPR54 mRNA is highly expressed in the forebrain, hypothalamus and pituitary. Upon stimulation by synthetic human kisspeptin-10 with Phe-amide residue at the C-terminus (h-Kiss-10F), bfGPR54 induces SRE-luc activity, a PKC-specific reporter, evidencing the PKC-linked signaling pathway of bfGPR54. Using a blast search, we found a gene encoding a kisspeptin-like peptide in Xenopus. The C-terminal decapeptide of Xenopus kisspeptin shows higher amino acid sequence identity to fish Kiss-10s than mammalian Kiss-10s. A synthetic Xenopus kisspeptin peptide (x-Kiss-12Y) showed a higher potency than mammalian Kiss-10s in the activation of bfGPR54. This study expands our understanding of the physiological roles and molecular evolution of kisspeptins and their receptors.

  11. [The Rdh54 protein role in regulation of DNA repair in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latypov, V F; Kozhina, T N; Kozhin, S A; Korolev, V G

    2010-02-01

    In this work, we present the evidences of the involvement of Rdh54 in coordination of DNA repair by several pathways. Previously, we isolated rdh54-29 point mutation demonstrating unique properties different from the full deletion of RDH54 gene. Epistatic interaction between rdh54-29 and apn1delta mutations discloses the function of Rdh54p in the process of base excision repair. However, rdh54-29 mutant exhibits sensitivity to many DNA damaging agents including UV light, methylmethanesulphonate and nitrous acid. Such pleiotrophic effect of rdh54-29 mutation may indicate the role of Rdh54p in the regulation of different DNA repair systems. To check this hypothesis, we estimated the effect of rdh54-29 mutation on recombination and mutagenesis. The data confirm the involvement of Rdh54p in coordination of different DNA repair systems including mutagenic and recombinagenic pathways as well as nucleotide excision repair. Rdh54p presumably operates via chromatin remodulation at the site of damage rendering DNA accessible to the DNA repair enzymes.

  12. Epidemiological and virological features of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis due to new human adenovirus type 54 in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Hisatoshi; Suzutani, Tatsuo; Aoki, Koki; Kitaichi, Nobuyoshi; Ishida, Susumu; Ishiko, Hiroaki; Ohashi, Tsutomu; Okamoto, Shigeki; Nakagawa, Hisashi; Hinokuma, Rikutaro; Asato, Yoshimori; Oniki, Shinobu; Hashimoto, Teiko; Iida, Tomohiro; Ohno, Shigeaki

    2011-01-01

    New human adenovirus (HAdV)-54 causes epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC) and is virologically close to and has occasionally been detected as HAdV-8. Taking HAdV-54 into account, we re-determined HAdV type in EKC samples to determine its epidemiology in Japan, and examined the virological features of HAdV-54. HAdV type was re-determined in 776 conjunctival swabs from Japan and 174 from six other countries, obtained between 2000 and 2009. Using 115 HAdV strains obtained before 1999, trends regarding HAdV-8 and HAdV-54 were also determined. In addition, immunochromatography (IC) kit features, DNA copy numbers and viral isolation of HAdV-54 in samples were evaluated. Recently, HAdV-37 and HAdV-54 have been the major causative types of EKC in Japan. HAdV-54 has been isolated each year since 1995, whereas HAdV-8 has become less common since 1997, although it remains the most common cause of EKC in the six other countries investigated where HAdV-54 is yet to be detected. HAdV-54 is comparable to other EKC-related HAdV types in terms of IC kit sensitivity and DNA copy numbers, although HAdV-54 grows more slowly on viral isolation. EKC due to HAdV-54 can result in epidemics; therefore, it should be accurately diagnosed and monitored as an emerging infection worldwide.

  13. Claudius, the handicapped Caesar (41-54 A.D.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois P. Retief

    2010-01-01

    this action. In spite of having had no significant preparation for the task, Claudius proved a most sensible and effective manager, improving the effectivity of Senate, putting the legal system on a sound footing, enlarging the borders of the Empire (including the conquest of England, extending citizenship to some of the provincials, foreigners and freedmen. Sensible building programs were initiated as well as the upgrading of roads and communication systems and the ensuring of an efficient food supply to Rome. Grand and regular gladiatorial games and other forms of public entertainment endeared him to the people. But he was also periodically responsible for mismanagement, corruption and brutality; much of this was subsequently blamed on the inordinate influence of people near him, and his trusted freedmen and wives in particular. The last two of his six wives (Messalina and Agrippina were particularly guilty, and his death of poisoning at the age of 64 years (54 A.D. was engineered by Agrippina. Through his life Claudius showed evidence of significant physical and psychological/emotional impediments. By many he was considered mentally deficient, but his impressive record as student of literature and history, and his administrative skill as emperor are ample evidence of his intellectual abilities. Physical abnormalities included an ungainly gait due to weakness of his right leg and probably arm. He had a tremor of the limbs and involuntary shaking of the head. He spoke indistinctly in a coarse, stuttering way, his mouth often drooled, his nose tended to run, and he had an uncouth laugh. He was emotionally labile, and when upset the above symptoms worsened and he became prone to irresponsible actions. We suggest that this symptom complex fits in with the diagnosis of cerebral palsy, and probably its extrapyramidal variant, although one-sided weakness suggests an additional component of hemiplegic paresis.

  14. 41 CFR 105-54.309 - Added responsibilities of service and staff office heads and regional administrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of service and staff office heads and regional administrators. 105-54.309 Section 105-54.309 Public... SERVICES ADMINISTRATION Regional Offices-General Services Administration 54-ADVISORY COMMITTEE MANAGEMENT 54.3-Advisory Committee Procedures § 105-54.309 Added responsibilities of service and staff office...

  15. The kisspeptin receptor GPR54 is required for sexual differentiation of the brain and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, Alexander S; Park, Jin Ho; McPhie-Lalmansingh, Anika A; Gottsch, Michelle L; Bodo, Cristian; Hohmann, John G; Pavlova, Maria N; Rohde, Alex D; Clifton, Donald K; Steiner, Robert A; Rissman, Emilie F

    2007-08-15

    GPR54 is a G-protein-coupled receptor, which binds kisspeptins and is widely expressed throughout the brain. Kisspeptin-GPR54 signaling has been implicated in the regulation of pubertal and adulthood gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion, and mutations or deletions of GPR54 cause hypogonadotropic hypogonadism in humans and mice. Other reproductive roles for kisspeptin-GPR54 signaling, including the regulation of developmental GnRH secretion or sexual behavior in adults, have not yet been explored. Using adult wild-type (WT) and GPR54 knock-out (KO) mice, we first tested whether kisspeptin-GPR54 signaling is necessary for male and female sexual behaviors. We found that hormone-replaced gonadectomized GPR54 KO males and females displayed appropriate gender-specific adult sexual behaviors. Next, we examined whether GPR54 signaling is required for proper display of olfactory-mediated partner preference behavior. Testosterone-treated WT males preferred stimulus females rather than males, whereas similarly treated WT females and GPR54 KO males showed no preference for either sex. Because olfactory preference is sexually dimorphic and organized during development by androgens, we assessed whether GPR54 signaling is essential for sexual differentiation of other sexually dimorphic traits. Interestingly, adult testosterone-treated GPR54 KO males displayed "female-like" numbers of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive and Kiss1 mRNA-containing neurons in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus and likewise possessed fewer motoneurons in the spino-bulbocavernosus nucleus than did WT males. Our findings indicate that kisspeptin-GPR54 signaling is not required for male or female copulatory behavior, provided there is appropriate adulthood hormone replacement. However, GPR54 is necessary for proper male-like development of several sexually dimorphic traits, likely by regulating GnRH-mediated androgen secretion during "critical windows" in perinatal development.

  16. Structure-activity relationship study on small peptidic GPR54 agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Kenji; Niida, Ayumu; Oishi, Shinya; Ohno, Hiroaki; Cluzeau, Jérôme; Navenot, Jean-Marc; Wang, Zi-xuan; Peiper, Stephen C; Fujii, Nobutaka

    2006-11-15

    Metastin (kisspeptin-54) is an endogenous ligand that modulates gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion through the interaction with a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), GPR54. The short-chain C-terminal decapeptide amide, metastin (45-54) (kisspeptin-10), exerts the identical bioactivities to metastin, such as metastasis suppression of cancer cells and inhibition of trophoblast migration and invasion. In order to understand the structural requirement for GPR54 agonistic activity, structure-activity relationship (SAR) study on pentapeptide-based C-terminal metastin analogues was carried out. As a result, H-Amb-Nal(2)-Gly-Leu-Arg-Trp-NH2 34 was identified as a novel GPR54 agonist that possessed the most potent GPR54 agonistic activity reported so far.

  17. Reproductive functions of kisspeptin and Gpr54 across the life cycle of mice and men

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Yee-Ming; Broder-Fingert, Sarabeth; Seminara, Stephanie B.

    2008-01-01

    The reproductive phenotypes of nearly two dozen patients with mutations in GPR54 have been reported, as have the phenotypes of four mouse lines mutant for Gpr54 and two lines mutant for Kiss1. These phenotypes demonstrate that kisspeptin/Gpr54 function is required at all phases of the life cycle when the secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is robust. Furthermore, there is phenotypic variability ranging from severe hypogonadism to partial sexual development. Collectively, these ...

  18. GPR54 and KiSS-1: role in the regulation of puberty and reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuohung, Wendy; Kaiser, Ursula B

    2006-12-01

    The finding of inactivating mutations in GPR54 in IHH patients and the lack of reproductive maturation of the GPR54 null mouse have uncovered a previously unrecognized role for GPR54 and KiSS-1 in the physiologic regulation of puberty and reproduction. This newly identified function for GPR54 and its cognate ligand, kisspeptin, has led to additional studies that have localized GPR54 and KiSS-1 mRNA in the hypothalamus, colocalized GPR54 in GnRH neurons, demonstrated GnRH-dependent activation of LH and FSH release by kisspeptin, and shown increased hypothalamic KiSS-1 and GPR54 mRNA levels at the time of puberty. Taken together, these findings establish the role of the kisspeptin-GPR54 system in the stimulation of GnRH neurons during puberty. The mechanisms by which kisspeptin activates GnRH release, as well as the trigger for this pathway at the onset of puberty, are yet to be elucidated. In the future, modulators of GPR54 activity, including kisspeptin, may prove valuable in clinical applications in the fields of both cancer therapy and reproductive medicine.

  19. Reproductive functions of kisspeptin and Gpr54 across the life cycle of mice and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yee-Ming; Broder-Fingert, Sarabeth; Seminara, Stephanie B

    2009-01-01

    The reproductive phenotypes of nearly two dozen patients with mutations in GPR54 have been reported, as have the phenotypes of four mouse lines mutant for Gpr54 and two lines mutant for Kiss1. These phenotypes demonstrate that kisspeptin/Gpr54 function is required at all phases of the life cycle when the secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is robust. Furthermore, there is phenotypic variability ranging from severe hypogonadism to partial sexual development. Collectively, these findings suggest that kisspeptin and Gpr54 serve as an essential conduit for relaying developmental information to the GnRH neuron.

  20. Kiss1-/- mice exhibit more variable hypogonadism than Gpr54-/- mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapatto, Risto; Pallais, J Carl; Zhang, Dongsheng; Chan, Yee-Ming; Mahan, Amy; Cerrato, Felecia; Le, Wei Wei; Hoffman, Gloria E; Seminara, Stephanie B

    2007-10-01

    The G protein-coupled receptor Gpr54 and its ligand metastin (derived from the Kiss1 gene product kisspeptin) are key gatekeepers of sexual maturation. Gpr54 knockout mice demonstrate hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, but until recently, the phenotype of Kiss1 knockout mice was unknown. This report describes the reproductive phenotypes of mice carrying targeted deletions of Kiss1 or Gpr54 on the same genetic background. Both Kiss1 and Gpr54 knockout mice are viable but infertile and have abnormal sexual maturation; the majority of males lack preputial separation, and females have delayed vaginal opening and absence of estrous cycling. Kiss1 and Gpr54 knockout males have significantly smaller testes compared with controls. Gpr54 knockout females have smaller ovaries and uteri than wild-type females. However, Kiss1 knockout females demonstrate two distinct phenotypes: half have markedly reduced gonadal weights similar to those of Gpr54 knockout mice, whereas half exhibit persistent vaginal cornification and have gonadal weights comparable with those of wild-type females. FSH levels in both Kiss1 and Gpr54 knockout males and females are significantly lower than in controls. When injected with mouse metastin 43-52, a Gpr54 agonist, Gpr54 knockout mice fail to increase gonadotropins, whereas Kiss1 knockout mice respond with increased gonadotropin levels. In summary, both Kiss1 and Gpr54 knockout mice have abnormal sexual maturation consistent with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, although Kiss1 knockout mice appear to be less severely affected than their receptor counterparts. Kiss1 knockout females demonstrate a bimodal phenotypic variability, with some animals having higher gonadal weight, larger vaginal opening, and persistent vaginal cornification.

  1. Antibody SPC-54 provides acute in vivo blockage of the murine protein C system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnier, Laurent; Fernández, José A; Griffin, John H

    2013-04-01

    Multiple protective effects of pharmacological activated protein C (APC) are reported in several organ pathologies. To help evaluate the endogenous murine PC system, we characterized a rat monoclonal anti-mouse PC antibody, SPC-54, which inhibited the amidolytic and anticoagulant activities of murine APC by>95%. SPC-54 blocked active site titration of purified APC using the active site titrant, biotinylated FPR-chloromethylketone, showing that SPC-54 blocks access to APC's active site to inhibit all enzymatic activity. A single injection of SPC-54 (10mg/kg) neutralized circulating PC in mice for at least 7days, and immunoblotting and immuno-precipitation with protein G-agarose confirmed that SPC-54 in vivo was bound to PC in plasma. Pre-infusion of SPC-54 in tissue factor-induced murine acute thromboembolism experiments caused a major decrease in mean survival time compared to controls (7min vs. 42.5min, P=0.0016). SPC-54 decreased lung perfusion in this model by 54% when monitored by vascular perfusion methodologies using infrared fluorescence of Evans blue dye. In LD50 endotoxemia murine models, SPC-54 infused at 7hr after endotoxin administration increased mortality from 42% to 100% (P54 ablates in vitro and in vivo APC protective functions and enzymatic activity. The ability of SPC-54 to block the endogenous PC/APC system provides a powerful tool to understand better the role of the endogenous PC system in murine injury models and in cell bioassays and also to neutralize the enzymatic activities of murine APC in any assay system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Antiproliferative effects of kisspeptin‑10 depend on artificial GPR54 (KISS1R) expression levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Elke; Olbrich, Teresa; Emons, Günter; Gründker, Carsten

    2013-02-01

    Kisspeptins are peptides derived from the metastasis suppressor gene KISS1 interacting with GPR54 as their corresponding receptor. The KISS1/GPR54 system is one regulator of cellular motility mechanisms leading to decreased migration and invasion. Its role in cell proliferation processes is not clearly understood. In this study, breast cancer cell lines, T47D, ZR75-1, MDA‑MB‑231, MDA‑MB‑435s, MDA‑MB‑453, HCC 70, HCC 1806, HCC 1937 and MCF‑7, were investigated for their endogenous GPR54 expression by immunocytochemistry, RT‑PCR and western blot analysis. The effect of kisspeptin‑10 on proliferation was measured in MDA‑MB‑231, MDA‑MB‑435s, HCC 1806 and MCF‑7 cells. Further experiments on proliferation were carried out with cells transfected with GPR54. All of the tested breast cancer cell lines expressed GPR54 in different amounts. No effects on proliferation were detected in the breast cancer cells expressing the receptor endogenously. In transfected neuronal cells overexpressing GPR54, proliferation was significantly inhibited by kisspeptin‑10. The results indicate that the antiproliferative action of kisspeptin depends on the nature of GPR54 expression. The effect was detected in an artificial system of cells transfected with GPR54 and not in cells expressing the receptor endogenously. Thus, the antiproliferative action of kisspeptin seems not to be important for pathophysiological processes.

  3. Absence of GPR54 and TACR3 mutations in sporadic cases of idiopathic central precocious puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leka-Emiri, Sofia; Louizou, Eirini; Kambouris, Marios; Chrousos, George; De Roux, Nicolas; Kanaka-Gantenbein, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Kisspeptin (KISS1)/GPR54 (KISSR) signaling complex and neurokinin B (NKB)/NKB receptor (TACR3) signaling have been proposed as an integral part of the network coordinating GnRH release. GPR54 (KISS1R) and TACR3 gene mutations have been described in cases of idiopathic hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism, while limited data exist on gain-of-function mutation in GPR54 (KISS1R) gene causing idiopathic central precocious puberty (ICPP). No data on TACR3 mutations in ICPP have been described so far. The aim of this study was to elucidate the possible impact of GPR54 (KISS1R) and TACR3 mutations in ICPP. PCR-amplified genomic DNA of 38 girls with ICPP was analyzed for GPR54 and TACR3 gene mutations. No GPR54 or TACR3 mutations were found. The A/G coding sequence single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) on the GPR54 gene (dbSNP ID: rs10407968) was found in 2 patients with ICPP. Our data indicate that GPR54 and TACR3 gene mutations are not a frequent cause of ICPP. The identified A/G synonymous SNP (dbSNP ID: rs10407968) located in exon 1 of the gene is not likely to have a pathogenic role in exon splicing and therefore in the premature initiation of puberty.

