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Sample records for scandium 51

  1. Scandium recovery from slags after oxidized nickel ore processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyshlyaev, Denis; Botalov, Maxim; Bunkov, Grigory; Rychkov, Vladimir; Kirillov, Evgeny; Kirillov, Sergey; Semenishchev, Vladimir

    2017-09-01

    One of the possible sources of scandium production - waste (slags) from processing of oxidized nickel ores, has been considered in present research work. The hydrometallurgical method has been selected as the primary for scandium extraction. Different reagents for leaching of scandium, such as sulfuric acid, various carbonate salts and fluorides, have been tested. Sulfuric acid has been recognized as an optimal leaching reagent. Sulfuric acid concentration of 100 g L-1 allowed recovering up to 97 % of scandium.

  2. Influence of scandium concentration on power generation figure of merit of scandium aluminum nitride thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiyama, Morito; Nagase, Toshimi [Measurement Solution Research Center, National Institute of Advanced Industrials Science and Technology, Tosu, Saga 841-0052 (Japan); Umeda, Keiichi; Honda, Atsushi [Murata Manufacturing Co., Ltd., Nagaokakyo, Kyoto 617-8555 (Japan)

    2013-01-14

    The authors have investigated the influence of scandium concentration on the power generation figure of merit (FOM) of scandium aluminum nitride (Sc{sub x}Al{sub 1-x}N) films prepared by cosputtering. The power generation FOM strongly depends on the scandium concentration. The FOM of Sc{sub 0.41}Al{sub 0.59}N film was 67 GPa, indicating that the FOM is five times larger than that of AlN. The FOM of Sc{sub 0.41}Al{sub 0.59}N film is higher than those of lead zirconate titanate and Pb(Mg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}-PbTiO{sub 3} films, which is the highest reported for any piezoelectric thin films. The high FOM of Sc{sub 0.41}Al{sub 0.59}N film is due to the high d{sub 31} and the low relative permittivity.

  3. Lifetime measurements and oscillator strengths in singly ionized scandium and the solar abundance of scandium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehlivan Rhodin, A.; Belmonte, M. T.; Engström, L.; Lundberg, H.; Nilsson, H.; Hartman, H.; Pickering, J. C.; Clear, C.; Quinet, P.; Fivet, V.; Palmeri, P.

    2017-12-01

    The lifetimes of 17 even-parity levels (3d5s, 3d4d, 3d6s and 4p2) in the region 57 743-77 837 cm-1 of singly ionized scandium (Sc II) were measured by two-step time-resolved laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy. Oscillator strengths of 57 lines from these highly excited upper levels were derived using a hollow cathode discharge lamp and a Fourier transform spectrometer. In addition, Hartree-Fock calculations where both the main relativistic and core-polarization effects were taken into account were carried out for both low- and high-excitation levels. There is a good agreement for most of the lines between our calculated branching fractions and the measurements of Lawler & Dakin in the region 9000-45 000 cm-1 for low excitation levels and with our measurements for high excitation levels in the region 23 500-63 100 cm-1. This, in turn, allowed us to combine the calculated branching fractions with the available experimental lifetimes to determine semi-empirical oscillator strengths for a set of 380 E1 transitions in Sc II. These oscillator strengths include the weak lines that were used previously to derive the solar abundance of scandium. The solar abundance of scandium is now estimated to logε⊙ = 3.04 ± 0.13 using these semi-empirical oscillator strengths to shift the values determined by Scott et al. The new estimated abundance value is in agreement with the meteoritic value (logεmet = 3.05 ± 0.02) of Lodders, Palme & Gail.

  4. Smelting of Scandium by Microwave Irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Satoshi; Tsubaki, Shuntaro; Inazu, Naomi; Suzuki, Eiichi; Wada, Yuji

    2017-09-27

    Scandium is being explored as an alloying element for aluminum alloys, which are gaining importance as high-performance lightweight structural alloys in the transportation industry. A few years ago, Sc was also found to be suitable for use in electrical devices. High-Sc-content ScAlN thin films have attracted significant attention because of their strong piezoelectricity. The piezoelectric response of ScAlN suggests that ScAlN thin films formed on a hard substrate would be suitable surface acoustic wave wideband filters for next-generation wireless communication systems. However, it is often difficult to use ScAlN thin films in MEMS devices-including acoustic ones-because of the extremely high price of metallic Sc, given the difficulty associated with smelting it. Here, we propose a novel process for smelting Sc metal by microwave irradiation. Sc metal was able to be obtained successfully from ScF₃ through a microwave-irradiation-based carbon reduction reaction. The reaction temperature for this reduction process was approximately 880°C, which is half of that for the conventional smelting process involving reduction with Ca. Thus, the proposed microwave irradiation process has significant potential for use in the smelting of Sc metal.

  5. Smelting of Scandium by Microwave Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Fujii

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Scandium is being explored as an alloying element for aluminum alloys, which are gaining importance as high-performance lightweight structural alloys in the transportation industry. A few years ago, Sc was also found to be suitable for use in electrical devices. High-Sc-content ScAlN thin films have attracted significant attention because of their strong piezoelectricity. The piezoelectric response of ScAlN suggests that ScAlN thin films formed on a hard substrate would be suitable surface acoustic wave wideband filters for next-generation wireless communication systems. However, it is often difficult to use ScAlN thin films in MEMS devices—including acoustic ones—because of the extremely high price of metallic Sc, given the difficulty associated with smelting it. Here, we propose a novel process for smelting Sc metal by microwave irradiation. Sc metal was able to be obtained successfully from ScF3 through a microwave-irradiation-based carbon reduction reaction. The reaction temperature for this reduction process was approximately 880°C, which is half of that for the conventional smelting process involving reduction with Ca. Thus, the proposed microwave irradiation process has significant potential for use in the smelting of Sc metal.

  6. Hydrometallurgical methods of recovery of scandium from the wastes of various technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molchanova, T. V.; Akimova, I. D.; Smirnov, K. M.; Krylova, O. K.; Zharova, E. V.

    2017-03-01

    The recovery of scandium from the wastes of the production of uranium, titanium, iron-vanadium, and alumina is studied. The applied acid schemes of scandium transfer to a solution followed by ion-exchange recovery and extraction concentration of scandium ensure the precipitation of crude scandium oxides containing up to 5% Sc2O3. Scandium oxides of 99.96-99.99% purity are formed after additional refining of these crude oxides according to an extraction technology using a mixture 15% multiradical phosphine oxide or Cyanex-925 + 15% tributyl phosphate in kerosene.

  7. Synthesis and Reactivity of a Scandium Terminal Hydride: H2  Activation by a Scandium Terminal Imido Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xianghao; Xiang, Li; Lamsfus, Carlos A; Mao, Weiqing; Lu, Erli; Maron, Laurent; Leng, Xuebing; Chen, Yaofeng

    2017-10-20

    Dihydrogen is easily activated by a scandium terminal imido complex containing the weakly coordinated THF. The reaction proceeds through a 1,2-addition mechanism, which is distinct from the σ-bond metathesis mechanism reported to date for rare-earth metal-mediated H2 activation. This reaction yields a scandium terminal hydride, which is structurally well-characterized, being the first one to date. The reactivity of this hydride is reported with unsaturated substrates, further shedding light on the existence of the terminal hydride complex. Interestingly, the H2 activation can be reversible. DFT investigations further eludciate the mechanistic aspects of the reactivity of the scandium anilido-terminal hydride complex with PhNCS but also on the reversible H2 activation process. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Thermoelectric material comprising scandium doped zinc cadmium oxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    There is presented a composition of scandium doped Zinc Cadmium Oxide with the general formula ZnzCdxScyO which the inventors have prepared, and for which material the inventors have made the insight that it is particularly advantageous as an n-type oxide material, such as particularly advantageous...

  9. Scandium/carbon filters for soft x rays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Artioukov, IA; Kasyanov, YS; Kopylets, IA; Pershin, YP; Romanova, SA

    2003-01-01

    This Note deals with thin-film soft x-ray filters for operation at the wavelengths near carbon K edge (similar to4.5 nm). The filters were fabricated by magnetron sputtering deposition of thin layers of scandium (total thickness 0.1-0.2 mum) onto films of polypropylene (thickness 1.5 mum) and

  10. Solvent extraction of scandium from lateritic nickel- cobalt ores using different organic reagents

    OpenAIRE

    Ferizoğlu Ece; Kaya Şerif; Topkaya Yavuz A.

    2016-01-01

    Scandium is the most important and strategic metal that can be recovered as a by-product from lateritic nickel-cobalt ores. In this research, different extractants were investigated in order to extract scandium from a sulfate medium by a using a solvent extraction method. Generally, the organic extractants are classified as acidic, neutral and basic organophosphorus compounds. However, in solvent extraction of scandium, the acidic and neutral organophosphorus compounds are preferred due to th...

  11. BASIC RESEARCH ON THE SEPARATION OF SCANDIUM YTTRIUM, AND THE RARE EARTHS BY SOLVENT EXTRACTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    RARE EARTH ELEMENTS, * SOLVENT EXTRACTION ), (*CHELATE COMPOUNDS, RARE EARTH ELEMENTS), PURIFICATION, ATOMIC SPECTROSCOPY, SCANDIUM, YTTRIUM, PRASEODYMIUM, SAMARIUM, EUROPIUM, GADOLINIUM, TERBIUM, FLUORINE COMPOUNDS, KETONES

  12. Determination of scandium concentrate composition by WD-XRF and ICP-MS methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkisova, A. S.; Shibitko, A. O.; Abramov, A. V.; Rebrin, O. I.; Bunkov, G. M.; Lisienko, D. G.

    2017-09-01

    WD-XRF spectroscopy was applied for determining composition of scandium concentrate (ScC) containing 70 % scandium fluoride. Determination of ScC composition was performed using 6 glass beads reference materials produced by fusing synthesized mixture of analyte compounds with the lithium-borate flux in the ratio of 1:10. ScC powder with the known composition was then used as a powder pellet reference material to analyze scandium concentrate from technological line by external standard method. ICP-MS method was employed to control the ScC composition. The statistical data processing and metrological parameters evaluation of the analytical technique developed were carried out.

  13. Tin etching from metallic and oxidized scandium thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachecka, M.; Lee, C. J.; Sturm, J. M.; Bijkerk, F.

    2017-08-01

    The role of oxide on Sn adhesion to Sc surfaces was studied with in-situ ellipsometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and secondary electron microscopy. Sn etching with hydrogen radicals was performed on metallic Sc, metallic Sc with a native oxide, and a fully oxidized Sc layer. The results show that Sn adsorbs rather weakly to a non-oxidized Sc surface, and is etched relatively easily by atomic hydrogen. In contrast, the presence of native oxide on Sc allows Sn to adsorb more strongly to the surface, slowing the etching. Furthermore, thinner layers of scandium oxide result in weaker Sn adsorption, indicating that the layer beneath the oxide plays a significant role in determining the adsorption strength. Unexpectedly, for Sn on Sc2O3, and, to a lesser extent, for Sn on Sc, the etch rate shows a variation over time, which is explained by surface restructuring, temperature change, and hydrogen adsorption saturation.

  14. Tin etching from metallic and oxidized scandium thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pachecka

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The role of oxide on Sn adhesion to Sc surfaces was studied with in-situ ellipsometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and secondary electron microscopy. Sn etching with hydrogen radicals was performed on metallic Sc, metallic Sc with a native oxide, and a fully oxidized Sc layer. The results show that Sn adsorbs rather weakly to a non-oxidized Sc surface, and is etched relatively easily by atomic hydrogen. In contrast, the presence of native oxide on Sc allows Sn to adsorb more strongly to the surface, slowing the etching. Furthermore, thinner layers of scandium oxide result in weaker Sn adsorption, indicating that the layer beneath the oxide plays a significant role in determining the adsorption strength. Unexpectedly, for Sn on Sc2O3, and, to a lesser extent, for Sn on Sc, the etch rate shows a variation over time, which is explained by surface restructuring, temperature change, and hydrogen adsorption saturation.

  15. Extraction of scandium by liquid di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid in fusible diluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainur Isatayeva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently widespread distribution of extraction methods using fusible reagents can be explained by a number of advantages, such as high kinetic characteristics of the process, the ease separation of two phases, high selectivity of many extractants, relatively complete regeneration. For the extraction of scandium in technological order, neutral and cation exchange extractants can be used. Several extraction reagents melt easily at high temperatures, and such melts can be used for extraction. Efficiency of the extraction of metal by cation reagents depends on many factors. Extraction of scandium by melt mixtures of di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid - higher carboxylic acid - paraffin and the effect of acidity of the aqueous phase, the concentration of scandium and the aqueous extractant in the organic phase, the volume ratio of organic and aqueous phases on the extraction of metal were studied. It was found that the extraction of scandium proceeds through the cation exchange mechanism. Scandium was extracted quantitatively (> 99.0% from acid solutions. The optimal concentration of di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid in the extractant was 0,250 M, quantitative extraction of scandium was observed in the range of its concentrations of 10-3-10-6 M and the volume ratio of organic phases to aqueous phases of 1:5 - 1:20.

  16. Thermodynamic and kinetic study of scandium(III) complexes of DTPA and DOTA: a step toward scandium radiopharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pniok, Miroslav; Kubíček, Vojtěch; Havlíčková, Jana; Kotek, Jan; Sabatie-Gogová, Andrea; Plutnar, Jan; Huclier-Markai, Sandrine; Hermann, Petr

    2014-06-23

    Diethylenetriamine-N,N,N',N'',N''-pentaacetic acid (DTPA) and 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) scandium(III) complexes were investigated in the solution and solid state. Three (45)Sc NMR spectroscopic references suitable for aqueous solutions were suggested: 0.1 M Sc(ClO4)3 in 1 M aq. HClO4 (δSc =0.0 ppm), 0.1 M ScCl3 in 1 M aq. HCl (δSc =1.75 ppm) and 0.01 M [Sc(ox)4](5-) (ox(2-) = oxalato) in 1 M aq. K2C2O4 (δSc =8.31 ppm). In solution, [Sc(dtpa)](2-) complex (δSc = 83 ppm, Δν = 770 Hz) has a rather symmetric ligand field unlike highly unsymmetrical donor atom arrangement in [Sc(dota)](-) anion (δSc = 100 ppm, Δν = 4300 Hz). The solid-state structure of K8[Sc2(ox)7]⋅13 H2O contains two [Sc(ox)3](3-) units bridged by twice "side-on" coordinated oxalate anion with Sc(3+) ion in a dodecahedral O8 arrangement. Structures of [Sc(dtpa)](2-) and [Sc(dota)](-) in [(Hguanidine)]2[Sc(dtpa)]⋅3 H2O and K[Sc(dota)][H6 dota]Cl2⋅4 H2O, respectively, are analogous to those of trivalent lanthanide complexes with the same ligands. The [Sc(dota)](-) unit exhibits twisted square-antiprismatic arrangement without an axial ligand (TSA' isomer) and [Sc(dota)](-) and (H6 dota)(2+) units are bridged by a K(+) cation. A surprisingly high value of the last DOTA dissociation constant (pKa =12.9) was determined by potentiometry and confirmed by using NMR spectroscopy. Stability constants of scandium(III) complexes (log KScL 27.43 and 30.79 for DTPA and DOTA, respectively) were determined from potentiometric and (45)Sc NMR spectroscopic data. Both complexes are fully formed even below pH 2. Complexation of DOTA with the Sc(3+) ion is much faster than with trivalent lanthanides. Proton-assisted decomplexation of the [Sc(dota)](-) complex (τ1/2 =45 h; 1 M aq. HCl, 25 °C) is much slower than that for [Ln(dota)](-) complexes. Therefore, DOTA and its derivatives seem to be very suitable ligands for scandium

  17. Effects of iron on intermetallic compound formation in scandium modified Al–Si–Mg Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patakham, Ussadawut [National Metal and Materials Technology Center, National Science and Technology Development Agency, 114 Thailand Science Park, Klong Nueng, Klong Luang, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand); Limmaneevichitr, Chaowalit, E-mail: chaowalit.lim@mail.kmutt.ac.th [Production Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi, 126 Pracha-Utid Rd., Bangmod, Tungkhru, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Iron reduces the modification effects of scandium in Al–Si–Mg alloys. • Morphologies of Sc-rich intermetallic phases vary with Fe and Sc contents and the cooling rates. • Sc neutralizes effects of Fe by changing Fe-rich intermetallic phases from platelets to more cubic. - Abstract: In general, iron has a strong tendency to dissolve in molten aluminum. Iron has very low solid solubility in aluminum–silicon casting alloys, so it will form intermetallic compounds that cause detrimental effects on mechanical properties. In this work, the effects of iron on intermetallic compound formations in scandium modified Al–Si–Mg alloys were studied. There were two levels of iron addition (0.2 and 0.4 wt.%) and two levels of scandium addition (0.2 and 0.4 wt.%). We found that the effects of scandium modification decreased with increasing iron addition. The morphologies of the complex intermetallic compounds were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) techniques. It was found that scandium changes the morphology of Fe-rich intermetallic compounds from β-phase (plate-like) to α-phase, which reduces the harmful effects of β-phase.

  18. Solvent extraction of scandium from lateritic nickel- cobalt ores using different organic reagents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferizoğlu Ece

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Scandium is the most important and strategic metal that can be recovered as a by-product from lateritic nickel-cobalt ores. In this research, different extractants were investigated in order to extract scandium from a sulfate medium by a using a solvent extraction method. Generally, the organic extractants are classified as acidic, neutral and basic organophosphorus compounds. However, in solvent extraction of scandium, the acidic and neutral organophosphorus compounds are preferred due to their higher extraction efficiencies. Thus, the aim of the present study was to compare the scandium extraction efficiencies of some acidic and neutral organic reagents. For this reason, Ionquest 290 (Bis(2,4,4-trimethylpenthyl phosphonic acid, DEHPA (Di(2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid, Cyanex 272 ((Bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl phosphinic acid which are acidic organophosphorus compounds, and Cyanex 923 (Trialkylphosphine oxide, which is a neutral organophosphorus compound, were used. The extraction capacities of these organics were studied with respect to the extractant concentration at same pH and phase ratio. As a result of the study, DEHPA was found to have higher scandium extraction efficiency with lower iron extraction at pH = 0.55 at a phase ratio of 10:1 = A:O.

  19. Correlation between stoichiometry and properties of scandium oxide films prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belosludtsev, Alexandr; Juškevičius, Kęstutis; Ceizaris, Lukas; Samuilovas, Romanas; Stanionytė, Sandra; Jasulaitienė, Vitalija; Kičas, Simonas

    2018-01-01

    Scandium oxide films were deposited on fused silica substrates by reactive pulsed DC magnetron sputtering. The use of feed-back optical emission monitoring enabled high-rate reactive deposition of films with tunable stoichiometry and properties. The under-stoichiometric, stoichiometric and over-stoichiometric scandium oxide films were prepared. The compressive stress in films was between 235 and 530 MPa. We showed that phase structure, density, surface roughness and optical properties of the scandium oxide are affected by the film stoichiometry and deposition conditions. Transparent scandium oxide films were slightly hydrophobic (94 ± 3°), homogeneous with a crystallite size of 20 ± 5 nm. The lowest extinction coefficient 0.7 × 10-3, the highest refractive index 2.08 (both quantities at the wavelength of 355 nm) and the highest density 4.1 ± 0.1 g cm-3 exhibited film prepared with the stoichiometric composition. Stoichiometric scandium oxide can be used in various optical applications as high refractive index and wide bandgap material. Transitions to under- or over-stoichiometry lead to a decrease of film density, refractive index and increase of the extinction coefficient.

  20. Mossbauer investigation of scandium oxide-hematite nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allwes, Mark; Sorescu, Monica

    Scandium oxide-doped hematite, xSc2O3*(1-x)alpha-Fe2O3 with molar concentration x =0.1, 0.3, and 0.5 was prepared by using ball milling, taking samples at times 0, 2, 4, 8, and 12 hours. The resulting Mossbauer spectra of the nanoparticles systems were parameterized using NORMOS-90. For each concentration, the spectra at 0 hours only consisted of 1 sextet, as the substitution of Sc2O3into Fe2O3 did not appear until after 2 hours of ball milling time (BMT). Concentration x =0.1 at BMT 2hours consisted of 2 sextets while x =0.3 and 0.5 were fit with 1 sextet and 1 quadrupole-split doublet. Concentration x =0.1 at BMT 4 and 8 hours consisted of 3 sextets, and at BMT 12 hours consisted of 4 sextets. For concentrations x =0.3 and 0.5 at BMT 4, 8, and 12 hours the spectra were fit with 3 sextets and 1 quadrupole-split doublet. With increasing initial concentration, the appearance of the quadrupole-split doublet became more pronounced, indicating the substitution of Fe into Sc2O3 occurred. But for x =0.1, the BMT did influence the number of sextets needed, causing an increase in substitution of Sc2O3 into Fe2O3.

  1. Association between toenail scandium levels and risk of acute myocardial infarction in European men: The EURAMIC and Heavy Metals Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gómez-Aracena, J.; Martin-Moreno, J.M.; Riemersma, R.A.; Bode, P.; Gutiérrez-Bedmar, M.; Gorgojo, L.; Kark, J.D.; Garcia-Rodríguez, A.; Gomez-Gracia, E.; Kardinaal, A.F.M.; Aro, A.; Veer, P. van 't; Wedel, H.; Kok, F.J.; Fernández-Crehuet, J.

    2002-01-01

    The association between scandium status and risk of acute myocardial infarction (MI) was examined in a multicentre case control study in 10 centres from Europe and Israel. Scandium in toenails was assessed in 684 cases and 724 controls less than 70 years of age. Mean concentrations of toenail

  2. In-source laser spectroscopy developments at TRILIS-towards spectroscopy on actinium and scandium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raeder, Sebastian, E-mail: raeder@triumf.ca; Dombsky, Marik; Heggen, Henning; Lassen, Jens; Quenzel, Thomas [TRIUMF, Canada' s National Laboratory for Nuclear and Particle Physics (Canada); Sjoedin, Marica [GANIL (France); Teigelhoefer, Andrea [TRIUMF, Canada' s National Laboratory for Nuclear and Particle Physics (Canada); Wendt, Klaus [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Institut fuer Physik (Germany)

    2013-04-15

    Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Sources (RILIS) have become a versatile tool for production and study of exotic nuclides at Isotope Separator On-Line (ISOL) facilities such as ISAC at TRIUMF. The recent development and addition of a grating tuned spectroscopy laser to the TRIUMF RILIS solid state laser system allows for wide range spectral scans to investigate atomic structures on short lived isotopes, e.g., those from the element actinium, produced in uranium targets at ISAC. In addition, development of new and improved laser ionization schemes for rare isotope production at ISAC is ongoing. Here spectroscopic studies on bound states, Rydberg states and autoionizing (AI) resonances on scandium using the existing off-line capabilities are reported. These results allowed to identify a suitable ionization scheme for scandium via excitation into an autoionizing state at 58,104 cm{sup - 1} which has subsequently been used for ionization of on-line produced exotic scandium isotopes.

  3. Process and Mechanical Properties: Applicability of a Scandium modified Al-alloy for Laser Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidtke, K.; Palm, F.; Hawkins, A.; Emmelmann, C.

    The applicability of an aluminium alloy containing scandium for laser additive manufacturing (LAM) is considered. Modified aluminium alloys with a scandium content beyond the eutectic point offer great potential to become a high prioritized aerospace material. Depending on other alloying elements like magnesium or zirconium, strongly required weight reduction, corrosion resistance and improved strength properties of metallic light weight alloys can be achieved. The development, production and testing of parts built up by a laser powder bed process will be presented with regard to the qualification of the new material concept "ScalmalloyRP®" for laser additive manufacturing.

  4. Synthesis and structural characterization of scandium SALEN complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meermann, Christian; Sirsch, Peter; Törnroos, Karl W; Anwander, Reiner

    2006-02-28

    A series of heteroleptic scandium SALEN complexes, [(SALEN)Sc(mu-Cl)]2 and (SALEN)Sc[N(SiHMe2)2] is obtained via amine elimination reactions using [Sc(N(i)Pr2)2(mu-Cl)(THF)]2 and Sc[N(SiHMe2)2]3(THF) as metal precursors, respectively. H(2)SALEN ligand precursors comprising H2Salen [(1,2-ethandiyl)bis(nitrilomethylidyne)bis(2,4-di-tert-butyl)phenol], H2Salpren [(2,2-dimethylpropanediyl)bis(nitrilomethylidyne)bis(2,4-di-tert-butyl)phenol], H2Salcyc [(1R,2R)-(-)-1,2-cyclohexanediyl)bis(nitrilomethylidyne)bis(2,4-di-tert-butyl)phenol] and H2Salphen [((1S,2S)-(-)-1,2-diphenylethandiyl)bis(nitrilomethylidyne)bis(2,4-di-tert-butyl)phenol] are selected according to solubility and ligand backbone variation ("=N-(R)-N=" bite angle) criteria. Consideration is given to the feasibility of [Cl --> NR2] and [N(SiHMe2)2--> OSiR3] secondary ligand exchange reactions. X-ray crystal structure analyses of donor-free (Salpren)Sc(N(i)Pr2), (R,R)-(Salcyc)Sc[N(SiHMe2)2], (Salen)Sc(OSi(t)BuPh2) and (Salphen)Sc(OSiH(t)Bu2) reveal (i) a very short Sc-N bond distance of 2.000(3) A, (ii) weak beta(Si-H)(amido)-Sc agostic interactions and (iii) an exclusive intramolecularly tetradentate and intrinsically bent coordination mode of the SALEN ligands with angle(Ph,Ph) dihedral angles and Sc-[N(2)O(2)] distances in the 124.27(9)-127.7(3) degrees and 0.638(1)-0.688(1) A range, respectively.

  5. Scandium SALEN complexes bearing chloro, aryloxo, and hydroxo ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meermann, Christian; Törnroos, Karl W; Anwander, Reiner

    2009-03-16

    Heteroleptic amide complexes (SALEN)Sc[N(SiHMe(2))(2)] (SALEN = Salen(tBu,tBu), Salcyc(tBu,tBu), or Salpren(tBu,tBu) if not stated differently) were examined as synthesis precursors according to silylamine elimination reactions. Treatment of (SALEN)Sc[N(SiHMe(2))(2)] with H(2)O or phenols (HOAr(R,R); R = tBu, iPr) afforded complexes [(SALEN)Sc(mu-OH)](2) and (SALEN)Sc(OAr(R,R)), while chloro exchange products were formed from the respective reactions with NH(4)Cl or AlMe(2)Cl. Such complexes [(SALEN)Sc(mu-Cl)](2) and (SALEN)ScCl(thf) were also obtained by utilizing alternative synthesis protocols, allowing for controlled donor absence and presence. Heteroleptic amide precursors [Sc(NiPr(2))(2)(mu-Cl)(thf)](2) and [Sc[N(SiHMe(2))(2)](2)(mu-Cl)(thf)](2) readily undergo amine elimination reactions with H(2)SALEN derivatives to form the corresponding chloride complexes. Spectroscopic and X-ray structural data of the heteroleptic scandium complexes revealed an exclusive intramolecular tetradentate coordination mode of the SALEN ligands independent of the SALEN ligand bite angle and the nature of the "second" ligand (chloro, amido, aryloxo, hydroxo). The coordination of the SALEN ligands is rationalized on the basis of (a) the displacement d of the metal center from the [N(2)O(2)] least-squares plane, (b) the dihedral angle alpha between the phenyl rings of the salicylidene moieties, and (c) the angle beta = Ct-Ln-Ct (Ct = centroid of the phenyl rings) in the case of strongly twisted ligands.

  6. Vertical distribution of scandium in the north central Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amakawa, Hiroshi; Nomura, Miho; Sasaki, Kazunori; Oura, Yasuji; Ebihara, Mitsuru

    2007-06-01

    The concentrations of scandium (Sc) in seawater, which have remained unreported since the early 1970s, were determined together with those of yttrium (Y) and lanthanides (Ln) with samples from the north central Pacific Ocean (St. BO-3). The Sc concentration shows a so-called nutrient-like profile: it increases gradually from the surface (about 2 pmol/kg) to the ocean floor (about 20 pmol/kg). That pattern closely resembles those of Y and Ln (correlation coefficient (r) > 0.92). Some light-to-middle Ln (Pr-Tb) exhibit a closer correlation with Sc than do Y, La, or heavy Ln (Ho-Lu). In contrast, Y/Sc and Ln/Sc ratios (elemental abundance ratios) indicate that Sc is depleted compared to either Y or Ln in seawater more than in loess, which represents chemical compositions of crustal material. These observations offer a conflicting view of chemical reactivity related Y, Ln, and Sc: r values show that the chemical reactivity of Sc resembles those of Y and Ln, but differences of Y/Sc and Ln/Sc ratios in seawater and in loess suggest that the chemical reactivity of Sc differs from those of Y and Ln. More Sc data for seawater are necessary to clarify the chemical reactivity of Sc in the ocean. We also propose that comparative studies of vertical profiles of Sc and such elements as Fe, Ti, Zr, and Hf showing so-called nutrient-like profiles at the same oceanic stations would be helpful and effective for clarifying the behavior of Sc in the ocean.

  7. In situ observation of the reaction of scandium and carbon by neutron diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juarez-Arellano, Erick A., E-mail: eajuarez@unpa.edu.m [Institut fuer Geowissenschaften, Universitaet Frankfurt, Altenhoeferallee 1, 60438 Frankfurt a.M. (Germany); Universidad del Papaloapan, Circuito Central 200, Parque Industrial, Tuxtepec 68301 (Mexico); Winkler, Bjorn [Institut fuer Geowissenschaften, Universitaet Frankfurt, Altenhoeferallee 1, 60438 Frankfurt a.M. (Germany); Vogel, Sven C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Lujan Center. Mail Stop H805, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Senyshyn, Anatoliy [Forschungsneutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM II), Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Lichtenbergstr. 1, D-85747 Garching (Germany); Materialwissenschaft, TU Darmstadt, Petersensstr. 23, D-64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Kammler, Daniel R. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Avalos-Borja, Miguel [CNyN, UNAM, A. Postal 2681, Ensenada, B.C. (Mexico)

    2011-01-05

    Research highlights: {yields} Exist two ScC cubic phases with B1-structure type differing in site occupancy of C. {yields} A new orthorhombic scandium carbide phase is formed at 1473(50) K. {yields} The recrystallization of alpha-Sc occurs between 1000 and 1223 K. - Abstract: The formation of scandium carbides by reaction of the elements has been investigated by in situ neutron diffraction up to 1823 K. On heating, the recrystallization of {alpha}-Sc occurs between 1000 and 1223 K. The formation of Sc{sub 2}C and ScC (NaCl-B1 type structure) phases has been detected at 1323 and 1373 K, respectively. The formation of a new orthorhombic scandium carbide phase was observed at 1473(50) K. Once the scandium carbides are formed they are stable upon heating or cooling. No other phases were detected in the present study, in which the system was always carbon saturated. The thermal expansion coefficients of all phases have been determined, they are constant throughout the temperature interval studied.

  8. The effects of aluminum or scandium on the toughness, density and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of the substitution of aluminum or scandium on the density, toughness as well as the stability of the phases formed by such an addition on platinum, iridium, rhodium and palladium metals were evaluated with the density functional quantum mechanical calculation methods. All the metals had four atoms per ...

  9. Effects of erbium‑and chromium‑doped yttrium scandium gallium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-08-21

    Aug 21, 2014 ... surfaces because of its high power, and the ablation was deeper for these samples. High‑magnification SEM ... Key words: Erbium chromium‑doped yttrium scandium gallium garnet, diode laser, restorative dental materials, scanning electron ... garnet (Nd: YAG) and carbon dioxide (CO2) lasers on indirect ...

  10. Chemical and biological evaluation of scandium(III)-polyaminopolycarboxylate complexes as potential PET agents and radiopharmaceuticals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huclier-Markai, S.; Sabatie, A.; Ribet, S. [Univ. de Nantes (France). Lab. Subatech; Kubicek, V.; Hermann, P. [Charles Univ., Prague (Czech Republic). Dept. of Inorganic Chemistry; Paris, M. [Univ. de Nantes (France). Inst. des Materiaux; Vidaud, C. [CEA/DSV/iBEB/SBTN, Bagnols sur Ceze (France). Lab. d' Etude des Proteines Cibles; Cutler, C.S. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). Reserach Reactor Center

    2011-07-01

    Scandium isotopes ({sup 44}Sc, {sup 47}Sc) are more available and their properties are convenient for either PET imaging or radiotherapy. To use them in nuclear medicine, ligands forming complexes with a high stability are necessary. Available experimental data on stability constants for complexes of ligands such as EDTA, DTPA, DOTA, NOTA and TETA with various metal ions have been published. But scandium is the exception since scarce data is available in the literature. Values of stability constants of Sc(III) with the ligands were determined by free-ion selective radiotracer extraction, complemented by {sup 45}Sc NMR and potentiometry data. The thermodynamic stability of the Sc-complexes increases in the order TETA < NOTA < EDTA < DTPA < DOTA. The in vitro stability of the Sc(III) complexes was studied in the presence of hydroxyapatite and rat serum to estimate their in vivo stability. The most stable complex was shown to be Sc-DOTA.

