WorldWideScience

Sample records for scandium 44

  1. Separation of (44)Ti from proton irradiated scandium by using solid-phase extraction chromatography and design of (44)Ti/(44)Sc generator system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radchenko, V; Meyer, C A L; Engle, J W; Naranjo, C M; Unc, G A; Mastren, T; Brugh, M; Birnbaum, E R; John, K D; Nortier, F M; Fassbender, M E

    2016-12-16

    Scandium-44g (half-life 3.97h [1]) shows promise for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of longer biological processes than that of the current gold standard, (18)F, due to its favorable decay parameters. One source of (44g)Sc is the long-lived parent nuclide (44)Ti (half-life 60.0 a). A (44)Ti/(44g)Sc generator would have the ability to provide radionuclidically pure (44g)Sc on a daily basis. The production of (44)Ti via the (45)Sc(p,2n) reaction requires high proton beam currents and long irradiation times. Recovery and purification of no-carrier added (nca) (44)Ti from scandium metal targets involves complex separation chemistry. In this study, separation systems based on solid phase extraction chromatography were investigated, including branched diglycolamide (BDGA) resin and hydroxamate based ZR resin. Results indicate that ZR resin in HCl media represents an effective (44)Ti/(44g)Sc separation system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Production of scandium-44m and scandium-44g with deuterons on calcium-44: cross section measurements and production yield calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchemin, C.; Guertin, A.; Haddad, F.; Michel, N.; Métivier, V.

    2015-09-01

    HIGHLIGHTS • Production of Sc-44m, Sc-44g and contaminants. • Experimental values determined using the stacked-foil technique. • Thick-Target production Yield (TTY) calculations. • Comparison with the TALYS code version 1.6. Among the large number of radionuclides of medical interest, Sc-44 is promising for PET imaging. Either the ground-state Sc-44g or the metastable-state Sc-44m can be used for such applications, depending on the molecule used as vector. This study compares the production rates of both Sc-44 states, when protons or deuterons are used as projectiles on an enriched Calcium-44 target. This work presents the first set of data for the deuteron route. The results are compared with the TALYS code. The Thick-Target production Yields of Sc-44m and Sc-44g are calculated and compared with those for the proton route for three different scenarios: the production of Sc-44g for conventional PET imaging, its production for the new 3 γ imaging technique developed at the SUBATECH laboratory and the production of a Sc-44m/Sc-44g in vivo generator for antibody labelling.

  3. Scandium recovery from slags after oxidized nickel ore processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyshlyaev, Denis; Botalov, Maxim; Bunkov, Grigory; Rychkov, Vladimir; Kirillov, Evgeny; Kirillov, Sergey; Semenishchev, Vladimir

    2017-09-01

    One of the possible sources of scandium production - waste (slags) from processing of oxidized nickel ores, has been considered in present research work. The hydrometallurgical method has been selected as the primary for scandium extraction. Different reagents for leaching of scandium, such as sulfuric acid, various carbonate salts and fluorides, have been tested. Sulfuric acid has been recognized as an optimal leaching reagent. Sulfuric acid concentration of 100 g L-1 allowed recovering up to 97 % of scandium.

  4. Chemical and biological evaluation of scandium(III)-polyaminopolycarboxylate complexes as potential PET agents and radiopharmaceuticals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huclier-Markai, S.; Sabatie, A.; Ribet, S. [Univ. de Nantes (France). Lab. Subatech; Kubicek, V.; Hermann, P. [Charles Univ., Prague (Czech Republic). Dept. of Inorganic Chemistry; Paris, M. [Univ. de Nantes (France). Inst. des Materiaux; Vidaud, C. [CEA/DSV/iBEB/SBTN, Bagnols sur Ceze (France). Lab. d' Etude des Proteines Cibles; Cutler, C.S. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). Reserach Reactor Center

    2011-07-01

    Scandium isotopes ({sup 44}Sc, {sup 47}Sc) are more available and their properties are convenient for either PET imaging or radiotherapy. To use them in nuclear medicine, ligands forming complexes with a high stability are necessary. Available experimental data on stability constants for complexes of ligands such as EDTA, DTPA, DOTA, NOTA and TETA with various metal ions have been published. But scandium is the exception since scarce data is available in the literature. Values of stability constants of Sc(III) with the ligands were determined by free-ion selective radiotracer extraction, complemented by {sup 45}Sc NMR and potentiometry data. The thermodynamic stability of the Sc-complexes increases in the order TETA < NOTA < EDTA < DTPA < DOTA. The in vitro stability of the Sc(III) complexes was studied in the presence of hydroxyapatite and rat serum to estimate their in vivo stability. The most stable complex was shown to be Sc-DOTA.

  5. Influence of scandium concentration on power generation figure of merit of scandium aluminum nitride thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiyama, Morito; Nagase, Toshimi [Measurement Solution Research Center, National Institute of Advanced Industrials Science and Technology, Tosu, Saga 841-0052 (Japan); Umeda, Keiichi; Honda, Atsushi [Murata Manufacturing Co., Ltd., Nagaokakyo, Kyoto 617-8555 (Japan)

    2013-01-14

    The authors have investigated the influence of scandium concentration on the power generation figure of merit (FOM) of scandium aluminum nitride (Sc{sub x}Al{sub 1-x}N) films prepared by cosputtering. The power generation FOM strongly depends on the scandium concentration. The FOM of Sc{sub 0.41}Al{sub 0.59}N film was 67 GPa, indicating that the FOM is five times larger than that of AlN. The FOM of Sc{sub 0.41}Al{sub 0.59}N film is higher than those of lead zirconate titanate and Pb(Mg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}-PbTiO{sub 3} films, which is the highest reported for any piezoelectric thin films. The high FOM of Sc{sub 0.41}Al{sub 0.59}N film is due to the high d{sub 31} and the low relative permittivity.

  6. Lifetime measurements and oscillator strengths in singly ionized scandium and the solar abundance of scandium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehlivan Rhodin, A.; Belmonte, M. T.; Engström, L.; Lundberg, H.; Nilsson, H.; Hartman, H.; Pickering, J. C.; Clear, C.; Quinet, P.; Fivet, V.; Palmeri, P.

    2017-12-01

    The lifetimes of 17 even-parity levels (3d5s, 3d4d, 3d6s and 4p2) in the region 57 743-77 837 cm-1 of singly ionized scandium (Sc II) were measured by two-step time-resolved laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy. Oscillator strengths of 57 lines from these highly excited upper levels were derived using a hollow cathode discharge lamp and a Fourier transform spectrometer. In addition, Hartree-Fock calculations where both the main relativistic and core-polarization effects were taken into account were carried out for both low- and high-excitation levels. There is a good agreement for most of the lines between our calculated branching fractions and the measurements of Lawler & Dakin in the region 9000-45 000 cm-1 for low excitation levels and with our measurements for high excitation levels in the region 23 500-63 100 cm-1. This, in turn, allowed us to combine the calculated branching fractions with the available experimental lifetimes to determine semi-empirical oscillator strengths for a set of 380 E1 transitions in Sc II. These oscillator strengths include the weak lines that were used previously to derive the solar abundance of scandium. The solar abundance of scandium is now estimated to logε⊙ = 3.04 ± 0.13 using these semi-empirical oscillator strengths to shift the values determined by Scott et al. The new estimated abundance value is in agreement with the meteoritic value (logεmet = 3.05 ± 0.02) of Lodders, Palme & Gail.

  7. Smelting of Scandium by Microwave Irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Satoshi; Tsubaki, Shuntaro; Inazu, Naomi; Suzuki, Eiichi; Wada, Yuji

    2017-09-27

    Scandium is being explored as an alloying element for aluminum alloys, which are gaining importance as high-performance lightweight structural alloys in the transportation industry. A few years ago, Sc was also found to be suitable for use in electrical devices. High-Sc-content ScAlN thin films have attracted significant attention because of their strong piezoelectricity. The piezoelectric response of ScAlN suggests that ScAlN thin films formed on a hard substrate would be suitable surface acoustic wave wideband filters for next-generation wireless communication systems. However, it is often difficult to use ScAlN thin films in MEMS devices-including acoustic ones-because of the extremely high price of metallic Sc, given the difficulty associated with smelting it. Here, we propose a novel process for smelting Sc metal by microwave irradiation. Sc metal was able to be obtained successfully from ScF₃ through a microwave-irradiation-based carbon reduction reaction. The reaction temperature for this reduction process was approximately 880°C, which is half of that for the conventional smelting process involving reduction with Ca. Thus, the proposed microwave irradiation process has significant potential for use in the smelting of Sc metal.

  8. Smelting of Scandium by Microwave Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Fujii

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Scandium is being explored as an alloying element for aluminum alloys, which are gaining importance as high-performance lightweight structural alloys in the transportation industry. A few years ago, Sc was also found to be suitable for use in electrical devices. High-Sc-content ScAlN thin films have attracted significant attention because of their strong piezoelectricity. The piezoelectric response of ScAlN suggests that ScAlN thin films formed on a hard substrate would be suitable surface acoustic wave wideband filters for next-generation wireless communication systems. However, it is often difficult to use ScAlN thin films in MEMS devices—including acoustic ones—because of the extremely high price of metallic Sc, given the difficulty associated with smelting it. Here, we propose a novel process for smelting Sc metal by microwave irradiation. Sc metal was able to be obtained successfully from ScF3 through a microwave-irradiation-based carbon reduction reaction. The reaction temperature for this reduction process was approximately 880°C, which is half of that for the conventional smelting process involving reduction with Ca. Thus, the proposed microwave irradiation process has significant potential for use in the smelting of Sc metal.

  9. Hydrometallurgical methods of recovery of scandium from the wastes of various technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molchanova, T. V.; Akimova, I. D.; Smirnov, K. M.; Krylova, O. K.; Zharova, E. V.

    2017-03-01

    The recovery of scandium from the wastes of the production of uranium, titanium, iron-vanadium, and alumina is studied. The applied acid schemes of scandium transfer to a solution followed by ion-exchange recovery and extraction concentration of scandium ensure the precipitation of crude scandium oxides containing up to 5% Sc2O3. Scandium oxides of 99.96-99.99% purity are formed after additional refining of these crude oxides according to an extraction technology using a mixture 15% multiradical phosphine oxide or Cyanex-925 + 15% tributyl phosphate in kerosene.

  10. Synthesis and Reactivity of a Scandium Terminal Hydride: H2  Activation by a Scandium Terminal Imido Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xianghao; Xiang, Li; Lamsfus, Carlos A; Mao, Weiqing; Lu, Erli; Maron, Laurent; Leng, Xuebing; Chen, Yaofeng

    2017-10-20

    Dihydrogen is easily activated by a scandium terminal imido complex containing the weakly coordinated THF. The reaction proceeds through a 1,2-addition mechanism, which is distinct from the σ-bond metathesis mechanism reported to date for rare-earth metal-mediated H2 activation. This reaction yields a scandium terminal hydride, which is structurally well-characterized, being the first one to date. The reactivity of this hydride is reported with unsaturated substrates, further shedding light on the existence of the terminal hydride complex. Interestingly, the H2 activation can be reversible. DFT investigations further eludciate the mechanistic aspects of the reactivity of the scandium anilido-terminal hydride complex with PhNCS but also on the reversible H2 activation process. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Thermoelectric material comprising scandium doped zinc cadmium oxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    There is presented a composition of scandium doped Zinc Cadmium Oxide with the general formula ZnzCdxScyO which the inventors have prepared, and for which material the inventors have made the insight that it is particularly advantageous as an n-type oxide material, such as particularly advantageous...

  12. Scandium/carbon filters for soft x rays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Artioukov, IA; Kasyanov, YS; Kopylets, IA; Pershin, YP; Romanova, SA

    2003-01-01

    This Note deals with thin-film soft x-ray filters for operation at the wavelengths near carbon K edge (similar to4.5 nm). The filters were fabricated by magnetron sputtering deposition of thin layers of scandium (total thickness 0.1-0.2 mum) onto films of polypropylene (thickness 1.5 mum) and

  13. Solvent extraction of scandium from lateritic nickel- cobalt ores using different organic reagents

    OpenAIRE

    Ferizoğlu Ece; Kaya Şerif; Topkaya Yavuz A.

    2016-01-01

    Scandium is the most important and strategic metal that can be recovered as a by-product from lateritic nickel-cobalt ores. In this research, different extractants were investigated in order to extract scandium from a sulfate medium by a using a solvent extraction method. Generally, the organic extractants are classified as acidic, neutral and basic organophosphorus compounds. However, in solvent extraction of scandium, the acidic and neutral organophosphorus compounds are preferred due to th...

  14. BASIC RESEARCH ON THE SEPARATION OF SCANDIUM YTTRIUM, AND THE RARE EARTHS BY SOLVENT EXTRACTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    RARE EARTH ELEMENTS, * SOLVENT EXTRACTION ), (*CHELATE COMPOUNDS, RARE EARTH ELEMENTS), PURIFICATION, ATOMIC SPECTROSCOPY, SCANDIUM, YTTRIUM, PRASEODYMIUM, SAMARIUM, EUROPIUM, GADOLINIUM, TERBIUM, FLUORINE COMPOUNDS, KETONES

  15. Determination of scandium concentrate composition by WD-XRF and ICP-MS methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkisova, A. S.; Shibitko, A. O.; Abramov, A. V.; Rebrin, O. I.; Bunkov, G. M.; Lisienko, D. G.

    2017-09-01

    WD-XRF spectroscopy was applied for determining composition of scandium concentrate (ScC) containing 70 % scandium fluoride. Determination of ScC composition was performed using 6 glass beads reference materials produced by fusing synthesized mixture of analyte compounds with the lithium-borate flux in the ratio of 1:10. ScC powder with the known composition was then used as a powder pellet reference material to analyze scandium concentrate from technological line by external standard method. ICP-MS method was employed to control the ScC composition. The statistical data processing and metrological parameters evaluation of the analytical technique developed were carried out.

  16. Tin etching from metallic and oxidized scandium thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachecka, M.; Lee, C. J.; Sturm, J. M.; Bijkerk, F.

    2017-08-01

    The role of oxide on Sn adhesion to Sc surfaces was studied with in-situ ellipsometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and secondary electron microscopy. Sn etching with hydrogen radicals was performed on metallic Sc, metallic Sc with a native oxide, and a fully oxidized Sc layer. The results show that Sn adsorbs rather weakly to a non-oxidized Sc surface, and is etched relatively easily by atomic hydrogen. In contrast, the presence of native oxide on Sc allows Sn to adsorb more strongly to the surface, slowing the etching. Furthermore, thinner layers of scandium oxide result in weaker Sn adsorption, indicating that the layer beneath the oxide plays a significant role in determining the adsorption strength. Unexpectedly, for Sn on Sc2O3, and, to a lesser extent, for Sn on Sc, the etch rate shows a variation over time, which is explained by surface restructuring, temperature change, and hydrogen adsorption saturation.

  17. Tin etching from metallic and oxidized scandium thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pachecka

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The role of oxide on Sn adhesion to Sc surfaces was studied with in-situ ellipsometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and secondary electron microscopy. Sn etching with hydrogen radicals was performed on metallic Sc, metallic Sc with a native oxide, and a fully oxidized Sc layer. The results show that Sn adsorbs rather weakly to a non-oxidized Sc surface, and is etched relatively easily by atomic hydrogen. In contrast, the presence of native oxide on Sc allows Sn to adsorb more strongly to the surface, slowing the etching. Furthermore, thinner layers of scandium oxide result in weaker Sn adsorption, indicating that the layer beneath the oxide plays a significant role in determining the adsorption strength. Unexpectedly, for Sn on Sc2O3, and, to a lesser extent, for Sn on Sc, the etch rate shows a variation over time, which is explained by surface restructuring, temperature change, and hydrogen adsorption saturation.

  18. Extraction of scandium by liquid di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid in fusible diluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainur Isatayeva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently widespread distribution of extraction methods using fusible reagents can be explained by a number of advantages, such as high kinetic characteristics of the process, the ease separation of two phases, high selectivity of many extractants, relatively complete regeneration. For the extraction of scandium in technological order, neutral and cation exchange extractants can be used. Several extraction reagents melt easily at high temperatures, and such melts can be used for extraction. Efficiency of the extraction of metal by cation reagents depends on many factors. Extraction of scandium by melt mixtures of di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid - higher carboxylic acid - paraffin and the effect of acidity of the aqueous phase, the concentration of scandium and the aqueous extractant in the organic phase, the volume ratio of organic and aqueous phases on the extraction of metal were studied. It was found that the extraction of scandium proceeds through the cation exchange mechanism. Scandium was extracted quantitatively (> 99.0% from acid solutions. The optimal concentration of di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid in the extractant was 0,250 M, quantitative extraction of scandium was observed in the range of its concentrations of 10-3-10-6 M and the volume ratio of organic phases to aqueous phases of 1:5 - 1:20.

  19. Thermodynamic and kinetic study of scandium(III) complexes of DTPA and DOTA: a step toward scandium radiopharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pniok, Miroslav; Kubíček, Vojtěch; Havlíčková, Jana; Kotek, Jan; Sabatie-Gogová, Andrea; Plutnar, Jan; Huclier-Markai, Sandrine; Hermann, Petr

    2014-06-23

    Diethylenetriamine-N,N,N',N'',N''-pentaacetic acid (DTPA) and 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) scandium(III) complexes were investigated in the solution and solid state. Three (45)Sc NMR spectroscopic references suitable for aqueous solutions were suggested: 0.1 M Sc(ClO4)3 in 1 M aq. HClO4 (δSc =0.0 ppm), 0.1 M ScCl3 in 1 M aq. HCl (δSc =1.75 ppm) and 0.01 M [Sc(ox)4](5-) (ox(2-) = oxalato) in 1 M aq. K2C2O4 (δSc =8.31 ppm). In solution, [Sc(dtpa)](2-) complex (δSc = 83 ppm, Δν = 770 Hz) has a rather symmetric ligand field unlike highly unsymmetrical donor atom arrangement in [Sc(dota)](-) anion (δSc = 100 ppm, Δν = 4300 Hz). The solid-state structure of K8[Sc2(ox)7]⋅13 H2O contains two [Sc(ox)3](3-) units bridged by twice "side-on" coordinated oxalate anion with Sc(3+) ion in a dodecahedral O8 arrangement. Structures of [Sc(dtpa)](2-) and [Sc(dota)](-) in [(Hguanidine)]2[Sc(dtpa)]⋅3 H2O and K[Sc(dota)][H6 dota]Cl2⋅4 H2O, respectively, are analogous to those of trivalent lanthanide complexes with the same ligands. The [Sc(dota)](-) unit exhibits twisted square-antiprismatic arrangement without an axial ligand (TSA' isomer) and [Sc(dota)](-) and (H6 dota)(2+) units are bridged by a K(+) cation. A surprisingly high value of the last DOTA dissociation constant (pKa =12.9) was determined by potentiometry and confirmed by using NMR spectroscopy. Stability constants of scandium(III) complexes (log KScL 27.43 and 30.79 for DTPA and DOTA, respectively) were determined from potentiometric and (45)Sc NMR spectroscopic data. Both complexes are fully formed even below pH 2. Complexation of DOTA with the Sc(3+) ion is much faster than with trivalent lanthanides. Proton-assisted decomplexation of the [Sc(dota)](-) complex (τ1/2 =45 h; 1 M aq. HCl, 25 °C) is much slower than that for [Ln(dota)](-) complexes. Therefore, DOTA and its derivatives seem to be very suitable ligands for scandium

  20. Effects of iron on intermetallic compound formation in scandium modified Al–Si–Mg Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patakham, Ussadawut [National Metal and Materials Technology Center, National Science and Technology Development Agency, 114 Thailand Science Park, Klong Nueng, Klong Luang, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand); Limmaneevichitr, Chaowalit, E-mail: chaowalit.lim@mail.kmutt.ac.th [Production Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi, 126 Pracha-Utid Rd., Bangmod, Tungkhru, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Iron reduces the modification effects of scandium in Al–Si–Mg alloys. • Morphologies of Sc-rich intermetallic phases vary with Fe and Sc contents and the cooling rates. • Sc neutralizes effects of Fe by changing Fe-rich intermetallic phases from platelets to more cubic. - Abstract: In general, iron has a strong tendency to dissolve in molten aluminum. Iron has very low solid solubility in aluminum–silicon casting alloys, so it will form intermetallic compounds that cause detrimental effects on mechanical properties. In this work, the effects of iron on intermetallic compound formations in scandium modified Al–Si–Mg alloys were studied. There were two levels of iron addition (0.2 and 0.4 wt.%) and two levels of scandium addition (0.2 and 0.4 wt.%). We found that the effects of scandium modification decreased with increasing iron addition. The morphologies of the complex intermetallic compounds were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) techniques. It was found that scandium changes the morphology of Fe-rich intermetallic compounds from β-phase (plate-like) to α-phase, which reduces the harmful effects of β-phase.

  1. Solvent extraction of scandium from lateritic nickel- cobalt ores using different organic reagents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferizoğlu Ece

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Scandium is the most important and strategic metal that can be recovered as a by-product from lateritic nickel-cobalt ores. In this research, different extractants were investigated in order to extract scandium from a sulfate medium by a using a solvent extraction method. Generally, the organic extractants are classified as acidic, neutral and basic organophosphorus compounds. However, in solvent extraction of scandium, the acidic and neutral organophosphorus compounds are preferred due to their higher extraction efficiencies. Thus, the aim of the present study was to compare the scandium extraction efficiencies of some acidic and neutral organic reagents. For this reason, Ionquest 290 (Bis(2,4,4-trimethylpenthyl phosphonic acid, DEHPA (Di(2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid, Cyanex 272 ((Bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl phosphinic acid which are acidic organophosphorus compounds, and Cyanex 923 (Trialkylphosphine oxide, which is a neutral organophosphorus compound, were used. The extraction capacities of these organics were studied with respect to the extractant concentration at same pH and phase ratio. As a result of the study, DEHPA was found to have higher scandium extraction efficiency with lower iron extraction at pH = 0.55 at a phase ratio of 10:1 = A:O.

  2. Correlation between stoichiometry and properties of scandium oxide films prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belosludtsev, Alexandr; Juškevičius, Kęstutis; Ceizaris, Lukas; Samuilovas, Romanas; Stanionytė, Sandra; Jasulaitienė, Vitalija; Kičas, Simonas

    2018-01-01

    Scandium oxide films were deposited on fused silica substrates by reactive pulsed DC magnetron sputtering. The use of feed-back optical emission monitoring enabled high-rate reactive deposition of films with tunable stoichiometry and properties. The under-stoichiometric, stoichiometric and over-stoichiometric scandium oxide films were prepared. The compressive stress in films was between 235 and 530 MPa. We showed that phase structure, density, surface roughness and optical properties of the scandium oxide are affected by the film stoichiometry and deposition conditions. Transparent scandium oxide films were slightly hydrophobic (94 ± 3°), homogeneous with a crystallite size of 20 ± 5 nm. The lowest extinction coefficient 0.7 × 10-3, the highest refractive index 2.08 (both quantities at the wavelength of 355 nm) and the highest density 4.1 ± 0.1 g cm-3 exhibited film prepared with the stoichiometric composition. Stoichiometric scandium oxide can be used in various optical applications as high refractive index and wide bandgap material. Transitions to under- or over-stoichiometry lead to a decrease of film density, refractive index and increase of the extinction coefficient.

  3. Mossbauer investigation of scandium oxide-hematite nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allwes, Mark; Sorescu, Monica

    Scandium oxide-doped hematite, xSc2O3*(1-x)alpha-Fe2O3 with molar concentration x =0.1, 0.3, and 0.5 was prepared by using ball milling, taking samples at times 0, 2, 4, 8, and 12 hours. The resulting Mossbauer spectra of the nanoparticles systems were parameterized using NORMOS-90. For each concentration, the spectra at 0 hours only consisted of 1 sextet, as the substitution of Sc2O3into Fe2O3 did not appear until after 2 hours of ball milling time (BMT). Concentration x =0.1 at BMT 2hours consisted of 2 sextets while x =0.3 and 0.5 were fit with 1 sextet and 1 quadrupole-split doublet. Concentration x =0.1 at BMT 4 and 8 hours consisted of 3 sextets, and at BMT 12 hours consisted of 4 sextets. For concentrations x =0.3 and 0.5 at BMT 4, 8, and 12 hours the spectra were fit with 3 sextets and 1 quadrupole-split doublet. With increasing initial concentration, the appearance of the quadrupole-split doublet became more pronounced, indicating the substitution of Fe into Sc2O3 occurred. But for x =0.1, the BMT did influence the number of sextets needed, causing an increase in substitution of Sc2O3 into Fe2O3.

  4. Association between toenail scandium levels and risk of acute myocardial infarction in European men: The EURAMIC and Heavy Metals Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gómez-Aracena, J.; Martin-Moreno, J.M.; Riemersma, R.A.; Bode, P.; Gutiérrez-Bedmar, M.; Gorgojo, L.; Kark, J.D.; Garcia-Rodríguez, A.; Gomez-Gracia, E.; Kardinaal, A.F.M.; Aro, A.; Veer, P. van 't; Wedel, H.; Kok, F.J.; Fernández-Crehuet, J.

    2002-01-01

    The association between scandium status and risk of acute myocardial infarction (MI) was examined in a multicentre case control study in 10 centres from Europe and Israel. Scandium in toenails was assessed in 684 cases and 724 controls less than 70 years of age. Mean concentrations of toenail

  5. In-source laser spectroscopy developments at TRILIS-towards spectroscopy on actinium and scandium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raeder, Sebastian, E-mail: raeder@triumf.ca; Dombsky, Marik; Heggen, Henning; Lassen, Jens; Quenzel, Thomas [TRIUMF, Canada' s National Laboratory for Nuclear and Particle Physics (Canada); Sjoedin, Marica [GANIL (France); Teigelhoefer, Andrea [TRIUMF, Canada' s National Laboratory for Nuclear and Particle Physics (Canada); Wendt, Klaus [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Institut fuer Physik (Germany)

    2013-04-15

    Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Sources (RILIS) have become a versatile tool for production and study of exotic nuclides at Isotope Separator On-Line (ISOL) facilities such as ISAC at TRIUMF. The recent development and addition of a grating tuned spectroscopy laser to the TRIUMF RILIS solid state laser system allows for wide range spectral scans to investigate atomic structures on short lived isotopes, e.g., those from the element actinium, produced in uranium targets at ISAC. In addition, development of new and improved laser ionization schemes for rare isotope production at ISAC is ongoing. Here spectroscopic studies on bound states, Rydberg states and autoionizing (AI) resonances on scandium using the existing off-line capabilities are reported. These results allowed to identify a suitable ionization scheme for scandium via excitation into an autoionizing state at 58,104 cm{sup - 1} which has subsequently been used for ionization of on-line produced exotic scandium isotopes.

  6. Process and Mechanical Properties: Applicability of a Scandium modified Al-alloy for Laser Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidtke, K.; Palm, F.; Hawkins, A.; Emmelmann, C.

    The applicability of an aluminium alloy containing scandium for laser additive manufacturing (LAM) is considered. Modified aluminium alloys with a scandium content beyond the eutectic point offer great potential to become a high prioritized aerospace material. Depending on other alloying elements like magnesium or zirconium, strongly required weight reduction, corrosion resistance and improved strength properties of metallic light weight alloys can be achieved. The development, production and testing of parts built up by a laser powder bed process will be presented with regard to the qualification of the new material concept "ScalmalloyRP®" for laser additive manufacturing.

  7. Synthesis and structural characterization of scandium SALEN complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meermann, Christian; Sirsch, Peter; Törnroos, Karl W; Anwander, Reiner

    2006-02-28

    A series of heteroleptic scandium SALEN complexes, [(SALEN)Sc(mu-Cl)]2 and (SALEN)Sc[N(SiHMe2)2] is obtained via amine elimination reactions using [Sc(N(i)Pr2)2(mu-Cl)(THF)]2 and Sc[N(SiHMe2)2]3(THF) as metal precursors, respectively. H(2)SALEN ligand precursors comprising H2Salen [(1,2-ethandiyl)bis(nitrilomethylidyne)bis(2,4-di-tert-butyl)phenol], H2Salpren [(2,2-dimethylpropanediyl)bis(nitrilomethylidyne)bis(2,4-di-tert-butyl)phenol], H2Salcyc [(1R,2R)-(-)-1,2-cyclohexanediyl)bis(nitrilomethylidyne)bis(2,4-di-tert-butyl)phenol] and H2Salphen [((1S,2S)-(-)-1,2-diphenylethandiyl)bis(nitrilomethylidyne)bis(2,4-di-tert-butyl)phenol] are selected according to solubility and ligand backbone variation ("=N-(R)-N=" bite angle) criteria. Consideration is given to the feasibility of [Cl --> NR2] and [N(SiHMe2)2--> OSiR3] secondary ligand exchange reactions. X-ray crystal structure analyses of donor-free (Salpren)Sc(N(i)Pr2), (R,R)-(Salcyc)Sc[N(SiHMe2)2], (Salen)Sc(OSi(t)BuPh2) and (Salphen)Sc(OSiH(t)Bu2) reveal (i) a very short Sc-N bond distance of 2.000(3) A, (ii) weak beta(Si-H)(amido)-Sc agostic interactions and (iii) an exclusive intramolecularly tetradentate and intrinsically bent coordination mode of the SALEN ligands with angle(Ph,Ph) dihedral angles and Sc-[N(2)O(2)] distances in the 124.27(9)-127.7(3) degrees and 0.638(1)-0.688(1) A range, respectively.

  8. Scandium SALEN complexes bearing chloro, aryloxo, and hydroxo ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meermann, Christian; Törnroos, Karl W; Anwander, Reiner

    2009-03-16

    Heteroleptic amide complexes (SALEN)Sc[N(SiHMe(2))(2)] (SALEN = Salen(tBu,tBu), Salcyc(tBu,tBu), or Salpren(tBu,tBu) if not stated differently) were examined as synthesis precursors according to silylamine elimination reactions. Treatment of (SALEN)Sc[N(SiHMe(2))(2)] with H(2)O or phenols (HOAr(R,R); R = tBu, iPr) afforded complexes [(SALEN)Sc(mu-OH)](2) and (SALEN)Sc(OAr(R,R)), while chloro exchange products were formed from the respective reactions with NH(4)Cl or AlMe(2)Cl. Such complexes [(SALEN)Sc(mu-Cl)](2) and (SALEN)ScCl(thf) were also obtained by utilizing alternative synthesis protocols, allowing for controlled donor absence and presence. Heteroleptic amide precursors [Sc(NiPr(2))(2)(mu-Cl)(thf)](2) and [Sc[N(SiHMe(2))(2)](2)(mu-Cl)(thf)](2) readily undergo amine elimination reactions with H(2)SALEN derivatives to form the corresponding chloride complexes. Spectroscopic and X-ray structural data of the heteroleptic scandium complexes revealed an exclusive intramolecular tetradentate coordination mode of the SALEN ligands independent of the SALEN ligand bite angle and the nature of the "second" ligand (chloro, amido, aryloxo, hydroxo). The coordination of the SALEN ligands is rationalized on the basis of (a) the displacement d of the metal center from the [N(2)O(2)] least-squares plane, (b) the dihedral angle alpha between the phenyl rings of the salicylidene moieties, and (c) the angle beta = Ct-Ln-Ct (Ct = centroid of the phenyl rings) in the case of strongly twisted ligands.

  9. Vertical distribution of scandium in the north central Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amakawa, Hiroshi; Nomura, Miho; Sasaki, Kazunori; Oura, Yasuji; Ebihara, Mitsuru

    2007-06-01

    The concentrations of scandium (Sc) in seawater, which have remained unreported since the early 1970s, were determined together with those of yttrium (Y) and lanthanides (Ln) with samples from the north central Pacific Ocean (St. BO-3). The Sc concentration shows a so-called nutrient-like profile: it increases gradually from the surface (about 2 pmol/kg) to the ocean floor (about 20 pmol/kg). That pattern closely resembles those of Y and Ln (correlation coefficient (r) > 0.92). Some light-to-middle Ln (Pr-Tb) exhibit a closer correlation with Sc than do Y, La, or heavy Ln (Ho-Lu). In contrast, Y/Sc and Ln/Sc ratios (elemental abundance ratios) indicate that Sc is depleted compared to either Y or Ln in seawater more than in loess, which represents chemical compositions of crustal material. These observations offer a conflicting view of chemical reactivity related Y, Ln, and Sc: r values show that the chemical reactivity of Sc resembles those of Y and Ln, but differences of Y/Sc and Ln/Sc ratios in seawater and in loess suggest that the chemical reactivity of Sc differs from those of Y and Ln. More Sc data for seawater are necessary to clarify the chemical reactivity of Sc in the ocean. We also propose that comparative studies of vertical profiles of Sc and such elements as Fe, Ti, Zr, and Hf showing so-called nutrient-like profiles at the same oceanic stations would be helpful and effective for clarifying the behavior of Sc in the ocean.

  10. In situ observation of the reaction of scandium and carbon by neutron diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juarez-Arellano, Erick A., E-mail: eajuarez@unpa.edu.m [Institut fuer Geowissenschaften, Universitaet Frankfurt, Altenhoeferallee 1, 60438 Frankfurt a.M. (Germany); Universidad del Papaloapan, Circuito Central 200, Parque Industrial, Tuxtepec 68301 (Mexico); Winkler, Bjorn [Institut fuer Geowissenschaften, Universitaet Frankfurt, Altenhoeferallee 1, 60438 Frankfurt a.M. (Germany); Vogel, Sven C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Lujan Center. Mail Stop H805, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Senyshyn, Anatoliy [Forschungsneutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM II), Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Lichtenbergstr. 1, D-85747 Garching (Germany); Materialwissenschaft, TU Darmstadt, Petersensstr. 23, D-64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Kammler, Daniel R. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Avalos-Borja, Miguel [CNyN, UNAM, A. Postal 2681, Ensenada, B.C. (Mexico)

    2011-01-05

    Research highlights: {yields} Exist two ScC cubic phases with B1-structure type differing in site occupancy of C. {yields} A new orthorhombic scandium carbide phase is formed at 1473(50) K. {yields} The recrystallization of alpha-Sc occurs between 1000 and 1223 K. - Abstract: The formation of scandium carbides by reaction of the elements has been investigated by in situ neutron diffraction up to 1823 K. On heating, the recrystallization of {alpha}-Sc occurs between 1000 and 1223 K. The formation of Sc{sub 2}C and ScC (NaCl-B1 type structure) phases has been detected at 1323 and 1373 K, respectively. The formation of a new orthorhombic scandium carbide phase was observed at 1473(50) K. Once the scandium carbides are formed they are stable upon heating or cooling. No other phases were detected in the present study, in which the system was always carbon saturated. The thermal expansion coefficients of all phases have been determined, they are constant throughout the temperature interval studied.

  11. The effects of aluminum or scandium on the toughness, density and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of the substitution of aluminum or scandium on the density, toughness as well as the stability of the phases formed by such an addition on platinum, iridium, rhodium and palladium metals were evaluated with the density functional quantum mechanical calculation methods. All the metals had four atoms per ...

  12. Effects of erbium‑and chromium‑doped yttrium scandium gallium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-08-21

    Aug 21, 2014 ... surfaces because of its high power, and the ablation was deeper for these samples. High‑magnification SEM ... Key words: Erbium chromium‑doped yttrium scandium gallium garnet, diode laser, restorative dental materials, scanning electron ... garnet (Nd: YAG) and carbon dioxide (CO2) lasers on indirect ...

  13. Precipitation behaviour and recrystallisation resistance in aluminum alloys with additions of hafnium, scandium and zirconium

    OpenAIRE

    Hallem, Håkon

    2005-01-01

    The overall objective of this work has been to develop aluminium alloys, which after hot and cold deformation are able to withstand high temperatures without recrystallising. This has been done by investigating aluminium alloys with various additions of hafnium, scandium and zirconium, with a main focus on Hf and to which extent it may partly substitute or replace Zr and/or Sc as a dispersoid forming elements in these alloys. What is the effect of hafnium, alone and in combination with Zr...

  14. Pilot-scale recovery of rare earths and scandium from phosphogypsum and uranium leachates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashkovtsev Maxim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ural Federal University (UrFU and VTT have performed joint research on development of industrial technologies for the extraction of REM and Scandium compounds from phosphogypsum and Uranium ISL leachate solutions. Leaching-absorption experiments at UrFU have been supported with multicomponent solution modelling by VTT. The simulations have been performed with VTT’s ChemSheet/Balas program and can be used for speciation calculations in the lixiviant solution. The experimental work combines solvent extraction with advanced ion exchange methodology in a pilot facility capable of treating 5 m3 solution per hour. Currently, the plant produces cerium carbonate, lanthanum oxide, neodymium oxide and concentrate of heavy rare earth metals. A batch of 45 t solids has been processed with the gain of 100 kg’s of REM concentrate. A mini-pilot plant with productivity above 50 liters per hour has been applied to recover scandium oxide and REE concentrates from the uranium ISL solution. As the preliminary product contains radioactivity (mainly strontium, an additional decontamination and cleaning of both concentrates by extraction has rendered a necessity. Finally a purified 99% concentrate of scandium oxide as well as 99% rare earth concentrate are received.

  15. Optimization of scandium oxide growth by high pressure sputtering on silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feijoo, P.C., E-mail: pedronska@fis.ucm.es; Pampillon, M.A.; San Andres, E.; Lucia, M.L.

    2012-12-30

    This work demonstrates the viability of scandium oxide deposition on silicon by means of high pressure sputtering. Deposition pressure and radio frequency power are varied for optimization of the properties of the thin films and the ScO{sub x}/Si interface. The physical characterization was performed by ellipsometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Aluminum gate electrodes were evaporated for metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) fabrication. From the electrical characterization of the MIS devices, the density of interfacial defects is found to decrease with deposition pressure, showing a reduced plasma damage of the substrate surface for higher pressures. This is also supported by lower flatband voltage shifts in the capacitance versus voltage hysteresis curves. Sputtering at high pressures (above 100 Pa) reduces the interfacial SiO{sub x} formation, according to the infrared spectra. The growth rates decrease with deposition pressure, so a very accurate control of the layer thicknesses could be provided. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Scandium oxide is considered as a high permittivity dielectric. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Scandium oxide was deposited on Si by high pressure sputtering. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Characterization was performed for deposition condition optimization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High deposition pressures showed higher film and interface quality.

  16. Cyclotron Produced 44gSc from Natural Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severin, G.W.; Engle, J.W.; Valdovinos, H.F.; Barnhart, T.E.; Nickles, R.J.

    2012-01-01

    44gSc was produced by 16 MeV proton irradiation of unenriched calcium metal with radionuclidic purity greater than 95%. The thick target yield at saturation for 44gSc was 213 MBq/μA, dwarfing the yields of contaminants 43Sc,44mSc, 47Sc and 48Sc for practical bombardment times of 1–2 h. Scandium was isolated from the dissolved calcium target by filtration, and reconstituted in small volumes of dilute HCl. Reactions with the chelate 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) indicated a reactivity of 54±14 Gbq/μmol at end-of-bombardment. PMID:22728844

  17. Recovery of Scandium from Leachate of Sulfation-Roasted Bayer Red Mud by Liquid-Liquid Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhaobo; Li, Hongxu; Jing, Qiankun; Zhang, Mingming

    2017-11-01

    The leachate obtained from sulfation-roasted Bayer red mud is suitable for extraction of scandium by liquid-liquid solvent extraction because it contains trace amounts of Fe3+ and Si4+. In this study, a completely new metallurgical process for selective recovery of scandium from Bayer red mud was proposed. The extraction performances of Sc3+, Fe3+, Al3+, Si4+, Ca2+, and Na+ from synthetic leachate of sulfation-roasted red mud were first investigated using organophosphorus extractants (di-2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid P204 and 2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester P507) and carboxylic acid extractant (Versatic acid 10). It shows that P204 has an excellent extraction ability and that it can be applied to the scandium recovery. P507 and Versatic acid 10 are much poorer in performance for selective extraction of scandium. In the leachate of sulfation-roasted red mud, approximately 97% scandium can be recovered using a P204/sulfonated kerosene (1% v/v) extraction system under the condition of an organic-to-aqueous phase ratio of 10:1 and with an extraction temperature of 15°C.

  18. Scandium-doped zinc cadmium oxide as a new stable n-type oxide thermoelectric material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Li; Christensen, Dennis Valbjørn; Bhowmik, Arghya

    2016-01-01

    Scandium-doped zinc cadmium oxide (Sc-doped ZnCdO) is proposed as a new n-type oxide thermoelectric material. The material is sintered in air to maintain the oxygen stoichiometry and avoid instability issues. The successful alloying of CdO with ZnO at a molar ratio of 1 : 9 significantly reduced...... is a good candidate for improving the overall conversion efficiencies in oxide thermoelectric modules. Meanwhile, Sc-doped ZnCdO is robust in air at high temperatures, whereas other n-type materials, such as Al-doped ZnO, will experience rapid degradation of their electrical conductivity and ZT....

  19. Scandium and yttrium phosphasalen complexes as initiators for ring-opening polymerization of cyclic esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakewell, Clare; White, Andrew J P; Long, Nicholas J; Williams, Charlotte K

    2015-03-02

    The synthesis and characterization of novel scandium and yttrium phosphasalen complexes is reported, where phosphasalen refers to two different bis(iminophosphorane) derivatives of the more ubiquitous salen ligands. The activity of the complexes as initiators for the ring-opening polymerization of cyclic esters is presented. The scandium complexes are inactive for lactide polymerization but slow and controlled initiators for ε-caprolactone polymerization. The lack of activity toward lactide exhibited by these compounds is probed, and a rare example of single-monomer insertion product, unable to undergo further reactions with lactide, is identified. In contrast, the analogous yttrium phosphasalen complex is a very active initiator for the ring-opening polymerization of rac-lactide (kobs = 1.5 × 10(-3) s(-1) at 1:500 [yttrium initiator]:[rac-lactide], 1 M overall concentration of lactide in THF at 298 K). In addition to being a very fast initiator, the yttrium complex also maintains excellent levels of polymerization control and a high degree of isoselectivity, with the probability of isotactic enchainment being Pi = 0.78 at 298 K.

  20. Thermodynamic parameters of scandium trifluoride and triiodide in the condensed state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aristova, N. M.; Belov, G. V.

    2015-06-01

    The thermodynamic properties of new classes of compounds, particularly scandium trihalides ScF3, ScCl3, ScBr3, and ScI3, are added to the IVTANTHERMO software package. A critical analysis and processing of the entire array of primary data available in the literature is performed. An equation approximating the temperature dependence of heat capacity in the temperature range 298.15- T m (K) is derived for each crystalline scandium trihalide. The resulting equations C {/p po}( T) for the solid state and the data for the liquid phase are used to calculate the thermodynamic functions of entropy, the reduced Gibbs free energies, and the enthalpy increments. Both the experimental data available in literature and the missing estimated thermodynamic data are used in calculations. The error of the recommended values is estimated in all cases. In the first part of this work, we describe the thermodynamic properties of ScF3 and ScI3 used as the reference data for calculating the thermodynamic functions of ScCl3 and ScBr3, for which experimental data are either very scarce or missing altogether. The resulting data are added to the database of the IVTANTHERMO software package.

  1. Recovery of Scandium(III) from Aqueous Solutions by Solvent Extraction with the Functionalized Ionic Liquid Betainium Bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide

    OpenAIRE

    Onghena, Bieke; Binnemans, Koen

    2015-01-01

    The ionic liquid betainium is(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide [Hbet][Tf2N] was used for the extraction of scandium from aqueous solutions. The influence of several extraction parameters on the extraction efficiency was investigated, including the initial metal concentration, phase ratio, and pH. The extraction kinetics was examined, and a comparison was made between conventional liquid−liquid extraction and homogeneous liquid−liquid extraction (HLLE). The stoichiometry of the extracted scandium...