  4. GPR54 is a target for suppression of metastasis in endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyun Sook; Baba, Tsukasa; Mandai, Masaki; Matsumura, Noriomi; Hamanishi, Junzo; Kharma, Budiman; Kondoh, Eiji; Yoshioka, Yumiko; Oishi, Shinya; Fujii, Nobutaka; Murphy, Susan K; Konishi, Ikuo

    2011-04-01

    Invasion into deep myometrium and/or lymphovascular space is a well-known risk factor for endometrial cancer metastasis, resulting in poor prognosis. It is therefore clinically important to identify novel molecules that suppress tumor invasion. Reduced expression of the metastasis suppressor, kisspeptin (KISS1), and its endogenous receptor, GPR54, has been reported in several cancers, but the significance of the KISS1/GPR54 axis in endometrial cancer metastasis has not been clarified. Metastin-10 is the minimal bioactive sequence of genetic products of KISS1. Clinicopathological analysis of 92 endometrial cancers revealed overall survival is improved in cancers with high expression of GPR54 (P GPR54 expression is associated with known prognostic factors including FIGO stage, grade, and deep myometrial invasion. Through RNAi and microarray analyses, metastin-10 was predicted to suppress metastasis of GPR54-expressing endometrial cancers in vivo. Methylation analysis revealed GPR54 is epigenetically regulated. Metastin-GPR54 axis function was restored following treatment with the DNA hypomethylating agent 5-aza-DC. These data suggest that metastin-10 may be effective at inhibiting the metastatic spread of endometrial cancers in combination with demethylating agents to induce GPR54 expression.

  5. Tumor Proteins D52 and D54 Have Opposite Effects on the Terminal Differentiation of Chondrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chihiro Ito

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The tumor protein D (TPD family consists of four members, TPD52, TPD53, TPD54, and TPD55. The physiological roles of these genes in normal tissues, including epidermal and mesenchymal tissues, have rarely been reported. Herein, we examined the expression of TPD52 and TPD54 genes in cartilage in vivo and in vitro and investigated their involvement in the proliferation and differentiation of chondrocytes in vitro. TPD52 and TPD54 were uniformly expressed in articular cartilage and trabecular bone and were scarcely expressed in the epiphyseal growth plate. In MC3T3E-1 cells, the expressions of TPD52 and TPD54 were increased in a differentiation-dependent manner. In contrast, their expressions were decreased in ATDC5 cells. In ATDC5 cells, overexpression of TPD52 decreased alkaline phosphatase (ALPase activity, while knock-down of TPD52 showed little effect. In contrast, overexpression of TPD54 enhanced ALPase activity, Ca2+ deposition, and the expressions of type X collagen and ALPase genes, while knock-down of TPD54 reduced them. The results revealed that TPD52 inhibits and that TPD54 promotes the terminal differentiation of a chondrocyte cell line. As such, we report for the first time the important roles of TPD52 and TPD54, which work oppositely, in the terminal differentiation of chondrocytes during endochondral ossification.

  6. 19 CFR 181.54 - Verification of claim for drawback, waiver or reduction of duties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... customs administration of any documentation obtained in Canada or Mexico and submitted in connection with... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Verification of claim for drawback, waiver or reduction of duties. 181.54 Section 181.54 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  7. 24 CFR 234.54 - Eligibility of assigned mortgages and mortgages covering acquired property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Eligibility of assigned mortgages and mortgages covering acquired property. 234.54 Section 234.54 Housing and Urban Development...-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE...

  8. 46 CFR 54.01-10 - Steam-generating pressure vessels (modifies U-1(g)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steam-generating pressure vessels (modifies U-1(g)). 54... ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS General Requirements § 54.01-10 Steam-generating pressure vessels (modifies U-1(g)). (a) Pressure vessels in which steam is generated are classed as “Unfired Steam Boilers” except as...

  9. Identification of novel alleles of the rice blast resistance gene Pi54

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudevan, Kumar; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Bhullar, Navreet K.

    2015-10-01

    Rice blast is one of the most devastating rice diseases and continuous resistance breeding is required to control the disease. The rice blast resistance gene Pi54 initially identified in an Indian cultivar confers broad-spectrum resistance in India. We explored the allelic diversity of the Pi54 gene among 885 Indian rice genotypes that were found resistant in our screening against field mixture of naturally existing M. oryzae strains as well as against five unique strains. These genotypes are also annotated as rice blast resistant in the International Rice Genebank database. Sequence-based allele mining was used to amplify and clone the Pi54 allelic variants. Nine new alleles of Pi54 were identified based on the nucleotide sequence comparison to the Pi54 reference sequence as well as to already known Pi54 alleles. DNA sequence analysis of the newly identified Pi54 alleles revealed several single polymorphic sites, three double deletions and an eight base pair deletion. A SNP-rich region was found between a tyrosine kinase phosphorylation site and the nucleotide binding site (NBS) domain. Together, the newly identified Pi54 alleles expand the allelic series and are candidates for rice blast resistance breeding programs.

  10. 7 CFR 58.54 - Packing and packaging room and equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Packing and packaging room and equipment. 58.54 Section 58.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS...

  11. 34 CFR 535.54 - Under what circumstances is repayment deferred?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Under what circumstances is repayment deferred? 535.54 Section 535.54 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF BILINGUAL EDUCATION AND MINORITY LANGUAGES AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION BILINGUAL EDUCATION: GRADUATE...

  12. 76 FR 68044 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Federal Acquisition Circular 2005-54; Small Entity Compliance Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ... Acquisition Regulation; Federal Acquisition Circular 2005-54; Small Entity Compliance Guide AGENCY: Department... rules appearing in Federal Acquisition Circular (FAC) 2005-54, which amend the Federal Acquisition... (FAR Case 2009-006) This final rule amends the FAR to implement Executive Order (E.O.) 13494, Economy...

  13. 26 CFR 54.4980B-6 - Electing COBRA continuation coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electing COBRA continuation coverage. 54.4980B... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) PENSION EXCISE TAXES § 54.4980B-6 Electing COBRA continuation coverage. The following questions-and-answers address the manner in which COBRA continuation...

  14. 26 CFR 54.4980B-8 - Paying for COBRA continuation coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Paying for COBRA continuation coverage. 54... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) PENSION EXCISE TAXES § 54.4980B-8 Paying for COBRA continuation coverage. The following questions-and-answers address paying for COBRA continuation coverage: Q-1...

  15. 26 CFR 54.4980B-7 - Duration of COBRA continuation coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Duration of COBRA continuation coverage. 54... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) PENSION EXCISE TAXES § 54.4980B-7 Duration of COBRA continuation coverage. The following questions-and-answers address the duration of COBRA continuation coverage...

  16. 26 CFR 54.4980B-10 - Interaction of FMLA and COBRA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interaction of FMLA and COBRA. 54.4980B-10...) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) PENSION EXCISE TAXES § 54.4980B-10 Interaction of FMLA and COBRA. The... 1993 (FMLA) (29 U.S.C. 2601-2619) affects the COBRA continuation coverage requirements: Q-1: In what...

  17. 46 CFR 54.05-30 - Allowable stress values at low temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress values at low temperatures. 54.05-30... PRESSURE VESSELS Toughness Tests § 54.05-30 Allowable stress values at low temperatures. (a) The Coast... nonferrous materials at low temperature for the purpose of establishing allowable stress values for service...

  18. 45 CFR 98.54 - Restrictions on the use of funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....54 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Use of Child Care and Development Funds § 98.54 Restrictions on the use of funds. (a) General. (1) Funds authorized under section 418 of the Social Security Act and section 658B of the Child Care...

  19. 32 CFR 806b.54 - Information collections, records, and forms or information management tools (IMT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... information management tools (IMT). 806b.54 Section 806b.54 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued..., records, and forms or information management tools (IMT). (a) Information Collections. No information.../pubfiles/af/37/afman37-139/afman37-139.pdf. (c) Forms or Information Management Tools (Adopted and...

  20. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1A54A-1PC3B [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1A54A-1PC3B 1A54 1PC3 A B --------EASLTGAGATFPAPVYAKWADTYQKET-GNK...Chain> 1PC3 B 1PC3...CA 355 LEU CA 306 GLY CA 308 GLY CA 333 1PC3... B 1PC3B TVDFPAVP...ne> ALA CA 404 ASN CA 326 1PC3

  1. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1A54A-1PC3A [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1A54A-1PC3A 1A54 1PC3 A A --------EASLTGAGATFPAPVYAKWADTYQKET-GNK...A 378 PHE CA 440 GLN CA 487 PHE CA 535 1PC3... A 1PC3A LYS CA 277 ASN CA 192 1PC3 A 1PC3A LSKQDPEGWGK

  2. 47 CFR 54.712 - Contributor recovery of universal service costs from end users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... from end users. 54.712 Section 54.712 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED... universal service costs from end users. (a) Federal universal service contribution costs may be recovered through interstate telecommunications-related charges to end users. If a contributor chooses to recover...

  3. sigma54-Mediated control of the mannose phosphotransferase sytem in Lactobacillus plantarum impacts on carbohydrate metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, M.J.A.; Molenaar, D.; Jong, de A.; Vos, de W.M.; Kleerebezem, M.

    2010-01-01

    Sigma factors direct specific binding of the bacterial RNA polymerase to the promoter. Here we present the elucidation of the sigma(54 ) regulon in Lactobacillus plantarum. A sequence-based regulon prediction of sigma(54)-dependent promoters revealed an operon encoding a mannose phosphotransferase

  4. sigma(54)-mediated control of the mannose phosphotransferase sytem in Lactobacillus plantarum impacts on carbohydrate metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, Marc J. A.; Molenaar, Douwe; de Jong, Anne; De Vos, Willem M.; Kleerebezem, Michiel

    Sigma factors direct specific binding of the bacterial RNA polymerase to the promoter. Here we present the elucidation of the sigma(54) regulon in Lactobacillus plantarum. A sequence-based regulon prediction of sigma(54)-dependent promoters revealed an operon encoding a mannose phosphotransferase

  5. Evidence for a role of KISS-1/GPR54 system in decreased ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Short fasting has been shown to suppress luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion in ewes, however, the molecular mechanism underlying this phenomenon is not clear. Based on recent discovery of the crucial role of KiSS-1/GPR54 system in the central control of the GnRH axis, we hypothesized that KiSS-1/GPR54 system was ...

  6. 10 CFR 54.25 - Report of the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Report of the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards. 54.25 Section 54.25 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) REQUIREMENTS FOR RENEWAL OF... Reactor Safeguards. Each renewal application will be referred to the Advisory Committee on Reactor...

  7. 41 CFR 105-54.203-3 - Submission to Library of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Submission to Library of Congress. 105-54.203-3 Section 105-54.203-3 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... Submission to Library of Congress. The GSA Committee Management Officer furnishes a copy of each charter to...

  8. 45 CFR 302.54 - Notice of collection of assigned support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notice of collection of assigned support. 302.54 Section 302.54 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF CHILD SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT... that performs child support enforcement activities consistent with § 302.85 or has an automated system...

  9. 41 CFR 109-45.309-54 - Automatic Data Processing Equipment (ADPE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Automatic Data Processing Equipment (ADPE). 109-45.309-54 Section 109-45.309-54 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT...

  10. 30 CFR 18.54 - High-voltage continuous mining machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-voltage continuous mining machines. 18.54... and Design Requirements § 18.54 High-voltage continuous mining machines. (a) Separation of high-voltage components from lower voltage components. In each motor-starter enclosure, barriers, partitions...

  11. 47 CFR 54.307 - Support to a competitive eligible telecommunications carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Support to a competitive eligible telecommunications carrier. 54.307 Section 54.307 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED....307 Support to a competitive eligible telecommunications carrier. (a) Calculation of support. A...

  12. 47 CFR 54.517 - Services provided by non-telecommunications carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Services provided by non-telecommunications carriers. 54.517 Section 54.517 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON....517 Services provided by non-telecommunications carriers. (a) Non-telecommunications carriers shall be...

  13. 40 CFR 230.54 - Parks, national and historical monuments, national seashores, wilderness areas, research sites...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Parks, national and historical monuments, national seashores, wilderness areas, research sites, and similar preserves. 230.54 Section 230... Human Use Characteristics § 230.54 Parks, national and historical monuments, national seashores...

  14. 29 CFR 1956.54 - Location of basic State plan documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Location of basic State plan documentation. 1956.54 Section 1956.54 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) STATE PLANS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT AND ENFORCEMENT OF STATE STANDARDS APPLICABLE...

  15. Role of Lysine-54 in determining cofactor specificity and binding in human dihydrofolate reductase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Shaoming; Tan, Xuehai; Thompson, P.D.; Freisheim, J.H. (Medical College of Ohio, Todedo (USA)); Appleman, J.R.; Blakley, R.L. (St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (USA)); Sheridan, R.P.; Venkataraghavan, R. (Lederle Laboratories, Pearl River, NY (USA))

    1990-09-04

    Lysine-54 of human dihydrofolate reductase (hDHFR) appears to be involved in the interaction with the 2{prime}-phosphate of NADPH and is conserved as a basic residue in other species. Studies have suggested that in Lactobacillus casei dihydrofolate reductase Arg-43, the homologous residue at this position, plays an important role in the binding of NADPH and in the differentiation of K{sub m} values for NADPH and NADH. A Lys-54 to Gln-54 mutant (K54Q) of hDHFR has been constructed by oligodeoxynucleotide-directed mutagenesis in order to study the role of Lys-54 in differentiating K{sub m} and k{sub cat} values for NADPH and NADH as well as in other functions of hDHFR. The purpose of this paper is to delineate in quantitative terms the magnitude of the effect of the Lys-54 to Gln-54 replacement on the various kinetic parameters of hDHFR. Such quantitative effects cannot be predicted solely on the basis of X-ray structures. The ratio of K{sub m}(NADH)/K{sub m}(NADPH) decreases from 69 in the wild-type enzyme to 4.7 in the K54Q enzyme, suggesting that Lys-54, among other interactions between protein side-chain residues and the 2{prime}-phosphate, makes a major contribution in terms of binding energy and differentiation of K{sub m} values for NADPH and NADH. Agents at concentrations that show activating effects on the wild-type enzyme such as potassium chloride and urea all inactivate the K54Q enzyme. There appear to be no gross conformational differences between wild-type and K54Q enzyme molecules as judged by competitive ELISA using peptide-specific antibodies against human dihydrofolate reductase and from protease susceptibility studies on both wild-type and K54Q mutant enzymes. The pH-rate profiles using NADPH for K54Q and wild-type enzymes show divergences at certain pH values, suggesting the possibility of alteration(s) in the steps of the catalytic pathway for the K54Q enzyme.

  16. The kisspeptin (KiSS-1)/GPR54 system in cancer biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makri, Angeliki; Pissimissis, Nikolaos; Lembessis, Peter; Polychronakos, Constantine; Koutsilieris, Michael

    2008-12-01

    Kisspeptin (KiSS-1) gene, initially described as a melanoma metastasis suppressor gene, encodes a number of peptides (kp-54, kp-14, kp-13, kp-10), which are endogenous ligands to a G protein-coupled receptor, referred as hOT7T175 or AXOR12 or GPR54. So far intensive investigation has provided substantiate evidence supporting the role of KiSS-1/GPR54 system in cancer biology as well as in the regulation of the reproductive function and trophoblast invasion. The precise mechanism by which KiSS-1/GPR54 system is affecting cancer cell growth and metastasis includes complex endocrine, paracrine and autocrine actions. Nevertheless, the detail mechanism of such actions is still under intensive investigation. Herein we review the evidence which support the role of KiSS-1/GPR54 system in cancer biology.

  17. SAR and QSAR studies on the N-terminally acylated pentapeptide agonists for GPR54.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Kenji; Oishi, Shinya; Cluzeau, Jérôme; Ohno, Hiroaki; Navenot, Jean-Marc; Wang, Zi-xuan; Peiper, Stephen C; Akamatsu, Miki; Fujii, Nobutaka

    2007-07-12

    Kisspeptins (KPs) play important roles in the regulation of physiological and pathological states through activation of the cognate receptor GPR54. Our previous studies to downsize KP agonists to the essential GPR54 pharmacophore identified peptides 1-3 as low molecular weight GPR54 agonists. In this study, the effect of N-terminal acyl groups on the activity of a series of analogues (R-Phe-Gly-Leu-Arg-Trp-NH2) was investigated in order to develop novel potent GPR54 agonists. Among the compounds developed, the most potent agonistic activity for GPR54 was observed for N-terminal 4-fluorobenzoyl analogue 29. Using quantitative structure-activity relationship studies, it was demonstrated that the inductively negative and small substituents were preferred at the 4-position of N-terminal benzoyl groups.

  18. Association between sexual precocity and alleles of KISS-1 and GPR54 genes in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, T; Zhao, Y Z; Chu, M X; Zhang, Y J; Fang, L; Di, R; Cao, G L; Li, N

    2009-01-01

    KISS-1 and GPR54 were regarded as key regulators for the puberty onset and fundamental gatekeepers of sexual maturation in mammals. To explore the possible association between variations in KISS-1 and GPR54 with sexual precocity, mutation screening of exon 1 of KISS-1 and exon 1, exon 3, and partial exon 5 of GPR54 was performed in a sexual precocious breed (Jining Grey goats) and sexual late-maturing breeds (Inner Mongolia Cashmere, Angora, and Boer goats) by PCR-SSCP. The results showed that five novel mutations were identified in exon 1 and partial exon 5 of GPR54 including C96 T, T173C, G176A, G825A, and C981 T. The Jining Grey goats with genotype BB or AB had 1.07 (P GPR54 with high litter size and sexual precocity in Jining Grey goats.

  19. The role of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rdh54 DNA translocase at kinetochores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacinskaja, Giedre

    ), which responds to unattached kinetochores or lack of tension between sister chromatids and arrests the cell cycle until all chromosomes are properly attached to the spindle. However, if the trigger activating either the DNA damage checkpoint or the SAC persists, then cell cycle arrest will not necessary...... be maintained indefinitely, because the cell can re-enter the cell cycle through a process termed adaptation. In this study, I investigated the role of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rdh54 DNA translocase at kinetochores. Rdh54 is involved in DNA repair by homologous recombination (HR) and is required...... for adaptation to the DNA damage checkpoint. At the cell biological level, fluorescently tagged Rdh54 localizes not only to DNA repair sites but also to kinetochores. To understand the functional importance of Rdh54 localization to kinetochores, I screened for potential interaction partners of Rdh54...