  11. Precipitation behaviour and recrystallisation resistance in aluminum alloys with additions of hafnium, scandium and zirconium

    OpenAIRE

    Hallem, Håkon

    2005-01-01

    The overall objective of this work has been to develop aluminium alloys, which after hot and cold deformation are able to withstand high temperatures without recrystallising. This has been done by investigating aluminium alloys with various additions of hafnium, scandium and zirconium, with a main focus on Hf and to which extent it may partly substitute or replace Zr and/or Sc as a dispersoid forming elements in these alloys. What is the effect of hafnium, alone and in combination with Zr...

  12. Pilot-scale recovery of rare earths and scandium from phosphogypsum and uranium leachates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashkovtsev Maxim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ural Federal University (UrFU and VTT have performed joint research on development of industrial technologies for the extraction of REM and Scandium compounds from phosphogypsum and Uranium ISL leachate solutions. Leaching-absorption experiments at UrFU have been supported with multicomponent solution modelling by VTT. The simulations have been performed with VTT’s ChemSheet/Balas program and can be used for speciation calculations in the lixiviant solution. The experimental work combines solvent extraction with advanced ion exchange methodology in a pilot facility capable of treating 5 m3 solution per hour. Currently, the plant produces cerium carbonate, lanthanum oxide, neodymium oxide and concentrate of heavy rare earth metals. A batch of 45 t solids has been processed with the gain of 100 kg’s of REM concentrate. A mini-pilot plant with productivity above 50 liters per hour has been applied to recover scandium oxide and REE concentrates from the uranium ISL solution. As the preliminary product contains radioactivity (mainly strontium, an additional decontamination and cleaning of both concentrates by extraction has rendered a necessity. Finally a purified 99% concentrate of scandium oxide as well as 99% rare earth concentrate are received.

  13. Optimization of scandium oxide growth by high pressure sputtering on silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feijoo, P.C., E-mail: pedronska@fis.ucm.es; Pampillon, M.A.; San Andres, E.; Lucia, M.L.

    2012-12-30

    This work demonstrates the viability of scandium oxide deposition on silicon by means of high pressure sputtering. Deposition pressure and radio frequency power are varied for optimization of the properties of the thin films and the ScO{sub x}/Si interface. The physical characterization was performed by ellipsometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Aluminum gate electrodes were evaporated for metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) fabrication. From the electrical characterization of the MIS devices, the density of interfacial defects is found to decrease with deposition pressure, showing a reduced plasma damage of the substrate surface for higher pressures. This is also supported by lower flatband voltage shifts in the capacitance versus voltage hysteresis curves. Sputtering at high pressures (above 100 Pa) reduces the interfacial SiO{sub x} formation, according to the infrared spectra. The growth rates decrease with deposition pressure, so a very accurate control of the layer thicknesses could be provided. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Scandium oxide is considered as a high permittivity dielectric. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Scandium oxide was deposited on Si by high pressure sputtering. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Characterization was performed for deposition condition optimization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High deposition pressures showed higher film and interface quality.

  14. Recovery of Scandium from Leachate of Sulfation-Roasted Bayer Red Mud by Liquid-Liquid Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhaobo; Li, Hongxu; Jing, Qiankun; Zhang, Mingming

    2017-11-01

    The leachate obtained from sulfation-roasted Bayer red mud is suitable for extraction of scandium by liquid-liquid solvent extraction because it contains trace amounts of Fe3+ and Si4+. In this study, a completely new metallurgical process for selective recovery of scandium from Bayer red mud was proposed. The extraction performances of Sc3+, Fe3+, Al3+, Si4+, Ca2+, and Na+ from synthetic leachate of sulfation-roasted red mud were first investigated using organophosphorus extractants (di-2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid P204 and 2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester P507) and carboxylic acid extractant (Versatic acid 10). It shows that P204 has an excellent extraction ability and that it can be applied to the scandium recovery. P507 and Versatic acid 10 are much poorer in performance for selective extraction of scandium. In the leachate of sulfation-roasted red mud, approximately 97% scandium can be recovered using a P204/sulfonated kerosene (1% v/v) extraction system under the condition of an organic-to-aqueous phase ratio of 10:1 and with an extraction temperature of 15°C.

  15. Scandium-doped zinc cadmium oxide as a new stable n-type oxide thermoelectric material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Li; Christensen, Dennis Valbjørn; Bhowmik, Arghya

    2016-01-01

    Scandium-doped zinc cadmium oxide (Sc-doped ZnCdO) is proposed as a new n-type oxide thermoelectric material. The material is sintered in air to maintain the oxygen stoichiometry and avoid instability issues. The successful alloying of CdO with ZnO at a molar ratio of 1 : 9 significantly reduced...... is a good candidate for improving the overall conversion efficiencies in oxide thermoelectric modules. Meanwhile, Sc-doped ZnCdO is robust in air at high temperatures, whereas other n-type materials, such as Al-doped ZnO, will experience rapid degradation of their electrical conductivity and ZT....

  16. Scandium and yttrium phosphasalen complexes as initiators for ring-opening polymerization of cyclic esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakewell, Clare; White, Andrew J P; Long, Nicholas J; Williams, Charlotte K

    2015-03-02

    The synthesis and characterization of novel scandium and yttrium phosphasalen complexes is reported, where phosphasalen refers to two different bis(iminophosphorane) derivatives of the more ubiquitous salen ligands. The activity of the complexes as initiators for the ring-opening polymerization of cyclic esters is presented. The scandium complexes are inactive for lactide polymerization but slow and controlled initiators for ε-caprolactone polymerization. The lack of activity toward lactide exhibited by these compounds is probed, and a rare example of single-monomer insertion product, unable to undergo further reactions with lactide, is identified. In contrast, the analogous yttrium phosphasalen complex is a very active initiator for the ring-opening polymerization of rac-lactide (kobs = 1.5 × 10(-3) s(-1) at 1:500 [yttrium initiator]:[rac-lactide], 1 M overall concentration of lactide in THF at 298 K). In addition to being a very fast initiator, the yttrium complex also maintains excellent levels of polymerization control and a high degree of isoselectivity, with the probability of isotactic enchainment being Pi = 0.78 at 298 K.

  17. Thermodynamic parameters of scandium trifluoride and triiodide in the condensed state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aristova, N. M.; Belov, G. V.

    2015-06-01

    The thermodynamic properties of new classes of compounds, particularly scandium trihalides ScF3, ScCl3, ScBr3, and ScI3, are added to the IVTANTHERMO software package. A critical analysis and processing of the entire array of primary data available in the literature is performed. An equation approximating the temperature dependence of heat capacity in the temperature range 298.15- T m (K) is derived for each crystalline scandium trihalide. The resulting equations C {/p po}( T) for the solid state and the data for the liquid phase are used to calculate the thermodynamic functions of entropy, the reduced Gibbs free energies, and the enthalpy increments. Both the experimental data available in literature and the missing estimated thermodynamic data are used in calculations. The error of the recommended values is estimated in all cases. In the first part of this work, we describe the thermodynamic properties of ScF3 and ScI3 used as the reference data for calculating the thermodynamic functions of ScCl3 and ScBr3, for which experimental data are either very scarce or missing altogether. The resulting data are added to the database of the IVTANTHERMO software package.

  18. High-fluence and high-density treatment of perioral rhytides using a new, fractionated 2,790-nm ablative erbium-doped Yttrium Scandium Gallium Garnet Laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciocon, David H; Hussain, Mussarat; Goldberg, David J

    2011-06-01

    In this study, we evaluated the safety and efficacy of a novel 2,790-nm erbium-doped yttrium scandium gallium garnet (Er:YSGG) laser system for the treatment of facial photodamage and perioral wrinkles using a single-treatment, high-fluence, high-density protocol. Eleven female participants with Fitzpatrick skin types II to III and facial wrinkles underwent a single full-face fractional ablative treatment with a 2,790-nm Er:YSGG laser. Follow-up visits were completed at 1, 2, and 6 weeks 3 and 6 months. Quartile improvement scale (0-4) and Fitzpatrick wrinkle scores (1-9) were used for the assessments. Based on blinded photographic assessments, the mean difference in Fitzpatrick wrinkle scores for full face wrinkles was 1.5 ± 1.2 (a reduction from 6.6 to 5.1; paired t-test, p = .003). There was also a statistically significant mean reduction of 1.7 ± 1.3 in perioral wrinkle scores (from 6.7 to 5.0; p = .002). No serious adverse events were reported. A novel, fractionated, ablative 2,790-nm Er:YSGG laser can safely and effectively treat photodamage and perioral wrinkles in a single treatment using a high-fluence, high-density protocol. Cutera provided the equipment used in this study and funding to Dr. Goldberg. © 2011 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc.

  19. Recovery of Scandium(III) from Aqueous Solutions by Solvent Extraction with the Functionalized Ionic Liquid Betainium Bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide

    OpenAIRE

    Onghena, Bieke; Binnemans, Koen

    2015-01-01

    The ionic liquid betainium is(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide [Hbet][Tf2N] was used for the extraction of scandium from aqueous solutions. The influence of several extraction parameters on the extraction efficiency was investigated, including the initial metal concentration, phase ratio, and pH. The extraction kinetics was examined, and a comparison was made between conventional liquid−liquid extraction and homogeneous liquid−liquid extraction (HLLE). The stoichiometry of the extracted scandium...

  20. Modification mechanism of eutectic silicon in Al–6Si–0.3Mg alloy with scandium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patakham, Ussadawut [Manufacturing and Systems Engineering Program, Department of Production Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi, 126 Pracha-Utid Rd., Bangmod, Tungkhru, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand); Kajornchaiyakul, Julathep [National Metal and Material Technology Center, National Science and Technology Development Agency, 114 Thailand Science Park, Klong Nueng, Klong Luang, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand); Limmaneevichitr, Chaowalit, E-mail: chaowalit.lim@kmutt.ac.th [Manufacturing and Systems Engineering Program, Department of Production Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi, 126 Pracha-Utid Rd., Bangmod, Tungkhru, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)

    2013-10-25

    Highlights: •Morphologies and growth of Sc and Sr-modified eutectic silicon resemble those of dendrites. •Crystal orientation of eutectic aluminum depends on growth characteristics of eutectic silicon. •We report strong evidence of the occurrence of an impurity-induced twinning mechanism. -- Abstract: The modification mechanism of eutectic silicon in Al–6Si–0.3Mg alloy with scandium was studied. The crystallographic orientation relationships between primary dendrites and the eutectic phase of unmodified and modified Al–6Si–0.3 Mg alloys were determined using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The orientation of aluminum modified with scandium in the eutectic phase was different from that of the neighboring primary dendrites. This result implies that eutectic aluminum grows epitaxially from the surrounding primary aluminum dendrites in the unmodified alloy and that eutectic aluminum grows competitively from the surrounding primary aluminum dendrites in the modified alloy. The pole figure maps of eutectic Si in the [1 0 0], [1 1 0] and [1 1 1] axes of the unmodified and Sc-modified alloys were different, suggesting that the eutectic Al and Si crystals in modified alloy growth are more isotropic and cover a larger set of directions. The lattice fringes of Si of the alloys with and without Sc modification were different in the TEM results. The lattice fringes of Si in modified alloy were found to be multiple twins. However, this was not observed in the unmodified alloy. The growth characteristic of eutectic Si crystal in modified alloy suggests the occurrence of multiple twinning reactions and the formation of a high density of twins. This modification mechanism by Sc is explained by the results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis, which provide strong evidence of the occurrence of the impurity-induced twinning (IIT) mechanism.

  1. Grain refinement mechanism in an Al-Si-Mg alloy with scandium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patakham, Ussadawut [Department of Production Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, 126 Pracha-Utid Rd., Bangmod, Tungkhru, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand); Kajornchaiyakul, Julathep [National Metal and Material Technology Center, National Science and Technology Development Agency, 114 Thailand Science Park, Klong Nueng, Klong Luang, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand); Limmaneevichitr, Chaowalit, E-mail: chaowalit.lim@kmutt.ac.th [Department of Production Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, 126 Pracha-Utid Rd., Bangmod, Tungkhru, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)

    2012-11-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Scandium can be used to refine aluminum grains in an Al-Si-Mg aluminum alloy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effectiveness of Sc is lower than that of conventional Al-Ti grain refiners. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Al{sub 3}Sc particles can act as heterogeneous nuclei of aluminum phases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Higher alloying elements cause more intermetallic compound phases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Those phases cannot effectively act as heterogeneous nuclei compared with Al{sub 3}Sc particles. - Abstract: Grain refinement of the primary aluminum ({alpha}-Al) phase in a hypoeutectic Al-Si alloy using scandium (Sc) was studied to identify the grain refinement mechanism. Optical microscopy (OM), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) techniques were extensively used in this study. We found that Sc refined grains of primary aluminum. However, the grain refinement efficiency of Sc was considerably lower than that of titanium (Ti) in the Al-Si-Mg foundry alloy. It was evident that the precipitated Sc-containing phases acted as heterogeneous nucleation sites for the primary aluminum phase. The Sc-containing heterogeneous sites are irregular in shape with sizes between 3 and 5 {mu}m. At least three groups of nuclei based on their chemical composition were found, i.e., (i) Al and Sc, (ii) Al, Si, Mg, and Sc, and (iii) Al, Si, Mg, Sc, and Fe. Crystal orientation mapping showed primary aluminum dendrites with one orientation in each grain near Al{sub 3}Sc particles. The grain refinement mechanism of Sc for aluminum relies on heterogeneous nucleation of Al{sub 3}Sc particles, with less responsibly for grain growth restriction. Many intermetallic phases with Al, Si, Fe, Mg and Sc as their major components were found, and these phases could not effectively act as heterogeneous nuclei.

  2. Neutron and Charged-Particle Induced Cross Sections for Radiochemistry for Isotopes of Scandium, Titanium, Vanadium, Chromium, Manganese, and Iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelley, K; Hoffman, R D; Dietrich, F S; Bauer, R; Mustafa, M

    2004-11-30

    We have developed a set of modeled nuclear reaction cross sections for use in radiochemical diagnostics. Local systematics for the input parameters required by the Hauser-Feshbach statistical model were developed and used to calculate neutron and proton induced nuclear reaction cross sections in the mass region of scandium, titanium, vanadium, chromium, manganese, and iron (21 {le} Z {le} 26, 20 {le} N {le} 32).

  3. A composite cathode based on scandium doped titanate with enhanced electrocatalytic activity towards direct carbon dioxide electrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liming; Xie, Kui; Wu, Lan; Qin, Qingqing; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Yong; Xie, Ting; Wu, Yucheng

    2014-10-21

    A composite cathode based on redox-stable La0.2Sr0.8TiO(3+δ) (LSTO) can perform direct carbon dioxide electrolysis; however, the insufficient electro-catalytic activity limits the electrode performances and current efficiencies. In this work, catalytically active scandium is doped into LSTO to enhance the electro-catalytic activity for CO2 electrolysis. The structures, electronic conductivities and ionic conductivities of La0.2Sr0.8Ti(1-x)Sc(x)O (LSTS(x)O) (x = 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15 and 0.2) are systematically studied and further correlated with electrode performances. The ionic conductivities of single-phase LSTS(x)O (x = 0, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.15) remarkably improve versus the scandium doping contents though the electrical conductivities gradually change in an adverse trend. Electrochemical measurements demonstrate promising electrode polarisation of LSTS(x)O electrodes and increasing scandium doping contents accordingly improve electrode performances. The Faradic efficiencies of carbon dioxide electrolysis are enhanced by 20% with LSTS0.15O in contrast to bare LSTO electrodes in a solid oxide electrolyser at 800 °C.

  4. Adsorption of hydrogen in Scandium/Titanium decorated nitrogen doped carbon nanotube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mananghaya, Michael, E-mail: mikemananghaya@gmail.com [De La Salle University, 2401 Taft Ave, 0922, Manila (Philippines); DLSU STC Laguna Boulevard, LTI Spine Road Barangays Biñan and Malamig, Biñan City, Laguna (Philippines); DOST-ASTHRDP, PCIEERD, Gen. Santos Ave., Bicutan, Taguig City 1631 (Philippines); Belo, Lawrence Phoa; Beltran, Arnel [De La Salle University, 2401 Taft Ave, 0922, Manila (Philippines); DLSU STC Laguna Boulevard, LTI Spine Road Barangays Biñan and Malamig, Biñan City, Laguna (Philippines)

    2016-09-01

    Nitrogen doped Carbon Nanotube with divacancy (4ND-CN{sub x}NT) that is decorated with Scandium and Titanium as potential hydrogen storage medium using the pseudo potential density functional method was investigated. Highly localized states near the Fermi level, which are derived from the nitrogen defects, contribute to strong Sc and Ti bindings, which prevent metal aggregation and improve the material stability. A detailed Comparison of the Hydrogen adsorption capability with promising system-weight efficiency of Sc over Ti was elucidated when functionalized with 4ND-CN{sub x}NT. Finally, the (Sc/4ND){sub 10}-CN{sub x}CNT composite material has a thermodynamically favorable adsorption and consecutive adsorption energy for ideal reversible adsorption and desorption of hydrogen at room temperature such that it can hold at least 5.8 wt% hydrogen molecules at the LDA and GGA level. - Highlights: • Carbon Nanotube with divacancy (4ND-CN{sub x}NT) decorated with Sc and Ti. • Nitrogen defects, contribute to strong Sc and Ti bindings. • H{sub 2} and (Sc/4ND){sub 10}-CN{sub x}CNT has a favorable adsorption. • 5.8 wt% adsorption at the LDA and GGA level.

  5. Urinary monitoring of exposure to yttrium, scandium, and europium in male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Yasuhiro; Usuda, Kan; Shimizu, Hiroyasu; Fujimoto, Keiichi; Kono, Rei; Fujita, Aiko; Kono, Koichi

    2012-12-01

    On the assumption that rare earth elements (REEs) are nontoxic, they are being utilized as replacements of toxic heavy metals in novel technological applications. However, REEs are not entirely innocuous, and their impact on health is still uncertain. In the past decade, our laboratory has studied the urinary excretion of REEs in male Wistar rats given chlorides of europium, scandium, and yttrium solutions by one-shot intraperitoneal injection or oral dose. The present paper describes three experiments for the suitability and appropriateness of a method to use urine for biological monitoring of exposure to these REEs. The concentrations of REEs were determined in cumulative urine samples taken at 0-24 h by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, showing that the urinary excretion of REEs is <2 %. Rare earth elements form colloidal conjugates in the bloodstream, which make high REEs accumulation in the reticuloendothelial system and glomeruli and low urinary excretion. The high sensitivity of inductively coupled plasma-argon emission spectrometry analytical methods, with detection limits of <2 μg/L, makes urine a comprehensive assessment tool that reflects REE exposure. The analytical method and animal experimental model described in this study will be of great importance and encourage further discussion for future studies.

  6. Selective recovery of vanadium and scandium by ion exchange with D201 and solvent extraction using P507 from hydrochloric acid leaching solution of red mud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaobo; Li, Wang; Tang, Sen; Zeng, Majian; Bai, Pengyuan; Chen, Lunjian

    2017-05-01

    D201 resin and P507 extractant diluted with sulfonated kerosene were used to respectively separate vanadium and scandium, and impurity ions from hydrochloric acid leaching solution of red mud. More than 99% of vanadium was selectively adsorbed from the hydrochloric acid leaching solution under the conditions of pH value of 1.8, volume ratio of leaching solution to resin of 10, and flow rate of 3.33 mL/min. Maximum extraction and separation of scandium was observed from the acid leaching solution at an aqueous pH value of 0.2. More than 99% of scandium can be selectively extracted using 15% P507, 5% TBP at the aqueous solution/organic phase (A/O) ratio of 10:1 for 6 min. The loaded organic phase was washed with 0.3 mol/L sulfuric acid, wherein most impurities were removed. After the process of desorption or stripping, precipitation, and roasting, high-purity V2O5 and Sc2O3 were obtained. Finally, a conceptual flow sheet was established to separate and recover vanadium and scandium from red mud hydrochloric acid leaching solution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Random-field Potts model for the polar domains of lead magnesium niobate and lead scandium tantalate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, H.; Bursill, L.A

    1997-06-01

    A random filed Potts model is used to establish the spatial relationship between the nanoscale distribution of charges chemical defects and nanoscale polar domains for the perovskite-based relaxor materials lead magnesium niobate (PMN) and lead scandium tantalate (PST). The random fields are not set stochastically but are determined initially by the distribution of B-site cations (Mg, Nb) or (Sc, Ta) generated by Monte Carlo NNNI-model simulations for the chemical defects. An appropriate random field Potts model is derived and algorithms developed for a 2D lattice. It is shown that the local fields are strongly correlated with the chemical domain walls and that polar domains as a function of decreasing temperature is simulated for the two cases of PMN and PST. The dynamics of the polar clusters is also discussed. 33 refs., 9 figs.

  8. Development of methods for the selective separation of scandium, zirconium and tin for radiopharmaceutical applications; Entwicklung von Methoden zur selektiven Trennung von Scandium, Zirkonium und Zinn fuer radiopharmazeutische Anwendungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dirks-Fandrei, Carina

    2014-07-01

    The subject of the present work is the development of fast and highly selective methods for the separation and purification of scandium, zirconium and tin radionuclides from potential target materials for use in nuclear medicine. A number of selected resins (TrisKem International) were first characterized with respect to their extraction behaviour towards a large number of cations. Characterization studies were performed in batch experiments by determination of weight distribution ratios D{sub w} and further the influence of interferences on the uptake of these elements was evaluated. Weight distribution ratios were determined in different acids and acid concentrations with main focus on scandium, tin or zirconium. The interference of macro amounts of Calcium and Ti on the Sc extraction was evaluated as well as the interference of macro amounts of Y on the Zr extraction. Best suited uptake conditions were found for Scandium on DGA were determined to be 2.5 M HNO{sub 3} for Ti-Targets and 0.1 M HNO{sub 3} for Calcium-Targets. Otherwise it is also possible to extract Sc with TRU Resin. High uptakes were obtained at 2.5 M HNO{sub 3} for simulated Ti- and Calcium-targets. Separation methods were developed using elution studies; employed conditions were chosen according to parameters evaluated in the batch-experiment. The developed methods allowed separating Sc very rapidly in high purity very rapidly from Ti- or Calcium-targets. For Zr a separation method based on UTEVA Resin has been developed. Following results of batch experiments simulated Y-target solution were loaded onto a UTEVA resin column from 6 M HNO{sub 3}; the elution of Zr could be performed in 0.01 M oxalic acid. Decontamination factors in the order of 10{sup 4}-10{sup 5} could be obtained applying the developed method; the method thus allowed separating Zr in a high purity. Initial testing of a method for the separation of Sn from Cd targets based on the use of TBP Resin showed that the TBP resin seems

  9. The impact of an erbium, chromium:yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet laser with radial-firing tips on endodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoop, U; Barylyak, A; Goharkhay, K; Beer, F; Wernisch, J; Georgopoulos, A; Sperr, W; Moritz, A

    2009-01-01

    Radial-firing tips should allow a more homogeneous laser irradiation of root canal walls. The aim of the study was to assess the effects of erbium, chromium:yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser irradiation in conjunction with those newly designed tips. The investigation comprised bacteriology, morphological evaluations and temperature measurements. Root canals were inoculated with two test strains and laser irradiated with power settings of 0.6 W and 0.9 W and a repetition rate of 20 Hz. Subsequently, the samples were subjected to microbiological evaluation. The morphological changes of the canal walls were assessed by scanning electron microscopy. To reveal possible thermal side effects, we carried out temperature measurements. The bacteriological evaluation revealed a decisive disinfectant effect. Scanning electron microscopy showed the homogeneous removal of smear layer from the root canal walls. The temperature rise at the root surface during the irradiation was moderate, yielding 1.3 degrees C for the 0.6 W setting and 1.6 degrees C for the 0.9 W setting. The investigations indicated that the Er,Cr:YSGG laser, in conjunction with radial-firing tips, is a suitable tool for the elimination of bacteria in root canals and for the removal of smear layer.

  10. Effect of scandium addition on the microstructure, mechanical and wear properties of the spray formed hypereutectic aluminum–silicon alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raghukiran, Nadimpalli; Kumar, Ravi, E-mail: nvrk@iitm.ac.in

    2015-08-12

    Hypereutectic Al–x%Si–0.8Sc alloys (x=13, 16, 19 and 22 wt%) were produced by spray forming. The microstructures of all the alloys exhibited very fine silicon phase with average size of about 5–10 µm irrespective of the silicon content of the alloy. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the presence of a nano-scale scandium rich phase, identified as AlSi{sub 2}Sc{sub 2} (V-phase) uniformly distributed in the alloy. The presence of V-phase resulted in higher matrix hardness (1.34 GPa) in contrast to 1.04 GPa observed in the case of binary Al–Si alloys by nanoindentation. Isothermal heat treatment at 375 °C revealed insignificant coarsening of silicon phase in both binary and ternary alloys. The Al–x%Si–0.8Sc alloys exhibited higher flow stress and tensile strength in contrast to their binary alloy counterparts which was attributed to the bi-modal size distribution of the strengthening phases in the form of nano-scale V-phase and sub-micron to 10 µm size silicon particles. The pin-on-disk wear tests exhibited appreciable improvement in the wear performance of the relatively low-silicon content ternary alloys over their binary counterparts while the high-silicon content binary and ternary alloys exhibited no much difference in the wear performance.

  11. Scandium and Titanium Containing Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes for Hydrogen Storage: a Thermodynamic and First Principle Calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mananghaya, Michael; Yu, Dennis; Santos, Gil Nonato; Rodulfo, Emmanuel

    2016-06-15

    The generalized gradient approximation (GGA) to density functional theory (DFT) calculations indicate that the highly localized states derived from the defects of nitrogen doped carbon nanotube with divacancy (4ND-CNxNT) contribute to strong Sc and Ti bindings, which prevent metal aggregation. Comparison of the H2 adsorption capability of Sc over Ti-decorated 4ND-CNxNT shows that Ti cannot be used for reversible H2 storage due to its inherent high adsorption energy. The Sc/4ND-CNxNT possesses favorable adsorption and consecutive adsorption energy at the local-density approximation (LDA) and GGA level. Molecular dynamics (MD) study confirmed that the interaction between molecular hydrogen and 4ND-CNxNT decorated with scandium is indeed favorable. Simulations indicate that the total amount of adsorption is directly related to the operating temperature and pressure. The number of absorbed hydrogen molecules almost logarithmically increases as the pressure increases at a given temperature. The total excess adsorption of hydrogen on the (Sc/4ND)10-CNxNT arrays at 300 K is within the range set by the department of energy (DOE) with a value of at least 5.85 wt%.

  12. Effects of scandium addition on iron-bearing phases and tensile properties of Al–7Si–0.6Mg alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzeng, Yu-Chih [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Central University, Jhongli, Taiwan (China); Wu, Chih-Ting [Department of Vehicle Engineering, Army Academy R.O.C., Jhongli, Taiwan (China); Bor, Hui-Yun; Horng, Jain-Long; Tsai, Mu-Lin [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Central University, Jhongli, Taiwan (China); Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, National Central University, Jhongli, Taiwan (China); Lee, Sheng-Long, E-mail: shenglon@cc.ncu.edu.tw [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Central University, Jhongli, Taiwan (China); Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, National Central University, Jhongli, Taiwan (China)

    2014-01-21

    Iron is the most deleterious impurity in aluminum alloys and can easily combine with aluminum to form an acicular β-Al{sub 5}FeSi phase that reduces ductility during the solidification of the molten metal. Adding scandium (Sc) to Al–7Si–0.6Mg alloys can transform the acicular β-Al{sub 5}FeSi phase into a comparatively harmless nodular Sc–Fe phase (Al{sub 12}Si{sub 6}Fe{sub 2}(Mg,Sc){sub 5}). This Sc–Fe phase has a lower hardness and elastic modulus than the β-Al{sub 5}FeSi phase; it is thus less likely to initiate cracks in the Al matrix. Moreover, the nodular Sc–Fe phase can improve the fluidity of Al during solidification, reducing interdendritic shrinkage. Tensile testing measurements showed that the elongation of Al–7Si–0.6Mg alloys with 0.04 and 0.12 wt% Sc can be respectively increased by 115% and 110% compared to Al–7Si–0.6Mg without Sc. The corresponding quality indices are increased by 17% and 19%, respectively, suggesting that the tensile properties of Al–7Si–0.6Mg alloys can be enhanced by adding scandium.

  13. Separation of (44)Ti from proton irradiated scandium by using solid-phase extraction chromatography and design of (44)Ti/(44)Sc generator system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radchenko, V; Meyer, C A L; Engle, J W; Naranjo, C M; Unc, G A; Mastren, T; Brugh, M; Birnbaum, E R; John, K D; Nortier, F M; Fassbender, M E

    2016-12-16

    Scandium-44g (half-life 3.97h [1]) shows promise for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of longer biological processes than that of the current gold standard, (18)F, due to its favorable decay parameters. One source of (44g)Sc is the long-lived parent nuclide (44)Ti (half-life 60.0 a). A (44)Ti/(44g)Sc generator would have the ability to provide radionuclidically pure (44g)Sc on a daily basis. The production of (44)Ti via the (45)Sc(p,2n) reaction requires high proton beam currents and long irradiation times. Recovery and purification of no-carrier added (nca) (44)Ti from scandium metal targets involves complex separation chemistry. In this study, separation systems based on solid phase extraction chromatography were investigated, including branched diglycolamide (BDGA) resin and hydroxamate based ZR resin. Results indicate that ZR resin in HCl media represents an effective (44)Ti/(44g)Sc separation system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Gd-Sc-based mixed-metal nitride cluster fullerenes: mutual influence of the cage and cluster size and the role of scandium in the electronic structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svitova, Anna L; Popov, Alexey A; Dunsch, Lothar

    2013-03-18

    The influence of the cage as well as of the cluster size has been studied in Gd-Sc nitride cluster fullerenes, which have been synthesized and isolated for these studies. A series of carbon cages ranging from C78 to C88 have been synthesized, isolated, and characterized in detail using absorption and vibrational spectroscopy as well as electrochemistry and density functional theory calculations. Gd-Sc mixed-metal cluster fullerenes in carbon cages different from C80 were described for the first time. A review of their structures, properties, and stability is given. The synthesis was performed with melamine as an effective solid source of nitrogen, providing high fullerene yield and suppressing empty fullerene formation. Substitution of gadolinium by scandium imposes a noticeable influence on the electronic structure of nitride cluster fullerenes as revealed by electrochemical, spectroscopic, and computational methods.

  15. Copper scandium zirconium phosphate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bond, Andrew David; Warner, Terence Edwin

    2013-01-01

    components. The [Sc(III)Zr(IV)(PO(4))(3)](2-) framework is composed of corner-sharing Sc/ZrO(6) octahedra and PO(4) tetrahedra. The Sc and Zr atoms are disordered on one atomic site on a crystallographic threefold axis. The P atom of the phosphate group lies on a crystallographic twofold axis. Nonframework...

  16. Synthesis and characterization of reduced scandium halide containing one- and two-dimensional metal bonded arrays. [Sc--ScCl3; Cs3Sc2Cl9; CsScCl3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poeppelmeier, K.R.

    1978-08-01

    The stabilization effect of metal-metal bond formation on reduced scandium compounds was studied. The binary compounds Sc/sub 7/Cl/sub 12/, Sc/sub 5/Cl/sub 8/, Sc/sub 7/Cl/sub 10/ and ScCl were prepared by high temperature techniques and were characterized by single crystal x-ray diffraction. The respective metal arrays in these compounds can be viewed as fragments of scandium metal ranging from discrete six atom metal cluster species (Sc(Sc/sub 6/Cl/sub 12/)), through intermediate single and double infinite chain configurations ((ScCl/sub 2/)(Sc/sub 4/Cl/sub 6/)) and ((ScCl/sub 2/)(Sc/sub 6/Cl/sub 8/)) to double metal close-packed sheets (ScCl). The halogen atoms effectively isolate the clusters, chains and sheets by bonding face, edge or exo positions on the metal arrays. The common occurrence of isolated scandium (III) ions emphasizes that a minimum number of bonding electrons is required to stabilize what are formally anionic metal arrays. The distribution of the reduction electrons in these anisotropic materials was studied by magnetic susceptibility, EPR and uv-X photoelectron spectroscopy. The ternary compounds studied were Cs/sub 3/Sc/sub 2/Cl/sub 9/ and CsScCl/sub 3/. The anion-bridged metal chain of the hexagonal perovskite structure was found to stabilize scandium (II). CsScCl/sub 3/ was found to be grossly nonstoichiometric on the transition metal site and the effects of the mixed valence character were studied between the single valence extremes Cs/sub 3/Sc/sub 2 + x/Cl/sub 9/; 0< x < 1.0.

  17. 7 CFR 51.2946 - Color chart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color chart. 51.2946 Section 51.2946 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Walnuts in the Shell General § 51.2946 Color chart. The color chart (USDA Walnut Color Chart) to which reference is made in §§ 51.2948, 51.2949, 51.2950, 51.2954, and 51.2963...