  2. Modification mechanism of eutectic silicon in Al–6Si–0.3Mg alloy with scandium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patakham, Ussadawut [Manufacturing and Systems Engineering Program, Department of Production Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi, 126 Pracha-Utid Rd., Bangmod, Tungkhru, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand); Kajornchaiyakul, Julathep [National Metal and Material Technology Center, National Science and Technology Development Agency, 114 Thailand Science Park, Klong Nueng, Klong Luang, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand); Limmaneevichitr, Chaowalit, E-mail: chaowalit.lim@kmutt.ac.th [Manufacturing and Systems Engineering Program, Department of Production Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi, 126 Pracha-Utid Rd., Bangmod, Tungkhru, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)

    2013-10-25

    Highlights: •Morphologies and growth of Sc and Sr-modified eutectic silicon resemble those of dendrites. •Crystal orientation of eutectic aluminum depends on growth characteristics of eutectic silicon. •We report strong evidence of the occurrence of an impurity-induced twinning mechanism. -- Abstract: The modification mechanism of eutectic silicon in Al–6Si–0.3Mg alloy with scandium was studied. The crystallographic orientation relationships between primary dendrites and the eutectic phase of unmodified and modified Al–6Si–0.3 Mg alloys were determined using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The orientation of aluminum modified with scandium in the eutectic phase was different from that of the neighboring primary dendrites. This result implies that eutectic aluminum grows epitaxially from the surrounding primary aluminum dendrites in the unmodified alloy and that eutectic aluminum grows competitively from the surrounding primary aluminum dendrites in the modified alloy. The pole figure maps of eutectic Si in the [1 0 0], [1 1 0] and [1 1 1] axes of the unmodified and Sc-modified alloys were different, suggesting that the eutectic Al and Si crystals in modified alloy growth are more isotropic and cover a larger set of directions. The lattice fringes of Si of the alloys with and without Sc modification were different in the TEM results. The lattice fringes of Si in modified alloy were found to be multiple twins. However, this was not observed in the unmodified alloy. The growth characteristic of eutectic Si crystal in modified alloy suggests the occurrence of multiple twinning reactions and the formation of a high density of twins. This modification mechanism by Sc is explained by the results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis, which provide strong evidence of the occurrence of the impurity-induced twinning (IIT) mechanism.

  3. Grain refinement mechanism in an Al-Si-Mg alloy with scandium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patakham, Ussadawut [Department of Production Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, 126 Pracha-Utid Rd., Bangmod, Tungkhru, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand); Kajornchaiyakul, Julathep [National Metal and Material Technology Center, National Science and Technology Development Agency, 114 Thailand Science Park, Klong Nueng, Klong Luang, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand); Limmaneevichitr, Chaowalit, E-mail: chaowalit.lim@kmutt.ac.th [Department of Production Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, 126 Pracha-Utid Rd., Bangmod, Tungkhru, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)

    2012-11-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Scandium can be used to refine aluminum grains in an Al-Si-Mg aluminum alloy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effectiveness of Sc is lower than that of conventional Al-Ti grain refiners. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Al{sub 3}Sc particles can act as heterogeneous nuclei of aluminum phases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Higher alloying elements cause more intermetallic compound phases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Those phases cannot effectively act as heterogeneous nuclei compared with Al{sub 3}Sc particles. - Abstract: Grain refinement of the primary aluminum ({alpha}-Al) phase in a hypoeutectic Al-Si alloy using scandium (Sc) was studied to identify the grain refinement mechanism. Optical microscopy (OM), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) techniques were extensively used in this study. We found that Sc refined grains of primary aluminum. However, the grain refinement efficiency of Sc was considerably lower than that of titanium (Ti) in the Al-Si-Mg foundry alloy. It was evident that the precipitated Sc-containing phases acted as heterogeneous nucleation sites for the primary aluminum phase. The Sc-containing heterogeneous sites are irregular in shape with sizes between 3 and 5 {mu}m. At least three groups of nuclei based on their chemical composition were found, i.e., (i) Al and Sc, (ii) Al, Si, Mg, and Sc, and (iii) Al, Si, Mg, Sc, and Fe. Crystal orientation mapping showed primary aluminum dendrites with one orientation in each grain near Al{sub 3}Sc particles. The grain refinement mechanism of Sc for aluminum relies on heterogeneous nucleation of Al{sub 3}Sc particles, with less responsibly for grain growth restriction. Many intermetallic phases with Al, Si, Fe, Mg and Sc as their major components were found, and these phases could not effectively act as heterogeneous nuclei.

  4. Neutron and Charged-Particle Induced Cross Sections for Radiochemistry for Isotopes of Scandium, Titanium, Vanadium, Chromium, Manganese, and Iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelley, K; Hoffman, R D; Dietrich, F S; Bauer, R; Mustafa, M

    2004-11-30

    We have developed a set of modeled nuclear reaction cross sections for use in radiochemical diagnostics. Local systematics for the input parameters required by the Hauser-Feshbach statistical model were developed and used to calculate neutron and proton induced nuclear reaction cross sections in the mass region of scandium, titanium, vanadium, chromium, manganese, and iron (21 {le} Z {le} 26, 20 {le} N {le} 32).

  5. A composite cathode based on scandium doped titanate with enhanced electrocatalytic activity towards direct carbon dioxide electrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liming; Xie, Kui; Wu, Lan; Qin, Qingqing; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Yong; Xie, Ting; Wu, Yucheng

    2014-10-21

    A composite cathode based on redox-stable La0.2Sr0.8TiO(3+δ) (LSTO) can perform direct carbon dioxide electrolysis; however, the insufficient electro-catalytic activity limits the electrode performances and current efficiencies. In this work, catalytically active scandium is doped into LSTO to enhance the electro-catalytic activity for CO2 electrolysis. The structures, electronic conductivities and ionic conductivities of La0.2Sr0.8Ti(1-x)Sc(x)O (LSTS(x)O) (x = 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15 and 0.2) are systematically studied and further correlated with electrode performances. The ionic conductivities of single-phase LSTS(x)O (x = 0, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.15) remarkably improve versus the scandium doping contents though the electrical conductivities gradually change in an adverse trend. Electrochemical measurements demonstrate promising electrode polarisation of LSTS(x)O electrodes and increasing scandium doping contents accordingly improve electrode performances. The Faradic efficiencies of carbon dioxide electrolysis are enhanced by 20% with LSTS0.15O in contrast to bare LSTO electrodes in a solid oxide electrolyser at 800 °C.

  6. Adsorption of hydrogen in Scandium/Titanium decorated nitrogen doped carbon nanotube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mananghaya, Michael, E-mail: mikemananghaya@gmail.com [De La Salle University, 2401 Taft Ave, 0922, Manila (Philippines); DLSU STC Laguna Boulevard, LTI Spine Road Barangays Biñan and Malamig, Biñan City, Laguna (Philippines); DOST-ASTHRDP, PCIEERD, Gen. Santos Ave., Bicutan, Taguig City 1631 (Philippines); Belo, Lawrence Phoa; Beltran, Arnel [De La Salle University, 2401 Taft Ave, 0922, Manila (Philippines); DLSU STC Laguna Boulevard, LTI Spine Road Barangays Biñan and Malamig, Biñan City, Laguna (Philippines)

    2016-09-01

    Nitrogen doped Carbon Nanotube with divacancy (4ND-CN{sub x}NT) that is decorated with Scandium and Titanium as potential hydrogen storage medium using the pseudo potential density functional method was investigated. Highly localized states near the Fermi level, which are derived from the nitrogen defects, contribute to strong Sc and Ti bindings, which prevent metal aggregation and improve the material stability. A detailed Comparison of the Hydrogen adsorption capability with promising system-weight efficiency of Sc over Ti was elucidated when functionalized with 4ND-CN{sub x}NT. Finally, the (Sc/4ND){sub 10}-CN{sub x}CNT composite material has a thermodynamically favorable adsorption and consecutive adsorption energy for ideal reversible adsorption and desorption of hydrogen at room temperature such that it can hold at least 5.8 wt% hydrogen molecules at the LDA and GGA level. - Highlights: • Carbon Nanotube with divacancy (4ND-CN{sub x}NT) decorated with Sc and Ti. • Nitrogen defects, contribute to strong Sc and Ti bindings. • H{sub 2} and (Sc/4ND){sub 10}-CN{sub x}CNT has a favorable adsorption. • 5.8 wt% adsorption at the LDA and GGA level.

  7. Urinary monitoring of exposure to yttrium, scandium, and europium in male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Yasuhiro; Usuda, Kan; Shimizu, Hiroyasu; Fujimoto, Keiichi; Kono, Rei; Fujita, Aiko; Kono, Koichi

    2012-12-01

    On the assumption that rare earth elements (REEs) are nontoxic, they are being utilized as replacements of toxic heavy metals in novel technological applications. However, REEs are not entirely innocuous, and their impact on health is still uncertain. In the past decade, our laboratory has studied the urinary excretion of REEs in male Wistar rats given chlorides of europium, scandium, and yttrium solutions by one-shot intraperitoneal injection or oral dose. The present paper describes three experiments for the suitability and appropriateness of a method to use urine for biological monitoring of exposure to these REEs. The concentrations of REEs were determined in cumulative urine samples taken at 0-24 h by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, showing that the urinary excretion of REEs is <2 %. Rare earth elements form colloidal conjugates in the bloodstream, which make high REEs accumulation in the reticuloendothelial system and glomeruli and low urinary excretion. The high sensitivity of inductively coupled plasma-argon emission spectrometry analytical methods, with detection limits of <2 μg/L, makes urine a comprehensive assessment tool that reflects REE exposure. The analytical method and animal experimental model described in this study will be of great importance and encourage further discussion for future studies.

  8. Selective recovery of vanadium and scandium by ion exchange with D201 and solvent extraction using P507 from hydrochloric acid leaching solution of red mud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaobo; Li, Wang; Tang, Sen; Zeng, Majian; Bai, Pengyuan; Chen, Lunjian

    2017-05-01

    D201 resin and P507 extractant diluted with sulfonated kerosene were used to respectively separate vanadium and scandium, and impurity ions from hydrochloric acid leaching solution of red mud. More than 99% of vanadium was selectively adsorbed from the hydrochloric acid leaching solution under the conditions of pH value of 1.8, volume ratio of leaching solution to resin of 10, and flow rate of 3.33 mL/min. Maximum extraction and separation of scandium was observed from the acid leaching solution at an aqueous pH value of 0.2. More than 99% of scandium can be selectively extracted using 15% P507, 5% TBP at the aqueous solution/organic phase (A/O) ratio of 10:1 for 6 min. The loaded organic phase was washed with 0.3 mol/L sulfuric acid, wherein most impurities were removed. After the process of desorption or stripping, precipitation, and roasting, high-purity V2O5 and Sc2O3 were obtained. Finally, a conceptual flow sheet was established to separate and recover vanadium and scandium from red mud hydrochloric acid leaching solution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Random-field Potts model for the polar domains of lead magnesium niobate and lead scandium tantalate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, H.; Bursill, L.A

    1997-06-01

    A random filed Potts model is used to establish the spatial relationship between the nanoscale distribution of charges chemical defects and nanoscale polar domains for the perovskite-based relaxor materials lead magnesium niobate (PMN) and lead scandium tantalate (PST). The random fields are not set stochastically but are determined initially by the distribution of B-site cations (Mg, Nb) or (Sc, Ta) generated by Monte Carlo NNNI-model simulations for the chemical defects. An appropriate random field Potts model is derived and algorithms developed for a 2D lattice. It is shown that the local fields are strongly correlated with the chemical domain walls and that polar domains as a function of decreasing temperature is simulated for the two cases of PMN and PST. The dynamics of the polar clusters is also discussed. 33 refs., 9 figs.

  10. Development of methods for the selective separation of scandium, zirconium and tin for radiopharmaceutical applications; Entwicklung von Methoden zur selektiven Trennung von Scandium, Zirkonium und Zinn fuer radiopharmazeutische Anwendungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dirks-Fandrei, Carina

    2014-07-01

    The subject of the present work is the development of fast and highly selective methods for the separation and purification of scandium, zirconium and tin radionuclides from potential target materials for use in nuclear medicine. A number of selected resins (TrisKem International) were first characterized with respect to their extraction behaviour towards a large number of cations. Characterization studies were performed in batch experiments by determination of weight distribution ratios D{sub w} and further the influence of interferences on the uptake of these elements was evaluated. Weight distribution ratios were determined in different acids and acid concentrations with main focus on scandium, tin or zirconium. The interference of macro amounts of Calcium and Ti on the Sc extraction was evaluated as well as the interference of macro amounts of Y on the Zr extraction. Best suited uptake conditions were found for Scandium on DGA were determined to be 2.5 M HNO{sub 3} for Ti-Targets and 0.1 M HNO{sub 3} for Calcium-Targets. Otherwise it is also possible to extract Sc with TRU Resin. High uptakes were obtained at 2.5 M HNO{sub 3} for simulated Ti- and Calcium-targets. Separation methods were developed using elution studies; employed conditions were chosen according to parameters evaluated in the batch-experiment. The developed methods allowed separating Sc very rapidly in high purity very rapidly from Ti- or Calcium-targets. For Zr a separation method based on UTEVA Resin has been developed. Following results of batch experiments simulated Y-target solution were loaded onto a UTEVA resin column from 6 M HNO{sub 3}; the elution of Zr could be performed in 0.01 M oxalic acid. Decontamination factors in the order of 10{sup 4}-10{sup 5} could be obtained applying the developed method; the method thus allowed separating Zr in a high purity. Initial testing of a method for the separation of Sn from Cd targets based on the use of TBP Resin showed that the TBP resin seems

  11. The impact of an erbium, chromium:yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet laser with radial-firing tips on endodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoop, U; Barylyak, A; Goharkhay, K; Beer, F; Wernisch, J; Georgopoulos, A; Sperr, W; Moritz, A

    2009-01-01

    Radial-firing tips should allow a more homogeneous laser irradiation of root canal walls. The aim of the study was to assess the effects of erbium, chromium:yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser irradiation in conjunction with those newly designed tips. The investigation comprised bacteriology, morphological evaluations and temperature measurements. Root canals were inoculated with two test strains and laser irradiated with power settings of 0.6 W and 0.9 W and a repetition rate of 20 Hz. Subsequently, the samples were subjected to microbiological evaluation. The morphological changes of the canal walls were assessed by scanning electron microscopy. To reveal possible thermal side effects, we carried out temperature measurements. The bacteriological evaluation revealed a decisive disinfectant effect. Scanning electron microscopy showed the homogeneous removal of smear layer from the root canal walls. The temperature rise at the root surface during the irradiation was moderate, yielding 1.3 degrees C for the 0.6 W setting and 1.6 degrees C for the 0.9 W setting. The investigations indicated that the Er,Cr:YSGG laser, in conjunction with radial-firing tips, is a suitable tool for the elimination of bacteria in root canals and for the removal of smear layer.

  12. Effect of scandium addition on the microstructure, mechanical and wear properties of the spray formed hypereutectic aluminum–silicon alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raghukiran, Nadimpalli; Kumar, Ravi, E-mail: nvrk@iitm.ac.in

    2015-08-12

    Hypereutectic Al–x%Si–0.8Sc alloys (x=13, 16, 19 and 22 wt%) were produced by spray forming. The microstructures of all the alloys exhibited very fine silicon phase with average size of about 5–10 µm irrespective of the silicon content of the alloy. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the presence of a nano-scale scandium rich phase, identified as AlSi{sub 2}Sc{sub 2} (V-phase) uniformly distributed in the alloy. The presence of V-phase resulted in higher matrix hardness (1.34 GPa) in contrast to 1.04 GPa observed in the case of binary Al–Si alloys by nanoindentation. Isothermal heat treatment at 375 °C revealed insignificant coarsening of silicon phase in both binary and ternary alloys. The Al–x%Si–0.8Sc alloys exhibited higher flow stress and tensile strength in contrast to their binary alloy counterparts which was attributed to the bi-modal size distribution of the strengthening phases in the form of nano-scale V-phase and sub-micron to 10 µm size silicon particles. The pin-on-disk wear tests exhibited appreciable improvement in the wear performance of the relatively low-silicon content ternary alloys over their binary counterparts while the high-silicon content binary and ternary alloys exhibited no much difference in the wear performance.

  13. Scandium and Titanium Containing Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes for Hydrogen Storage: a Thermodynamic and First Principle Calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mananghaya, Michael; Yu, Dennis; Santos, Gil Nonato; Rodulfo, Emmanuel

    2016-06-15

    The generalized gradient approximation (GGA) to density functional theory (DFT) calculations indicate that the highly localized states derived from the defects of nitrogen doped carbon nanotube with divacancy (4ND-CNxNT) contribute to strong Sc and Ti bindings, which prevent metal aggregation. Comparison of the H2 adsorption capability of Sc over Ti-decorated 4ND-CNxNT shows that Ti cannot be used for reversible H2 storage due to its inherent high adsorption energy. The Sc/4ND-CNxNT possesses favorable adsorption and consecutive adsorption energy at the local-density approximation (LDA) and GGA level. Molecular dynamics (MD) study confirmed that the interaction between molecular hydrogen and 4ND-CNxNT decorated with scandium is indeed favorable. Simulations indicate that the total amount of adsorption is directly related to the operating temperature and pressure. The number of absorbed hydrogen molecules almost logarithmically increases as the pressure increases at a given temperature. The total excess adsorption of hydrogen on the (Sc/4ND)10-CNxNT arrays at 300 K is within the range set by the department of energy (DOE) with a value of at least 5.85 wt%.

  14. Effects of scandium addition on iron-bearing phases and tensile properties of Al–7Si–0.6Mg alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzeng, Yu-Chih [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Central University, Jhongli, Taiwan (China); Wu, Chih-Ting [Department of Vehicle Engineering, Army Academy R.O.C., Jhongli, Taiwan (China); Bor, Hui-Yun; Horng, Jain-Long; Tsai, Mu-Lin [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Central University, Jhongli, Taiwan (China); Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, National Central University, Jhongli, Taiwan (China); Lee, Sheng-Long, E-mail: shenglon@cc.ncu.edu.tw [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Central University, Jhongli, Taiwan (China); Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, National Central University, Jhongli, Taiwan (China)

    2014-01-21

    Iron is the most deleterious impurity in aluminum alloys and can easily combine with aluminum to form an acicular β-Al{sub 5}FeSi phase that reduces ductility during the solidification of the molten metal. Adding scandium (Sc) to Al–7Si–0.6Mg alloys can transform the acicular β-Al{sub 5}FeSi phase into a comparatively harmless nodular Sc–Fe phase (Al{sub 12}Si{sub 6}Fe{sub 2}(Mg,Sc){sub 5}). This Sc–Fe phase has a lower hardness and elastic modulus than the β-Al{sub 5}FeSi phase; it is thus less likely to initiate cracks in the Al matrix. Moreover, the nodular Sc–Fe phase can improve the fluidity of Al during solidification, reducing interdendritic shrinkage. Tensile testing measurements showed that the elongation of Al–7Si–0.6Mg alloys with 0.04 and 0.12 wt% Sc can be respectively increased by 115% and 110% compared to Al–7Si–0.6Mg without Sc. The corresponding quality indices are increased by 17% and 19%, respectively, suggesting that the tensile properties of Al–7Si–0.6Mg alloys can be enhanced by adding scandium.

  15. (44g)Sc production using a water target on a 13MeV cyclotron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehr, Cornelia; Oehlke, Elisabeth; Benard, Francois; Lee, Chris Jaeil; Hou, Xinchi; Badesso, Brian; Ferguson, Simon; Miao, Qing; Yang, Hua; Buckley, Ken; Hanemaayer, Victoire; Zeisler, Stefan; Ruth, Thomas; Celler, Anna; Schaffer, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Access to promising radiometals as isotopes for novel molecular imaging agents requires that they are routinely available and inexpensive to obtain. Proximity to a cyclotron center outfitted with solid target hardware, or to an isotope generator for the metal of interest is necessary, both of which can introduce significant hurdles in development of less common isotopes. Herein, we describe the production of ⁴⁴Sc (t1/2=3.97 h, Eavg,β⁺=1.47MeV, branching ratio=94.27%) in a solution target and an automated loading system which allows a quick turn-around between different radiometallic isotopes and therefore greatly improves their availability for tracer development. Experimental yields are compared to theoretical calculations. Solutions containing a high concentration (1.44-1.55g/mL) of natural-abundance calcium nitrate tetrahydrate (Ca(NO₃)2·4 H₂O) were irradiated on a 13MeV proton-beam cyclotron using a standard liquid target. (44g)Sc was produced via the ⁴⁴Ca(p,n)(44g)Sc reaction. (44g)Sc was produced for the first time in a solution target with yields sufficient for early radiochemical studies. Saturation yields of up to 4.6 ± 0.3 MBq/μA were achieved using 7.6 ± 0.3 μA proton beams for 60.0 ± 0.2 minutes (number of runs n=3). Experimental data and calculation results are in fair agreement. Scandium was isolated from the target mixture via solid-phase extraction with 88 ± 6% (n=5) efficiency and successfully used for radiolabelling experiments. The demonstration of the production of ⁴⁴Sc in a liquid target greatly improves its availability for tracer development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Gd-Sc-based mixed-metal nitride cluster fullerenes: mutual influence of the cage and cluster size and the role of scandium in the electronic structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svitova, Anna L; Popov, Alexey A; Dunsch, Lothar

    2013-03-18

    The influence of the cage as well as of the cluster size has been studied in Gd-Sc nitride cluster fullerenes, which have been synthesized and isolated for these studies. A series of carbon cages ranging from C78 to C88 have been synthesized, isolated, and characterized in detail using absorption and vibrational spectroscopy as well as electrochemistry and density functional theory calculations. Gd-Sc mixed-metal cluster fullerenes in carbon cages different from C80 were described for the first time. A review of their structures, properties, and stability is given. The synthesis was performed with melamine as an effective solid source of nitrogen, providing high fullerene yield and suppressing empty fullerene formation. Substitution of gadolinium by scandium imposes a noticeable influence on the electronic structure of nitride cluster fullerenes as revealed by electrochemical, spectroscopic, and computational methods.

  17. Copper scandium zirconium phosphate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bond, Andrew David; Warner, Terence Edwin

    2013-01-01

    components. The [Sc(III)Zr(IV)(PO(4))(3)](2-) framework is composed of corner-sharing Sc/ZrO(6) octahedra and PO(4) tetrahedra. The Sc and Zr atoms are disordered on one atomic site on a crystallographic threefold axis. The P atom of the phosphate group lies on a crystallographic twofold axis. Nonframework...

  18. Synthesis and characterization of reduced scandium halide containing one- and two-dimensional metal bonded arrays. [Sc--ScCl3; Cs3Sc2Cl9; CsScCl3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poeppelmeier, K.R.

    1978-08-01

    The stabilization effect of metal-metal bond formation on reduced scandium compounds was studied. The binary compounds Sc/sub 7/Cl/sub 12/, Sc/sub 5/Cl/sub 8/, Sc/sub 7/Cl/sub 10/ and ScCl were prepared by high temperature techniques and were characterized by single crystal x-ray diffraction. The respective metal arrays in these compounds can be viewed as fragments of scandium metal ranging from discrete six atom metal cluster species (Sc(Sc/sub 6/Cl/sub 12/)), through intermediate single and double infinite chain configurations ((ScCl/sub 2/)(Sc/sub 4/Cl/sub 6/)) and ((ScCl/sub 2/)(Sc/sub 6/Cl/sub 8/)) to double metal close-packed sheets (ScCl). The halogen atoms effectively isolate the clusters, chains and sheets by bonding face, edge or exo positions on the metal arrays. The common occurrence of isolated scandium (III) ions emphasizes that a minimum number of bonding electrons is required to stabilize what are formally anionic metal arrays. The distribution of the reduction electrons in these anisotropic materials was studied by magnetic susceptibility, EPR and uv-X photoelectron spectroscopy. The ternary compounds studied were Cs/sub 3/Sc/sub 2/Cl/sub 9/ and CsScCl/sub 3/. The anion-bridged metal chain of the hexagonal perovskite structure was found to stabilize scandium (II). CsScCl/sub 3/ was found to be grossly nonstoichiometric on the transition metal site and the effects of the mixed valence character were studied between the single valence extremes Cs/sub 3/Sc/sub 2 + x/Cl/sub 9/; 0< x < 1.0.

  19. 44

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Primary production of agricultural products is performed by a large number of farms operating on a small scale. This write up sets out to describe the currently available systems, how they can be used as tools for quality assurance management and outlines a framework for. The Netherlands. their interaction and use.

  20. 44

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1996-07-06

    Jul 6, 1996 ... NEUROLOGICAL MANIFESTATIONS FOLLOWING PARTIAL EXCISION IN SPINAL MENINGIOMA: CASE. REPORT ... spine decompressive laminectomy was performed on 15* January 1996 at Nairobi West Hospital extending from T3 ... right leg was still held in flexion deformity at the knee. She was thus ...

  1. Scandium functionalized carbon aerogel: Synthesis of nanoparticles and structure of a new ScOCl and properties of NaAlH{sub 4} as a function of pore size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javadian, Payam; Nielsen, Thomas K. [Center for Energy Materials, Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO), and Department of Chemistry, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus (Denmark); Ravnsbæk, Dorthe B. [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge 02142, MA (United States); Jepsen, Lars H. [Center for Energy Materials, Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO), and Department of Chemistry, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus (Denmark); Polanski, Marek [Faculty of Advanced Technology and Chemistry, Military University of Technology, 2 Kaliskiego Str., 00-908 Warsaw (Poland); Plocinski, Tomasz [Faculty of Material Science and Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, 144 Woloska Str., 02-507 Warsaw (Poland); Kunce, Izabela [Faculty of Advanced Technology and Chemistry, Military University of Technology, 2 Kaliskiego Str., 00-908 Warsaw (Poland); Besenbacher, Flemming [Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Bystrzycki, Jerzy [Faculty of Advanced Technology and Chemistry, Military University of Technology, 2 Kaliskiego Str., 00-908 Warsaw (Poland); Jensen, Torben R., E-mail: trj@chem.au.dk [Center for Energy Materials, Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO), and Department of Chemistry, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus (Denmark)

    2015-11-15

    A new method for scandium-functionalization of carbon aerogels forming nanoparticles of a new scandiumoxochloride, ScOCl is presented. Sodium aluminiumhydride, NaAlH{sub 4}, is successfully melt infiltrated into the nano porous scaffolds with pore sizes of D{sub max}=7, 10, 13, 21, 26 and 39 nm, containing scandium based nano particles (<2.9 wt%) confirmed by elemental analysis and scanning electron microscopy. A systematic study of hydrogen storage properties of the nano composite materials is presented. An aqueous solution of ScCl{sub 3} was initially infiltrated and formed nanoconfined [Sc(OH)(H{sub 2}O){sub 5}]{sub 2}Cl{sub 4}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}, which transforms to nanoparticles of a new scandium oxochloride, ScOCl at 192 °C and to Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3} at 420 °C. ScOCl crystallizes in an orthorhombic unit cell a=3.4409(8), b=3.9613(6) and c=8.178(2) Å, space group Pmmn, and is built from layers of [ScO{sub 4}Cl{sub 2}] octahedra forming neutral ScOCl layers. Temperature programmed desorption mass spectroscopy shows slightly improved kinetics for release of hydrogen with decreasing pore size. Continuous cycling of hydrogen release and uptake measured by the Sieverts' method reveal a larger preserved hydrogen storage capacity for scandium-functionalized aerogel with the larger pores (39 nm). - Highlights: • New synthesis approach for nanoporous Sc-functionalization carbon aerogel (Sc-CA). • The new scandium oxochloride, ScOCl, structure is obtained. • NaAlH{sub 4} nanoconfined in Sc-CA with pores ranging between 7 nm

  2. The use of the erbium, chromium:yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet laser in endodontic treatment: the results of an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoop, Ulrich; Goharkhay, Kawe; Klimscha, Johannes; Zagler, Manuela; Wernisch, Johann; Georgopoulos, Apostolos; Sperr, Wolfgang; Moritz, Andreas

    2007-07-01

    The use of the erbium, chromium:yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser has become accepted in the field of cavity preparation. The development of miniaturized and flexible fiber tips has allowed this device to be used in endodontics. The authors conducted an in vitro study to assess the effects of Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation on root canals. The authors inoculated root canals with two bacteria, laser irradiated them at two power settings and subjected them to a quantitative microbiological evaluation. They used scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to assess morphological changes in endodontically processed and laser-irradiated root canal walls. They measured temperature increases on the root surface to determine possible thermal side effects. The bacteriological evaluation revealed a disinfecting effect in the root dentin samples that was dependent on the output power but not specific for the bacterial species investigated. SEM showed the removal of the smear layer from the root canal walls and the exposure of dentinal tubules. The temperature rise during irradiation was moderate when standardized power settings were used. The Er,Cr:YSGG laser can be used to eliminate bacteria in root canals. It also effectively removes smear layer and debris from the canal wall. Practitioners can use the Er,Cr:YSGG laser to prepare root canals for endodontic therapy.

  3. Aluminum-Scandium Alloys: Material Characterization, Friction Stir Welding, and Compatibility With Hydrogen Peroxide (MSFC Center Director's Discretionary Fund Final Report, Proj. No. 04-14)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. A.; Chen, P. S.

    2004-01-01

    This Technical Memorandum describes the development of several high-strength aluminum (Al) alloys that are compatible with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) propellant for NASA Hypersonic-X (Hyper-X) vehicles fuel tanks and structures. The yield strengths for some of these Al-magnesium-based alloys are more than 3 times stronger than the conventional 5254-H112 Al alloy, while maintaining excellent H2O2 compatibility similar to class 1 5254 alloy. The alloy development strategy is to add scandium, zirconium, and other transitional metals with unique electrochemical properties, which will not act as catalysts, to decompose the highly concentrated 90 percent H2O2. Test coupons are machined from sheet metals for H2O2 long-term exposure testing and mechanical properties testing. In addition, the ability to weld the new alloys using friction stir welding has also been explored. The new high-strength alloys could represent an enabling material technology for Hyper-X vehicles, where flight weight reduction is a critical requirement.

  4. High-fluence and high-density treatment of perioral rhytides using a new, fractionated 2,790-nm ablative erbium-doped Yttrium Scandium Gallium Garnet Laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciocon, David H; Hussain, Mussarat; Goldberg, David J

    2011-06-01

    In this study, we evaluated the safety and efficacy of a novel 2,790-nm erbium-doped yttrium scandium gallium garnet (Er:YSGG) laser system for the treatment of facial photodamage and perioral wrinkles using a single-treatment, high-fluence, high-density protocol. Eleven female participants with Fitzpatrick skin types II to III and facial wrinkles underwent a single full-face fractional ablative treatment with a 2,790-nm Er:YSGG laser. Follow-up visits were completed at 1, 2, and 6 weeks 3 and 6 months. Quartile improvement scale (0-4) and Fitzpatrick wrinkle scores (1-9) were used for the assessments. Based on blinded photographic assessments, the mean difference in Fitzpatrick wrinkle scores for full face wrinkles was 1.5 ± 1.2 (a reduction from 6.6 to 5.1; paired t-test, p = .003). There was also a statistically significant mean reduction of 1.7 ± 1.3 in perioral wrinkle scores (from 6.7 to 5.0; p = .002). No serious adverse events were reported. A novel, fractionated, ablative 2,790-nm Er:YSGG laser can safely and effectively treat photodamage and perioral wrinkles in a single treatment using a high-fluence, high-density protocol. Cutera provided the equipment used in this study and funding to Dr. Goldberg. © 2011 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc.

  5. Impact of layer and substrate properties on the surface acoustic wave velocity in scandium doped aluminum nitride based SAW devices on sapphire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillinger, M., E-mail: manuel.gillinger@tuwien.ac.at; Knobloch, T.; Schneider, M.; Schmid, U. [Institute of Sensor and Actuator Systems, TU Wien, 1040 Vienna (Austria); Shaposhnikov, K.; Kaltenbacher, M. [Institute of Mechanics and Mechatronics, TU Wien, 1040 Vienna (Austria)

    2016-06-06

    This paper investigates the performance of surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices consisting of reactively sputter deposited scandium doped aluminum nitride (Sc{sub x}Al{sub 1-x}N) thin films as piezoelectric layers on sapphire substrates for wireless sensor or for RF-MEMS applications. To investigate the influence of piezoelectric film thickness on the device properties, samples with thickness ranging from 500 nm up to 3000 nm are fabricated. S{sub 21} measurements and simulations demonstrate that the phase velocity is predominantly influenced by the mass density of the electrode material rather than by the thickness of the piezoelectric film. Additionally, the wave propagation direction is varied by rotating the interdigital transducer structures with respect to the crystal orientation of the substrate. The phase velocity is about 2.5% higher for a-direction compared to m-direction of the sapphire substrate, which is in excellent agreement with the difference in the anisotropic Young's modulus of the substrate corresponding to these directions.

  6. The platinum-rich scandium silicide Sc{sub 2}Pt{sub 9}Si{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vosswinkel, Daniel; Poettgen, Rainer [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie

    2017-10-01

    Single crystals of Sc{sub 2}Pt{sub 9}Si{sub 3} have been obtained from an arc-melted and inductively annealed sample of the starting composition Sc:4Pt:2Si. The Sc{sub 2}Pt{sub 9}Si{sub 3} structure (Tb{sub 2}Pt{sub 9}Ge{sub 3} type, space group C2/c) was refined from single crystal X-ray diffractometer data: a=1303.4(1), b=749.9(1), c=973.5(1), β=116.44(1) {sup circle}, wR2=0.0731, 1643 F{sup 2} values and 67 variables. The structure contains three basic coordination polyhedra Sc rate at Pt{sub 11}, Si1 rate at Pt{sub 8} and Si2 rate at Pt{sub 8} which show a simple condensation pattern avoiding direct Sc-Si and Si-Si bonding.

  7. Structure and temperature effects on Nd3+ spectra in polycrystalline mixed scandium aluminum garnets Y3ScxAl5-xO12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupei, A.; Lupei, V.; Hau, S.; Gheorghe, C.; Voicu, F.

    2015-09-01

    New spectroscopic data obtained from high resolution low temperature absorption and emission spectra of Nd3+ in mixed scandium aluminum garnets Y3ScxAl5-xO12 - (x = 0-2) translucent ceramics revealed transition dependent composition effects: modification of the shapes (Lorentz at x = 0 and 2, quasi-Gauss at x = 1, x-dependent asymmetric for other x values, with obvious multicenter structure for low x), widths and shifts of the lines. Nd3+ electronic structure dependence on structural changes with composition is analyzed in terms of nephelauxetic effect and maximum splitting of manifolds: Sc3+ co-doping reduces the nephelauxetic effect, and the increase of 4F3/2 splitting from 85 cm-1 (x = 0) to 98 cm-1 (x = 2) denotes the lowering of local symmetry. The multicenter structure and inhomogeneous broadening of Nd3+ lines is attributed to crystal field distributions determined by the random occupancy of the octahedral sites by Sc3+ and Al3+. For low x (0.2) the resolved two satellites S1, S2 that accompany Nd:YAG lines are correlated to anisotropic crystal field perturbations produced by the n.n. Sc3+ by analogy to those determined by Y3+-antisites (excess of Y3+ ions that enter in octahedral sites of the melt-grown YAG crystals). The temperature evolution of the Nd3+ spectral characteristics (line intensity, shift, broadening) in the 10-300 K range is analyzed in terms of thermal population of the Stark levels, of the effect on electron-phonon interaction and on lattice expansion. The relevance of the spectroscopic properties on the laser emission characteristics in these systems is discussed.

  8. Dissolved scandium, yttrium, and lanthanum in the surface waters of the North Atlantic: Potential use as an indicator of scavenging intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Till, C. P.; Shelley, R. U.; Landing, W. M.; Bruland, K. W.

    2017-08-01

    Recent work has begun to elucidate the biogeochemical cycling of scandium (Sc) in the open ocean, but so far no surface distribution data have been reported of dissolved Sc, and no basin-scale surface distributions have been reported of yttrium (Y) or lanthanum (La). This work presents basin-wide surface Sc, Y, and La data in a section across the North Atlantic subtropical gyre (2011 GEOTRACES GA03) and investigates the potential utility of these distributions. This work uses dissolved and aerosol concentration data for La and Sc to estimate their surface ocean residence times in both the center of the oligotrophic gyre and near the African coastline. This work additionally shows that the surface distribution of Sc in the North Atlantic correlates with the shape of the gyre as inferred by isotherm depth, with lower Sc concentrations at the gyre boundaries. This pattern suggests that Sc could be drawn down by the elevated particle flux at the gyre boundaries. In this case, Sc removal could be used as an indicator of scavenging intensity. In order to account for variable input of Sc to the surface ocean, we propose normalizing the Sc distribution to that of Y or La, which are much less particle reactive and are input via dust to the surface North Atlantic in constant ratios with Sc. Such normalization improves the correlation with isotherm depth. We propose that the variations in dissolved Y/Sc and La/Sc ratios may be due to preferential Sc scavenging and could therefore indicate scavenging intensity.

  9. On new ternary equiatomic scandium transition metal aluminum compounds ScTAl with T = Cr, Ru, Ag, Re, Pt, and Au

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radzieowski, Mathis; Janka, Oliver [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie; Benndorf, Christopher [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie; Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physikalische Chemie; Haverkamp, Sandra [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physikalische Chemie; Eckert, Hellmut [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physikalische Chemie; University of Sao Paulo, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. of Physics

    2016-08-01

    The new equiatomic scandium transition metal aluminides ScTAl for T = Cr, Ru, Ag, Re, Pt, and Au were obtained by arc-melting of the elements followed by subsequent annealing for crystal growth. The samples were studied by powder and single crystal X-ray diffraction. The structures of three compounds were refined from single crystal X-ray diffractometer data: ScCrAl, MgZn{sub 2} type, P6{sub 3}/mmc, a = 525.77(3), c = 858.68(5) pm, R{sub 1} = 0.0188, wR{sub 2} = 0.0485, 204 F{sup 2} values, 13 variables, ScPtAl, TiNiSi type, Pnma, a = 642.83(4), b = 428.96(2), c = 754.54(5) pm, R{sub 1} = 0.0326, wR{sub 2} = 0.0458, 448 F{sup 2} values, 20 variables and ScAuAl, HfRhSn type, P anti 62c, a = 722.88(4), c = 724.15(4) pm, R{sub 1} = 0.0316, wR{sub 2} = 0.0653, 512 F{sup 2} values, 18 variables. Phase pure samples of all compounds were furthermore investigated by magnetic susceptibility measurements, and Pauli-paramagnetism but no superconductivity was observed down to 2.1 K for all of them. The local structural features and disordering phenomena have been characterized by {sup 27}Al and {sup 45}Sc magic angle spinning (MAS) and static NMR spectroscopic investigations.

  10. Treatment of infraorbital dark circles in atopic dermatitis with a 2790-nm erbium: yttrium scandium gallium garnet laser: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kui Young; Oh, In Young; Moon, Nam Ju; Seo, Seong Jun

    2013-04-01

    Although many Asian atopic patients have orbital darkening symptom and the demand to treat this condition is increasing, little has been reported in the literature on the treatment of infraorbital dark circles in atopic dermatitis. To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of 2790-nm erbium:yttrium scandium gallium garnet (Er:YSGG) laser therapy for reducing infraorbital dark circles in atopic dermatitis patients. Ten Korean patients over 21 year with mild atopic dermatitis and infraorbital dark circles were enrolled in this study. Patients who need active atopic dermatitis treatments are excluded because of the possibility of aggravation after laser treatment. They were treated for dark circles using a 2790-nm Er:YSGG laser. The treatment parameters were 1.8-2.2 J/cm² fluence, 6-mm spot size, and 0.3-ms pulse width with 10% overlap over the infraorbital areas once with a 4-week interval between treatments. Efficacy was assessed with a quartile grading score ranging from 0 to 5 by a blinded investigator, and the patients also documented their degree of satisfaction with the same grading score. All possible side effects were evaluated. The clinical assessment showed 74.5% (2.7) and 72.5% (2.5) improvements, and the patient satisfaction scale scores improved an average of 74% (2.4) and 71.5% (2.3) at 2 months and 4 months after treatment, respectively. There were no severe side effects or aggravation of atopic dermatitis. Our study suggests that 2790-nm Er:YSGG laser therapy can be effectively and safely used in the treatment of infraorbital dark circles in atopic dermatitis patients.

  11. The influence of cation ordering, oxygen vacancy distribution and proton siting on observed properties in ceramic electrolytes: the case of scandium substituted barium titanate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torino, Nico; Henry, Paul F; Knee, Christopher S; Bjørheim, Tor Svendsen; Rahman, Seikh M H; Suard, Emma; Giacobbe, Carlotta; Eriksson, Sten G

    2017-07-04

    The origin of the 2-order of magnitude difference in the proton conductivity of the hydrated forms of hexagonal and cubic oxygen deficient BaScxTi1-xO3-δ (x = 0.2 and x = 0.7) was probed using a combination of neutron diffraction and density functional theory techniques to support published X-ray diffraction, conductivity, thermogravimetric and differential scanning calorimetry studies. Cation ordering is found in the 6H structure type (space group P63/mmc) adopted by BaSc0.2Ti0.8O3-δ with scandium preferentially substituting in the vertex sharing octahedra (2a crystallographic site) and avoiding the face-sharing octahedra (4f site). This is coupled with oxygen vacancy ordering in the central plane of the face-sharing octahedra (O1 site). In BaSc0.7Ti0.3O3-δ a simple cubic perovskite (space group Pm3[combining macron]m) best represents the average structure from Rietveld analysis with no evidence of either cation ordering or oxygen vacancy ordering. Significant diffuse scattering is observed, indicative of local order. Hydration in both cases leads to complete filling of the available oxygen vacancies and permits definition of the proton sites. We suggest that the more localised nature of the proton sites in the 6H structure is responsible for the significantly lower proton conduction observed in the literature. Within the 6H structure type final model, proton diffusion requires a 3-step process via higher energy proton sites that are unoccupied at room temperature and is also likely to be anisotropic whereas the highly disordered cubic perovskite proton position allows 3-dimensional diffusion by well-described modes. Finally, we propose how this knowledge can be used to further materials design for ceramic electrolytes for proton conducting fuel cells.

  12. Observations of 44i Bootis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurgenson, C.; Price, M. E.; Pereira, M.; Macinnes, D.; Snodgrass, H. B.

    1999-05-01

    Seven times of minimum were obtained for the W Ursae Majoris type system 44i Bootis; three primary and four secondary. These observations were taken using a 10-inch Newtonian reflector and 1P21 photomultiplier at Lewis & Clark College. Our times of minimum are used with previously observed minimum times for plotting an (o-c) curve to generate a function that describes how the system's ~ 6.5 hr. period is changing over time. After applying a parabolic least squares fit to the (o-c) curve we obtain a quadratic function F(E), where E is the eclipse number. Adding this to the 1991 ephemeris of Oprescu, we obtain a corrected non-linear ephemeris JD 2443604.5919 + 0.26781665 E + 5.9 x10(-11) E(2) . From this we find, in agreement with past observations, that the period of 44i Bootis is increasing over time, and determine the rate of increase. This work was supported by Partners in Science Grant HS0485, an M. J. Murdock Charitable Trust Award of Research Corporation.