  20. Rad54 and Mus81 cooperation promotes DNA damage repair and restrains chromosome missegregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghamrasni, S El; Cardoso, R; Li, L

    2016-01-01

    Rad54 and Mus81 mammalian proteins physically interact and are important for the homologous recombination DNA repair pathway; however, their functional interactions in vivo are poorly defined. Here, we show that combinatorial loss of Rad54 and Mus81 results in hypersensitivity to DNA......-damaging agents, defects on both the homologous recombination and non-homologous DNA end joining repair pathways and reduced fertility. We also observed that while Mus81 deficiency diminished the cleavage of common fragile sites, very strikingly, Rad54 loss impaired this cleavage to even a greater extent....... The inefficient repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in Rad54(-/-)Mus81(-/-) cells was accompanied by elevated levels of chromosome missegregation and cell death. Perhaps as a consequence, tumor incidence in Rad54(-/-)Mus81(-/-) mice remained comparable to that in Mus81(-/-) mice. Our study highlights...

  1. Xenopus Xp54 and human RCK/p54 helicases functionally replace yeast Dhh1p in brome mosaic virus RNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves-Rodrigues, Isabel; Mas, Antonio; Díez, Juana

    2007-04-01

    By using a Brome mosaic virus (BMV)-Saccharomyces cerevisiae system, we previously showed that the cellular Lsm1p-7p/Pat1p/Dhh1p decapping-activator complex functions in BMV RNA translation and replication. As a first approach in investigating whether the corresponding human homologues play a similar role, we expressed human Lsm1p (hLsm1p) and RCK/p54 in yeast. Expression of RCK/p54 but not hLsm1p restored the defect in BMV RNA translation and replication observed in the dhh1Delta and lsm1Delta strains, respectively. This functional conservation, together with the common replication strategies of positive-stranded RNA viruses, suggests that RCK/p54 may also play a role in the replication of positive-stranded RNA viruses that infect humans.

  2. Mechanistic insights into the more potent effect of KP-54 compared to KP-10 in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Anglemont de Tassigny, Xavier; Jayasena, Channa; Murphy, Kevin G; Dhillo, Waljit S; Colledge, William H

    2017-01-01

    Kisspeptins regulate the mammalian reproductive axis by stimulating release of gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH). Different length kisspeptins (KP) are found of 54, 14, 13 or 10 amino-acids which share a common C-terminal 10-amino acid sequence. KP-54 and KP-10 have been widely used to stimulate the reproductive axis but data suggest that KP-54 and KP-10 are not equally effective at eliciting reproductive hormone secretion after peripheral delivery. To confirm this, we analysed the effect of systemic administration of KP-54 or KP-10 on luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion into the bloodstream of male mice. Plasma LH measurements 10 min or 2 hours after kisspeptin injection showed that KP-54 can sustain LH release far longer than KP-10, suggesting a differential mode of action of the two peptides. To investigate the mechanism for this, we evaluated the pharmacokinetics of the two peptides in vivo and their potential to cross the blood brain barrier (BBB). We found that KP-54 has a half-life of ~32 min in the bloodstream, while KP-10 has a half-life of ~4 min. To compensate for this difference in half-life, we repeated injections of KP-10 every 10 min over 1 hr but failed to reproduce the sustained rise in LH observed after a single KP-54 injection, suggesting that the failure of KP-10 to sustain LH release may not just be related to peptide clearance. We tested the ability of peripherally administered KP-54 and KP-10 to activate c-FOS in GnRH neurons behind the blood brain barrier (BBB) and found that only KP-54 could do this. These data are consistent with KP-54 being able to cross the BBB and suggest that KP10 may be less able to do so.

  3. A single injection of kisspeptin-54 temporarily increases luteinizing hormone pulsatility in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasena, C N; Comninos, A N; Veldhuis, J D; Misra, S; Abbara, A; Izzi-Engbeaya, C; Donaldson, M; Ghatei, M A; Bloom, S R; Dhillo, W S

    2013-10-01

    Kisspeptin is a novel hypothalamic peptide which stimulates endogenous gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion. A single subcutaneous bolus injection of kisspeptin-54 increases circulating luteinizing hormone (LH) levels in women, but its acute effects on LH pulsatility are not known. To investigate the effects of a single subcutaneous (sc) injection of kisspeptin-54 administration on LH pulsatility in healthy female volunteers. Six healthy female adult volunteers underwent 10-minute blood sampling for serum LH measurement for 8 h during the follicular phase of menstrual cycle. Sc bolus injection of saline or kisspeptin-54 (0·15, 0·30 or 0·60 nmol/kg) was administered 4 h after commencing the study. A previously described, blinded deconvolution method was used to detect LH pulses. Mean number of LH pulses was increased significantly following 0·30 and 0·60 nmol/kg kisspeptin-54 when compared with saline (mean increase in number of LH pulses per 4 h, following injection: -0·17 ± 0·54, saline; +2·33 ± 0·56, 0·30 nmol/kg kisspeptin-54, P 54, P 54, P = 0·10 vs saline). A single injection of kisspeptin-54 temporarily stimulates the number of LH pulses in healthy women. Further studies are required to investigate the therapeutic potential of kisspeptin-54 injection to restore LH pulsatility in patients with reproductive disorders caused by impaired GnRH secretion. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. 76 FR 67169 - Solia 9 Hydroelectric LLC Riverbank Hydro No. 17 LLC Lock Hydro Friends Fund XLI FFP Project 54...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    ... XLI FFP Project 54 LLC; Notice of Competing Preliminary Permit Applications Accepted for Filing and... XLI (Lock Hydro), and FFP Project 54 LLC (FFP 54) filed preliminary permit applications, pursuant to.... FFP 54's Project No. 14192-000 would consist of: (1) A 350-foot- long, 150-foot-wide approach channel...

  5. Dependence of fertility on kisspeptin-Gpr54 signaling at the GnRH neuron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirilov, Milen; Clarkson, Jenny; Liu, Xinhuai; Roa, Juan; Campos, Pauline; Porteous, Rob; Schütz, Günther; Herbison, Allan E

    2013-01-01

    Signaling between kisspeptin and its receptor, G-protein-coupled receptor 54 (Gpr54), is now recognized as being essential for normal fertility. However, the key cellular location of kisspeptin-Gpr54 signaling is unknown. Here we create a mouse with a GnRH neuron-specific deletion of Gpr54 to assess the role of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons. Mutant mice are infertile, fail to go through puberty and exhibit markedly reduced gonadal size and follicle-stimulating hormone levels alongside GnRH neurons that are unresponsive to kisspeptin. In an attempt to rescue the infertile phenotype of global Gpr54⁻/⁻ mutants, we use BAC transgenesis to target Gpr54 to the GnRH neurons. This results in mice with normal puberty onset, estrous cyclicity, fecundity and a recovery of kisspeptin's stimulatory action upon GnRH neurons. Using complimentary cell-specific knockout and knockin approaches we demonstrate here that the GnRH neuron is the key site of kisspeptin-Gpr54 signaling for fertility.

  6. Correlation between FABP2 gene Ala54Thr polymorphism and polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo TIAN

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the correlation between FABP2 gene Ala54Thr polymorphism and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, insulin resistance (IR, and glucose and lipid metabolism. Methods The genotypes of FABP2 gene Ala54Thr polymorphism were determined in 135 PCOS patients and 116 normal control subjects by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP. At the same time, the anthropometry was performed and metabolism indices were measured. Hyperinsulinemia-euglycemia clamp test was performed in 107 PCOS patients and 20 normal control subjects. Results No significant differences were found in allele frequencies and genotype of FABP2 gene Ala54Thr polymorphism between PCOS and normal control group (P>0.05. Similarly, no significant differences were found in fasting plasma glucose (FPG, 2 hour postchallenge glucose (2hPG, fasting plasma insulin (FINS, homeostasis model assessment 2 (HOMA2-IR, glucose metabolic rate during the euglycemia clamp phase (M120-180, free fatty acids (FFA, triglycerides (TG, total cholesterol (TC, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C between Thr54Thr, Ala54Thr genotype and Ala54Ala genotype in PCOS group. Conclusion FABP2 gene Ala54Thr polymorphism is not associated with the occurrence of PCOS and IR, and glucose and lipid metabolism. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2014.01.10

  7. Structuraland antigenic analysis of a new Rhoptry Pseudokinase Gene (ROP54) in Toxoplasma gondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jian; Lu, Gang; Wang, Lin; Zhou, Aihua H; Han, Yali L; Guo, Jingjing J; Song, Pengxia X; Zhou, Huaiyu Y; Cong, Hua; Hou, Ming; He, Shenyi Y

    2017-09-26

    Toxoplasma gondii is defined as an obligate intracellular apicomplexan parasite and influences approximatelyone-third of the human all over the world. ROP54 protein is expressed in the rhoptry of Toxoplasma gondii. In the present study, we used SMART software to analyzethe secondary structure of ROP54. The 3D model of ROP54 protein was constructed and analyzed using SWISS-MODEL server and VMD software. The structure results fully showed that ROP54 proteinis an importantmember from the ROP family. Moreover, DNAMAN software and Epitope Database online service were used to analyze liner-B cell epitopes and Th-cell epitopes of the protein. The bioinformatics prediction of ROP54 protein could provide positive information on treatment and vaccine for toxoplasmosis. Furthermore, ROP54 gene was obtained from PCR, and a recombinant eukaryotic expression vector (pEGFP-ROP54) was constructed in the following study. After identification of enzyme digestion, the constructed plasmid was transfected into HEK 293-T cells. The RT-PCR result suggested that the recombinant plasmid could transcribe successfully in HEK 293-T cell.

  8. Regulation of GPR54 Signaling by GRK2 and β-Arrestin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pampillo, Macarena; Camuso, Natasha; Taylor, Jay E.; Szereszewski, Jacob M.; Ahow, Maryse R.; Zajac, Mateusz; Millar, Robert P.; Bhattacharya, Moshmi; Babwah, Andy V.

    2009-01-01

    Kisspeptin and its receptor, GPR54, are major regulators of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis as well as regulators of human placentation and tumor metastases. GPR54 is a Gq/11-coupled G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), and activation by kisspeptin stimulates phosphatidy linositol 4, 5-biphosphate hydrolysis, Ca2+ mobilization, arachidonic acid release, and ERK1/2 MAPK phosphorylation. Physiological evidence suggests that GPR54 undergoes agonist-dependent desensitization, but underlying molecular mechanisms are unknown. Furthermore, very little has been reported on the early events that regulate GPR54 signaling. The lack of information in these important areas led to this study. Here we report for the first time on the role of GPCR serine/threonine kinase (GRK)2 and β-arrestin in regulating GPR54 signaling in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells, a model cell system for studying the molecular regulation of GPCRs, and genetically modified MDA MB-231 cells, an invasive breast cancer cell line expressing about 75% less β-arrestin-2 than the control cell line. Our study reveals that in HEK 293 cells, GPR54 is expressed both at the plasma membrane and intracellularly and also that plasma membrane expression is regulated by cytoplasmic tail sequences. We also demonstrate that GPR54 exhibits constitutive activity, internalization, and association with GRK2 and β- arrestins-1 and 2 through sequences in the second intracellular loop and cytoplasmic tail of the receptor. We also show that GRK2 stimulates the desensitization of GPR54 in HEK 293 cells and that β-arrestin-2 mediates GPR54 activation of ERK1/2 in MDA-MB-231 cells. The significance of these findings in developing molecular-based therapies for treating certain endocrine-related disorders is discussed. PMID:19846537

  9. Regulation of GPR54 signaling by GRK2 and {beta}-arrestin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pampillo, Macarena; Camuso, Natasha; Taylor, Jay E; Szereszewski, Jacob M; Ahow, Maryse R; Zajac, Mateusz; Millar, Robert P; Bhattacharya, Moshmi; Babwah, Andy V

    2009-12-01

    Kisspeptin and its receptor, GPR54, are major regulators of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis as well as regulators of human placentation and tumor metastases. GPR54 is a G(q/11)-coupled G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), and activation by kisspeptin stimulates phosphatidy linositol 4, 5-biphosphate hydrolysis, Ca(2+) mobilization, arachidonic acid release, and ERK1/2 MAPK phosphorylation. Physiological evidence suggests that GPR54 undergoes agonist-dependent desensitization, but underlying molecular mechanisms are unknown. Furthermore, very little has been reported on the early events that regulate GPR54 signaling. The lack of information in these important areas led to this study. Here we report for the first time on the role of GPCR serine/threonine kinase (GRK)2 and beta-arrestin in regulating GPR54 signaling in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells, a model cell system for studying the molecular regulation of GPCRs, and genetically modified MDA MB-231 cells, an invasive breast cancer cell line expressing about 75% less beta-arrestin-2 than the control cell line. Our study reveals that in HEK 293 cells, GPR54 is expressed both at the plasma membrane and intracellularly and also that plasma membrane expression is regulated by cytoplasmic tail sequences. We also demonstrate that GPR54 exhibits constitutive activity, internalization, and association with GRK2 and beta- arrestins-1 and 2 through sequences in the second intracellular loop and cytoplasmic tail of the receptor. We also show that GRK2 stimulates the desensitization of GPR54 in HEK 293 cells and that beta-arrestin-2 mediates GPR54 activation of ERK1/2 in MDA-MB-231 cells. The significance of these findings in developing molecular-based therapies for treating certain endocrine-related disorders is discussed.

  10. Kisspeptin-54 at high doses acutely induces testicular degeneration in adult male rats via central mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, E L; Amber, V; Stamp, G W H; Patterson, M; Curtis, A E; Cooke, J H; Appleby, G F; Dhillo, W S; Ghatei, M A; Bloom, S R; Murphy, K G

    2009-02-01

    The kisspeptins are critical regulators of reproduction and a therapeutic target for reproductive disease. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) or peripheral injection of kisspeptin potently stimulates the hypothalamic-pituitary gonadal (HPG) axis via gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH). However, little is known regarding the effects of kisspeptin administration on testicular function. We investigated the mechanism(s) of kisspeptin-induced testicular degeneration in the rat. Kisspeptin-54 (50 nmol.day(-1)) was continuously administered subcutaneously (6 h to 3 days) to male Wistar rats and reproductive hormones and testicular histology analysed. We also investigated the effects of a single subcutaneous injection of 0.5, 5 or 50 nmol kisspeptin-54. In order to determine whether the testicular degeneration observed is peripherally or centrally mediated, we investigated effects of i.c.v. injections of 5 nmol kisspeptin-54 and pre-administered a GnRH-receptor antagonist (cetrorelix) to rats peripherally treated with kisspeptin-54. Continuous subcutaneous administration of kisspeptin-54 caused testicular degeneration after only 12 h, when gonadotrophins were still markedly raised, suggesting that the degeneration is independent of the desensitization of the HPG axis to kisspeptin-54. Furthermore, a single subcutaneous injection of kisspeptin-54 caused dose-dependent testicular degeneration. Continuous kisspeptin-54 administration is thus not required to cause testicular degeneration. Pretreatment with cetrorelix blocked kisspeptin-induced testicular degeneration, and a single i.c.v. injection of kisspeptin-54 caused testicular degeneration, suggesting it is GnRH-mediated. Kisspeptin-induced testicular degeneration appears to be centrally mediated, and result from acute hyper-stimulation of the HPG axis. Doses must be carefully considered if kisspeptin is to be used therapeutically.

  11. Increasing LH pulsatility in women with hypothalamic amenorrhoea using intravenous infusion of Kisspeptin-54.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasena, Channa N; Abbara, Ali; Veldhuis, Johannes D; Comninos, Alexander N; Ratnasabapathy, Risheka; De Silva, Akila; Nijher, Gurjinder M K; Ganiyu-Dada, Zainab; Mehta, Amrish; Todd, Catriona; Ghatei, Mohammad A; Bloom, Stephen R; Dhillo, Waljit S

    2014-06-01

    Hypothalamic amenorrhea (HA) is the one of the most common causes of period loss in women of reproductive age and is associated with deficient LH pulsatility. High-dose kisspeptin-54 acutely stimulates LH secretion in women with HA, but chronic administration causes desensitization. GnRH has paradoxical effects on reproductive activity; we therefore hypothesized that a dose-dependent therapeutic window exists within which kisspeptin treatment restores the GnRH/LH pulsatility in women with HA. The aim of the study was to determine whether constant iv infusion of kisspeptin-54 temporarily increases pulsatile LH secretion in women with HA. Five patients with HA each underwent six assessments of LH pulsatility. Single-blinded continuous iv infusion of vehicle or kisspeptin-54 (0.01, 0.03, 0.10, 0.30, or 1.00 nmol/kg/h) was administered. The LH pulses were detected using blinded deconvolution. Kisspeptin increased LH pulsatility in all patients with HA, with peak responses observed at different doses in each patient. The mean peak number of pulses during infusion of kisspeptin-54 was 3-fold higher when compared with vehicle (number of LH pulses per 8 h: 1.6 ± 0.4, vehicle; 5.0 ± 0.5, kisspeptin-54, P 54 was 6-fold higher when compared with vehicle (LH pulse secretory mass in international units per liter: 3.92 ± 2.31, vehicle; 23.44 ± 12.59, kisspeptin-54; P 54 infusion temporarily increases LH pulsatility in women with HA. Furthermore, we have determined the dose range within which kisspeptin-54 treatment increases basal and pulsatile LH secretion in women with HA. This work provides a basis for studying the potential of kisspeptin-based therapies to treat women with HA.