  18. Scandium functionalized carbon aerogel: Synthesis of nanoparticles and structure of a new ScOCl and properties of NaAlH{sub 4} as a function of pore size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javadian, Payam; Nielsen, Thomas K. [Center for Energy Materials, Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO), and Department of Chemistry, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus (Denmark); Ravnsbæk, Dorthe B. [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge 02142, MA (United States); Jepsen, Lars H. [Center for Energy Materials, Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO), and Department of Chemistry, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus (Denmark); Polanski, Marek [Faculty of Advanced Technology and Chemistry, Military University of Technology, 2 Kaliskiego Str., 00-908 Warsaw (Poland); Plocinski, Tomasz [Faculty of Material Science and Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, 144 Woloska Str., 02-507 Warsaw (Poland); Kunce, Izabela [Faculty of Advanced Technology and Chemistry, Military University of Technology, 2 Kaliskiego Str., 00-908 Warsaw (Poland); Besenbacher, Flemming [Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Bystrzycki, Jerzy [Faculty of Advanced Technology and Chemistry, Military University of Technology, 2 Kaliskiego Str., 00-908 Warsaw (Poland); Jensen, Torben R., E-mail: trj@chem.au.dk [Center for Energy Materials, Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO), and Department of Chemistry, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus (Denmark)

    2015-11-15

    A new method for scandium-functionalization of carbon aerogels forming nanoparticles of a new scandiumoxochloride, ScOCl is presented. Sodium aluminiumhydride, NaAlH{sub 4}, is successfully melt infiltrated into the nano porous scaffolds with pore sizes of D{sub max}=7, 10, 13, 21, 26 and 39 nm, containing scandium based nano particles (<2.9 wt%) confirmed by elemental analysis and scanning electron microscopy. A systematic study of hydrogen storage properties of the nano composite materials is presented. An aqueous solution of ScCl{sub 3} was initially infiltrated and formed nanoconfined [Sc(OH)(H{sub 2}O){sub 5}]{sub 2}Cl{sub 4}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}, which transforms to nanoparticles of a new scandium oxochloride, ScOCl at 192 °C and to Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3} at 420 °C. ScOCl crystallizes in an orthorhombic unit cell a=3.4409(8), b=3.9613(6) and c=8.178(2) Å, space group Pmmn, and is built from layers of [ScO{sub 4}Cl{sub 2}] octahedra forming neutral ScOCl layers. Temperature programmed desorption mass spectroscopy shows slightly improved kinetics for release of hydrogen with decreasing pore size. Continuous cycling of hydrogen release and uptake measured by the Sieverts' method reveal a larger preserved hydrogen storage capacity for scandium-functionalized aerogel with the larger pores (39 nm). - Highlights: • New synthesis approach for nanoporous Sc-functionalization carbon aerogel (Sc-CA). • The new scandium oxochloride, ScOCl, structure is obtained. • NaAlH{sub 4} nanoconfined in Sc-CA with pores ranging between 7 nm

  19. The use of the erbium, chromium:yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet laser in endodontic treatment: the results of an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoop, Ulrich; Goharkhay, Kawe; Klimscha, Johannes; Zagler, Manuela; Wernisch, Johann; Georgopoulos, Apostolos; Sperr, Wolfgang; Moritz, Andreas

    2007-07-01

    The use of the erbium, chromium:yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser has become accepted in the field of cavity preparation. The development of miniaturized and flexible fiber tips has allowed this device to be used in endodontics. The authors conducted an in vitro study to assess the effects of Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation on root canals. The authors inoculated root canals with two bacteria, laser irradiated them at two power settings and subjected them to a quantitative microbiological evaluation. They used scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to assess morphological changes in endodontically processed and laser-irradiated root canal walls. They measured temperature increases on the root surface to determine possible thermal side effects. The bacteriological evaluation revealed a disinfecting effect in the root dentin samples that was dependent on the output power but not specific for the bacterial species investigated. SEM showed the removal of the smear layer from the root canal walls and the exposure of dentinal tubules. The temperature rise during irradiation was moderate when standardized power settings were used. The Er,Cr:YSGG laser can be used to eliminate bacteria in root canals. It also effectively removes smear layer and debris from the canal wall. Practitioners can use the Er,Cr:YSGG laser to prepare root canals for endodontic therapy.

  20. Aluminum-Scandium Alloys: Material Characterization, Friction Stir Welding, and Compatibility With Hydrogen Peroxide (MSFC Center Director's Discretionary Fund Final Report, Proj. No. 04-14)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. A.; Chen, P. S.

    2004-01-01

    This Technical Memorandum describes the development of several high-strength aluminum (Al) alloys that are compatible with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) propellant for NASA Hypersonic-X (Hyper-X) vehicles fuel tanks and structures. The yield strengths for some of these Al-magnesium-based alloys are more than 3 times stronger than the conventional 5254-H112 Al alloy, while maintaining excellent H2O2 compatibility similar to class 1 5254 alloy. The alloy development strategy is to add scandium, zirconium, and other transitional metals with unique electrochemical properties, which will not act as catalysts, to decompose the highly concentrated 90 percent H2O2. Test coupons are machined from sheet metals for H2O2 long-term exposure testing and mechanical properties testing. In addition, the ability to weld the new alloys using friction stir welding has also been explored. The new high-strength alloys could represent an enabling material technology for Hyper-X vehicles, where flight weight reduction is a critical requirement.

  1. Impact of layer and substrate properties on the surface acoustic wave velocity in scandium doped aluminum nitride based SAW devices on sapphire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillinger, M., E-mail: manuel.gillinger@tuwien.ac.at; Knobloch, T.; Schneider, M.; Schmid, U. [Institute of Sensor and Actuator Systems, TU Wien, 1040 Vienna (Austria); Shaposhnikov, K.; Kaltenbacher, M. [Institute of Mechanics and Mechatronics, TU Wien, 1040 Vienna (Austria)

    2016-06-06

    This paper investigates the performance of surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices consisting of reactively sputter deposited scandium doped aluminum nitride (Sc{sub x}Al{sub 1-x}N) thin films as piezoelectric layers on sapphire substrates for wireless sensor or for RF-MEMS applications. To investigate the influence of piezoelectric film thickness on the device properties, samples with thickness ranging from 500 nm up to 3000 nm are fabricated. S{sub 21} measurements and simulations demonstrate that the phase velocity is predominantly influenced by the mass density of the electrode material rather than by the thickness of the piezoelectric film. Additionally, the wave propagation direction is varied by rotating the interdigital transducer structures with respect to the crystal orientation of the substrate. The phase velocity is about 2.5% higher for a-direction compared to m-direction of the sapphire substrate, which is in excellent agreement with the difference in the anisotropic Young's modulus of the substrate corresponding to these directions.

  2. Homologous Pairing Activities of Two Rice RAD51 Proteins, RAD51A1 and RAD51A2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikawa, Shukuko; Mimida, Naozumi; Shimizu, Takeshi; Toki, Seiichi; Ichikawa, Hiroaki; Shibata, Takehiko; Kurumizaka, Hitoshi

    2013-01-01

    In higher eukaryotes, RAD51 functions as an essential protein in homologous recombination and recombinational repair of DNA double strand breaks. During these processes, RAD51 catalyzes homologous pairing between single-stranded DNA and double-stranded DNA. Japonica cultivars of rice (Oryza sativa) encode two RAD51 proteins, RAD51A1 and RAD51A2, whereas only one RAD51 exists in yeast and mammals. However, the functional differences between RAD51A1 and RAD51A2 have not been elucidated, because their biochemical properties have not been characterized. In the present study, we purified RAD51A1 and RAD51A2, and found that RAD51A2 robustly promotes homologous pairing in vitro. RAD51A1 also possesses homologous-pairing activity, but it is only about 10% of the RAD51A2 activity. Both RAD51A1 and RAD51A2 bind to ssDNA and dsDNA, and their DNA binding strictly requires ATP, which modulates the polymer formation activities of RAD51A1 and RAD51A2. These findings suggest that although both RAD51A1 and RAD51A2 have the potential to catalyze homologous pairing, RAD51A2 may be the major recombinase in rice. PMID:24124491

  3. Homologous pairing activities of two rice RAD51 proteins, RAD51A1 and RAD51A2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Morozumi

    Full Text Available In higher eukaryotes, RAD51 functions as an essential protein in homologous recombination and recombinational repair of DNA double strand breaks. During these processes, RAD51 catalyzes homologous pairing between single-stranded DNA and double-stranded DNA. Japonica cultivars of rice (Oryza sativa encode two RAD51 proteins, RAD51A1 and RAD51A2, whereas only one RAD51 exists in yeast and mammals. However, the functional differences between RAD51A1 and RAD51A2 have not been elucidated, because their biochemical properties have not been characterized. In the present study, we purified RAD51A1 and RAD51A2, and found that RAD51A2 robustly promotes homologous pairing in vitro. RAD51A1 also possesses homologous-pairing activity, but it is only about 10% of the RAD51A2 activity. Both RAD51A1 and RAD51A2 bind to ssDNA and dsDNA, and their DNA binding strictly requires ATP, which modulates the polymer formation activities of RAD51A1 and RAD51A2. These findings suggest that although both RAD51A1 and RAD51A2 have the potential to catalyze homologous pairing, RAD51A2 may be the major recombinase in rice.

  4. 7 CFR 51.2276 - Color chart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color chart. 51.2276 Section 51.2276 Agriculture... Standards for Shelled English Walnuts (Juglans Regia) General § 51.2276 Color chart. The color chart (USDA Walnut Color Chart) to which reference is made in §§ 51.2281 and 51.2282 illustrates the four shades of...

  5. Homologous Pairing Activities of Two Rice RAD51 Proteins, RAD51A1 and RAD51A2

    OpenAIRE

    Yuichi Morozumi; Ryohei Ino; Shukuko Ikawa; Naozumi Mimida; Takeshi Shimizu; Seiichi Toki; Hiroaki Ichikawa; Takehiko Shibata; Hitoshi Kurumizaka

    2013-01-01

    In higher eukaryotes, RAD51 functions as an essential protein in homologous recombination and recombinational repair of DNA double strand breaks. During these processes, RAD51 catalyzes homologous pairing between single-stranded DNA and double-stranded DNA. Japonica cultivars of rice (Oryza sativa) encode two RAD51 proteins, RAD51A1 and RAD51A2, whereas only one RAD51 exists in yeast and mammals. However, the functional differences between RAD51A1 and RAD51A2 have not been elucidated, because...

  6. 51

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    compared with scrum amylase and protein level confirms the findings of previous studies(4,6), which also supported the view that the sublingual gland is the source of secretions in plunging ránula. Since sublingual sailography is often not possible in humans, this cannot be advised routinely for clinical diagnosis. However ...

  7. 51

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    where LHS stands for the expression on the left side of the equation. Multiplying both sides of the above equation by XP; , we get. M.XP; ; – 1 + X-Piºtri + ... = 1 +R (say). For values of X > 2, it is clear that R < 1. Therefore,. 1 < M.XPi.1 × 2 (15). Taking logarithms of both sides of (15), to the base X, we get. 0< p. 1 +logy M + 1 pi ...

  8. 14 CFR 93.51 - Applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Anchorage, Alaska, Terminal Area § 93.51... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applicability. 93.51 Section 93.51..., Terminal Area. ...

  9. Structure and temperature effects on Nd3+ spectra in polycrystalline mixed scandium aluminum garnets Y3ScxAl5-xO12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupei, A.; Lupei, V.; Hau, S.; Gheorghe, C.; Voicu, F.

    2015-09-01

    New spectroscopic data obtained from high resolution low temperature absorption and emission spectra of Nd3+ in mixed scandium aluminum garnets Y3ScxAl5-xO12 - (x = 0-2) translucent ceramics revealed transition dependent composition effects: modification of the shapes (Lorentz at x = 0 and 2, quasi-Gauss at x = 1, x-dependent asymmetric for other x values, with obvious multicenter structure for low x), widths and shifts of the lines. Nd3+ electronic structure dependence on structural changes with composition is analyzed in terms of nephelauxetic effect and maximum splitting of manifolds: Sc3+ co-doping reduces the nephelauxetic effect, and the increase of 4F3/2 splitting from 85 cm-1 (x = 0) to 98 cm-1 (x = 2) denotes the lowering of local symmetry. The multicenter structure and inhomogeneous broadening of Nd3+ lines is attributed to crystal field distributions determined by the random occupancy of the octahedral sites by Sc3+ and Al3+. For low x (0.2) the resolved two satellites S1, S2 that accompany Nd:YAG lines are correlated to anisotropic crystal field perturbations produced by the n.n. Sc3+ by analogy to those determined by Y3+-antisites (excess of Y3+ ions that enter in octahedral sites of the melt-grown YAG crystals). The temperature evolution of the Nd3+ spectral characteristics (line intensity, shift, broadening) in the 10-300 K range is analyzed in terms of thermal population of the Stark levels, of the effect on electron-phonon interaction and on lattice expansion. The relevance of the spectroscopic properties on the laser emission characteristics in these systems is discussed.

  10. Dissolved scandium, yttrium, and lanthanum in the surface waters of the North Atlantic: Potential use as an indicator of scavenging intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Till, C. P.; Shelley, R. U.; Landing, W. M.; Bruland, K. W.

    2017-08-01

    Recent work has begun to elucidate the biogeochemical cycling of scandium (Sc) in the open ocean, but so far no surface distribution data have been reported of dissolved Sc, and no basin-scale surface distributions have been reported of yttrium (Y) or lanthanum (La). This work presents basin-wide surface Sc, Y, and La data in a section across the North Atlantic subtropical gyre (2011 GEOTRACES GA03) and investigates the potential utility of these distributions. This work uses dissolved and aerosol concentration data for La and Sc to estimate their surface ocean residence times in both the center of the oligotrophic gyre and near the African coastline. This work additionally shows that the surface distribution of Sc in the North Atlantic correlates with the shape of the gyre as inferred by isotherm depth, with lower Sc concentrations at the gyre boundaries. This pattern suggests that Sc could be drawn down by the elevated particle flux at the gyre boundaries. In this case, Sc removal could be used as an indicator of scavenging intensity. In order to account for variable input of Sc to the surface ocean, we propose normalizing the Sc distribution to that of Y or La, which are much less particle reactive and are input via dust to the surface North Atlantic in constant ratios with Sc. Such normalization improves the correlation with isotherm depth. We propose that the variations in dissolved Y/Sc and La/Sc ratios may be due to preferential Sc scavenging and could therefore indicate scavenging intensity.

  11. On new ternary equiatomic scandium transition metal aluminum compounds ScTAl with T = Cr, Ru, Ag, Re, Pt, and Au

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radzieowski, Mathis; Janka, Oliver [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie; Benndorf, Christopher [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie; Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physikalische Chemie; Haverkamp, Sandra [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physikalische Chemie; Eckert, Hellmut [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physikalische Chemie; University of Sao Paulo, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. of Physics

    2016-08-01

    The new equiatomic scandium transition metal aluminides ScTAl for T = Cr, Ru, Ag, Re, Pt, and Au were obtained by arc-melting of the elements followed by subsequent annealing for crystal growth. The samples were studied by powder and single crystal X-ray diffraction. The structures of three compounds were refined from single crystal X-ray diffractometer data: ScCrAl, MgZn{sub 2} type, P6{sub 3}/mmc, a = 525.77(3), c = 858.68(5) pm, R{sub 1} = 0.0188, wR{sub 2} = 0.0485, 204 F{sup 2} values, 13 variables, ScPtAl, TiNiSi type, Pnma, a = 642.83(4), b = 428.96(2), c = 754.54(5) pm, R{sub 1} = 0.0326, wR{sub 2} = 0.0458, 448 F{sup 2} values, 20 variables and ScAuAl, HfRhSn type, P anti 62c, a = 722.88(4), c = 724.15(4) pm, R{sub 1} = 0.0316, wR{sub 2} = 0.0653, 512 F{sup 2} values, 18 variables. Phase pure samples of all compounds were furthermore investigated by magnetic susceptibility measurements, and Pauli-paramagnetism but no superconductivity was observed down to 2.1 K for all of them. The local structural features and disordering phenomena have been characterized by {sup 27}Al and {sup 45}Sc magic angle spinning (MAS) and static NMR spectroscopic investigations.

  12. Treatment of infraorbital dark circles in atopic dermatitis with a 2790-nm erbium: yttrium scandium gallium garnet laser: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kui Young; Oh, In Young; Moon, Nam Ju; Seo, Seong Jun

    2013-04-01

    Although many Asian atopic patients have orbital darkening symptom and the demand to treat this condition is increasing, little has been reported in the literature on the treatment of infraorbital dark circles in atopic dermatitis. To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of 2790-nm erbium:yttrium scandium gallium garnet (Er:YSGG) laser therapy for reducing infraorbital dark circles in atopic dermatitis patients. Ten Korean patients over 21 year with mild atopic dermatitis and infraorbital dark circles were enrolled in this study. Patients who need active atopic dermatitis treatments are excluded because of the possibility of aggravation after laser treatment. They were treated for dark circles using a 2790-nm Er:YSGG laser. The treatment parameters were 1.8-2.2 J/cm² fluence, 6-mm spot size, and 0.3-ms pulse width with 10% overlap over the infraorbital areas once with a 4-week interval between treatments. Efficacy was assessed with a quartile grading score ranging from 0 to 5 by a blinded investigator, and the patients also documented their degree of satisfaction with the same grading score. All possible side effects were evaluated. The clinical assessment showed 74.5% (2.7) and 72.5% (2.5) improvements, and the patient satisfaction scale scores improved an average of 74% (2.4) and 71.5% (2.3) at 2 months and 4 months after treatment, respectively. There were no severe side effects or aggravation of atopic dermatitis. Our study suggests that 2790-nm Er:YSGG laser therapy can be effectively and safely used in the treatment of infraorbital dark circles in atopic dermatitis patients.

  13. The influence of cation ordering, oxygen vacancy distribution and proton siting on observed properties in ceramic electrolytes: the case of scandium substituted barium titanate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torino, Nico; Henry, Paul F; Knee, Christopher S; Bjørheim, Tor Svendsen; Rahman, Seikh M H; Suard, Emma; Giacobbe, Carlotta; Eriksson, Sten G

    2017-07-04

    The origin of the 2-order of magnitude difference in the proton conductivity of the hydrated forms of hexagonal and cubic oxygen deficient BaScxTi1-xO3-δ (x = 0.2 and x = 0.7) was probed using a combination of neutron diffraction and density functional theory techniques to support published X-ray diffraction, conductivity, thermogravimetric and differential scanning calorimetry studies. Cation ordering is found in the 6H structure type (space group P63/mmc) adopted by BaSc0.2Ti0.8O3-δ with scandium preferentially substituting in the vertex sharing octahedra (2a crystallographic site) and avoiding the face-sharing octahedra (4f site). This is coupled with oxygen vacancy ordering in the central plane of the face-sharing octahedra (O1 site). In BaSc0.7Ti0.3O3-δ a simple cubic perovskite (space group Pm3[combining macron]m) best represents the average structure from Rietveld analysis with no evidence of either cation ordering or oxygen vacancy ordering. Significant diffuse scattering is observed, indicative of local order. Hydration in both cases leads to complete filling of the available oxygen vacancies and permits definition of the proton sites. We suggest that the more localised nature of the proton sites in the 6H structure is responsible for the significantly lower proton conduction observed in the literature. Within the 6H structure type final model, proton diffusion requires a 3-step process via higher energy proton sites that are unoccupied at room temperature and is also likely to be anisotropic whereas the highly disordered cubic perovskite proton position allows 3-dimensional diffusion by well-described modes. Finally, we propose how this knowledge can be used to further materials design for ceramic electrolytes for proton conducting fuel cells.

  14. RAD51AP2, a novel vertebrate- and meiotic-specific protein, sharesa conserved RAD51-interacting C-terminal domain with RAD51AP1/PIR51

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovalenko, Oleg V.; Wiese, Claudia; Schild, David

    2006-07-25

    Many interacting proteins regulate and/or assist the activities of RAD51, a recombinase which plays a critical role in both DNA repair and meiotic recombination. Yeast two-hybrid screening of a human testis cDNA library revealed a new protein, RAD51AP2 (RAD51 Associated Protein 2), that interacts strongly with RAD51. A full-length cDNA clone predicts a novel vertebrate specific protein of 1159 residues, and the RAD51AP2 transcript was observed only in meiotic tissue (i.e. adult testis and fetal ovary), suggesting a meiotic-specific function for RAD51AP2. In HEK293 cells the interaction of RAD51 with an ectopically-expressed recombinant large fragment of RAD51AP2 requires the C-terminal 57 residues of RAD51AP2. This RAD51-binding region shows 81% homology to the C-terminus of RAD51AP1/PIR51, an otherwise totally unrelated RAD51-binding partner that is ubiquitously expressed. Analyses using truncations and point mutations in both RAD51AP1 and RAD51AP2 demonstrate that these proteins use the same structural motif for RAD51 binding. RAD54 shares some homology with this RAD51-binding motif, but this homologous region plays only an accessory role to the adjacent main RAD51-interacting region, which has been narrowed here to 40 amino acids. A novel protein, RAD51AP2, has been discovered that interacts with RAD51 through a C-terminal motif also present in RAD51AP1.

  15. Effects of erbium-and chromium-doped yttrium scandium gallium garnet and diode lasers on the surfaces of restorative dental materials: a scanning electron microscope study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatipoglu, M; Barutcigil, C

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential effects of laser irradiation, which is commonly performed in periodontal surgery, on the surfaces of restorative materials. Five different restorative dental materials were used in this study, as follows: (1) Resin composite, (2) poly acid-modified resin composite (compomer), (3) conventional glass ionomer cement (GIC), (4) resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC), and (5) amalgam. Four cylindrical samples (8 mm diameter, 2 mm height) were prepared for each restorative material. In addition, four freshly extracted, sound human incisors teeth were selected. Two different laser systems commonly used in periodontal surgery were examined in this study: A 810 nm diode laser at a setting of 1 W with continuous-phase laser irradiation for 10 s, and an erbium-and chromium-doped yttrium scandium gallium garnet (Er, Cr: YSGG) laser at settings of 2.5 W, 3.25 W, and 4 W with 25 Hz laser irradiation for 10 s. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis was performed to evaluate the morphology and surface deformation of the restorative materials and tooth surfaces. According to the SEM images, the Er, Cr: YSGG laser causes irradiation markings that appear as demineralized surfaces on tooth samples. The Er, Cr: YSGG laser also caused deep defects on composite, compomer, and RMGIC surfaces because of its high power, and the ablation was deeper for these samples. High-magnification SEM images of GIC samples showed the melting and combustion effects of the Er, Cr: YSGG laser, which increased as the laser power was increased. In amalgam samples, neither laser left significant harmful effects at the lowest power setting. The diode laser did cause irradiation markings, but they were insignificant compared with those left by the Er, Cr: YSGG laser on the surfaces of the different materials and teeth. Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that Er, Cr: YSGG laser irradiation could cause distortions of the surfaces

  16. 46 CFR 201.51 - Computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Computation. 201.51 Section 201.51 Shipping MARITIME... (Rule 5) § 201.51 Computation. In computing any period of time under these Rules, the time begins with... seven (7) days, intermediate Saturdays, Sundays, and holidays shall be excluded from the computation. ...

  17. 32 CFR 842.51 - Applicable law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicable law. 842.51 Section 842.51 National... CLAIMS Military Claims Act (10 U.S.C. 2733) § 842.51 Applicable law. This paragraph provides the existing law governing liability, measurement of liability and the effects of settlement upon awards. (a...

  18. 7 CFR 51.2290 - Insect injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Insect injury. 51.2290 Section 51.2290 Agriculture... Standards for Shelled English Walnuts (Juglans Regia) Definitions § 51.2290 Insect injury. Insect injury means that the insect, web, frass or other evidence of insects is present on the portion of kernel. ...

  19. 7 CFR 51.2122 - Insect injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Insect injury. 51.2122 Section 51.2122 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Shelled Almonds Definitions § 51.2122 Insect injury. Insect injury means that the insect, web, or frass is present or there is definite evidence of insect feeding. ...

  20. 7 CFR 51.2008 - Insect injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Insect injury. 51.2008 Section 51.2008 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Filberts in the Shell 1 Definitions § 51.2008 Insect injury. Insect injury means that the insect, frass or web is present inside the nut or the kernel shows definite evidence of insect...

  1. 7 CFR 51.304 - Combination grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Combination grades. 51.304 Section 51.304 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Apples Grades § 51.304 Combination grades. (a) Combinations of the above grades may... permitted in connection with the U.S. apple grades. When Combination grades are packed, at least 50 percent...

  2. 7 CFR 51.3410 - Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades. 51.3410 Section 51.3410 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Potatoes for Processing 1 § 51.3410 Grades. (a) “U.S. No. 1 Processing” consists of...

  3. 7 CFR 51.1402 - Size classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Size classification. 51.1402 Section 51.1402... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Pecans in the Shell 1 Size Classification § 51.1402 Size classification. Size of pecans may be specified in connection with the grade in accordance with one of the...

  4. 7 CFR 51.1903 - Size classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Size classification. 51.1903 Section 51.1903... STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Fresh Tomatoes Size and Maturity Classification § 51.1903 Size classification. The following terms may be used for describing the size of the tomatoes in any lot...

  5. 7 CFR 51.1904 - Maturity classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maturity classification. 51.1904 Section 51.1904... STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Fresh Tomatoes Size and Maturity Classification § 51.1904 Maturity classification. Tomatoes which are characteristically red when ripe, but are not overripe or soft...

  6. 7 CFR 51.1860 - Color classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color classification. 51.1860 Section 51.1860... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Fresh Tomatoes 1 Color Classification § 51.1860 Color classification... illustrating the color classification requirements, as set forth in this section. This visual aid may be...

  7. 28 CFR 51.7 - Political parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Political parties. 51.7 Section 51.7... THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT OF 1965, AS AMENDED General Provisions § 51.7 Political parties. Certain activities of political parties are subject to the preclearance requirement of section 5. A change affecting...

  8. 7 CFR 51.905 - Dried berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Table Grapes (European or Vinifera Type) 1 Definitions § 51.905 Dried berries. Dried berries means berries which are dry and shriveled to the extent that practically no moisture is present... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dried berries. 51.905 Section 51.905 Agriculture...

  9. 42 CFR 51c.110 - Confidentiality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Confidentiality. 51c.110 Section 51c.110 Public... SERVICES General Provisions § 51c.110 Confidentiality. All information as to personal facts and... designee with appropriate safeguards for confidentiality of patient records. Otherwise, information may be...

  10. 28 CFR 51.22 - Premature submissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Premature submissions. 51.22 Section 51.22 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES FOR THE ADMINISTRATION OF... § 51.22 Premature submissions. The Attorney General will not consider on the merits: (a) Any proposal...

  11. 22 CFR 51.26 - Photographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Photographs. 51.26 Section 51.26 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE NATIONALITY AND PASSPORTS PASSPORTS Application § 51.26 Photographs. The applicant must submit with his or her application photographs as prescribed by the Department that are a...

  12. 40 CFR 51.1004 - Attainment dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Attainment dates. 51.1004 Section 51....5 National Ambient Air Quality Standards § 51.1004 Attainment dates. (a) Consistent with section 172(a)(2)(A) of the Act, the attainment date for an area designated nonattainment for the PM2.5 NAAQS...

  13. 7 CFR 51.17 - Official sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Official sampling. 51.17 Section 51.17 Agriculture... Inspection Service § 51.17 Official sampling. Samples may be officially drawn by any duly authorized... time and place of the sampling and the brands or other identifying marks of the containers from which...

  14. 14 CFR 13.51 - Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Intervention. 13.51 Section 13.51... INVESTIGATIVE AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Rules of Practice for FAA Hearings § 13.51 Intervention. Any person may... represented by existing parties, and that the intervention will not unduly broaden the issues or delay the...

  15. 7 CFR 51.1240 - Paper ends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Paper ends. 51.1240 Section 51.1240 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Cleaned Virginia Type Peanuts in the Shell Definitions § 51.1240 Paper ends. Paper ends means...

  16. 7 CFR 51.2734 - Spanish type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spanish type. 51.2734 Section 51.2734 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Shelled Spanish Type Peanuts Definitions § 51.2734 Spanish type. Spanish type means peanuts of varieties which belong to the Spanish classification group and which are free from kernels of...

  17. 7 CFR 51.913 - Clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clusters. 51.913 Section 51.913 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Table Grapes (European or Vinifera Type) 1 Definitions § 51.913 Clusters. Clusters...

  18. 48 CFR 51.106 - Title.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Title. 51.106 Section 51... GOVERNMENT SOURCES BY CONTRACTORS Contractor Use of Government Supply Sources 51.106 Title. (a) Title to all... educational institutions and the Government Property clause at 52.245-1, Alternate II, is used, title to...

  19. 7 CFR 51.700 - Discoloration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discoloration. 51.700 Section 51.700 Agriculture... § 51.700 Discoloration. Discoloration means russeting of light shade of golden brown caused by rust... scars or other means may be allowed on a greater area, or darker shades may be allowed on a lesser area...

  20. 32 CFR 1605.51 - Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Area. 1605.51 Section 1605.51 National Defense... ORGANIZATION Local Boards § 1605.51 Area. (a) The Director of Selective Service shall divide each State into local board areas and establish local boards. There shall be at least one local board in each county...

  1. 7 CFR 51.1997 - Similar type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Similar type. 51.1997 Section 51.1997 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Filberts in the Shell 1 Definitions § 51.1997 Similar type. Similar type means that...

  2. 46 CFR 188.10-51 - Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ocean. 188.10-51 Section 188.10-51 Shipping COAST GUARD... Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-51 Ocean. Under this designation shall be included all vessels navigating the waters of any ocean, or the Gulf of Mexico more than 20 nautical miles offshore. ...

  3. 10 CFR 51.30 - Environmental assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental assessment. 51.30 Section 51.30 Energy...) Environmental Assessment § 51.30 Environmental assessment. (a) An environmental assessment for proposed actions..., an environmental assessment will not include discussion of any aspect of the storage of spent fuel...

  4. 30 CFR 7.51 - Approval checklist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval checklist. 7.51 Section 7.51 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS TESTING BY APPLICANT OR THIRD PARTY Battery Assemblies § 7.51 Approval checklist. Each...

  5. 4 CFR 5.1 - Pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pay. 5.1 Section 5.1 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM COMPENSATION § 5.1 Pay. (a) Pay principles. Pay of the employees of GAO shall be fixed by the Comptroller General consistent with the principles that— (1) There be equal pay for work of...

  6. 28 CFR 345.51 - Inmate pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inmate pay. 345.51 Section 345.51... (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.51 Inmate pay. (a) Grade levels. Inmate workers in FPI locations receive pay at five levels ranging from 5th grade pay (lowest) to 1st grade pay...

  7. 7 CFR 51.1562 - Freezing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Freezing. 51.1562 Section 51.1562 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Potatoes 1 Definitions § 51.1562 Freezing. Freezing means that the potato is frozen...

  8. 42 CFR 2.51 - Medical emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and time of the disclosure; and (4) The nature of the emergency (or error, if the report was to FDA... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Medical emergencies. 2.51 Section 2.51 Public... OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Disclosures Without Patient Consent § 2.51 Medical...

  9. 28 CFR 51.6 - Political subunits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Political subunits. 51.6 Section 51.6 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES FOR THE ADMINISTRATION OF SECTION 5 OF THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT OF 1965, AS AMENDED General Provisions § 51.6 Political subunits. All political...

  10. 45 CFR 5.1 - Purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purpose. 5.1 Section 5.1 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION FREEDOM OF INFORMATION REGULATIONS Basic Policy § 5.1 Purpose. This part contains the rules that the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS...

  11. 38 CFR 51.1 - Purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Purpose. 51.1 Section 51.1 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES General § 51.1 Purpose. This part sets forth the mechanism...

  12. 45 CFR 51.1 - Purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purpose. 51.1 Section 51.1 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CRITERIA FOR EVALUATING COMPREHENSIVE PLAN TO REDUCE RELIANCE ON ALIEN PHYSICIANS § 51.1 Purpose. The purpose of this regulation is to establish...

  13. 14 CFR 33.51 - Operation test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Operation test. 33.51 Section 33.51... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Reciprocating Aircraft Engines § 33.51 Operation test. The operation test must include the testing found necessary by the Administrator to demonstrate backfire...

  14. 42 CFR 51c.403 - Project elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Project elements. 51c.403 Section 51c.403 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR COMMUNITY HEALTH SERVICES Grants for Operating Community Health Projects § 51c.403 Project elements. A project for the...

  15. 42 CFR 51c.203 - Project elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Project elements. 51c.203 Section 51c.203 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR COMMUNITY HEALTH SERVICES Grants for Planning and Developing Community Health Centers § 51c.203 Project elements. A project...

  16. 42 CFR 51c.504 - Project elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Project elements. 51c.504 Section 51c.504 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR COMMUNITY HEALTH SERVICES Acquisition and Modernization of Existing Buildings § 51c.504 Project elements. (a) General...