  13. Cyclotron production of high purity (44m,44)Sc with deuterons from (44)CaCO3 targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliot, C; Kerdjoudj, R; Michel, N; Haddad, F; Huclier-Markai, S

    2015-06-01

    Due to its longer half-life, (44)Sc (T1/2 = 3.97 h) as a positron emitter can be an interesting alternative to (68)Ga (T1/2 = 67.71 min). It has been already proposed as a PET radionuclide for scouting bone disease and is already available as a (44)Ti/(44)Sc generator. (44)Sc has an isomeric state, (44 m)Sc (T1/2 = 58.6 h), which can be co-produced with (44)Sc and that has been proved to be considered as an in-vivo PET generator (44 m)Sc/(44)Sc. This work presents the production route of (44 m)Sc/(44)Sc generator from (44)Ca(d,2n), its extraction/purification process and the evaluation of its performances. Irradiation was performed in a low activity target station using a deuteron beam of 16 MeV, which favors the number of (44 m)Sc atoms produced simultaneously to (44)Sc. Typical irradiation conditions were 60 min at 0.2 μA producing 44 MBq of (44)Sc with a (44)Sc/(44 m)Sc activity ratio of 50 at end of irradiation. Separations of the radionuclides were performed by means of cation exchange chromatography using a DGA® resin (Triskem). Then, the developed process was applied with bigger targets, and could be used for preclinical studies. The extraction/purification process leads to a radionucleidic purity higher than 99.99% ((43)Sc, (46)Sc, (48)Sc < DL). (44 m)Sc/(44)Sc labeling towards DOTA moiety was performed in order to get an evaluation of the specific activities that could be reached with regard to all metallic impurities from the resulting source. Reaction parameters of radiolabeling were optimized, reaching yields over 95%, and leading to a specific activity of about 10-20 MBq/nmol for DOTA. A recycling process for the enriched (44)Ca target was developed and optimized. The quality of the final batch with regard to radionucleidic purity, specific activity and metal impurities allowed a right away use for further radiopharmaceutical evaluation. This radionucleidic pair of (44 m)Sc/(44)Sc offers a quite interesting PET radionuclide for being further

  14. 40 CFR 75.44 - Timeliness criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Timeliness criteria. 75.44 Section 75.44 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORING Alternative Monitoring Systems § 75.44 Timeliness criteria. To demonstrate...

  15. 27 CFR 44.112 - Emergency premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Emergency premises. 44.112 Section 44.112 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... Warehouse Proprietors Changes in Location and Premises § 44.112 Emergency premises. In cases of emergency...

  16. 27 CFR 44.110 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false 44.110 Section 44.110 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Proprietors Changes in Location and Premises § 44.110 ...

  17. 30 CFR 44.3 - Parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Parties. 44.3 Section 44.3 Mineral Resources... RULES OF PRACTICE FOR PETITIONS FOR MODIFICATION OF MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS General § 44.3 Parties. Parties to proceedings under this part shall include the Mine Safety and Health Administration, the...

  18. 8 CFR 1240.44 - Interpreter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpreter. 1240.44 Section 1240.44 Aliens....44 Interpreter. Any person acting as interpreter in a hearing before an immigration judge under this part shall be sworn to interpret and translate accurately, unless the interpreter is an employee of the...

  19. 46 CFR 272.44 - Dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dates. 272.44 Section 272.44 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING SUBSIDIZED VESSELS AND OPERATORS REQUIREMENTS... Examination, Audit, Review and Appeal Procedures § 272.44 Dates. The dates noted on the letters or...

  20. 40 CFR 61.44 - Stack sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stack sampling. 61.44 Section 61.44 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL... Firing § 61.44 Stack sampling. (a) Sources subject to § 61.42(b) shall be continuously sampled, during...

  1. 40 CFR 230.44 - Coral reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coral reefs. 230.44 Section 230.44... Aquatic Sites § 230.44 Coral reefs. (a) Coral reefs consist of the skeletal deposit, usually of calcareous... by increasing the level of suspended particulates. Coral organisms are extremely sensitive to even...

  2. 26 CFR 44.4412-1 - Registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Registration. 44.4412-1 Section 44.4412-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES TAXES ON WAGERING; EFFECTIVE JANUARY 1, 1955 Occupational Tax § 44.4412-1 Registration. (a) In...

  3. 34 CFR 300.44 - Universal design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Universal design. 300.44 Section 300.44 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND... DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.44 Universal design. Universal design has the meaning...

  4. 27 CFR 44.254 - Shipping containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shipping containers. 44.254 Section 44.254 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Requirements § 44.254 Shipping containers. Each shipping case, crate, or other container, in which cigars are...

  5. 27 CFR 44.184 - Mark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mark. 44.184 Section 44.184 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Tubes by Manufacturers and Export Warehouse Proprietors Packaging Requirements § 44.184 Mark. Every...

  6. 30 CFR 44.6 - Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Service. 44.6 Section 44.6 Mineral Resources... RULES OF PRACTICE FOR PETITIONS FOR MODIFICATION OF MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS General § 44.6 Service... modification may be served personally or by first class mail to the last known address of the party. Service...

  7. 48 CFR 44.307 - Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reports. 44.307 Section 44... SUBCONTRACTING POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Contractors' Purchasing Systems Reviews 44.307 Reports. The ACO shall distribute copies of CPSR reports; notifications granting, withholding, or withdrawing system approval; and...

  8. 12 CFR 4.4 - Washington office.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Washington office. 4.4 Section 4.4 Banks and... EXAMINERS Organization and Functions § 4.4 Washington office. The Washington office of the OCC is the main office and headquarters of the OCC. The Washington office directs OCC policy, oversees OCC operations...

  9. 29 CFR 44.3 - Election process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Election process. 44.3 Section 44.3 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor PROCESS FOR ELECTING STATE AGENCY EMPLOYMENT STATISTICS REPRESENTATIVES FOR CONSULTATIONS WITH DEPARTMENT OF LABOR § 44.3 Election process. (a) Process. The Commissioner of Labor Statistics of...

  10. 27 CFR 44.141 - Sign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sign. 44.141 Section 44... PAYMENT OF TAX, OR WITH DRAWBACK OF TAX Operations by Export Warehouse Proprietors § 44.141 Sign. Every... is located, or at the entrance of his warehouse, where it can be plainly seen, a sign, in plain and...

  11. 37 CFR 2.44 - Collective mark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Collective mark. 2.44 Section 2.44 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES The Written Application § 2.44 Collective mark. (a) In an...

  12. 7 CFR 1218.44 - Alternate members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Alternate members. 1218.44 Section 1218.44... Council § 1218.44 Alternate members. An alternate member of the Council, during the absence of the member for whom the person is the alternate, shall act in the place and stead of such member and perform such...

  13. 12 CFR 561.44 - Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Security. 561.44 Section 561.44 Banks and... SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 561.44 Security. The term security means any non-withdrawable account, note, stock... commonly known as a security, or any certificate of interest or participation in, temporary or interim...

  14. 45 CFR 96.44 - Community services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Community services. 96.44 Section 96.44 Public... Indian Tribes and Tribal Organizations § 96.44 Community services. (a) This section applies to direct funding of Indian tribes and tribal organizations under the community services block grant. (b) The terms...

  15. 10 CFR § 1003.44 - Contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2017-01-01 2017-01-01 false Contents. § 1003.44 Section § 1003.44 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) OFFICE OF HEARINGS AND APPEALS PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS Stays § 1003.44 Contents. (a) An Application for Stay shall contain a full and complete statement of all relevant facts...

  16. 7 CFR 930.44 - Quality control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Quality control. 930.44 Section 930.44 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Control § 930.44 Quality control. (a) Quality standards. The Board may establish, with the approval of the...

  17. 18 CFR 420.44 - Cooling water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cooling water. 420.44 Section 420.44 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL BASIN REGULATIONS-WATER SUPPLY CHARGES Charges; Exemptions § 420.44 Cooling water. Water used...

  18. 21 CFR 20.44 - Expedited processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Expedited processing. 20.44 Section 20.44 Food and... Procedures and Fees § 20.44 Expedited processing. (a) The Food and Drug Administration will provide expedited processing of a request for records when the requester demonstrates a compelling need, or in other cases as...

  19. 48 CFR 44.302 - Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements. 44.302 Section 44.302 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT SUBCONTRACTING POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Contractors' Purchasing Systems Reviews 44.302 Requirements. (a) The ACO...

  20. 7 CFR 2902.44 - Corrosion preventatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Corrosion preventatives. 2902.44 Section 2902.44... Items § 2902.44 Corrosion preventatives. (a) Definition. Products designed to prevent the deterioration (corrosion) of metals. (b) Minimum biobased content. The preferred procurement product must have a minimum...

  1. 26 CFR 44.0-1 - Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Introduction. 44.0-1 Section 44.0-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES TAXES ON WAGERING; EFFECTIVE JANUARY 1, 1955 Introduction § 44.0-1 Introduction. (a) In general. The...

  2. Effects of erbium-and chromium-doped yttrium scandium gallium garnet and diode lasers on the surfaces of restorative dental materials: a scanning electron microscope study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatipoglu, M; Barutcigil, C

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential effects of laser irradiation, which is commonly performed in periodontal surgery, on the surfaces of restorative materials. Five different restorative dental materials were used in this study, as follows: (1) Resin composite, (2) poly acid-modified resin composite (compomer), (3) conventional glass ionomer cement (GIC), (4) resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC), and (5) amalgam. Four cylindrical samples (8 mm diameter, 2 mm height) were prepared for each restorative material. In addition, four freshly extracted, sound human incisors teeth were selected. Two different laser systems commonly used in periodontal surgery were examined in this study: A 810 nm diode laser at a setting of 1 W with continuous-phase laser irradiation for 10 s, and an erbium-and chromium-doped yttrium scandium gallium garnet (Er, Cr: YSGG) laser at settings of 2.5 W, 3.25 W, and 4 W with 25 Hz laser irradiation for 10 s. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis was performed to evaluate the morphology and surface deformation of the restorative materials and tooth surfaces. According to the SEM images, the Er, Cr: YSGG laser causes irradiation markings that appear as demineralized surfaces on tooth samples. The Er, Cr: YSGG laser also caused deep defects on composite, compomer, and RMGIC surfaces because of its high power, and the ablation was deeper for these samples. High-magnification SEM images of GIC samples showed the melting and combustion effects of the Er, Cr: YSGG laser, which increased as the laser power was increased. In amalgam samples, neither laser left significant harmful effects at the lowest power setting. The diode laser did cause irradiation markings, but they were insignificant compared with those left by the Er, Cr: YSGG laser on the surfaces of the different materials and teeth. Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that Er, Cr: YSGG laser irradiation could cause distortions of the surfaces

  3. Influence of c-axis orientation and scandium concentration on infrared active modes of magnetron sputtered Sc{sub x}Al{sub 1−x}N thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayrhofer, P. M.; Bittner, A.; Schmid, U. [Institute of Sensor and Actuator Systems, Vienna University of Technology, Floragasse 7, 1040 Vienna (Austria); Eisenmenger-Sittner, C. [Institute of Solid State Physics, Vienna University of Technology, Wiedner Hauptstrasse 8, 1040 Vienna (Austria); Euchner, H. [Institute of Materials Science and Technology, Vienna University of Technology, Karlsplatz 13, 1040 Vienna (Austria)

    2013-12-16

    Doping of wurtzite aluminium nitride (AlN) with scandium (Sc) significantly enhances the piezoelectric properties of AlN. Sc{sub x}Al{sub 1−x}N thin films with different Sc concentrations (x = 0 to 0.15) were deposited by DC reactive magnetron sputtering. Infrared (IR) absorbance spectroscopy was applied to investigate the Sc concentration dependent shift of the IR active modes E{sub 1}(TO) and A{sub 1}(TO). These results are compared to ab initio simulations, being in excellent agreement with the experimental findings. In addition, IR spectroscopy is established as an economical and fast method to distinguish between thin films with a high degree of c-axis orientation and those exhibiting mixed orientations.

  4. 27 CFR 6.44 - Free warehousing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Free warehousing. 6.44 Section 6.44 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... warehousing. The furnishing of free warehousing by delaying delivery of distilled spirits, wine, or malt...

  5. 21 CFR 211.44 - Lighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lighting. 211.44 Section 211.44 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL... Lighting. Adequate lighting shall be provided in all areas. ...

  6. 27 CFR 44.144 - Opening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... PAYMENT OF TAX, OR WITH DRAWBACK OF TAX Operations by Export Warehouse Proprietors Inventories § 44.144 Opening. An opening inventory shall be made by the export warehouse proprietor at the time of commencing... permit issued under § 44.93. A similar inventory shall be made by the export warehouse proprietor when he...

  7. 27 CFR 44.83 - Corporate documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Corporate documents. 44.83... Proprietors § 44.83 Corporate documents. Every corporation, before commencing business as an export warehouse... the same; the authority of persons to sign other documents, required by this part, for the corporation...

  8. 16 CFR 4.4 - Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Service. 4.4 Section 4.4 Commercial... Service. (a) By the Commission. (1) Service of complaints, initial decisions, final orders and other..., registered or certified, and mailed; service under this provision is complete upon delivery of the document...

  9. 28 CFR 540.44 - Regular visitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Regular visitors. 540.44 Section 540.44... and if there exists no reason to exclude them. (c) Friends and associates. The visiting privilege ordinarily will be extended to friends and associates having an established relationship with the inmate...

  10. 40 CFR 30.44 - Procurement procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procurement procedures. 30.44 Section 30.44 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE... procured. In competitive procurements, such a description shall not contain features which unduly restrict...

  11. 27 CFR 44.227 - Customs procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Customs procedure. 44.227..., WITHOUT PAYMENT OF TAX, OR WITH DRAWBACK OF TAX Drawback of Tax § 44.227 Customs procedure. The customs... having inspected the articles and supervised the lading thereof on the export carrier, the customs...

  12. 27 CFR 44.249 - Lottery features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lottery features. 44.249... Requirements § 44.249 Lottery features. No certificate, coupon, or other device purporting to be or to represent a ticket, chance, share, or an interest in, or dependent on, the event of a lottery shall be...

  13. 27 CFR 44.145 - Special.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... PAYMENT OF TAX, OR WITH DRAWBACK OF TAX Operations by Export Warehouse Proprietors Inventories § 44.145 Special. A special inventory shall be made by the export warehouse proprietor whenever required by any...

  14. 27 CFR 44.146 - Closing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... PAYMENT OF TAX, OR WITH DRAWBACK OF TAX Operations by Export Warehouse Proprietors Inventories § 44.146 Closing. A closing inventory shall be made by the export warehouse proprietor when he transfers ownership...

  15. 48 CFR 44.202-1 - Responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SUBCONTRACTING POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Consent to Subcontracts 44.202-1 Responsibilities. (a) The cognizant... notification and supporting data to ensure that the proposed subcontract is appropriate for the risks involved...

  16. Downregulation of CD44 reduces doxorubicin resistance of CD44+CD24- breast cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuc PV

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Pham Van Phuc, Phan Lu Chinh Nhan, Truong Hai Nhung, Nguyen Thanh Tam, Nguyen Minh Hoang, Vuong Gia Tue, Duong Thanh Thuy, Phan Kim NgocLaboratory of Stem Cell Research and Application, University of Science, Vietnam National University, Ho Chi Minh, VietnamBackground: Cells within breast cancer stem cell populations have been confirmed to have a CD44+CD24- phenotype. Strong expression of CD44 plays a critical role in numerous types of human cancers. CD44 is involved in cell differentiation, adhesion, and metastasis of cancer cells.Methods: In this study, we reduced CD44 expression in CD44+CD24- breast cancer stem cells and investigated their sensitivity to an antitumor drug. The CD44+CD24- breast cancer stem cells were isolated from breast tumors; CD44 expression was downregulated with siRNAs followed by treatment with different concentrations of the antitumor drug.Results: The proliferation of CD44 downregulated CD44+CD24- breast cancer stem cells was decreased after drug treatment. We noticed treated cells were more sensitive to doxorubicin, even at low doses, compared with the control groups.Conclusions: It would appear that expression of CD44 is integral among the CD44+CD24- cell population. Reducing the expression level of CD44, combined with doxorubicin treatment, yields promising results for eradicating breast cancer stem cells in vitro. This study opens a new direction in treating breast cancer through gene therapy in conjunction with chemotherapy.Keywords: antitumor drugs, breast cancer stem cells, CD44, CD44+CD24- cells, doxorubicin

  17. Two scandium-biuret complexes: [Sc(C2H5N3O2)(H2O)5]Cl3 x H2O and [Sc(C2H5N3O2)4](NO3)3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, William T A

    2008-05-01

    The scandium(III) cations in the structures of pentaaqua(biuret-kappa(2)O,O')scandium(III) trichloride monohydrate, [Sc(C(2)H(5)N(3)O(2))(H(2)O)(5)]Cl(3) x H(2)O, (I), and tetrakis(biuret-kappa(2)O,O')scandium(III) trinitrate, [Sc(C(2)H(5)N(3)O(2))(4)](NO(3))(3), (II), are found to adopt very different coordinations with the same biuret ligand. The roles of hydrogen bonding and the counter-ion in the establishment of the structures are described. In (I), the Sc(3+) cation adopts a fairly regular pentagonal bipyramidal coordination geometry arising from one O,O'-bidentate biuret molecule and five water molecules. A dense network of N-H...Cl, O-H...O and O-H...Cl hydrogen bonds help to establish the packing, resulting in dimeric associations of two cations and two water molecules. In (II), the Sc(3+) cation (site symmetry 2) adopts a slightly squashed square-antiprismatic geometry arising from four O,O'-bidentate biuret molecules. A network of N-H...O hydrogen bonds help to establish the packing, which features [010] chains of cations. One of the nitrate ions is disordered about an inversion centre. Both structures form three-dimensional hydrogen-bond networks.

  18. SPE-44 implements sperm cell fate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhura Kulkarni

    Full Text Available The sperm/oocyte decision in the hermaphrodite germline of Caenorhabditis elegans provides a powerful model for the characterization of stem cell fate specification and differentiation. The germline sex determination program that governs gamete fate has been well studied, but direct mediators of cell-type-specific transcription are largely unknown. We report the identification of spe-44 as a critical regulator of sperm gene expression. Deletion of spe-44 causes sperm-specific defects in cytokinesis, cell cycle progression, and organelle assembly resulting in sterility. Expression of spe-44 correlates precisely with spermatogenesis and is regulated by the germline sex determination pathway. spe-44 is required for the appropriate expression of several hundred sperm-enriched genes. The SPE-44 protein is restricted to the sperm-producing germline, where it localizes to the autosomes (which contain sperm genes but is excluded from the transcriptionally silent X chromosome (which does not. The orthologous gene in other Caenorhabditis species is similarly expressed in a sex-biased manner, and the protein likewise exhibits autosome-specific localization in developing sperm, strongly suggestive of an evolutionarily conserved role in sperm gene expression. Our analysis represents the first identification of a transcriptional regulator whose primary function is the control of gamete-type-specific transcription in this system.

  19. H I in group interactions: HCG 44

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Kelley M.; Cluver, M. E.; Yahya, Sahba; Leisman, Lukas; Serra, Paolo; Lucero, Danielle M.; Passmoor, Sean S.; Carignan, Claude

    2017-01-01

    Extending deep observations of the neutral atomic hydrogen (H I) to the environment around galaxy groups can reveal a complex history of group interactions which is invisible to studies that focus on the stellar component. Hickson Compact Group 44 (HCG 44) is a nearby example, and we have combined H I data from the Karoo Array Telescope, Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope, and Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA survey, in order to achieve high column density sensitivity (N _{H {I}}HCG 44 contains 1.1 × 109 M⊙ of gas and extends 450 kpc from the compact group: twice as much mass and 33 per cent further than previously detected. However, the additional gas is still unable to account for the known H I deficiency of HCG 44. The tail likely formed through a strong tidal interaction and H I clouds in the tail have survived for 1 Gyr or more after being stripped. This has important implications for understanding the survival of neutral clouds in the intragroup and circumgroup medium, and we discuss their survival in the context of simulations of cold gas in hot haloes. HCG 44 is one of a growing number of galaxy groups found to have more extended H I in the intragroup and circumgroup medium than previously measured. Our results provide constraints for simulations on the properties of galaxy group haloes, and reveal a glimpse of what will be seen by future powerful H I telescopes and surveys.

  20. Sensitization and cross-reactivity patterns of contact allergy to diisocyanates and corresponding amines: investigation of diphenylmethane-4,4'-diisocyanate, diphenylmethane-4,4'-diamine, dicyclohexylmethane-4,4'-diisocyanate, and dicylohexylmethane-4,4'-diamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Haneen; Bruze, Magnus; Zimerson, Erik; Isaksson, Marléne; Engfeldt, Malin

    2017-10-01

    Isocyanates are used in polyurethane production. Dermal exposure to isocyanates can induce contact allergy. The most common isocyanate is diphenylmethane diisocyanate used for industrial purposes. The isomer diphenylmethane-4,4'-diisocyanate (4,4'-MDI) is used in patch testing. Diphenylmethane-4,4'-diamine (4,4'-MDA) is its corresponding amine. Concurrent reactions to 4,4'-MDI and 4,4'-MDA have been reported, as have concurrent reactions to 4,4'-MDI and dicyclohexylmethane-4,4'-diisocyanate (4,4'-DMDI). To investigate the sensitization capacities and the cross-reactivity of 4,4'-MDI, 4,4'-MDA, 4,4'-DMDI, and dicyclohexylmethane-4,4'-diamine (4,4'-DMDA). The guinea-pig maximization test (GPMT) was used. The GPMT showed sensitizing capacities for all investigated substances: 4,4'-MDI, 4,4'-MDA, 4,4'-DMDI, and 4,4'-DMDA (all p < 0.001). 4,4'-MDI-sensitized animals showed cross-reactivity to 4,4'-MDA (p < 0.001) and 4,4'-DMDI (all p < 0.05). 4,4'-MDA-sensitized animals showed cross-reactivity to 4,4'-DMDA (p = 0.008). All of the investigated substances were shown to be strong sensitizers. Animals sensitized to 4,4'-MDI showed cross-reactivity to 4,4'-MDA and 4,4'-DMDI, supporting previous findings in the literature. The aromatic amine 4,4'-MDA showed cross-reactivity to the aliphatic amine 4,4'-DMDA. © 2017 The Authors. Contact Dermatitis published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. 44 CFR 206.438 - Project management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Project management. 206.438 Section 206.438 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... Project management. (a) General. The State serving as grantee has primary responsibility for project...

  2. 44 CFR 206.373 - Eligibility criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Eligibility criteria. 206.373... Eligibility criteria. (a) Local government. (1) The local government must be located within the area eligible... government from incurring the indebtedness resulting from a Federal loan. (2) Criteria considered by FEMA in...

  3. 44 CFR 206.363 - Eligibility criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Eligibility criteria. 206.363... Eligibility criteria. (a) Local government. (1) The local government must be located within the area... incurring the indebtedness resulting from a Federal loan. (2) Criteria considered by FEMA in determining the...

  4. 44 CFR 208.43 - Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rehabilitation. 208.43... Agreements § 208.43 Rehabilitation. DHS will reimburse costs incurred to return System equipment and... Activation. (3) Personnel costs associated with equipment cache rehabilitation. DHS will reimburse costs...

  5. 2 CFR 215.44 - Procurement procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....44 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET CIRCULARS AND GUIDANCE Reserved UNIFORM... characteristics or minimum acceptable standards. (iv) The specific features of “brand name or equal” descriptions... expected to exceed the small purchase threshold, specifies a “brand name” product. (4) The proposed award...

  6. 44 CFR 5.89 - Waiver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Waiver. 5.89 Section 5.89 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... appropriate in order that a response in strict compliance with the terms of a subpoena duces tecum or the...

  7. Water SA - Vol 44, No 1 (2018)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of the effectiveness of the National Benchmarking Initiative (NBI) in improving the productivity of water services authorities in South Africa · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Warren Brettenny, Gary Sharp, 37-44 ...

  8. 44 CFR 65.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 65.2 Section 65.2 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND..., a certification by a registered professional engineer or other party does not constitute a warranty...

  9. 44 CFR 12.4 - Interpretations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SECURITY GENERAL ADVISORY COMMITTEES § 12.4 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized in writing by the Administrator, including internal instructions, no interpretation of the meaning of the... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interpretations. 12.4 Section...

  10. 44 CFR 5.25 - Available materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Available materials. 5.25... Agency Information, Rules, Orders, Policies, and Similar Material § 5.25 Available materials. FEMA materials which are available under this subpart are as follows: (a) Final opinions and orders made in the...

  11. 44 CFR 206.17 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Effective date. 206.17 Section 206.17 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE FEDERAL DISASTER ASSISTANCE General § 206.17 Effective date. These...

  12. 44 CFR 80.21 - Closeout requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Closeout requirements. 80.21 Section 80.21 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... was mitigated and that the deed restrictions recorded are consistent with the FEMA model deed...

  13. 44 CFR 206.431 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Definitions. Activity means any mitigation measure, project, or action proposed to reduce risk of future... application means the request to FEMA for HMGP funding, as outlined in § 206.436, by a State or tribal... subgrantee as a condition of receiving a project subgrant under the HMGP as outlined in 44 CFR 201.6...

  14. 27 CFR 44.104 - Fiduciary successor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... warehouse proprietor, as a continuing operation, such fiduciary shall, before commencing operations, make... Warehouse Proprietors Changes in Ownership and Control § 44.104 Fiduciary successor. If an administrator... the business, qualification as an export warehouse proprietor will not be required if he promptly...

  15. 27 CFR 44.143 - General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... PAYMENT OF TAX, OR WITH DRAWBACK OF TAX Operations by Export Warehouse Proprietors Inventories § 44.143 General. (a) Every export warehouse proprietor shall at the times specified in this subpart make a true... export warehouse proprietor for 3 years following the close of the calendar year in which the inventory...

  16. 27 CFR 44.147 - General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... PAYMENT OF TAX, OR WITH DRAWBACK OF TAX Operations by Export Warehouse Proprietors Reports § 44.147 General. Every export warehouse proprietor shall make a report on Form 5220.4 of all tobacco products... any operations or transactions occurred during the period covered by the report. A copy of each report...

  17. 44 CFR 329.2 - Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Policies. 329.2 Section 329.2 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PREPAREDNESS USE OF PRIORITIES AND ALLOCATION AUTHORITY FOR FEDERAL SUPPLY CLASSIFICATION (FSC) COMMON USE...

  18. 44 CFR 206.225 - Emergency work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emergency work. 206.225 Section 206.225 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... Emergency work. (a) General. (1) Emergency protective measures to save lives, to protect public health and...

  19. 44 CFR 350.3 - Background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Background. 350.3 Section 350.3 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... § 350.3 Background. (a) On December 7, 1979, the President directed the Administrator of FEMA to take...

  20. 44 CFR 334.3 - Background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Background. 334.3 Section 334.3 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PREPAREDNESS GRADUATED MOBILIZATION RESPONSE § 334.3 Background. (a) The GMR system is designed to...

  1. 44 CFR 295.42 - Arbitration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Arbitration. 295.42 Section... SECURITY CERRO GRANDE FIRE ASSISTANCE CERRO GRANDE FIRE ASSISTANCE Dispute Resolution § 295.42 Arbitration. (a) Initiating arbitration. A Claimant who is dissatisfied with the outcome of the Administrative...

  2. 44 CFR 206.221 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... buildings, structures, equipment, or systems used to provide emergency services, such as fire protection... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 206.221 Section 206.221 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF...

  3. 44 CFR 151.02 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., Definitions § 151.02 Scope. Fire services, in any State, may file claims for reimbursement under section 11... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 151.02 Section 151.02 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY...

  4. 44 CFR 204.42 - Eligible costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... are providing services directly associated with eligible fire-related activities may be eligible. (2... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Eligible costs. 204.42 Section 204.42 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF...

  5. 44 CFR 13.25 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Program income. 13.25 Section... LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 13.25 Program income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees...

  6. RJHS Vol 4(4).cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABEOLUGBENGAS

    . J Pak. Med Assoc 2010; 60(7): 543-47. 43. Diagnosis of zinc deficiency step by step, BMJ publishing group limited 2011, available at th htp;/eso.cdn.bmj.com, accessed on 14. September 2016. 44. Solomon NW. Assesment of copper and zinc.

  7. 44 CFR 206.227 - Snow assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Snow assistance. 206.227 Section 206.227 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... Snow assistance. Emergency or major disaster declarations based on snow or blizzard conditions will be...

  8. 44 CFR 6.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 6.2 Section 6.2 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... those concerning education, financial transactions, medical history, and criminal or employment history...

  9. 44 CFR 206.204 - Project performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Project performance. 206.204... § 206.204 Project performance. (a) General. This section describes the policies and procedures applicable during the performance of eligible work. (b) Advances of funds. Advances of funds will be made in...

  10. 27 CFR 30.44 - Weighing containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Weighing containers. 30.44... Weighing containers. (a) Weighing containers of more than 10 wine gallons. The weight of containers having.... (b) Weighing containers of 10 wine gallons or less. The weight for containers of a capacity of 10...

  11. 27 CFR 44.187 - Shipping containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shipping containers. 44... Shipping containers. Each shipping case, crate, or other container in which tobacco products, or cigarette... same containers in which they were received from the factory. (72 Stat. 1418, as amended; 26 U.S.C...

  12. 44 CFR 206.402 - Compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compliance. 206.402 Section... HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE FEDERAL DISASTER ASSISTANCE Minimum Standards § 206.402 Compliance. A... compliance with this subpart following the completion of any repair or construction activities. ...

  13. 44 CFR 13.31 - Real property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Real property. 13.31 Section 13.31 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... any actual and reasonable selling and fixing-up expenses. If the grant is still active, the net...

  14. 44 CFR 401.3 - Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reports. 401.3 Section 401.3... RESTRICTIONS (T-1) § 401.3 Reports. Persons subject to this order shall submit such reports to the Assistant... Reports Act. ...

  15. 44 CFR 321.8 - Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reports. 321.8 Section 321.8... ADMINISTRATION) § 321.8 Reports. The Department of Defense, Department of Energy, and Maritime Administration shall furnish the Administrator of the Federal Emergency Management Agency with reports on items and...

  16. 44 CFR 327.5 - Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reports. 327.5 Section 327.5 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Reports. Such reports of operations under this order as may be required by the Federal Emergency...

  17. 44 CFR 150.3 - Nomination process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nomination process. 150.3 Section 150.3 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... Nomination process. (a) The Nominating Officials nominating Firefighters and Civil Defense Officers shall...

  18. 44 CFR 150.7 - Selection process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Selection process. 150.7 Section 150.7 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... Selection process. (a) President's Award. Nominations for the President's Award shall be reviewed, and...

  19. 44 CFR 79.5 - Application process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application process. 79.5 Section 79.5 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... § 79.5 Application process. (a) Applicant or grantee. (1) States will be notified of the amount...

  20. 44 CFR 352.29 - Appeal process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Appeal process. 352.29 Section 352.29 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... Participation § 352.29 Appeal process. (a) Any interested party may appeal a determination made by the Deputy...

  1. 44 CFR 1.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 1.2 Section 1.2... GENERAL RULEMAKING; POLICY AND PROCEDURES General § 1.2 Definitions. (a) Rule or regulation means the... effect on the economy of $100 million or more; (2) A major increase in costs or prices for consumers...

  2. 44 CFR 6.85 - Reproduction fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reproduction fees. 6.85... HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 Fees § 6.85 Reproduction fees. (a... over 81/2 x 14 inches or whose physical characteristics do not permit reproduction by routine...

  3. 44 CFR 208.25 - Obsolete equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Obsolete equipment. 208.25... Cooperative Agreements § 208.25 Obsolete equipment. (a) The Assistant Administrator will periodically identify obsolete items on the Equipment Cache List and provide such information to Sponsoring Agencies. (b) Neither...

  4. 44 CFR 13.32 - Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equipment. 13.32 Section 13... LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Changes, Property, and Subawards § 13.32 Equipment. (a) Title. Subject to the obligations and conditions set forth in this section, title to equipment acquired under a...

  5. 44 CFR 354.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... exercise means the joint licensee/State and local government exercise, evaluated by FEMA, conducted around a commercial nuclear power plant site once every two years in conformance with 44 CFR part 350. EPZ... or Licensee means the utility or organization that has applied for or has received from the NRC: (1...

  6. 44 CFR 19.310 - Recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recruitment. 19.310 Section... RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 19.310 Recruitment. (a) Nondiscriminatory recruitment. A recipient to which §§ 19.300 through 19...

  7. 44 CFR 19.510 - Recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recruitment. 19.510 Section... Programs or Activities Prohibited § 19.510 Recruitment. (a) Nondiscriminatory recruitment and hiring. A recipient shall not discriminate on the basis of sex in the recruitment and hiring of employees. Where a...

  8. 44 CFR 19.235 - Statutory amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Statutory amendments. 19.235 Section 19.235 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... of factors related to the individual's personal appearance, poise, and talent. The pageant, however...

  9. 44 CFR 5.41 - FEMA publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false FEMA publications. 5.41 Section 5.41 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... obtain FEMA publications without charge from the FEMA Headquarters, Regional Offices, the FEMA Library at...

  10. 44 CFR 12.7 - Charter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Charter. 12.7 Section 12.7 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... also be furnished at the time of filing to the Library of Congress, Exchange and Gift Division, Federal...

  11. 44 CFR 9.2 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Agency to provide leadership in floodplain management and the protection of wetlands. Further, the Agency... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Policy. 9.2 Section 9.2 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY...

  12. 44 CFR 206.347 - Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements. 206.347 Section... Requirements. (a) Location determination. For each disaster assistance action which is proposed on the Atlantic... requirements of these regulations needs to be met, and the action may be processed under other applicable...

  13. 44 CFR 5.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 5.3 Section 5.3 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... transaction of public business and preserved, or appropriate for preservation, as evidence of the organization...

  14. 44 CFR 15.8 - Gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gambling. 15.8 Section 15.8... CENTER § 15.8 Gambling. We prohibit participating in games for money or other personal property, including the operation of gambling devices, the conduct of a lottery or pool, or the sale or purchase of...

  15. 27 CFR 44.182 - Lottery features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lottery features. 44.182... Lottery features. No certificate, coupon, or other device purporting to be or to represent a ticket, chance, share, or an interest in, or dependent on, the event of a lottery shall be contained in, attached...

  16. 44 CFR 19.540 - Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Advertising. 19.540 Section 19.540 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... Programs or Activities Prohibited § 19.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to...

  17. 44 CFR 208.41 - Administrative allowance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administrative allowance. 208... Cooperative Agreements § 208.41 Administrative allowance. (a) The administrative allowance is intended to... administrative allowance will be equal to the following: (1) If total allowable costs are less than $100,000, 3...

  18. 44 CFR 9.18 - Responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Responsibilities. 9.18... HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION OF WETLANDS § 9.18 Responsibilities. (a) Regional Administrators' responsibilities. Regional Administrators shall, for all actions falling within...

  19. 44 CFR 201.3 - Responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Responsibilities. 201.3... HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE MITIGATION PLANNING § 201.3 Responsibilities. (a) General. This section identifies the key responsibilities of FEMA, States, and local/tribal governments in carrying out...

  20. 44 CFR 79.3 - Responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Responsibilities. 79.3... § 79.3 Responsibilities. (a) Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). Administer and provide... responsibilities of the “State” as the term is used in this part, as applicant or grantee, described in paragraphs...

  1. 44 CFR 206.362 - Responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Responsibilities. 206.362 Section 206.362 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... Responsibilities. (a) The local government shall submit the financial information required by FEMA in the...

  2. 44 CFR 10.5 - Responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Responsibilities. 10.5... Responsibilities. (a) The Regional Administrators shall, for each action not categorically excluded from this... impact statements and assign lead agency responsibility when more than one FEMA office or administration...

  3. 44 CFR 323.3 - Responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Responsibilities. 323.3...) § 323.3 Responsibilities. (a) As stated in The National Plan for Emergency Preparedness, the direction of resources mobilization is a Federal responsibility. However, in the period immediately following...

  4. 44 CFR 78.3 - Responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Responsibilities. 78.3 Section 78.3 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... ASSISTANCE § 78.3 Responsibilities. (a) Federal. The Administrator will allocate available funds to each FEMA...

  5. 44 CFR 206.372 - Responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Responsibilities. 206.372 Section 206.372 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... Responsibilities. (a) The local government shall submit the financial information required by FEMA in the...

  6. 44 CFR 16.140 - Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Employment. 16.140 Section 16... CONDUCTED BY THE FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY § 16.140 Employment. No qualified individual with handicaps shall, on the basis of handicap, be subject to discrimination in employment under any program or...

  7. 44 CFR 19.500 - Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Employment. 19.500 Section 19... FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 19.500 Employment. (a) General. (1) No person shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded...

  8. 44 CFR 13.41 - Financial reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Financial reporting. 13.41... Financial reporting. (a) General. (1) Except as provided in paragraphs (a) (2) and (5) of this section... supplementary or other forms as may from time to time be authorized by OMB, for: (i) Submitting financial...

  9. Ovarian lesions in 44 rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    BERTRAM, Christof Albert; KLOPFLEISCH, Robert; MÜLLER, Kerstin

    2017-01-01

    The clinical and pathological records of 44 domestic, female rabbits with an age ranging from 6–124 months (median age: 63.5 month) were assessed retrospectively for ovarian lesions. Included were all rabbits that underwent an ovariohysterectomy with a subsequent pathological examination of the genital tract between March 1997 and June 2016. Pathological examination revealed ovarian lesions in 12 of the 44 rabbits including follicular cysts (n=7), cystic rete ovarii (n=3), widespread ovarian necrosis with dystrophic calcification (n=2), ovarian adenoma (n=1). Clinical examination including radiographs only suggested ovarian disorders in two cases of ovarian necrosis with dystrophic calcification and in two cases of cystic rete ovarii. Clinical significance was only conclusive in a case of cystic rete ovarii. PMID:29057758

  10. LERF Basin 44 Process Test Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LUECK, K.J.

    1999-08-31

    This document presents a plan to process a portion of the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) Basin 44 wastewater through the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). The objective of this process test is to determine the most effective/efficient method to treat the wastewater currently stored in LERF Basin 44. The process test will determine the operational parameters necessary to comply with facility effluent discharge permit limits (Ecology 1995) and the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF) acceptance criteria (BHI-00139), while achieving ALARA goals and maintaining the integrity of facility equipment. A major focus of the test plan centers on control of contamination due to leaks and/or facility maintenance. As a pre-startup item, all known leaks will be fixed before the start of the test. During the course of the test, a variety of contamination control measures will be evaluated for implementation during the treatment of the remaining Basin 44 inventory. Of special interest will be techniques and tools used to prevent contamination spread during sampling and when opening contaminated facility equipment/piping. At the conclusion of the test, a post ALARA review will be performed to identify lessons learned from the test run which can be applied to the treatment of the remaining Basin 44 inventory. The volume of wastewater to be treated during this test run is 500,000 gallons. This volume limit is necessary to maintain the ETF radiological inventory limits per the approved authorization basis. The duration of the process test is approximately 30 days.

  11. Functional Differences between Human NKp44(-) and NKp44(+) RORC(+) Innate Lymphoid Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoorweg, Kerim; Peters, Charlotte P; Cornelissen, Ferry; Aparicio-Domingo, Patricia; Papazian, Natalie; Kazemier, Geert; Mjösberg, Jenny M; Spits, Hergen; Cupedo, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Human RORC(+) lymphoid tissue inducer cells are part of a rapidly expanding family of innate lymphoid cells (ILC) that participate in innate and adaptive immune responses as well as in lymphoid tissue (re) modeling. The assessment of a potential role for innate lymphocyte-derived cytokines in human homeostasis and disease is hampered by a poor characterization of RORC(+) innate cell subsets and a lack of knowledge on the distribution of these cells in adults. Here we show that functionally distinct subsets of human RORC(+) innate lymphoid cells are enriched for secretion of IL-17a or IL-22. Both subsets have an activated phenotype and can be distinguished based on the presence or absence of the natural cytotoxicity receptor NKp44. NKp44(+) IL-22 producing cells are present in tonsils while NKp44(-) IL-17a producing cells are present in fetal developing lymph nodes. Development of human intestinal NKp44(+) ILC is a programmed event that is independent of bacterial colonization and these cells colonize the fetal intestine during the first trimester. In the adult intestine, NKp44(+) ILC are the main ILC subset producing IL-22. NKp44(-) ILC remain present throughout adulthood in peripheral non-inflamed lymph nodes as resting, non-cytokine producing cells. However, upon stimulation lymph node ILC can swiftly initiate cytokine transcription suggesting that secondary human lymphoid organs may function as a reservoir for innate lymphoid cells capable of participating in inflammatory responses.

  12. Catalytic pyrolysis using UZM-44 aluminosilicate zeolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Christopher P; Boldingh, Edwin P

    2013-12-17

    A new family of aluminosilicate zeolites designated UZM-44 has been synthesized. These zeolites are represented by the empirical formula Na.sub.nM.sub.m.sup.k+T.sub.tAl.sub.1-xE.sub.xSi.sub.yO.sub.z where "n" is the mole ratio of Na to (Al+E), M represents a metal or metals from zinc, Group 1, Group 2, Group 3 and or the lanthanide series of the periodic table, "m" is the mole ratio of M to (Al+E), "k" is the average charge of the metal or metals M, T is the organic structure directing agent or agents, and E is a framework element such as gallium. The process involves contacting a carbonaceous biomass feedstock with UZM-44 at pyrolysis conditions to produce pyrolysis gases comprising hydrocarbons. The catalyst catalyzes a deoxygenation reaction converting oxygenated hydrocarbons into hydrocarbons and removing the oxygen as carbon oxides and water. A portion of the pyrolysis gases is condensed to produce low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil.

  13. Bis(4,4'-bipyridinium) dodeca-tungsto-silicate 4,4'-bipyridine hexa-hydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Feng-Xia; Zhao, Quan

    2008-09-06

    The title compound, (C(10)H(10)N(2))(2)[SiW(12)O(40)]·C(10)H(8)N(2)·6H(2)O or (4,4'-bipyH(2))(2)[SiW(12)O(40)].(4,4'-bipy)·6H(2)O (4,4'-bipy is 4,4'-bipyridine), was prepared under hydro-thermal conditions. The asymmetric unit contains a discrete Keggin-type [SiW(12)O(40)](4-) anion (located on a twofold axis), one 4,4'-bipy (located on a twofold axis), two (4,4'-bipyH(2))(2+) cations and six uncoordinated water mol-ecules. The polyoxoanion is constructed from a central SiO(4) tetra-hedron which shares its O atoms with four trinuclear W(3)O(13) groups, each of which is made up of three edge-sharing WO(6) octa-hedra. The water mol-ecules and [SiW(12)O(40)](4-) anions are linked through hydrogen bonds.