  12. Role of the σ54 Activator Interacting Domain in Bacterial Transcription Initiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegel, Alexander R. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Wemmer, David E. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-10-11

    Bacterial sigma factors are subunits of RNA polymerase that direct the holoenzyme to specific sets of promoters in the genome and are a central element of regulating transcription. Most polymerase holoenzymes open the promoter and initiate transcription rapidly after binding. However, polymerase containing the members of the σ54 family must be acted on by a transcriptional activator before DNA opening and initiation occur. A key domain in these transcriptional activators forms a hexameric AAA + ATPase that acts through conformational changes brought on by ATP hydrolysis. Contacts between the transcriptional activator and σ54 are primarily made through an N-terminal σ54 activator interacting domain (AID). To better understand this mechanism of bacterial transcription initiation, we characterized the σ54 AID by NMR spectroscopy and other biophysical methods and show that it is an intrinsically disordered domain in σ54 alone. In this paper, we identified a minimal construct of the Aquifex aeolicus σ54 AID that consists of two predicted helices and retains native-like binding affinity for the transcriptional activator NtrC1. Using the NtrC1 ATPase domain, bound with the non-hydrolyzable ATP analog ADP-beryllium fluoride, we studied the NtrC1–σ54 AID complex using NMR spectroscopy. We show that the σ54 AID becomes structured after associating with the core loops of the transcriptional activators in their ATP state and that the primary site of the interaction is the first predicted helix. Finally, understanding this complex, formed as the first step toward initiation, will help unravel the mechanism of σ54 bacterial transcription initiation.

  13. Role of kisspeptin/GPR54 system in human reproductive axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Leticia F G; Teles, Milena G; Trarbach, Ericka B; Latronico, Ana Claudia

    2010-01-01

    The kisspeptin-GPR54 signaling complex is a key gatekeeper of human sexual maturation. Kisspeptins, encoded by the KISS1 gene, constitute a powerful stimulus for gonadotropin-releasing hormone-induced gonadotropin secretion. In addition, the KISS1 gene is a target for regulation by gonadal steroids in both sexes. The increase in hypothalamic kisspeptin expression at puberty is believed to contribute to maturation of the reproductive axis. Homozygous or compound heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in the GPR54 gene have been identified in familial and sporadic patients with isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism without olfactory abnormalities. In addition, mice with targeted deletions of Kiss1 or Gpr54 have a similar failure of sexual maturation. Study of these mutations provides an important contribution in the understanding of the role of the kisspeptin/GPR54 system in the control of human puberty development and reproductive function. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Increased Hypothalamic GPR54 Signaling: A Potential Mechanism for Initiation of Puberty in Primates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Muhammad Shahab; Claudio Mastronardi; Stephanie B. Seminara; William F. Crowley; Sergio R. Ojeda; Tony M. Plant; Melvin M. Grumbach

    2005-01-01

    To further study the role of GPR54 signaling in the onset of primate puberty, we used the monkey to examine the ability of kisspeptin-10 to elicit the release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH...

  15. Alfven. Symphony No 5 in A minor, Op. 54 / Robert Layton

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Layton, Robert

    1994-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Alfven. Symphony No 5 in A minor, Op. 54. The Mountain King - Suite, Gustav II Adolf, Op. 49 - Elegy. Royal Stockholm Philarmonic Orchestra / Neeme Järvi. BIS CD 585 (68 minutes) Recorded in association with Trygg Hansa"

  16. 30 CFR 210.54 - Must I submit this royalty report electronically?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT FORMS AND REPORTS Royalty Reports-Oil, Gas, and Geothermal Resources § 210.54... media types, unless MMS instructs you differently: (1) Electronic Data Interchange (EDI)—The direct...

  17. WP5 Evaluation: D54-D55 Evaluation Results V2 (V3)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Rosmalen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Van Rosmalen, P. (2010, 19 May). WP5 Evaluation: D54-D55 Evaluation Results V2 (V3). Presentation at idSpace Final Review, Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open University of the Netherlands. idSpace-project.

  18. Structure and mobility of water confined in AlPO4-54 nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavazzoni, Cristina; Giovambattista, Nicolas; Netz, Paulo A; Barbosa, Marcia C

    2017-06-21

    We performed molecular dynamics simulations of water confined within AlPO4-54 nanotubes. AlPO4-54 is an artificial material made of AlO4 and of PO4 in tetrahedra arranged in a periodic structure forming pores of approximately 1.3 nm in diameter. This makes AlPO4-54 an excellent candidate for practical applications, such as for water filtration and desalination. In this work, the structural and dynamical properties of the confined water are analyzed for various temperatures and water loadings. We find that the water structure is controlled by the heterogeneity of the nanopore surface with the water molecules located preferentially next to the surface of oxygens of AlPO4-54; consequently, at very low densities, water forms helicoidal structures in string-like arrangements.

  19. KiSS-1 and GPR54 as new players in gonadotropin regulation and puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Ursula B; Kuohung, Wendy

    2005-04-01

    The recent identification of loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding GPR54, the receptor for the KiSS-1-derived peptides, kisspeptins, has highlighted a previously unrecognized pathway in the physiologic regulation of puberty and reproduction. Patients with loss-of-function mutations in GPR54 have idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, and mice lacking GPR54 similarly fail to undergo puberty and have immature reproductive organs and low levels of sex steroids and gonadotropins. These observations have led to the hypothesis that kisspeptins activate hypothalamic GnRH release, thereby serving as a pivotal factor in the pubertal activation of the reproductive cascade. This hypothesis is supported by subsequent studies in rodent and primate models that have demonstrated localization of KiSS-1 mRNA in the hypothalamus, colocalization of GPR54 in GnRH neurons, GnRH-dependent activation of LH and FSH release by intracerebroventricular or peripheral administration of kisspeptin, and increased hypothalamic KiSS-1 and GPR54 mRNA levels at the onset of puberty. Taken together, these findings weave a compelling case for a role of the kisspeptin-GPR54 system in the activation of GnRH neurons at the time of pubertal awakening of the reproductive axis.

  20. The H60Si6C54 heterofullerene as high-capacity hydrogen storage medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Yongliang; Zhou, Qingxiao; Li, Xiaohong; Lv, Shijie

    2016-07-01

    With the great success in Si atoms doped C60 fullerene and the well-established methods for synthesis of hydrogenated carbon fullerenes, this leads naturally to wonder whether Si-doped fullerenes are possible for special applications such as hydrogen storage. Here by using first-principles calculations, we design a novel high-capacity hydrogen storage material, H60Si6C54 heterofullerene, and confirm its geometric stability. It is found that the H60Si6C54 heterofullerene has a large HOMO-LUMO gap and a high symmetry, indicating it is high chemically stable. Further, our finite temperature simulations indicate that the H60Si6C54 heterofullerene is thermally stable at 300 K. H2 molecules would enter into the cage from the Si-hexagon ring because of lower energy barrier. Through our calculation, a maximum of 21 H2 molecules can be stored inside the H60Si6C54 cage in molecular form, leading to a gravimetric density of 11.11 wt% for 21H2@H60Si6C54 system, which suggests that the hydrogenated Si6C54 heterofullerene could be suitable as a high-capacity hydrogen storage material.

  1. Intracellular signaling pathways activated by kisspeptins through GPR54: do multiple signals underlie function diversity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaño, Justo P; Martínez-Fuentes, Antonio J; Gutiérrez-Pascual, Ester; Vaudry, Hubert; Tena-Sempere, Manuel; Malagón, María M

    2009-01-01

    Kisspeptins, a family of peptide products derived from the KiSS-1 gene, activate their cognate receptor GPR54 in various target tissues to exert disparate functions, including inhibition of tumor metastasis and control of reproductive function. In contrast to the plethora of studies that have analyzed in recent years the regulatory functions of the KiSS-1/GPR54 system, only a limited number of reports have been primarily focused on delineating the intracellular signaling pathways involved. Nevertheless, there is solid evidence indicating that kisspeptin can activate a wide variety of signals via GPR54. These include typical G-protein (Galphaq/11)-coupled cascades, such as activation of phospholipase C (PLC), and subsequent accumulation of inositol-(1,4,5)-triphosphate (IP3), intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization, and activation of protein kinase C. However, kisspeptin also activates pathways related to mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK), especially ERK1/2, and p38 and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt. Additionally, the kisspeptin/GPR54 pair can also influence cell signaling by interacting with other receptors, such as chemokine receptor CXCR4, and GnRH receptor. Kisspeptin can also affect other signaling events, like expression of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (via NFkappaB), and that of calcineurin. The information gathered hitherto clearly indicates that activation of a specific set of interconnected signals is selectively triggered by kisspeptin via GPR54 in a cell type-dependent manner to precisely regulate functions as distinct as hormone release and cell migration. In this scenario, it will be important to decipher kisspeptin/GPR54 signaling mechanisms in reproductive and non-reproductive tissues by studying additional models, especially on natural kisspeptin targets expressing endogenous GPR54.

  2. Development of a Short Version of MSQOL-54 Using Factor Analysis and Item Response Theory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalba Rosato

    Full Text Available The Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life-54 (MSQOL-54, 52 items grouped in 12 subscales plus two single items is the most used MS specific health related quality of life inventory.To develop a shortened version of the MSQOL-54.MSQOL-54 dimensionality and metric properties were investigated by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA and Rasch modelling (Partial Credit Model, PCM on MSQOL-54s completed by 473 MS patients. Their mean age was 41 years, 65% were women, and median Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS score was 2.0 (range 0-9.5. Differential item functioning (DIF was evaluated for gender, age and EDSS. Dimensionality of the resulting short version was assessed by exploratory factor analysis (EFA and CFA. Cognitive debriefing of the short instrument (vs. the original was then performed on 12 MS patients.CFA of MSQOL-54 subscales showed that the data fitted the overall model well. Two subscales (Role Limitations--Physical, Role Limitations--Emotional did not fit the PCM, and were removed; two other subscales (Health Perceptions, Social Function did not fit the model, but were retained as single items. Sexual Satisfaction (single-item subscale was also removed. The resulting MSQOL-29 consisted of 25 items grouped in 7 subscales, plus 4 single items. PCM fit statistics were within the acceptability range for all MSQOL-29 items except one which had significant DIF by age. EFA and CFA indicated adequate fit to the original two-factor (Physical and Mental Health Composites hypothesis. Cognitive debriefing confirmed that MSQOL-29 was acceptable and had lost no key items.The proposed MSQOL-29 is 50% shorter than MSQOL-54, yet preserves key quality of life dimensions. Prospective validation on a large, independent MS patient sample is ongoing.

  3. Kisspeptin-54 triggers egg maturation in women undergoing in vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasena, Channa N; Abbara, Ali; Comninos, Alexander N; Nijher, Gurjinder M K; Christopoulos, Georgios; Narayanaswamy, Shakunthala; Izzi-Engbeaya, Chioma; Sridharan, Mathini; Mason, Alexina J; Warwick, Jane; Ashby, Deborah; Ghatei, Mohammad A; Bloom, Stephen R; Carby, Anna; Trew, Geoffrey H; Dhillo, Waljit S

    2014-08-01

    Patients with mutations that inactivate kisspeptin signaling are infertile. Kisspeptin-54, the major circulating isoform of kisspeptin in humans, potently stimulates reproductive hormone secretion in humans. Animal studies suggest that kisspeptin is involved in generation of the luteinizing hormone surge, which is required for ovulation; therefore, we hypothesized that kisspeptin-54 could be used to trigger egg maturation in women undergoing in vitro fertilization therapy. Following superovulation with recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone and administration of gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist to prevent premature ovulation, 53 women were administered a single subcutaneous injection of kisspeptin-54 (1.6 nmol/kg, n = 2; 3.2 nmol/kg, n = 3; 6.4 nmol/kg, n = 24; 12.8 nmol/kg, n = 24) to induce a luteinizing hormone surge and egg maturation. Eggs were retrieved transvaginally 36 hours after kisspeptin injection, assessed for maturation (primary outcome), and fertilized by intracytoplasmic sperm injection with subsequent transfer of one or two embryos. Egg maturation was observed in response to each tested dose of kisspeptin-54, and the mean number of mature eggs per patient generally increased in a dose-dependent manner. Fertilization of eggs and transfer of embryos to the uterus occurred in 92% (49/53) of kisspeptin-54-treated patients. Biochemical and clinical pregnancy rates were 40% (21/53) and 23% (12/53), respectively. This study demonstrates that a single injection of kisspeptin-54 can induce egg maturation in women with subfertility undergoing in vitro fertilization therapy. Subsequent fertilization of eggs matured following kisspeptin-54 administration and transfer of resulting embryos can lead to successful human pregnancy. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01667406.

  4. Physical association of GPR54 C-terminal with protein phosphatase 2A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Barry J; Wang, Zixuan; Mobley, La'Tonya; Khosravi, Davood; Fujii, Nobutaka; Navenot, Jean-Marc; Peiper, Stephen C

    2008-12-26

    KiSS1 was discovered as a metastasis suppressor gene and subsequently found to encode kisspeptins (KP), ligands for a G protein coupled receptor (GPCR), GPR54. This ligand-receptor pair was later shown to play a critical role in the neuro-endocrine regulation of puberty. The C-terminal cytoplasmic (C-ter) domain of GPR54 contains a segment rich in proline and arginine residues that corresponds to the primary structure of four overlapping SH3 binding motifs. Yeast two hybrid experiments identified the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A-C) as an interacting protein. Pull-down experiments with GST fusion proteins containing the GPR54 C-ter confirmed binding to PP2A-C in cell lysates and these complexes contained phosphatase activity. The proline arginine rich segment is necessary for these interactions. The GPR54 C-ter bound directly to purified recombinant PP2A-C, indicating the GPR54 C-ter may form complexes involving the catalytic subunit of PP2A that regulate phosphorylation of critical signaling intermediates.

  5. Assessment of constitutive activity and internalization of GPR54 (KISS1-R).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pampillo, Macarena; Babwah, Andy V

    2010-01-01

    The kisspeptin/GPR54 signaling system positively regulates GnRH secretion, thereby acting as an important regulator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. It also negatively regulates tumor metastases and placental trophoblast invasion. GPR54 is a G(q/11)-coupled GPCR and activation by kisspeptin stimulates PIP(2) hydrolysis and inositol phosphate (IP) formation, Ca(2+) mobilization, arachidonic acid release, and ERK1/2 and p38 MAP kinase phosphorylation. Recently, we reported that GPR54 displays constitutive activity and internalization in the heterologous human embryonic kidney 293 cell system. Given the physiological and clinical importance of GPR54 as well as other GPCRs, we present assays for measuring constitutive receptor internalization and activity. Specifically, we describe the use of immunofluorescence coupled to confocal imaging, flow cytometry and indirect receptor radiolabeling to measure constitutive receptor internalization, and IP turnover in intact cells to measure constitutive activity. While we use the FLAG-tagged GPR54 molecule as an example to describe these assays, the assays can be applied to a wide range of GPCRs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Analysis on DNA sequence of GPR54 gene and its association with litter size in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, G L; Chu, M X; Fang, L; Feng, T; Di, R; Li, N

    2011-08-01

    The kisspeptin/GPR54 pathway is crucial in the process of puberty onset. Six pairs of primers were designed to clone goat GPR54 and scan polymorphisms and one pair of primers to detect polymorphisms of GPR54 in sexual precocious and sexual late-maturing goat breeds. A DNA fragment of 4258 bp of goat GPR54 was obtained, which contains an open reading frame (ORF) of 1137 bp and encodes 378 amino acids, having a high homology with other mammals. The protein was predicted to have seven transmembrane regions. There were no base pair variation in exons 1-4 and three base changes (G4014A, G4136A and C4152T) in exon 5 by sequencing and the three mutations may have some correlation with sexual precocity in goats. For the 4152 locus, the Jining Grey goat does with genotype TT and CT had 1.02 and 0.84 (P0.05) was found in litter size between TT and CT genotypes in Jining Grey goat. For the other two loci, no significant difference (P>0.05) was found in litter size between different genotypes in Jining Grey goats. The present study preliminarily indicated an association between allele T of the 4152 locus in GPR54 and high litter size in Jining Grey goats.

  7. Pediatric tracheotomy: 3-year experience at a tertiary care center with 54 children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmaca, Sinan; Bayraktar, Cem; Aşilioğlu, Nazik; Kalkan, Gökhan; Ozsoy, Zeki

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the indications, complications and outcomes of pediatric tracheotomies at a tertiary care center. Data were obtained retrospectively from 54 patients who underwent tracheotomy from July 2007 to May 2010. Over the three-year period, 54 tracheotomies were performed. Thirty-two patients (59.3%) were male and 22 (40.7%) were female. The mean and median ages of the patients were 54 and 14 months (6 days-17 years), respectively. Twenty-six patients (48.1%) were under 1 year of age. The most common indication for tracheotomy was prolonged intubation (87%), followed by upper airway obstruction (13%). Five patients (9.2%) underwent tracheotomy under semiurgent settings. The overall complication rate was 29.6% (16/54). Early complications occurred in 7 patients (13%), including accidental decannulation in 2 patients, subcutaneous emphysema in 4 patients and hemorrhage in 1 patient. Late complications occurred in 9 patients (16.7%) (stomal granulation in 7 patients and stomal infection in 2 patients). Eight patients (14.8%) were decannulated successfully. No tracheotomy-related deaths occurred, with an overall mortality rate of 27.7% (15/54). Pediatric tracheotomy is a relatively safe procedure with a low incidence of procedure-related morbidities. The indication for the majority of the procedures was prolonged intubation (87%). The lower decannulation rate is related to the higher percentage of patients needing assisted ventilation and the relatively short follow-up period.