  17. 40 CFR 205.51 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 205.51 Section 205.51 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Medium and Heavy Trucks § 205.51 Definitions. (a) As used in this subpart...

  18. 46 CFR 385.51 - Criteria: Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Criteria: Projects. 385.51 Section 385.51 Shipping... COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS REGULATIONS Criteria for Award § 385.51 Criteria: Projects. The criteria to be used by MarAd in evaluating all projects prior to award of a grant or cooperative agreement are as follows: (a...

  19. 9 CFR 146.51 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 146.51 Section 146.51 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...-Release Waterfowl § 146.51 Definitions. Commercial upland game bird slaughter plant. A commercial upland...

  20. 7 CFR 29.51 - Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration. 29.51 Section 29.51 Agriculture... INSPECTION Regulations Administration § 29.51 Administration. The Director is charged with the supervision of the Division and the performance of all duties assigned thereto in the administration of the Act...

  1. 7 CFR 51.1998 - Dry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dry. 51.1998 Section 51.1998 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Filberts in the Shell 1 Definitions § 51.1998 Dry. Dry means that the shell is free...

  2. 42 CFR 51c.112 - Grantee accountability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Grantee accountability. 51c.112 Section 51c.112 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR COMMUNITY HEALTH SERVICES General Provisions § 51c.112 Grantee accountability. (a) Accounting for grant award...

  3. 21 CFR 660.51 - Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Processing. 660.51 Section 660.51 Food and Drugs... STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Anti-Human Globulin § 660.51 Processing. (a) Processing method. (1) The processing method shall be one that has been shown to yield consistently a...

  4. 40 CFR 51.854 - Conformity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conformity analysis. 51.854 Section 51... FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Determining Conformity of General Federal Actions to State or Federal Implementation Plans § 51.854 Conformity analysis. Link to an...

  5. 22 CFR 5.1 - Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Introduction. 5.1 Section 5.1 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL ORGANIZATION § 5.1 Introduction. The sections in this part 5 are issued pursuant to section 3 of the Administrative Procedure Act, 5 U.S.C. 552, effective July 4, 1967. ...

  6. 40 CFR 417.51 - Specialized definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Specialized definitions. 417.51 Section 417.51 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Glycerine Distillation Subcategory § 417.51...

  7. 45 CFR 86.51 - Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Employment. 86.51 Section 86.51 Public Welfare... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 86.51 Employment. (a) General. (1) No... subjected to discrimination in employment, or recruitment, consideration, or selection therefor, whether...

  8. 32 CFR 2001.51 - Technical security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Technical security. 2001.51 Section 2001.51....51 Technical security. Based upon the risk management factors referenced in § 2001.40 of this directive, agency heads shall determine the requirement for technical countermeasures such as Technical...

  9. 7 CFR 51.2283 - Off color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Off color. 51.2283 Section 51.2283 Agriculture... Standards for Shelled English Walnuts (Juglans Regia) Color Requirements § 51.2283 Off color. The term “off color” is not a color classification, but shall be applied to any lot which fails to meet the...

  10. Influence of c-axis orientation and scandium concentration on infrared active modes of magnetron sputtered Sc{sub x}Al{sub 1−x}N thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayrhofer, P. M.; Bittner, A.; Schmid, U. [Institute of Sensor and Actuator Systems, Vienna University of Technology, Floragasse 7, 1040 Vienna (Austria); Eisenmenger-Sittner, C. [Institute of Solid State Physics, Vienna University of Technology, Wiedner Hauptstrasse 8, 1040 Vienna (Austria); Euchner, H. [Institute of Materials Science and Technology, Vienna University of Technology, Karlsplatz 13, 1040 Vienna (Austria)

    2013-12-16

    Doping of wurtzite aluminium nitride (AlN) with scandium (Sc) significantly enhances the piezoelectric properties of AlN. Sc{sub x}Al{sub 1−x}N thin films with different Sc concentrations (x = 0 to 0.15) were deposited by DC reactive magnetron sputtering. Infrared (IR) absorbance spectroscopy was applied to investigate the Sc concentration dependent shift of the IR active modes E{sub 1}(TO) and A{sub 1}(TO). These results are compared to ab initio simulations, being in excellent agreement with the experimental findings. In addition, IR spectroscopy is established as an economical and fast method to distinguish between thin films with a high degree of c-axis orientation and those exhibiting mixed orientations.

  11. The Distance to M51

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuinn, Kristen. B. W.; Skillman, Evan D.; Dolphin, Andrew E.; Berg, Danielle; Kennicutt, Robert

    2016-07-01

    Great investments of observing time have been dedicated to the study of nearby spiral galaxies with diverse goals ranging from understanding the star formation process to characterizing their dark matter distributions. Accurate distances are fundamental to interpreting observations of these galaxies, yet many of the best studied nearby galaxies have distances based on methods with relatively large uncertainties. We have started a program to derive accurate distances to these galaxies. Here we measure the distance to M51—the Whirlpool galaxy—from newly obtained Hubble Space Telescope optical imaging using the tip of the red giant branch method. We measure the distance modulus to be 8.58 ± 0.10 Mpc (statistical), corresponding to a distance modulus of 29.67 ± 0.02 mag. Our distance is an improvement over previous results as we use a well-calibrated, stable distance indicator, precision photometry in a optimally selected field of view, and a Bayesian Maximum Likelihood technique that reduces measurement uncertainties. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from the Data Archive at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  12. 7 CFR 51.2556 - Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades. 51.2556 Section 51.2556 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Shelled Pistachio Nuts § 51.2556 Grades. (a) “U.S. Fancy,” “U.S. Extra No. 1,” and... very well dried when specified in connection with the grade. (2) Free from: (i) Foreign material...

  13. 34 CFR 5.1 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Act. 5.1 Section 5.1 Education Office of the Secretary...-10) Definitions § 5.1 Act. As used in this part, Act means section 552 of title 5, United States Code, as amended by Pub. L. 90-23, codifying the Act of July 4, 1966, sometimes referred to as the “Freedom...

  14. Rad51 Paralogs Remodel Pre-synaptic Rad51 Filaments to Stimulate Homologous Recombination

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Martin R.G.; Špírek, Mário; Chaurasiya, Kathy R.; Ward, Jordan D.; Carzaniga, Raffaella; Yu, Xiong; Egelman, Edward H.; Collinson, Lucy M.; Rueda, David; Krejci, Lumir; Boulton, Simon J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Repair of DNA double strand breaks by homologous recombination (HR) is initiated by Rad51 filament nucleation on single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), which catalyzes strand exchange with homologous duplex DNA. BRCA2 and the Rad51 paralogs are tumor suppressors and critical mediators of Rad51. To gain insight into Rad51 paralog function, we investigated a heterodimeric Rad51 paralog complex, RFS-1/RIP-1, and uncovered the molecular basis by which Rad51 paralogs promote HR. Unlike BRCA2, which ...

  15. 27 CFR 1.51 - Annulment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Annulment. 1.51 Section 1..., Suspension, Or Annulment of Basic Permits § 1.51 Annulment. Whenever the appropriate TTB officer has reason... material fact, the appropriate TTB officer shall institute proceedings for the annulment of such permit in...

  16. 7 CFR 51.47 - Political activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Political activity. 51.47 Section 51.47 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946...

  17. 7 CFR 51.2284 - Size classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Size classification. 51.2284 Section 51.2284... Size classification. The following classifications are provided to describe the size of any lot... shall conform to the requirements of the specified classification as defined below: (a) Halves. Lot...

  18. 28 CFR 51.58 - Representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Representation. 51.58 Section 51.58 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES FOR THE ADMINISTRATION OF SECTION 5 OF... Representation. (a) Introduction. This section and the sections that follow set forth factors—in addition to...

  19. 10 CFR 51.13 - Emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Emergencies. 51.13 Section 51.13 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REGULATIONS FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING AND RELATED REGULATORY... may take an action with significant environmental impact without observing the provisions of these...

  20. 10 CFR 51.99 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false 51.99 Section 51.99 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REGULATIONS FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING AND RELATED REGULATORY FUNCTIONS National Environmental Policy Act-Regulations Implementing Section 102(2) Final Environmental Impact...

  1. 7 CFR 51.2289 - Shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shell. 51.2289 Section 51.2289 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER...

  2. 7 CFR 51.2002 - Split shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Split shell. 51.2002 Section 51.2002 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER...

  3. 27 CFR 45.51 - Supporting records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Supporting records. 45.51 Section 45.51 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... shipped or delivered; (3) The kind and quantity and, (4) for large cigars, the sale price. (b) Records of...

  4. 41 CFR 51-5.1 - General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true General. 51-5.1 Section 51-5.1 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public Contracts... commodities, information such as the latest solicitation and amendments, bid abstracts, procurement history...

  5. 38 CFR 51.110 - Resident assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Resident assessment. 51...) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 51.110 Resident assessment. The... condition a comprehensive, accurate, standardized, reproducible assessment of each resident's functional...

  6. 7 CFR 906.51 - Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reports. 906.51 Section 906.51 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... regulation; (3) The date of each such disposition and the identification of the carrier transporting such...

  7. 34 CFR 674.51 - Special definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... from ages 3 through 21, inclusive, who requires special education and related services because he or... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special definitions. 674.51 Section 674.51 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION...

  8. 10 CFR 51.4 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... testing facilities and nuclear power plants, required to be licensed under Section 104.a or Section 104.c... building with space for installation of a training reactor). NRC means the Nuclear Regulatory Commission... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 51.4 Section 51.4 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY...

  9. 38 CFR 51.200 - Physical environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Physical environment. 51...) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 51.200 Physical environment. The... facility management must provide a safe, functional, sanitary, and comfortable environment for the...

  10. 10 CFR 51.45 - Environmental report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental report. 51.45 Section 51.45 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REGULATIONS FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING AND RELATED REGULATORY FUNCTIONS National Environmental Policy Act-Regulations Implementing Section 102(2) Environmental...

  11. 38 CFR 51.190 - Infection control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Infection control. 51.190... FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 51.190 Infection control. The facility management must establish and maintain an infection control program designed to provide a safe, sanitary, and...

  12. 40 CFR 51.359 - Quality control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Quality control. 51.359 Section 51.359....359 Quality control. Quality control measures shall insure that emission testing equipment is calibrated and maintained properly, and that inspection, calibration records, and control charts are...

  13. 37 CFR 2.51 - Drawing required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drawing required. 2.51... COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES Drawing § 2.51 Drawing required. (a) In an application under section 1(a) of the Act, the drawing of the mark must be a substantially exact representation of the mark...

  14. 49 CFR 38.51 - General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General. 38.51 Section 38.51 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS... accordance with the accessibility requirements of part 609 of this title or the Secretary of Transportation...

  15. 33 CFR 51.4 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 51.4 Section 51.4 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PERSONNEL COAST GUARD DISCHARGE.... The President will convene the board and may also serve as a member. If the President does not serve...

  16. 33 CFR 51.8 - Relevant considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Relevant considerations. 51.8 Section 51.8 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PERSONNEL COAST... which is brought to the board's attention. (b) The applicant's capability to serve. In determining the...

  17. 33 CFR 51.2 - Authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Authority. 51.2 Section 51.2 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PERSONNEL COAST GUARD DISCHARGE...) The Commandant of the Coast Guard is delegated the authority to: (1) Appoint members to serve on the...

  18. 36 CFR 5.1 - Advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Advertisements. 5.1 Section 5... AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.1 Advertisements. Commercial notices or advertisements shall not be... or advertisement is of goods, services, or facilities available within the park area and such notices...

  19. 41 CFR 51-10.140 - Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Employment. 51-10.140... WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED § 51-10.140 Employment. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program or activity...

  20. 29 CFR 1956.51 - Developmental schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Developmental schedule. 1956.51 Section 1956.51 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) STATE PLANS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT AND ENFORCEMENT OF STATE STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO STATE AND LOCAL...

  1. Two scandium-biuret complexes: [Sc(C2H5N3O2)(H2O)5]Cl3 x H2O and [Sc(C2H5N3O2)4](NO3)3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, William T A

    2008-05-01

    The scandium(III) cations in the structures of pentaaqua(biuret-kappa(2)O,O')scandium(III) trichloride monohydrate, [Sc(C(2)H(5)N(3)O(2))(H(2)O)(5)]Cl(3) x H(2)O, (I), and tetrakis(biuret-kappa(2)O,O')scandium(III) trinitrate, [Sc(C(2)H(5)N(3)O(2))(4)](NO(3))(3), (II), are found to adopt very different coordinations with the same biuret ligand. The roles of hydrogen bonding and the counter-ion in the establishment of the structures are described. In (I), the Sc(3+) cation adopts a fairly regular pentagonal bipyramidal coordination geometry arising from one O,O'-bidentate biuret molecule and five water molecules. A dense network of N-H...Cl, O-H...O and O-H...Cl hydrogen bonds help to establish the packing, resulting in dimeric associations of two cations and two water molecules. In (II), the Sc(3+) cation (site symmetry 2) adopts a slightly squashed square-antiprismatic geometry arising from four O,O'-bidentate biuret molecules. A network of N-H...O hydrogen bonds help to establish the packing, which features [010] chains of cations. One of the nitrate ions is disordered about an inversion centre. Both structures form three-dimensional hydrogen-bond networks.

  2. Evidence for simultaneous protein interactions between human Rad51 paralogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schild, D; Lio, Y C; Collins, D W; Tsomondo, T; Chen, D J

    2000-06-02

    In yeast, the Rad51-related proteins include Rad55 and Rad57, which form a heterodimer that interacts with Rad51. Five human Rad51 paralogs have been identified (XRCC2, XRCC3, Rad51B/Rad51L1, Rad51C/Rad51L2, and Rad51D/Rad51L3), and each interacts with one or more of the others. Previously we reported that HsRad51 interacts with XRCC3, and Rad51C interacts with XRCC3, Rad51B, and HsRad51. Here we report that in the yeast two-hybrid system, Rad51D interacts with XRCC2 and Rad51C. No other interactions, including self-interactions, were found, indicating that the observed interactions are specific. The yeast Rad51 interacts with human Rad51 and XRCC3, suggesting Rad51 conservation since the human yeast divergence. Data from yeast three-hybrid experiments indicate that a number of the pairs of interactions between human Rad51 paralogs can occur simultaneously. For example, Rad51B expression enhances the binding of Rad51C to XRCC3 and to HsRad51D, and Rad51C expression allows the indirect interaction of Rad51B with Rad51D. Experiments using 6xHis-tagged proteins in the baculovirus system confirm several of our yeast results, including Rad51B interaction with Rad51D only when Rad51C is simultaneously expressed and Rad51C interaction with XRCC2 only when Rad51D is present. These results suggest that these proteins may participate in one complex or multiple smaller ones.

  3. 7 CFR 51.1823 - Mature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Florida Tangerines Definitions § 51.1823 Mature. Mature shall have the same meaning... the Florida Citrus Industry, in effect as of February 12, 1995. These tangerine maturity requirements...

  4. 7 CFR 51.1829 - Well colored.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Florida Tangerines Definitions § 51.1829 Well colored. Well colored means that a... no distinct green color present, and that some portion of the surface has a reddish tangerine blush...

  5. 7 CFR 51.1827 - Highly colored.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Florida Tangerines Definitions § 51.1827 Highly colored. Highly colored means that the ground color of each fruit is a deep tangerine color, or characteristic color for the variety...

  6. 9 CFR 145.51 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... purposes of meat or egg production and competitive showing. Game birds. Domesticated fowl such as pheasants... Waterfowl, Exhibition Poultry, and Game Bird Breeding Flocks and Products § 145.51 Definitions. Except where...

  7. 36 CFR 1192.51 - General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....51 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY GUIDELINES FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Rapid Rail... accessibility requirements of 49 CFR part 609 or Department of Transportation regulations implementing section...

  8. 7 CFR 51.2656 - Diameter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades for Sweet Cherries 1 Definitions § 51.2656 Diameter. Diameter means the greatest dimension measured at right angles to a line from the stem to the blossom end of the cherry. ...

  9. Factoring 51 and 85 with 8 qubits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Michael R; Zhou, Zhongyuan

    2013-10-28

    We construct simplified quantum circuits for Shor's order-finding algorithm for composites N given by products of the Fermat primes 3, 5, 17, 257, and 65537. Such composites, including the previously studied case of 15, as well as 51, 85, 771, 1285, 4369, … have the simplifying property that the order of a modulo N for every base a coprime to N is a power of 2, significantly reducing the usual phase estimation precision requirement. Prime factorization of 51 and 85 can be demonstrated with only 8 qubits and a modular exponentiation circuit consisting of no more than four CNOT gates.

  10. 10 CFR 51.51 - Uranium fuel cycle environmental data-Table S-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... MWe coal-fired power plant. Natural gas (millions of scf) 135 energy.... Ra-226 .0034 From UF6 production. Th-230 .0015 Th-234 .01 From fuel fabrication plants—concentration... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Uranium fuel cycle environmental data-Table S-3. 51.51...

  11. 40 CFR 51.856 - Public participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... making the applicability analysis and draft conformity determination. (b) A Federal agency must make public its draft conformity determination under § 51.858 by placing a notice by prominent advertisement... a notice by prominent advertisement in a daily newspaper of general circulation in the area affected...

  12. 46 CFR 310.51 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRAINING MERCHANT MARINE TRAINING Admission and Training of Midshipmen at the United States Merchant Marine Academy § 310.51 Definitions. (a) Academy means the United States Merchant Marine Academy. (b) Act means the Maritime Education and Training Act of 1980, Pub. L. 96...

  13. 41 CFR 51-8.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. (c) The term Executive Director means the Executive Director of the Committee for Purchase from People who are Blind or Severely Disabled. (d) The term exempt materials means those materials described in § 51-8.2(b). (e) The term non-exempt materials...

  14. 10 CFR 51.14 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... respect to any environmental impact involved in a proposal (or a reasonable alternative) for legislation... COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REGULATIONS FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING AND RELATED REGULATORY FUNCTIONS National Environmental Policy Act-Regulations Implementing Section 102(2) § 51.14 Definitions. (a...

  15. 41 CFR 51-4.4 - Subcontracting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Subcontracting. 51-4.4... Subcontracting. (a) Nonprofit agencies shall seek broad competition in the purchase of materials and components... the JWOD Act. (b) Each nonprofit agency shall accomplish the maximum amount of subcontracting with...

  16. 27 CFR 7.51 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... foreign commerce, or is disseminated by mail, whether it appears in a newspaper, magazine, trade booklet... THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF MALT BEVERAGES Advertising of Malt Beverages § 7.51... release) in any periodical or publication or newspaper for the publication of which no money or valuable...

  17. 7 CFR 301.51-1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Asian Longhorned Beetle § 301.51-1 Definitions... Health Inspection Service of the United States Department of Agriculture. Asian longhorned beetle. The insect known as Asian longhorned beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis) in any stage of development...

  18. 7 CFR 51.55 - Premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946... Requirements for Plants Operating Under Continuous Inspection on A Contract Basis § 51.55 Premises. The...

  19. 7 CFR 51.57 - Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946... Requirements for Plants Operating Under Continuous Inspection on A Contract Basis § 51.57 Facilities. Each...

  20. 7 CFR 51.54 - Plant survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946... Requirements for Plants Operating Under Continuous Inspection on A Contract Basis § 51.54 Plant survey. Prior...

  1. Phytate degradation by Leuconostoc mesenteroides KC51 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The phytate-degrading activity of Leuconostoc mesenteroides KC51 isolated from Kimchi was evaluated. When the phytase activity was measured in cultured broth on Lactobacilli MRS medium, the activity was detected in harvested cell suspension but not in the extracellular medium. The optimum pH was determined to be ...

  2. 40 CFR 51.350 - Applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Inspection/Maintenance Program Requirements § 51... less shall continue operating I/M programs that were part of an approved State Implementation Plan (SIP...-urbanized islands not connected to the mainland by roads, bridges, or tunnels may be excluded without regard...

  3. 7 CFR 51.1015 - Serious damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... greater extent than that of a lime which has a blotch the area of a circle one-half inch in diameter; (g... Standards for Persian (Tahiti) Limes Definitions § 51.1015 Serious damage. Serious damage means any defect... are not to be confused with limes which are turning yellow due to the ripening process; (j) Yellow...

  4. 7 CFR 51.1565 - Internal defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... Internal Black Spot When the spot(s) are darker than the official color chip (POT-CC-2) after removing 5 percent of the total weight of the potato When the spot(s) are darker than the official color chip (POT-CC... Standards for Grades of Potatoes 1 Definitions § 51.1565 Internal defects. Internal defects are defects...

  5. 7 CFR 51.318 - Serious damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Apples Definitions § 51.318 Serious damage. “Serious damage” means any specific... or shipping quality of the apple. In addition, specific defect measurements are based on an apple... area of more than one-half inch in diameter. (g) Disease: (1) Scab spots which affect a total area of...

  6. 7 CFR 51.320 - Diameter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946... Standards for Grades of Apples Definitions § 51.320 Diameter. When measuring for minimum size, “diameter...

  7. 7 CFR 51.313 - Overripe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946... Standards for Grades of Apples Definitions § 51.313 Overripe. “Overripe” means apples which have progressed...

  8. 7 CFR 51.344 - Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946... Standards for Grades of Apples for Processing Size § 51.344 Size. (a) The minimum and maximum sizes or range...

  9. 7 CFR 51.319 - Seriously deformed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946... Standards for Grades of Apples Definitions § 51.319 Seriously deformed. “Seriously deformed” means that the...

  10. 7 CFR 51.306 - Tolerances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946... Standards for Grades of Apples Tolerances § 51.306 Tolerances. In order to allow for variations incident to...

  11. 7 CFR 51.314 - Clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946... Standards for Grades of Apples Definitions § 51.314 Clean. “Clean” means that the apples are free from...

  12. 7 CFR 51.312 - Mature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946... Standards for Grades of Apples Definitions § 51.312 Mature. “Mature” means that the apples have reached the...

  13. 7 CFR 51.346 - Tolerances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946... Standards for Grades of Apples for Processing Tolerances § 51.346 Tolerances. When a lot of apples is...

  14. 7 CFR 51.343 - Culls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946... Standards for Grades of Apples for Processing Culls § 51.343 Culls. “Culls” consist of apples which fail to...

  15. 7 CFR 51.349 - Overripe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946... Standards for Grades of Apples for Processing Definitions § 51.349 Overripe. Overripe means apples which are...

  16. RAD51B in Familial Breast Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelttari, Liisa M; Khan, Sofia; Vuorela, Mikko

    2016-01-01

    Common variation on 14q24.1, close to RAD51B, has been associated with breast cancer: rs999737 and rs2588809 with the risk of female breast cancer and rs1314913 with the risk of male breast cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of RAD51B variants in breast cancer predisposition......, particularly in the context of familial breast cancer in Finland. We sequenced the coding region of RAD51B in 168 Finnish breast cancer patients from the Helsinki region for identification of possible recurrent founder mutations. In addition, we studied the known rs999737, rs2588809, and rs1314913 SNPs and RAD......51B haplotypes in 44,791 breast cancer cases and 43,583 controls from 40 studies participating in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) that were genotyped on a custom chip (iCOGS). We identified one putatively pathogenic missense mutation c.541C>T among the Finnish cancer patients...

  17. 7 CFR 51.2335 - Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Scale; (x) Insects; (xi) Other diseases; and, (xii) Mechanical or other means. (4) Tolerances. (See § 51... cracks; (vi) Scab; (vii) Scars; (viii) Heat, sprayburn, or sunburn; (ix) Scale; (x) Insects; (xi) Other...; (vii) Scars; (viii) Heat, sprayburn, or sunburn; (ix) Scale; (x) Insects; (xi) Other diseases; and...

  18. Phytate degradation by Leuconostoc mesenteroides KC51 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-06

    Jul 6, 2009 ... decrease of phytate content was associated with L. mesenteroides KC51 cell growth during fermentation. Key words: Leuconostoc mesenteroides, phytate degradation, soymilk. INTRODUCTION. Phytate (myo-inositol hexakisphosphate) is the major phosphorus compound in plants and is particularly abun-.

  19. 48 CFR 51.201 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... GOVERNMENT SOURCES BY CONTRACTORS Contractor Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) 51.201 Policy... contractors to obtain, for official purposes only, interagency fleet management system (IFMS) vehicles and... instance. (c) Government contractors shall not be authorized to obtain interagency fleet management system...

  20. 7 CFR 51.2 - Terms defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Definitions § 51.2 Terms defined. Words in the regulations in this part in the singular form shall be deemed... whenever the product differs markedly as to quality and/or condition, and such differences are definitely... separate lot. (e) Carlot equivalent. “Carlot equivalent” shall be the quantity of an individual product...

  1. Cultural Diversity in Mathematics (Education): CIEAEM 51.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Afzal; Williams, Honor; Kraemer, Jean Marie

    The 51st meeting of the Commission Internationale pour L'Etude et L'Amelioration de L'Ensignment des Mathematiques (CIEAEM) was held July, 1999 at Chichester, UK and facilitated the collaboration of delegates from over 30 countries providing a variety of perspectives on the theme OCultural Diversity in Mathematics Education'. The papers in this…

  2. 40 CFR 51.365 - Data collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (Pass/Fail/Not Applicable) of the applicable visual inspections for the catalytic converter, air system... with the diagnostic trouble codes revealed (where applicable). (b) Quality control data. At a minimum, the program shall gather and report the results of the quality control checks required under § 51.359...

  3. 7 CFR 51.1357 - Seriously deformed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... were well formed. Round or apple-shaped pears shall not be considered seriously deformed. ... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Pears for Canning Definitions § 51.1357 Seriously deformed. Seriously deformed means that the pear is so badly misshapen as to cause a loss during the usual commercial...

  4. 7 CFR 51.1354 - Well formed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Standards for Pears for Canning Definitions § 51.1354 Well formed. Well formed means that the pear has the shape characteristic of the variety, so that after paring, cutting in halves, and coring, each half of the pear shall be well formed. Bartlett pears shall have at least a fairly well developed neck. [35 FR...

  5. 7 CFR 51.1323 - Serious damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... shows any brownish color, or where the shape of the pear is materially flattened, or the flesh is... Standards for Winter Pears 1 Definitions § 51.1323 Serious damage. Serious damage means any injury or defect... inch along the contour of the pear, when it is placed calyx end down on a flat surface. On Flemish...

  6. 38 CFR 51.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... are incapable of earning a living. A State home may provide domiciliary care, nursing home care, adult... provides domiciliary and/or nursing home care. VA means the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. ... NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES General § 51.2 Definitions. For purposes of this part...

  7. 28 CFR 549.51 - Approval procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SERVICES Plastic Surgery § 549.51 Approval procedures. The Clinical Director shall consider individually any request from an inmate or a BOP medical consultant. (a) In circumstances where plastic surgery is... the Clinical Director recommends plastic surgery for the good order and security of the institution...

  8. 42 CFR 51.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... appropriate individual program or treatment plan (including a discharge plan); provide adequate nutrition... AND ADVOCACY FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH MENTAL ILLNESS PROGRAM § 51.2 Definitions. In addition to the..., evaluation, counseling, biomedical, behavioral and psychotherapies, supportive or other adjunctive therapies...

  9. 38 CFR 51.150 - Physician services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 51.150 Physician services. A... case of an emergency. (e) Physician delegation of tasks. (1) Except as specified in paragraph (e)(2) of... the delegation is prohibited under State law or by the facility's own policies. (Authority: 38 U.S.C...

  10. 22 CFR 51.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... with the bearer's personal information printed on the data page, a digitized version of the bearer's photograph, a unique chip number, and a digital signature to protect the integrity of the stored information... Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE NATIONALITY AND PASSPORTS PASSPORTS § 51.1 Definitions. The following...

  11. RAD51B in Familial Breast Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liisa M Pelttari

    Full Text Available Common variation on 14q24.1, close to RAD51B, has been associated with breast cancer: rs999737 and rs2588809 with the risk of female breast cancer and rs1314913 with the risk of male breast cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of RAD51B variants in breast cancer predisposition, particularly in the context of familial breast cancer in Finland. We sequenced the coding region of RAD51B in 168 Finnish breast cancer patients from the Helsinki region for identification of possible recurrent founder mutations. In addition, we studied the known rs999737, rs2588809, and rs1314913 SNPs and RAD51B haplotypes in 44,791 breast cancer cases and 43,583 controls from 40 studies participating in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC that were genotyped on a custom chip (iCOGS. We identified one putatively pathogenic missense mutation c.541C>T among the Finnish cancer patients and subsequently genotyped the mutation in additional breast cancer cases (n = 5259 and population controls (n = 3586 from Finland and Belarus. No significant association with breast cancer risk was seen in the meta-analysis of the Finnish datasets or in the large BCAC dataset. The association with previously identified risk variants rs999737, rs2588809, and rs1314913 was replicated among all breast cancer cases and also among familial cases in the BCAC dataset. The most significant association was observed for the haplotype carrying the risk-alleles of all the three SNPs both among all cases (odds ratio (OR: 1.15, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.11-1.19, P = 8.88 x 10-16 and among familial cases (OR: 1.24, 95% CI: 1.16-1.32, P = 6.19 x 10-11, compared to the haplotype with the respective protective alleles. Our results suggest that loss-of-function mutations in RAD51B are rare, but common variation at the RAD51B region is significantly associated with familial breast cancer risk.

  12. RAD51B in Familial Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelttari, Liisa M.; Khan, Sofia; Vuorela, Mikko; Kiiski, Johanna I.; Vilske, Sara; Nevanlinna, Viivi; Ranta, Salla; Schleutker, Johanna; Winqvist, Robert; Kallioniemi, Anne; Dörk, Thilo; Bogdanova, Natalia V.; Figueroa, Jonine; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Dunning, Alison M.; García-Closas, Montserrat; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Dennis, Joe; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Wang, Qin; Hopper, John L.; Southey, Melissa C.; Rosenberg, Efraim H.; Fasching, Peter A.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Peto, Julian; dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Sawyer, Elinor J.; Tomlinson, Ian; Burwinkel, Barbara; Surowy, Harald; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Thérèse; Bojesen, Stig E.; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Benitez, Javier; González-Neira, Anna; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Brenner, Hermann; Arndt, Volker; Meindl, Alfons; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brüning, Thomas; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Mannermaa, Arto; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Van Dyck, Laurien; Janssen, Hilde; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Hallberg, Emily; Olson, Janet E.; Giles, Graham G.; Milne, Roger L.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Schumacher, Fredrick; Simard, Jacques; Dumont, Martine; Kristensen, Vessela; Borresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Zheng, Wei; Beeghly-Fadiel, Alicia; Grip, Mervi; Andrulis, Irene L.; Glendon, Gord; Devilee, Peter; Seynaeve, Caroline; Hooning, Maartje J.; Collée, Margriet; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S.; Shah, Mitul; Luben, Robert N.; Hamann, Ute; Torres, Diana; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Couch, Fergus J.; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Orr, Nick; Swerdlow, Anthony; Darabi, Hatef; Li, Jingmei; Czene, Kamila; Hall, Per; Easton, Douglas F.; Mattson, Johanna; Blomqvist, Carl; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Nevanlinna, Heli

    2016-01-01

    Common variation on 14q24.1, close to RAD51B, has been associated with breast cancer: rs999737 and rs2588809 with the risk of female breast cancer and rs1314913 with the risk of male breast cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of RAD51B variants in breast cancer predisposition, particularly in the context of familial breast cancer in Finland. We sequenced the coding region of RAD51B in 168 Finnish breast cancer patients from the Helsinki region for identification of possible recurrent founder mutations. In addition, we studied the known rs999737, rs2588809, and rs1314913 SNPs and RAD51B haplotypes in 44,791 breast cancer cases and 43,583 controls from 40 studies participating in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) that were genotyped on a custom chip (iCOGS). We identified one putatively pathogenic missense mutation c.541C>T among the Finnish cancer patients and subsequently genotyped the mutation in additional breast cancer cases (n = 5259) and population controls (n = 3586) from Finland and Belarus. No significant association with breast cancer risk was seen in the meta-analysis of the Finnish datasets or in the large BCAC dataset. The association with previously identified risk variants rs999737, rs2588809, and rs1314913 was replicated among all breast cancer cases and also among familial cases in the BCAC dataset. The most significant association was observed for the haplotype carrying the risk-alleles of all the three SNPs both among all cases (odds ratio (OR): 1.15, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.11–1.19, P = 8.88 x 10−16) and among familial cases (OR: 1.24, 95% CI: 1.16–1.32, P = 6.19 x 10−11), compared to the haplotype with the respective protective alleles. Our results suggest that loss-of-function mutations in RAD51B are rare, but common variation at the RAD51B region is significantly associated with familial breast cancer risk. PMID:27149063

  13. 47 CFR 51.503 - General pricing standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General pricing standard. 51.503 Section 51.503... Pricing of Elements § 51.503 General pricing standard. (a) An incumbent LEC shall offer elements to... commission— (1) Pursuant to the forward-looking economic cost-based pricing methodology set forth in §§ 51...