  14. 4,4'-Dimethylaminorex ("4,4'-DMAR"; "Serotoni") misuse: A Web-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loi, Barbara; Zloh, Mire; De Luca, Maria Antonietta; Pintori, Nicholas; Corkery, John; Schifano, Fabrizio

    2017-05-01

    4,4'-DMAR (4,4'-dimethylaminorex; "Serotoni") is a potent stimulant drug that has recently been associated with a number of fatalities in Europe. Over the last few years, online communities have emerged as important resources for disseminating levels of technical knowledge on novel psychoactive substances. Analysing the information provided by the fora communities on 4,4'-DMAR use, additionally critical reviewing the available evidence-based literature on this topic. Different website drug fora were identified. A critical review of the existing evidence-based literature was undertaken. Individuation and analysis of qualitative data from the identified website fora were performed. The combined search results identified six website fora from which a range of qualitative data on recurring themes was collected. These themes included routes of administration and doses; desired effects; adverse effects; comparison with other drugs; association with other drugs; medications self-administered to reverse 4,4'-DMAR action; overall impression; and provision of harm-reduction advice. Although being characterized by a number of methodological limitations, the social networks' Web monitoring approach (netnography) may be helpful to better understand some of the clinical and psychopharmacological issues pertaining to a range of novel psychoactive substances, including 4,4'-DMAR, for which only extremely little, if any, scientific knowledge is available. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. CD44v10, osteopontin and lymphoma growth retardation by a CD44v10-specific antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megaptche, Amelie Pajip; Erb, Ulrike; Büchler, Markus Wolfgang; Zöller, Margot

    2014-09-01

    Blockade of CD44 is considered a therapeutic option for the elimination of leukemia-initiating cells. However, the application of anti-panCD44 can be burdened by severe side effects. We determined whether these side effects could be avoided by replacing anti-panCD44 with CD44 variant isoform (CD44v)-specific antibodies in CD44v-positive hematological malignancies using the EL4 thymoma and CD44v10-transfected EL4 (EL4-v10) as models. Subcutaneous growth of EL4 and EL4-v10 was equally well inhibited by the anti-panCD44 and anti-CD44v10 antibodies, respectively. Ex vivo analysis indicated that natural killer cytotoxicity and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity were the main effector mechanisms. Under local inflammation, the efficacy of anti-CD44v10 prolonged the survival time twofold compared with untreated, EL4-v10 tumor-bearing mice, and this was due to inflammation-induced expression of osteopontin (OPN). A high level of OPN in EL4-v10 tumors supported leukocyte recruitment and tumor-infiltrating T-cell activation. Taken together, in hematological malignancies expressing CD44v, anti-panCD44 can be replaced by CD44v-specific antibodies without a loss in efficacy. Furthermore, CD44v10-specific antibodies appear particularly advantageous in cutaneous leukemia therapy, as CD44v10 binding of OPN drives leukocyte recruitment and activation.

  16. Magnetoelectric coupling in 4,4'-stilbenedinitrene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günaydın-Şen, Ö.; Chen, P.; Fosso-Tande, J.; Allen, T. L.; Cherian, J.; Tokumoto, T.; Lahti, P. M.; McGill, S.; Harrison, R. J.; Musfeldt, J. L.

    2013-05-01

    We investigated the optical properties of 4,4'-stilbenedinitrene at low temperature and in high magnetic fields and compared the results with complementary first principles calculations. Both physical tuning parameters allow us to manipulate the singlet-triplet equilibrium, and by doing so, control the optical contrast (which is on the order of -2.5 × 102 cm-1 at 555 nm and 35 T). Moreover, analysis of the magneto-optical response using a combined population and Beer's law framework reveals the singlet-triplet spin gap and identifies particular features in the absorption difference spectrum as deriving from singlet or triplet state excitations. These findings deepen our understanding of coupling in open shell molecules and show how chemical structure modification can modulate charge-spin interactions in organic biradicals.

  17. 44-BWR WASTE PACKAGE LOADING CURVE EVALUATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.M. Scaglione

    2004-08-25

    The objective of this calculation is to evaluate the required minimum burnup as a function of initial boiling water reactor (BWR) assembly enrichment that would permit loading of spent nuclear fuel into the 44 BWR waste package configuration as provided in Attachment IV. This calculation is an application of the methodology presented in ''Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report'' (YMP 2003). The scope of this calculation covers a range of enrichments from 0 through 5.0 weight percent (wt%) U-235, and a burnup range of 0 through 40 GWd/MTU. This activity supports the validation of the use of burnup credit for commercial spent nuclear fuel applications. The intended use of these results will be in establishing BWR waste package configuration loading specifications. Limitations of this evaluation are as follows: (1) The results are based on burnup credit for actinides and selected fission products as proposed in YMP (2003, Table 3-1) and referred to as the ''Principal Isotopes''. Any change to the isotope listing will have a direct impact on the results of this report. (2) The results of 100 percent of the current BWR projected waste stream being able to be disposed of in the 44-BWR waste package with Ni-Gd Alloy absorber plates is contingent upon the referenced waste stream being sufficiently similar to the waste stream received for disposal. (3) The results are based on 1.5 wt% Gd in the Ni-Gd Alloy material and having no tuff inside the waste package. If the Gd loading is reduced or a process to introduce tuff inside the waste package is defined, then this report would need to be reevaluated based on the alternative materials.

  18. Effect of Three Calmodulin Antagonists on Subpopulations of CD44 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MB-468 breast cancer cell lines. ... cells, CD44 and CD24, markers of breast cancer .... marker expression. They demonstrated that the cancer cells with the immunophenotype,. CD44+CD24-, were able to initiate tumor whereas other phenotype.

  19. 27 CFR 44.111 - Change in export warehouse premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Change in export warehouse premises. 44.111 Section 44.111 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Qualification of Export Warehouse Proprietors Changes in Location and Premises § 44.111 Change in export...

  20. 27 CFR 44.109 - Change in address.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Change in address. 44.109 Section 44.109 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... Warehouse Proprietors Changes in Location and Premises § 44.109 Change in address. Whenever any change...

  1. 19 CFR 147.44 - Entry for another fair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TREASURY (CONTINUED) TRADE FAIRS Disposition of Articles Entered for Fairs § 147.44 Entry for another fair. Articles entered for a fair which are to be entered for another fair under the provisions of this part... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Entry for another fair. 147.44 Section 147.44...

  2. 34 CFR 200.44 - Public school choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Public school choice. 200.44 Section 200.44 Education... Programs Operated by Local Educational Agencies Lea and School Improvement § 200.44 Public school choice... enrolled in the school with the option to transfer to another public school served by the LEA. (2) The LEA...

  3. 27 CFR 44.161 - Discontinuance of operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Operations § 44.161 Discontinuance of operations. Every export warehouse proprietor who desires to discontinue operations and close out his warehouse shall dispose of all cigars, cigarettes, and cigarette... operations. 44.161 Section 44.161 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE...

  4. 24 CFR 203.44 - Eligibility of advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Eligibility of advances. 203.44 Section 203.44 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... § 203.44 Eligibility of advances. Mortgagees may not make open-end advances under section 225 of the...

  5. 30 CFR 44.8 - Ex parte communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ex parte communication. 44.8 Section 44.8 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FILING AND OTHER... General § 44.8 Ex parte communication. There shall be no ex parte communication with respect to the merits...

  6. 38 CFR 61.44 - Awarding special needs grants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Awarding special needs grants. 61.44 Section 61.44 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VA HOMELESS PROVIDERS GRANT AND PER DIEM PROGRAM § 61.44 Awarding special needs grants. (a...

  7. 47 CFR 3.44 - Time to achieve settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Time to achieve settlements. 3.44 Section 3.44 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL AUTHORIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION OF ACCOUNTING AUTHORITIES IN MARITIME AND MARITIME MOBILE-SATELLITE RADIO SERVICES Settlement Operations § 3.44 Time to...

  8. 12 CFR 345.44 - Public notice by banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public notice by banks. 345.44 Section 345.44 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY COMMUNITY REINVESTMENT Records, Reporting, and Disclosure Requirements § 345.44 Public notice by banks. A...

  9. 36 CFR 7.44 - Canyonlands National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Canyonlands National Park. 7.44 Section 7.44 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.44 Canyonlands National Park. (a) Motorized...

  10. 29 CFR 783.44 - Board and lodging as wages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Board and lodging as wages. 783.44 Section 783.44 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL... TO EMPLOYEES EMPLOYED AS SEAMEN Computation of Wages and Hours § 783.44 Board and lodging as wages...

  11. 19 CFR 191.44 - Destruction under Customs supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Destruction under Customs supervision. 191.44 Section 191.44 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) DRAWBACK Rejected Merchandise § 191.44 Destruction under Customs...

  12. 27 CFR 44.232 - Allowance of claim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allowance of claim. 44.232 Section 44.232 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT..., WITHOUT PAYMENT OF TAX, OR WITH DRAWBACK OF TAX Drawback of Tax § 44.232 Allowance of claim. On receipt of...

  13. 50 CFR 13.44 - Display of permit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Display of permit. 13.44 Section 13.44... GENERAL PERMIT PROCEDURES Conditions § 13.44 Display of permit. Any permit issued under this part shall be displayed for inspection upon request to the Director or his agent, or to any other person relying upon its...

  14. CD44 function as a growth factor co-receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, L.

    2003-06-01

    CD44 splice variant proteins containing exon v6 encoded sequence have been implicated in tumour metastasis. The work presented in this thesis shows that CD44 isoforms containing exon v6 encoded sequences act as coreceptor for the c-Met receptor, a tyrosine kinase receptor that is involved in growth control and invasive growth. The c-Met receptor and its ligand hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) have also been implicated in tumour metastasis. My results show the cooperation between CD44, HGF and c-Met. A CD44 isoform containing variant exon v6 encoded sequences is strictly required for c-Met activation by HGF/SF in rat and human carcinoma cells. In a non-metastatic cell line BSp73AS cells which only expressed CD44 standard form, HGF can not activate c-Met. Upon transfection with the CD44 bearing v6 encoded sequences, the cells become HGF inducible. Antibodies against two CD44 exon v6-encoded epitopes inhibit autophosphorylation of c-Met. The CD44 isoform is required for the assembly of signalling complex containing at least HGF, c-Met and CD44 v6 bearing isoform. Furthermore, this growth factor co-receptor function could be a more general mechanism. I have investigated the involvement of CD44 isoforms in the signalling by the EGF receptor family. My results show that HB-EGF, EGF and Amphiregulin activate their receptors in a CD44 dependent manner. CD44 v6 specific antibodies can interfere with HB-EGF, EGF and Amphiregulin signalling both at Erk level and at receptor level. (orig.) [German] In der nicht metastasierenden Zelllinie Bsp73 AS, die ausschliesslich die CD44 Standardform exprimiert, fuehrt HGF nicht zur Aktivierung von c-Met. Durch Transfektion mit unterschiedlichen CD44 v6 enthaltenden Isoformen, werden die Zellen HGF-induzierbar. Antikoerper gegen zwei von CD44 Exon v6 kodierte Epitope verhindern die Autophosphorylierung von c-Met. Die CD44 Isoform wird zur Bildung eines Signalkomplexes benoetigt, der zumindest HGF, c-Met und CD44v6 tragende Isoformen

  15. Lifetime of {sup 44}Ti as probe for supernova models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goerres, J.; Meissner, J.; Schatz, H.; Stech, E.; Tischhauser, P.; Wiescher, M. [Univ. of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN (United States); Bazin, D.; Harkewicz, R.; Hellstroem, M.; Sherrill, B.; Steiner, M. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Boyd, R.N. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Buchmann, L. [TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Hartmann, D.H. [Clemson Univ., Clemson, SC (United States); Hinnefeld, J.D. [Indiana Univ. South Bend, South Bend, IN (United States)

    1998-06-01

    The recent observation of {sup 44}Ti radioactivity in the supernova remnant Cassiopeia A with the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory allows the determination of the absolute amount of {sup 44}Ti. This provides a test for current supernova models. The main uncertainty is the lifetime of {sup 44}Ti. We report a new measurement of the lifetime of {sup 44}Ti applying a novel technique. A mixed radioactive beam containing {sup 44}Ti as well as {sup 22}Na was implanted and the resulting {gamma}-activity was measured. This allowed the determination of the lifetime of {sup 44}Ti relative to the lifetime of {sup 22}Na, {tau} = (87.0 {+-} 1.9) y. With this lifetime, the {sup 44}Ti abundance agrees with theoretical predictions within the remaining observational uncertainties. (orig.)

  16. 44th Annual Anomalous Absorption Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beg, Farhat

    2014-03-03

    Conference Grant Report July 14, 2015 Submitted to the U. S. Department of Energy Attn: Dr. Sean Finnegan By the University of California, San Diego 9500 Gilman Drive La Jolla, California 92093 On behalf of the 44th Annual Anomalous Absorption Conference 8-13 June 2014, in Estes Park, Colorado Support Requested: $10,100 Amount expended: $3,216.14 Performance Period: 1 March 20 14 to 28 February 20 15 Principal Investigator Dr. Farhat Beg Center for Energy Research University of California, San Diego 9500 Gilman Drive La Jolla, California 92093-0417 858-822-1266 (telephone) 858-534-4543 (fax) fbeg@ucsd.edu Administrative Point of Contact: Brandi Pate, 858-534-0851, blpate®ucsd.edu I. Background The forty-fourth Anomalous Absorption Conference was held in Estes Park, Colorado from June 5-8, 2014 (aac2014.ucsd.edu). The first Anomalous Absorption Conference was held in 1971 to assemble experts in the poorly understood area of laser-plasma absorption. The goal of that conference was to address the anomalously large laser absorption seen in plasma experiments with respect to the laser absorption predicted by linear plasma theory. Great progress in this research area has been made in the decades since that first meeting, due in part to the scientific interactions that have occurred annually at this conference. Specifically, this includes the development of nonlinear laser-plasma theory and the simulation of laser interactions with plasmas. Each summer since that first meeting, this week-long conference has been held at unique locations in North America as a scientific forum for intense scientific exchanges relevant to the interaction of laser radiation with plasmas. Responsibility for organizing the conference has traditional rotated each year between the major Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) laboratories and universities including LANL, LLNL, LLE, UCLA UC Davis and NRL. As the conference has matured over the past four decades, its technical footprint has expanded

  17. 42 CFR 71.44 - Disinsection of aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disinsection of aircraft. 71.44 Section 71.44... Disinsection of aircraft. (a) The Director may require disinsection of an aircraft if it has left a foreign area that is infected with insect-borne communicable disease and the aircraft is suspected of harboring...

  18. 40 CFR 503.44 - Operational standard-total hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... hydrocarbons. 503.44 Section 503.44 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... standard—total hydrocarbons. (a) The total hydrocarbons concentration in the exit gas from a sewage sludge incinerator shall be corrected for zero percent moisture by multiplying the measured total hydrocarbons...

  19. 37 CFR 4.4 - Invention promoter reply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Invention promoter reply. 4.4... COMMERCE GENERAL COMPLAINTS REGARDING INVENTION PROMOTERS § 4.4 Invention promoter reply. (a) If a submission appears to meet the requirements of a complaint, the invention promoter named in the complaint...

  20. 15 CFR 30.41-30.44 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false 30.41-30.44 Section 30.41-30.44 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FOREIGN TRADE REGULATIONS Exemptions From the Requirements for the Filing of...

  1. 45 CFR 402.44 - Basis for approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Basis for approval. 402.44 Section 402.44 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN..., known actual costs pursuant to § 402.41(c)(2), and current INS eligible legalized alien population data...

  2. 21 CFR 21.44 - Verification of identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Verification of identity. 21.44 Section 21.44 Food... Verification of identity. (a) An individual seeking access to records in a Privacy Act Record System may be... identity. The identification required shall be suitable considering the nature of the records sought. No...

  3. 30 CFR 47.44 - Temporary, portable containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Temporary, portable containers. 47.44 Section... TRAINING HAZARD COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Container Labels and Other Forms of Warning § 47.44 Temporary, portable containers. (a) The operator does not have to label a temporary, portable container if he or she...

  4. 27 CFR 44.230 - Proof of loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Proof of loss. 44.230..., WITHOUT PAYMENT OF TAX, OR WITH DRAWBACK OF TAX Drawback of Tax § 44.230 Proof of loss. When the claimant... consequence of loss of the tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes, his application for relief shall...

  5. 49 CFR 393.44 - Front brake lines, protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Front brake lines, protection. 393.44 Section 393... ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Brakes § 393.44 Front brake lines, protection. On every bus, if... any of the front wheels is broken, the driver can apply the brakes on the rear wheels despite such...

  6. 12 CFR 25.44 - Public notice by banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public notice by banks. 25.44 Section 25.44 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY COMMUNITY REINVESTMENT ACT AND... Public notice by banks. A bank shall provide in the public lobby of its main office and each of its...

  7. 12 CFR 228.44 - Public notice by banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public notice by banks. 228.44 Section 228.44 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM... notice by banks. A bank shall provide in the public lobby of its main office and each of its branches the...

  8. 10 CFR 1.44 - Office of New Reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Office of New Reactors. 1.44 Section 1.44 Energy NUCLEAR... Office of New Reactors. The Office of New Reactors— (a) Develops, promulgates and implements regulations... safeguarding of nuclear reactor facilities licensed under part 52 of this chapter prior to initial commencement...

  9. 7 CFR 1131.44 - Classification of producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Classification of producer milk. 1131.44 Section 1131... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE ARIZONA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Classification of Milk § 1131.44 Classification of producer milk. See...

  10. 7 CFR 1001.44 - Classification of producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Classification of producer milk. 1001.44 Section 1001... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE NORTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Classification of Milk § 1001.44 Classification of producer milk. See...

  11. 7 CFR 1000.44 - Classification of producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Classification of producer milk. 1000.44 Section 1000... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL PROVISIONS OF FEDERAL MILK MARKETING ORDERS Classification of Milk § 1000.44 Classification of producer milk. For each month...

  12. 7 CFR 1007.44 - Classification of producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Classification of producer milk. 1007.44 Section 1007... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Classification of Milk § 1007.44 Classification of producer milk. See...

  13. 7 CFR 1005.44 - Classification of producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Classification of producer milk. 1005.44 Section 1005... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE APPALACHIAN MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Classification of Milk § 1005.44 Classification of producer milk...

  14. 7 CFR 1032.44 - Classification of producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Classification of producer milk. 1032.44 Section 1032... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Classification of Milk § 1032.44 Classification of producer milk. See...

  15. 7 CFR 1033.44 - Classification of producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Classification of producer milk. 1033.44 Section 1033... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE MIDEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Classification of Milk § 1033.44 Classification of producer milk. See...

  16. 7 CFR 1006.44 - Classification of producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Classification of producer milk. 1006.44 Section 1006... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE FLORIDA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Classification of Milk § 1006.44 Classification of producer milk. See...

  17. 7 CFR 1124.44 - Classification of producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Classification of producer milk. 1124.44 Section 1124... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Classification of Milk § 1124.44 Classification of producer milk...

  18. 7 CFR 1030.44 - Classification of producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Classification of producer milk. 1030.44 Section 1030... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE UPPER MIDWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Classification of Milk § 1030.44 Classification of producer milk...

  19. 7 CFR 1126.44 - Classification of producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Classification of producer milk. 1126.44 Section 1126... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Classification of Milk § 1126.44 Classification of producer milk. See...

  20. 44 CFR 10.14 - Flood plains and wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flood plains and wetlands. 10... Flood plains and wetlands. For any action taken by FEMA in a flood plain or wetland, the provisions of... Executive Order 11988, Flood Plain Management, and Executive Order 11990, Protection of Wetlands (44 CFR...

  1. 12 CFR 563e.44 - Public notice by savings associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public notice by savings associations. 563e.44... REINVESTMENT Records, Reporting, and Disclosure Requirements § 563e.44 Public notice by savings associations. A savings association shall provide in the public lobby of its main office and each of its branches the...

  2. 27 CFR 44.84 - Articles of partnership or association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Articles of partnership or... Warehouse Proprietors § 44.84 Articles of partnership or association. Every partnership or association... permit, required by § 44.82 a true copy of the articles of partnership or association, if any, or...

  3. 21 CFR 1250.44 - Drinking utensils and toilet articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drinking utensils and toilet articles. 1250.44 Section 1250.44 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... toilet articles. (a) No cup, glass, or other drinking utensil which may be used by more than one person...

  4. 21 CFR 520.44 - Acetazolamide sodium soluble powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acetazolamide sodium soluble powder. 520.44 Section 520.44 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Acetazolamide sodium soluble powder. (a) Specifications. The drug is in a powder form containing acetazolamide...

  5. SYNTHESIS OF TETRACATIONIC ORGANIC SALT FROM 4,4 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    C bond, it does not affect the mutual orientation of the two lone pairs. Therefore ... gives a monocationic N-octyl-4,4'-bipyridinium bromide as a product. [3]. The symmetry of 4,4'-bipyridine is reduced following the quaternization of only one of its.

  6. 40 CFR 417.44 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 417.44 Section 417.44 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Glycerine...

  7. 40 CFR 60.44 - Standard for nitrogen oxides (NOX).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for nitrogen oxides (NOX). 60.44 Section 60.44 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... nitrogen oxides (NOX). (a) Except as provided under paragraph (e) of this section, on and after the date on...

  8. Expression of CD44 variants in human inflammatory synovitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hale, L.P. [Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Haynes, B.F.; McCachren, S. [Duke Univ. Arthritis Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The cell surface hyaluronate receptor CD44 has previously been shown to have immunomodulatory activity and to be upregulated in inflammatory synovitis. Since these findings were reported, the genomic structure of CD44 has been delineated, and multiple splice variants have been described. Therefore, we determined which CD44 variant exons are present during inflammatory synovitis by a combination of Northern blot analysis and reverse transcription followed by polymerase chain reaction amplification of synovial RNA. Immunohistochemical staining was used to define the sites of expression of individual v6 and v9 exons in synovial tissue. The standard (S) or hematopoietic isoform, CD44S, was the predominant form of CD44 expressed in synovium and was expressed by most cell types. Other isoforms, containing alternatively spliced exons in the proximal extracellular domain, were found by RT-PCR, but at lower levels than CD44S. The second most prevalent form was CD44E, which has an insertion of three exons (v8-v10) in the proximal extracellular domain. Immunohistochemical studies showed that reactivity with v9-specific antibodies was primarily in macrophages, particularly those in the synovial lining layer. CD44 exon v6, previously reported to be important in immune activation and in epithelial tumor metastasis, was also expressed in synovial lining cells and in occasional synovial interstitial cells. The presence of CD44 variants containing v9 in rheumatoid synovial macrophages may be important in the adhesion and activation of mononuclear phagocytes in the synovium and, thus, may be a target for novel antiinflammatory therapies in the future. The role of CD44 isoforms in cellular adhesion, immune activation, and joint erosion in inflammatory synovitis deserves further study. 7 figs., 2 tabs., 56 refs.

  9. The 3D Distribution of 44-Ti in Cassiopeia A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grefenstette, Brian; Boggs, Steven E.; Fryer, Chris; Harrison, Fiona; Madsen, Kristin; Miyasaka, Hiromasa; Reynolds, Stephen P.; Zoglauer, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    The mechanisms behind core-collapse supernovae represent one of the most important unsolved problems in stellar astrophysics and are of interest to many branches of physics and astronomy, such as nucleosynthesis, pulsar formation, gamma-ray bursts, and gravitational wave production. Few direct observational constraints exist that probe fundamental parameters such as the explosion asymmetries and dynamics. One of the most direct probes of the physics of the core-collapse supernova engine is 44Ti, which is producing near the "mass cut" in the collapsing star with material interior to the 44Ti accreting onto the nascent compact object the the 44Ti mostly ejected during the explosion.Here we present the results from the full NuSTAR observational campaign (over 2 Ms) of the famous Type II supernova remnant Cassiopeia A (Cas A). NuSTAR is the first X-ray observatory capable of focusing the X-rays that are emitted during the radioactive decay of 44Ti to 44Ca. For a supernova remnant like Cas A, which is both young and nearby, we can to image the distribution of the 44Ti ejecta. Early results (using the first 1 Ms of data) produced the first 2D maps of the 44Ti in Cas A, revealing the asymmetry in the 44Ti ejecta and the striking discrepancy between the distributions of 44Ti and the ionized Fe emission seen by Chandra. With the additional exposure time we can perform spatially-resolved spectroscopy to determine the Doppler shift of the 44Ti-emitting regions, giving us the ability to construct a 3D representation of the remnant. We can compare this to the excellent data from Chandra and Spitzer which have been used to perform similar studies of the ionized X-ray ejecta and IR emitting ejecta, respectively. We find an increasingly complex picture of the remnant, with 44Ti appearing wtih Fe in some regions on the remnant and other regions of Fe that are apparently 44Ti free. We will discuss our findings, and the implications of these results.

  10. 27 CFR 44.141a - Use of premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., WITHOUT PAYMENT OF TAX, OR WITH DRAWBACK OF TAX Operations by Export Warehouse Proprietors § 44.141a Use of premises. Export warehouse premises may only be used for the storage of tobacco products and...

  11. 49 CFR 230.44 - Time of testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Gauges § 230.44 Time of testing. Steam gauges shall be tested prior to being installed or being...

  12. N = (4,4 Supersymmetry and T-Duality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malin Göteman

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A sigma model with four-dimensional target space parametrized by chiral and twisted chiral N =(2,2 superfields can be extended to N =(4,4 supersymmetry off-shell, but this is not true for a model of semichiral fields, where the N = (4,4 supersymmetry can only be realized on-shell. The two models can be related to each other by T-duality. In this paper we perform a duality transformation from a chiral and twisted chiral model with off-shell N = (4,4 supersymmetry to a semichiral model. We find that additional non-linear terms must be added to the original transformations to obtain a semichiral model with N =(4,4 supersymmetry, and that the algebra closes on-shell as a direct consequence of the T-duality.

  13. GEOSAT44: High-Accuracy, High-Resolution Gravity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This satellite altimeter data base contains precise geoid and gravity anomaly profiles which were constructed from the average of 44 repeat cycles of Geosat. The...

  14. GEOSAT 44: High-Accuracy, High-Resolution Gravity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This satellite altimeter data base contains precise geoid and gravity anomaly profiles which were constructed from the average of 44 repeat cycles of Geosat. The...

  15. The Human Cytomegalovirus UL44 C Clamp Wraps around DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komazin-Meredith, Gloria; Petrella, Robert J.; Santos, Webster L.; Filman, David J.; Hogle, James M.; Verdine, Gregory L.; Karplus, Martin; Coen, Donald M.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Processivity factors tether the catalytic subunits of DNA polymerases to DNA so that continuous synthesis of long DNA strands is possible. The human cytomegalovirus DNA polymerase subunit UL44 forms a C clamp-shaped dimer intermediate in structure between monomeric herpes simplex virus UL42, which binds DNA directly via a basic surface, and the trimeric sliding clamp PCNA, which encircles DNA. To investigate how UL44 interacts with DNA, calculations were performed in which a 12 bp DNA oligonucleotide was docked to UL44. The calculations suggested that UL44 encircles DNA, which interacts with basic residues both within the cavity of the C clamp and in flexible loops of UL44 that complete the “circle.” The results of mutational and crosslinking studies were consistent with this model. Thus, UL44 is a “hybrid” of UL42 and PCNA: its structure is intermediate between the two and its mode of interaction with DNA has elements of both. PMID:18682223

  16. The Distribution of Radioactive 44Ti in Cassiopeia A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grefenstette, Brian W.; Fryer, Chris L.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Boggs, Steven E.; DeLaney, Tracey; Laming, J. Martin; Reynolds, Stephen P.; Alexander, David M.; Barret, Didier; Christensen, Finn E.; Craig, William W.; Forster, Karl; Giommi, Paolo; Hailey, Charles J.; Hornstrup, Alan; Kitaguchi, Takao; Koglin, J. E.; Lopez, Laura; Mao, Peter H.; Madsen, Kristin K.; Miyasaka, Hiromasa; Mori, Kaya; Perri, Matteo; Pivovaroff, Michael J.; Puccetti, Simonetta; Rana, Vikram; Stern, Daniel; Westergaard, Niels J.; Wik, Daniel R.; Zhang, William W.; Zoglauer, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    The distribution of elements produced in the innermost layers of a supernova explosion is a key diagnostic for studying the collapse of massive stars. Here we present the results of a 2.4 Ms NuSTAR observing campaign aimed at studying the supernova remnant Cassiopeia A (Cas A). We perform spatially resolved spectroscopic analyses of the 44Ti ejecta, which we use to determine the Doppler shift and thus the three-dimensional (3D) velocities of the 44Ti ejecta. We find an initial 44Ti mass of (1.54 ± 0.21) × 10-4 M⊙, which has a present-day average momentum direction of 340° ± 15° projected onto the plane of the sky (measured clockwise from celestial north) and is tilted by 58° ± 20° into the plane of the sky away from the observer, roughly opposite to the inferred direction of motion of the central compact object. We find some 44Ti ejecta that are clearly interior to the reverse shock and some that are clearly exterior to it. Where we observe 44Ti ejecta exterior to the reverse shock we also see shock-heated iron; however, there are regions where we see iron but do not observe 44Ti. This suggests that the local conditions of the supernova shock during explosive nucleosynthesis varied enough to suppress the production of 44Ti by at least a factor of two in some regions, even in regions that are assumed to be the result of processes like α-rich freezeout that should produce both iron and titanium.

  17. Neutron Reference Benchmark Field Specification: ACRR 44 Inch Lead-Boron (LB44) Bucket Environment (ACRR-LB44-CC-32-CL).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega, Richard Manuel [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Parma, Edward J. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Griffin, Patrick J. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Vehar, David W. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-07-01

    This report was put together to support the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) REAL- 2016 activity to validate the dosimetry community’s ability to use a consistent set of activation data and to derive consistent spectral characterizations. The report captures details of integral measurements taken in the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) central cavity with the 44 inch Lead-Boron (LB44) bucket, reference neutron benchmark field. The field is described and an “a priori” calculated neutron spectrum is reported, based on MCNP6 calculations, and a subject matter expert (SME) based covariance matrix is given for this “a priori” spectrum. The results of 31 integral dosimetry measurements in the neutron field are reported.

  18. In-beam spectroscopic studies of the 44S nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres, L.; Sohler, D.; Grévy, S.; Sorlin, O.; Dombrádi, Zs.; Bastin, B.; Achouri, N. L.; Angélique, J. C.; Azaiez, F.; Baiborodin, D.; Borcea, R.; Bourgeois, C.; Buta, A.; Bürger, A.; Chapman, R.; Dalouzy, J. C.; Dlouhy, Z.; Drouard, A.; Elekes, Z.; Franchoo, S.; Gaudefroy, L.; Iacob, S.; Laurent, B.; Lazar, M.; Liang, X.; Liénard, E.; Mrazek, J.; Nalpas, L.; Negoita, F.; Nowacki, F.; Orr, N. A.; Penionzhkevich, Y.; Podolyák, Zs.; Pougheon, F.; Poves, A.; Roussel-Chomaz, P.; Saint-Laurent, M. G.; Stanoiu, M.; Stefan, I.

    2012-02-01

    The structure of the 44S nucleus has been studied at GANIL through the one proton knock-out reaction from a 45Cl secondary beam at 42 A·MeV. The γ rays following the de-excitation of 44S were detected in flight using the 70 BaF2 detectors of the Château de Cristal array. An exhaustive γγ-coincidence analysis allowed an unambiguous construction of the level scheme up to an excitation energy of 3301 keV. The existence of the spherical 22+ state is confirmed and three new γ-ray transitions connecting the prolate deformed 21+ level were observed. Comparison of the experimental results to shell model calculations further supports a prolate and spherical shape coexistence with a large mixing of states built on the ground state band in 44S.

  19. The Distribution of Radioactive 44ti In Cassiopeia A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grefenstette, Brian W.; Fryer, Chris L.; Harrison, Fiona A.

    2016-01-01

    The distribution of elements produced in the innermost layers of a supernova explosion is a key diagnostic for studying the collapse of massive stars. Here we present the results of a 2.4 Ms NuSTAR observing campaign aimed at studying the supernova remnant Cassiopeia A (Cas A). We perform spatially...... that are clearly exterior to it. Where we observe 44Ti ejecta exterior to the reverse shock we also see shock-heated iron; however, there are regions where we see iron but do not observe 44Ti. This suggests that the local conditions of the supernova shock during explosive nucleosynthesis varied enough to suppress...

  20. Crystal structure of 4,4′-(disulfanediyldibutanoic acid–4,4′-bipyridine (1/1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Atria

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available 4,4′-(Disulfanediyldibutanoic acid (dtba and 4,4′-bipyridine (4,4′-bpy crystallize in an 1:1 ratio, leading to the title co-crystal with composition C8H14O4S2·C10H8N2. A distinctive feature of the crystal structure is the geometry of the dtba moiety, which appears to be stretched [with a 9.98 (1 Å span between outermost carbons] and acts as an hydrogen-bonding connector, forming linear chains along [-211] with the 4,4′-bpy moiety by way of O—H...N hydrogen bonds and C—H...O interactions. The influence of the molecular shape on the hydrogen-bonding pattern is analysed by comparing the title compound and two other 4,4′-bpy co-crystals with closely related molecules of similar formulation but different geometry, showing the way in which this correlates with the packing arrangement.

  1. 44 CFR 1.16 - Adoption of a final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adoption of a final rule. 1.16 Section 1.16 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT... Adoption of a final rule. (a) All timely comments will be considered in taking final action on a proposed...

  2. 28 CFR 550.44 - Procedures for arranging drug counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procedures for arranging drug counseling... MANAGEMENT DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling for Sentenced Inmates in Contract CTCs) § 550.44 Procedures for arranging drug counseling. The contract center staff shall hold a program...

  3. 44 CFR 206.141 - Disaster unemployment assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disaster unemployment assistance. 206.141 Section 206.141 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY... § 206.141 Disaster unemployment assistance. The authority to implement the disaster unemployment...

  4. Nigerian Journal of Paediatrics - Vol 44, No 1 (2017)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aplasia cutis congenita in a Nigerian child: A case report · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Y Mava, A.M. Yakubu, 32-34. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/njp.v44i1.6 ...

  5. 44 CFR 321.2 - Selection of the mobilization base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Selection of the mobilization..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PREPAREDNESS MAINTENANCE OF THE MOBILIZATION BASE (DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY, MARITIME ADMINISTRATION) § 321.2 Selection of the mobilization base. (a) The Department...

  6. 44 CFR 321.3 - Maintaining the mobilization base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maintaining the mobilization..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PREPAREDNESS MAINTENANCE OF THE MOBILIZATION BASE (DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY, MARITIME ADMINISTRATION) § 321.3 Maintaining the mobilization base. (a) Facilities...

  7. 44 CFR 13.20 - Standards for financial management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for financial... Standards for financial management systems. (a) A State must expand and account for grant funds in... financial management systems of other grantees and subgrantees must meet the following standards: (1...

  8. 44 CFR 5.81 - Statement of policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Statement of policy. 5.81 Section 5.81 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... performance of the official functions of the Agency and to maintain strict impartiality with respect to...

  9. 44 CFR 206.118 - Disposal of housing units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposal of housing units. 206.118 Section 206.118 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY... will be no implied warranties. In addition, FEMA will inform the purchaser that he/she may have to...

  10. 44 CFR 295.36 - Confidentiality of information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Confidentiality of... § 295.36 Confidentiality of information. Confidential information submitted by individual Claimants is... the availability of confidentiality protection under exemptions to the Freedom of Information Act and...

  11. 44 CFR 64.3 - Flood Insurance Maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flood Insurance Maps. 64.3... THE SALE OF INSURANCE § 64.3 Flood Insurance Maps. (a) The following maps may be prepared by the... Insurance Rate Map: This map is prepared after the flood hazard study for the community has been completed...

  12. 44 CFR 9.15 - Planning programs affecting land use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Planning programs affecting..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION OF WETLANDS § 9.15 Planning... flood hazards and floodplain management and wetlands protection; and (b) Prescribes planning procedures...

  13. 44 CFR 78.9 - Planning grant approval process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Planning grant approval... MITIGATION ASSISTANCE § 78.9 Planning grant approval process. The State POC will evaluate and approve applications for Planning Grants. Funds will be provided only for the flood portion of any mitigation plan, and...

  14. 22 CFR 171.44 - Improper use of reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... PUBLIC Ethics in Government Act Provisions § 171.44 Improper use of reports. (a) The Attorney General may bring a civil action against any person who obtains or uses a financial disclosure report: (1) For any... person who obtains or uses the reports for these prohibited purposes. Such remedy shall be in addition to...

  15. 44 CFR 15.13 - Dogs and other animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dogs and other animals. 15.13 Section 15.13 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER § 15.13 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs...

  16. 44 CFR 206.67 - Requirement when limitation is exceeded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirement when limitation is exceeded. 206.67 Section 206.67 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT... Assistance § 206.67 Requirement when limitation is exceeded. Whenever the limitation described in § 206.66 is...

  17. 44 CFR 65.8 - Review of proposed projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... AND MAPPING OF SPECIAL HAZARD AREAS § 65.8 Review of proposed projects. A community, or an individual through the community, may request FEMA's comments on whether a proposed project, if built as proposed... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Review of proposed projects...

  18. 44 CFR 78.10 - Project grant approval process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... applications will then be forwarded to FEMA for final approval. FEMA will provide funding on a project by project basis through a supplement to the annual Cooperative Agreement. The FEMA Regional Administrator... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Project grant approval...

  19. 27 CFR 44.154 - Claim for refund of tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., WITHOUT PAYMENT OF TAX, OR WITH DRAWBACK OF TAX Operations by Export Warehouse Proprietors Claims § 44.154... refunded (without interest) to an export warehouse proprietor on proof satisfactory to the appropriate TTB... ownership of such export warehouse proprietor, or withdrawn by him from the market. Any claim for refund...

  20. 27 CFR 44.108 - Change in location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Warehouse Proprietors Changes in Location and Premises § 44.108 Change in location. Whenever an export warehouse proprietor contemplates changing the location of his warehouse, the proprietor shall, before commencing operations at the new location, make an application, on Form 2098 (5200.16) for an amended permit...

  1. Image collection: 44 [Togo Picture Gallery[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 44 Macaca_fascicularis_NL.png カニクイザル Cynomolgus Macaca fascicularis 9541 生物アイコン,脊索動物門,脊椎動物亜門,哺乳綱,獣亜綱,真獣下綱,霊長目

  2. 44 CFR 351.28 - The Department of Commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false The Department of Commerce. 351.28 Section 351.28 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY... Assignments § 351.28 The Department of Commerce. (a) Assist State and local governments in determining their...

  3. 44 CFR 208.8 - Code of conduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Code of conduct. 208.8... of conduct. The Assistant Administrator will develop and implement a code of conduct for System Members acting under DHS's direction and control. Nothing in this section or the DHS code of conduct will...

  4. 48 CFR 44.305-3 - Withholding or withdrawing approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT SUBCONTRACTING POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Contractors' Purchasing Systems Reviews 44.305-3... noncompliance with requirements, including but not limited to— (1) Certified cost or pricing data (see 15.403); (2) Implementation of cost accounting standards (see 48 CFR chapter 99 (Appendix B, FAR loose-leaf...

  5. 27 CFR 21.79 - Formula No. 44.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... gallons of n-butyl alcohol (b) Authorized uses. (1) As a solvent: 430.Sterilizing and preserving solutions... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula No. 44. 21.79 Section 21.79 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT...

  6. 28 CFR 51.44 - Notification of decision to object.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Notification of decision to object. 51.44... Notification of decision to object. (a) The Attorney General shall within the 60-day period allowed notify the... notwithstanding the objection it may institute an action in the U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia...

  7. 44 CFR 206.36 - Requests for major disaster declarations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and losses stating the impact of the disaster on the public and private sector; (3) Information... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requests for major disaster declarations. 206.36 Section 206.36 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY...

  8. 44 CFR 353.7 - Failure to pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Failure to pay. 353.7 Section... LICENSEE RADIOLOGICAL EMERGENCY PLANS AND PREPAREDNESS § 353.7 Failure to pay. In any case where there is a dispute over the FEMA bill or where FEMA finds that a licensee has failed to pay a prescribed fee required...

  9. 44 CFR 354.7 - Failure to pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Failure to pay. 354.7 Section 354.7 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... PROGRAM § 354.7 Failure to pay. Where a licensee fails to pay a prescribed fee required under this part...

  10. 7 CFR 51.44 - Disposition of fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946... Schedule of Fees and Charges at Destination Markets § 51.44 Disposition of fees. (a) The fees collected for...

  11. Atomistic fingerprint of hyaluronan-CD44 binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vuorio, Joni; Vattulainen, Ilpo; Martinez-Seara, Hector

    2017-01-01

    that hyaluronan can bind CD44 with three topographically different binding modes that in unison define an interaction fingerprint, thus providing a plausible explanation for the disagreement between the earlier studies. Our results confirm that the known crystallographic mode is the strongest of the three binding...

  12. 44 CFR 5.58 - Exhaustion of administrative remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhaustion of administrative remedies. 5.58 Section 5.58 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY... Exhaustion of administrative remedies. Any person making a request to FEMA for records under this part shall...

  13. 44 CFR 7.949 - Exhaustion of administrative remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhaustion of administrative... Investigation, Conciliation, and Enforcement Procedures § 7.949 Exhaustion of administrative remedies. (a) A complainant may file a civil action following the exhaustion of administrative remedies under the Act...

  14. 44 CFR 78.5 - Flood Mitigation Plan development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flood Mitigation Plan development. 78.5 Section 78.5 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY... MITIGATION ASSISTANCE § 78.5 Flood Mitigation Plan development. A Flood Mitigation Plan will articulate a...

  15. 44 CFR 209.3 - Roles and responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Roles and responsibilities. 209.3 Section 209.3 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY... ASSISTANCE § 209.3 Roles and responsibilities. The following describes the general roles of FEMA, the State...

  16. 44 CFR 80.5 - Roles and responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Roles and responsibilities. 80.5 Section 80.5 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT... this section. These are in addition to grants management roles and responsibilities identified in...

  17. 44 CFR 152.4 - Roles and responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Roles and responsibilities. 152.4 Section 152.4 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY... Roles and responsibilities. (a) Applicants must: (1) Complete the application and certify to the...

  18. 44 CFR 13.10 - Forms for applying for grants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Forms for applying for grants. 13.10 Section 13.10 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY... information that is still current need not be resubmitted. ...

  19. 44 CFR 206.203 - Federal grant assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Federal grant assistance. 206.203 Section 206.203 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY...) Improved projects. If a subgrantee desires to make improvements, but still restore the predisaster function...

  20. 44 CFR 15.12 - Photographs and other depictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Photographs and other depictions. 15.12 Section 15.12 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY... other depictions at the NETC. (1) Photographs may be taken inside classroom or office areas of the NETC...

  1. 44 CFR 78.6 - Flood Mitigation Plan approval process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flood Mitigation Plan..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program FLOOD MITIGATION ASSISTANCE § 78.6 Flood Mitigation Plan approval process. The State POC will forward all Flood...

  2. 42 CFR 416.44 - Condition for coverage-Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition for coverage-Environment. 416.44 Section... for coverage—Environment. The ASC must have a safe and sanitary environment, properly constructed, equipped, and maintained to protect the health and safety of patients. (a) Standard: Physical environment...

  3. 47 CFR 73.44 - AM transmission system emission limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false AM transmission system emission limitations. 73... SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.44 AM transmission system emission limitations... and suitable swept-frequency RF spectrum analyzer using a peak hold duration of 10 minutes, no video...

  4. 44 CFR 15.9 - Alcoholic beverages and narcotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alcoholic beverages and... NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER § 15.9 Alcoholic beverages and narcotics. At both Mt. Weather and the... influence of alcoholic beverages; (d) Bringing alcoholic beverages, narcotic drugs, hallucinogens, marijuana...

  5. Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies - Vol 44 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Russia's hybrid war and its implications for defence and security in the United Kingdom · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Sascha-Dominik Dov Bachmann, Anthony Papithi, 28-67. http://dx.doi.org/10.5787/44-2-1175 ...

  6. 44gSc from metal calcium targets for PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Severin, Gregory; Gagnon, K.; Engle, J. W.

    2012-01-01

    A low-cost and efficient method for producing pre-clinical scale quantities of 44gSc is presented. Production involves proton irradiation of natural unenriched calcium metal followed by rapid separation of radioscandium from the target using hydroxmate functionalized resin.© 2012 American Institu...