  8. Validation of The Slovenian Version of Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life (MSQOL-54) Instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Biljana; Hojs Fabjan, Tanja; Rener-Sitar, Ksenija; Zaletel-Kragelj, Lijana

    2017-10-01

    To cross-culturally adapt and validate Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life-54 (MSQOL-54) instrument. The study which enrolled 134 Slovenian multiple sclerosis (MS) patients was conducted from March to December 2013. The internal consistency of the MSQOL-54 instrument was evaluated by Cronbach's alpha coefficient (α), and its dimensionality assessed by the principal component analysis (PCA). The whole instrument had high internal consistency (α=0.88), as well as the majority of its twelve subscales (α=0.83-0.94). The results of the PCA showed two components with eigenvalue greater than 1, explaining 59.4% of the cumulative variance. Further results indicated good construct validity of the instrument with the physical health-related-quality-of-life subscales loading highly on the physical component, and mental health-related-quality-of-life subscales loading highly on the mental component. The Slovenian version of the MSQOL-54 instrument proved to be an internally consistent and accurate tool, well accepted by the Slovenian MS patients. The adequate psychometric properties warrant the scientifically sound version of the MSQOL-54 instrument, which is from now on at disposal to all health professionals dealing with MS patients in Slovenia.

  9. 26 CFR 54.4979-0 - Excise tax on certain excess contributions and excess aggregate contributions; table of contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Excise tax on certain excess contributions and excess aggregate contributions; table of contents. 54.4979-0 Section 54.4979-0 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) PENSION EXCISE TAXES § 54.4979-0 Excise tax on...

  10. 26 CFR 54.4971-1 - General rules relating to excise tax on failure to meet minimum funding standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General rules relating to excise tax on failure to meet minimum funding standards. 54.4971-1 Section 54.4971-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) PENSION EXCISE TAXES § 54.4971-1 General rules relating to excis...

  11. 26 CFR 54.4975-14 - Election to pay an excise tax for certain pre-1975 prohibited transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Election to pay an excise tax for certain pre-1975 prohibited transactions. 54.4975-14 Section 54.4975-14 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) PENSION EXCISE TAXES § 54.4975-14 Election to pay an excise tax for...

  12. 34 CFR 692.54 - What eligibility requirements must a student satisfy to participate in the SLEAP Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What eligibility requirements must a student satisfy to participate in the SLEAP Program? 692.54 Section 692.54 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department... General § 692.54 What eligibility requirements must a student satisfy to participate in the SLEAP Program...

  13. 49 CFR 1242.54 - Other and casualties and insurance (accounts XX-27-99 and 50-27-00).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Other and casualties and insurance (accounts XX-27-99 and 50-27-00). 1242.54 Section 1242.54 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... RAILROADS 1 Operating Expenses-Equipment § 1242.54 Other and casualties and insurance (accounts XX-27-99 and...

  14. 29 CFR 4000.54 - May I dispose of original paper records if I keep electronic copies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May I dispose of original paper records if I keep electronic copies? 4000.54 Section 4000.54 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT... of Record Retention § 4000.54 May I dispose of original paper records if I keep electronic copies...

  15. 20 CFR 1002.54 - Are all military fitness examinations considered “service in the uniformed services?”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Are all military fitness examinations considered âservice in the uniformed services?â 1002.54 Section 1002.54 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF THE... Service in the Uniformed Services § 1002.54 Are all military fitness examinations considered “service in...

  16. 34 CFR 600.54 - Criteria for determining whether a foreign institution is eligible to apply to participate in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Criteria for determining whether a foreign institution is eligible to apply to participate in the FFEL programs. 600.54 Section 600.54 Education Regulations...) Programs § 600.54 Criteria for determining whether a foreign institution is eligible to apply to...

  17. 45 CFR 261.54 - Is a State subject to any other penalty relating to its work program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Is a State subject to any other penalty relating to its work program? 261.54 Section 261.54 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... Work Requirements? § 261.54 Is a State subject to any other penalty relating to its work program? (a...

  18. 47 CFR 54.625 - Support for services beyond the maximum supported distance for rural health care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Support for services beyond the maximum supported distance for rural health care providers. 54.625 Section 54.625 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Universal Service Support for Health Care Providers § 54.625...

  19. [Aggressive B-cell lymphomas of gastrointestinal tract: a clinicopathologic analysis of 54 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jun; Xia, Chun; Shen, Qin; Yin, Honglin; Zhang, Xinhua; Shi, Qunli; Zhou, Xiaojun; Ma, Jie

    2014-01-01

    To study the histological features, diagnosis, differential diagnoses of aggressive B-cell lymphomas of the gastrointestinal tract and to correlate clinical prognosis with pathologic parameters and immunophenotypes with an emphasis on c-myc, Tcl-1 and CD38 expression and their values in predicting the status of c-myc gene translocation. Fifty-four cases of aggressive B-cell lymphomas of the gastrointestinal tract with complete clinical and pathologic data were retrospectively collected. The clinical data, histologic and immunohistochemical findings and follow-up results were analyzed. Predictive immunohistochemical stains including c-myc, Tcl-1 and CD38 were performed and ROC curve analysis was used to confirm the accuracy of these markers in predicting c-myc translocation. Of 54 cases, there were 33 males and 21 females with median age of 56 years. Histological types of lymphomas included 49 cases of DLBCL (11 cases of germinal central B cell like and 38 cases of activated B cell like by Hans classification), 4 cases of DLBCL/BL and 1 case of BL. Eleven of 54 patients died within 97 months, with median survival of 42 months. Histologically, full-thickness infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract by large atypical cells with evident phagocytosis of karyorrhexis by macrophages ("starry sky") were seen in 18/54 cases. The lymphoma cells were positive for CD20 (54/54), CD79a (54/54), CD43 (4/54), CD5 (7/54), bcl-2 (26/54), Tcl-1 (17/54) and CD38 (15/54), but all negative for CD3 and CD30. The proliferative index by Ki-67 ranged from 40% to 100%. The univariate survival analysis indicated that B symptoms, general performance, high LDH, high IPI, distant metastasis, high clinical stage and tumors with over 90% of cells positive for c-myc were negative predictors for the patient's survival. In addition, cases of DLBCL positive for CD5 had an unfavorable prognosis. Cox regression analysis showed c-myc translocation, distant metastasis and high LDH were independent

  20. Stimulation of Dmc1-mediated DNA strand exchange by the human Rad54B protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarai, Naoyuki; Kagawa, Wataru; Kinebuchi, Takashi; Kagawa, Ako; Tanaka, Kozo; Miyagawa, Kiyoshi; Ikawa, Shukuko; Shibata, Takehiko; Kurumizaka, Hitoshi; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

    2006-01-01

    The process of homologous recombination is indispensable for both meiotic and mitotic cell division, and is one of the major pathways for double-strand break (DSB) repair. The human Rad54B protein, which belongs to the SWI2/SNF2 protein family, plays a role in homologous recombination, and may function with the Dmc1 recombinase, a meiosis-specific Rad51 homolog. In the present study, we found that Rad54B enhanced the DNA strand-exchange activity of Dmc1 by stabilizing the Dmc1–single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) complex. Therefore, Rad54B may stimulate the Dmc1-mediated DNA strand exchange by stabilizing the nucleoprotein filament, which is formed on the ssDNA tails produced at DSB sites during homologous recombination. PMID:16945962

  1. Global gene expression under nitrogen starvation in Xylella fastidiosa: contribution of the σ54 regulon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    da Silva Neto José F

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Xylella fastidiosa, a Gram-negative fastidious bacterium, grows in the xylem of several plants causing diseases such as citrus variegated chlorosis. As the xylem sap contains low concentrations of amino acids and other compounds, X. fastidiosa needs to cope with nitrogen limitation in its natural habitat. Results In this work, we performed a whole-genome microarray analysis of the X. fastidiosa nitrogen starvation response. A time course experiment (2, 8 and 12 hours of cultures grown in defined medium under nitrogen starvation revealed many differentially expressed genes, such as those related to transport, nitrogen assimilation, amino acid biosynthesis, transcriptional regulation, and many genes encoding hypothetical proteins. In addition, a decrease in the expression levels of many genes involved in carbon metabolism and energy generation pathways was also observed. Comparison of gene expression profiles between the wild type strain and the rpoN null mutant allowed the identification of genes directly or indirectly induced by nitrogen starvation in a σ54-dependent manner. A more complete picture of the σ54 regulon was achieved by combining the transcriptome data with an in silico search for potential σ54-dependent promoters, using a position weight matrix approach. One of these σ54-predicted binding sites, located upstream of the glnA gene (encoding glutamine synthetase, was validated by primer extension assays, confirming that this gene has a σ54-dependent promoter. Conclusions Together, these results show that nitrogen starvation causes intense changes in the X. fastidiosa transcriptome and some of these differentially expressed genes belong to the σ54 regulon.

  2. First observation of {sup 54}Zn and its decay by two-proton emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blank, B.; Bey, A.; Canchel, G.; Dossat, C.; Fleury, A.; Giovinazzo, J. [Le Haut Vigneau, CENBG, Gradignan Cedex (France); Adimi, N. [Faculte de Physique, USTHB, Alger (Algeria); Matea, I. [Le Haut Vigneau, CENBG, Gradignan Cedex (France); Grand Accelerateur National d' Ions Lourds, Caen Cedex (France); De Oliveira, F.; Stefan, I.; Geogiev, G.; Grevy, S.; Thomas, J.C. [Grand Accelerateur National d' Ions Lourds, Caen Cedex (France); Borcea, C. [Institute of Atomic Physics, Bucharest-Margurele (Romania); Cortina, D.; Caamano, M. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Departamento de Fisica de Particulas, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Stanoiu, M. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire d' Orsay (France); Aksouh, F. [Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, Leuven (Belgium)

    2005-09-01

    In an experiment performed at the LISE3 facility of GANIL, the isotope {sup 54}Zn and its decay via two-proton emission were observed for the first time. In addition, preliminary results indicate that three implantation events of {sup 48}Ni were observed. One of the associated decay events is compatible with a two-proton emission. New data on the decay of {sup 45}Fe and its two-proton branch were recorded at the same time. The results for {sup 54}Zn are compared to theory. (orig.)

  3. QEC Values of the Superallowed β Emitters Mn50 and Co54

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eronen, T.; Elomaa, V.-V.; Hager, U.; Hakala, J.; Hardy, J. C.; Jokinen, A.; Kankainen, A.; Moore, I. D.; Penttilä, H.; Rahaman, S.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Rissanen, J.; Saastamoinen, A.; Sonoda, T.; Weber, C.; Äystö, J.

    2008-04-01

    Using a new fast cleaning procedure to prepare isomerically pure ion samples, we have measured the beta-decay QEC values of the superallowed β emitters Mn50 and Co54 to be 7634.48(7) and 8244.54(10) keV, respectively, results which differ significantly from the previously accepted values. The corrected Ft values derived from our results strongly support new isospin-symmetry-breaking corrections that lead to a higher value of the up-down quark mixing element Vud and improved confirmation of the unitarity of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix.

  4. Stimulation of Dmc1-mediated DNA strand exchange by the human Rad54B protein

    OpenAIRE

    Sarai, Naoyuki; Kagawa, Wataru; Kinebuchi, Takashi; Kagawa, Ako; Tanaka, Kozo; Miyagawa, Kiyoshi; Ikawa, Shukuko; Shibata, Takehiko; Kurumizaka, Hitoshi; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

    2006-01-01

    The process of homologous recombination is indispensable for both meiotic and mitotic cell division, and is one of the major pathways for double-strand break (DSB) repair. The human Rad54B protein, which belongs to the SWI2/SNF2 protein family, plays a role in homologous recombination, and may function with the Dmc1 recombinase, a meiosis-specific Rad51 homolog. In the present study, we found that Rad54B enhanced the DNA strand-exchange activity of Dmc1 by stabilizing the Dmc1–single-stranded...

  5. KiSS1 and its G-protein-coupled receptor GPR54 in cancer development and metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sung-Gook; Li, Dali; Tan, Kunrong; Siwko, Stefan K; Liu, Mingyao

    2012-12-01

    KiSS1 and its cognate G-protein-coupled receptor, GPR54, have diverse functions. While KiSS1 and GPR54 have been intensively studied in physiology, their role in cancer is still unclear. In cancer, KiSS1 and GPR54 have been known to suppress metastasis by inhibiting cancer cell motility. However, recent studies suggest that KiSS1 and GPR54 have varied roles even in cancer development and metastasis. Here, we examine recent advances in understanding the roles of KiSS1 and GPR54 in cancer development and metastasis.

  6. Influence of degree of methyl methacrylate polymerization on spectroscopic properties of ethyl 5-(4-aminophenyl)- and 5-(4-dimethylaminophenyl)-3-amino-2,4-dicyanobenzoate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jozefowicz, M., E-mail: fizmj@univ.gda.pl [Institute of Experimental Physics, University of Gdansk, Wita Stwosza 57, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland); Bajorek, A.; Pietrzak, M.; Jedrzejewska, B. [Faculty of Chemical Technology and Engineering, University of Technology and Life Sciences, Seminaryjna 3, 85-326 Bydgoszcz (Poland); Heldt, J.R.; Heldt, J. [Institute of Experimental Physics, University of Gdansk, Wita Stwosza 57, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland)

    2013-02-15

    The influence of degree of methyl methacrylate (MM) polymerization on the both emission modes (LE-locally excited and ICT-intramolecular charge transfer) of the fluorescence spectrum of ethyl 5-(4-aminophenyl)-3-amino-2,4-dicyanobenzoate (EAADCy) and ethyl 5-(4-dimethylaminophenyl)-3-amino-2,4-dicyanobenzoate (EDMAADCy) has been studied using steady-state and time-resolved spectroscopic technique. The purpose of these studies was to find a relationship between the changes in the spectroscopic characteristics (fluorescence intensity, wavelength of maximum intensity, fluorescence full-width at half maximum, emission anisotropy, fluorescence decay time) of the tested compounds and degree of monomer conversion into polymer. On the basis of the experimental results, it was shown that the ICT fluorescence full-width at half maximum for EDMAADCy shows a linear dependence on the time of MM polymerization. Our findings predestine the molecule EDMAADCy to be used as fluorescence probe for monitoring the polymerization process of MM. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The fluorescence excitation and emission spectra in MM possess a complex nature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fluorescence decay kinetics for different degrees of polymerization of MM were investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ICT fluorescence FWHM for EDMAADCy shows a linear dependence on the time of polymerization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EDMAADCy can be used as fluorescence probe for monitoring the polymerization process of MM.

  7. Differential regulation of GPR54 transcription by specificity protein-1 and partial estrogen response element in mouse pituitary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFino, Mia C; Wacker, Jennifer L; Lyssand, John S; Wang, Edith H; Hague, Chris

    2010-03-19

    Precise spatial and temporal expression of the recently identified G-protein coupled receptor GPR54 is critical for proper reproductive function and metastasis suppression. However, regulatory factors that control GPR54 expression remain unknown. Thus, the identification of these cis-acting DNA elements can provide insight into the role of GPR54 in reproduction and cancer. Using luciferase reporter, electrophoretic mobility shift, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, we demonstrate that three SP1 sites and a partial estrogen response element modulate mouse GPR54 (mGPR54) promoter activity. Supporting experiments show transcription factor SP1 binds directly to the mGPR54 promoter region and activates gene expression. In conclusion, these novel findings now identify factors that regulate activity of the mGPR54 promoter, and these factors are highly conserved across multiple mammalian species. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Kisspeptin/G protein-coupled receptor-54 system as an essential gatekeeper of pubertal development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Puberty is the end-point of a complex series of developmental events, defined by the dynamic interaction between genetic factors and environmental cues, ultimately leading to the attainment of reproductive capacity. Kisspeptins, products of the KISS1 gene, were originally identified as metastasis suppressor peptides with the ability to bind G protein-coupled receptors (GPR54). In 2003, loss-of-function mutations of the GPR54 gene were found in patients with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. This finding triggered study of the role of the kisspeptin/GPR54 system as an essential gatekeeper of control of reproduction and pubertal development. Kisspeptins are very potent elicitors of gonadotropin secretion, primarily through stimulation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone release. KISS1 also functions as an essential integrator for peripheral inputs, including gonadal steroids and nutritional signals, and for controlling GnRH and gonadotropin secretion. Whether the kisspeptin/GPR54 system is the trigger for puberty onset and/or it operates as integrator and effector of up-stream regulatory factors warrants further investigation. PMID:24904852

  9. Structure-activity relationship study and NMR analysis of fluorobenzoyl pentapeptide GPR54 agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Kenji; Oishi, Shinya; Ohno, Hiroaki; Fujii, Nobutaka

    2008-01-01

    GPR54 is a Gq-protein coupled receptor involved in cancer metastasis and regulation of the endocrine system. GPR54 activation by endogenous ligands attenuates the mobility of carcinomas and stimulates the secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone. GPR54 agonists are, therefore, potential therapeutic candidates for cancer metastasis and hormonal diseases. Pentapeptide derivatives of kisspeptin C-terminus were identified as potent GPR54 agonists in our previous studies. In the present study, we investigated the structure-activity relationship of a variety of pentapeptides having various fluorine-substituted benzoyl groups at the N-terminus. Among these, a 4-fluorobenzoyl derivative was the most potent agonist. On the other hand, the derivatives having multiple fluoro-substituting groups showed less binding affinity. NMR analysis of these peptides and their N-terminal partial structures suggested that fluorine substituents affect the benzoyl conformation. o-Monofluorobenzoyl is likely to be in a coplanar conformation due to the intramolecular CF--HN hydrogen bonding between o-fluorine and amide hydrogen; the o,o-difluorobenzoyl moiety exists in a distorted conformation probably due to the steric hindrance and/or electrostatic repulsion between two o-fluorine atoms and carbonyl oxygen. Copyright (c) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. 28 CFR 54.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 54.440 Health and insurance... students of one sex than of the other, including family planning services. However, any recipient that...

  11. 43 CFR 6.54 - Use or manufacture by or for the Government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use or manufacture by or for the... REGULATIONS Licenses § 6.54 Use or manufacture by or for the Government. A license is not required with respect to the manufacture or use of any invention assigned or required to be assigned without...