  14. Half-life of 51Mn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Stephen A.; Ellison, Paul A.; Valdovinos, Hector F.; Barnhart, Todd E.; Nickles, Robert J.; Engle, Jonathan W.

    2017-07-01

    The half-life of 51Mn was measured by serial gamma spectrometry of the 511-keV annihilation photon following decay by β+ emission. Data were collected every 100 seconds for 100,000-230,000 seconds within each measurement (n =4 ). The 511-keV incidence rate was calculated from the 511-keV spectral peak area and count duration, corrected for detector dead time and radioactive decay. Least-squares regression analysis was used to determine the half-life of 51Mn while accounting for the presence of background contaminants, notably 55Co. The result was 45.59 ±0.07 min, which is the highest precision measurement to date and disagrees with the current Nuclear Data Sheets value by over 6 σ .

  15. KINEMATICS OF M51-TYPE INTERACTING GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Günthardt, G. I.; Agüero, M. P. [Observatorio Astronómico, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Laprida 854, 5000 Córdoba (Argentina); Díaz, R. J., E-mail: guillermo.gunthardt@unc.edu.ar, E-mail: mpaguero@oac.uncor.edu, E-mail: rdiaz@gemini.edu [Gemini Observatory, AURA (United States)

    2016-11-01

    We present a kinematic catalog for 21 M51-type galaxies. It consists of radial velocity distributions observed with long-slit spectroscopy along different position angles, for both the main and satellite components. We detect deviations from circular motion in most of the main galaxies of each pair, due to the gravitational perturbation produced by the satellite galaxy. However, some systems do not show significant distortions in their radial velocity curves. We found some differences between the directions of the photometric and kinematic major axes in the main galaxies with a bar subsystem. The Tully–Fisher relation in the B -band and Ks -band for the present sample of M51-type systems is flatter than in isolated galaxies. Using the radial velocity data set, we built a synthetic normalized radial velocity distribution, as a reference for future modeling of these peculiar systems. The synthetic rotation curve, representing the typical rotation curve of the main galaxy in an M51-type pair, is near to solid body-like inside 4 kpc, and then is nearly flat within the radial range 5–15 kpc. The relative position angles between the major axis of the main galaxy and the companion’s location, as well as the amplitude of the velocity difference, indicate that the orbital motion of the satellite has a large projection on the equatorial plane of the main galaxy. In addition, the differences in radial velocity between the two galaxies indicate that the satellite’s orbital motion is within the range of amplitudes of the rotation curve of the main galaxy, and all the M51-type systems studied here, except for one, are gravitationally bound.

  16. Rad51 activates polyomavirus JC early transcription.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martyn K White

    Full Text Available The human neurotropic polyomavirus JC (JCV causes the fatal CNS demyelinating disease progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML. JCV infection is very common and after primary infection, the virus is able to persist in an asymptomatic state. Rarely, and usually only under conditions of immune impairment, JCV re-emerges to actively replicate in the astrocytes and oligodendrocytes of the brain causing PML. The regulatory events involved in the reactivation of active viral replication in PML are not well understood but previous studies have implicated the transcription factor NF-κB acting at a well-characterized site in the JCV noncoding control region (NCCR. NF-κB in turn is regulated in a number of ways including activation by cytokines such as TNF-α, interactions with other transcription factors and epigenetic events involving protein acetylation--all of which can regulate the transcriptional activity of JCV. Active JCV infection is marked by the occurrence of rapid and extensive DNA damage in the host cell and the induction of the expression of cellular proteins involved in DNA repair including Rad51, a major component of the homologous recombination-directed double-strand break DNA repair machinery. Here we show that increased Rad51 expression activates the JCV early promoter. This activation is co-operative with the stimulation caused by NF-κB p65, abrogated by mutation of the NF-κB binding site or siRNA to NFκB p65 and enhanced by the histone deacetylase inhibitor sodium butyrate. These data indicate that the induction of Rad51 resulting from infection with JCV acts through NF-κB via its binding site to stimulate JCV early transcription. We suggest that this provides a novel positive feedback mechanism to enhance viral gene expression during the early stage of JCV infection.

  17. Complete spectroscopy of51,52V via the50,51V( n, γ) reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelsen, S.; Lieb, K. P.; Robinson, S. J.

    1991-12-01

    The gamma-ray spectra emitted after thermal neutron capture in highly enriched50V andnatV targets have been studied using in-pile targets at the ILL high flux reactor and pair and germanium detectors. The neutron binding energies in51V and52V were determined to be B n (51V)=11051.11(17) keV and B n (52V)=7311.22(26) keV. The thermal neutron capture cross-section in50V was measured to be 21{-2/+4} b. From 724 lines attributed to51V, 330 transitions, comprising 90% of the γ-ray flux, were placed into the level scheme. Fifty-nine primary dipole transitions from the 11/2+ or 13/2+ capture states in51V were established from which the E1 strength distribution was deduced. The energy scaling of these primary transitions was found to follow the E1-giant dipole resonance dominance. Many new levels were established; a number of states proposed in previous ( d,p) and ( n,γ) work were confirmed from their primary population and decaying secondary radiations. The density of levels in the high spin (9/2≦ I≦15/2) region was parametrized with the Fermi gas model. The spin distributions of51V were analyzed and a spin cut-off parameter σ=2.8 (3) was deduced. — A nearly complete level scheme of52V up to 3.5 MeV excitation and similar results concerning the level density and the primary γ-ray spectrum were obtained in the51V ( n, γ)52V study.

  18. Promotion of Homologous Recombination and Genomic Stability byRAD51AP1 via RAD51 Recombinase Enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiese, Claudia; Dray, Eloise; Groesser, Torsten; San Filippo,Joseph; Shi, Idina; Collins, David W.; Tsai, Miaw-Sheue; Williams,Gareth; Rydberg, Bjorn; Sung, Patrick; Schild, David

    2007-04-11

    Homologous recombination (HR) repairs chromosome damage and is indispensable for tumor suppression in humans. RAD51 mediates the DNA strand pairing step in HR. RAD51AP1 (RAD51 Associated Protein 1) is a RAD51-interacting protein whose function has remained elusive. Knockdown of RAD51AP1 in human cells by RNA interference engenders sensitivity to different types of genotoxic stress. Moreover, RAD51AP1-depleted cells are impaired for the recombinational repair of a DNA double-strand break and exhibit chromatid breaks both spontaneously and upon DNA damaging treatment. Purified RAD51AP1 binds dsDNA and RAD51, and it greatly stimulates the RAD51-mediated D-loop reaction. Biochemical and cytological results show that RAD51AP1 functions at a step subsequent to the assembly of the RAD51-ssDNA nucleoprotein filament. Our findings provide the first evidence that RAD51AP1 helps maintain genomic integrity via RAD51 recombinase enhancement.

  19. 28 CFR 51.9 - Computation of time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Computation of time. 51.9 Section 51.9 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES FOR THE ADMINISTRATION OF SECTION 5 OF THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT OF 1965, AS AMENDED General Provisions § 51.9 Computation of time. (a) The...

  20. 38 CFR 21.51 - Determining employment handicap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... handicap. 21.51 Section 21.51 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS.... Chapter 31 Initial and Extended Evaluation § 21.51 Determining employment handicap. For the purposes of § 21.50, an employment handicap will be found to exist only if a CP or VRC determines that the...

  1. 22 CFR 51.23 - Identity of applicant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Identity of applicant. 51.23 Section 51.23 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE NATIONALITY AND PASSPORTS PASSPORTS Application § 51.23 Identity of applicant. (a) The applicant has the burden of establishing his or her identity. (b) The applicant must...

  2. 47 CFR 51.607 - Wholesale pricing standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wholesale pricing standard. 51.607 Section 51.607 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERCONNECTION Resale § 51.607 Wholesale pricing standard. The wholesale rate that an incumbent LEC may charge...

  3. 47 CFR 51.715 - Interim transport and termination pricing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interim transport and termination pricing. 51.715 Section 51.715 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER... Telecommunications Traffic § 51.715 Interim transport and termination pricing. (a) Upon request from a...

  4. 29 CFR 96.51 - Purpose and scope of subpart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Purpose and scope of subpart. 96.51 Section 96.51 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor AUDIT REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS, CONTRACTS, AND OTHER AGREEMENTS Audit Resolution § 96.51 Purpose and scope of subpart. This subpart prescribes standards for resolution of audit...

  5. 42 CFR 71.51 - Dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dogs and cats. 71.51 Section 71.51 Public Health... QUARANTINE Importations § 71.51 Dogs and cats. (a) Definitions. As used in this section the term: Cat means all domestic cats. Confinement means restriction of a dog or cat to a building or other enclosure at a...

  6. 7 CFR 51.596 - U.S. Grade AA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false U.S. Grade AA. 51.596 Section 51.596 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Consumer Standards for Celery Stalks Grades § 51.596 U.S. Grade AA. U.S. Grade AA shall consist of stalks...

  7. 10 CFR 51.88 - Proposals for legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Legislative Environmental Impact Statements-Proposals for Legislation § 51.88 Proposals for legislation. The... proposals for legislation. final environmental impact statements—general requirements ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Proposals for legislation. 51.88 Section 51.88 Energy...

  8. 45 CFR 605.51 - Application of this subpart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., Welfare, and Social Services § 605.51 Application of this subpart. Subpart F applies to health, welfare... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application of this subpart. 605.51 Section 605.51 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION...

  9. 7 CFR 51.2854 - Metric conversion table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Metric conversion table. 51.2854 Section 51.2854 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards...) Metric Conversion Table § 51.2854 Metric conversion table. Inches Millimeters (mm) 1/8 3.2 1/4 6.4 3/8 9...

  10. 7 CFR 51.322 - Metric conversion table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Metric conversion table. 51.322 Section 51.322 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Apples Metric Conversion Table § 51.322 Metric conversion...

  11. 7 CFR 51.653 - Metric conversion table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Metric conversion table. 51.653 Section 51.653 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards..., and Arizona) Metric Conversion Table § 51.653 Metric conversion table. Inches Millimeters (mm) 1/4...

  12. 7 CFR 51.914 - Metric conversion table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Metric conversion table. 51.914 Section 51.914... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Table Grapes (European or Vinifera Type) 1 Metric Conversion Table § 51.914 Metric conversion table. Inches Millimeters (mm) 3/16 equals 12.7 9/16 equals 14.3...

  13. 7 CFR 51.714 - Metric conversion table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Metric conversion table. 51.714 Section 51.714 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards..., and Arizona) Metric Conversion Table § 51.714 Metric conversion table. Inches Millimeters (mm) 1/4...

  14. 42 CFR 51c.105 - Accord with health planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accord with health planning. 51c.105 Section 51c... COMMUNITY HEALTH SERVICES General Provisions § 51c.105 Accord with health planning. A grant may be made... approval by the appropriate health planning agencies have been met. ...

  15. 7 CFR 51.482 - Uniform in appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Uniform in appearance. 51.482 Section 51.482... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Cantaloups 1 Definitions § 51.482 Uniform in appearance. Uniform in appearance means that not more than one-tenth of the packages in any lot contain cantaloups...

  16. 7 CFR 301.51-9 - Costs and charges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Costs and charges. 301.51-9 Section 301.51-9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Asian Longhorned Beetle § 301.51-9 Costs...

  17. 7 CFR 51.26 - Record of filing time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Record of filing time. 51.26 Section 51.26 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Appeal Inspection § 51.26 Record of filing time. A record showing the date and time of filing an...

  18. 7 CFR 51.1179 - Method of juice extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Method of juice extraction. 51.1179 Section 51.1179 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... of Common Sweet Oranges (citrus Sinensis (l) Osbeck) § 51.1179 Method of juice extraction. The juice...

  19. 26 CFR 1.381(c)(5)-1 - Inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inventories. 1.381(c)(5)-1 Section 1.381(c)(5)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Insolvency Reorganizations § 1.381(c)(5)-1 Inventories. (a) Carryover requirement—(1...

  20. 7 CFR 51.2731 - U.S. Spanish Splits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false U.S. Spanish Splits. 51.2731 Section 51.2731... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Spanish Type Peanuts Grades § 51.2731 U.S. Spanish Splits. “U.S. Spanish Splits” consists of shelled Spanish type peanut kernels which are split or broken...

  1. 10 CFR 51.68 - Environmental report-rulemaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental report-rulemaking. 51.68 Section 51.68 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REGULATIONS FOR DOMESTIC... Environmental Report,” which shall contain the information specified in § 51.45. Environmental Impact Statements...

  2. 42 CFR 51c.111 - Publications and copyright.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Publications and copyright. 51c.111 Section 51c.111... HEALTH SERVICES General Provisions § 51c.111 Publications and copyright. Except as may otherwise be provided under the terms and conditions of the award, the grantee may copyright without prior approval any...

  3. 39 CFR 3020.51 - Contents of a request.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Mail To Modify the Product Lists Described Within the Mail Classification Schedule § 3020.51 Contents... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Contents of a request. 3020.51 Section 3020.51... classification within the meaning of 39 U.S.C. 3622(c)(10) for market dominant products; (2) A product not of...

  4. 7 CFR 51.1164 - Fairly well colored.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fairly well colored. 51.1164 Section 51.1164... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Florida Oranges and Tangelos Definitions § 51.1164 Fairly... aggregate area of green color which does not exceed the area of a circle 1 inch (25.4 mm) in diameter, the...

  5. 7 CFR 51.40 - Traveling and other expenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Traveling and other expenses. 51.40 Section 51.40... STANDARDS) Regulations 1 Schedule of Fees and Charges at Destination Markets § 51.40 Traveling and other expenses. Costs including travel incurred by the Agricultural Marketing Service in providing inspection...

  6. 7 CFR 51.15 - Financial interest of inspector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Financial interest of inspector. 51.15 Section 51.15... MARKETING ACT OF 1946 FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) Regulations 1 Inspection Service § 51.15 Financial interest of inspector. No inspector shall...

  7. 12 CFR 1703.51 - Service of process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... OFHEO § 1703.51 Service of process. (a) Except as otherwise provided by OFHEO regulations, the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, or order of a court with jurisdiction over OFHEO, any legal process upon OFHEO... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Service of process. 1703.51 Section 1703.51...

  8. 7 CFR 761.51 - Establishing a supervised bank account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Establishing a supervised bank account. 761.51 Section 761.51 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS GENERAL PROGRAM ADMINISTRATION Supervised Bank Accounts § 761.51...

  9. 38 CFR 10.51 - Payments to minor child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Payments to minor child. 10.51 Section 10.51 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUSTED COMPENSATION Payments § 10.51 Payments to minor child. Payments to minor child through legal guardian, natural...

  10. 41 CFR 51-6.2 - Allocation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Allocation process. 51-6.2 Section 51-6.2 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public... § 51-6.2 Allocation process. (a) In those cases where a direct order authorization has not been issued...

  11. 38 CFR 61.51 - Applications for technical assistance grants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applications for technical assistance grants. 61.51 Section 61.51 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VA HOMELESS PROVIDERS GRANT AND PER DIEM PROGRAM § 61.51 Applications for...

  12. 48 CFR 31.205-51 - Costs of alcoholic beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Organizations 31.205-51 Costs of alcoholic beverages. Costs of alcoholic beverages are unallowable. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Costs of alcoholic beverages. 31.205-51 Section 31.205-51 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION...

  13. 20 CFR 631.51 - Allowable substate program activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allowable substate program activities. 631.51 Section 631.51 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR PROGRAMS UNDER TITLE III OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Substate Programs § 631.51 Allowable substate...

  14. 47 CFR 3.51 - Cessation of operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... AUTHORITIES IN MARITIME AND MARITIME MOBILE-SATELLITE RADIO SERVICES Settlement Operations § 3.51 Cessation of operations. The FCC must be notified immediately should an accounting authority plan to relinquish its... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cessation of operations. 3.51 Section 3.51...

  15. 40 CFR 51.117 - Additional provisions for lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Additional provisions for lead. 51.117... Additional provisions for lead. In addition to other requirements in §§ 51.100 through 51.116 the following requirements apply to lead. To the extent they conflict, there requirements are controlling over those of the...

  16. 40 CFR 51.366 - Data analysis and reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Data analysis and reporting. 51.366... Requirements § 51.366 Data analysis and reporting. Data analysis and reporting are required to allow for... required by § 51.373 of this subpart. (a) Test data report. The program shall submit to EPA by July of each...

  17. 47 CFR 51.232 - Binder group management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Binder group management. 51.232 Section 51.232... Obligations of All Local Exchange Carriers § 51.232 Binder group management. (a) With the exception of loops..., segregating or reserving particular loops or binder groups for use solely by any particular advanced services...

  18. 7 CFR 51.632 - Similar varietal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Similar varietal characteristics. 51.632 Section 51.632 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards..., and Arizona) Definitions § 51.632 Similar varietal characteristics. Similar varietal characteristics...

  19. 7 CFR 51.694 - Similar varietal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Similar varietal characteristics. 51.694 Section 51.694 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards..., and Arizona) Definitions § 51.694 Similar varietal characteristics. Similar varietal characteristics...

  20. 7 CFR 51.567 - Similar varietal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Similar varietal characteristics. 51.567 Section 51... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.567 Similar varietal characteristics. Similar varietal characteristics means that the stalks in any package have the same general appearance and...

  1. 7 CFR 51.1220 - Leaf or limb rub injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf or limb rub injury. 51.1220 Section 51.1220... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Peaches Definitions § 51.1220 Leaf or limb rub injury. “Leaf or limb rub injury” means that the scarring is not smooth, not light colored, or aggregates more...

  2. 10 CFR 51.3 - Resolution of conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Resolution of conflict. 51.3 Section 51.3 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REGULATIONS FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING AND RELATED REGULATORY FUNCTIONS § 51.3 Resolution of conflict. In any conflict between a general rule in subpart A of...

  3. 19 CFR 146.51 - Customs control of merchandise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Customs control of merchandise. 146.51 Section 146.51 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) FOREIGN TRADE ZONES Handling of Merchandise in a Zone § 146.51 Customs...

  4. 32 CFR 935.51 - Motor vehicle violations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicle violations. 935.51 Section 935.51... REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Penalties § 935.51 Motor vehicle violations. Whoever is found guilty of a... than 30 days, or suspension or revocation of his motor vehicle operator's permit, or any combination or...

  5. 45 CFR 84.51 - Application of this subpart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Social Services § 84.51 Application of this subpart. Subpart F applies to health, welfare, and other... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application of this subpart. 84.51 Section 84.51 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE...

  6. 7 CFR 51.481 - Very good internal quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Very good internal quality. 51.481 Section 51.481... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Cantaloups 1 Definitions § 51.481 Very good internal quality. Very good internal quality means that the combined juice from the edible portion of a sample of...

  7. 7 CFR 51.485 - Good internal quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Good internal quality. 51.485 Section 51.485... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Cantaloups 1 Definitions § 51.485 Good internal quality. Good internal quality means that the combined juice from the edible portion of a sample of cantaloups...

  8. 7 CFR 51.1011 - Good green color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Good green color. 51.1011 Section 51.1011 Agriculture... Standards for Persian (Tahiti) Limes Definitions § 51.1011 Good green color. Good green color means that the skin of the lime is of a good green color characteristic of the Persian variety. ...

  9. 7 CFR 51.2282 - Tolerances for color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tolerances for color. 51.2282 Section 51.2282... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Shelled English Walnuts (Juglans Regia) Color Requirements § 51.2282 Tolerances for color. (a) All percentages shall be calculated on the basis of weight. (b) In order to allow...

  10. Featured Image: Star Clusters in M51

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    This beautiful mosaic of images of the Whirlpool galaxy (M51) and its companion was taken with the Advanced Camera for Surveys on the Hubble Space Telescope. This nearby, grand-design spiral galaxy has a rich population of star clusters, making it both a stunning target for imagery and an excellent resource for learning about stellar formation and evolution. In a recent study, Rupali Chandar (University of Toledo) and collaborators cataloged over 3,800 compact star clusters within this galaxy. They then used this catalog to determine the distributions for the clusters ages, masses, and sizes, which can provide important clues as to how star clusters form, evolve, and are eventually disrupted. You can read more about their study and what they discovered in the paper below.CitationRupali Chandar et al 2016 ApJ 824 71. doi:10.3847/0004-637X/824/2/71

  11. Contribution of Germline Mutations in the RAD51B, RAD51C, and RAD51D Genes to Ovarian Cancer in the Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Honglin; Dicks, Ed; Ramus, Susan J.; Tyrer, Jonathan P.; Intermaggio, Maria P.; Hayward, Jane; Edlund, Christopher K.; Conti, David; Harrington, Patricia; Fraser, Lindsay; Philpott, Susan; Anderson, Christopher; Rosenthal, Adam; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Bowtell, David D.; Alsop, Kathryn; Cicek, Mine S.; Cunningham, Julie M.; Fridley, Brooke L.; Alsop, Jennifer; Jimenez-Linan, Mercedes; Høgdall, Estrid; Høgdall, Claus K.; Jensen, Allan; Kjaer, Susanne Krüger; Lubiński, Jan; Huzarski, Tomasz; Jakubowska, Anna; Gronwald, Jacek; Poblete, Samantha; Lele, Shashi; Sucheston-Campbell, Lara; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Odunsi, Kunle; Goode, Ellen L.; Menon, Usha; Jacobs, Ian J.; Gayther, Simon A.; Pharoah, Paul D.P.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to estimate the contribution of deleterious mutations in the RAD51B, RAD51C, and RAD51D genes to invasive epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) in the population and in a screening trial of individuals at high risk of ovarian cancer. Patients and Methods The coding sequence and splice site boundaries of the three RAD51 genes were sequenced and analyzed in germline DNA from a case-control study of 3,429 patients with invasive EOC and 2,772 controls as well as in 2,000 unaffected women who were BRCA1/BRCA2 negative from the United Kingdom Familial Ovarian Cancer Screening Study (UK_FOCSS) after quality-control analysis. Results In the case-control study, we identified predicted deleterious mutations in 28 EOC cases (0.82%) compared with three controls (0.11%; P < .001). Mutations in EOC cases were more frequent in RAD51C (14 occurrences, 0.41%) and RAD51D (12 occurrences, 0.35%) than in RAD51B (two occurrences, 0.06%). RAD51C mutations were associated with an odds ratio of 5.2 (95% CI, 1.1 to 24; P = .035), and RAD51D mutations conferred an odds ratio of 12 (95% CI, 1.5 to 90; P = .019). We identified 13 RAD51 mutations (0.65%) in unaffected UK_FOCSS participants (RAD51C, n = 7; RAD51D, n = 5; and RAD51B, n = 1), which was a significantly greater rate than in controls (P < .001); furthermore, RAD51 mutation carriers were more likely than noncarriers to have a family history of ovarian cancer (P < .001). Conclusion These results confirm that RAD51C and RAD51D are moderate ovarian cancer susceptibility genes and suggest that they confer levels of risk of EOC that may warrant their use alongside BRCA1 and BRCA2 in routine clinical genetic testing. PMID:26261251

  12. Analysis list: Rad51 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Rad51 Blood,Gonad + mm9 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Rad51.1.tsv http:...//dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Rad51.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/k...yushu-u/mm9/target/Rad51.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Rad51.Blood.tsv,http://d...barchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Rad51.Gonad.tsv http://dbarchive.bios...ciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Blood.gml,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Gonad.gml ...

  13. 7 CFR 51.1538 - Metric conversion table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Metric conversion table. 51.1538 Section 51.1538... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Fresh Plums and Prunes Metric Conversion Table § 51.1538 Metric conversion table. Inches Millimeters(mm) 1/8 equals 3.2 1/4 equals 6.4 3/8 equals 9.5 1/2 equals...

  14. 7 CFR 51.2009 - Metric conversion table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Metric conversion table. 51.2009 Section 51.2009... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Filberts in the Shell 1 Metric Conversion Table § 51.2009 Metric conversion table. Inches Millimeters (mm) 62/64 24.6 59/64 23.4 56/64 22.2 49/64 19.4 48/64 19.0...

  15. 7 CFR 51.2660 - Metric conversion table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Metric conversion table. 51.2660 Section 51.2660... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades for Sweet Cherries 1 Metric Conversion Table § 51.2660 Metric conversion table. Inches Millimeters (mm) 8/64 equals 3.2 16/64 equals 6.4 24/64 equals 9.5 32/64 equals 12.7...

  16. 7 CFR 51.2549 - Metric conversion table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Metric conversion table. 51.2549 Section 51.2549... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Pistachio Nuts in the Shell § 51.2549 Metric conversion table. Use the following table for metric conversion: Inches Millimeters 5/64 1.98 18/100 .46 1/4 6.35...

  17. 7 CFR 51.1566 - Metric conversion table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Metric conversion table. 51.1566 Section 51.1566... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Potatoes 1 Metric Conversion Table § 51.1566 Metric conversion table. Inches Millimeters (mm) 1/8 equals 3.2 1/4 equals 6.4 1/2 equals 12.7 3/4 equals 19.1 1...

  18. 7 CFR 51.2562 - Metric Conversion Table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Metric Conversion Table. 51.2562 Section 51.2562... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Pistachio Nuts § 51.2562 Metric Conversion Table. Use the following table for metric conversion: Inches Millimeters 5/64 1.98 16/64 6.35 24/64 9.53...

  19. 7 CFR 51.3212 - Metric conversion table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Metric conversion table. 51.3212 Section 51.3212... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Bermuda-Granex-Grano Type Onions Metric Conversion Table § 51.3212 Metric conversion table. Inches Millimeters (mm) 1/8 3.2 1/4 6.4 3/8 9.5 1/2 12.7 5/8 15.9 3...

  20. 7 CFR 51.3160 - Metric conversion table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Metric conversion table. 51.3160 Section 51.3160... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Nectarines Metric Conversion Table § 51.3160 Metric conversion table. Inches Millimeters (mm) 1/8 equals 3.2 1/4 equals 6.4 3/8 equals 9.5 1/2 equals 12.7 5/8...

  1. 21 CFR 82.51 - Lakes (FD&C).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lakes (FD&C). 82.51 Section 82.51 Food and Drugs... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Foods, Drugs, and Cosmetics § 82.51 Lakes (FD&C). (a)(1) General... extending the aluminum salt prepared from FD&C Blue No. 1 upon the substratum would be FD&C Blue No. 1...

  2. Characterization of tank 51 sludge samples (HTF-51-17-44/ HTF-51-17-48) in support of sludge batch 10 processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oji, L. N. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-08-17

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) Engineering (SRR-E) to provide sample characterization and analyses of Tank 51 sludge samples in support of Sludge Batch (SB) 10. The two Tank 51 sludge samples were sampled and delivered to SRNL in May of 2017. These two tank 51 sludge samples were combined into one composite sample and analyzed for corrosion controls analytes, select radionuclides, chemical elements, density and weight percent total solids and aluminum hydroxides (gibbsite and boehmite) by x-ray diffraction.

  3. 47 CFR 87.51 - Aircraft earth station commissioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aircraft earth station commissioning. 87.51... SERVICES AVIATION SERVICES Applications and Licenses § 87.51 Aircraft earth station commissioning. (a) (b) Aircraft earth stations authorized to operate in the Inmarsat space segment must display the Commission...

  4. 12 CFR 208.51 - Real estate lending standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Real estate lending standards. 208.51 Section... MEMBERSHIP OF STATE BANKING INSTITUTIONS IN THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (REGULATION H) Real Estate Lending and Appraisal Standards § 208.51 Real estate lending standards. (a) Adoption of written policies. Each state...

  5. 41 CFR 51-6.10 - Quality of merchandise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Quality of merchandise. 51-6.10 Section 51-6.10 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public... agencies employing persons who are blind or have other severe disabilities shall be manufactured in strict...

  6. 41 CFR 51-4.3 - Maintaining qualification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Maintaining qualification. 51-4.3 Section 51-4.3 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public...) Furnish commodities or services in strict accordance with Government orders. (2) Comply with the...

  7. 28 CFR 51.12 - Scope of requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope of requirement. 51.12 Section 51.12 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES FOR THE ADMINISTRATION OF SECTION 5 OF... affecting voting, even though it appears to be minor or indirect, returns to a prior practice or procedure...

  8. 7 CFR 51.895 - Shriveled at capstem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....895 Shriveled at capstem. Shriveled at capstem means that the berry shows more than slight wrinkling... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shriveled at capstem. 51.895 Section 51.895 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards...

  9. 7 CFR 51.909 - Materially shriveled at capstem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....909 Materially shriveled at capstem. Materially shriveled at capstem means that the skin of the berry... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Materially shriveled at capstem. 51.909 Section 51.909 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards...

  10. 7 CFR 51.3417 - Optional test for specific gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Optional test for specific gravity. 51.3417 Section 51... specific gravity. Tests to determine specific gravity shall be made in accordance with the procedures set.... The specific gravity for any lot of potatoes shall be the average of at least 3 corrected readings on...

  11. 9 CFR 51.29 - Destruction of animals; time limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Destruction of animals; time limit. 51.29 Section 51.29 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED...

  12. 22 CFR 42.51 - Department control of numerical limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... returned to the Department for reallocation within the fiscal year in which the visa was issued when: (1....51 Section 42.51 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS VISAS: DOCUMENTATION OF IMMIGRANTS UNDER... shall limit the number of immigrant visas that may be issued and the number of adjustments of status...

  13. 7 CFR 51.891 - Uniform in appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Uniform in appearance. 51.891 Section 51.891....891 Uniform in appearance. Uniform in appearance means that not more than one-tenth of the containers... appearance of the contents of the individual container, and that the stems are well developed and strong. [36...

  14. 31 CFR 360.51 - Requests for reissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requests for reissue. 360.51 Section... STATES SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES I Reissue and Denominational Exchange § 360.51 Requests for reissue. Subject to the conditions set out in this subpart, a request for reissue of bonds in coownership form must be...

  15. 41 CFR 51-8.6 - Aggregating requests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Aggregating requests. 51... AGENCY MATERIALS § 51-8.6 Aggregating requests. When the Committee reasonably believes that a requester, or a group of requesters acting in concert, is attempting to break a request down into a series of...

  16. 31 CFR 315.51 - Requests for reissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requests for reissue. 315.51 Section....51 Requests for reissue. A request for reissue of bonds in coownership form during the lifetime of the coowners must be signed by both coowners, except that a request solely to eliminate the name of...

  17. 31 CFR 353.51 - Requests for reissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requests for reissue. 353.51 Section... STATES SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES EE AND HH Reissue and Denominational Exchange § 353.51 Requests for reissue. A request for reissue of bonds in coownership form must be signed by both coowners, except that a...

  18. 7 CFR 301.51-6 - Compliance agreements and cancellation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compliance agreements and cancellation. 301.51-6 Section 301.51-6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Asian Longhorned Beetle...

  19. 45 CFR 233.51 - Eligibility of sponsored aliens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Eligibility of sponsored aliens. 233.51 Section... CONDITIONS OF ELIGIBILITY IN FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 233.51 Eligibility of sponsored aliens... affidavit(s) of support or similar agreement on behalf of an alien (who is not the child of the sponsor or...

  20. 7 CFR 51.59 - Operations and operating procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Operations and operating procedures. 51.59 Section 51.59 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL...

  1. 41 CFR 51-2.7 - Fair market price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Fair market price. 51-2.7... WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED § 51-2.7 Fair market price. (a) The Committee is responsible for determining fair market prices, and changes thereto, for commodities and services on the Procurement List. The...

  2. 10 CFR 76.51 - Conditions of certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conditions of certification. 76.51 Section 76.51 Energy... Conditions of certification. The Corporation shall comply with the certificate of compliance, any approved... certificate or approved compliance plan. ...

  3. 10 CFR 51.67 - Environmental information concerning geologic repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental information concerning geologic repositories. 51.67 Section 51.67 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... law, the Department of Energy may be required to supplement its final environmental impact statement...

  4. 10 CFR 51.116 - Notice of intent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notice of intent. 51.116 Section 51.116 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REGULATIONS FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING AND RELATED... that an environmental impact statement will be prepared. The notice will contain the information...

  5. 10 CFR 51.124 - Commission duty to comment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Commission duty to comment. 51.124 Section 51.124 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REGULATIONS FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING AND... environmental impact statements prepared by other Federal agencies, consistent with the provisions of 40 CFR...

  6. 10 CFR 51.27 - Notice of intent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notice of intent. 51.27 Section 51.27 Energy NUCLEAR... to Prepare Environmental Impact Statements, Environmental Assessments Or Findings of No Significant...) shall: (1) State that an environmental impact statement will be prepared; (2) Describe the proposed...

  7. 10 CFR 51.31 - Determinations based on environmental assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determinations based on environmental assessment. 51.31 Section 51.31 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REGULATIONS FOR... appropriate NRC staff director will determine whether to prepare an environmental impact statement or a...

  8. 10 CFR 51.28 - Scoping-participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scoping-participants. 51.28 Section 51.28 Energy NUCLEAR... environmental impact involved or which is authorized to develop and enforce relevant environmental standards; (4... environmental impact statement does not entitle the participant to become a party to the proceeding to which the...