  7. Tunable CD44-specific cellular retargeting with hyaluronic acid nanoshells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbesen, Morten F.; Olesen, Morten T. J.; Gjelstrup, Mikkel C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose In this work we specifically investigate the molecular weight (Mw) dependent combinatorial properties of hyaluronic acid (HA) for exhibiting stealth and targeting properties using different Mw HA nanoshells to tune nanoparticle retargeting to CD44-expressing cancer cells. Methods HA...

  8. 44 CFR 206.43 - Emergency support teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emergency support teams. 206... Emergency support teams. The Federal Coordinating Officer may activate emergency support teams, composed of... emergency. These emergency support teams assist the FCO in carrying out his/her responsibilities under the...

  9. 44 CFR 19.455 - Textbooks and curricular material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Textbooks and curricular... Activities Prohibited § 19.455 Textbooks and curricular material. Nothing in these Title IX regulations shall be interpreted as requiring or prohibiting or abridging in any way the use of particular textbooks or...

  10. 44 CFR 19.520 - Job classification and structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Job classification and structure. 19.520 Section 19.520 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY... Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 19.520 Job classification and structure. A recipient shall not...

  11. 44 CFR 12.19 - Fiscal and administrative responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fiscal and administrative responsibilities. 12.19 Section 12.19 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL ADVISORY COMMITTEES § 12.19 Fiscal and administrative...

  12. 44 CFR 9.6 - Decision-making process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Decision-making process. 9.6... HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION OF WETLANDS § 9.6 Decision-making process... protection decision-making process to be followed by the Agency in applying the Orders to its actions. While...

  13. Journal for Language Teaching - Vol 44, No 1 (2010)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Code-switching and communicative competence in the language classroom · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. V Moodley, 7-22. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jlt.v44i1.71777 ...

  14. 44 CFR 321.5 - Retention of industrial facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Retention of industrial..., DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY, MARITIME ADMINISTRATION) § 321.5 Retention of industrial facilities. (a) Industrial..., shall be retained in the Industrial reserves (National Industrial Reserve, Departmental Industrial...

  15. 44 CFR 16.110 - Self-evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Self-evaluation. 16.110... ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY § 16.110 Self-evaluation. (a) The agency... handicaps or organizations representing individuals with handicaps, to participate in the self-evaluation...

  16. 44 CFR 71.3 - Denial of flood insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Denial of flood insurance. 71... OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IMPLEMENTATION OF COASTAL BARRIER LEGISLATION § 71.3 Denial of flood insurance. (a) No new flood insurance coverage...

  17. 44 CFR 18.205 - Professional and technical services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... contract is allowable. However, communications with the intent to influence made by a professional (such as... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Professional and technical... Professional and technical services. (a) The prohibition on the use of appropriated funds, in § 18.100 (a...

  18. 44 CFR 18.300 - Professional and technical services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., communications with the intent to influence made by a professional (such as a licensed lawyer) or a technical... lawyer is not providing professional legal services. Similarly, communications with the intent to... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Professional and technical...

  19. 44 CFR 207.8 - Management cost funding oversight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Management cost funding..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE MANAGEMENT COSTS § 207.8 Management cost funding... accountability of funds provided for management costs as required by part 13 of this chapter, especially §§ 13.20...

  20. 44 CFR 207.10 - Review of management cost rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Review of management cost..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE MANAGEMENT COSTS § 207.10 Review of management cost rates. (a) FEMA will review management cost rates not later than 3 years after this rule is in effect and...

  1. 44 CFR 19.400 - Education programs or activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Education programs or..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or...

  2. 28 CFR 570.44 - Supervision and restraint requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supervision and restraint requirements... PROGRAMS AND RELEASE COMMUNITY PROGRAMS Escorted Trips § 570.44 Supervision and restraint requirements... all times. Restraints may be applied to an inmate going on an escorted trip, after considering the...

  3. 44 CFR 208.26 - Accountability for use of funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accountability for use of funds. 208.26 Section 208.26 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY... Preparedness Cooperative Agreements § 208.26 Accountability for use of funds. The Sponsoring Agency is...

  4. 44 CFR 19.125 - Effect of other requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Effect of other requirements. 19.125 Section 19.125 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY... of any applicant or student, on the basis of sex, to practice any occupation or profession. (c...

  5. 44 CFR 19.130 - Effect of employment opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Effect of employment opportunities. 19.130 Section 19.130 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY... employment opportunities in any occupation or profession are or may be more limited for members of one sex...

  6. 44 CFR 11.74 - Claims not allowed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Claims not allowed. 11.74 Section 11.74 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... arose during the conduct of personal business are not payable. (2) Subrogation claims. Claims based upon...

  7. 44 CFR 19.140 - Dissemination of policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dissemination of policy. 19.140 Section 19.140 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction § 19.140 Dissemination of policy. (a...

  8. Phenotype abnormality: 44 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 44 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u1ria224u550i abnormal for trait of behavior...al quality in organ named root during process named organ development ... root ... abnormal ... organ development ... behavioral quality

  9. Phenotype-gene: 44 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 44 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u3ria224u1043i decreased efficiency...ell 15(7):1578-90. http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u4ria224u12837948i decreased efficiency

  10. 44 CFR 204.3 - Definitions used throughout this part.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... The ranking official responsible for overseeing the management of fire operations, planning, logistics... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions used throughout this part. 204.3 Section 204.3 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY...

  11. Ghana Medical Journal - Vol 44, No 3 (2010)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Penetrating abdominal injuries in adults seen at two teaching hospitals in Ghana · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. M Ohene-Yeboah, JCB Dakubo, f Boakye, SB Naeeder. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/gmj.v44i3.68893 ...

  12. The passage and initial implementation of Oregon's Measure 44

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, L.; Glantz, S.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To prepare a history of the passage and early implementation of Ballot Measure 44, "An Act to Support the Oregon Health Plan", and tobacco control policymaking in Oregon. Measure 44 raised cigarette taxes in Oregon by US$0.30 per pack, and dedicated 10% of the revenues to tobacco control.
METHODS—Data were gathered from interviews with members of the Committee to Support the Oregon Health Plan, Measure 44's campaign committee, as well as with state and local officials, and tobacco control advocates. Additional information was obtained from public documents, internal memoranda, and news reports.
RESULTS—Although the tobacco industry outspent Measure 44's supporters 7 to 1, the initiative passed with 56% of the vote. Even before the election, tobacco control advocates were working to develop an implementation plan for the tobacco control programme. They mounted a successful lobbying campaign to see that the legislature did not divert tobacco control funds to other uses. They also stopped industry efforts to limit the scope of the programme. The one shortcoming of the tobacco control forces was not getting involved in planning the initiative early enough to influence the amount of money that was devoted to tobacco control. Although public health groups provided 37% of the money it cost to pass Measure 44, only 10% of revenues were devoted to tobacco control.
CONCLUSIONS—Proactive planning and aggressive implementation can secure passage of tobacco control initiatives and see that the associated implementing legislation follows good public health practice.


Keywords: advocacy; legislation; implementation; tobacco tax PMID:10599577

  13. Communications and Tracking Development Laboratory/Building 44. Historical Documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slovinac, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    As part of this nation-wide study, in September 2006, historical survey and evaluation of NASA-owned and managed facilities was conducted by NASA's Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston, Texas. The results of this study are presented in a report entitled, Survey and Evaluation of NASA-owned Historic Facilities and Properties in the Context of the U.S. Space Shuttle Program, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas, prepared in November 2007 by NASA JSC s contractor, Archaeological Consultants, Inc. As a result of this survey, the Communications and Tracking Development Laboratory (Building 44) was determined eligible for listing in the NRHP, with concurrence by the Texas State Historic Preservation Officer (SHPO). The survey concluded that Building 44 is eligible for the NRHP under Criteria A and C in the context of the U.S. Space Shuttle Program (1969-2010). Because it has achieved significance within the past 50 years, Criteria Consideration G applies. At the time of this documentation, Building 44 was still used to support the SSP as an engineering research facility, which is also sometimes used for astronaut training. This documentation package precedes any undertaking as defined by Section 106 of the NHPA, as amended, and implemented by 36 CFR Part 800, as NASA JSC has decided to proactively pursue efforts to mitigate the potential adverse affects of any future modifications to the facility. It includes a historical summary of the Space Shuttle Program; the history of JSC in relation to the SSP; a narrative of the history of Building 44 and how it supported the SSP; and a physical description of the building. In addition, photographs documenting the construction and historical use of Building 44 in support of the SSP, as well as photographs of the facility documenting the existing conditions, special technological features, and engineering details, are included. A contact sheet printed on archival paper, and an electronic copy of the work

  14. The corticotropin-releasing factor-like diuretic hormone 44 (DH44) and kinin neuropeptides modulate desiccation and starvation tolerance in Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cannell, Elizabeth; Dornan, Anthony J.; Halberg, Kenneth Agerlin

    2016-01-01

    Malpighian tubules are critical organs for epithelial fluid transport and stress tolerance in insects, and are under neuroendocrine control by multiple neuropeptides secreted by identified neurons. Here, we demonstrate roles for CRF-like diuretic hormone 44 (DH44) and Drosophila melanogaster kinin...... (Drome-kinin, DK) in desiccation and starvation tolerance. Gene expression and labelled DH44 ligand binding data, as well as highly selective knockdowns and/or neuronal ablations of DH44 in neurons of the pars intercerebralis and DH44 receptor (DH44-R2) in Malpighian tubule principal cells, indicate...... that suppression of DH44 signalling improves desiccation tolerance of the intact fly. Drome-kinin receptor, encoded by the leucokinin receptor gene, LKR, is expressed in DH44 neurons as well as in stellate cells of the Malpighian tubules. LKR knockdown in DH44-expressing neurons reduces Malpighian tubule...

  15. Half-life measurement of short-lived 44 + 44 94mRu using isochronous mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Q.; Wang, M.; Zhou, X. H.; Zhang, Y. H.; Tu, X. L.; Chen, X. C.; Xu, X.; Litvinov, Yu. A.; Xu, H. S.; Blaum, K.; Chen, R. J.; Fu, C. Y.; Ge, Z.; Huang, W. J.; Li, H. F.; Liu, J. H.; Mei, B.; Shuai, P.; Si, M.; Sun, B. H.; Sun, M. Z.; Wang, Q.; Xiao, G. Q.; Xing, Y. M.; Yamaguchi, T.; Yan, X. L.; Yang, J. C.; Yuan, Y. J.; Zang, Y. D.; Zhang, P.; Zhang, W.; Zhou, X.

    2017-09-01

    Decay of the 8+ isomer in fully stripped ions 44 + 94Ru is observed during its circulation in the experimental Cooler Storage Ring (CSRe) at the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL). The 44 + 94Ru ions were produced via projectile fragmentation and stored in CSRe tuned into the isochronous ion-optical mode. The timing signals of the ions, passing through a time-of-flight detector, were consecutively registered and used to determine the variation of revolution time as a function of revolution number. A sudden change of the revolution time at a specific revolution was identified as a fingerprint of the 44 + 94Ru isomer decay. The isomeric half-life was deduced to be 102(17) μ s , which agrees well with the theoretical expectation by blocking the internal conversion decay of the isomer. Our work proved the feasibility of studying decays of short-lived isomers in high atomic charge states using the isochronous mass spectrometry. In addition, 44 + 94 mRu represents the shortest-lived nuclear state whose mass has ever been measured directly.

  16. Thermal-neutron capture for A=36-44

    CERN Document Server

    Chunmei, Z

    2003-01-01

    A new evaluation has been undertaken of the level properties, prompt gamma rays and decay scheme properties of thermal neutron capture for nuclides with mass number A=36-44. The cutoff date is March 2002. This evaluation is effectively an update of the data table of the Prompt Gamma Rays from Thermal Neutron Capture as published in Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables 26, 511, (1981).

  17. [Syntactic Processing in Broca's Area: Brodmann Areas 44 and 45].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Atora; Sakai, Kuniyoshi L

    2017-04-01

    Brodmann areas 44 and 45 are known as Broca's area; however, their true functional roles are still unknown. Recent developments in neuroimaging techniques revealed the structures and functions of Broca's area in detail. More specifically regarding language functions, sufficient evidence has been accumulated that this region subserves the center of syntactic processing, not necessarily motor functions. Here, we review a role of Broca's area as the grammar center, including other roles in nonlinguistic functions.

  18. 9 CFR 146.44 - Terminology and classification; States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... part; (ii) All turkey breeding flocks in production within the State are classified as U.S. H5/H7 Avian... Special Provisions for Meat-Type Turkey Slaughter Plants § 146.44 Terminology and classification; States. (a) U.S. H5/H7 Avian Influenza Monitored State, Turkeys. (1) A State will be declared a U.S. H5/H7...

  19. [Diagnosis and treatment of occult breast cancer in 44 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Su; Liu, Hong

    2011-07-01

    To summarize the experience of diagnosis and treatment of occult breast cancer in 44 cases. Clinicopathological data of 44 cases of occult breast cancer initially presenting axillary mass alone treated in our department during Jan 1997 to Dec 2008 were retrospectively analyzed. The 44 patients with occult breast cancer accounted for 0.42% of all breast cancer patients admitted to our hospital and institute in the same period. The surgery included radical mastectomy in 16 cases, modified radical mastectomy in 19 cases, axillary clearance in 1 case, and simple axillary node excision in 8 cases. Follow-up, ranging from 12-132 months, was available in 38 cases. Among 32 cases who underwent mastectomy or axillary clearance, 2 cases died of distant metastases and 3 cases were still alive with local recurrence at the time of analysis. In two out of six cases who refused further surgical treatment received mastectomy 16 months and 41 months after the primary diagnosis of occult breast cancer, respectively. Others were alive without evidence of recurrence or metastases at the time of analysis. Occult breast cancer should be taken into consideration in cases presenting with axillary metastasis of unknown primary origin. The treatment of occult breast cancer should include modified radical mastectomy/radical mastectomy or breast conserving surgery combined with breast irradiation.

  20. Assessment of the biosorption characteristics of a macro-fungus for the decolorization of Acid Red 44 (AR44) dye

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akar, Tamer, E-mail: takar@ogu.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Science, Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Campus of Meselik, 26480 Eskisehir (Turkey); Tosun, Ilknur [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Science, Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Campus of Meselik, 26480 Eskisehir (Turkey); Kaynak, Zerrin [Program of Chemistry, Vocational School of Higher Education, Bilecik University, 11210 Bilecik (Turkey); Kavas, Emine; Incirkus, Gonul; Akar, Sibel Tunali [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Science, Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Campus of Meselik, 26480 Eskisehir (Turkey)

    2009-11-15

    This study focuses on the possible use of macro-fungus Agaricus bisporus to remove Acid Red 44 dye from aqueous solutions. Batch equilibrium studies were carried out as a function of pH, biomass amount, contact time and temperature to determine the decolorization efficiency of biosorbent. The highest dye removal yield was achieved at pH 2.0. Equilibrium occurred within about 30 min. Biosorption data were successfully described by Langmuir isotherm model and the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The maximum monolayer biosorption capacity of biosorbent material was found as 1.19 x 10{sup -4} mol g{sup -1}. Thermodynamic parameters indicated that the biosorption of Acid Red 44 onto fungal biomass was spontaneous and endothermic in nature. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used for the characterization of possible dye-biosorbent interaction and surface structure of biosorbent, respectively. Finally the proposed biosorbent was successfully used for the decolorization of Acid Red 44 in synthetic wastewater conditions.

  1. 4,4′-Bipyridine–dimethylglyoxime (1/1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C10H8N2·C4H8N2O2, both the dimethylglyoxime and the 4,4′-bipyridine molecules have crystallographic Ci symmetry. The molecules stack along the a-axis direction with a dihedral angle of 20.4 (8° between their planes. In the crystal, the components are linked by O—H...N hydrogen bonds into alternating chains along [120] and [1overline20].

  2. [Histopathological analysis of 44 cases with oral candidiasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B Y

    1991-11-01

    44 cases of oral candidiasis were studied histopathologically. We have found out that the microabscess in superficial epithelium is the histologic symbol of oral candidiasis. So, for those cases with microabscess, PAS stain should be done in order to make definite diagnosis. Epithelial dysplasia was observed in 8 cases (18.2%). Clinically these 8 cases were chronic hyperplastic oral candidiasis, this means that the long term follow-up study should be done for those with chronic hyperplastic oral candidiasis. Inflammatory infiltration was related to the amount of candida. The more candida get into the epithelium, the heavier inflammation is.

  3. CD44 standard and CD44v10 isoform expression on leukemia cells distinctly influences niche embedding of hematopoietic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erb, Ulrike; Megaptche, Amelie Pajip; Gu, Xiaoyu; Büchler, Markus W; Zöller, Margot

    2014-03-31

    A blockade of CD44 is considered a therapeutic option for the elimination of leukemia initiating cells. However, anti-panCD44 can interfere with hematopoiesis. Therefore we explored, whether a CD44 variant isoform (CD44v)-specific antibody can inhibit leukemia growth without attacking hematopoiesis. As a model we used CD44v10 transfected EL4 thymoma cells (EL4-v10). The therapeutic efficacy of anti-panCD44 and anti-CD44v10 was evaluated after intravenous application of EL4/EL4-v10. Ex vivo and in vitro studies evaluated the impact of anti-panCD44 and anti-CD44v10 as well as of EL4 and EL4-v10 on hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) in cocultures with bone marrow stroma cells with a focus on adhesion, migration, cell cycle progression and apoptosis resistance. Intravenously injected EL4-v10 grow in bone marrow and spleen. Anti-panCD44 and, more pronounced anti-CD44v10 prolong the survival time. The higher efficacy of anti-CD44v10 compared to anti-panCD44 does not rely on stronger antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity or on promoting EL4-v10 apoptosis. Instead, EL4 compete with HSC niche embedding. This has consequences on quiescence and apoptosis-protecting signals provided by the stroma. Anti-panCD44, too, more efficiently affected embedding of HSC than of EL4 in the bone marrow stroma. EL4-v10, by catching osteopontin, migrated on bone marrow stroma and did not or weakly interfere with HSC adhesion. Anti-CD44v10, too, did not affect the HSC--bone marrow stroma crosstalk. The therapeutic effect of anti-panCD44 and anti-CD44v10 is based on stimulation of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. The superiority of anti-CD44v10 is partly due to blocking CD44v10-stimulated osteopontin expression that could drive HSC out of the niche. However, the main reason for the superiority of anti-CD44v10 relies on neither EL4-v10 nor anti-CD44v10 severely interfering with HSC--stroma cell interactions that, on the other hand, are affected by EL4 and anti-panCD44. Anti-panCD44

  4. The corticotropin-releasing factor-like diuretic hormone 44 (DH44) and kinin neuropeptides modulate desiccation and starvation tolerance in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannell, Elizabeth; Dornan, Anthony J; Halberg, Kenneth A; Terhzaz, Selim; Dow, Julian A T; Davies, Shireen-A

    2016-06-01

    Malpighian tubules are critical organs for epithelial fluid transport and stress tolerance in insects, and are under neuroendocrine control by multiple neuropeptides secreted by identified neurons. Here, we demonstrate roles for CRF-like diuretic hormone 44 (DH44) and Drosophila melanogaster kinin (Drome-kinin, DK) in desiccation and starvation tolerance. Gene expression and labelled DH44 ligand binding data, as well as highly selective knockdowns and/or neuronal ablations of DH44 in neurons of the pars intercerebralis and DH44 receptor (DH44-R2) in Malpighian tubule principal cells, indicate that suppression of DH44 signalling improves desiccation tolerance of the intact fly. Drome-kinin receptor, encoded by the leucokinin receptor gene, LKR, is expressed in DH44 neurons as well as in stellate cells of the Malpighian tubules. LKR knockdown in DH44-expressing neurons reduces Malpighian tubule-specific LKR, suggesting interactions between DH44 and LK signalling pathways. Finally, although a role for DK in desiccation tolerance was not defined, we demonstrate a novel role for Malpighian tubule cell-specific LKR in starvation tolerance. Starvation increases gene expression of epithelial LKR. Also, Malpighian tubule stellate cell-specific knockdown of LKR significantly reduced starvation tolerance, demonstrating a role for neuropeptide signalling during starvation stress. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Lipid raft association restricts CD44-ezrin interaction and promotion of breast cancer cell migration.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Donatello, Simona

    2012-12-01

    Cancer cell migration is an early event in metastasis, the main cause of breast cancer-related deaths. Cholesterol-enriched membrane domains called lipid rafts influence the function of many molecules, including the raft-associated protein CD44. We describe a novel mechanism whereby rafts regulate interactions between CD44 and its binding partner ezrin in migrating breast cancer cells. Specifically, in nonmigrating cells, CD44 and ezrin localized to different membranous compartments: CD44 predominantly in rafts, and ezrin in nonraft compartments. After the induction of migration (either nonspecific or CD44-driven), CD44 affiliation with lipid rafts was decreased. This was accompanied by increased coprecipitation of CD44 and active (threonine-phosphorylated) ezrin-radixin-moesin (ERM) proteins in nonraft compartments and increased colocalization of CD44 with the nonraft protein, transferrin receptor. Pharmacological raft disruption using methyl-β-cyclodextrin also increased CD44-ezrin coprecipitation and colocalization, further suggesting that CD44 interacts with ezrin outside rafts during migration. Conversely, promoting CD44 retention inside lipid rafts by pharmacological inhibition of depalmitoylation virtually abolished CD44-ezrin interactions. However, transient single or double knockdown of flotillin-1 or caveolin-1 was not sufficient to increase cell migration over a short time course, suggesting complex crosstalk mechanisms. We propose a new model for CD44-dependent breast cancer cell migration, where CD44 must relocalize outside lipid rafts to drive cell migration. This could have implications for rafts as pharmacological targets to down-regulate cancer cell migration.

  6. Expression of CD44 standard form and variant isoforms in human bone marrow stromal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofeng Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Human Bone Marrow Stromal Cells (hBMSCs can migrate from bone marrow to injured tissues, where they may differentiate into different types of new cells for replacement of dysfunctional cells. CD44 plays an important role in stem cell movement. The expression distribution of CD44 standard form (CD44S and CD44 variants (CD44V is closely related to cell movement and tissue migration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expressions of CD44S and CD44V in hBMSCs. The hBMSCs from four human subjects were cultured in vitro. Phenotypic properties were analyzed by flow cytometry, and adipocyte and osteoblast differentiations were evaluated at passage 4. The expressions of CD44S and CD44V were examined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR. Results showed that hBMSCs were successfully cultured, with positive expressions of markers of mesenchymal cells (CD90, CD73, CD105, and negative expressions of markers of hematopoietic cells (CD34, CD45. The cultured hBMSCs can be induced to differentiate into adipocytes and osteoblasts. Q-PCR results showed that the expression of CD44S was significantly higher than the expressions of different CD44V isoforms in different samples. These results revealed significant differences in the distributions of CD44S and CD44V gene expressions, demonstrating a dominant CD44S expression in hBMCSs.

  7. 4,4'-Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and 4,4'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) inhibit myogenesis in C2C12 myoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jonggun; Park, Min Young; Kim, Yoo; Yoon, Kyong Sup; Clark, John Marshall; Park, Yeonhwa; Whang, Kwang-Youn

    2017-12-01

    Most countries have banned the use of 4,4'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT). However, owing to its extremely high lipophilic characteristics, DDT and its metabolite 4,4'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) are ubiquitous in the environment and in many types of food. The positive correlation between exposure to insecticides, including DDT and DDE, and weight gain, resulting in impaired energy metabolism in offspring following perinatal DDT and DDE exposure, was previously reported. Therefore the influence of DDT and DDE on myogenesis using C2C12 myoblasts was investigated in this study. DDT and DDE decreased myotube formation dose- and time-dependently. Among myogenic regulatory factors, DDT and DDE mainly decreased MyoD1 and Myf5 expression. DDT and DDE treatment also altered Myostatin expression, phosphorylation of protein kinase B, p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase, forkhead box O protein 3 and mammalian target of rapamycin, resulting in attenuation of myotube formation. These results may have significant implications for understanding the effects of developmental exposure of DDT and DDE on myogenesis and development of obesity and type 2 diabetes later in life. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Correlation of CD44v6 expression with ovarian cancer progression and recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jun; Zhou, Zhou; Di, Wen; Li, Ningli

    2013-04-08

    Previously some groups demonstrated that CD44 variant 6 (CD44v6) is correlated with progression and metastasis of ovarian cancer. However, a number of other groups failed to find such an association. Moreover, epithelial ovarian cancer is known to easily metastasize to distinct sites such as the pelvic and abdominal cavities, but the potential association of CD44v6 expression with site-specific metastasis of ovarian cancer has not been explored. This study sought to evaluate the expression of CD44 standard (CD44s) and CD44v6 in primary, metastatic and recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer to explore the potential association of CD44s and CD44v6 with tumor progression and recurrence. Tumor specimens were procured from patients with advanced (FIGO III, G3) and recurrent ovarian serous adenocarcinoma. CD44s and CD44v6 expression in the tumor tissues was evaluated by real-time RT-PCR and Western blot. Moreover, serum soluble CD44s or CD44v6 concentrations of early stage (FIGO I, G1), advanced (FIGO III, G3) and recurrent ovarian serous adenocarcinoma patients were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). CD44v6 expression in a different set of tumor samples on an ovarian cancer tissue chip was evaluated by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and the correlation of CD44v6 expression with clinicopathologic features was analyzed. Finally, the effects of knockdown of CD44v6 in SKOV3 cells on cell adhesion, invasion and migration were assessed. The expression of CD44v6, but not CD44s, is up-regulated in recurrent ovarian serous cancer compared to advanced primary tumor. CD44v6 expression is also preferentially increased in the tumor at the abdominal cavity metastasis site of advanced diseases. Consistently, serum soluble CD44v6 levels of recurrent ovarian cancer were higher than those of early stage and advanced primary diseases. The IHC data demonstrate that CD44v6 expression is correlated with clinicopathologic features and tumor progression. Lastly, knockdown of CD

  9. Bioreporter pseudomonas fluorescens HK44 immobilized in a silica matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trogl J.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The bioluminescent bioreporter Pseudomonas fluorescens HK44, the whole cell bacterial biosensor that responds to naphthalene and its metabolites via the production of visible light, was immobilized into a silica matrix by the sol-gel technique. The bioluminescence intensities were measured in the maximum of the bioluminescence band at X = 500 nm. The immobilized cells (>105 cells per g silica matrix produced light after induction by salicylate (cone. > 10 g/l, naphthalene and aminobenzoic acid. The bioluminescence intensities induced by 2,3-dihydroxynaphthalene 3-hydroxybenzoic acid and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid were comparable to a negative control. The cells in the silica layers on glass slides produced light in response to the presence of an inductor at least 8 months after immobilization, and >50 induction cycles. The results showed that these test slides could be used as assays for the multiple determination of water pollution.

  10. Perioperative anaphylaxis in a 44-year-old man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culp, Jeffrey A; Palis, Ross I; Castells, Mariana C; Lucas, Sean R; Borish, Larry

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a case report of perioperative anaphylaxis in a previously nonallergic 44-year-old man undergoing cervical spine surgery. After receiving general anesthesia with midazolam, propofol, lidocaine, fentanyl, rocuronium, and sevoflurane and cefazolin for prophylaxis, the patient developed hypotension, tachycardia, bronchospasm, and generalized erythema. A serum tryptase concentration was markedly elevated 2 hours after the anaphylactic episode. Initial prick and intradermal skin tests (excluding skin testing for unavailable benzylpenicilloyl polylysine) and IgE immunoassays for penicillin and cefazolin were negative. However, repeat prick skin testing for cefazolin 6 weeks after anaphylaxis was positive. Although anaphylaxis to cephalosporins is rare, it remains a potential cause of perioperative anaphylaxis. All cases of perioperative anaphylaxis require a workup to identify the offending agent and to avoid future reactions. Skin testing regimens for several commonly implicated drugs used for general anesthesia are available and are described.

  11. Conditional expression of CD44 isoforms in lymphoma cells: influence on hyaluronate binding and tumor growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, J.

    2002-03-01

    CD44 describes a family of surface proteins consisting of many isoforms due to alternative splice of ten 'variant' exons. Members of this family are involved in various processes including hematopoiesis, lymphocyte activation and homing, limb development, wound healing and tumor progression. Clinically, CD44 has been shown to be a prognostic factor for several human cancers. To answer the question which isoform might be relevant for tumor progression and to gain an insight into the mechanism of its function, I established transfectants of the LB lymphoma cell line in which the expression of four CD44 isoforms, namely CD44v3-10, CD44v4-10, CD44v8-10 and CD44s, was controlled by the Tet-off promoter. In the presence of Doxycycline, the expression was repressed. Removal of Doxycycline switched on expression and the maximal CD44 amount was obtained within two days. The transfectants were characterized regarding their ability to bind to the extracellular matrix component hyaluronate (HA). Overexpression of all four CD44 isoforms conferred the ability to bind HA on LB cells. Other glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) were bound in an isotype-specific fashion. CD44v3-10, CD44v4-10 and CD44v8-10 showed high binding affinity to chondroitin A, B and C, and low affinity to heparin, heparan sulfate and keratan sulfate. CD44s could not bind to these GAGs. Among these three variants, the binding ability of CD44v3-10 was the strongest. CD44 clustering seemed to play a crucial role for HA binding. Both CD44s and CD44v8-10 formed reduction-sensitive complexes in LB cells. The complexes are homooligomers or heterooligomers composed of different isoforms. Cys286 in CD44 transmember domain was not responsible for the formation of reduction-sensitive oligomer or for the enhanced HA binding in LB cell line. Using a conditional dimerization system the requirement of CD44 oligomerization for HA binding was directly demonstrated. The induction of oligomerization increased HA binding

  12. Bibliography on Cold Regions Science and Technology. Volume 44, Part 1, 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    ions.puter programs. Coions.sucs44-1057 programThe global thermohaline circulation is driven by negative buoy. Countermeasures. 44-1057 ancy sources... thermohaline circulation for a fourGlaciology, Pleistocene, Lithology, Stratigraphy, Hy- degree C global mean warming, an event which could be Ice edge... Discover , Feb. 1989, 10(2), p.52.54. 44-1104 Snowflakes, Ice crystal structure, Ie crystal growth, Comparison of diode-laser-doppler velocimeter and 44

  13. Expression of CD44 splice variants in human primary brain tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaaijk, P.; Troost, D.; Morsink, F.; Keehnen, R. M.; Leenstra, S.; Bosch, D. A.; Pals, S. T.

    1995-01-01

    Expression of CD44, particularly of certain splice variants, has been linked to tumor progression and metastatic potential in a number of different animal and human cancers. Although differential expression of CD44 standard epitopes (CD44s) in human brain tumors has been reported, the expression of

  14. 50 CFR 21.44 - Depredation order for designated species of depredating birds in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of depredating birds in California. 21.44 Section 21.44 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND..., BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD PERMITS Control of Depredating and Otherwise Injurious Birds § 21.44 Depredation order for designated species of depredating...

  15. Expression of CD44v6 and Its Association with Prognosis in Epithelial Ovarian Carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dang-xia Zhou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate CD44v6 protein expression and its prognostic value of CD44v6 in ovarian carcinoma. The expression of CD44v6 was analyzed in 62 patients with ovarian carcinoma by immunohistochemical method. The data obtained were analyzed by univariate and multivariate analyses. The present study clearly demonstrates that tumor tissues from 41 (66.1% patients showed positive expression with CD44v6. The expression of CD44v6 was significantly correlated with histological type, FIGO stage and histological grade of ovarian carcinomas. Concerning the prognosis, the survival period of patients with CD44v6 positive was shorter than that of patients with CD44v6 negative (36.6% versus 66.7%, 5-year survival, P<0.05. Univariate analysis showed that CD44v6 expression, histological type, FIGO stage and histological grade were associated with 5-year survival, and CD44v6 expression was associated with histological type, FIGO stage and histological grade and 5-year survival. In multivariate analysis, using the COX-regression model, CD44v6 expression was important prognostic factor. In conclusion, these results suggest that CD44v6 may be related to histological type, FIGO stage and histological grade of ovarian carcinomas, and CD44v6 may be an important molecular marker for poor prognosis in ovarian carcinomas.

  16. 43 CFR 44.54 - What happens if a State repeals or amends distribution legislation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... distribution legislation? 44.54 Section 44.54 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior... Distributes Payments § 44.54 What happens if a State repeals or amends distribution legislation? (a) If a State repeals or amends distribution legislation, the State must immediately notify the Department in...

  17. 50 CFR 84.44 - What is the timetable for the use of grant money?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... money? 84.44 Section 84.44 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... WETLANDS CONSERVATION GRANT PROGRAM Conditions on Acceptance/Use of Federal Money § 84.44 What is the timetable for the use of grant money? Once money is granted to the coastal States, the money is available to...

  18. 27 CFR 44.65 - Liability for tax on tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes. 44.65 Section 44.65 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... EXPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT PAYMENT OF TAX, OR WITH DRAWBACK OF TAX General § 44.65 Liability for tax on tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes. The...

  19. 28 CFR 527.44 - Transfer of Bureau of Prisons inmates to other countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transfer of Bureau of Prisons inmates to other countries. 527.44 Section 527.44 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE... Countries § 527.44 Transfer of Bureau of Prisons inmates to other countries. (a) An inmate who is qualified...

  20. 21 CFR 1308.44 - Request for hearing or appearance; waiver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Request for hearing or appearance; waiver. 1308.44 Section 1308.44 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Hearings § 1308.44 Request for hearing or appearance; waiver. (a) Any interested person...

  1. 45 CFR 681.44 - Is there a right to administrative offset?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Is there a right to administrative offset? 681.44 Section 681.44 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT REGULATIONS Decisions and Appeals § 681.44 Is there a right to...

  2. 19 CFR 159.44 - Special duties on merchandise imported under agreements in restraint of trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special duties on merchandise imported under agreements in restraint of trade. 159.44 Section 159.44 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION... § 159.44 Special duties on merchandise imported under agreements in restraint of trade. Whenever it...

  3. 49 CFR 1242.44 - Trucks, trailers, and containers (revenue service) and floating equipment (revenue service...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Trucks, trailers, and containers (revenue service) and floating equipment (revenue service) (accounts XX-23-43 and XX-23-44). 1242.44 Section 1242.44... Trucks, trailers, and containers (revenue service) and floating equipment (revenue service) (accounts XX...

  4. 22 CFR 51.44 - Proof of resumption or retention of U.S. citizenship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... citizenship. 51.44 Section 51.44 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE NATIONALITY AND PASSPORTS PASSPORTS Evidence of U.S. Citizenship or Nationality § 51.44 Proof of resumption or retention of U.S. citizenship. An applicant who claims to have resumed or retained U.S. citizenship must submit with the application...

  5. 36 CFR 223.44 - Collection rights on contracts involved in transfer of purchase credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Collection rights on contracts involved in transfer of purchase credit. 223.44 Section 223.44 Parks, Forests, and Public Property... Contracts Contract Conditions and Provisions § 223.44 Collection rights on contracts involved in transfer of...

  6. The 44th success of the CERN Relay Race

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2014-01-01

    On Thursday 5 June, 590 people (8 Nordic walkers and 97 teams of 6 runners each) took part in the 44th CERN Relay Race.   The teams were divided into 8 different categories: mixed, mixed open, women, women open, men, men open, men veterans and Nordic Walk. The participants covered 3,900 metres around the Meyrin site, with the race's winners covering this distance in only 11 minutes and 4 seconds! (See all the results here.) All the participants received a souvenir prize and the winners of each category took home a trophy. Additional prizes were given to the winners of the 1000 m challenge and Challenge Entreprise, and to the best CERN Users and Associates team, Department team and fancy dress team. Everybody had a very good time, thanks to the excellent weather and the dynamic and friendly atmosphere created by the CERN Clubs! The Running Club would like to thank the Staff Association, the CERN Management and services, the event’s sponsors and, especially, all the volunteers...

  7. A summary of Selected Data: DSDP Legs 20-44,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    1 4 4) 0 r.4n *n 914 4 J -lQ 4 -4.0-1 (14 cd N 4) H- 0444) Q. o -4J 0 U) 4) $ d) $ O4H > 4)-H - Nd -o.d) 0 0 0I 1 1 9.O:G1 0 U 0~04-4 .~i 4) 1) N) iv s...8217 Q)0 J 0 ’-P 0 4-U (d 4jC)r- 0 4-) )C)’O (’.d-4 4 tD to C) 14 > U) U U~ E) 0) a)0 -4 U) -1 r. E -4 4 (n : >e04r 0 4H) -) ) ( (n M U) Q)0 H 4-) U) 4Q a...0 >1 S:: -q 0 0’oj > r- i4 --1 -4~C) 4-J -r- * ) Q 1) 4- - 4-) (13 J0 U) 0) r. 0 -r--C) > 4-J~) a) td 41 - 4 -- 4 4 4- ) - 4)4-O H 0) --- I-0 4-J

  8. Outbreak of Salmonella Typhimurium 44 related to egg consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyda, Amalie; Hundy, Rebecca; Moffatt, Cameron R M; Cameron, Scott

    2009-12-01

    ACT Health investigated an outbreak of gastroenteritis associated with a local restaurant in December 2008. The infecting agent was Salmonella serotype Typhimurium phage type 44. A case control study was conducted to identify the source of infection. A total of 22 cases and 9 controls were recruited to take part in the study. Both poached eggs (odds ratio [OR] 42.00) and hollandaise sauce (OR 19.00) had elevated odds ratios that were statistically significant. The major limitation of the study was the small sample size and small number of controls. Despite this, a strong association with illness and consumption of eggs and hollandaise sauce was detected and this was further supported by environmental evidence. The investigation concluded that the cause of the outbreak was putatively contaminated eggs, either on their own or as an ingredient used in hollandaise sauce. The investigation and control measures led to an improvement in hygiene practices at the restaurant and contributed to the voluntary recall of the contaminated batch of eggs from the Australian Capital Territory. The results of the study also build upon other evidence that egg-related salmonellosis is now common in Australia and attention to commercial practices at production and processing is overdue.

  9. Men Aged 15-44 in Need of Preconception Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choiriyyah, Ifta; Sonenstein, Freya L; Astone, Nan M; Pleck, Joseph H; Dariotis, Jacinda K; Marcell, Arik V

    2015-11-01

    Preconception care for men focuses on prevention strategies implemented prior to conception of a first or subsequent pregnancy to improve pregnancy and infant outcomes. Little is known about U.S. men in need of preconception care. This analysis describes the proportion of men in need of preconception care and associations of these needs by background characteristics, related health conditions, access to care and receipt of services. Data from men aged 15-44 in the National Survey of Family Growth 2006-2010 were analyzed to describe men in need of preconception care, based on future childbearing intentions and self and partner fecundity status (among sexually experienced only), and associated factors with these needs using weighted bivariate analyses. About 60 % of men are in need of preconception care. Higher prevalence of being in need was observed among men aged 15-29 than older; living in urban than non-urban settings; in school than not in school regardless of working status; not in a coresidential union than married or cohabiting; who were recent immigrants than U.S. born; and reporting never having had a child than ≥1 child(ren). Men in need were overweight/obese (56 %), ever binge drank in the last year (58 %), and have high STI risk (21 %). The majority of men in need reported access to care in the last year (>70 %), but few reported receipt of services including STD/HIV testing (preconception care among U.S. men.

  10. Tics and Tourette syndrome: clinical evaluation of 44 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teive Hélio A.G.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated 44 patients with tics and Tourette's syndrome (TS emphasising the age of onset of symptoms, sex, classification and localization of tics, associated symptoms and signs and comorbidities. Thirty-three patients (75.2% had TS defined criteria whereas 10 (22.7% had chronic motor and/or vocal tics. Simple motor tics were found in 43 cases (97.7%, mainly affecting the eyes (43.2%, mouth (43.2%, face (34.1%. Simple vocal tics occurred in 33 (75%. Coprolalia was found in just 6 cases (13.6% and copropraxia in just 2 (4.5%. Obsessive compulsive disorder and/or symptoms were found in 26 cases (59.1% and attention deficit in 17 (38.6%. Eighteen patients (40.9% had other disorders, such as alcoholism, tabagism, drug abuse, affective disorders, anxiety, sleep and learning disorders. The data obtained are similar to those found by other authors. We highlight the low frequency of coprolalia, as well as the associated neuropsychiatric disorders.

  11. Insights into the structural perturbations of spliced variants of CD44: a modeling and simulation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Shanaya; Shaikh, Faraz; Devaraji, Vinod; Radadiya, Ashish; Shah, Kanisha; Shah, Anamik; Rawal, Rakesh

    2017-02-01

    Transient interactions between cancer stem cells and components of the tumor microenvironment initiate various signaling pathways crucial for carcinogenesis. Predominant hyaluronan (HA) receptor, CD44 is structurally and functionally one of the most variable cell surface receptors having the potential to generate a diverse repertory of CD44 isoforms by alternative splicing of variant exons and post-translational modifications. A structurally distinctive variant of CD44, CD44v10, has an inevitable role in malignant progression, invasion, and metastasis. This can be attributed to the binding of HA with CD44v10, which demonstrates a completely different behavioral pattern as compared to the other spliced variants of CD44 molecule. Absence of a comprehensively predicted crystal structure of human CD44s and CD44v10 is an impediment in understanding the resultant structural alterations caused by the binding of HA. Thus, in this study, we aim to predict the CD44s and CD44v10 structures to their closest native confirmation and study the HA binding-induced structural perturbations using homology modeling, molecular docking, and MD simulation approach. The results depicted that modeled 3D structures of CD44s and CD44v10 isoforms were found to be stable throughout MD simulations; however, a substantial decrease was observed in the binding affinity of HA with CD44v10 (-5.355 kcal/mol) as compared to CD44s. Furthermore, loss and gain of several H-bonds and hydrophobic interactions in CD44v10-HA complex during the simulation process not only elucidated the reason for decreased binding affinity for HA but also prompted toward the plausible role of HA-induced structural perturbations in occurrence and progression of carcinogenesis.

  12. CD44 deficiency inhibits unloading-induced cortical bone loss through downregulation of osteoclast activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuheng; Zhong, Guohui; Sun, Weijia; Zhao, Chengyang; Zhang, Pengfei; Song, Jinping; Zhao, Dingsheng; Jin, Xiaoyan; Li, Qi; Ling, Shukuan; Li, Yingxian

    2015-11-04

    The CD44 is cellular surface adhesion molecule that is involved in physiological processes such as hematopoiesis, lymphocyte homing and limb development. It plays an important role in a variety of cellular functions including adhesion, migration, invasion and survival. In bone tissue, CD44 is widely expressed in osteoblasts, osteoclasts and osteocytes. However, the mechanisms underlying its role in bone metabolism remain unclear. We found that CD44 expression was upregulated during osteoclastogenesis. CD44 deficiency in vitro significantly inhibited osteoclast activity and function by regulating the NF-κB/NFATc1-mediated pathway. In vivo, CD44 mRNA levels were significantly upregulated in osteoclasts isolated from the hindlimb of tail-suspended mice. CD44 deficiency can reduce osteoclast activity and counteract cortical bone loss in the hindlimb of unloaded mice. These results suggest that therapeutic inhibition of CD44 may protect from unloading induced bone loss by inhibiting osteoclast activity.