  12. 40 CFR 53.54 - Test for proper sampler operation following power interruptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... are to be recorded with an analog recording device, the accuracy of the entire instrument-recorder... Equivalent Methods for PM2.5 or PM10â2.5 § 53.54 Test for proper sampler operation following power... performance parameters tested are: (i) Proper flow rate performance of the sampler. (ii) Accuracy of the...

  13. 46 CFR 54.01-5 - Scope (modifies U-1 and U-2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS... Other: (a) Fired thermal fluid heaters: All 52 63 (b) Unfired steam boiler: More than 206 kPa (30 psig... boiler: More than 103 kPa (15 psig) 4 54 NA 1 Including exhaust gas types. 2 Boilers with heat input...

  14. 28 CFR 54.535 - Effect of state or local law or other requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 54.535 Effect... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effect of state or local law or other...

  15. 7 CFR 54.1014 - Accessibility of equipment and utensils; access to establishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accessibility of equipment and utensils; access to..., Processing, and Packaging of Livestock and Poultry Products § 54.1014 Accessibility of equipment and utensils; access to establishments. (a) The applicant shall cause equipment and utensils to be made easily...

  16. Determination of Ar(3p^54s) number densities in an inductively coupled plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, R. O.; Boffard, John B.; Lin, Chun C.; Wendt, A. E.

    2009-10-01

    Metastable and resonance level atoms can build to substantial number densities in laboratory plasmas and play an important role in various dynamical processes within the plasma. We have measured number densities of the four Ar(3p^54s) levels using two independent optical techniques for a range of source pressures (1-25 mTorr) in an Ar inductively coupled plasma (ICP). In the first technique, radiation from a Xe arc lamp is passed through the plasma and the resulting (white light) absorption dips yield number densities. The second method employs a simplified radiation trapping model (based on a photon escape factor) to exploit changes in observed branching fractions of optical emissions corresponding to an array of 3p^54p ->3p^54s transitions, which are sensitive to number densities of the 3p^54s levels via reabsorption. Results of these two methods and a related method developed by Schulze et al.footnotetextM Schulze et al., J Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41, 065206 (2008) are shown to be consistent, validating use of the emission technique for measuring number densities of excited species. We also present similar measurements of the four levels of the Ne(2p^53s) configuration in a pure Ne plasma.

  17. 46 CFR 54.25-25 - Welding of quenched and tempered steels (modifies UHT-82).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Welding of quenched and tempered steels (modifies UHT-82... ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Construction With Carbon, Alloy, and Heat Treated Steels § 54.25-25 Welding of quenched and tempered steels (modifies UHT-82). (a) The qualification of welding procedures, welders, and...

  18. 42 CFR 136.54 - Life of the mother would be endangered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH Abortions and Related Medical Services in Indian Health Service Facilities and Indian Health Service Programs § 136.54 Life of the mother would be..., that “on the basis of my professional judgment the life of the mother would be endangered if the fetus...

  19. 42 CFR 136a.54 - Life of the mother would be endangered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH Abortions and Related Medical Services in Indian Health Service Facilities and Indian Health Service Programs § 136a.54 Life of the mother would be..., that “on the basis of my professional judgement the life of the mother would be endangered if the fetus...

  20. 7 CFR 54.13 - Accessibility and refrigeration of products; access to establishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accessibility and refrigeration of products; access to... INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) MEATS, PREPARED MEATS, AND MEAT PRODUCTS (GRADING, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) Regulations Service § 54.13 Accessibility and refrigeration of products; access to establishments. (a) The...

  1. Stapedotomy and its effect on hearing – our experience with 54 cases

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: This study reviews the cases of stapedotomy and evaluates its effectiveness at improving hearing loss in patients with otosclerosis. Materials and methods: Retrospective review of patients' records who had clinical and audiometric diagnosis of otosclerosis from January to December 2012. Results: A total of 54 ...

  2. 19 CFR 171.54 - Substitute res in an administrative forfeiture action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substitute res in an administrative forfeiture... Procedures § 171.54 Substitute res in an administrative forfeiture action. (a) Substitute res. Where property... will be released to the owner or interested party subsequent to tender of the substitute res. (b...

  3. 36 CFR 72.54 - Rehabilitation and Innovation grants-full application process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rehabilitation and Innovation..., Approval and Administration § 72.54 Rehabilitation and Innovation grants—full application process. Once a Rehabilitation or Innovation proposal has received a tentative grant offer, applicants will be responsible for...

  4. 47 CFR 54.101 - Supported services for rural, insular and high cost areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Services Designated for Support § 54.101 Supported... services or functionalities shall be supported by federal universal service support mechanisms: (1) Voice..., information contained in directory listings; and (9) Toll limitation for qualifying low-income consumers. Toll...

  5. 47 CFR 54.416 - Certification of consumer Qualification for Link Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Universal Service Support for Low-Income Consumers § 54.416 Certification of consumer Qualification for Link Up. Consumers qualifying under an income-based criterion must present documentation of their household income prior to enrollment in Link Up consistent with...

  6. 47 CFR 54.701 - Administrator of universal service support mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... in connection with the high cost and low income support mechanism, the interstate access universal... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administrator of universal service support... CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Administration § 54.701 Administrator of universal service...

  7. 47 CFR 54.413 - Reimbursement for revenue forgone in offering a Link Up program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Universal Service Support for Low-Income Consumers... telecommunications carriers may receive universal service support reimbursement for the revenue they forgo in... interest, in conformity with § 54.411. (b) In order to receive universal service support reimbursement for...

  8. 28 CFR 54.550 - Sex as a bona fide occupational qualification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sex as a bona fide occupational... ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 54.550 Sex as a...

  9. 47 CFR 54.805 - Zone and study area above benchmark revenues calculated by the Administrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Zone and study area above benchmark revenues... Mechanism § 54.805 Zone and study area above benchmark revenues calculated by the Administrator. (a) The following steps shall be performed by the Administrator to determine Zone Above Benchmark Revenues for each...

  10. 12 CFR 223.54 - What advertisements and statements are prohibited by section 23B?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What advertisements and statements are... (REGULATION W) General Provisions of Section 23B § 223.54 What advertisements and statements are prohibited by section 23B? (a) In general. A member bank and its affiliates may not publish any advertisement or enter...

  11. Vibrio fischeri σ54 Controls Motility, Biofilm Formation, Luminescence, and Colonization

    OpenAIRE

    Wolfe, Alan J.; Millikan, Deborah S.; Campbell, Joy M.; Visick, Karen L.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrated that the putative Vibrio fischeri rpoN gene, which encodes σ54, controls flagellar biogenesis, biofilm development, and bioluminescence. We also show that rpoN plays a requisite role initiating the symbiotic association of V. fischeri with juveniles of the squid Euprymna scolopes.

  12. 19 CFR 54.5 - Scope of exemptions; nondeposit of estimated duty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Scope of exemptions; nondeposit of estimated duty...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CERTAIN IMPORTATIONS TEMPORARILY FREE OF DUTY Metal Articles Imported to Be Used... Processing Which Renders Them Fit Only for the Recovery of the Metal Content § 54.5 Scope of exemptions...

  13. Riik nõuab Weroli endiselt juhilt 54 miljonit krooni / Mirko Ojakivi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ojakivi, Mirko

    2006-01-01

    Advokaadibüroo Laus & Partnerid koostatud õiguslikust analüüsist, milles käsitletakse Erki Aaviku tegevust AS-i Werol Tehased juhatuse liikmena. Riik on esitanud avalduse tsiviilhagi algatamise kohta E. Aavikult kahju väljanõudmiseks 54 miljoni krooni ulatuses, AS Biodiesel nõuab kohtu kaudu Werolilt 140 miljonit krooni. Lisa: Weroli kohal taas pankrotioht

  14. 10 CFR 9.54 - Verification of identity of individuals making requests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... by an appropriate method listed in § 9.6. (c) Verification of parentage or guardianship. In addition... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Verification of identity of individuals making requests. 9... About Them § 9.54 Verification of identity of individuals making requests. (a) Identification...

  15. 75 FR 54 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans and Designations of Areas for Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-04

    ... [Federal Register Volume 75, Number 1 (Monday, January 4, 2010)] [Rules and Regulations] [Pages 54-56] [FR Doc No: E9-31083] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R04-OAR-2009-0561-200929; FRL-9098-8] Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans and Designations of Areas for Air...

  16. A 54 year analysis of articles from Mpilo Central Hospital, Bulawayo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PubMed and Google Scholar were searched to obtain articles originating from Mpilo Central Hospital, Bulawayo, Zimbabwe - 1958 to August 2011 (54 years). 168 articles cited 999 times were retrieved giving about 6 citations per article. Analysis of publication trends over time as well as publication avenues is made.

  17. [Ovarian clear cell carcinoma derived from endometriotic cyst: a clinicopathological analysis of 54 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qin; Lu, Yingying; Rao, Yamin; Ning, Yan; Qu, Yuqing; Wang, Li; Zhou, Xianrong

    2015-11-01

    To clarify the clinicopathological features of ovarian clear cell carcinoma derived from endometriotic cyst (EC-OCCC). Totally 54 cases of EC-OCCC were recruited in the current retrospective study. The relation between ages, clinical symptoms and signs, surgical and pathological stages, serum CA125, findings of ultrasound, treatments and the sites of tumors, macro- and micro-features and expression of immunostainings were analyzed. (1) Clinical features: the ages of patients were (50±6) years old (range 31-62 years old). Pelvic mass was the major complaint of 50 patients (93% , 50/54). Forty-five cases belonged to International federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage I, 4 cases were stage II and another 5 cases were stage III. Serum CA125 was elevated in 21 cases (54%, 21/39) before therapy. Doppler ultrasound showed 46 cases (85%, 46/54) had solid masses in pelvis. (2) Pathological findings: 52 cases (96%, 52/54) had their tumor unilaterally, and 2 cases (4%, 2/54) occurred bilaterally. The maximal diameters of endometriotic cyst (EC) ranged from 1.5 to 23.0 cm and maximal diameters of ovarian clear cell carcinoma (OCCC) components were from 0.5 to 12.0 cm. Fifty-one cases (94%, 51/54) had their tumor within EC, which showed focally irregular protrudings, grey-white papillae or solid nodules attached to the cyst wall. Three cases (6%, 3/54) appeared as irregular thickened wall of the cysts, ranged from 1.5 to 6.0 cm in the maximal length, with the microscopic features of EC and OCCC and the transitional areas between the 2 morphologies. All cases expressed cytokeratin (CK) 7 and pan-CK AE1/AE3, 17 cases (33%, 17/51) expressed ER and 5 cases (10%, 5/51) expressed PR. TP53 showed mutational phenotype in 19 cases (36%, 19/53). Sixteen cases (30%, 16/54) combined with uterine adenomyosis and 25 cases (46%, 25/54) with endometriosis at other sites. (3) Survival survey: during the period of 39.1 months follow-up, 3 cases relapsed and 2 cases died. (4

  18. GPR54 (KISS1R) transactivates EGFR to promote breast cancer cell invasiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajac, Mateusz; Law, Jeffrey; Cvetkovic, Dragana Donna; Pampillo, Macarena; McColl, Lindsay; Pape, Cynthia; Di Guglielmo, Gianni M; Postovit, Lynne M; Babwah, Andy V; Bhattacharya, Moshmi

    2011-01-01

    Kisspeptins (Kp), peptide products of the Kisspeptin-1 (KISS1) gene are endogenous ligands for a G protein-coupled receptor 54 (GPR54). Previous findings have shown that KISS1 acts as a metastasis suppressor in numerous cancers in humans. However, recent studies have demonstrated that an increase in KISS1 and GPR54 expression in human breast tumors correlates with higher tumor grade and metastatic potential. At present, whether or not Kp signaling promotes breast cancer cell invasiveness, required for metastasis and the underlying mechanisms, is unknown. We have found that kisspeptin-10 (Kp-10), the most potent Kp, stimulates the invasion of human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 and Hs578T cells using Matrigel-coated Transwell chamber assays and induces the formation of invasive stellate structures in three-dimensional invasion assays. Furthermore, Kp-10 stimulated an increase in matrix metalloprotease (MMP)-9 activity. We also found that Kp-10 induced the transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Knockdown of the GPCR scaffolding protein, β-arrestin 2, inhibited Kp-10-induced EGFR transactivation as well as Kp-10 induced invasion of breast cancer cells via modulation of MMP-9 secretion and activity. Finally, we found that the two receptors associate with each other under basal conditions, and FRET analysis revealed that GPR54 interacts directly with EGFR. The stability of the receptor complex formation was increased upon treatment of cells by Kp-10. Taken together, our findings suggest a novel mechanism by which Kp signaling via GPR54 stimulates breast cancer cell invasiveness.

  19. Towards a unified grammatical model of sigma 70 and sigma 54 bacterial promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado-Vides, J

    1996-01-01

    The organization and integration of large amounts of information on the regulation of gene expression requires new conceptual frameworks to facilitate the discovery of general principles underlying different mechanisms of gene regulation. I have developed a formalism based on generative grammar to explicitly describe pertinent regulatory properties of mechanisms of regulation. The formal proof that justifies the use of generative grammar has been made. We have collected and analyzed an exhaustive database of sigma 70 and sigma 54 promoters in E coli and Salmonella where there is sufficient knowledge on the regulation of these genes. This collection has supported the construction of a grammatical model of the sigma 70 type of promoters. The purpose of this paper is to present some ideas towards the construction of a unified grammar capable of describing regulatory arrays for the sigma 70 and the sigma 54 bacterial promoters. This model is not intended to simply generate the set of binding sites of regulators distributed in a linear array in the DNA. It should also reflect the biological differences on the regulatory mechanisms of these collections, as understood from the analysis that we have done on these collections (Gralla and Collado-Vides, 1996). Based on the biology of these two types of bacterial promoters, a hypothesis is proposed stipulating that in principle it is feasible to activate sigma 70 promoters at a distance, an exclusive property of the sigma 54 class shared with promoters of higher organisms. The model presented assumes this hypothesis is correct. The ideas presented support the beginning of a unique 'universal' grammar for the sigma 70 and sigma 54 promoters. The specification of certain parameters would derive the respective specific sigma 70 and sigma 54 grammatical models.

  20. GPR54 (KISS1R transactivates EGFR to promote breast cancer cell invasiveness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateusz Zajac

    Full Text Available Kisspeptins (Kp, peptide products of the Kisspeptin-1 (KISS1 gene are endogenous ligands for a G protein-coupled receptor 54 (GPR54. Previous findings have shown that KISS1 acts as a metastasis suppressor in numerous cancers in humans. However, recent studies have demonstrated that an increase in KISS1 and GPR54 expression in human breast tumors correlates with higher tumor grade and metastatic potential. At present, whether or not Kp signaling promotes breast cancer cell invasiveness, required for metastasis and the underlying mechanisms, is unknown. We have found that kisspeptin-10 (Kp-10, the most potent Kp, stimulates the invasion of human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 and Hs578T cells using Matrigel-coated Transwell chamber assays and induces the formation of invasive stellate structures in three-dimensional invasion assays. Furthermore, Kp-10 stimulated an increase in matrix metalloprotease (MMP-9 activity. We also found that Kp-10 induced the transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR. Knockdown of the GPCR scaffolding protein, β-arrestin 2, inhibited Kp-10-induced EGFR transactivation as well as Kp-10 induced invasion of breast cancer cells via modulation of MMP-9 secretion and activity. Finally, we found that the two receptors associate with each other under basal conditions, and FRET analysis revealed that GPR54 interacts directly with EGFR. The stability of the receptor complex formation was increased upon treatment of cells by Kp-10. Taken together, our findings suggest a novel mechanism by which Kp signaling via GPR54 stimulates breast cancer cell invasiveness.

  1. Bacillus mesophilum sp. nov., strain IITR-54T, a novel 4-chlorobiphenyl dechlorinating bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manickam, Natesan; Singh, Nitin Kumar; Bajaj, Abhay; Kumar, Rajendran Mathan; Kaur, Gurwinder; Kaur, Navjot; Bala, Monu; Kumar, Anand; Mayilraj, Shanmugam

    2014-07-01

    The taxonomic position of a Gram-positive, endospore-forming bacterium isolated from soil sample collected from an industrial site was analyzed by a polyphasic approach. The strain designated as IITR-54T matched most of the phenotypic and chemical characteristics of the genus Bacillus and represents a novel species. It was found to biodegrade 4-chlorobiphenyl through dechlorination and was isolated through enrichment procedure from an aged polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated soil. Both resting cell assay and growth under aerobic liquid conditions using 4-chlorobiphenyl as sole source of carbon along with 0.01% yeast extract, formation of chloride ions was measured. 16S rRNA (1,489 bases) nucleotide sequence of isolated strain was compared with those of closely related Bacillus type strains and confirmed that the strain belongs to the genus Bacillus. Strain IITR-54T differs from all other species of Bacillus by at least 2.1% at the 16S rRNA level, and the moderately related species are Bacillus oceanisediminis (97.9%) followed by Bacillus infantis (97.7%), Bacillus firmus (97.4%), Bacillus drentensis (97.3%), Bacillus circulans (97.2%), Bacillus soli (97.1%), Bacillus horneckiae (97.1%), Bacillus pocheonensis (97.1%) and Bacillus bataviensis (97.1%), respectively. The cell wall peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid and the major isoprenoid quinone was MK-7. Major fatty acids are iso-C15:0 (32.4%) and anteiso-C15:0 (27.4%). Predominant polar lipids are diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine. The results of physiological and biochemical tests allowed the genotypic and phenotypic distinctiveness of strain IITR-54T with its phylogenetic relatives and suggest that the strain IITR-54T should be recognized as a novel species, for which the name Bacillus mesophilum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is IITR-54T (=MTCC 11060T=JCM 19208T).