  9. 10 CFR 51.32 - Finding of no significant impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Finding of no significant impact. 51.32 Section 51.32 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REGULATIONS FOR DOMESTIC... determined not to prepare an environmental impact statement for the proposed action; (3) Briefly present the...

  10. Electron Temperatures in W51 Complex from High Resolution, Low ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We have made continuum radio observations of these HII regions of the W51 complex at 240, 610, 1060 and 1400 MHz using GMRT with lower resolution (20'' × 15'') at the lowest frequency. The observed spectra of the prominent thermal subcomponents of W51 have been fitted to a free-free emission spectrum and their ...

  11. 28 CFR 550.51 - Drug abuse education course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drug abuse education course. 550.51... DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Abuse Treatment Program § 550.51 Drug abuse education course. (a) Purpose of the drug abuse education course. All institutions provide a drug abuse education course to: (1) Inform...

  12. 50 CFR 14.51 - Inspection of wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inspection of wildlife. 14.51 Section 14.51 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS...

  13. Inter-subunit interactions that coordinate Rad51's activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.A. Grigorescu (Arabela); J.H.A. Vissers (Joseph); D. Ristic (Dejan); Y.Z. Pigli (Ying); T.W. Lynch (Thomas); C. Wyman (Claire); P.A. Rice (Phoebe)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractRad51 is the central catalyst of homologous recombination in eukaryotes and is thus critical for maintaining genomic integrity. Recent crystal structures of filaments formed by Rad51 and the closely related archeal RadA and eubacterial RecA proteins place the ATPase site at the

  14. 7 CFR 1219.51 - Contracts and agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contracts and agreements. 1219.51 Section 1219.51 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH...

  15. 7 CFR 915.51 - Issuance of regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Issuance of regulations. 915.51 Section 915.51 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AVOCADOS GROWN IN SOUTH FLORIDA...

  16. 21 CFR 58.51 - Specimen and data storage facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Specimen and data storage facilities. 58.51 Section 58.51 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL... storage facilities. Space shall be provided for archives, limited to access by authorized personnel only...

  17. 15 CFR 400.51 - Notice and hearings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notice and hearings. 400.51 Section 400.51 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) FOREIGN-TRADE ZONES BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE REGULATIONS OF THE FOREIGN-TRADE ZONES BOARD Notice...

  18. 7 CFR 51.2126 - Particles and dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Particles and dust. 51.2126 Section 51.2126 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AN...

  19. 7 CFR 51.1443 - Particles and dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Particles and dust. 51.1443 Section 51.1443 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AN...

  20. 47 CFR 51.309 - Use of unbundled network elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of unbundled network elements. 51.309... unbundled network elements. (a) Except as provided in § 51.318, an incumbent LEC shall not impose limitations, restrictions, or requirements on requests for, or the use of, unbundled network elements for the...

  1. 9 CFR 51.25 - Proof of destruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) consigning the animal from a farm or livestock market directly to a slaughter establishment; or (f) In unique... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Proof of destruction. 51.25 Section 51.25 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  2. 40 CFR 69.51 - Motor vehicle diesel fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicle diesel fuel. 69.51... (CONTINUED) SPECIAL EXEMPTIONS FROM REQUIREMENTS OF THE CLEAN AIR ACT Alaska § 69.51 Motor vehicle diesel.... (b) Diesel fuel that is designated for use only in Alaska and is used only in Alaska, is exempt from...

  3. 41 CFR 51-10.110 - Self-evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Self-evaluation. 51-10... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED § 51-10.110 Self-evaluation. (a) The agency shall, by August 24... persons, to participate in the self-evaluation process by submitting comments (both oral and written). (c...

  4. 7 CFR 51.603 - Similar varietal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Similar varietal characteristics. 51.603 Section 51.603 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... characteristics. Similar varietal characteristics means that the stalks in any container have the same character...

  5. 7 CFR 51.3202 - Similar varietal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Similar varietal characteristics. 51.3202 Section 51.3202 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Similar varietal characteristics. Similar varietal characteristics means that the onions in any container...

  6. 7 CFR 51.2081 - Similar varietal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Similar varietal characteristics. 51.2081 Section 51.2081 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... characteristics. Similar varietal characteristics means that the almonds are similar in shape, and are reasonably...

  7. 7 CFR 51.1864 - Similar varietal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Similar varietal characteristics. 51.1864 Section 51.1864 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... characteristics. Similar varietal characteristics means that the tomatoes are alike as to firmness of flesh and...

  8. 7 CFR 51.1154 - Similar varietal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Similar varietal characteristics. 51.1154 Section 51.1154 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... varietal characteristics. Similar varietal characteristics means that the fruits in any container are...

  9. 7 CFR 51.1550 - Similar varietal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Similar varietal characteristics. 51.1550 Section 51.1550 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... characteristics. Similar varietal characteristics means that the potatoes in any lot have the same general shape...

  10. 7 CFR 51.2714 - Similar varietal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Similar varietal characteristics. 51.2714 Section 51.2714 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... characteristics. Similar varietal characteristics means that the peanut kernels in the lot are not of distinctly...

  11. 7 CFR 51.2756 - Similar varietal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Similar varietal characteristics. 51.2756 Section 51.2756 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... characteristics. Similar varietal characteristics means that the peanut kernels in the lot are not of distinctly...

  12. 7 CFR 51.763 - Similar varietal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Similar varietal characteristics. 51.763 Section 51.763 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... characteristics. Similar varietal characteristics means that the fruits in any container are similar in color and...

  13. 7 CFR 51.2650 - Similar varietal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Similar varietal characteristics. 51.2650 Section 51.2650 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... characteristics. Similar varietal characteristics means that the cherries in any container are similar in color...

  14. 7 CFR 51.2116 - Similar varietal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Similar varietal characteristics. 51.2116 Section 51.2116 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... characteristics. Similar varietal characteristics means that the kernels are similar in shape and appearance. For...

  15. 7 CFR 51.1906 - Similar varietal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Similar varietal characteristics. 51.1906 Section 51.1906 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... characteristics. Similar varietal characteristics means that the tomatoes are alike as to color, i.e., bright red...

  16. 7 CFR 51.3057 - Similar varietal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Similar varietal characteristics. 51.3057 Section 51.3057 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... characteristics. Similar varietal characteristics means that the avocados in any container are similar in shape...

  17. 7 CFR 51.1356 - Pears grown from late blooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pears grown from late blooms. 51.1356 Section 51.1356 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 FRESH FRUITS,...

  18. 41 CFR 109-45.304-51 - Documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Documentation. 109-45.304-51 Section 109-45.304-51 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS UTILIZATION AND DISPOSAL...

  19. 41 CFR 109-45.309-51 - Export controlled property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Export controlled property. 109-45.309-51 Section 109-45.309-51 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS UTILIZATION...

  20. 7 CFR 301.51-2 - Regulated articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Regulated articles. 301.51-2 Section 301.51-2... Regulated articles. The following are regulated articles: (a) Firewood (all hardwood species), and green... (sycamore), Populus (poplar), Salix (willow), Sorbus (mountain ash), and Ulmus (elm). (b) Any other article...

  1. 30 CFR 217.51 - Lease account reconciliation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lease account reconciliation. 217.51 Section... MANAGEMENT AUDITS AND INSPECTIONS Oil and Gas, General § 217.51 Lease account reconciliation. Specific lease account reconciliations shall be performed with priority being given to reconciling those lease accounts...

  2. 7 CFR 51.2085 - Fairly uniform color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fairly uniform color. 51.2085 Section 51.2085 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... color. Fairly uniform color means that the shells do not show excessive variation in color, whether...

  3. 7 CFR 51.1447 - Fairly uniform in color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fairly uniform in color. 51.1447 Section 51.1447... color. Fairly uniform in color means that 90 percent or more of the kernels in the lot have skin color within the range of one or two color classifications. ...

  4. 7 CFR 51.3418 - Optional test for fry color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Optional test for fry color. 51.3418 Section 51.3418... color. Fry color may be determined in accordance with contract specifications by using the Munsell Color...°F or 21/2 minutes at 375°F. 5 Munsell Color Standards for Frozen French Fried Potatoes, Third...

  5. 7 CFR 51.1407 - Fairly uniform in color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fairly uniform in color. 51.1407 Section 51.1407 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... in color. Fairly uniform in color means that the shells do not show sufficient variation in color to...

  6. Characterization of the tank 51 alternate reductant sludge batch 9 slurry sample (HTF-51-15-130)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reboul, S. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-02-01

    Tank 51 slurry sample HTF-51-15-130 was collected following sludge washing at the Tank Farm. The sample was received at SRNL and then characterized in preparation for qualification of the alternate reductant Sludge Batch 9 (SB9) flowsheet. In this characterization, densities, solids distribution, elemental constituents, anionic constituents, carbon content, and select radioisotopes were quantified.

  7. Rad51 supports triple negative breast cancer metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegmans, Adrian P; Al-Ejeh, Fares; Chee, Nicole; Yap, Pei-Yi; Gorski, Julia J; Silva, Leonard Da; Bolderson, Emma; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Anderson, Robin; Simpson, Peter T; Lakhani, Sunil R; Khanna, Kum Kum

    2014-01-01

    In contrast to extensive studies on familial breast cancer, it is currently unclear whether defects in DNA double strand break (DSB) repair genes play a role in sporadic breast cancer development and progression. We performed analysis of immunohistochemistry in an independent cohort of 235 were sporadic breast tumours. This analysis suggested that RAD51 expression is increased during breast cancer progression and metastasis and an oncogenic role for RAD51 when deregulated. Subsequent knockdown of RAD51 repressed cancer cell migration in vitro and reduced primary tumor growth in a syngeneic mouse model in vivo. Loss of RAD51 also inhibited associated metastasis not only in syngeneic mice but human xenografts and changed the metastatic gene expression profile of cancer cells, consistent with inhibition of distant metastasis. This demonstrates for the first time a new function of RAD51 that may underlie the proclivity of patients with RAD51 overexpression to develop distant metastasis. RAD51 is a potential biomarker and attractive drug target for metastatic triple negative breast cancer, with the capability to extend the survival of patients, which is less than 6 months. PMID:24811120

  8. 7 CFR 51.1451 - Metric conversion table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Metric conversion table. 51.1451 Section 51.1451... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Pecans Metric Conversion Table § 51.1451 Metric conversion table. Inches Millimeters (mm) 8/16 12.7 7/16 11.1 6/16 9.5 5/16 7.9 4/16 6.4 3/16 4.8 2/16 3.2 6...

  9. Basic and Application of AT89S51

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Yeong Bae

    2005-08-15

    This book introduces using of AT89S51, which includes AT8051 microcomputer structure like internal structure of AT89S51 and function and timing chart of AT89S51 pin, function and structure of I/0 port and practice of I/0 port, interrupt, power saving mode, timer and counter, character LCD, practice of timer and counter, and data communication. It also deals with PIA-A/D converter, serial communication like digital watch SPI communication and I{sub 2}C communication, dot matrix, motor control, and infrared transmission and optical communications and sensor.

  10. Nuclear localization of Rad51B is independent of BRCA2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, K A; Hinz, J M; Yamada, A; Thompson, L H; Albala, J S

    2005-06-28

    Human Rad51 is critical for the maintenance of genome stability through its role in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks. Rad51B (Rad51L1/hRec2) is one of the five known paralogs of human Rad51 found in a multi-protein complex with three other Rad51 paralogs, Rad51C, Rad51D and Xrcc2. Examination of EGFP-Rad51B fusion protein in HeLa S3 cells and immunofluorescence in several human cell lines confirms the nuclear localization of Rad51B. This is the first report to detail putative interactions of a Rad51 paralog protein with BRCA2. Utilization of a BRCA2 mutant cell line, CAPAN-1 suggests that Rad51B localizes to the nucleus independent of BRCA2. Although both Rad51B and BRCA2 are clearly involved in the homologous recombinational repair pathway, Rad51B and BRCA2 do not appear to associate directly. Furthermore, mutations in the KKLK motif of Rad51B, amino acid residues 4-7, mislocalizes Rad51B to the cytoplasm suggesting that this is the nuclear localization signal for the Rad51B protein. Examination of wild-type EGFP-Rad51B fusion protein in mammalian cells deficient in Rad51C showed that Rad51B localizes to the nucleus independent of Rad51C; further suggesting that Rad51B, like Rad51C, contains its own nuclear localization signal.

  11. 7 CFR 51.1834 - Reasonably well colored.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Florida Tangerines Definitions § 51.1834 Reasonably well colored. Reasonably well colored means that a good yellow or reddish tangerine color shall predominate...

  12. 7 CFR 51.1830 - Fairly well colored.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Florida Tangerines Definitions § 51.1830 Fairly well... surface has a yellow or better ground color with some portion of the surface showing reddish tangerine...

  13. 47 CFR 51.711 - Symmetrical reciprocal compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the switch of a carrier other than an incumbent LEC serves a geographic area comparable to the area... of a cost study using the forward-looking economic cost based pricing methodology described in §§ 51...

  14. STATION 13 - South Africa's Area 51? : astronomical traveller

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roberts, Greg

    2012-01-01

    Anyone who has watched a bit of television will no doubt have heard of Area 51. A top secret military base in the United States rumoured to have captured UFOs and home of top-secret high speed aircraft...

  15. Sample Set (SE): SE51 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE51 RIKEN tandem mass spectral database (ReSpect) for phytochemicals: A plant-spec...o be narrowed down to candidate structures. Therefore, a web-based database of MS/MS data pertaining to phytochemicals

  16. Developing VTM-51 into an ASTM test method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    In 1980, the Virginia Transportation Research Council developed a procedure to test silt fence installations (VTM-51). The test determines the filtering efficiency (amount of soil removed) and the flow rate of a geotextile. A known concentration and ...

  17. 7 CFR 2902.51 - Parts wash solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Items § 2902.51 Parts wash solutions. (a) Definition. Products that are designed to clean parts in..., cabinet washers, and ultrasonic cleaners. (b) Minimum biobased content. The preferred procurement product...

  18. 7 CFR 51.1277 - Fairly well formed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Summer and Fall Pears 1 Definitions § 51.1277 Fairly well formed. Fairly well formed means that the pear may be slightly abnormal in shape but not to an extent which...

  19. 34 CFR 104.51 - Application of this subpart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE Health, Welfare, and Social Services § 104.51 Application of this subpart. Subpart F applies to health, welfare, and other social service programs or activities that receive Federal financial...

  20. Complementation of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae ERG11/CYP51 (Sterol 14α-Demethylase) Doxycycline-Regulated Mutant and Screening of the Azole Sensitivity of Aspergillus fumigatus Isoenzymes CYP51A and CYP51B▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Claire M.; Parker, Josie E.; Warrilow, Andrew G. S.; Rolley, Nicola J.; Kelly, Steven L.; Kelly, Diane E.

    2010-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus sterol 14α-demethylase isoenzymes CYP51A and CYP51B were heterologously expressed in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant (YUG37-erg11), wherein native ERG11/CYP51 expression is controlled using a doxycycline-regulatable promoter. When cultured in the presence of doxycycline, recombinant YUG37-pcyp51A and YUG37-pcyp51B yeasts were able to synthesize ergosterol and grow; a control strain harboring reverse-oriented cyp51A could not. YUG37-pcyp51A and YUG37-pcyp51B constructs showed identical sensitivity to itraconazole, posaconazole, clotrimazole, and voriconazole. Conversely, YUG37-pcyp51A withstood 16-fold-higher concentrations of fluconazole than YUG37-pcyp51B (8 and 0.5 μg ml−1, respectively). PMID:20733045

  1. FKBP51 Immunohistochemical Expression: A New Prognostic Biomarker for OSCC?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Russo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Up-to-date, several molecular markers of prognosis have been studied in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC, but none entered in the clinical setting. Therapy of OSCC tumors mainly relies on surgery, radiotherapy and partially on chemotherapy; there is an urgent need for biomarkers able to better stratify OSCC patients’ risk to address targeted therapeutic strategies. The role of immune response in the pathogenesis and biological behavior of OSCC has been investigated by several authors, and promising results have been obtained with immune checkpoint inhibitors. We already investigated the role of the immune modulator FK506-binding protein 51 (FKBP51, a FK506-binding immunophilin, in cutaneous melanoma biology, and its expression in several human solid tumors. In the present study, we aimed to assess the value of FKBP51 expression in OSCC tumor cells as a marker of outcome. We collected clinical data from 72 patients who underwent surgery for Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC of the tongue, floor, lips and palate. FKBP51 expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry on paraffin-embedded tumor tissues. In addition, we evaluated the human papillomavirus (HPV status of primary tumors by immunohistochemistry, viral subtyping and In Situ Hybridization (ISH assay. We found that high FKBP51-expressing tumors characterized the OSCCs with the worst prognosis: the high immunohistochemical expression of FKBP51 associated with death occurring within five years from the diagnosis with a sensitivity of 88.46% and a specificity of 91.67%. The estimated positive predictive value of the test was 88.45% and negative predictive value 91.67%. We tested FKBP51 mRNA presence, by RT-PCR assay, in a selected series of OSCC tumors, and we found that mRNA correlated well to the protein expression and to the clinical outcome. Applying the Bayes formula, we estimated an 88% probability of dying within five years from the diagnosis of OSCC patients with a high FKBP51

  2. Structural Basis of Human CYP51 Inhibition by Antifungal Azoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strushkevich, Natallia; Usanov, Sergey A.; Park, Hee-Won (Toronto); (IBC-Belarus)

    2010-09-22

    The obligatory step in sterol biosynthesis in eukaryotes is demethylation of sterol precursors at the C14-position, which is catalyzed by CYP51 (sterol 14-alpha demethylase) in three sequential reactions. In mammals, the final product of the pathway is cholesterol, while important intermediates, meiosis-activating sterols, are produced by CYP51. Three crystal structures of human CYP51, ligand-free and complexed with antifungal drugs ketoconazole and econazole, were determined, allowing analysis of the molecular basis for functional conservation within the CYP51 family. Azole binding occurs mostly through hydrophobic interactions with conservative residues of the active site. The substantial conformational changes in the B{prime} helix and F-G loop regions are induced upon ligand binding, consistent with the membrane nature of the protein and its substrate. The access channel is typical for mammalian sterol-metabolizing P450 enzymes, but is different from that observed in Mycobacterium tuberculosis CYP51. Comparison of the azole-bound structures provides insight into the relative binding affinities of human and bacterial P450 enzymes to ketoconazole and fluconazole, which can be useful for the rational design of antifungal compounds and specific modulators of human CYP51.

  3. RAD51 interconnects between DNA replication, DNA repair and immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Souparno; Srinivasan, Kalayarasan; Abdisalaam, Salim; Su, Fengtao; Raj, Prithvi; Dozmorov, Igor; Mishra, Ritu; Wakeland, Edward K; Ghose, Subroto; Mukherjee, Shibani; Asaithamby, Aroumougame

    2017-05-05

    RAD51, a multifunctional protein, plays a central role in DNA replication and homologous recombination repair, and is known to be involved in cancer development. We identified a novel role for RAD51 in innate immune response signaling. Defects in RAD51 lead to the accumulation of self-DNA in the cytoplasm, triggering a STING-mediated innate immune response after replication stress and DNA damage. In the absence of RAD51, the unprotected newly replicated genome is degraded by the exonuclease activity of MRE11, and the fragmented nascent DNA accumulates in the cytosol, initiating an innate immune response. Our data suggest that in addition to playing roles in homologous recombination-mediated DNA double-strand break repair and replication fork processing, RAD51 is also implicated in the suppression of innate immunity. Thus, our study reveals a previously uncharacterized role of RAD51 in initiating immune signaling, placing it at the hub of new interconnections between DNA replication, DNA repair, and immunity. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  4. Immune Response of Calves Vaccinated with Brucella abortus S19 or RB51 and Revaccinated with RB51.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorneles, Elaine M S; Lima, Graciela K; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Araújo, Márcio S S; Martins-Filho, Olindo A; Sriranganathan, Nammalwar; Al Qublan, Hamzeh; Heinemann, Marcos B; Lage, Andrey P

    2015-01-01

    Brucella abortus S19 and RB51 strains have been successfully used to control bovine brucellosis worldwide; however, currently, most of our understanding of the protective immune response induced by vaccination comes from studies in mice. The aim of this study was to characterize and compare the immune responses induced in cattle prime-immunized with B. abortus S19 or RB51 and revaccinated with RB51. Female calves, aged 4 to 8 months, were vaccinated with either vaccine S19 (0.6-1.2 x 1011 CFU) or RB51 (1.3 x 1010 CFU) on day 0, and revaccinated with RB51 (1.3 x 1010 CFU) on day 365 of the experiment. Characterization of the immune response was performed using serum and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Blood samples were collected on days 0, 28, 210, 365, 393 and 575 post-immunization. Results showed that S19 and RB51 vaccination induced an immune response characterized by proliferation of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells; IFN-ɣ and IL-17A production by CD4+ T-cells; cytotoxic CD8+ T-cells; IL-6 secretion; CD4+ and CD8+ memory cells; antibodies of IgG1 class; and expression of the phenotypes of activation in T-cells. However, the immune response stimulated by S19 compared to RB51 showed higher persistency of IFN-ɣ and CD4+ memory cells, induction of CD21+ memory cells and higher secretion of IL-6. After RB51 revaccination, the immune response was chiefly characterized by increase in IFN-ɣ expression, proliferation of antigen-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells, cytotoxic CD8+ T-cells and decrease of IL-6 production in both groups. Nevertheless, a different polarization of the immune response, CD4+- or CD8+-dominant, was observed after the booster with RB51 for S19 and RB51 prime-vaccinated animals, respectively. Our results indicate that after prime vaccination both vaccine strains induce a strong and complex Th1 immune response, although after RB51 revaccination the differences between immune profiles induced by prime-vaccination become accentuated.

  5. Immune Response of Calves Vaccinated with Brucella abortus S19 or RB51 and Revaccinated with RB51.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine M S Dorneles

    Full Text Available Brucella abortus S19 and RB51 strains have been successfully used to control bovine brucellosis worldwide; however, currently, most of our understanding of the protective immune response induced by vaccination comes from studies in mice. The aim of this study was to characterize and compare the immune responses induced in cattle prime-immunized with B. abortus S19 or RB51 and revaccinated with RB51. Female calves, aged 4 to 8 months, were vaccinated with either vaccine S19 (0.6-1.2 x 1011 CFU or RB51 (1.3 x 1010 CFU on day 0, and revaccinated with RB51 (1.3 x 1010 CFU on day 365 of the experiment. Characterization of the immune response was performed using serum and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Blood samples were collected on days 0, 28, 210, 365, 393 and 575 post-immunization. Results showed that S19 and RB51 vaccination induced an immune response characterized by proliferation of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells; IFN-ɣ and IL-17A production by CD4+ T-cells; cytotoxic CD8+ T-cells; IL-6 secretion; CD4+ and CD8+ memory cells; antibodies of IgG1 class; and expression of the phenotypes of activation in T-cells. However, the immune response stimulated by S19 compared to RB51 showed higher persistency of IFN-ɣ and CD4+ memory cells, induction of CD21+ memory cells and higher secretion of IL-6. After RB51 revaccination, the immune response was chiefly characterized by increase in IFN-ɣ expression, proliferation of antigen-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells, cytotoxic CD8+ T-cells and decrease of IL-6 production in both groups. Nevertheless, a different polarization of the immune response, CD4+- or CD8+-dominant, was observed after the booster with RB51 for S19 and RB51 prime-vaccinated animals, respectively. Our results indicate that after prime vaccination both vaccine strains induce a strong and complex Th1 immune response, although after RB51 revaccination the differences between immune profiles induced by prime-vaccination become accentuated.

  6. Characterization of recombinant B. abortus strain RB51SOD towards understanding the uncorrelated innate and adaptive immune responses induced by RB51SOD compared to its parent vaccine strain RB51

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianguo eZhu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Brucella abortus is a Gram-negative, facultative intracellular pathogen for several mammals, including humans. Live attenuated B. abortus strain RB51 is currently the official vaccine used against bovine brucellosis in the United States and several other countries. Overexpression of protective B. abortus antigen Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD in a recombinant strain of RB51 (strain RB51SOD significantly increases its vaccine efficacy against virulent B. abortus challenge in a mouse model. An attempt has been made to better understand the mechanism of the enhanced protective immunity of RB51SOD compared to its parent strain RB51. We previously reported that RB51SOD stimulated enhanced Th1 immune response. In this study, we further found that T effector cells derived from RB51SOD-immunized mice exhibited significantly higher cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL activity than T effector cells derived from RB51-immunized mice against virulent B. abortus-infected target cells. Meanwhile, the macrophage responses to these two strains were also studied. Compared to RB51, RB51SOD cells had a lower survival rate in macrophages and induced lower levels of macrophage apoptosis and necrosis. The decreased survival of RB51SOD cells correlates with the higher sensitivity of RB51SOD, compared to RB51, to the bactericidal action of either Polymyxin B or sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS. Furthermore, a physical damage to the outer membrane of RB51SOD was observed by electron microscopy. Possibly due to the physical damage, overexpressed Cu/Zn SOD in RB51SOD was found to be released into the bacterial cell culture medium. Therefore, the stronger adaptive immunity induced by RB51SOD did not correlate with the low level of innate immunity induced by RB51SOD compared to RB51. This unique and apparently contradictory profile is likely associated with the differences in outer membrane integrity and Cu/Zn SOD release.

  7. Characterization of recombinant B. abortus strain RB51SOD toward understanding the uncorrelated innate and adaptive immune responses induced by RB51SOD compared to its parent vaccine strain RB51.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jianguo; Larson, Charles B; Ramaker, Megan Ann; Quandt, Kimberly; Wendte, Jered M; Ku, Kimberly P; Chen, Fang; Jourdian, George W; Vemulapalli, Ramesh; Schurig, Gerhardt G; He, Yongqun

    2011-01-01

    Brucella abortus is a Gram-negative, facultative intracellular pathogen for several mammals, including humans. Live attenuated B. abortus strain RB51 is currently the official vaccine used against bovine brucellosis in the United States and several other countries. Overexpression of protective B. abortus antigen Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) in a recombinant strain of RB51 (strain RB51SOD) significantly increases its vaccine efficacy against virulent B. abortus challenge in a mouse model. An attempt has been made to better understand the mechanism of the enhanced protective immunity of RB51SOD compared to its parent strain RB51. We previously reported that RB51SOD stimulated enhanced Th1 immune response. In this study, we further found that T effector cells derived from RB51SOD-immunized mice exhibited significantly higher cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity than T effector cells derived from RB51-immunized mice against virulent B. abortus-infected target cells. Meanwhile, the macrophage responses to these two strains were also studied. Compared to RB51, RB51SOD cells had a lower survival rate in macrophages and induced lower levels of macrophage apoptosis and necrosis. The decreased survival of RB51SOD cells correlates with the higher sensitivity of RB51SOD, compared to RB51, to the bactericidal action of either Polymyxin B or sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Furthermore, a physical damage to the outer membrane of RB51SOD was observed by electron microscopy. Possibly due to the physical damage, overexpressed Cu/Zn SOD in RB51SOD was found to be released into the bacterial cell culture medium. Therefore, the stronger adaptive immunity induced by RB51SOD did not correlate with the low level of innate immunity induced by RB51SOD compared to RB51. This unique and apparently contradictory profile is likely associated with the differences in outer membrane integrity and Cu/Zn SOD release.

  8. Safety of Brucella abortus strain RB51 in deer mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, W E; Williams, E S; Thorne, E T; Taylor, S K; Anderson, S

    2001-07-01

    Brucella abortus strain RB51 is an approved brucellosis vaccine for use in cattle that may have potential as an oral vaccine for use in elk (Cervus elaphus) and/or bison (Bison bison). This study was designed to determine effects of strain RB51 on deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), a nontarget species that could have access to treated baits in a field situation. In February 1994, 90 mice were orally dosed or intraperitoneally injected with 1 x 10(8) colony forming units strain RB51 and 77 controls were similarly dosed with sterile saline. At weekly intervals through early April 1994, 4 to 6 mice from each group were euthanized, gross necropsies performed, spleens and uteruses cultured, and tissues examined histologically. All orally inoculated mice cleared the infection by 6 wk post-inoculation (PI). While most of the injected mice cleared the infection by 7 wk PI, a few required 9 wk. There were minimal adverse effects attributable to strain RB51. Apparently, strain RB51 would not negatively impact P. maniculatus populations if it were used in a field situation. Also, deer mice appear to be able to clear the vaccine in 6 to 9 wk, thus the probability of these mice transmitting the vaccine to other animals is low.

  9. Article 51 of the charter in the legislative processes of the member states / Mirjam de Mol

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    de Mol, Mirjam

    2016-01-01

    Euroopa Liidu liikmesriikide kohustusest täita Euroopa Liidu põhiõiguste harta artikkel 51 siseriiklikus seadusandlikus protsessis. Siseriiklike seadusandlike ettepanekute hindamisest artikkel 51 valguses. Harta artikkel 51 aluspõhimõtetest

  10. Use of detergent extracts of Brucella abortus RB51 to detect serologic responses in RB51-vaccinated cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halling, S M; Koster, N A

    2001-09-01

    Serologic responses to the newly introduced rough Brucella abortus vaccine strain RB51 have been determined in a dot-blot format using gamma-irradiated RB51 cells as the antigen. Because gamma-irradiated cells are not easily prepared and the signal from cells was not always reliable, an alternative antigen was sought. Detergent extracts of B. abortus RB51 were prepared using zwittergent 3-14, Triton X-100, and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and examined in a dot-blot format. Zwittergent 3-14 extracts and gamma-irradiated RB51 cells gave the same titers. Unlike gamma-irradiated RB51 cells, zwittergent 3-14 extracts produced signals consistently, and the signals were easily interpreted. Triton X-100 extracts interfered with signal development, and SDS extracts resulted in a high background signal. Western blot analyses revealed several outer membrane proteins in the zwittergent 3-14 extract. The major antigens in the extract had apparent molecular weights of <20,000.

  11. Immune responses and protection against experimental challenge after vaccination of bison with Brucella abortus strain RB51 or RB51 overexpressing superoxide dismutase and glycosyltransferase genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, S C; Boyle, S M; Schurig, G G; Sriranganathan, N N

    2009-04-01

    Vaccination is a tool that could be beneficial in managing the high prevalence of brucellosis in free-ranging bison in Yellowstone National Park. In this study, we characterized immunologic responses and protection against experimental challenge after vaccination of bison with Brucella abortus strain RB51 (RB51) or a recombinant RB51 strain overexpressing superoxide dismutase (sodC) and glycosyltransferase (wboA) genes (RB51+sodC,wboA). Bison were vaccinated with saline only or with 4.6 x 10(10) CFU of RB51 or 7.4 x 10(10) CFU of RB51+sodC,wboA (n = eight animals/treatment). Bison vaccinated with RB51 or RB51+sodC,wboA had greater (P RB51 after vaccination than did nonvaccinates. However, bison vaccinated with RB51+sodC,wboA cleared the vaccine strain from draining lymph nodes faster than bison vaccinated with the parental RB51 strain. Immunologic responses of bison vaccinated with RB51+sodC,wboA were similar to responses of bison vaccinated with RB51. Pregnant bison were intraconjunctivally challenged in midgestation with 10(7) CFU of B. abortus strain 2308. Bison vaccinated with RB51, but not RB51+sodC,wboA vaccinates, had greater protection from abortion, fetal/uterine, mammary, or maternal infection than nonvaccinates. Our data suggest that the RB51+sodC,wboA strain is less efficacious as a calfhood vaccine for bison than the parental RB51 strain. Our data also suggest that the RB51 vaccine is a currently available management tool that could be utilized to help reduce brucellosis in free-ranging bison.

  12. Contribution of Germline Mutations in the RAD51B, RAD51C, and RAD51D Genes to Ovarian Cancer in the Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Honglin; Dicks, Ed; Ramus, Susan J

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to estimate the contribution of deleterious mutations in the RAD51B, RAD51C, and RAD51D genes to invasive epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) in the population and in a screening trial of individuals at high risk of ovarian cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The coding s...

  13. 40 CFR 51.930 - Mitigation of Exceptional Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mitigation of Exceptional Events. 51... Mitigation of Exceptional Events. (a) A State requesting to exclude air quality data due to exceptional events must take appropriate and reasonable actions to protect public health from exceedances or...

  14. 20 CFR 901.51 - Decision of the Joint Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... PERFORMANCE OF ACTUARIAL SERVICES UNDER THE EMPLOYEE RETIREMENT INCOME SECURITY ACT OF 1974 Suspension or... final decision. In making its decision the Joint Board will review the record of such portions thereof... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Decision of the Joint Board. 901.51 Section...

  15. 10 CFR 51.95 - Postconstruction environmental impact statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...-prepared final generic environmental impact statements; environmental assessments and records of decisions... impact statement for the post operating or post combined license stage or an environmental assessment, as... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Postconstruction environmental impact statements. 51.95...