  13. Experiments on the formation of titanium-44 in supernovae; Experimente zur Entstehung von Titan-44 in Supernovae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Konrad

    2012-11-01

    In this thesis the astrophysically interesting resonance triplet of the {sup 40}Ca({alpha},{gamma}){sup 44}Ti reaction at 4.5 MeV has been studied. For this purpose energies of proton and {alpha} beams provided by 3 MV Tandetron at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf have been calibrated. Excitation functions of energy regions near the resonances and in-beam spectra of four different targets have been measured. The {sup 40}Ca(p,{gamma}){sup 41}Sc reaction has been used to scan the structure of the activated targets. Afterwards their activity has been measured in the underground laboratory Felsenkeller Dresden. Hence the sum of resonance strengths at laboratory {alpha} energies of 4497 and 4510 keV of (12.8{+-}2.3) eV has been determined as well as the sum of the total triplet strength, including 4523 keV, of (12.0{+-}2.0) eV. In the case of the first resonance, the uncertainty was decreased from 19% to 18 %. Furthermore the results of this work establish a basis for reaching much lower uncertainties in the future.

  14. Chemical Composition Measurements of LAWA44 Glass Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Edwards, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Riley, W. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-11-15

    DOE is building the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) at the Hanford Site in Washington to remediate 55 million gallons of radioactive waste that is temporarily stored in 177 underground tanks. Both low-activity and high-level wastes will then be vitrified into borosilicate glass using Joule-heated ceramic melters. Efforts are being made to increase the loading of Hanford tank wastes in the glass. One area of work is enhancing waste glass composition/property models and broadening the compositional regions over which those models are applicable. In this report, the Savannah River National Laboratory provides chemical analysis results for several samples of a simulated low-activity waste glass, LAWA44, provided by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory as part of an ongoing development task. The measured chemical composition data are reported and compared with the targeted values for each component for each glass. A detailed review showed no indications of errors in the preparation or measurement of the study glasses. All of the measured sums of oxides for the study glasses fell within the interval of 97.9 to 102.6 wt %, indicating acceptable recovery of the glass components. Comparisons of the targeted and measured chemical compositions showed that the measured values for the glasses met the targeted concentrations within 10% for those components present at more than 5 wt %. It was noted that the measured B2O3 concentrations are somewhat above the targeted values for the study glasses. No obvious trends were observed with regard to the multiple melting steps used to prepare the study glasses, indicating that any potential effects of volatility were below measurable thresholds.

  15. A 44 kyr Paleo-Roughness Record From Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, P. R.; Wolff, E. W.; Mulvaney, R.

    2004-12-01

    Two 788 m high resolution conductivity records from ice cores drilled at Dome C, Antarctica, provide an unprecedented opportunity to examine the past roughness of the ice sheet surface. We measured the distribution of the depth differences between matched synchronous events in the cores. This enabled the mean surface height distribution to be estimated for time intervals in the past. The technique was confirmed by checking the results against the conductivity profile of a third nearby core (120m depth), enabling uncertainties to be established. The mean standard deviation of surface roughness was 0.029 m for 0 to 11.5 kyr BP and 0.031 m for 18 to 45 kyr BP in ice equivalence. A record of this nature allows us to assess the reliability of the fine scale data in an ice core record. Specifically how well the preserved information represents the mean conditions at the time of deposition and the extent to which short term events may be missing from the core. This is of particular interest when matching volcanic horizons with other paleo records and when studying rates of volcanism. We find the probability of a typical volcanic signal being indistinguishable from background noise is ~ 6% during the Holocene but ~ 26% during the last glacial period. The 44 kyr roughness record, originating from dunes and sastrugi at the ice sheet surface, is likely to be a function of past wind speed, accumulation rate and temperature. Future developments constraining this relationship should allow conclusions regarding past local wind speed to be drawn from the record.

  16. Binding of cell-surface expressed CD44 to hyaluronate is dependent on splicing and cell type

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Voort, R.; Manten-Horst, E.; Smit, L.; Ostermann, E.; van den Berg, F.; Pals, S. T.

    1995-01-01

    CD44 is a major cell-surface receptor for hyaluronate (HA). By alternative RNA-splicing a large number of CD44 variants are generated. To explore the role of CD44 splicing in the regulation of cell binding to HA, three different isoforms of CD44 were transfected in the CD44 negative B-cell lymphoma

  17. The Importance of CD44 as a Stem Cell Biomarker and Therapeutic Target in Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjeeta Thapa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available CD44 is a cell surface HA-binding glycoprotein that is overexpressed to some extent by almost all tumors of epithelial origin and plays an important role in tumor initiation and metastasis. CD44 is a compelling marker for cancer stem cells of many solid malignancies. In addition, interaction of HA and CD44 promotes EGFR-mediated pathways, consequently leading to tumor cell growth, tumor cell migration, and chemotherapy resistance in solid cancers. Accumulating evidence indicates that major HA-CD44 signaling pathways involve a specific variant of CD44 isoforms; however, the particular variant almost certainly depends on the type of tumor cell and the stage of the cancer progression. Research to date suggests use of monoclonal antibodies against different CD44 variant isoforms and targeted inhibition of HA/CD44-mediated signaling combined with conventional radio/chemotherapy may be the most favorable therapeutic strategy for future treatments of advanced stage malignancies. Thus, this paper briefly focuses on the association of the major CD44 variant isoforms in cancer progression, the role of HA-CD44 interaction in oncogenic pathways, and strategies to target CD44-overexpressed tumor cells.

  18. Conservation of CD44 exon v3 functional elements in mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández-Bellon Hugo

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human CD44 gene contains 10 variable exons (v1 to v10 that can be alternatively spliced to generate hundreds of different CD44 protein isoforms. Human CD44 variable exon v3 inclusion in the final mRNA depends on a multisite bipartite splicing enhancer located within the exon itself, which we have recently described, and provides the protein domain responsible for growth factor binding to CD44. Findings We have analyzed the sequence of CD44v3 in 95 mammalian species to report high conservation levels for both its splicing regulatory elements (the 3' splice site and the exonic splicing enhancer, and the functional glycosaminglycan binding site coded by v3. We also report the functional expression of CD44v3 isoforms in peripheral blood cells of different mammalian taxa with both consensus and variant v3 sequences. Conclusion CD44v3 mammalian sequences maintain all functional splicing regulatory elements as well as the GAG binding site with the same relative positions and sequence identity previously described during alternative splicing of human CD44. The sequence within the GAG attachment site, which in turn contains the Y motif of the exonic splicing enhancer, is more conserved relative to the rest of exon. Amplification of CD44v3 sequence from mammalian species but not from birds, fish or reptiles, may lead to classify CD44v3 as an exclusive mammalian gene trait.

  19. Altered monocyte CD44 expression in peripheral arterial disease is corrected by fish oil supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, J; Shearman, C P; Dunn, R L; Dastur, N D; Tan, R M; Nash, G B; Rainger, G Ed; Brunner, A; Calder, P C; Grimble, R F

    2009-05-01

    CD44 and its splice variants can be expressed on all leukocytes, conferring adhesive properties and enhancing cellular recruitment to the endothelium during inflammation. CD44 expression is increased in inflammatory conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis and CD44 variant 3 (CD44v3) expression may be associated with inflammation. We have examined CD44 and CD44v3 expression on peripheral blood monocytes from patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and healthy controls. We have also examined the effect of fish oil supplementation on these markers. CD44 and CD44v3 were assessed at baseline and following dietary supplementation with fish oil for 12 weeks in both PAD and control groups. Monocytes from PAD patients had higher CD44 expression than those from controls (median intensity fluorescence (MIF): 480+/-278 vs 336+/-251 (mean+/-SD); p<0.001). Following 12 weeks' dietary supplementation with fish oil, CD44 expression was reduced in PAD patients (MIF: 480+/-278 vs 427+/-262; p=0.05) but not in controls (336+/-251 vs 355+/-280; ns). Monocyte CD44v3 expression was lower in cultured monocytes from PAD patients compared to those from controls (0.15+/-0.15 vs 0.22+/-0.14 OD units; p<0.02). This was increased in the PAD group following fish oil supplementation (0.15+/-0.14 to 0.27+/-0.23 OD units; p<0.001). Monocyte CD44 and CD44v3 expression are altered in arterial disease but are returned towards levels seen in control subjects by dietary fish oil supplementation.

  20. Dominant Repression by Arabidopsis Transcription Factor MYB44 Causes Oxidative Damage and Hypersensitivity to Abiotic Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene Persak

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In any living species, stress adaptation is closely linked with major changes of the gene expression profile. As a substrate protein of the rapidly stress-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase MPK3, Arabidopsis transcription factor MYB44 likely acts at the front line of stress-induced re-programming. We recently characterized MYB44 as phosphorylation-dependent positive regulator of salt stress signaling. Molecular events downstream of MYB44 are largely unknown. Although MYB44 binds to the MBSII element in vitro, it has no discernible effect on MBSII-driven reporter gene expression in plant co-transfection assays. This may suggest limited abundance of a synergistic co-regulator. MYB44 carries a putative transcriptional repression (Ethylene responsive element binding factor-associated Amphiphilic Repression, EAR motif. We employed a dominant repressor strategy to gain insights into MYB44-conferred stress resistance. Overexpression of a MYB44-REP fusion markedly compromised salt and drought stress tolerance—the opposite was seen in MYB44 overexpression lines. MYB44-mediated resistance likely results from induction of tolerance-enhancing, rather than from repression of tolerance-diminishing factors. Salt stress-induced accumulation of destructive reactive oxygen species is efficiently prevented in transgenic MYB44, but accelerated in MYB44-REP lines. Furthermore, heterologous overexpression of MYB44-REP caused tissue collapse in Nicotiana. A mechanistic model of MAPK-MYB-mediated enhancement in the antioxidative capacity and stress tolerance is proposed. Genetic engineering of MYB44 variants with higher trans-activating capacity may be a means to further raise stress resistance in crops.

  1. Can CD44 Be a Mediator of Cell Destruction? The Challenge of Type 1 Diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Assayag-Asherie

    Full Text Available CD44 is a multi-functional receptor with multiple of isoforms engaged in modulation of cell trafficking and transmission of apoptotic signals. We have previously shown that injection of anti-CD44 antibody into NOD mice induced resistance to type 1 diabetes (T1D. In this communication we describe our efforts to understand the mechanism underlying this effect. We found that CD44-deficient NOD mice develop stronger resistance to T1D than wild-type littermates. This effect is not explained by the involvement of CD44 in cell migration, because CD44-deficient inflammatory cells surprisingly had greater invasive potential than the corresponding wild type cells, probably owing to molecular redundancy. We have previously reported and we show here again that CD44 expression and hyaluronic acid (HA, the principal ligand for CD44 accumulation are detected in pancreatic islets of diabetic NOD mice, but not of non-diabetic DBA/1 mice. Expression of CD44 on insulin-secreting β cells renders them susceptible to the autoimmune attack, and is associated with a diminution in β-cells function (e.g., less insulin production and/or insulin secretion and possibly also with an enhanced apoptosis rate. The diabetes-supportive effect of CD44 expression on β cells was assessed by the TUNEL assay and further strengthened by functional assays exhibiting increased nitric oxide release, reduced insulin secretion after glucose stimulation and decreased insulin content in β cells. All these parameters could not be detected in CD44-deficient islets. We further suggest that HA-binding to CD44-expressing β cells is implicated in β-cell demise. Altogether, these data agree with the concept that CD44 is a receptor capable of modulating cell fate. This finding is important for other pathologies (e.g., cancer, neurodegenerative diseases in which CD44 and HA appear to be implicated.

  2. 2017-12-08T02:44:44Z https://www.ajol.info/index.php/all/oai oai:ojs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    article/90157 2017-12-08T02:44:43Z jlt:ART Challenging Messick: Proposing a theoretical framework for understanding fundamental concepts in language testing Rambiritch, A applied linguistics, language testing, social dimension, social ...

  3. CD44 Interacts with HIF-2α to Modulate the Hypoxic Phenotype of Perinecrotic and Perivascular Glioma Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Elinn; Grassi, Elisa S.; Pantazopoulou, Vasiliki

    2017-01-01

    correlated with CD44. The CD44ICD was sufficient to induce hypoxic signaling at perivascular oxygen tensions, and blocking CD44 cleavage decreased HIF-2α stabilization in CD44-expressing cells. Our data indicate that the stem cell marker CD44 modulates the hypoxic response of glioma cells and that the pseudo......-hypoxic phenotype of stem-like glioma cells is achieved by stabilization of HIF-2α through interaction with CD44, independently of oxygen....

  4. Left posterior-dorsal area 44 couples with parietal areas to promote speech fluency, while right area 44 activity promotes the stopping of motor responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neef, Nicole E; Bütfering, Christoph; Anwander, Alfred; Friederici, Angela D; Paulus, Walter; Sommer, Martin

    2016-11-15

    Area 44 is a cytoarchitectonically distinct portion of Broca's region. Parallel and overlapping large-scale networks couple with this region thereby orchestrating heterogeneous language, cognitive, and motor functions. In the context of stuttering, area 44 frequently comes into focus because structural and physiological irregularities affect developmental trajectories, stuttering severity, persistency, and etiology. A remarkable phenomenon accompanying stuttering is the preserved ability to sing. Speaking and singing are connatural behaviours recruiting largely overlapping brain networks including left and right area 44. Analysing which potential subregions of area 44 are malfunctioning in adults who stutter, and what effectively suppresses stuttering during singing, may provide a better understanding of the coordination and reorganization of large-scale brain networks dedicated to speaking and singing in general. We used fMRI to investigate functionally distinct subregions of area 44 during imagery of speaking and imaginary of humming a melody in 15 dextral males who stutter and 17 matched control participants. Our results are fourfold. First, stuttering was specifically linked to a reduced activation of left posterior-dorsal area 44, a subregion that is involved in speech production, including phonological word processing, pitch processing, working memory processes, sequencing, motor planning, pseudoword learning, and action inhibition. Second, functional coupling between left posterior area 44 and left inferior parietal lobule was deficient in stuttering. Third, despite the preserved ability to sing, males who stutter showed bilaterally a reduced activation of area 44 when imagine humming a melody, suggesting that this fluency-enhancing condition seems to bypass posterior-dorsal area 44 to achieve fluency. Fourth, time courses of the posterior subregions in area 44 showed delayed peak activations in the right hemisphere in both groups, possibly signaling the

  5. Molecular mechanism for the action of the anti-CD44 monoclonal antibody MEM-85.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škerlová, Jana; Král, Vlastimil; Kachala, Michael; Fábry, Milan; Bumba, Ladislav; Svergun, Dmitri I; Tošner, Zdeněk; Veverka, Václav; Řezáčová, Pavlína

    2015-08-01

    The hyaluronate receptor CD44 plays role in cell adhesion and migration and is involved in tumor metastasis. The extracellular domain of CD44 comprises the hyaluronate-binding domain (HABD) and the membrane-proximal stem region; the short intracellular portion interacts with adaptor proteins and triggers signaling pathways. Binding of hyaluronate to CD44 HABD induces an allosteric conformational change, which results in CD44 shedding. A poorly characterized epitope in human CD44 HABD is recognized by the murine monoclonal antibody MEM-85, which cross-blocks hyaluronate binding to CD44 and also induces CD44 shedding. MEM-85 is of therapeutic interest, as it inhibits growth of lung cancer cells in murine models. In this work, we employed a combination of biophysical methods to determine the MEM-85 binding epitope in CD44 HABD and to provide detailed insight into the mechanism of MEM-85 action. In particular, we constructed a single-chain variable fragment (scFv) of MEM-85 as a tool for detailed characterization of the CD44 HABD-antibody complex and identified residues within CD44 HABD involved in the interaction with scFv MEM-85 by NMR spectroscopy and mutational analysis. In addition, we built a rigid body model of the CD44 HABD-scFv MEM-85 complex using a low-resolution structure obtained by small-angle X-ray scattering. The MEM-85 epitope is situated in the C-terminal part of CD44 HABD, rather than the hyaluronate-binding groove, and the binding of MEM-85 induces a structural reorganization similar to that induced by hyaluronate. Therefore, the mechanism of MEM-85 cross-blocking of hyaluronate binding is likely of an allosteric, relay-like nature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Mutant p53 promotes cell spreading and migration via ARHGAP44.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jinjin; Jiao, Jian; Xu, Wei; Ji, Lei; Jiang, Dongjie; Xie, Shaofang; Kubra, Syeda; Li, Xiaotao; Fu, Junjiang; Xiao, Jianru; Zhang, Bianhong

    2017-09-01

    The tumor suppressor p53 protein is either lost or mutated in about half of all human cancers. Loss of p53 function is well known to influence cell spreading, migration and invasion. While expression of mutant p53 is not equivalent to p53 loss, mutant p53 can acquire new functions to drive cell spreading and migration via different mechanisms. In our study, we found that mutant p53 significantly increased cell spreading and migration when comparing with p53-null cells. RNA-Seq analysis suggested that Rho GTPase activating protein 44 (ARHGAP44) is a new target of mutant p53, which suppressed ARHGAP44 transcription. ARHGAP44 has GAP activity and catalyze GTP hydrolysis on Cdc42. Higher level of GTP-Cdc42 was correlated with increase expression of mutant p53 and reduced ARHGAP44. Importantly, wt-ARHGAP44 but not mutant ARHGAP44 (R291A) suppressed mutant p53 mediated cell spreading and migration. Bioinformatics analysis indicated lower expression of ARHGAP44 in lung carcinoma compared with normal tissues, which was verified by RT-qPCR using specimens from patients. More interestingly, ARHGAP44 mRNA level was lower in tumors with mutant p53 than those with normal p53. Collectively, our results disclose a new mechanism by which mutant p53 stimulates cell spreading and migration.

  7. The Role of CD44 in Disease Pathophysiology And Targeted Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre R. Jordan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The cell-surface glycoprotein CD44 is involved in a multitude of important physiological functions including cell proliferation, adhesion, migration, hematopoiesis, and lymphocyte activation. The diverse physiological activity of CD44 is manifested in the pathology of a number of diseases including cancer, arthritis, bacterial and viral infections, interstitial lung disease, vascular disease and wound healing. This diversity in biological activity is conferred by both a variety of distinct CD44 isoforms generated through complex alternative splicing, posttranslational modifications (e.g., N- and O-glycosylation, interactions with a number of different ligands and the abundance and spatial distribution of CD44 on the cell surface. The extracellular matrix glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan (HA is the principle ligand of CD44. This review focuses both CD44-hyaluronan dependent and independent CD44 signaling and the role of CD44-HA interaction in various pathophysiologies. The review also discusses recent advances in novel treatment strategies that exploit the CD44-HA interaction either for direct targeting or for drug delivery.

  8. Phototheranostics of CD44-positive cell populations in triple negative breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jiefu; Krishnamachary, Balaji; Mironchik, Yelena; Kobayashi, Hisataka; Bhujwalla, Zaver M

    2016-06-15

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is one of the most lethal subtypes of breast cancer that has limited treatment options. Its high rates of recurrence and metastasis have been associated, in part, with a subpopulation of breast cancer stem-like cells that are resistant to conventional therapies. A compendium of markers such as CD44(high)/CD24(low), and increased expression of the ABCG2 transporter and increased aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH1), have been associated with these cells. We developed a CD44-targeted monoclonal antibody photosensitizer conjugate for combined fluorescent detection and photoimmunotherapy (PIT) of CD44 expressing cells in TNBC. The CD44-targeted conjugate demonstrated acute cell killing of breast cancer cells with high CD44 expression. This cell death process was dependent upon CD44-specific cell membrane binding combined with near-infrared irradiation. The conjugate selectively accumulated in CD44-positive tumors and caused dramatic tumor shrinkage and efficient elimination of CD44-positive cell populations following irradiation. This novel phototheranostic strategy provides a promising opportunity for the destruction of CD44-positive populations that include cancer stem-like cells, in locally advanced primary and metastatic TNBC.

  9. Radiolabeling of DOTATOC with the long-lived positron emitter {sup 44}Sc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruszynski, Marek; Majkowska-Pilip, Agnieszka [Centre of Radiochemistry and Nuclear Chemistry, Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Dorodna 16, 03-195 Warszawa (Poland); Loktionova, Natalia S.; Eppard, Elisabeth [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry, Johannes Gutenberg-University of Mainz, Fritz-Strassmann-Weg 2, D-55128 Mainz (Germany); Roesch, Frank, E-mail: frank.roesch@uni-mainz.de [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry, Johannes Gutenberg-University of Mainz, Fritz-Strassmann-Weg 2, D-55128 Mainz (Germany)

    2012-06-15

    The positron-emitting radionuclide {sup 44}Sc with a half-life of 3.97 h and a {beta}{sup +} branching of 94.3% is of potential interest for clinical PET. As so far it is available from a {sup 44}Ti/{sup 44}Sc generator in Mainz, where long-lived {sup 44}Ti decays to no-carrier-added (nca) {sup 44}Sc. The {sup 44}Sc is a trivalent metal cation and should be suitable for complexation with many well established bifunctional chelators conjugated to peptides or other molecular targeting vectors. Thus, the aim of this work was to investigate the potential of {sup 44}Sc for labeling of DOTA-conjugated peptides. DOTA-D-Phe{sup 1}-Tyr{sup 3}-octreotide (DOTATOC) was used as a model molecule to study and optimize labeling procedure. Reaction parameters such as buffer conditions, concentration of peptide, pH range, reaction temperature and time were optimized. Addition of 21 nmol of DOTATOC to {sup 44}Sc in ammonium acetate buffer pH 4.0 provided labeling yields >98% within 25 min of heating in an oil-bath at 95 Degree-Sign C. This time can be reduced to 3 min only by applying microwave supported heating. {sup 44}Sc-DOTATOC was found to be stable in 0.9% NaCl, PBS pH 7.4, fetal calf and human serums, and also in the presence of competing metal cations (Fe{sup 3+}, Ca{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}), as well as other ligand competitors, like EDTA and DTPA, even after almost 25 h incubation at 37 Degree-Sign C. Present study shows that nca {sup 44}Sc forms stable complexes with the macrocyclic ligand DOTA and that {sup 44}Sc-DOTATOC and analog targeting vectors may be synthesized for further preclinical and clinical investigations. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Labeling of somatostatin analouges with positron emitter {sup 44}Sc was tested. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DOTATOC was labeled with {sup 44}Sc isotope. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optimal conditions for {sup 44}Sc-DOTATOC synthesis were found. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stability of {sup 44}Sc

  10. MicroRNA miR-328 regulates zonation morphogenesis by targeting CD44 expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Hui Wang

    Full Text Available Morphogenesis is crucial to initiate physiological development and tumor invasion. Here we show that a microRNA controls zonation morphogenesis by targeting hyaluronan receptor CD44. We have developed a novel system to study microRNA functions by generating constructs expressing pre-miRNAs and mature miRNAs. Using this system, we have demonstrated that expression of miR-328 reduced cell adhesion, aggregation, and migration, and regulated formation of capillary structure. Protein analysis indicated that miR-328 repressed CD44 expression. Activities of luciferase constructs harboring the target site in CD44, but not the one containing mutation, were repressed by miR-328. Zonation morphogenesis appeared in cells transfected by miR-328: miR-328-transfected cells were present on the surface of zonating structures while the control cells stayed in the middle. MiR-328-mediated CD44 actions was validated by anti-CD44 antibody, hyaluronidase, CD44 siRNA, and CD44 expression constructs. In vivo experiments showed that CD44-silencing cells appeared as layers on the surfaces of nodules or zonating structures. Immuno-histochemistry also exhibited CD44-negative cells on the surface layers of normal rat livers and the internal zones of Portal veins. Our results demonstrate that miR-328 targets CD44, which is essential in regulating zonation morphogenesis: silencing of CD44 expression is essential in sealing the zonation structures to facilitate their extension and to inhibit complex expansion.

  11. CD44 antibodies and immune thrombocytopenia in the amelioration of murine inflammatory arthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick J Mott

    Full Text Available Antibodies to CD44 have been used to successfully ameliorate murine models of autoimmune disease. The most often studied disease model has been murine inflammatory arthritis, where a clear mechanism for the efficacy of CD44 antibodies has not been established. We have recently shown in a murine passive-model of the autoimmune disease immune thrombocytopenia (ITP that some CD44 antibodies themselves can induce thrombocytopenia in mice, and the CD44 antibody causing the most severe thrombocytopenia (IM7, also is known to be highly effective in ameliorating murine models of arthritis. Recent work in the K/BxN serum-induced model of arthritis demonstrated that antibody-induced thrombocytopenia reduced arthritis, causing us to question whether CD44 antibodies might primarily ameliorate arthritis through their thrombocytopenic effect. We evaluated IM7, IRAWB14.4, 5035-41.1D, KM201, KM114, and KM81, and found that while all could induce thrombocytopenia, the degree of protection against serum-induced arthritis was not closely related to the length or severity of the thrombocytopenia. CD44 antibody treatment was also able to reverse established inflammation, while thrombocytopenia induced by an anti-platelet antibody targeting the GPIIbIIIa platelet antigen, could not mediate this effect. While CD44 antibody-induced thrombocytopenia may contribute to some of its therapeutic effect against the initiation of arthritis, for established disease there are likely other mechanisms contributing to its efficacy. Humans are not known to express CD44 on platelets, and are therefore unlikely to develop thrombocytopenia after CD44 antibody treatment. An understanding of the relationship between arthritis, thrombocytopenia, and CD44 antibody treatment remains critical for continued development of CD44 antibody therapeutics.

  12. CD44-engineered mesoporous silica nanoparticles for overcoming multidrug resistance in breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xin; Liu, Ying; Wang, Shouju; Shi, Donghong [Department of Radiology, Jinling Hospital, Clinical School of Medical College, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210002 (China); Zhou, Xianguang [National Clinical Research Center of Kidney Diseases, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing 210016 (China); Wang, Chunyan; Wu, Jiang; Zeng, Zhiyong; Li, Yanjun; Sun, Jing [Department of Radiology, Jinling Hospital, Clinical School of Medical College, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210002 (China); Wang, Jiandong [Department of Pathology, Jinling Hospital, Clinical School of Medical College, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210002 (China); Zhang, Longjiang [Department of Radiology, Jinling Hospital, Clinical School of Medical College, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210002 (China); Teng, Zhaogang, E-mail: tzg@fudan.edu.cn [Department of Radiology, Jinling Hospital, Clinical School of Medical College, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210002 (China); State Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Lu, Guangming, E-mail: cjr.luguangming@vip.163.com [Department of Radiology, Jinling Hospital, Clinical School of Medical College, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210002 (China); State Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2015-03-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • CD44-engineered mesoporous silica nanoparticles are synthesized. • The mechanism of CD44-engineered mesoporous silica nanoparticles is revealed. • This new delivery system increased the drug accumulation in vitro and in vivo. • This new delivery system offers an effective approach to treat multidrug resistance. - Abstract: Multidrug resistance is a major impediment for the successful chemotherapy in breast cancer. CD44 is over-expressed in multidrug resistant human breast cancer cells. CD44 monoclonal antibody exhibits anticancer potential by inhibiting proliferation and regulating P-glycoprotein-mediated drug efflux activity in multidrug resistant cells. Thereby, CD44 monoclonal antibody in combination with chemotherapeutic drug might be result in enhancing chemosensitivity and overcoming multidrug resistance. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the CD44 monoclonal antibody functionalized mesoporous silica nanoparticles containing doxorubicin on human breast resistant cancer MCF-7 cells. The data showed that CD44-modified mesoporous silica nanoparticles increased cytotoxicity and enhanced the downregulation of P-glycoprotein in comparison to CD44 antibody. Moreover, CD44-engineered mesoporous silica nanoparticles provided active target, which promoted more cellular uptake of DOX in the resistant cells and more retention of DOX in tumor tissues than unengineered counterpart. Animal studies of the resistant breast cancer xenografts demonstrated that CD44-engineered drug delivery system remarkably induced apoptosis and inhibited the tumor growth. Our results indicated that the CD44-engineered mesoporous silica nanoparticle-based drug delivery system offers an effective approach to overcome multidrug resistance in human breast cancer.

  13. 19 CFR 133.44 - Decision of disputed claim of infringement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Decision of disputed claim of infringement. 133.44...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TRADEMARKS, TRADE NAMES, AND COPYRIGHTS Importations Violating Copyright Laws § 133.44 Decision of disputed claim of infringement. (a) Claim of infringement sustained. Upon...

  14. 26 CFR 44.4422-1 - Doing business in violation of Federal or State law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... in nowise authorizes the carrying on of any business in violation of a law of the United States or... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Doing business in violation of Federal or State law. 44.4422-1 Section 44.4422-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY...

  15. 41 CFR 60-300.44 - Required contents of affirmative action programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Required contents of affirmative action programs. 60-300.44 Section 60-300.44 Public Contracts and Property Management Other... participation in career days, youth motivation programs, and related activities in their communities. (6) The...

  16. 41 CFR 60-250.44 - Required contents of affirmative action programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Required contents of affirmative action programs. 60-250.44 Section 60-250.44 Public Contracts and Property Management Other... career days, youth motivation programs, and related activities in their communities. (6) The contractor...

  17. 41 CFR 60-741.44 - Required contents of affirmative action programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Required contents of affirmative action programs. 60-741.44 Section 60-741.44 Public Contracts and Property Management Other.... Individuals with disabilities should be made available for participation in career days, youth motivation...

  18. 34 CFR 369.44 - What wage and hour standards apply to community rehabilitation programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What wage and hour standards apply to community rehabilitation programs? 369.44 Section 369.44 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION...

  19. 7 CFR 3015.44 - Royalties or equivalent income earned from patents or from inventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Royalties or equivalent income earned from patents or from inventions. 3015.44 Section 3015.44 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... inventions. Disposition of royalties or equivalent income earned on patents or inventions arising out of...

  20. 43 CFR 44.53 - What will the Department do if a State enacts distribution legislation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... enacts distribution legislation? 44.53 Section 44.53 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of... distribution legislation? If a State enacts distribution legislation, the Department will: (a) Notify the State... Federal fiscal year following the fiscal year in which the State enacted legislation; and (b) Provide the...

  1. 27 CFR 44.213 - Destruction of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... products, and cigarette papers and tubes. 44.213 Section 44.213 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms... TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT PAYMENT OF TAX, OR WITH DRAWBACK OF TAX Removal of Shipments of Tobacco Products and Cigarette Papers and Tubes by Manufacturers and Export Warehouse...

  2. 19 CFR 4.4 - Panama Canal; report of arrival required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Panama Canal; report of arrival required. 4.4... OF THE TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Arrival and Entry of Vessels § 4.4 Panama Canal; report of arrival required. Vessels which merely transit the Panama Canal without transacting any...

  3. 27 CFR 44.207 - To commercial vessels and aircraft for consumption as supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... aircraft for consumption as supplies. 44.207 Section 44.207 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL... TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT PAYMENT OF TAX, OR WITH DRAWBACK OF TAX Removal of Shipments of Tobacco Products and Cigarette Papers and Tubes by Manufacturers and Export Warehouse...

  4. 27 CFR 44.263 - To commercial vessels and aircraft for consumption as supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... aircraft for consumption as supplies. 44.263 Section 44.263 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL... TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT PAYMENT OF TAX, OR WITH DRAWBACK OF TAX... aircraft for consumption as supplies. Where cigars are withdrawn from a customs warehouse for delivery to a...

  5. 27 CFR 44.262 - To Government vessels and aircraft for consumption as supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... aircraft for consumption as supplies. 44.262 Section 44.262 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL... TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT PAYMENT OF TAX, OR WITH DRAWBACK OF TAX... aircraft for consumption as supplies. Where cigars are withdrawn from a customs warehouse for direct...

  6. 27 CFR 44.195 - To Government vessels and aircraft for consumption as supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... aircraft for consumption as supplies. 44.195 Section 44.195 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL... TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT PAYMENT OF TAX, OR WITH DRAWBACK OF TAX Removal of Shipments of Tobacco Products and Cigarette Papers and Tubes by Manufacturers and Export Warehouse...

  7. 27 CFR 44.206 - To Government vessels and aircraft for consumption as supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... aircraft for consumption as supplies. 44.206 Section 44.206 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL... TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT PAYMENT OF TAX, OR WITH DRAWBACK OF TAX Removal of Shipments of Tobacco Products and Cigarette Papers and Tubes by Manufacturers and Export Warehouse...

  8. 7 CFR 91.44 - Charges on overdue accounts and issuance of delinquency notices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... delinquency notices. 91.44 Section 91.44 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... Charges on overdue accounts and issuance of delinquency notices. (a) Accounts are considered overdue if... laboratory service will not be performed for any applicant with a notice of delinquency. (d) Applicants with...

  9. 19 CFR 162.44 - Release on payment of appraised value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Release on payment of appraised value. 162.44....44 Release on payment of appraised value. (a) Value exceeding $100,000. Any offer to pay the appraised domestic value of seized property in order to obtain the immediate release of the property which...

  10. The role of CD44 splice variants in human metastatic cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleeman, J.; Moll, J.; Sherman, L.; Dall, P.; Pals, S. T.; Ponta, H.; Herrlich, P.

    1995-01-01

    The large family of CD44 splice variants are likely to serve multiple functions in the embryo and in the adult organism. This is reflected in their complex patterns of expression. In molecular terms these functions are largely unknown. Certain splice variants (CD44v) can promote the metastatic

  11. MMP-14 and CD44 in Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) in ovarian cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, M.C.; Hollemans, E.; Ezendam, N.P.M.; Feijen, H.; Boll, D.; Pijlman, B.; van der Putten, H.; Klinkhamer, P.; Kuppevelt, T.H.; van de Wurff, A.A.; Massuger, L.F.

    2016-01-01

    Background To investigate the expression of MMP-14 and CD44 as well as epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition(EMT)-like changes in ovarian cancer and to determine correlations with clinical outcome. Methods In 97 patients with ovarian cancer, MMP-14 and CD44 expression as determined by

  12. MMP-14 and CD44 in Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) in ovarian cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, M.C.; Hollemans, E.; Ezendam, N.; Feijen, H.; Boll, D.; Pijlman, B.; Putten, H. van der; Klinkhamer, P.; Kuppevelt, T.H. van; Wurff, A.A. van der; Massuger, L.F.A.G.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To investigate the expression of MMP-14 and CD44 as well as epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition(EMT)-like changes in ovarian cancer and to determine correlations with clinical outcome. METHODS: In 97 patients with ovarian cancer, MMP-14 and CD44 expression as determined by

  13. Genetics of adult plant stripe rust resistance in CSP44, a selection ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wheat line CSP44, a selection from an Australian bread wheat cultivar Condor, has shown resistance to stripe rust in India since the last twenty years. Seedlings and adult plants of CSP44 showed susceptible infection types against stripe rust race 46S119 but displayed average terminal disease severity of 2.67 on adult ...

  14. 78 FR 2673 - Notice of Issuance of Statement of Federal Financial Accounting Standards 44

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADVISORY BOARD Notice of Issuance of Statement of Federal Financial Accounting Standards 44 AGENCY: Federal... issued Statement of Federal Financial Accounting Standard 44, Accounting for Impairment of General...

  15. 26 CFR 5c.44F-1 - Leases and qualified research expenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Leases and qualified research expenses. 5c.44F-1 Section 5c.44F-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) TEMPORARY INCOME TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE ECONOMIC RECOVERY TAX ACT OF 1981 § 5c...

  16. CD44v6 Dependence of Premetastatic Niche Preparation by Exosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten Jung

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The metastasizing capacity of the rat pancreatic adenocarcinoma BSp73ASML (ASMLwt is strikingly reduced by a knockdown of CD44v4-v7 (ASMLkd. We used this model to analyze the role of the CD44 variant isoform (CD44v in (premetastatic niche formation. Intrafootpad injections of ASMLwt-, but not ASMLkd-conditioned medium (CM, strongly promote settlement of ASMLkd cells in lymph nodes and lung. Fractionation of CM revealed a contribution by a soluble matrix and exosomes, where the CD44v6-containing ASMLwt-soluble fraction can complement ASMLkd-exosomes, but not vice versa. This implies that exosomes are the final actors, are CD44v-independent, but require a soluble matrix, which depends on CD44v. Analyzing the composition revealed that only the ASMLwt-matrix contains c-Met and urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor. In vitro, mostly ASMLwt-exosomes promote proliferation and induce gene expression in metastatic organ cells. However, in vivo corresponding changes in the (pre metastatic organ are only observed when both, exosomes plus the soluble matrix, are provided. Thus, neither CD44v nor exosomes alone suffice for (premetastatic niche formation. Instead, CD44v suffices for assembling a soluble matrix, which allows exosomes, independent of their origin from poorly or highly metastatic cells, to modulate (pre metastatic organ cells for tumor cell embedding and growth.

  17. 36 CFR 9.44 - Open flows and control of “wild” wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... diligence to bring under control any “wild” well, or burning oil or gas well. ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Open flows and control of âwildâ wells. 9.44 Section 9.44 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  18. 17 CFR 3.44 - Temporary licensing of applicants for guaranteed introducing broker registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... applicants for guaranteed introducing broker registration. 3.44 Section 3.44 Commodity and Securities... applicants for guaranteed introducing broker registration. (a) Notwithstanding any other provisions of these... grant a temporary license to any applicant for registration as an introducing broker upon the...

  19. 40 CFR 60.44Da - Standard for nitrogen oxides (NOX).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for nitrogen oxides (NOX). 60.44Da Section 60.44Da Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... for nitrogen oxides (NOX). (a) On and after the date on which the initial performance test is...

  20. 7 CFR 1540.44 - Submission of recommendations by the Secretary of Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Submission of recommendations by the Secretary of Agriculture. 1540.44 Section 1540.44 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOREIGN AGRICULTURAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERNATIONAL AGRICULTURAL TRADE Emergency Relief...

  1. Quantitation of 4,4′-methylene diphenyl diisocyanate human serum albumin adducts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah G. Luna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 4,4′-Methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (herein 4,4′-MDI is used in the production of polyurethane foams, elastomers, coatings, adhesives and the like for a wide range of commercial products. Occupational exposure to MDI levels above current airborne exposure limits can elicit immune mediated hypersensitivity reactions such as occupational asthma in sensitive individuals. To accurately determine exposure, there has been increasing interest in developing analytical methods to measure internal biomarkers of exposure to MDI. Previous investigators have reported methodologies for measuring MDI diamine metabolites and MDI-Lysine (4,4′-MDI-Lys adducts. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate an ultra performance liquid chromatography isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ID/MS/MS quantitation method via a signature peptide approach to enable biomonitoring of 4,4′-MDI adducted to human serum albumin (HSA in plasma. A murine, anti-4,4′-MDI monoclonal IgM antibody was bound to magnetic beads and utilized for enrichment of the MDI adducted HSA. Following enrichment, trypsin digestion was performed to generate the expected 414 site (primary site of adduction 4,4′-MDI-adducted HSA signature peptide that was quantified by UPLC-ID/MS/MS. An Agilent 6530 UPLC/quadrupole time of flight MS (QTOF system was utilized for intact adducted protein analysis and an Agilent 6490 UPLC/MS/MS system operated in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM mode was utilized for quantification of the adducted signature peptide biomarker both for in chemico and worker serum samples. Worker serum samples were initially screened utilizing the previously developed 4,4′-MDI-Lys amino acid method and results showed that 12 samples were identified as quantifiable for 4,4′-MDI-Lys adducts. The signature peptide adduct approach was applied to the 12 worker samples identified as quantifiable for 4,4′-MDI-Lys adducts. Results indicated no positive results

  2. Quantitation of 4,4'-methylene diphenyl diisocyanate human serum albumin adducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Leah G; Green, Brett J; Zhang, Fagen; Arnold, Scott M; Siegel, Paul D; Bartels, Michael J

    4,4'-Methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (herein 4,4'-MDI) is used in the production of polyurethane foams, elastomers, coatings, adhesives and the like for a wide range of commercial products. Occupational exposure to MDI levels above current airborne exposure limits can elicit immune mediated hypersensitivity reactions such as occupational asthma in sensitive individuals. To accurately determine exposure, there has been increasing interest in developing analytical methods to measure internal biomarkers of exposure to MDI. Previous investigators have reported methodologies for measuring MDI diamine metabolites and MDI-Lysine (4,4'-MDI-Lys) adducts. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate an ultra performance liquid chromatography isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ID/MS/MS) quantitation method via a signature peptide approach to enable biomonitoring of 4,4'-MDI adducted to human serum albumin (HSA) in plasma. A murine, anti-4,4'-MDI monoclonal IgM antibody was bound to magnetic beads and utilized for enrichment of the MDI adducted HSA. Following enrichment, trypsin digestion was performed to generate the expected 414 site (primary site of adduction) 4,4'-MDI-adducted HSA signature peptide that was quantified by UPLC-ID/MS/MS. An Agilent 6530 UPLC/quadrupole time of flight MS (QTOF) system was utilized for intact adducted protein analysis and an Agilent 6490 UPLC/MS/MS system operated in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode was utilized for quantification of the adducted signature peptide biomarker both for in chemico and worker serum samples. Worker serum samples were initially screened utilizing the previously developed 4,4'-MDI-Lys amino acid method and results showed that 12 samples were identified as quantifiable for 4,4'-MDI-Lys adducts. The signature peptide adduct approach was applied to the 12 worker samples identified as quantifiable for 4,4'-MDI-Lys adducts. Results indicated no positive results were obtained above the

  3. Bovine connexin44, a lens gap junction protein: molecular cloning, immunologic characterization, and functional expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, V K; Berthoud, V M; Atal, N; Jarillo, J A; Barrio, L C; Beyer, E C

    1994-09-01

    To identify, clone molecularly, characterize immunochemically, and express functionally a bovine lens gap junction protein (connexin). The methods used were polymerase chain reaction, genomic cloning, RNA and DNA blotting, bacterial expression of a fusion protein, immunoblotting, alkaline phosphatase treatment, Xenopus oocyte expression, and voltage clamp technique. A bovine genomic clone encoding a polypeptide of 44,424 d, termed connexin44 (Cx44), was isolated. Cx44 was most closely related to the lens connexins rat Cx46 and chicken Cx56. The Cx44 DNA hybridized to a 2.5 kb mRNA detected only in lens RNA. The carboxyl terminal 161 amino acids from Cx44 were expressed in bacteria fused to maltose binding protein (MBP). The Cx44/MBP fusion protein reacted in immunoblots with anti-rat Cx46(411 to 416) antibodies and with the monoclonal antibody 5H1, but not with a monoclonal antibody to MP70 nor with antibodies to other connexins. Cx44 translated in vitro from the cloned DNA showed a single band with an apparent electrophoretic mobility of approximately 50 kd on polyacrylamide gels containing sodium dodecyl sulfate. Multiple bands of 53 to 57 kd were detected by immunoblotting in homogenates of bovine lens; these bands were reduced to a broad band of approximately 50 kd by alkaline phosphatase treatment, suggesting that they represented phosphorylated forms of Cx44. Cx44 RNA injected in single oocytes induced a large and characteristic time- and voltage-dependent current. Overexpression of Cx44 produced depolarization and cell lysis. Junctional currents that could be regulated by transjunctional voltage were induced between paired oocytes injected with Cx44 RNA. Observations in paired oocytes suggested the assembly of hemichannels into junctional channels. Cx44 is a phosphoprotein component of bovine lens fiber gap junctions. Although it has a relatively distinct sequence, it shares sequence similarity, immunologic cross-reactivity, and electrophysiological

  4. A Role for the Mitochondrial Protein Mrpl44 in Maintaining OXPHOS Capacity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet H C Yeo

    Full Text Available We identified Mrpl44 in a search for mammalian proteins that contain RNase III domains. This protein was previously found in association with the mitochondrial ribosome of bovine liver extracts. However, the precise Mrpl44 localization had been unclear. Here, we show by immunofluorescence microscopy and subcellular fractionation that Mrpl44 is localized to the matrix of the mitochondria. We found that it can form multimers, and confirm that it is part of the large subunit of the mitochondrial ribosome. By manipulating its expression, we show that Mrpl44 may be important for regulating the expression of mtDNA-encoded genes. This was at the level of RNA expression and protein translation. This ultimately impacted ATP synthesis capability and respiratory capacity of cells. These findings indicate that Mrpl44 plays an important role in the regulation of the mitochondrial OXPHOS capacity.