  2. MSQoL-54 predicts change in fatigue after inpatient rehabilitation for people with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drulovic, Jelena; Bursac, Lidija Obradovic; Milojkovic, Dragana; Tepavcevic, Darija Kisic; Gazibara, Tatjana; Pekmezovic, Tatjana

    2013-03-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the impact of a short-term inpatient rehabilitation program on fatigue in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and to assess whether the scales of Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life 54 (MSQoL-54) could predict change in fatigue after rehabilitation. Included in the study were 151 moderately disabled MS patients admitted for 3 weeks of inpatient rehabilitation. Fatigue (Fatigue Severity Scale; FSS) was assessed at baseline and after treatment, and quality of life (MSQoL-54), disability (Expanded Disability Status Scale; EDSS) and depression (Beck Depression Inventory; BDI) were estimated at baseline. Sixty-four percentage of the subjects showed fatigue. Both EDSS (r = 0.720, p = 0.001) and BDI (r = 0.655, p = 0.001) scores showed statistically significant positive correlation with FSS scores. Significant negative correlation was demonstrated between FSS and both, Physical Health Composite (PHC) and Mental Health Composite (MHC) scores of MSQoL-54 (r = -0.770, p = 0.001, and r = -0.646, p = 0.001, respectively). The mean FSS score significantly decreased by 0.19 ± 0.29 points in the fatigue group, immediately after rehabilitation. The multiple regression analyses with change of FSS as dependent variable and baseline scores of MSQoL-54 as independent variables showed statistically significant relation between change in fatigue and baseline PHC score (p = 0.034). Inpatient rehabilitation decreased MS patients' fatigue. Change in fatigue was predicted with certain domains of QoL at baseline.

  3. Estimating the cost-effectiveness of 54 weeks of infliximab for rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, John B; Singh, Gurkirpal; Kavanaugh, Arthur

    2002-10-01

    To estimate the cost-effectiveness of infliximab plus methotrexate for active, refractory rheumatoid arthritis. We projected the 54-week results from a randomized controlled trial of infliximab into lifetime economic and clinical outcomes using a Markov computer simulation model. Direct and indirect costs, quality of life, and disability estimates were based on trial results; Arthritis, Rheumatism, and Aging Medical Information System (ARAMIS) database outcomes; and published data. Results were discounted using the standard 3% rate. Because most well-accepted medical therapies have cost-effectiveness ratios below $50,000 to $100,000 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained, results below this range were considered to be "cost-effective." At 3 mg/kg, each infliximab infusion would cost $1393. When compared with methotrexate alone, 54 weeks of infliximab plus methotrexate decreased the likelihood of having advanced disability from 23% to 11% at the end of 54 weeks, which projected to a lifetime marginal cost-effectiveness ratio of $30,500 per discounted QALY gained, considering only direct medical costs. When applying a societal perspective and including indirect or productivity costs, the marginal cost-effectiveness ratio for infliximab was $9100 per discounted QALY gained. The results remained relatively unchanged with variation of model estimates over a broad range of values. Infliximab plus methotrexate for 54 weeks for rheumatoid arthritis should be cost-effective with its clinical benefit providing good value for the drug cost, especially when including productivity losses. Although infliximab beyond 54 weeks will likely be cost-effective, the economic and clinical benefit remains uncertain and will depend on long-term results of clinical trials.

  4. Twice-weekly administration of kisspeptin-54 for 8 weeks stimulates release of reproductive hormones in women with hypothalamic amenorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasena, C N; Nijher, G M K; Abbara, A; Murphy, K G; Lim, A; Patel, D; Mehta, A; Todd, C; Donaldson, M; Trew, G H; Ghatei, M A; Bloom, S R; Dhillo, W S

    2010-12-01

    Kisspeptin is a novel therapeutic target for infertility. A single kisspeptin-54 (KP-54) injection acutely stimulates the release of reproductive hormones in women with hypothalamic amenorrhea (HA), a commonly occurring condition characterized by absence of menstruation; however, twice-daily administration of KP-54 results in tachyphylaxis. We determined the time course of desensitization to twice-daily KP-54 injections, compared the effects of twice-daily and twice-weekly administration regimens of KP-54, and studied the effects of long-term twice-weekly administration of KP-54 on the release of reproductive hormones in women with HA. When KP-54 was administered twice daily, responsiveness to luteinizing hormone (LH) diminished gradually, whereas responsiveness to follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) was nearly abolished by day 2. Twice-weekly KP-54 administration resulted in only partial desensitization, in contrast to the complete tolerance achieved with twice-daily administration. Women with HA who were treated with twice-weekly KP-54 injections had significantly elevated levels of reproductive hormones after 8 weeks as compared with treatment with saline. No adverse effects were observed. This study provides novel pharmacological data on the effects of KP-54 on the release of reproductive hormones in women with HA.

  5. Distribution and postnatal development of Gpr54 gene expression in mouse brain and gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbison, Allan E; de Tassigny, Xavier d'Anglemont; Doran, Joanne; Colledge, William H

    2010-01-01

    Kisspeptin and G protein-coupled receptor 54 (GPR54) are now acknowledged to play essential roles in the neural regulation of fertility. Using a transgenic Gpr54 LacZ knock-in mouse model, this study aimed to provide 1) a detailed map of cells expressing Gpr54 in the mouse brain and 2) an analysis of Gpr54 expression in GnRH neurons across postnatal development. The highest density of Gpr54-expressing cells in the mouse central nervous system was found in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus beginning on postnatal d 6 (P6). Abundant Gpr54 expression was also noted in the septum, rostral preoptic area (rPOA), anteroventral nucleus of the thalamus, posterior hypothalamus, periaqueductal grey, supramammillary and pontine nuclei, and dorsal cochlear nucleus. No Gpr54 expression was detected in the arcuate and rostral periventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus. Dual-labeling experiments showed that essentially all Gpr54-expressing cells in the rPOA were GnRH neurons. Analyses of mice at birth, P1, P5, P20, and P30 and as adults revealed a gradual increase in the percentage of GnRH neurons expressing Gpr54 from approximately 40% at birth through to approximately 70% from P20 onward. Whereas GnRH neurons located in the septum displayed a consistent increase across this time, GnRH neurons in the rPOA showed a sharp reduction in Gpr54 expression after birth (to approximately 10% at P5) before increasing to the 70% expression levels by P20. Together these findings provide an anatomical basis for the exploration of Gpr54 actions outside the reproductive axis and reveal a complex temporal and spatial pattern of Gpr54 gene expression in developing GnRH neurons.

  6. Molecular cloning of kisspeptin receptor genes (gpr54-1 and gpr54-2) and their expression profiles in the brain of a tropical damselfish during different gonadal stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Satoshi; Hur, Sung-Pyo; Takeuchi, Yuki; Bouchekioua, Selma; Takemura, Akihiro

    2017-01-01

    The kisspeptin receptor (GPR54) mediates neuroendocrine control of kisspeptin in the brain and acts as a gateway for a pulsatile release of hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone. This study aimed to clone two GPR54 genes (gpr54-1 and gpr54-2) from the brain of the sapphire devil Chrysiptera cyanea, a tropical damselfish, and to study their involvement in reproduction. The partial sequences of the sapphire devil gpr54-1 cDNA (1059bp) and gpr54-2 cDNA (1098bp) each had an open reading frame encoding a protein of 353 and 366 amino acids, respectively, both of which had structural features of a G-protein-coupled receptor. The expression of gpr54-1 mRNA was observed in the diencephalon and telencephalon, and gpr54-2 mRNA was found in the optic tectum of sapphire devil. When gpr54-1 and gpr54-2 mRNA levels were examined in the brain of sapphire devil by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), they were found to increase during late vitellogenesis and post-spawning. Treatment of fish with estradiol-17β (Ε2) resulted in an increase in gpr54-1 and gpr54-2 expression in the brain of sapphire devil. Thus, kisspeptin receptors likely mediate the activity of kisspeptin in the brain and are involved in controlling reproductive events in a tropical damselfish. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Synthesis and structure-activity relationships of 2-acylamino-4,6-diphenylpyridine derivatives as novel antagonists of GPR54.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Toshitake; Sasaki, Satoshi; Tomita, Naoki; Fukui, Seiji; Kuroda, Noritaka; Nakayama, Masaharu; Kiba, Atsushi; Takatsu, Yoshihiro; Ohtaki, Tetsuya; Itoh, Fumio; Baba, Atsuo

    2010-06-01

    GPR54 is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) which was formerly an orphan receptor. Recent functional study of GPR54 revealed that the receptor has an essential role to modulate sex-hormones including GnRH. Though antagonists of GPR54 are expected to be novel drugs for sex-hormone dependent diseases such as prostate cancer or endometriosis, small molecule GPR54 antagonists have not been reported. We have synthesized a series of 2-acylamino-4,6-diphenylpyridines to identify potent GPR54 antagonists. Detailed structure-activity relationship studies led to compound 9l with an IC(50) value of 3.7nM in a GPR54 binding assay, and apparent antagonistic activity in a cellular functional assay.

  8. A GPR54-Activating Mutation in a Patient with Central Precocious Puberty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teles, Milena Gurgel; Bianco, Suzy D.C.; Brito, Vinicius Nahime; Trarbach, Ericka B.; Kuohung, Wendy; Xu, Shuyun; Seminara, Stephanie B.; Mendonca, Berenice B.; Kaiser, Ursula B.; Latronico, Ana Claudia

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Gonadotropin-dependent, or central, precocious puberty is caused by early maturation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis. In girls, this condition is most often idiopathic. Recently, a G protein–coupled receptor, GPR54, and its ligand, kisspeptin, were described as an excitatory neuroregulator system for the secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). In this study, we have identified an autosomal dominant GPR54 mutation — the substitution of proline for arginine at codon 386 (Arg386Pro) — in an adopted girl with idiopathic central precocious puberty (whose biologic family was not available for genetic studies). In vitro studies have shown that this mutation leads to prolonged activation of intracellular signaling pathways in response to kisspeptin. The Arg386Pro mutant appears to be associated with central precocious puberty. PMID:18272894

  9. Are shocks to renewable energy consumption permanent or temporary? Evidence from 54 developing and developed countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Ender; Gozgor, Giray

    2018-02-01

    The renewable energy sources are considered as the important factor to decrease the level of carbon emissions and to promote the global green economy. Understanding the dynamics of renewable energy consumption, this paper analyzes whether there is a unit root in renewable energy consumption in 54 countries over the period 1971-2016. To this end, the unit root test of Narayan-Popp with two endogenous (unknown) breaks is implemented. The paper finds that renewable energy consumption series are stationary around a level and the time trend in 45 of 54 countries. In other words, renewable energy consumption follows a unit root process only in nine countries: Brazil, China, Colombia, India, Israel, Japan, the Netherlands, Spain, and Turkey. The evidence implies that renewable energy demand policies, which aimed to decrease the carbon emissions, will only have permanent effects in those nine countries.

  10. Comparison of Uncertainty of Two Precipitation Prediction Models at Los Alamos National Lab Technical Area 54

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shield, Stephen Allan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dai, Zhenxue [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-08-18

    Meteorological inputs are an important part of subsurface flow and transport modeling. The choice of source for meteorological data used as inputs has significant impacts on the results of subsurface flow and transport studies. One method to obtain the meteorological data required for flow and transport studies is the use of weather generating models. This paper compares the difference in performance of two weather generating models at Technical Area 54 of Los Alamos National Lab. Technical Area 54 is contains several waste pits for low-level radioactive waste and is the site for subsurface flow and transport studies. This makes the comparison of the performance of the two weather generators at this site particularly valuable.

  11. Fatigue life investigation of UIC 54 rail profile for high speed rail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurubaran, P.; Afendi, M.; Nur Fareisha, M. A.; Majid, M. S. Abdul; Haftirman, I.; Rahman, M. T. A.

    2017-10-01

    This study is to investigate the fatigue life of high speed rail in Malaysia. This paper describes about the experimental and simulation analysis investigation on fatigue life of rail profile UIC 54 using bulk specimen according to ASTM E 466-15 standard. The Fatigue life testing was performed in the fatigue testing machine (Instron 8800) 100 kN. Meanwhile, the fatigue life analysis was performed in ANSYS Workbench 14.5. Furthermore, the stress levels for experimental testing were applied as 16.7%, 25%, 35%, 50%, 58.3%, 66.77% and 75% with machine frequency of 20 Hz. Apart from that, the total fatigue life cycles for rail profile UIC 54 were acquired from both experimental and simulation. The fatigue life S-N curves were plotted and validated with the results of the simulation analysis with experimental results.

  12. GPR54-dependent stimulation of luteinizing hormone secretion by neurokinin B in prepubertal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grachev, Pasha; Li, Xiao Feng; Lin, Yuan Shao; Hu, Ming Han; Elsamani, Leena; Paterson, Stewart J; Millar, Robert P; Lightman, Stafford L; O'Byrne, Kevin T

    2012-01-01

    Kisspeptin, neurokinin B (NKB) and dynorphin A (Dyn) are coexpressed within KNDy neurons that project from the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) to GnRH neurons and numerous other hypothalamic targets. Each of the KNDy neuropeptides has been implicated in regulating pulsatile GnRH/LH secretion. In isolation, kisspeptin is generally known to stimulate, and Dyn to inhibit LH secretion. However, the NKB analog, senktide, has variously been reported to inhibit, stimulate or have no effect on LH secretion. In prepubertal mice, rats and monkeys, senktide stimulates LH secretion. Furthermore, in the monkey this effect is dependent on kisspeptin signaling through its receptor, GPR54. The present study tested the hypotheses that the stimulatory effects of NKB on LH secretion in intact rats are mediated by kisspeptin/GPR54 signaling and are independent of a Dyn tone. To test this, ovarian-intact prepubertal rats were subjected to frequent automated blood sampling before and after intracerebroventricular injections of KNDy neuropeptide analogs. Senktide robustly induced single LH pulses, while neither the GPR54 antagonist, Kp-234, nor the Dyn agonist and antagonist (U50488 and nor-BNI, respectively) had an effect on basal LH levels. However, Kp-234 potently blocked the senktide-induced LH pulses. Modulation of the Dyn tone by U50488 or nor-BNI did not affect the senktide-induced LH pulses. These data demonstrate that the stimulatory effect of NKB on LH secretion in intact female rats is dependent upon kisspeptin/GPR54 signaling, but not on Dyn signaling.

  13. Kisspeptin and GPR54: Discovery of a Novel Pathway in Reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seminara, S. B.; Crowley, W. F.

    2010-01-01

    In order to find novel modulators of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion, genetic tools were employed in patients with idiopathic hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism (IHH). Mutations in a G-protein coupled receptor, GPR54, were identified, making this receptor a genetic determinant and indisputable gatekeeper of normal reproductive function. This article places these investigations into historical context and reviews some of the new findings relevant to this pathway. PMID:18601695

  14. Extensive sequence variation in rice blast resistance gene Pi54 makes it broad spectrum in nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shallu eThakur

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Rice blast resistant gene, Pi54 cloned from rice line, Tetep, is effective against diverse isolates of Magnaporthe oryzae. In this study, we prospected the allelic variants of the dominant blast resistance gene from a set of 92 rice lines to determine the nucleotide diversity, pattern of its molecular evolution, phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary dynamics, and to develop allele specific markers. High quality sequences were generated for homologs of Pi54 gene. Using comparative sequence analysis, InDels of variable sizes in all the alleles were observed. Profiling of the selected sites of SNP (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism and amino acids (N sites ≥ 10 exhibited constant frequency distribution of mutational and substitutional sites between the resistance and susceptible rice lines, respectively. A total of 50 new haplotypes based on the nucleotide polymorphism was also identified. A unique haplotype (H_3 was found to be linked to all the resistant alleles isolated from indica rice lines. Unique leucine zipper and tyrosine sulfation sites were identified in the predicted Pi54 proteins. Selection signals were observed in entire coding sequence of resistance alleles, as compared to LRR domains for susceptible alleles. This is a maiden report of extensive variability of Pi54 alleles in different landraces and cultivated varieties, possibly, attributing broad-spectrum resistance to Magnaporthe oryzae. The sequence variation in two consensus region: 163 bp and 144 bp were used for the development of allele specific DNA markers. Validated markers can be used for the selection and identification of better allele(s and their introgression in commercial rice cultivars employing marker assisted selection.

  15. Ovarian Cyst in Crossbred Cattle of Temperate Region- A Retrospective Study of 54 Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Hiranya Kumar Bhattacharyya; Mujeeb -u- Rehman Fazili; Fayaz Ahmad Bhat

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted with an objective to extract all possible interrelated etiological factors of cystic ovary and to evaluate the best treatment protocol in dairy cattle under field condition of temperate region. A total of 54 cattle (47 cows and 7 heifers), suffering from ovarian cyst were retrospectively used to study prevalence and outcome of the disease over a period of 5 years. Highest prevalence was recorded in crossbred Jersey, in 2nd lactation and during summer. Major cli...

  16. GPR54-dependent stimulation of luteinizing hormone secretion by neurokinin B in prepubertal rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasha Grachev

    Full Text Available Kisspeptin, neurokinin B (NKB and dynorphin A (Dyn are coexpressed within KNDy neurons that project from the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC to GnRH neurons and numerous other hypothalamic targets. Each of the KNDy neuropeptides has been implicated in regulating pulsatile GnRH/LH secretion. In isolation, kisspeptin is generally known to stimulate, and Dyn to inhibit LH secretion. However, the NKB analog, senktide, has variously been reported to inhibit, stimulate or have no effect on LH secretion. In prepubertal mice, rats and monkeys, senktide stimulates LH secretion. Furthermore, in the monkey this effect is dependent on kisspeptin signaling through its receptor, GPR54. The present study tested the hypotheses that the stimulatory effects of NKB on LH secretion in intact rats are mediated by kisspeptin/GPR54 signaling and are independent of a Dyn tone. To test this, ovarian-intact prepubertal rats were subjected to frequent automated blood sampling before and after intracerebroventricular injections of KNDy neuropeptide analogs. Senktide robustly induced single LH pulses, while neither the GPR54 antagonist, Kp-234, nor the Dyn agonist and antagonist (U50488 and nor-BNI, respectively had an effect on basal LH levels. However, Kp-234 potently blocked the senktide-induced LH pulses. Modulation of the Dyn tone by U50488 or nor-BNI did not affect the senktide-induced LH pulses. These data demonstrate that the stimulatory effect of NKB on LH secretion in intact female rats is dependent upon kisspeptin/GPR54 signaling, but not on Dyn signaling.