  16. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 10, No 51 (2011)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The immunological response of RB51 vaccinated buffalo calves using brucella periplasmic proteins as ELISA antigen · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. KAA El-Razik, SMA El-Hafez, WS Shell, YA Ghazi, 10562-10566 ...

  17. 7 CFR 301.51-3 - Quarantined areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Asian Longhorned Beetle § 301.51-3... which the Asian longhorned beetle has been found by an inspector, in which the Administrator has reason to believe that the Asian longhorned beetle is present, or that the Administrator considers necessary...

  18. 41 CFR 109-38.301-1.51 - Emergency use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emergency use. 109-38...-38.301-1.51 Emergency use. (a) Procedures for authorization of designated contractor use of Government motor vehicles in emergencies, including unscheduled overtime situations at remote sites where...

  19. Genome sequence of Stachybotrys chartarum Strain 51-11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachybotrys chartarum strain 51-11 genome was sequenced by shotgun sequencing utilizing Illumina Hiseq 2000 and PacBio long read technology. Since Stachybotrys chartarum has been implicated in health impacts within water-damaged buildings, any information extracted from the geno...

  20. 28 CFR 51.44 - Notification of decision to object.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Notification of decision to object. 51.44... Notification of decision to object. (a) The Attorney General shall within the 60-day period allowed notify the... notwithstanding the objection it may institute an action in the U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia...

  1. 10 CFR 60.51 - License amendment for permanent closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....51 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN... license was issued. (b) If necessary, so as to take into account the environmental impact of any... information regarding the environmental impacts of such closure, DOE shall also supplement its environmental...

  2. 7 CFR 51.300 - U.S. Extra Fancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... rubs, hail, drought spots, scars, disease, insects, or other means. The apples are free from damage... FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Apples Grades § 51.300 U.S. Extra Fancy. “U.S. Extra Fancy” consists of apples of...

  3. 7 CFR 51.301 - U.S. Fancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Apples Grades § 51.301 U.S. Fancy. “U.S. Fancy” consists of apples of one variety... injury, visible water core, and broken skins. The apples are also free from damage caused by bruises..., stem or calyx cracks, disease, insects, bitter pit, Jonathan spot, or damage by other means, or...

  4. Evaluation of productive performance of 51 different peanut cocoon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In our study, 51 peanut strains of Iran silkworm germplasm were evaluated for 36 economically important traits and for the feasibility of using these strains for breeding programs. After hatching of eggs, neonates were brushed and reared up separately on fresh leaves of mulberry (Morus alba). Newly hatched larvae of all ...

  5. 7 CFR 51.342 - U.S. Cider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946... Standards for Grades of Apples for Processing Grades § 51.342 U.S. Cider. “U.S. Cider” consists of apples...

  6. 7 CFR 51.302 - U.S. No. 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946... Standards for Grades of Apples Grades § 51.302 U.S. No. 1. “U.S. No. 1” consists of apples which meet the...

  7. 7 CFR 51.303 - U.S. Utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946... Standards for Grades of Apples Grades § 51.303 U.S. Utility. “U.S. Utility” consists of apples of one...

  8. 7 CFR 51.341 - U.S. No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946... Standards for Grades of Apples for Processing Grades § 51.341 U.S. No. 2. “U.S. No. 2” consists of apples of...

  9. 7 CFR 51.315 - Fairly well formed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946... Standards for Grades of Apples Definitions § 51.315 Fairly well formed. “Fairly well formed” means that the...

  10. 7 CFR 51.340 - U.S. No. 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946... Standards for Grades of Apples for Processing Grades § 51.340 U.S. No. 1. “U.S. No. 1” consists of apples of...

  11. Phenotype abnormality: 51 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 51 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u1ria224u557i abnormal for tra...it of catalytic activity in organ named portion of meristem tissue ... portion of meristem tissue ... abnormal ... catalytic activity

  12. 7 CFR 51.44 - Disposition of fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946... Schedule of Fees and Charges at Destination Markets § 51.44 Disposition of fees. (a) The fees collected for...

  13. 7 CFR 51.476 - U.S. No. 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946... cantaloups which are affected by decay or mold. 2 See footnote 2 to § 51.475. (2) En route or at destination...

  14. 12 CFR 229.51 - General provisions governing substitute checks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General provisions governing substitute checks... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM AVAILABILITY OF FUNDS AND COLLECTION OF CHECKS (REGULATION CC) Substitute Checks § 229.51 General provisions governing substitute checks. (a) Legal equivalence. A substitute check for...

  15. 47 CFR 76.51 - Major television markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Carriage of Television Broadcast Signals § 76.51 Major television markets. For purposes of the cable television rules, the following is a list of the major television markets and their...) Davenport, Iowa-Rock Island-Moline, Ill. (61) Flint-Bay City-Saginaw, Mich. (62) Green Bay, Wis. (63...

  16. 47 CFR 51.507 - General rate structure standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) INTERCONNECTION Pricing of Elements § 51.507 General rate structure standard. (a) Element rates... defined geographic areas within the state to reflect geographic cost differences. (1) To establish geographically-deaveraged rates, state commissions may use existing density-related zone pricing plans described...

  17. 41 CFR 51-5.3 - Scope of requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Procurement List, it is mandatory that the total Government requirement for that service be procured from a... § 51-5.3 Scope of requirement. (a) When a commodity is included on the Procurement List, the mandatory source requirement covers the National Stock Number or item designation listed and commodities that are...

  18. 49 CFR 230.51 - Number and location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Water Glasses and Gauge Cocks § 230.51 Number and location. Every boiler shall be equipped with at least two water glasses. The lowest reading of the water glasses shall not be less than 3 inches above the highest part of the crown sheet. If gauge cocks are used, the reading of the lowest gauge cock shall not...

  19. 31 CFR 103.51 - Dollars as including foreign currency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dollars as including foreign currency... RECORDKEEPING AND REPORTING OF CURRENCY AND FOREIGN TRANSACTIONS General Provisions § 103.51 Dollars as including foreign currency. Wherever in this part an amount is stated in dollars, it shall be deemed to mean...

  20. 36 CFR 1002.51 - Public assemblies, meetings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... USE AND RECREATION § 1002.51 Public assemblies, meetings. (a) Public assemblies, meetings, gatherings... equipment and facilities to be used and any other information required by the permit application form. (c.... It may also contain reasonable limitations on the equipment used and the time and area within which...

  1. 41 CFR 51-9.304-5 - Reproduction fee schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Reproduction fee schedule... RULES 9.3-Individual Access to Records § 51-9.304-5 Reproduction fee schedule. (a) The fee for... physical characteristics do not permit reproduction by routine electrostatic copying shall be the direct...

  2. 47 CFR 51.315 - Combination of unbundled network elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Combination of unbundled network elements. 51... Combination of unbundled network elements. (a) An incumbent LEC shall provide unbundled network elements in a manner that allows requesting telecommunications carriers to combine such network elements in order to...

  3. 30 CFR 47.51 - Requirement for an MSDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING HAZARD COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) § 47.51 Requirement for an MSDS. Operators must have... from mining or milling if its hazards are already addressed on the MSDS of the source chemical. ...

  4. 7 CFR 1726.51 - Distribution line construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....51 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE... materials and equipment; or (ii) For non-site specific construction contracts accounted for under the work..., exclusive of the cost of owner furnished materials and equipment. (2) The borrower must use RUS Form 830...

  5. 10 CFR 51.54 - Environmental report-manufacturing license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... manufacturing license, the benefits and impacts of utilizing the reactor in a nuclear power plant, or an... 51.54 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REGULATIONS FOR... Environmental Report—Manufacturing License.” The environmental report must address the costs and benefits of...

  6. 48 CFR 51.200 - Scope of subpart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 51.200 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT USE OF GOVERNMENT SOURCES BY CONTRACTORS Contractor Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS... of interagency fleet management system (IFMS) vehicles and related services. In this subpart, the...

  7. Image collection: 51 [Togo Picture Gallery[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 51 Callorhinus_ursinus_NL.png キタオットセイ Northern fur seal Callorhinus ursinus 34884 生物アイコン,脊索動物門,脊椎動物亜門,哺乳綱,獣亜綱,真獣下綱,ネコ目

  8. 49 CFR 392.51 - Reserve fuel; materials of trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... made of metal or plastic and conform to requirements of 49 CFR Parts 171, 172, 173, and 178 or... material is limited to 30 kg (66 pounds) or 30 L (8 gallons). (d) For diesel fuel, the capacity of the... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reserve fuel; materials of trade. 392.51 Section...

  9. 14 CFR 171.51 - Maintenance and operations requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... by progress in the state of the art. In addition, he shall provide a stock of spare parts, including... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maintenance and operations requirements... (ILS) Facilities § 171.51 Maintenance and operations requirements. (a) The owner of the facility must...

  10. 28 CFR 51.60 - Changes in electoral systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Changes in electoral systems. 51.60....60 Changes in electoral systems. In making determinations with respect to changes in electoral...) The extent to which minority concentrations are submerged into larger electoral units. (c) The extent...

  11. 40 CFR 51.119 - Intermittent control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and type were consistent with the air quality objective and operation of the system. (ii... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intermittent control systems. 51.119... Intermittent control systems. (a) The use of an intermittent control system (ICS) may be taken into account in...

  12. 7 CFR 51.2835 - U.S. No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Onions (Other Than Bermuda-Granex-Grano and Creole Types) Grades § 51.2835 U.S. No. 2. U.S. No. 2 consists of onions which meet the following requirements: (a) Basic requirements: (1... Matter; (4) Seedstems; (5) Sprouts; (6) Mechanical; (7) Dry sunken areas; (8) Disease; (9) Freezing; (10...

  13. 7 CFR 51.3195 - U.S. No. 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Bermuda-Granex-Grano Type Onions Grades § 51.3195 U.S. No. 1. U.S. No. 1 consists of onions which meet the following requirements: (a) Basic requirements: (1) Similar varietal...) Mechanical; (9) Tops; (10) Roots; (11) Translucent scales; (12) Watery scales; (13) Moisture; (14) Disease...

  14. 7 CFR 51.2832 - U.S. Commercial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Onions (Other Than Bermuda-Granex-Grano and Creole Types) Grades § 51.2832 U.S. Commercial. U.S. Commercial consists of onions which meet the following requirements: (a) Basic requirements... scales; (12) Disease; (13) Insects; and, (14) Other means. (d) Free from serious damage caused by: (1...

  15. 7 CFR 51.3197 - U.S. No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Bermuda-Granex-Grano Type Onions Grades § 51.3197 U.S. No. 2. U.S. No. 2 consists of onions which meet the following requirements: (a) Basic requirements: (1) Similar varietal...; (5) Dirt or other foreign material; (6) Mechanical; (7) Watery scales; (8) Insects; (9) Disease; and...

  16. 7 CFR 51.2830 - U.S. No. 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Onions (Other Than Bermuda-Granex-Grano and Creole Types) Grades § 51.2830 U.S. No. 1. U.S. No. 1 consists of onions which meet the following requirements: (a) Basic requirements: (1...) Foreign matter; (14) Mechanical; (15) Translucent scales; (16) Disease; (17) Insects; and, (18) Other...

  17. The immunological response of RB51 vaccinated buffalo calves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Immune status of RB51 vaccinated buffaloes was evaluated using tube agglutination test (TAT) and ELISA, using both periplasmic protein antigen (PPA) and lipopolysaccharide antigen (LPS). For this purpose, three groups of buffalo calves were used. The first one received S19 vaccine subcutaneously; the second was ...

  18. 34 CFR 200.51 - Notice of SEA action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Programs Operated by Local Educational Agencies Lea and School Improvement § 200.51 Notice of SEA action... parents— (A) In an understandable and uniform format, including alternative formats upon request; and (B... information to the parents of each student enrolled in a school served by the LEA— (i) Directly, through such...

  19. 41 CFR 51-8.4 - Availability of materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Availability of materials... AGENCY MATERIALS § 51-8.4 Availability of materials. Material described in 5 U.S.C. 552(a)(2) shall be... 10800, 1421 Jefferson Davis Highway, Arlington, Virginia 22202-3259. An individual who intends to visit...

  20. 36 CFR 7.51 - Curecanti Recreation Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Curecanti Recreation Area. 7... SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.51 Curecanti Recreation Area. (a) Hunting... to operate within the boundaries of Curecanti National Recreation Area provided: (1) That the...

  1. 41 CFR 51-10.150 - Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... audio-visual materials and devices to depict those portions of an historic property that cannot... result in a fundamental alteration in the nature of a program or activity or in undue financial and... agency has the burden of proving that compliance with § 51-10.150(a) would result in such alteration or...

  2. 45 CFR 1183.51 - Later disallowances and adjustments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 1183.51 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON... agency's right to disallow costs and recover funds on the basis of a later audit or other review; (b) The....31 and 1183.32; and (e) Audit requirements in § 1183.26. ...

  3. 45 CFR 1157.51 - Later disallowances and adjustments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 1157.51 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON... right to disallow costs and recover funds on the basis of a later audit or other review; (b) The grantee....31 and 1157.32; and (e) Audit requirements in § 1157.26. ...

  4. 45 CFR 1174.51 - Later disallowances and adjustments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 1174.51 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON... agency's right to disallow costs and recover funds on the basis of a later audit or other review; (b) The....31 and 1174.32; and (e) Audit requirements in § 1174.26. ...

  5. 40 CFR 230.51 - Recreational and commercial fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recreational and commercial fisheries... Potential Effects on Human Use Characteristics § 230.51 Recreational and commercial fisheries. (a) Recreational and commercial fisheries consist of harvestable fish, crustaceans, shellfish, and other aquatic...

  6. What Does C-51 Mean for Academic Freedom & Campus Free Speech? CAUT Analysis of Bill C-51

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canadian Association of University Teachers, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Bill C-51, the Canadian federal government's "Anti-Terrorism Act," has sparked serious concerns about the potential impact on the basic civil liberties of all Canadians. The proposed legislation would establish criminal offences that infringe upon the right to free expression. Security agencies would be granted unprecedented and…

  7. Observation of Serum Bactericidal Activity of Brucella abortus RB51 OMPs Combined with Brucella abortus RB51 Live Vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahime Gholizadeh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: vaccination is vital against brucellosis. Although current vaccines have low efficiency, some cell wall compartments such as Outer Membrane Proteins could be used as an immunogenic candidate in vaccine development. By this mean, our aim in this study was to evaluate the humoral immunity of the combination of Brucella abortus RB51 OMPs with the Brucella abortus RB51 live attenuated vaccine, by Serum Bactericidal Acitivity test. Materials and Methods: In this project, first Brucella abortus RB51 was cultivated in brucella agar. The OMPs were extracted by Sodium N-Lauryl Sarcosinate method, then added to the RB51 live attenuated vaccine. Immunization was done by injection of the vaccine to mice and rabbits. The blood was drawn on days 0, 15,30, and 45 from the rabbits and the sera were seperated. Brucella abortus 544 was also injected as challenge. Spleen colony count was also performed. Results: The data from Serum Bactericidal Assay has showed, there was a very high Humoral immunity and response as a bactericidal titre of the serum against Rb51 Live vaccine. There was a significant decrease of colonies in the group vaccinated with the combined vaccine in the Spleen colony count test. Statistical analysis of groups variances showed a significant difference between groups (P<0.05.Conclusions: The Serum Bactericidal Assay results showed despite previous studies, both the combine and live vaccine are capable to stimulate the Humoral immunity. greater activity of combined vaccine to boost the humoral activity might be due to the synergistic effect of this vaccine.

  8. Complete Genome Sequence of Thermus aquaticus Y51MC23.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumm, Phillip J; Monsma, Scott; Keough, Brendan; Jasinovica, Svetlana; Ferguson, Erin; Schoenfeld, Thomas; Lodes, Michael; Mead, David A

    2015-01-01

    Thermus aquaticus Y51MC23 was isolated from a boiling spring in the Lower Geyser Basin of Yellowstone National Park. Remarkably, this T. aquaticus strain is able to grow anaerobically and produces multiple morphological forms. Y51MC23 is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped organism that grows well between 50°C and 80°C with maximum growth rate at 65°C to 70°C. Growth studies suggest that Y51MC23 primarily scavenges protein from the environment, supported by the high number of secreted and intracellular proteases and peptidases as well as transporter systems for amino acids and peptides. The genome was assembled de novo using a 350 bp fragment library (paired end sequencing) and an 8 kb long span mate pair library. A closed and finished genome was obtained consisting of a single chromosome of 2.15 Mb and four plasmids of 11, 14, 70, and 79 kb. Unlike other Thermus species, functions usually found on megaplasmids were identified on the chromosome. The Y51MC23 genome contains two full and two partial prophage as well as numerous CRISPR loci. The high identity and synteny between Y51MC23 prophage 2 and that of Thermus sp. 2.9 is interesting, given the 8,800 km separation of the two hot springs from which they were isolated. The anaerobic lifestyle of Y51MC23 is complex, with multiple morphologies present in cultures. The use of fluorescence microscopy reveals new details about these unusual morphological features, including the presence of multiple types of large and small spheres, often forming a confluent layer of spheres. Many of the spheres appear to be formed not from cell envelope or outer membrane components as previously believed, but from a remodeled peptidoglycan cell wall. These complex morphological forms may serve multiple functions in the survival of the organism, including food and nucleic acid storage as well as colony attachment and organization.

  9. Complete Genome Sequence of Thermus aquaticus Y51MC23.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip J Brumm

    Full Text Available Thermus aquaticus Y51MC23 was isolated from a boiling spring in the Lower Geyser Basin of Yellowstone National Park. Remarkably, this T. aquaticus strain is able to grow anaerobically and produces multiple morphological forms. Y51MC23 is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped organism that grows well between 50°C and 80°C with maximum growth rate at 65°C to 70°C. Growth studies suggest that Y51MC23 primarily scavenges protein from the environment, supported by the high number of secreted and intracellular proteases and peptidases as well as transporter systems for amino acids and peptides. The genome was assembled de novo using a 350 bp fragment library (paired end sequencing and an 8 kb long span mate pair library. A closed and finished genome was obtained consisting of a single chromosome of 2.15 Mb and four plasmids of 11, 14, 70, and 79 kb. Unlike other Thermus species, functions usually found on megaplasmids were identified on the chromosome. The Y51MC23 genome contains two full and two partial prophage as well as numerous CRISPR loci. The high identity and synteny between Y51MC23 prophage 2 and that of Thermus sp. 2.9 is interesting, given the 8,800 km separation of the two hot springs from which they were isolated. The anaerobic lifestyle of Y51MC23 is complex, with multiple morphologies present in cultures. The use of fluorescence microscopy reveals new details about these unusual morphological features, including the presence of multiple types of large and small spheres, often forming a confluent layer of spheres. Many of the spheres appear to be formed not from cell envelope or outer membrane components as previously believed, but from a remodeled peptidoglycan cell wall. These complex morphological forms may serve multiple functions in the survival of the organism, including food and nucleic acid storage as well as colony attachment and organization.

  10. Enhanced efficacy of recombinant Brucella abortus RB51 vaccines against B. melitensis infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vemulapalli, Ramesh; Contreras, Andrea; Sanakkayala, Neelima; Sriranganathan, Nammalwar; Boyle, Stephen M; Schurig, Gerhardt G

    2004-09-08

    Brucella abortus strain RB51 is an attenuated rough strain, currently being used as the official live vaccine for bovine brucellosis in the USA and several other countries. In strain RB51, the wboA gene, encoding a glycosyltransferase required for the O-side chain synthesis, is disrupted by an IS711 element. Recently, we have demonstrated that strain RB51WboA, RB51 complemented with a functional wboA gene, remains rough but expresses low quantities of O-side chain in the cytoplasm. Mice vaccinated with strain RB51WboA develop greatly enhanced resistance against challenge with B. abortus virulent strain 2308. We have also demonstrated that overexpression of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) in strain RB51 (RB51SOD) significantly increases its vaccine efficacy against strain 2308 challenge. In this study, we constructed a new recombinant strain, RB51SOD/WboA, that over expresses SOD with simultaneous expression of O-side chain in the cytoplasm. We tested the vaccine potential of strains RB51SOD, RB51WboA, RB51SOD/WboA against challenge with virulent Brucella melitensis 16M and B. abortus 2308 in mice. In comparison with strain RB51, strain RB51SOD induced better protection against strain 2308, but not strain 16M, challenge. Similar to strain RB51WboA, vaccination with strain RB51SOD/WboA resulted in complete protection of the mice from infection with strain 2308. When challenged with strain 16M, mice vaccinated with either strain RB51WboA or strain RB51SOD/WboA were significantly better protected than those vaccinated with strain RB51 or RB51SOD. These results suggest that strains RB51WboA and RB51SOD/WboA are good vaccine candidates for inducing enhanced protection against B. melitensis infection.

  11. Isolation, characterisation and expression patterns of a RAD51 ortholog from Pleurotus ostreatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mikosch, T.S.P.; Sonnenberg, A.S.M.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2002-01-01

    AB: Using degenerated primers for conserved regions of RecA homologs we have isolated a gene from Pleurotus ostreatus that shows characteristic features of RAD51 homologs. The encoded amino acid sequence of P. ostreatus RAD51 (PoRAD51) shows greatest sequence similarities with RAD51 from Coprinus

  12. Experimental Conditions: SE51_S01_M01_D01 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE51_S01_M01_D01 SE51 RIKEN tandem mass spectral database (ReSpect) for phytochemic...als: A plant-specific MS/MS-based data resource and database SE51_S01 L. japonicus accessions SE51_S01_M01 N

  13. New Criticality Safety Analysis Capabilities in SCALE 5.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, Stephen M [ORNL; DeHart, Mark D [ORNL; Dunn, Michael E [ORNL; Goluoglu, Sedat [ORNL; Horwedel, James E [ORNL; Petrie Jr, Lester M [ORNL; Rearden, Bradley T [ORNL; Williams, Mark L [ORNL

    2007-01-01

    Version 5.1 of the SCALE computer software system developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, released in 2006, contains several significant enhancements for nuclear criticality safety analysis. This paper highlights new capabilities in SCALE 5.1, including improved resonance self-shielding capabilities; ENDF/B-VI.7 cross-section and covariance data libraries; HTML output for KENO V.a; analytical calculations of KENO-VI volumes with GeeWiz/KENO3D; new CENTRMST/PMCST modules for processing ENDF/B-VI data in TSUNAMI; SCALE Generalized Geometry Package in NEWT; KENO Monte Carlo depletion in TRITON; and plotting of cross-section and covariance data in Javapeno.

  14. Response of Bacillus thuringiensis to bacteriophage CP-51.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Tassel, R L; Yousten, A A

    1976-04-01

    Bacteriophage CP-51, a transducing phage of Bacillus cereus was able to replicate on all eight varieties of Bacillus thuringiensis tested. Three general plaque types were observed on each strain although one type predominated on each strain. The plaque size was uniform for each strain regardless of plaque type. The bacterial strain used as source of the phage had no effect on plaque type or size found on any host strain. CP-51 was stable in infected spores of B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki for at least 305 days even though most of the spores had lost refractility. Free phage paricles produced in B. thuringiensis were stable for at least 10 days in broth at 14 degrees C but were very unstable at 4 degrees C.

  15. Saksa asjalikkus ja kord 51. Mannheimi filmifesstivalil / Mart Kivastik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kivastik, Mart, 1963-

    2002-01-01

    Mannheimi-Heidelbergi 51. filmifestival Saksamaal. Lähemalt kolmest mängufilmist rootslaste "Tokyo müra" ("Tokyo Noise") : režissöörid Kristian Petri, Jan Röed ja Johan Söderberg, ameeriklaste "Sitikas" ("Bug") : režissöör Matt Manfred ning hiinlaste "Kodutee" ("Wo de fu qin mu qin") : režissöör Zhang Yimou

  16. Hsp90 and FKBP51: complex regulators of psychiatric diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criado-Marrero, Marangelie; Rein, Theo; Binder, Elisabeth B; Porter, James T; Koren, John; Blair, Laura J

    2018-01-19

    Mood disorders affect nearly a quarter of the world's population. Therefore, understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying these conditions is of great importance. FK-506 binding protein 5 (FKBP5) encodes the FKBP51 protein, a heat shock protein 90 kDa (Hsp90) co-chaperone, and is a risk factor for several affective disorders. FKBP51, in coordination with Hsp90, regulates glucocorticoid receptor (GR) activity via a short negative feedback loop. This signalling pathway rapidly restores homeostasis in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis following stress. Expression of FKBP5 increases with age through reduced DNA methylation. High levels of FKBP51 are linked to GR resistance and reduced stress coping behaviour. Moreover, common allelic variants in the FKBP5 gene are associated with increased risk of developing affective disorders like anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This review highlights the current understanding of the Hsp90 co-chaperone, FKBP5, in disease from both human and animal studies. In addition, FKBP5 genetic implications in the clinic involving life stress exposure, gender differences and treatment outcomes are discussed.This article is part of the theme issue 'Heat shock proteins as modulators and therapeutic targets of chronic disease: an integrated perspective'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  17. Laser Ceilometer CL51 Demonstration Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, Victor [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Winston, Herb A. [Vaisala, Inc., Vantaa (Finland)

    2016-05-01

    Improvements in the measurements of clouds and the ability to support observation systems are critically important to advancing our understanding and improving global climate model performance. The purpose of a demonstration of the Vaisala CL51 ceilometer was to evaluate its high-range capabilities as a possible augmentation to data provided by the CL31 ceilometer that currently is deployed at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility sites. Vaisala performed a no-cost demonstration of the equipment; Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) supported the data analysis; and ARM provided logistical support, power, maintenance, etc. The laser ceilometer provided measurements of cloud-base height, vertical visibility, and backscatter profile at a vertical range of 15 km. The ceilometer demonstration was conducted during the Characterization of Cirrus and Aerosol Properties campaign (CCAP) to provide coincident observations of cirrus cloud heights and potential backscatter signals by aerosols. This campaign included deployment of a CL51 ceilometer at the ARM Facility’s Southern Great Plains (SGP) site, co-located with the current CL31, micropulse lidar, and balloon-borne sounding system. Data collected from these sensors were analyzed to compare and contrast the data from the CL51 ceilometer.

  18. Brucella abortus RB51 in milk of vaccinated adult cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Karina Leite; Poester, Fernando Padilla; Dorneles, Elaine Maria Seles; Resende, Thiago Magalhães; Vaz, Adil Knackfuss; Ferraz, Sandra Maria; Lage, Andrey Pereira

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the shedding of Brucella abortus in the milk of cows vaccinated with a full dose of RB51 during lactation. Eighteen cows, nine previously vaccinated with S19 as calves and nine non-vaccinated, were immunized subcutaneously with 1.3×10(10)CFU of B. abortus RB51, 30-60days after parturition. Milk samples from all animals were collected daily until day 7, and at weekly interval for the next 9 weeks after vaccination. To evaluate the shedding of B. abortus, milk samples were submitted for culture and PCR. No B. abortus was isolated from any sample tested. Only one sample, collected on first day after vaccination from a cow previously vaccinated, was faintly positive in the PCR. In conclusion, the public health hazard associated with milk consumption from cows vaccinated with RB51 in post-partum is very low, despite vaccination with the full dose and regardless of previous S19 vaccination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Critical interaction domains between bloom syndrome protein and RAD51.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Krystal L; Murphy, Eileen L; Brown, Lily W; Almeida, Karen H

    2011-01-01

    The American Cancer Society's 2009 statistics estimate that 1 out of every 4 deaths is cancer related. Genomic instability is a common feature of cancerous states, and an increase in genomic instability is the diagnostic feature of Bloom Syndrome. Bloom Syndrome, a rare disorder characterized by a predisposition to cancer, is caused by mutations of the BLM gene. This study focuses on the partnerships of BLM protein to RAD51, a Homologous Recombination repair protein essential for survival. A systematic set of BLM deletion fragments were generated to refine the protein binding domains of BLM to RAD51 and determine interacting regions of BLM and ssDNA. Results show that RAD51 and ssDNA interact in overlapping regions; BLM₁₀₀₋₂₁₄ and BLM₁₃₁₇₋₁₃₆₇. The overlapping nature of these regions suggests a preferential binding for one partner that could function to regulate homologous recombination and therefore helps to clarify the role of BLM in maintaining genomic stability.

  20. The Population of Supernova Remnants in M51

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Knox S.; Blair, William P.; Kuntz, K. D.; Winkler, P. Frank

    2017-08-01

    The nearby, actively star-forming, nearly face-on spiral galaxy, M51 (NGC 5194/5), has been the site of four supernovae since 1941. As a result it should have a rich population of young supernova remnants (SNRs). Here we describe a search for optical SNRs in M51 among the 298 X-ray sources discovered inside the D25 contour in deep Chandra observations. The search uses interference filter images obtained with the WFC3 on Hubble Space Telescope and more recent images from GMOS on Gemini North. Of 80 emission nebulae identified in the HST images as SNR candidates based on elevated [SII]: Ha ratios compared to HII regions, 40 have X-ray counterparts. The diameters of the SNRs and SNR candidates detected with HST are systematically smaller than seen in SNR populations of other galaxies at comparable distances. However, this is most likely an instrumental effect, which our ongoing analysis of the new GMOS images will correct. At that point, we will be able to make of fair multi-wavelength comparison of the SNR population in M51 with other nearby, actively star-forming spiral galaxies, such as M83 and NGC6946.

  1. GEMPAK 5.1 - A GENERAL METEOROLOGICAL PACKAGE (UNIX VERSION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, M. L.

    1994-01-01

    GEMPAK is a general meteorological software package developed at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center. It includes programs to analyze and display surface, upper-air, and gridded data, including model output. There are very general programs to list, edit, and plot data on maps, to display profiles and time series, to draw and fill contours, to draw streamlines, to plot symbols for clouds, sky cover, and pressure tendency, and draw cross sections in the case of gridded data and sounding data. In addition, there are Barnes objective analysis programs to grid surface and upper-air data. The programs include the capabilities to derive meteorological parameters from those found in the dataset, to perform vertical interpolations of sounding data to different coordinate systems, and to compute an extensive set of gridded diagnostic quantities by specifying various nested combinations of scalars and vector arithmetic, algebraic, and differential operators. The GEMPAK 5.1 graphics/transformation subsystem, GEMPLT, provides device-independent graphics. GEMPLT also has the capability to display output in a variety of map projections or overlaid on satellite imagery. GEMPAK 5.1 is written in FORTRAN 77 and C-language and has been implemented on VAX computers under VMS and on computers running the UNIX operating system. During installation and normal use, this package occupies approximately 100Mb of hard disk space. The UNIX version of GEMPAK includes drivers for several graphic output systems including MIT's X Window System (X11,R4), Sun GKS, PostScript (color and monochrome), Silicon Graphics, and others. The VMS version of GEMPAK also includes drivers for several graphic output systems including PostScript (color and monochrome). The VMS version is delivered with the object code for the Transportable Applications Environment (TAE) program, version 4.1 which serves as a user interface. A color monitor is recommended for displaying maps on video display devices. Data for rendering

  2. Diverse inhibitor chemotypes targeting Trypanosoma cruzi CYP51.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamila S Gunatilleke

    Full Text Available Chagas Disease, a WHO- and NIH-designated neglected tropical disease, is endemic in Latin America and an emerging infection in North America and Europe as a result of population moves. Although a major cause of morbidity and mortality due to heart failure, as well as inflicting a heavy economic burden in affected regions, Chagas Disease elicits scant notice from the pharmaceutical industry because of adverse economic incentives. The discovery and development of new routes to chemotherapy for Chagas Disease is a clear priority.The similarity between the membrane sterol requirements of pathogenic fungi and those of the parasitic protozoon Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas human cardiopathy, has led to repurposing anti-fungal azole inhibitors of sterol 14α-demethylase (CYP51 for the treatment of Chagas Disease. To diversify the therapeutic pipeline of anti-Chagasic drug candidates we exploited an approach that included directly probing the T. cruzi CYP51 active site with a library of synthetic small molecules. Target-based high-throughput screening reduced the library of ∼104,000 small molecules to 185 hits with estimated nanomolar K(D values, while cross-validation against T. cruzi-infected skeletal myoblast cells yielded 57 active hits with EC(50 <10 µM. Two pools of hits partially overlapped. The top hit inhibited T. cruzi with EC(50 of 17 nM and was trypanocidal at 40 nM.The hits are structurally diverse, demonstrating that CYP51 is a rather permissive enzyme target for small molecules. Cheminformatic analysis of the hits suggests that CYP51 pharmacology is similar to that of other cytochromes P450 therapeutic targets, including thromboxane synthase (CYP5, fatty acid ω-hydroxylases (CYP4, 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase (CYP17 and aromatase (CYP19. Surprisingly, strong similarity is suggested to glutaminyl-peptide cyclotransferase, which is unrelated to CYP51 by sequence or structure. Lead compounds developed by pharmaceutical

  3. Mutational analysis of RAD51C and RAD51D genes in hereditary breast and ovarian cancer families from Murcia (southeastern Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Bermúdez, Ana Isabel; Sarabia-Meseguer, Ma Desamparados; García-Aliaga, Ángeles; Marín-Vera, Miguel; Macías-Cerrolaza, José Antonio; Henaréjos, Pilar Sánchez; Guardiola-Castillo, Verónica; Peña, Francisco Ayala-de la; Alonso-Romero, José Luis; Noguera-Velasco, José Antonio; Ruiz-Espejo, Francisco

    2018-01-31

    RAD51C and RAD51D have been defined as susceptibility genes for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome in several studies. In the present study, a mutation analysis of these genes was performed on non BRCA1/2 families. RAD51C and RAD51D genes were analyzed in 141 and 77 families, respectively. The analysis included direct sequencing and multiple ligation probe analysis. The RAD51C pathogenic variant c.404G > A was identified in a breast and ovarian cancer family (0.7%), while the RAD51D pathogenic variant c.694C > T was described in an ovarian cancer family (1.3%). Moreover, three unknown clinical significance variants were detected: c.307T > G in RAD51C, and c.413A > G and c.715C > T in RAD51D. No large genomic rearrangements (LGRs) were found. RAD51D carriers suffered from premenopausal ovarian tumors. These results increase our knowledge about the RAD51C and RAD51D mutation spectrum and support the notion that these genes should be included in the gene panel testing performed on patients with hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  4. Characterization of Recombinant B. abortus Strain RB51SOD Toward Understanding the Uncorrelated Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses Induced by RB51SOD Compared to Its Parent Vaccine Strain RB51

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Jianguo; Larson, Charles B.; Ramaker, Megan Ann; Quandt, Kimberly; Wendte, Jered M.; Ku, Kimberly P.; Chen, Fang; Jourdian, George W.; Vemulapalli, Ramesh; Schurig, Gerhardt G.; He, Yongqun

    2011-01-01

    Brucella abortus is a Gram-negative, facultative intracellular pathogen for several mammals, including humans. Live attenuated B. abortus strain RB51 is currently the official vaccine used against bovine brucellosis in the United States and several other countries. Overexpression of protective B. abortus antigen Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) in a recombinant strain of RB51 (strain RB51SOD) significantly increases its vaccine efficacy against virulent B. abortus challenge in a mouse model. ...