  5. Structural analysis and tissue localization of human C4.4A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Line V.; Gårdsvoll, Henrik; Nielsen, Boye S

    2004-01-01

    C4.4A, a structural homologue of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR), was originally identified as a metastasis-associated membrane protein, but little is known about its structural and functional properties. Therefore, we expressed, purified and characterized a soluble...... significant amounts of GPI-anchored C4.4A, we find no evidence for an interaction between C4.4A and uPA, a property suggested previously for rat C4.4A. Collectively these data indicate that C4.4A, although being a structural homologue of uPAR, is unlikely to have a functional overlap with uPAR....

  6. Evaluation of Stem Cell Markers, CD44/CD24 in Breast Cancer Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Hashemi Arabi

    2014-05-01

    Four breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7 ، T47D ، MDA-MB231 and MDA-MB468 were purchased from National cell Bank of Iran based in Iran Pasture Institute and were cultured in high glucose DMEM supplemented with 10% FCS. Cells were stained with antiCD44-PE and antiCD24-FITC antibodies and Status of CD44 and CD24 as markers of breast cancer stem cells were evaluated using flow cytometer and fluorescent microscopy.Evaluation of CD44 and CD24 as markers of breast cancer stem cells showed that MDA-MB231 with 97±1.2% CD44+/CD24-/low cells is significantly different from the others that they were mainly CD44 and CD24 positive cells(p

  7. 40Ca(alpha, gamma)44Ti reaction in the energy regime of supernova nucleosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassar, H; Paul, M; Ahmad, I; Ben-Dov, Y; Caggiano, J; Ghelberg, S; Goriely, S; Greene, J P; Hass, M; Heger, A; Heinz, A; Henderson, D J; Janssens, R V F; Jiang, C L; Kashiv, Y; Nara Singh, B S; Ofan, A; Pardo, R C; Pennington, T; Rehm, K E; Savard, G; Scott, R; Vondrasek, R

    2006-02-03

    The 44Ti(t1/2=59 yr) nuclide, an important signature of supernova nucleosynthesis, has recently been observed as live radioactivity by gamma-ray astronomy from the Cas A remnant. We investigate in the laboratory the major 44Ti production reaction 40Ca(alpha, gamma)44Ti (Ec.m. approximately 0.6-1.2 MeV/u by direct off-line counting of 44Ti nuclei. The yield, significantly higher than inferred from previous experiments, is analyzed in terms of a statistical model using microscopic nuclear inputs. The associated stellar rate has important astrophysical consequences, increasing the calculated supernova 44Ti yield by a factor approximately 2 over previous estimates and bringing it closer to Cas A observations.

  8. CD44 ligation on peripheral blood polymorphonuclear cells induces interleukin-6 production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sconocchia, G; Campagnano, L; Adorno, D; Iacona, A; Cococcetta, N Y; Boffo, V; Amadori, S; Casciani, C U

    2001-06-01

    Polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) contribute to the initiation and progression of the immune response by mediating cytotoxicity, phagocytosis, and cytokine secretion. Because CD44 serves as a cytotoxic-triggering molecule on PMNs, it was hypothesized that it could also trigger cytokine production. In this study, the effect of anti-CD44 antibodies on interleukin-6 (IL-6) production in human PMNs was assessed. By using a reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, it was shown that PMNs stimulated with a mouse monoclonal or a rabbit polyclonal F(ab)(2) anti-CD44 transcribe IL-6 messenger RNA. A similar effect was obtained when an anti-CD44 antibody was replaced with hyaluronic acid (HA). Kinetic studies showed that anti-CD44 and HA induced IL-6 gene transcription, initiated 3 hours after stimulation, peaked between 12 and 24 hours, and disappeared after 48 hours. Analogous results were achieved when secreted IL-6 protein was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in the PMN culture supernatants. To characterize which metabolic pathways regulated CD44-dependent IL-6 production in PMNs, an RNA polymerase inhibitor, actinomycin D, and 2 protein kinase inhibitors, such as genistein and staurosporine, were tested. Actinomycin D and genistein blocked IL-6 production, whereas staurosporine did not, suggesting that CD44-dependent IL-6 production requires gene transcription and tyrosine kinase activity. Furthermore, the relationship between CD44 and cytokines that affect PMN function, including interferon gamma (IFNgamma) and IL-2, was investigated. Without CD44 cross-linking, IFNgamma did not trigger IL-6 production. However, on CD44 cross-linking, IFNgamma produced a strong synergistic effect on IL-6 syntheses in human PMNs. (Blood. 2001;97:3621-3627)

  9. Identification of a human immunodominant T-cell epitope of mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen PPE44

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garzelli Carlo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently our group has identified a novel antigen of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, protein PPE44, belonging to the "PPE protein" family. Although its role in infection is largely unknown, PPE44-specific immune responses were detected in mice infected with M. tuberculosis; moreover, immunization of mice with PPE44 subunit vaccines resulted in protective efficacy comparable to the one afforded by BCG against M. tuberculosis (Romano et al., Vaccine 26, 6053-6063, 2008. Results In the present paper, we investigated anti-PPE44 T-lymphocyte responses during human infection by evaluating the frequency of PPE44-specific interferon (IFN-γ-secreting cells by ELISpot and flow cytometry in a small cohort of healthy subjects that had proven positive to PPD (PPD+ in vitro, in patients with active tuberculosis, in subjects vaccinated with BCG and in unvaccinated, PPD- healthy controls. We showed IFN-γ+ T cell immune responses to recombinant PPE44 in at least a very high proportion of PPD+ individuals tested and, to a lower extent, in subjects vaccinated with BCG. By the use of a panel of overlapping synthetic 20-mer peptides spanning the PPE44 primary amino acid sequence, we identified a strong CD4+ T-cell epitope, encompassed by peptide p1L (VDFGALPPEVNSARMYGGAG, in the NH2-terminus of the PPE44 molecule at the amino acid position 1-20. Conversely, our experiments did not provide evidence of a significant IFN-γ+ CD4+ T cell response to PPE44 or its immunodominant peptide p1L in most (7 out of 8 patients with active TB. Conclusions Our data suggest an important immunological role of PPE44 and its immunodominant epitope p1L that could be useful in the design of anti-tuberculosis vaccines and in the immunological diagnosis of M. tuberculosis infection.

  10. Measurement of the $^{44}$Ti($\\alpha$,p)$^{47}$V reaction cross section, of relevance to $\\gamma$-ray observation of core collapse supernovae, using reclaimed $^{44}$Ti

    CERN Multimedia

    Despite decades of research, fundamental uncertainties remain in the underlying explosion mechanism of core collapse supernovae. One of the most direct methods that might help resolve this problem is a comparison of the predicted to the observed flux of $\\gamma$-rays due to decay of $^{44}$Ti produced in the explosion, as it is believed this could reveal the location of the mass cut, a key hydrodynamical property of the explosion. Such a study is at present limited by the uncertainty in the $^{44}$Ti($\\alpha$,p)$^{47}$V reaction rate. In this experiment we propose to measure the cross section for this reaction at astrophysically relevant energies. The single previous measurement of this reaction was limited to higher energies due to low beam intensities. Here, a more intense beam will be employed, generated from $^{44}$Ti reclaimed as part of the ERAWAST project at PSI.

  11. Scandium doped Strontium Titanate Ceramics: Structure, Microstructure, and Dielectric Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tkach, Alexander

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Sc-doped strontium titanate (ST ceramics were synthesised by solid state reaction, according to the composition Sr1-1.5xScxTiO3 with x = 0-0.01. Structural properties and microstructure development was examined by XRD and SEM. The dielectric properties were evaluated as a function of the temperature and frequency in the radio frequency range. Lattice parameter, density and grain size, were found to decrease slightly with increasing Sc content. The dielectric permittivity and losses decrease also. Sc-doping has only a weak effect on the quantum paraelectric behaviour of ST and no dielectric anomaly was observed, what is probably related to the limited solubility of Sc on the Sr site of the perovskite lattice of ST.

    Se sintetizaron materiales cerámicos de titanato de estroncio dopado con escandio mediante reacción en estado sólido De acuerdo a la composición Sr1-1.5xScxTiO3 con x= 0-0.1. Las propiedades estructurales y el desarrollo microestructural se estudiaron mediante XRD y SEM. La propiedades dieléctricas se estudiaron como función de la temperatura y de la frecuencia en el rango de la frecuencias de radio. Se observó que los parámetros de red, la densidad y el tamaño del grano disminuyen ligeramente con el contenido en Sc. La permitividad dieléctrica y las perdidas también disminuyen. El dopado con Sc tiene un efecto muy ligero sobre el comportamiento paraeléctrico cuántico del titanato de estroncio y no se observó anomalías dioeléctricas , lo que está probablemente relacionado con la baja solubilidad del Sc en posiciones del Sr en la estructura tipo perovskita del titanato de estroncio.

  12. Phenoxyl radical complexes of gallium, scandium, iron and manganese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, B; Bill, E; Bothe, E; Goerdt, B; Haselhorst, G; Hildenbrand, K; Sokolowski, A; Steenken, S; Weyhermüller, T; Wieghardt, K

    1997-02-01

    The hexadentate macrocyclic ligands 1,4,7-tris(3,5-dimethyl-2-hydroxybenzyl)-1,4,7-triazacyclononane (L CH 3H3 ), 1,4,7-tris(3,5-di-tert-butyl-2-hydroxybenzyl)-1,4,7-triazacyclononane (L(Bu) H3 ) and 1,4,7-tris(3-tert-butyl-5-methoxy-2-hydroxybenzyl)-1,4,7-triazacyclononane (L OCH 3-H3 ) form very stable octahedral neutral complexes LM(III) with trivalent (or tetravalent) metal ions (Ga(III) , Sc(III) , Fe(III) , Mn(III) , Mn(IV) ). The following complexes have been synthesized: [L(Bu) M], where M = Ga (1), Sc (2), Fe (3); [L(Bu) Mn(IV) ]PF6 (4'); [L OCH 3M], where M = Ga (1 a), Sc (2 a), Fe (3 a); [L OCH 3Mn(IV) ]PF6 (4 a'); [L CH 3M], where M = Sc (2 b), Fe (3 b), Mn(III) (4 b); [L CH 3Mn(IV) ]2 (ClO4 )3 (H3 O)(H2 O)3 (4 b'). An electrochemical study has shown that complexes 1, 2, 3, 1 a, 2 a and 3 a each display three reversible, ligand-centred, one-electron oxidation steps. The salts [L OCH 3Fe(III) ]ClO4 and [L OCH 3Ga(III) ]ClO4 , have been isolated as stable crystalline materials. Electronic and EPR spectra prove that these oxidations produce species containing one, two or three coordinated phenoxyl radicals. The Mössbauer spectra of 3 a and [3 a](+) show conclusively that both compounds contain high-spin iron(III) central ions. Temperature-dependent magnetic susceptibility measurements reveal that 3 a has an S = 5/2 and [3a](+) an S = 2 ground state. The latter is attained through intramolecular antiferromagnetic exchange coupling between a high-spin iron(III) (S1 = 5/2) and a phenoxyl radical (S2 = 1/2) (H = - 2JS1 S2 ; J = - 80 cm(-1) ). The manganese complexes undergo metal- and ligand-centred redox processes, which were elucidated by spectroelectrochemistry; a phenoxyl radical Mn(IV) complex [Mn(IV) L OCH 3](2+) is accessible. Copyright © 1997 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Atomic layer deposition of scandium-based oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyns, Laura; Lisoni, Judit G.; Bosch, Geert van den; Elshocht, Sven van; Houdt, Jan van [IMEC, Leuven (Belgium)

    2014-02-15

    Gd{sub x}Sc{sub 2-x}O{sub 3} and Al{sub x}Sc{sub 2-x}O{sub 3} have been investigated as potential high-k intergate dielectric (IGD) in planar NAND flash technology, such as hybrid floating gate (HFG). We have examined the atomic layer deposition (ALD) of Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Gd{sub x}Sc{sub 2-x}O{sub 3}, and Al{sub x}Sc{sub 2-x}O{sub 3} on Si using Sc(MeCp){sub 3}, Gd({sup i}PrCp){sub 3}, TMA, and H{sub 2}O as precursors. The composition of Gd{sub x}Sc{sub 2-x}O{sub 3} and Al{sub x}Sc{sub 2-x}O{sub 3} ranged from 4% to 76% Gd and from 7% to 66% Al, respectively. All compositions show linear growth behavior. While pure Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3} is crystalline as-deposited, the layer becomes amorphous once ∝20% of Al is added. The (222) reflection of the cubic phase is also seen for Gd{sub x}Sc{sub 2-x}O{sub 3} with less than 9% Gd. The bandgap of as-deposited Gd{sub x}Sc{sub 2-x}O{sub 3} decreases with increasing Gd content while the opposite trend is observed for Al{sub x}Sc{sub 2-x}O{sub 3}. A k-value of ∝21 can be obtained for Gd{sub x}Sc{sub 2-x}O{sub 3} with approximately 26-52% Gd, irrespective of the Gd content. For Al{sub x}Sc{sub 2-x}O{sub 3} on the other hand, a maximum k-value of ∝19 is achieved with ∝48% Al. Although the k-value of Al{sub x}Sc{sub 2-x}O{sub 3} is lower than that of Gd{sub x}Sc{sub 2-x}O{sub 3}, its large breakdown field makes this material more suitable for HFG flash applications. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Spark plasma sintering of aluminum powders prealloyed with scandium additions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooke, R.W.; Kraus, N.P.; Bishop, D.P., E-mail: Paul.Bishop@dal.ca

    2016-03-07

    The objective of this research was to commence work on the spark plasma sintering (SPS) of Al–Sc alloys in an effort to develop fundamental data in this area. In this precursory study, a series of binary systems containing 0.1 to 0.4 wt% Sc were processed in laboratory and industrial-scale equipment. Data revealed that all powders were responsive to SPS in both scenarios and that sintering temperature was a variable of critical importance. Hardness of as-sintered products scaled directly with Sc concentration but varied inversely with SPS temperature owing to in-situ aging of the raw powders. Hardness losses could be recovered through a post-SPS heat treatment into the T6 condition. Industrially processed slugs of Al-0.4Sc-T6 exhibited full densification and offered the highest hardness (786+/−8 MPa). This was accompanied by a nominal tensile yield strength of 197 MPa, UTS of 226 MPa and tensile ductility of 11%.

  15. Tin etching from metallic and oxidized scandium thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pachecka, Malgorzata; Lee, Christopher James; Sturm, J.M.; Bijkerk, Frederik

    The role of oxide on Sn adhesion to Sc surfaces was studied with in-situ ellipsometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and secondary electron microscopy. Sn etching with hydrogen radicals was performed on metallic Sc, metallic Sc with a native oxide, and a fully oxidized Sc layer. The results show

  16. The structural and magnetic properties of holmium/scandium superlattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bryn-Jacobsen, C.; Cowley, R.A.; McMorrow, D.F.

    1997-01-01

    The properties of Ho/Sc superlattices grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) have been investigated using X-ray and neutron diffraction techniques. Structural studies reveal the novel existence of more than one a lattice parameter. Examining the magnetic properties, it is found that the Ho 4f...

  17. A CD44v+ subpopulation of breast cancer stem-like cells with enhanced lung metastasis capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jing; Li, Gang; Zhang, Peiyuan; Zhuang, Xueqian; Hu, Guohong

    2017-03-16

    Cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) are a subpopulation of cancer cells responsible for tumor growth, and recent evidence suggests that CSCs also contribute to cancer metastasis. However, the heterogeneity of CSCs in metastasis capacities is still unclear in breast cancer. Here we show that among the CD24-/CD44+ breast CSCs, a subset expressing the variant isoform of CD44 (CD44v) displays significantly higher capacity of lung metastasis than that expressing the standard CD44 isoform CD44s. Increasing or reducing the CD44v/CD44s ratio of breast cancer cells by regulating the expression of epithelial splicing regulatory protein 1 (ESRP1) leads to promotion or suppression of lung metastasis without influencing cancer cell stemness. Directly suppressing CD44v expression significantly alleviates the metastasis burden in lungs. Mechanically, CD44v, but not CD44s, responds to osteopontin (OPN) in the lung environment to enhance cancer cell invasiveness and promote lung metastasis. In clinical samples expression of ESRP1 and CD44v, rather than CD44s or total CD44, positively correlates with distant metastasis. Overall, our data identify a subset of metastatic breast CSCs characterized by CD44v expression, and suggest that CD44v and ESRP1 might be better prognosis markers and therapeutic targets for breast cancer metastasis.

  18. CD44 Promotes intoxication by the clostridial iota-family toxins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darran J Wigelsworth

    Full Text Available Various pathogenic clostridia produce binary protein toxins associated with enteric diseases of humans and animals. Separate binding/translocation (B components bind to a protein receptor on the cell surface, assemble with enzymatic (A component(s, and mediate endocytosis of the toxin complex. Ultimately there is translocation of A component(s from acidified endosomes into the cytosol, leading to destruction of the actin cytoskeleton. Our results revealed that CD44, a multifunctional surface protein of mammalian cells, facilitates intoxication by the iota family of clostridial binary toxins. Specific antibody against CD44 inhibited cytotoxicity of the prototypical Clostridium perfringens iota toxin. Versus CD44(+ melanoma cells, those lacking CD44 bound less toxin and were dose-dependently resistant to C. perfringens iota, as well as Clostridium difficile and Clostridium spiroforme iota-like, toxins. Purified CD44 specifically interacted in vitro with iota and iota-like, but not related Clostridium botulinum C2, toxins. Furthermore, CD44 knockout mice were resistant to iota toxin lethality. Collective data reveal an important role for CD44 during intoxication by a family of clostridial binary toxins.

  19. Preliminary crystallographic studies of yeast mitochondrial peripheral membrane protein Tim44p

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Josyula, Ratnakar [Department of Cell Biology, Center for Biophysical Sciences and Engineering, University of Alabama at Birmingham (United States); Jin, Zhongmin [SER-CAT, APS, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); McCombs, Deborah; DeLucas, Lawrence [Center for Biophysical Sciences and Engineering, University of Alabama at Birmingham (United States); Sha, Bingdong, E-mail: bdsha@uab.edu [Department of Cell Biology, Center for Biophysical Sciences and Engineering, University of Alabama at Birmingham (United States)

    2006-02-01

    Tim44p is an essential mitochondrial peripheral membrane protein. To investigate the mechanism by which Tim44p functions in the TIM23 translocon to deliver the mitochondrial protein precursors, the yeast Tim44p has been crystallized. Protein translocations across mitochondrial membranes play critical roles in mitochondrion biogenesis. Protein transport from the cell cytosol to the mitochondrial matrix is carried out by the translocase of the outer membrane (TOM) complex and the translocase of the inner membrane (TIM) complexes. Tim44p is an essential mitochondrial peripheral membrane protein and a major component of the TIM23 translocon. To investigate the mechanism by which Tim44p functions in the TIM23 translocon to deliver the mitochondrial protein precursors, the yeast Tim44p was crystallized. The crystals diffract to 3.2 Å using a synchrotron X-ray source and belong to space group P6{sub 3}22, with unit-cell parameters a = 124.25, c = 77.83 Å. There is one Tim44p molecule in one asymmetric unit, which corresponds to a solvent content of approximately 43%. Structure determination by MAD methods is under way.

  20. A novel GJA8 mutation (p.V44A causing autosomal dominant congenital cataract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanan Zhu

    Full Text Available To examine the mechanism by which a novel connexin 50 (Cx50 mutation, Cx50 V44A, in a Chinese family causes suture-sparing autosomal dominant congenital nuclear cataracts.Family history and clinical data were recorded and direct gene sequencing was used to identify the disease-causing mutation. The Cx50 gene was cloned from a human lens cDNA library. Connexin protein distributions were assessed by fluorescence microscopy. Hemichannel functions were analyzed by dye uptake assay. Formation of functional channels was assessed by dye transfer experiments.Direct sequencing of the candidate GJA8 gene revealed a novel c.131T>C transition in exon 2, which cosegregated with the disease in the family and resulted in the substitution of a valine residue with alanine at codon 44 (p. V44A in the extracellular loop 1 of the Cx50 protein. Both Cx50 and Cx50V44A formed functional gap junctions, as shown by the neurobiotin transfer assay. However, unlike wild-type Cx50, Cx50V44A was unable to form open hemichannels in dye uptake experiments.This work identified a unique congenital cataract in the Chinese population, caused by the novel mutation Cx50V44A, and it showed that the V44A mutation specifically impairs the gating of the hemichannels but not the gap junction channels. The dysfunctional hemichannels resulted in the development of human congenital cataracts.

  1. FOXP3 suppresses breast cancer metastasis through downregulation of CD44.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cun; Xu, Yujin; Hao, Qiang; Wang, Shuning; Li, Hong; Li, Jialin; Gao, Yuan; Li, Meng; Li, Weina; Xue, Xiaochang; Wu, Shouzhen; Zhang, Yingqi; Zhang, Wei

    2015-09-15

    Forkhead box protein 3 (FOXP3) plays an important role in breast cancer as an X-linked tumor suppressor gene. However, the biological functions and significance of FOXP3 in breast cancer metastasis remain unclear. Here, we find that, clinically, nuclear FOXP3 expression is inversely correlated with breast cancer metastasis. Moreover, we demonstrate that FOXP3 significantly inhibits adhesion, invasion and metastasis of breast cancer cells in vivo and in vitro. In addition, the adhesion molecule CD44 is found to be suppressed by FOXP3 through transcriptome sequence analysis (RNA-seq). A luciferase reporter assay, chromatin immunoprecipitation and electrophoretic mobility shift assay identify CD44 as a direct target of FOXP3. The expression of CD44 is downregulated by FOXP3 in breast cancer cells. Importantly, anti-CD44 antibody reverses the FOXP3 siRNA-induced effects on the breast cancer cells in vitro and FOXP3 expression level in the nucleus of breast cancer cells is inversely correlated with CD44 expression level in clinic breast cancer tissues. Taken together, the results from the present study suggest that FOXP3 is a suppressor of breast cancer metastasis. FOXP3 directly binds to the promoter of CD44 and inhibits its protein expression, thereby suppressing adhesion and invasion of human breast cancer cells. This finding highlights the therapeutic potential of FOXP3-CD44 signaling to inhibit breast cancer metastasis. © 2015 UICC.

  2. P44/WDR77 restricts the sensitivity of proliferating cells to TGFβ signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Pengfei [Department of Breast and Thyroid Surgery, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1277 Jiefang Road, Wuhan, Hubei 430022 (China); Department of Cancer Biology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Gao, Shen [Department of Cancer Biology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Gu, Zhongping [Department of Thoracic Surgery, Tangdu Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an 710038 (China); Department of Cancer Biology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Huang, Tao [Department of Breast and Thyroid Surgery, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1277 Jiefang Road, Wuhan, Hubei 430022 (China); Wang, Zhengxin, E-mail: zhenwang@mdanderson.org [Department of Cancer Biology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030 (United States)

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • P44/WDR77 causes proliferating cells to become non-responsive to TGFβ signaling. • P44/WDR77 down-regulates TβRII and TβR2 expression. • P44/WDR77 down-regulated TGFβ signaling correlates with lung tumorigenesis. - Abstract: We previously reported that a novel WD-40 domain-containing protein, p44/WDR77, drives quiescent epithelial cells to re-enter the cell cycle and plays an essential role for growth of lung and prostate cancer cells. Transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) signaling is important in the maintenance of non-transformed cells in the quiescent or slowly cycling stage. However, both non-transformed proliferating cells and human cancer cells are non-responsive to endogenous TGFβ signaling. The mechanism by which proliferating cells become refractory to TGFβ inhibition is not well established. Here, we found that silencing p44/WDR77 increased cellular sensitivity to TGFβ signaling and that this was inversely correlated with decreased cell proliferation. Smad2 or 3 phosphorylation, TGFβ-mediated transcription, and TGFβ2 and TGFβ receptor type II (TβRII) expression were dramatically induced by silencing of p44/WDR77. These data support the hypothesis that p44/WDR77 down-regulates the expression of the TGFβ ligand and its receptor, thereby leading to a cellular non-response to TGFβ signaling. Finally, we found that p44/WDR77 expression was correlated with cell proliferation and decreased TGFβ signaling during lung tumorigenesis. Together, these results suggest that p44/WDR77 expression causes the non-sensitivity of proliferating cells to TGFβ signaling, thereby contributing to cellular proliferation during lung tumorigenesis.

  3. Prognostic significance of CD44s expression in resected non-small cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ko Yoon

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CD44s is a cell adhesion molecule known to mediate cellular adhesion to the extracellular matrix, a prerequisite for tumor cell migration. CD44s plays an important role in invasion and metastasis of various cancers. In the present study, we sought to determine whether CD44s is involved in clinical outcomes of patients with resected non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. Methods Using immunohistochemical staining, we investigated CD44s protein expression using tissue array specimens from 159 patients with resected NSCLC (adenocarcinoma (AC; n = 82 and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC; n = 77. Additionally, the immunoreactivity of cyclooxygenase (COX-2 was also studied. The clinicopathological implications of these molecules were analyzed statistically. Results High CD44s expression was detected more frequently in NSCLC patients with SCC (66/72; 91.7% than in those with AC histology (P 0.001. Additionally, high CD44s expression was significant correlated with more advanced regional lymph node metastasis (P = 0.021. In multivariate analysis of survival in NSCLC patients with AC histology, significant predictors were lymph node metastasis status (P P = 0.046, and high CD44s expression (P = 0.014. For NSCLC patients with SCC histology, the significant predictor was a more advanced tumor stage (P = 0.015. No significant association was found between CD44s and clinical outcome (P = 0.311. Conclusions High CD44s expression was a negative prognostic marker with significance in patients with resected NSCLC, particularly those with AC histology, and was independent of tumor stage.

  4. In situ identification of CD44+/CD24- cancer cells in primary human breast carcinomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Perrone

    Full Text Available Breast cancer cells with the CD44+/CD24- phenotype have been reported to be tumourigenic due to their enhanced capacity for cancer development and their self-renewal potential. The identification of human tumourigenic breast cancer cells in surgical samples has recently received increased attention due to the implications for prognosis and treatment, although limitations exist in the interpretation of these studies. To better identify the CD44+/CD24- cells in routine surgical specimens, 56 primary breast carcinoma cases were analysed by immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy, and the results were compared using flow cytometry analysis to correlate the amount and distribution of the CD44+/CD24- population with clinicopathological features. Using these methods, we showed that the breast carcinoma cells displayed four distinct sub-populations based on the expression pattern of CD44 and CD24. The CD44+/CD24- cells were found in 91% of breast tumours and constituted an average of 6.12% (range, 0.11%-21.23% of the tumour. A strong correlation was found between the percentage of CD44+/CD24- cells in primary tumours and distant metastasis development (p = 0.0001; in addition, there was an inverse significant association with ER and PGR status (p = 0.002 and p = 0.001, respectively. No relationship was evident with tumour size (T and regional lymph node (N status, differentiation grade, proliferative index or HER2 status. In a multivariate analysis, the percentage of CD44+/CD24- cancer cells was an independent factor related to metastasis development (p = 0.004. Our results indicate that confocal analysis of fluorescence-labelled breast cancer samples obtained at surgery is a reliable method to identify the CD44+/CD24- tumourigenic cell population, allowing for the stratification of breast cancer patients into two groups with substantially different relapse rates on the basis of CD44+/CD24- cell percentage.

  5. CD44 Promotes Inflammation and Extracellular Matrix Production During Arteriovenous Fistula Maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwahara, Go; Hashimoto, Takuya; Tsuneki, Masayuki; Yamamoto, Kota; Assi, Roland; Foster, Trenton R; Hanisch, Jesse J; Bai, Hualong; Hu, Haidi; Protack, Clinton D; Hall, Michael R; Schardt, John S; Jay, Steven M; Madri, Joseph A; Kodama, Shohta; Dardik, Alan

    2017-06-01

    Arteriovenous fistulae (AVF) remain the optimal conduit for hemodialysis access but continue to demonstrate poor patency and poor rates of maturation. We hypothesized that CD44, a widely expressed cellular adhesion molecule that serves as a major receptor for extracellular matrix components, promotes wall thickening and extracellular matrix deposition during AVF maturation. AVF were created via needle puncture in wild-type C57BL/6J and CD44 knockout mice. CD44 mRNA and protein expression was increased in wild-type AVF. CD44 knockout mice showed no increase in AVF wall thickness (8.9 versus 26.8 μm; P=0.0114), collagen density, and hyaluronic acid density, but similar elastin density when compared with control AVF. CD44 knockout mice also showed no increase in vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expression in the AVF compared with controls; there were also no increased M2 macrophage markers (transglutaminase-2: 81.5-fold, P=0.0015; interleukin-10: 7.6-fold, P=0.0450) in CD44 knockout mice. Delivery of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 to CD44 knockout mice rescued the phenotype with thicker AVF walls (27.2 versus 14.7 μm; P=0.0306), increased collagen density (2.4-fold; P=0.0432), and increased number of M2 macrophages (2.1-fold; P=0.0335). CD44 promotes accumulation of M2 macrophages, extracellular matrix deposition, and wall thickening during AVF maturation. These data show the association of M2 macrophages with wall thickening during AVF maturation and suggest that enhancing CD44 activity may be a strategy to increase AVF maturation. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. Differentiation of breast cancer stem cells by knockdown of CD44: promising differentiation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pham Phuc V

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs are the source of breast tumors. Compared with other cancer cells, cancer stem cells show high resistance to both chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Targeting of BCSCs is thus a potentially promising and effective strategy for breast cancer treatment. Differentiation therapy represents one type of cancer stem-cell-targeting therapy, aimed at attacking the stemness of cancer stem cells, thus reducing their chemo- and radioresistance. In a previous study, we showed that down-regulation of CD44 sensitized BCSCs to the anti-tumor agent doxorubicin. This study aimed to determine if CD44 knockdown caused BCSCs to differentiate into breast cancer non-stem cells (non-BCSCs. Methods We isolated a breast cancer cell population (CD44+CD24- cells from primary cultures of malignant breast tumors. These cells were sorted into four sub-populations based on their expression of CD44 and CD24 surface markers. CD44 knockdown in the BCSC population was achieved using small hairpin RNA lentivirus particles. The differentiated status of CD44 knock-down BCSCs was evaluated on the basis of changes in CD44+CD24- phenotype, tumorigenesis in NOD/SCID mice, and gene expression in relation to renewal status, metastasis, and cell cycle in comparison with BCSCs and non-BCSCs. Results Knockdown of CD44 caused BCSCs to differentiate into non-BCSCs with lower tumorigenic potential, and altered the cell cycle and expression profiles of some stem cell-related genes, making them more similar to those seen in non-BCSCs. Conclusions Knockdown of CD44 is an effective strategy for attacking the stemness of BCSCs, resulting in a loss of stemness and an increase in susceptibility to chemotherapy or radiation. The results of this study highlight a potential new strategy for breast cancer treatment through the targeting of BCSCs.

  7. Effects of CD44 Ligation on Signaling and Metabolic Pathways in Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    KAUST Repository

    Madhoun, Nour Y.

    2017-04-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is characterized by a blockage in the differentiation of myeloid cells at different stages. CD44-ligation using anti-CD44 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) has been shown to reverse the blockage of differentiation and to inhibit the proliferation of blasts in most AML-subtypes. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this property have not been fully elucidated. Here, we sought to I) analyze the effects of anti-CD44 mAbs on downstream signaling pathways, including the ERK1/2 (extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2) and mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) pathways and II) use state-of-the-art Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) technology to determine the global metabolic changes during differentiation induction of AML cells using anti-CD44 mAbs and other two previously reported differentiation agents. In the first objective (Chapter 4), our studies provide evidence that CD44-ligation with specific mAbs in AML cells induced an increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation. The use of the MEK inhibitor (U0126) significantly inhibited the CD44-induced differentiation of HL60 cells, suggesting that ERK1/2 is critical for the CD44-triggered differentiation in AML. In addition, this was accompanied by a marked decrease in the phosphorylation of the mTORC1 and mTORC2 complexes, which are strongly correlated with the inhibition of the PI3K/Akt pathway. In the second objective (Chapter 5), 1H NMR experiments demonstrated that considerable changes in the metabolic profiles of HL60 cells were induced in response to each differentiation agent. These most notable metabolites that significantly changed upon CD44 ligation were involved in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and glycolysis such as, succinate, fumarate and lactate. Therefore, we sought to analyze the mechanisms underlying their alterations. Our results revealed that anti-CD44 mAbs treatment induced upregulation in fumarate hydratase (FH) expression and its activity which was accompanied by a

  8. 44Ti gamma-ray emission lines from SN1987A reveal an asymmetric explosion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boggs, S. E.; Harrison, F. A.; Miyasaka, H.

    2015-01-01

    In core-collapse supernovae, titanium-44 (44Ti) is produced in the innermost ejecta, in the layer of material directly on top of the newly formed compact object. As such, it provides a direct probe of the supernova engine. Observations of supernova 1987A (SN1987A) have resolved the 67.87- and 78........32–kilo–electron volt emission lines from decay of 44Ti produced in the supernova explosion. These lines are narrow and redshifted with a Doppler velocity of ~700 kilometers per second, direct evidence of large-scale asymmetry in the explosion....

  9. Ti-44 Gamma-Ray Emission Lines from SN1987A Reveal an Asymmetric Explosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggs, S. E.; Harrison, F. A.; Miyasaka, H.; Grefenstette, B. W.; Zoglauer, A.; Fryer, C. L.; Reynolds, S. P.; Alexander, D. M.; An, H.; Barret, D.; hide

    2015-01-01

    In core-collapse supernovae, titanium-44 (Ti-44) is produced in the innermost ejecta, in the layer of material directly on top of the newly formed compact object. As such, it provides a direct probe of the supernova engine. Observations of supernova 1987A (SN1987A) have resolved the 67.87- and 78.32-kilo-electron volt emission lines from decay of Ti-44 produced in the supernova explosion. These lines are narrow and redshifted with a Doppler velocity of 700 kilometers per second, direct evidence of large-scale asymmetry in the explosion.

  10. 44Ti radioactivity in young supernova remnants: Cas A and SN 1987A

    OpenAIRE

    Motizuki, Yuko; Kumagai, Shiomi

    2003-01-01

    We investigate radioactivity from the decay sequence of 44Ti in young supernova remnants (SNRs), Cassiopeia A (Cas A) and SN 1987A. It is shown by a linear analysis that ionization of 44Ti, a pure electron capture decay isotope, affects the radioactivity contradistinctively in these two SNRs: Ionization of 44Ti to H-like and He-like states enhances its present radioactivity in Cas A, while such high-ionization decreases its radioactivity in SN 1987A. We briefly discuss the enhancement factor ...

  11. New construction of the motorway A44 on a fresh open-cast mining dump; Neubau der A 44 auf einer frischen Tagebaukippe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, N.; Heyer, D.; Birle, E.; Vogt, S. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Zentrum Geotechnik; Dahmen, D.; Karcher, C.; Vinzelberg, G. [RWE Power AG, Koeln (Germany). Gebirgs- und Bodenmechanik

    2012-11-01

    Due to the extensive mass movement, the open-cast mining Garzweiler migrates continuously from east to west. Beginning in 2006, the area of the original route of the A44 autobahn between the autobahn junction Jackerath and the autobahn junction Holz was integrated in the open-cast mining. The section between these two autobahn junctions was closed to the traffic. The flows of traffic were redirected onto the A61 autobahn. In 2017 the open-cast mining Garzweiler will approach the eastern side of the A61 autobahn. A further movement of this open-cast mining to the west in 2017 will make the section of the A61 autobahn between the autobahn junction Jackerath and the autobahn junction Wanlo unusable. The A44 autobahn will need to be expanded to six lanes. This is associated with the new construction or the reconstruction of the autobahn junctions Jackerath and Holz. Within the autobahn junction Jackerath the new A44 autobahn crosses the route of the autobahn A61 nearly perpendicular and goes ahead to a 7 km long left turn in the current working area of the open-cast mining Garzweiler. From this perspective, the authors of the contribution under consideration report on the construction of the A44 autobahn on a fresh open-cast mining dump.

  12. Prognostic impact of CD44-positive cancer stem-like cells at the invasive front of gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Hirokazu; Murata, Satoshi; Ishida, Mitsuaki; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Tsuyoshi; Kaida, Sachiko; Miyake, Tohru; Takebayashi, Katsushi; Kushima, Ryoji; Tani, Masaji

    2017-01-17

    The invasive tumour front may provide prognostic information. We examined the relationship between the presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) at the invasive tumour front and prognosis in gastric cancer (GC). CD44 is a CSC marker; accordingly, CD44 standard (CD44s), CD44 variant-6 (CD44v6), and CD44 variant-9 (CD44v9) expression were examined in 123 resected primary GCs and the clinical significance of CSCs at the invasive tumour front was analysed. Thirteen (10.6%), 79 (64.2%), and 47 (38.2%) GCs were CD44s-, CD44v6-, and CD44v9-positive, respectively. Patients with CD44-positive expression at the invasive tumour front had significantly poorer disease-specific survival than those with negative expression (CD44s: Pfront was an independent prognostic factor in resectable GC patients (hazard ratio=3.13; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-9.01; P=0.035) and was significantly associated with peritoneal (Pfront was associated with patient prognosis. No conventional clinicopathological factors were independently associated with CD44 expression at the invasive tumour front. CD44-positive cancer stem-like cells at the invasive tumour front indicate poor survival and can be a unique biological prognostic factor for GC.

  13. Comparison of semipermeable membrane device (SPMD) and large-volume solid-phase extraction techniques to measure water concentrations of 4,4'-DDT, 4,4'-DDE, and 4,4'-DDD in Lake Chelan, Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Steven G; Booij, Kees; Kaputa, Mike

    2008-07-01

    Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) spiked with the performance reference compound PCB29 were deployed 6.1 m above the sediments of Lake Chelan, Washington, for a period of 27 d, to estimate the dissolved concentrations of 4,4'-DDT, 4,4'-DDE, and 4,4'-DDD. Water concentrations were estimated using methods proposed in 2002 and newer equations published in 2006 to determine how the application of the newer equations affects historical SPMD data that used the older method. The estimated concentrations of DDD, DDE, and DDD calculated using the older method were 1.5-2.9 times higher than the newer method. SPMD estimates from both methods were also compared to dissolved and particulate DDT concentrations measured directly by processing large volumes of water through a large-volume solid-phase extraction device (Infiltrex 300). SPMD estimates of DDD+DDE+DDT (SigmaDDT) using the older and newer methods were lower than Infiltrex concentrations by factors of 1.1 and 2.3, respectively. All measurements of DDT were below the Washington State water quality standards for the protection of human health (0.59 ng l(-1)) and aquatic life (1.0 ng l(-1)).

  14. 44 CFR 19.210 - Military and merchant marine educational institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Military and merchant marine... the merchant marine. ... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 19.210 Military and merchant...

  15. CD44: molecular interactions, signalling and functions in the nervous system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Marek Wilczynski

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available CD44 is the major surface hyaluronan receptor implicated in intercellular and cell-matrix adhesion, cell migration and signalling. It is a transmembrane, highly glycosylated protein with several isoforms resulting from alternative gene splicing. The CD44 molecule consists of several domains serving different functions: the N-terminal extracellular domain, the stem region, the transmembrane domain and the C-terminal tail. In the nervous system, CD44 expression occurs in both glial and neuronal cells. The role of CD44 in the physiology and pathology of the nervous system is not entirely understood, however, there exists evidence suggesting it might be involved in the axon guidance, cytoplasmic Ca2+ clearance, dendritic arborization, synaptic transmission, epileptogenesis, oligodendrocyte and astrocyte differentiation, post-traumatic brain repair and brain tumour development.

  16. Exon 44 nonsense mutation in two-Duchenne muscular dystrophy brothers detected by heteroduplex analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, T W; Papp, A C; Snyder, P J; Burghes, A H; Sedra, M S; Western, L M; Bartolo, C; Mendell, J R

    1993-01-01

    Utilizing a heteroduplex method, we screened the dystrophin exon 43-45 region for point mutations, including small deletions and insertions. The method depends upon the formation of a heteroduplex between wild-type and mutant DNA PCR products. DNA specimens from one hundred and four DMD patients without detected deletions or duplications were multiplexed amplified for exons 43, 44, and 45. The PCR products were mixed with the PCR products from nonaffected controls, electrophoresed, and examined for the presence of altered mobility heteroduplex bands. An exon 44 nonsense mutation in two DMD brothers and a common intron 44 polymorphism were identified using this approach. Although the exon 44-45 region is a hotspot for deletion breakpoints, it does not appear to be prone to point mutations. The technique is extremely useful for screening several exons simultaneously and it allowed us to screen a large number of patients.

  17. 9 CFR 201.44 - Market agencies to render prompt accounting for purchases on order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS ADMINISTRATION (PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS PROGRAMS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS UNDER THE PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS ACT Accounts and Records § 201.44 Market agencies to render...

  18. 1,10-phenanthroline and 4\\',4\\'-bipyridine complexes of manganese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    phenanthroline and 4,4'-bipyridine have been carried out. Elemental analysis, molar conductivity, magnetic properties and infrared (IR) spectral studies were used in characterizing these compounds. Octahedral geometry has been proposed ...

  19. Understanding the dual nature of CD44 in breast cancer progression

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Louderbough, Jeanne M V; Schroeder, Joyce A

    2011-01-01

    CD44 has been the subject of extensive research for more than 3 decades because of its role in breast cancer, in addition to many physiological processes, but interestingly, conflicting data implicate...