  17. A 54 Years Old Male Patient with Tuberkulosis and Arthritis Gout

    OpenAIRE

    Siahaan, Halimatus Sahdiah

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) was an infectious disease of lung caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosa found in many developing countries such as Indonesia and usually occurs in children and adults. Reported cases of pulmonary tuberculosis accompanied with gout arthritis in male patients aged 54 years with complaints of cough since ± 6 months ago, sweat at night, and drastically reduced weight. From the results obtained pulmonary physical examination: rhonki + / +, wheezing - / -, there was a swelling of th...

  18. Large glitch from PSR 0355+54 and its post-glitch relaxation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alpar, M.A.; Cheng, K.S.; Pines, David; Shaham, Jacob

    1988-07-01

    The recently observed large glitch of PSR 0355 + 54 and its post-glitch relaxation are interpreted within the vortex creep model applied previously to the post-glitch timing data for the Crab and Vela pulsars and for PSR 0525 + 21. A linear response regime of vortex creep is shown to explain the post-glitch observations and is likely to be operative in parts of the neutron star crust superfluid.

  19. Tetraaquabis{3-carboxy-5-[(4-carboxyphenyldiazenyl]benzoato-κO1}cobalt(II dihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Bai

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the title complex, [Co(C15H9N2O62(H2O4]·2H2O, the CoII ion is located on an inversion center and is coordinated by two monodentate 3-carboxy-5-[(4-carboxyphenyldiazenyl]benzoate ligands and four water molecules in a distorted octahedral geometry. In the crystal, intermolecular O—H...O hydrogen bonds link the molecules into a three-dimensional supramolecular network.

  20. HIV/STI risk-reduction intervention efficacy with South African adolescents over 54 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemmott, John B; Jemmott, Loretta S; O'Leary, Ann; Ngwane, Zolani; Lewis, David A; Bellamy, Scarlett L; Icard, Larry D; Carty, Craig; Heeren, G Anita; Tyler, Joanne C; Makiwane, Monde B; Teitelman, Anne

    2015-06-01

    Little research has tested HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) risk-reduction interventions' effects on early adolescents as they age into middle and late adolescence. This study tested whether intervention-induced reductions in unprotected intercourse during a 12-month period endured over a 54-month period and whether the intervention reduced the prevalence of STIs, which increase risk for HIV. Grade 6 learners (mean age = 12.4 years) participated in a 12-month trial in Eastern Cape Province, South Africa, in which 9 matched pairs of schools were randomly selected and within pairs randomized to a theory-based HIV/STI risk-reduction intervention or an attention-control intervention. They completed 42- and 54-month postintervention measures of unprotected intercourse (the primary outcome), other sexual behaviors, theoretical constructs, and, at 42- and 54-month follow-up only, biologically confirmed curable STIs (chlamydial infection, gonorrhea, and trichomoniasis) and herpes simplex virus 2. The HIV/STI risk-reduction intervention reduced unprotected intercourse averaged over the entire follow-up period (OR = 0.42, 95% CI [0.22, 0.84]), an effect not significantly reduced at 42- and 54-month follow-up compared with 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-ups. The intervention caused positive changes on theoretical constructs averaged over the 5 follow-ups, although most effects weakened at long-term follow-up. Although the intervention's main effect on STIs was nonsignificant, an Intervention Condition × Time interaction revealed that it significantly reduced curable STIs at 42-month follow-up in adolescents who reported sexual experience. These results suggest that theory-based behavioral interventions with early adolescents can have long-lived effects in the context of a generalized severe HIV epidemic. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Efficacy of Isotretinoin and Acitretin in Treatment of Frontal Fibrosing Alopecia: Retrospective Analysis of 54 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakowska, Adriana; Gradzińska, Agnieszka; Olszewska, Małgorzata; Rudnicka, Lidia

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to assess the efficacy of systemic retinoids in treating frontal fibrosing alopecia (FFA). It was based on a retrospective analysis of 54 female patients with FFA treated with: oral isotretinoin at the daily dose of 20 mg (29/54) or acitretin at the daily dose of 20 mg (11/54) or with oral finasteride 5 mg/daily (14/54). The study was conducted between 2007 and 2017. The basic of the study is the measurement of distance between the frontal hairline and the glabellar crease prior to the commencement of treatment and after 6, 12, and 24 months. The treatment with systemic retinoids lasted between 12 and 16 months (the mean duration of treatment was 13.5 months). The primary treatment goal was defined as no further progression of disease after 12 months of treatment, while the secondary treatment goal was defined as no further progression of disease following the discontinuation of systemic retinoids. The primary treatment goal was achieved by 76% (23/29) of patients treated with isotretinoin, 73% (8/11) of patients treated with acitretin, and 43% (6/14) of patients treated with finasteride. The secondary treatment goal was achieved by 72% (21/29) of patients treated with isotretinoin, 73% (8/11) of patients treated with acitretin, and 43% (6/14) of patients treated with finasteride. Thus, the administration of systemic retinoids may be beneficial for the stabilization of frontal hairline in patients with FFA. J Drugs Dermatol. 2017;16(10):988-992..

  2. Language impairment and right hemiparesis in a 54-year-old woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose eBiller

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A 54 year-old woman presented to the emergency room with 3 months of slurred speech, language problems, and right hemiparesis. Initial impression based on history, exam and imaging was brain abscess versus primary or metastatic neoplasm. Brain biopsy of the lesion and pathologic specimens were obtained. Below is a description of her presentation, hospital course, imaging, and pathology, as well as a short discussion of the final diagnosis.

  3. Differential regulation of GPR54 transcription by specificity protein-1 and partial estrogen response element in mouse pituitary cells

    OpenAIRE

    DeFino, Mia C.; Wacker, Jennifer L.; Lyssand, John S.; Wang, Edith H.; Hague, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Precise spatial and temporal expression of the recently identified G-protein coupled receptor GPR54 is critical for proper reproductive function and metastasis suppression. However, regulatory factors that control GPR54 expression remain unknown. Thus, the identification of these cis-acting DNA elements can provide insight into the role of GPR54 in reproduction and cancer. Using luciferase reporter, electrophoretic mobility shift, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, we demonstrate that ...

  4. First observation of 54Zn and its decay by two-proton emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, B; Bey, A; Canchel, G; Dossat, C; Fleury, A; Giovinazzo, J; Matea, I; Adimi, N; De Oliveira, F; Stefan, I; Georgiev, G; Grévy, S; Thomas, J C; Borcea, C; Cortina, D; Caamano, M; Stanoiu, M; Aksouh, F; Brown, B A; Barker, F C; Richter, W A

    2005-06-17

    The nucleus 54Zn has been observed for the first time in an experiment at the SISSI/LISE3 facility of GANIL in the quasifragmentation of a 58Ni beam at 74.5 MeV/nucleon in a (nat)Ni target. The fragments were analyzed by means of the ALPHA-LISE3 separator and implanted in a silicon-strip detector where correlations in space and time between implantation and subsequent decay events allowed us to generate almost background free decay spectra for about 25 different nuclei at the same time. Eight 54Zn implantation events were observed. From the correlated decay events, the half-life of 54Zn is determined to be 3.2(+1.8)(-0.8) ms. Seven of the eight implantations are followed by two-proton emission with a decay energy of 1.48(2) MeV. The decay energy and the partial half-life are compared to model predictions and allow for a test of these two-proton decay models.

  5. Propriedade Microestrutural do Refinamento da Liga Amorfa Al54Nb45B7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Nascimento

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The presence of niobium in the alloy creates regions of intermetallic phases contained in Al54Nb45B7 amorphous alloy which becomes a potent heterogeneous nucleation on the substrate for nucleation with dendritic presence of aluminum oxides due to diffusive processes on the surface of the amorphous alloy Al54Nb45B7. This alloy is extremely low cost, but with applications in many sectors of the chemical and petrochemical industry in emphasis because its mechanical deformation is high due to the presence of (Nb or B in the aluminum acting mainly as grain refiners to improve their mechanical and thermal properties by using the mechanical alloying. The combined use of Niobium and Boron (intermetallic phases are formed by adding powder of Al and Nb, instead of Niobium or Boron, individually, is a highly effective way to refine the grain size of alloy Al Nb-B in their microstructure without causing inconvenience in your network for unwanted deformations. To that end the present study compared the effect of grain refining promoted by the addition of niobium and the addition of Boron in Al54Nb45B5 obtained by high energy mill under argon atmosphere and analyzed by diffraction of X rays (XRD, scanning electron microscopy and Energy Dispersive (SEM / EDS. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17807/orbital.v8i3.808

  6. DNA recognition by a σ(54) transcriptional activator from Aquifex aeolicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidangos, Natasha K; Heideker, Johanna; Lyubimov, Artem; Lamers, Meindert; Huo, Yixin; Pelton, Jeffrey G; Ton, Jimmy; Gralla, Jay; Berger, James; Wemmer, David E

    2014-10-23

    Transcription initiation by bacterial σ(54)-polymerase requires the action of a transcriptional activator protein. Activators bind sequence-specifically upstream of the transcription initiation site via a DNA-binding domain (DBD). The structurally characterized DBDs from activators all belong to the Fis (factor for inversion stimulation) family of helix-turn-helix DNA-binding proteins. We report here structures of the free and DNA-bound forms of the DBD of NtrC4 (4DBD) from Aquifex aeolicus, a member of the NtrC family of σ(54) activators. Two NtrC4-binding sites were identified upstream (-145 and -85bp) from the start of the lpxC gene, which is responsible for the first committed step in lipid A biosynthesis. This is the first experimental evidence for σ(54) regulation in lpxC expression. 4DBD was crystallized both without DNA and in complex with the -145-binding site. The structures, together with biochemical data, indicate that NtrC4 binds to DNA in a manner that is similar to that of its close homolog, Fis. The greater sequence specificity for the binding of 4DBD relative to Fis seems to arise from a larger number of base-specific contacts contributing to affinity than for Fis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. 46 CFR 54.15-15 - Relief devices for unfired steam boilers, evaporators, and heat exchangers (modifies UG-126).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., and heat exchangers (modifies UG-126). 54.15-15 Section 54.15-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... devices for unfired steam boilers, evaporators, and heat exchangers (modifies UG-126). (a) An approved... more than 6 percent above the safety valve setting. (f) A heat exchanger with liquid in the shell and...

  8. 9 CFR 54.11 - Approval of laboratories to run official scrapie tests and official genotype tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... official scrapie tests and official genotype tests. 54.11 Section 54.11 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... laboratories to run official scrapie tests and official genotype tests. (a) State, Federal, and university laboratories, or in the case of genotype tests, private laboratories will be approved by the Administrator when...

  9. 46 CFR 54.25-20 - Low temperature operation-ferritic steels with properties enhanced by heat treatment (modifies...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... welding procedures, welders and weld-production testing for the steels of Table 54.25-20(a) must conform..., steel conforming to the specifications of Table 54.25-20(a) may be used in the fabrication of pressure... applicable specification and shall be suitable for the design stress levels adopted. The service temperature...

  10. 46 CFR 54.25-8 - Radiography (modifies UW-11(a), UCS-57, UNF-57, UHA-33, and UHT-57).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radiography (modifies UW-11(a), UCS-57, UNF-57, UHA-33, and UHT-57). 54.25-8 Section 54.25-8 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... Radiography (modifies UW-11(a), UCS-57, UNF-57, UHA-33, and UHT-57). (a) Full radiography is required for all...

  11. 50 CFR 23.54 - How long is a U.S. or foreign CITES document valid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How long is a U.S. or foreign CITES document valid? 23.54 Section 23.54 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE...

  12. Zebrafish P54 RNA helicases are cytoplasmic granule residents that are required for development and stress resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Zampedri

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Stress granules are cytoplasmic foci that directly respond to the protein synthesis status of the cell. Various environmental insults, such as oxidative stress or extreme heat, block protein synthesis; consequently, mRNA will stall in translation, and stress granules will immediately form and become enriched with mRNAs. P54 DEAD box RNA helicases are components of RNA granules such as P-bodies and stress granules. We studied the expression, in cytoplasmic foci, of both zebrafish P54 RNA helicases (P54a and P54b during development and found that they are expressed in cytoplasmic granules under both normal conditions and stress conditions. In zebrafish embryos exposed to heat shock, some proportion of P54a and P54b helicases move to larger granules that exhibit the properties of genuine stress granules. Knockdown of P54a and/or P54b in zebrafish embryos produces developmental abnormalities restricted to the posterior trunk; further, these embryos do not form stress granules, and their survival upon exposure to heat-shock conditions is compromised. Our observations fit the model that cells lacking stress granules have no resilience or ability to recover once the stress has ended, indicating that stress granules play an essential role in the way organisms adapt to a changing environment.

  13. 46 CFR 54.05-20 - Impact test properties for service of 0 °F and below.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... 54.05-20 Section 54.05-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE... treatment, chemistry etc.) other tests or test criteria will be specified by the Commandant. (c) Where... product shape, or is otherwise inapplicable (because of heat treatment, chemistry, etc.) other tests and...

  14. A Matrine Derivative M54 Suppresses Osteoclastogenesis and Prevents Ovariectomy-Induced Bone Loss by Targeting Ribosomal Protein S5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Xin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Post-menopausal osteoporosis (PMOP is a metabolic bone disorder characterized by low bone mass and micro-architectural deterioration of bone tissue. The over-activated osteoclastogenesis, which plays an important role in osteoporosis, has become an important therapeutic target. M54 was a bioactive derivative of the Chinese traditional herb matrine. We found that M54 could suppress RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in bone marrow mononuclear cells and RAW264.7 cells through suppressing NF-κB, PI3K/AKT, and MAPKs pathways activity in vitro, and prevent ovariectomy-induced bone loss in vivo. Our previous study has proved that ribosomal protein S5 (RPS5 was a direct target of M19, based on which M54 was synthesized. Thus we deduced that M54 also targeted RPS5. During osteoclastogenesis, the RPS5 level in RAW264.7 cells was significantly down-regulated while M54 could maintain its level. After RPS5 was silenced, the inhibitory effects of M54 on osteoclastogenesis were partially compromised, indicating that M54 took effects through targeting RPS5. In summary, M54 was a potential clinical medicine for post-menopause osteoporosis treatment, and RPS5 is a possible key protein in PMOP.

  15. 46 CFR 54.01-15 - Exemptions from shop inspection and plan approval (modifiesU-1(c)(2)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS General Requirements § 54.01-15 Exemptions from shop... inspection and plan approval requirements of this part: (1) Vessels containing water at a pressure not... pressure vessels that meet the requirements of § 54.01-5(c)(3) and (c)(4). (5) Condensers and heat...

  16. 26 CFR 54.4975-6 - Statutory exemptions for office space or services and certain transactions involving financial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... services and certain transactions involving financial institutions. 54.4975-6 Section 54.4975-6 Internal... transactions involving financial institutions. (a) Exemption for office space or services—(1) In general... imposed by section 4975 the provision of certain ancillary services by a bank or similar financial...

  17. 17 CFR 1.54 - Contract market rules submitted to and approved or not disapproved by the Secretary of Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... submitted to and approved or not disapproved by the Secretary of Agriculture. 1.54 Section 1.54 Commodity... Secretary of Agriculture. Notwithstanding any provision of these rules, any bylaw, rule, regulation, or resolution of a contract market that was submitted to the Secretary of Agriculture pursuant or § 1.38(a) or...

  18. 16 CFR 5.54 - Referral to the Office of Government Ethics and to the Department of Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of Government Ethics and to the Criminal Division, Department of Justice. (b) Unless the Department... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Referral to the Office of Government Ethics and to the Department of Justice. 5.54 Section 5.54 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION...

  19. 42 CFR 411.54 - Limitation on charges when a beneficiary has received a liability insurance payment or has a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Limitation on charges when a beneficiary has received a liability insurance payment or has a claim pending against a liability insurer. 411.54 Section 411.54 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM EXCLUSIONS FROM MEDICARE AND...

  20. Oestrogen, kisspeptin, GPR54 and the pre-ovulatory luteinising hormone surge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkson, J; Herbison, A E

    2009-03-01

    Ovulation is central to mammalian fertility, yet the precise mechanism through which oestrogen triggers the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) surge that generates the pre-ovulatory luteinising hormone (LH) surge has remained elusive. The recent discovery that kisspeptin-GPR54 signalling is an essential regulator of the neuroendocrine axis at puberty has led investigators to evaluate the role of kisspeptin in the pre-ovulatory GnRH surge mechanism. Kisspeptin neurones are known to express oestrogen and progesterone receptors and have their cell bodies located in brain regions implicated in the positive-feedback mechanism in several mammalian species. In rodents, kisspeptin neurones located in the rostral periventricular area of the third ventricle (RP3V) are positively regulated by oestrogen and most likely are activated by oestrogen at the time of positive feedback. A similar scenario appears to exist for a sub-population of kisspeptin neurones located in the mediobasal hypothalamus of sheep and primates. The majority of GnRH neurones express GPR54, and kisspeptin causes an intense electrical activation of these cells. In concordance with this, kisspeptin administration in vivo results in an abrupt and prolonged release of LH in all mammalian species examined to date. Functional evidence from immunoneutralisation and knockout studies suggests that RP3V kisspeptin neurones projecting to GnRH neurones are an essential component of the surge mechanism in rodents. Taken together, the studies undertaken to date provide substantial evidence in support of a key role of kisspeptin-GPR54 signalling in the generation of the oestrogen-induced pre-ovulatory surge mechanism in mammals.