  5. Characterization of recombinant B. abortus strain RB51SOD towards understanding the uncorrelated innate and adaptive immune responses induced by RB51SOD compared to its parent vaccine strain RB51

    OpenAIRE

    Jianguo eZhu; Jianguo eZhu; Charles Bradford Larson; Megan Ann Ramaker; Kimberly eQuandt; Jered eWendte; Kimberly eKu; Fang eChen; George eJourdian; Ramesh eVemulapalli; Gerhardt G. Schurig; Yongqun Oliver eHe

    2011-01-01

    Brucella abortus is a Gram-negative, facultative intracellular pathogen for several mammals, including humans. Live attenuated B. abortus strain RB51 is currently the official vaccine used against bovine brucellosis in the United States and several other countries. Overexpression of protective B. abortus antigen Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) in a recombinant strain of RB51 (strain RB51SOD) significantly increases its vaccine efficacy against virulent B. abortus challenge in a mouse model. ...

  6. Halenaquinone, a chemical compound that specifically inhibits the secondary DNA binding of RAD51.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaku, Motoki; Kainuma, Takashi; Ishida-Takaku, Takako; Ishigami, Shintaro; Suzuki, Hidekazu; Tashiro, Satoshi; van Soest, Rob W M; Nakao, Yoichi; Kurumizaka, Hitoshi

    2011-04-01

    Mutations and single-nucleotide polymorphisms affecting RAD51 gene function have been identified in several tumors, suggesting that the inappropriate expression of RAD51 activity may cause tumorigenesis. RAD51 is an essential enzyme for the homologous recombinational repair (HRR) of DNA double-strand breaks. In the HRR pathway, RAD51 catalyzes the homologous pairing between single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), which is the central step of the HRR pathway. To identify a chemical compound that regulates the homologous-pairing activity of RAD51, in the present study, we screened crude extract fractions from marine sponges by the RAD51-mediated homologous-pairing assay. Halenaquinone was identified as an inhibitor of the RAD51 homologous-pairing activity. A surface plasmon resonance analysis indicated that halenaquinone directly bound to RAD51. Intriguingly, halenaquinone specifically inhibited dsDNA binding by RAD51 alone or the RAD51-ssDNA complex, but only weakly affected the RAD51-ssDNA binding. In vivo, halenaquinone significantly inhibited the retention of RAD51 at double-strand break sites. Therefore, halenaquinone is a novel type of RAD51 inhibitor that specifically inhibits the RAD51-dsDNA binding. © 2011 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2011 by the Molecular Biology Society of Japan/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Molecular Basis for Enhancement of the Meiotic DMCI Recombinase by RAD51AP1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dray, Eloise; Dunlop, Myun Hwa; Kauppi, Liisa; San Filippo, Joseph San; Wiese, Claudia; Tsai, Miaw-Sheue; Begovic, Sead; Schild, David; Jasin, Maria; Keeney, Scott; Sung, Patrick

    2010-11-05

    Homologous recombination is needed for meiotic chromosome segregation, genome maintenance, and tumor suppression. RAD51AP1 (RAD51 Associated Protein 1) has been shown to interact with and enhance the recombinase activity of RAD51. Accordingly, genetic ablation of RAD51AP1 leads to enhanced sensitivity to and also chromosome aberrations upon DNA damage, demonstrating a role for RAD51AP1 in mitotic homologous recombination. Here we show physical association of RAD51AP1 with the meiosis-specific recombinase DMC1 and a stimulatory effect of RAD51AP1 on the DMC1-mediated D-loop reaction. Mechanistic studies have revealed that RAD51AP1 enhances the ability of the DMC1 presynaptic filament to capture the duplex DNA partner and to assemble the synaptic complex, in which the recombining DNA strands are homologously aligned. We also provide evidence that functional co-operation is dependent on complex formation between DMC1 and RAD51AP1, and that distinct epitopes in RAD51AP1 mediate interactions with RAD51 and DMC1. Finally, we show that RAD51AP1 is expressed in mouse testes, and that RAD51AP1 foci co-localize with a subset of DMC1 foci in spermatocytes. These results suggest that RAD51AP1 also serves an important role in meiotic homologous recombination.

  8. Do Photochemical Hazes Cloud the Atmosphere of 51 Eri b?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marley, Mark; Zahnle, Kevin; Moses, Julianne; Morley, Caroline

    2015-12-01

    The first young giant planet to be discovered by the Gemini Planet Imager was the ~ 2MJ planet 51 Eri b. This ~20 Myr old young Jupiter is the first directly imaged planet to show unmistakable methane in H band. To constrain the planet’s mass, atmospheric temperature, and composition, the GPI J and H band spectra as well as some limited photometric points were compared to the predictions of substellar atmosphere models. The best fitting models reported in the discovery paper (Macintosh et al. 2015) relied upon a combination of clear and cloudy atmospheric columns to reproduce the data. In the atmosphere of an object as cool as 700 K the global silicate and iron clouds would be expected to be found well below the photosphere, although strong vertical mixing in the low gravity atmosphere is a possibility. Instead, clouds of Na2S, as have been detected in brown dwarf atmospheres, are a likely source of particle opacity. As a third explanation we have explored whether atmospheric photochemistry, driven by the UV flux from the primary star, may yield hazes that also influence the observed spectrum of the planet. To explore this possibility we have modeled the atmospheric photochemistry of 51 Eri b using two state-of-the-art photochemical models, both capable of predicting yields of complex hydrocarbons under various atmospheric conditions. We also have explored whether photochemical products can alter the equilibrium temperature profile of the atmosphere. In our presentation we will summarize the modeling approach employed to characterize 51 Eri b, explaining constraints on the planet’s effective temperature, gravity, and atmospheric composition and also present results of our studies of atmospheric photochemistry. We will discuss whether photochemical hazes could indeed be responsible for the particulate opacity that apparently sculpts the spectrum of the planet.

  9. Brucella abortus RB51 and hot saline extract from Brucella ovis as antigens in a complement fixation test used To detect sheep vaccinated with Brucella abortus RB51.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adone, R; Ciuchini, F

    2001-01-01

    The efficacy of Brucella abortus RB51 and hot saline extract (HSE) from Brucella ovis as antigens in complement fixation (CF) tests was comparatively evaluated in detecting immune responses of sheep vaccinated with B. abortus strain RB51. For this study, four 5-month-old sheep were vaccinated subcutaneously with 5 x 10(9) CFU of RB51, and two sheep received saline. Serum samples collected at different times after vaccination were tested for the presence of antibodies to RB51 by a CF test with RB51 as antigen, previously deprived of anticomplementary activity, and with HSE antigen, which already used as the official antigen to detect B. ovis-infected sheep. The results showed that vaccinated sheep developed antibodies which reacted weakly against HSE antigen and these antibodies were detectable for 30 days after vaccination. However, antibodies to RB51 could be detected for a longer period after vaccination by using homologous RB51 antigen in CF tests. In fact, high titers were still present at 110 days postvaccination with RB51 antigen. Sera from sheep naturally infected with B. ovis also reacted to RB51 but gave lower titers than those detected by HSE antigen. As expected, all sera from RB51-vaccinated sheep remained negative when tested with standard S-type Brucella standard antigens.

  10. Pir51, a Rad51-interacting protein with high expression in aggressive lymphoma, controls mitomycin C sensitivity and prevents chromosomal breaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henson, Sarah E. [Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Tsai, Shih-Chang [Department of Human Genetics, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Malone, Cindy Sue [Department of Biology, California State University Northridge, Northridge, CA 91330 (United States); Soghomonian, Shahe V. [Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Ouyang, Yan [Department of Human Genetics, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Wall, Randolph [Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Molecular Biology Institute and Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Marahrens, York [Department of Human Genetics, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States) and Molecular Biology Institute and Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)]. E-mail: YMarahrens@mednet.ucla.edu; Teitell, Michael A. [Molecular Biology Institute and Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States) and Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, California NanoSystems Institute, and Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)]. E-mail: mteitell@ucla.edu

    2006-10-10

    Pir51, a protein of unknown function that interacts with Rad51, was identified in a screen for genes that were highly expressed in aggressive mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) versus indolent small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL) patient samples. We show that Pir51 is a nuclear protein expressed in a variety of cell types and that its expression is regulated during the cell cycle in a pattern nearly identical to Rad51. Also similar to Rad51, Pir51 levels did not change in response to a variety of DNA damaging agents. siRNA depletion of Pir51 did not reduce homologous recombination repair (HRR), but sensitized cells to mitomycin C (MMC)-induced DNA crosslinking and resulted in elevated levels of double-strand breaks (DSBs) in metaphase chromosome spreads and reduced colony formation. Therefore, Pir51 maintains genomic integrity and potentially connects the early response to DNA crosslinks, orchestrated by the ATR kinase and Fanconi Anemia (FA) proteins, to later stages of Rad51-dependent repair. Our results provide the first example of a Rad51-binding protein that influences DNA crosslink repair without affecting homologous recombination repair.

  11. Field validation of the use of RB51 as antigen in a complement fixation test to identify calves vaccinated with Brucella abortus RB51.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adone, R; Ciuchini, F; Olsen, S

    2001-03-01

    In order to confirm the efficiency of an experimental RB51-based complement fixation (CF) test in identifying cattle vaccinated with Brucella abortus strain RB51, 831 sera from 110 vaccinated and 48 unvaccinated Hereford heifers of Iowa, collected for studies conducted in different years, were sent to Italy without coding to be tested in a CF test using RB51 as antigen. Most of the calves, aged from 3 to 10 months, were vaccinated subcutaneously with the recommended dosage of 10(10) CFU of RB51 commercial vaccine, while only six calves received 10(9) CFU of the same vaccine. Serum samples for serologic testing, collected until 16 postinoculation weeks (PIW), were also tested by routine surveillance tests for brucellosis such as rose bengal plate and CF tests performed with B. abortus smooth strain 99 as control antigen. RB51 CF test results obtained by testing sera from cattle vaccinated in 1999 indicate that the sensitivity of the reaction is 97% at 2 to 3 PIW and 90% until 8 PIW and decreases to 65% at 12 PIW, the specificity remaining at 100%. Collectively, the results of this study confirm that serologic standard tests fail to detect antibodies to RB51 while the RB51-based CF test is able to monitor antibody responses to RB51 until 15 to 16 PIW with a specificity of 100%. In addition, unlike the RB51-based dot blot assay, which is the only test currently used to monitor antibody responses to RB51, the CF test also detected specific responses following vaccination with 10(9) CFU of RB51, although seroconversion was only 50% at 8 PIW. In conclusion, because of high specificity and sensitivity, the CF test described here can be used to efficaciously monitor serologic responses following RB51 vaccination in cattle and could also be employed to detect RB51 infection in humans exposed to this strain.

  12. Modelling the cosmic ray electron propagation in M 51

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulcahy, D. D.; Fletcher, A.; Beck, R.; Mitra, D.; Scaife, A. M. M.

    2016-08-01

    Context. Cosmic ray electrons (CREs) are a crucial part of the interstellar medium and are observed via synchrotron emission. While much modelling has been carried out on the CRE distribution and propagation of the Milky Way, little has been done on normal external star-forming galaxies. Recent spectral data from a new generation of radio telescopes enable us to find more robust estimations of the CRE propagation. Aims: To model the synchrotron spectral index of M 51 using the diffusion energy-loss equation and to compare the model results with the observed spectral index determined from recent low-frequency observations with LOFAR. Methods: We solve the time-dependent diffusion energy-loss equation for CREs in M 51. This is the first time that this model for CRE propagation has been solved for a realistic distribution of CRE sources, which we derive from the observed star formation rate, in an external galaxy. The radial variation of the synchrotron spectral index and scale-length produced by the model are compared to recent LOFAR and older VLA observational data and also to new observations of M 51 at 325 MHz obtained with the GMRT. Results: We find that propagation of CREs by diffusion alone is sufficient to reproduce the observed spectral index distribution in M 51. An isotropic diffusion coefficient with a value of 6.6 ± 0.2 × 1028 cm2 s-1 is found to fit best and is similar to what is seen in the Milky Way. We estimate an escape time of 11 Myr from the central galaxy to 88 Myr in the extended disk. It is found that an energy dependence of the diffusion coefficient is not important for CRE energies in the range 0.01 GeV-3 GeV. We are able to reproduce the dependence of the observed synchrotron scale-lengths on frequency, with l ∝ ν- 1 / 4 in the outer disk and l ∝ ν- 1 / 8 in the inner disk. The reduced 325 MHz image as a FITS file is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc

  13. VMware vSphere 5.1 cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    GB, Abhilash

    2013-01-01

    A fast-paced, task-oriented Cookbook covering recipes on the installation and configuration of vSphere 5.1 components. The recipes are accompanied with relevant screenshots with an intention to provide a visual guidance as well. The book concentrates more on the actual task rather than the theory around it, making it easier to understand what is really needed to achieve the task.This book is a guide for anyone who wants to learn how to install and configure VMware vSphere components. This is an excellent handbook for support professionals or for anyone intending to give themselves a head start

  14. Micro-Pattern Gaseous Detector Technologies and RD51 Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, Maxim; Ropelewski, Leszek

    2013-04-01

    Discoveries in particle physics vitally depend on parallel advances in radiation-detector technologies. A true innovation in detector instrumentation concepts came in 1968, with the development of a fully parallel readout for a large array of sensing elements — the Multi-Wire Proportional Chamber (MWPC), which earned Georges Charpak a Nobel Prize in Physics in 1992. This invention revolutionized particle detection which moved from optical-readout devices (cloud chamber, emulsion or bubble chambers) to the electronics era. Over the past two decades advances in photo-lithography, microelectronics and printed-circuit board (PCB) techniques triggered a major transition in the field of gas detectors from wire structures to the Micro-Pattern Gas Detector (MPGD) concepts. The excellent spatial and time resolution, high rate capability, low mass, large active areas, and radiation hardness make them an invaluable tool to confront future detector challenges at the frontiers of research. The design of the new micro-pattern devices appears suitable for industrial production. Novel devices where MPGDs are directly coupled to the CMOS pixel readout serve as an "electronic bubble chamber" allowing to record space points and tracks in 3D. In 2008, the RD51 collaboration at CERN has been established to further advance technological developments of MPGDs and associated electronic-readout systems, for applications in basic and applied research. This review provides an overview of the state-of-the-art of the MPGD technologies and summarizes ongoing activities within the framework of the RD51 collaboration.

  15. Germline RAD51B truncating mutation in a family with cutaneous melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadt, Karin A W; Aoude, Lauren G; Golmard, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Known melanoma predisposition genes only account for around 40% of high-density melanoma families. Other rare mutations are likely to play a role in melanoma predisposition. RAD51B plays an important role in DNA repair through homologous recombination, and inactivation of RAD51B has been implicated...... in tumorigenesis. Thus RAD51B is a good candidate melanoma susceptibility gene, and previously, a germline splicing mutation in RAD51B has been identified in a family with early-onset breast cancer. In order to find genetic variants associated with melanoma predisposition, whole-exome sequencing was carried out...... on blood samples from a three-case cutaneous melanoma family. We identified a novel germline RAD51B nonsense mutation, and we demonstrate reduced expression of RAD51B in melanoma cells indicating inactivation of RAD51B. This is only the second report of a germline truncating RAD51B mutation. While...

  16. Brucella abortus RB51 and Hot Saline Extract from Brucella ovis as Antigens in a Complement Fixation Test Used To Detect Sheep Vaccinated with Brucella abortus RB51

    OpenAIRE

    Adone, Rosanna; Ciuchini, Franco

    2001-01-01

    The efficacy of Brucella abortus RB51 and hot saline extract (HSE) from Brucella ovis as antigens in complement fixation (CF) tests was comparatively evaluated in detecting immune responses of sheep vaccinated with B. abortus strain RB51. For this study, four 5-month-old sheep were vaccinated subcutaneously with 5 × 109 CFU of RB51, and two sheep received saline. Serum samples collected at different times after vaccination were tested for the presence of antibodies to RB51 by a CF test with R...

  17. Immune Responses and Protection against Experimental Challenge after Vaccination of Bison with Brucella abortus Strain RB51 or RB51 Overexpressing Superoxide Dismutase and Glycosyltransferase Genes▿

    OpenAIRE

    Olsen, S. C.; Boyle, S. M.; Schurig, G. G.; Sriranganathan, N. N.

    2009-01-01

    Vaccination is a tool that could be beneficial in managing the high prevalence of brucellosis in free-ranging bison in Yellowstone National Park. In this study, we characterized immunologic responses and protection against experimental challenge after vaccination of bison with Brucella abortus strain RB51 (RB51) or a recombinant RB51 strain overexpressing superoxide dismutase (sodC) and glycosyltransferase (wboA) genes (RB51+sodC,wboA). Bison were vaccinated with saline only or with 4.6 × 101...

  18. Physical, biochemical and genetic characterization of enterocin CE5-1 produced by Enterococcus faecium CE5-1 isolated from Thai indigenous chicken intestinal tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kraiyot Saelim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Enterocin CE5-1 produced by Enterococcus faecium CE5-1 isolated from the chicken gastrointestinal tract was active in the wide range of pH 2-10 and temperature 30-100°C and sensitive to proteolytic enzymes and -amylase. It remained active after storage at -20°C for 2 months. Moreover, enterocin CE5-1 showed antibacterial activity against lactobacilli, bacilli, listeria, staphylococci and enterococci, especially antibiotic-resistant enterococci. In vitro study of enterocin CE5-1 decreased the population of Ent. faecalis VanB from 6.03 to 4.03 log CFU/ml. The lethal mode of action of enterocin CE5-1 appeared to be pore and filament formation in the cell wall. PCR sequencing analysis revealed the presence of two open reading frames (ORFs, containing enterocin CE5-1 (entCE5-1 and enterocin immunity (entI gene. Therefore, enterocin CE5-1 from Ent. faecium CE5-1 could possibly be used as an antimicrobial agent to control foodborne pathogen, spoilage bacteria and antibiotic-resistant enterococci in foods, feeds and the environments.

  19. Characterization of Tank 51 Sludge Slurry Samples (HTF-51-17-67, -68, -69, -74, -75, and -76) in Support of Sludge Batch 10 Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oji, L. N. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Reboul, S. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-11-09

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) Engineering (SRR-E) to provide sample characterization and analyses of Tank 51 sludge samples in support of Sludge Batch (SB) 10. The six Tank 51 sludge samples were sampled and delivered to SRNL in August of 2017. These six Tank 51 sludge samples, after undergoing physical characterizations which included rheology, weight percent total solid, dissolved solids and density measurements, were combined into one composite Tank 51 sample and analyzed for corrosion controls analytes, select radionuclides, chemical elements, density and weight percent total solids.

  20. Bibliography on Cold Regions Science and Technology. Volume 51, Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-12-01

    acid analog on bromegrass freezing tol- erance [1996, eng] 51-1137 Freezing and heat tolerance of Opuntia cacti native to the Canadian prairie...with an ice nucleation reporter gene [1997, eng] 51-3264 Henrichs, S.M. Bering Sea ice dynamics and primary production [1996. eng] 51-68 Henriksen...and heat tolerance of Opuntia cacti native to the Canadian prairie provinces [1996, eng] 51-3068 Observation of the ice floe using an X-band radar

  1. 22 CFR 51.6 - Verification of passports and release of information from passport records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Verification of passports and release of information from passport records. 51.6 Section 51.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE NATIONALITY AND PASSPORTS PASSPORTS General § 51.6 Verification of passports and release of information from passport...

  2. 47 CFR 51.701 - Scope of transport and termination pricing rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope of transport and termination pricing rules. 51.701 Section 51.701 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON... Telecommunications Traffic § 51.701 Scope of transport and termination pricing rules. (a) The provisions of this...

  3. File list: ALL.Brs.10.AllAg.CAL-51 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Brs.10.AllAg.CAL-51 hg19 All antigens Breast CAL-51 ERX348292,ERX348289,ERX3482...8272,ERX348280,ERX348283,ERX348285,ERX348288,ERX348291,ERX348282 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Brs.10.AllAg.CAL-51.bed ...

  4. File list: NoD.Brs.20.AllAg.CAL-51 [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  5. File list: ALL.Brs.50.AllAg.CAL-51 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  6. File list: ALL.Brs.05.AllAg.CAL-51 [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  8. File list: ALL.Brs.20.AllAg.CAL-51 [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  9. File list: NoD.Brs.05.AllAg.CAL-51 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  10. File list: NoD.Brs.10.AllAg.CAL-51 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  11. 10 CFR 51.86 - Distribution of draft environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of § 51.74. legislative environmental impact statements—proposals for legislation ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Distribution of draft environmental impact statement. 51.86 Section 51.86 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  12. 45 CFR 51.4 - How will the plans be evaluated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) The extent to which changes (including improvement of educational and medical services) have been... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How will the plans be evaluated? 51.4 Section 51.4... COMPREHENSIVE PLAN TO REDUCE RELIANCE ON ALIEN PHYSICIANS § 51.4 How will the plans be evaluated? After...

  13. 45 CFR 1801.51 - Report at the beginning of each term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Report at the beginning of each term. 1801.51 Section 1801.51 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) HARRY S. TRUMAN SCHOLARSHIP FOUNDATION HARRY S. TRUMAN SCHOLARSHIP PROGRAM Payment Conditions and Procedures § 1801.51 Report at the beginning of each term. (a) To receive...

  14. 9 CFR 51.6 - Destruction of animals; time limit for destruction of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Destruction of animals; time limit for destruction of animals. 51.6 Section 51.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Cattle, Bison, and Swine § 51.6 Destruction of...

  15. 10 CFR 51.29 - Scoping-environmental impact statement and supplement to environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scoping-environmental impact statement and supplement to environmental impact statement. 51.29 Section 51.29 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED... Environmental Policy Act-Regulations Implementing Section 102(2) Scoping § 51.29 Scoping-environmental impact...

  16. 10 CFR 51.90 - Final environmental impact statement-general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Final environmental impact statement-general. 51.90... Implementing Section 102(2) Final Environmental Impact Statements-General Requirements § 51.90 Final environmental impact statement—general. After receipt and consideration of comments requested pursuant to §§ 51...

  17. Halenaquinone, a chemical compound that specifically inhibits the secondary DNA binding of RAD51

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takaku, M.; Kainuma, T.; Ishida-Takaku, T.; Ishigami, S.; Suzuki, H.; Tashiro, S.; van Soest, R.W.M.; Nakao, Y.; Kurumizaka, H.

    2011-01-01

    Mutations and single-nucleotide polymorphisms affecting RAD51 gene function have been identified in several tumors, suggesting that the inappropriate expression of RAD51 activity may cause tumorigenesis. RAD51 is an essential enzyme for the homologous recombinational repair (HRR) of DNA

  18. Immune responses of bison and efficacy after booster vaccination with Brucella abortus strain RB51

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirty-one bison heifers were randomly assigned to saline (control; n=7) or single vaccination (n=24) with 1010 CFU of B. abortus strain RB51 (RB51). Some vaccinated bison were randomly selected for booster vaccination with 10**10 CFU of RB51 at 11 months after initial vaccination (n=16). When comp...

  19. 28 CFR 51.30 - Action on communications from individuals or groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Individuals and Groups § 51.30 Action on communications from individuals or groups. (a) If there has already... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Action on communications from individuals or groups. 51.30 Section 51.30 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES...

  20. 10 CFR 51.73 - Request for comments on draft environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Request for comments on draft environmental impact statement. 51.73 Section 51.73 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...-Regulations Implementing Section 102(2) Environmental Impact Statements § 51.73 Request for comments on draft...

  1. 10 CFR 51.81 - Distribution of draft environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Distribution of draft environmental impact statement. 51.81 Section 51.81 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...-Regulations Implementing Section 102(2) Draft Environmental Impact Statements-Materials Licenses § 51.81...

  2. 10 CFR 51.26 - Requirement to publish notice of intent and conduct scoping process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... scoping process. 51.26 Section 51.26 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL... Act-Regulations Implementing Section 102(2) Determinations to Prepare Environmental Impact Statements, Environmental Assessments Or Findings of No Significant Impact, and Related Procedures § 51.26 Requirement to...

  3. 10 CFR 51.72 - Supplement to draft environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supplement to draft environmental impact statement. 51.72 Section 51.72 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REGULATIONS FOR... Implementing Section 102(2) Environmental Impact Statements § 51.72 Supplement to draft environmental impact...

  4. 10 CFR 51.94 - Requirement to consider final environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirement to consider final environmental impact statement. 51.94 Section 51.94 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...-Regulations Implementing Section 102(2) Final Environmental Impact Statements-General Requirements § 51.94...

  5. 10 CFR 51.21 - Criteria for and identification of licensing and regulatory actions requiring environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Criteria for and identification of licensing and regulatory actions requiring environmental assessments. 51.21 Section 51.21 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY... except those identified in § 51.20(b) as requiring an environmental impact statement, those identified in...

  6. 40 CFR 51.25 - What geographic area must my state's inventory cover?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Emissions Reporting Requirements Specific Reporting Requirements § 51.25 What geographic area must my state... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What geographic area must my state's inventory cover? 51.25 Section 51.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED...

  7. 22 CFR 51.64 - Special validation of passports for travel to restricted areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... restricted areas. 51.64 Section 51.64 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE NATIONALITY AND PASSPORTS PASSPORTS Denial, Revocation, and Restriction of Passports § 51.64 Special validation of passports for travel to restricted areas. (a) A U.S. national may apply to the Department for a special validation of...

  8. 7 CFR 51.45 - Fees and charges at shipping point areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fees and charges at shipping point areas. 51.45 Section 51.45 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE..., AND STANDARDS) Regulations 1 Schedule of Fees and Charges at Shipping Point Areas § 51.45 Fees and...

  9. 40 CFR 51.241 - Nonattainment areas for carbon monoxide and ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Intergovernmental Consultation Agency Designation § 51.241 Nonattainment areas for carbon monoxide and ozone. (a... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nonattainment areas for carbon monoxide and ozone. 51.241 Section 51.241 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED...

  10. 7 CFR 51.50 - Custody of official inspection marking devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Custody of official inspection marking devices. 51.50..., AND STANDARDS) Regulations 1 Miscellaneous § 51.50 Custody of official inspection marking devices. All official inspection marking devices as shown in figure 6 of § 51.49 shall be kept in the custody of the...

  11. 10 CFR 1.51 - Description and custody of NRC seal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Description and custody of NRC seal. 1.51 Section 1.51... § 1.51 Description and custody of NRC seal. (a) Pursuant to section 201(a) of the Energy... is responsible for custody of the impression seals and of replica (plaque) seals. ...

  12. 40 CFR 51.305 - Monitoring for reasonably attributable visibility impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... visibility impairment. 51.305 Section 51.305 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Protection of Visibility § 51.305 Monitoring for reasonably attributable visibility impairment. (a) For the purposes of addressing reasonably attributable visibility impairment, each State containing a mandatory...

  13. 47 CFR 51.311 - Nondiscriminatory access to unbundled network elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... elements. 51.311 Section 51.311 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON... § 51.311 Nondiscriminatory access to unbundled network elements. (a) The quality of an unbundled network element, as well as the quality of the access to the unbundled network element, that an incumbent...

  14. 19 CFR 145.51 - Articles prohibited by section 305, Tariff Act of 1930.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Articles prohibited by section 305, Tariff Act of 1930. 145.51 Section 145.51 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... § 145.51 Articles prohibited by section 305, Tariff Act of 1930. (a) Types of articles. Various articles...

  15. 22 CFR 51.54 - Replacement passports without payment of applicable fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Replacement passports without payment of applicable fees. 51.54 Section 51.54 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE NATIONALITY AND PASSPORTS PASSPORTS Fees § 51.54 Replacement passports without payment of applicable fees. A passport issuing office...

  16. 9 CFR 51.5 - Identification of animals to be destroyed because of brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... destroyed because of brucellosis. 51.5 Section 51.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Cattle, Bison, and Swine § 51.5 Identification of animals to be destroyed because of brucellosis. (a) The claimant shall be responsible for...

  17. 7 CFR 51.1178 - Maximum anhydrous citric acid permissible for corresponding total soluble solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... corresponding total soluble solids. 51.1178 Section 51.1178 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... Sinensis (l) Osbeck) § 51.1178 Maximum anhydrous citric acid permissible for corresponding total soluble... relation to corresponding total soluble solids in the fruit is set forth in the following Table II together...

  18. 22 CFR 51.44 - Proof of resumption or retention of U.S. citizenship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... citizenship. 51.44 Section 51.44 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE NATIONALITY AND PASSPORTS PASSPORTS Evidence of U.S. Citizenship or Nationality § 51.44 Proof of resumption or retention of U.S. citizenship. An applicant who claims to have resumed or retained U.S. citizenship must submit with the application...

  19. 50 CFR 27.51 - Disturbing, injuring, and damaging plants and animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., poison, destroy or collect any plant or animal on any national wildlife refuge is prohibited except by... and animals. 27.51 Section 27.51 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE... Violations: Against Plants and Animals § 27.51 Disturbing, injuring, and damaging plants and animals. (a...

  20. UBVRIz LIGHT CURVES OF 51 TYPE II SUPERNOVAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galbany, Lluis; Hamuy, Mario; Jaeger, Thomas de; Moraga, Tania; González-Gaitán, Santiago; Gutiérrez, Claudia P. [Millennium Institute of Astrophysics, Universidad de Chile (Chile); Phillips, Mark M.; Morrell, Nidia I.; Thomas-Osip, Joanna [Carnegie Observatories, Las Campanas Observatory, Casilla 60, La Serena (Chile); Suntzeff, Nicholas B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Maza, José; González, Luis; Antezana, Roberto; Wishnjewski, Marina [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Camino El Observatorio 1515, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile); Krisciunas, Kevin [George P. and Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Texas A. and M. University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 4242 TAMU, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Krzeminski, Wojtek [N. Copernicus Astronomical Center, ul. Bartycka 18, 00-716 Warszawa (Poland); McCarthy, Patrick [The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Anderson, Joseph P. [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Casilla 19001, Santiago (Chile); Stritzinger, Maximilian [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University (Denmark); Folatelli, Gastón, E-mail: lgalbany@das.uchile.cl [Instituto de Astrofísica de La Plata (IALP, CONICET) (Argentina); and others

    2016-02-15

    We present a compilation of UBVRIz light curves of 51 type II supernovae discovered during the course of four different surveys during 1986–2003: the Cerro Tololo Supernova Survey, the Calán/Tololo Supernova Program (C and T), the Supernova Optical and Infrared Survey (SOIRS), and the Carnegie Type II Supernova Survey (CATS). The photometry is based on template-subtracted images to eliminate any potential host galaxy light contamination, and calibrated from foreground stars. This work presents these photometric data, studies the color evolution using different bands, and explores the relation between the magnitude at maximum brightness and the brightness decline parameter (s) from maximum light through the end of the recombination phase. This parameter is found to be shallower for redder bands and appears to have the best correlation in the B band. In addition, it also correlates with the plateau duration, being shorter (longer) for larger (smaller) s values.