  20. Elu läks eelmisel aastal 4,4 protsenti kallimaks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Statistikaameti andmeil muutus tarbijahinnaindeks möödunud aastal võrreldes 2005. aastaga 4,4%, 2006. aasta detsembris olid tarbekaubad ja teenused keskmiselt 5,1% kallimad kui 2005. aasta detsembris

  1. CD44 Splice Variant v8-10 as a Marker of Serous Ovarian Cancer Prognosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Sosulski

    Full Text Available CD44 is a transmembrane hyaluronic acid receptor gene that encodes over 100 different tissue-specific protein isoforms. The most ubiquitous, CD44 standard, has been used as a cancer stem cell marker in ovarian and other cancers. Expression of the epithelial CD44 variant containing exons v8-10 (CD44v8-10 has been associated with more chemoresistant and metastatic tumors in gastrointestinal and breast cancers, but its role in ovarian cancer is unknown; we therefore investigated its use as a prognostic marker in this disease. The gene expression profiles of 254 tumor samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas RNAseqV2 were analyzed for the presence of CD44 isoforms. A trend for longer survival was observed in patients with high expression of CD44 isoforms that include exons v8-10. Immunohistochemical (IHC analysis of tumors for presence of CD44v8-10 was performed on an independent cohort of 210 patients with high-grade serous ovarian cancer using a tumor tissue microarray. Patient stratification based on software analysis of staining revealed a statistically significant increase in survival in patients with the highest levels of transmembrane protein expression (top 10 or 20% compared to those with the lowest expression (bottom 10 and 20% (p = 0.0181, p = 0.0262 respectively. Expression of CD44v8-10 in primary ovarian cancer cell lines was correlated with a predominantly epithelial phenotype characterized by high expression of epithelial markers and low expression of mesenchymal markers by qPCR, Western blot, and IHC. Conversely, detection of proteolytically cleaved and soluble extracellular domain of CD44v8-10 in patient ascites samples was correlated with significantly worse prognosis (p<0.05. Therefore, presence of transmembrane CD44v8-10 on the surface of primary tumor cells may be a marker of a highly epithelial tumor with better prognosis while enzymatic cleavage of CD44v8-10, as detected by presence of the soluble extracellular domain in ascites

  2. CD44 Splice Variant v8-10 as a Marker of Serous Ovarian Cancer Prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosulski, Amanda; Horn, Heiko; Zhang, Lihua; Coletti, Caroline; Vathipadiekal, Vinod; Castro, Cesar M; Birrer, Michael J; Nagano, Osamu; Saya, Hideyuki; Lage, Kasper; Donahoe, Patricia K; Pépin, David

    2016-01-01

    CD44 is a transmembrane hyaluronic acid receptor gene that encodes over 100 different tissue-specific protein isoforms. The most ubiquitous, CD44 standard, has been used as a cancer stem cell marker in ovarian and other cancers. Expression of the epithelial CD44 variant containing exons v8-10 (CD44v8-10) has been associated with more chemoresistant and metastatic tumors in gastrointestinal and breast cancers, but its role in ovarian cancer is unknown; we therefore investigated its use as a prognostic marker in this disease. The gene expression profiles of 254 tumor samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas RNAseqV2 were analyzed for the presence of CD44 isoforms. A trend for longer survival was observed in patients with high expression of CD44 isoforms that include exons v8-10. Immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis of tumors for presence of CD44v8-10 was performed on an independent cohort of 210 patients with high-grade serous ovarian cancer using a tumor tissue microarray. Patient stratification based on software analysis of staining revealed a statistically significant increase in survival in patients with the highest levels of transmembrane protein expression (top 10 or 20%) compared to those with the lowest expression (bottom 10 and 20%) (p = 0.0181, p = 0.0262 respectively). Expression of CD44v8-10 in primary ovarian cancer cell lines was correlated with a predominantly epithelial phenotype characterized by high expression of epithelial markers and low expression of mesenchymal markers by qPCR, Western blot, and IHC. Conversely, detection of proteolytically cleaved and soluble extracellular domain of CD44v8-10 in patient ascites samples was correlated with significantly worse prognosis (p<0.05). Therefore, presence of transmembrane CD44v8-10 on the surface of primary tumor cells may be a marker of a highly epithelial tumor with better prognosis while enzymatic cleavage of CD44v8-10, as detected by presence of the soluble extracellular domain in ascites fluid, may be

  3. The role of the left Brodmann's areas 44 and 45 in reading words and pseudowords

    OpenAIRE

    Heim, S.; Alter, K; Ischebeck, A; Amunts, K.; Eickhoff, S.; Mohlberg, H.; Zilles, K.; von Cramon, D.; Friederici, A

    2005-01-01

    In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we investigated the influence of two task (lexical decision, LDT; phonological decision, PDT) on activation in Broca's region (left Brodmann's areas [BA] 44 and 45) during the processing of visually presented words and pseudowords. Reaction times were longer for pseudowords than words in LDT but did not differ in PDT. By combining the fMRI data with cytoarchitectonic anatomical probability maps, we demonstrated that the left BA 44 an...

  4. Analisa Kekuatan Tarik Baja Konstruksi Bj 44 Pada Proses Pengelasan SMAW dengan Variasi Arus Pengelasan

    OpenAIRE

    Basori, Imam

    2017-01-01

    AbstrakPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh kuat arus terhadap kekuatan tarik baja kontruksiBj. 44 pada proses pengelasan SMAW menggunakan kampuh Single V dengan elektroda E6013 padapolaritas DC+ dengan arus 100 ampere, 110 ampere, 120 ampere dan 130 Ampere.Pengujian tarik dilakukan terhadap spesimen baja konstruksi Bj 44 hasil proses pengelasan SMAW.Sampel yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini menggunakan variasi kuat arus 100 ampere, 110 ampere, 120ampere dan 130 ampere dengan p...

  5. The Grog. A Journal of Navy Medical History and Culture. Issue 44

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    September and would go to Christ Church, New Zealand where we were outfitted with our cold weather gear from parkas to mukluk boots. Once you got...A Journal of Navy Medical History and Culture THE GROG Issue 44, 2016 A Sojourn in Colorado The Story of the Navy’s TB Sanitarium THE GROG A...Journal of Navy Medical History and Culture Issue 44, 2016 Office of Medical History Communications Directorate Bureau of Medicine & Surgery 7700 Arlington

  6. Alpha clustering in Ti isotopes: 40,44,48Ca + α resonant scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bailey Sam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurements were made of the 4He(40,44,48Ca,α resonant scattering reactions at 180° and up to Ec.m. ~ 11.5MeV, using the Thick Target Inverse Kinematics technique. These measurements are discussed, with a focus on assessing their usefulness for investigating α-clustering in medium mass 44,48,52Ti nuclei.

  7. Constraining calcium isotope fractionation (d44/40Ca) in modern and fossil scleractinian coral skeleton

    OpenAIRE

    Pretet Chloé; Samankassou Elias; Felis Thomas; Reynaud Stéphanie; Böhm Florian; Eisenhauer Anton; Ferrier-Pagès Christine; Gattuso Jean-Pierre; Camoin Gilbert

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates the influence of environmental (temperature salinity) and biological (growth rate inter generic variations) parameters on calcium isotope fractionation (d44/40Ca) in scleractinian coral skeleton to better constrain this record. Previous studies focused on the d44/40Ca record in different marine organisms to reconstruct seawater composition or temperature but only few studies investigated corals. This study presents measurements performed on modern corals from n...

  8. Constraining calcium isotope fractionation (δ44/40Ca) in modern and fossil scleractinian coral skeleton

    OpenAIRE

    Pretet, Chloé; Samankassou, Elias; Felis, Thomas; Reynaud, Stéphanie; Böhm, Florian; Eisenhauer, Anton; Ferrier-Pagès, Christine; Gattuso, Jean-Pierre; Camoin, Gilbert

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates the influence of environmental (temperature, salinity) and biological (growth rate, inter-generic variations) parameters on calcium isotope fractionation (δ44/40Ca) in scleractinian coral skeleton to better constrain this record. Previous studies focused on the δ44/40Ca record in different marine organisms to reconstruct seawater composition or temperature, but only few studies investigated corals. This study presents measurements performed on modern corals f...

  9. Clinicopathological significance of fascin and CD44v6 expression in endometrioid carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gun Banu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fascin and CD44v6 may have significant roles as biomarkers in tumour progression and metastasis. In endometrioid carcinomas, the fascin expression profile is less defined, and the significance of CD44v6 is uncertain. We aimed to investigate the expressions of both fascin and CD44v6 in endometrioid carcinomas and to evaluate their inter-relation with clinicopathological parameters. Methods Fascin and CD44v6 expressions were evaluated, individually and in combination, in a series of 47 endometrioid carcinomas and 10 proliferative endometrium samples. The staining extent and intensity of both markers in tumour cells were scored semiquantitatively. The relationship between immunoexpressions and clinicopathological variables was assessed. Results The expression rates of fascin and CD44v6 in endometrioid carcinoma were 72.34% and 46.80%, respectively. Although these expression rates were higher than those in proliferative endometrial samples, fascin expression showed a statistically significant difference from the normal group (p = 0.02, but CD44v6 did not differ (p = 0.54. Fascin expression was significantly correlated with tumour grade (p = 0.003 and neural invasion (p = 0.036 in a univariate analysis. In contrast, no significant correlation was found between CD44v6 and any of the clinicopathological parameters. Conclusions Our findings suggest that fascin might be an independent prognostic indicator in the different steps of extracellular matrix invasion. On the other hand, CD44v6 was not a predictive factor in endometrioid cancer. Virtual Slides The virtual slide(s for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/8511594927206899.

  10. Expression of cadherins and CD44 isoforms in ovarian endometrial cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daraï, E; Leblanc, M; Walker-Combrouze, F; Bringuier, A F; Madelenat, P; Scoazec, J Y

    1998-05-01

    We evaluated the immunohistochemical expression of cadherins and CD44 variants in 20 endometriomas, 20 cystadenomas, 20 borderline ovarian tumours as well as 20 ovarian carcinomas, and the serological and cystic fluid concentrations of soluble E-cadherin and soluble CD44 standard (sCD44sdt) in 20 endometriomas, 20 cystadenomas, six borderline and 11 carcinomas of the ovary. In endometriomas, immunostaining of E- and N-cadherin was negative (20 and 30% respectively). CD44 H, v3 and v6 immunostaining were detected in 63, 10 and 40% respectively. A difference in immunostaining for E-cadherin was found between endometriomas and cystadenomas (P cadherin between endometriomas and carcinomas (P cadherins and CD44 standard was found between the four groups of tumours. Cystic fluid concentrations of E-cadherin were lower in endometriomas than in borderline tumours and ovarian carcinomas (P cadherins and CD44 isoforms which may help in the understanding of the aggressive and invasive potentials of endometriotic cells.

  11. Transfer reaction measurements and the stellar nucleosynthesis of 26Al and 44Ti

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2086831

    Progress in the description of stellar evolution is driven by the collaborative effort of nuclear physics, astrophysics and astronomy. Using those developments, the theory of the origin of elements in the Universe is challenged. This thesis addresses the problem behind the abundance of 44Ti and the origin of 26Al. The mismatch between the predicted abundance of 44Ti as produced by the only sites known to be able to create 44Ti, core collapse supernovae (CCSNe), and the observations, highlight the current uncertainty that exists in the physics of these stars. Several satellite based gamma-ray observations of the isotope 44Ti have been reported in recent times and conrm the disagreement. As the amount of this isotope in stellar ejecta is thought to critically depend on the explosion mechanism, the ability to accurately model the observed abundance would be a pivotal step towards validating that theory. The most in influential reaction to the amount of 44Ti in supernovae is 44Ti(alpha, p)47V. Here we report on a...

  12. Side population cells from HXO-Rb44 retinoblastoma cell line have cancer-initiating property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Jun-Jun; Zhang, Peng-Ge; Che, Xiang-Ming; Wang, Xuan; Wang, Zi-Ming

    2011-01-01

    To ascertain whether side population (SP) cells in HXO-Rb44 retinoblastoma cell line have cancer stem cell-like property in vitro and in vivo. We analyzed and sorted SP from HXO-Rb44 retinoblastoma cell line by Hoechst 33342 staining on flow cytometry. SP and NSP cells were determined their ability of proliferation and self-renewal by SP reanalysis, soft agar assay and tumor sphere assay in vitro. Clone formation was detected by seeding HXO-Rb44 and HXO-Rb44 -RFP cells into soft agar. The expression of ABCG2, MDRI, Bmi-1 and Oct-4 was determined by RT-PCR between SP and non-SP (NSP) cells. Moreover, they were injected into nude mice to determine their tumorigency in vivo. SP from HXO-Rb44 retinoblastoma cell line could grow clonally in soft agar assays and form tumor spheres from single cells in conditioned media. The expressions of ABCG2, MDRI, Bmi-1 and Oct-4 were significantly higher in SP than NSP cells. As few as SP cells resulted in tumor formation in 6 of 12 injected sites, however, the injection of NSP cells failed to form new tumor. SP cells isolated by Hoechst 33342 from the HXO-Rb44 retinoblastoma cell line had property of high tumorigency in vivo and in vitro. Therefore, SP might be a target while developing retinoblastoma therapies.

  13. Kinetically controlled synthesis of Au102(SPh)44 nanoclusters and catalytic application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yongdong; Wang, Jin; Liu, Chao; Li, Zhimin; Li, Gao

    2016-05-21

    We here explore a kinetically controlled synthetic protocol for preparing solvent-solvable Au102(SPh)44 nanoclusters which are isolated from polydispersed gold nanoclusters by solvent extraction and size exclusion chromatography (SEC). The as-obtained Au102(SPh)44 nanoclusters are determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) and electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry, in conjunction with UV-vis spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). However, Au99(SPh)42, instead of Au102(SPh)44, is yielded when the polydispersed gold nanoclusters are etched in the presence of excess thiophenol under thermal conditions (e.g., 80 °C). Interestingly, the Au102(SPh)44 nanoclusters also can convert to Au99(SPh)42 with equivalent thiophenol ligands, evidenced by the analyses of UV-vis and MALDI mass spectrometry. Finally, the TiO2-supported Au102(SPh)44 nanocluster catalyst is investigated in the selective oxidation of sulfides into sulfoxides by the PhIO oxidant and gives rise to high catalytic activity (e.g., 80-99% conversion of R-S-R' sulfides with 96-99% selectivity for R-S([double bond, length as m-dash]O)-R' sulfoxides). The Au102(SPh)44/TiO2 catalyst also shows excellent recyclability in the sulfoxidation process.

  14. 4-(4-morpholinophenyl)-6-arylpyrimidin-2-amines: synthesis, spectral analysis, and in vitro microbiological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanusu, J; Kanagarajan, V; Gopalakrishnan, M

    2010-06-01

    Compounds 4-(4-morpholinophenyl)-6-phenylpyrimidin-2-amine 20, 4-(4-methoxyphenyl)-6-(4-morpholinophenyl)pyrimidin-2-amine 23, 4-(4-bromophenyl)-6-(4-morpholinophenyl)pyrimidin-2-amine 25, 4-(3-chlorophenyl)-6-(4-morpholinophenyl) pyrimidin-2-amine 27, and 4-(3-fluorophenyl)-6-(4-morpholinophenyl)pyrimidin-2-amine 28 exerted excellent antibacterial activity against V. cholerae. Compounds 4-(4-chlorophenyl)-6-(4-morpholinophenyl)pyrimidin-2-amine 22, 25, 4-(4-morpholinophenyl)-6-(3-nitrophenyl)pyrimidin-2-amine 26, and 28, which contained electron-withdrawing chloro, bromo, nitro, and fluoro functional groups, respectively, at the para/meta position of the phenyl ring attached to the pyrimidine ring promoted much activity against S. aureus. Compounds 4-(4-fluorophenyl)-6-(4-morpholinophenyl)pyrimidin-2-amine 24 and 25 (against beta-hemolytic Streptococcus) and compound 28 (against S. felxneri) showed pronounced activity. Compounds 26 and 28 (against K. pneumoniae) and compounds 24, 25, and 28 (against P. aeruginosa) exerted strong antibacterial activity. Compounds 22 and 25 promoted much antifungal activity against A. flavus, while compounds 24 and 25 registered maximum activity against Mucor. Compounds 23 (against C. albicans) and 27 and 28 (against Rhizopus) promoted good activity.

  15. Pg 44

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    impo

    we are now seeing black men with ED adds an entirely new cultural twist that must be considered. At a simple level, does ... The women working with him vie with one another to get him into bed. The pressure to perform like an ... A recent Japanese survey2 found a significant rise in both depression and anxiety in the.

  16. Pg 44

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    impo

    There is an odd disparity. Urologists tell us that well over 90% of the men they see with erectile dysfunction have an organic basis for their problem. Psychiatrists and psychologists in this field say that well over 90% of their patients' problems are emotional or psychological in origin. Are we perhaps asking questions in such ...

  17. Two new arsenides, Eu7Cu44As23 and Sr7Cu44As23, with a new filled variety of the BaHg11 structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charkin, Dmitri O; Demchyna, Roman; Prots, Yurii; Borrmann, Horst; Burkhardt, Ulrich; Schwarz, Ulrich; Schnelle, Walter; Plokhikh, Igor V; Kazakov, Sergey M; Abakumov, Artem M; Batuk, Dmitry; Verchenko, Valery Yu; Tsirlin, Alexander A; Curfs, Caroline; Grin, Yuri; Shevelkov, Andrei V

    2014-10-20

    Two new ternary arsenides, namely, Eu7Cu44As23 and Sr7Cu44As23, were synthesized from elements at 800 °C. Their crystal structure represents a new filled version of the BaHg11 motif with cubic voids alternately occupied by Eu(Sr) and As atoms, resulting in a 2 × 2 × 2 superstructure of the aristotype: space group Fm3̅m, a = 16.6707(2) Å and 16.7467(2) Å, respectively. The Eu derivative exhibits ferromagnetic ordering below 17.5 K. In agreement with band structure calculations both compounds are metals, exhibiting relatively low thermopower, but high electrical and low thermal conductivity.

  18. The combustion system of the MAN 20V35/44G gas engine; Das Brennverfahren des Gasmotors 20V35/44G von MAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Markus; Auer, Matthias; Stiesch, Gunnar [MAN Diesel and Turbo SE, Augsburg (Germany)

    2013-04-15

    The new gas engine 20V35/44G by MAN Diesel and Turbo SE has a power output of 10.6 MW. The high effective efficiency level of 48.4 % as well as numerous technical innovations allow an environment-friendly, economical and reliable engine operation. Key to achieve this is the combustion system, which has been optimised during advanced engineering by means of modern simulation tools and extensive single-cylinder tests. (orig.)

  19. ALDH/CD44 identifies uniquely tumorigenic cancer stem cells in salivary gland mucoepidermoid carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, April; Warner, Kristy; Pearson, Alexander T; Zhang, Zhaocheng; Kim, Hong Sun; Mochizuki, Daiki; Basura, Gregory; Helman, Joseph; Mantesso, Andrea; Castilho, Rogério M; Wicha, Max S; Nör, Jacques E

    2015-09-29

    A small sub-population of cells characterized by increased tumorigenic potential, ability to self-renew and to differentiate into cells that make up the tumor bulk, has been characterized in some (but not all) tumor types. These unique cells, namedcancer stem cells, are considered drivers of tumor progression in these tumors. The purpose of this work is to understand if cancer stem cells play a functional role in the tumorigenesis of salivary gland mucoepidermoid carcinomas. Here, we investigated the expression of putative cancer stem cell markers (ALDH, CD10, CD24, CD44) in primary human mucoepidermoid carcinomas by immunofluorescence, in vitro salisphere assays, and in vivo tumorigenicity assays in immunodeficient mice. Human mucoepidermoid carcinoma cells (UM-HMC-1, UM-HMC-3A, UM-HMC-3B) sorted for high levels of ALDH activity and CD44 expression (ALDHhighCD44high) consistently formed primary and secondary salispheres in vitro, and showed enhanced tumorigenic potential in vivo (defined as time to tumor palpability, tumor growth after palpability), when compared to ALDHlowCD44low cells. Cells sorted for CD10/CD24, and CD10/CD44 showed varying trends of salisphere formation, but consistently low in vivo tumorigenic potential. And finally, cells sorted for CD44/CD24 showed inconsistent results in salisphere formation and tumorigenic potential assays when different cell lines were evaluated. Collectively, these data demonstrate that salivary gland mucoepidermoid carcinomas contain a small population of cancer stem cells with enhanced tumorigenic potential and that are characterized by high ALDH activity and CD44 expression. These results suggest that patients with mucoepidermoid carcinoma might benefit from therapies that ablate these highly tumorigenic cells.

  20. CD44-positive cells are candidates for astrocyte precursor cells in developing mouse cerebellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Na; Kurachi, Masashi; Shibasaki, Koji; Okano-Uchida, Takayuki; Ishizaki, Yasuki

    2012-03-01

    Neural stem cells are generally considered to be committed to becoming precursor cells before terminally differentiating into either neurons or glial cells during neural development. Neuronal and oligodendrocyte precursor cells have been identified in several areas in the murine central nervous system. The presence of astrocyte precursor cells (APCs) is not so well understood. The present study provides several lines of evidence that CD44-positive cells are APCs in the early postnatal mouse cerebellum. In developing mouse cerebellum, CD44-positive cells, mostly located in the white matter, were positive for the markers of the astrocyte lineage, but negative for the markers of mature astrocytes. CD44-positive cells were purified from postnatal cerebellum by fluorescence-activated cell sorting and characterized in vitro. In the absence of any signaling molecule, many cells died by apoptosis. The surviving cells gradually expressed glial fibrillary acidic protein, a marker for mature astrocytes, indicating that differentiation into mature astrocytes is the default program for these cells. The cells produced no neurospheres nor neurons nor oligodendrocytes under any condition examined, indicating these cells are not neural stem cells. Leukemia inhibitory factor greatly promoted astrocytic differentiation of CD44-positive cells, whereas bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) did not. Fibroblast growth factor-2 was a potent mitogen for these cells, but was insufficient for survival. BMP4 inhibited activation of caspase-3 and greatly promoted survival, suggesting a novel role for BMP4 in the control of development of astrocytes in cerebellum. We isolated and characterized only CD44 strongly positive large cells and discarded small and/or CD44 weakly positive cells in this study. Further studies are necessary to characterize these cells to help determine whether CD44 is a selective and specific marker for APCs in the developing mouse cerebellum. In conclusion, we succeeded in

  1. CD44v6 regulates growth of brain tumor stem cells partially through the AKT-mediated pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayumi Jijiwa

    Full Text Available Identification of stem cell-like brain tumor cells (brain tumor stem-like cells; BTSC has gained substantial attention by scientists and physicians. However, the mechanism of tumor initiation and proliferation is still poorly understood. CD44 is a cell surface protein linked to tumorigenesis in various cancers. In particular, one of its variant isoforms, CD44v6, is associated with several cancer types. To date its expression and function in BTSC is yet to be identified. Here, we demonstrate the presence and function of the variant form 6 of CD44 (CD44v6 in BTSC of a subset of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM. Patients with CD44(high GBM exhibited significantly poorer prognoses. Among various variant forms, CD44v6 was the only isoform that was detected in BTSC and its knockdown inhibited in vitro growth of BTSC from CD44(high GBM but not from CD44(low GBM. In contrast, this siRNA-mediated growth inhibition was not apparent in the matched GBM sample that does not possess stem-like properties. Stimulation with a CD44v6 ligand, osteopontin (OPN, increased expression of phosphorylated AKT in CD44(high GBM, but not in CD44(low GBM. Lastly, in a mouse spontaneous intracranial tumor model, CD44v6 was abundantly expressed by tumor precursors, in contrast to no detectable CD44v6 expression in normal neural precursors. Furthermore, overexpression of mouse CD44v6 or OPN, but not its dominant negative form, resulted in enhanced growth of the mouse tumor stem-like cells in vitro. Collectively, these data indicate that a subset of GBM expresses high CD44 in BTSC, and its growth may depend on CD44v6/AKT pathway.

  2. Hyaluronan-binding by CD44 reduces the memory potential of activated murine CD8 T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee-Sayer, Sally S M; Maeshima, Nina; Dougan, Meghan N; Dahiya, Anita; Arif, Arif A; Dosanjh, Manisha; Maxwell, Christopher A; Johnson, Pauline

    2018-01-08

    Expansion and death of effector CD8 T cells are regulated to limit immunopathology and cells that escape contraction go on to generate immunological memory. CD44, a receptor for the extracellular matrix component hyaluronan, is a marker of activated and memory T cells. Here, we show with a murine model that the increase in CD44 expression and hyaluronan binding induced upon CD8 T cell activation was proportional to the strength of TCR engagement, thereby identifying the most strongly activated T cells. When CD44-/- and CD44+/+ OT-I CD8 T cells were adoptively transferred into mice challenged with Listeria-OVA, there was a slight increase in the percentage of CD44+/+ cells at the effector site. However, CD44+/+ cells were out-competed by CD44-/- cells after the contraction phase in the lymphoid tissues, and the CD44-/- cells preferentially formed more memory cells. The hyaluronan-binding CD44+/+ CD8 effector T cells showed increased pAkt expression, higher glucose uptake, and were more susceptible to cell death during the contraction phase compared to non-binding CD44+/+ and CD44-/- OT-I CD8 T cells, suggesting that CD44 and its engagement with hyaluronan skews CD8 T cells toward a terminal effector differentiation state that reduces their ability to form memory cells. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. C4.4A gene ablation is compatible with normal epidermal development and causes modest overt phenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kriegbaum, Mette Camilla; Jacobsen, Benedikte; Füchtbauer, Annette

    2016-01-01

    of C4.4A in normal physiology and cancer progression. The unchallenged C4.4A-deficient mice were viable, fertile, born in a normal Mendelian distribution and, surprisingly, displayed normal development of squamous epithelia. The C4.4A-deficient mice were, nonetheless, significantly lighter than...

  4. 36 CFR 1280.44 - May I film, photograph, or videotape on NARA property for commercial purposes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May I film, photograph, or videotape on NARA property for commercial purposes? 1280.44 Section 1280.44 Parks, Forests, and Public... Rules for Filming, Photographing, or Videotaping on NARA Property? § 1280.44 May I film, photograph, or...

  5. 21 CFR 175.380 - Xylene-formaldehyde resins condensed with 4,4′-isopropylidenediphenol-epichlorohydrin epoxy resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Xylene-formaldehyde resins condensed with 4,4â²... Xylene-formaldehyde resins condensed with 4,4′-isopropylidenediphenol-epichlorohydrin epoxy resins. The...) The resins are produced by the condensation of xylene-formaldehyde resin and 4,4...

  6. 34 CFR 611.44 - Under what circumstances may the Secretary defer a scholarship recipient's service obligation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... scholarship recipient's service obligation? 611.44 Section 611.44 Education Regulations of the Offices of the... QUALITY ENHANCEMENT GRANTS PROGRAM Scholarships § 611.44 Under what circumstances may the Secretary defer a scholarship recipient's service obligation? (a) Upon written request, the Secretary may defer a...

  7. CD44: a validated target for improved delivery of cancer therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sukhen C; Neslihan Alpay, Sultan; Klostergaard, Jim

    2012-07-01

    Advances in cancer therapeutics, namely more effective and less toxic treatments, will occur with targeting strategies that enhance the tumor biodistribution and thwart normal tissue exposure of the drug. This review focuses on cancer drug targeting approaches that exploit the expression of the cell-surface proteoglycan family, CD44, on the tumor cell surface followed by some form of ligand binding and induced CD44 internalization and intracellular drug release: in effect using this as a 'Trojan Horse' to more selectively access tumor cells. This review defines the origins of evidence for a linkage between CD44 expression and malignancy, and invokes contemporary views of the importance of putative CD44(+) cancer stem cells in disease resistance. Although the primary emphasis is on the most advanced and developed paths, those that have either made it to the clinic or are well-poised to get there, a wide scope of additional approaches at various preclinical stages is also briefly reviewed. The future should see development of drug targeting approaches that exploit CD44 expression on CSCs/TICs, including applications to cytotoxic agents currently in the clinic.

  8. [Expression of S518 phosphorylated Merlin and its interaction with CD44 in vestibular schwannoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Li-hui; Wu, Hao; Lü, Jing-rong; Wang, Zhao-yan

    2008-12-01

    To investigate the impact of S518 phosphorylation in Merlin on the interaction with CD44 in vestibular schwannoma and the tumor growth. Thirty-five samples of vestibular schwannoma were identified by pathology. Immunohistopathology and western blot were employed to analyze the expression and localization of S518 phosphorylated Merlin in the tumor tissues. Nerve tissues that were collected during other surgical operation were used as control. The expression level of S518 phosphorylated Merlin was compared with clinical stages, tumor size, clinical course and cystic degeneration. Immunoprecipitation was used to evaluate the impact of S518 phosphorylation in Merlin on the interaction with CD44. In vestibular schwannoma, Merlin was phosphorylated at S518 and demonstrated perinuclear localization. The S518 phosphorylation level was much lower in the normal control nerve tissues than that in vestibular schwannoma tissues. There was no correlation between the phosphorylation level on Merlin and clinical stages, tumor size, clinical course and cystic degeneration. The S518 phosphorylated Merlin bound CD44 was higher than wild-type Merlin bound CD44 in vestibular schwannoma tissues. The affinity of Merlin to CD44 was increased after phosphorylation at S518. Different cellular biological results might be triggered through binding to wild type Merlin and S518 phosphorylated Merlin.

  9. Hyaluronan functionalizing QDs as turn-on fluorescent probe for targeted recognition CD44 receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shang; Huo, Danqun; Hou, Changjun; Yang, Mei; Fa, Huanbao

    2017-09-01

    The recognition of tumor markers in living cancer cells has attracted increasing interest. In the present study, the turn-on fluorescence probe was designed based on the fluorescence of thiolated chitosan-coated CdTe QDs (CdTe/TCS QDs) quenched by hyaluronan, which could provide the low background signal for sensitive cellular imaging. This system is expected to offer specific recognition of CD44 receptor over other substances owing to the specific affinity of hyaluronan and CD44 receptor ( 8-9 kcal/mol). The probe is stable in aqueous and has little toxicity to living cells; thus, it can be utilized for targeted cancer cell imaging. The living lung cancer cell imaging experiments further demonstrate its value in recognizing cell-surface CD44 receptor with turn-on mode. In addition, the probe can be used to recognize and differentiate the subtypes of lung cancer cells based on the difference of CD44 expression on the surface of lung cancer cells. And, the western blot test further confirmed that the expression level of the CD44 receptor in lung cancer cells is different. Therefore, this probe may be potentially applied in recognizing lung cancer cells with higher contrast and sensitivity and provide new tools for cancer prognosis and therapy. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  10. The Synthesis of 44Ti and 56Ni in Massive Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chieffi, Alessandro; Limongi, Marco

    2017-02-01

    We discuss the influence of rotation on the combined synthesis of {}44{Ti} and {}56{Ni} in massive stars. While {}56{Ni} is significantly produced by both complete and incomplete explosive Si burning, {}44{Ti} is mainly produced by complete explosive Si burning, with a minor contribution (in standard non-rotating models) from incomplete explosive Si burning and O burning (both explosive and hydrostatic). We find that, in most cases, the thickness of the region exposed to incomplete explosive Si burning increases in rotating models (initial velocity, v ini = 300 km s-1) and since {}56{Ni} is significantly produced in this zone, the fraction of mass coming from the complete explosive Si burning zone necessary to get the required amount of {}56{Ni} reduces. Therefore the amount of {}44{Ti} ejected for a given fixed amount of {}56{Ni} decreases in rotating models. However, some rotating models at [Fe/H] = -1 develop a very extended O convective shell in which a consistent amount of {}44{Ti} is formed, preserved, and ejected in the interstellar medium. Hence a better modeling of the thermal instabilities (convection) in the advanced burning phases together with a critical analysis of the cross sections of the nuclear reactions operating in O burning are relevant for the understanding of the synthesis of {}44{Ti}.

  11. Bacteriocin-Producing Enterococcus faecium LCW 44: A High Potential Probiotic Candidate from Raw Camel Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison Vimont

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial isolates from raw camel milk were screened for antibacterial activity using the agar diffusion assay. Ten isolates selected for their inhibition of Gram-positive bacteria were identified by 16S sequencing as Enterococcus faecium or durans. An isolate named E. faecium LCW 44 exhibited the broadest antibacterial spectrum with an inhibitory activity against several Gram-positive strains belonging to the genera Clostridium, Listeria, Staphylococcus, and Lactobacillus. E. faecium LCW 44 was shown to produce N-formylated enterocins L50A and L50B, as revealed by mass spectrometry and PCR analyses. This isolate did not harbor any of the virulence factors tested and was shown to be sensitive to all tested antibiotics. It showed high resistance to gastric and intestinal conditions (78 ± 4% survival. Its adhesion index was evaluated at 176 ± 86 and 24 ± 86 on Caco-2 cells and HT-29 cells, respectively, and it significantly reduced adhesion of Listeria monocytogenes by 65 and 49%, respectively. In Macfarlane broth (simulating the nutrient content of the colon, counts of L. monocytogenes were reduced by 2 log10 cycles after 24 h in co-culture with E. faecium LCW 44, compared to the increase of 4 log10 cycles when cultured alone. Comparison with a bacteriocin-non-producing mutant of E. faecium LCW 44 strongly suggests that inhibition of L. monocytogenes was due to bacteriocin production. Altogether, E. faecium LCW 44 thus has potential for use as a probiotic for humans and veterinary medicine.

  12. Asymmetries in Core-Collapse Supernovae from Maps of Radioactiver 44Ti in Cassiopeia A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grefenstette, B.W.; Harrison, F. A.; Boggs, S. E.; Reynolds, S. P.; Fryer, C. L.; Madsen, K. K.; Wik, Daniel R.; Zoglauer, A.; Ellinger, C. I.; Alexander, D. M.; hide

    2014-01-01

    Asymmetry is required by most numerical simulations of stellar core-collapse explosions, but the form it takes differs significantly among models. The spatial distribution of radioactive 44Ti, synthesized in an exploding star near the boundary between material falling back onto the collapsing core and that ejected into the surroundingmedium1, directly probes the explosion asymmetries. Cassiopeia A is a young2, nearby3, core-collapse4 remnant from which 44Ti emission has previously been detected5-8 but not imaged. Asymmetries in the explosion have been indirectly inferred from a high ratio of observed 44Ti emission to estimated 56Ni emission9, from optical light echoes10, and from jet-like features seen in the X-ray11 and optical12 ejecta. Here we report spatial maps and spectral properties of the 44Ti in Cassiopeia A. This may explain the unexpected lack of correlation between the 44Ti and iron X-ray emission, the latter being visible only in shock-heated material. The observed spatial distribution rules out symmetric explosions even with a high level of convective mixing, as well as highly asymmetric bipolar explosions resulting from a fast-rotating progenitor. Instead, these observations provide strong evidence for the development of low-mode convective instabilities in core-collapse supernovae.

  13. Bacteriocin-Producing Enterococcus faecium LCW 44: A High Potential Probiotic Candidate from Raw Camel Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimont, Allison; Fernandez, Benoît; Hammami, Riadh; Ababsa, Ahlem; Daba, Hocine; Fliss, Ismaïl

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial isolates from raw camel milk were screened for antibacterial activity using the agar diffusion assay. Ten isolates selected for their inhibition of Gram-positive bacteria were identified by 16S sequencing as Enterococcus faecium or durans. An isolate named E. faecium LCW 44 exhibited the broadest antibacterial spectrum with an inhibitory activity against several Gram-positive strains belonging to the genera Clostridium, Listeria, Staphylococcus, and Lactobacillus. E. faecium LCW 44 was shown to produce N-formylated enterocins L50A and L50B, as revealed by mass spectrometry and PCR analyses. This isolate did not harbor any of the virulence factors tested and was shown to be sensitive to all tested antibiotics. It showed high resistance to gastric and intestinal conditions (78 ± 4% survival). Its adhesion index was evaluated at 176 ± 86 and 24 ± 86 on Caco-2 cells and HT-29 cells, respectively, and it significantly reduced adhesion of Listeria monocytogenes by 65 and 49%, respectively. In Macfarlane broth (simulating the nutrient content of the colon), counts of L. monocytogenes were reduced by 2 log10 cycles after 24 h in co-culture with E. faecium LCW 44, compared to the increase of 4 log10 cycles when cultured alone. Comparison with a bacteriocin-non-producing mutant of E. faecium LCW 44 strongly suggests that inhibition of L. monocytogenes was due to bacteriocin production. Altogether, E. faecium LCW 44 thus has potential for use as a probiotic for humans and veterinary medicine. PMID:28572793

  14. THE ZEEMAN EFFECT IN THE 44 GHZ CLASS I METHANOL MASER LINE TOWARD DR21(OH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momjian, E. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Sarma, A. P., E-mail: emomjian@nrao.edu, E-mail: asarma@depaul.edu [Physics Department, DePaul University, 2219 N. Kenmore Avenue, Byrne Hall 211, Chicago, IL 60614 (United States)

    2017-01-10

    We report detection of the Zeeman effect in the 44 GHz Class I methanol maser line, toward the star-forming region DR21(OH). In a 219 Jy beam{sup −1} maser centered at an LSR velocity of 0.83 km s{sup −1}, we find a 20- σ detection of zB {sub los} = 53.5 ± 2.7 Hz. If 44 GHz methanol masers are excited at n ∼ 10{sup 7–8} cm{sup −3}, then the B versus n {sup 1/2} relation would imply, from comparison with Zeeman effect detections in the CN(1 − 0) line toward DR21(OH), that magnetic fields traced by 44 GHz methanol masers in DR21(OH) should be ∼10 mG. Combined with our detected zB {sub los} = 53.5 Hz, this would imply that the value of the 44 GHz methanol Zeeman splitting factor z is ∼5 Hz mG{sup −1}. Such small values of z would not be a surprise, as the methanol molecule is non-paramagnetic, like H{sub 2}O. Empirical attempts to determine z , as demonstrated, are important because there currently are no laboratory measurements or theoretically calculated values of z for the 44 GHz CH{sub 3}OH transition. Data from observations of a larger number of sources are needed to make such empirical determinations robust.

  15. ERP44 inhibits human lung cancer cell migration mainly via IP3R2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xue; Jin, Meng; Chen, Ying-Xiao; Wang, Jun; Zhai, Kui; Chang, Yan; Yuan, Qi; Yao, Kai-Tai; Ji, Guangju

    2016-06-01

    Cancer cell migration is involved in tumour metastasis. However, the relationship between calcium signalling and cancer migration is not well elucidated. In this study, we used the human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cell line to examine the role of endoplasmic reticulum protein 44 (ERP44), which has been reported to regulate calcium release inside of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), in cell migration. We found that the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs/ITPRs) inhibitor 2-APB significantly inhibited A549 cell migration by inhibiting cell polarization and pseudopodium protrusion, which suggests that Ca2+ is necessary for A549 cell migration. Similarly, the overexpression of ERP44 reduced intracellular Ca2+ release via IP3Rs, altered cell morphology and significantly inhibited the migration of A549 cells. These phenomena were primarily dependent on IP3R2 because wound healing in A549 cells with IP3R2 rather than IP3R1 or IP3R3 siRNA was markedly inhibited. Moreover, the overexpression of ERP44 did not affect the migration of the human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y, which mainly expresses IP3R1. Based on the above observations, we conclude that ERP44 regulates A549 cell migration mainly via an IP3R2-dependent pathway.

  16. Hemiconvulsion-hemiplegia-epilepsy syndrome with 1q44 microdeletion: causal or chance association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rekha; Agarwal, Meenal; Boqqula, Vijay R; Phadke, Rajendra V; Phadke, Shubha R

    2014-01-01

    Hemiconvulsion-hemiplegia-epilepsy (HHE) syndrome is a rare syndrome characterized by childhood onset partial motor convulsions, hemiplegia, and epilepsy in sequence. Exact pathogenesis is not clear. Here we are describing a 3-year-old girl with HHE syndrome with cytogenetic microarray (CMA) showing deletion of 1.8 Mb in 1q44 region. Along with HHE syndrome, the patient also had global developmental delay, subtle facial dysmorphism, and preaxial polydactyly. Clinical phenotype of 1q44 microdeletion syndrome is quite variable. Main clinical features are microcephaly, seizures, and abnormality of corpus callosum. We compared the patient's phenotype with other patients in 10 previously published papers of 1q44 microdeletion syndrome. HNRNPU and FAM36A are two important genes in the deleted region. HNRNPU gene mediate long range control of SHH gene which is likely explanation of preaxial polydactyly in the present patient. HHE may be a chance co-occurrence. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Interest of multifunctional lipid excipients: case of Gelucire 44/14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambin, O; Jannin, V

    2005-07-01

    This paper focuses on the interest of a multifunctional lipid excipient from the lauroyl macrogolglycerides, i.e., Gelucire 44/14. This compound, characterized by a drop point of 44 degrees C and a HLB (Hydrophilic Lipophilic Balance) of 14, is made of a specific mixture, leading to particular properties. Gelucire 44/14 forms a fine emulsion in contact with aqueous fluids, inducing a pseudo-solubilization of poorly water-soluble active substances and thus increasing their bioavailability. It could be used either as a binder for immediate release pellets by melt granulation or as a self-emulsifying drug delivery system by capsule molding or as a powder obtained by cryogenic grinding. These different methods and their interests are then discussed.

  18. The urokinase receptor and its structural homologue C4.4A in human cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, B; Ploug, M

    2008-01-01

    in the human genome. The structural relationship between the two proteins is, however, not reflected at the functional level. Whereas uPAR has a well-established role in regulating and focalizing uPA-mediated plasminogen activation to the surface of those cells expressing the receptor, the biological function...... of C4.4A remains elusive. Nonetheless, both uPAR and C4.4A have been implicated in human pathologies such as wound healing and cancer. A large body of experimental evidence thus demonstrates that high levels of uPAR in resected tumour tissue as well as in plasma are associated with poor prognosis......The urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) and its structural homologue C4.4A are multidomain members of the Ly6/uPAR/alpha-neurotoxin protein domain family. Both are glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored membrane glycoproteins encoded by neighbouring genes located on chromosome 19q13...

  19. Expression of CD44 and P53 in renal cell carcinoma: Association with tumor subtypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farahnaz Noroozinia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal cell carcinoma (RCC is a common malignancy of the kidney and accurate prediction of prognosis is valuable for the design of adjuvant therapy and counseling and effective scheduling of follow-up visits. Molecular genetic investigations of CD44 and P53 in RCC may be helpful in this regard. We studied the CD44 and P53 expressions semi-quantitatively on paraffin-embedded specimens of 64 RCC patients (37 male/27 female who underwent surgery from 2003 to 2008 by immunohistochemistry and analyzed the correlation of P53 and CD44 expression in RCC and outcome. Thirteen of 64 (20.3% specimens were P53 positive, 30/64 (46.9% were CD44 positive and five tumors with positive P53 expressed CD44 protein (P = 0.5. A statistically significant correlation was not found between CD44 and P53 expression (P = 0.5 and age (P = 0.07, sex (P= 0.3, tumor size (P = 0.7, grade (P = 0.23, vascular invasion (P = 1.00 and ureteral invasion (P = 1.00. Furthermore, a significant correlation was not found between P53 expression with age (P = 0.3, sex (P = 0.7, tumor size (P = 0.7, grade (P = 0.1, vascular inva-sion (P = 1.00 and ureteral invasion (P = 1.00. According to our findings, only P53 expression is generally accompanied by non-conventional subtype tumor.

  20. Monitoring of sound and carious surfaces under sealants over 44 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, M; Platt, J A; Eckert, G J; González-Cabezas, C; Yoder, K; Zero, D T; Ando, M; Soto-Rojas, A E; Peters, M C

    2014-11-01

    Although there is strong evidence for the effectiveness of sealants, one major barrier in sealant utilization is the concern of sealing over active caries lesions. This study evaluated detection and monitoring of caries lesions through a clear sealant over 44 mo. Sixty-four 7- to 10-year-old children with at least 2 permanent molars with International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) scores 0-4 (and caries less than halfway through the dentin, radiographically) were examined with ICDAS, DIAGNOdent, and quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF) before sealant placement and 1, 12, 24, and 44 mo (except QLF) after. Bitewing radiographs were taken yearly. DIAGNOdent and QLF were able to distinguish between baseline ICDAS before and after sealant placement. There was no significant evidence of ICDAS progression at 12 mo, but there was small evidence of minor increases at 24 and 44 mo (14% and 14%, respectively) with only 2% ICDAS ≥ 5. Additionally, there was little evidence of radiographic progression (at 12 mo = 1%, 24 mo = 3%, and 44 mo = 9%). Sealant retention rates were excellent at 12 mo = 89%, 24 mo = 78%, and 44 mo = 70%. The small risk of sealant repair increased significantly as baseline ICDAS, DIAGNOdent, and QLF values increased. However, regardless of lesion severity, sealants were 100% effective at 12 mo and 98% effective over 44 mo in managing occlusal surfaces at ICDAS 0-4 (i.e., only 4 of 228 teeth progressed to ICDAS ≥ 5 associated with sealants in need of repair and none to halfway or more through the dentin, radiographically). This study suggests that occlusal surfaces without frank cavitation (ICDAS 0-4) that are sealed with a clear sealant can be monitored with ICDAS, QLF, or DIAGNOdent, which may aid in predicting the need for sealant repair. © International & American Associations for Dental Research.